REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF A CENSUS OF THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND TAKEN FOR THE NIGHT OF THE 29th APRIL, 1906.

E. J. VON DADELSZEN.

REGISTRAR-GENERAL.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Census Of New Zealand, 1906.

REPORT.

TO THE HONOURABLE THE MINISTER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS.

Registrar-General's Office,

Wellington, 20th November, 1907.

SIR,—

I have the honour to report on the census taken for the night of the 29th April, 1906. New Zealand will be referred to in the following comments as a “colony,” although since the date of the census the style and designation has been changed to that of “Dominion”:—

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

This date almost exactly corresponds as to day and month with that recommended by a Conference* of statisticians held in Sydney in the year 1900 for purposes of the census of 1901, but which was not adopted, because it was not the time selected for the census of the United Kingdom.

The 29th April was highly approved here, on the grounds that Easter with its disturbances of population was over, and, there being little movement of the people going on, the localisation would be shown in the results of the census as under normal conditions.

From some parts of the country, however, statements have been made that expense was increased because of the advanced time of year and bad weather. No doubt somewhat of this effect did exist; but, nevertheless, it was an advantage to keep clear of Easter, which caused great trouble, and was a decided disadvantage at the enumeration of 1901.

The Maori population of the colony was not enumerated by the officers who took the general census. And it has been found impossible to take the account of Maoris for one night. Native Agents and Magistrates of Native districts, acting under the direction of the Native Department, were selected as Enumerators, and the month of April chosen for the work to be performed. The Maoris, however, signed their names to the information entered in the Sub-Enumerators' books, the headings in which were much fewer and simpler than, those of the household schedule used for the account of European population.

There was a third census taken on special lines—viz., that of the. population of the Cook and other South Sea Islands, which now form part of New Zealand. Here, again, a very simple return was made. The particulars of the Maori and of the Cook Islands censuses are given in full in the form of appendices to this report.

* This Conference recommended quinquennial censuses for the Australian States forming the Commonwealth.

1—Census Report.

The form of household schedule belonging to the main census was the same in respect of population as that used five years previously, but with spaces in the lower part of the sheet for varieties of poultry and particulars respecting apiaries.

The heads of inquiry respecting the people were as under:—

  1. Name and surname.

  2. Sex.

  3. Age last birthday.

  4. Condition, conjugal.

  5. Relation to head of house.

  6. Profession or occupation.

  7. Grade of occupation.

  8. Sickness or infirmity.

  9. Birthplace.

  10. Length of residence.

  11. Religion.

  12. Schooling.

  13. Education.

The census in New Zealand has not, since the Act of 1877 was passed, been confined to taking an account of the population only, but has included an account of the manufactories and works, with full particulars respecting “Hands employed”; “Wages paid”; “Power used”; “Materials operated upon”; “Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant”; with “Quantity and Value of the Product or Output during Year.”

Evidently it was noticed early in this colony that the machinery of a census was well adapted for ascertaining the development of industries, especially where an annual investigation is not necessary. The system of utilising a census for many and various inquiries outside that relating to the human being is more and more recognised as time goes on.

The returns belonging to this branch of census-work have now come to be a difficult matter to deal with, and since the definition of a factory has been narrowed to that held by the Labour Department, a very comprehensive account has resulted. The returns are collected with trouble after repeated applications and occasionally legal proceedings to recover penalties. But when received the trouble is not over, for the information given requires critical examination, and errors, or more often serious deficiencies, are brought to light, which have necessarily to be rectified. Thus, some returns for printing-offices will be found to give information respecting jobbing-work only, omitting very large money-figures in reference to newspaper business; and very often instances could be advanced where special letters of inquiry are unavoidable. In fact, the utmost care and patience are indispensable in collecting and compiling the industrial census statistics.

Information as to mines, and even quarries for building-stone, is obtained, besides that for manufactories and works.

All the returns are rendered as confidential in respect of any individual business. Nothing is published but aggregates or totals, although the grand totals for all industries in the colony or a Provincial District contain the full amounts. Where only two or three establishments of one kind exist, the money-figures are not printed for these, nor yet sundry other particulars, but the spaces are left blank and an explanatory note is given. The totals for the colony are thus somewhat in excess of the sum of the published items.

The special census statistics inquiries also included the number and accommodation of the various churches, chapels, and other places of worship according to religious denominations, the land and building societies, besides mechanics' institutes and other literary and scientific Institutions;.

REPRESENTATION ON POPULATION BASIS.

“The Electoral Act, 1905,” provides for two permanent Commissions, termed respectively the “North Island” and “South Island” Representation Commissions. The latter includes Stewart Island.

Within three months after the results of any census have been ascertained and reported to the said Commissions, it is their duty to divide the colony into electoral districts for the apportioning of the representation of the people in the House of Representatives, excepting Maoris, who are dealt with under special legislation. For purposes of the Commission the population consists of “urban” and “rural,” the former being that of cities or boroughs having over two thousand inhabitants, or contained in any area within five miles of the Chief Post-offices at the four great centres.

And in computing the population of the colony for purposes of representation, 28 per cent, is added to the rural population throughout.

Dividing the population, ascertained according to the above process, by the number of members, a quota is found, and the colony is then divided into as many districts as there are members (not Maori members) to be returned. There are provisions for allowing a margin above and below the quota where necessary in forming the districts.

It falls to the Registrar-General to report to the Commissions, as early as possible, the results of any census taken; and within three months after he has complied, the Commissioners must exercise their functions.

The Commissioners meet as a joint Commission, which is specially provided as a preliminary step for the purpose of fixing the number of districts for the North Island and for the South Island respectively. When this has been done, the Commissions act independently in forming the districts.

The districts as fixed are gazetted, and an interval allowed during which objections may be laid. After consideration of these, the finally determined electorates are proclaimed by the Governor.

The movement of population exhibited by the results of the census of 1906, when compared with those of 1901, proved to be greatly in favour of the North Island as against the South. This, and the large increase in population of the colony during five years, will be further indicated in this report.

After the census of the 29th April, 1906, the Commissions met on the 15th November. The effect of their work in adjusting representation is described further on under the cross-heading relating to the “Compilation.”

PUBLICATION OF CENSUS RESULTS.

The final figures relating to population were printed in Parliamentary Paper H.™26, of 1906, under date the 11th of August. This return gave details for counties, boroughs, road districts, town districts, &c. The Maori census followed (H.™26A) in September. Summary tables giving the particulars required by law to be taken and compiled in the general census were produced in the form of Gazette tables, Parliament not being in session at the time these figures were ready for issue. The subjects of the tables, and dates of publication, were as under:—

  • Religions, 10th and 17th January, 1907.

  • Birthplaces, 17th and 24th January, 1907.

  • Ages, 7th February, 1907.

  • Conjugal condition, 7th March, 1907.

  • Education, 28th March, 1907.

  • Occupations, 15th August, 1907.

  • Places of Public Worship, &c. 14th February, 1907.

The complete industrial census statistics relating to the manufactories, as before described, with other special statistical information, were published in pamphlet form on the-22nd March, 1907, having previously appeared in the New Zealand Gazette, of the 10th January, 1907. and subsequent dates.

THE CENSUS VOLUME.

Besides the parliamentary papers and preliminary Gazette matter, the complete series of tables, with full comparisons and proportional calculations, had to be prepared. This was effected, and parts of the complete volume published on the following dates:—

  • Part I, Population and Dwellings 19th December, 1906.

  • Part II, Religions; Part III, Birthplaces 11th March, 1907.

  • Part IV, Ages; Part V, Conjugal Condition; and Part VI, Education 25th June, 1907.

  • Appendix A, Manufactories, Works, Land and Building Societies, Places of Public Worship, and Libraries 22nd March, 1907.

  • Part VII, Sickness and Infirmity; Part VIII, Occupations; and Appendices B, C, D are now almost ready for issue.

TOTAL COST OF CENSUS.

The Enumerators having submitted a schedule of proposed expenditure by way of remuneration to Sub-Enumerators, approval was given, sometimes after a modification had been insisted upon. Then the Enumerators filled up forms of contract to be signed by the Sub-Enumerators, in which the latter bound themselves to complete their work in the number of days agreed upon, and to accept as payment in full the rate of remuneration fixed upon for so many days. This is a most necessary arrangement, to give the Government power to check inordinate demands for additional days' pay, which are made and urged with a persistency requiring to be experienced to appreciate fully in dealing with the claims.

The cost per head of population of taking and compiling the census of 1906 is found to have been greater than that incurred on the occasion of the census of 1901, on a comparison of the total amounts spent:—

 1901.1906.
* An amount of £75 expanded in 1906 on Cook Islands census is not included, as there was no cost incurred in 1901. Expense of printing for the complete census is not included.
European census—£s.d.£s.d.
        Enumerators1,2971421,97325
            Clerical assistance for, and sundries736111781141
            Sub-Enumerators10,1686211,5541610
Total12,2022314,309134
Maori census9611371,3771911
Total collection13,163151015,687133
Maps, &c.56912111,03703
Compilation, and sundries in central office5,667707,1911111
        Grand total cost of census, exclusive of printing£19,400159*£23,91655*

The total sum for 1906 is greater than that for 1901, as is also the cost per capita of population. The figures are:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS (EXCLUSIVE OF MAORIS).

Year.Amount. £Population.Cost per head.
190112,202772,7193.8
190614,310888,5783.9

For the Maoris the expense was as under:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS OF MAORI POPULATION.

Year.Amount. £Population.Cost per head.
190196243,1435.4
19061,37847,7316.9

COST OF COMPILATION, AND SUNDRIES (INCLUDING MAPS) IN CENTRAL OFFICE.

Year.Amount Spent. £Population.Cost per head.
19016,237772,7191.9
19068,229888,5782.2

The total cost of the European census of 1906 was at the rate of 6-ld. per head. In 1901 the total cost amounted to 5˝7d. per head.

ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CENSUS.

The first proceeding was to divide the colony into 51 Enumerators' districts, each consisting of a group of counties, or a single county where large or populous. In 1896 only 32 Enumerators' districts were found necessary; in 1901 42 were required. Undoubtedly a better supervision is insured by increasing the number of Enumerators, if thoroughly efficient persons are selected. And a large number of Enumerators secures expedition in examining the work of the Sub-Enumerators and in despatching the returns to the Head Office.

The Enumerators were appointed by the Governor; and it was their duty, subject to approval, to cut up their territory into a sufficient number of sub-districts, and appoint a Sub-Enumerator for each. These Sub-Enumerators numbered 976 in 1906, against 895 in 1901, and 787 in 1896. Their duty was to deliver and collect the household schedules, visiting all dwellings, including shops, tents, &c. for that purpose.

The first necessity, with a view to taking a good census, is to obtain the largest and best maps that are procurable. The maps so furnished to the Registrar-General by the Lands Department were excellent. Each Enumerator was supplied with two of his district, and instructed to mark on them his proposed sub-districts for which Sub-Enumerators would have to be appointed, and to send one of them to the Registrar-General for approval, keeping the other by him for his own use. The maps returned by the Enumerators were passed, on the division being found satisfactory, into the Lands Department, where smaller maps were prepared from them, one for each Sub-Enumerator. On the said maps were coloured lines defining the boundaries of all the districts for purposes of local government, such as counties, ridings, road districts, town districts, and boroughs. Electoral districts and goldfields were also indicated. A Sub-Enumerator's equipment consisted of a parcel of household schedules, with a book for noting down what had been delivered day by day. The maps were pasted into the book.

On the maps the whole territory was cut into very small blocks by means of dotted red lines. The Sub-Enumerators entered the number of people found residing in each block on the map, so that the Representation Commissioners could easily form new electorates from the blocks and maps within the quota required in so doing.

To simplify matters, Enumerators were directed to make, if possible, every Sub-Enumerator's district to consist of a complete riding or part of a riding, but not to take parts of different ridings in constituting one sub-district. Great trouble was experienced owing to Enumerators insisting on giving very large quantities of work to one person. Even when the sub-districts had been cut sufficiently small, the rule that each sub-district was to have a distinct person for Enumerator was often evaded, and the sub-districts linked together, allotting to a single person two or even three portions of country, the reason given being that only one efficient person could be found, and that it would be advisable to trust him largely, and give him an extra allowance of work and pay.

The Sub-Enumerator's duties in regard to the industrial and other special census statistics were limited to obtaining the addresses of all proprietors, or persons in charge. For this purpose, he was provided with a special form, divided into spaces allotted to the various industries, in which the addresses were written. The Enumerator sent out carefully drafted forms to these persons in charge throughout the whole of his district, according to the lists furnished by the Sub-Enumerators.

It is interesting to note the time taken in collecting and overlooking the census work before compilation began in the Central Office at Wellington. On the 10th May, 1906, within eleven days after the census night, the first parcel of household schedules was received at the Registrar-General's office. But it was not until the end of July, 1906, that the last parcel came in. After all this came the tedious process of getting in the industrial forms, and lastly the replies to queries issued.

THE COMPILATION.

Directly sufficient parcels of household schedules had arrived at the Registrar-General's office, the work of compilation was begun. In order to accommodate a large staff of clerks temporarily engaged, a whole flat of a large building built for storing goods was leased. This flat is 95 ft. long by 66 ft. broad, and had seats for seventy persons. A small portion at one end was partitioned off with glass for lady clerks, &c. but the whole room lay open to the Supervisor, who had a seat on a raised platform at one end. This arrangement is very important to insure progress of the work and facilities for answering questions which arise from time to time. Nearly the whole of the wall-space was divided into compartments for holding the census schedules, laid out according to counties and boroughs, the compilation forms and cards.

The clerical staff was taken on by degrees, but as quickly as possible, and raised to a maximum number of sixty-two, including five ladies. While the greater number. of these clerks did their work well, and some proved exceedingly efficient and willing, it must be admitted that there was a residue which gave trouble. But, as the work had been laid off with the view of giving employment to a large number of persons, reductions still left a sufficiency of competent clerks.

What is known as “the first tabulation” consists of extracting from the household schedules the exact number of persons according to sexes in each territorial division of the colony for purposes of local government, with all localities having names, and, at the same time, classifying the dwellings of the people. This work is done on ruled forms, using one line for each dwelling and those who slept therein on census night.

When the first tabulation was complete, the results were available for the Representation Commissions before referred to. At the time of the census, the North Island had 38 members, and the South Island (with Stewart Island) the same number. But the great increase of population in the North had the effect of giving three additional members to that Island and decreasing the members for the South by the same number, making 41 and 35 respectively, or 76 members to represent the European population in a House composed of 80 members altogether, 4 of them being Maoris elected by their own race on another division of the colony into four districts for Maori representation.

An instance of the effect of the census in adjusting the representation of the people for Parliament is afforded by the figures relating to the North and South Islands for successive Census years.

At the Census of—North Island.South Island.
189130 members.40 members.
18963139 members
19013436 members
19063838 members
Consequent on Census of 19064135 members

The final districts were gazetted on the 14th February, 1907.

THE SECOND TABULATION.

The combinations required of particulars respecting the individual persons entered in the household schedules necessitate a “card system.” being used in this work. As an instance: to group the population according to conjugal condition under three heads, “Married, unmarried, or widowed,” and then each of these into quinquennial periods of age, is far easier to effect by means of card-sorting than by any system of making strokes or dots on sheets. And, by means of small squares into which the face of a card may be divided in printing, a great deal of writing may be saved, and a cut made with a pencil substituted. Moreover, cards can be of two colours, one for males and another for females. And sorting-cases provided with compartments enable the sortings to be checked by the summarisers, who enter the results on large forms as a final process.

There is a somewhat lengthy period between the commencement of card-marking and the first compiled results being given to the public, because the card-marking requires checking by means of reading off to insure reliable results. But, once read, the cards are soon thrown into the order of their various required combinations, and the summarisation proceeds rapidly.

The whole process of the “card system” is one which, properly used, gives satisfaction, because there is an assurance of reliability and feeling of confidence which accompanies it. It means simplicity and ease in performance, with facilities for checking in balancing.

And by means of small duplicate cards for special purposes, such as the compilation of the sick, the Chinese, and other particular items of information, further advantages are gained.

The card-writing was begun on the 3rd July, in the year 1906, and the checking of the cards. ended on the 30th October.

While the above work proceeded, the elaborate compilation of the manufacturing statistics was carried on by means of clerks selected for skill and accuracy.

PART I.—POPULATION AND HOUSES.

Chapter 2.

The population of the colony (exclusive of Maoris and of recently annexed Pacific islands), as returned in the census schedules for the night of the 29th April, 1906, was 888,578 persons, of whom 2,570 were Chinese, and 2,578 half-castes living amongst and as Europeans.

A census of the Maori population was taken during April of 1906, when, according to preliminary returns made by the Enumerators, the number of the Native race was found to be 47,731 persons, including 3,938 half-castes living as Maoris. 211 Maori women were returned as married to European husbands. The complete population (European, Maori, and residents of Cook and other annexed Pacific islands) of the colony was therefore 948,649 persons, as exhibited in the following statement, specifying the numbers for each sex:—

 Persons.Males.Females.

* Not including 601 persons, officers and crews of two British men-of-war. † Excluding 776 absentees at labour abroad.

Population (exclusive of persons of the aboriginal Native race, of mixed European and Native blood, and Chinese)883,430467,186416,244
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living as and among Europeans2,5781,3071,271
Chinese2,5702,51555
Aboriginal .Natives (including 211 Maori wives of Europeans)43,79323,38720,406
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living among and as members of Maori tribes3,9382,1511,787
Total (exclusive of annexed Pacific islands)936,309*496,546439,763
Population of Cook and other annexed Pacific islands12,340†6,2246,116
Total population on 29th April, 1906948,649502,770445,879

The total half-caste or mixed European and Maori population on the main islands of the colony was 6,516 persons. The number of half-caste Maoris living among Europeans increased since 1901 by 171, or at the rate of 7.1 per cent. In that year the number of Maori wives of Europeans was 196 ; in 1906 it was 211. The Chinese decreased from 2,857, at the time of the census of 1901, to 2,570 in April, 1906, or at the rate of' 10.05 per cent., caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,854 in 1896, increased to 43,143 in 1901, and further to 47,731 in 1906, according to the returns.

The increase on the total European population between March, 1901, and April, 1906, amounted to 115,859 persons, or a rate of 14.99 per cent. Between the census of 1896 and that of 1901 the numerical increase was 69,359 persons, or 9.86 per cent. The average annual increase in the period 1901–6 was at the rate of 2.79 per cent.

The population of the principal divisions of the colony on 29th April, 1906, was—

 Persons.Males.Females.
North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)476,732255,057221,675
South Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)411,340215,641195,699
Stewart Island (exclusive of Maoris)304193111
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Maoris)19711483
Kermadec Islands532
Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris and of Cook Islands)888,578471,008417,570

INCREASE OF POPULATION AT SUCCESSIVE CENSUSES.

The increase of population of European descent at successive census periods has been:

  Increases.
Date of Enumeration.Population.  
 Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.
1858, December59,413  
  39,60839.99
1861, December99,021  
  73,13773.86
1864, December172,158  
  46,51027.01
1867, December218,668  
  37,72517.25
1871, February256,393  
  43,12116.82
1874, March299,514  
  114,89838.36
1878, March414,412  
  75,59118.22
1881, April489,933,  
  88,54918.07
1886, March578,482  
  48,1768.33
1891, April626,658  
  76,70212.24
1896, April703,360  
  69,3599.86
1901, March772,719  
  115,85914.99
1906, April888,578'  

POPULATIONS OF PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

These are stated as in April, 1906, and at the previous census. Wellington stands first for rate of progress with an increase of 27.25 per cent, in five years, Auckland comes next with 20.06 per cent., Hawke's Bay third with 19.25, Taranaki fourth with 14.65 per cent., Nelson following with 12.15 per cent., Canterbury next with 11.23 per cent. Marlborough shows an increase of nearly 8 per cent., while Otago as a whole advanced by 4.l52 per cent., though the Southland portion of the province shows the much higher rate of 11.23 per cent.

* Decrease.
Provincial Districts.Population, March, 1901.Population, April, 1906.Increase.
   Numerical.Centesimal.
 Persons.Persons.Persons. 
Auckland175,938211,22335,28520.06
Taranaki37,85543,3995,54414.65
Hawke's Bay35,42442,2426,81819.25
Wellington141,354179,86838,51427.25
Marlborough13,32614,3681,0427.82
Nelson37,91542,5994,60712.15
Westland14,50614,6741681.16
Canterbury143,041159,10616,06511.23
Otago—    
Otago portion125,339127,8772,5382.02
Southland portion47,80653,0975,29111.07
Chatham Islands207197–10*–4.83*
Kermadec Islands85–3*–37.50*
Totals772,719888,578115,85914.99

POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND BOROUGHS.

New Zealand is, by “ The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In April, 1906, the number of the counties was 97. Of these, the North Island had 60, with a population amounting altogether to 249,752 persons. The South Island had 35 counties, the population being 208,560 persons. Stewart Island and Chatham Islands are counties in themselves, and had a population of 288 persons and 197 persons respectively, exclusive of persons on shipboard. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony, with their interior boroughs set opposite, were as under at the date of the enumeration :—

COUNTIES.Census, 1906.
Mangonui2,801
Whangaroa801
Hokianga2,514
On shipboard51
Bay of Islands2,692
On shipboard4
Hobson5,424
On shipboard68
Whangarei7,306
On shipboard38
Otamatea2,921
On shipboard11
Rodney4,185
On shipboard6
Waitemata7,949
On shipboard13
Eden26,663
Manukau13,480
Coromandel2,841
On shipboard84
Thames4,286
On shipboard21
Ohinemuri5,895
On shipboard46
Piako3,761
Waikato4,532
Waipa4,849
Raglan2,282
Kawhia688
Awakino389
On shipboard8
Waitomo1,226
West Taupo1,397
East Taupo509
Rotorua2,657
Tauranga1,999
On shipboard8
Whakatane1,015
On shipboard1
Opotiki1,679
On shipboard31
Waiapu858
On shipboard12
Cook7,173
Wairoa2,156
Hawke's Bay7,700
Clifton2,837
On shipboard2
BOROUGHS.Census, 1906.
Whangarei2,115
On shipboard14
Birkenhead1,266
Devonport5,073
On shipboard32
Grey Lynn5,882
Auckland37,736
On shipboard755
Parnell5,253
Newmarket2,342
Onehunga3,693
On shipboard60
Thames3,750
On shipboard1
Waihi5,594
Te Aroha1,109
Hamilton2,150
Cambridge1,244
Tauranga1,047
On shipboard7
Gisborne5,664
On shipboard23
Napier9,454
On shipboard207
Hastings4,594
COUNTIES.Census, 1906.
Taranaki8,486
On shipboard152
Egmont2,885
Stratford5,912
Hawera8,009
Patea3,123
Waitotara4,164
On shipboard43
Wanganui4,833
Waimarino2,787
Rangitikei9,511
Kiwitea3,034
Oroua3,698
Kairanga3,681
Pohangina1,797
Manawatu4,007
Horowhenua5,337
Waipawa9,911
Woodville2,036
Patangata1,843
Weber593
Pahiatua3,672
Akitio1,394
Castlepoint561
Eketahuna2,738
Mauriceville1,089
Masterton3,723
South Wairarapa2,734
Featherston3,470
Hutt7,259
Sounds1,098
On shipboard5
Marlborough7,287
On shipboard10
Kaikoura1,747
Collingwood1,211
On shipboard6
Takaka1,547
On shipboard9
Waimea7,785
Buller5,458
On Shipboard10
Inangahua4,638
Grey5,692
Westland4,117
BOROUGHS.Census, 1906.
New Plymouth5,141
Ingle wood1,152
Waitara958
Stratford2,127
Hawera2,153
Eltham1,329
Patea869
Wanganui8,175
Marton1,268
Feilding2,971
Palmerston North10,239
Foxton1,330
On shipboard14
Levin1,265
Dannevirke3,509
Woodville1,110
Pahiatua1,370
Masterton5,026
Carterton1,402
Greytown1,123
Wellington58,563
On shipboard667
Onslow2,098
Karori2,194
Petone5,893
Lower Hutt3,407
Miramar952
Eastbourne358
Blenheim3,351
On shipboard12
Picton995
On shipboard19
Motueka1,068
On shipboard2
Richmond651
Nelson8,164
On shipboard59
Westport3,642
On shipboard315
Brunner1,133
Greymouth4,569
On shipboard213
Hokitika2,224
On shipboard5
Kumara919
Ross573
COUNTIES.Census, 1906.
Amuri1,406
Cheviot1,605
Ashley11,306
Selwyn34,378
On shipboard3
Akaroa3,155
Mount Herbert470
Ashburton11,541
Geraldine5,027
Levels6,584
Mackenzie1,939
Waimate6,510
Waitaki9,613
Waihemo1,806
Waikouaiti4,119
Peninsula2,477
Taieri6,882
Bruce4,675
Tuapeka6,113
Clutha6,174
Maniototo3,004
Vincent4,300
Lake2,103
On shipboard7
Southland24,424
Wallace8,315
Fiord54
Stewart Island288
On shipboard16
Chatham Islands197
BOROUGHS.Census, 1906.
Kaiapoi1,804
Rangiora1,723
Lyttelton3,941
On shipboard451
Christchurch49,928
New Brighton1,132
Woolston2,900
Sumner1,181
Akaroa557
Ashburton2,563
Temuka1,661
Geraldine942
Timaru7,615
On shipboard72
Waimate1,637
Oamaru5,071
On shipboard49
Hampden379
Palmerston South772
Hawksbury698
Port Chalmers2,120
On shipboard91
North-east Valley4,378
Maori Hill1,886
West Harbour1,515
Dunedin36,070
On shipboard160
Roslyn5,438
Mornington4,150
St. Kilda2,579
Green Island703
Mosgiel1,517
Milton1,284
Kaitangata1,682
Lawrence1,106
Roxburgh479
Tapanui370
Balclutha1,161
On shipboard2
Naseby418
Cromwell671
Alexandra936
Arrowtown340
Queenstown665
Gore3,033
Mataura1,023
Winton456
Invercargill7,299
Invercargill North973
Invercargill South2,272
Invercargill East1,038
Avenal424
Gladstone501
Campbelltown1,472
On shipboard568
Riverton914
On shipboard4

The total county population amounted to 458,797, or 51.63 per cent, of the total for the colony. In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called town population. The population in boroughs was 424,614 persons, or 47.79 per cent, of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1906 there were 92.55 residing in boroughs. In 1901 the counties had 417,596 persons, and the boroughs 350,202, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties, 84 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was greater in 1906 than in 1901.

CHIEF CITIES AND SUBURBS.

The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives-the names and populations of the several localities, as at the date of the census (1906), which might fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal cities at that time :—

AUCKLAND AND SUBURBS (APRIL 1906).

 Population.
Boroughs—Census, 1906.
    Birkenhead1,266
    Devonport5,073
    Newmarket2,342
    Grey Lynn5,882
    Parnell5,253
Road Districts 
    Arch Hill1,952
    Eden Terrace2,338
    Epsom1,591
    Mount Albert3,583
    Mount Eden6,888
    Mount Roskill883
    One tree Hill1,915
    Point Chevalier902
    Remuera3,082
Northcote Riding1,116
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding. being land in the Domain with hospital on it299
                Total suburbs44,365
                Auckland City37,736
                Total Auckland and suburbs (April, 1906)82,101

WELLINGTON AND SUBURBS (APRIL, 1906).

 Population.
Boroughs—Census, 1906.
    Onslow2,098
    Karori2,194
    Miramar952
                Total suburbs5,244
                Wellington City58,563
                Total Wellington and suburbs (April, 1906)63,807

CHRISTCHURCH AND SUBURBS (APRIL, 1906).

 Population.
Boroughs—Census, 1906.
    New Brighton1,132
    Woolston2,900
Road Districts— 
    Spreydon2,332
    Halswell (part)107
    Riccarton (part)4,981
    Avon (part)3,131
    Heathcote (part)3,367
                Total suburbs17,950
                Christchurch City49,928
                Total Christchurch and suburbs (April, 1906)67,878

DUNEDIN AND SUBURBS (APRIL, 1906).

 Population.
Boroughs—Census, 1906.
    Maori Hill1,886
    Mornington4,154
    North-east Valley4,378
    Roslyn5,438
    St. Kilda2,579
    West Harbour1,515
                Total suburbs19,950
                Dunedin City36,070
                Total Dunedin and suburbs (April, 1906)56,020

The increase of population for ten years prior to the census of 1906 at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was:—

 Census, 1896.Census, 1906.Numerical IncreaseIncrease per Cent.
Auckland and suburbs57,61682,10124,48542.50
Wellington and suburbs41,75863,80722,04952.80
Christchurch and suburbs51,33067,87816,54832.24
Dunedin and suburbs47,28056,0208,74018.48

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed between 1901 and 1906 at a greater rate than those of the South Island, and Wellington in particular to have developed at nearly three times the rate of Dunedin, and considerably faster than Christchurch.

While New South Wales and Victoria present what has been termed by the statistician of the former State “the disquieting spectacle of capital towns growing with wonderful rapidity, and embracing in their limits one-third of the population of the territory of which they are the centre,” New Zealand is saved from this by the configuration of the country, which has resulted in the formation of four chief towns, besides others of secondary importance but nevertheless trading centres of considerable consequence.

POPULATION OF TOWN DISTRICTS.

Besides the boroughs, there were 40 town districts (including the special town district of Rotorua. constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881 ”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. Two only of these, Rotorua and Hampstead, have more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined, with populations, as in 1906 :—

Town Districts.Population.
* Constituted under “ The Thermal-Springs Districts Acts, 1881.”
Kamo315
Helensville616
Papakura359
Pukekohe390
Te Awamutu379
Kihikihi253
Ngaruawahia383
Rotorua*1,9271
Opotiki683
Opunake406
Kaponga278
Normanby383
Manaia441
Waverley471
Lethbridge245
Hunterville645
Bull's492
Halcombe2Yb
Rongotea318
Clyde (Wairoa)707
Taradale805
Ormondville413
Waipawa691
Waipukurau761
Kaikora North268
Eketahuna704
Featherston670
Martinborough637
Johnsonville731
Havelock267
Amberley341
Southbridge403
Hampstead1,286
Tinwald511
Bay776
Greytown181
Outram431
Clinton418
Wyndham532
Otautau554

POPULATION OF SMALL CENTRES.

In addition to the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed for 1906 throughout the colony no less than 890 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centres without boundaries. The populations so brought out may not in all cases be locally considered strictly accurate, even for the census-date, or. given in such a way as to be fit for comparison one with another. The question of including, with the nucleus, more or less of the surrounding country, is dealt with in different ways by the Sub-Enumerators. But even if objections are raised in a few cases, a great deal of the information now given is held to be valuable, and there is in for every place some kind of centre.

 Population.
Abbotsford and vicinity, Taieri432
Addington, Selwyn751
Addison's Flat, Buller128
Ahipara, Mangonui50
Ahuroa, Rodney57
Ahuriri Flat, Clutha90
Akaaka, Manukau114
Akatarawa, Hutt194
Akatore, Bruce29
Akitio, Akitio129
Albany, Waitemata171
Albury Settlement, Mackenzie371
Alfredton Town and vicinity, Masterton523
Allandale, Waihemo78
Allenton, Ashburton945
Alma, Waitaki133
Annandale, Wallace222
Annat, Selwyn191
Aorangi, Oroua120
Aoroa and vicinity, Hobson442
Aotea, Raglan67
Appleby, Waimea280
Aramoho, Waitotara1,018
Aranga, Hokianga109
Ararua, Otamatea131
Ardgowan, Waitaki282
Ardgowan Settlement, Waitaki187
Ardmore, Manukau186
Argyll, Waipawa250
Arthurstown, Westland70
Arundel, Geraldine51
Ashhurst Town and vicinity Oroua583
Ashley and vicinity, Ashley195
Ashley-Clinton, Waipawa220
Ashwick Flat, Mackenzie118
Atea, Eketahuna126
Athol Town, Southland134
Avondale Town, Eden1,159
Awahuri Town, Manawatu108
Awakino Awakino152
Awamoko, Waitaki184
Awatoto V., Hawke's Bay101
Awatuna, Egmont110
Bainham. Collingwood164
Balcairn, Ashley214
Bald Hill Flat, Vincent152
Barewood, Taieri81
Barrhill, Ashburton77
Barry's Bay, Akaroa121
Barrytown, Grey231
Bastings, Tuapeka24
Beck's, Maniototo81
Belfast Town, Selwyn620
Belgrove V., Waimea242
Belmont, Hutt57
Belvedere, Wairarapa330
Bennett's, Ashley72
Berwick, Taieri92
Birchfield, Buller134
Bishopdale, Waimea41
Blackball, Grey356
Blackburn, Waipawa133
Black's Point, Inangahua288
Bluespur, Tuapeka166
Brighton, Buller28
Brightwater, Waimea418
Broad Bay, Peninsula273
Broadwood, Hokianga64
Brockville, Taieri27
Brookside, Selwyn280
Broomfield, Ashley92
Brown's, Southland62
Brunswick and vicinity, Waitotara215
Buckland, Manakau257
Bunnythorpe, Oroua, and Kai ranga504
Burnett's Face, Buller261
Burnham, Selwyn323
Burnside and vicinity, Taieri514
Burwood, Selwyn198
Calcium, Southland30
Cambrian, Maniototo73
Cameron's, Grey38
Camside, Ashley45
Candletown, Bruce74
Cannington, Waimate38
Canvastown, Marlborough94
Capleston, Inangahua143
Cardrona, Lake116
Carew, Ashburton48
Caroline, Southland62
Castlecliff, Waitotara380
Cave, Levels95
Chamberlain, Raglan78
Chamberlain Settlement, Mackenzie117
Chaney's, Selwyn34
Charing Cross, Selwyn86
Charleston, Buller131
Charlton, Southland106
Chasland's, Clutha35
Chatton, Southland185
Cheltenham, Kiwitea96
Chertsey, Ashburton190
Churchill, Raglan77
Churchill, Waikato126
Claremont, Levels192
Clarendon Bruce38
Clareville, Wairarapa South333
Clarksville, Bruce140
Clarkville and vicinity, Ashley232
Claudelands, Waikato305
Clevedon, Manukau492
Clifden, Wallace79
Clifton, Clutha64
Clifton, Hawke's Bay28
Clifton, Southland54
Clifton, Takaka70
Clinton, Clutha418
Clive, Hawke's Bay88
Cloudy Bay, Marlborough137
Clyde, Vincent328
Clyde, Wairoa707
Clydevale, Clutha83
Coalbrookdale, Buller107
Coalgate and vicinity, Selwyn154
Cobden, Grey582
Colyton, Oroua204
Conway, Cheviot29
Coop Town, Akaroa80
Coromandel, Coromandel858
Courtenay and vicinity, Selwyn104
Craigleith, Peninsula42
Crofton, Rangitikei55
Croixelles, Sounds26
Cromarty, Fiord10
Cronadon, Inangahua86
Crookston, Tuapeka297
Cross's Creek, Featherston125
Croydon, Southland43
Crushington, Inangahua142
Cullensville, Marlborough31
Culverden, Amuri119
Cust, Ashley227
Dalefield. Wairarapa South280
Dallington, Selwyn301
Danieltown, Wallace42
Darfield, Selwyn301
Day's Bay, Hutt26
Deborah Bay, Waikouaiti161
Denniston, Buller831
Dillmanstown, Westland178
Dixon, Southland62
Domett Cheviot214
Doubtless Bay, Mangonui34
Dovedale, Waimea181
Doyleston, Selwyn300
Dromore, Ashburton111
Duart, Hawke's Bay68
Dumbarton, Tuapeka48
Dunback, Waihemo265
Dunganville, Grey63
Dunkeld, Tuapeka118
Dunollie, Grey43
Dunrobin, Tuapeka125
Duntroon, Waitaki253
Duvauchelle, Akaroa177
East Dipton, Southland133
East Town, Wanganui406
Edendale Settlement, Southland653
Edendale Township, Southland194
Edievale, Tuapeka64
Egmont, Taranaki52
Elderslie, Waitaki112
Elsthorpe, Patangata130
Enfield, Waitaki379
Epuni Hamlet, Hutt157
Epworth, Geraldine81
Eskdale, Hawke's Bay282
Ettrick, Tuapeka81
Evansdale, Waikouaiti94
Eweburn, Maniototo135
Eyreton, Ashley181
Fairburn's, Mangonui122
Fairdown, Buller42
Fairfax and vicinity, Bruce207
Fairfield, Taieri181
Fairton, Ashburton174
Farndon, Hawke's Bay58
Fencourt, Waikato264
Fern Flat, Inangahua46
Fernhill, Hawke's Bay77
Fitzroy, Taranaki273
Flaxbourne, Marlborough301
Flaxmere, Hawke's Bay64
Flaxton, Ashley134
Forsyth, tuapeka59
Fortrose and vicinity, Southland176
Foxhill, Waimea127
Frasertown, Wairoa230
Galatea, Whakatane36
Garfield, Wallace118
Garston, Lake83
German Bay, Akaroa151
Gibb's Town, Collingwood170
Gimmerburn, Maniototo173
Gladstone, Wairarapa South160
Glenavy, Waimate203
Glen-iti, Levels129
Glenledi, Bruce48
Glenmore, Eden459
Glenomaru, Clutha131
Glenorchy, Lake33
Glenore, Bruce54
Glentunnell, Selwyn201
Globe Mine, Inangahua288
Goldsborough, Westland77
Goodwood Town, Waihemo171
Goodwood Settlement, Waihemo55
Gordon Special Settlement, Piako104
Gordonton, Waikato109
Granity, Buller522
Granville Town, Grey39
Grassmere Town, Southland109
Greendale, Selwyn332
Greenmeadows, Hawke's Bay376
Greenpark, Selwyn355
Grovetown, Marlborough345
Hakaru, Otamatea49
Hakataramea, Waimate88
Half-moon Bay, Stewart Island63
Halkett, Selwyn184
Halswell Junction, Selwyn81
Hamilton, Maniototo30
Hampden Town, Waipawa253
Hamua, Eketahuna181
Hanmer, Amuri176
Hapuku Settlement, Kaikoura107
Harben, Buller240
Harrington's, Southland109
Harrisville, Manukau141
Hastings Town, Thames178
Hatuma, Waipawa283
Hautapu, Waikato224
Havelock, Hawke's Bay439
Hawarden V., Ashley153
Hayward's, Hutt38
Hazelburn, Levels57
Heatherlea, Horowhenua42
Heddon Bush, Wallace176
Hedgehope Town, Southland96
Henley, Taieri135
Herbert V., Waitaki220
Herbertville, Patangata94
Herekino, Hokianga174
Heriot and vicinity, Tuapeka243
Hetane Hamlet, Waitemata64
Highbank, Ashburton786
Highcliffe, Peninsula250
Hikurangi Town, Whangarei615
Hilderthorpe, Waitaki86
Hillgrove, Waitaki44
Hilton, Geraldine210
Himatangi, Manawatu93
Hinds, Ashburton48
Hinuera, Piako74
Hobsonville, Waitemata212
Hodgkinson, Wallace42
Hokonui, Southland158
Holmesdale, Wallace20
Hope v., Waimea356
Hornby Junction, Selwyn25
Houipapa, Clutha175
Huia, Waitemata58
Hukanui, Eketahuna314
Hukatere, Otamatea100
Hukerenui, Whangarei, and Bay of Islands284
Hunter, Waimate196
Huntly, Waikato850
Hunua, Manukau258
Inangahua Junction, Inangahua71
Inchbonnie, Grey53
Incholme, Waitaki173
Inglewood, Southland26
Irwell, Selwyn244
Islington, Selwyn410
Jacobstown, Southland38
Jackeytown, Kairanga74
Jackson's, westland44
Jervoiston, Hawke's Bay42
Judgeford, Hutt128
Junction Town, Rangitikei75
Kaeo, Whangaroa315
Kaihiku, Clutha103
Kaihu, Hobson427
Kai Iwi, Waitotara136
Kaikohe, Bay of Islands127
Kaikoura, Kaikoura385
Kaiparoro, Eketahuna101
Kaitaia, Mangonui229
Kaitara, Whangarei131
Kaitoke, Hutt54
Kaituna, Collingwood100
Kaiwaiwai, Featherston63
Kaiwaka, Otamatea183
Kakanui North, Waitaki133
Kakanui South, Waitaki172
Kakapuaka, Clutha102
Kakaramea, Patea113
Kanieri, Westland201
Kapuka, Southland104
Karamu, Raglan159
Karangahake, Ohinemuri792
Karewarewa, Kiwitea20
Karioi, Waimarino81
Kauaeranga, Thames139
Kaukapakapa, Waitemata358
Kaurihohore, Whangarei121
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands161
Kawhia, Kawhia96
Keele and vicinity, Ashley211
Kelso, Tuapeka209
Kennington, Awarua125
Kensington, Levels227
Kereru, Horowhenua46
Kerry Town, Levels40
Killinchy, Selwyn109
Kimbell, Mackenzie97
Kimberley, Selwyn144
Kimbolton, Kiwitea224
Kingsdown, Levels216
Kingston, Lake43
Kinohaku, Kawhia42
Kirikiriroa, Waikato266
Kiripaka, Whangarei171
Kirwee, Selwyn260
Kitchener Hamlet, Eden28
Kiwitahi, Piako56
Kohukohu, Hokianga295
Koiterangi, Westland133
Kokatahi, Upper, Westland81
Kokatahi, Lower, Westland142
Kokiri, Grey261
Kokoamo, Waitaki120
Komata Reef, Ohinemuri341
Komokoriki, Rodney79
Konini, Pahiatua53
Kopu, Thames116
Kopuaranga, Masterton166
Korere, Waimea62
Koromiko, Marlborough134
Koru, Taranaki62
Kotuku, Grey84
Kowai Bush, Selwyn82
Kuaotunu, Coromandel169
Kumeroa, Woodville84
Kumeu, Waitemata101
Kuri Bush, Taieri90
Kuriwao, Clutha72
Kurow, Waitaki347
Kyeburn, Maniototo92
Kyeburn Diggings, Maniototo78
Lakeside, Bruce82
Langdale, Masterton53
Larrikin's, Westland59
Lauriston, Ashburton45
Leeston, Selwyn343
Leigh V., Rodney30
Lepperton, Taranaki57
Lichfield, Piako50
Limehills, Southland186
Lincoln Town, Selwyn300
Lindisfarne, Southland78
Lindsay Settlement, Waipawa214
Lingvin, Grey189
Lismore, Ashburton34
Loburn, Ashley37
Lochiel, Southland67
Longburn, Kairanga247
Longbush, Southland210
Longford, Inangahua35
Longridge, Southland125
Longwood Village Settlement, Wallace75
Lovell's Flat, Bruce168
Lowburn V., Vincent144
Lower Blackball, Grey52
Lower Moutere, Waimea52
Lowry Bay, Hutt21
Luggate, Vincent53
Lumsden Extension, Southland153
Lumsden V., Southland283
Lyell, Buller97
Maben, Patea153
Macandrew, Southland23
Macetown, Lake117
Mackaytown, Ohinemuri349
Mackenzie, Cheviot245
Macrae's, Waihemo146
Maharahara, Woodville74
Maheno Town and vicinity, Waitaki326
Mahoenui, Awakino101
Mahora North, Hawke's Bay111
Maitland V., Southland26
Makaka V., Hawera25
Makaretu, Waipawa273
Makarewa, Southland384
Makarora, Vincent76
Makatote Town, Waimarino107
Maketu, Manukau171
Makikihi, Waimate308
Makirikiri, Wanganui218
Makomako, Pahiatua160
Makotua, Southland118
Makotuku, Waipawa183
Makuri Town and vicinity, Pahiatua206
Mamaku, Rotorua299
Manakau Town, Horowhenua118
Manaroa, Sounds50
Manawaru, Piako165
Mangaehu, Stratford122
Mangamahu and vicinity, Wanganui197
Mangamaire, Pahiatua86
Mangapai V., Whangarei84
Mangapakeha, Castlepoint65
Mangapehi, Clifton148
Mangaramarama, Pahiatua54
Mangarimu, Kiwitea52
Mangatainoka V., Pahiatua292
Mangatoki, Hawera80
Mangatoro, Waipawa112
Mangawai, Otamatea178
Mangaweka Town, Rangitikei609
Mangere V., Manukau291
Mangonui Town, Mangonui258
Mansford Town, Waikouaiti392
Manunui, West Taupo116
Manurewa, Manukau103
Manutahi Town, Patea53
Maori Gully, Grey49
Maraekakaho, Hawke's Bay78
Maraetai, Manukau142
Maramarua, Waikato165
Mareretu, Otamatea148
Marima Pahiatua86
Maropiu, Hobson189
Marsden, Grey31
Marshland, Marlborough78
Marua Whangarei202
Matahuru, Waikato162
Matakana, Rodney197
Matakohe, Otamatea231
Matamata, Piako353
Matamau, Waipawa335
Matangi, Waikato62
Matarawa, Wairarapa South149
Matata, Whakatane70
Matatoki, Thames135
Mauku, Manukau195
Maungakaramea V. and vicinity, Whangarei211
Maungatapere, Whangarei134
Maungatua, Taieri238
Maungawera, Vincent43
Mauriceville, Mauriceville479
Maxwelltown, Waitotara244
Mayfield, Ashburton90
Mecalickstone, Akitio76
Med bury, Ashley114
Meeanee, Hawke's Bay239
Menzie's Ferry, Southland118
Mercer, Manukau245
Merton, Waikouaiti199
Methuen Hamlet, Eden55
Methven Town, Ashburton266
Middlemarch and vicinity, Taieri266
Midhirst Town, Stratford289
Millerton, Buller595
Millwood v., Southland62
Mine Creek, Buller53
Moana, Grey67
Moawhango, Rangitikei96
Moeraki Town, Waitaki136
Mohaka V., Wairoa219
Mokau, Awakino50
Mokoreta, Southland204
Moneymore, Bruce75
Morrinsville Town, Piako383
Morrison's Bush, Featherston68
Morton Mains, Southland168
Morven, Waimate288
Motu, Opotiki59
Motupipi, Takaka200
Moturoa, Taranaki136
Moutere, Waimea165
Moutoa, Manawatu182
Murchison Town, Inangahua118
Murimotu, Rangitikei135
Myross Bush Southland149
Neavesville, Thames40
Netherton, Ohinemuri136
Neudorf, Waimea53
Nevis, Vincent38
Newborough, Waitaki125
Now Lynn, Waitemata193
Newman, Eketahuna265
Newport, Hobson143
Newstead, Waikato214
Ngahauranga, Hutt254
Ngahere, Grey185
Ngakawau, Buller76
Ngapaeruru, Waipawa220
Ngapara, Waitaki340
Ngaruawahia, Waikato175
Ngatimoti, Waimea121
Ngunguru, Whangarei60
Niagara, Southland113
Nightcaps, Wallace349
Nikau, Pahiatua87
Nireaha, Eketahuna300
Nokomai, Lake61
Nolan, Hawera146
Normandale, Hutt78
Norsewood and vicinity, Waipawa991
No Town, Grey42
Nuhaka, Wairoa93
Nukumaru, Waitotara96
Oakura, Taranaki118
Oban, Stewart Island71
Ohaeawai, Bay of Islands62
Ohakune, Waimarino87
Ohau, Horowhenua377
Ohinewai, Waikato96
Ohingaiti, Rangitikei319
Ohiwa, Opotiki15
Ohoka, Ashley411
Ohura, Waimarino87
Oio North, West Taupo103
Oio South, West Taupo147
Okaiawa, Hawera100
Okaihau, Bay of Islands164
Okarito, Westland51
Okato, Taranaki149
Okoroire, Piako103
Okura, Westland57
Omahu, Thames110
Omaka, Marlborough61
Omakau, Vincent96
Omapere, Hokianga56
Omata, Taranaki222
Onamalutu, Marlborough122
Ongaonga, Waipawa319
Ongarue, Clifton107
Oparau, Kawhia124
Opawa, Selwyn661
Ophir, Vincent93
Opouriao and vicinity, Whakatane141
Opoutama, Wairoa45
Opuawhanga, Whangarei72
Oraki, Wallace125
Orari, Geraldine138
Orinoco, Waimea110
Oropi, Tauranga43
Otahuhu, Manukau1,302
Otaio, Waimate136
Otakeho, Hawera75
Otaki and vicinity, Horowhenua658
Otama, Southland324
Otara, Southland129
Otaua, Manukau97
Otakou, Peninsula111
Otatara, Southland181
Otekaike, Waitaki61
Otiake, Waitaki149
Otira, Westland182
Otokia, Taieri88
Otonga, Whangarei175
Otorohanga, Waitomo205
Owaka, Clutha505
Oxford, Piako126
Oxford East, Ashley549
Oxford West, Ashley563
Paekakariki, Hutt180
Paeroa, Ohinemuri993
Pahautanui, Hutt118
Pahi, Otamatea89
Pahia, Wallace92
Pakuranga, Manukau312
Pakipaki, Hawke's Bay109
Pakowhai, Hawke's Bay55
Panmure and vicinity, Eden359
Papakaio and vicinity, Waitaki202
Papakura, Manukau294
Papanui, Selwyn826
Paparangi, Hutt186
Paparata, Manukau165
Paparoa, Manukau195
Paparoa, Otamatea351
Papatoetoe, Manukau193
Paraparaumu, Hutt215
Pareora, Levels158
Pareora East, Levels266
Parkhurst, Waitemata181
Parkvale, Wairarapa South139
Patumahoe, Manukau179
Pembroke, Lake153
Penrose, Eden92
Petane, Hawke's Bay220
Pigeon Bay, Akaroa155
Pirongia, Raglan123
Pleasant Point, Levels691
Pohangina, Pohangina145
Pokeno, Manukau169
Pollok Settlement, Manukau109
Pongakawa, Tauranga146
Pongaroa, Akitio150
Poolburn, Vincent169
Porangahau, Patangata280
Porirua, Hutt260
Port Albert, Rodney96
Port Awanui, Waiapu52
Port Molyneux, Clutha100
Portobello. Peninsula48
Portobello Bay, Peninsula177
Puerua, Clutha137
Puhoi, Rodney41b
Pukehou, Waipawa100
Pukekawa, Raglan289
Pukekohe, Manukau405
Pukerau, Southland178
Pukeroro, Waikato134
Puketapu, Hawke's Bay56
Puketitiri, Hawke's Bay105
Pukeuri, Waitaki172.
Pungarehu, Egmont120
Puponga, Collingwood108
Purakanui, Waikouaiti241
Purekireki, Clutha157
Puriri, Thames226
Putiki. Wanganui165
Queensberry. Vincent66
Raetihi, Waimarino285
Raglan, Raglan154
Rahotu, Egmont194
Rakaia, Ashburton586
Ranfurly, Maniototo120
Rangitumau, Masterton129
Rangiwahia. Kiwitea155
Rata, Rangitikei220
Ratanui, Clutha273
Raurimu, Waimarino459
Rawene, Hokianga171
Redcliffs, Waimate102
Red Hill, Hobson111
Redwood, Marlborough212
Reefton, Inangahua1,679
Reidston, Waitaki93
Reikorangi. Hutt186
Renwick, Marlborough365
Reynolds, Waikouaiti42
Richmond, Selwyn198
Richmond Brook, Marlborough73
Richmond Grove, Southland150
Rimu, Southland97
Rimu, Westland111
Rissington, Hawke's Bay92
Riversdale, Southland307
Riverhead, Waitemata135
Riwaka, Waimea686
Rolleston, Selwyn105
Romahapa, Clutha157
Rongoiti, Wanganui181
Rongokokako, Eketahuna105
Rongomai, Eketahuna159
Rongotea, Manawatu318
Rosebrook, Levels73
Rosewill Settlement, McKenzie236
Rosewill, Levels88
Rotherham, Amuri131
Round Hill, Wallace211
Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands78
Ruapuna, Ashburton99
Runanga, Grey281
Runanga Settlement, Grey23
Russell, Bay of Islands175
Ryal Bush and vicinity, Southland239
Saddle Hill, Taieri238
Saies, Whangaroa134
Salisbury, Levels242
Saltwater Creek, Ashley89
Sandon, Manawatu200
Sandymount, Peninsula240
Sawyer's Bay, Waikouaiti375
Scarborough, Pahiatua110
Scargill, Ashley55
Seaward Downs, Southland94
Seddon, Marlborough165
Seddon Terrace, Westland82
Seddonville, Buller313
Sedgebrook, Wanganui300
Sefton and vicinity, Ashley589
Shag Valley, Waihemo194
Shag Point, Waihemo118
Shannon, Horowhenua506
Sheffield, Selwyn197
Shirley, Selwyn279
Shortland, Thames1,064
Silverhope, Rangitikei186
Silverstream, Hutt121
Southbrook, Ashley380
Southburn, Waimate145
South Malvern, Selwyn118
Spreydon, Selwyn1,514
Spring Creek, Marlborough275
Springfield, Selwyn371
Spring Grove, Waimea264
Springlands, Marlborough491
Springston, Selwyn676
Stafford, Westland93
Stanley Brook, Waimea127
Stanway, Oroua115
Starborough, Marlborough303
Staveley, Ashburton102
St. Andrew's, Waimate189
St. Bathan's, Maniototo210
St. Heliers Bay, Eden227
St. John's, Waitotara361
Stirling, Bruce289
Stoke, Waimea603
Strathmore, Stratford112
Studholme, Waimate189
Summerlea, Buller100
Sutherland's, Levels165
Sutton, Taieri122
Swannanoa, Ashley132
Swanson, Waitemata94
Taiaroa, Peninsula64
Taihape, Rangitikei1,273
Tairua, Thames336
Taita, Hutt96
Takaka, Takaka273
Takaka Central, Takaka105
Takaka West, Takaka129
Takapau, Waipawa400
Tamaki East, Manukau579
Tamumu, Patangata110
Taneatua, Whakatane65
Tangowahine, Hobson246
Taonui, Oroua147
Taratahi East, Wairarapa South168
Taratahi West, Wairarapa South213
Tarras, Vincent121
Tatarariki, Hobson394
Taueru, Masterton138
Tauherinikau, Featherston116
Taumarunui, West Taupo307
Taupaki, Waitemata123
Taupiri, Waikato177
Taupo, East Taupo84
Tawa Flat, Hutt114
Taylorville, Wanganui82
Te Arai, Rodney143
Te Aroha West, Piako200
Te Aute, Hawke's Bay226
Teddington, Mount Herbert76
Te Houka, Clutha148
Te Kopuru, Hobson437
Te Kuiti, Waitomo246
Te Mata, Raglan207
Templeton, Selwyn33
Te Nui, Castlepoint147
Te Puke, Tauranga503
Te Whiti, Masterton108
Thornbury, Wallace102
Thorpe, Waimea136
Tisbury, Southland152
Toiro, Clutha174
Tokaanu, East Taupo44
Toko Town, Stratford168
Tokomaru, Waiapu118
Tokomaru, Horowhenua383
Tokonui, Southland67
Tomoana, Hawke's Bay221
Tongaporutu, Clifton171
Totara, Waitaki250
Totara Flat, Grey169
Trentham, Hutt243
Tuakau, Manukau302
Tuamarina, Marlborough259
Tuapeka Mouth, Tuapeka144
Tuapeka West, Tuapeka259
Turangarere, Wanganui166
Turua, Thames200
Upper Hutt, Hutt489
Upper Moutere, Waimea101
Urenui, Clifton139
Uruti, Clifton165
Vauxhall, Peninsula53
Vogeltown, Taranaki78
Waddington, Selwyn254
Wade, Waitemata204
Waharoa, Piako188
Waiareka Junction, Waitaki111
Waiau, Amuri173
Waiau, Manukau77
Waiharara, Mangonui191
Waihola, Bruce181
Waihopo, Mangonui269
Waihou, Piako100
Waikaia, Southland334
Waikaka Siding, Southland187
Waikaka, Southland124
Waikakahi, Waimate667
Waikanae, Horowhenua163
Waikari, Ashley267
Waikawa, Southland82
Waikiekie, Whangarei104
Waikiwi, Southland673
Waikoikoi, Clutha152
Waimamaku, Hokianga210
Waimangaroa, Buller93
Waimate, Bay of Islands109
Waimatuku, Wallace43
Wainui, Akaroa142
Wainuiomata, Hutt115
Waiomio, Bay of Islands75
Waiorongomai, Piako131
Waiotahi, Opotiki157
Waiotapu, Rotorua93
Waiouru, Waimarino191
Waipahi, Clutha125
Waipara, Ashley50
Waipiata, Maniototo102
Waipipi, Manukau183
Waipiro, Waiapu107
Waipori, Tuapeka135
Waipu, Whangarei208
Wairamarama, Raglan186
Wairere, Piako89
Wairio, Wallace73
Waitahuna, Tuapeka285
Waitangi, Manukau117
Waitati and vicinity, Waikouaiti295
Waitekauri, Ohinemuri270
Waitotara, Patea118
Waituna, Kiwitea67
Waiuku, Manukau183
Waiwera, Clutha158
Wakefield, Waimea544
Wallacetown, Southland134
Wallacetown East, Southland174
Wallingford, Patangata91
Walton, Piako141
Wangaloa, Bruce121
Wanstead, Patangata93
Warepa, Clutha162
Warkworth, Rodney360
Washdyke, Levels279
Waynes, Waihemo27
Weatherstone, Tuapeka150
Weber and vicinity, Weber164
Wedderburn, Maniototo107
Weedon's, Selwyn110
Wellsford, Rodney171
Wendonside, Southland322
West Clive, Hawke's Bay387
Westerfield, Ashburton97
West Manakau, Horowhenua159
West Melton, Selwyn239
Western Spit, Hawke's Bay328
Weston, Waitaki275
Whakapara, Whangarei235
Whakarewarewa, Rotorua66
Whakatane, Whakatane108
Whangamarino, Waikato64
Whangaparaoa, Waitemata68
Whangape, Hokianga106
Whangarata, Manukau149
Whangaroa, Whangaroa69
Wharehine, Rodney74
Whitford, Manukau116
Whitmore, Kairanga23
Wimbledon, Patangata73
Wimbledon, Weber71
Winchester, Geraldine263
Windsor Park Settlement, Waitaki117
Wingatui, Taieri251
Woodend, Southland132
Woodlands, Southland253
Woodside, Taieri164
Woodstock, Waimea48
Woodstock, Westland54
Wrey's Bush, Wallace118
Yaldhurst, Selwyn359

POPULATION OF ADJACENT ISLANDS.

The names and populations of the colony were, in April, 1906 :—

Islands.Total.M.F.
* Now a county.
Mokohinau Lighthouse844
Tiritiri Lighthouse844
Motuhora312
Great Barrier312197115
Little Barrier817
Kawau26188
Ponui401822
Ponui Lighthouse11..
Ruthe's734
Pakatoa422
Pahiki33
Waiheke1638083
Week's (Puketutu)514
Motuihi541
Bean Rock Lighthouse11
Motutapu1385
Rakino33
Rangitoto33
Brown's211
Cuvier and Lighthouse642
Rakitu743
Rangiahua633
East Island Lighthouse752
Portland and Lighthouse734
Somes and Lighthouse532
Stephen's16106
Brothers Lighthouse33
Dog Island and Lighthouse1367
Centre and Lighthouse1064
Chatham Islands*19711483
Kermadec Islands532
Total897517380

Only three of these islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. Since 1901 the boundaries of the colony have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere.

POPULATION ON SHIPBOARD.

The numbers of persons on shipboard at the various ports of the colony were 4,467 persons (4,102 males and 365 females).

This number does not include 601 persons—officers and crews of two British men-of-war in ports of New Zealand on the census night.

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES AND DENSITY OF POPULATION.

The gradual equalisation of the numbers of the sexes and growing density of population and dwellings in the colony are exhibited below.

Date of Enumeration.Number of Females to 100 Males.Number of Persons to a Square Mile.Number of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.
December, 185162.160.9444.420.214
February, 187170.522.4564.480.548
April, 188181.724.6935.120.917
April, 189188.266.0245.061.191
March, 190190.337.4274.861.527
April, 190688.658.5414.821.773

The proportion of persons to a square mile increased from 7.427 to 8.541 between 1901 and 1906. In 1896 there were 6.760 persons to a square mile, giving an increase of 1.8 during the last ten years.

Since 1864 the proportions at the different census years were:—

Year.Persons.
18641.641
18672.094
18712.456
18742.869
18783.969
18814.693
18865.561
18916.024
18966.760
19017.427
19068.541

Of the different provincial districts, the most thickly populated is Wellington, and the one with the fewest people in proportion to size is Marlborough. The table below shows the area of the provincial districts, and the average number of persons to a square mile:—

Provincial Districts.Area in Acres.Area in Square Miles.Persons to a Square Mile.
Wellington7,042,00011,00316.347
Taranaki2,117,3803,30813.119
Canterbury8,985,40014,04011.332
Hawke's Bay2,822,3004,4109.578
Auckland16,477,70025,7468.204
Otago16,311,70025,4877.101
Nelson6,572,10010,2694.141
Westland2,970,6004,6413.161
Marlborough3,041,6704,7533.022

The population in the boroughs, amounting to 424,614, gives an average of 1,596 persons to every square mile in these towns. The people lay closest in the City of Auckland, where they are 21.13 persons to the acre, or at the rate of 13,523 to the square mile.

Since the census of 1901 the area of the City of Wellington has been increased by the inclusion within its boundaries of the Borough of Melrose, containing a large extant of unoccupied land. This circumstance reduced the average density of the population of the city to 8.ll persons to the acre, but taking the original area (1,100 acres) and its population as at the census of 1906 it is found to contain an average of 46.8 persons to the acre as against 40 persons in 1901.

Outside the boroughs (and excluding persons on shipboard) the population shows an average of 4.44 to the square mile of country, against 4–24 to the square mile in 1901 and 3.78 in 1896.

At the census of 1864 the number of females to 100 males was found to be 61.53. From this last year the proportion of females steadily increased to 9033 at the census of 1901, but owing to a larger immigration between 1901 and 1906, mainly of males, the proportion of females was reduced in the latter year to 88.65 per cent, of the other sex.

Year.Number of Females to 100 Males.
186461.53
186765.75
187170.52
187475.17
187879.40
188181.72
188685.28
189188.26
189689.31
190190.33
190688.65

The numbers of the sexes are shown to be gradually becoming equal as time advances, with the exception above indicated.

The proportion of females to males was. highest in Canterbury and lowest in Westland, as shown below:—

NUMBER OF FEMALES TO 100 MALES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Provincial Districts.Females to 100 Males.Centesimal Increase or Decrease. 1906-1901.
1906.1901.Males.Females.
Canterbury93.7396.2912.709.70
Otago92.1691.254.035.06
Auckland88.0389.2920.8619.15
Taranaki86.8084.0412.9516.66
Wellington86.1190.4230.1923.99
Hawke's Bay84.9187.8321.1417.10
Nelson81.8283.9913.4910.56
Marlborough81.0786.3610.964.18
Westland78.9178.941.181.12

The centesimal increase of the population is found to be greater in respect of the males than the females in all the provincial districts except Otago and Taranaki.

DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE.

The dwellings in the colony on the census night numbered 197,003, of which 179,076 were occupied houses, 11,279 unoccupied, and. 1,267 houses in course of erection. Besides these there were 5,381 tents or dwellings with canvas roofs. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling has increased from 4.05 in the year 1867 to 4.82 in 1906. The average number of inhabited dwellings to a square mile was only 0.12 in the year 1858, but rose steadily during each census period until 1906, for which the figures are 1.773.

Of 197,003 dwellings, 178,551 were built of wood, iron, or lath and plaster, and 8,359 of brick, stone, or concrete. There were also 1,213 cob or sod houses, 42 of raupo, besides 5,381 tents and dwellings with canvas roofs, and 3,457 houses and huts of miscellaneous materials. The inhabitants of the several classes of dwellings were distributed as under at the last two censuses:—

 1906.1901.
Houses of brick, stone, wood, iron, and lath and plaster865,263750,095
Huts or houses of cob, sod, raupo, &c.7,6868,437
On shipboard4,4673,763
Tents and dwellings with canvas roofs11,01710,170
Travellers and persons sleeping under drays1 or camping out145254
Total population (excluding Maoris)888,578772,719

With an increase of population amounting to 14.99 per cent., there is found an absolute reduction of 751 in the number of persons occupying inferior houses or huts, while the persons occupying the best class of dwelling increased by 115,168, or at the rate of 15 per cent.

The following are the proportions of the population (excluding Chinese and Maoris) residing in the different classes of dwelling at the last five census periods:—

Percentage of population—1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
    In houses of the best material95.1495.8396.7497.0797.38
    In cob or sod houses, raupo, huts, &c.2.872.551.571.090.86
    In tents or dwellings with canvas roofs1.131.081.181.321.24
    On shipboard0.820.520.480.490.50
    Camping out0.040.020.030.030.02

The number of brick, stone, or concrete houses increased between 1901 and 1906 from 7,517 to 8,359, or at the rate of 11.2 per cent.; and the wood, iron, or lath-and-piaster houses from 153,945 to 178,551, or at the rate of 15.98 per cent, during the five years, the increase of population having been, as before stated, 14.99 per cent.

The accommodation in the dwellings of the people has improved greatly in the time. This is exhibited by the following comparative table:—

Number of dwellings containing
Year.One room (including Tents).Two Booms.Three and Four Rooms.Five and Six Rooms.More than Six Rooms.No. of Rooms unstated.
188610,25712,11040,09027,21821,0371,259
189111,52811,03041,93432,86824,9681,523
189612,37811,45042,71141,29032,585925
190113,26310,46245,49952,58536,542547
190612,5589,65147,09868,39045,1851,575
Increase (+) or Decrease (−).
1886 to 1891+ 1,271−1,080+ 1,844+ 5,650+ 3,931+ 264
1891 to 1896+ 850+ 420+ 777+ 8,422+ 7,617−598
1896 to 1901+ 885−988+ 2,788+ 11,295+ 3,957−378
1901 to 1906−705−811+ 1,599+ 15,805+ 8,643+ 1,028

It will be noticed that the increase lies mainly in the houses of five to six and more than six rooms, which are more numerous by 24,448 than in 1901; whereas the dwellings of one to four rooms (including tents) and houses of which the rooms were not stated only increased by 1,111 in five years. The actual number of houses was greatest in the group of those having five and six rooms (68,390), while the houses of three to four rooms numbered 47,098. Of houses of more than six rooms, the number was 45,185.

Of the four chief cities, Wellington shows the greatest number of persons to a house since 1886. Auckland shows an equal average for 1906.

Borough.Average Number of Persons to every Inhabited Dwelling.
1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Auckland5365095.185.175.59
Wellington5.715.505.555.515.59
Christchurch5.555.415.305.094.86
Dunedin5.365.115.105.064.90

The proportion in Wellington for 1906 is higher than that which obtained in 1891, 1896, and 1901 in the same city, but lower than in 1886, when the average was 5.71 to every dwelling. At Christchurch and Dunedin the proportions fall regularly from 1881. At Auckland the proportion is highest for 1906 and lowest for 1891.

For the whole colony the average number of persons to each inhabited dwelling was 4.82, the lowest since 1871.

The succeeding statement gives the number of inhabited and uninhabited dwellings at each of the five past census dates:

Years.Inhabited Dwellings, including Tents.Uninhabited Dwellings.* Proportion of Dwellings of both Classes to 100 of Population.Average Number of Persons to Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Dwelling-houses being built.
* The population on board ship is excluded from the numbers u.
1886111,9719,14621.115.17834
1891123,8519,55821.405.06425
1896141,3398,00621.344.98577
1901158,89810,83022.074.86865
1906184,45711,27922.134.821,267

UNINHABITED DWELLINGHOUSES.

The number of uninhabited dwellinghouses in 1906 was 11,279 (being in the proportion of 1–27 to each 100 of population), as against 10,830 in 1901, and 8,006 in 1896.

In 1906 the counties (excluding the boroughs) contained 7,476 uninhabited houses, or 1.63 for each 100 of population, and the boroughs contained 3,769, or 0–89 for each 100 of population.

HOUSES IN COURSE OF ERECTION.

The number of houses in course of erection at the census of 1906 was 1,267, an increase of 402 on that of the census of 1901. The numbers of houses being built and uninhabited at the three last census periods are shown.

Year.Dwellinghouses being built.Dwellinghouses uninhabited.
18965778,006
190186510,830
19061,26711,279

Chapter 3. PART II.—RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

OF the various religious denominations, the Church of England has most adherents in the colony. They numbered 366,828 at the date of the census; or, including 1,237 Protestants not more specifically described, 368,065 persons, being 41.51 out of every 100 of the population. The Presbyterians numbered 203,597 persons or 22.96 per cent., and the Roman Catholics came next with 126,109, or, including Catholics not further denned, 126,995, which gives a proportion of 14.32 per cent. The Methodists were 89,038, or 10.06 in every 100 persons. Of other denominations, the Baptists, of whom there were 17,747 persons, returned 2 per cent, of the total population. 24,325 persons objected to state their religious belief, or 2.75 in every 100.

The numbers and percentages for five censuses are given in tabular form, so as to allow of the degree relatively to the population being observed —

Denominations.Number of Adherents. in 1906.Proportion per Cent, of Population.
1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
*“Unspecified,” not taken into account
Church of England and Protestants (undefined)368,06540.1740.5140.2740.8441.51
Presbyterians203,59722.5922.6222.7822.8722.96
Methodists89,0389.5510.1410.4410.8610.06
Baptists17,7472.482.372.282.082.00
Congregationalists7,3601.351.070.970.870.83
Lutherans4,8561.020.900.790.630.55
Salvation Army8,3890.911.501.50.1.040.95
Society of Friends3340.050.050.050.040.04
Unitarians7890.080.050.050.060.09
Other Protestants18,5311.551.822.162.192.07
Roman Catholics and Catholics (undefined)126,99513.9413.9614.0714.2314.32
Greek Church2320.010.010.020.020.03
Hebrews1,8670.270.230.220.210.21
Buddhists, Confucians1,4520.770.630.480.300.17
Other Denominations2,0700.100.120.160.170.23
No Denomination9,3381.051.321.221.071.04
No Religion1,7090.170.250.270.140.19
Unspecified1,8840.50****
Object to state24,3253.442.452.272.382.75
 888,578100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Here the proportion belonging to the Church of England is shown to have increased from 40 per cent, in 1886 to 41.5 in 1906. Presbyterians have been 22 per cent, of the whole for the last 20 years, and the proportion of Methodists has been 9½ per cent, to 10.9 per cent. Baptists declined from 2.48 per cent. in 1886 to 2 per cent, in 1906, and Congregationalists from 1.35 per cent, to 0.83 per cent. Lutherans are fewer in proportion to the total at each succeeding census, while the Salvation Army increased from 0.91 in 1886 to 1.5 in 1891 and 1896, but decreased in 1901 to 1.04 per cent., and further to 0.95 in 1906.

Roman Catholics and Catholics undefined formed practically 14 per cent. of the people at each of the census years. The proportion of Buddhists and Confucians diminishes with the number of Chinese in the colony. In 1886 the percentage of persons objecting to state their religion was 3.44, which fell to 2.45 in 1891, and, further, to 2.27 in 1896, but showed a slight increase 1901 and 1906.

A full statement of the particulars of all denominations as at the censuses of 1901 and 1906 is given, with the numerical and centesimal increase or decrease in each case. Amongst 1,125 returned as “Other Protestants,” 221 described. themselves as “Church of God,” 130 as “Central Mission,” 62 as “Gospel Mission,” 84 as “Gathered in the Name of the Lord,” 79 “Zionists,” 67 “Conditional Immortalists,” 30 “Church of Our Father,” 45 “Christian Scientists,” and the remainder variously in very small numbers. The Complete descriptions will be published in the census volume.

NUMBERS FOR EACH DENOMINATION, AND INCREASE

Religious Denominations.Census, 1906.Census, 1901.Increase or Decrease.
      
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.
*At the Census taken in March, 1901, 71,034 persons were described in the household schedules as “Wesleyan methodists.”.
Total population888,578471,008417,570772,719115,85914.99
Total for specified religions886,694469,761416,933771,837114,85714.89
Episcopalians—      
    Church of England, and Episcopalians not otherwise defined366,828194,628172,200314,02452,80416.81
    Protestants (undescribed)1,2377365011,239−2−0.16
Presbyterians203,597106,87296,725176,50327,09415.35
Methodists      
    Methodist Church of Australasia63,60331,55432,049*
    Primitive Methodists21,79610,91510,88110,14311,653114.89
Methodists (undefined)3,5051,7741,7312,3961,10946.29
Others13461732299541.48
Baptists17,7478,5379,21016,0351,71210.68
Congregationalists7,3603,5323,8286,6996619.87
Lutherans, German Protestants4,8563,0801,7764,833230.48
Unitarians78944734246832168.59
Society of Friends334211123313216.71
Church of Christ (Christian, Christian Disciples, Disciples of Christ, Disciples)7,0613,3043,7576,10595615.66
Brethren (Christian Brethren, Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)7,9013,6284,2737,4844175.57
Believers in Christ522527312167.74
Evangelists (Evangelical Union, Evangelical Church, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Brethren)4229132121100.00
Nonconformists6745226169.84
Salvation Army8,3894,0244,3657,9993904.88
Christadelphians1,059513546989707.08
Swedenborgians (New Church, New Jerusalem Church)18694921592716.98
Seventh-day Adventists99039959186412614.58
Students of Truth1871133−15−45.45
Dissenters62433100.00
Christian Teraelites, Israelites2418634−10−29.41
Other Protestants1,1255975281,093322.93
Roman Catholics126,10966,70559,404108,96017,14915.74
Catholics (undefined)886517369862242.78
Greek Church232167651894322.75
Catholic Apostolic3811712103265516.87
Other Sects-      
    Hebrews1,8679828851,61125615.89
    Mormons, Latter-day Saints27914613327272.57
    Spiritualists1,054526528499555111.22
    Buddhists, Confucians &c1,4521,431212,432−980−40.30
    Others35620015625010642.40
No Denomination—      
    Freethinkers3,1162,5205962,8562609.10
    Agnostics73456816655218232.97
    Deists, Theists3829959−21−35.59
    No denomination5,4163,5041,9124,74067614.26
    Doubtful3415193313.03
No Religion—      
    No religion1,6001,1754251,01258858.10
    Atheists101947802126.25
    Secularists85317−9−52.94
Object to state24,32515,9748,35118,2956,03032.96
Unspecified1,8841,2476378821,002113.61

Note.-The minus sign(−)indicates decrease.

It will be seen by the table that, of the larger Protestant denominations, the Church of England increased from 314,024 to 366,828, or 16.81 per cent.; and Presbyterians from 176,503 to 203,597, or 15.85 per cent.

Roman Catholics added 17,149 to their number, being an increase of 15.74 per cent., a rate slightly less than that obtained by the Church of England.

Hebrews were 1,867 in 1906, and 1,611 in 1901, a difference of 256. Spiritualists progressed, the numbers being 1,054 and 499, an increase of more than 100 per cent. Freethinkers also increased by 9.1 per cent.; and Agnostics numbered 734 in 1906, against 552 in 1901, an increase of 33 per cent.

PROPORTIONS OF SEXES IN THE VARIOUS DENOMINATIONS.

While the number of males is found to be greater than that of females in the Church of England, Presbyterian, Roman Catholics, and sundry other religious denominations, the contrary result is found in the following cases, the proportions per cent, being—

 Males.Females
Methodist Church of Australasia49.6150.39
Baptists481051.90
Congregationalist47.995201
Church of Christ46.7953.21
Brethren45.9254.08
Salvation Army47.9752.03
Seventh-day Adventists40.3059.70
Christadelphians48.4451.56
Catholic Apostolic44.8855.12

Amongst those persons grouped as of “No denomination,” “No religion,” and “Object to state,” the proportion of females is small, as will be seen by the next figures:—

No Denomination—Males.Females
Freethinkers80.8719.13
Agnostics77.3822.62
Theists Deists76.3223.68
No Denomination64.7035.30
No Religion—  
No religion73.4426.56
Atheists93.076.93
Secularists62.5037.50
Object to state65.6734.33

PART III.—BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 4. PROPORTIONS PER CENT. OF THE POPULATION.

OF the population exclusive of Maoris (888,578 persons), all but 472 were described as to birthplace on the census schedules. The number of the New-Zealand-born was 606,247, and of those born in Australia, Tasmania, and Fiji, 47,536; making 653,783 born in Australasia. The New-Zealand-born increase in proportion to the whole with every successive census. In 1886, 51.89 per cent, of the population were born in this colony; in 1891, the percentage was 58.61; in 1896 it had reached 62.85; in 1901 the proportion was 66.83; and in 1906 had risen to 68.26 per cent., adding to which 5.35 per cent, were born in Australia, &c, makes 73.61 out of every 100 persons living in New Zealand who were born in Australasia

208,931 persons were born in the United Kingdom, or 23.53 per cent, of the population, divided as under:—

Born in United Kingdom.Number of Persons.Per Cent of Population.
England116,56013.13
Wales2,1440.24
Scotland47,7675.38
Ireland42,4604.78
 208,93123.53

Besides these there were 4,280 persons born in other British possessions.

Summarising these results, it is found that 866,994 of the population, or 97.62 per cent., were born in the British possessions, made up as follows:—

Born inNumber of Persons.Percent of Population.
Australasia653,78373.61
United Kingdom208,93123.53
Other British Possessions4,2800.48
 866,99497.62

There remained 19,867 persons born in foreign countries or 2.24 per cent. of population; 1,245 born at sea; and 472 whose birthplaces were not specified.

Of those born in British possessions outside of Australasia (4,280), 1,355 were born in India or Ceylon, 1,547 were born in British North America, 697 in British South Africa, Mauritius, or St. Helena, and 243 in British West Indies.

Chapter 5. BORN IN FOREIGN PARTS.

Out of 19,867 persons born abroad 14,559 were born in Europe, 4,174 of these were born-in Germany and possessions, 2,277 in Denmark and possessions, 2,212 in Austria-Hungary, 1,618 in Sweden, 1,396 in Norway, 624 in France, 574 in Italy, 484 in Russia, 464 in Switzerland.

Outside of Europe 2,010 were found to have been born in the United States, and North America not more specifically defined, also 148 in South America.

Those born in foreign parts of Asia numbered 3,009, in which are included 2,602 born in China (53 of European blood), and 361 in Syria (all Asiatics).

Only 129 persons were returned as born in Africa, outside of the British possessions in that continent.

The foreign-born decrease at successive censuses having been 2.71 of the total population in 1896, falling to 2.41 in 1901, and 2.24 in 1906.

Chapter 6. INCREASES AND DECREASES SINCE 1901.

The New-Zealand-born increased from 516,106 in 1901 to 606,247, or at the rate of 17.47 per cent., between 1901 and 1906, the numerical increase being 90,141 persons. The numbers born in the United Kingdom increased altogether by 3,820 in the quinquennium.

Born inPersons.Increase or Decrease since 1901.
1906.NumericalCentesimal.
England116,56045964.10
Wales2,14437921.47
Scotland47,767−97−0.19
Ireland42,460−1064−2.44

The numbers of the Australian-born are found to have increased for each State. The number born in New South Wales, living in New Zealand, was 6,430 in the year 1901, but 13,018 in 1906, an increase of 102.46 per cent. There were 12,583 persons in this colony in 1901 born in Victoria, but 19,512 at last census, or an increase of 55.07 per cent, for five years. New Zealand also gained on the number born in Queensland, there being 3,193 in 1906, against 1,271 in 1901, or 151.21 per cent, increase. And similarly on the Western Australian, South Australian, and Tasmanian-born.

The numbers of those born in Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, and China all decreased since 1901.

The following table gives full details, and exhibits under the head of allegiance the number of British and foreign subjects in New Zealand:—

BIRTHPLACES.— NUMBERS OF EACH NATIONALITY, AND INCREASE,1901 TO 1906.

Birthplaces.Census, 1906.Census, 1901.Persons.Increase or Decrease.
Persons.Males.Females.Numerical. 
Centesimal.
Total population888,578471,008417,570772,719115,85914.99
Total for specified birthplaces888,106470,692417,414772,277115,82915.00
British:—      
    United Kingdom,—      
        England116,56067,95748,603111,9644,5964.10
        Wales2,1441,3368081,76537921.47
        Scotland47,76728,07819,68947,858−91−0.19
        Ireland42,46023,29519,16543,524−1,064−2.44
    Australasia and Fiji—      
        New Zealand606,247303,976302,271516,10690,14117.47
        Queensland3,1931,7711,4221,2711,922151.21
        New South Wales13,0187,6025,4166,4306,588102.46
        Victoria19,51211,2498,26312,5836,92955.07
        South Australia2,5901,5081,0821,5751,01564.44
        Western Australia460242218190270142.11
        Tasmania5,4793,2712,2083,7201,75947.28
        Australia (State not named)3,0041,8291,1751,2221,782145.83
        Fiji2801371432245625.00
    Other British possessions—      
        Gibraltar54243048612.50;
        Malta5739185523.64
        India and Ceylon1,3557745811,286695.37
        British South Africa, Mauritius, and St. Helena69736832955913824.69
        British North America, Canada1,5479515961,54430.19
        West Indies243169742083516.83
        Others327199128349−22−6.30
    Foreign,—      
        Austria−Hungary2,2122,0421701,87433818.04
        Belgium126854111797.69
        Denmark and Possessions2,2771,5267512,1201577.41
        France and Possessions624417207609152.46
        Germany4,1742,7311,4434,217−43−1.02
        Greece144124201232117.07
        Italy57445811642814634.11
        Netherlands and Possessions11510510116−1−0.86
        Poland1319140973435.05
        Portugal and Possessions11710215172−55−31.98
        Russia and Possessions484414703879725.06
        Spain and Possessions695712591016.95
        Sweden1,6181,4122061,548704.52
        Norway1,3961,0323641,2791179.15
        Switzerland46435610833313139.34
        Other European Countries463610301653.33
        China2,6022,556462,902−300−10.34
        Africa12963661032625.24
        America, North America842523319776668.51
        United States of America1,16879537388728131.68
        Other Foreign Countries55535619941613933.41
    At Sea1,2456366091,203423.49
    Unspecified472316156442306.79
Allegiance.      
    British subjects875,722460,329415,393761,104114,61815.06
    Foreign subjects12,85610,6792,17711,6151,24110.68

Note.−The minus sign (−)indicates decrease.

Chapter 7. PART IV.—AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

IN connection with this subject it is desirable to consider first the numbers for eight groups of important age-periods which are given below, and compared with those of three previous censuses.

The table below is worthy of notice as exhibiting a much stronger position than obtained in 1891 as to component parts of the population.

Ages.Numbers, March, 1886.Increase, 1886 to 1891.Numbers, March, 1891.Increase, 1891 to 1896.Numbers, March, 1896.Increase, 1896 to 1901.Numbers, March, 1901.Increase, 1901 to 1906.Numbers, March, 1906.
Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years86,828−3,624−4.1783,2044550.5583,6593,1473.7686,80615,93918.36102,745
5 years and under 10 years64,3151,7652.0986,080−55−0.0686,025−289−0.3485,7364,5525.3190,288
10 years and under 15 years67,38513,69920.3381,0844,3835.4085,467−242−0.2885,2251,5331.8086,758
15 years and under 21 years69,5818,22711.8277,80817,77622.8595,5846,3726.67101,9562,9892.93104,945
21 years and under 40 years155,49211,689752167,18132,08019.19199,26137,77718.96237,03862,73226.46299,770
40 years and under 55 years81,7215,0226.1586,7435,3926.2292,1357,3367.9699,47116,23616.32115,707
55 years and under 65 years20,4368,81243.1229,24810,38335.5039,6314,86812.2744,4942,3425.2646,836
65 years and under and upwards10,4333,90937.4714,3426,41444.7220,75610,59751.0631,3539,43530.0940,788
Unspecified2,291−1,323−57.75968−126−13.02842−202−23.9964010115.78741
All ages578,48248,1768.33626,65876,70212.24703,36069,3599.86772,719115,85914.99888,578

In 1891 the population under five years had fallen from 86,828 persons in 1886 to 83,204, a loss of 3,624, or 4.17 per cent.

In 1896 those under five had increased to the number of 83,659, being 455 more than in 1891,. or 0.55 per cent; while those from five to ten had suffered actual decrease of 55, or 0.06 per cent., in consequence of there not having been enough children under five years to come on since 1891.

By 1901 the children under five had increased to 86,806, being 3,147 more, or 3.76 per cent., but previous diminutions caused decrease in those from five to ten, and also ten to fifteen.

The effect of the deficiencies had been overcome by 1906, when the census showed 102,745 children under five, being an increase of 15,939, or 18.36 per cent. on the number in 1901. The number at the group five to ten was 90,288, or an increase of 4,552 in the quinquennium, and at the ten to fifteen the number was 86,758, an increase of 1,553, or 1.8 per cent. Thus the minus sign has been eliminated in regard to the three groups comprising the population under fifteen years of age.

The group 15 to 21 years still suffers from losses in the previous periods, but an increase of 2,989 over the number for 1901 is nevertheless exhibited, or 2.93 per cent., and the population was found to be 104;945 in 1906.

The 21–40 group is a most important one, the population at these ages being no longer “dependents” but “producers” or “breadwinners.” Here are observed 299,770 persons in 1906, an increase of 62,732 in five years, or 26.46 per cent Between 1896 and 1901 the increase was 18.96 per cent., in the previous period 19.19 per cent., and for 1886–1891 only 7.52 per cent.

Again at 40 to 55 there are 115,707 persons, an increase of 16.32 per cent. since 1901, against an increase of 7.96, 6.22, and 6.15 for the three previous quinquennia.

There is nothing remarkable about the numbers at the groups 55–65 and 65–70. At these periods the population here is again becoming of a “dependent” character.

The number of children under one year, and the total population at all ages, according to the results of three censuses, was:—

 Children under One Year.Total Population (all Ages).
Census, 189617,070703,360
Census, 190118,381772,719
Census, 190622,289888,578

Thus, in 1896, with a population of 703,360 persons, there were 17,070 children under one year, against 22,289 children of that age in 1906 to a population of 888,578 persons.

The births registered in 1895 were 18,546, against 23,682 in 1905, and the birth-rate, which was 26.78 per 1,000 of the population in the former year, became 27.22 in the latter.

Deducting 1,599, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1905, from 23,682, the number of births for that year, leaves 22,083, or within 206 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.

The number of persons under 21 years in April, 1906, was 384,736, and over 21 years 503,101, besides 741 unspecified as to age, but nearly all adults (63 under and 678 over 21 years).

Comparison of the population under and over 21 years for 1886, 1891, 1896, 1901, and 1906 shows that the number over 21 years is increasing in proportion to the population of all ages.

PROPORTIONS PER CENT. OF PERSONS—ALL SPECIFIED AGES.

 1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Under 21 years53.4752.4649.9446.5943.33
Over 21 years46.5347.5450.0653.4156.67
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

The numbers of the people of either sex in the eight age-groups previously referred to, and the increase or decrease for each since 1901 is shown:—

MALES.

 Census.Increase, 1901 to 1906.
Ages.1901.1906.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years44,32452,4998,17518.44
5 years and under 10 years43,31445,8262,5725.80
10 years and under 15 years43,10043,8347341.70
15 years and under 21 years51,01553,3602,3454.60
21 years and under 40 years121,939159,68737,74830.96
40 years and under 55 years56,13664,2118,07510.82
55 years and under 65 years26,51426,436−78−0.29
65 years and upwards19,21824,6545,43628.29
Unspecified4325016915.97
 405,992471,00865,01616.01

NOTE.—The minus sign (−) denotes decrease.

FEMALES.

 Census.Increase, 1901 to 1906.
Ages.1901.1906.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years42,48250,2467,76418.28
5 years and under 10 years42,42244,4622,0404.81
10 years and under 15 years42,12542,9247991.90
15 years and under 21 years50,94151,5856441.26
21 years and under 40 years115,099140,08324,98421.71
40 years and under 55 years43,33551,4968,16118.83
55 years and under 65 years17,98020,4002,42013.46
65 years and upwards12,13516,1343,99932.95
Unspecified2082403215.38
 366,727417,57050,84313.86

The males under 21 years in 1906 were 195,519, and the adults 274,988, leaving 501 unspecified as to age, but of whom few were children. The females under 21 numbered 189,217, and adults 228,113, leaving 240 unspecified. The proportions per cent. of population over 21 years of age of each sex are higher for 1906 than for 1901.

PROPORTION PER CENT.—SPECIFIED AGES.

 Males.Females.
 1901.1906.1901.1906.
Under 21 years44.8241.5548.5545.33
Over 21 years55.1858.4551.4554 67
 100.00100.00100.00100.00

Of the proportions per cent. at various ages, those for the period. 0–5 years (childhood) exhibit a decrease in respect of each sex according to the figures for five censuses. Nevertheless, the figures for 1906 are very slightly higher than those for 1901.

PROPORTION OF PERSONS UNDER FIVE YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Persons15.0713.3011.9111.2411.57
Males14.1212.7211.4510.9311.16
Females16.1813.9512.4211.5912.04

At 5 to 15 years, the school-going period, the proportions to the total of all ages are lower in 1906 than in 1901, 1896, 1891, and 1886.

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 5–15 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Persons26.3226.7224.4222.1419.94
Males24.6725.3623.3621.3019.05
Females28.2728.2525.5923.0620.93

At 15–21 years the proportions rose up till the year 1896, but a decrease is shown in 1901, and still further in 1906, for which last year the proportions are lower than they were in 1886.

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 15–21 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Persons12.0812.4413.6113.2111.82
Males11.0511.6112.9112.5911.34
Females13.2713.3714.3813.9012.36

The proportions of those at the period 21–40 years still continue to increase steadily, which is worthy of note, these persons being within the “supporting ages,” and a valuable element in the population.

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 21–40 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.1896.1906.
Persons26.9928.3633.76
Males27.7127.9433.94
Females26.1428.8433.57

The numbers at this important period rise on the male side from 86,028 in 1886 to 88,577 in 1891, 103,613 in 1896, 121,939 in 1901, and 159,687 in 1906, and increase faster on the female side, being 69,464, 78,604, 95,648, 115,099, and 140,083 for those years respectively. It is manifestly desirable to show a strong population of producers in contradistinction to “dependants,” considered in relation to powers of earning.

While there is a slight fall in the proportions at the group 40–55 since 1886, the figures increase at the periods 55–65 and 65 and upwards. The progression in case of the aged people at the last period is especially important to notice, and figures for eleven census years, extending from 1864 to 1906 are given accordingly.

PERSONS 65 YEARS AND UPWARDS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

18640.63
18670.86
18711.08
18741.22
18781.29
18811.41
18861.81
18912.29
18962.95
19014.06
19064.60

The numbers in April, 1906, at the age-periods most often in request may be classified thus: Infancy and extreme youth (under 5 years)—males, 52,499; females, 50,246: School age (5 to 15 years)—males, 89,660; females, 87,386: Women of the reproductive ages (15 to 45)—212,598: The athletic age (21 to 40 years)—males, 159,687; females, 140,083: The militia age (17 to 55 years)—males only, 260,249: The elderly period of life (55 to 65 years)—males, 26,436; females, 20,400: Old age (65 years and upwards)—males, 24,654, females, 16,134.

Chapter 8. Full Details Of Ages.

A table is appended to this portion of the Report showing the number of persons at each year of age as taken from the census schedules. A glance at this table will show that many people, either through disregard of truth, or carelessness, have set down their ages as at the nearest decennial or quinquennial period (30, 35, 40, &c). To ascertain the true number living at each year of age, the total numbers in certain groups of ages should be distributed proportionately over the single years.

The numbers and proportions at each period of five years are probably nearly correct, and are stated beneath. These numbers diminish in a regular progression.

5—Census Report.

PROPORTIONS AT QUINQUENNIAL PERIODS OF AGE.

 Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Under 5 years102,74552,49950,24611.60.11.2212.04
5 years and under 10 years90,28845,82644,46210.209.7910.65
10 years and under 15 years86,75843,83442,9249.809.3610.29
15 years and under 20 years87,11744,24242,8759.849.4510.27
20 years and under 25 years94,60849,37045,23810.6710.5210.84
25 years and under 30 years92,44849,30843,14010.4210.4910.34
30 years and under 35 years70,41937,79832,6217.938.037.82
35 years and under 40 years60,12332,32927,7946.766.866.66
40 years and under 45years45,38124,45120,9305.095.165.01
45 years and under 50 years38,42721,42417,0034.314.514.07
50 years and under 55 years31,89918,33613,5633.563.843.25
55 years and under 60 years24,94213,98410,9582.792.942.63
60 years and under 65 years21,89412,4529,4422.452.612.26
65 years and under 70 years19,12311,5247,5992.152.431.82
70 years and under 75 years12,1837,5674,6161.371.601.11
75 years and under 80 years6,0713,6982,3730.680.790.57
80 years and under 85 years2,3291,2881,0410.260.280.25
85 years and upwards1,0825775050.120.120.12
Total specified887,837470,507417,330100.00100.00100.00
Unspecified741501240
Total population888,578471,008417,570100.00100.00100.00

The proportions of the sexes at each quinquennial period of age are shown hereunder:—

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD.

Ages.Proportion of Sexes in every 100 Persons living at each Age-period.
 Males.Females.
Under 5 years51.0948.91
5 years and under 10 years50.7549.25
10 years and under 15 years50.5249.48
15 years and under 20 years50.7749.23
20 years and under 25 years52.1347.87
25 years and under 30 years53.2446.76
30 years and under 35 years53.5446.46
35 years and under 40 years53.6046.40
40 years and under 45 years53.5846.42
45 years and under 50 years55.4144.59
50 years and under 55 years56.9743.03
55 years and under 60 years55.6444.36
60 years and under 65 years56.4343.57
65 years and under 70 years59.9940.01
70 years and under 75 years61.8638.14
75 years and under 80 years60.8539.15
80 years and under 85 years55.2844.72
85 years and upwards53.3346.67

At the first four of these the males and females are nearly equal in number, though the male element slightly preponderates, but at 20 to 25 the difference widens, until at 70 to 75 the proportions are 61.86 and 38.14 respectively. At 85 and upwards there were 53.33 of males and 46.67 of females in every 100 persons.

The numbers at each year of age were as follow: but, as previously pointed out, the clusters at the quinquennial periods show that these are not by any means absolutely correct.

POPULATION AT EACH YEAR OF AGE.

[Numbers as compiled from Returns.]

Ages.Including Chinese.Chinese.Excluding Chinese.
 Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females
Total population888,578471,008417, 5702,5702,51555886,008468,493417,515
Total specified ages887,837470,507417,3302,5412,48655885,296468,021417,275
Under 1 year22,28911,48710,80221122,28711,48610,801
1 year19,97810,2419,7374419,97410,2379,737
2 years21,05410,74410,3101121,05310,74410,309
3 years19,87210,0539,81943119,86810,0509,818
4 years19,5529,9749,57832119,5499,9729,577
5 years18,8469,5539,29331218,3439,5529,291
6 years18,2189,3408,87843118,2149,3378,877
7 years17,8009,0278,7732217,7989,0258,773
8 years17,5198,8198,7001117,5188,8198,699
9 years17,9059,0878,81817,9059,0878,818
10 years17,7819,0008,78131217,7788,9998,779
11 years17,0268,5748,4522217,0248,5728,452
12 years17,5948,9118,6832217,5928,9098,683
13 years16,8398,4878,3522216,8378,4858,352
14 years17,5188,8628,6562217,5168,8608,656
15 years16,4788,3268,1521116,4778,3268,151
16 years17,2368,6838,55386217,2288,6778,551
17 years17,2708,6908,580108217,2608,6828,578
18 years18,0359,1498,88674318,0289,1458,883
19 years18,0989,3948,7041514118,0839,3808,703
20 years17,8289,1188,7102018217,8089,1008,708
21 years19,14810,0139,135202019,1289,9939,135
22 years19,1029,9799,1234440419,0589,9399,119
23 years19,28210,1359,1472924519,25310,1119,142
24 years19,24810,1259,1232523219,22310,1029,121
25 years19,76310,4659,2985250219,71110,4159,296
26 years19,36610,3119,055393919,32710,2729,055
27 years18,0949,6618,4332423118,0709,6388,432
28 years18,4599,8988,5615552318,4049,8468,558
29 years16,7668,9737,7933534116,7318,9397,792
30 years17,9949,6718,3236564117,9299,6078,322
31 years12,9927,0365,9562320312,9697,0165,953
32 years14,0717,5266,5455956314,0127,4706,542
33 years12,7556,8585,897343412,7216,8245,897
34 years12,6076,7075,900373712,5706,6705,900
35 years13,7617,4226,3395554113,7067,3686,338
36 years12,9436,9545,9896259312,8816,8955,986
37 years10,9735,8765,0973533210,9385,8435,095
38 years11,9536,4735,480595911,8946,4145,480
39 years10,4935,6044,889262610,4675,5784,889
40 years12,4356,7605,675117115212,3186,6455,673
41 years7,6984,2033,49530307,6684,1733,495
42 years9,4705,1284,34275759,3955,0534,342
43 years8,2774,4123,86540408,2374,3723,865
44 years7,5013,9483,55339397,4623,9093,553
45 years9,2955,2554,04074749,2215,1814,040
46 years7,7334,1753,55846467,6874,1293,558
47 years6,8133,7733,04057576,7563,7163,040
48 years7,6944,3043,39068687,6264,2363,390
49 years6,8923,9172,07554546,8383,8632,975
50 years8,8574,9983,8591271278,7304,8713,859
51 years5,1272,9782,14946465,0812,9322,149
52 years6,3813,7352,6461021026,2793,6332,646
53 years5,8933,3892,50449495,8443,3402,504
54 years5,6413,2362,405595815,5823,1782,404
Ages.Including Chinese.Chinese.Excluding Chinese.
 Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females
55 years5,9313,3342,59773735,8583,2612,597
56 years5,6513,1762,47550505,6013,1262,475
57 years4,4422,4372,00537374,4052,4002,005
58 years4,7102,6492,06146464,6642,6032,061
59 years4,2082,3881,82035354,1732,3531,820
60 years5,5463,0042,54280805,4662,9242,542
61 years3,4241,9721,45244443,3801,9281,452
62 years4,3852,5041,88137374,3482,4671,881
63 years4,2292,4661,76335354,1942,4311,763
64 years4,3102,5061,80428284,2822,4781,804
65 years5,2133,1092,10436365 1773 0732,104
66 years4,0462,4471,59937374,0092,4101,599
67 years3,5742,1881,38624243,5502,1641,386
683,4372,0091,42825253,4121,9841,428
69 years2,8531,7711,082882,8451,7631,082
70 years3,3822,0441,33828283,3542,0161,338
71 years2,1691,36080917172,1521,343809
72 years2,4821,56791511112,4711,556915
73 years2,2801,436844992,2711,427844
74 years1,8701,16071014141,8561,146710
75 years1,8071,118689221,8051,116689
76 years1,494907587441,490903587
77 years1,075635440111,074634440
78 years964591373964591373
79 years73144728422729445284
80 years764436328764436328
81 years458248210458248210
82 years399225174399225174
83 years359198161359198161
84 years349181168349181168
85 years270144126270144126
86 years2621431191261142119
87 years17295771729577
88 years894544894544
89 years884939684939
90 years572928572928
91 years411922411922
92 years251213251213
93 years2315823158
94 years1661016610
95 years13761376
96 years10551055
97 years835835
98 years422422
99 years
100 yearsl111
101 years1111
102 years1111
103 years 
104 years
105 years1111
Unspecified age under 21633528633528
Unspecified age over 216784662122929649437212

Chapter 9. Ages And Length Of Residence.

For a person not born in New Zealand, the householder was required to state on the census schedule the length of his or her residence in years, and, from the information thus obtained, a table has been compiled showing the length of residence in the colony of all persons aged 55 and upwards, and from this the following figures, which will no doubt be found interesting, are taken:—

On the 29th April, 1906, there were in New Zealand 37,367 persons of 65 years of age and upwards who had been twenty-five years and over resident in the colony, and, at the same time, no less than

  • 3,762 persons 64 years of age and over, resident 24 years and upwards.

  • 3,623 persons 63 years of age and over, resident 23 years and upwards.

  • 3,720 persons 62 years of age and over, resident 22 years and upwards.

  • 2,886 persons 61 years of age and over, resident 21 years and upwards.

  • 4,705 persons 60 years of age and over, resident 20 years and upwards.

  • 3,521 persons 59 years of age and over, resident 19 years and upwards.

  • 3,945 persons 58 years of age and over, resident 18 years and upwards.

  • 3,661 persons 57 years of age and over, resident 17 years and upwards.

  • 4,658 persons 56 years of age and over, resident 16 years and upwards.

Aliens are included in the foregoing figures, but Maoris are excluded. There were 12,856 foreign subjects (of all ages) in New Zealand on the 29th April, 1906.

Of the New-Zealand born, 391 had reached or passed the age of 65 years at the time of the census; 169 were 64 years old; 270 were 63; 319 were 62; 264 were 61; 430 were said to be 60; 371 were 59; 431 were 58; 468 were 57; 564 were 56; and 624 were 55 years old. These have been included in the figures previously given.

PART V.—CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 10.

OF 468,493 males, exclusive of Chinese, 311,080 were returned as unmarried, 143,920 as husbands, 12,618 as widowers, and 875 were unspecified as to conjugal condition.

These figures show a proportion of 66.52 per cent. of males to have been unmarried, 30.78 as husbands, and 2.7 as widowers, or, eliminating all males under 14 years, who were necessarily unmarried, 53.17 per cent. not married, 43.06 per cent. husbands, and 3.77 widowers.

Of females, numbering altogether 417,515, there were 252,670 unmarried, 142,851 wives, 21,649 widows, and 345 not specified as to condition. Or, represented proportionately, of females at all ages, 60.57 percent. were not married, 34.24 were wives, and 5.19 widows. Shutting off those under 14 years, the proportions stand as 42.93 unmarried, 49.56 wives, and 7.51 widows.

The proportions for successive census periods exhibit on the male side a rise in the percentage of the married men and a steady increase in regard to widowers since the year 1878. On the female side the percentage of the unmarried rose with regularity until the year 1891, while the married diminished. The reverse has been the case at the past two census periods. The percentage of widows increased steadily. Chinese are excluded from the calculations.

Year.Males.Females.
Unmarried.Married.Widowed.Unmarried.Married.Widowed.
187870.0928.061.8562.5934.323.09
188170.3927.731.8863.6433.053.31
188670.3527.612.0464.5931.743.67
189170.0227.612.3764.9030.944.11
189669.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53
190167.9029.452.6562.9432.174.89
190666.5230.782.7060.5734.245.19

The proportions at different age-periods show, for males, that the unmarried decrease from 99 per cent, at the period 17–20 to 65 per cent. at the period 25–30 years. At 30–35 years the husbands, who were only 34.76 per cent. at the previous period, exceeded the unmarried, the proportion being of husbands 57.14, unmarried 41.77, and widowers 1.09 per cent. At 85 years and upwards the widowers were in the highest proportion per cent., the figures being 52 against 31.3 of husband and 16.7 unmarried.

Of the females, 99 per cent. were spinsters at the period 14–18 years; thence onward the proportion diminished and the wives and widows increased, until at 25–30 years the wives were in the highest proportion—i.e., 55.79 per cent., against 43.5 of unmarried females, and 0.71 of widows. At 70–75 years the widows had increased so as to exceed the wives, being 52.6 per cent., against 43.04, while the spinsters had diminished to 4.36 per cent. At 85 and upwards the widows were 83.23 per cent, of the whole number of females.

The numbers and proportions according to conjugal condition for each age-period are exhibited in full detail:—

NUMBERS LIVING. Males.

Ages.Total.Males.Husbands.Widowers.Divorced.Not stated.
Unmarried.
All ages468,493310,729143,92012,618351875
Specified ages468,021310,513143,83812,599349722
14 years and upwards334,747177,239143,83812,599349722
Under 14 years133,274133,274
14 years to 15 years8,8608,860
15 years to 16 years8,8608,860
16 years to 17 years8,6778,6752
17 years to 18 years8,6828,6784
18 years to 19 years9,1459,12412
19 years to 20 years9,3809,333443
20 years to 21 years9,1008,965122112
21 years to 25 years40,14536,2903,72034299
25 years to 30 years49,11031,70317,02422329131
30 years to 35 years37,58715,61721,41940940102
35 years to 40 years37,0986,21622,1915764570
40 years to 45 years24,1525,62517,7266984360
45 years to 50 years21,1254,30115,7726934742
50 years to 55 years17,9543,29913,3441,2233553
55 years to 60 years13,7432,35710,1501,1762832
60 years to 65 years12,2282,0998,4421,6182940
65 years to 70 years11,3942,1137,3631,8662329
70 years to 75 years7,4881,6284,0451,7751723
75 years to 80 years3,6896991,7441,224616
80 years to 85 years1,28823752851337
85 years and upwards5769418029921
Unspecified47221682192153
Ages.Total.Females.Wives.Widows.Divorced.Not stated.
Unmarried.
All ages417,515252,414142,85121,649256345
Specified ages417,275252,324142,73621,625256334
14 years and upwards288,309123,358142,73621,625256334
Under 14 years128,966128,966
14 years to 15 years8,6568,6551
15 years to 16 years8,1518,1501
16 years to 17 years8,5518,54110
17 years to 18 years8,5788,502715
18 years to 19 years8,8838,62824915
19 years to 20 years8,7038,10159723
20 years to 21 years8,7087,5911,101412
21 years to 25 years36,51725,33311,052601161
25 years to 30 years43,13318,69324,0303064163
30 years to 35 years32,6148,89923,0256064242
35 years to 40 years27,7885,18521,4531,0596031
40 years to 45 years20,9282,80516,6221,4383231
45 years to 50 years17,0031,61213,4141,9412214
50 years to 55 years13,56293910,3332,2611712
55 years to 60 years10,9585907,6972,6471212
60 years to 65 years9,4424346,0052,982912
65 years to 70 years7,5993314,0773,17768
70 years to 75 years4,6162001,9822,422111
75 years to 80 years2,373957381,53613
80 years to 85 years1,0415221776615
85 years and upwards50522624174
Unspecified240901152411

PROPORTION TO EVERY 100 LIVING AT EACH AGE.

Males.Females.
 Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.DivorcedUnmarriedWives.Widows.Divorced.
All ages66.4530.782.700.0760.5134.245.190.06
Specified ages66.4530.782.700.0760.5234.235.190.06
14 years and upwards53.0643.063.770.1149.8449.567.510.09
Under 14 years
14 years to 15 years99.990.01
15 years to 16 years99.990.01
16 years to 17 years99.980.0299.880.12
17 years to 18 years99.950.0599.170.83
18 years to 19 years99.790.200.0197.182.810.01
19 years to 20 years99.530.4793.126.860.02
20 years to 21 years98.651.340.0187.2912.660.05
21 years to 25 years90.629.290.080.0169.4930.320.160.03
25 years to 30 years64.7334.760.450.0643.4055.790.710.10
30 years to 35 years41.6657.141.090.1127.3270.691.860.13
35 years to 40 years28.7769.291.800.1418.6877.293.810.22
40 years to 45 years23.3573.572.900.1813.4279.546.880.16
45 years to 50 years20.4074.814.570.229.4978.9611.420.13
50 years to 55 years18.4374.546.830.206.9376.2616.690.12
55 years to 60 years17.1974.038.580.205.3970.3224.180.11
60 years to 65 years17.2269.2613.280.244.6063.6831.620.10
65 years to 70 years18.5964.7916.420.204.3653.7141.850.08
70 years to 75 years21.8154.1823.780.234.3443.0452.600.02
75 years to 80 years19.0347.4833.330.164.0131.1464.180.04
80 years to 85 years18.5041.2240.050.235.0220.9473.940.10
85 years and upwards16.3531.3052.000.354.3912.3833.23

The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is still steadily diminishing, while the proportion from 35 to 45 years has an increasing tendency. Women in New Zealand are therefore not now marrying at such early age as they did in former years. The process brings the relative proportions closer to those that obtain in England:—

PROPORTIONS FOR 100 MARRIED WOMEN AT THE AGES 15 TO 45.

Ages.1878.1881.1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.
Under 20 years2.452.161.811.191.120.980.94
20 and under 35 years61.9060.5360.0360.1259.5759.9460.29
35 and under 45 years35.6537.3138.1638.6936.3139.0838.77
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF CHINESE.

Of 2,515 male Chinese living in the colony, 63 were stated as married and 16 widowed. The instruction on the census schedule was that Chinese not having wives in this colony or any Australian State should be returned as unmarried. Of 55 Chinese females, 40 were returned as married, 10 of the rest being young people under 14 years of age.

BACHELORS AND SPINSTERS.

Of 310,862 unmarried males of specified ages, 124,592 were over 20 years of age, and, of 252,580 unmarried females, 114,959 were found to be over 15 years; the excess of bachelors over spinsters was therefore 9,633. Accepting the above as the marriageable ages, the number of bachelors to every 100 spinsters was 108.

A process of equalisation in the numbers of bachelors and spinsters went on steadily until 1906 as shown by the results of previous censuses:—

NUMBER OF BACHELORS AGED 20 YEARS AND UPWARDS TO EVERY 100 OF SPINSTERS AGED 15 AND UPWARDS.

Census 1874238
Census 1878191
Census 1881162
Census 1886123
Census 1891105
Census 189698
Census 190197
Census 1906108

HUSBANDS AND WIVES.

The number of husbands of specified ages was 143,838, and of wives 142,736, giving an excess of husbands over wives amounting to 1,102. This excess of husbands is probably owing to the arrival from abroad recently of married men who did not bring their wives with them. There were 100 wives to every 100 husbands in the colony, notwithstanding the small numerical excess of husbands above mentioned. As in the case of the bachelors and spinsters, a process of equalisation in the number of husbands and wives was also in operation until 1906, the number of husbands to every 100 wives having fallen from 102 in 1874 to 101 in 1881, and again to 100 in 1891, 1896, and 1901. In 1906, however, the number of husbands increased to 100.8.

WIDOWERS AND WIDOWS.

The widowers of specified ages numbered 12,599, and the widows. 21,625, being a proportion of 58 widowers to every 100 widows. At the census of 1901 the proportion was 60 to every 100 widows.

DIVORCED PERSONS.

Six hundred and seven persons—namely, 351 men and 256 women—were entered on the census schedule as being divorced. These numbers are not likely to represent fully the actual facts. During the five years ended 31st December, 1905, the number of decrees for dissolution of marriage granted was 567.

MARRIAGE RATES IN AUSTRALASIA.

It was remarked in the report on the census of 1896 that the marriage rate in New Zealand, from being the highest in Australasia, had fallen to be one of the lowest, and that the same process had been going on in regard to birth rates. The lapse of ten years places New Zealand in a much better position as regards marriage, the rate being, indeed, slightly lower than in Western Australia (which is a peculiar case on account of the number of adults), but higher than in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania.

MARRIAGE RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1874.1886.1891.1895.1900.1905.
Queensland8.628.677.186.236.886.04
New South Wales7.707.997.396.357.387.42
Victoria6.337.847.696.006.967.24
South Australia8.006.247.315.886.507.00
Western Australia6.967.988.006.8310.278.48
Tasmania6.837.266.635.327.717.61
New Zealand8.815.996.045.947.678.28

In the year 1895, New Zealand had the lowest birth rate of Australasia, excepting Western Australia (which is wholly exceptional), but in 1905 the rate was higher than in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, or South Australia, which represent most of the population.

BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1887.1891.1895.1900.1905.
Queensland38.0936.3532.8530.2125.92
New South Wales36.4234.5030.6627.4326.73
Victoria32.3933.5728.5725.8224.83
South Australia34.6333.9230.2325.7823.82
Western Australia37.3434.8525.6231.4630.30
Tasmania33.8733.3730.1028.2529.32
New Zealand32.0929.0126.7825.6027.22

PART VI.—EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 11.

THE replies given by householders to the inquiry showed that in every 100 persons living (excluding Chinese), 83.5 per cent. could read and write, 1.6 could read only, and 14.9 were unable to read. The proportion per cent. unable to read fell from 23.72 in 1878 to 21.19 in 1886. to 16.51 in 1896, to 15.27 in 1901, and further to 14.9 in 1906. Of those who could read only, the proportion diminished from 6.76 in 1878 till in 1906 it stood at 1.6 per cent. The following shows the percentages distinguishing the sexes at each census period: —

 Write and Read.Read only.Cannot Read.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
187869.5272.1166.336.765.917.8023.7221.9825.87
188171.3273.3168.945.635.016.3923.0521.6824.67
188674.0175.4072.414.804.365.3121.1920.2422.28
189177.2777.9776.483.973.744.2418.7618.2919.28
189680.6081.0680.092.892.713.0816.5116.2316.83
190182.7883.0882.441.951.812.1015.2715.1115.46
190683.5084.0382.911.601.481.7314.9014.4915.36

Besides the improvement in the degree of education shown above, which is observed in respect of females as well as males, it will be noticed that whereas the difference in the percentage able to read and write is very considerably in favour of the male sex for the year 1878, the proportions approximate more closely at each successive census year, until in 1906 there are found to have been 82.91 per cent. of the female sex who could read and write, against 84.03 males. The education of the females, taking as a standard the knowledge of reading and writing, is thus nearly equal to that of the males. But with a system of free and compulsory education this would be expected in time, and the census results have no longer the degree of importance or interest they had years ago.

It is in considering the proportions of the population at different age-periods that the improvement, in education is even more clearly proved, as seen by reference to the next table:—

PROPORTIONS TO EVERY 100 AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD.

Ages.Persons.Males.Females.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
All ages83.501.6014.9084.031.4814.4982.911.7315.36
Specified ages83.501.6014.9084.031.4814.4982.901.7315.37
Specified ages above 5 years94.481.763.7694.671.633.7094.281.913.81
Under 5 years0.3799.630.3399.670.4199.59
 5 years to 10 years65.5110.1424.3564.4610.5524.9966.589.7223.70
10 years to 15 years99.450.220.3399.380.260.3699.500.190.31
15 years to 20 years99.630.080.2999.520.110.3799.740.050.21
20 years to 25 years99.560.080.3699.470.100.4399.660.070.27
25 years to 30 years99.430.130.4499.360.150.4999.510.100.39
30 years to 35 years99.350.160.4999.320.180.5099.390.130.48
35 years to 40 years99.120.240.6499.110.220.6799.120.260.62
40 years to 45 years98.440.511.0598.580.470.9598.290.551.16
45 years to 50 years97.620.781.6097.920.591.4997.251.021.73
50 years to 55 years96.321.532.1597.081.141.7895.312.052.64
55 years to 60 years95.311.892.8096.591.262.1593.692.693.62
60 years to 65 years94.052.533.4295.541.492.9792.133.883.99
65 years to 70 years91.773.814.4293.922.333.7588.536.045.43
70 years to 75 years89.155.125.7391.263.155.5985.748.325.94
75 years to 80 years88.295.366.3590.303.356.3585.198.466.35
80 and upwards86.146.127.7487.714.068.2384.258.597.16
Unspecified ages under 2135.851.8962.2631.033.4565.5241.6758.33
Unspecified ages over 2197.091.551.3697.182.510.3196.943.06

Here it is found that in 1906, of persons at the age-period of 10–15 years, 99.45 per cent. were able to read and write, whilst 0.22 per cent. could merely read, and 0.33 per cent. were unable to read. From 15–20 years the proportion who could not read increased slowly with each succeeding quinquennial period of age until at 50–55 years it stood at 2.15 per cent. At 75–80 years the proportion was 6.35, and at 80 and upwards it had advanced to 7.74. Similarly, the proportion of persons who could read only increased from 0.22 at 10–15 years to 1.53 at the period 50.55, and again to 6.12 at 80 and upwards. The better education of the people at the earlier ages is thus exhibited. The numbers upon which the above proportions are based are:—

NUMBER (EXCLUDING CHINESE).

Ages.Persons.Males.Females.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education Unknown.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education Unknown.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education Unknown.
All ages738,17114,135131,7091,993392,6596,92667,6881,220345,5127,20964,021773
Specified ages737,65214,126131,6701,848392,3406,91767,6681,095345,3127,20964,001753
Specified ages above 5 years737,65213,74829,3161,848392,3406,74415,3521,095345,3127,00413,964753
Under 5 years..378102,353....17352,316....20550,037..
 5 years to 10 years59,0649,14621,95711129,4994,82811,4355829,5654,31810,52253
10 years to 15 years86,2311942883443,5371121571942,6948213115
15 years to 20 years86,6456825610743,939471655942,706219148
20 years to 25 years93,8777933617848,8484921213645,0293012442
25 years to 30 years91,51312040620448,6437623915242,8704416752
30 years to 35 years69,56811334217837,2206918711132,3484415567
35 years to 40 years59,17514438418331,7047121311027,4717317173
40 years to 45 years44,21322847016923,7151132289620,49811524273
45 years to 50 years37,07629660615020,6081233148016,46817329270
50 years to 55 years30,22448167413717,3662043186612,85827735671
55 years to 60 years23,44446668910213,2221732945410,22229339548
60 years to 65 years20,28854573710011,634181362518,65436437549
65 years to 70 years17,3527218368410,669265426346,68345641050
70 years to 75 years10,742617690556,804235417323,93838227323
75 years to 80 years5,325323383313,312123233212,01320015010
80 and upwards2,915207262251,62075152161,2951321109
Unspecified ages under 2119132119119710..144
Unspecified ages over 215008713431081118190..616

Statistics showing the proportion of persons married in different years and who signed the register with a mark, corroborate the census results as to advance in education. In the year 1881 32 males and 58 females per 1,000 of either sex were found to be illiterate, as being not able to sign their names. These proportions fell to 19.21 males per 1,000 and 28.96 females per 1,000 of that sex in 1886, and again to 16.33 and 19.23 in 1890: in 1895 the proportions stood at 9.48 for males, and the same for females; in 1900 5.29 for males and 5.12 for females; and in 1905 only 2.5 for males and 3.88 for females.

A table is next given to show particulars in respect of the various principal religious denominations, and of marriages by Registrars:—

PERSONS IN EVERY 1,000 MARRIED WHO SIGNED BY MARK.

Denomination.1881.1886.1890.1895.1900.1905.
M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Church of England16.5927.159.3312.006.084.863.213.213.015.272.291.15
Presbyterians10.2529.619.797.628.5915.275.001.002.593.230.531.58
Wesleyans and other Methodists32.4141.796.3314.7815.2010.144.654.653.983.980.833.31
Roman Catholics117.78133.3346.4565.5735.2642.8217.3928.269.466.311.364.08
Other denominations10.3620.7211.4922.9915.000.0010.0010.00........
By Registrars39.2293.5135.9862.0329.7740.6022.0220.7313.2910.229.8014.25
Totals32.0457.9819.2128.9616.3319.239.489.485.295.122.503.88

In all the preceding proportions and numbers the Chinese have been excluded.

Occupiers of houses were directed, in filling up census schedules, to see that Chinese should be set down as unable to read or write unless they could read and write English. Out of a total of 2,570 Chinese, 359 were returned in conformity with these instructions as capable of reading and writing English, 33 as able to read only, and 2,071 as not able to read or write; but of these 2,570 no less than 892 are stated to be able to read and write Chinese, and 15 to read only in that language.

Chapter 12. ATTENDANCE AT SCHOOL.

An inquiry was made as to the number of children attending schools of various kinds, besides those receiving tuition at home; also, as to the number of Sunday-school scholars and teachers. While information is always obtainable from the Education Department as to the children attending public schools, the number at private schools can only be got by means of the census, or by special applications made for the purpose to the proprietors, which is done once a year. The census figures serve to check the returns received from private schools; while for Sunday-schools, and tuition at home, there is no other source of information.

The compiled tables give, for April, 1906:—

 Total.Boys.Girls.
At Government primary schools135,93470,33265,602
At college, high, grammar, or private schools.24,68611,44813,238
Being taught at home4,5912,0312,560

Comparison with former censuses shows increasing numbers at the schools, but latterly a decline in the home tuition. Possibly a gradually advancing density of population in the country districts accounts for the diminution in the children taught at home. The figures at last six successive censuses are: —

 At Government Primary Schools.At College, High, Grammar or Private Schools.Receiving Tuition at Home.
April, 188187,81113,5387,348
March, 1886110,64414,9487,567
April, 1891124,06317,0478,178
April, 1896133,36417,6006,352
March, 1901132,91119,8375,055
April, 1906135,93424,6864,591

As to attendance at Sunday-schools, a comparison can only be made if the teachers be included with the scholars. Proceeding on these lines, a large development is found since 1878:—

ATTENDING SUNDAY- SCHOOLS (INCLUDING TEACHERS).

Census Year.Totals.Males.Females
187862,27330,70731,566
188699,88448,50951,375
1896116,04554,06361,982
1901118,41254,83463,578
1906119,47956,32863,151

The number of scholars at the Sunday-schools in 1906 was 107,756, of whom 52,002 were boys and 55,754 girls. The teachers were 11,723 of both sexes, 4,326 being males and 7,397 females.

PART VII.—SICKNESS AND INFIRMITY.

Chapter 13.

THE inquiry made under the heading “Sickness and Infirmity” on the household schedule for 1906 was, “If laid up or unable to follow usual occupation by reason of illness or accident, write ‘Sick,' or ‘Accident' (specifying cause for either), or, if ‘Deaf and dumb,' or ‘Blind,' state so.”

By means of the information thus obtained the proportion of persons incapacitated from work on the day of the census has been ascertained, and is shown in the tables according to various age-periods.

The results of the investigation under this head show that 10.62 persons in every 1,000 were suffering from sickness or accident on the 29th April, 1906, using the word “sickness” to mean inability to work on that day; and that, besides these, there were 6.1 persons in every 1,000 who were either affected with blindness, or deaf-and-dumb, lunatic, idiot, epileptic, &c.

The proportions of males and females suffering from sickness, accident, or specified infirmity in this colony are shown according to age-periods in the following statement. In regard to males, after the period 30–35 the proportion of sickness rises steadily at each quinquennium of age; while under, “Accident” the proportion is highest at the period of 70–75 years. The rate of sickness (including specified complaints) per 1,000 males living at 30–35 years was 6.19, and this increased to 21.1 at 55.60, to 54.06 at 65–70, and to 111 at 80 and upwards. In regard to females, the sickness is not so great at 40–45 years as at 35–40, but from 20–25 it increases, and from 50–55 very rapidly, though the numbers on which the proportions are based are admittedly small from this point onwards. The rates per 1,000 were 6.55 at 20–25 years, 7.88 at 40–45, 11.72 at 50–55, and 80.21 at 80 and upwards.

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Persons.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
* Including the “dea' and dumb,” “blind,” “mentally afflicted,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
Specified ages4.224.342.066.1016.72
Under 5 years0.550.660.250.171.63
5 years to 10 years0.851.660.631.164.30
10 years to 15 years1.121.530.631.454.73
15 years to 20 years2.102.421.632.108.25
20 years to 25 years2.643.312.202.7110.86
25 years to 30 years2.823.722.013.8512.40
30 years to 35 year3.173.952.095.4114.62
35 years to 40 years3.383.929.217.2016.71
40 years to 45 years to3.574.632.409.1419.74
45 years to 50 years4.535.542.7311.7421.54
50 years to 55 years5.366.863.8614.3330.41
55 years to 60 years8.869.943.6517.1639.61
60 years to 65 years12.3312.656.1221.1052.20
65 years to 70 years22.2222.176.9025.9477.23
70 years to 75 years34.8025.778.6232.83102.02
75 years to 80 years47.4424.878.4040.85121.56
80 years arid upwards77.9819.066.7457.75161.53
Males.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
Specified ages4.554.963.356.S919.75
Under 5 years0.590.610.210.171.58
5 years to 10 years0.961.880.981.405.22
10 years to 15 years1.091.481.031.645.24
15 years to 20 years1.722.712.552.429.40
20 years to 25 years2.133.283.693.0612.16
25 years to 30years2.823.722.013.8513.40
30 years to 35 years2.253.943.525.8515.56
35 years to 40 years2.753.623.717.8617.94
40 years to 45 years3.524.954.0110.0622.54
45 years to 50 years4.346.074.4811.3426.23
50 years to 55 years5.187.426.1614.7833.54
55 years to 60 years10.2310.875.4318.0244.55
60 years to 65 years13.9715.109.2423.6962.00
65 years to 70 years26.5527.5110.5027.3391.89
70 years to 75 years39.3829.4712.0334.49115.37
75 years to 80 years53.8131.109.7344.35138.99
80 years and upwards87.9423.066.9760.05178.02
Females.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “mentally afflicted” “idiots,” “epileptics” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
Specified ages3.863.640.615.2013.31
Under 5 years0.500.720.300.181.70
5 years to 10 years0.741.440.270.923.37
10 years to 15 years1.141.580.231.264.21
15 years to 20 years2.502.120.681.777.07
20 years to 25 years3.213.340.582.329.45
25 years to 30 years3.593.850.443.5011.38
30 years to 35 years4.233.960.434.9013.52
35 years to 40 years4.104.280.476.4415.29
40 years to 45 years3.634.250.538.0716.48
45 years to 50 years4.764.880.5312.2322.40
50 years to 55 years5.606.120.7413.7126.17
55 years to 60 years7.128.761.3716.0633.31
60 years to 65 years10.179.432.1217.6939.41
65 years to 70 years15.6614.081.4523.8255.01
70 years to 75 years27.3019.713.0330.1180.15
75 years to 80 years37.5115.176.3235.4094.40
80 years and upwards65.9814.236.4754.98141.66

Females are proved to be very much less liable to accident than males, the proportions being 0.61 per 1,000 of females, and 3.35 per 1,000 of males, or better stated for this purpose, 6.06 per 10,000 females and 33.48 per 10,000 males. As with sickness, the proportions increase with advancing age: for instance, among males, 3.69 per 1,000 were suffering from accident at the group 20–25 years, 4.01 per 1,000 at 40–45, 10–5 at 65–70, and 12–03 at the group 70–75 years. Among females the highest proportion per 1,000 is found at 75–80 years, being a rate of 6–32, or 63.21 per 10,000 living.

The numbers on which the above proportions are based are:—

Persons.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
All ages3,7733,8781,8445,44314,938
Specified ages3,7513,8541,8285,41214,845
Under 5 years56682618168,
5 years to 10 years7715057105389
10 years to 15 years9713355126411
15 years to 20 years183211142183719
20 years to 25 years2503132082561,027
25 years to 30 years2613441863561,147
30 years to 35 years2232781473811,029
35 years to 40 years2032361334331,005
40 years to 45 years162210109415896
45 years to 50 years174213105451943
50 years to 55 years171219123457970
55 years to 60 years22124891428988
60 years to 65 years2709,771354621,144
65 years to 70 years4254241324961,477
70 years to 75 years4243141054001,243
75 years to 80 years28815151248738
80 years and upwards2666523197551
Unspecified2224163193
Males.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “mentally afflicted,' and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
All ages2,1552,3501,5893,2629,356
Specified ages2,1422,3341,5753,2429,293
Under 5 years313211983
5 years to 10 years44864564239
10 years to 15 years48654572230
15 years to 20 years76120113107416
20 years to 25 years105162182151600
25 years to 30 years106178167205656
30 years to 35 years85149133221588
35 years to 40 years89117120254580
40 years to 45 years8612198246551
45 years to 50 years9313096243562
50 years to 55 years95136113271615
55 years to 60 years14315276252623
60 years to 65 years174188115295772
65 years to 70 years3063171213151,059
70 years to 75 years29822391261873
75 years to 80 years19911536164514
80 years and upwards1644313112332
Unspecified1316142063
Females.
Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “mentally afflicted” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and deformed,” and “deaf only.”
All ages1,6181,5282552,1815,582
Specified ages1,6091,5202532,1705,552
Under 5 years253615985
5 years to 10 years33641241150
10 years to 15 years49681054181
15 years to 20 years107912976303
20 years to 25 years14515126105427
25 years to 30 years15516619151491
30 years to 35 years13812914160441
35 years to 40 years11411913179425
40 years to 45 years768911169345
45 years to 50 years81839208381
50 years to 55 years768310186355
55 years to 60 years789615176365
60 years to 65 years968920167372
65 years to 70 years11910711181418
70 years to 75 years1269114139370
75 years to 80 years89361584224
80 years and upwards102221085219
Unspecified9821130

Sickness and infirmity can be compared for New Zealand, in respect of persons over 15 years of age, with the results of the census of 1901 and previously. The proportions are:—

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 PERSONS OVER 15 YEARS.

 Sickness and Accident.Specified InfirmitiesTotal Sickness and Infirmity.
Census, 187412.645.3217.96
Census, 187811.165.7016.86
Census, 188111.207.2218.42
Census, 188612.617.8220.43
Census, 189112.7811.0823.86
Census, 189614.2811.4125.69
Census, 190112.7210.2923.01
Census, 190614.338.4922.82

Chapter 14. SPECIFIED INFIRMITIES.

The total of these under the various heads amounted to 5,443 of both sexes and all ages. The males were 3,262, and the females 2,181, the proportions for every 10,000 persons being 61.26; for males, 69.26, and for females 52.23 per 10,000 of each sex respectively. These infirmities are specially treated of one by one in the succeeding paragraphs.

Chapter 15. DEAF AND DUMB.

There were 269 persons—155 males and 114 females—returned as deaf and dumb, or dumb only: of these, 64 were inmates of the Sumner Institution, leaving 205 deaf-mutes who were living at home or in some other private residence. The total shows a proportion of 3.02 persons per 10,000 living, against 2.91 ascertained in 1901. The proportions of the deaf and dumb taken according to the sexes did not differ much. The figures are given for eight census years.

DEAF and DUMB (in Sexes).—PROPORTION per 10,000 of POPULATION.

 Males.Females.
Census, 18742.051.71
Census, 18782.252.18
Census, 18812.232.45
Census, 18862.372.22
Census, 18912.802.49
Census, 18962.992.71
Census, 19013.282.51
Census, 19063.272.73

The numbers at the census of 1906 for quinquennial age-periods:—

NUMBERS of the DEAF and DUMB at LAST CENSUS.

 M.F.
All ages155114
Under 5 years13
5 years to 10 years3117
10 years to 15 years2124
15 years to 20 years2816
20 years to 25 years1510
25 years to 30 years97
30 years to 35years1112
35 years to 40 years105
40 Years to 45 years76
45 years to 50 years67
50 years to 55 years5 
55 years to 60 years22
60 years to 65 years42
65 years to 70 years11
70 years to 75 years1 
75 years to 80 years11
80 years and upwards11
unspecified1 

The highest numbers are shown at the ages 5 to 10.

The occupations of the deaf and dumb were returned in 1906 as under:—

OCCUPATIONS (PAST or PRESENT) of the DEAF and DUMB.

 Persons.M.F.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Journalist11
Draughtsman11
Domestic servant22
Hairdresser11
Capitalist11
Milkman11
Hostler, &c.11
Printer11
Broom-maker11
Bicycle-repairer11
Saddler22
Cabinetmaker211
Tailor211
Dressmaker413
Tanner22
Ironworker211
Carpenter514
Assistant on machine33
Labourer918
Labourer, flax-mill11
Assisting at soap-works11
Assisting22
Farmer33
Gardener33
Farm labourer16412
Dairy-farmer11
Shepherd11
Assistant on dairy farm11
Gold-miner (alluvial)22
No occupation30101028
Invalid211
Old-age pensioner11
Domestic duties41437
Scholar (Government school)643331
Scholar (private school)211
Scholar (denominational school)11
Children cannot read or write372116
Occupation not stated185643
 26981746054

In 1901 deaf-mutes were found to exist in Australia in the following proportions, with which is given the proportion for New Zealand in 1906:-—

DEAF-MUTEISM in AUSTRALASIA.

South Australiahad 1 deaf-mute in every 1,033 persons.
Tasmaniahad 1 deaf-mute in every2,300 persons.
New South Waleshad 1 deaf-mute in every 3,474 persons.
Victoriahad 1 deaf-mute in every 2,930 persons.
Western Australiahad 1 deaf-mute in every 6,137 persons.
New Zealand (1906)had 1 deaf-mute in every 3,303 persons.

Chapter 16. Blind.

There were 288 males and 166 females, making a total of 454 persons returned as blind, including those who were given in the schedules as “nearly” or “partly” blind. Of the above total number, 24 were inmates of the Jubilee Institute for the Blind at Auckland. It would thus appear that only one out of every nineteen persons in the colony who suffered from blindness had been received into the institution. The number of blind persons in 1901 was 453. The proportions in every 10,000 of population show a continuous rise at successive censuses until 1906, when the rate was less than in 1901, and that there is more blindness amongst males than females.

PROPORTIONS of BLIND to Every 10,000 PEOPLE.

 Persons.Males.Females
18742.342.452.18
18782.562.422.73
18812.822.932.68
18863.223.652.70
18914.374.913.74
18964.905.694.01
19015.877.324.26
19065.116.113.98

The number of the blind in quinquennial periods of age is stated for each sex. Of 288 males, 86 were under and 202 upwards of 50 years old. Of 166 females, 54 were under 50, and 112 over that age.

NUMBERS of the BLIND at AGE-PERIODS.

 Persons.M.F.
All ages454288166
Under 5 years532
5 years to 10 years725
10 years to 10 years1073
15 years to 20 years1055
20 years to 25 years16115
25 years to 30 years241410
30 years to 35 years1284
35 years to 40 years18126
40 years to 45 years1477
45 years to 50 years24177
50 years to 55 years271512
55 years to 60 years15114
60 years to 65 years443113
65 years to 70 years573225
70 years to 75 years775819
75 years to 80 years432419
80 and upwards482919
Unspecified321

Of the total number of the blind, 454 persons, there were 57 in regard to whom nothing as to their occupation was stated on the household schedule; 93 (females) were returned as engaged in domestic duties, 67 as of no occupation, 20 as labourers, 29 as farmers, 5 as farm labourers, 5 as dairy-farmers, 1 as sheepfarmer, 3 as carpenters, 22 as pensioners, 10 of independent means. 9 proprietors of houses, and the rest (192) of various occupations in small numbers each. A complete statement is added, in regard to which it must be remarked that many of the occupations are evidently the past occupations of persons whom blindness has prevented from continuing to work at their usual calling.

OCCUPATIONS (PAST or PRESENT) of the BLIND.

 Persons.M.F.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Surgeon22
Travelling teacher of Blind Institute11
Artist11
Organist and teacher of music11
Organ-player11
Musician22
Street musician22
Travelling musician11
Boardinghouse-keeper11
Hotel-keeper11
Cook11
Laundress11
Clerk11
Proprietor of houses98l
Butcher11
Fruiterer11
Grocer22
Dealer in crockery11
Merchant11
General storekeeper11
Hawker22
Commercial traveller33
Storeman11
Grain-merchant11
Cab-driver11
Mariner33
Lighterman11
Porter11
Heraldic embosser11
Compositor11
Piano-tuner44
Basket-maker33
Wickerworker11
Boilermaker11
Carriage-builder11
Saddler22
Upholsterer11
Dyer11
Bootmaker33
Knitter of stockings1l
Seamstressl1
Matmaker44
Coir-mat maker11
Rope-worker11
Baker11
Blacksmith11
Stonemason11
Stoker at foundry11
Carpenter33
House-painter11
Assistant builder11
Labourer20119
Sawyer11
Farm labourer55
Gardener33
Farmer29281
Dairy-farmer55
Sheep-farmer11
Bush-contractor11
Bushman11
Flax-cutter11
Gold-miner (alluvial)44
Gold-miner44
Quartz-miner11
Miner22
Honorary librarian for blind11
Phonograph operator11
Retired Judge (Native Land Court)11
Be tired Civil servant11
Retired bank-manager11
Housekeeper (retired)11
Independent means1055
Retired shepherd11
Annuitant22
Imperial Army pensioner22
No occupation67115120
Pensioner22
Old-age pensioner18162
Retired312
Invalid321
Charitable aid11
Aged poor33
Domestic duties93192
Scholar Government school743
Scholar, home teaching11
Scholar, private school211
Children cannot read or write1578
Depending on relatives11
Visitor11
Occupation not stated57233121
 4541727115151

Chapter 17. LUNACY.

The lunatics enumerated were 3,146 persons, 1,867 males and 1,279 females, nearly all of whom were inmates of the mental hospitals in the colony. Departmental returns for the 31st December, 1905, show 3,112 persons (including 34 Maoris) as the total number of inmates.

Comparison with the results of previous censuses shows a continually increasing proportion of lunatics to the population in respect of either sex, and that there is considerably more lunacy among the male element than the female.

LUNATICS.—PROPORTIONS PER10,000 of POPULATION.

 Persons.Males.Females.
Census, 187419.9323.2815.48
Census, 187820.8525.0715.54
Census, 188122.8627.3017.43
Census, 188626.5031.0321.18
Census, 189127.8231.2823.92
Census, 189631.1335.7026.02
Census, 190134.4739.2329.19
Census, 190635.4139.6430.63

The numbers of males who were lunatics were highest at the period 35–40 years, while the number of females was greatest at 45–50 years, as will be found by the following statement:—

LUNATICS.—NUMBERS at QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIODS.

Ages.Persons.M.F.
All ages3,1461,8671,279
Under 5 years11
5 years to 10 years19109
10 years to 15 years26206
15 years to 20 years583325
20 years to 25 years1267650
25 years to 30 years23813999
30 years to 35 years268158110
40 years to 45 years318185133
45 years to 50 years343185158
55 years to 60 years294169125
60 years to 65 years281181100
65 years to 70 years25516095
70 years to 75 years1338449
75 years to 80 years694722
80 years and upwards362115
Unspecified16106

The proportion of lunatics per 10,000 males living at the above age-periods was only 7.46 at 15–20 years, but had advanced to 60.32 at 35–40 years, to 145.36 at 60–65, and reached its maximum at that period. In the case of females, the proportion rose to a maximum of 125.02 at 65–70 years.

In 1906 3.54 in every 1,000 persons, exclusive of Maoris, in New Zealand were afflicted with lunacy. This proportion is greater than the proportions obtaining in 1904 in some of the Australian States.

LUNACY in AUSTRALASIA, 1904.

 Per 1,000 of Population.
 Persons.Males.Females.
Victoria3.843.963.72
New South Wales3.463.912.98
South Australia2.622.902.32
Tasmania2.462.612.28
Western Australia1.932.381.25
New Zealand (1906)3.543.963.06

In England and Wales the greater portion of insanity is found among women, the rate in 1904 being 3.34 per 1,000 males and 3.66 per 1,000 females. In New Zealand and the Commonwealth of Australia the proportion is greatest for males.

Table of Contents

Chapter 18. PART VIII.—OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

THE CLASSIFICATION.

AT a Conference of Statisticians of Australasia,* held at Hobart in February, 1900, a series of resolutions was passed, and a form of schedule agreed to, with the view of securing the uniformity so necessary for comparative purposes in system and heads of inquiry. The classification of occupations used in 1896 by this colony was, with minor amendments, generally adopted. This classification has been described as one devised “as a means of overcoming the great difficulties with which the systematic grouping of the occupations of the people of a country has always been found to be attended,” and may fairly claim to have attained its purpose.

The old classification of Dr. Farr, in use prior to 1891, purported to divide the population so as to distinguish the commercial from the industrial class; but, in allotting the various occupations to the different classes, the principle adopted was that of grouping all workers and dealers in different matters together according to the material dealt in. or worked upon, and placing the whole in the industrial class. Thus the dealers, who are really commercial, went to swell the number of the industrial at the expense of the commercial class. General labourers were cast out of the industrial into the indefinite class, merely because the material on which they worked was not stated, &c. The classification used in 1891 and 1896, while preserving Farr's professional class nearly intact, transfers, among other changes, a large number of women and children from the domestic to the dependent class, and completes the commercial class by including “trade” among the agorici of Farr. The industrial class now consists of part of what was assigned to it by Farr, but includes general labourers. Miners and other primary producers are placed with the agricultural and pastoral class, as being engaged in obtaining raw materials from natural sources. The indefinite class is greatly reduced in number, and the class styled “dependent” introduced. The Conference readily agreed to a proposal for distinguishing “employers” from “employed”— a division first attempted in New Zealand at the suggestion of the writer of this report on the occasion of the census of 1986, and renewed in 1891, 1896, and 1901. The importance of affording the means of distinguishing persons in business from wage-earners is obvious, besides being absolutely essential to an improved classification of occupations.

The Conference also arranged for bringing out the occupations of the people in seven groups of ages, instead of merely distinguishing the number of each sex under and over 20 years of age as was done prior to 1891. (The full details will be found in the Census volume.)

The full description of the arrangement of occupations in the eight classes used under the new method is as follows:—

DEFINITION OF PRINCIPAL CLASSES.

SECTION A.— BREADWINNERS.

* The names of the members of the Conference were as under: T. A. Cognlan, Government Statistician, New South Wales; J. Hughes, Registrar-General, Queensland; L. H. Sholl, Under-Secretary and Government Statist, South Australia; M. A. C. Fraser, Registrar-General, Western Australia; R. M. Johnston, Government Statistician and Registrar-General, Tasmania; E. J. von Dadelszen, Registrar-General, New Zealand.

  1. PROFESSIONAL.—Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, mainly engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the moral, intellectual, and social wants of its inhabitants.

  2. DOMESTIC.—Embracing all persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging, and in rendering personal services for which remuneration is usually paid.

  3. COMMERCIAL.—Embracing all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials.

  4. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.—Embracing all persons engaged in the transport of persons or goods, or in effecting communication.

  5. INDUSTRIAL.—Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, who are principally engaged in various works of utility, or in specialities connected with the manufacture, construction, modification, or alteration of materials so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding, as far as possible, all who are mainly or solely engaged in the service of commercial interchange.

  6. AGRICULTURAL, PASTORAL, MINERAL, AND OTHER PRIMARY PRODUCERS.— Embracing all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources.

  7. INDEFINITE.—Embracing all persons who derive incomes from services rendered, but the direction of which services cannot be exactly determined.

  8. DEPENDENTS.—Embracing all persons dependent upon relatives or natural guardians, including wives, children, and others not otherwise engaged in pursuits for which remuneration is paid; and all persons dependent upon private charity, or whose support is a burden on the public revenue.

SECTION B.—DEPENDENTS: NON-BREADWINNERS.

It will be noticed that in the professional class are included persons described as “officers of Government” but the numbers given under this heading in the subsequent tables do not represent the whole number employed by the Government, the principle adopted having been to complete the other groups where the scheme of classification required it, rather than to show completely all persons paid by Government. Thus, Postal and Telegraph officers are classified in Class IV, “Transport and Communication” Railway employees are similarly dealt with. The full statement of persons paid by Government but not included in Order 1 would comprise some or all of the following: Persons connected with charitable or benevolent institutions, education, insurance, railways, harbours, lighthouses, post and telegraph, and mining, also civil engineers, electricians, surveyors and assistants, architects and draughtsmen, printers and binders in the Government Printing Office, and artisans in Government railway workshops. It is highly important that persons making use of the tabulated results of the information as to occupations should be aware of and bear in mind the above facts.

The numbers under “Commercial” and “Industrial” include all persons whose occupations were sufficiently defined to enable them to be classified in connection with the business or industry in which they are engaged. Many, chiefly those whose employment was of a nature of unskilled clerical assistance, while entering “clerk” under the heading “Occupation,”did not state in what trade or industry they were employed. These, of course, could not be allotted to any special industry. Those engaged as agents or assistants in any occupation belonging to Classes III to YII have been, generally speaking, included with the principals. All persons stated as both manufacturers and dealers or sellers have been classed as makers only, under Class V. Persons out of employment are included under their ordinary or former occupations. Inmates of mental hospitals, industrial schools, and refuges, together with all persons in gaols, have not been classed according to their ordinary occupations, but in Class VIII, as part of the dependent population.

The difficulty of tabulating the occupations of the people shown in the census is certainly lessened by the introduction of the card system; but there remains an unsatisfactoriness in the work on account of the different ways in which people return themselves when their occupation is virtually the same, and the number of instances in which unskilled labour is not defined as having to do with the industry on which it is temporarily employed. These causes prevent the published results from being what they ought to be, even with perfect care in the compilation-work. The basis of such work is often enough faulty or incomplete, and it is impossible to remedy the defect. One man may be a “carter at brewery,”and returns himself accordingly. Another omits the words “at brewery,” and thus the total number of persons employed in the brewing business becomes deficient. As continual instances of these irregularities are found, it arises that the census industrial statistics often differ materially as to “hands employed” from the results brought out under the head of “Occupation” in regard to labourers and others attached to various industries.

The numbers being brought out for no less than seven groups of ages will afford evidence of what occupations the rising generation is mostly taking to.

NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS IN THE CLASSES.

The population, specified as to occupation, is divided into two sections:—

 Totals.Males.Females.
Breadwinners399,085323,84175,244
Dependents, or non-breadwinners489,260146,947342,313
Occupation not stated23322013

The dependent population consists chiefly of wives, relatives, and others employed in household duties but unpaid, children, persons supported by charity, &c. Its proportion to the whole increases with the process going on of equalisation in numbers of the sexes.

The male breadwinners were more than twice as numerous as the male dependents, who were mostly under fifteen years of age; but the female dependents were nearly five times as many as the breadwinners of that sex.

Breadwinners are divided into the seven classes previously alluded to:—

Primary Producers.—Males, 114,906; females, 3,467: This class includes persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits, fishing, and mining.

Males, 24.41, females, 0.83 per cent, of population of either sex.

Industrial.—Males, 105,768; females, 18,487: persons engaged in manufacture or other processes where materials are employed combined.

Males 22.47, females 4.42 per cent.

Commercial.—Males, 43,339; females, 8,629.

The commercial group forms 9.19 per cent, of the male and 2.07 per cent. of the female population.

Transport and Communication.—Males, 27,637; females, 749; persons engaged in the transport of passengers and goods, and in effecting communication.

Males 5.87, females 0.18 per cent.

Professional. -Males, 16,578; females, 10,520. These are persons, not otherwise classed, engaged in Government, defence, law and order, or ministering to religion, charity, health, education, art, science, or amusement,

Males 3.53, females 2.52 per cent.

Domestic (but directly earning money).—Males, 9,593; females, 30,210: persons supplying board and lodging, or personal services for which payment is rendered.

Males 2.04, females 7.24 per cent.

Indefinite.—Males, 6,020; females, 3,182: persons living on incomes earned in the past, or indefinitely described.

Males, 1.28, females 0.76 per cent.

The population of each class, and the proportion per cent, of the total population, are tabulated below: —

Occupations.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total population888,578471,008417,570100.00100.00100.00
Section A.—Breadwinners.      
Class I. Professional27,09816,57810,5203.053.532.52
Class II. Domestic39,8039,59330,2104.482.047.24
Class III. Commercial      
                Sub.class A. Property and Finance7,2336,3708630:811.350.21
                Sub.class B. Trade44,07736,3177,7604.967.701.86
                Sub.class G. Storage65865260.070.14 
Class IV. Transport and Communication28,38627,6377493.205.870.18
Class V. Industrial124,255105,76818,48713.9822.474.42
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—      
                Sub.class A. Agricultural69,55767,8341,7237.8314.410.42
                Sub.class B. Pastoral27,40025,6701,7303.085.450.41
                Sub.class C. Mineral15,96415,95681.813.39 
                Sub.class D. Other Primary Producers5,4525,44660.61116 
"“VII. Indefinite9,2026,0203,1821.041280.76
Section B.—Non.breadwinners (Dependents).      
Class VIII. Dependents—      
                Sub.class A. Dependent on natural guardians480,297141,279339,01854.0730.0181.19
                Sub.class B. Dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support8,9635,6683,2951.011.200.79
Occupations not stated23322013   

No less than 31:21 per cent, of the male population are shown to be dependent, and 81.98 per cent, of the females. These consist of 141,279 males and 839,018 females dependent upon natural guardians; and 5,668 males and 3,295 females dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support. The greater number of those dependent upon natural guardians are scholars and students. There are also a large number of dependent relatives who were not stated to be performing domestic duties, and, of females, many persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid.

In the next table the number of breadwinners of either sex in each class of occupation, and the proportions per cent, to the total of breadwinners, is given:—

Occupations.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total breadwinners399,085323,84175,244100.00100.00100.00
Class I. Professional27,09816,57810,5206.795.1213.98
Class II. Domestic39,8039,59330,2109.972.9640.15
Class III. Commercial—      
                Sub-class A. Property and Finance7,2336,3708631.811.971.15
                Sub-class B. Trade44,07736,3177,76011.0511.2110.31
                Sub-class C. Storage65865260.160.200.01
Class IV. Transport and Communication28,38627,6377497.118.530.99
Class V. Industrial124,255105,76818,48731.1332.6624.57
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—      
                Sub-class A. Agricultural69,55767,8341,72317.4320.952.29
                Sub-class B. Pastoral27,40025,6701,7306.877.932.30
                Sub-class C. Mineral15,96415,95684.004.930.01
                Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers5,4525,44661.371.680.01
Class VII. Indefinite9,2026,0203,1822.311.864.23

EMPLOYEES and EMPLOYED.

The breadwinners of the colony are also classified according to the grade of their occupations, by which means the entire population can be brought under six heads:—

 Males.Percent of Breadwinners.Females.Percent of Breadwinners.
Employers41,47612.812,3333.10
Independent workers46,93614.497,93110.54
Wage earners203,98762.9955,49173.75
Unemployed8,1892.531,3721.82
Relatives assisting, and not specified23,2537.188,11710.79
Breadwinners323,841100.0075,244100.00
Dependents146,947 342,313 
Not stated220..13 
                Totals471,008 417,570 

The proportion of the male breadwinners who are employers (12.81 per cent. is slightly higher than it was in 1901 (12.39 per cent.). On the female side the proportion of employers was 3.1 per cent., as against 3.06 in 1901. Male wage-earners, employed or unemployed, were 65.52 per cent., against 63.7 per cent, in 1901. Female wage-earners, whether in work or not, were 75.57 per cent, in 1906, against 75.3 per cent, in 1901.

THE UNEMPLOYED

The unemployed male population in New Zealand in April, 1906, formed only 2.53 per cent, of the breadwinners, as against 3.08 per cent, returned at the census of 1901.

  1. Of the unemployed (males), which totalled 8,189,—

  2. 1,941 are found in Order 24 (891 agricultural, 224 pastoral, 679 mining, gold, coal, &c, 114 bushmen, and 33 fishermen and others).

  3. 1,191 in Order 23: Industrial workers imperfectly defined (chiefly general labourers).

  4. 1,164 in Order 2–1: House building, road and railway-works labourers, &c.

  5. 330 in Order 3: Engaged in board and lodging and rendering personal services.

  6. 695 in Order 14: Road, railway, tram, or sea and river traffic.

  7. 719 in Order 15: Manufacturers of books, tools, implements, furniture, building materials, &c.

  8. 303 in Order 16: Manufacturing textile, fabrics, dress, &c.

  9. 317 in Order 2: Ministering to religion, charity, health, education, &c.

  10. 345 in Order 19: Manufacturing earthenware, jewellery, and workers in metals.

  11. 278 in Order 7: Dealing in food, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants.

  12. 206 in Order 17: Workers in animal food, drinks, narcotics, stimulants, &c.

The balance being fairly evenly distributed over the remaining Orders of Occupations.

Of the regular agricultural workers for wages, only thirty-five in every thousand were found to be unemployed.

In dealing with the above figures it is necessary to remember that at the time of the census no less than 3,241 males between 15 and 60 years of age were returned as suffering from sickness or accident, and some of these would probably be included in the number stated to be unemployed.

Generally, the results of the investigation into the occupation of the people agree with the result of the inquiry into the development of manufactures and works, which is given further on in this report (Appendix A), It is found in regard to industries that spring directly from land settlement, such as butter and cheese making, meat-freezing, and sawing of timber, the development since 1901 was considerable. The exact number of persons unemployed belonging to each specific occupation will be found in the Census volume, p. 386.

It is a matter for congratulation that the total number of unemployed in 1906 was found to be only 9,561, against 9,826 in 1901, when the population of the colony was much smaller.

GRADES Of OCCUPATIONS.

The numbers and proportions of persons of each sex in the different classes of occupation, divided according to grade—i.e., employers, independent workers, wage-earners, unemployed, and relatives assisting, are given in the two following statements: —

OCCUPATIONS—EMPLOYERS And EMPLOYED.

Occupations.Males.Females.
EmployersIn Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and others undescribed.Total MalesEmployersIn Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and others undescribed.Total Females
Section A.—Breadwinners.            
I. Professional1,6942,14512,14836423016,578991,7497,94524548210,520
II. Domestic1,5989646,4643302379,5936821,42025,6185121,97830,210
III. Commercial—            
                A. Property and Finance7121,9643,6296056,37078666118..1863
                B. Trade5,4285,29124,16985057836,3162751,0415,7261455737,760
                C. Storage....62231..653....6....6
IV. Transport and Communication1,0141,70424,08869513627,63711172764749
V. Industrial10,0626,49684,6583,918632105,7685212,18615,13740417918,487
VI. Primary Producers—            
                A. Agricultural15,40215,77C24,09589111,67667,83450948366..6651,723
                B. Pastoral4,9106,21910,6832243,63425,670155379144..1,0521,730
                C. Mineral3845,3569,4716796615,956341....8
                D. Other Primary Producers2721,0283,960147395,446..213..16
VII. Indefinite........6,0206,020........3,1823,182
Totals41,47646,936203,9878,18923,253323,8412,3337,93155,4911,3723,11775,244
Section B.—Dependents (Non-breadwinners.)            
VIII. Dependents—            
                A. On Natural Guardians..........141,279..........339,018
                B. On the State or Public Charity..........5,668..........3,295
Not stated..........220..........13
Totals..........471,008..........417,570

OCCUPATIONS.—PROPORTION Of EMPLOYERS And EMPLOYED In EACH CLASS.

Occupations.Males.Females.
EmployersIn Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and others undescribed.Total MalesEmployersIn Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and others undescribed.Total Females
Section A.—Breadwinners.            
    I. Professional10.2212.9273.282.191.39100.000.9416.6375.522.334.58100.00
  II. Domestic16.6610.0567.383.442.47100.002.264.7084.801.696.55100.00
III. Commercial—            
                A. Property and Finance11.1830.8356.970.940.08100.009.0477.1713.67..0.1210000
                B. Trade11.9514.5766.552.341.59100.003.5413.4273.791.877.36100.00
                C. Storage....95.254.75..100.00....100.00....100.00
IV. Transport and communication3.676.1787.162.510.49100.001.470.1397.060.800.54100.00
  V. Industrial9.516.1480.043.710.60100.002.8211.8281.882.510.97100.00
VI. Primary Producers—            
                A. Agricultural22.7123.2535.521.3117.21100.0029.5428.033.83..38.60100.00
                B. Pastoral19.1324.2341.620.8714.15100.008.9621.918.32..60.81100.00
                C. Mineral2.4033.5759.364.260.41100.0037.5050.0012.50....100.00
                D. Other Primary Producers4.9918.8872.712.700.72100.00..33.3350.00..16.67100.00
VII. Indefinite..........100.00100.00........100.00100.00
Totals12.8114.4962.992.537.18100.003.1010.5473.751.8210.79100.00

The classes are divided into twenty-seven orders, which again are divided into 113 sub-orders. The items of the sub-orders are the specific occupations. In the succeeding tables each specific occupation is given according to the classification, and explanatory notes showing the unskilled assistance and other particulars included with the numbers for the various industries, &c. The totals of the orders and sub-orders precede the figures for the items contained in each sub-order.

An alphabetical arrangement of specific occupations shown in the census is added at the end of this report.

Chapter 19. CLASS I.—PROFESSIONAL.

ORDER 1.—PERSONS ENGAGED IN GOVERNMENT(not otherwise classed), DEFENCE, LAW, and PROTECTION.

1.04 per cent, of total male population.

0.06 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Officers of General Government (not otherwise classed)1401,0811,22115901051,326
2. Officers of local Government3249452621214540
3. Persons ministering to defence15454469......469
4. Persons ministering to law and order3062,3572,663311011322,795
Totals, Order 1, 19064934,3864,879482032515,130
Totals, Order 1, 19014144,3994,81332971394,942

The first sub-order consists of persons occupied in connection with Government whom it was not necessary to allot to other classes in carrying out the principle of classification. Hence the total number does not by any means represent the full number of persons employed by Government. It is a residue left after completing other groups—for instance, that of transport and communication, to which is carried the number of persons engaged in railways, telegraph, telephone, and postal service, although the employees in these services are paid by Government. Similarly with officers of local bodies, but to a less extent.

It has been asked why the full number of persons employed by Government is not given. But the classification is not intended to show any such result, and the census is not the proper source from which to look for such information. It could not be given by means of the census, for the word “Government” is constantly omitted by the householders in describing occupations. When the total number of persons employed by Government is wanted, it is found necessary to have a special return compiled from departmental sources, distinguishing “permanent” from “temporary” employment.

The full details of the specific occupations in the order are given. In Sub-order 4 the barristers and solicitors will be found to number 785, against 636 in 1901. Law clerks increased from 700 to 848 in five years, and law students decreased from 95 to 84.

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—General Government.   
The Governor11..
Officer of Government Department (exclusive of officers specially classified). (See note above)1,2981,193105
Others (including persons holding Ministerial or political office whose ordinary occupation was not stated)2727..
Sub-order 2.—Local Government.......
Officer of local body or Municipal Council52951514
Others (including mayors or members of local bodies whose ordinary occupation was not stated)II11..
Sub-order 3.—Defence.......
Officer of Defence Department4242..
Army officer in actual service2828..
Army non-commissioned, warrant officer, private340340..
Naval officer in actual service44..
Naval petty, warrant officer, sailor, marine2929..
Others (including Volunteer whose ordinary occupation was not stated) (1)2626..
Sub-order 4.—Law and Order.......
Officer of Law Department1616..
Judge (Chief Justice, and Judge of the Supreme, District, and Native Land Courts)1414..
Law-court officer, clerk (Supreme, District, Magistrate, and Native Land Court official)116116..
Magistrate2929..
Sheriff's officer, bailiff3232..
Barrister, solicitor7857832
Law clerk (not articled)848737111
Law student, articled clerk84831
Others connected with the law (2)23203
Police: principal officer2626..
Police : subordinate officer, policeman, detective6566551
Penal: principal officer1313..
Penal: subordinate officer, warder (3)14513114
Others (4)88..
 M.F.
(1) Armourer  5  0
  Defence storekeeper  2  0
  Drill instructor  5  0
  Magazine-keeper  2  0
  Volunteer  12  0
(2) Accountant  10  0
  Librarian  1  0
  Office-boy  5  0
  Typist  4  3
  3) Subordinate office-  130  6
  Penal matron  0  7
  Prison officer  1  1
(4) Inspector, Weights *c Measures  4  0
  Inspector, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Society  1  0
  Inquiry agent  2  0
  Private detective  1  0

ORDERS 2.—PERSONS ministering to RELIGION. CHARITY, HEALTH, EDUCATION, ART, SCIENCE, and AMUSEMENTS.

2.49 per cent, of total male population.

2.46 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
  1. Persons ministering to religion81,4561,46422392411,705
  2. Persons ministering to charity (exclusive of hospitals)364679235244311
  3. Persons ministering to health3622,5032,865993,2223,3216,186
  4. Persons connected with literature1359961213536648
  5. Persons connected with science59297314101
  6. Persons engaged in civil and mechanical, engineering, architecture, and surveying1511,8071,958314171,975
  7. Persons connected with education2012,0172,2186553,6504,3056,523
  8. Persons connected with fine arts66689755934835761,331
  9. Persons connected with music254855101471,2091,3561,866
10. Persons connected with amusements1829711,153461231691,322
            Totals, Order 2, 19061,01610,68311,6991,0589,211.10,26921,968
            Totals, Order 2, 19019528,7849,7361,1207,7118,83118,567

In Sub-order 1 the number of the clergy is given as 1,034. In 1901 the number returned was 891. Besides the regular clergy, there were 14 Mormon missionaries and 243 Salvation Army officers, of whom 128 were females; also 39 evangelists, 118 missionaries (20 women), and 6 preachers. The number of the clergy on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is 1,148, and the denominations to which they belong are as under:—

Denomination.No.
Church of England341
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand263
Roman Catholic Church196
Methodist Church of Australasia in New Zealand174
Congregational Independents21
Baptists35
Primitive Methodist Connexion44
Lutheran Church10
Hebrew Congregations6
Church of Christ16
Free Methodist Church of New Zealand4
Independent Free Church1
Auckland Society of the New Jerusalem Church1
Salvation Army19
Catholic Apostolic Church4
Seventh-day Adventists4
Unitarian1
Brethren3
Latter-day Saints2
Christadelphian1
Church of Our Father1
Unitarian Free Church1
Total1,148

There were 72 theological students, 67 church officers, such as sextons and others, 46 members of religious orders not ministering to charity or education; and 24 others complete the group.

Included in Sub-order 3 are 601 medical practitioners, against 438 returned in 1901. (The number of medical practitioners registered in the colony was in 1906, 950, including 53 whose addresses are not known and 160 who have left New Zealand.) Medical students numbered 70. There were 134 persons who are grouped in the detailed tables as irregular medical practitioners, including, among others, 30 herbalists and 8 assistants, 9 medical galvanists, 2 bomoepathist, and 13 masseurs. Dentists numbered 912 (including apprentices), against 571 in 1901. Pharmaceutical chemists and assistants were 959, against 811 at the previous census. The number of midwives, monthly nurses, and sick-nurses was 2,030, and of veterinary surgeons 76.

The full details in this order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females,
Sub-order I.—Religion.   
Clergyman1,0341,034..
Irregular clergy (5)462280182
Theological student72711
Church officer, verger675512
Members of religious order not classified as ministering to charity or education46442
Others (6)24204
Sub-order 2.—Charity (exclusive of Hospitals).   
Officer of department of charity835
Officer of charitable or benevolent institution1092881
Subordinate officer or servant, charitable or benevolent institution15536119
Sister of Charity39..39
Sub-order 3.—Health.   
Officer of Health Department2727..
Sanitary inspector, inspector of nuisances4545..
Medical practitioner60158120
Medical student70655
Irregular medical practitioner (7)1348846
Dentist (8)912735177
    Relative assisting761
Pharmaceutical chemist, druggist (9)94288062
    Relative assisting17125
Hospital nurse5452543
Hospital officer or attendant (not elsewhere described) (10)768335433
Mid wife, accoucheuse—so denned (see also nurse)298..298
Sick-nurse (not in hospital), also nurse (so stated)1,73241,728
Veterinary surgeon7676..
Others (11)1293
Sub-order 4.—Literature.   
Author, editor, journalist52349429
Reporter78753
Literary amanuensis1..1
Others (12)46433
Sub-order 5.—Science.   
Officer of scientific Department of State15141
Analytical chemist2323..
Assayer, metallurgist4040..
Geologist, mineralogist66..
Naturalist, biologist, botanist1010..
Others (13)743
 M.F.
(5) Irregular clergy  13  20
  Evangelist  38  1
  Missionary  98  20
  Missionary Mormon  10  4
  Preacher  6  0
  Salvation Army officer  115  128
(6) Clerk, Diocesan  3  0
  Clerk to church trustees  2  0
  Deaconess  0  1
  Colporteur  0  1
  Mission secretary  0  1
  Secretary, R.C. HI shop  1  0
  Secretary, Y.M.C.A  4  0
  Secretary, Religious body  10  0
(7) Irregular medical practitioner  36  26
  Herbalist  27  3
  Herbalist assistant  7  1
  Homæopathist  2  0
  Hydropathist  0  1
  Hygienist  2  0
  Hypnotist  0  1
  Medical galvanist and assistant  9  0
  Masseur, masseuse  2  11
  Magnetic healer  3  3
(8) Dentist  501  31
  Apprentice  132  50
  Assistant  90  88
  Clerk  5  8
  Student  7  0
(9) Chemist and druggist  480  16
  Apprentice  107  7
  Assistant  234  26
  Clerk  14  11
  Dispenser  7  0
  Messenger  30  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  2  2
  Hospital officer or attendant (not elsewhere described)  22  75
  Hospital clerk  5  2
  Hospital cook  9  37
  Hospital dispenser  5  0
  Hospital matron or servant  29  186
  Hospital porter  35  0
  Hospital secretary  9  0
  Hospital steward  2  0
  Hospital warder  16  14
  Mental Hospital clerk  7  0
  Mental Hospital cook, baker  3  6
  Mental Hospital messenger  2  1
  Mental Hospital warder  192  112
(11) Eye specialist  5  0
  Caretaker, quarantine station..  2  0
  Chiropodist  1  0
  Manager, sanatorium  1  0
  Manicurist  0  3
(12) Native interpreter  31  3
  Chinese interpreter  3  0
  Interpreter  8  0
  Cyclopedia compiler  1  0
  Museum assistant  4  0
  Laboratory assistant  0  3
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 6.—Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, and Surveying.   
Civil engineer (14)4764751
Directing or consulting engineer, clerk61601
Surveyor (15)8898863
    Relative assisting55..
Architect (16)3183144
    Relative assisting761
Draughtsman (not otherwise described)2072016
    Relative assisting1..1
Others: Cadet draughtsman1111..
Sub-order 7.—Education.   
Officer of Education Department (17)1101019
University professor, demonstrator, lecturer, &c.39381
Professor, lecturer, teacher, college, grammar, high school1629666
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher. State school (18) !3,3321,1622,170
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, denominational school46845423
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, private school19121170
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, school undefined1,586604982
Tutor, governess28513272
Technical college lecturer, teacher582929
Teacher of languages or other accomplishments (not art or music)13632104
Others (19)1567779
Sub-order 8.—Fine Arts.   
Artist, painter, art student538204334
Sculptor12111
    Relative assisting3..3
Engraver (art only)29254
Photographer, retoucher (20)733505228
    Relative assisting1266
Others: Poster-writer44..
Sub-order 9.—Music.   
Composer of music55..
Musician, vocalist, student of music33824494
Music professor, teacher, &c.1,5182571,261
Music-hall proprietor, manager, &c.1..1
Others (21)44..
Sub-order 10.—Amusements.   
Actor, actress, circus performer335184151
Theatre, circus, hall proprietor, lessee, manager, doorkeeper, ticket-taker.102984
Racecourse ranger, caretaker, secretary, labourer5959..
Jockey.357357..
Cricket-ground, bowling-green caretaker, professional player..3333..
Billiard-table proprietor, keeper, marker275275..
Zoological gardens, menagerie, keeper, attendant, &c.22..
Botanical gardens, park caretaker, worker36351
Others (22)12311013
 M.F.
(14) Civil engineer  395  0
  Assistant clerk, cadet  72  1
  Draughtsman  8  0
(15) Surveyor  314  0
  Surveyor's assistant  512  3
(16) Architect  236  0
  Architect's assistant  40  3
  Architect's apprentice  26  0
  Architect's clerk  12  1
(17) Education Department officer  19  1
  Education Department cadet  3  0
  Education Department clerk  32  7
  Inspector of Schools  35  0
  Secretary  12  1
(18) Schoolmaster, schoolmistress  1090  1963
  Probationer  6  19
  Pupil-teacher  66  188
(19) College clerk  2  0
  Coach  2  0
  Correspondence-school clerk  0  1
  Librarian  39  59
  Library assistant  7  0
  Library caretaker  6  10
  Physical instructor  2  0
  School caretaker  9  0
  School manager  3  0
  School matron  0  9
  Secretary, school committee  2  0
  Truant officer  5  0
  20) Photographer, retoucher  438  142
  Photographer, apprentice  2  0
  Photographer, assistant  55  86
  Photographer, canvasser  10  0
  21) Organ-grinder  3  0
  Bandmaster  1  0
  Musical director  1  0
  22) Tourist guide  4  0
  Tourist agency, clerk  5  0
  Aeralist  1  0
  Athletic club, manager, caretaker  5  0
  Athlete, trainer  6  0
  Boxing instructor  2  0
  Clairvoyant  0  4
  Cycle-rider  5  0
  Golf-tutor  1  0
  Gun-club labourer  3  0
  Hall custodian  8  0
  Handicapper  3  0
  Huntsman  13  0
  Merry-go-round proprietor, assistant  10  5
  Phrenologist  9  4
  Pleasure - ground proprietor, worker  3  0
  Professional athlete  15  0
  Pugilist  1  0
  Rowing-shed caretaker  5  0
  Shooting-gallery proprietor, attendant  6  0
  Skating-rink manager  3  0
  Yachtsman  4  0

Chapter 20. CLASS II.—DOMESTIC.

ORDER 3.—PERSONS engaged in the SUPPLY of BOARD and LODGING, and in rendering PERSONAL SERVICE for which Remuneration Is Usually Paid.

2.04 per cent, of total male population.

7.24 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging3124,2744,5861,5597,1798,73813,324
2. Persons engaged in domestic service and in attendance7034,3045,0076,71314,75921,47226,479
            Totals, Order 3,19061,0158,5789,5938,27221,93830,21039,803
            Totals, Order 3, 19018435,6996,5428,96618,88627,85234,394

Details of occupations in the foregoing sub-orders were:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Board and Lodging.   
Hotelkeeper, innkeeper1,4891,269220
    Relative assisting1,015132883
Servants(23)4,9691,9323,037
Coffee-palace, restaurant, tea-room, eating-house keeper22312895
    Relative assisting29326
Servants31398215
Board, lodging-house keeper1,9274091,518
    Relative assisting1,073431,030
Servants1,6402311,409
Club-house manager, secretary, steward, servant18015525
Others (24)466186280
Sub-order 2.—Domestic Service and Attendance.......
Servants registry-office keeper41833
House servants20,20693919,267
Personal attendants531142
Nurse (domestic), nursemaid294..294
Paid companion502..502
Coachman, groom.1,2171,217..
Gardener998998..
    Relative assisting1010..
Bath proprietor, attendant685018
Porter, gatekeeper5353..
Office caretaker, attendant35832632
    Relative assisting7..7
Charwoman, office-cleaner30459245
Hairdresser, barber1,01696650
    Relative assisting18144
Mangier, laundry-keeper, laundry man, washerwoman1,268327941
    Relative assisting421923
Shoeblack77..
Others (25)17314
 M.F.
(33) Hotel servant  1194  2261
  Hotel clerk  44  16
  Hotel manager  802  6
  Hotel cook  305  358
  Barmaid, barman  307  396
(24) Caterer  12  11
  Sailors' home, servant  7  3
  Waiter (undefined),waitress  167  367
(25) Watchman (undefined)  3  0
  Infants' home keeper  0  14

The total number of persons engaged in or manufacture of wine, beer, spirits, cordials, &c, under:—

 Males.Females.Persons
Hotelkeeper1,2692201,489
        Relative assisting1328831,015
        Manager, clerk12622148
Hotel servant1,4992,6194,118
Hotel servant Manager, secretary, steward, servant, of club house15525180
Barman, barmaid307396703
Wine, Spirits, ale, merchant47 47
        Assistant12113
        Relative assistant213
        Clerk, book-keeper, account, traveller, storeman, carter973100
Cordial, &c., merchant, salesman5 5
Brewer, bottler2041205
        Manager, clerk, traveller948102
        Relative assistant, carter, &c.4 4
        Cellerman, assistant, carter, &c3811382
Master and assistants94 94
Wine-maker, bottler9 9
Cordial, &c., maker2571258
        Clerk, book-keeper, traveller, assistant21610226
        Relative assisting718
Totals4,9174,1929,109

Chapter 21. CLASS III.—COMMERCIAL.

Sub-Class A.—Property And Finance.

ORDER 4. —-PERSONS performing.. Offices in connection with the EXCHANGE, VALUATION, INSURANCE, LEASE, LOAN, or CUSTODY of MONEY, HOUSES, LL, or PROPERTY-RIGHTS.

l.35 per cent of total male population.

0.21 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-order...Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons performing offices in connection with banking and finance3292,1412,47051972022,672
2. Persons performing offices in connection with insurance and valuation2961,7412,0372744712,108
3. Persons performing offices in connection with land and household property761,7631,839165735892,428
4. Persons performing offices in connection with property-rights not otherwise classed22224 1125
Totals, Order 4, 19067035,6676,370488158637,233
Totals, Order 4, 19016084,4385,046155705855,631

Details of the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I. — Banking and Finance.   
Bank director, banker2727..
Bank manager, officer, clerk1,4711,4701
Building-society, savings-institute director, manager, officer, clerk20173
Share and stock broker, dealer, jobber, speculator, mining agent, clerk to broker, &c.1851787
Money broker, financier, capitalist (26)753569184
Pawnbroker, loan-office keeper -24231
Public accountant, auditor1881826
Others (27)44..
Sub-order 2.—Insurance and Valuation.   
Manager, officer, director, agent of insurance company (28)1,3041,26143
Actuary, average-stater, adjuster55..
Underwriter, marine surveyor11101
Auctioneer, appraiser, valuator {29)71669026
Friendly, benefit society officer11101
Official Assignee1212..
Fire-brigade officer, fireman4747..
Others : Agent Public Trustee22..
Sub-order 3.—Land and Household Property.   
Land proprietor, speculator69636
Land estate agent, broker (30)71468529
Others connected with dealings in land48471
House-proprietor, property-owner1,5551,003552
House agent, rent-collector42411
Sub-order 4.—Property Rights not otherwise classed.   
Officer of Patents, Trade-marks Department44..
Patentee, owner of trade-mark, &c.871
Patents, trade-marks, agent1111..
Others connected with various property rights and transfers22..
 M.F.
(26) Moneybroker, financier, capitalist.  524  183
  Accountant, loan company  7  1
  Financial agent  29  0
  Manager, secretary, financial company  9  0
(27) Clerk, counting-house  2  0
  Audit clerk  1  0
  Manager.assets board  1  0
(28) Manager, director, agent.  585  0
  Accountant  40  0
  Cadet  25  0
  Canvasser, traveller  28  10
  Clerk  558  33
  Inspector  1  0
  Messenger  10  0
  Secretary  14  0
(29) Auctioneer, appraiser, valuator  340  0
  Accountant, clerk  243  19
  Assistant  28  6
  Manager  10  0
  Relative assisting  4  0
  Salesman  11  1
  Store-man  54  0
(30) Land and estate agent, broker  487  2
  Land and estate book-keeper  180  27
  Land and estate office-boy  3  0
  Land and estate salesman  5  0
  Native-land agent  10  0

SUB-CLASS B.—TRADE.

[These, it must be remembered, are dealers only, not makers. The exclusion of the latter, and compliance with the rule of grouping persons stated to be both manufacturers and dealers, as makers, under Class Y, leaves some very small numbers, such as watch and clock dealers, 93, in Sub-order 7; while the watch and clock makers number 653 in Class Y.]

ORDER 5,—PERSONS dealing in ART or MECHANIC PRODUCTIONS in which Matters of various Kinds are employed in Combination.

0.58 per cent, of total male population.

0.12 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.TotalsUnder 20.Over 20.Totals.
  1. Persons dealing in books, publications, and advertising2195677862982111897
  2. Persons dealing in musical instruments17141158142842200
  3. Persons dealing in prints, pictures, and art materials23335191045
  4. Persons dealing in ornaments, minor art products, and small wares271361633076106269
  5. Persons dealing in equipment for sports and games 11   1
  6. Persons dealing in designs, medals, type, and dies 11   1
  7. Persons dealing in watches, clocks, jewellery, plated ware, and scientific instruments177782131593
  8. Dealing in surgical instruments and appliances167   7
  9. Dealing in arms and explosives 33 225
10. Persons dealing in machines, tools, and implements1624125761016273
11. Dealers in carriages and vehicles5122227381220293
12. Persons dealing in harness, saddlery, and leatherware7596612369
13. Persons dealing in ships, boats, and marine stores13132   32
14. Persons dealing in building materials and house-fittings27122149235154
15. Persons dealing in furniture3823227053035305
16. Persons dealing in chemicals and by-products17111128167135
17. Persons dealing in paper and papermakers' materials662573232885113436
Totals, Order 5, 19064902,2402,7301273584853,215
Totals, Order 5,19014241,5321,956852493342,290
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Books, Publications, and Advertising.   
Bookseller, book-canvasser (31)43934990
    Relative assisting19811
Advertising agent, bill-poster, bill-distributor83821
Newsagent newspaper vendor (32)3433358
    Relative assisting981
Others (33)44..
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical-instrument importer, seller (34)13611620
Music-seller644222
Sub-order 3. —Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Picture-dealer972
Art, photographic requisites importer, dealer24172
    Relative assisting211
Others : Stamp dealer and assistant1010..
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Fancy-goods dealer (35)25453101
    Relative assisting523
Toys and minor arts products dealer761
Others: Dealer, curio321
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sports and Games.   
Sporting requisites dealer11..
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Designs, patterns, medals, type, and dies dealer11..
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, Jewellery, Platedware, and Scientific Instruments.   
Jewellery importer, dealer (36)887414
    Relative assisting211
Scientific-instrument importer, dealer33..
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.   
Surgical instruments and appliances dealer.33..
Others : Dental requisites importer and assistant44..
Sub-order 9.—Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives.   
Arms, explosive dealer532
Sub-order 10.—Machines, Tools, and Implements.   
Agricultural machinery, implement dealer (37)69681
Sewing-machines importer, dealer (38)13211715
Other machines, tools, implements dealer (39)7272..
Sub-order 11. —Carriages and Vehicles.   
Carriage, wagon, cart dealer33..
Bicycle importer, dealer, agent28126219
Coachmakers' sundries dealer761
Others (40)22..
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.   
Saddlery, harness-importer, dealer (41)35341
Saddlers' ironmonger44..
Leather and grindery merchant, dealer30282
 M.F.
(31) Bookseller, book-canvasser  226  38
  Apprentice  3  0
  Assistant  84  52
  Clerk  15  9
  Manager  1  0
  Shopboy  14  0
  Traveller  6  1
(3a) Newsagent, newspaper vendor  191  3
  Clerk  10  5
  Newsboy  134  0
(33) Chart-seller  2  0
  Traveller, tract society  2  0
(34) Musical-instrument importer, seller  96  4
  Musical-instrument clerk  3  6
  Musical-instrument manager  3  0
  Musical-instrument salesman, sales-woman  14  9
  Musical-instrument relative assisting  1  1
(35) Dealer, fancy goods  45  33
  Assistant  18  34
  Clerk  3  3
  Salesman, saleswoman  32  31
  Storeman  6  0
  Traveller  44  0
(36) Jewellery importer, dealer  60  1
  Traveller  8  0
  Clerk  1  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  5  7
  Assistants  0  6
(37) Agricultural machinery, dealer  58  1
  Agricultural machinery, agent  1  0
  Agricultural machinery, traveller  4  0
  Agricultural machinery, clerk  5  0
(38) Sewing-machine importer, dealer  11  0
  Sewing-machine agent  57  1
  Sewing-machine clerk  7  2
  Sewing-machine manager  6  0
  Sewing-machine traveller and collector  26  0
  Sewing-machine shop-assistant  9  12
  Sewing-machine relative assisting  1  0
  39) Dealer in other machines, &c  26  0
  Agent, machinery  33  0
  Salesman  9  0
  Traveller  4  0
  Clerk  5  0
  Importer, scales  1  0
  Typewriter, salesman  3  0
  Machine-expert  2  0
  40) Motor company, manager  1  0
  Motor company, agent  1  0
  41) Saddlery, harness dealer  4  0
  Saddlery, harness clerk  4  1
  Saddlery, harness salesman  14  0
  Saddlery, harness traveller  9  0
  Saddlery, harness assistant  1  0
  Saddlery, harness manager  2  0
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment, and Marine Stores.   
Ships and boats dealer, broker99..
Ship chandler2222..
Others: Marine-stores dealer1I..
Sub-order 14.—Building Materials and House-fittings.   
Materials for houses and buildings dealer88..
Oil and colour man, glass, paperhangings dealer (42)1431385
Relatives assisting33..
Sub-order 15.— Furniture.   
Furniture-dealer (43)26723532
    Relative assisting422
Second-hand-furniture dealer, broker34331
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Chemical materials (not drugs) dealer642
Chemical by-products dealer1..1
Wholesale druggist (44)1171134
Others (45)1111..
Sub-order 17.—Paper, Papermakers' Materials, Stationery.   
Paper merchant, importer18153
Stationer (46)404300104
    Relative assisting826
Rag, waste-paper dealer66..
 M.F.
(43) Oil and colour dealer  37  0
  Oil and colour clerk  18  3
  Oil and colour salesman, sales woman  59  3
  Oil and colour storeman  3  0
  Oil and colour carter  3  0
  Oil and colour assistant  3  0
  Oil and colour traveller  17  0
(43) Furniture-dealer  110  7
  Clerk  15  7
  Salesman, saleswoman  103  18
  Manager  3  0
  Assistant  3  0
  Traveller  1  0
(44) Wholesale druggist  12  0
  Assistant  32  0
  Clerk  39  3
  Traveller  31  2
  Manager  2  0
  Storeman  7  0
  Patent medicine canvasser  3  0
  Patent medicine clerk  5  0
  Patent medicine message boy  1  0
  Agent for sheep-dip  2  0
  46) Stationer  136  36
  Stationer's apprentice  6  1
  Stationer's assistant  106  63
  Stationer's clerk.  35  4
  Stationer's manager  6  0
  Stationer's traveller  11  0

ORDER 6.—PERSONS engaged in the SALE, HIRE, or EXCHANGE of TEXTILE FABRICS and DRESS, and of FIBROUS MATERIALS.

1.19 per cent, of total male population.

0.56 per cent, of total female population.

Occupation, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of textile fabrics1,3073,6084,9156771,4282,1057,020
2. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of dress10457768160163223904
3. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of fibrous materials 99 9  
Totals, Order 6, 19061,4114,1945,6057371,5912,3287,933
Totals, Order 6, 19011,0493,1264,1754249521,3765,551
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order i.—Textile Fabrics.   
Wholesale draper (47)1,8681,77494
    Relative assisting6..6
Draper, woollen-draper (48)5,0503,1031,947
    Relative assisting883058
Silk mercer, dealer88..
Sub-order 2.—Dress.......
Clothier, outfitter (49)19016624
Men's mercer, hatter, hosier, haberdasher (50)1241231
    Relative assisting532
Millinery dealer592336
    Relative assisting4..4
Shoe, boot dealer (51)479351128
    Relative assisting15411
Umbrella, parasol, stick dealer2..2
Fur, rug dealer11..
Second-hand-clothes dealer241014
Others: Mantle-buyer1..1
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.   
Rope, cord dealer22..
Others: Flax-merchant77..
..MF
(47) Agent, soft-goods150
Assistant, warehouse2048
Apprentice, soft-goods warehouse246
Buyer soft-goods warehouse40
Carter soft-goods warehouse10
Clerk soft-goods warehouse27424
Manager soft-goods warehouse520
Packer soft-goods warehouse410
Salesman, saleswoman41553
Storeman772
Traveller1591
Warehouseman, undefined5040
(48) Draper, woollen-draper,1,908238
Assistant6881,423
Apprentice7138
Boy, girl1132
Carter160
Clerk162246
Manager473
Porter300
Shopwalker90
Traveller627
(49) Clothier, outfitter, &c.7312
Apprentice11
Assistant519
Clerk22
Errand-boy30
Salesman, saleswoman290
Manager40
Traveller30
(50) Mercer690
Assistant511
Manager30
Shoe, boot dealer11011
Clerk138
Errand-boy140
Manager170
Salesman, saleswoman174109
Traveller230

ORDER 7.—PERSONS engaged in dealing in FOOD, DRINKS, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

2.31 per cent, of total male population.

0.28 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in animal food8094,3735,182311001315,313
2. Persons engaged in dealing in vegetable food1361,4721,6081375286652,273
3. Persons engaged in dealing in groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants9593,1444,103703083784,481
Totals, Order 7, 19061,9048,98910,8932389361,17412,067
Totals, Order 7, 19011,8176,7048,5211517278789,399

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Animal Food.   
Milk-seller (52),60857434
    Relative assisting311912
Cheesemonger, dairy-produce dealer59572
Butcher (53)4,0243,97351
    Relative assisting94877
Provision merchant, dealer49481
    Relative assisting11..
Poulterer, game dealer65641
Fishmonger, oyster dealer (54)36135011
    Relative assisting17512
Others (55)44..
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.   
Flour, grain merchant, dealer (56)68366023
    Relative assisting22..
Confectioner, pastry dealer (57)470164306
    Relative assisting48543
Greengrocer, fruiterer, potato dealer (58)995758237
    Relative assisting711556
Others (59)44..
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.   
Wine and spirit merchant, wine-shop keeper (60)1601564
    Relative assisting321
Cordial, aerated-waters seller55..
Cocoa, coffee dealer1616..
    Relative assisting2...2
Grocer, tea dealer (61)4,0033,696307
    Relative assisting1056045
Tobacconist (62)18016317
    Relative assisting312
Others: Ice-cream vendors44..
 M.F.
(53) Milk-seller  378  22
  Assistant  79  10
  Driver, milk-cart  117  0
  Clerk  0  2
(53) Butcher  2,758  6
  Apprentice  81  0
  Assistant  52  0
  Boy  105  0
  Carter.  158  0
  Clerk  67  42
  Labourer  124  0
  Manager  1  0
  Pork-butcher  80  3
  Rider-out  73  0
  Salesman  474  0
(54)Fishmonger, oysterdealer  301  6
  Assistant  43  0
  Carter  3  0
  Clerk  3  5
  Frozen-meat exporter  1  0
  Carter  3  0
  Flour merchant  164  0
  Flour agent  11  0
  Flour assistant  20  1
  Flour carrier  37  0
  Flour clerk  106  23
  Flour engine-driver  4  0
  Flour labourer  105  0
  Flour salesman  31  O
  Flour sampler  19  O
  Flour storeman  132  O
  Flour store manager  8  0
  Flour traveller  23  O
  Confectionery, pastry dealer  144  111
  Apprentice confectioner  1  0
  Clerk  4  12
  Driver  4  O
  Pastrycook  0  7
  Shopman, shopwoman  11  176
(58)Greengrocer, fruiterer  598  158
  Assistant  62  79
  Shopboy  7  0
  Storeman  23  0
  Vegetable hawker  68  0
  Market, clerk  1  0
  Carter  1  0
  Storeman  3  0
(69)Wine and spirit merchant  47  0
  Assistant  12  1
  Clerk  33  3
  Carter  3  0
  Storeman  31  0
  Traveller  31  0
(61)Grocer, teadealer  992  102
  Grocer's assistant  1,371  95
  Grocer's apprentice  11  0
  Grocer's clerk  174  93
  Grocer's carter  399  0
  Grocer's delivery-boy  77  0
  Grocer's manager  30  1
  Grocer's messenger  33  0
  Grocer's shopman  414  0
  Grocer's storeman  5  0
  Grocer's traveller.  66  0
  Tea agent, broker  44  0
  Tea packer, sorter  63  15
  Tea wrapper  6  0
  Tea traveller  21  1
(63)Tobacconist  130  7
  Clerk  1  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  32  10

ORDER 8.—PERSONS engaged in dealing in and treating ANIMALS, and dealing in ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES (excluding Dealers in Food).

0.60 per cent, of total male population.

0.02 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in and treating living animals491,0871,136111,137
2. Persons engaged in dealing in manures and animal waste products222
3. Persons engaged in dealing in leather, raw materials, and manufactures245471148
4. Persons engaged in dealing in wool and other animal matters17197214134218
5. Persons engaged in dealing in seeds, plants, fodder, &c.57357414205373487
6. Persons engaged in dealing in other vegetable matters (not included elsewhere)1179171,034811191,053
Totals, Order 8, 19062422,6052,8472969982,945
Totals, Order 8, 19013542,2382,5921540552,647

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Living Animals.   
Live-stock dealer, stock and station agent (63)5705691
    Relative assisting1515..
Animal-trainer, horse-breaker535535..
    Relative assisting88..
Bird-fancier77..
Others (64)22..
Sub-order 2.—Manures and Animal Waste Products.   
Manure-dealer22..
Sub-order 3.—Leather, Raw Materials, and Manufactures.   
Hide, skin merchant22211
Prepared-skins, leather dealer (65)2626..
Sub-order 4.—"Wool and other Animal Matters.   
Wool broker, merchant (66)2072043
Tallow merchant, dealer11..
Bone, horn, hoof, hair merchant, dealer541
Others: Assistants oil company55..
Sub-order 5.—Seeds, Plants, Flowers, Vegetable Products for Fodder and Gardening Purposes.   
Seed-merchant (67)20619016
    Relative assisting413
Florist, flower and plant seller622042
    Relative assisting211
Produce merchant, dealer (68)21020010
    Relative assisting321
Sub-order 6.—Other Vegetable Matters not included elsewhere.   
Timber-merchant (69)1,0381,01919
    Relative assisting44..
Bark merchant, dealer11..
Indiarubber wares dealer1010..
 M.F.
(63) Live-stock dealer  137  0
  Cattle dealer  53  0
  Horse dealer  58  0
  Horse dealer assistant  4  0
  Sheep dealer  62  0
  Stock agent  156  0
  Stock agent clerk  40  1
  Stock agent salesman  11  0
  Stock and station agents  48  0
(64) Saleyard owner  1  0
  Saleyard caretaker  1  0
(65) Prepared-skins, leather dealer  7  0
  Assistant  4  0
  Clerk  5  0
  Salesman  10  0
(66) Wool-broker  83  0
  Assistant  9  0
  Carter  1  0
  Clerk  44  3
  Labourer  17  0
  Manager  7  0
  Storeman  39  0
  Wool-buyer  2  0
  Wool expert  2  0
(67) Seed-merchant  70  0
  Apprentice  14  0
  Carter  2  0
  Clerk  33  9
  Shopman, shopwoman  68  7
  Storeman  1  0
  Traveller  2  0
(68) Produce-merchant  152  0
  Carter  12  0
  Clerk  5  10
  Manager  1  0
  Salesman  9  0
  Storeman  17  0
  Traveller  4  0
(69) Timber-merchant  191  1
  Agent  20  0
  Assistant  14  0
  Carter  171  0
  Clerk  178  18
  Labourer  307  0
  Manager  37  0
  Measurer  20  0
  Orderman  42  0
  Salesman  32  0
  Traveller  6  0
  Watchman  1  0

ORDER 9. —PERSONS engaged in dealing in MINERALS and other SUBSTANCES mainly used for FUEL and LIGHT.

0.22 per cent, of total male population.

0.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in coal, &c, for fuel and light649681,032921301,062
Totals, Order 9, 1906649681,032921301,062
Totals, Order 9, 1901816677483811759

Details for each sub-order are —

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Coal and other Substances mainly used for Fuel and Light.   
Coal merchant, dealer (70)97494826
    Relative assisting15141
Firewood, fuel merchant, dealer (71)65632
Petroleum, kerosene importer, dealer321
Others (72)55..
 M.F.
(70) Coal-merchant  349  7
  Agent  23  0
  Assistant  31  2
  Carter  316  0
  Clerk  86  17
  labourer  70  0
  Manager  26  0
  Salesman  12  0
  Yardman  26  0
(71) Firewood-dealer  31  2
  Carter  27  0
  Clerk  2  0
  Relative assisting  3  0
(72) Light company, accountant clerk  3  0
  Light company, traveller  2  0

ORDER 10.—PERSONS engaged in dealing in MINERALS other than for FUEL and LIGHT.

0.39 per cent, of total male population.

0.02 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in stone, clay, earthenware, glass, &c.179311072936146
2. Persons engaged in dealing in metals other than gold and silver4251,3011,7261435491,775
Totals, Order 10, 19064421,3941,8362164851,921
Totals, Order 10, 19013551,1641,5191028381,557

Details for each sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Stone, Clay, Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.   
Stone, marble, sand dealer20191
Lime merchant, dealer33..
Cement, plaster dealer33..
Potteryware, earthenware dealer66..
Glassware-dealer422
China, crockeryware dealer (73)1087731
    Relative assisting2..2
Sub-order 2.—Metals other than Gold and Silver.   
Tin merchant, dealer11..
Antimony, lead dealer22..
Iron-ore, pig-iron, scrap-iron dealer.11..
Iron, galvanised-iron, wire importer, dealer (74)1212..
Ironmonger, hardware dealer (75)1,6401,59743
    Relative assisting523
Others (76)1141113
 M.F.
(73) China, crockeryware dealer  25  5
  Assistant  17  6
  Clerk  1  1
  Manager  1  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  28  19
  Traveller  5  0
(74) Iron (galvanised)and wire dealer  6  0
  Iron (galvanised)and wire traveller  5  0
  Iron (galvanised)and wire storeman  1  0
(75) Ironmonger  385  1
  Apprentice  58  0
  Assistant  515  10
  Carter  36  0
  Clerk  215  27
  Manager  17  0
  Porter, packer  18  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  156  5
  Shopboy  32  0
  Storeman  20  0
  Traveller  99  0
  Warehouseman  46  0
(76) Kauri-gum buyer  44  2
  Gum-merchant's assistant  18  0
  Carter  1  0
  Clerk  14  1
  Foreman  3  0
  Labourer  7  0
  Manager  1  0
  Packer  7  0
  Storeman  16  0

ORDER 11.—Persons engaged as GENERAL DEALERS, or in MERCANTILE PURSUITS not elsewhere classed.

2.40 per cent, of total male population.

0.85 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged as merchants, dealers (undefined)9595,6206,5794271,2301,6578,236
2. Persons engaged in other mercantile pursuits (undefined)8063,9314,7376331,2701,9036,640
Totals, Order 11, 19061,7659,55111,3161,0602,5003,56014,876
Totals, Order 11, 19011,6677,2818,9486291,6142,24311,191

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Merchants, Dealers (undefined).   
Merchant, importer (undefined) (77)1,5691,464105
    Relative assisting12102
Storekeeper, shopkeeper (78)4,6523,4031,249
    Relative assisting457225232
Dealer, trader (79)24723710
    Relative assisting835
Hawker, pedlar25223319
Broker, agent, commission agent (80)1,02999732
    Relative assisting41 
Others (81)66..
Sub-order 2.—Other Mercantile Persons.   
Officer of public company, society (82)1281235
Clerk, cashier, accountant (commercial, or other undefined)4,5863,1391,447
    Relative assisting361620
Commercial traveller, canvasser, salesman (undefined)1,7411,310431
Others (83)149149..
 M.F.
(77) Merchant, importer (undefined)  551  6
  Apprentice  33  1
  Assistant, clerk  638  98
  Buyer  1  0
  Carter  16  0
  Manager  40  0
  Packer  4  0
  Storeman  125  0
  Traveller  56  0
(78) Storekeeper, shopkeeper  1,803  454
  Apprentice  2  2
  Carter  52  0
  Clerk, book-keeper, accountant  140  50
  Manager  77  3
  Packer  12  0
  Salesman, saleswoman  42  24
  Shop-assistant  433  652
  Shopboy, shopgirl  71  8
  Stableman  4  0
  Store-assistant  354  55
  Storeman, Storewoman  413  1
(79) Dealer, trader  203  10
  Assistant  33  0
  Carter  1  0
(80) Broker, agent, commission agent  929  8
  Agent (undefined)  4  2
  Assistant  12  0
  Clerk  44  21
  Manufacturer's agent  8  1
(81) In business on own account  5  0
  Business systematizer  1  0
(82) Officer of public company  67  0
  Clerk  52  5
  Manager  4  0
(83) Debt-collector  12  0
  Collector (undefined).  53  0
  Customhouse agent  23  0
  Elevator attendant  10  0
  Labour agent  1  0
  Labour agent assistant  9  0
  Packer (undefined)  30  0
  Weighbridge clerk  11  0

ORDER 12.—PERSONS engaged as SPECULATORS on CHANGE EVENTS.

0.01 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in speculating on events585858
Totals, Order 12, 19065858..58
Totals, Order 12, 1901338413344

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Chance Events.   
Lottery keeper, agent22..
Turf commission agent1212..
Bookmaker3333..
Others (84)1111..
 M.F.
(84) Totalisator proprietor  2  0
  Totalisator clerk  9  0

SUB-CLASSC.—STORAGE.

ORDER 13.—PERSONS engaged in STORAGE.

0.14 percent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in storage61591652336658
Totals, order 13, 190661591652336658
Totals, Order 13, 1901136727363145868

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1. —Storage.   
Bonded store, proprietor, manager, clerk91901
Bonded store, storeman, worker (85)5415365
Government store, worker2323..
Others engaged in storage, hulk-keepers33..
 M.F.
(85) Bonded store, storeman, worker  508  0
  Clerk  2  5
  Packer  6  0
  Store assistant  20  0

Chapter 22. CLASS IV.— TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.

ORDER 14. — PERSONS engaged in the TRANSPORT of PASSENGERS, GOODS, or in effecting COMMUNICATIONS.

5.87 per cent, of total male population.

0.18 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged on railways (not construction6176,2056,82237106,832
2. Persons engaged on roads7017,0217,722722297,751
3. Persons engaged on seas and rivers6298,8399,468789969,564
4. Persons engaged on postal service.3181,0171,335412833241,659
5. Persons engaged on telegraph and telephone service7201,1031,823422432852,108
6. Persons engaged in delivery of documents, parcels, and messages by hand387804675..5472
Totals, Order 14,19063,37224,26527,63710564474928,386
Totals, Order 14, 19012,96718,29821,2656042548521,750

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—On Railways (not construction).   
Railway officer, stationmaster, clerk1,4871,4816
Railway engine-driver, fireman, cleaner1,3151,315..
Railway guard, porter, servant1,4011,3974
Railway ganger, fettler1,1991,199..
Railway employee, labourer1,4301,430..
Sub-order 2.—On Roads.   
Tramway officer, clerk1021011
Tramway driver, conductor, worker863863..
Coach, omnibus, cab proprietor3583562
    Relative assisting99..
Coach, omnibus, cab driver, conductor5355341
    Relative assisting44..
Parcels-delivery agent, driver, clerk31930910
    Relative assisting431
Drayman, carrier, carter, teamster, horse-driver (not elsewhere classified) (86)4,8414,83011
    Relative assisting9292..
Livery-stable keeper (87)5655623
    Relative assisting1212..
Others (88)4747..
Sub-order 3.—On Seas and Rivers, and the Regulation thereof.   
Harbours and Rivers Navigation Department, Marine Board officer2602582
Ferry-service officer, worker3636..
Pilot.3434..
Lighthouse-keeper89881
Shipowner, shipping agent, manager, clerk (89)77976514
Shipmaster, officer, seaman (merchant service)3,0683,068..
Engineer, stoker, coal-trimmer of steamer (merchant service)1,5821,582..
Steward, stewardess, ship-servant1,00192279
Bargemaster, lighterman3939..
Stevedore, lumper, wharf-labourer2,4732,473..
Boat-proprietor, boatman, waterman8787..
Ferry-punt lessee, worker3737..
Wharf owner, lessee, wharfinger6363..
Others (90)1616..
Sub-order 4.—On Postal Service.   
Postal officer, postmaster, clerk, sorter1,132816316
Letter-carrier3263224
Mail contractor59572
Mailman, mail-guard, mail-carrier, driver1121102
Others (91)3030..
Sub-order 5.—On Telegraph and Telephone Service.   
Telegraph officer, stationmaster, operator, clerk89787423
Electrician, lineman317317..
Telephone officer34284258
Messenger5425384
Others: Storeman1010..
Sub-order 6.—Delivery of Documents, Parcels, and Messages by Hand.   
Messenger, porter1451441
Errand boy, girl3273234
 M.F.
(86) Drayman, carrier, carter  4,809  5
  Clerk  21  6
(87) Livery-stable keeper  253  2
  Clerk  21  1
  Groom  147  0
  Hostler  38  0
  Stable-boy  97  0
  Manager  6  0
(88) Packer on roads  27  0
  Chaffeur, motorman.  11  0
  Bridge caretaker  9  0
(89) Shipowner, manager, clerk  681  0
  Book-keeper, accountant  63  14
  Storeman  21  0
(90) Harbour Board caretaker  12  0
  Wharf gatekeeper  4  0
(91) Post-office messenger  28  0
  Post-office caretaker  2  0

Chapter 23. CLASS V.—INDUSTRIAL.

In Sub-class B of the Commercial class all persons engaged in dealing were included; the makers or manufacturers have now to be considered.

ORDER 15.—PERSONS engaged in connection with the MANUFACTURE of or in other PROCESSES relating to ART and MECHANIC PRODUCTIONS in which Materials of various Kinds are employed in Combination.

4.82 per cent, of total male population.

0.31 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of books and publications7042,2882,9923963317273,719
2. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of musical instruments9153162162
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of prints, pictures, and art materials472522995611310
4. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ornaments. minor art products, and small wares124350474104107211685
5. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of equipment for sports and games1131452721
6. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of designs, medals, type, and dies1972912..293
7. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of watches, clocks, and scientific instruments8655464031013653
8. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of surgical instruments and appliances77118
9. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of arms, ammunition, and explosives9415020143484
10. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of engines, machines, tools, and implements5823,0543,6361673,643
11. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of carriages and vehicles5271,9972,5245492,533
12. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of harness, saddlery, leather, and leatherware2281,2591,4871514291,516
13. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ships, boats, and their equipment11369981233815
14. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of furniture5361,8222,35838741122,470
15. Persons engaged in manufacturing building material, &c.8906,0596,949716236,972
16. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of chemicals and by-products241711955843101296
Totals, Order 15, 19063,89918,79122,6906596311,29023,980
Totals, Order 15, 19013,89214,58718,47952542194619,425

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Books and Publications.   
Publisher, newspaper-proprietor (92)37131952
Printer, printer's manager, clerk (93)1,2901,22169
Compositor802687115
Machinist, stereotyper, and others engaged in printing (94)55250448
Bookbinder, manufacturing stationer (all branches) (95)704261443
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical-instrument maker4040..
Musical-instrument tuner, repairer122122..
Sub-order 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Lithographer, lithographic, zincographic printer (96)1541477
Picture-frame maker, picture restorer, cleaner1471434
Others (97)99..
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Carver (all branches), carver and gilder12711413
Image-maker, modeller1111..
Taxidermist21192
Toymaker33..
Basketmaker, wickerworker (98)1881835
Artificial-flower maker, art needle-worker14..14
Paper-bag, box maker19059131
Brush, broom maker1278245
Others (99)431
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sports and Games.   
Billiard-, bagatelle-table manufacturer77..
Cricket, lawn-tennis equipment maker22..
Fishing-tackle maker927
Others: Golf-club maker33..
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Die-sinker1..1
Engraver (not art), pattern designer79781
Rubber-stamp maker66..
Others (100)77..
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, and Scientific Instruments.   
Watch, clock, chronometer maker, repairer (101)5965915
    Relative assisting3..3
Scientific-instrument maker1192
Optician42393
Electrical-apparatus maker11..
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.   
Surgical-instrument maker33..
Surgical appliances, truss, bandage maker321
Others Electric-belt maker22..
Sub-order 9.— Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives.   
Gunsmith47461
Explosive-manufacturer734
Fuse, cartridge maker29..29
Fireworks-maker11..
Sub-order 10.—Engines, Machines, Tools, and Implements.   
Engine maker, fitter, mechanical engineer (102)2,6242,6222
Millwright4242..
Boilermaker (103)554554..
Agricultural machinery and implement maker (104)1861842
Sewing-machine maker, repairer1414..
Cutler, tool-maker, saw-setter4444..
Gas-, water-meter maker66..
Scale, weighing-machine maker, adjuster77..
Others (105)1661633
Sub-order 11.—Carriage and Vehicles.   
Railway carriage, wagon, tramcar builder (106)218218..
Coach, carriage, wagon, cart builder (107)1,3111,3065
Bicycle-maker, repairer5625593
Perambulator, wheel-chair maker24231
Wheelwright (108)409409..
Others (109)99..
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, Leather, and Leatherware.   
Saddlery and Harness maker, whip-maker (110)1,4451,42124
Leather-belting maker431
Leather cutter, designer55..
Portmanteau-maker37334
Saddle-tree maker55..
Fancy-leather worker1818..
Others: Legging-maker22..
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment.   
Shipbuilder, shipwright, boat-builder (111)580580..
    Relative assisting88..
Ship-rigger1414..
Block, oar, mast maker44..
Sail-maker (112)1821802
    Relative assisting33..
Graving-dock, patent-slip proprietor, manager33..
Dock engine-driver, labourer1919..
Others: Fender-maker211
Sub-order 14.—Furniture.   
Furniture-manufacturer, cabinetmaker, bedstead-maker (113)1,8591,84910
    Relative assisting18171
Bed, mattress maker, upholsterer (114)55446193
    Relative assisting312
Others (115)36306
Sub-order 15.—Building Materials and other Manufactures comprised mainly of Timber.   
Sawmill proprietor, worker (116)5,4525,4475
    Relative assisting1616..
Joiner, wood-turner (117)1,1541,154..
Cooper1791772
Others (118)17115516
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Manufacturing chemist (not elsewhere classified) (119)1129022
Ink, blacking manufacturer1293
Salt, starch, blue maker24213
Chemical-manure maker (120)28244
Paint and varnish manufacturer1919..
Others (121)1013269
 M.F.
(92) Publisher, proprietor  133  1
  Assistant  5  0
  Clerk  87  40
  Manager  19  0
  Reader  45  8
  Traveller  30  3
(93) Printer, manager, clerk  853  40
  Apprentice  173  4
  Assistant  195  25
(94) Machinist, stereotyper  358  48
  Linotype-operator  146  0
(95) Bookbinder  213  244
  Apprentice  34  36
  Assistant  18  118
  Cutter  2  0
  Folder  1  21
  Ruler  2  0
  Sewer  1  34
(96) Lithographer, zincographic printer  108  0
  Lithographic apprentice  8  3
  Lithographic artist  25  0
  Lithographic assistant  0  3
  Lithographic clerk  0  1
  Lithographic draughtsman  6  0
(97) Photo, process engraver  4  0
  Ticket-writer  5  0
(98) Basketmaker, wickerworker.  170  4
  Apprentice  7  0
  Assistant  6  1
(99) Cork-cutter.  2  0
  Tobacco-pipe maker.  1  0
  Fly-paper manufacturer  0  1
(100) Stencil-cutter  3  0
  Metal-plate worker  4  0
  Watchmaker, &c.  513  0
  Apprentice  34  0
  Assistant  41  5
  Manager  1  0
  Traveller  2  9
(102) Engine maker, fitter, &c  1,517  0
  Apprentice  285  0
  Assistant  67  0
  Clerk  0  2
  Driller  6  0
  Engine-fitter  400  0
  Hammerman  8  0
  Labourer  10  0
  Machinist  78  0
  Pattern-maker  95  0
  Riveter  24  0
  Smith  17  0
  Turner  115  0
(103) Boilermaker  541  0
  Apprentice.  3  0
  Labourer  10  0
(104) Agricultural machinery and implement maker  123  0
  Assistant  19  0
  Clerk  22  2
  Engineer  17  0
  Expert  2  0
  Manager  1  0
(105) Oven-maker  3  0
  Range-maker  38  0
  Range-maker clerk  12  3
  Range-maker fitter  43  0
  Range-maker assistant  58  0
  Machinery inspector  4  0
  Typewriter mechanic  5  0
(106) Railway carriage, wagon, car builder  73  0
  Apprentice  3  0
  Assistant  14  0
  Fitter  21  0
  Lifter  46  0
  Painter, polisher  54  0
  Trimmer  7  0
(107) Coach and cart builder  630  1
  Apprentice  74  0
  Assistant  55  3
  Coach-painter  305  0
  Coach-painter apprentice  16  0
  Coach trimmer  55  1
  Coach smith  159  0
  Coach apprentice  12  0
(108) Wheelwright  346  0
  Apprentice.  37  0
  Assistant  26  0
(109) Motor works assistant  8  0
  Motor works tire-repairer  1  0
(110) Saddlery, harness, and whip maker  1,220  0
  Apprentice.  82  1
  Assistant  103  13
  Clerk  7  8
  Relative assisting  0  2
(111) Shipbuilder and shipwright  446  0
  Apprentice  37  0
  Assistant  31  0
  joiner  61  0
  Painter  5  0
(112) Sailmaker  173  1
  Assistant  7  1
(113) Furniture - manufacturer, cabinetmaker  1,311  0
  Apprentice.  100  0
  Assistant  118  6
  Chairmaker  61  1
  Clerk  1  2
  French-polisher  167  1
  Manager  1  0
(114) Bed, mattress maker, upholsterer  390  82
  Apprentice  39  2
  Assistant  32  9
(115) Blind-maker  30  2
  Carpet-machinist  0  4
(116) Saw-mill proprietor, worker  895  0
  Benchman  110  0
  Blacksmith  11  0
  Bullock-driver  34  0
  Bushman  179  0
  Carpenter  21  0
  Carter, horse-driver, truckman  159  0
  Clerk, book-keeper.  131  5
  Contractor  38  0
  Cook  12  0
  Engine-driver  417  0
  Feeder, planing-machine  12  0
  Fireman  34  0
  Foreman  28  0
  Labourer  2338  0
  Log-getter  13  0
  Machinist  143  0
  Manager  107  0
  Saw-sharpener  97  0
  Sawyer  398  0
  Timber rafter  11  0
  Timber stacker  10  0
  Tramway-layer  42  0
  Trollyman  61  0
  Watchman  20  0
  Yardman  126  0
(117) Joiner, &c.  1,116  0
  Apprentice.  26  0
  Assistant  4  0
  Stair-builder  8  0
(118) Boxmaker  125  14
  Packing-case maker  27  0
  Show-case maker  3  0
  Woodware-factory, clerk  0  2
(119) Manufacturing chemist  69  13
  Acid-works employee  21  3
  Assistant  2 
  Clerk  0  4
(120) Chemical-manure maker  9  4
  Engine-driver  5  0
  Labourer  7  0
  Manager  2  0
  Storeman  1  0
(121) Match-factory employee  28  69
  Sheep-dip manufacturer  4  0

ORDER 16.—PERSONS engaged in connection with the MANUFACTURE of, or REPAIRING, CLEANSING, or in other PROCESSES relating to TEXTILE FABRICS, DRESS, and FIBROUS MATERIALS.

20.22 per cent, of total male population.

3.76 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture, repairs, cleansing, &c, of textile fabrics1247378613605118711,732
2. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of dress8455,7396,5845,0569,74714,80321,387
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of fibrous materials4772,5263,0031025353,038
Totals, Order 16, 19061,4469,00210,4485,42610,28315,70926,157
Totals, Order 16, 19011,5306,6438,1735,3348,90314,23722,410

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Textile Fabrics.   
Collar manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches)11 
Woollen manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches) (122)1,621775846
Silk manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches)1010..
Dyer, scourer806614
Flock-manufacturer871
Others (123)12210
Sub-order 2.—Dress.   
Clothing-manufacturer, tailor, dressmaker (124)14,9282,83912,089
    Relative assisting961284
Hat, cap maker (125)18070110
    Relative assisting1..1
Shirtmaker (126)38543342
Milliner, staymaker, glovemaker (127)1,32551,320
    Relative assisting8..8
Knitter15716141
Furrier12111
Bootmaker, shoemaker (all branches) (128)4,1593,501658
    Relative assisting1293
Umbrella, parasol maker, repairer694920
    Relative assisting3..3
Feather-dresser, glove-cleaner15..15
Others (129)37298
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.   
Mat-maker20155
Rope, cord maker (130)1331321
    Relative assisting22..
Canvas, sailcloth maker11..
Tent, tarpaulin maker503911
Bag, sack maker19811
Flax-mill owner, worker (131)2,7952,7914
    Relative assisting   
18153 
 M.F.
(122) Woollen manufacturer, worker190
Assistant3023
Burler02
Carder230
Classer820
Clerk170
Cloth-finisher175
Darner028
Designer122
Dresser10
Dyer160
Engine-driver, fireman330
Factory hand238283
Flock-maker10
Fuller50
Knitter856
Machinist1698
Machine-cleaner10
Manager160
Night-watchman10
Piecer10
Presser242
Scourer180
Seamer06
Sorter444
Spinner6326
Stapler30
Tenterer11
Traveller30
Tuner (loom)313
Tweed-finisher60
Warehouseman80
Warper Washer1725
Washer41
Weaver19247
Winder227
Yarn-twister57
(123) Fancy Berlin-wool worker13
Lace-maker07
Quilt-maker10
(124) Clothing-manufacturer, tailor, dressmaker1,9739,481
Apprentice, tailor207292
Apprentice, dressmaker0636
Assistant1971,043
Clerk3216
Cutter21096
Errand and shop boy220
Labourer40
Machinist8266
Machinist relative assisting029
Manager304
Pattern-cutter10
Presser1399
Seamstress0215
Traveller100
Trimmer62
(125) Hat, cap maker4951
Assistant1540
Manager10
Straw-hat maker419
Straw-hat packer10
(126) Shirtmaker783
Apprentice02
Factory hand14100
Needlewoman043
Sewing-machinist5111
Shirt-cutter223
(127) Milliner, staymaker1819
Mantle-maker033
Milliner's apprentice0184
Milliner's assistant4284
(128) Bootmaker2,7923
Apprentice9722
Assistant17992
Clerk2816
Clicker1450
Cordwainer70
Cutter131
Errand-boy290
Finisher866
Fitter691
Machinist71424
Manager42
Packer10
Presser121
Repairer180
Sewing-machinist20
Traveller110
(129) Waterproof-manufacturer53
Oilskin-maker205
Oilskin-maker assistant30
Oilskin-maker errand-boy10
(130) Rope, cord maker820
Apprentice50
Assistant211
Labourer240
(131) Flax-miller, flax-mill owner4122
Assistant1280
Baler30
Bleacher50
Carpenter30
Carter, horse-driver890
Catcher150
Classer30
Clerk142
Contractor40
Cook696
Dresser750
Engine-driver1000
Feeder170
Flyman220
Hackler10
Manager500
Mill hand1,5620
Paddocker620
Presser40
Scutcher1060
Stripper250
Washer220

ORDER 17.—PERSONS engaged in the MANUFACTURE of or in other PROCESSES relating to FOOD, DRINK, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

1.84 per cent, of total male population.

00.11 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in processes relating to the production of animal food3212,8483,1691018283,197
2. Persons engaged in processes relating to the production of vegetable food8343,2964,1301871863734,503
3. Persons engaged in processes relating to groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants1721,2131,3853932711,456
Totals, Order 17, 19061,3277,3578,6842362364729,156
Totals, Order 17, 19011,3145,9887,3021961613577,659

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.   
Slaughterman, abattoir-worker (132)295295..
Meat, bacon, ham curer, preserver (133)3443377
Fish-curer73712
Butter, cheese maker, factory-worker (134)1,1691,15316
Animal-food refrigerator (135)1,2341,2313
Others (136)8282..
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.   
Miller, maizena-manufacturer (137)5515465
    Relative assisting88..
Baker, biscuit, pastry maker (138)3,2413,059182
    Relative assisting786018
Fruit-preserver, jam-maker (139)1508268
    Relative assisting11..
Confectionery-maker (140)341241100
    Relative assisting11..
 M.F.
(132) Slaughterman, abattoir-worker2740
Labourer210
(133) Meat and bacon preserver, drysalter740
Assistant120
Boner40
Carter10
Clerk125
Engine-driver110
Flesher40
Foreman10
Gutter and runner10
Ham and bacon curer482
Labourer, meat-works920
Labourer, rabbit-factory100
Manager50
Meat-packer60
Meat-preserver460
Storeman in bacon-factory80
Tinsmith, meat-works10
Traveller for bacon-factory10
(134) Butter and cheese worker3394
Assisting in cheese-factory550
Assisting in dairy factory1663
Butter-packer70
Clerk, dairy factory02
Creamery assistant421
Labourer, cheese-factory50
Manager, dairy factory5254
Messenger, dairy factory140
Milk-preserver02
(135) Animal-food refrigerator460
Assistant220
Butcher1780
Caretaker20
Carter160
Clerk1121
Engineer, fireman1160
Expert, foreman260
Freezer430
Greaser230
Labourer5680
Manager240
Meat-grader200
Mechanical engineer180
Packer40
Storeman130
(136) Sausage-skin maker680
Condensed - milk factory worker40
Oleo-worker100
(137) Miller1941
Apprentice150
Assistant1011
Clerk333
Flour-mill tarter570
Flour-mill engine-driver490
Flour-mill fireman50
Flour-mill labourer840
Manager20
Storeman30
Traveller10
Wheat-sampler20
(138) Baker, biscuit, pastry maker1,91726
Apprentice1391
Assistant31048
Biscuit-factory assistant5974
Biscuit-factory clerk142
Biscuit-factory engine-driver60
Biscuit-factory packer4031
Biscuit-factory traveller160
Boy410
Clerk61
Driver4930
Labourer170
Manager10
(139) Fruit-preserver, jam-maker3911
Assistant3957
Manager10
 M.F.
Traveller30
(140) Confectionery-maker1103
Apprentice210
Assistant5473
Clerk03
Sugar-boiler, lollie-maker5621
Traveller200
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food—   
Sugar-mill owner, sugar-refiner (141)129129..
Others (142)33..
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.   
Brewer, bottler, and others engaged in brewing (143)69068010
    Relative assisting33..
Maltster (144)9393..
    Relative assisting11..
Distiller and rectifier of spirits11..
Wine-manufacturer (not grower)99..
Cordial, aerated-water manufacturer (all branches) (145)48447311
    Relative assisting871
Coffee-roaster (146)15132
Tea mixer, taster17152
Tobacco, cigar, cigarette manufacturer (147)17107
Ice-manufacturer22..
Spice-manufacturer1313..
Condiment-maker (all branches)965937
Others: Baking-powder manufacturer761
 M.F.
(141) Sugar-mill owner, refiner30
Clerk120
Fireman80
Labourer510
Sugar-works employee550
(142) Food products, maker20
Ginger-works assistant10
(143) Brewer, bottler, &c.2041
Apprentice10
Assistant850
Bottle-washer121
Carter8l0
Cellarman660
Clerk638
Cooper90
Engine-driver160
Labourer1120
Manager100
Traveller210
(144) Maltster110
Labourer160
(145) Cordial-manufacturer, &c.2571
Assistant1095
Clerk95
Cordial, aerated-water bottler230
Driver660
Traveller90
(146) Coffee-roaster61
Assistant71
(147) Tobacco, cigar manufacturer, &c80
Employee27

ORDER 18.—PERSONS (not otherwise classed) engaged in MANUFACTURES or PROCESSES connected with ANIMAL and VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.

00.45 per cent, of total male population.

0.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in manufactures or other processes connected with animal matters (not otherwise classed)1771,3561,53376131,546
2. Persons engaged in working in wood (not elsewhere classed)27286313313
3. Workers in vegetable produce for fodder21149170170
4. Paper-manufacturers12708219827109
Totals, Order 18, 19062371,8612,0982614402,138
Totals, Order 18, 19014541,9772,431135182,449

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Matter (not otherwise classed).   
Soap, candle manufacturer (148)1711629
Tallow-melter, boiling-down worker (149)3939..
Fellmonger, wool washer scourer (150)680680..
    Relative assisting1111..
Tanner, currier (151)6106064
Bonedust-manure manufacturer1010..
Others (152)2525..
Sub-order 2.—Working in Wood (not elsewhere, classed).   
Firewood cutter, chopper120120..
Fencer, hurdle-maker (153)186186..
Cork-cutter55..
Rubber-manufacturer22..
Sub-order 3.—Workers in Vegetable Produce for Fodder.   
Chaff-cutter (154)146146..
    Relative assisting77..
Oil and seed cake maker66..
Others: Seed-dresser1111..
Sub-order 4.—Paper-manufacture.   
Paper-manufacturer (all branches) (155) '..1098227
 M.F.
(148) Soap and candle manufacturer610
Apprentice41
Candle-maker161
Carter50
Clerk92
Engine-driver, fireman20
Labourer502
Packer03
Soap-boiler120
Storeman10
Traveller20
(149) Tallow-melter, boiling - down worker200
Labourer110
Tallow-man80
(150) Fellmonger, wool-washer3370
Apprentice130
Carter30
Classer, sorter900
Clerk90
Engine-driver40
Foreman10
Labourer1630
Manager10
Skinner, flesher10
Skin dresser, splitter90
Wool and skin cleaner450
(151) Tanner, currier3210
Assistant163
Basil-dresser120
Beamsman180
Carter180
Clerk90
Currier's apprentice30
Engine-driver120
Flesher, skinner90
Labourer1640
Leather - manufacturer's assistant181
Manager60
(152) Gut-scraper40
Glue-maker140
Glue-maker140
Horsehair worker20
Lubricating-oil worker50
(153) Fencer, hurdle-maker940
Fencing contractor430
Labourer490
(154) Chaff-cutter590
Engine-driver200
Labourer670
(155)Paper-manufacturer250
Clerk01
Worker, mills5726

ORDER 19. —PERSONS engaged in the ALTERATION, MODIFICATION, or MANUFACTURE of or other PROCESSES relating to METALS OR MINERAL MATTERS.

10.98 per cent, of total male population.

00.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in manufactures and processes relating to stone, clay, earthenware, glass, and minerals (not elsewhere classed)1931,4401,6331341,637
2. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to gold, silver, and precious stones162441603112334637
3. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to metals other than gold and silver (not elsewhere classed)1,4025,6627,064910197,083
Totals, Order 19, 19061,7577,5439,3002136579,357
Totals, Order 19, 19012,0456,2358,28058138,293

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Manufactures and Processes relating to Stone, Clay, Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals (not otherwise classed). Monumental, marble mason, stone cutter, dresser176176..
    Relative assisting11..
Lime-burner (156)7272..
Cement-manufacturer (157)102102..
Brick-maker, tile-manufacturer (158)9809782
    Relative assisting1616..
Pottery-maker (159)2422411
    Relative assisting44..
Glass manufacturer, worker1818..
Crockery, earthenware repairer, maker66..
Asphalt-maker99..
Asbestos-manufacturer44..
Others: Pumice-worker761
Sub-order 2.—Workers in Jewellery and Precious Stones.   
Goldsmith, silversmith, jeweller (160)57354330
    Relative assisting954
Lapidary, precious-stones worker2323..
Electroplater, plater3030..
Others: Hone-polisher22..
Sub-order 3.—Metals other than Gold and Silver.   
Tinsmith, smelter (161)6096072
    Relative assisting22..
Zinc, antimony worker (162)55..
    Relative assisting11..
Copper, lead worker90891
Malleable iron and steel manufacturer, worker (all branches) (163)147147..
Iron founder, moulder, worker (164)1,2521,2466
Brass founder, moulder, brazier, worker (165)12272225
    Relative assisting11..
Galvanised-iron worker (all branches)2828..
Wire and cable manufacturer, worker64604
    Relative assisting44..
Blacksmith, striker, farrier, whitesmith (166)4,5504,5491
    Relative assisting5757..
Locksmith (167)2424..
Others (168)2222..
 M.F.
(156) Lime-burner390
Engineer50
Labourer270
    Relative assisting10
(157) Plaster-maker, cement-manufacturer160
Cement-miller160
Engine-driver170
Labourer530
(158) Brick-maker, tile-manufacturer4290
Apprentice280
Assistant500
Carter440
Clerk02
Engine-driver450
Labourer3820
(159) Pottery-maker940
Apprentice90
Assistant441
Engine-driver50
Pipe-maker890
(160) Goldsmith, silversmith, jeweller3660
Apprentice600
Assistant8819
Clerk235
Embosser05
Manager50
Traveller11
(161)Tinworker4710
Apprentice560
Assistant800
Clerk02
(162) Zinc, antimony worker40
Assistant10
(163) Malleable-iron worker80
Apprentice70
Carter10
Clerk70
Engine-driver110
Furnaceman80
Galvaniser of iron80
Manager10
Puddler, roller130
Smelter50
Storeman10
Worker770
(164) Iron founder, moulder, worker7550
Apprentice880
Assistant440
Clerk516
Engine-driver510
Furnace-man500
Labourer1400
Machinist10
Manager10
Moulder10
Pattern-maker10
Riveter30
Striker600
(165) Brass founder, moulder, brazier460
Apprentice380
Clerk01
Coremaker04
Finisher, polisher900
Moulder480
(166) Blacksmith, farrier, whitesmith3,4181
Apprentice3080
Assistant4680
Hammer-man110
Horse-shoer1370
Labourer870
Striker1200
(167) Locksmith220
Apprentice10
Assistant10
(168) Wire-netting maker40
Burnisher30
Japanner70
"Nail-maker89

ORDER 20.—PERSONS engaged in the Conversion of COAL and other SUBSTANCES to purposes of HEAT, LIGHT, or forms of ENERGY not otherwise classed.

0.25 per cent, of total male population.

00.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the conversion of coal; &c, to purposes of heat, light, &c.1521,0361,1883691,197
Total, Order 20, 19061521,0361,1883691,197
Total, Order 20, 19016351758033583

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Working in Fuel, Light, and other Forms of Energy.   
Gas manufacture and supply officer, worker (169)6726684
Coke manufacturer, burner99..
Electric light or energy producer, worker, electrician (170)4964924
    Relative assisting44..
Charcoal-burner11..
Others (171)15141
 M.F.
(169) Gas manufacturer, officer, worker780
Engineer700
Fitter570
Lamplighter390
Manager70
Secretary, clerk904
Stoker170
Workman3100
(170) Electric light or energy producer, worker1710
Apprentice30
Clerk1111
Electrician870
Electrical engineer2200
(171) Motor engineer110
Oil engineer30
Clerk to kerosene-oil manufacturer01

ORDER 21.—PERSONS engaged in the MAKING or REPAIRING of BUILDINGS. ROADS, RAILWAYS, CANALS, DOCKS, EARTHWORKS &c, or in OPERATIONS the Nature of which is undefined.

60.73 per cent, of total male population.

0.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in making or repairing houses and buildings3,37018,69322,06313193222,095
2. Persons engaged in making or repairing roads, railways, bridges, &c.3799,2419,6209,620
Total, Order 21, 19063,74927,93431,68313193231,715
Total, Order 21, 19012,99519,88422,879581322,892

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Houses and Buildings.   
Builder, contractor, manager, foreman, clerk (172)2,3452,3387
    Relative assisting3232..
Stonemason, labourer (173)315315..
    Relative assisting22..
Bricklayer, hodman, labourer (174)1,7731,773..
    Relative assisting2121..
Carpenter, labourer (175)10,52010,5191
    Relative assisting7575..
Slater, shingler3636..
Plasterer, modeller (176)662661I
    Relative assisting22..
House-painter, paperhanger, glazier (177)3,8073,79215
    Relative assisting2626..
Plumber, gasfitter, bellhanger (178)2,3192,3127
    Relative assisting16151
Others (179)144144..
Sub-order 2.—Roads, Railways, Earthworks, &c.   
Road, railway, bridge, telegraph, wharf, sewer contractor424424..
    Relative assisting33..
Skilled assistant, foreman, inspector, manager (180)714714..
Carter, teamster262262..
    Relative assisting11..
Engine-driver, fireman8585..
Navy, labourer, platelayer7,4047,404..
Stone-breaker, contractor (road metal)128128..
Dredge-worker, diver (1S1)172172..
Drainer, pavior. asphalt-worker (182)403403..
    Relative assisting33..
Others (183)2121..
 M.F.
(172 Builder, contractor, manager, foreman, clerk1,8640
Assistant510
Builder's apprentice410
Cater130
Inspector07
Labourer3580
(173)Stonemason, labourer2860
Apprentice120
Assistant90
Concrete mason and assistant80
(174)Bricklayer, hodman, labourer1,6250
Apprentice650
(175)Carpenter, labourer9,5640
Apprentice6460
Clerk91
Engine-driver(turner)40
(176)Plasterer, modeller4810
Apprentice510
Assistant471
Labourer820
(177) House-painter, paperhanger glazier3,3650
Apprentice1210
Assistant1526
Carter60
Decorator1360
(178) Plumber, gasfitter, bell-hanger1,8160
Apprentice2700
Assistant2120
Clerk147
Signwriter1340
Building surveyor30
Ceiling-fixer70
(180) Skilled assistant, foreman, inspector. manager, &c.910
Bridge carpenter2360
Bridge-fitter30
Clerk, road-works540
Foreman, ganger, railway and road works1200
Inspector, road-works990
Overseer, works970
Timekeeper140
(181) Dredge-worker, diver1150
Engineer450
Marine diver120
(182) Drainer, pavior, asphalt-worker1870
Ditcher120
Drain labourer2040
(183) Camp cook (works) and assistant90
Concreter120

ORDER 22,—PERSONS engaged in the Disposal of the DEAD, or of REFUSE.

00.05 per cent of total male population.

00.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Engaged in the disposal of the dead411011433117
2. Engaged in the disposal of refuse, &c.10122132132
Totals, Order 22, 19061423224633249
Totals, Order 22, 19011117018122183

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Disposal of the Dead.   
Undertaker59563
    Relative assisting11..
Cemetery-keeper, grave-digger5757..
Sub-order 2.—Disposal of Refuse.   
Scavenger, street-cleaner1616..
Chimney-sweep4343..
Sanitary contractor, nightman5656..
Others : Rag and bottle gatherer1717..

ORDER 23.—INDUSTRIAL and other active WORKERS imperfectly defined.

40.13 per cent, of total male population.

00.21 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Industrial workers imperfectly defined2,11517,31619,43140646987520,306
Totals, Order 23, 19062,11517,31619,43140646987520,306
Totals, Order 23, 19012,29514,27416,56930841372117,290

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Imperfectly denned.   
Mechanic, manufacturer (so defined)177177..
Factory worker, manager (so defined)967611356
Restive assisting11..
Engineer, engine-driver, stoker (so defined) (184)2,0892,089..
    Relative assisting1212..
Machinist, machine hand (so defined)822321501
Contractor, manager, apprentice, foreman (so defined)1,8541,83618
    Relative assisting2525..
Labourer (so defined)14,21214,212..
Others (185)147147..
 M.F.
(184) Engineer, engine-driver, stoker1,7490
Engineer's apprentice2750
Engineer's assistant650
(185) Handy-man100
Factory inspector30
Mill hand320
Tally clerkto0
Timekeeper70
Wage-earner650

Chapter 24. CLASS VI.—AGRICULTURAL, PASTORAL, MINERAL, AND OTHER PRIMARY PRODUCERS.

ORDER 24.—PERSONS directly engaged in the CULTIVATION of LAND, in BREEDING or REARING ANIMALS, or in obtaining RAW PRODUCTS from NATURAL SOURCES.

24.41 per cent, of total male population.

0.83 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons directly engaged in agricultural pursuits11,24156,59367,8343141,4091,72369,557
2. Persons directly engaged in pastoral pursuits4,30921,36125,6705911,1391,73027,400
3. Persons engaged in rabbiting, beekeeping, &c.184784968145973
4. Persons directly engaged in fisheries, &c.97862959959
5. Persons directly engaged in forestry, or the acquisition of raw products yielded by natural vegetation2383,0933,3311l3,332
6. Persons engaged in the conservancy of water7181188188
7. Persons engaged in mines, quarries, &c.1,08814,86815,95617815,964
Totals, Order 24, 190617,16497,742114,9069072,5603,467118,373
Totals, Order 24, 190118,60589,402108,0071,3362,5783,914111,921

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Agricultural Pursuits.   
Farmer29,92728,963964
Relative assisting '12,06111,407654
Farm manager, overseer6116101
    Relative assisting55..
Farm servant, agricultural labourer (186)21,56621,50660
    Relative assisting4949..
Market gardener (187)2,0162,0097
    Relative assisting49472
Fruit-grower, orchardist (188)58255923
    Relative assisting53476
Hop, cotton, tea, coffee grower1414..
    Relative assisting22..
Wine-grower, vigneron46451
    Relative assisting77..
Sugar-planter55..
Horticulturist, gardener (189)1,6991,6972
    Relative assisting52502
Agricultural Department officer6767..
Others (190)7467451
 M.F.
(186) Farm servant, agricultural labourer17,09360
Assistant3,3650
Boy130
Bullock-driver60
Cadet820
Carter540
Cook910
Fencer240
Gardener570
Groom400
Harvester320
Ploughman6490
Rouseabout40
Stableman60
(187) Market gardener1,6676
Assistant1251
Labourer2170
(188) Fruit-grower, orchardist50319
Assistant564
(189) Horticulturist, gardener1,4422
Apprentice210
Assistant2340
(190) Agricultural-implement owner, worker491
Agricultural student550
Cook240
Cropper20
Cropper's assistant20
Engine-driver780
Harvest contractor330
Labourer3430
Ploughing contractor390
Ploughing contractor's son assisting630
Potato-digger60
Threshing - machine assistant530
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 2.—Pastoral Pursuits.   
Grazier, pastoralist, stock-breeder3,9033,800103
    Relative assisting1,8451,608237
Station manager, overseer, book-keeper5365351
Stockrider, drover, shearer, shepherd, pastoral labourer (191)8,7428,66973
Dairy-farmer7,1726,785387
    Relative assisting2,7861,978808
Dairy assistant, milker1,4471,37968
Poultry-farmer39034644
    Relative assisting17107
Pig-farmer37352
Wool classer, sorter172172..
Stock and Brands Department officer9898..
Others(192)255255..
Sub-order 3.—The Capture, Preservation, or Destruction of Wild Animals, or the Acquisition of Products yielded by Wild Animals.   
Bee-keeper39345
Rabbiter917917..
    Relative assisting1111..
Bird-trapper22..
Others (193)44..
Sub-order 4.—Fisheries.   
Fisheries Department Inspector, officer1818..
Fisherman (194)834834..
    Relative assisting2222..
Oyster-bed lessee, worker, catcher7878..
Engaged in whale-fishery33..
Others (195)44..
Sub-order 5.—Forestry, or the Acquisition of Raw Products yielded by Natural Vegetation,   
Forest Department Ranger, officer9393..
Axeman, woodman, timber getter, splitter..2,8372,837..
    Relative assisting66..
Bark-stripper2525..
Others (196)3713701
Sub-order 6.—Engaged in the Conservation of Water in all its Forms and in Water-supply from Natural Sources.   
Conservation of Water Department officer66..
Conservation of Water Department caretaker, worker1717..
Water-supply officer, worker, well-sinker (197)165165..
Sub-order 7. — Mines, Quarries, or the Acquisition of Natural Mineral Products.   
Mines Department officer1818..
Mine, gold (quartz), proprietor, manager, worker (198)3,3223,322..
    Relative assisting33..
 M.F.
(191) Stockrider, drover, shearer, shepherd, pastoral labourer3,7360
Blacksmith10
Book-keeper, clerk343
Bootmaker10
Boundary-keeper10
Bullock-driver490
Butcher, baker110
Cadet570
Carpenter460
Carter, wagoner, horse-driver1010
Cook31544
Fencer1640
Gardener1370
Grass-seed sower40
Groom1110
Labourer and assistant3,39526
Musterer170
Packer240
Ploughman2100
Rouseabout210
Saddler20
Scourer, washer530
Shepherd's relative assisting280
Stockman1150
Storekeeper60
Visitor assisting60
Wood-cutter180
(192) Contractor on station1510
Bush-clearer670
Ostrich-farmer20
Stud groom350
(193) Caretaker, bird sanctuary21
Caretaker rabbit-proof fence10
Curator, acclimatisation society10
(194) Fisherman7890
Assistant450
(195) Pearler10
Fish-breeder10
Trawler20
(196) Bush cook401
Flax-cutter3240
State-forest labourer60
(197) Water-supply officer, well  
sinker760
Clerk10
Water-race caretaker180
Water-race manager30
Waterworks engine - driver, stoker150
Waterworks inspector140
Waterworks labourer210
Waterworks turncock160
Waterworks engineer10
(198) Mine, gold (quartz), proprietor manager, worker2,5350
Amalgamator380
Assayer270
Battery-boy240
Battery engine-driver1110
Battery feeder40
Battery labourer, hand4710
Battery manager430
Cyanide-process worker180
Mine (quartz) carter100
Mine (quartz) manager410
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Mine, gold (alluvial), proprietor, manager, worker (199)4,5924,5884
    Relative assisting2727..
Mine, gold (undefined), proprietor, manager, worker382382..
    Relative assisting66..
Mine, silver, proprietor, manager, worker (200)1313..
Mine, coal, proprietor, manager, worker (201)2,9342,9322
    Relative assisting77..
Mine, iron, worker33..
Mine, copper, manager, officer, miner, worker1212..
Mine, others and undefined, manager, worker (202)874874..
    Relative assisting1010..
Quarry proprietor, manager, clerk3232..
Quarryman, worker493493..
Kauri-gum digger, scraper, sorter3,2233,2212
    Relative assisting1313..
 M.F.
(199) Mine, gold (alluvial), proprietor, manager, worker3,4853
Clerk, book-keeper231
Gold-dredge dredgemaster1680
Gold-dredge engine-driver2810
Gold-dredge winchman1010
Gold-dredge worker, labourer5200
Mine-manager100
(200) Mine (silver) proprietor, manager, worker90
Prospector40
(201) Mine (coal) proprietor, manager, worker2,0932
Assistant1180
Banksman and screener180
Blacksmith70
Carpenter80
Carter230
Clerk110
Engine-driver1060
Horse-driver170
Manager, overseer510
Mining engineer110
Roadman20
Trucker670
(202) Mine (others and undefined)8210
manager, worker Mine (antimony) dresser, foreman10
Mine engine-driver100
Mine manager100
Mine student120
Mine petroleum-borer100
Mine prospector80
Mine scheelite-miner20

Chapter 25. Class VII,—INDEFINITE.

ORDER 25.—PERSONS whose OCCUPATIONS are unknown or undefined; embracing those who derive Incomes from Sources which cannot be directly related to any other Class.

1.28 per cent, of total male population.

0.76 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons of independent means, having no specific occupation, or undefined96,0116,020273,1553,1829,202
Totals, Order 25, 190696,0116,020273,1553,1829,202
Totals, Order 25, 1901844,8294,913492,5732,6227,535

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Persons of Independent Means, having no Specific Occupation, or Undefined.   
Pensioner1,8761,36l515
Annuitant765440325
Independent means, lady, gentleman (so returned) (203)3,2431,9821,261
Others: No occupation3,3182,2371,08l
 M.F.
(203) Independent means1,3911,261
Private means270
Retired5640

Chapter 26. CLASS VIII.—DEPENDENTS.

ORDER 26.—PERSONS DEPENDENT upon NATURAL GUARDIANS.

30.01 per cent, of total male population.

81.19 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid1459123623,825178,141201,966202,204
2. Dependent scholars and students83,20716683,37381,07113881,209164,582
3. Dependent relatives and others, not stated to be performing domestic duties57,19447657,67055,24759655,843113,511
Totals, Order 26, 1906140,546733141,279160,143178,875339,018480,297
Totals, Order 26, 1901127,681235127,916149,503149,224298,727426,643

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Domestic Duties for which Remuneration is not paid.   
Wife, widow, head148,363..148,363
Son, daughter, relative48,85617648,680
Visitor4,110304,080
Boarder, lodger87330843
Sub-order 2.—Dependent Scholars and Students.   
Son, daughter, relative, and others supported at university2,4492,294155
Son, daughter, relative, and others at school157»96179,20978,752
Son, daughter, relative, and others taught at home4,1721,8702,302
Sub-order 3. - Dependent Relatives and Others not stated to be performing Domestic Duties.   
Father, mother (dependent upon children)2525..
Son, daughter, relative (including persons under twenty years of age with occupation unspecified)111,89056,93754,953
Visitor1,141527614
Others457181276

ORDER 27.—PERSONS DEPENDENT upon the STATE, or upon PUBLIC or PRIVATE SUPPORT.

1.20 per cent, of total male population.

0.79 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons supported by voluntary and State contributions6713,6164,2877552,3023,0577,344
2. Criminal class (under legal detention)3371,0441,3811301082381,619
Totals, Order 27, 19061,0084,6605,6688852,4103,2958,963
Totals, Order 27, 19015552,6933,2485971,6612,2585,506

Details for each sub order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Supported by Voluntary and State Contributions.   
Inmate of hospital1,7261,043683
Inmate benevolent institution2,2751,383892
Inmate mental hospital3,0111,8011,210
Inmate orphan asylum32260262
Inmate night refuge3..3
Others dependent on charity7..7
Sub-order 2.—Criminal Classes (under legal detention).   
Inmate of gaol, penal establishment83274785
Inmate of lock-up, watch-house99..
Inmate of reformatory, industrial school439286153
Others339339..

OCCUPATIONS OF THE CHINESE.

The Chinese enumerated at the census numbered 2,570, against 2,857 in 1901, a decrease of 287, or 10.05 per cent.

Of the number in 1906, 2,515 were males and 55 females. Of the males 63 were returned as married.

The number of Chinese under 14 years of age was only 33 (23 males and 10 females).

The occupations show 612 gold-miners, 734 market- gardeners with 57 labourers and assistants, 184 fruiterers or greengrocers with 42 assistants, 219 laundrymen with 24 assistants, 53 storekeepers with 25 clerks and assistants, 105 labourers undefined, 36 farm labourers, 51 hotel cooks and servants, 18 boarding-house-keepers with 3 cooks and servants, 5 fish-hawkers, 21 rabbiters, 8 carpenters and cabinetmakers, 7 merchants, 5 fishermen, 24 grocers and assistants, 4 restaurant-keepers, 3 rag, bone, and bottle dealers, 1 draper, 2 station labourers, 4 interpreters, 1 butcher, 39 hawkers, and 1 of independent means.

In addition to the number of hotel and boardinghouse cooks there were 4 farm, 3 station, and 36 cooks undefined. Amongst others in small numbers are noticed 2 missionaries, 1 medical man, 2 herbalists, and 1 clergyman.

Three of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 15 of benevolent asylums. There were 222 Chinese lunatics (in asylums), and 5 of this race were prisoners in gaol on the census night.

Appendix APPENDIX-A. APPENDIX A.—INDUSTRIES, PUBLIC LIBRARIES, AND OTHER LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS; PLACES OF WORSHIP.

MANUFACTORIES AND WORKS,

IN regard to the returns of manufactories and works, it is necessary> as a preliminary, to repeat the statement made at last census as to what has been included. Whereas up till the time of the census of 1901 the term “factory” was rather held to mean an establishment where manufacture was carried on wholesale, where machinery was employed, and where several hands worked together, in the returns of 1901 and 1906 a “factory” has been interpreted to mean any concern where two or more persons work together at making articles for disposal, wholesale or retail, and without reference to machinery being used or not. Thus thes9 returns include certain industrial workers (and their production) where two or more are found together, with manufactories to supply the wholesale traders or making for export. But the attempt has been made to approximate the census results to those of the Labour Department, according to special direction. The totals for the industries do not include mining, quarrying, and the fisheries, which are dealt with separately.

MANUFACTORIES AND WORKS, 1906 AND 1901.

 April,March,Increase,
1900.1901.1901–6.
No.No.No.
* Omitting Government Railway Workshops and Government Printing Office.
Number of establishments*4,1863,680506
Hands employed—   
    Males44,94636,2928,654
    Females11,41310,555858
Totals56,35946,8479,512
Wages paid—£££
    To males3,979,5932,972,1931,007,400
    To females478,026330,454147,572
Totals4,457,6193,302,6471,154,972
 H.p.H.p.H.p.
Horse-power60,33539,11321,222
Total approximate value of—£££
    Land3,264,8621,980,4281,284,434
    Buildings3,851,9022,575,6791,276,223
    Machinery and plant5,392,5223,852,4571,540,065
Totals12,509,2868,408,5644,100,722

Under the heading “Hands employed,” the increase was from 46,847 in 1900 to 56,359 in 1905, or at the rate of over 20 per cent. in five years. This increase, it will be observed, is mainly on the male side. The returns show a decrease of females employed in clothing and boot and shoe factories, besides woollen-mills, matchmaking, and a few others, which brings the net increase in this sex down to 8 per cent.

;The wages paid in the factories or industrial works dealt with in the census returns were returned for 1905 at £4,457,619, and for 1900 at £3,302,647, the increase on the total sum being at the rate of 35 per cent.

The average amount of wages paid to male hands in 1905 was £88 10s. 11d., and £81 17s. lid. in 1900; for females, £41 17s. 8d. against £31 6s. 2d. in 1900. Tested in this way the wages of both would seem to have increased substantially. It must be remembered that these are not adult wages, but those of persons of all ages, male and female distinctly.

The increase for the year 1906 over 1901 in the horse-power stated in the returns was 21,222.

The approximate value of the land used for purposes of the factories was returned as £3,264,862 in 1906, against £1,980,428 in 1901. The value of the lands used for mining is not included in the above figures, and the value of Grown lands has been omitted throughout.

A very large increase will be found in the value of machinery and plant, from £3,852,457 in 1901 to £5,392,522 in 1906, being at the rate of 39.98 per cent. Somewhat of this result is what might be expected, considering the ever increasing use and improvement in machinery that is proceeding with time. The value of the buildings also increased from £2,575,679 to £3,851,902, or 4955 per cent.

VALUE OF MANUFACTURES OR PRODUCE (OUTPUT).

 1905.1900.Increase in 5 Years.
Value of all manufactures or produce (including repairs)£ 23,444,235£ 17,853,133£ 5,591,102

This is at the rate of 31.31 per cent, for the quinquennium, a very satisfactory rate of progress, taking all the manufactories and works collectively.

The development is analysed in the following statement, which includes nearly the whole increase, and has been worked down to a limit of £20,000 to show the main features. The factories or works in connection with our great primary industries, agricultural, pastoral, timber, and flax, include the greater part of the money.

PRINCIPAL INCREASES, CENSUS 1906.

 £
Meat freezing and preserving works, with boiling-down1,093,654
Butter and cheese factories1,046,489
Sawmills, sash and door factories860,077
Grain-mills375,802
Printing and bookbinding establishments (not Government)363,542
Flax-mills354,316
Gasworks96,353
Ham and bacon curing establishments94,373
Brick, tile, and pottery works94,320
Furniture and cabinet making87,161
Coach building and painting works78,741
Woodware and turnery factories72,673
Lime and cement works62,533
Agricultural-implement factories61,647
Electro-lighting works58,796
Sugar-boiling and confectionery works50,055
Fruit-preserving and jam-making39,940
Woollen-mills37,966
Aerated-water factories37,750
Hosiery-factories36,323
Chemical-works30,556
Grass-seed dressing28,789
Tinware factories28,563
Biscuit-factories27,487
Bone-mills and manure-works26,260
Ship and boat building yards20,761

The addition of the figures for the total value of manufactures is not absolutely justified to the fullest extent of the amount shown (twenty-three and a half million pounds sterling); but the degree of repetition of value is not so great as to prevent the total given being of great help in judging of development. No doubt the above amount is over the fact, because, for instance, some of the butter made is included in returns for meat-freezing establishments, as well as in the butter-factory returns ; timber cut is valued under sawmilling, and some again in the furniture-making line. Also, leather is valued in the tanning returns, and some part of it again in the boot and saddlery items. A certain amount of duplication is unavoidable. This is admitted in the accounts of industrial statistics of the United States of America and elsewhere.

The total increase in value of manufactures for the period 1900–1905 (£5,591,102) is not so large as that stated previously for 1895–1900, when the sum was £7,600,000; but the latter represented the rise from a period of depression, which is not the case in respect of the later period.

Where decreases have been found in the returns these may be referred to in a comparative statement which follows, as well as in the special tables relating to individual industries further on.

The printed tables relating to individual industries will clearly show that; quantities have risen, as well as the value of manufactures, so that the development is not merely a question of market-prices, but of actual output.

Value of Materials operated upon.

This information was given in case of most industries, but important estimates had to be made to obtain completeness. The sum arrived at for the year 1905 is £13,163,692. The difference between this amount and the total value of all the manufacture and produce (with repairs) may be termed the net value of the manufacture in a sense, and duplications on account of the articles of any one kind becoming materials operated upon for another sort would be eliminated. But to arrive at any approximate notion of profit £4,457,619 spent in wages ought further to be deducted, and also interest and depreciation on £12,509,286 invested in land, buildings, machinery, and plant, together with taxes, insurance, and other incidental expenses.

INDUSTRIES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

All the various industries for which returns were received in 1906 are given in the statement below, which thus enumerates completely the manufactories and works in operation in the colony, specifying the provincial districts in which they are situated :—

INDUSTRIES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Manufactories, Works, &cNumber of Industries in Provincial Districts.Total Number of Industries
AucklandTaranakiHawke's BayWellingtonMarlboroughNelsonWestlandCanterburyOtago
Animal food—          
    Meat freezing and preserving works8435l..16937
    Ham and bacon curing establishments6724..5..111752
    Fish curing and preserving works11....2l..11521
    Butter and cheese factories576919515931635264
    Condensed-milk factories................22
Vegetable food—....................
    Grain-mills4211136..222877
    Biscuit-factories5....2..1..1312
    Fruit-preserving and jam-making works8..21..2..3824
    Sugar-boiling and confectionery works8..211..1..7736
    Sugar-refining works1................1
    Baking-powder factories3....1......3..7
Drinks, narcotics, and stimulants—          
    Breweries82513925131572
    Malthouses2..111..58422
    Colonial-wine making10..43..212..22
    Aerated-water factories238722..2142819123
    Coffee and spice works1....2..2..3513
    Tobacco-manufactories1............1..2
    Sauce, pickle, and vinegar factories5....9..211 4627
    Ice-factories2................2
Annual matters (not otherwise classed)—....................
    Soap and candle works6..24..1..4219
    Glee-factory1............1..2
    Sausage-skin factories1..22......5212
    Boiling-down works7223......2319
    Bone - mills and manure works31..2......2816
Working in wood—          
    Cooperages4426......5122
    Sawmills, sash and door factories833428981559421867444
    Woodware and turnery factories93113......4939
Vegetable produce for fodder—          
    Chaff-cutting establishments81..3..3..24847
    Grass-seed-dressing establishments1212......91025
Paper-manufacture—          
    Paper-mills3................3
    Paper bag and box factories4....2........28
    Gasworks10239..224638
    Electric-lighting works14..2..1..3213
Processes relating to stone, clay, glass, &c.—          
    Lime and cement works5..1....311920
    Brick, tile, and pottery works2677292722223125
    Monumental masonry4114..2..5623
    Glass-works......4..........4
    Electro-plating works1....2..........3
    Pumice-works1................1
Metals other than gold or silver—          
    Tinware-factories17419..2..111054
    Iron and brass foundries, boiler-making, machinists, &c.161511..31131871
    Heel and toe plate factories1............113
    Engineering-works181212..4..61861
    Range-making works5....2......1311
    Spouting and ridging factories9....4......1216
    Lead-headed-nail works1....1..........2
Books and publications—          
    Printing and book-binding offices4714135411253756239
Musical instruments—          
    Musical-instrument factories1............113
Ornaments, minor art products, and small wares—          
    Toy-factories1............1..2
    Picture-frame makers......6......5314
    Basket and perambulator factories5..17......7626
    Cork-cutting1................1
    Lapidaries................33
Equipment for sports and games—          
    Billiard-table factories1....2......1..4
Designs, medals, type, and dies—          
    Rubber-stamp making..1..1........13
Ammunition—          
    Ammunition-factory1................1
Machines, tools, and implements—          
    Agricultural - implement factories2232......91129
    Brush and broom factories5....2......2211
    Cutlery-factory................11
Carriages and vehicles—          
    Coach building and painting works3814154121332631188
    Cycle-factories51319..91411897
Harness, saddlery, and leather-ware—          
    Saddlery and harness factories2297241711421106
    Whip-thong factories1....1..........2
    Portmanteau-factories4....2......118
    Tanning, fellmongering, and wool - scouring establishments138121654..271999
Ships, boats, and their equipment—          
    Ship and boat building yards19....3......2630
    Graving-docks and patent slips2....1......227
    Block and pump factories2................2
    Sail, tent, and oilskin factories3217..217629
Furniture—          
    Furniture and cabinetmaking48139402462723172
    Venetian-blind works1....3......149
    Mattress-factories3....4......2211
    Wool-rug and mat making......1........23
Chemicals and by-products—