REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF A CENSUS OF THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND TAKEN FOR THE NIGHT OF THE 31ST MARCH, 1901.


Table of Contents

Census Of New Zealand, 1901.

Report.

TO THE HONOURABLE THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Registrar-General's Office,

Wellington, 1st October, 1902.

SIR

I have the honour to make my report on the census taken in March 1901:—

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

A Conference of statisticians representing the seven Colonies’ of Australasia was held in Sydney, sitting from the 26th February to the 3rd March, 1900, to arrange for the collection and compilation of the census of 1901 on a uniform basis, so as to secure that full and complete comparisons could be made of the results ascertained for the different States of what is now the Commonwealth of Australia, and for New Zealand. At this Conference there were present the following delegates: Messrs. T. A. Coghlan (New South Wales), President; J. J. Fenton (Victoria); J. Hughes (Queensland); L. H. Sholl (South Australia); M. A. C. Eraser (Western Australia); R. M. Johnston (Tasmania); E. J. von Dadelszen (New Zealand).

As to fixing a date for the census, the Conference was very desirous that the appointed night should be so selected for the enumeration of the people that the census might take place when there would be least movement of population, and when the localisation would be such as to render results showing normal conditions.

It was felt that to take a census at a time of general migration like Easter would be to enumerate the people in places at which they do not usually reside, and to increase unduly the population of some localities at the expense of others

Although the night of the 28th April was agreed to by resolution, this could not be acted upon, as instructions from the several Governments eventually fixed the night for the 31st March, being the same as that adopted in the United Kingdom.

No difficulty was experienced in arranging for a form of household schedule, which has been adopted by all the colonies, and, generally, for methods of compilation which would bring the compiled tables for each into the necessary agreement for comparative purposes.

As regards New Zealand, the most important alteration in the schedule was by way of introduction of a new heading of inquiry, under which the length of residence of all persons not born in the colony was required to be stated.

The inquiries actually made in respect of the people by means of the household schedule were as under:—

  1. Names and surnames.

  2. Sex.

  3. Age last birthday.

  4. Condition as to marriage.

  5. Relation to head of house.

  6. Profession or occupation.

  7. Grade of occupation.

  8. Sickness or infirmity.

  9. Birthplace.

  10. Length of residence.

  11. Religion.

  12. Schooling (Sunday).

  13. 13 and 14. Education.

Besides the above information as to all persons in the colony given in the household schedule, returns were obtained from proprietors or persons in charge of all manufactories, mills, works having machinery and plant, and other industries, including mines and quarries. The forms used for these were very comprehensive, and included questions as to hands and steam-power employed, value of materials operated on, and of produce or manufacture, with particulars as to quantities, and value of land, buildings, machinery and plant in use.

Further returns were collected under authority of the Fourth Schedule to the Census Act, showing the number of churches, chapels, and other places of worship, their situation, accommodation, and the attendance thereat; also as to land and building societies, mechanics’ institutes, with other literary or scientific institutions.

Nearly the whole of these returns were, however, unfortunately destroyed in the fire which occurred in the Census Office while the compilation was in progress, and the information intended to have been published under these heads was in consequence considerably curtailed.

By section 3 of “The Representation Act, 1877,” the Registrar-General is required to ascertain and report to the Representation Commissioners the results of any census, and it then becomes the duty of the Commission to divide the colony into electoral districts for the apportionment of the representation of the people on the basis of population. The final figures were accordingly formally reported in a certified return, on the 29th April, 1902, The return which gives details of population in counties, boroughs, road and town districts, &c., was presented to Parliament on the 10th July, 1901, following on a preliminary return made on the 12th June, 1901. Further census results were published in the form of summary tables in the New Zealand Gazette, as under: —

Religions7th November, 1901.
Manufactories, works, &c.7th November, 1901, and subsequent dates.
Birthplaces28th November, 1901.
Ages16th January, 1902.
Sickness and infirmity30th January, 1902.
Conjugal condition6th March, 1902.
Education6th March, 1902.
Occupations19th June, 1902, and subsequent dates.

Complete parts of the census volume were circulated as rapidly as they could be put through the Press, and issued on the following dates:—

7th April, 1902,—

  • Part I, Population and dwellings.

22nd April, 1902,—

  • Part II., Religions; and Part III., Birthplaces.

23rd September, 1902,—

  • Part IV., Ages.

  • Appendix A., Manufactories, works, &c.; Appendix B., Maori census; Appendix C, Land and live-stock.

Part V., Conjugal condition; VI., Education; VII., Sickness and infirmity; and VIII., Occupations, are complete, and in the printer's hands.

TOTAL COST OF CENSUS.

The cost per head of population of taking and compiling the census of 1901 is found to have been greater than that incurred on the occasion of the census of 1896, on a comparison of the total amounts spent:—

European census—1896.1901.
£s.cl.£s.d.
    Enumerators9548111,297142
        Clerical assistance for, and sundries42240736111
    Sub-Enumerators8,8393410,16862
        Total10,21516312,20223
Maori census818141961137
        Total collection11,03410413,1631510
Maps, &c.674605691211
Compilation, and sundries in central office4,642965,66770
    Grand total cost of census, exclusive of printing£16,351510£19,400159

The total sum for 1901 is greater than that for 1896, as is also the cost per capita of population. The figures are:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS (EXCLUSIVE OF MAORIS).

Year.Amount.
£
Population.Cost per head.
d.
189610,216703,3603.5
190112,202772,7193.8

For the Maoris the expense was as under:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS OF MAORI POPULATION.

Year.Amount.
£
Population.Cost per head.
d.
189681939,8544.9
190196243,1435.4

Cost of Compilation and Sundries (including Maps) in Central Office.

Year.Amount Spent.
£
Population.Cost per head.
d.
18965,317703,3601.8
19016,237772,7191.9

The total cost of the European census of 1901 was at the rate of 5.7d. per head. In 1896 the total cost amounted to 5.3d. per head.

A comparison of expenditure in the enumeration in proportion to dwellings is scarcely possible for different parts of the colony in regard to country districts, because distances between the houses vary, and for other reasons. But a comparison of cost per 100 houses in the four chief cities of the colony is both interesting and useful, as affording an idea of what the expense can be reduced to in centres like capital towns. The cost in 1901 was lowest in Wellington, £115s. 3d. per 100 dwellings. In Dunedin the expenditure was c£3 0s. 8d. per hundred, and in Christchurch £3 11s. 6d.; while in Auckland the cost was as high as £5 7s. 9d., or more than three times that in Wellington.

ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CENSUS.

The number of Enumerators appointed to control the taking of the census was forty-two, against thirty-two in 1896. Each Enumerator had his particular district, consisting of a group of counties, with their interior boroughs. To increase the number of Enumerators’ districts was essential, in view of the need for more supervision of the Sub-Enumerators employed to deliver and collect the household schedules than was exercised in 1896, and also for a more prompt examination and despatch of the census to the head office by the local Enumerators. The number of Sub-Enumerators was 895, against 787 in 1896.

The plan adopted previously of forwarding to each Enumerator two large maps, showing the contiguous counties comprising his district, was again followed. One of these was sent back to the Registrar-General with the plan of proposed Sub-Enumerator's districts marked thereon. The maps were drawn to show all the existing divisions of the country for purposes of general and local government, such as counties and ridings, road and town districts, boroughs, and towns.

The Enumerators were instructed to make a riding, or part thereof, a census sub-district, unless there were special reasons against taking such a course. Sometimes road districts were adopted. If the subdivision into Sub-Enumerator's districts was not as minute everywhere as could be desired for purposes of the most rapid execution of the work, it was nevertheless done as closely in accordance with recognised methods as the circumstances of the colony would allow. It is sometimes found better to give any thoroughly reliable person a rather large district than to subdivide further when suitable men are not available. But the subdivision of the colony as a whole was far more thorough at the census of 1901 than in 1896, which is shown by the relative numbers of Sub-Enumerators, each of whom had a sub-district to himself.

Directly the plan of subdivision of an Enumerator's district was settled the descriptions of the boundaries were forwarded to the Chief Surveyor's Office, for maps to be prepared of each Sub-Enumerator's district, coloured to exhibit all territorial divisions. These maps enabled the Sub-Enumerators so to make up their books as to show the household schedules belonging to each division of the county.

The different Chief Surveyors, on completing the Sub-Enumerator's maps for any particular county, transmitted them to the Surveyor-General's office at Wellington, to be examined and passed on to the Registrar-General, who at once issued them (with books attached) to the Enumerator within whose district such county was situated. Later on the Registrar-General issued to all Enumerators full supplies of household schedules, with the forms for special industrial returns, and others relating to such matters as places of public worship, libraries, and other literary and scientific institutions.

After the census schedules had been all received from the Sub-Enumerators, a preliminary return of population was made up by every Enumerator, and from these a summary showing the rough results of the census was compiled in Wellington and presented to Parliament on the opening-day of the session. The first parcels of household schedules received from local Enumerators at the Registrar-General's office came to hand on the 9th April, 1901. The delivery went on from that time until the 20th June, 1901, when the last parcel arrived. In the meantime a large office had been opened in Wellington for the final compilation, and considerable progress made.

THE COMPILATION.

The compilation of the census necessitated the employment of a large staff of temporary clerks. These were taken on gradually, as fast as the arrival of the schedules permitted. The maximum number of clerks employed was fifty. The work of compilation began on the 29th April, 1901, and the staff was increased to the full number in June. Reductions began in October, and continued until, in June, 1902, there were only eight clerks remaining.

These compiling clerks were selected from applicants in all parts of the colony.

The first tabulation is made directly from the household schedules, and does not deal with any of the particulars relating to the people, such as age, religion, or birthplace. The number of each sex in every dwelling house is all that is noted, and the dwelling is classified as to number of rooms, and materials of which it is composed. The sheets on which these particulars are given are headed for every division of territory having boundaries existing in the colony. On completing the tabulation of the schedules belonging to any particular division of a county, a fresh sheet is taken, as the heading has changed. Thus, by breaking the sheets, summaries can afterwards be prepared without repeating any of the tabulation, no matter how frequently the boundaries of various divisions are found to interlace each other.

The schedules are laid out in counties, with what are termed “blue” and “white dividers” to mark where divisions, such as ridings, road districts, and localities, begin and end. The blue dividers simply indicate the localities or small places having names, but no legally denned boundaries.

The first compilation does not take very long to finish, and when done the Registrar-General is able to comply with the requirements of “The Representation Act, 1887,” by reporting the exact population to the Commissioners, who are appointed to divide the colony anew into electorates on the basis of the census, as before referred to.

An Act was passed on the 13th July, 1890, and two permanent Commissions of five members each were substituted for the one under the Act of 1887. One of these Commissions is for the North Island, and the other for the Middle and Stewart Islands. The official members of the North Island Commission are the Surveyor-General and the Commissioners of Crown Lands for Taranaki and Auckland. For the Middle Island the official element is represented by the Commissioners of Crown Lands for Westland, Canterbury, and Otago. The two remaining (unofficial) members of each Commission are, by the Act, persons nominated by the House of Representatives, hut not members of the Civil Service or of the General Assembly. These Commissions first sit together as a joint Commission for the purpose of fixing, according to the manner prescribed in “The Representation Apt, 1887,” the number of the districts for the North and Middle Islands (including Stewart Island), respectively. Afterwards they act separately and independently.

The method laid down in “The Representation Act Amendment Act, 1889,” for computing for the purposes of that Act the population of the colony, is to add 28 percent. to the population not contained in any city, borough, or town district having a population of over two thousand persons. The total population of the colony (other than Maoris), with the addition aforesaid, having been ascertained, is then divided by the number of members (seventy), and the quotient thus obtained forms the quota. The four city electoral districts are so defined as to extent that the population shall be three times the quota. Inasmuch as it would be impossible to divide the country into a given number of districts all having exactly the given quota of population, the law permits the Commissioners to make an allowance of 1,250 persons by way of addition to or deduction from the population of rural districts, and 100 persons in the case of city electorates; and due consideration is given to community of interest, facilities of communication, and topographical features, as far as possible, in forming the districts. A table is given further on showing the new districts, with the actual population of each, and the nominal population—that is, with 28 percent. added to the rural portion.

In 1900 an Act was passed increasing the number of members from seventy to seventy-six, and authorising the constitution of six additional electoral districts.

Proceeding as indicated above, each Island was found to be entitled to thirty-eight members. Previously the North Island had only thirty-four members, and the other thirty-six, but movement of population has altered the proportions in favour of the North.

When the work of the Joint Commission was done, the Commissioners for each Island met in Wellington on the 12th June,. 1902, to readjust boundaries, and again, subsequently (one at Wellington and one at Christchurch), for the consideration of objections. The districts were finally gazetted on the 13th August, 1902.

Reverting to the compilation of the census, the second tabulation was not made directly from the census schedules. In order to obtain tables showing the number of people of each sex at various ages, in combination with information as to their religion, birthplace, conjugal condition, degree of education, occupation, health, and other particulars, it has been found best to mark a card for each person, and then to tabulate the results of the sorted cards on to sheets ruled with the necessary columns. Any number of different combinations can be obtained from cards with perfect facility. They are used in vital statistics for a double purpose, first as a means of tabulating causes of death in combination with ages of deceased persons, and then, after being sorted into an alphabetical arrangement of the names, the general index of deaths registered is prepared from them, by means of which searches are made when copies of entries are called for.

The labour of transferring information from the schedules to the cards is not nearly so great as might at first be imagined, because the cards are printed in such a way that a mere stroke of the pencil across a small square space is enough for the most part to indicate what is wanted. Recognised abbreviations of words are permitted for the rest, such as “G.S.” for Government scholar, “Dr.” for daughter. The accompanying specimen of the form of printed card used will show that much work is saved.* A clerk in/practice can mark a large number of cards in a day.

The checking of the cards is certainly a serious matter. It is effected by reading off with the schedules, and, if not insisted on, the census would be unreliable. But when the cards are all filled up and checked the benefit is at once discovered, and the preparation of the summary tables is conducted with so much facility and certainty that the advantages far outweigh the delay and cost of making ready the cards. In fact, the work closes up rapidly when these cards are complete.

* For further remarks on this particular form of card see paper on “Modes of Census-taking in the British Dominions,” by R. H. Hooker, M.A., Assistant-Secretary to the Royal Statistical Society, and read before that body on the l6th January, 1894. A model of the New Zealand card is there given, with special comments,

To avoid disturbing the cards for each county or borough by picking out those in regard to which exceptional information is wanted, a system of duplicate cards is used; as an instance, a second card is filled up for every Chinaman found in the census. These are kept by themselves, and tables relating to the Chinese are made up from them without interfering with the great mass of ordinary cards.

The processes of preparing the cards and checking them were carried on simultaneously, to secure good work. Card-writing began on the 1st June, 1901, and the whole were finished by the 11th October.

The sorting of the cards is done into cases placed upon the tables at which the clerks sit. These cases are divided into suitable compartments by means of movable pieces of wood, so that the sizes of the pigeon-holes can be varied according to the quantity of cards they are required to contain at different stages of the work. A checker tests the correctness of each sorting and count of the cards before they are removed from the pigeon-holes.

During the time that the second tabulation of the population was in progress the special industrial returns collected with the census were tabulated, and a complete set of tables relative to manufactories, works, &c, was compiled. The first census industrial statistics appeared in the Gazette of the 7th November, 1901. It was found that by publishing a little at a time the attention of the public was better drawn to the census, and interest in it kept alive, than by holding the matter back. After all the office summaries were completed, the tables for the census volume were made up from them. In these there is a good deal of calculating to be done, and many comparisons to make.

PART I.—POPULATION AND HOUSES.

Chapter 1.

The population of the Colony of New Zealand, according to the census taken on the 31st March, 1901, numbered 772,719 persons (exclusive of Maoris). The Maori population, including 31 Morioris at the Chatham Islands, was found to be 43,143, making a total of 815,862 persons altogether, of whom 2,857 were Chinese, and 5,540 half-castes.

Of the half-caste population—5,540 persons—2,407 were living amongst and as Europeans, while 3,133 persons were living with the Maoris. The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 5,762 persons in 1896, and the decrease for five years amounted to 222, or 3.87 per cent. Included in the Maori population are 190 Maori wives of European husbands. In the year 1886 201 Europeans were returned as married to Maori women, in 1891 the number was 251, and at the census of 1896 the number was 229.

The Chinese population shows a decrease since 1896 from 3,711 to 2,857, or at the rate of 23.01 per cent.

The numbers of the sexes in the population of the colony are shown in the statement below:—

 Total Population (including Chinese and Half-castes)Half-castes(included previously).
Persons.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Population (excluding Maoris)772,719405,992336,7271,1881,219
Maori population43,11223,09720,0151,6941,439
Morioris at Chatham Islands311516
    Total population of the colony815,862429,104386,7582,8822,658

Chinese, 2,857 persons, included in above.

At this point of the report it is convenient to leave any consideration of the Maori population, and deal only with the numbers excluding the Natives. Remarks on the Maori census will be found given by way of an Appendix.

The population (exclusive of Natives) at the census of April, 1896, was found to be 703,360 persons; so that the increase for the five-year period ended March, 1901, was 69,359 persons, or at the rate of 9–86 per cent.

This percentage is greater than the increase for the quinquennium 1886–91 when the colony added only 8.33 per cent, to its European population, but not so great as that for the period 1891–96, which was at the rate of 12–24 per cent.

Of the total increase in 1896–1901, 59,844 persons represent the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, and the remainder, 9,515, the excess of arrivals over departures.

The increase since 1858 is shown in tabular form:—

Census Years and Months.Increases.
Population. Persons.Numerical.Centesimal
1858, December    59,413  
      39,608    66.67
1861, December    99,021  
      73,137    73.86
1864, December    172,158  
      46,510    27.01
1867, December    218,668  
      37,725    17.25
1871, February    256,393  
      43,121    16.82
1874, March    299,514  
      114,898    38.36
1878, March    414,412  
      75,521    18.22
1881, April    489,933  
      88,549    18.07
1886, March    578,482  
      48,176    8.33
1891, April    626,658  
      76,702    12.24
1896, April    703,360  
      69,359    9.86
1901, March    772,719  

The average annual increase of population, judged by the results of the two last censuses, is at the rate of T90 per cent. Between 1891–96 the average rate was 2.40 per cent., and between 1886 and 1891 the rate was 1.60 per cent, per annum.

The census of March, 1901, proved the Registrar-General's estimates of population (made up by calculating annually the natural increase by excess of births over deaths and the increase by excess of arrivals over departures) to be very near to the truth. Thus, the estimate for the 31st March, 1901, was 775,122 persons, or within 2,403 of the population enumerated in the census. This very satisfactory closeness of the estimated population to the actual count of the people has been attained to a great extent by checking the returns of departures received from the Customs authorities with special returns supplied by the pursers of the Union Steamship Company's boats, in which are included all the persons who did not book passages at the final port of departure; also, the estimate is closer than it would have been if very great overcrowding of outgoing steamers had taken place between April, 1896, and March, 1901. New Zealand being insular, no doubt the estimates made between the different censuses ought to be fairly correct, but it is none the less satisfactory to find them so, as proof is given of a complete registration of births and deaths, besides of careful inquiry as to the outflow7 or influx of population to and from abroad.

The increase of population of the North and South Islands has not been by any means uniform during the period 1896–1901, or the preceding quinquennium 1891–96. The respective rates of progress are exhibited in the next statement:—

POPULATION OF PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS OF NEW ZEALAND, 1891, 1896, 1901

(EXCLUDING MAORIS).

 1891.  1896.Increase.
  Number.  Percentage
North Island and adjacent islets  281,455  340,631  59,176  21.03
South Island and adjacent islets  344,711  362,236  17,525  5.08
Stewart Island  202  252  50
Chatham Islands  271  234  − 37  dec.
Kermadec Islands  19  7  … 12  dec.
      Totals for colony  626,658  703,360  76,702  12.24
 1896.  1901.Increase.
  Number.  Percentage.
North Island and adjacent islets  340,631  390,571  49,940  12.79
South Island and adjacent islets  362,236  381,661  19,425  5.09
Stewart Island  252  272  20
Chatham Islands  234  207  − 27  dec.
Kermadec Islands  7  8  1
     Totals for colony  703,360  772,719  69,359  9.86

Here it will be observed that the rate of increase for the two periods of five years each is slightly over 5 per cent, in the South Island, whereas in the North Island the increase is 21.03 per cent, for the period 1891–96, and 12–79 per cent, for 1896–1901. The average annual increase during ten years in the South Island has been 1.02 per cent., and that of the North Island for the last five years 2.56 per cent.

The population may be divided into persons enumerated on the census night as in the counties, in the boroughs, in the small islands belonging to the colony, and on shipboard. The numbers are given:—

POPULATION (EXCLUDING MAORIS).

 Persons.Males.Females.
In counties417,596231,426186,170
In boroughs350,202170,450179,752
On adjacent islands943589354
Chatham Islands20711295
Kermedec Islands853
On shipboard3,7633,410353
      Total for colony772,719405,992366,727

A comparison of the results for three census periods shows that the borough population increases at a slightly greater proportion to the whole than the county population. Thus in 1891 the counties had 352,097 persons and the boroughs 270,343, or, for every 100 persons in the colony (excluding the population of the adjacent islands and persons on shipboard) 56.57 belonged to the counties and 43.43 to the boroughs. In 1896 the county population had reached 391,735 persons, but was only 56.04 per cent, of the total, while the boroughs had 307,294 persons, or 43.96 per cent, of the whole county and borough population. In March, 1901, the figures were: —

 Persons.Per Cent.
In countries417,59654.39
In boroughs350,20245.

Showing again n proportion somewhat in favour of the boroughs, when compared with the previous census.

Chapter 2. POPULATION OF PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

A statement of the population in each of the nine provincial districts and on the Chatham Islands is given, contrasted with the numbers as at the census of 1896:—

Provincial Districts.April, 1896.March, 1901.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Auckland153,56481,20672,358175,93892,94482,994
Taranaki31,17516,90014,27537,85520,56917,286
Hawke's Bay34,03818,39715,64135,42418,85916,565
Wellington121,85464,58657,268141,35474,23467,120
Marlborough12,4836,7045,77913,3267,1516,175
Nelson35,73419,57416,16037,91520,60717,308
Westland14,4698,1066,36314,5068,1066,400
Canterbury135,85869,70866,150143,04172,87170,170
Otago163,94486,09877,846173,14590,53482,611
   Chatham Islands23413210220711295
   Kermadec Islands743853
       Totals703,360371,415331,945772,719405,992366,727

The numerical and centesimal increases for the provincial districts during the periods 1891–96 and 1896–1901 were:—

Provincial Districts.1891–96.1896–1901.
Numerical.Percentage.Numerical.Percentage.
AucklandIncrease, 20,40515.32Increase, 22,37414.57
TaranakiIncrease, 9,11041.29Increase, 6,68021.42
Hawke's BayIncrease, 5,53219.41Increase, 1,3864.07
WellingtonIncrease, 24,12924.69Increase, 19,50016.00
MarlboroughDecrease, − 284− 2.22Increase, 8436.75
NelsonIncrease, 9642.77Increase, 2,1816.10
WestlandDecrease, − 1,418− 8.93Increase, 370.26
CanterburyIncrease, 7,4665.82Increase, 7,1835.29
OtagoIncrease, 10,8477.09Increase, 9,2015.61

Of the total increase in the period 1896–1901, amounting to 69,359 persons, or 9.86 per cent, for the colony, more than one-half took place in the Auckland and Wellington Provincial Districts; the numbers by way of increase for those districts being 22,374, or 14–57 per cent., and 19,500, or 16–00 per cent., respectively But the largest proportional advance was in Taranaki, being the excellent increase of 21–42 per cent. Hawke's Bay shows an increase of 4–07 per cent. The population of Otago increased 5–61 per cent, only; Canterbury still less, 5–29 per cent.; in Marlborough there was an increase for the quinquennium of 6.75 per cent.; in Nelson, 6–10 per cent.; and in Westland 0.26 per cent. The advantage is strikingly in favour of the provincial districts of the North Island, as pointed out previously. The rate of progress in 1891–96 was greater than that in 1896–1901 in Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Wellington, Canterbury, and Otago. At Nelson, Marlborough, and Westland the progress was greater in the latter period.

Chapter 3. POPULATION OF COUNTIES.

New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In March, 1901, the number of counties was 86. Of these, the North Island had 52, with a population amounting altogether to 216,725 persons. The South Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,618 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself and has a population of 253 persons. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

Counties.    Census, 1901.    Census, 1896.    Increase or Decrease.
Mongonui2,2741,889Inc. 385
Whangaroa927969Dec. 42
Hokianga1,7671,909Dec. 142
Bay of Islands2,5872,723Dec. 136
Hobson4,8133,750Inc. 1,063
Whangarei6,3806,847*
Otaamatea2,7212,483Inc. 238
Rodney3,6783,464Inc. 214
Waitemata7,0356,762Inc. 273
Eden19,31415,940Inc. 3,374
Manukau12,30612,185Inc. 121
Coromandel4,1694,987Dec. 818
Thames5,0434,515Inc. 528
Ohinemuri9,9784,761Inc. 5,217
Piako2,4362,706*
Waikato3,1832,814Inc. 369
Waipa3,5803,584Dec. 4
Raglan1,6971,545Inc. 152
Kawhia1,113598Inc. 515
West Taupo287156Inc. 131
East Taupo256232Inc. 24
Rotorua1,307840Inc. 467
Tauranga1,7201,622Inc. 98
Whakatane779  
  1,988Inc. 229
Opotiki1,438  
Waiapu711447Inc. 264
Cook6,3935,287Inc. 1,106
Clifton2,5351,450Inc. 1,085
Taranaki11,1949,970Inc. 1,224
Stratford5,0815,141*
Hawera8,3476,934Inc. 1,413
Patea3,0463,034Dec. 38
Waitotara3,4762,737Inc. 739
Wanganui4,0183,095Inc. 923
Rangitikei7,5706,030Inc. 1,540
Kiwitea2,8442,428Inc. 416
Oroua6,7786,450Inc. 328
Pohangina1,5361,351Inc. 185
Manawatu3,0002,709Inc. 291
Horowhenua4,6543,792Inc. 862
Hawke's Bay6,8336,894Dec. 61
Wairoa1,7731,490Inc. 283
Waipawa9,4958,866Inc. 629
Paiangata2,3762,374Inc. 2
Pahiatua3,6003,208Inc. 392
Eketahuna2,3327,209Inc. 878
Akitio1,048
Castlepoint457
Mauriceville1,127
Masterton3,123
Wairarapa South5,4195,409Inc. 10
Hutt7,1715,750Inc. 1,421
Sounds946747Inc. 199
Marlborough6,5186,330Inc. 188
Kaikoura1,7651,575Inc. 190
Collingwood2,4902,509Dec. 19
Waimea7,8338,591*
Buller4,8684,333Inc. 35
Inangahua4,5954,254Inc. 341
Grey4,9714,592Inc. 379
Westland4,4054,723Dec. 318
Amuri1,142916Inc. 226
Cheviot1,1201,042Inc. 78
Ashley11,59911,913Dec. 354
Selwyn30,78730,090*
Akaroa3,6693,886Dec. 217
Ashburton11,34210,820Inc. 522
Geraldine5,9917,499*
Levels5,4967,723Inc. 2,227
Mackenzie1,6421,514Inc. 128
Waimate5,6534,777Inc. 876
Waitaki9,0868,876Inc. 210
Waihemo2,0142,148Dec. 134
Waikouaiti4,0824,389Dec. 307
Peninsula2,5612,645Dec. 84
Taieri7,1796,950Inc. 229
Bruce4,7624,828Dec. 66
Tuapeka6,2726,477Dec. 205
Clutha6,4456,564Dec. 119
Maniototo3,7923,742Inc. 50
Vincent4,3624,090Inc. 272
Lake2,5352,663Dec. 128
Southland22,58321,603Inc. 980
Wallace7,9896,657Inc. 1,332
Fiord124151Dec. 27
Stewart Island253244Inc. 9

As before stated, the total county population amounted to 417,596, or 54.04 per cent, of the total for the colony. In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called townsfolk. The population in boroughs, which is given in detail further on, was 350,202 persons, or 45.32 percent, of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1901 there were 84 residing in boroughs. In 1896 the counties had 391,735 persons, and the boroughs 307,294, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties 78 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was greater in 1901 than in 1896.

* sundry boroughs were cut from these countries between 1896and 1901.

† For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see Census volume, p.33, Part I

Chapter 4. POPULATION OF BOROUGHS.

There were 101 municipal boroughs in existence when the census of 1901 was taken. This was an increase of 6 on the number in 1896. Some of the new boroughs were town districts in 1896. In the following tables no populations are given for 1896 in respect of boroughs incorporated after that date, as a true comparison cannot well be made.

Boroughs.    Census, 1901.    Census, 1896.    Increase or Decrease.
* Since 1896 the boundaries of the boroughs have been extended
Whangarei1,429
Birkenhead1,057690Inc. 367
Devonport3,8233,010Inc. 813
Auckland34,21331,424Inc. 2,789
Grey Lynn4,1102,379Inc. 731
Newmarket2,0601,929Inc. 131
Parnell4,5664,196Inc. 370
Onehunga3,0152,913Inc. 102
Te Aroha888
Thames4,0094,261Dec. 252
Hamilton1,2531,248Inc. 5
Cambridge989865Inc. 124
Tauranga9451,018Dec. 252
Gisborne.2,7372,334Inc. 403
New Plymouth4,4053,825Inc. 580
Stratford2,027
Hawera2,1311,770Inc. 361
Patea691739Dec. 48
Wanganui7,3295,936Inc. 1,393
Marton1,1011,151Dec. 50
Feilding2,2982,045Inc. 253
Palmerston North6,5345,910Inc. 624
Foxton1,2111,102Inc. 109
Hastings3,6503,190Inc. 460
Napier8,7749,231Dec. 457
Dannevirke2,3151,415Inc. 900
Woodville9261,060Dec. 134
Pahiatua1,2091,158Inc. 51
Masterton3,9493,493Inc. 456
Carterton1,2051,291Dec. 86
Greytown1,1221,129Inc. 7
Lower Hutt1,8221,520Inc. 302
Petone3,7802,685Inc. 1,095
Onslow1,4991,249Inc. 250
Wellington43,63837,441Inc. 6,197
Karori1,2121,024Inc. 188
Melrose2,9952,044Inc. 951
Picton875870Inc. 5
Blenheim3,2223,018Inc. 204
Nelson7,0106,659Inc. 351
Richmond543562Dec. 19
Motueka886
Westport2,9222,424Inc. 498
Greymouth3,7483,099Inc. 649
Burnner1,5721,632Dec. 60
Kumara1,1211,149Dec. 28
Hokitika1,9462,059Dec. 113
Ross614727Dec. 113
Rangiora1,7681,869Dec. 101
Kaiapoi1,7951,828Dec. 33
Christchurch17,53816,964Inc. 574
Lin wood6,7376,115Inc. 622
St. Albans6,6075,781Inc. 826
Sydenham11,40410,312Inc. 1,092
Woolston2,5322,057Inc. 475
Sumner844588Inc. 256
New Brighton1,008
Lyttelton4,0233,898Inc. 125
Akaroa559613Dec. 54
Ashburton2,3222,082Inc. 240
Temuka1,465
Timaru.6,424*3,613
Waimate1,3591,286Inc. 73
Oamaru4,8365,225Dec. 389
Hampden331353Dec. 22
Palmerston South738775Dec. 37
Hawksbury690760Dec. 70
Port Chalmers2,0561,901Inc. 155
North East Valley3,5273,374Inc. 153
Maori Hill1,5501,483Inc. 67
West Harbour1,4651,366Inc. 99
Dunedin24,87922,815Inc. 2,064
Roslyn4,6324,118Inc. 514
Mornington4,0083,584Inc. 424
Caversham5,2664,763Inc. 503
St. Kilda1,7001,185Inc. 515
South Dunedin5,3634,592Inc. 771
Green Island667663Inc. 4
Mosgiel1,4631,382Inc. 81
Milton1,2411,139Inc. 102
Kaitangata1,4631,362Inc. 101
Balclutha1,017925Inc. 92
Lawrence1,159996Inc. 163
Roxburgh478433Inc. 45
Tapanui350408Dec. 58
Naseby505447Inc. 58
Cromwell642539Inc. 103
Alexandra818454Inc. 364
Arrow town410409Inc. 1
Queenstown690781Dec. 91
Gore2,3542,032Inc. 322
Mataura867789Inc. 78
Winton474397Inc. 77
Invercargill6,2155,632Inc. 583
North Invercargill925877Inc. 48
South Invercargill1,8741,886Dec. 12
East Invercargill939935Inc. 4
Avenal355327Inc. 28
Gladstone329339Dec. 10
Campbelltown1,3501,075Inc. 275
Riverton815893Dec. 78

The Cities of Auckland, Christ church, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several areas which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal boroughs:—

SUBURBS OF AUCKLAND.

 Population. Census, 1901
Boroughs— 
  Birkenhead1,057
  Devonport3,823
  Newmarket2,060
  Grey Lynn (Newton)4,110
  Parnell4,566
Road Districts— 
  Arch Hill1,671
  Eden Terrace2,011
  Epsom750
  Mount Albert2,085
  Mount Eden5,129
  Mount Roskill581
  One-tree Hill1,283
  Point Chevalier684
  Remuera2,186
Northcote Riding767
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding being land in the Domain with hospital on it250
     Total, suburbs33,013
     Auckland City34,213
    Total Auckland and suburbs67,226

SUBURBS OF WELLINGTON.

boroughs— 
  Onslow1,499
  Melrose2,995
  Karori1,212
      Total suburbs5,706
      Wellington City43,638
     Total Wellington and suburbs49,344

SUBURBS OF CHRISTCHURCH.

 Population. Census, 1901.
Boroughs— 
  Sydenham11,404
  St. Albans6,607
  Linwood6,737
  New Brighton1,008
  Woolston2,532
Road Districts— 
  Spreydon1,457
  Halswell (part)156
  Riccarton (part)4,371
  Avon (part)2,843
  Heathcote (part)2,388
      Total suburbs39,503
      Christchurch City17,538
     Total Christchurch and suburbs57,041

In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.

SUBURBS OF DUNEDIN.

Boroughs— 
  Caversham5,266
  Maori Hill1,550
  Mornington4,008
  North-East Valley3,527
  Roslyn4,632
  St. Kilda1,700
  South Dunedin5,363
  West Harbour1,465
      Total suburbs27,511
      Dunedin City24,879
     Total Dunedin and suburbs52,390

The increase of population for five years at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was —

 Census, 1896.Census, 1901.Numerical increaseIncrease Percent
Auckland and suburbs57,61667,2269,61016.68
Wellington and suburbs41,75849,3447,58618.17
Christchurch and suburbs51,33057,0415,71111..13
Dunedin and suburbs47,28052,3905,11010.81

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed at a greater rate than those of the South Island, and Wellington in particular is shown to have developed to a greater degree than any other of the four chief towns.

The increase of population for ten years Mt the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was:—

 Census, 1891.Census, 1901.Numerical increaseIncrease Percent
Auckland and suburbs51,28767,22615,93931.08
Wellington and suburbs34,19049,34415,15444.32
Christchurch and suburbs47,84657,0419,19519.22
Dunedin and suburbs45,86952,3906,52114.22

Chapter 5. POPULATION OF TOWN DISTRICTS AND SMALL CENTRES.

Besides the boroughs, there are 35 town districts (including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881,”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. One only of these, Hampstead, has more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined, with populations, as in 1901 ”

Town Districts.Population.
* Constituted under “The Thermal-Springs District Act, 1881.”
Kamo260
Helensville531
Papakura286
Te Awamutu355
Kihikihi222
Ngaruawahia245
Rotorua*914
Opotiki627
Waitara (Raleigh)765
Opunake466
Inglewood719
Normanby370
Manaia447
Waverley416
Lethbridge230
Bulls501
Halcombe336
Clyde (Wairoa)623
Taradale763
Ormondville459
Waipawa669
Kaikora North268
Featherston629
Johnsonville502
Havelock316
Amberley417
Southbridge396
Hampstead1,118
Tinwald561
Geraldine868
Allan ton (formerly Grey)227
Outram420
Clinton431
Wyndham417
Otautau443

In addition to the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed for 1901 throughout the colony no less than 683 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centres without defined boundaries. It is impossible to say that the populations of these small centres are all strictly accurate, even for the census date, or given in such a way as to be fit for comparison one with another. In different cases more or less of surrounding country may have been considered as belonging to the centre, but there is at least at each place mentioned some sort of nucleus of population, if not a well-defined village or township. In making the statement the best has been done with a difficult matter, and the. information is given as useful—in some cases, like that of Waihi and Reefton, important—even if open to objection here and there. The county in which each is situated is also given:—

 population.
Abbotsford, Taieri284
Adair, Levels206
Adams's Flat, Bruce76
Adamson's, Southland69
Addison's Flat, Buller208
Ahaura, Grey219
Albany, Waitemata87
Albert Town, Vincent73
Alford Forest, Ashburton221
Alfredton (and vicinity), Masterton332
Allandale, Waihemo115
Allenton, Ashburton.837
Alma, Waitaki123
Alton, Patea58
Anderson's Bay, Peninsula567
Annat, Selwyn105
Antonio.s Flat, Inangahua51
Aongatete, Tauranga22
Aoroa, Hobson373
Apiti, Pohangina128
Aramoho, Waitotara1,002
Arapohu, Hobson189
Aratapu, Hobson556
Arden, Taieri87
Argyle, Southland80
Arthurtown, Westland71
Arundel, Geraldine38
Ashley, Ashley202
Ashhurst (and vicinity), Oroua545
Athol, Southland72
Avondale, Eden826
Awahuri, Manawatu42
Awakino, Kawhia124
Awanui, Waiapu51
Awhitu, Manukau413
Bainham, Collingwood126
Bald Hill Flat, Vincent175
Ballance, Pahiatua73
Bannockburn, Vincent394
Barkly, Southland63
Barry's Bay, Akaroa154
Basting's, Tuapeka28
Beaconsfield, Levels122
Beck's, Maniototo67
Belfast, Selwyn613
Belfield Village Settlement, Geraldine166
Belgrove, Waimea156
Bendigo, Vincent49
Bennett's, Ashley77
Berwick, Taieri87
Blackball, Grey382
Black's Point, Inangahua315
Blackwater, Inangahua149
Blair Taieri, Taieri35
Blue Spur, Westland135
Bombay, Manukau363
Bowentown, Tauranga24
Brighton, Buller19
Brighton, Taieri119
Brightwater, Waimea391
Broad Bay, Peninsula156
Brockville, Taieri23
Buckley, Cook164
Buffalo (and vicinity), Coromandel574
Bulltown, Ohinemuri27
Bunnythorpe (and vicinity), Oroua148
Burke's, Mackenzie143
Burnside (and vicinity), Taieri469
Burnveil and Lovell's Fiat, Bruce89
Burwood, Selwyn140
Cabbage Bay, Coromandel18
Callaghan's, Westland79
Cambrian's, Maniototo103
Cambridge West, Waipa238
Cape Foulwind, Buller182
Capleston, Inangahua153
Cardrona, Lake126
Castlecliffe, Waitotara412
Castlepoint, Castlepoint22
Centre Bush, Southland83
Charleston, Buller199
Charlton, Southland108
Chatton, Southland32
Cheltenham, Kiwitea39
Chertsey, Ashburton99
Clareville, Wairarapa South93
Clarkville, Ashley253
Clifton, Wallace93
Clifton, Collingwood60
Clyde, Vincent374
Coalbrookdale, Buller111
Coal Creek, Tuapeka220
Coalgate (and vicinity), Selwyn129
Cobden, Grey423
Collingwood, Collingwood16
Cooptown, Akaroa96
Coromandel, Coromandel663
Courtenay, Selwyn161
Crofton, Rangitikei148
Cromarty, Fiord28
Crushington, lnangahua152
Cullensville, Marlborough84
Culverden, Amuri87
Dacre, Southland44
Dalefield, Wairarapa South311
Danieltown, Wallace68
Dalefield, Selwyn118
Dargaville, Hobson505
Deborah, Waitaki34
Deborah Bay, Waikouaiti163
Denlair, Wanganui61
Denniston, Buller793
Dillman's, Westland168
Dipton, Southland68
Doyleston, Selwyn154
Dromore, Ashburton78
Drummond, Wallace248
Drury (and vicinity), Manukau364
Dunback, Waihemo165
Dunganville, Grey90
Dunkeld, Tuapeka105
Dunsandel, Selwyn236
Duntroon, Waitaki181
Durietown, Wanganui355
Duvauchelle's Bay, Akaroa145
East Clive, Hawke's Bay141
East Dipton (and vicinity), Southland139
Eastern Bush, Wallace17
Eastown, Wanganui238
East Winton, Southland155
Edendale, Southland180
Egmont, Taranaki33
Eketahuna, Eketahuna340
Ellesmere, Selwyn103
Eltham, Hawera400
Enfield, Waitaki161
Epworth, Geraldine105
Ettrick, Tuapeka68
Evansdale, Waikouaiti52
Eweburn, Maniototo103
Fairdown, Buller75
Fairfax (and vicinity), Bruce183
Fairfield, Taieri110
Fairlie, Mackenzie597
Feldwick, Wallace23
Fendalton, Selwyn309
Fernhills, Southland70
Fernside (and vicinity), Ashley550
Ferntown, Collingwood81
Flax Swamp, Waikouaiti87
Flaxton, Ashley17
Fordell, Wanganui283
Fortrose, Southland131
Frankton, Lake265
Frasertown, Wairoa175
Galatea, Whakatane14
Garfield, Wallace42
Georgetown, Waitaki84
German Bay, Akaroa155
Gibbston, Lake158
Gibbstown, Collingwood192
Girnmerburn, Maniototo196
Glenavy, Waimate98
Gleniti (and vicinity), Levels99
Glenorchy, Lake18
Glenore, Bruce81
Glentunnel, Selwyn153
Golden Cross, Ohinemuri383
Goldsborough, Westland146
Gordon Special Settlement, Piako89
Governor's Bay, Akaroa169
Grahamstown, Whangarei60
Granity Creek, Buller366
Grassmere, Southland137
Greatford (and vicinity), Rangitikei132
Greendale, Selwyn340
Green Island Bush, Taieri229
Greenlane, Eden191
Greenpark, Selwyn336
Greerton, Tauranga99
Grovetown, Marlborough352
Gumtown, Coromandel107
Hakaru, Otamatea44
Hakataramea (and vicinity), Waimate264
Hamilton, Maniototo27
Hampden, Waipawa261
Hamua, Pahiatua202
Hanmer Springs, Amuri154
Harwood, Southland81
Hastings, Thames112
Hastwell, Mauriceville220
Hatter's, or Nelson Greek, Grey156
Hawarahu, Manukau62
Havelock, Hawke's Bay374
Hawarden, Ashley66
Hawea, Vincent39
Hawthorndale, Southland42
Heddon Bush, Wallace146
Henderson (and vicinity), Waitemata357
Henley, Taieri122
Herbert, Waitaki282
Herbertville, Patangata129
Heriot (and vicinity), Tuapeka206
Highcliffe, Peninsula222
Hikurangi, Whangarei495
Hikutaia, Thames152
Hillgrove, Waitaki37
Hindon, Taieri192
Hirstfield, Wallace52
Hobsonville, Waitemata194
Hodgkinson, Wallace48
Hohoura, Mongonui272
Holmesdale, Wallace19
Horndon, Selwyn189
Hororata, Selwyn269
Howick (and vicinity), Manukau617
Huia, Taranaki54
Huiakama, Stratford45
Huirangi, Taranaki40
Hukerenui, Whangarei110
Hunterville, Rangitikei576
Huntly, Waikato622
Hurunui, Ashley58
Hyde, Maniototo164
Ida Valley, Vincent203
Inangahua Junction, lnangahua98
Inglewood, Southland46
Islington, Selwyn289
Jackeytown, Oroua85
Josephville, Southland19
Kaeo (and vicinity), Whangaroa324
Kaihu, Hobson105
Kai Iwi, Waitotara111
Kaikohe, Bay of Islands115
Kaikoura, Kaikoura516
Kaitaia, Mongonui106
Kaitawa, Pahiatua95
Kakanui (North), Waitaki126
Kakanui (South), Waitaki181
Kakaramea, Patea117
Kanieri, Westland149
Kapanga, Coromandel328
Karaka, Cook110
Karangahake, Ohinemuri205
Katu, Hokianga48
Kaukapakapa, Waitemata543
Kaurihohore, Whangarei191
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands263
Kawarau Gorge, Vincent40
Kawhia, Kawhia158
Keel, Ashley166
Kennedy Bay, Coromandel89
Kennington, Southland56
Kereru (and vicinity), Horowhenua275
Kerrytown, Levels156
Killinchy, Selwyn77
Kimberley, Selwyn149
Kimbolton, Kiwitea219
Kingsdown, Levels114
Kingston, Lake61
Kirwee (and vicinity), Selwyn333
Kohinui, Pahiatua53
Kohukohu, Hokianga128
Kokonga, Maniototo45
Komaka, Pohangina57
Konini (vicinity), Pahiatua247
Kopu, Thames166
Koru, Taranaki93
Kuaotunu, Coromandel375
Kukunui (Brownstown), Eketahuna136
Kumoroa, Waipawa148
Kuri Bush, Taieri150
Kuriwao, Clutha94
Kurow, Waitaki264
Kyeburn Diggings, Maniototo190
Kyeburn, Upper, Maniototo78
Lake Hayes, Lake194
Larrikins, Westland90
Lauder, Maniototo43
Leedstown (and vicinity), Rangitikei269
Leeston, Selwyn257
Leithfield, Ashley298
Lepperton, Taranaki36
Levin, Horowhenua1,147
Lichfield, Piako41
Lime Hills, Southland96
Lincoln (and vicinity), Selwyn464
Lintley, Southland54
Linton, Oroua61
Little Akaloa, Akaroa233
Livingstone, Waitaki123
Longburn (and vicinity), Oroua358
Long Bush, Southland215
Longford, lnangahua25
Longridge, Southland112
Lowburn, Vincent133
Lowther, Southland15
Luggate, Vincent51
Lumsden, Southland275
Lumsden Extension, Southland162
Lyell, Buller90
Macandrew, Southland30
Macetown, Lake113
Mackaytown (and vicinity). Ohinemuri1,085
Mackenzie, Cheviot113
Macrae's (and vicinity), Waihemo59
Maheno, Waitaki220
Maitland, Southland22
Makakahi, Pahiatua42
Makarewa, Southland370
Maketu, Tauranga41
Makikihi, Waimate112
Makomako (and vicinity), Pahiatua154
Makuri, Pahiatua85
Makutoku, Waipawa271
Manakau, Horowhenua184
Mandeville, Southland129
Mangahao, Pahiatua43
Mangamahoe, Mauriceville131
Mangamaire, Pahiatua96
Mangaonoho, Rangitikei342
Mangare (and vicinity), Manukau702
Mangatainoko, Pahiatua171
Mangawai, Otamatea193
Mangaweka (and vicinity), Rangitikei956
Mansfordtown, Waikouaiti377
Manurewa, Manukau70
Manutahi, Patea72
Maori Gully, Grey7
Mapourika, Westland20
Marima, Pahiatua50
Marsden, Grey37
Marshalltown, Kiwitea66
Martinborough (and vicinity), Wairarapa South551
Matakanui, Vincent219
Matakana, Rodney172
Matakohe, Otamatea338
Matamau, Waipawa292
Mauku (and vicinity), Manukau306
Mauriceville, Mauriceville203
Maxwelltown. Waitotara207
Mayfield, Waitemata112
Meanee, Hawke's Bay63
Medbury Village Settlement, Ashley130
Menzies' Ferry, Southland91
Mercer (and vicinity), Manukau208
Merryjigs, lnangahua68
Merton, Waikouaiti170
Methven, Ashburton296
Middlemarch, Taieri226
Midhirst, Stratford330
Milford, Geraldine157
Millwood, Southland75
Mobaka, Wairoa119
Mokau, Kawhia70
Mokihinui, Buller29
Mokoreta, Southland47
Mongonui, Mongonui249
Morley, Wallace70
Morrinsville, Piako300
Mosstown, Waitotara225
Motu, Cook64
Moutere, Waimea129
Murawai, Cook23
Murchison, lnangahua101
Neavesville, Thames25
Netherton, Ohinemuri155
Nevis, Vincent168
Newman, Eketahuna178
Newport, Hobson129
Ngahauranga, Hutt168
Ngahere, Grey123
Ngaire, Stratford81
Ngakawau, Buller12
Ngapara, Waitaki201
Niagara, Southland87
Nightcaps, Wallace373
Nikau (and vicinity), Pahiatua114
Nokomai, Southland113
Nolan, Hawera129
Normanby, Levels130
Norsewood (and vicinity), Waipawa914
Northcote, Waitemata767
North Taieri (and vicinity), Taieri602
No Town, Grey66
Nukumaru, Waitotara61
Oaklands, Peninsula76
Oakura, Taranaki44
Oban, Stewart Island80
Ohaeawai, Bay of Islands112
Ohau (and vicinity), Horowhenua309
Ohaupo, Waipa250
Ohinemutu, Rotorua107
Ohingaiti (and vicinity), Rangitikei464
Ohiwa, Opotiki19
Ohoka, Ashley426
Okaiawa, Hawera94
Okaihau and Omapere, Bay of Islands273
Okain's Bay, Akaroa278
Okarito, Westland66
Okato, Taranaki92
Okoroire, Piako211
Omahu, Thames268
Omata, Taranaki41
Ongaonga, Waipawa107
Ophir, Vincent132
Opitonui, Coromandel277
Opua, Bay of Islands62
Opuriao, Whakatane161
Oraka, Wallace185
Orari, Geraldine118
Ormond (and vicinity), Cook482
Oropi, Tauranga53
Orwell Creek, Grey59
Otahuhu, Manukau1,211
Otaki (and vicinity), Horowhenua629
Otakia, Taieri102
Otara, Opotiki150
Otara, Southland135
Otawa, Manukau53
Otekaike, Waitaki54
Otiake, Waitaki118
Otorohanga, Kawhia150
Owaka, Clutha635
Owen Junction, Inangahua28
Owharoa (and vicinity), Ohinemuri485
Oxford East, Ashley311
Oxford West, Ashley176
Paeroa, Ohinemuri1,504
Pahia, Wallace151
Pahautanui, Hutt101
Paikakariki, Hutt160
Pakawau, Collingwood39
Pakington, Manukau69
Panmure, Eden259
Papanui, Selwyn270
Paparata, Manukau180
Papatoitoi (and vicinity), Manukau219
Parangahatu, Akitio55
Paraparaumu, Hutt198
Parkville, Eketahuna202
Patumahoe, Manukau148
Patutahi (and vicinity), Cook228
Peel (and vicinity), Geraldine.170
Pembroke, Lake130
Pigeon Bay, Akaroa157
Pihania, Hawera27
Pine Hill, Waikouaiti41
Pipiriki (and vicinity), Wanganui233
Piritarau, Waiapu164
Pirongia East, Waipa89
Pleasant Point, Levels749
Pleasant Valley, Waikouaiti50
Pleckville, Eketahuna71
Plimmerton, Hutt92
Pohangina, Pohangina167
Pokeno (and vicinity), Manukau460
Porirua, Hutt80
Porangahau, Patangata187
Poro-o-torao, Clifton235
Port Albert, Rodney241
Port Awanui, Waiapu51
Port Moeraki, Waitaki197
Port Waikato, Raglan14
Portobello Town, Peninsula50
Puangi, Clifton40
Puhoi, Rodney39
Pukekohe East, Manukau331
Pukekobe, Manukau611
Pukerau, Southland129
Pungarehu, Taranaki143
Puni, Manukau212
Purakanui, Waikouaiti31
Puriri, Thames220
Putara, Eketahuna29
Putiki, Wanganui145
Queensbury, Vincent54
Raetihi (and vicinity), Wanganui433
Raglan, Raglan114
Rahotu, Taranaki80
Rakaia, Ashburton439
Rakaia Village Settlement, Ashburton187
Rakaunui, Akitio46
Rama Rama, Manukau204
Rangiriri, Waikato76
Rangiwahia (Pemberton), Kiwitea88
Rata Settlement, Rangitikei210
Raupo, Otamatea108
Rawene, Hokianga103
Redcliffe, Waimate86
Redwood Town, Marlborough143
Reefton, Inangahua1,722
Reidston, Waitaki80
Renwicktown, Marlborough292
Reynolds, Waikouaiti35
Riccarton, Selwyn313
Richmond, Selwyn252
Richmond Grove, Southland101
Rikiorangi, Hutt138
Rimu, Westland118
Rimu, Southland56
Riversdale, Southland312
Riwaka, Waimoa687
Rockville, Collingwood102
Rolleston, Selwyn85
Rongotea, Manawatu229
Rotherham, Amuri146
Round Hill Diggings, Wallace178
Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands119
Runciman, Manukau30
Russell, Bay of Islands246
Sandymount, Peninsula177
Sanson, Manawatu210
Sawyer's Bay, Waikouaiti305
Scarborough, Levels54
Scarborough (and vicinity), Pahiatua198
Scotsburn, Geraldine24
Sefton (and vicinity), Ashley620
Selwyn, Selwyn33
Serpentine, Maniototo44
Shaftesbury, Piako85
Shannon, Horowhenua272
Shawfield, Waikouaiti125
Sheffield, Selwyn153
Shiel Hill, Peninsula86
Shirley, Selwyn165
Shortland, Thames1,217
Silverstream, Mackenzie98
Skippers, Lake92
Southbrook (and vicinity), Ashley1,070
Spring Creek (and vicinity), Marlborough264
Springfield, Selwyn247
Spring Grove, Waimea348
Springston, Selwyn644
Stafford, Westland116
St. Andrew's, Waimate127
St. Bathan's, Maniototo231
St. Helier's Bay, Eden24
St. Kilda, Buller16
Stirling (and vicinity), Bruce232
Stoke, Waimea511
Strathmore, Stratford54
Studholme Junction, Waimate138
Swannanoa, Ashley100
Swanson, Waitemata147
Taheke, Hokianga21
Taiaroa Heads, Peninsula45
Taihape (and vicinity), Kangitikei461
Taipa, Mongonui20
Tairua, Thames360
Taitapu, Selwyn268
Takapau (and vicinity), Waipawa431
Tamaki West (and vicinity), Eden351
Tarras, Vincent158
Tatararaki, Hobson348
Taueru, Masterton139
Tauherenikau, Wairarapa South113
Taupaki, Waitemata131
Taupiri, Waikato136
Taupo, East Taupo79
Tavistock, Waimate28
Taylorville, Wanganui33
Te Anui, Wallace16
Te Aroha West, Piako158
Te Aute, Waipawa120
Teddington, Akaroa69
Te Horo, Horowhenua98
Te Kopuru, Hobson325
Te Kuiti, Kawhia134
Templeton, Selwyn67
Teoneroa, Fiord37
Te Puke (and vicinity), Tauranga477
Te Teko, Whakatane20
Thornbury, Wallace100
Thorpe, Waimea262
Tikorangi, Clifton29
Tiniroto, Cook62
Tinui, Castlepoint295
Tokaanu, East Taupo55
Toka-Toka, Otamatea96
Toko, Stratford240
Tokomaru, Horowhenua116
Tokomaru (and vicinity), Waiapu196
Totara, Whangaroa155
Totara, Waitaki176
Totara East, Grey188
Tuakau, Manukau418
Tuamarina, Marlborough44
Tumai, Waikouaiti22
Tutaekara, Pahiatua58
Turua, Thames244
Upper Hutt, Hutt309
Urenui, Clifton165
Utiku, Rangitikei297
Vauxhall, Peninsula52
Vogeltown, Taranaki176
Waddington, Selwyn134
Wade, Waitemata229
Waianiwa, Southland52
Waiau, Amuri153
Waiau, Manukau63
Waihi, Ohinemuri3,813
Waihola, Bruce190
Waihou (and vicinity), Piako410
Waikaia, Southland230
Waikaka, Southland112
Waikanae, Horowhenua149
Waikare, Ashley417
Waikawa, Southland44
Waikiwi, Southland152
Waikoikoi, Clutha13
Waimangaroa, Buller151
Waima, Hokianga43
Waimata, Cook117
Waimate, Bay of Islands105
Waimatuku, Wallace160
Waimea West, Waimea221
Wainuiomata, Hutt48
Waiomio, Bay of Islands74
Waiorongomai, Piako154
Waiotahi, Opotiki117
Waipahi, Clutha130
Waipara, Southland17
Waipara, Ashley141
Waipipi, Manukau135
Waipiro (and vicinity), Waiapu118
Waipori, Tuapeka211
Waipu Central (and vicinity), Whangarei461
Waipukurau, Waipawa565
Wairaki, East Taupo25
Wairio (and vicinity), Wallace271
Waitahuna, Tuapeka301
Waitati (and vicinity), Waikouaiti272
Waitekauri, Ohinemuri441
Waitotara, Patea173
Waituna, Kiwitea53
Waiwera, Waitemata59
Waiwera, Clutha167
Waiuku, Manukau205
Wakefield, Waimea479
Wallacetown, Southland160
Wallingford, Patangata90
Wangaehu, Wanganui19
Wangamomona, Stratford23
Wanstead, Patangata111
Waotu, West Taupo71
Warepa, Clutha217
Warkworth, Rodney572
Washdyke, Levels217
Waterford, Tauranga50
Waterton (and vicinity), Ashburton197
Wayne's, Waihemo24
Weber, Patangata159
Weedon's, Selwyn100
Wereroa, Horowhenua58
West Clive, Hawke's Bay333
West Melton, Selwyn280
Weston, Waitaki237
Whakataki, Castlepoint50
Whakarewarewa, Rotorua48
Whakatane, Whakatane239
Whangapoua, Coromandel61
Whangaroa, Whangaroa100
Whare Plat, Taieri93
Whenuakiti, Coromandel40
Whitecliffs, Selwyn98
Whitmore, Oroua80
Whitstone, Waitaki51
Wickliffe Bay, Peninsula30
Wimbledon, Patangata90
Winchester, Geraldine170
Windsor, Waitaki130
Woodbury, Geraldine111
Woodend, Ashley365
Woodend, Southland115
Woodfield, Southland34
Woodlands, Southland207
Woodside, Taieri222
Woodside, Wairarapa South23
Woodstock, Westland189
Woodstock Village Settlement, Ashley50
Wrey's Bush, Wallace289
Yaldhurst, Selwyn143

Chapter 6. POPULATION OF ADJACENT ISLANDS.

The names and populations of the islands adjacent to and included in the colony were, in March, 1901:—

Islands.Total.M.F.
Mokohinau Lighthouse853
Tiritiri Lighthouse523
Motuhora743
Great Barrier510357153
Little Barrier11110
Kawau21714
Ponui271116
Ponui Lighthouse211
Ruche's1596
Pakatoa532
Pahiki431
Waiheke1628181
Week's (Puketutu)633
Motuihi1192
Bean Rock Lighthouse11
Motutapu1174
Rakino422
Rangitoto33
Brown's844
Mercury1459
Cuvier and Lighthouse743
Slipper33
Motiti22
East Island Lighthouse651
Portland and Lighthouse21138
Kapiti312
Somes and Lighthouse752
Stephen's1899
Brothers Lighthouse33
Quarantine211
Ruapuke99
Dog Island and Lighthouse1697
Centre and Lighthouse954
Resolution22
Chatham Islands20711295
Kermadec Islands853
       Total158706452

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had in 1901 a population of 1,158 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 950 in 1896. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1896 from 307 to 510 persons; Waiheke showed a decrease from 166 to 162 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 234 to 207.

Chapter 7. POPULATION ON SHIPBOARD.

The numbers of persons on shipboard at the various ports of the colony were as under. Of 3,768 persons altogether, 874 were on shipboard at the Port of Auckland, 333 at Wellington, 321 at Port Lyttelton, while at Bluff there were 303, at Westport 236, at Port Chalmers 149, besides 228 at the Upper Harbour (Dunedin). The total number of 3,763 does not include 352 persons, officers and crews of two British men-of-war:—

 Persons.M.F.
Mongonui1818
Kohukohu22211
Russell26242
Hobson16315211
Whangarei3131
Warkworth1717
Helensville27261
Auckland87481361
Devonport11
Onehunga47461
Whitianga14122
Thames Harbour88
Thames River1111
Ohinemuri River50446
Tauranga11
Opotiki55
Gisborne58553
Kawhia11
Waitara55
New Plymouth877116
Napier24120140
Wanganui55
Wellington33329637
Sounds22
Picton956629
Waimea33
Motueka2323
Buller River44
Westport23621026
Nelson15712631
Greymouth8989
Hokitika55
Akaroa55
Lyttelton32130615
Timaru6262
Oamaru1717
Port Chalmers1491481
Dunedin22821711
Bluff Harbour30324459
Stewart Island1919
 3,763  3,410  353

Chapter 8. Density Of Population.

The proportion of persons to a square mile in New Zealand increased from 6–760 to 7–427 between 1896 and 1901. In 1891 there were 6.024 persons to a square mile, giving an increase of 1.4 during the last ten years.

Since 1858 the proportions at the different census years were:—

NUMBER OF PERSONS TO A SQUARE MILE.

Year.Persons.
18580.566
18610.944
18641.641
18672.094
18672.094
18712.456
18742.869
18783.969
18814.693
18865.5611
18916.024
18966.760
19017.427

Of the different provincial districts, the most thickly populated is Wellington, and the one with the fewest people in proportion to size is Marlborough. The table below shows the area of the provincial districts, and the average number of persons to a square mile:—

Provincial Districts.  Area in Acres.  Area in Square Miles.  Persons to a Square Miles
Wellington7,042,00011,00312.
Taranaki2,117,3803,30811.443
Canterbury8,985,40014,04010.188
Hawke's Bay2,822,3004,4108.032
Auckland16,477,70025,7466.833
Otago16,311,70025,4876.793
Nelson6,572,10010,2693.692
Westland2,970,6004,6413.126
Marlborough3,041,6704,7532.804

The population in the boroughs, amounting to 850,202, gives an average of 1,357 persons to every square mile in these towns. The proportion has changed very little since 1891. The people lay closest in the City of Wellington, where they are 40 persons to the acre, or at the rate of 25,371 to the square mile.

Outside the boroughs (and excluding persons on shipboard) the population shows an average of 4–24 to the square mile of country outside boroughs, against 3–78 to the square mile in 1896 and 3.40 in 1891.

Chapter 9. PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES.

At the census of 1858 the number of females to 100 males was found to ‘he 76.41, and the proportion was actually less in 1861, when the number was 62.16, and smaller still in 1864 (61.53). From this last year the proportion of females steadily increased to 90.33 at the last census.

Year.  Number of Females
185876.41
186162.16
186161.53
186765.75
187170.52
187475.17
187879.40
188181.72
188685.28
189188.26
189689.31
190190.33

The numbers of the sexes are shown to be gradually becoming equal as time advances.

The proportion of females to males was highest in Canterbury and lowest in Westland, as shown below:—

NUMBER OF FEMALES TO 100 MALES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Provincial Districts.Females to 100 Males.    Centesimal Increase or Decrease. 1896–1901.
1896.1901.Males.Females.
Canterbury94.9096.294.546.08
Otago90.4291.255.156.12
Auckland89.1089.2914.4514.69
Wellington88.6790.4214.9417.20
Marlborough86.2086.366.676.85
Hawke's Bay85.0287.832.515.90
Taranaki84.4784.0421.7121.09
Nelson82.6183.995.287.10
Westland78.5078.940.58

The centesimal increase of the population is found to be greater in respect of the females than the males in all the provincial districts except Taranaki.

Chapter 10. DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE.

The dwellings in the colony on the census night numbered 170,593, of which 153,782 were occupied houses, 10,830 unoccupied, and 865 houses in course of erection. Besides these there were 5,110 tents or dwellings with canvas roofs. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling has increased from 4.05 in the year 1867 to 4.86 in 1901. The average number of inhabited dwellings to a square mile was only 0.122 in the year 1858, but rose steadily during each census period until 1901, for which the figures are 1.527.

Of 170,593 dwellings, 153,945 were built of wood, iron, or lath and plaster, and 7,517 of brick, stone, or concrete. There were also 1,688 cob or sod houses, 71 of raupo, besides 5,110 tents and dwellings with canvas roofs, and 2,256 houses and huts of miscellaneous materials. The inhabitants of the several classes of dwellings were distributed as under at the last two censuses:—

Dwellers in—1896.l901
   Houses of brick, stone, wood, iron, and lath and plaster680,407    750,095
   Huts or houses of cob, sod, raupo, &c.11,033    8,437
   On shipboard3,381    3,763
   Tents and dwellings with canvas roofs8,322    10,170
   Travellers and persons sleeping under drays or camping out217    254
       Total population (excluding Maoris)703,360772,719

With an increase of population amounting to 9.86 per cent., there is found an absolute reduction of 2,596 in the number of persons occupying inferior houses or huts, while the persons occupying the best class of dwelling increased by 69,688, or at the rate of 10.24 per cent.

The following are the proportions of the population (excluding Chinese and Maoris) residing in the different classes of dwelling at the last five census periods —

Percentage of population—18811881189118961901
   In houses of the best material92.9295.1495.8396.7497.07
   In cob or sod houses, raupo, hues, &c.5.252.872.551.571.09
   In tents or dwellings with canvas roofs1.221.131.081.181.32
   On shipboard0.590.820.520.480.49
   Camping out0.020.040.020.030.03

The number of brick, stone, or concrete houses increased between 1896 and 1901 from 6,490 to 7,517, or at the rate of 15.82 per cent.; and the wood, iron, or lath-and-plaster houses from 134,092 to 153,945, or at the rate of 14.81 per cent, during the five years, the increase of population having been, as before stated, 9.86 per cent.

The accommodation in the dwellings of the people has improved greatly in the time. This is exhibited by the following comparative table:—

Number of dwellings containing
Year.    One room (including Tents).    Two Rooms.    Three and Four Rooms.    Five and Six Rooms.    More than Six Rooms.    No. of Rooms unstated, 1878
1878    9,703    14,331    29,223    15,258    12,358    1,715
1881    10,077    14,758    35,064    19,338    15,344    1,169
1886    10,257    12,110    40,090    27,218    21,037    1,259
1891    11,528    11,030    41,934    32,868    24,968    1,523
1896    12,378    11,450    42,711    41,290    32,585    925
1901    13,263    10,462    45,499    52,585    36,542    547
Increase (+) or Decrease (-).
1878 to 1881    + 371    + 427    + 5,841    + 4,080    + 2,986    − 546
1881 to 1886    + 180    − 2,648    + 5,026    + 7,880    + 5,693    + 90
1886 to 1891    + 1,271    − 1,080    + 1,844    + 5,650    + 3,931    + 264
1891 to 1896    + 850    + 420    + 777    + 8,422    + 7,617    − 598
1896 to 1901    + 885    − 988    + 2,788    + 11,295    +3,957    − 378

It will be noticed that the increase lies mainly in the houses of five to six and more than six rooms., which are more numerous by 15,252 than in 1896; whereas the dwellings of one to four rooms, including tents, only increased by 2,685 in five years. The actual number of houses was greatest in the group of those having five and six rooms (52,585), while the houses of three to four rooms numbered 45,499. Of houses of more than six rooms, the number was 86,542.

Of the four chief cities, Wellington shows the greatest number of persons to a house, which was also the experience of 1896, 1891, and 1886. In the year 1881 Christchurch had the largest proportion of persons to an inhabited dwellinghouse:—

Borough.Average Number of Persons to every Inhabited Dwelling.
1881.1886.1891.1896.1901.
Auckland5.295.365.095.165.17
Wellington5.435.715.505.555.51
Christchurch5.695.555.415.305.09
Dunedin5.535.365.115.105.06

The proportion in Wellington for 1901 is lower than that which obtained in 1896 in the same city, but higher than in 1891, when the average was 5.50 to every dwelling. At Christchurch and Dunedin the proportions fall regularly from 1881. At Auckland the proportion is highest for 1886, but in 1881 it was still higher than in 1901.

For the whole colony the average number of persons to each inhabited dwelling was 4.86, the lowest since 1874.

The succeeding statement gives the number of inhabited and uninhabited dwellings at each of the six past census dates:—

Years.Inhabited Dwellings, including Tents.Uninhabited Dwellings.* Proportion of Dwellings of both Classes to 100 of Population.Average Number of Persons to Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Dwelling-houses being built.
* The population on board ship is excluded from the numbers used
187882,5885,29221.365.02497
188195.7506,73721.045.12848
1886111,9719,14621.115.17834
1891123,8519,55821.405.06425
1896141,3398,00621.344.98577
1901158,89810,83022.074.86865

Chapter 11. UNINHABITED DWELLING-HOUSES.

The number of uninhabited dwelling-houses in 1901 was 10,830 (being in the proportion of 1.41 to each 100 of population), as against 8,006 in 1896, and 9,558 in 1891.

In 1901 the counties (excluding the boroughs) contained 7,740 uninhabited houses, or 1.85 for each 100 of population, and the boroughs contained 3,058, or 0.87 for each 100 of population.

The following were the numbers in the four chief cities:—

City.    Population.    Number of Uninhabited Houses.    Ratio to each 100 of Population.
Auckland34,2132370.69
Wellington43,6382660.61
Christchurch17,5381340.77
Dunedin24,8791050.42

Of the boroughs, Sumner shows the high rate of (6.l6 uninhabited houses per 100 of population, and New Brighton 6.05.

Chapter 12. HOUSES IN COURSE OF ERECTION.

The number of houses in course of erection at the census of 1901 was 865, an increase on that of the census of 1896. The numbers of houses being built and uninhabited in each of the provincial districts at the three last census periods are shown:—

Provincial District.Dwelling-houses being built.    Dwelling-houses uninhabited.Proportion of Dwellings
being built to every
100 uninhabited in 1901.
1891.1896.1901.1891.1896.1901.
Auckland1071102342,5051,4732,7878.40
Taranaki1140362613214258.47
Hawke's Bay1935184503175183.47
Wellington1121312101,1251,0861,64212.79
Marlborough75111031431656.67
Nelson3119336115708623.83
Westland78234873183446.69
Canterbury491041341,8431,5671,7227.78
Otago821251662,1732,2112,3657.02
      Totals4255778659,5588,00610,8307.99

Chapter 13. Part II.—Religions Of The People.

OF the various religious denominations, the Church of England has most adherents in the colony. They numbered 314,024 at the date of the census; or, including 1,239 Protestants not more specifically described, 315,263 persons, being 40.84 out of every 100 of the population. The Presbyterians numbered 176,503 persons, or 22.87 per cent., and the Roman Catholics came next with 108,960, or, including Catholics not further defined, 109,822, which gives a proportion of 14.23 per cent. The Methodists were 83,802, or 10.86 in every 100 persons. Of other denominations, the Baptists, of whom there were 16,035, and the Salvation Army, 7,999 persons, were those returning more than 1 per cent, of the total population, the proportions being 2.08 and 1.04 respectively. 18,295 persons objected to state their religious belief, or 2*38 in every. 100.

The numbers and percentages for six censuses are given in tabular form, so as to allow of the degree of increase relatively to the population being observed:—

Denominations.Number of Adherents in 1901.Proportion Percent of Population
1878.1881.1886.1891.l896.1901.
* “Unspecified “not taken into account.
Church of England and Protestants (undefined)315,26342.5511.5040.1710.5140.2740.84
Presbyterians176,50322.9523.0822.5922.6222.7822.87
Methodists83,8029.149.539.5510.1410.4410.86
Baptists16,0352.212.342.482.372.282.08
Congreationalists6,6991.311.371.351.070.970.87
Lutherans4,8331.361.181.020.900.790.63
Salvation Army7,999....0.911.501.501.04
Society of Friends3130.040.050.050.050.050.04
Unitarians4680.11o.100.080.050.050.06
Other Protestants16,8771.081.261.551.822.162.19
Roman Catholics and Catholics (undefined)109,82214.2114.0813.9413.9614.0714.23
Greek Church1890.020.010.010.010.020.02
Hebrews1,6110.340.310.270.230.220.21
Buddhists, Confucians2,4321.051.010.770.630.480.30
Other Denominations1,3470.050.110100.120.160.17
No Denomination8,2400.530.891.051.321.221.07
No Religion1,1090.050.060.170.250.270.14
Unspecified8820.420.270.50***
Object to state18,2952.552.853.442.452.27238
 772,719  100.00  100.00  100.00  100.00  100.00  100.00

Here the proportion belonging to the Church of England is shown to have been 40 per cent, since 1886, but a little higher previously. Presbyterians have been 22 or 23 per cent, of the whole since 1878, but the proportion of Methodists rose steadily from 9.14 to 10.86. Congregationalists declined from 1*37 per cent, in 1881 to 0.87 per cent, in 1901. Lutherans are fewer in proportion to the total at each succeeding census, while the Salvation Army increased from 0–91 in 1886 to 1.50 in 1891 and 1896, but decreased in 1901 to 1.04 per cent.

Roman Catholics and Catholics undefined formed practically 14 per cent, of the people at each of the census years. The proportion of Buddhists and Confucians diminishes with the number of Chinese in the colony. In 1886 the percentage of persons objecting to state their religion was 3.44, which fell to 2.45 in 1891, and, further, to 2.27 in 1896, but shows a slight increase in 1901.

A full statement of the particulars of all denominations as at the census of 1896 and 1901 is given, with the numerical and centesimal increase or decrease in each case. Amongst 1,093 returned as ‘Other Protestants,” 247 described themselves as “Church of God,” 201 “Christian, no Denomination,” 145 “Independents,” 41 “Our Father's Church,” 33 “Conditional Immortality,” 31 “Gospel Mission,” 29 “Forward Movement,” 26 “Central Mission,” and the remainder variously in very small numbers. The complete descriptions will be published in the detailed table.

NUMBERS FOR EACH DENOMINATION, AND INCREASE.

Religious Denominations.Census, 1901.Census, 1896.Increase or Decrease.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.
NOTE.— The minus sign (−) indicate decrease.
Total population772,719405,992366,727703,36069,3599.86
Total for specified religions771,837405,372366,465702,23869,5999.91
Episcopalians.      
    Church of England, and Episcopalians not otherwise defined314,024165,100148,924281,16632,85811.69
    Protestants (undescribed)1,2397424971,643−104−24.59
Presbyterians176,50392,40684,097159,95216,55110.35
Methodists.      
    Wesleyan Methodists71,03435,36235,67263,3737,66112.09
    Primitive Methodists10,1135,0465,0977,0413,10244.06
    Methodists (undefined)2,3961,1831,2132,893−497−17.18
    Others22912210760169..
Baptists16,0357,5748,46116,037−2−0.001
Congregationalists6,6993,1513,5456,777−78−1.15
Lutherans, German Protestants4,8333,0631,7705,538−705−12.73
Unitarians4682831853759324.80
Society of Friends313195113321−8−2.49
Church of Christ (Christian, Christian Disciples, &c.6,1052,8603,2455,8592464.20
Brethren (Christian Brethren) Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)7,1843,4504,0345,0352,44948.64
Believers in Christ31141777−46−59.74
Evangelists, Evangelical Brethren, &c.2116533.12−36.36
Nonconformists61362595−34−35.79
Salvation Army7,9993,8074,19210,532−2,533−24.05
Christadelphians989497492952373.89
Swedenborgians (New Church New Jerusalem Church)1597287191−32−16.75
Seventh.day Adventists8643575077768811.34
Students of Truth331716340−307−90.29
Dissenters33..65−62−95.38
Christian Israelites, Israelites34191561−27−44.26
Other Protestants1,0935775161,710−617..
Roman Catholics108,96056,49052,47097,52511,43511.73
Catholics (undefined)8624803821,279−417−32.60
Greek Church189134551167362.93
Catholic Apostolic3261401862477931.98
Other Sects—      
    Hebrews1,6118267851,549624.01
    Mormons, Latter-day Saints272145127289−17−5.88
    Spiritualists49924025937612332.71
    Buddhists, Confucians, &c…2,4322,413193,391−959−28.28
    Others2501628818763..
No Denomination, No Religion—      
    Freethinkers2,8562,2456113,983−1,127−28.30
    Agnostics552413139562−10−1.78
    Deists, Theists59518461328.26
    No denomination4,7403,0061,7343,89884221.60
    Doubtful33141946−13−28.26
    No religion1,0127522601,605−593−36.95
    Atheists806713117−37−31.62
    Secularists17125153−136−88.88
Object to state18,29511,8276,46815,9672,32814.58
Unspecified8826202621,122−240−21.39

It will be seen by the table that, of the larger Protestant denominations, the Wesleyan Methodists increased since 1896 from 63,373 to 71, 034 persons, being at the rate of 12.09 per cent.; Church of England from 281,166 to 314,024, or 11.69 per cent.; and Presbyterians from 159,952 to 176,503, or 10.35 per cent. Baptists decreased slightly. The Salvation Army, which increased its number by 1,149 persons between 1891 and 1896, being at the rate of 12.25 percent., now shows a decrease of 2,533 persons, or 24.05 per cent. The numbers of the Brethren show 48.64 per cent., and of Seventh-day Adventists 11.34 per cent, increase; but the Congregational Independents have decreased 1.15 per cent., and Lutherans 12.73 per cent. Of the Protestant bodies having but few members in the colony, the Unitarians increased from 375 to 468, and the Society of Friends are fewer by 8.

Roman Catholics added 11,435 to their number, being an increase of 11.73 per cent., a rate slightly higher than that obtained by the Church of England.

Hebrews were 1,549 in 1896, and 1,611 in 1901, a difference of 62. Spiritualists progressed, the numbers being 376 and 199, an increase of 32.71 per cent. Freethinkers decreased from 3,983 to 2,856, or by 28 per cent.; and Agnostics, who numbered 562 in 1896, now return 552, a decrease of 10.

Proportions of Sexes in the various Denominations.

While the number of males is found to be greater than that of females in the Church of England, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and sundry other religious denominations, the contrary result is found in the following cases, the proportions per cent, being—

 MalesFemales
Wesleyan Methodists49.7850.22
Primitive Methodists49.7550.25
Baptists47.2352.77
Congregationalists47.0852.92
Church of Christ46.8553.15
Brethren46.1053.90
Salvation Array48.8451.16
Seventh-day Adventists41.3258.68

Amongst those persons grouped as of “No denomination,” “No religion,” and “Object to state,” the proportion of females is small, as will be seen by the next figures:—

No Denomination ”Males.Females.
Freethinkers,78.6021.40
Agnostics74.8225.18
Deists, Theists86.4413.56
No Denomination63.4236.58
No. Religion ”  
No religion74.3125.69
Atheists83.7516.25
Secularists70.5929.41
Object to state64.7035.30

PART III.—BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 14. PROPORTIONS PER CENT. OF THE POPULATION.

Of the population exclusive of Maoris (772,719 persons), all but 442 were described as to birthplace on the census schedules. The number of the New-Zealand-born was 516,106, and of those born in Australia, Tasmania, and Fiji, 27,215, making 543,321 born in Australasia. The New-Zealand-born increase in proportion to the whole with every successive census. In 1886, 51.89 per cent, of the population were born in this colony; in 1891, the percentage was 58.61; in 1896 it had reached 62.85; and in 1901 the proportion was 60.88. adding to which 3.52 per cent, born in Australia, &c., makes 70.85 out of every 100 persons living in New Zealand who were born in Australasia.

205,111 persons were born in the United Kingdom, or 26.56 per cent, of the population, which was divided as under:—

Born in United Kingdom.  Number of Persons.  Per Cent. of Population.
England111,96414.50
Wales1,7650.22
Scotland47,8586.20
Ireland43,5245.64
 205,11126.56

Besides these there were 4,049 persons born in other British possessions.

Summarising these results, it is found that 752,481 of the population, or 97.43 per cent., were born in the British possessions, made up as follows:—

Born in  Number of Persons.  of Population. Per Cent.
Australasia543,32170.35
United Kingdom205,11126.56
Other British Possessions4,0490.52
 752,48197.43

There remained 18,593 persons born in foreign countries, or 2.41 per cent, of population; 1,203 born at sea; and 442 whose birthplaces were not specified.

Chapter 15. INCREASES AND DECREASES SINCE 1896.

The New-Zealand-born increased from 441,661 in 1896 to 516,106, or at the rate of 16.86 per cent., between 1896 and 1901, the numerical increase being 74,445 persons. The numbers born in the United Kingdom decreased altogether by 10,050 in the quinquennium.

Born in  Persons. 1901.Decrease since 1896.
  Numerical.  Centesimal.
England111,9644,5773.93
Wales1,76538317.83
Scotland47,8582,5775.11
Ireland43,5242,5135.46

The numbers of the Australian-born are found to have increased for each colony. The number born in New South Wales, living in New Zealand, was 4,536 in the year 1896, but 6,430 in 1901, an increase of 41.75 per cent. There were 10,471 persons in this colony in 1896 born in Victoria, but 12,583 at last census, or an increase of 20.17 per cent, for five years. New Zealand also gained on the number born in Queensland, there being 1,271 in 1901, against 930 in 1896, or 36.36 per cent, increase. And similarly on the Western Australian, South Australian, and Tasmanian-born.

The number of the people born in foreign countries was found to be 18,593, being 2.41 per cent, of the whole. Besides these, 1,203 persons were returned as born at sea. The greatest number of foreigners were Germans (4,217). Next comes persons born in China (2,902). Swedes and Norwegians numbered 2,827; there were 2,120 persons from Denmark and her possessions; and 1,874 persons from Austria-Hungary.

The numbers of those born in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, China, Africa, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Poland, Spain, and America all decreased since 1896.

The following table gives full details, and exhibits under the head of allegiance the number of British and foreign subjects in New Zealand:—

Birthplaces.—Numbers of each Nationality, and Increase, 1896 to 1901.

Chapter 16. BIRTHPLACES.—NUMBERS OF EACH NATIONALITY, AND INCREASE, 1896 TO 1901.

Where born.Census, 1901.Census, 1896.
Persons.
Increase or Decrease.
Persons.Males.Females.Numerical.Centesimal.
Total population772,719405,992366,727703,36069,3599.86
Total for specified birthplaces772,277405,690366,587702,75669,5219.89
British :—      
 United Kingdom,—      
  England111,96464,21647,748116,541−4,577−3.93
  Wales1,7651,0766892,148−383−17.83
  Scotland47,85827,51620,34250,435—2,577−5.11
  Ireland43,52423,43020,09446,037−2,513−5.46
 Australasia and Fiji,—      
  New Zealand516,106257,828258,278441,66174,44516.86
  Queensland1,27164562693034136.36
  New South Wales6,4303,3953,0354,5361,89441.75
  Victoria12,5836,5306,05310,4712,11220.17
  South Australia1,5758077681,22235328.88
  Western Australia190103871127869.64
  Tasmania3,7202,0841,6363,16056017.72
  Australia (State not named)1,2226695531,200221.83
  Fiji224981261517348.34
 Other British Possessions—      
  Gibraltar48242449−1−2.04
  Malta55371871−16−22.54
  India and Ceylon1,2867225641,341−55−4.10
  Cape of Good Hope1417269246−105−42.68
  St. Helena43251850−7−14.00
  British North America (Canada)1,5449475971,4121329.35
  West Indies20814464247−39−15.79
  Others724408316334390116.76
 Foreign,—      
  Austria-Hungary1,8741,713161881993112.71
  Belgium1178433138−21−15.22
  Denmark and Possessions2,1201,3847362,125−5−0.24
  France and Possessions609409200698−89−12.75
  Germany4,2172,7431,4744,595−378−8.23
  Greece1239429127−4−3.15
  Italy4283557342351.18
  Netherlands and Possessions11610511132−16−12.12
  Poland976532101−4−3.96
  Portugal and Possessions17215121173−1−0.58
  Russia and Possessions38733948365226.03
  Spain and Possessions59411888−29−32.95
  Sweden1,5481,3372111,514342.25
  Norway1,2799313481,26181.43
  Switzerland33325182342−9−2.63
  Other European Countries30201030
  China2,9022,866363,719−817−21.97
  Africa1035449134−31−23.13
  America, North America776501275969−193−19.92
  United States of America88159228978010112.95
  Other Foreign Countries422289133485−63−12.99
 At Sea1,2035906131,322−119−9.00
 Unspecified442302140604−162−26.82
Allegiance.      
 British subjects761,104396,052365,052690,00371,10110.30
 Foreign subjects11,6159,9401,67513,357−1,742−13.04

NOTE.—The minus sign (−) indicates decrease.

PART IV.—AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 17.

INFORMATION as to the number of people at each year of age has been compiled. But it is desirable to consider first the numbers for eight groups of important age-periods which are given below, and compared with those of the previous census.

PERSONS.

 April, 1891.  April, 1890.  March, 1901.
Under 5 years83,20483,65986,806
5 years and under 10 years86,08086,02585,736
10 years and under 15 years81,08485,46785,225
15 years and under 21 years77,80895,584101,956
21 years and under 40 years167,181199,261237,038
40 years and under 55 years86,74392,13599,471
55 years and under 65 years29,24839,63144,494
65 years and upwards14,34220,75631,353
Unspecified968842640
All ages626,658703,360772,719
 Increase, 1891 to 1896.    Increase, 1896 to 1901.
Numerical.  Centesimal.  Numerical.  Centesimal.
Under 5 years4550.553,1473.76
5 years and under 10 years−55−0.06−289−0.34
10 years and under 15 years4,3835.40−242−0.28
15 years and under 21 years17,77622.856,3726.67
21 years and under 40 years32,08019.1937,77718.96
40 years and under 55 years5,3926.227,3367.96
55 years and under 65 years10,38335.504,86312.27
65 years and upwards6,41444.7210,59751.06
Unspecified−126−13.02−202−23.99
All ages76,70212.2469,3599.86

The increase on the population under five years of age since 1896 is 3,147, while the gain during the previous period (1891–96) was only 455 persons. But between 1886 and 1891 there was a decrease for that age-period of 3,624 persons, although the population at all ages increased 8.33 per cent. The number of children under one year, and the total population at all ages, according to the results of four censuses, was:—

 Children under one year.    Total population (all ages).
Census, 188618,355578,482
Census, 189116,443626,658
Census, 189617,070703,360
Census, 190118,381772,719

Thus, in 1886, with a population of 578,482 persons, there were 18,355 children under one year, against 18,381 children of that age in 1901 to a population of 772,719 persons.

The births registered in 1885 were 19,693, against 19,546 in 1900, and the birth-rate has fallen from 34.35 per 1,000 of the population in the former year to 25.60 in the latter.

Deducting 1,469, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1900, from 19,546, the number of births for that year, leaves 18,077, or within 304 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.

The number of persons under 21 years in March, 1901, was 359,723, and over 21 years 412,356, besides 640 unspecified as to age, but nearly all adults (39 under and 601 over 21 years).

Comparison of the population under and over 21 years for 1886, 1891, 1896, and 1901 shows that the number over 21 years is increasing in proportion to the population of all ages.

PROPORTIONS PER CENT, OF PERSONS—ALL SPECIFIED AGES.

 1886.1891.1896.1901.
Under 21 years53.4752.4649.9446.59
Over 21 years46.5347.5450.0653.41
 10000100001000010000

The numbers of the people of either sex in the eight age-groups previously referred to are found to be as under, and the increase or decrease for each since 1896 is shown:—

MALES.

Ages.Census.    Increase, 1896 to 1901.
  1896.  1901.  Numerical.  Centesimal.
Under 5 years42,44844,3241,8764.42
5 years and under 10 years43,56143,314−247−0.57
10 years and under 15 years43,04443,100560.13
15 years and under 21 years47,87351,0153,1426.56
21 years and under 40 years103,613121,93918,32617.69
40 years and under 55 years53,03256,1363,1045.85
55 years and under 65 years24,75626,5141,7587.10
65 years and upwards12,50319,2186,71553.71
Unspecified585432−153−26.15
 371,415  405,992  34,5779.31

FEMALES.

Ages.Census.    Increase, 1896 to 1901.
  1896.  1901.  Numerical.  Centesimal.
Under 5 years41,21142,4821,2713.08
5 years and under 10 years42,46442,422−42−0.10
10 years and under 15 years42,42342,125−298−0.70
15 years and under 21 years47,71150,9413,2306.77
21 years and under 40 years95,648115,09919,45120.34
40 years and under 55 years39,10343,3354,23210.82
55 years and under 65 years14,87517,9803,10520.87
65 years and upwards8,25312,1353,88247.04
Unspecified257208−49−19.07
 331,945366,72734,78210.48

NOTE.—The minus sign (−) denotes decrease.

The males under 21 years in 1901 were 181,753, and the adults 223,807, leaving 432 unspecified as to age, hut of whom few were children. The females under 21 numbered 177,970, and adults 188,549, leaving 208 unspecified. The proportions per cent, of population over 21 years of age of each sex are higher for 1901 than for 1896.

PROPORTION PER CENT. (SPECIFIED AGES.)

 Males.    Females.
1896.   1901.   1896.   1901.
Under 21 years47.7244.8252.3948.55
Over 21 years.52.2855.1847.6151.45
 100.00100.00100.00100.00

Of the proportions per cent, at various ages, those for the period 0–5 years (childhood) exhibit a decrease in respect of each sex according to the figures for four censuses.

PROPORTION OF PERSONS UNDER FIVE YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.    1891.    1896.    1901.
Persons    15.07    13.30    11.91    11.23
Males    14.12    12.72    11.45    10.92
Females    16.18    13.95    12.42    11.58

At 5 to 15 years, the school-going period, the proportions to the total of all ages are lower in 1901 than in 1890, 1891, and 1886, showing decrease with time, but the figures for 1891 are a little higher than those for 1886.

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 5–15 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.    1891.    1896.    1901.
Persons    26.32    26.72    24.42    22.12
Males    24.67    25.36    23.36    21.28
Females    28.27    28.25    25.59    22.51

At 15–21 years the proportions rise with time, although a decrease is shown between 1896 and 1901:—

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 15–21 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 1886.    1891.    1896.    1901.
Persons    12.08    12.44    13.61    13.21
Males    11.05    11.61    12.91    12.59
Females    13.27    13.37    14.38    13.90

It is satisfactory to find that the proportions of those at the period 21–40 years are more than maintained in the last fifteen years, the increase during the last five years being considerable:—

PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 21–40 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

     1886.    1896.    1901.
Persons    26.99    28.36    30.70
Males    27.71    27.94    30.06
Females    26.14    28.84    31.41

The numbers at this important period belonging to what are termed the supporting ages, in contradistinction to the dependent ages, rise on the male side from 86,028 in 1886 to 88,577 in 1891, 103,613 in 1896, and 121,939 in 1901, and increase faster on the female side, being 69,464, 78,604, 95,648, and 115,099 for these years respectively.

While there is a slight fall in the proportions at the group 40–55 since 1891, the figures increase at the periods 55-(55 and 65 and upwards. The progression in case of the aged people at the last period is especially important to notice, and figures for ten census years, extending from 1864 to 1901, are given accordingly:—

PERSONS 65 YEARS AND UPWARDS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

1864    0.63
1867    0.86
1871    1.08
1874    1.22
1878    1.29
1881    1.41
1886    1.81
1891    2.29
1896    2.95
    1901    4.06

The numbers in March, 1901, at the age-periods most often in request may be classified thus: Infancy and extreme youth (under 5 years)—males, 44,324; females, 42,482: School age (5 to 15 years)—males, 86,414; females, 84,547: Women of the reproductive ages (15 to 45)—183,387: The athletic age (21 to 40 years) —males, 121,939; females, 115,099: The militia age (17 to 55 years) —males only,* 212,065: The elderly period of life (55 to 65 years)—males, 26,514; females, 17,980: Old age (65 years and upwards)—males, 19,218; females, 12,135.

Chapter 18. FULL DETAILS OF AGES.

A table is appended to this portion of the Report showing the number of persons at each year of age as taken from the census schedules. A glance at this table will show that many people, either through disregard of truth, or carelessness, have set down their ages as at the nearest decennial or quinquennial period (30, 35, 40, &c.). To ascertain the true number living at each year of age, the total numbers in certain groups of ages should be distributed proportionately over the single years, and this has accordingly been done by the Actuary of the Government Life Insurance Department in respect of the numbers for each sex. The two tables showing the adjusted numbers are given with the one alluded to above.

The numbers and proportions at each period of five years are probably nearly correct, and are stated beneath. These numbers diminish in a regular progression.

PROPORTIONS AT QUINQUENNIAL PERIODS OF AGE.

 Numbers.Proportions per Gent.
Persons.  Males.  Females.  Persons.  Males.  Females.
Under 5 years    86,806    44,324    42,482    11.24    10.93    11.59
5 years and under 10 years.    85,736    43,314    42,422    11.10    10.68    11.57
10 years and under 15 years    85,225    43,100    42,125    11.04    10.62    11.49
15 years and under 20 years    84,314    42,156    42,358    10.98    10.47    11.56
20 years and under 25 years    83,156    41,196    41,960    10.77    10.16    11.15
25 years and under 30 years    68,510    35,307    33,233    8.88    8.71    9.07
30 years and under 35 years    56,966    29,694    27,272    7.38    7.32    7.44
35 years and under 10 years    45,518    24,301    21,217    5.90    5.99    5.79
40 years and under 45 years    38,936    21,589    17,317    5.04    5.32    4.73
45 years and under 50 years    33,131    19,134    13,997    4.29    1.72    3.82
50 years and under 55 years    27,404    15,413    11,991    3.55    3.80    3.27
55 years and under 60 years    23,671    13,711    9,963    3.07    3.38    2.72
60 years and under 65 years    20,820    12,803    8,017    2.70    3.16    2.19
65 years and under 70 years    16,188    10,160    6,028    2.10    2.51    1.65
70 years and under 75 years    8,584    5,348    3,236    1.11    1.32    0.88
75 years and under 80 years    3,964    2,285    1,679    0.51    0.56    0.46
80 years and under 85 years    1,902    1,050    852    0.25    0.26    0.23
85 years and upwards    715    375    340    0.09    0.09    0.09
Unspecified    640    432    208    …    …    …
All ages    772,719    405,992    366,727    100.00    100.00    100.00

* The total number of males liable to be called out for service in the militia in March, 1901, was, in round numbers, 129,000, consisting of all males between 17 and 40 years, with the unmarried between 40 and 55 years, less the exemptions, numbering about 37,880 persons. They are classified as under:—

Class I. Unmarried, between 17 and 30 years86,327
Class II. Married, between 17 and 30 years15,407
Unmarried, between 30 and 40 years18,901
Class III. Married, between 30 and 40 years34,545
Unmarried, between 40 and 55 years11,700
Total166,830
Deduct exemptions37,380
Number available for service129,000

Of married men between 40 and 55 years there were 43,130.

The proportions of the sexes at each quinquennial period of age are shown hereunder: —

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD.

Ages.Proportion of Sexes in every 100 Persons living at each Age-period.
Males.Females.
Under 5 years51.0648.94
5 years and under 10 years50.5249.48
10 years and under 15 years50.5749.43
15 years and under 20 years50.0549.95
20 years and under 25 years49.5450.46
25 years and under 30 years51.5148.49
30 years and under 35 years52.1347.87
35 years and under 40 years53.3946.61
40 years and under 45 years55.4544.55
45 years and under 50 years57.7542.25
50 years and under 55 years56.2443.76
55 years and under 6057.9242.08
60 years and under 65 years61.4938.51
65 years and under 70 years62.7737.23
70 years and under 75 years62.3037.70
75 years and under 80 years57.6442.36
80 years and under 85 years55.2144.79
85 years and upwards52.4547.55
 52.5447.46

At the first four of these the males and females are nearly equal in number, though the male element slightly preponderates, but at 20 to 25 there are actually more females than males, the figures being: males, 49.54; females, 50.46. At 25 to 30 years the males are, however, again found to be in excess of the females, though not greatly so. The difference thereafter widens until at 65 to 70, the proportions are 62.77 and 37.23 respectively. At 85 and upwards there were 52.45 of males and 47.55 of females in every 100 persons.

The numbers at each year of age were as follow: but, as previously pointed out, the clusters at the quinquennial periods show that these are not by any means absolutely correct, so that it has been necessary to add further tables giving the adjusted figures in respect of the numbers of each sex.

POPULATION AT EACH YEAR OF AGE-PERIOD.

[Numbers as compiled from Returns.]

Ages.  Including Chinese.  Chinese.  Excluding Chinese.
  Persons.  Males.  Females.  Persons.  Males.  Females.  Persons.  Males.  Females.
Total population772,719405,992366,7272,8572,82532769,862403,167366,695
Total specified ages772,079405,560366,5192,8322,80032769,247402,760366,487
Under 1 year18,3819,6128,7692218,3799,6128,767
1 year15,9828,1497,8332215,9808,1477,833
2 years17,3798,8438,53654117,3748,8398,535
3 years17,4098,7338,67131217,4068,7378,669
4 years17,6558,9828,6731117,6548,9818,673
5 years17,2788,7098,5692217,2768,7098,567
6 years17,1328,6298,5032217,1308,6278,503
7 years17,1558,6768,4791117,1548,6758,479
8 years16,9868,5968,3903316,9838,5938,390
9 years17,1858,7048,4811117,1848,7048,480
10 years16,8908,5128,3782216,8888,5128,376
11 years16,6628,4658,19721116,6608,4648,196
12 years17,4358,8228,6131117,4348,8228,612
13 years17,1318,5528,57917,1318,5528,579
14 years17,1078,7498,3582217,1058,7478,358
15 years16,8328,4568,37616,8328,4568,376
16 years17,2588,5698,6891117,2578,5688,689
17 years16,8838,4538,43016,8838,4538,430
18 years16,9618,5368,42516,9618,5368,425
19 years16,8808,4428,4383316,8778,4398,438
20 years17,1428,5598,5835517,1378,5548,583
21 years16,9158,3568,5593316,9128,3538,559
22 years16,6988,2228,476119216,6878,2138,474
23 years16,4928,1768,31632116,4898,1748,315
24 years15,9097,8838,0262116515,8887,8678,021
25 years15,2667,8757,3913329415,2337,8467,387
26 years14,4067,3997,007292914,3777,3707,007
27 years12,9356,6376,298363612,8996,6016,298
28 years13,6747,0096,6654038213,6346,9716,663
29 years12,2596,3875,872303012,2296,3575,872
30 years14,6827,5077,1757979 14,6037,4287,175
31 years10,4155,5324,8832726110,3835,5064,882
32 years11,6166,1545,462646411,5526,0905,462
33 years10,1075,2504,857212110,0865,2294,857
34 years10,1465,2514,895414110,1055,2104,895
35 years10,2875,5974,690848410,2035,5134,690
36 years9,5345,0274,507717019,4634,9574,506
37 years8,5714,5514,02045458,5264,5064,020
38 years9,1704,8914,27984849,0864,8074,279
39 years7,9564,2353,72135357,9214,2003,721
40 years10,7355,9714,76420020010,5355,7714,764
41 years6,6753,6912,98449496,6263,6422,984
42 years8,0374,5693,4681051057,9324,4643,468
43 years6,8273,6953,1324949 6,7783,6463,132
44 years6,6623,6632,99958586,6043,6052,999
45 years8,0444,7083,33614814717,8964,5613,335
46 years6,5713,7772,794797816,4923,6992,793
47 years5,9753,4792,49660605,9153,4192,496
48 years6,6523,8092,8431341346,5183,6752,843
49 years5,8893,3612,52868685,8213,2932,528
50 years8,1344,5763,5581851857,9494,3913,558
51 years4,3772,5281,849747314,3032,4551,848
52 years5,5213,1232,39889895,4323,0342,398
53 years4,6192,5782,04155554,5642,5232,041
54 years4,7532,6082,14563634,6902,5452,145
55 years4,9492,8402,10995954,8542,7452,109
56 years5,2833,0062,27770705,2132,9362,277
57 years4,3842,5251,85936364,3482,4891,859
58 years4,7252,7761,9494343 4,6822,7331,949
59 years4,3332,5641,7691717 4,3162,5471,769
60 years5,9653,5882,37787875,8783,5012,377
61 years3,4322,1411,29137373,3952,1041,291
62 years3,8882,4531,43547473,8412,4061,435
63 years3,8062,3001,50635353,7712,2651,506
64 years3,7292,3211,40826263,7032,2951,408
65 years4,0952,5631,532333214,0622,5311,531
66 years3,4312,0891,34215153,4162,0741,342
67 years3,4322,1781,25419193,4132,1591,254
68 years3,0151,9231,09215153,0001,9081,092
69 years2,2151,407808552,2101,402808
70 years2,6621,6201,04214142,6481,6061,042
71 years1,5771,011566331,5741,008566
72 years1,6551,047608881,6471,039608
73 years1,406885521441,402881521
74 years1,284785499221,282783499
75 years1,157674483331,154671483
76 years91652439233913521392
77 years698388310698388310
78 years68940728222687405282
79 years504292212504292212
80 years55030124911549300249
81 years42825317511427252175
82 years435231204435231204
83 years259135124259135124
84 years230130100230130100
85 years16687791668779
86 years13977621397762
87 years11661551166155
88 years764036764036
89 years593227593227
90 years563125563125
91 years301416301416
92 years221111221111
93 years13761376
94 years716716
95 years734734
96 years936936
97 years422422
98 years853853
99 years312312
100 years
Unspecified, under 21392415392415
Unspecified, over 216014081932525576383193

NUMBER OF MALES AT EACH AGE, 1901.

Total Males.New-Zealand-born Males.
Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.
09,6129,612552,8402,82909,5689,56855210208
18,1498,149563,0062,76318,0838,08356209192
28,8438,843572,5252,72328,7398,73957166159
38,7388,738582,7762,70438,6038,60358127120
48,9828,982592,5642,69248,7938,793597288
58,7098,680603,5882,67658,5258,495606960
68,6298,666612,1412,63768,3788,346612337
78,6768,659622,4532,57478,3498,307622322
88,5968,657632,3002,50188,1458,240632215
98,7048,652642,3212,41598,2268,235641014
108,5128,648652,5632,328108,0938,230651812
118,4658,637662,0892,245118,0428,228661211
128,8228,623672,1782,063128,4258,223671010
138,5528,606681,9231,867138,1618,2176868
148,7498,586691,4071,657148,3818,2006927
158,4568,556701,6201,423158,0308,1037086
168,5698,520711,0111,196168,0897,9937125
178,4538,489721,0471,043177,8967,8827245
188,5368,46073885906187,7747,7707344
198,4428,43174785780197,5577,6027464
208,5598,40475674656207,5297,4137533
218,3568,34876524532217,0627,1387611
228,2228,27177388433226,7126,8047733
238,1768,17778407363236,4826,4207811
247,8837,99679292301245,9815,9917911
257,8757,70280301276255,6935,4978033
267,3997,35481253249265,0354,93581....
276,6377,04182231217274,1764,4408222
287,0096,73383135177284,2184,1548311
296,3876,47784130131293,7763,8728411
307,5076,290858787304,2503,697Unspecified.106106
315,5326,106867777313,1283,553
326,1545,938876161323,3943,322
335,2505,761884040332,8813,105
345,2515,599893232342,8382,819
355,5975,301903131352,5962,481
365,0275,022911414362,1582,143
374,5514,829921111371,7711,848
384,8914,6499377381,6221,600
394,2354,5009411391,2871,362
405,9714,4299533401,3471,173
413,6914,378963341848997
424,5694,328972242888851
433,6954,259985543710738
443,6634,195991144616654
454,7084,113100....45678592
463,7773,98146482537   
473,4793,841Unspecified.43243247462484
483,8093,66948474436
493,3613,53049354393
504,5763,30150422350
512,5283,17051242313
523,1233,07052313278
532,5782,97253233246
542,6082,90054188226
 ....405,992405,992....257,828257,828

NOTE,—The Adjusted figures have been supplied by the Government Life Insurance Commissioner.

NUMBERS OF FEMALES AT EACH AGE,1901.

Total Females.New-Zealand-Born Females.
Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.

NOTE,—The Adjusted figures have been supplied by the Government Life Insurance Commissioner.

08,7698,769552,1092,13408,7208,72055200187
17,8337,833562,2772,06517,7747,77456177175
28,5368,536571,8592,00028,4048,40457155155
38,6718,673581,9491,93238,5248,52458116128
48,6738,653591,7691,85548,4788,478599595
58,5698,635602,3771,77558,3588,358606159
68,5038,611611,2911,68068,2658,286612022
78,4798,589621,4351,60078,1618,243621919
88,3908,564631,5061,53988,0238,201632117
98,4818,540641,4081,48498,0368,161641215
108,3788,518651,5321,400107,9508,130651614
118,1978,488661,3421,320117,7848,100661412
128,6138,466675,2541,211128,2078,05967710
138,5798,452681,0921,043138,2368,01968109
148,3588,43669808925147,9797,9856928
158,3768,418701,042825157,9887,95070137
168,6898,40071566726168,2577,9077156
178,4308,38272608637177,9377,8657223
188,4258,36473521559187,8077,8227333
198,4388,34674499489197,8127,7767412
208,5838,32175483427207,8477,7107533
218,5598,28176392372217,6897,60876....
228,4768,20177310338227,4057,47277....
238,3168,03678282297237,1207,1817822
248,0267,82279212265246,7676,7957933
257,3917,55280249232255,8576,17380....
267,0077,24981175201265,3085,28581....
276,2986,90882204162274,3814,5198211
286,6656,41083124132284,4824,18083....
295,8726,13884100105293,8833,9818411
307,1755,909857983304,5833,795   
314,8835,678866264313,1633,582Unspecified.8989
325,4625,442875549323,4013,360
334,8575,206883636332,9773,160
344,8954,961892727342,8292,800
354,6904,662902520352,4802,403
364,5074,394911616362,1802,091
374,0204,217921112371,7471,812
384,2794,0669369381,4981,543
393,7213,9439467391,2121,297
404,7643,8169546401,3321,126
412,9843,624966541827966
423,4683,448972342813820
433,1323,296983243663704
442,9993,168992144593616
453,3363,048Unspecified.20820845626542
462,7942,93646434476
472,4962,82447406418
482,8432,72048413397
492,5282,62449336376
503,5582,54650413332
511,8492,46151196290
522,3982,37052268250
532,0412,28453220212
542,1452,21554181199
 ....366,727366,727....258,278258,278

Chapter 19. AGES AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE.

For a person not born in New Zealand, the householder was required to state on the census schedule the length of his or her residence therein in years, and, from the information thus obtained, a table has been compiled showing the number of persons at each year of age, and the length of their residence in the colony, and from this the following figures, which will no doubt be found interesting, are taken:—

On the 31st March, 1901, there were in New Zealand 26,563 persons of 65 years of age and. upwards who had been twenty-five years and over resident in the colony, and, at the same time, no less than

3,537 persons64 years of age and over, resident24 years and upwards.
3,602 persons63 years of age and over, resident23 years and upwards.
3,831 persons62 years of age and over, resident22 years and upwards.
3,532 persons61 years of age and over, resident21 years and upwards.
5,978 persons60 years of age and over, resident20 years and upwards.
4,180 persons59 years of age and over, resident19 years and upwards.
4,676 persons58 years of age and over, resident18 years and upwards.
4,567 persons57 years of age and over, resident17 years and upwards.
5,277 persons56 years of age and over, resident16 years and upwards.
5,030 persons55 years of age and over, resident15 years and upwards.

In addition to the above, there were 925 persons of 65 years and over whose length of residence was not specified, 71 persons who had resided twenty-five years and over in the colony whose ages were not stated, and 273 adults unspecified both as to age and length of residence, as well as 163 adults born in New Zealand whose ages were not given.

Aliens are included in the foregoing figures, but Maoris are excluded. There were 11,615 foreign subjects (of all ages) in New Zealand on the 31st March, 1901.

Of the New-Zealand-born, 171 had reached or passed the age of 65 years at the time of the census; 22 were 64 years old; 43 were 63; 42 were 62; 43 were 61; 130 were said to be 60; 167 were 59; 243 were 58; 321 were 57; 386 were 56; and 410 were 55 years old. These have been included in the figures previously given.

PART V.—CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 20.

OF 403,167 males, exclusive of Chinese, 273,113 were returned as unmarried, 118,475 as husbands, 10,653 as widowers, and 926 were unspecified as to conjugal condition.

These figures show a proportion of 67.90 per cent, of males to have been unmarried, 29.45 as husbands, and 2.65 as widowers, or, eliminating all males under 14 years, who were necessarily unmarried, 53.91 per cent, not married, 42.29 per cent, husbands, and 3.80 widowers.

Of females, numbering altogether 366,695, there were 230,510 unmarried, 117,821 wives, 17,902 widows, and 462 not specified as to condition. Or, represented proportionally, of females at all ages, 62.94 per cent, were not married, 32.17 were wives, and 4.89 widows. Shutting off those under 14 years, the proportions stand as 45 persons 18 unmarried, 47.59 waves, and 7.23 widows.

The proportions for successive census periods exhibit on the male side a rise in the percentage of the married men and a steady increase in regard to widowers since the year 1878. On the female side the percentage of the unmarried rose with regularity until the year 1891, while the married diminished. The percentage of widows increased steadily. Chinese are excluded from the calculations.

Year.Males.Females.
Unmarried.Married.Widowed.Unmarried.Married.Widowed.
187870.0928.061.8562.5934.323.09
188170.3927.731.8863.6433.053.31
188670.3527.612.0464.5931.743.67
189170.0227.612.3764.9530.944.11
189669.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53
190167.9029.452.6562.9432.174.89

The proportions at different age-periods show, for males, that the unmarried decrease from 99 per cent, at the period 17.20 to 65 per cent, at the period 25.30 years. At 30.35 years the husbands, who were only 34.61 per cent, at the previous period, exceeded the unmarried, the proportion being of husbands 58.54, unmarried 40.38, and widowers 1.08 per cent. At 80.85 years the widowers were in the highest proportion per cent., the figures being 15.90 unmarried, 39.85 husbands, and 44.25 widowers.

Of the females, 99 per cent, were spinsters at the period 14.18 years; thence onward the proportion diminished and the wives and widows increased, until at 25.30 years the wives were in the highest proportion—i.e., 54.07 per cent., against 45.06 of unmarried females, and 0.87 of widows. At 70.75 years the widows had increased so as to exceed the wives, being 52.31 per cent., against 43.53, while the spinsters had diminished to 4.16 per cent. At 85 and upwards the widows were 81.01 per cent, of the whole number of females.

The numbers and proportions according to conjugal condition for each age-period are exhibited in full detail:—

Chapter 21. Numbers Living.

Males.
Ages.Total.Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.Divorced.Not stated.
All ages403,167272,858118,47510,653255926
Specified ages402,760272,685118,40110,641255778
14 years and upwards280,786150,711118,40110,641255778
Under 14 years121,974121,974........
14 years to 15 years…8,7478,747........
15 years to 16 years8,4568,456........
16 years to 17 years8,5688,566......2
17 years to 18 years8,4538,4434....6
18 years to 19 years8,5368,50816....12
19 years to 20 years8,4398,40228....9
20 years to 21 years8,5548,440941..19
21 years to 25 years32,60729,4822,953344134
25 years to 30 years35,14522,73012,12115610128
30 years to 35 years29,46311,84517,2063172471
35 years to 40 years23,9836,85416,5774454166
40 years to 45 years21,1284,89815,4347062664
45 years to 50 years18,6473,73013,9568594765
50 years to 55 years14,9482,78811,0989703458
55 years to 60 years13,4502,4239,6991,2592445
60 years to 65 years12,5712,3208,7111,4841739
65 years to 70 years10,0742,3475,9271,7561529
70 years to 75 years5,3171,0942,9311,267718
75 years to 80 years2,2774441,105709316
80 years to 85 years1,04816441646224
85 years to and upwards3753012521613
Unspecified4071737412148
Females.
Ages.Total.Unmarried.Wives.Widows.Divorced.Not stated.
All ages366,695230,361117,82117,902149462
Specified ages366,487230,284117,74617,881149427
14 years and upwards247,828111,625117,74617,881149427
Under 14 years118,659118,659
14 Under 15 years8,3588,358
15 Under 16 years8,3768,3751
16 Under 17 years8,6898,677102
17 Under 18 years8,4308,352726
18 Under 19 years8,4258,215193116
19 Under 20 years8,4387,92450113
20 Under 21 years8,5837,593963522
21 Under 25 years33,36924,1149,09067890
25 Under 30 years33,22714,91817,9232901680
30 Under 35 years27,2716,98619,6175933540
35 Under 40 years21,2163,37316,8549293327
40 Under 45 years17,3471,78314,1821,3422119
45 Under 50 years13,99596611,3091,6831720
50 Under 55 years11,9906659,2392,068513
55 Under 60 years9,9634677,1442,330616
60 Under 65 years8,0173475,2222,422620
65 Under 70 years6,0272533,2832,468221
70 Under 75 years3,2361341,4041,68711
75 Under 80 years1,679865151,0744
80 Under 85 years852261736494
85 years and upwards34013512733
Unspecified20877752135

Chapter 22. PROPORTION TO EVERY 100 LIVING AT EACH AGE

 Males.Females.
Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.Divorced.Unmarried.Wives.Widows.Divorced!.
All ages67.8429.452.6500662.9032.174.890.04
Specified ages67.8429.452.650.0662.9132.174.880.04
14 years and upwards53.8242.293.800.0945.1247.597.230.06
Under 14 years
14 years to 15 years
15 years to 16 years99.990.01
16 years to 17 years99.880.12
17 years to 18 years99.950.0599.150.85
18 years to 19 years99.810.1997.692.300.01
19 years to 20 years99.670.3394.055.95
20 years to 21 years98.891.100.0188.6911.250.06
21 years to 25 years90.799.090.110.0172.4627.320.200.02
25 years to 30 years64.9134.610.450.0345.0154.070.870.05
30 years to 35 years40.3058.541.080.0825.6572.042.180.13
35 years to 40 years28.6669.311.860.1715.9279.544.380.16
40 years to 45 years23.2573.273.350.1310.2981.847.750.12
45 years to 50 years20.0675.074.620.256.9130.9312.040.12
50 years to 55 years18.7274.536.520.235.5577.1417.270.04
55 years to 60 years18.0872.359.390.184.7071.8223.420.06
60 years to 65 years18.5169.5111.840.144.3465.3030.290.07
65 years to 70 .23.3759.0017.480.154.2154.6641.090.04
70 years to 75 years20.6555.3123.910.134.1643.5352.31
75 years to 80 years19.6448.8731.360.135.1330.7564.12
80 years to 85 years15.7139.8544.250.193.0720.4076.53
85 years and upwards8.0633.6058.070.273.8615.1381.01

The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is still steadily diminishing, while the proportion from 35 to 45 years has an increasing tendency. Women in New Zealand are therefore not now marrying at such early ages as they did in former years. The process brings the relative proportions closer to those that obtain in England:—

PROPORTIONS FOR. 100 MARRIED WOMEN AT THE AGES 15 TO 45.

Ages.England.New Zealand.
  1881.  1878.  1881.  1886.  1891.  1896.  1901.
Under 20 years1.102.452.161.811.191.120.98
20 and under 35 years59.3261.9060.5360.0360.1259.5759.94
35 and under 45 years39.5835.6537.3138.1638.6936.3139.08
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Chapter 23. CONJUGAL CONDITION OF CHINESE.

Of 2,825 male Chinese living in the colony, 6l were stated as married and 13 widowed. The instruction on the census schedule was that Chinese not having wives in this colony or any Australian State should be returned as unmarried. Of 32 Chinese females, 18 were returned as married, 12 of the rest being young people under 14 years of age. The half-caste Chinese are referred to on page 41.

Chapter 24. BACHELORS AND SPINSTERS.

Of 272,685 unmarried males of specified ages, 09,844 were over 20 years of age, and, of 230,284 unmarried females, 103,416 were found to be over 15 years; the excess of spinsters over bachelors was therefore 3,572. Accepting the above as the marriageable ages, the number of bachelors to every 100 spinsters was 97.

That a process of equalisation in the numbers of bachelors and spinsters has been going on steadily during past years is proved by the results of previous censuses:—

NUMBER OF BACHELORS AGED 20 YEARS AND UPWARDS TO EVERY 100 OF SPINSTERS AGED 15 AND UPWARDS.

Census, 1874    238
Census, 1878    191
Census, 1881    162
Census, 1886    123
Census, 1891    105
Census, 1896    98
Census, 1901    97

Chapter 25. HUSBANDS AND WIVES.

The number of husbands of specified ages was 118,401, and of wives 117,746, giving an excess of husbands over wives amounting to 655. This excess of husbands is almost entirely accounted for by the arrival in the Auckland Provincial District during the last few years of a number of Austrian gum-diggers—married men who did not bring their wives with them. There were 100 wives to every 100 husbands in the colony, notwithstanding the small numerical excess of husbands above mentioned. As in the case of the bachelors and spinsters, a process of equalisation in the number of husbands and wives has also been in operation, the number of husbands to every 100 wives having fallen from 102 in 1874 to 101 in 1881, and again to 100 in 1891, 1896, and 1901.

Chapter 26. WIDOWERS AND WIDOWS.

The widowers of specified ages numbered 10,641, and the widows 17,881, being a proportion of 60 widowers to every 100 widows. At the census of 1896 the proportion was 62 to every 100 widows.

Chapter 27. DIVORCED PERSONS.

Four hundred and four persons—namely, 255 men and 149 women—were entered on the census schedule as being divorced. These numbers are not likely to represent fully the actual facts, but are interesting as, no doubt, an approximation to the truth. During the five years ended 31st December, 1900, the number of decrees for dissolution of marriage granted was 232, and for judicial separation 24.

Chapter 28. MARRIAGE BATES IN AUSTRALASIA.

It was remarked in the report on the census of 1890 that the marriage rate in New Zealand, from being the highest in Australasia, had fallen to be the lowest, and that the same process hits been going on in regard to birth rates. The lapse of five years places New Zealand in a much better position as regards marriage, the rate being lower than in Tasmania and Western Australia only, but higher than in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, and Queensland.

MARRIAGE RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1874.1886.1891.1895.1900.
Queensland8.628.677.186.236.88
New South Wales7.707.997.396.357.38
Victoria6.337.847.696.006.96
South Australia8.006.247.315.886.50
Western Australia6.967.988.006.8310.27
Tasmania6.837.266.635.327.71
New Zealand8.815.996.045.947.67

In the year 1880, New Zealand had the highest birth rate of Australasia, hut since 1887 the position has been exactly the opposite.

BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1887.1891.1895.1900.
Queensland38.0936.3532.8530.21
New South Wales36.4234.5030.6627.43
Victoria32.3933.5728.5725.82
South Australia34.6333.9230.2325.78
Western Australia37.3434.8525.6231.46
Tasmania33.8733.3730.1028.25
New Zealand32.0929.0126.7825.60

Chapter 29. HALF-CASTE CHINESE.

The schedules showed that at the time of the census 43 European women were married to Chinese, the result of such unions being 106 children (60 males and 46 females). If these half-caste children be added to the number of purebred Chinese in the colony the result would be,—

 Persons.Males.Females.
Chinese2,8572,82532
Chinese half-castes1066046
 2,9632,88578

PART VI.—EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 30.

THE replies given by householders to the inquiry showed that in every 100 persons living (excluding Chinese), 82.78 per cent. could read and write, 1.95 could read only, and 15.27 were unable to read. The proportion per cent. unable to read fell from 23.72 in 1878 to 21.19 in 1886, to 16.51 in 1896, and further to 15.27 in 1901. Of those who could read only, the proportion diminished from 6.76 in 1878 till in 1901 it stood at 1.95 per cent. The following shows the percentages at each census period:—

 Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
187869.5272.1166.336.765.917.8023.7221.9825.87
188171.3273.3168.945.635.016.3923.0521.6824.67
188674.0175.4072.414.804.365.3121.1920.2422.28
189177.2777.9776.483.973.744.2418.7618.2919.28
189680.6031.0680.092.892.713.0816.5116.2316.83
190182.7883.0882.441.951.812.1015.2715.1115.46

Besides the improvement in the degree of education shown above, which is observed in respect of females as well as males, it will be noticed that whereas the difference in the percentage able to read and write is very considerably in favour of the male sex for the year 1878, the proportions approximate more closely at each successive census year, until in 1901 there are found to have been 82.44 per cent. of the female sex who could read and write, against 83.08 males. The education of the females, taking as a standard the knowledge of reading and writing, is thus nearly equal to that of the males. But with a system of free and compulsory education this would be expected in time, and the census results have no longer the degree of importance or interest they had years ago.

It is in considering the proportions of the population at different age-periods that the improvement in education is even more clearly proved, as seen by reference to the next table:—

PROPORTION TO EVERY 100 AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD.

Ages.Persons.Males.Females.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
All ages82.781.9515.2783.081.8115.1182.442.1015.46
Specified ages82.771.9415.2983.081.8015.1282.442.0915.47
Specified ages above 5 years93.372.154.4893.421.994.5993.322.324.36
Under 5 years0.3299.680.3099.700.3399.67
5 years to 10 years63.4010.9025.7062.3711.2926.3464.4610.5025.04
10 years to 15 years99.240.340.4299.130.380.4999.360.290.35
15 years to 20 years99.470.110.4299.300.140.5699.640.090.27
20 years to 25 years99.240.160.6098.950.220.8399.530.110.36
25 years to 30 years99.070.230.7098.800.270.9399.350.190.46
30 years to 35 years98.820.310.8798.580.341.0899.080.280.64
35 years to 40 years98.060.621.3297.960.541.5098.190.701.11
40 years to 45 years97.190.911.9097.280.712.0197.081.151.77
45 years to 50 years96.161.432.4196.560.952.4995.622.062.32
50 years to 55 years94.911.863.2395.901.152.9593.692.733.58
55 years to 60 years93.682.653.6794.781.743.4892.193.883.93
60 years to 65 years92.703.254.0594.191.953.8690.365.294.35
65 years to 70 years88.904.826.2891.203.155.6585.037.627.35
70 years to 75 years89.165.505.3491.583.734.69S5.208.396.41
75 years to 80 years87.186.376.4589.533.996.4884.009.606.40
80 and upwards84.577.757.6886.535.278.2082.2310.717.06
Unspecified age under 2154.849.6835.4847.3710.5242.1066.678.3325.00
Unspecified age over 2195.251.753.0096.681.661.6693.081.895.03

Here it is found that in 1901, of persons at the age-period of 10–15 years, 99.24 per cent. were able to read and write, whilst 0.34 per cent. could merely read, and 0.42 per cent. were unable to read. From 15–20 years the proportion who could not read increased slowly with each succeeding quinquennial period of age until at 50–55 years it stood at 3.23 per cent. At 75–80 years the proportion was 6.45, and at 80 and upwards it had advanced to 7.68. Similarly, the proportion of persons who could read only increased from 0.34 at 10–15 years to 1.86 at the period 50–55, and again to 7.75 at 80 and upwards. The better education of the people at the earlier ages is thus exhibited. The numbers upon which the above proportions are based are:—

NUMBERS (EXCLUDING CHINESE).

AgesPersons.Males.Females.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknownRead and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknownRead and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknown
All ages632,93614,857116,8215,248332,5607,22360,4842,900300,3767,63456,3372,348
Specified ages632,53814,847116,7985,067332,3187,21760,4722,753300,2207,63056,3262,311
Specified ages above 5 years632,53814,57030,3504,996332,3187,08216,3242,720300,2207,48814,0262,276
Under 5 years..27786,44868..13544,14833..14242,30035
5 years to 10 years53,4089,18121,6471,49126,5284,80311,20077126,8804,37810,441720
10 years to 15 years84,31628735725842,58616421013741,730123147121
15 years to 20 years84,1679735119542,0415823811542,1263911380
20 years to 25 years82,21013649427340,5709034215941,64046152114
25 years to 30 years67,45815847827834,5649432516232,89464153116
30 years to 35 years to55,72117748934728,85610031519226,86577174155
35 years to 40 years44,02027759131123,34212935715520,678148234150
40 years to 45 years37,06534772633720,37314942118516,692198305152
45 years to 50 years31,05946178034217,81217645920013,247285321142
50 years to 55 years25,29949586028414,18517143615611,114324424128
55 years to 6O years21,67061385028012,5962314631609,074382387120
6O years to 65 years18,87166182523111,7292434811187,142418344113
65 years to 70 years14,1567671,0011779,099314564975,0574534378O
70 years to 75 years7,5294644511094,806196246692,72326820540
75 years to 80 years3,408249252472,01790146241,39115910623
8O and upwards2,181200198361,21474115209671268316
Unspecified age under 2117311892858133
Unspecified age over 21381712176233441421483834

Statistics showing the proportion of persons married in different years and who signed the register with a mark, corroborate the census results as to advance in education. In the year 1881 32 males and 58 females per 1,000 of either sex were found to be illiterate, as being not able to sign their names. These proportions fell to 19.21 males per 1,000 and 28.96 females per 1,000 of that sex in 1886, and again to 16.33 and 19.23 in 1890; in 1895 the proportions stood at 9.48 for males, and the same for females; and in 1900 only 5.29 for males and 5.12 for females.

A table is next given to show particulars in respect of the various principal religious denominations, and of marriages by Registrars:—

PERSONS IN EVERY 1,000 MARRIED WHO SIGNED BY MARK.

Denomination.1881.1886.1890.1895.1900.
M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Church of England16.5927.159.3312.006.084.863.213.213.015.27
Presbyterians10.2529.619.797.628.5915.275.001.002.593.23
Wesleyans and other Methodists32.4141.796.3314.7815.2010.144.654.653.983.98
Roman Catholics117.78133.3346.4565.5735.2642.8217.3928.269.466.31
Other denominations10.3620.7211.4922.9915.000.0010.0010.00....
By Registrars39.2293.5135.9862.0329.7740.6022.0220.7313.2910.22
Totals32.0457.9819.2128.9616.3319.239.489.485.295.12

In all the preceding proportions and numbers the Chinese have been excluded.

Occupiers of houses were directed, in filling up census schedules, to see that Chinese should be set down as unable to read or write unless they could read and write English. Out of a total of 2,857 Chinese, 385 were returned in conformity with these instructions as capable of reading and writing English, 20 as able to read only, and 2,452 as not able to read or write; but of these 2,452 no less than 823 are stated to be able to read and write Chinese, and 17 to read only in that language.

Chapter 31. ATTENDANCE AT SCHOOL.

An inquiry was made as to the number of children attending schools of various kinds, besides those receiving tuition at home; also, as to the number of Sunday-school scholars and teachers. While information is always obtainable from the Education Department as to the children attending public schools, the number at private schools can only be got by means of the census, or by special applications made for the purpose to the proprietors, which is done once a year. The census figures serve to check the returns received from private schools; while for Sunday-schools, and tuition at home, there is no other source of information.

The compiled tables give, for March, 1901:—

 Total.Boys.Girls.
At Government primary schools132,91168,36064,551
At College, high, grammar, or private schools19,8378,99410,843
Being taught at home5,0552,2152,840

Comparison with former censuses shows increasing numbers at the schools, but latterly a decline in the home tuition. Possibly a gradually advancing density of population in the country districts accounts for the diminution in the children taught at home. The figures at last five successive censuses are:—

 At Government Primary Schools.    At college, High, Grammar or Private Schools.    Receiving Tuition at Home.
April, 188187,81113,5387,348
March, 1886110,64414,9487,567
April, 1891124,06317,0478,178
April, 1896133,36417,6006,352
March, 1901132,91119,8375,055

As to attendance at Sunday-schools, a comparison can only be made if the teachers be included with the scholars. Proceeding on these lines, a large development is found since 1878: —

ATTENDING SUNDAY-SCHOOLS (INCLUDING TEACHERS).

Census Year.Totals.Males.Females.
187862,27330,70731,566
188699,88448,50951,375
1896116,04554,06361,982
1901118,41254,83463,578

The excess of females over males would seem to grow greater, considered numerically, as well as in proportion to the numbers, with time.

The number of scholars at the Sunday-schools in 1901 was 107,113, of whom 50,932 were boys and 56,181 girls. The teachers were 11,299 of both sexes, 3,902 being males and 7,397 females.

Part VII.—Sickness And Infirmity.

Chapter 32.

THE inquiry made under the heading “Sickness and Infirmity” on the household schedule for 1901 differs materially from that made at the census of 1896. At the enumeration of 1896 the instruction on the household schedule was, “If laid up or unable to follow usual occupation by reason of illness or accident, write ‘Sick,’ or ‘Accident,’ or if afflicted by any of the following infirmities write ‘Deaf and dumb,’ ‘Blind,’ ‘Insane,’ ‘Idiotic,’ ‘Epileptic,’ ‘Paralytic,’ ‘Leprous,’ ‘Lost a limb,’ or ‘Crippled,’ as the case may be.”

But in 1901 the heading to this column in the schedule was, “If laid up or unable to follow usual occupation by reason of illness or accident, write ‘Sick,’ or ‘Accident’ (specifying cause for either), or, if "Deaf and dumb," or ‘Blind,’ state so.”

Consequently, a large number of those who in 1896 were returned as “Sick” only have for 1901 been tabulated under “Specified Complaints,” or, in cases where the cause given was “Old age,” they have been entered under the heading “Debility and Infirmity.”

By means of the information thus obtained the proportion of persons incapacitated from work on the day of the census has been ascertained, and is shown in the tables according to various age-periods.

The results of the investigation under this head show that 9.28 persons in every 1,000 were suffering from sickness or accident on the 31st March, 1901, using the word “sickness” to mean inability to work on that day; and that, besides these, there were 7.20 persons in every 1,000 who were either affected with blindness, or deaf-and-dumb, lunatic, idiot, epileptic, &c.

These figures admit of being compared with the results obtained in New South Wales in 1891:—

SICKNESS, ACCIDENT, AND INFIRMITY: PROPORTIONS FOR 1,000 LIVING.

 New Zealand.    New South Wales (1801).
Persons16.4819.79
Males20.0922.90
Females12.4916.13

The difference shows in favour of this colony in case of males as well as females.

The sickness and infirmity of the males is found to be higher than that of the females in both instances, and the degree of variation is practically the same in each: New Zealand showing 20 males per 1,000 living of that sex against 12 females per 1,000, and New South Wales 22 males per 1,000 against 16 females out of a similar number of females.

The proportions of males and females suffering from sickness, accident, or specified infirmity in this colony are shown according to age-periods in the following statement. In regard to males, after the period 35–40 the proportion of sickness rises steadily at each quinquennium of age; while under “Accident” the proportion is highest at the period of 70–75 years. The rate of sickness per 1,000 males living at 35–40 years was 5.68, and this increased to 18.38 at 55–60, to 54.62 at 65–70, and to 70.18 at 80 and upwards. In regard to females, the sickness is not so great at 40–45 years as at 35–40, but from 20–25 it increases, and from 50 to 55 very rapidly, though the numbers on which the proportions are based are admittedly small from this point onwards. The rates per 1,000 were 5.89 at 20–25 years, 6.74 at 40–45, 11.17 at 50–55, and 47.82 at 80 and upwards.

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Persons.

    Ages.    Sick.    Specified Complaints.    Suffering from Accident.    Total* Specified Infirmities.    Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
Specified ages3.244.151.897.2016.48
Under 5 years0.450.540.240.181.41
5 years to 10 years0.331.210.501.003.04
10 years to 15 years0.861.220.761.924.76
15 years to 20 years1.502.051.582.267.39
20 years to25 years2.752.951.963.4011.06
25 years to 30 years2.793.301.894.4212.40
30 years to35 years2.653.901.636.1814.36
35 years to 40 years2.483.801.748.3916.41
40 years to 45 years2.903.722.4410.2719.33
45 years to 50 years4.225.732.6913.1325.77
50 years to 55 years5.076.533.1715.4730.24
55 years to 60 years6.4210.093.7620.4040.67
60 years to 65 years10.4214.465.4323.5853.89
65 years to 70 years19.2120.387.3533.6086.54
70 years to 75 years26.9130.299.3253.70120.22
75 years to 80 years37.5928.769.0867.36142.79
80 years and upwards38.5921.408.41105.08173.48

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Males.

    Ages.    Sick.    Specified Complaints.    Suffering from Accident.    Total* Specified Infirmities.    Total Sickness, Accident, and infirmity.
Specified ages3.475.073.038.5220.09
Under 5 years0.470.520.320.181.49
5 years to 10 years0.251.430.671.113.46
10 years to 15 years0.881.281.182.415.75
15 years to 20 years1.512.072.572.738.88
20 years to 25 years2.283.233.374.0312.91
25 years to 30 years2.583.263.374.9814.19
30 years to 35 years2.293.902.636.8415.66
35 years to 40 years1.773.912.639.2217.53
40 years to 45 years2.783.753.7510.4720.75
45 years to 50 years3.816.434.0214.2228.48
50 years to 55 years5.126.815.0015.5732.50
55 years to 60 years6.7111.675.6222.3946.39
60 years to 65 years11.2517.107.7323.9059.98
65 years to 70 years21.6532.9710.2437.30102.16
70 years to 75 years30.2939.4512.9060.40143.04
75 years to 80 years41.5738.9511.8281.84174.18
80 years and upwards38.6031.589.82120.00200.00

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Females.

    Ages.    Sick.    Specified Complaints.    Suffering from Accident.    Total* Specified Infirmities.    Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
Specified ages2.983.140.635.7312.48
Under 5 years0.420.570.160.191.34
5 years to 10 years0.400.990.330.892.61
10 years to 15 years0.831.160.331.423.74
15 years to 20 years1.492.030.591.795.90
20 years to 25 years3.222.670.572.799.25
25 years to 30 years3.013.340.333.8210.50
30 years to 35 years3.043.890.555.4612.94
35 years to 40 years3.303.670.717.4515.13
40 years to 45 years3.053.690.8110.0317.58
45 years to 50 years4.794.790.8611.6422.08
50 years to 55 years5.006.170.8315.3427.34
55 years to 60 years6.027.931.2117.6632.82
60 years to 65 years9.1110.231.7523.0744.16
65 years to 70 years15.1015.262.4927.3760.22
70 years to 75 years21.3215.143.4042.6482.50
75 years to 80 years32.1614.895.3647.65100.06
80 years and upwards38.599.236.7187.25141.78

Females are proved to be very much less liable to accident than males, the proportions being 0.63 per 1,000 of females, and 3.03 per 1,000 of males, or better stated for this purpose, 6.27 per 10,000 females and 30.28 per 10,000 males. As with sickness, the proportions increase with advancing age: for instance, among males, 3.37 per 1,000 were suffering from accident at the group 20–25 years, 3.75 per 1,000 at 40–45, 10.24 at (65.70, and 12.90 at the group 70–75 years. Among females the highest proportion per 1,000 is found at 75–80 years, being a rate of 5.36, or 53.60 per 10,000 living.

The numbers on which the above proportions are based are:—

Persons.

Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
All ages2,5053,2071,4615,57412,747
Specified ages2,5043,2061,4585,55812,726
Under 5 years39472116123
5 years to 10 years281044386261
10 years to 15 years7310465164406
15 years to 20 years127174134192627
20 years to 25 years229245163283920
25 years to 30 years191226130303850
30 years to 35 years15122293352818
35 years to 40 years11317379382747
40 years to 45 years11314595400753
45 years to 50 years14019089435854
50 years to 55 years13917987424829
55 years to 60 years15223989483963
60 years to 65 years2173011134911,122
65 years to 70 years3114271195441,401
70 years to 75 years231260804611,032
75 years to 80 years14911436267566
80 years and upwards1015622275454
Unspecified1131621

Males.

Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
All ages1,4102,0561,2313,4668,163
Specified ages1,4102,0551,2283,4568,149
Under 5 years212314866
5 years to 10 years11622948150
10 years to 15 years385551104248
15 years to 20 years6488109116377
20 years to 25 years94133139166532
25 years to 30 years91115119176501
30 years to 35 years6811678203465
35 years to 40 years439564224426
10 years to 45 years608181226448
45 years to 50 years7312377272545
50 years to 55 years7910577240501
55 years to 60 years9216077307636
60 years to 65 years14421999306768
65 years to 70 years2203351043791,038
70 years to 75 years16221169323765
75 years to 80 years958927187398
80 years and upwards554514171285
Unspecified..131014

Females.

Ages.Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
* Including the “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm,” and “deaf only.”
All ages1,0951,1512302,1084,584
Specified ages1,0941,1512302,1024,577
Under 5 years18247857
5 years to 10 years17421438111
10 years to 15 years35491460158
15 years to 20 years63862576250
20 years to 25 years13511224117388
25 years to 30 years10011111127349
30 years to 35 years8310615149353
35 years to 40 years707815158321
40 years to 45 years536414174305
45 years to 50 years676712163309
50 years to 55 years607410184328
55 years to 60 years607912176327
60 years to 65 years738214185354
65 years to 70 years919215165363
70 years to 75 years694911138267
75 years to 80 years5425980168
80 years and upwards46118104169
Unspecified167

Sickness and infirmity can be compared for New Zealand, in respect of persons over 15 years of age, with the results of the census of 1896 and previously. The proportions are: —

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 PERSONS OVER 15 YEARS.

 Sickness and Accident.Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness and Infirmity.
Census, 187412.645.3217.96
Census, 187811.165.7016.86
Census, 188111.207.2218.42
Census, 188612.617.8220.43
Census, 189112.7811.0823.86
Census, 189614.2811.4125.69
Census, 190112.7210.2923.01

Chapter 33. Specified Infirmities.

The total of these under the various heads amounted to 5,574 of both sexes and all ages. The males were 3,466, and the females 2,108, the proportions for every 10,000 persons being 71.98; for males 85.21, and for females 57.35 per 10,000 of each sex respectively. These infirmities are specially treated of one by one in the succeeding paragraphs.

Chapter 34. Deaf And Dumb.

There were 226 persons—131 males and 92 females—returned as deaf and dumb, or dumb only: of these, 45 were inmates of the Sumner Institution, leaving 181 deaf-mutes who were living at home or in some other private residence. The total shows a proportion of 2.91 persons per 10,000 living, against 2.86 ascertained in 1896. The proportions of the deaf and dumb taken according to the sexes did not differ much. The figures are given for seven census years.

DEAF AND DUMB (IN SEXES).— PROPORTIONS PER 10,000 OF POPULATIONS.

 Males.Females.
Census, 18742.051.71
Census, 18782.252.18
Census, 18812.232.45
Census, 18862.372.22
Census, 18912.802.49
Census, 18962.992.71
Census, 19013.282.51

The numbers at the census of 1901 for quinquennial age-periods are:—

NUMBERS OF THE DUMB AT LAST CENSUS.

 M.F.
All ages13492
Under 5 years
5 years to 10 years1816
10 years to 15 years3214
15 years to 20 years1810
20 years to 25 years168
25 years to 30 years812
30 35128
35 years to 40 years68
40 years to 45 years55
45 years to 50 years61
50 years to 55 years35
55 years to 60 years51
60 years to 65 years31
65 years to 70 years1
70 years to 75 years
75 years to 80 years12
80 years and upwards
Unspecified1

The highest numbers are shown at the ages 10 to 15.

The occupation of the deaf and dumb were returned in 1901 as under:—

OCCUPATIONS (PAST OR PRESENT) OF THE DEAF AND DUMB.

 Persons.M.F.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Draughtsman11
Hotel servant11
Domestic servant413
Charwoman11
Milkman11
Assistant to storekeeper11
Assistant to printer1l
Saddler22
Tanner11
Cabinetmaker11
Tailor22
Dressmaker624
Bootmaker11
Labourer (freezing-works)1l
Assistant to brewer11
Fell monger11
Carpenter4l3
Labourer413
Farmer44
Gardener33
Farm labourer13112
Sheep-farmer1
Shepherd11
Dairy farmer44
Independent means22
No occupation88
Domestic duties38137
Scholar (private school)211
Scholar (Government school)862
Receiving tuition at home321
Dependent on relatives41205115
Deaf-and-dumb Institute, Inmate of4524120
Industrial School, Inmate of11
Occupation not stated188712
 22668664052

In 1891 deaf-mutes were found to exist in Australia in the following proportions, with which is given the proportion for New Zealand in 1901:—

DEAF-MUTEISM IN AUSTRALASIA, 1891.

South Australiahad 1 deaf-mute in every 1,369 persons.
Queenslandhad 1 deaf-mute in every 2,557 persons.
Tasmaniahad 1 deaf-mute in every 2,716 persons.
New South Waleshad 1 deaf-mute in every 2,867 persons.
Victoriahad 1 deaf-mute in every 3,133 persons.
Western Australiahad 1 deaf-mute in every 4,526 persons.
New Zealand (1901)had 1 deaf-mute in every 3,419 persons.

Chapter 35. Blind.

There were 297 males and 156 females, making a total of 453 persons returned as blind, including 63 who were given in the schedules as “nearly” or “partly” blind. Of the above total number, 15 were inmates of the Jubilee Institute for the Blind at Auckland. It would thus appear that only one out of every thirty persons in the colony who suffered from blindness had been received into the institution. The number of blind persons in 1896 was 344. The proportions in every 10,000 of population shows a continuous rise at successive censuses, and that there is more blindness amongst males than females.

PROPORTIONS OF BLIND TO EVERY 10,000 PEOPLE.

 Persons.Males.Females.
18742.342.452.18
18782.562.422.73
18812.822.932.68
18863.223.652.70
18914.874.913.74
18964.905.694.01
19015.877.324.26

The number of the blind in quinquennial periods of age is stated for each sex. Of 297 males, 100 were under and 197 upwards of 50 years old. Of 156 females, 63 were under 50, and 93 over that age.

NUMBER OF THE BLIND AT AGE-PERIODS.

 Persons.M.F.
All ages453297156
Under 5 years33
5 years to 10 years1697
10 years to 15 years17116
15 years to 20 years15114
20 years to 25 years201010
25 years to 30 years1495
30 years to 35 years17134
35 years to 10 years21165
40 years to 45 years18117
45 years to 50 years221012
50 years to 55 years23167
55 years to 60 years453213
60 years to 65 years372215
65 years to 70 years745321
70 years to 75 years462818
75 years to 80 years362511
80 and upwards29218

Of the total number of the blind, 453 persons, there were 43 in regard to whom nothing as to their occupation was stated on the household schedule; 71 (females) were returned as engaged in domestic duties, 15 persons as inmates of Blind Institute, 10 as dependent relatives, 132 as of no occupation, 21 as labourers, 21 as farmers, 9 as farm-labourers, 6 as dairy-farmers, 5 as sheep-farmers, 8 as carpenters, 10 as pensioners, 6 of independent means, and the rest (96) of various occupations in small numbers each. A complete statement is added, in regard to which it must be remarked that many of the occupations are evidently the past occupations of persons whom blindness has prevented from continuing to work at their usual calling.

OCCUPATIONS (PAST OR PRESENT) OF THE BLIND.

 Persons.M.F.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Barrister (not in practice)11
Surgeon11
Teacher of blind22
School-teacher11
Musician33
Street musician11
Organ-grinder22
Comedian11
Boardinghouse-keeper22
Hotelkeeper11
Domestic servant11
Cook11
Capitalist22
Insurance agent11
Proprietor of houses44
News-vendor22
Butcher11
Assistant butcher22
Fish-hawker11
Fruiterer22
Grocer33
Seed merchant11
Hawker11
Storekeeper22
Commercial traveller22
Cab proprietor11
Mariner11
Waterman11
Lumper33
Compositor11
Piano-tuner33
Basket-maker44
Saddler11
Shipwright22
Cabinetmaker11
Boot and shoe maker44
Stonemason22 …
Carpenter88 …
Plumber11 …
Painter11 …
Contractor11 …
Labourer (undefined)2121 …
Farmer2120 …1
Farm-labourer.99 …
Gardener11 …
Market gardener22 …
Settler11 …
Dairy-farmer651
Sheep-farmer541
Shepherd11
Fisherman11
Bushman11
Gumdigger33
Miner (undefined)11
Miner, coal11
Miner, quartz33
Miner, alluvial44
Inspector of minerals11
No occupation1321180239
Independent means642
Pensioner1091
Annuitant33
Domestic duties71368
Scholar, Government school22
Scholar, private school11
Receiving tuition at home211
Dependent on relative1037
Inmate of Blind Institute1587
Occupation not stated4351622
Totals4533126620136

Chapter 36. Lunacy.

The lunatics enumerated were 2,675 persons, 1,599 males and 1,076 females, nearly all of whom were inmates of the asylums for the insane in the colony. Departmental returns for the 31st December, 1900, show 2,672 persons (including 21 Maoris) as the total number of inmates.

Comparison with the results of previous censuses shows a continually increasing proportion of lunatics to the population in respect of either sex, and that there is considerably more lunacy among the male element than the female.

 Persons.Males.Females.
Census, 187419.9323.2815.48
Census, 187820.8525.0715.54
Census, 188122.8627.3017.43
Census, 188626.5031.0321.18
Census, 189127.8231.2823.92
Census, 189631.1335.7026.02
Census, 190134.4739.2329.19

The numbers of males who were lunatics were highest at the period 45–50 years, while the number of females was greatest at 40–45 years, as will be found by the following statement:—

LUNATICS.—NUMBERS AT QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIODS.

Ages.Persons.M.F.
All ages2,6751,5991,076
Under 5 years211
5 years to 10 years532
10 years to 15 years19118
15 years to 20 years432221
20 years to 25 years1146351
25 years to 30 years18610878
30 years to 35 years245141104
35 years to 40 years257145112
40 years to 45 years312176136
45 years to 50 years333213120
50 years to 55 years296177119
55 years to 60 years298191107
60 years to 65 years244139105
65 years to 70 years16210953
70 years to 75 years886028
75 years to 80 years352114
80 years and upwards221111
Unspecified1486

The proportion of lunatics per 10,000 males living at the above age-periods was only 5.8 at 15–20 years, but had advanced to 59.67 at 35–40 years, to 139.30 at 55–60, and reached its maximum at that period. In the case of females, the proportion rose to a maximum of 130.97 at 60–65 years.

In 1901 one person in every 289, exclusive of Maoris, in New Zealand was afflicted with lunacy. This proportion is greater than the proportions obtaining in 1891 in any of the Australian States.

LUNACY IN AUSTRALASIA, 1891.

Victoria … had 1 lunatic in every302 persons.
New South Wales had 1 lunatic in every359 persons.
South Australia had 1 lunatic in every376 persons.
Tasmania had 1 lunatic in every383 persons.
Western Australia had 1 lunatic in every386 persons.
New Zealand (1901) had 1 lunatic in every289 persons.

Stated in proportions to 10,000 persons living, the comparison for the Home country, some of the Australian States and this colony is:—

LUNACY (INCLUDING IDIOCY).

United Kingdom (1891)35.52 per 10,000 persons.
England (1891)32.58 per 10,000 persons.
Scotland (1891)38.43 per 10,000 persons.
Ireland (1891)45.04 per 10,000 persons.
Victoria (1891)36.17 per 10,000 persons.
New South Wales (1891)30.38 per 10,000 persons.
New Zealand (1901)35.83 per 10,000 persons.

Chapter 37. Idiocy.

The number of idiots of both sexes enumerated in the census was 105, against 144 in 1896; the proportion to 10,000 of population being 1.36, against 2.02 at the previous census. As with lunacy, the proportion of idiocy amongst the males (1.43 per 10,000) is higher than amongst the females (1.28). In comparison with the Australian States New Zealand has fewer idiots in proportion than any of them.

IDIOCY IN AUSTRALASIA, 1891.

Tasmania had 1 idiot in every3,188 persons.
Victoria … had 1 idiot in every3,212 persons.
South Australia had 1 idiot in every3,815 persons.
New South Wales had 1 idiot in every3,930 persons.
Western Australia had 1 idiot in every7,112 persons.
New Zealand (1901) had 1 idiot in every7,359 persons.

PART VIII.—OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

Table of Contents

Chapter 38.

THE CLASSIFICATION.

At a Conference of Statisticians of the Australasian Colonies,* held at Hobart in February, 1900, a series of resolutions was passed, and a form of schedule agreed to, with the view of securing the uniformity so necessary for comparative purposes in system and heads of inquiry. The classification of occupations used in 1896 by this colony was, with minor amendments, generally adopted. This classification has been described as one devised “as a means of overcoming the great difficulties with which the systematic grouping of the occupations of the people of a country has always been found to be attended,” and I think may fairly claim to have attained its purpose.

The names of the members of the Conference were as under: T. A. Coghlan, Government Statistician, New South Wales; J. Hughes, Registrar-General, Queensland; L. H. Sholl, Under-Secretary and Government Statist, South Australia; M. A. C. Fraser, Registrar-General, Western Australia; R. M. Johnston, Government Statistician and Registrar-General, Tasmania; e. J. von Dadelszen, Registrar-General, New Zealand.

The old classification of Dr. Farr, in use prior to 1891, purported to divide the population so as to distinguish the commercial from the industrial class; but, in allotting the various occupations to the different classes, the principle adopted was that of grouping all workers and dealers in different matters together according to the material dealt in or worked upon, and placing the whole in the industrial class. Thus the dealers, who are really commercial, went to swell the number of the industrial at the expense of the commercial class. General labourers were cast out of the industrial into the indefinite class, merely because the material on which they worked was not stated. &c. The classification used in 1891 and 1896, while preserving Parr's professional class nearly intact, transfers, among other changes, a large number of women and children from the domestic to the dependent class, and completes the commercial class by including “trade “among the agorici of Farr. The industrial class now consists of part of what was assigned to it by Farr, but includes general labourers. Miners and other primary producers are placed with the agricultural and pastoral class, as being engaged in obtaining raw materials from natural sources. The indefinite class is greatly reduced in number, and the class styled “dependent “introduced. The Conference readily agreed to a proposal for distinguishing “employers” from “employed” —a division first attempted in New Zealand, at the suggestion of the writer of this report on the occasion of the census of 1886, and renewed in 1891 and 1896. The importance of affording the means of distinguishing persons in business from wage-earners is obvious, besides being absolutely essential to an improved classification of occupations.

The Conference also arranged for bringing out the occupations of the people in seven groups of ages, instead of merely distinguishing the number of each sex under and over 20 years of age as was done prior to 1891. (The full details will be found in the Census volume.)

The full description of the arrangement of occupations in the eight classes used under the new method is as follows:—

DEFINITION OF PRINCIPAL CLASSES.

SECTION A.—BREADWINNERS.

  1. PROFESSIONAL.—Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, mainly engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the moral, intellectual, and social wants of its inhabitants.

  2. DOMESTIC.—Embracing all persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging, and in rendering personal services for which remuneration is usually paid.

  3. COMMERCIAL.—Embracing all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials.

  4. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.—Embracing all persons engaged in the transport of persons or goods, or in effecting communication.

  5. INDUSTRIAL.—Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, who are principally engaged in various works of utility, or in specialities connected with the manufacture, construction, modification, or alteration of materials so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding, as far as possible, all who are mainly or solely engaged in the service of commercial interchange.

  6. AGRICULTURAL, PASTORAL, MINERAL, AND OTHER PRIMARY PRODUCERS.—Embracing all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources.

  7. INDEFINITE.—Embracing all persons who derive incomes from services rendered, but the direction of winch services cannot be exactly determined.

SECTION B.—DEPENDENTS: NON-BREADWINNERS.

  1. DEPENDENTS.—Embracing all persons dependent upon relatives or natural guardians. including wives, children, and others not otherwise engaged in pursuits for which remuneration is paid; and all persons depending upon private charity, or whose support is a burthen on the public revenue.

It will be noticed that in the professional class are included persons described as “officers of Government”; but the numbers given under this heading in the subsequent tables do not represent the whole number employed by the Government, the principle adopted having been to complete the other groups where the scheme of classification required it, rather than to show completely all persons paid by Government. Thus, Postal and Telegraph officers are classified in Class IV., “Transport and Communication.” Railway employees are similarly dealt with. The full statement of persons paid by Government but not included in Order 1 would comprise some or all of the following: Persons connected with charitable or benevolent institutions, education, life insurance, railways, harbours, lighthouses, post and telegraph, and mining, also civil engineers, electricians, surveyors and assistants, architects and draughtsmen, printers and binders in the Government Printing Office, and artisans in Government railway workshops. It is highly important that persons making use of the tabulated results of the information as to occupations should be aware of and bear in mind the above facts.

The numbers under “Commercial” and “Industrial” include all persons whose occupations were sufficiently defined to enable them to be classified in connection with the business or industry in which they are engaged. Many, chiefly those whose employment was of the nature of unskilled clerical assistance, while entering “clerk “binder the heading “Occupation,’ did not state in what trade or industry they were employed. These, of course, could not be allotted to any special industry. Those engaged as agents or assistants in any occupation belonging to Classes III. to VII. have been, generally speaking, included with the principals. All persons stated as both manufacturers and dealers or sellers have been classed as makers only, under Class V. Persons out of employment are included under their ordinary or former occupations. Inmates of asylums, industrial schools, and refuges, together with all persons in gaols, have not been classed according to their ordinary occupations, but in Class VIII., as part of the dependent population.

The difficulty of tabulating the occupations of the people shown in the census is certainly lessened by the introduction of the card system; but there remains an unsatisfactoriness in the work on account of the different ways in which people return themselves when their occupation is virtually the same, and the number of instances in which unskilled labour is not defined as having to do with the industry on which it is temporarily employed. These causes prevent the published results from being what they ought to be, even with perfect care in the compilation-work. The basis of such work is often enough faulty or incomplete, and it is impossible to remedy the defect. One man may be a “carter at brewery,” and returns himself accordingly. Another omits the words “at brewery,” and thus the total number of persons employed in the brewing business becomes deficient. As continual instances of these irregularities are found, it arises that the census industrial statistics often differ materially as to “hands employed “from the results brought out under the head of “Occupation “in regard to labourers and others attached to various industries.

The numbers being brought out for no less than seven groups of ages will afford evidence of what occupations the rising generation is mostly taking to.

NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS IN THE CLASSES.

The population, specified as to occupation, is divided into two sections:—

 Totals.Males.Females.
Breadwinners340,230274,55965,671
Dependents, or non-breadwinners432,149131,164300,985
Occupation not stated34026971

The dependent population consists chiefly of wives, relatives, and others employed in household duties but unpaid, children, persons supported by charity, &c. Its proportion to the whole increases with the process going on of equalization in numbers of the sexes.

The male breadwinners were more than twice as numerous as the male dependents, who were mostly under fifteen years of age; but the female dependents were nearly five times as many as the breadwinners of that sex.

Breadwinners are divided into the seven classes previously alluded to:—

Primary Producers.—Males, 108,007; females, 3,914. This is the most important class numerically. It includes persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits, fishing, and mining.

Males 26.62, females 1.07 per cent, of population of either sex.

Industrial.—Males, 84,874; females, 16,310: persons engaged in manufacture or other processes where materials are employed combined.

Males 20.92, females 4.45 per cent.

Commercial.—Males, 34,409; females, 5,528.

The commercial group forms 8.48 per cent, of the male and V.51 Per cent. Of the female population.

Transport and Communication.—Males, 21,265; females, 485: persons engaged in the transport of passengers and goods, and in effecting communication.

Males 5.24, females 0.13 per cent.

Professional.—Males. 14,549; females, 8,960. These are persons, not otherwise classed, engaged in Government, defence, law and order, or ministering to religion, charity, health, education, art, science, or amusement.

Males 3.59, females 2.44 per cent.

Domestic (but directly earning money).—Males, 6,542; females, 27,852; persons supplying board and lodging, or personal services for which payment is rendered.

Males 1.61, females 7.60 per cent.

Indefinite.— Males, 4,913; females, 2,622: persons living on incomes earned in the past, or indefinitely described. Males T21, females 0.71 per cent.

The population of each class, and the proportion per cent, of the total population, are tabulated below:—

OccupationsNumbers.Proportions per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total population772,719405,992366,727100.00100.00100.00
Section A .—Breadwinners.      
Class I. Professional23,50914,5498,9603.043.592.44
Class II. Domestic34,8946,54227,8524.451.617.60
Class III. Commercial—      
     Sub-class A. Property and Finance5,6315,0465850.721.240.16
     Sub-class B. Trade33,43828,5004,9384.317.031.35
     Sub-class C. Storage86886350.100.210.00
Class IV. Transport and Commission21,75021,2654852.825.240.13
Class V. Industrial101,18484,87416,31013.1020.924.45
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—      
     Sub-class A. Agricultural67,81265,7232,0898.7816.200.57
     Sub-class B. Pastoral21,41019,6001,8102.774.830.50
     Sub-class C. Mineral17,81617,80882.314.390.00
     Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers4,8834,87670.631.200.00
Class VII. Indefinite7,5354,9132,6220.981.210.71
Section B.Non-Breadwinners (Dependents).      
Class VIII. Dependents—      
     Sub-class A. Dependent on natural guardians426,643127,916298,72755.2331.5381.47
     Sub-class B. Dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support5,5063,2482,2580.720.800.62
Occupations not stated34026971

No less than 32.33 per cent, of the male population are shown to be dependent, and 82.09 per cent, of the females. These consist of 127,916 males and 298,727 females dependent upon natural guardians; and 3,248 males and 2,258 females dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support. The greater number of those dependent upon natural guardians are scholars and students. There are also a large number of dependent relatives who were not stated to be performing domestic duties, and, of females, many persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid.

In the next table the number of breadwinners of either sex in each class of occupation, and the proportions per cent, to the total of breadwinners, is given:—

Occupations.Numbers.Proportion per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total breadwinners340,230274,55965,671100.00100.00100.00
Class I. Professional23,50914,5498,9606.915.3013.64
Class II. Domestic34,3946,54227,85210.112.3842.41
Class III. Commercial—      
     Sub-class A. Property and Finance5,6315,0465851.651.840.89
     Sub-class B. Trade33,43828,5004,9389.8310.387.52
     Sub-class C. Storage86886350.260.310.01
Class IV. Transport and Communication21,75021,2654856.397.740.74
Class V. Industrial101,18484,87416,31029.7430.9124.84
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—      
     Sub-class A. Agricultural67,81265,7232,08919.9323.943.18
     Sub-class B. Pastoral21,41019,6001,8106.297.142.76
     Sub-class C. Mineral17,81617,80885.246.490.01
     Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers4,8834,87671.441.780.01
VII. Indefinite7,5354,9132,6222.211.793.99

EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED.

The breadwinners of the colony are also classified according to the grade of their occupations, by which means the entire population can he brought under six heads:—

   Males.  Per Cent. of Breadwinners.  Females.  Per Cent. of Breadwinners.
Employers34,00212.392,010306
Independent workers47,31717.238,75013.32
Wage-earners166,43260.6248,08873.23
Unemployed8,4673.081,3592.07
Relatives assisting, and not specified18,3416.685,4648.32
Breadwinners274,559100.0065,671100.00
Dependents131,164300,985
Not stated26971
Totals405,992366,727

The proportion of the male breadwinners who are employers (12.39 per cent.) is slightly higher than it was in 1896 (12.02 per cent.) On the female side the proportion of employers was 3.06 per cent, at both censuses. Male wage-earners, employed or unemployed, were 63.70 per cent., against 61.48 per cent, in 1896. Female wage-earners, whether in work or not, were 75.30 per cent, in 1901, against 75.01 per cent, in 1896, indicating a growing use of female labour.

THE UNEMPLOYED.

The unemployed male population in New Zealand in March, 1901, formed only 3.08 per cent, of the breadwinners, as against 6.15 per cent, returned at the census of 1896.

Of the unemployed (males), which totalled 8,467,—

1,866 are found in Order 24: (890 agricultural, 191 pastoral, 695 mining, gold, coal, &c, 61 bushmen, and 29 fishermen and others).

  • 1,182 in Order 23: Industrial workers imperfectly defined (chiefly general labourers).

  • 877 in Order 21: House building, road and railway-works labourers, &c.

  • 164 in Order 3: Engaged in board and lodging and rendering personal services.

  • 642 in Order 14: Road, railway, tram, or sea and river traffic.

  • 582 in Order 15: Manufacturers of books, tools, implements, furniture, building materials, &c.

  • 255 in Order 16: Manufacturing textile fabrics, dress, &c.

  • 256 in Order 2: Ministering to religion, chanty, health, education, &c.

  • 319 in Order 19: Manufacturing earthenware, jewellery, and workers in metals.

  • 206 in Order 7: Dealing in food, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants.

  • 187 in Order 17: Workers in animal food, drinks, narcotics, stimulants, &c

The balance being fairly evenly distributed over the remaining Orders of Occupations.

Of the regular agricultural workers for wages, only thirty-seven in every thousand were found to be unemployed.

It is in the industrial class, not the primary producers from the land, that the largest proportion of unemployed to the total of the class will be found. On the whole class the proportion was 4.13 per cent, of males and 2.31 of females, and here a large decrease is shown on the proportion found to exist in 1896, viz., 11.14 per cent, for males and 5.66 per cent, for females. The percentage was highest among general and road labourers, printers and bookbinders, cabinetmakers, and carpenters.

In dealing with the above figures it is necessary to remember that at the time of the census no less than 2,501 males between 15 and 60 years of age were returned as suffering from sickness or accident, and some of these would probably be included in the number stated to be unemployed.

Generally, the results of the investigation into the occupations of the people agree with the result of the inquiry into the development of manufactures and works, which is given farther on in this report (Appendix A). It is found in regard to industries that spring directly from land settlement, such as butter and cheese-making, meat-freezing, and sawing of timber, the development since 1896 was considerable. The occupation tables show that there was a considerable number of persons unemployed at the time of the census who belonged to such callings, including the building and allied trades. The exact number of the 9,826 persons unemployed belonging to each specific occupation will be found in the Census volume, p. 342.

It is, however, a matter for congratulation that the total number of unemployed in 1901 was found to be only 9,826, against 17,408 in 1896, when the population of the colony was much smaller.

GRADES OF OCCUPATIONS.

The numbers and proportions of persons of each sex in the different classes of occupation, divided according to grade—i.e., employers, independent workers, wage-earners, unemployed, and relatives assisting, are given in the two following statements:—

OCCUPATIONS—EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYED.

Occupations.Males.Females.
Employers.In business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wages-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others understand.Total Males.Employers.In business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wages-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Females.
Section A.Breadwinners.            
I. Professional1,3541,71410,97531116514,549791,5136,5763124808,960
II. Domestic1,4407393,9951642046,5424931,21924,3695571,21427,852
III. Commercial —            
     A. Property and Finance6081,5072,81843105,046404934525585
B. Trade4,1514,72418,38470853328,5002229203,1621015334,938
C. Storage125807345863....5....5
IV. Transport and Communication8631,40518,23064212521,2658..464103485
V. Industrial8,2406,03066,2903,50880684,8745611,98313,18637720316,310
VI. Primary Producers—            
     A. Agricultural13,13110,20923,19289012,30165,723475616157..8412,089
     B. Pastoral3, 3604,3868,8971912,76619,600126321121..1,2421,810
     C. Mineral4657,0709,5036957517,808521....8
     D. Other Primary Producers3671,0143,34093624,876..32..27
VII. Indefinite112,42411,1881,2894,91311,680....9412,622
Totals34,00247,317166,4328,46718,341274,5592,0108,75048,0881,3595,46465,671
Section B.— Dependents (Non-breadwinners):            
VIII. Dependents—            
     A. On Natural Guardians..........127,916..........298,727
     B. On the State or Public Charity..........3,248..........2,258
     Not stated..........269..........71
     Totals..........405,992..........366,727

OCCUPATIONS.—PROPORTION OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED IN EACH CLASS

Occupations.Males.Females.
Employers.In business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wages-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others understand.Total Males.Employers.In business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wages-earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Females.
Section A.Breadwinners.            
I. Professional9.3111.9975.432.141.13100.000.8816.89;73.393.485.36100.00
II. Domestic22.0111.2961.072.513.12100.001.774.3887.492.004.36100.00
III. Commercial —            
     A. Property and Finance12.0531.0555.850.850.20100.006.8484.27;7.090.34;0.85100.00
     B. Trade14.5616.5864.512.481.87100.004.5018.6364.032.0510.79100.00
     C. Storage1.390.5893.513.940.58100.00....100.00....100.00
IV. Transport and Communication4.066.6085.733.020.59100.001.65..95.672.060.62100.00
V. Industrial9.717.1178.104.130.95100.003.4412.1680.852.311.24100.00
VI. Primary Producers—            
     A. Agricultural19.9824.6635.291.3518.72100.0022.7429.497.51..40.26100.00
     B. Pastoral17.1422.3845.390.9814.11100.006.9617.736.69..68.62100.00
     C. Mineral2.6139.7053.373.900.42100.0062.5025.0012.50....100.00
     D. Other Primary Producers7.5320.7968.501.911.27100.00..42.8628.57..28.57100.00
VII. Indefinite0.2249.340.0224.1826.24100.000.0464.07....35.89100.00
Totals12.3917.2360.623.086.68100.003.0613.3273.232.078.32100.00

The classes are divided into 27 orders, which again are divided into 113 sub-orders. The items of the sub-orders are the specific occupations. In the succeeding tables each specific occupation is given according to the classification, and explanatory notes showing the unskilled assistance and other particulars included with the numbers for the various industries, &c. The totals of the orders and sub-orders precede the figures for the items contained in each sub-order.

An alphabetical arrangement of specific occupations shown in the census is added at the end of this report.

Chapter 39. CLASS I.—PROFESSIONAL.

ORDER 1.—PERSONS engaged in GOVERNMENT (not otherwise classed). DEFENCE, LAW, and PROTECTION.

1.19 per cent, of total male population.

0.03 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Officers of General Government (not otherwise classed1019421,0431730471,090
2. Officers of local Government213753962911407
3. Persons ministering to defence261,0071,0331,033
4. Persons ministering to law and order2662,0752,3411358712,412
Totals, Order 1, 19014144,3994,81332971394,942
Totals, Order 1, 18963343,2043,538637433,581

The first sub-order consists of persons occupied in connection with Government whom it was not necessary to allot to other classes in carrying out the principle of classification. Hence the total number does not by any means represent the full number of persons employed by Government. It is a residue left after completing other groups—for instance, that of transport and communication, to which is carried the number of persons engaged in railways, telegraph, telephone, and postal service, although the employees in these services are paid by Government. Similarly with officers of local bodies, but to a less extent.

It has been asked why the full number of persons employed by Government is not given. But the classification is not intended to show any such result, and the census is not the proper source from which to look for such information. It could not be given by means of the census, for the word “Government” is constantly omitted by the householders in describing occupations. When the total number of persons employed by Government is wanted, it is found necessary to have a special return compiled from departmental sources, distinguishing “permanent” from “temporary” employment.

The full details of the specific occupations in the order are given. In Sub-order 4 the barristers and solicitors will be found to number 636, against 604 in 1896. Law clerks increased from 591 to 700 in five years, and law students from 34 to 95.

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—General Government.   
The Governor11..
Officer of Government Department (exclusive of officers specially classified)1,0691,02247
Others (including persons holding Ministerial or political office whose ordinary occupation is not stated)2020..
Sub-order 2. —Local Government.   
Officer of local body or Municipal Council40339211
Others (including mayors or members of local bodies whose ordinary occupation is not stated)44..
Sub-order 3.—Defence.   
Officer of Defence Department2121..
Army officer in actual service2929..
Army non-commissioned, warrant officer, private515515..
Naval officer in actual service55..
Naval petty, warrant officer, sailor, marine44..
Others (including Volunteer whose ordinary occupation is not stated) (1)459459..
Sub-order 4.—Law and Order.   
Officer of Law Department99..
Judge (Chief Justice, and Judges of the Supreme, .District, and Native, Land Court)2323..
Law-court officer, clerk1181162
Magistrate2727..
Sheriff's officer, bailiff2929..
Barrister, solicitor6366351
Law clerk (not articled)70067228
Law student, articled clerk95941
Others connected with the law (2)11101
Police : principal officer1010..
Police : subordinate officer, policeman, detective5635585
Penal : principal officer1111..
Penal: subordinate officer, warder (3)17714433
Others (4)33..
 M.P.
(1) Volunteers4040
    Drill instructor190
    Permanent Militia200
    Engineer, Torpedo Corps30
    Magazine-keeper20
    Torpedo-man80
    Caretaker, drill-shed30
(2) Law accountants60
    Justice of the Peace40
    Typist01
(3) Subordinate officer1375
    Matron026
    Prison officer72
(4) Private detective30

ORDER 2.—PERSONS ministering to RELIGION, CHARITY, HEALTH, EDUCATION, ART, SCIENCE, and AMUSEMENTS.

2.40 per cent, of total male population.

2.41 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons ministering to religion131,2191,26232652681,530
2. Persons ministering to charity (exclusive of hospitals)1363714203217254
3. Persons ministering to health3601,9212,281732,2992,3724,653
4. Persons connected with literature22517539295988627
5. Persons connected with science4747813482
6. Persons engaged in civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, and surveying1231,4901,6132241,617
7. Persons connected with education1971,8862,0836653,2783,9436,026
8. Persons connected with fine arts605676271354325671,194
9. Persons connected with music203864061711,1051,2761,682
10. Persons connected with amusements152658810276592902
Totals, Order 2, 19019528,7849,7361,1207,7118,83118,567
Totals, Order 2, 18968917,5708,4611,1126,0927,20415,665

In Sub-order 1 the number of the clergy is given as 891. In 1896 the number returned was 777. Besides the regular clergy, there were 13 Mormon missionaries and 289 Salvation Army officers, of whom 160 were females; also, 32 evangelists, 82 missionaries (21 women), and 17 preachers. The number of the clergy on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is 1,001, and the denominations to which they belong are as under:—

Denomination.No.
Church of England327
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand209
Roman Catholic Churchl60
Methodist Church of Australasia in New Zealand164
Congregational Independents20
Baptists28
Primitive Methodist Connexion36
Lutheran Church9
Hebrew Congregations6
Church of Christ14
Free Methodist Churches3
Auckland Central Mission1
Wellington Central Mission1
Independent Wesleyan1
The Forward Movement1
Salvation Army9
Catholic Apostolic Church4
Seventh-day Adventists5
Unitarian Church1
Pilgrims of Peace1
Scots Church1
Total1,001

There were 47 theological students, 82 church officers, such as sextons and others, 74 members of religious orders not ministering to charity or education; and 3 others complete the group.

Included in Sub-order 3 are 438 medical men in practice, against 411 returned in 1896. (The number of medical practitioners registered in the colony was in 1901, 711, including 43 whose addresses are not known and 143 who have left New Zealand.) Medical students numbered 61. There were 132 persons who are grouped in the detailed tables as irregular medical practitioners, including, among others, 1 Chinese doctor, 36 herbalists and 18 assistants, 12 medical galvanists, 1 homœopathist, and 58 masseurs. Dentists numbered 571 (including apprentices), against 275 in 1896. Pharmaceutical chemists and assistants were 811, against 656 at the previous census. The number of midwives, monthly nurses, and sick-nurses was 1,531, and of veterinary surgeons 73.

The full details in this order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1 — Religion.   
Clergyman891891..
Irregular clergy, Salvation Army officer (5)433246187
Theological student47443
Church officer, verger (6)82766
Member of religious order not classified as ministering to charity or education74272
Others (clerk to Church trustees)33..
Sub-order 2.— Charity (exclusive of Hospitals).   
Officer of Department of charity945
Officer of charitable or benevolent institution561541
Subordinate officer or servant, charitable or benevolent institution15718139
Sister of charity31..31
Others: Secretary to children's aid society1..1
Sub-order 3. —Health.   
Officer of Health Department1091
Sanitary inspector, inspector of nuisances66631
Medical practitioner4384326
Medical student614912
Irregular medical practitioner (7)1328052
Dentist (S)57151259
Pharmaceutical chemist, druggist (9)81175556
Hospital or asylum nurse4463443
Hospital or asylum officer or attendant (not elsewhere described) (10)507292215
Midwife, monthly nurse1,076..1,076
Sick-nurse4555450
Veterinary surgeon73721
Others (11)77..
Sub-order 4.—Literature.   
Author, editor, journalist43441717
Reporter5757..
Literary amanuensis, shorthand-writer912665
Others (12)45396
Sub-order 5.—Science.   
Officer of scientific Department of State66..
Analytical chemist13112
Assayer, metallurgist2727..
Geologist, mineralogist55..
Naturalist, biologist, botanist99..
Others (13)22202
Sub-order 6.—Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, and Surveying.   
Civil engineer (14)356356..
Directing or consulting engineer2424..
Electrician (not connected with telegraph or telephone service or electric light)8484..
Surveyor (15)7267251
Architect (16)2452441
Draughtsman (not otherwise described)1781762
Others (17)44..
Sub-order 7. — Education.   
Officer of Education Department (18)97916
University professor, demonstrator, lecturer, &c.36351
Professor, lecturer, teacher, college, grammar, high school895237
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, public school (19)2,1949241,270
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, denominational school17027143
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, private school25235217
Schoolmaster, schoolmistress, teacher, undefined2,4277841,643
Tutor, governess33711326
Teacher of languages or other accomplishments, not art or music1264086
Others (20)29884214
Sub-order 8.— Fine Arts.   
Artist, painter, art student507196311
Sculptor1111..
Engraver (art only)963
Photographer, retoucher (21)667414253
Sub-order 9.—Music.   
Composer of music1..1
Musician, vocalist, student of music280170110
Music professor, teacher, &c.1,3962331,163
Music-hall proprietor, manager, &c312
Others : Street musician22..
Sub-order 10.—Amusements.   
Actor, actress, circus performer20812187
Theatre, hall proprietor, lessee, manager, doorkeeper, ticket-taker42402
Racecourse ranger, caretaker, secretary5252..
Jockey302302..
Cricket-ground, bowling-green caretaker, professional player5252..
Billiard-table proprietor, keeper, marker182182..
Zoological gardens, menagerie keeper, attendant, &c,1010..
Others (22)54513
 M.F.
(5)Evangelist302
  Missionary6121
  Missionary Mormon121
  Preacher143
  Salvation Army officer129160
(6)Church officer, verger295
  Caretaker141
  Sexton and assistant330
(7)Chinese doctor10
  Herbalist333
  Herbalist assistant126
  Masseur2038
  Medical galvanist and assistant111
  Faith-healer30
  Manicurist03
  Homœpathist01
(8)Dentist28423
  Apprentice18311
  Assistant4525
(9) Chemist and druggist39811
  Apprentice1118
  Assistant21824
  Clerk101
  Dispenser11
  Messenger140
  Salesman, saleswoman111
  Traveller20
(10) Hospital or asylum attendant (not otherwise described)1915
  Hospital clerk66
  Hospital cook821
  Hospital dispenser51
  Hospital dresser20
  Hospital matron or servant25141
  Hospital porter200
  Hospital secretary40
  Hospital steward40
  Hospital warder232
  Lunatic-asylum clerk71
  Lunatic-asylum cook32
  Lunatic-asylum messenger80
  Lunatic-asylum matron01
  Lunatic-asylum warder15825
(11) Doctor's boy20
  Oculist20
  Manager, sanatorium30
(12) Interpreter392
  Compiler04
(13) Museum assistant110
  Phrenologist92
(14) Civil engineer2480
  Mining engineer690
  Civil engineer's assistant210
  Mining student180
(15) Surveyor3080
  Surveyor's assistant …4171
(16) Architect1850
  Architect's assistant270
  Architect's apprentice160
  Architect's clerk161
(17) Director, School of Mines20
  Inventor20
(18) Education Department officer121
  Education Department cadet10
  Education Department clerk243
  Inspector of Schools352
  Secretary140
  Truant officer50
(19) Schoolmaster, schoolmistress8481036
  Probationer211
  Pupil-teacher74223
(20) Member of religious community (teaching)2147
  Prioress of religious community (teaching;)07
  Teacher of blind40
  School manager29
  Gymnastic instructor20
  School matronO7
  School caretaker, cleaner4613
  Student, Normal School28
  Teacher, Normal School12
  Librarian and assistant2421
(21) Photographer, retoucher381142
  Photographer, assistant33111
(22) Huntsman120
  Professional athlete131
  Tourist agent30
  Showman, lecturer182
  Rifle-saloon keeper40
  Hypnotist10

Chapter 40. CLASS II.—DOMESTIC.

ORDER 3. — PERSONS engaged in the SUPPLY of BOARD and LODGING, and in rendering PERSONAL SERVICE for which REMUNERATION is usually paid.

1.61 per cent, of total male population.

7.60 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging3483,5453,8931,3305,4196,74910,642
2. Persons engaged in domestic service and in attendance4952,1542,6497,63613,46721,10323,752
Totals, Order 3, 19018435,6996,5428,96618,88627,85234,394
Totals, Order 3, 18961,0684,8125,8808,56814,36222,93028,810

Details of occupations in the foregoing sub-orders were:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Board and Lodging.   
Hotelkeeper, innkeeper1,5561,341215
Relative assisting764133631
Servants(23)4,5861,6582,928
Coffee-palace, restaurant, tea-room, eating-house keeper1266660
Relative assisting291217
Servant1415388
Board, lodging-house keeper1,4042881,116
Relative assisting55239513
Servants1,3181721,146
Club-house manager, secretary, steward, servant14211527
Others (24)24168
Sub-order 2.—Domestic Service and Attendance.   
Servants registry-office keeper37334
House servants20,02283319,189
Personal attendants2315226
Nurse298..298
Paid companion251..251
Coachman, groom633633..
Gardener4242..
Bath proprietor, attendant28226
Porter, gatekeeper18153
Office keeper, attendant968214
Charwoman, cleaner2056199
Hairdresser, barber72570718
Mangier, laundry-keeper, laundryman, washerwoman1,033169864
Shoeblack11..
Others (25)1321311
 M.P.
(23) Hotel servant11812249
    Hotel clerk3510
    Hotel manager6912
    Hotel cook195308
    Barmaid, barman178349
(24) Caterer146
    Sailors' home servant22
(25) Tourist guide151
    Watchman1160

The total number of persons engaged in or connected with the sale or manufacture of wine, beer, spirits, cordials, &c, is found to be returned as under:—

 Males.Females.Persons.
Hotelkeeper1,3412151,556
Relative assisting133631764
Manager, clerk10422126
Hotel, club; &c, servant1,3762,5573,933
Manager, secretary, steward, of club-house11527142
Barman, barmaid178349527
Wine, spirits, ale, merchant50353
Assistant10111
Clerk, bookkeeper, accountant, traveller, storeman86187
Cordial, &c, merchant, salesman66
Brewer, bottler1782180
Manager, clerk, traveller96298
Relative assisting, apprentice10111
Cellarman, assistant, carter, Sec.330330
Maltster and assistants147147
Wine-maker, bottler1616
Cordial, &c, maker2157222
Clerk, bookkeeper, traveller, assistant1602162
Totals4,5513,8208,371

Chapter 41. CLASS III.—COMMERCIAL.

SUB-CLASS A.—PROPERTY AND FINANCE.

ORDER 4.—PERSONS performing Offices in connection with the EXCHANGE, VALUATION, INSURANCE, LEASE, LOAN, or CUSTODY of MONEY, HOUSES, LAND, or PROPERTY-RIGHTS.

1.24 per cent, of total male population.

0.16 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons performing offices in connection with banking and finance3131,9322,24594942,339
2. Persons performing offices in connection with insurance and valuation2481,3251,573920291,602
3. Persons performing offices in connection with land and household property461,1721,21864564621,680
4. Persons performing offices in connection with property-rights not otherwise classed191010
Totals, Order 4, 19016084,4385,046155705855,631
Totals, Order 4, 18963583,6734,03164234294,460

Details of the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Banking and Finance.   
Bank director, banker33..
Bank manager, officer, clerk1,1821,1811
Building-society, savings-institute director, manager, officer, clerk19181
Share and stock broker, dealer, jobber, speculator4794763
Moneybroker, financier, capitalist (26)46137388
Pawnbroker, loan-office keeper25241
Public accountant, auditor170170 
Sub-order 2.-—Insurance and Valuation.   
Manager, director, agent of insurance company (27)96895018
Actuary, average-stater44..
Underwriter, marine surveyor57418..
Auctioneer, appraiser, valuator (28)57456311
Friendly, benefit society officer11..
Official or Trade Assignee1010..
Others: Fire-brigade assistant2727..
Sub-order 3.—Land and Household Property.   
Land proprietor, speculator462620
Land and estate agent, broker (29)41240012
Others connected with dealings in land15132
House proprietor1,151724427
House agent, rent collector55541
Market lessee11..
Sub-order 4.—Property Rights not otherwise classed.   
Officer of Patents, Trade-marks Department22..
Patentee, owner of trade-mark, &c.11..
Patent, trade-mark agent66..
Others connected with various property rights and transfers11..
 M.F.
(26) Moneybroker, financier, capitalist, and assistant32387
    Accountant to loan company180
    Financial agent151
    Manager, secretary, financial company170
(27) Manager, director, agent4166
    Accountant360
    Cadet64
    Canvasser, traveller261
    Clerk4421
    Messenger100
    Secretary140
    28) Auctioneer and valuator2780
    Accountant and clerk1939
    Assistant292
    Manager10
    Salesman60
    Storeman560
(29)Land and estate agent3014
    Land and estate book-keeper878
    Native-land agent120

SUB-CLASS B.—TRADE.

[These, it must be remembered, are dealers only, not makers. The exclusion of the latter, and compliance with the rule of grouping persons stated to be both manufacturers and dealers, as makers, under Class V., leaves some very small numbers, such as watch and clock dealers, 53, in Sub-order 7; while the watch and clock makers number 562 in Class V.]

ORDER 5.—PERSONS dealing in ART or MECHANIC PRODUCTIONS in which MATTERS of various Kinds are employed in COMBINATION.

0.48 per cent, of total male population.

0.09 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.MaleFemales.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons dealing in books, publications, and advertising193447640134760700
2. Persons dealing in musical instruments14102116111122138
3. Persons dealing in prints, pictures, and art-materials3293212335
4. Persons dealing in ornaments, minor art-products, and small wares261111372091111248
6. Persons dealing in designs, medals, type, and dies111
7. Persons dealing in watches, clocks, jewellery, platedware, and scientific instruments529346131953
8. Dealing in surgical instruments and appliances111
9. Dealing in arms and explosives222
10. Persons dealing in machines, tools, and implements1615817499183
11. Dealers in carriages and vehicles30991293811140
12. Persons dealing in harness, saddlery, and leatherware951601161
13. Persons dealing in ships, boats, and marine stores8303838
14. Persons dealing in building-materials and house-fittings8536133667
15. Persons dealing in furniture2813616471522186
16. Persons dealing in chemicals and by-products22699123596
17. Persons dealing in paper and paper-makers' materials62214276194665341
Totals, Order 5, 19014241,5321,956852493342,290
Totals, Order 5, 18962801,3111,591411481891,780

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Books, Publications, and Advertising.   
Bookseller, book canvasser (30)34931039
Circulating-library proprietor, librarian231112
Advertising agent, bill-poster, bill-distributor44422
News agent, newspaper vendor (31)2802737
Others (32)44 
 M.F.
(30) Bookseller and canvasser18516
    Apprentice141
    Assistant9019
    Clerk123
    Shopboy40
    traveller50
(31) News agent, vendor1655
    News agent clerk112
    News-boy920
    Relative assisting50
(32) Agent, tract society10
    Bellman30
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical-instrument importer, seller (33)13611422
Others (34)20..
Sub-order 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Picture dealer21201
Art, photographic requisites importer, dealer1091
Picture-frame dealer211
Others : Foreign-stamp dealers22..
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Basketware, wickerware dealer211
Artificial-flowers dealer11..
Fancy-goods dealer (35)237133104
Stuffed birds, animals dealer312
Toys and minor art products dealer514
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Designs, patterns, medals, type, and dies dealer11..
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, Jewellery and Platedware, and Scientific Instruments.   
Watch, clock, jewellery importer, dealer ..493415
Electro-plate wares importer, dealer4..4
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.   
Surgical instruments and appliances dealer11..
Sub-order 9.—Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives. Arms, explosives dealer22..
Sub-order 10. —Machines, Tools, and Implements.   
Agricultural machinery, implements dealer5454..
Sewing-machines importer, dealer (36)93849
Other machines, tools, implements dealer (37)3636..
Sub-order 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.   
Carriage, wagon, cart dealer22..
Bicycle importer, dealer13712710
Perambulator, wheel-chair importer, dealer1..1
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.   
Saddlery, harness importer, dealer (38)18171
Saddlers' ironmonger55..
Leather and grindery merchant, dealer2929..
Others : Leather and grindery salesman and assistant99..
Sub order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment, and Marine Stores.   
Ships and boats dealer33..
Tackle and equipment for ships and boats dealer1111..
Ship-chandler1818..
Others: Marine-stores dealer66..
Sub-order 14.—Building Materials and House-fittings.   
Oil and colour man, glass, paperhangings dealer (39)67616
Sub-order 15.—Furniture.   
Furniture dealer (40)18216022
Second-hand furniture dealer, broker44..
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Chemical materials (not drugs) dealer1073
Chemical by-products dealer11..
Wholesale druggist (41)83812
Others : Agent for sheep-dip22..
Sub-order 17.—Paper, Papermakers' Materials, Stationery.   
Paper merchant, importer2020..
Stationer (42)30824365
Rag, waste-paper dealer1313..
 M.F.
(33) Music seller503
    Music assistant2212
    Music clerk181
    Music salesman, saleswoman246
(34) Storeman, music business.10
    Manager, music business.10
(35) Dealer, fancy goods3842
    Assistant1935
    Clerk102
    Salesman, saleswoman3024
    Storeman90
    Traveller211
(36) Sewing-machine dealer50
    Sewing-machine agent421
    Sewing-machine clerk71
    Sewing-machine manager40
    Sewing-machine traveller and collector210
    In sewing-machine shop57
    37) Dealers100
    Agent, machinery260
(38) Saddlery, harness dealer20
    Saddlery, harness clerk40
    Saddlery, harness salesman71
    Saddlery, harness traveller40
(39) Oil and colour dealer311
    Oil and colour clerk132
    Oil and colour salesman, sales woman273
(40) Furniture dealer564
    Clerk164
    Salesman, saleswoman8814
(41) Wholesale druggist70
    Assistant280
    Clerk261
    Carter10
    Traveller191
(43) Stationer12323
    Stationer's apprentice20
    Stationer's assistant9040
    Stationer's clerk212
    Stationer's traveller10

ORDER 6.—PERSONS engaged in the SALE, HIRE, or EXCHANGE of TEXTILE FABRICS and DRESS, and of FIBROUS MATERIALS.

1.03 per cent, of total male population.

0.38 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.MaleFemales.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of textile fabrics9542,7243,6783838551,2384,916
2. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of dress954004954197138633
3. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of fibrous materials222
Totals, Order 6, 19011,0493,1264,1754249521,3765,551
Totals, Order 6, 18968082,5003,3082565988544,162

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Textile Fabrics.   
Manchester warehouseman, wholesale draper (43)1,2611,21645
Draper, linen, woollen draper (44)3,6482,4551,193
Silk mercer, dealer77..
Sub-order 2.—Dress.   
Clothier, outfitter, slop-seller (45)16213923
Men's mercer, hatter, hosier, haberdasher (46)77716
Millinery, bonnet, hat dealer192l7
Shoe, boot dealer (47)36027882
Second-hand clothes dealer35510
Sub-order 3.— Fibrous Materials.   
Flax merchant, &c. (48)22 
 M.F.
(43) Manchester warehouseman731
    Agent, soft-goods130
    Assistant, warehouse982
    Apprentice, soft-goods warehouse140
    Clerk, soft-goods warehouse20311
    Carter, soft-goods warehouse120
    Manager, soft-goods warehouse300
    Packer soft-goods warehouse260
    Salesman, saleswoman30131
    Storeman540
    Traveller860
    Warehouseman, undefined3060
(44) Draper and linen-draper787177
    Assistant1,289784
    Apprentice6369
    Boy530
    Clerk131106
    Cartel110
    Manager312
    Porter190
    Relative assisting1852
    Shopwalker32
    Traveller501
(45) Clothier, outfitter, &c.6915
    Apprentice30
    Assistant435
    Clerk01
    Errand-boy70
    Salesman, saleswoman170
(46) Mercer503
    Assistant213
(47) Shoe and hoot dealer724
    Clerk113
    Errand-boy160
    Manager130
    Relative assisting015
    Salesman, saleswoman14559
    Traveller151
(48) Hemp grader10
    Flax merchant10

ORDER 7.—PERSONS ENGAGED IN DEALING IN FOOD, DRINKS, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

2.10 per cent, of total male population.

0.24 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.MaleFemales.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in animal food8053,4224,227221091314,358
2. Persons engaged in dealing in vegetable food1761,0481,224803714511,675
3. Persons engaged in dealing in groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants8362,2343,070492472963,366
Totals, Order 7, 19011,8176,7048,5211517278789,399
Totals, Order 7, 18961,6345,8637,4971305546848,181

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.   
Milk-seller (49)57451163
Cheesemonger, dairy-produce dealer23203
Butcher (50)3,3553,31441
Provision merchant, dealer37352
Poulterer, game dealer3333..
Fishmonger, oyster dealer (51)32730522
Others (52)99..
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.   
Flour, grain, merchant, dealer (53)5645631
Bread, biscuit dealer (54)1165
Confectioner, pastry dealer221134187
Greengrocer, fruiterer, potato dealer (55)779521258
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.   
Wine and spirit merchant, Australian-wine seller (56)1511465
Cordial, aerated-waters seller66..
Cocoa, coffee, chicory agent, dealer2828..
Grocer, tea dealer (57)3,0562,783273
Tobacconist (58)12210418
Others: Ice-cream dealer33..
 M.F.
(49) Milk-seller31741
    Assistant9212
    Milk-boy and driver690
    Relative assisting3310
(50) Butcher2,5186
    Apprentice350
    Assistant500
    Boy1310
    Carter430
    Clerk8611
    Labourer650
    Manager01
    Relative assisting8214
    Rider-out110
    Salesman2450
    Pork-butcher488
(51) Fishmonger26011
    Clerk33
    Assistant428
(52) Butter expert80
    Exporter of meat10
(53) Flour merchant1300
    Flour agent120
    Flour assistant220
    Flour earner280
    Flour clerk1141
    Flour contractor30
    Flour labourer1040
    Flour salesman230
    Flour sampler70
    Flour storeman1090
    Flour store manager40
    Flour traveller70
(54) Bread and biscuit dealer10
    Clerk01
    Driver30
    Relative assisting01
    Shopman, shopwoman13
    Traveller10
(53) Greengrocer, fruiterer378182
    Assistant5940
    Relative assisting1234
    Shopboy, shopgirl102
    Storeman80
    Vegetable hawker540
(56) Wine and spirit merchant503
    Assistant101
    Clerk381
    Storeman170
    Traveller310
(57) Grocer, tea dealer760122
    Grocer's assistant1,02250
    Grocer's clerk14939
    Grocer's carter2840
    Grocer's delivery-boy360
    Grocer's manager150
    Grocer's messenger110
    Grocer's relative assisting3744
    Grocer's shopman, shopwoman314 
    Grocer's traveller420
    Tea agent, broker331
    Assistant60
    Tea packer, sorter5611
    Tea wrapper10
    Tea traveller172
(58) Tobacconist829
    Relative assisting55
    Salesman, saleswoman164
    Traveller10

ORDER 8.—PERSONS engaged in dealing in and treating ANIMALS, and Dealing in ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES (excluding Dealers in Food).

0.64 per cent, of total male population.

0.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in and treating living animals1951,1991,3941,394
2. Persons engaged in dealing in manures and animal waste products555
3. Persons engaged in dealing in leather, raw materials, and manufactures238401141
4. Persons engaged in dealing in wool and other animal matters19150169169
5. Persons engaged in dealing in seeds, plants, fodder, &c48274322123850372
6. Persons engaged in dealing in other vegetable matters (not included elsewhere)90572662224666
Totals, Order 8, 19013542,2382,5921540552,647
Totals, Order 8, 18962431,4571,70029111,711

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Living Animals.   
Live-stock dealer (59)415415..
Animal-trainer, horsebreaker464464..
Bird-fancier55..
Others (60)510510..
Sub-order 2.—Manures and Animal Waste Products.   
Manure, guano dealer11..
Bonedust dealer22..
Others: Manure salesman22..
Sub-order 3.— Leather, Raw Materials, and Manufactures   
Hide, skin dealer1515..
Prepared-skins, leather dealer (61)25241
Others: Prepared-skins, leather carter11..
Sub-order 4.—Wool and Other Animal Matters.   
Wool broker, merchant4545..
Wool broker, assistants (62)120120..
Tallow merchant, dealer33..
Bone, horn, hoof, hair merchant, dealer11..
Sub-order 5.—Seeds, Plants, Flowers, Vegetable Products for Fodder and Gardening Purposes.   
Seed merchant (63)14013010
Florist, flower and plant seller582434
Produce, hay and corn merchant, dealer (64)1741686
Sub-order 6.—Other Vegetable Matters not included elsewhere.   
Timber merchant1291281
Timber merchant, assistants (65)5335303
Indiarubber-wares, dealer11..
Others (66)33..
 M.F.
(59) Live-stock dealer1370
    Cattle dealer660
    Horse dealer460
    Rabbit dealer330
    Sheep dealer320
    Stock agent320
    Stock agent clerk220
    Stock agent salesman80
    Stock and station agents190
(60) Equestrian30
    Groom to horse breaker, trainer4840
    Caretaker, saleyards10
    Dog-monger10
    Rabbit agent210
(61) Prepared-skins, leather dealer70
    Clerk81
    Salesman.90
(62) Assistant250
    Clerk320
    Manager80
    Labourer120
    Storeman150
    Wool-classer170
    Wool-sorter110
(63) Seed merchant423
    Apprentice50
    Clerk233
    Shopman, shopwoman604
(64) Produce merchant895
    Assistant490
    Clerk281
    Relative assisting.20
(65) Agent60
    Assistant360
    Carter1080
    Clerk1273
    Labourer1680
    Manager220
    Measurer90
    Orderman250
    Salesman290
(66) Hop dealer10
    Storeman20

ORDER 9.—PERSONS engaged in Dealing in MINERALS and other SUBSTANCES mainly used for FUEL and LIGHT.

0.18 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in coal, &c, for fuel and light816677483811759
Totals, Order 9, 1901816677483811759
Totals, Order 9, 189660444504156510

Details for the sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Coal and other Substances mainly used for Fuel and Light.   
Coal, coke merchant, dealer (67)6886799
Lignite, shale, peat, charcoal dealer11..
Firewood, fuel merchant, dealer (68)67652
Others (69)33..
 M.F.
(67) Coal merchant2801
    Agent150
    Assistant413
    Clerk696
    Carter1860
    Labourer560
    Manager100
    Salesman10
    Yardman210
(68) Firewood dealer301
    Carter330
    Clerk21
(69) Asbestos agent20
    Match-seller10

ORDER 10.—PERSONS engaged in Dealing in MINERALS other than for FUEL and LIGHT.

0.37 per cent, of total male population.

0.01 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in stone, clay, earthenware, glass, &c.1256687132088
2. Persons engaged in dealing in gold, silver, and precious stones111
3. Persons engaged in dealing in metals other than gold and silver3431,1071,450315181,468
Totals, Order 10, 19013551,1641,5191028381,557
Totals, Order 10, 18962407941,034422261,060

Details for sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Stone, Clay, Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.   
Stone, gravel, sand dealer11..
Lime merchant, dealer55..
Potteryware, earthenware dealer321
Glassware dealer33..
China, crockeryware dealer (70)745618
Others (71)211
Sub-order 2.—Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones.   
Precious-stones dealer11..
Sub-order 3.—Metals other than Gold and Silver.   
Tin, zinc merchant, dealer11..
Antimony, lead dealer11..
Iron-ore, pig-iron, scrap-iron dealer11..
Iron, galvanised-iron, wire importer, dealer1919..
Ironmonger, hardware dealer (72)1,2411,22615
Others (73)2052023
 M.F.
(70) China, crockeryware, dealer.182
    Assistant56
    Clerk52
    Manager10
    Salesman, saleswoman248
    Traveller30
(71) Bottle merchant10
    Monumental dealer01
(72) Ironmonger3050
    Apprentice.490
    Assistant3556
    Clerk1857
    Carter290
    Manager150
    Porter, packer190
    Relative assisting10
    Salesman, shopwoman1332
    Shopboy130
    Traveller690
    Warehouseman550
(73) Kauri-gum buyer422
    Gum merchant's assistant91
    Carter30
    Clerk60
    Labourer110
    Packer130
    Sorter770
    Storeman.400
    Scraper10

ORDER 11 —PERSONS engaged as GENERAL DEALERS, or in MERCANTILE PURSUITS not elsewhere classed.

2.20 per cent, of total male population.

0.61 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged as merchants, dealers (undefined)9544,8385,7923501,0711,4217,213
2. Persons engaged in other mercantile pursuits (undefined)7132,4433,1562795438223,978
Totals, Order 11, 19011,6677,2818,9486291,6142,24311,191
Totals, Order 11, 18961,5777,4929,0693681,2261,59410,663

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1. —Merchants, Dealers (undefined).   
Merchant, importer (undefined)4164151
Assistant (74)92888939
Relative assisting981
Sub-order 1.—Merchants, &c—continued.   
Storekeeper, shopkeeper (75)3,9092,8811,028
Relative assisting477195282
Dealer, trader (76)24422123
Relative assisting21912
Hawker, pedlar25423420
Broker, agent1341322
Commission agent (77)82180813
Sub-order 2.—Other Mercantile Persons.   
Officer of public company, society (78)85832
Clerk, cashier, accountant (commercial or undefined)2,6382,145493
Commercial traveller, canvasser, salesman, saleswoman (undefined)1,166848318
Others (79)89809
 M.F.
(74) Apprentice50
    Assistant and clerk66932
    Carter190
    Manager440
    Message-boy10
    Storeman1040
    Traveller477
(75) Storekeeper, shopkeeper1,634434
    Apprentice43
    Clerk13320
    Carter510
    Manager621
    Packer180
    Salesman, saleswoman307
    Stableman1000
    Storeman.1900
    Shop assistant406517
    Shopboy, shopgirl733
    Store assistant28843
(76) Dealer, trader21619
    Assistant44
    Carter10
(77) Commission agent6494
    Assistant351
    Clerk648
    Hotel agent10
    Manufacturer's agent590
(78) Officer of public company171
    Agent90
    Clerk, accountant201
    Manager370
(79) Assisting in business185
    Elevator-boy20
    Debt-collector190
    Labour and Customhouse agent380
    Packer04
    Weighbridge-keeper.30

ORDER 12.—PERSONS engaged as SPECULATORS on CHANCE EVENTS.

0.01 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in speculating on events338413344
Totals, Order 12, 1901338413344

Details for the sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Chance Events.   
Turf commission agent, sweep promoter1818..
Bookmaker1919..
Others (80)743
 M.F.
(80) Clairvoyante.01
    Palmist02
    Totalisator owner and worker40

Sub-class C.—STORAGE.

ORDER 13.—PERSONS engaged in STORAGE.

0.21 per cent, of total male population.

0.O0 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in storage136727863145868
Totals, Order 13, 1901136727863145868
Totals, Order 13, 1896139777916916

Details for the sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Storage.   
Bonded-, free-store proprietor, manager, clerk2222..
Bonded-, free-store man, worker (81)8238185
Others engaged in storage, hulk-keepers2323..
 M.F.
(81) Bonded- or free-store worker7140
    Store assistants733
    Clerk72
    Packer340

Chapter 42. CLASS IV. —TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.

ORDER 14.—PERSONS engaged in the TRANSPORT of PASSENGERS, GOODS, effecting COMMUNICATIONS.

5.24 per cent, of total male population.

0.13 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged on railways (not construction)5904,4625,0521455,057
2. Persons engaged on tramways63318381381
2. Persons engaged on roads6014,5955,196412165,212
3. Persons engaged on seas and rivers6167,3587,974678848,058
4. Persons engaged on postal service204760964211902111,175
5. Persons engaged on telegraph and telephone service4807381,218271411681,386
6. Persons engaged in delivery of documents, parcels, and messages by hand4136748011481
Totals, Order 14, 19012,96718,29821,2656042548521,750
Totals, Order 14, 18962,09114,52116,6124827732516,937

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—On Railways (not Construction).   
Railway officer, stationmaster, clerk1,1911,1883
Railway engine-driver, fireman834834..
Railway guard, porter, servant9029002
Railway ganger, fettler1,3371,337..
Railway employee, labourer785785..
Others : Railway carter88..
Sub-order 2. — On Roads.   
Tramway owner, officer, clerk, conductor, gripman, engine-driver, employee (82)381381..
Coach, omnibus, cab proprietor3853823
Relative assisting22202
Driver, conductor544544..
Parcels-delivery agent, driver, clerk8484..
Drayman, carrier, carter, teamster, horse-driver (not elsewhere classified (83)3,2213,2165
Relative assisting7070..
Livery-stable keeper (84)4384326
Others (85)448448..
Sub-order 3.—On Seas and Rivers, and the Regulation thereof.   
Harbours and Rivers Department, Marine Board, ferry-service officer1741731
Pilot2020..
Lighthouse keeper, superintendent8383..
Shipowner, shipping agent, manager, clerk (86)5185126
Shipmaster, seaman (merchant service)2,8242,824..
Engineer, stoker, coal-trimmer of steamer (merchant service)1,1491,149..
Steward, stewardess, ship-servant86779275
Bargemaster, lighterman2121..
Stevedore, lumper, wharf-labourer2,1482,148..
Boat proprietor, boatman, waterman7575..
Ferry-punt lessee, worker4747..
Wharf owner, lessee, wharfinger3636..
Others (87)96942
Sub-order 4.—On Postal Service.   
Postal officer, postmaster, clerk, sorter820611209
Letter-carrier2282271
Mail contractor5555..
Mailman, mail-guard45441
Others: P.O. messengers2727..
Sub-order 5.—On Telegraph and Telephone Service.   
Telegraph officer, stationmaster, operator, clerk6366297
Electrician, lineman157157..
Telephone officer21756161
Messenger376376..
Sub-order 6.—Delivery of Documents, Parcels, and Messages by Hand.   
Messenger, porter118118..
Errand boy, girl3633621
 M.F.
(82) Tramway owner, officer, clerk210
    Tramway conductor, driver, &c.1470
    Tramway labourer2130
(83) Drayman, carrier, carter2,9852
    Clerk283
    Teamster2030
(84) Livery-stable keeper.1784
    Clerk162
    Groom1140
    Hostler360
    Stable-boy880
(85) Bullock-driver, undefined1640
    Driver, undefined1520
    Facker on road290
    Traction-engine driver1030
(86) Shipowner, manager, clerk3845
    Book-keeper, accountant1111
    Storeman170
(87) Boiler-cleaner, marine10
    Clerk, tally, wharf660
    Marine surveyor50
    Signalman, signalwoman222

Chapter 43. CLASS V.—INDUSTRIAL.

In Sub-class B of the Commercial class all persons engaged in dealing were included; the makers or manufacturers have now to be considered.

ORDER 15.—PERSONS engaged in connection with the Manufacture of or in other PROCESSES relating to ART and MECHANIC PRODUCTIONS in which Materials of various Kinds are employed in Combination.

4.55 per cent, of total male population.

0.26 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1, Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of books and publications6421,8932,5353042335373,072
2. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of musical instruments1010511533118
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of prints, pictures, and art materials58171229246235
4. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ornaments, minor art products, and small wares1242633878765152539
5. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of equipment for sports and games17821311
6. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of designs, medals, type, and dies11506111263
7. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of watches, clocks, and scientific instruments94468562246568
8, Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of surgical instruments and appliances167229
9. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of arms, ammunition, and explosives13395222133587
10. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of engines, machines, tools, and implements5812,3412,9222,922
11. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of carriages and vehicles5181,5212,0391342,043
12. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of harness, saddlery, leather, and leather-ware3131,0951,408186241,432
13. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ships, boats, and their equipment857728574610867
14. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of furniture.5451,3631,9082037571,965
15. Persons engaged in manufacturing building material, &c8644,3875,25169155,266
16. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of chemicals and by-products32106138563490228
Totals, Order 15, 1901.3,89214,58718,47952542194619,425
Totals, Order 15, 1896.2,3888,59710,98522026748711,472

A large part of the apparent increase shown for 1901 in this order is caused by the inclusion of sawmill workers, who in 1896 were given to what is now Order 18.

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Manufacturing Books and Publications.   
Publisher, newspaper proprietor (88)24321528
Printer, printer's manager, clerk (89)1,1051,06441
Compositor811691120
Machinist, stereotyper, and others engaged in printing (90)30027525
Bookbinder, manufacturing stationer (all branches) (91)612290322
Others: Embosser1..1
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical-instrument maker.2828..
Musical-instrument, tuner, repairer88853
Others: Music-string maker22..
Suborder 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Lithographer, lithographic, zincographic printer (92)1491445
Picture-frame maker, picture restorer, cleaner80791
Artists' materials manufacturer, artists' colourman44..
Others : Ticket-writer22..
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Carver (all branches), carver and gilder81738
Image-maker, modeller761
Taxidermist12111
Toymaker77..
Basketmaker, wickerworker (93)1401382
Artificial-flower maker, art needle-worker13..13
Paper-bag, box maker1153283
Brush, broom maker15010842
Others (94)14122
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sports and Games.   
Billiard, bagatelle-table manufacturer33..
Cricket, lawn-tennis equipment maker22..
Fishing-tackle maker523
Others; Net-maker11..
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Engraver (not art), pattern-designer55532
Rubber-stamp maker88..
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, and Scientific Instruments.   
Watch, clock, chronometer maker (95)5515465
Optician16151
Others11..
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.   
Surgical-instrument maker44..
Surgical appliances, truss, bandage maker532
Sub-order 9.—Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives.   
Gunsmith46451
Explosives-manufacturer23221
Fuse, cartridge maker14113
Fireworks-maker44..
Sub-order 10.—Engines, Machines, Tools, and Implements.   
Engine maker, fitter, mechanical engineer (96)2,1282,128..
Millwright4848..
Boilermaker624624..
Sub-order 10.—Engines, Machines, &c.—continued.   
Agricultural machinery and implement maker (97)8282..
Sewing-machine maker, repairer77..
Cutler, tool-maker, saw-setter2929..
Gas-, water-meter maker22..
Others (98)22..
Suborder 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.   
Railway carriage, wagon, tramcar builder (99)126126..
Coach, carriage, wagon, cart builder (100)1,1201,1l82
Bicycle-maker (101)3953941
Perambulator, wheel-chair maker20191
Wheelwright (102)382382..
Sub-order 12. —Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.   
Saddlery and harness maker, whip-maker (103)1,3791,35722
Leather-belting maker77..
Leather cutter, designer.11101
Portmanteau-maker34331
Others: Morocco-finisher11..
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment.   
Shipbuilder, shipwright, boat-builder (104).622622..
Ship-rigger1515..
Block, oar, mast maker44..
Sailmaker (105)20919910
Graving-dock, patient-slip proprietor, manager22..
Dock engine-driver, labourer99..
Others : Dredge, pontoon builders66..
Sub-order 14.—Furniture.   
Furniture-manufacturer, cabinetmaker, bedstead-maker (106)1,5071,5034
Bed, mattress maker, upholsterer (107)38833751
Others (108)70682
Sub-order 15.—Building Materials and other Manufactures comprised mainly of Timber.   
Sawmill proprietor, worker (exclusive of forest sawmill) (109)4,3684,3644
Joiner, door, sash, mantelpiece manufacturer (110)635635..
Cooper (111)1981971
Relative assisting77..
Others (112)584810
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Manufacturing chemist (not elsewhere classified) (113)65605
Ink, blacking manufacturer651
Salt, soda, alkali, starch, blue maker2121..
Chemical-manure maker (114)1414..
Paint-manufacturer77..
Others (115)1153184
 M.F.
(88) Publisher proprietor657
    Clerk7814
    Correspondent10
    Engine-driver10
    Manager182
    Reader265
    Traveller.260
(89) Printer, manager, clerk75215
    Apprentice952
    Assistant21724
(90) Machinist, stereotyper16825
    Linotype operator1070
(91) Bookbinder201152
    Apprentice2611
    Assistant57125
    Folder418
    Sewer2l6
(92) Lithographer, zincographic printer1083
    Lithographic apprentice120
    Lithographic artist232
    Lithographic draughtsman10
(93) Basketmaker, wickerworker1050
    Apprentice.50
    Assistant282
(94) Cork-cutter.90
    Tobacco-pipe maker.32
(95) Watchmaker, &c.4542
    Apprentice.460
    Assistant463
(96) Engine maker, fitter, &c.1,2990
    Apprentice.1930
    Assistant1010
    Driller50
    Engine-fitter2050
    Apprentice370
    Machinist620
    Riveter330
    Smith190
    Striker140
    Turner770
    Hammerman120
    Pattern-maker710
(97) Agricultural machinery, implement maker390
    Assistant90
    Clerk180
    Engineer150
    Traveller10
(98) Bellows-maker10
    Pump-maker10
(99) Railway carriage, wagon, car builder440
    Fitter120
    Assistant110
    Lifter220
    Painter, polisher240
    Trimmer.130
(100) Coach and cart builder5121
    Apprentice450
    Assistant601
    Coach-painter2880
    Coach-painter apprentice170
    Coach-painter assistant20
    Coach trimmer480
    Coach smith1340
    Coach apprentice120
(101) Bicycle-maker3421
    Apprentice430
    Assistant.90
(102) Wheelwright3310
    Apprentice230
    Assistant280
(103) Saddlery, harness, and whip maker.1,1220
    Apprentice1203
    Assistant9919
    Clerk160
(104) Shipbuilder and shipwright4770
    Apprentice150
    Assistant.1010
    Clerk10
    Joiner250
    Painter30
(105) Sailmaker1753
    Assistant227
    Relative assisting20
(106) Furniture - manufacturer, cabinetmaker9531
    Apprentice1220
    Assistant2340
    Chairmaker541
    French-polisher1402
(107) Bed and mattress maker, upholsterer25626
    Apprentice201
    Assistant6124
(108) Blind-maker532
    Cane-worker10
    Glass-beveller140
(109) Saw-mill proprietor, worker5230
    Benchman540
    Blacksmith90
    Bullock-driver350
    Bushman1500
    Carpenter, joiner180
    Carter, horse-driver, truckman1270
    Clerk, book-keeper1131
    Contractor490
    Cook203
    Engine-driver3080
    Feeder, planing-machine60
    Fireman220
    Foreman160
    Labourer2,0530
    Log-getter230
    Machinist920
    Manager.620
    Relative assisting sawyer210
    Saw-sharpener350
    Sawyer4260
    Timber rafter90
    Timber stacker80
    Tramway-layer460
    Trollyman410
    Watchman180
    Yardman800
(110) Joiner, &c.5900
    Sash and door worker450
(111) Cooper1520
    Apprentice60
    Assistant390
    Clerk01
(112) Boxmaker.3910
    Packing-case maker90
(113) Manufacturing chemist555
    Acid-works employee90
(114) Chemical-manure maker60
    Labourer70
    Manager10
(115) Knife-polish20
    Match-factory employee1684
    Sheep-dip manufacturer40
    Varnish-maker90

ORDER 16.—PERSONS engaged in connection with the MANUFACTURE of, or REPAIRING, CLEANSING, or in other PROCESSES relating to TEXTILE FABRICS, DRESS, and FIBROUS MATERIALS.

2.01 per cent, of total male population.

3.88 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture, repairs, cleansing, &c, of textile fabrics2195507693914688591,628
2. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of dress1,0375,2596,2964,9338,41713,35019,646
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of fibrous materials2748341,1081018281,136
Totals, Order 16, 19011,5306,6438,1735,3348,90314,23722,410
Totals, Order 16, 1896.1,8885,9617,8494,6057,44512,05019,899

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons,Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Textile Fabrics.   
Woollen manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches) (116)1,538684854
Silk manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches)33..
Dyer, scourer69663
Flock-manufacturer1111..
Others (117)752
Sub-order 2.—Dress.   
Clothing-manufacturer, tailor, dressmaker (118)12,9482,32010,628
Relative assisting1142886
Hat, cap, bonnet maker (119)1194772
Shirtmaker (120)89757840
Milliner, staymaker, glovemaker (121)811..811
Sock maker, knitter48741
Furrier, rug-maker17710
Bootmaker, shoemaker (all branches) (122)4,4673,724743
Relative assisting34322
Umbrella, parasol maker624319
Feather-dresser, glove-cleaner14113
Others (123)1153085
 M.F.
(116) Woollen manufacturer, worker111
    Assistant.1221
    Burler116
    Cap-hand.01
    Carder350
    Classer150
    Clerk240
    Cloth-finisher176
    Darner032
    Designer120
    Dyer130
    Engine-driver, fireman230
    Factory-hand259277
    Warehouseman20
    Flock-maker10
    Fuller90
    Knitter856
    Machinist183
    Machine-cleaner.20
    Manager190
    Night-watchman.10
    Piecer30
    Presser252
    Scourer41
    Sorter151
    Spinner7410
    Seamer03
    Stapler30
    Traveller50
    Tuner (loom)311
    Tweed-finisher82
    Warper161
    Washer40
    Weaver24298
    Winder035
    Yarn-scourer11
    Yarn-twister66
(117) Carpet-maker30
    Lace-maker22
(118) Clothing-manufacturer, tailor, dressmakerl6228844
    Apprentice, tailor.122119
    Apprentice dressmaker0298
    Assistant2681038
    Clerk185
    Cutter1612
    Errand and shop boy140
    Labourer.38
    Machinist7233
    Machinist relative assisting115
    Manager132
    Pattern-cutter09
    Presser8618
    Seamstress035
    Trimmer.52
(179) Hat, cap, and bonnet maker2726
    Assistant.1727
    Straw-hat maker319
(120) Shirtmaker.33326
    Apprentice02
    Needlewoman0263
    Sewing-machinist1149
    Shirt-cutter153
    Factory-hand897
(121) Milliner, staymaker0526
    Mantle-maker0107
    Milliner's apprentice047
    Assistant0131
(122) Bootmaker2,72124
    Apprentice12322
    Assistant549135
    Clerk3310
    Clicker1590
    Cordwainer100
    Cutter120
    Errand-boy190
    Finisher.262
    Fitter057
    Machinist55416
    Presser60
    Repairer.60
    Sewing-machinist477
    Traveller.10
(123) Oilskin-maker137
    Waterproof-maker1778
Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.   
Mat-maker642
Rope, cord maker (124)1521511
Canvas, sailcloth maker22. .
Tent, tarpaulin maker433013
Bag, sack maker18612
Others (125)915915. .
 M.F.
(124) Rope, cord maker710
     Apprentice20
     Assistant501
     Labourer280
(125) Flax-mill owner900
     Assistant60
     Baler10
     Bleacher10
     Carpenter10
     Carter, horse-driver320
     Catcher10
     Clerk10
     Contractor10
     Cook270
     Dresser430
     Engine-driver560
     Feeder90
     Flyman50
     Grader10
     Hackler60
     Manager120
     Mill-hand5440
     Paddocker170
     Presser140
     Relative assisting20
     Scutcher290
     Stripper90
     Washer70

ORDER 17.—PERSONS engaged in the MANUFACTURE of, or in other PROCESSES relating to, FOOD, DRINK, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

1.80 per cent, of total male population.

0.10 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in processes relating to the production of animal food3732,1832,5561721382,594
2. Persons engaged in processes relating to the production of vegetable food7622,7253,4871611112723,759
3. Persons engaged in processes relating to groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants1791,0801,2591829471,306
Totals, Order 17, 19011,3145,9887,3021961613577,659
Totals, Order 17, 18961,1184,3285,446911102015,647

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.—Animal Food.   
Slaughterman, abattoir-worker (126226226. .
Meat, bacon, ham curer, preserver (127)3893809
Fish-curer70691
Butter, cheese maker, factory worker (128)82679828
Animal-food refrigerator (129)1,0631,063. .
Others (130)2020. .
 M.F.
(126) Slaughterman, abattoir-worker1960
    Labourer300
    (132) Meat and bacon preserver, dry salter850
    Assistant206
    Boner110
    Clerk232
    Engine-driver50
    Fat-collector10
    Flesher50
    Gutter and runner10
    Ham and bacon curer461
    Labourer, meat-works460
    Labourer, rabbit-factory240
    Meat-packer20
    Meat-preserver370
    Sausage-skin manufacturer550
    Storeman in bacon-factory30
    Tinsmith120
    (128) Butter and cheese worker1675
    Assisting in cheese-factory397
    Assisting in dairy factory19513
    Butter-packer211
    Creamery assistant870
    Engine-driver20
    Inspector, dairy factory10
    Labourer, cheese-factory450
    Manager, dairy factory2092
    Messenger170
    Milk-preserver130
    Oleo-worker20
    (129) Animal-food refrigerator10
    Assistant200
    Butcher1550
    Carter110
    Clerk1000
    Contractor10
    Cooper10
    Engineer, fireman1200
    Expert, foreman200
    Fellmonger240
    Freezer340
    Greaser180
    Labourer5180
    Manager190
    Mechanical engineer210
    (130) Meat-grader80
    Storeman and caretaker120
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.   
Miller, maizena-manufacturer (131)5615574
Baker, biscuit, pastry manufacturer (132) ..2,6092,502107
Relative assisting835033
Fruit-preserver, jam-maker (133)904149
Confectionery-maker (134)30522679
Sugar-mill owner, sugar-refiner (135)106106. .
Others: Baking-powder workers55. .
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants   
Brewer, bottler, and others engaged in brewing (136)6106064
Relative assisting981
Maltster (137)147147. .
Wine-manufacturer (not grower)1616. .
Cordial, aerated-water manufacturer (all branches) (138)3703619
Relative assisting1414. .
Coffee-roaster1111. .
Tea mixer, taster1515. .
Tobacco, cigar, cigarette manufacturer (139I241410
Spice-manufacturer55. .
Condiment-maker (all branches)765323
Others (140)99. .
 M.F.
(131) Miller2503
    Apprentice150
    Assistant630
    Clerk352
    Flour-mill carter390
    Flour-mill engine-driver380
    Flour-mill fireman20
    Flour-mill labourer820
    Relative assisting80
    Traveller50
(133) Baker, biscuit, pastry maker1,61220
    Apprentice870
    Assistant41623
    Boy240
    Driver1660
    Labourer990
    Biscuit-factory assistant6551
    Clerk300
    Engine-driver20
    Packer913
    Traveller20
(133) Fruit-preserver, jam-maker2015
    Assistant2134
(134) Confectionery-maker1263
    Apprentice45
    Assistant6859
    Sugar-boiler, lollie maker .2312
    Traveller60
(135) Sugar-mill owner, refiner90
    Clerk100
    Sugar-works employee276
    Fireman100
    Labourer100
(136) Brewer, bottler,&c,1782
    Apprentice20
    Assistant910
    Bottle-washer160
    Carter720
    Cellar 111 an430
    Clerk532
    Cooper70
    Engine-driver100
    labourer910
    Manager60
    traveller370
(137) Maltster1340
    Labourer130
(138) Cordial-manufacturer. &c.3017
    Cordial, aerated water bottler300
    Assistant841
    Clerk71
    Traveller20
    Driver370
(139) Tobacco, cigar manufacturer, c.65
    Employee85
(140) Lemon-peel curer40
    Cider-maker30
    Cocoa-worker10
    Ice-cream maker10

ORDER 18.—PERSONS (not otherwise classed) engaged in MANUFACTURE or other PROCESSES connected with ANIMAL and VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES

0.60 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
* NOTE.—The decrease shown in this order is apparent only. Sawmill workers, who in 1896 were here included, are by the classification adopted in 1901 grouped in Order 15, ante.       
1. Persons engaged in manufactures or other processes connected with animal matters (not otherwise classed)3631,6061,9695271,976
2. Persons engaged in working in wood (rot elsewhere classed)47202249. .. .. .249
3. Workers in vegetable produce for fodder28124152. .. .. .152
4. Paper manufacturers164561831172
Totals, Order 18, 1901*4541,9772,431135182,449
Totals, Order 18, 18967763,7874,563135184,581

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.—Animal matters (not otherwise classed).   
Soap, candle manufacturer (141)1471443
Tallow-melter, boiling-down worker (142)5757. .
Fellmonger, wool-washer (143)948948. .
Relative assisting1313. .
Tanner, currier (all branches) (144)7717701
Bonedust-manure manufacturer (145)26233
Others (146)1414. .
Sub-order 2.—Working in Wood (not elsewhere classed).   
Firewood cutter, chopper154154. .
Fencer, hurdle-maker (147)9595. .
Sub-order 3.—Workers in Vegetable Produce or Fodder.   
Chaff-cutter (148)140140. .
Others(149)1212. .
Sub-order 4.— Paper-manufacturers.   
Paper-manufacturer (all branches) (150)726111
 M.F.
(141) Soap and candle manufacturer401
    Apprentice20
    Candle-maker130
    Packer21
    Clerk90
    Labourer590
    Soap-boiler171
    Traveller20
(142) Tallow -melter, boiling - down  
    worker190
    Labourer70
    Tallow-man310
(143) Fellmonger, wool-washer5000
    Apprentice40
    Clerk60
    Classer, sorter1240
    Engine-driver30
    Labourer1880
    Skinner, flesher140
    Skin dresser, splitter120
    Wool and skin cleaner970
(144) Tanner, currier3621
    Assistant490
    Beamsman130
    Carter170
    Clerk110
    Engine-driver150
    Flesher, skinner290
    labourer1920
    Manager110
    Currier's apprentice180
    Leather - manufacturer's assistant230
    Dresser300
(145) Bonedust-manufacturer50
    Assistant183
(146) Fiddle-string maker's assistant10
    Blue-makers130
(147) Fencer, hurdle-maker460
    Fencing contractor210
    Labourer280
(148) Chaff-cutter500
    Engine-driver240
    Labourer600
    Relative assisting40
    Cook20
(149) Seed-dresser110
    Oil-refiner10
(150) Paper-manufacturer120
    Worker, mills489
    Relative assisting12

ORDER 19.—PERSONS engaged in the ALTERATION, MODIFICATION, or MANUFACTURE of, or in other PROCESSES relating to, METALS or MINERAL MATTERS

2.04 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1, Persons engaged in manufactures and processes relating to stone, clay, earthenware, glass, and minerals (not elsewhere classed)2039731,176. .221,178
2. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to gold, silver, and precious stones116276392213395
3. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to metals other than gold and silver (not elsewhere classed)1,7264,9866,7123586,720
Totals, Order 19, 19012,0156,2358,28058138,293
Totals, Order 19, 18961,4984,9426,440116176,457

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.— Manufactures and Processes relating to Stone. Clay   
 Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals (not otherwise classed).   
Monumental, marble mason, stone-cutter, dresser106106. .
Lime-burner (152)105105. .
Plaster-maker, cement-manufacturer (1 =n)5151. .
Brickmaker, tile-manufacturer (154)7087062
 Relative assisting3434. .
Pottery-maker (155)125125. .
 Relative assisting22. .
Glass manufacturer, worker99. .
Crockery, earthenware repairer, maker33. .
Asphalt-maker3030. .
Asbestos-manufacturer22. .
Others: Pumice workers33. .
Sub-order 2.—Workers in Jewellery, Precious Stones, and Minting.   
Goldsmith (156)3543513
Relative assisting44. .
Lapidary, precious stones worker1919..
Electro-plater, plater1818. .
Sub-order 3.— Workers in Various Metals (not elsewhere classed).   
Tin smith, smelter, worker (157)601601..
 Relative assisting88. .
Silver, copper, lead smelter, worker (158)6565. .
Malleable iron and steel manufacturer, smelter, worker (150)1571552
Iron founder, moulder, worker (160)1,3841,3822
Brass founder, moulder, brazier, worker (161)1811792
Galvanised-iron worker (al! branches)1111. .
Wire and cable manufacturer, worker4444. .
Blacksmith, striker, farrier (162)4,1414,1401
Relative assisting1141131
Locksmith1111. .
Others: Carriage lamp maker33. .
 M.F.
(152) Lime-burner600
    Engineer70
    Labourer370
    Relative assisting10
(153) Plaster-maker, cement-manufacturer130
    Cement-miller260
    Engine-driver120
(154) Brick-maker, tile-manufacturer4292
    Apprentice60
    Assistant480
    Carter210
    Engine-driver110
    Labourer1910
(155) Pottery-maker530
    Apprentice10
    Assistant330
    Engine-driver30
    Pipe-maker350
(156) Goldsmith, jeweller2100
    Apprentice422
    Assistant941
    Clerk50
(157) Tinworker4390
    Apprentice1350
    Assistant1270
(158) Lead-worker, coppersmith560
    Apprentice90
(159) Malleable-iron worker172
    Clerk10
    Engine-driver20
    Furnace-man50
    Galvaniser of iron50
    Puddler, roller40
    Worker320
    Oven-maker70
    Range-maker330
    Range-fitter490
(160) Iron founder, moulder, worker5910
    Apprentice1150
    Assistant1700
    Clerk542
    Engine-driver340
    Furnace-man800
    Labourer2480
    Striker810
(161) Brass founder, moulder, brazier  
    Apprentice170
    Clerk20
    Finisher, polisher681
    Moulder390
(162) Blacksmith, farrier3,1251
    Apprentice2610
    Assistant4900
    Hammer-man160
    Horse-shoer1040
    Labourer360
    Striker1080

ORDER 20.—PERSONS engaged in the CONVERSION of, COAL and other SUBSTANCES to purposes of HEAT, LIGHT, or forms of ENERGY not otherwise classed.

0.14 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1 Persons engaged in the conversion of coal, &c, to purposes of heat, light, &c.635175803. .3583
Total, Order 20, 1901635175803. .3583
Total, Order 20, 189630299329. .22331

Details for the sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.—Working in Fuel, Light, and other Forms of Energy. Gas manufacture and supply, officer, worker (163)4114083
Coke manufacturer, burner33. .
Electric light or energy producer, worker (164)164164. .
Charcoal-burner55. .
 M.F.
(163) Gas manufacturer, officer, worker1090
    Secretary clerk563
    Engineer410
    Fitter210
    Lamplighter220
    Workman1590
(164) Electric light or energy producer. worker.300
    Clerk90
    Electrician330
    Electric engineer880
    Motor-driver40

ORDER 21.—PERSONS engaged in the MAKING or REPAIRING of BUILDINGS, ROADS, RAILWAYS, CANALS, DOCKS, EARTHWORKS, &C, or in OPERATIONS the Nature of which is undefined.

5.64 per cent, of total male population.

O.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in making or repairing houses and buildings2,54913,19815,747581315,760
2. Persons engaged in making or repairing roads, railways, bridges, &c.4466,6867,132   7,132
Total, Order 21, 19012,99519,88422,879581322,892
Total, Order 21, 18961,88413,59915,48334715,490

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.- Houses and Buildings.   
Builder, contractor, manager, foreman, clerk (165)1,2951,2932
 Relative assisting3535. .
Stonemason, hodman, labourer (166)326326. .
Bricklayer, hodman, labourer (167)1,1581,158. .
 Relative assisting1616. .
Carpenter, labourer (168)8,1048,104. .
 Relative assisting85841
Slater, shingler2727. .
Plasterer, modeller (169)368368. .
Relative assisting22. .
House-painter, paperhanger, glazier (170)2,7382,7344
Relative assisting34322
Plumber, gasfitter, bell-hanger (171)1,4791,4754
Relative assisting1212. .
Others : Signwriter8181. .
 M.F.
(165) Builder, contractor, manager,  
    fireman, clerk1,1272
    Builder's apprentice240
    Assistant270
    Inspector120
    Labourer1030
(166) Stonemason, hodman, labourer2920
    Apprentice70
    Assistant150
    Concrete mason and assistant120
(107) Bricklayer, hodman, labourer1,0040
    Apprentice250
    Assistant1290
(168) Carpenter, labourer7,2900
    Apprentice3270
    Assistant3950
    Engine-driver (turner)260
    Stair-builder30
    Wood-machinist310
    Wood-moulder100
    Woodware manufacturer70
    Woodware labourer60
(160) Plasterer, modeller2860
    Apprentice120
    Assistant310
    Labourer390
(170) House-painter, glazier, paper-  
    hanger2,3980
    Apprentice1080
    Assistant1791
    Clerk111
    Decorator380
(171) Plumber, gasfitter, bell-hanger1,1441
    Apprentice1320
    Assistant1780
    Clerk213
Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order 2.—Roads, Railways, Earthworks, &c.   
Road, railway, bridge, telegraph, wharf contractor386386. .
Relative assisting66. .
Skilled assistant, foreman, inspector, manager (172)469469. .
Carter, teamster234234. .
Engine-driver, fireman9191. .
Navvy, labourer, platelayer5,4935,493. .
Stone-breaker, contractor (road metal)242242. .
Dredge-worker, diver (173)6464. .
Drainer, pavior, asphalt-worker (174)117117. .
Others (175)3030. .
 M.F.
(172) Skilled assistant, foreman, inspector, manager, &c.1220
    Bridge carpenter1260
    Fitter40
    Clerk, road-works320
    Foreman, ganger, railway and road works500
    Inspector, road-works560
    Overseer, works.730
    Timekeeper60
(173) Dredge-worker, diver440
    Engineer170
    Marine diver30
(174) Drainer, pavior740
    Ditcher40
    Drain labourer390
(175) Crane-driver230
    Telegraph-constructor40
    River - bank protection labourer30

ORDER 22.—PERSONS engaged in the Disposal of the DEAD, or of REFUSE.

0.04 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Engaged in the disposal of the dead361672. .269
2. Engaged in the disposal of refuse, &c.8106114. .. .. .114
Totals, Order 22, 1901111701812. .2183
Totals, Order 22, 189651061111. .1112

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
   Sub-order I.—Disposal of the Dead.   
Undertaker50482
Cemetery-keeper, grave-digger1919. .
   Sub-order 2. —Disposal of Refuse.   
Scavenger, street-cleaner..22. .
Chimney-sweep5454. .
Sanitary contractor, nightman4646. .
Others : Rag and bottle gatherer1212. .

ORDER 23.—INDUSTRIAL and other active WORKERS imperfectly defined.

4.08 per cent, of total male population.

0.20 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Industrial workers imperfectly denned2,29514,27416,56930841372117,290
Totals, Order 23, 19012,29514,27416,56930841372117,290
Totals, Order 23, 18962,76315,04217,80518527846318,268

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
   Suborder I.—Imperfectly defined.   
Mechanic, manufacturer (so defined)1191109
Factory worker, manager (so defined)400237l63
Engineer, engine-driver, stoker (so defined) (176)1,5051,505. .
Machinist, machine-hand (so defined)660161499
Contractor, manager, apprentice, foreman (so defined)1,3391,29831
Labourer (undefined)12,84912,849. .
Others (177)42840919
 M.F.
(176) Engineer, engine-driver, stoker1,1750
    Engineer's apprentice2610
    Engineer's assistant690
(177) Handy-man120
    Mill assistant8315
    Mill labourer2610
    Mill manager90
    Mill owner300
    Wage-earner144

Chapter 44. CLASS VI.—AGRICULTURAL, PASTORAL, MINERAL, AND OTHER PRIMARY PRODUCERS.

ORDER 24.—PERSONS directly engaged in the CULTIVATION of LAND, in BREEDING or REARING ANIMALS, or in obtaining RAW PRODUCTS from NATURAL SOURCES.

26.60 per cent, of total male population.

1.07 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons directly engaged in agricultural pursuits13,00952,71465,7235221,5672,08967,812
2. Persons directly engaged in pastoral pursuits3,59216,00819,6008129981,81021,410
3. Persons engaged in rabbiting, beekeeping, &c.257713970. .33973
4. Persons directly engaged in fisheries, &c.96622718112720
5. Persons directly engaged in forestry, or the acquisition of raw products yielded by natural vegetation3142,6272,941. .222,943
6. Persons engaged in the conservancy of water14233247. .. .. .247
7. Persons engaged in mines, quarries, &c.1,32316,48517,80817817,816
Totals, Order 24, 190118,60589,402108,0071,3362,5783,914111,921
Totals, Order 24, 189619,58983,427103,0161,0012,1133,114106,130

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
   Sub-order I.—Agricultural Pursuits.   
Farmer28,33727,2841,053
 Relative assisting12,90812,078830
Farm manager, overseer501501. .
Farm students, Agricultural College2525. .
Farm servant, agricultural labourer (178)19,74919,67277
Market-gardener89588510
Assistant (179)4874861
Relative assisting42393
Fruit-grower, orchardist34532421
Assistant (180)6161..
Relative assisting39351
Hop, cotton, tea, coffee grower2020. .
Assistant (181)1133380
Tobacco-grower22. .
Wine-grower, vigneron2929. .
Sugar-planter33. .
Horticulturist, gardener (182)2,6082,6087
Relative assisting7676. .
Agricultural Department officer46451
Others (183)1,5261,5242
   Sub-order 2,— Pastoral Pursuits.   
Grazier, runholder, pastoralist. stock-breeder3,2203,13981
Relative assisting67165417
Station manage1-, overseer, clerk5165151
Stockrider, drover, shearer, shepherd, pastoral labourer (184)7,6627,60557
Dairy-farmer4,7024,363339
Relative assisting3,3062,0831,223
Dairy assistant, milker1,0731,01063
Poultry-farmer15913029
Stock and Brands Department officer6666. .
Others (185)5555. .
Sub-order 3.—The Capture, Preservation, or Destruction of Wild   
Animals,' or the Acquisition of Products yielded by Wild   
Animals.   
Bee-keeper35323
Rabbiter (186)936936. .
Others: Mutton-birders22. .
  Sub-order 4.—Fisheries.   
Fisheries Department inspector, officer2020..
Fisherman (187)633633. .
  Relative assisting21192
Oyster-bed lessee, worker, shell-fish catcher4444. .
Engaged in whale, seal fishery22. .
 M.F.
(178)Farm servant, agricultural  
    labourer16,98715
    Assistant1,62051
    Boy400
    Bullock-driver190
    Cadet590
    Carter260
    Cook757
    Cowherd1140
    Fencer180
    Gardener370
    Groom290
    Harvester120
    Milker474
    Ploughman5160
    Rabbiter510
    Rouseabout40
    Stableman180
(179) Assistant4651
    Labourer210
(180) Assistant610
(181) Hop, cotton grower. assistant..93
    Hop-picker2477
(182) Horticulturist, gardener2,3826
    Apprentice100
    Assistant2091
(183) Agricultural-implement owner  
    worker070
    Threshing-machine assistant220
    Cook650
    Engine-driver1290
    Labourer1,0800
    Cropper30
    Director, Agricultural College70
    Farm contractor410
    General grower40
    Grass-seed sower90
    Harvest contractor40
    Ploughing contractor320
    Potato grower, digger, picker20
    Visitor, lodger, assisting on farm171
    Secretary, agricultural association20
(184) Stockrider, drover, shearer, shepherd..pastoral labourer3,0410
    Book-keeper, clerk323
    Boundary-keeper40
    Bullock-driver590
    Butcher, baker80
    Cadet600
    Carpenter540
    Carter, wagoner, horse-driver980
    Cook29550
    Cowherd1303
    Dairyman and assistant311
    Engine-driver10
    Farm servant1200
    Fencer1520
    Gardener1380
    Grass-seed sower200
    Groom1280
    Labourer and assistant2,2520
    Musterer270
    Packer220
    Ploughman2640
    Rabbiter3420
    Rouseabout190
    Scourer230
    Shepherd's relative assisting210
    Stockman1200
    Storekeeper20
    Visitor, assisting10
    Wood-cutter70
    Wool classer, picker, dresser1250
(185) Contractor on station240
    Fencing contractor30
    Ostrich-farmer50
    Pig-farmer30
(186) Rabbiter8460
    Rabbit agent620
    Rabbit carter60
    Rabbit fence keeper220
(187) Fisherman6110
    Fisherman assistant210
    Fisherman boy10
Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order 5.—Forestry, or the Acquisition of Raw Products yielded by Natural Vegetation.   
Forest Department ranger, officer5151. .
Axeman, woodman, timber getter, splitter2,2902,290. .
Bark-stripper1111. .
Collector of pith and fibre-yielding plants (1S8)132132. .
Others (189)4594572
 Sub-order 6.—Engaged in the Conservation of Water in all its   
Forms and in Water-supply from Natural Sources.   
Conservation of Water Department officer1111. .
Conservation of Water Department caretaker, worker1111. .
Water-supply (private) officer, worker, well-sinker8787. .
Others (190)138138..
 Sub-order 7.—Mines, Quarries, or the Acquisition of Natural Mineral Products.   
Mines Department officer1111. .
Mine, gold (quartz), proprietor, manager, worker (191)4,3064,306. .
Mine, gold (alluvial), proprietor, manager, worker (192)6,6166,6151
Mine, gold (undefined), proprietor, manager, worker4084062
Mine, tin (lode), miner, worker1111. .
Mine, tin (alluvial), proprietor, manager, worker22. .
Mine, silver, proprietor, manager, worker (193)44. .
Mine, coal, proprietor, manager, worker (194)2,2032,2003
Relative assisting1212. .
Mine, iron, worker11. .
Mine, copper, manager, officer, miner, worker33. .
Mine, shale, manager, officer, miner, worker (195)3838. .
Mine, precious stones, manager, worker44. .
Mine, others and undefined, manager, worker (196)748748. .
Quarry proprietor, manager, clerk2020. .
Quarry man, worker227227. .
Others (197)3,2023,2002
 M.F.
(188) Flax-cutter1210
    Flax contractor110
(189) Bush bullock-driver350
    Bush carter240
    Bush contractor2420
    Bush cook1203
    Bush foreman, manager250
    Bush horse-driver30
    Gorse-cutter20
    Weed-destroyer10
(190) Contractor10
    Water-race caretaker380
    Water-race manager10
    Waterworks engine-driver150
    Waterworks inspector100
    Waterworks labourer600
    Waterworks turncock70
(191)Mine, gold (quartz)—. .. .
    Proprietor, manager, worker3,6410
    Amalgamator350
    Assayer390
    Battery-boy50
    Battery engine-driver1210
    Battery feeder110
    Battery labourer, hand3330
    Battery manager690
    Cyanide-process worker. .0
    Mine (quartz), carter180
    Mine (quartz), manager170
(162) Mine, gold (alluvial)—  
    Proprietor, manager, worker5,6171
    Clerk, book-keeper160
    Gold-dredge dredgemaster1340
    Gold-dredge engine-driver2460
    Gold-dredge winchman1100
    Gold-dredge worker, labourer4590
    Miner, relative assisting230
    Mine-manager100
(193) Mine (silver) proprietor, manager, worker20
    Prospector20
(194) Mine (coal)—  
    Proprietor, manage, worker1,9210
    Assistant70
    Banksman and screener80
    Blacksmith30
    Carpenter130
    Carter450
    Clerk151
    Engine-driver620
    Horse-driver140
    Manager270
    Rope-boy90
    Trucker530
    Mining engineer230
(195) Mine (shale)—  
    Apprentice10
    Bricklayer10
    Caretaker10
    Carpenter10
    Chemist10
    Clerk10
    Engineer70
    Labourer90
    Manager10
    Miner110
    Refiner10
    Stoker10
    Turner, fitter30
(196) Mine and other undefined manager, worker, &c,7010
    Antimony miner50
    Cinnabar miner30
    Manganese miner60
    Prospector330
(197) Caretaker, mine10
    Kauri-gum digger3,1452
    Kauri-gum packer10
    Kauri-gum prospector30
    Kauri-gum relation assisting digger200
    Kauri-gum scraper10
    Kauri-gum sorter200
    Petroleum-borer90

Chapter 45. CLASS VII.—INDEFINITE.

ORDER 25.—PERSONS whose OCCUPATIONS are UNDEFINED or UNKNOWN, embracing those who derive Incomes from Sources which cannot be directly related to any other Class.

1.21 per cent, of total male population.

0.71 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons of independent means, having no specific occupation, or undefined92,4222,431121,6691,6814,112
2. Others, undefined, both as regards means and particular occupation752,4072,482379049413,423
Totals, Order 25, 1901844,8294,913492,5732,6227,535
Totals, Order 25, 18963023,8324,1341822,2362,4186,552

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.—Persona of Independent Means, having no Specific Occupation, or Undefined.   
Pensioner1,066747319
Annuitant578341237
Independent means, lady, gentleman (so defined) (198)2,4681,3431,125
Others (199)3,4232,482941
 M.F.
(198) Independent means8641062
    Private means9126
    Retired38837
(199) Infirm6330
    Invalid35696
    No occupation1,199278
    Out of business931
    Past work47665
    Relative (occupation not stated)10343
    Tourist3732
    Traveller6920
    Unemployed580
    Swagger10
    Visitor, not performing domestic  
    duties27376

Chapter 46. CLASS VIII.—DEPENDENTS.

ORDER 26.—PERSONS DEPENDENT upon NATURAL GUARDIANS.

31.53 per cent, of total male population.

81.47 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid44216525,124148,997174,121l74,186
2. Dependent scholars and students78,41911278,53177,8247677,900156,431
3. Dependent relatives and others, not stated to be performing domestic duties49,21810249,32046,55515146,70696,026
Totals, Order 26, 1901127,681235127,916149,503149,224298,727426,643
Totals, Order 26, 1896126,869342127,211148,913126,803275,716402,927

Details for each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I. — Domestic Duties for which Remuneration is not paid.   
Wife, mother, widow118,581. .118,581
Son, daughter, relative49,7412849,713
Visitor4,859214,838
Boarder, lodger1,00516989
Sub-order 2.— Dependent Scholars and Students.   
Son, daughter, relative, and others supported at university1467967
Son, daughter, relative, and others at school151,74576,52375,222
Son, daughter, relative, and others taught at home4,5401,9292,611
Sub-order 3. —Dependent Relatives and others not stated to be performing Domestic Duties.   
Father, mother (dependent upon children)17767110
Son, daughter, relative (including persons under twenty years of age   
with unspecified occupation)92,59547,73444,861
Visitor2,1259911,134
Others1,129528601

ORDER 27.—PERSONS DEPENDENT upon the STATE, or upon PUBLIC or PRIVATE SUPPORT.

0.80 per cent, of total male population.

0.06 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons supported by voluntary and State contributions2972,4432,7404141,6332,0474,787
2. Criminal class (under legal detention)25825050818328211719
Totals, Order 27, 19015552,6933,2485971,6612,2585,506
Totals, Order 27, 18965842,9343,5186881,6022,2905,808

Details of each sub-order are :—

Occupations.Persons.Males.females.
Sub-order I.—Supported by Voluntary and State Contributions.   
Inmate of hospital315182133
benevolent institution1,489808681
hospital for insane2,6511,5731,078
orphan asylum292165127
Pauper, beggar1679
Others24519
  Sub-order 2.— Criminal Class (under legal detention).   
Inmate of gaol, penal establishment28926524
Inmate of lock-up watch-house22. .
Inmate of reformatory, industrial school428241187
Occupation not stated (over twenty years of age)34026971

OCCUPATIONS OF THE CHINESE.

The Chinese enumerated at the census numbered 2,857, against 3,711 in 1896, a decrease of 854, or 23.01 per cent.

Of the number in 1901, 2,825 were males and 32 females. Of the males 61 were returned as married.

The number of Chinese under 14 years of age was only 26 (15 males and 11 females). These do not include the issue of unions between Chinese men and European women (60 males and 46 females).

The occupations show 1,313 gold-miners, 591 market gardeners with 69 labourers and assistants, 172 fruiterers or greengrocers with 14 assistants, 82 laundrymen with 4 assistants, 75 storekeepers with 9 clerks and assistants, 48 labourers undefined, 47 farm labourers, 43 storemen, 41 hotel cooks and servants, 26 boardinghouse keepers with 9 cooks and servants, 24 fish-hawkers, 25 rabbiters, 13 carpenters and cabinetmakers, 13 merchants, 6 provision merchants and 1 storeman, 1 butter-merchant, 9 fishermen, 8 grocers with 2 managers, 7 restaurant-keepers and 1 waiter, 6 rag, bone, and bottle dealers, 5 clerks and accountants, 4 drapers, 4 station labourers, 4 interpreters, 3 agents, 2 butchers, 2 hawkers, and 5 of independent means.

In addition to the number of hotel and boardinghouse cooks, there were 5 farm, 9 station and 37 cooks undefined. Amongst others in small numbers are noticed 1 law-clerk, 2 missionaries, 1 medical man, 1 herbalist, and 1 music-teacher.

Two of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 14 of benevolent asylums. There were 23 Chinese lunatics (in asylums), but only 1 of this race was a prisoner in gaol on the census night.

Appendix A. APPENDICES

Table of Contents

Appendix A.—Industries; Public Libraries, And Other Literary And Scientific Institutions; Places Of Worship.

Manufactories and Works.

THE results of the compilation of the special returns relating to the various manufactories, works, &c., in the colony are compared with those shown for previous censuses in certain of the tabulated statements given with these remarks.

It must be observed, however, that whereas up till the time of last census the term “factory” was rather held to mean an establishment where manufacture was carried on wholesale, where machinery was employed, and where several hands worked together; in the returns for 1901 a “factory” has been interpreted to mean any concern where two or more persons work together at making articles for disposal, wholesale or retail, and without reference to machinery being used or not. Thus the return seems to be rather one showing industrial workers (and their production) where two or more are found together, than one of manufactories to supply the wholesale traders, or making for export. But the attempt has been made to approximate the census results to those of the Labour Department, according to special direction. To make the comparison with previous census figures as true as possible, the results for all the dressmaking, tailoring, shirt-making, millinery, and other establishments which were not included until 1901 have been deducted from the totals at foot of the summary table. Any roughness in the comparison caused by small concerns employing two persons only, and doing a retail business in making or repairing, having been included at the last census, but not before, cannot be avoided. And, indeed, it will become clear to any one reading the following remarks that the large increase in money value of manufactures is obtained mostly on items in respect of which moving down to a limit of two persons engaged would not materially alter the comparison.

The totals for the industries do not include mining and quarrying, which are dealt with separately.

Deducting, as above mentioned, from the total value of manufactures for the year 1900 the results for such industries as were not included in 1895, a most satisfactory increase is found on analysis of items, which has been mainly brought about by developments on a large scale in the following industries:—

INCREASE IN VALUE OF OUTPUT, 1895 TO 1900.

 Increase in 5 Years.
£.
Meat freezing, preserving, &c.2,182,616
Batter and cheese factories1,033,876
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring650,855
Foundries, boiler-making, range-making, and engineering621,356
Sawmills, with sash and door making369,882
Printing establishments (not Government)315,161
Clothing (with boot and shoe) factories242,122
Breweries and malt-houses240,468
Flaxmills170,946
Gasworks91,542
Chaff-cutting works90,816
Biscuit factories79,010
Bacon-curing establishments73,542
Coach-building and painting67,108
Woollen-mills56,959
Brick, tile, and pottery works56,090
Aerated-water factories53,202
Cycle factories46,230
Lime and cement works29,261

If to these be added the value of the grass-seed after dressing, £241,239 for the year 1900, the greater part of the increase in the total for all manufactured articles (£7,591,789) is accounted for. There are a large number of smaller amounts of increase than those above stated, but the main lines of development are sufficiently indicated.

The addition of the figures in the column for total value of manufactures is not absolutely justified to the fullest extent of the amount shown (seventeen million pounds sterling); but in the present state of New Zealand industries it appears that the degree of repetition of value is not so great as to prevent the total given being of great help in judging of development. No doubt seventeen million pounds is over the fact, because, for instance, butter frozen for export is included in returns for meat-freezing establishments, and also in the butter factory returns; timber cut is valued under saw-milling, and some again in the furniture-making line. Also, leather is valued in the tanning returns, and some part of it again in the boot and saddlery items. But, of the material operated upon, a great deal is imported.

The great primary industries of meat-freezing, butter and cheese making, with some others, do not mainly provide materials for making other wares.

The iron which is used at the foundries and engineering works is imported to New Zealand.

But it must be admitted that, as the colony advances in primary industries, deductions will have to be made with great discrimination, from the figures in the column “Value of all manufactures,” in respect of the amounts given in the returns.

As yet it is held that the addition is not so much affected by repetitions as to render the result other than useful; although, as before remarked the total figures are admittedly in excess of the actual fact. The comparison with previous census results is still considered valuable.

The special tables which follow the summaries wall show clearly that quantities have risen, as well as the value of manufactures, so that the development is not merely a question of market prices but of actual output.

In 1896 the actual increase in five years of the annual output was found to be only £775,523. But it was noticed that there were special causes for this amount being so small; and also that quantities showed then in many cases a certain degree of development of industries, though values had not been maintained throughout.

The year 1895 was admittedly a time when great results could not be looked for. Severe financial troubles had happened shortly before. The phormium and rope industries, iron-working (implements and other) were not thriving, and in other lines matters were not altogether what could have been wished. The inquiry for the year 1900 has been made after a period of great prosperity.

MANUFACTORIES AND WORKS, 1896 AND 1901.

 April, 1896March, 1901Increase, 1896–1901.
No.No.No.
* Omitting Government Railway Workshops and Government Printing Office.† Excluding dressmaking, tailoring, shirt-making, millinery, &c., for which no returns in 1896.
Number of establishments2,4593,163704
Hands employed—   
  Males22,98635,43812,452
Females4,4036,2881,885
Totals27,38941,72614,337
Wages paid—£££
  To Males1,776,0762,895,2791,119,203
  To Females131,516203,28271,766
Totals1,907,5923,098,5611,190,969
 H.p.H.p.H.p.
Horse-power28,09638,05210,956
Total approximate value of—£££
  Land1,063,9891,713,254649,265
  Buildings1,743,0732,419,803676,730
  Machinery and plant2,988,9553,826,574837,619
Totals£5,796,017£7,959,631£2,163,614

Under the heading “Hands employed,” the males increased from 22,986 in 1896 to 35,438, or at the rate of nearly 54.17 per cent. in five years. The females employed increased at the rate of 42.81 per cent.

The wages paid in the factories or large industrial works dealt with in the census returns were returned for 1895 at £1,907,592, and for 1900 at £3,098,561.

The average annual amount of wages paid to male hands was £77.2 in 1895 and £81.7 in 1900. For females, 29.5 in 1895, against £32.3 at the last census. The wages of both would seem to have been more than maintained.

The increase for the year 1901 over 1896 in the horse-power stated in the returns was 10,956, against 6,400 for 1896.

The approximate value of the land used for purposes of the factories and industries increased from 11,063,989 in 1896 to 11,713,254 in 1901. The value of the lands used for mining is not included in the above figures, and the value of Crown lands has been omitted throughout.

A very satisfactory development will be found in the value of the machinery and plant, from 12,988,955 in 1896 to 13,826,574 in 1901, being at the rate of 28.02 per cent, for the period. The value of the buildings also increased greatly.

INDUSTRIES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

All the various industries for which returns were received in 1901 are given in the statement below, which thus enumerates completely the manufactories and works in operation in the colony, specifying the provincial districts in which they are situated:—

Manufactories, Works-, &c.Number of Industries in Provincial Districts.Total Number of Industries
Auckland.Taranaki.Hawke's Bay.Wellington.Marlborough.Nelson.Westland.Canterbury.Otago.
Animal food—          
    Meat freezing and preserving works7225141334
    Ham- and bacon-curing establishments44234101239
    Fish curing and preserving works841111328
    Butter and cheese factories271028374731742247
    Rabbit-packing77
    Condensed-milk factory11
Vegetable food—          
    Grain-mills832825232778
    Biscuit-factories513112720
    Fruit-preserving and jam-making works611111213
    Sugar-boiling and confectionery works347426
    Sugar-refining works11
    Fruit-canning works1