REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF A CENSUS OF THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND TAKEN FOR THE NIGHT OF THE 12TH APRIL, 1896.

E. J. Von Dadelszen.

REGISTRAR-GENERAL.

Table of Contents

Census Of New Zealand, 1896.

Report. TO THE HONOURABLE THE COLONIAL SECRETARY.

Registrar-General’s Office, Wellington, 31st March, 1897.

SIR,—

I have the honour to report on the taking of the census of last year, and the compilation of the results:—

Preliminary Remarks

The census was taken for the night of Sunday, the 12th April, 1896. In the year 1891 the census night was the 5th April, so that the interval between the two enumerations of the people was five years and one week. The Act does not apply to Maoris, but a special census of the Native race was taken in February and March, under the supervision of the Justice Department. The following remarks (except when specially stated to the contrary) must therefore be understood as referring to a census of the population exclusive of Maoris, meaning by the term “Maori” any person of the aboriginal native race, and half-castes of that race living as members of any tribe.

The inquiries made of the people by means of the household schedule at the last census embraced the same subjects as before, with the exception that no information as to the land, cultivations, and live-stock was required, for the reason that these matters are being annually dealt with by the Department of Agriculture, Under the provisions of “The Agricultural and Pastoral Statistics Act, 1895.” Under section 9 of that measure the Registrar-General is required to adopt and use, for all purposes of –The Census Act, 1877,” the account taken by the Department of Agriculture, which is to supersede the account formerly taken by the Registrar-General in census years as part of the census itself. The relief afforded to Sub-Enumerators by means of the change of system was found to be very great.

The inquiry as to the domestic and social condition of the population was made under the following heads:—

The number and description of dwellings.

The names and surnames of the people.

Their relation to heads of households, as wife, son, visitor, lodger, servant, &c.

Their condition, as married or single, widower or window.

Their sex and age.

Their rank, profession, or usual occupation, present or past.

Their extraction, and place or birth.

Their religious denomination.

Whether British subjects or aliens.

Whether suffering from sickness, accident, or infirmity.

Whether able or unable to read and write.

If attending school (distinguishing kinds of schools, and between day- and Sunday-Schools).

Besides the above information as to all persons in the colony given in the household schedule, returns were obtained from proprietors or persons in charge of all manufactories, mills, works having machinery and plant, and other industries, including mines and quarries. The forms used for these were very comprehensive, and included questions as to hands and steam-power employed, value of materials operated on, and of produce or manufacture, with particulars as to quantities, an value of land, buildings, machinery and plant in use.

Further returns were collected under authority of the Fourth Schedule to the Census Act, showing the number of churches, chapels, and other places of worship, their situation, accommodation, and the attendance thereat; also as to land and building societies, mechanics’ institutes, with other literary or scientific institutions.

By section 3 of –The Representation Act, 1877—the Registrar-General is required to ascertain and report as early as possible to the Representation Commissioners the results of any census, and it then becomes the duty of the commission to divide the colony into electoral districts for the apportionment of the representation of the people on the basis of population. The final figures were accordingly formally reported in a certified return, on the 4th July, 1896. The return, which gave details of population to Parliament on the 7th July, 1896, following on a preliminary return made on the 11th June. Further census results were published in the form of summary tables in the New Zealand Gazette as under:—

Places of worship, public libraries, &c.15th October, 1896.
Religions22nd October, 1896.
Birthplaces29th October, 1896.
Ages7th January, 1897.
Sickness and infirmity21st January, 1897.
Conjugal condition21st January, 1897.
Manufactories, works, &c.23rd January, 1897.
Education28th January, 1897.
Occupations11th March, 1897.

Complete parts of the census volume were circulated as rapidly as they could be put through the Press, and issued on the following dates:—

31st August, 1896—

  1. Part I. Population and dwellings.

10th February, 1897,—

  1. Appendix A. Manufactories, works, &c.; Appendix B., Maori census.

30th March, 1897,—

  • Part II. Religions; and Part III., Birthplaces.

  • Part IV. Ages; Part V., Conjugal condition; and Part VI., Education.

  • Part VII. Sickness, &c.

  • Part VIII., relating to Occupations, is now complete, though unpublished as yet.

Total Cost Of Census.

The cost per head of population of taking and compiling the census of 1896 is found to have been less than that incurred on the occasion of the census of 1891, on a comparison of the total amounts spent:—

 1891.1896.
European census—£s.d.£s.d.
    Enumerators74607954811
      Clerical assistance for, and sundries4638042240
    Sub-Enumerators8,5241928,83934
Total9,7347910,215163
Maori census7881510818141
Total collection10,5233711,034104
Maps, &c.37510067460
Compilation, and sundries in central office5,2321134,64296*
Grand total cost of census, exclusive of printing16,13141016,351510

As regards the expense of the enumeration of the people, excluding Maoris, the sum for 1896 is not indeed smaller than that for 1891, but a calculation per capita of population shows economy. The figures are:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS (EXCLUSIVE OF MAORIS).

Year.Amount. £Population.Cost per head. d.
18919,734623,6583.7
189610,216703,3603.5

For the Maoris the expense was as under:—

COLLECTION OF CENSUS OF MAORI POPULATION.

Year.Amount. £Population.Cost per head. d.
189178941,9934.5
189681939,8544.9

For compilation and sundries in the central office, comparison shows a saving in 1896, though it must be borne in mind that land, cultivation, and live-stock returns had not to be dealt with the latter census. On the other hand, there is an amount of £257 included in the sundry expenses for 1896, which was spent on the enlargement and fitting-up of the special building used as a census office. No corresponding cost was incurred in 1891. The charges made by the Survey Department for mapping were far higher for the 1896 census than for that of 1891, the figures being £674, against £375 in the earlier year.

COST OF COMPILATION AND SUNDRIES (INCLUDING MAPS) IN CENTRAL OFFICE.

Year.Amount spent. £Population.Cost per head. d.
18915,608626,6582.1
18965,317703,3601.8

The total cost of the European census of 1896 was at the rate of 5˝3d. per head. In 1891 the total cost amounted to 5˝8d. per head. The difference on the side of economy is therefore one-halfpenny per head, notwithstanding the largely increased charge for maps, and the expenditure on building and office fittings.

A comparison of expenditure in the enumeration in proportion to dwellings is scarcely possible for different parts of the colony in regard to country districts, because distances between the houses vary, and for other reasons. But a comparison of cost per 100 houses in the four chief cities of the colony is both interesting and useful, as affording an idea of what the expense can be reduced to in centers like capital towns. The cost in 1896 was lowest in Wellington, £21s. 4d. per 100 dwellings. In Dunedin the expenditure was £3 4s. 4d. per hundred, and in Christchurch £3 7s. 4d,; while in Auckland the cost was as high as £5 4s. 6d., or considerably more than double that in Wellington.

Arrangements For The Census.

The number of Enumerators appointed to control the taking of the census was thirty-two, against twenty-four in 1891. Each Enumerator had his particular district, consisting of a group of counties, with their interior boroughs. To increase the number of Enumerators' districts was essential, in view of the need for more supervision of the Sub-Enumerators employed to deliver and collect the household schedules than was exercised in 1891, and also for a more prompt examination and dispatch of the census to the head office by the local Enumerators. To allow time for the Commissioners to define the new electoral districts, and for objections to be raised to the proposed districts, for consideration of objections and making alterations, it was necessary to begin the final compilation at the earliest possible moment, which could not have been done without a larger number of Enumerators than were employed before. The number of sub-Enumerators was 787, against 708 in 1891.

The plan adopted previously, of forwarding to each Enumerator two large maps, showing the contiguous counties comprising his district, was again followed. One of these was sent back to the Registrar-General with the plan of proposed Sub-Enumerator’s districts marked thereon. The maps were drawn to show all the existing divisions of the country for purposes of general and local government, such as counties and ridings, road and town districts, boroughs, and towns.

The Enumerators were instructed to make a riding, or part thereof, a census sub-district, unless there were special reasons against taking such a course. Sometimes road districts were adopted. If the subdivision into Sub-Enumerator’s districts was not as minute everywhere as could be desired for purposes of the most rapid execution of the work, it was nevertheless done as closely in accordance with recognized methods as the circumstances of the colony would allow. It is sometimes found better to give nay thoroughly reliable person a rather large district than to subdivide further when suitable men are not available. But the subdivision of the colony as a whole was far more thorough at the census of 1896 than in 1891, which is shown by the relative number of Sub-Enumerators each of whom had a sub-district to himself.

Directly the plan of subdivision of an Enumerator’s district was settled the descriptions of the boundaries were forwarded to the Chief Surveyor’s Office, for maps to be prepared of each Sub-Enumerator’s d district, coloured to exhibit all territorial divisions. These maps enabled the Sub-Enumerators so to make up their books as to show the household schedules belonging to each division of the country.

The different Chief Surveyors, on completing the Sub-Enumerators’s maps for any particular county, transmitted them to the Surveyor-General’s office at Wellington, to be examined and passed on to the Registrar-General, who at once issued them (with books attached) to the Enumerator within whose district such county was situated. Later on the Registrar-General issued to all Enumerators full supplies of household schedules, with the forms for special industrial returns, and others relating to such matters as places of public worship, libraries, and other literary and scientific institutions.

After the census schedules had been all received from the Sub-Enumerators, a preliminary return of population was made up by every Enumerator, and from these a summary showing the rough results of the census was compiled in Wellington and presented to Parliament on the opening-day of the session. The first parcels of household schedules received from local Enumerators at the Registrar-General’s office came to hand on the 22nd April, 1896. The delivery went on from that time until the 11th June, 1896, when the last parcel arrived. In the meantime a large office had been opened in Wellington for the final compilation, and considerable progress made.*

The Compilation.

The compilation of the census necessitated the employment of a large staff of temporary clerks. These were taken on gradually, as fast as the arrival of the schedules permitted. The maximum number of clerks employed was forty-two. The work of compilation began on the 25th April, 1896, and the staff was increased to the full number in August. Reductions began in October, and continued until, in February, 1897, there were only six clerks remaining.

These compiling clerks were selected from applicants in all parts of the colony.

Much trouble and delay having been experienced in 1891 for want of a proper office fitted to accommodate the compilation staff, and to hold the great mass of schedules, forms and other matters belonging to the work, a separate building, specially enlarged, was handed over to the Registrar-General in April, 1896, with the view of facilitating operations.

The census of 1896 was compiled in one room (40 ft. long by 16 ft. broad) so as to insure complete supervision of what was being done. By economizing space, clerks to the number of forty were seated in this room, besides the superintending officer. This arrangement was found to be a vast improvement on the previous plan, which was simply to borrow room for a few clerks wherever it could be found, and scatter the staff in small numbers about the Government Buildings.

A contrast to these complete arrangements for census-taking is afforded in the description of the method adopted in regard to Natives on the Gold Coast of Africa, given in the Governor’s letter to the Native kings of 22nd December, 1890, from which the following is extracted: “I understand the way you count your people is to divide each town or village into companies, which are again subdivided into families. The heads of families are then directed to drop into a calabash or similar article provided for the purpose a grain of corn, or cowrie, according to the number of their people—and that these calabashes are then collected and the contents counted. You will therefore have no difficulty in doing what I ask… When the numbering takes place, different articles are to be used for each sex—that is to say, Indian corn for males, and cowries or kernels for females.”

The first tabulation is made directly from the household schedules, and does not deal with any of the particulars relating to the people, such as age, religion, or birthplace. The number of each sex in every dwellinghouse is all that is noted, and the dwelling is classified as to number of rooms, and materials of which composed. The sheets on which these particulars are given are headed for every division of territory having boundaries existing in the colony. On completing the tabulation of the schedules belonging to any particular division of a county, a fresh sheet is taken, as the heading has changed. Thus, by breaking the sheets, summaries can afterwards be prepared without repeating any of the tabulation, no matter how frequently the boundaries of various divisions are found to interlace each other.

The schedules are laid out in counties, with what are termed “blue” and “white dividers” to mark where divisions, such as ridings, road districts, and localities, begin and end. The blue dividers simply indicate the localities or small places having names, but no legally defined boundaries.

The first compilation does not take very long to finish, and when done the Registrar-General is able to comply with the requirements of “The Representation Act, 1887,—by reporting the exact population to the Commissioners, who are appointed to divide the colony anew into electorates on the basis of the census, as before referred to.

An Act was passed on the 13th July, 1896, and two permanent Commissions of five members each were substituted for the one under the Act of 1887. One of these Commissions is for the North Island, and the other for the Middle and Stewart Islands. The official members of the North Island Commission are the Surveyor-General and the Commissioners of Crown Lands for Taranaki and Auckland. For the Middle Island the official element is represented by the Commissioners of Crown Lands for Westland, Canterbury, and Otago. The two remaining (unofficial) members of each Commissions first sit together as a joint Commission for the purpose of fixing according to the manner prescribed in “The Representation Act, 1887,” the number of the districts for the North and Middle Islands (including Stewart Island), respectively. Afterwards they act separately and independently.

The method laid down in “The Representation Act Amendment Act, 1889,” for computing for the purposes of that Act the population of the colony, is to add 28 percent. To the population not contained in any city, borough, or town district having a population of over two thousand persons. The total population of the colony (other than Maoris), with the addition aforesaid, having been ascertained, is then divided by the number of members (seventy), and the quotient thus obtained forms the quota. The four city electoral districts are so defined as to extent that the population shall be three times the quota. Inasmuch as it would be impossible to divide the country into a given number of districts all having exactly the given quota of population, the law permits the Commissioners to make and allowance of 750 persons by way of addition to or deduction form the population of rural districts, and 100 persons in the case of city electorates; and due consideration is given to community of interest, facilities of communication, and topographical features, as far as possible, in forming the districts. A table is given further on showing the new districts, with the actual population of each, and the nominal population—that is, with 28 percent. Added to the rural portion.

Proceeding as indicated above, the North Island was found to be entitled to thirty-four members, and the Middle Island to thirty-six. Previously the North Island had only thirty-one members, and the other thirty-nine, but movement of population has altered the proportions in favour of the North.

When the work of the Joint Commission was done, the Commissioners for each Island met in Wellington on the 27th July, 1896, to readjust boundaries, and again subsequently, on the 14th September (one at Wellington and one at Christchurch), for consideration of objections. The districts were finally gazetted on the 24th September, and the general election held on the 24th December, 1896.

Reverting to the compilation of the census, the second tabulation was not made directly from the census schedules. In order to obtain tables showing the number of people of each sex at various ages, in combination with information as to their religion, birth-place, conjugal condition, degree of education, occupation, health, and other particulars, it has been found best to mark a card for each person, and then to tabulate the results of the sorted cards on to sheets ruled with the necessary columns. Any number of different combinations can be obtained from cards with perfect facility. They are used in vital statistics for a double purpose, first as a means of tabulating causes of death in combination with ages of deceased persons, and then, after being sorted into an alphabetical arrangement of the names, the general index of deaths registered is prepared from them, by means of which searches are made when copies of entries are called for.

The labour of transferring information from the schedules to the cards in not nearly so great s might at first be imagined, because the cards are printed in such a way that a mere stroke of the pencil across a small square space is enough for the most part to indicate what is wanted. Recognised abbreviations of words are permitted for the rest, such as “G.S.” for Government scholar, “Dr.” for daughter. The accompanying specimen of the from of printed card used will show that much work is saved. A clerk in practice can mark a large number of cards in a day.

The checking of the cards is certainly a serious matter. It is effected by reading off with the schedules, and, if not insisted on, the census would be unreliable. But when the cards are all filled up ad checked the benefit is at once discovered, and certainty that the advantages far outweigh the delay and cost of making ready the cards. In fact, the work closes up rapidly when these cards are complete.

For further remarks on this particular from of card see paper on “Modes of Census-taking in the British Dominions,” by R. H. Hooker, M.A., Assistant-Secretary to the Royal Statistical Society, and read before that body on the 16th January, 1894. A model of the New Zealand card is there given, with special comments.

To avoid disturbing the cards for each county or borough by picking out those in regard to which exceptional information is wanted, a system of duplicate cards is used; as an instance, a second card is filled up for every Chinaman found in the census. These are kept by themselves, and tables relating to the Chinese are made up from them without interfering with the great mass of ordinary cards.

The processes of preparing the cards and checking them were carried on simultaneously, to secure good work. Card-writing began on the 10th June, 1896, and the whole were finished by the 4th September.

The sorting of the cards is done into cases placed upon the tables at which the clerks sit. These cases are divided into suitable compartments by means of movable pieces of wood, so that the sizes of the pigeon-holes can be varied according to the quantity of cards they are required to contain at different stages of the work. A checker tests the correctness of each sorting and count of the cards before they are removed from the pigeon-holes.

The Hollerith electrical machine, for purposes of dealing with the cards, is not suited for a country like New Zealand, where the population is not very large, and where the combination with the Canadian census of 1891:—

Hollerith Electrical Machine.

In tabulating the returns, the Hollerith electrical tabulating-machine (which should, perhaps, rather be called a totalling-machine), introduced in the United States, was used. For this purpose, a card, similar in principle to that used in New Zealand, is devoted to each person; but, instead of drawing lines, a hole is punched in the center of the compartment. Each card is then successively placed on a horizontal board. This board is pierced with holes corresponding in number to the total number of compartments on the card, and so situated that each hole is under the center of a compartment. Under each of these holes, again, is a tube partly filled with mercury, which communicates by means of a wire from the bottom of the tube with the index of a counter. Above the card is a second horizontal board, on the lower side of which are springs, terminating in blunted needles, these being so arranged as to dip into the tubes wherever there is a hole in the card, and thus complete an electric circuit wherever the needle meets the mercury. The electric current then moves the index of the counter through one division each time the board is lowered. By passing all the cards through the machine, the number of persons corresponding to each particular fact can be counted at once, and this number is then written on the tabulation-sheets. The machine is so arranged also as to particulars can be worked out by merely passing the cards through the machine. Two or three different combinations can be worked out simultaneously, provided that any one particular does not enter more than one of the combinations—e.g., the religion according to education, and the infirmities according to age, could be worked out at the same time. It is, I believe, recognized that the device would not have been of so much value in the United Kingdom and the other colonies, where the number of details required is not so great. Owing to the time occupied in punching the cards as compared with that of ticking the compartments, the economy only beings to be appreciable when the combinations are very numerous.

During the time that the second tabulation of the population was in progress the special industrial returns collected with the census were tabulated, and a complete set of tables relative to manufactories, works, &c., was compiled. Besides these, the returns of places of public worship, land and building societies, libraries, and other literary and scientific institutions, had also to be compiled. The complete census industrial statistics appeared in a Gazette of the 25th January, 1897; but tables relating to individual industries such as sawmilling, meat-freezing, butter- and cheese-making, had been in circulation long before that date. It was found that by publishing a little at a time the attention of the public was better drawn to the census, and interest in it kept alive, than by holding the matter back. After all the office summaries were completed, the tables for the census volume were made up from them. In these there is a good deal of calculating to be done, and many comparisons to make.

When the last of the summaries—those relating to occupations—had been completed from the cards, so that the entire census was represented in cards and sheets, permission from Government was obtained to burn the household schedules, about which there was trouble formerly. The householders give what is required by the Census Act on the condition that the contents of individual schedules shall not be made known to the public, but used by the Registrar-General for statistical purposes only. Therefore, these documents being confidential, it is undesirable to keep them longer than necessary, under any circumstances; but in this particular case the Registrar-General was called upon to give up the office-room used for the census, which was an additional reason for disposing of them. In Victoria the schedules are pulped, in the presence of an officer of the Statistical Department, directly after the compilation is finished.

PART I.—POPULATION AND HOUSES.

Chapter 1.

The population of the Colony of New Zealand, according to the census taken on the 12th April, 1896, numbered 703,360 persons (exclusive of Maoris). The Maori population, including 20 Morioris at the Chatham Islands, was found to be 39,854, making a total of 743,214 persons altogether, of whom 3,711 were Chinese, and 5,762 half-castes.

Of the half-caste population—5,762 persons—2,259 were living amongst and as Europeans, while 3,503 persons were living with Maoris. The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 4,865 persons in 1891, and the increase for five years amounted to 897, or 18.44 per cent. Included in the Maori population are 229 Maori wives of European husbands. In the year 1886 201 Europeans were returned as married to Maori women, and at the census of 1891 the number was 251.

The Chinese population shows a decrease since 1891 form 4,444 to 3,711 or at the rate of 16.49 per cent.

The numbers of the sexed in the population of the colony are shown in the statement below:—

 Total Population (including Chinese and Half-castes).Half-castes (included previously).
Persons.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Population (excluding Maoris)703,360371,415331,9451,1231,136
Maori population39,83421,66218,1721,9441,559
Morioris at Chatham Islands20119......
Total population of the colony743,214393,088350,1263,0672,695

Chinese, 3,711 persons, include in above.

At this point of the report it is convenient to leave any consideration of the Maori population, and deal only with the numbers excluding the Natives. Remarks on the Maori census will be found given by way of an Appendix.

The population (exclusive of Natives) at the census of April, 1891, was found to be 626,658 persons; so that the increase for the five-year period ended April, 1896, was 76,702 persons, or at the rate of 12.24 per cent.

This percentage is greater than the increase for the quinquennium 1886–91—when the colony added only 8.33 per cent. to its European population—but not so great as that for the period 1881–86, which was at the rate of 18.07 per cent.

Of the total increase in 1891–96, 58,673 persons represent the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, and the remainder—18,029—the excess of arrivals over departures.

The increase since 1858 is shown in tabular form: —

Census Years and Months.Population. Persons.Increases.
Numerical.Centesimal.
1858, December59,413  
1861, December99,02139,60839.99
1864, December172,15873,13773.86
1867, December218,66846,51027.01
1871, February256,39337,72517.25
1874, March299,51443 12116.82
1878, March414,412114,89838.36
1881, April489,93375,52118.22
1886, March578,48288,54918.07
1891, April626,65848,1768.33
1896 April703,36076,70212.24

The average annual increase of population, judged by the results of the two last censuses, is at the rate of 2.45 per cent. Between 1886 and 1861 the average rate was 1.66, and between 1881 and 1886 3.61 per cent. per annum.

The census of April, 1886, proved the Registrar-General's estimates of population (made up by calculating annually the natural increase by excess of births over deaths and the increase by excess of arrivals over departures) to be very near to the truth. Thus, the estimate for the 31st March, 1896, was 701,382 persons, which, after making allowance for a period of twelve days more, gives 701,555, or within 1,805 of the population enumerated in the census. This very satisfactory closeness of the estimated population to the actual count of the people has been attained to a great extent by checking the returns of departures received from the Customs authorities with special returns supplied by the pursers of the Union Steamship Company's boats, in which are included all the persons who did not book passages at the final port of departure; also, the estimate is closer than it would have been if very great overcrowding of outgoing steamers had taken place between 1891 and April, 1896. New Zealand being insular, no doubt the estimates made between the different censuses ought to be fairly correct, but it is none the less satisfactory to find them so, as proof is given of a complete Registration of births and deaths, besides of careful inquiry as to the outflow or influx of population to and from abroad.

The increase of population of the North and South Islands has not been by any means uniform during the period 1891–96, or the preceding quinquennium 1886–91. The respective rates of progress are exhibited in the next statement: —

POPULATION OF PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS OF NEW ZEALAND, 1886, 1891, 1896 (EXCLUDING MAORIS).

 1886.1891.Increase.
Number.Percentage.
North Island and adjacent islets250,482281,45530,97312.36
South Island and adjacent islets327,592344,71117,1195.22
Stewart Island209202−7dec.
Chatham Islands19927172...
Kermadec Islands...1919...
Totals for colony578,482626,65848,1768.33
 1891.1896.Increase.
Number.Percentage.
North Island and adjacent islets281,455340,63159,17621.03
South Island and adjacent islets344,711362,23617,5255.08
Stewart Island20225250...
Chatham Islands271234−37dec.
Kermadec Islands197−12dec.
Totals for colony626,658703,36076,70212.24

Here it will be observed that the rate of increase for the two periods of five years each is slightly over 5 per cent. in the South Island, whereas in the North Island not only is the increase 12.36 per cent. for the period 1886–91, but it reaches 21.03 per cent. for 1891–96. The average annual increase during ten years in the South Island has been 1.06 per cent.; and that of the North Island for the last five years 4.21 per cent.

The reasons for the lower rate of progress in the South Island are to be found in the condition of the agricultural and mining industries during the past ten years.

The population may be divided into persons enumerated on the census night as in the counties, in the boroughs, in the small islands belonging to the colony, and on board ship. The numbers are given: —

POPULATION (EXCLUDING MAORIS).

 Persons.Males.Females.
In counties391,735218,385173,350
In boroughs307,294149,415157,879
On adjacent islands709402307
Chatham Islands234132102
Kermadec Islands743
On shipboard3,3813,077304
Total for colony703,360371,415331,945

A comparison of the results for three census periods shows that the borough population increases at a slightly greater proportion to the whole than the county population. This in 1886 the counties had 327,328 persons and the boroughs 245,612, or, for every 100 persons in the colony (excluding the population of the adjacent islands and persons on shipboard) 57.13 belonged to the counties and 42.87 to the boroughs. In 1891 the county population had reached 352,097 persons, but was only 56.57 per cent. of the total, while the boroughs had 270,343 persons, or 43.43 per cent. of the whole county and borough population. In April, 1886, the figures were: —

 Persons.Per Cent.
In counties391,73556.04
In boroughs307,29443.96

Showing again a proportion somewhat in favour of the boroughs, when compared with the previous census.

Chapter 2. POPULATION OF PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

A statement of the population in each of the nine provincial districts and on the Chatham Islands is given, contrasted with the numbers as at the census of 1891: —

Provincial Districts.April, 1891.April, 1896.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Auckland133,15969,89163,268153,56481,20672,358
Taranaki22,06511,75710,30831,17516,90014,275
Hawke's Bay28,50615,74412,76234,03818,39715,641
Wellington97,72552,37545,350121,85464,58657,268
Marlborough12,7677,0695,69812,4836,7045,779
Nelson34,77019,44815,32235,73419,57416,160
Westland15,8879,2556,63214,4698,1066,363
Canterbury128,39266,10562,287135,85869,70866,150
Otago153,09781,07372,024163,94486,09877,846
Chatham Islands271149122234132102
Kermadec Islands19118743
Totals626,658332,877293,781703,360371,415331,945

The numerical and centesimal increases for the provincial districts during the periods 1886–91 and 1891–96 were: —

Provincial Districts.1886–911891–96
Numerical.Percentage.Numerical.Percentage.
AucklandIncrease, 2,7802.13Increase, 20,40515.32
TaranakiIncrease, 4,06622.59Increase, 9,11041.29
Hawke's BayIncrease, 3,93816.03Increase, 5,53219.41
WellingtonIncrease, 20,18926.04Increase, 24,12924.69
MarlboroughIncrease, 1,65414.88Decrease, −284−2.22
NelsonIncrease, 4,56715.12Increase, 9642.77
WestlandDecrease, −44−0.28Decr., −1,418−8.93
CanterburyIncrease, 6,9925.76Increase, 7,4665.82
OtagoIncrease, 3,9432.64Increase, 10,8477.09

Of the total increases in the period 1891–96, amounting to 76,702 persons, or 12.24 per cent. for the colony, more than one-half took place in the Wellington and Auckland Provincial Districts; the numbers by way of increase for those districts being 24, 129, or 24.69 per cent., and 20,405, or 15.32 per cent., respectively. But the largest proportional advance was in Taranaki, being the really phenomenal increase of 41.29 per cent. Hawke's Bay shows and increase of 19.41 per cent. The population of Otago increased 7.09 per cent. only; Canterbury still less, 5.82 per cent.; while in Marlborough there was an actual decrease for the quinquennium of 2.22 per cent., and in Westland the decrease of population was at the rate of 8.93 per cent. The advantage is strikingly in favour of the provincial districts of the North Island, as pointed out previously. The rate of progress in 1891–96 was greater than that in 1886–91 in Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Otago, being nearly the same in Wellington and Canterbury. At Nelson the progress was decidedly less in the latter period, and in Westland there is further decline noticed. Marlborough, which showed an increase for 1886–91, now shows a loss.

Chapter 3. POPULATION OF COUNTIES.

New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In April, 1896, the number of the counties was 81. Of these, the North Island had 47, with a population amounting altogether to 191,374 persons. The South Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,117 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself, and has a population of 244 persons. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration: —

Counties.Census, 1896.Census, 1891.Increase or Decrease.
* Sundry boroughs were cut out from these counties between 1891 and 1896.
Mongonui1,8891,389Inc. 500
Whangaroa969878Inc. 91
Hokianga1,9091,494Inc. 415
Bay of Islands2,7232,562Inc. 161
Hobson3,7503,298Inc. 452
Whangarei6,8476,120Inc. 727
Otamatea2,4832,054Inc. 429
Rodney3,4643,170Inc. 294
Waitemata6,7626,184Inc. 578
Eden15,94013,782Inc. 2,158
Manukau12,18511,925Inc. 260
Coromandel4,9872,846Inc. 2,141
Thames4,5154,340Inc. 175
Ohinemuri4,7611,516Inc. 3,245
Piako2,7062,517Inc. 189
Waikato2,8142,738Inc. 76
Waipa3,5843,395Inc. 189
Raglan1,5451,090Inc. 455
Kawhia598308Inc. 290
West Taupo156119Inc. 37
East Taupo232152Inc. 80
Rotorua840418Inc. 422
Tauranga1,6221,393Inc. 229
Whakatane1,9881,524Inc. 464
Waiapu447379Inc.68
Cook5,2873,945Inc. 1,342
Clifton1,450908Inc. 542
Taranaki9,9707,905Inc. 2,065
Stratford5,1412,521Inc. 2,620
Hawera6,9344,347Inc. 2,587
Patea3,0842,608Inc. 476
Waitotara2,7372,255Inc. 482
Wanganui3,0952,281Inc. 814
Rangitikei6,0304,438Inc. 1,592
Kiwitea2,428  
Oroua6,4507,418Inc. 2,811
Pohangina1,351  
Manawatu2,7092,725Dee. 16
Horowhenua3,7922,289Inc. 1,503
Hawke's Bay6,8946,028Inc. 866
Wairoa1,4901,246Inc. 244
Waipawa8,866...*...
Patangata2,3742,044Inc. 330
Pahiatua3,208...*...
Wairarapa North7,2095,143Inc. 2,066
Wairarapa South5,4094,980Inc. 429
Hutt5,750...*...
Sounds747720Inc. 27
Marlborough6,3306,520Dec. 190
Kaikoura1,5751,460Inc. 115
Collingwood2,5092,103Inc. 406
Waimea8,591...*...
Buller4,8334,659Inc. 174
Inangahua4,2544,648Dec. 394
Grey4,5924,330Inc. 262
Westland4,7235,031Dec. 308
Amuri916967Dec. 51
Cheviot1,042164Inc. 878
Ashley11,91312,396Dec. 483
Selwyn30,090...*...
Akaroa3,8863,771Inc. 115
Ashburton10,8209,501Inc. 1,319
Geraldine7,49914,588Inc. 634
Levels7,723,  
Mackenzie1,5141,180Inc. 334
Waimate4,7774,043Inc. 734
Waitaki8,8768,375Inc. 501
Waihemo2,1482,040Inc. 108
Waikouaiti4,3894,334Inc. 55
Peninsula2,6452,701Dec. 56
Taieri6,9507,079Dec. 129
Bruce4,8284,696Inc. 132
Tuapeka6,4776,327Inc. 150
Clutha6,5645,574Inc. 990
Maniototo3,7422,927Inc. 815
Vincent4,0903,718Inc. 372
Lake2,6632,919Dec. 256
Southland21,603...*...
Wallace6,6575,306Inc. 1,351
Fiord15171Inc. 80
Stewart Island244202Inc. 42

As before stated, the total county population amounted to 391,735, or 55.69 per cent. of the total for the colony.† In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called townsfolk. The population in boroughs, which is given in detail further on, was 307,294 persons, or 43.69 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1896 there were 78 residing in boroughs. In 1891 the counties had 352,097 persons, and the boroughs 270,343, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties 76 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1896 than in 1891.

† For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see census volume, p. 32, Part I.

Chapter 4. POPULATION OF BOROUGHS.

There were 95 municipal boroughs in existence when the census of 1896 was taken. This was an increase of 8 on the number in 1891. Some of the new boroughs were town districts in 1891. In the following tables no populations are given for 1891 in respect of boroughs incorporated after that date, as a true comparison cannot well be made.

Boroughs.Census, 1896.Census, 1891.Increase or Decrease.
*Borough constituted since 1891.
Birkenhead690455Inc. 235
Devonport3,0102,455Inc. 555
Auckland31,42428,613Inc. 2,811
Newton2,3792,087Inc. 292
Newmarket1,9291,586Inc. 343
Parnell4,1963,967Inc. 229
Onehunga2,9132,924Dec. 11
Thames4,2614,618Dec. 357
Hamilton1,2481,212Inc. 36
Cambridge.865850Inc. 15
Tauranga1,0181,055Dec. 37
Gisborne2,3342,158Inc. 176
New Plymouth3,8253,350Inc. 475
Hawera1,7701,284Inc. 486
Patea739676Inc. 63
Wanganui5,9365,011Inc. 925
Marton1,151976Inc. 175
Feilding2,0451,583Inc. 462
Palmerston North5,9104,303Inc. 1,607
Foxton1,1021,223Dec. 121
Hastings3,1902,303Inc. 887
Napier9,2318,341Inc. 890
Dannevirke1,415...*...
Woodville1,060971Inc. 89
Pahiatua1,158...*...
Masterton3,4933,114Inc. 379
Carterton1,2911,112Inc. 179
Greytown1,1291,141Dec. 12
Lower Hutt1,5201,329Inc. 191
Petone2,6852,178Inc. 507
Onslow1,249979Inc. 270
Wellington37,44131,021Inc. 6,420
Karori1,024...*...
Melrose2,0441,224Inc. 820
Picton870788Inc. 82
Blenheim3,0183,294Dec. 276
Nelson6,6596,626Inc. 33
Richmond562...*...
Westport2,4242,622Dee. 198
Greymouth3,0993,787Dec. 688
Brunner1,6322,231Dec. 599
Kumara1,1491,176Dec. 27
Hokitika2,0592,178Dec. 119
Ross727822Dec. 95
Rangiora1,8691,783Inc. 86
Kaiapoi1,8281,371Inc. 457
Christchurch16,96416,223Inc. 741
Linwood6,115...*...
St. Albans5,7815,247Inc. 534
Sydenham10,3129,680Inc. 632
Woolston2,057...*...
Sumner588...*...
Lyttelton3,8984,087Dec. 189
Akaroa613571Inc. 42
Ashburton2,0821,900Inc. 182
Timaru3,6133,668Dec. 55
Waimate1,2861,379Dec. 93
Oamaru5,2255,621Dec. 396
Hampden353300Inc. 53
Palmerston South.775790Dec. 15
Hawkesbury760743Inc. 17
Port Chalmers1,9012,028Dec. 127
North-east Valley3,3743,337Inc. 37
Maori Hill1,4831,426Inc. 57
West Harbour1,3661,297Inc. 69
Dunedin22,81522,376Inc. 439
Roslyn4,1183,845Inc. 273
Mornington3,5843,523Inc. 61
Caversham4,7634,690Inc. 73
St. Kilda1,1851,153Inc. 32
South Dunedin4,5924,222Inc. 370
Green Island663687Dec. 24
Mosgiel1,3821,304Inc. 78
Milton1,1391,158Dec. 19
Kaitangata1,3621,145Inc. 217
Lawrence9961,026Dec. 30
Roxburgh433410Inc. 23
Tapanui408428Dec. 20
Balclutha925867Inc. 58
Naseby447496Dec. 49
Cromwell539474Inc. 65
Alexandra454310Inc. 144
Arrowtown409426Dec. 17
Queenstown781779Inc. 2
Gore2,0321,618Inc. 414
Mataura.789...*...
Winton397288Inc. 109
Invercargill5,6324,950Inc. 682
North Invercargill877717Inc. 160
South Invercargill1,8861,559Inc. 327
East Invercargill935736Inc. 199
Avenal327302Inc. 25
Gladstone339287Inc. 52
Campbelltown1,075650Inc. 425
Riverton893843Inc. 50

The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several areas which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal boroughs:—

SUBURBS OF AUCKLAND.

Boroughs—Population, 1896.
Birkenhead690
Devonport3,010
Newmarket1,929
Newton2,379
Parnell4,196
Road Districts— 
Arch-hill1,557
Eden Terrace1,604
Epsom660
Mount Albert1,668
Mount Eden3,677
Mount Roskill495
One-tree Hill975
Point Chevalier591
Remuera2,034
Northcote Riding530
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding, being land in the Domain with hospital on it197
Total suburbs26,192
Auckland City31,424
Total Auckland and suburbs57,616

SUBURBS OF WELLINGTON.

Boroughs— 
Onslow1,249
Melrose2,044
Karori1,024
Total suburbs4,317
Wellington City37,441
Total Wellington and suburbs41,758

SUBURBS OF CHRISTCHURCH.

Boroughs—Population, 1896.
St. Albans5,781
Sydenham10,312
Lin wood6,115
Woolston2,057
Road Districts— 
Avon (part)2,962
Heathcote (part)1,980
Riccarton (part)3,657
Spreydon1,278
Halswell (part)224
Total suburbs34,366
Christchurch City16,964
Total Christchurch and suburbs51,330

In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.

SUBURBS OF DUNEDIN.

Boroughs— 
Caversham4,763
Maori Hill1,483
Mornington3,584
North-East Valley3,374
Roslyn4,118
St. Kilda1,185
South Dunedin4,592
West Harbour1,366
Total suburbs24,465
Dunedin City22,815
Total Dunedin and suburbs47,280

The increase of population for five years at the four chief centers, with their suburbs, was:—

 Census, 1891.Census, 1896.Numerical Increase.Increase per Cent.
Auckland and suburbs51,28757,6166,32912.3
Wellington and suburbs34,19041,7587,56822.1
Christchurch and suburbs47,84651,3303,4847.3
Dunedin and suburbs45,86947,2801,4113.1

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed at a greater rate than those of the South Island, and Wellington in particular is shown to have developed at seven times the rate of Dunedin and three times as fast as Christchurch during the quinquennium.

Chapter 5. POPULATION OF TOWN DISTRICTS.

Besides the boroughs, there are 39 town districts (not including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881”), which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. Two only of these, Stratford and Hampstead, have more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined:—

Town Districts.Population.
Kamo222
Whangarei744
Helensville564
Papakura274
Te Aroha672
Te Awamutu347
Kihikihi202
Ngaruawahia235
Rotorua499
Opotiki641
Waitara (Raleigh)517
Opunake400
Inglewood658
Stratford1,256
Normanby396
Manaia471
Waverley442
Lethbridge251
Bull's521
Halcombe.376
Clyde (Wairoa)579
Taradale807
Ormondville453
Waipawa764
Kaikora North301
Featherston711
Johnsonville493
Havelock365
Amberley437
Southbridge494
Hampstead1,214
Tinwald538
Geraldine841
Temuka660
Arowhenua789
Allanton (formerly Grey)274
Outram452
Clinton474
Wyndham.483
Otautau367

Besides the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed throughout the colony no less than 561 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centers without boundaries. It is impossible to say that the populations of these small centers are all strictly accurate, or given in such a way as to be fit for comparison one with another. In different cases more or less or surrounding country may have been considered as belonging to the centre, but there is at least at each place mentioned some sort of nucleus of population, if not a well-defined village or township. In making the statement the best has been done with a difficult matter, and the information is given as useful—in some cases, like that of Reefton, important—even if open to objection here and there:—

Abbotsford, Taieri County197
Adair, Levels County127
Adams's Flat (and vicinity), Bruce County72
Adamson's, Southland County80
Addington, Selwyn County480
Addison's Flat, Buller County277
Ahaura, Grey County.252
Albert Town, Vincent County52
Albury, Mackenzie County96
Alford Forest, Ashburton County426
Alfredton, Wairarapa North County88
Allandale, Waihemo County93
Allenton, Ashburton County763
Alma, Waitaki County158
Alton, Patea County72
Anderson's Bay, Peninsula County489
Annat, Selwyn County72
Antonio's Flat, Inangahua County59
Aongatete, Tauranga County33
Apiti, Pohangina County110
Aratapu, Hobson County508
Arden, Taieri County85
Arthurtown, Westland County.51
Arundel, Geraldine County78
Ashley, Ashley County70
Ashurst, Oroua County361
Athol, Southland County85
Avondale, Eden County872
Awanui, Waiapu County43
Bainfield, Southland County114
Bainham, Collingwood County106
Bald Hill Flat, Vincent County242
Ballance, Pahiatua County93
Bannockburn, Vincent County410
Barkly, Southland County146
Bay View, Southland County38
Beaconsfield, Levels County141
Beck's, Maniototo County76
Belfast, Selwyn County600
Belgrove, Waimea County332
Bendigo, Vincent County56
Bennett's, Ashley County150
Berwick, Taieri County77
Birmingham, Kiwitea County155
Blackball, Grey County176
Black's Point, Inangahua County283
Blackwater, Inangahua County163
Blue Spur, Westland County53
Bluestone, Tuapeka County188
Brighton, Taieri County57
Brightwater, Waimea County409
Broad Bay, Peninsula County.301
Brockville, Taieri County44
Buffalo, Coromandel County146
Bunnythorpe (and vicinity), Oroua County309
Burke's, Mackenzie County90
Burnside, Taieri County159
Cabbage Bay, Coromandel County133
Calcium, Wallace County31
Callaghan's, Westland County47
Cambrian's, Maniototo County134
Cambridge West, Waipa County255
Canvastown, Marlborough County54
Cape Foul wind, Buller County223.
Capleston, Inangahua County170
Cardrona, Lake County176
Castlecliffe, Waitotara County.269
Castlepoint, Wairarapa North County31
Caversham, Levels County37
Centre Bush, Southland County66
Charleston, Buller County151
Charlton, Southland County32
Cheltenham, Kiwitea County43
Chertsey, Ashburton County93
Clareville, Wairarapa South County46
Clifton, Collingwood County58
Clyde, Vincent County310
Coalbrookdale, Buller County165
Coal Creek, Tuapeka County305
Coalgate, Selwyn County116
Cobden, Grey County.274
Courtenay, Selwyn County67
Crofton, Rangitikei County113
Cromarty (and vicinity), Fiord County39
Crushington, Inangahua County108
Cullensville, Marlborough County136
Culverden, Amuri County40
Cust, Ashley County.117
Dalefield Wairarapa South County194
Danieltown, Wallace County34
Darfield and Horndon, Selwyn County262
Dargaville, Hobson County358
Deborah, Waitaki County60
Deborah Bay, Waikouaiti County131
Denlair, Wanganui County52
Denniston, Buller County181
Dillman's, Westland County467
Dipton, Southland County86
Doyleston, Selwyn County241
Dromore, Ashburton County54
Drummond, Wallace County213
Dunback, Waihemo County134
Dunganville, Grey County125
Dunkeld, Tuapeka County80
Dunsandel, Selwyn County153
Duntroon, Waitaki County195
Durie Town, Wanganui County.172
Duvauchelle's Bay, Akaroa County89
East Clive, Hawke's Bay County239
East Dipton, Southland County162
Eastown, Wanganui County228
East Winton, Southland County137
Edendale, Southland County184
Eketahuna, Wairarapa North County476
Eltham, Hawera County306
Enfield, Waitaki County254
Epworth, Geraldine County62
Ettrick, Tuapeka County69
Evansdale, Waikouaiti County45
Eweburn, Maniototo County166
Fairdown, Buller County44
Fairfax (and vicinity), Bruce County171
Fairfield, Taieri County80
Fairlie, Mackenzie County369
Fendalton, Selwyn County367
Fernhills, Southland County67
Fernside, Ashley County390
Ferntown, Collingwood County...81
Flag Swamp, Waikouaiti County88
Flaxton, Ashley County138
Fordell, Wanganui County151
Fortrose, Southland County140
Frankton, Lake County156
Frasertown, Wairoa County176
Galatea, Whakatane County82
Garfield, Wallace County41
Georgetown, Geraldine County34
Georgetown, Waitaki County119
German Bay, Akaroa County212
Gibbston, Lake County155
Gibbstown, Collingwood County181
Gimmerburn, Maniototo County178
Glenavy, Waimate County55
Gleniti (and vicinity), Levels County111
Glenore (and vicinity), Bruce County91
Glentunnel, Selwyn County189
Goldsborough, Westland County179
Gordon Special Settlement, Piako County70
Governor's Bay, Akaroa County163
Granity Creek, Buller County193
Grassmere, Southland County104
Greatford, Rangitikei County90
Greendale, Selwyn County370
Green Island Bush, Taieri County237
Greenpark, Selwyn County349
Greenstone, Grey County100
Greerton, Tauranga County54
Grovetown, Marlborough County316
Gumtown, Coromandel County51
Hakaru, Otamatea County34
Hakataramea, Waimate County90
Hamilton, Maniototo County50
Hampden, Waipawa County188
Hamua, Wairarapa North County103
Hardie's, Taieri County82
Harwood, Southland County58
Hastings, Thames County101
Hastwell, Wairarapa North County169
Hatter's, or Nelson Creek, Grey County..128
Havelock, Hawke's Bay County407
Hawarden, Ashley County32
Hawksbury, Waikouaiti County132
Heddon Bush, Wallace County119
Henderson, Waitemata County60
Henley, Taieri County303
Herbert, Waitaki County401
Herbertville, Patangata County.113
Heriot (and outlying), Tuapeka County.163
Highcliffe, Peninsula County278
Hikurangi, Whangarei County.354
Hikutaia, Thames County179
Hillgrove, Waitaki County93
Hilton, Geraldine County47
Hindon, Taieri County117
Hirstfield, Wallace County169
Hobsonville, Waitemata County195
Hodgkinson, Wallace County60
Hororata, Selwyn County242
Howick, Manukau County220
Huirangi, Taranaki County50
Hunterville, Rangitikei County755
Huntly, Waikato County512
Hurunui, Ashley County53
Hyde, Maniototo County222
Ida Valley, Vincent County262
Inangahua Junction, Inangahua County31
Inglewood, Southland County.73
Islington, Selwyn County207
Jackeytown, Oroua County72
Kaeo, Whangaroa County181
Kai Iwi, Waitotara County64
Kaikohe, Bay of Islands County134
Kaikoura, Kaikoura County394
Kaitaia, Mongonui County114
Kakanui (North), Waitaki County163
Kakanui (South), Waitaki County204
Kakaramea, Patea County110
Kanieri, Westland County175
Kapanga, Corormandel County.500
Karangahake, Ohinemuri County609
Kaukapakapa, Waitemata County313
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands County321
Kawarau Gorge. Vincent County44
Kawhia, Kawhia County37
Kennedy Bay, Coromandel County72
Kennington, Southland County.50
Kensington, Levels County167
Kereru (and vicinity), Horowhenua County135
Killinchy, Selwyn County54
Kimberley, Selwyn County162
Kingston, Lake County47
Kirwee, Selwyn County74
Kokonga, Maniototo County111
Kohukohu, Hokianga County262
Kopu, Thames County136
Kuaotunu, Coromandel County424
Kuaotunu Upper, Coromandel County299
Kumeroa, Waipawa County104
Kuri Bush, Taieri County46
Kuriwao, Clutha County122
Kurow, Waitaki County271
Kyeburn Diggings, Maniototo County97
Kyeburn, Lower, Maniototo County113
Kyeburn, Upper, Maniototo County72
Lake Hayes, Lake County104
Lamlash, Peninsula County31
Lauder, Maniototo County51
Le Bon's Bay, Akaroa County.271
Leedstown, Rangitikei County36
Leeston, Selwyn County573
Lichfield, Ashley County345
Levin, Horowhenua County581
Lichfield, Piako County49
Lime Hills, Southland County.126
Lincoln, Selwyn County569
Lintley, Southland County47
Linton, Oroua County51
Little Akaloa, Akaroa County.259
Little River, Akaroa County137
Livingstone, Waitaki County110
London, Taieri County100
Long Bush, Southland County84
Longridge, Southland County105
Lowburn, Vincent County132
Lower Hawea, Vincent County.225
Lower Woodstock, Westland County57
Lowther, Southland County28
Luggate, Vincent County76
Lumsden, Southland County223
Lumsden Extension, Southland County154
Lyell, Puller County159
Macandrew, Southland County.72
Macetown, Lake County161
Mackaytown, Ohinemuri County32
Mackenzie, Cheviot County53
Macrae's (and vicinity), Waihemo County103
Maheno, Waitaki County206
Mairtown, Whangarei County177
Makakahi, Pahiatua County61
Makarewa, Southland County250
Maketu, Tauranga County72
Makikihi, Waimate County57
Makuri, Pahiatua County93
Makutoku, Waipawa County175
Mangamahoe. Wairarapa North County35
Mangaonoho, Rangitikei County166
Mangatainoko, Pahiatua County106
Mangawai, Otamatea County272
Mangaweka, Rangitikei County349
Mangawhare, Hobson County471
Manakau, Horowhenua County149
Mandeville, Southland County108
Mansfordtown, Waikouaiti County380
Manutahi, Patea County69
Manutahi, Taranaki County175
Maori Gully, Grey County58
Marlboroughtown, Marlborough County148
Marsden, Grey County44
Marshalltown, Kiwitea County63
Matakohe, Otamatea County93
Matamau, Waipawa County137
Matata, Whakatane County70
Martinborough, Wairarapa South County.75
Maungatua, Taieri County63
Mauriceville East, Wairarapa North County77
Mayfield. Waitemata County76
Maxwelltown, Waitotara County153
Meanee, Hawke's Bay County145
Menzies' Ferry, Southland County125
Mercer (and vicinity), Manukau County210
Mercury Bay, Coromandel County472
Merryjigs, Inangahua County81
Merton, Waikouaiti County753
Methven, Ashburton County295
Middlemarch, Taieri County130
Midhirst, Stratford County248
Milford, Geraldine County247
Mohaka, Wairoa County36
Mokau, Kawhia County108
Mokihinui, Buller County45
Mongonui, Mongonui County226
Morley, Wallace County53
Morrinsville, Piako County151
Morton, Levels County235
Motueka, Waimea County877
Mount Somers, Ashburton County206
Mount Pisa, Vincent County49
Murchison, Inangahua County75
Nenthorn, Waikouaiti County59
New Brighton, Selwyn County.929
Newman, Wairarapa North County227
Newport, Hobson County97
Ngahauranga, Hutt County212
Ngahere, Grey County137
Ngapara, Waitaki County233
Nightcaps, Wallace County167
Norman by, Levels County36
Norsewood (and vicinity), WaipawaCounty898
North Heads, Waikouaiti County78
North Taieri, Taieri County183
No Town, Grey County80
Nukumaru, Waitotara County.93
Oakura, Taranaki County46
Oaklands, Peninsula County52
Oban, Stewart Island County41
Ohaeawai, Bay of Islands County92
Okaiawa, Hawera County107
Okaihau and Omapere, Bay of Islands county286
Okain's Bay, Akaroa County222
Ohakune, Wanganui County40
Okarito, Westland County62
Okato, Taranaki County64
Ohau (and vicinity), Horowhenua County256
Ohinemutu, Rotorua County131
Ohingaiti, Rangitikei County410
Ohoka, Ashley County654
Ongaonga, Waipawa County92
Ophir, Vincent County266
Opua, Bay of Islands County.57
Oraka, Wallace County111
Orari, Geraldine County135
Oropi, Tauranga County37
Orwell Creek, Grey County105
Otago Heads, Peninsula County179
Otahuhu, Manukau County942
Otaki (and vicinity), Horowhenua County836
Otakia, Taieri County42
Otara, Southland County200
Otekaike, Waitaki County53
Otiake, Waitaki County176
Owaka, Clutha County611
Owharoa, Ohinemuri County163
Owhiro, Taieri County38
Oxford East, Ashley County153
Oxford West, Ashley County241
Paeroa, Ohinemuri County779
Pahia, Wallace County84
Paikakariki, Hutt County146
Pakawau, Collingwood County71
Panmure, Eden County323
Papanui, Selwyn County479
Paraparaumu, Hutt County192
Parkville, Wairarapa North County233
Patangata, Patangata County103
Patutahi (and vicinity), Cook County263
Peel, Geraldine County53
Pembroke, Lake County176
Pigeon Bay, Akaroa County352
Pihama, Hawera County37
Piko, Levels County160
Pine Hill, Waikouaiti County88
Pipiriki, Wanganui County44
Pirongia East, Waipa County89
Pleasant Valley, Waikouaiti County34
Plimmerton, Hutt County49
Pohangina, Pohangina County163
Point, Levels County.90
Porirua, Hutt County.74
Porangahau, Patangata County.171
Port Albert, Rodney County56
Port Moeraki, Waitaki County.150
Portobello Town, Peninsula County37
Pourakino, Wallace County33
Prebbleton, Selwyn County330
Prestonville, Southland County.107
Pukerau, Southland County126
Purakanui, Waikouaiti County47
Puriri, Thames County143
Raetihi, Wanganui County83
Rakaia, Ashburton County458
Rangiriri, Waikato County47
Rangiwhia (Pemberton), Kiwitea County63
Rangotea, Manawatu County136
Ranzau, Waimea County60
Rata Settlement, Rangitikei County195
Rawene, Hokianga County120
Redcliffe, Waimate County227
Reefton, Inangahua County1,591
Reidston, Waitaki County184
Renwicktown, Marlborough County324
Reynolds, Waikouaiti County.38
Riccarton, Taieri County99
Riccarton, Lower, Selwyn County422
Riccarton, Upper, Selwyn County502
Richmond, Selwyn County288
Richmond Grove, Southland County96
Rikiorangi, Hutt County96
Rimu, Westland County174
Riversdale, Southland County.265
Riwaka, Waimea County575
Rockville, Collingwood County.102
Rolleston, Selwyn County136
Rotherham, Amuri County132
Rotorua, Rotorua County499
Round Hill Diggings, Wallace County225
Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands County92
Russell, Bay of Islands County257
Sandymount, Peninsula County299
Sanson, Manawatu County255
Sarau, Waimea County58
Sawyer's Bay, Waikouaiti County382
Scarborough, Pahiatua County76
Sefton, Ashley County270
Selwyn, Selwyn County55
Shaftesbury, Piako County44
Shannon, Horowhenua County.262
Sheffield, Selwyn County176
Shiel Hill, Peninsula County47
Shortland, Thames County1,191
Silverstream, Mackenzie County118
Skippers, Lake County63
Southbrook, Ashley County352
South Malvern, Selwyn County.92
Spreydon, Selwyn County354
Springfield, Selwyn County211
Spring Grove, Waimea County.361
Springston, Selwyn County584
Stafford, Westland County140
St. Andrews, Waimate County201
St. Bathans, Maniototo County.254
Stirling (and vicinity), Bruce County211
Stoke, Waimea County547
Studholme Junction, Waimate County93
Swannanoa, Ashley County161
Swanson, Waitemata County88
Switzers, Southland County98
Taiaroa Heads, Peninsula County40
Tairua, Thames County141
Taitapu, Selwyn County376
Takapau, Waipawa County159
Tauherenikau, Wairarapa South County71
Taupaki, Waitemata County276
Taupo, East Taupo County72
Taupiri, Waikato County47
Taylorville, Wanganui County51
Te Aroha West, Piako County131
Te Aute, Waipawa County93
Teddington, Akaroa County103
Te Karaka, Cook County67
Te Kopuru, Hobson County184
Templeton, Selwyn County310
Te Puke, Tauranga County169
Thornbury, Wallace County125
Thorpe, Waimea County67
Tikokino, Waipawa County39
Tiniroto, Cook County.57
Tinker's, Vincent County242
Tinui, Wairarapa North County.221
Tokaanu, East Taupo County.59
Toko, Stratford County134
Tokomaru, Horowhenua County88
Totara, Whangaroa County263
Tuakau, Manukau County377
Tutaekara, Pahiatua County74
Turua, Thames County247
Upper Hutt, Hutt County339
Upper Woodstock, Westland County167
Urenui, Clifton County91
Vauxhall, Peninsula County89
Waddington, Selwyn County121
Wade, Waitemata County208
Waianiwa, Southland County.49
Waiau, Amuri County183
Waihi, Ohinemuri County1,102
Waihola, Bruce County142
Waihou, Piako County85
Waikaia, Southland County256
Waikaka, Southland County41
Waikanae, Horowhenua County84
Waikare, Ashley County258
Waikiwi, Southland County45
Waikoikoi, Clutha County215
Waimangaroa, Buller County.399
Waimate, Bay of Islands County106
Waimatuku, Wallace County.225
Waimea West, Waimea County293
Wainuiomata, Hutt County45
Waiomio, Bay of Islands County76
Waiorongomai, Piako County201
Waipahi, Clutha County109
Waipara, Ashley County48
Waipiro, Waiapu County73
Waipori, Tuapeka County157
Waipu Central, Whangarei County183
Waipukurau, Waipawa County549
Wairio, Wallace County81
Waitahuna, Tuapeka County289
Waitati (and vicinity), Waikouaiti County339
Waitekauri, Ohinemuri County.463
Waitotara, Patea County207
Waituna, Kiwitea County37
Waiwera, Clutha County70
Wakefield, Waimea County694
Wallacetown, Southland County159
Wallingford, Patangata County65
Walton, Taieri County32
Wanstead, Patangata County80
Warepa, Clutha County257
Washdyke, Levels County494
Waterford, Tauranga County116
Waterton (and vicinity), Ashburton County235
Watlington, Levels County39
Wayne's, Waihemo County38
Weber, Patangata County108
Weedon's, Selwyn County43
Wereroa, Horowhenua County.87
West Clive, Hawke's Bay County428
Weston, Waitaki County138
Weston Park, Waitaki County.49
Whakakiti, Wairarapa North County71
Whakatane, Whakatane County119
Whangapoua, Coromandel County77
Whangaroa, Whangaroa County152
Whare Flat Road, Taieri County64
Whenuakiti, Coromandel County90
Whitecliffs, Selwyn County34
Whitmore, Oroua County75
Whitstone, Waitaki County84
Wickliffe Bay, Peninsula County41
Wimbledon, Patangata County.79
Winchester, Geraldine County212
Windsor, Waitaki County99
Wingatui, Taieri County174
Woodbury, Geraldine County.318
Woodend, Ashley County498
Woodend, Southland County96
Woodfield, Southland County46
Woodlands, Taieri County35
Woodlands, Southland County218
Woodside, Taieri County163
Wrey's Bush, Wallace County123

Chapter 6. POPULATION OF ADJACENT ISLANDS.

The names and populations of the islands not included in counties are:—

Islands.Total.MF.
Rangitoto33...
Great Barrier307193114
Week's Island.211
Waiheke1667690
Kawau1073
Motiti981
Tiritiri624
Ponui Light11...
Ponui Island281315
Cuvier642
Moturoa211
Mercury725
Mokohinau532
Motuhora844
Bean Rock Light11...
Motuhihi1165
Pahiki.1073
Rakino431
Motutapu1183
Brown's11...
Rotoroa (Ruth's)1569
Slipper33...
Portland251015
Kapiti11...
Somes's936
Stephens1679
The Brothers33...
Quarantine211
Dog1358
Ruapuke99...
Centre15105
Chatham234132102
Kermadec743
 950538412

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had a population of 950 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 913 in 1891. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1891 form 262 to 307; Waiheke shows a decrease from 215 to 166 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 258 to 234.

Chapter 7. POPULATION ON SHIPBOARD.

The numbers of persons on shipboard at the various ports of the colony were as under. Of 3,381 persons altogether, 953 were on shipboard at the Port of Auckland, 529 at Port Lyttelton, 525 at Wellington, while at Port Chalmers there were 183, besides 270 at the Upper Harbour (Dunedin). The total number of 3,381 does not include 171 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war.

 Persons.MF.
Mongonui1515...
Whangaroa21192
Bay of Islands (Russell)22...
Hobson (Kaipara)37334
Whangarei23221
Rodney (Port Albert)1111...
Waitemata (Helensville)66...
Devonport88...
Auckland953829124
Onehunga30255
Coromandel55487
Thames (Port)64631
Thames (River)11...
Waipa33...
Tauranga77...
Gisborne33312
New Plymouth33...
Wanganui41401
Foxton1313...
Napier80755
Wellington52545471
Sounds1010...
Marlborough (Havelock)66...
Picton.1818...
Collingwood3232...
Nelson.745618
Buller (River)22...
Westport9595...
Greymouth1061051
Westland (Hokitika River)88...
Hokitika55...
Kaiapoi...66...
Lyttelton52950821
Timaru22202
Port Chalmers1831803
Dunedin27023535
Vincent33...
Lake11...
Campbelltown72711
Stewart Island.88...
Totals3,3813,077304

Chapter 8. POPULATION OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS.

The exact population of the colony having been fixed by means of the census, the Commissioners appointed under the provisions of “The Representation Act Amendment Act, 1896,” for the North and Middle Islands, proceed to define the new electoral distracts as described in the preliminary portion of this Report, having first fixed the quota at 11,848 persons. The new districts were finally proclaimed on the 24th September, after objections heard and decided on.

The names of these districts, with their actual and nominal population, are given here; and a second table is added to show the approximate population over 21 years of age, in sexes, for each district, with particulars as to the Chinese. It was found that the large increase of population since 1891 in the North Island, as compared with that in the Middle or South Island, had entitled the former to three additional rural districts, with, of course, one member for each, and deprived the Middle Island of the same. The position at the two censuses was as under:—

 North Island and Adjacent Islands.Middle or South Island and Stewart Island.
Number of Electoral Districts.Number of Members.Actual Population.Number of Electoral Districts.Number of Members.Actual Population.
Census, 18912731281,4463539344,913
Census, 18963034340,6313236362,488

Quota, 11,848.

Name of Electoral District.Number of Members.Actual Population, April, 1896.Actual Total.Nominal Population.
Town.Rural.
North Island     
Bay of Islands1..9,8419,84112,596
Marsden19,6619,66112,366
Waitemata19,4049,40412,037
City of Auckland334,75678335,53935,758
Parnell14,1966,54510,74112,573
Eden13,0187,45110,46912,555
Manukau12,9437,50110,44412,544
Franklin110,00510,00512,806
Thames14,3255,75410,07911,690
Ohinemuri19,4679,46712,117
Waikato19,8949,89412,664
Bay of Plenty19,4059,40512,038
Waiapu12,3677,0449,41111,383
Napier19,3111,96411,27511,824
Hawke's Bay13,1906,3929,58211,371
Waipawa18,6238,62311,037
Pahiatua18,5178,51710,901
Masterton13,4936,0119,50411,187
Wairarapa18,5498,54910,942
Taranaki13,8256,76110,58612,479
Egmont19,3919,39112,020
Hawera18,5868,58610,990
Wanganui15,9774,29010,26711,468
Patea18,5378,53710,927
Rangitikei12,0457,3949,43911,509
Palmerston15,9104,28810,19811,398
Manawatu18,6048,60411,013
Otaki18,5308,53010,918
Suburbs of Wellington17,1793,38810,56711,515
City of Wellington335,51635,516
Totals34  340,631 

Quota, 11,848.

Name of Electoral District.Number of Members.Actual Population, April, 1896.Actual Total.Nominal Population.
Town.Rural.
Middle Island     
   Nelson16,7333,99410,72711,845
   Motueka19,2129,21211,791
   Buller12,5197,0879,60611,590
   Grey13,2056,6759,88011,749
   Westland12,0647,2739,33711,373
   Wairau13,0187,37310,39112,456
   Ashley19,3649,36411,986
   Kaiapoi19,7859,78512,525
   Avon13,9045,7879,69111,311
   Riccarton18,9748,97411,487
   City of Christchurch335,26826035,52835,601
   Lyttelton16,4844,15510,63911,802
   Ellesrnere19,4469,44612,091
   Selwyn19,2709,27011,866
   Ashburton12,0828,10510,18712,456
   Geraldine19,0039,00311,524
   Timaru13,6356,52110,15611,982
   Waitaki19,5279,52712,194
   Oamaru15,2254,92310,14811,526
   Waihemo19,7469,74612,475
   Waikouaiti19,4439,44312,087
   City of Dunedin333,5551,44535,00035,405
   Caversham19,3551,99611,35111,910
   Taieri16068,8749,48011,966
   Bruce18,7548,75411,205
   Clutha19,8149,81412,562
   Tuapeka19,2909,29011,891
   Wakatipu19,4349,43412,075
   Mataura12,0327,7359,76711,933
   Awarua19,5119,51112,174
   Invercargill15,6325,12510,75712,192
   Wallace19,2709,27011,866
Totals36  362,488 
Electoral District.Number of Members.Population (both sexes), April, 1896.Chinese (included in previous column).Approximate Number Over 21 Years.
M.F.Total.
North Island      
   Bay of Islands19,84123,2881,5884,876
   Marsden19,66132,8932,0594,952
   Waitemata19,40442,8591,7864,645
   City of Auckland335,539548,9239,64018,563
   Parnell110,741272,2762,9975,273
   Eden110,469272,6732,6225,295
   Manukau110,444522,6262,7765,402
   Franklin110,0052,5172,3754,892
   Thames110,07963,3491,9685,317
   Ohinemuri19,467114,2421,5105,752
   Waikato19,89452,6272,3464,973
   Bay of Plenty19,40523,1731,8004,973
   Waiapu19,411102,9571,9154,872
   Napier111,27542,9922,7755,767
   Hawke's Bay19,582202,7201,9244,644
   Waipawa13,62382,5141,6374,151
   Pahiatua18,517182,3731,6213,994
   Masterton19,504202,8971,8194,716
   Wairarapa18,549142,5821,6944,276
   Taranaki110,586112,6932,3135,006
   Egmont19,39142,8111,7314,542
   Hawera18,586142,4111,8034,214
   Wanganui110,267482,9182,3905,308
   Patea18,53762,5851,7034,288
   Rangitikei19,439142,8501,8624,712
   Palmerston110,198332,5302,1834,713
   Manawatu18,604212,2731,6743,947
   Otaki18,530702,4181,6874,105
   Suburbs of Wellington110,567172,5182,2504,768
   City of Wellington335,5162119,4389,35518,793
Totals, North Island34340,63173695,92675,803171,729
Middle and Stewart Islands      
   Nelson110,72782,5392,8565,395
   Motueka19,212292,5971,7984,395
   Buller19,6062673,5501,6625,212
   Grey19,8804663,4601,9185,378
   Westland19,3373233,2491,8775,126
   Wairau110,391122,6432,1684,811
   Ashley19,36422,7641,8884,652
   Kaiapoi19,78532,3912,2344,625
   Avon19,6912,3242,4084,732
   Riccarton18,9742,2841,9784,262
   City of Christchurch335,528398,6119,69518,306
   Lyttelton110,639162,6182,6935,311
   Ellesmere19,44622,3792,1044,483
   Selwyn19,270222,4782,1374,615
   Ashburton110,18762,7662,0694,835
   Geraldine19,00342,3741,7454,119
   Timaru110,15622,4752,3374,812
   Waitaki19,527272,7521,8224,574
   Oarmaru110,14892,3712,3224,693
   Waihemo19,7462273,1091,8824,991
   Waikouaiti19,443522,3532,2044,557
   City of Dunedin335,0001738,58910,10018,689
   Caversham111,351612,6742,7405,414
   Taieri19,480162,5452,0804,625
   Bruce18,754382,3731,9204,293
   Clutha19,81452,9412,0605,001
   Tuapeka19,2906863,0631,7474,810
   Wakatipu19,4343373,3171,6154,932
   Mataura19,76772,6971,9474,644
   Awarua19,51112,7641,8974,661
   Invercargill110,757132,4972,6605,157
   Wallace19,2701212,9241,7024,626
Totals, Middle and Stewart Islands36362,4882,97498,47182,265180,736
Totals, North Island34340,63173695,92675,803171,729
Totals for the colony70703,1193,710194,397158,068352,465

The names and boundaries of these districts having been duly proclaimed, the report of the Commissioners had the force of law form the date of such Proclamation, but did not come into effect until the expiry of the then existing Parliament.

The sixty-two districts, with their seventy members above referred to, are for purposes of European representation; but the House of Representatives consists altogether of seventy-four members, four of whom represent the Maori constituencies into which the colony is also divided, and of which the Maori census, taken in February, 1896, showed the Native population to be as under:—

Electoral District.Males.Females.Maori Population (Census 1896). Total.
North Island—   
  Northern Maori5,1654,0109,175
  Eastern Maori6,9316,06412,995
  Western Maori8,2476,89315,140
South Island—   
  Southern Maori1,3301,2142,544
 21,67318,18139,854

In the year 1891 the Maori population was 41,993 parsons.

Chapter 9. DENSITY OF POPULATION.

The proportion of persons to a square mile in New Zealand increased form 6.024 to 6.760 between 1891 and 1896. In 1886 there were 5.561 persons to a square mile, giving an increase of 1.2 during the last ten years.

Since 1858 the proportions at the different census years were:—

Number Of Persons To A Square Mile.

Year.Persons.
18580.566
18610.944
18641.641
18672.094
18712.456
18742.896
18783.969
18814.693
18865.561
18916.024
18966.760

Of the different provincial districts, the most thickly population is Wellington, and the one with the fewest people in proportion to size is Marlborough. The table below shows the area of the provincial districts, and the average number of persons to a square mile:—

Provincial Districts.Area in Acres.Area in Square Miles.Persons to Square Miles.
Wellington7,042,00011,00311.075
Canterbury8,985,40014,0409.677
Taranaki2,117,3803,3089.424
Hawke's Bay2,822,3004,4107.718
Otago16,311,70025,4876.432
Auckland16,477,70025,7465.965
Nelson6,572,10010,2693.480
Westland2,970,6004,6413.118
Marlborough3,041,6704,7532.626

The population in the boroughs, amounting to 307,294, gives an average of 1,354 persons to every square mile in these towns. The proportion has not changed since 1891. The people lay closest in the Borough of Wellington, where there are 34 persons to the acre, or at the rate of 21,760 to the square mile.

Outside the boroughs (and excluding persons on shipboard) the population shows an average of 3.78 to the square mile of country outside boroughs, against 3.40 to the square mile in 1891 and 3.16 in 1886.

Chapter 10. PROPORTION OF THE SEXES.

At the census of 1858 the number of females to 100 males was found to be 76.41, and the proportion was actually less in 1861, when the number was 62.16, and smaller still in 1864 (61.53). From this last year the proportion of females steadily increased to 89.31 at the last census.

Year.Number of Females to 100 Males.
185876.41
186162.16
186461.53
186765.75
187170.52
187475.17
187879.40
188181.72
188685.28
189188.26
189689.31

The numbers of the sexes are shown to be gradually becoming equal as time advances. Indeed, there was only one provincial district (Westland) which showed at last census an actual diminution of females (269), and with this is observed a far greater reduction in the number of males (1,149). In Marlborough the males were found to be 365 fewer in 1896 than in 1891, while the females increased by 81 in number.

The proportion of females to males was highest in Canterbury and lowest in Westland, as shown below:—

NUMBER OF FEMALE TO 100 MALES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Provincial Districts.Females to 100 Males.Centesimal Increase or Decrease. 1891–1896.
1891.1896.Males.Females.
Canterbury94.2294.905.456.20
Otago88.8490.426.208.08
Auckland90.5289.1016.1914.37
Wellington86.5988.6723.3126.28
Marlborough80.6186.20− 5.161.42
Hawke's Bay81.0685.0216.8522.56
Taranaki87.6884.4743.7438.48
Nelson78.7882.610.655.47
Westland71.6678.50− 12.41− 4.06

The centesimal increase of the population is found to be greater in respect of the females than the males in all the provincial districts except Auckland and Taranaki, while the decrease is less in Westland.

Chapter 11. DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE.

The dwellings in the colony on the census night numbered 149,922, of which 136,675 were occupied houses, 8,006 unoccupied, and 577 houses in course of erection. Besides these there were 4,664 tents or dwellings with canvas roofs. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling has increased form 4.05 in the year 1867 to 4.98 in 1896. The average number of inhabited dwellings to a square mile was only 0.122 in the year 1858, but rose steadily during each census period until 1896, for which the figures are 1.358.

Of 149,922 dwellings, 134,092 were built of wood, iron, or lath and plaster, and 6,490 of brick, stone, or concrete. There were also 2,229 cob or sod house, 120 of raupo, besides 4,664 tents and dwellings with canvas roofs, and 2,327 houses and huts of miscellaneous materials. The inhabitants or the several classes of dwellings were distributed as under at the last two censuses:—

Dwellers in—1891.1896.
   Houses of brick, stone, wood, iron and lath and plaster599,184680,407
   Huts or houses of cob, sod, raupo, &c.17,22711,033
   On shipboard3,3053,381
   Tents and dwellings with canvas roofs6,8078,322
   Travellers and persons sleeping under drays or camping-out135217
Total population (excluding Maoris)626,658703,360

With and increase of population amounting to 12.24 per cent., there is found an absolute reduction of 6,194 in the number of persons occupying inferior houses or huts, while the persons occupying the best class of dwelling increased by 81,223, or at the rate of 13.56 per cent.

The following are the proportions of the population (excluding Chinese and Maoris) residing in the different classes of dwelling at the last four census periods:—

Percentage of population—1881.1886.1891.1896.
In houses of the best material92.9295.1495.8396.74
In cob or sod house, raupo, huts, &c.5.252.872.551.57
In tents or dwellings with canvas roofs1.221.131.081.18
On shipboard0.590.820.520.48
Camping out0.020.040.020.03

The number of brick, stone, or concrete houses increased between 1891 and 1896 form 5,697 to 6,490, or at the rate 13.92 per cent.; and the wood, iron, or lath-and-plaster houses form 116,801 to 134,09, or at the rate of 14.80 per cent. during the five years, the increase of population having been, as before stated, 12.24 per cent.

The accommodation in the dwellings of the people has improved greatly in the time. This is exhibited by the following comparative table:—

Years.One Room (including Tents).Number of Dwellings containingNo. of Rooms unstated.
Two Rooms.Three and Pour Rooms.Five and Six Rooms.More than Six Rooms.
18789,70314,33129,22315,25812,3581,715
188110,07714,75835,06419,33815,3141,169
188610,25712,11040,09027,21821,0371,259
189111,52811,03041,93432,86824,9681,523
189612,37811,45042,71141,29032,585925
Increase (+) or Decrease (™).
1878 to 1881+374+427+ 5,841+4,080+2,986−546
1881 to 1886+180−2,648+ 5,026+7,880+5,693+90
1886 to 1891+1,271−1,080+1,844+5,650+3,931+264
1891 to 1896+850+420+777+8,422+7,617−598

It will be noticed that the increase lies mainly in the houses of five to six and more than six rooms, which are more numerous by 16,039 than in 1891; whereas the dwellings of one to four rooms, including tents, only increased by 2,047 in five years. The actual number of houses was greatest in the group of those having three to four rooms (42,711), but the increase was only 777, and while the houses of five to six rooms numbered 41,290, or nearly as many as those of three to four rooms, the increase was no less than 8,422. Similarly, with fewer houses of more than six rooms, the increase is as high as 7,617.

Of the four chief cities, Wellington shows the greatest number of persons to a house, which was also the experience of 1891 and 1886. In the year 1881 Christchurch had the largest proportion of persons to an inhabited dwelling house:—

Borough.Average Number of Persons to every Inhabited Dwelling.
1881.1886.1891.1896.
Auckland5.295.365.095.16
Wellington5.435.715.505.55
Christchurch5.695.555.415.30
Dunedin5.535.365.115.10

The proportion in Wellington for 1896 is higher than that which obtained in 1891 in the same city, but not so high, however, as in 1886, when the average was 5.71 to every dwelling. At Christchurch and Dunedin the proportions fall regularly form 1881. At Auckland the proportion is highest for 1886, but in 1881 it was still a little higher than in 1896.

For the whole colony, the average number of persons to each inhabited dwelling was 4.98, the lowest since 1874.

The succeeding statement gives the number of inhabited and uninhabited dwellings at each of the four past census dates:—

Years.Inhabited Dwellings, including Tents.Uninhabited Dwellings.* Proportion of Dwellings of both classes to 100 of Population.Average Number of Persons to Inhabited Dwelling.Number of of Dwelling-houses being built.
187882,5885,29221.365.02497
188195,7506,73721.045.12848
1886111,9719,14621.115.17834
1891123,8519,55821.405.06425
1896141,3398,00621.344.98577

Chapter 12. UNINHABITED DWELLING-HOUSES.

The number of uninhabited dwelling-houses in 1896 was 8,006 (being in the proportion of 1.14 to each 100 of population), as against 9,558 in 1891, and 9,146 in 1886.

In 1896 the counties (excluding the boroughs) contained 4,761 uninhabited houses, or 1.22 for each100 of population, and the boroughs contained 3,217, or 1.05 for each 100 of population.

The following were the numbers in the four chief cities:—

City.Population.Number of Uninhabited Houses.Ratio of each 100 of Population.
Auckland31,4241490.47
Wellington37,4411780.48
Christchurch16,9641911.13
Dunedin22,8152711.19

Of the boroughs, Sumner shows the high rate of 9.01 uninhabited houses per 100 of population, and Brunner 8.76.

Chapter 13. HOUSES IN COURSE OF ERECTION.

The number of houses in course of erection at the census of 1896 was 577, an increase on that of the census of 1891, though less than at the two preceding enumerations. The numbers of houses being built and uninhabited in each of the provincial districts at the three last census-periods are shown:—

* The population on board ship is excluded form the numbers used.

Provincial District.Dwelling-houses being built.Dwelling-houses uninhabited.Proportion of Dwellings being built to every 100 uninhabited in 1896.
1886.1891.1896.1886.1891.1896.
Auckland4631071102,1962,5051,4737.47
Taranaki9114033926132112.46
Hawke's Bay62193527345031711.04
Wellington811121318721,1251,08612.06
Marlborough15751511031433.50
Nelson4831194946115703.33
Westland12783394873182.52
Canterbury57491042,0961,8431,5676.64
Otago87821252,3832,1732,2095.66
Totals8344255779,1439,5588,0067.21

PART II.—RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 14.

Of the various religious denominations, the Church of England has most adherents in the colony. They numbered 281,166 at the date of the census; or, including 1,643 Protestants not more specifically described, 282,809 persons, being 40.27 out of every 100 of population. The Presbyterians numbered 159,952 persons, or 22.78 per cent., and the Roman Catholics came next with 97,525, or, including Catholics not further defined, 98,804, which gives a proportion of 14.07 per cent. The Methodists were 73,367, or 10.44 in every 100 persons. Of other denominations, the Baptists, of whom there were 16,037, and the Salvation Army, 10,532 persons, were those returning more than 1 per cent. of the total population, the proportions being 2.28 and 1.50 respectively. 15,967 persons objected to state their religious belief, or 2.27 in every 100.

The number and percentages for five censuses are given in tabular form, so as to allow of the degree of increase relatively to the population being observed:—

Chapter 15. NUMBER FOR EACH DENOMINATION,AND INCREASE.

Denominations.Number of Adherents in 1896.Proportion per Cent, of Population.
1878.1881.1886.1891.1896.
* “Unspecified” not taken into account.
Church of England and Protestants (undefined)282,80942.5541.5040.1740.5140.27
Presbyterians159,952.22.9523.0822.5922.6222.78
Methodists73,3679.149.539.5510.1410.44
Baptists16,0372.212.342.482.372.28
Congregational Independents6,7771.341.371.351.070.97
Lutherans5,5381.361.181.020.900.79
Salvation Army10,532......0.911.501.50
Society of Friends3210.040.050.050.050.05
Unitarians3750.110.100.080.050.05
Other Protestants15,1941.081.261.551.822.16
Roman Catholics and Catholics (undefined)98,80414.2114.0813.9413.9614.07
Greek Church1160.020.010.010.010.02
Hebrews1,5490.340.310.270.230.22
Buddhists, Confucians3,3911.051.010.770.630.48
Other Denominations1,0990.050.110.100.120.16
No Denomination8,5350.530.891.051.321.22
No Religion1,8750.050.060.170.250.27
Unspecified1,1220.420.270.50**
Object to state15,9672.552.853.442.452.27
 703,360100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Here the proportion belonging to the Church of England is shown to have been 40 per cent. since 1886, but a little higher previously. Presbyterians have been 22 or 23 per cent. of the whole since 1878, but the proportion of Methodists rose steadily form 9.14 to 10.44. Congregationalists declined form 1.37 per cent. in 1881 to 0.97 per cent. in 1896. Lutherans are fewer in proportion to the total at each succeeding census, while the Salvation Army increased form 0.91 in 1886 to 1.50 in 1891 and 1896.

Roman Catholics and Catholics undefined formed practically 14 per cent. of the people at each of the census years The proportion of Buddhists and Confucians diminishes with the number of Chinese in the colony. In 1886 the percentage of persons objecting to state their religion was 3.44, which fell to 2.45 in 1891, and, further, to 2.27 in 1896.

A full statement of the particulars for all denominations, as at the census of 1891 and 1896, is given, with the numerical and centesimal increase or decrease in each case. Amongst 1,710 given as “Other Protestants,” 663 described themselves as “Church of God,” 142 as “Gospel Temperance Mission,” 80 as “Our Father,'s Church,” 205 as “Christians of no Denomination,” 88 as “Conditional Immortalists,” 24 “New and Latter House of Israel,” 26 the “Free Church,” 18 “Forward Movement,” 22 the “Body of Christ,” and the remainder variously in very small numbers. The complete descriptions will be published in the detailed tables.

 Census 1896.Census 1891.Increase or Decrease.
Religious Denominations.Males.Females.Persons.Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.
Total population371,415331,945703,360626,65876,70212.24
Total for specified religions370,637331,601702,238625,37076,86812.29

* Includes United Methodist Free Churches and Bible Christians, which bodies were incorporated in the Wesleyan Methodist Church on 13th April, 1896.

NOTE.—The minus sign (™) indicates decrease.

Episcopalians—      
Church of England and Episcopalians not other wise defined148,171132,995281,166250,94530,22112.04
Protestants (undescribed)9966471,6432,386−743−31.14
Presbyterians84,25975,693159,952141,47718,47513.06
Methodists—      
Wesleyan Methodists*31,48131,89263,37356,0357,33813.10
Primitive Methodists3,4493,5927,0415,2201,82134.89
Methodists (undefined)1,4761,4172,8932,07182239.69
Others34266089−29...
Baptists7,6908,34716,03714,8251,2128.18
Congregational Independents3,2843,4936,7776,685921.38
Lutherans, German Protestants.3,5372,0015,5385,616−78−1.39
Unitarians2321433753086721.75
Society of Friends20012132131561.90
Church of Christ (Christian, Christian Disciples, Disciples of Christ, Disciples)2,7003,1595,8595,24161811.79
Brethren (Christian Brethren, Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)2,3592,6765,0353,5371,49842.35
Believers in Christ364177193−116−60.10
Evangelists (Evangelical Union, Evangelical Church, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Brethren)23103393−60−64.52
Nonconformists593695771823.38
Salvation Army5,2445,28810,5329,3831,14912.25
Christadelphians48546795270025236.00
Swedenborgians(New Church, New Jerusalem Church)10190191178137.30
Seventh-day Adventists31646077641536186.99
Students of Truth148192340325154.62
Dissenters323365422354.76
Christian Israelites, Israelites27346155610.91
Other Protestants8608501,7104391,271...
Roman Catholics50,34847,17797,52585,85611,66913.59
Catholics (undefined)7045751,2791,416−137−9.68
Greek Church99171165660107.14
Catholic Apostolic1181292471509764.67
Other Denominations—      
Hebrews8087411,5491,463865.88
Mormons, Latter-day Saints1621272892068340.29
Spiritualists1961803763393710.91
Buddhists, Confucians, &c.3,374173,3913,928−537−13.67
Others1256218715433...
No Denomination—      
Freethinkers3,0769073,9834,475−492−10.99
Agnostics42613656232224074.53
Deists, Theists3884651−5−9.80
No Denomination2,4101,4883,8982,99989929.98
Doubtful311546405−359...
No Religion—      
No Religion1,0894011,4901,26922117.42
Atheists8829117123−6−4.88
Secularists112411536588135.38
Others (variously returned)932211510114...
Object to state10,1415,82615,96715,3426254.07
Unspecified7783441,1221,288−166−12.89

It will be seen by the table that, of the larger Protestant denominations, the Wesleyan Methodists increased since 1891 from 56,035 to 63,373 persons, being at the rate of 13.10 per cent.; Presbyterians form 141,477 to 159,952, or 13.06 per cent.; and the Church of England form 250,945 to 281,166, or 12.04 per cent. Baptists gained 8.18 per cent. The Salvation Army, which increased its number in the period 1886–91 form 5,276 to 9,383, or 77.84 per cent., only gained 1,149 persons between 1891 and 1896, being at the moderate rate of 12.25 per cent. The numbers of the Brethren show 42.35 per cent., and of Seventh.day Adventists 86.99 per cent. increase; but the Congregational Independents only 1.38, and Lutherans and actual decrease of 78 adherents, or 1.39 per cent. Of the Protestant bodies having but few members in the colony, the Unitarians increased form 308 to 375, and the Society of Friends form 315 to 321.

Roman Catholics added 11,669 to their number, being 13.59 per cent., a rate slightly higher than that obtained by the Wesleyan Methodists.

Hebrews were 1,549 in 1896, and 1,463 in 1891, a difference of 86. Spiritualists progressed but little, the numbers being 339 and 376. Freethinkers decreased form 4,475 to 3,983, or nearly 11 per cent., which is worthy of remark when contrasted with the increased of 14.01 per cent. gained between 1886 and 1891; but Agnostics, who numbered 322 in 1891, added 240, making 562 in 1896.

Chapter 16. PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES IN THE VARIOUS DENOMINATIONS.

While the number of males is found to be greater than that of the females in the Church of England, Presbyterian, and sundry other religious denominations, the contrary result is found in the following cases, the proportions per cent. being—

 Males.Females.
Wesleyan Methodists49.6850.32
Primitive Methodists48.9851.02
Baptists47.9552.05
Congregational Independents48.4651.54
Church of Christ46.0853.92
Brethren46.8553.15
Salvation Army49.7950.21
Seventh-day Adventists40.7259.28

Amongst those persons grouped as of “No denomination,” “No religion,” and “Object to state,” the proportion of females is very small, as will be seen by the next figures:—

No Denomination—Males.Females.
 Freethinkers77.2322.77
 Agnostics75.8024.20
 Deists, Theists82.6017.40
 No Denomination61.8338.17
 Doubtful67.3932.61
No Religion—  
 No Religion73.0926.91
 Atheists75.2124.79
 Secularists73.2026.80
 Others (variously returned)80.8719.13
Object to state63.5136.49

PART III.—BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 17. PROPORTIONS PER CENT. OF THE POPULATION.

Of the population, exclusive of Maoris (703,360 persons), all but 604 were described as to birthplace on the census schedules. The number of the New Zealand-born was 441,661, and of those born in Australia, Tasmania, and Fiji, 21,782, making 463,443 born in Australia. The New-Zealand-born increase in proportion to the whole with every successive census. In 1886, 51.89 percent. of the population were born in this colony; in 1891, the percentage was 58.61; and in 1896 it had reached 62.85, adding to which 3.10 percent. born in Australia, &c., makes 65.95 out of every 100 persons living in New Zealand who were born in Australasia.

215,161 persons were born in the United Kingdom, or 30.62 percent. of the population, which was divided as under:—

Born in United Kingdom.Number of Persons.Per cent. of Population.
England116,54116.58
Wales2,1480.31
Scotland50,4357.18
Ireland46,0376.55
 215,16130.62

Besides these there were 3,750 persons born in other British possessions.

Summarising these results, it is found that 682,354 of the population, 97.10 percent., were born in the British possessions, made up as follows:—

Born inNumber of Persons.Per cent. of Population.
Australasia463,44365.95
United Kingdom215,16130.62
Other British Possessions3,7500.53
 682,35497.10

There remained 19,080 persons born in foreign countries, or 2.71 percent, of population; 1,322 born at sea; and 604 whose birthplaces were not specified.

Chapter 18. INCREASES AND DECREASES SINCE 1891.

The New-Zealand-born increased from 366,716 in 1891 to 441,661, or at the rate of 20.44 per cent., between 1891 and 1896, the numerical increase being 74,945 persons. The numbers born in the United Kingdom decreased altogether by 3,673 in the quinquennium.

Born inPersons.Decrease since 1891.
1986.Numerical.Centesimal.
England116,5415290.45
Wales2,148662.98
Scotland504351,4812.85
Ireland46,0371,5973.35

The numbers of the Australian-born are found to have increased for each colony. The number born in Queensland, living in New Zealand, was only 481 in the year 1891, but 930 in 1896, an increase of 93.35 percent. There were 2,833 persons in this colony in 1891 born in New South Wales, but 4,536 at last census, or an increase of 60.11 percent, for five years. New Zealand also gained on the number born in Victoria, there being 10,471 in 1896 against 8,941 in 1891, or 17.11 percent, increase. And similarly on the South Australian and Tasmanian-born.

The number of the people born in foreign countries was found to be 19,080, being 2.71 percent, of the whole. Besides these, 1,322 persons were returned as born at sea. The greatest number of foreigners were Germans (4,595). Next come persons born in China (3,719). Swedes and Norwegians numbered 2,775; and there were 2,125 persons from Denmark and her possessions.

The numbers of those born in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Norway, Switzerland, China, Africa, and America all decreased since 1891.

The following table gives full details, and exhibits under the head of allegiance the number of British and foreign subjects in New Zealand:—

Chapter 19. BIRTHPLACES.—NUMBERS OF EACH NATIONALITY, AND INCREASE, 1891 TO 1896.

Where born.Census. 1896.Census, 1891.Persons.Increase or Decrease.
Males.Females.Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.  
Total population371,415331,945703,360626,65876,70212.24
Total for specified birthplaces371,008331,748702,756625,64177,11512.33
British:—      
United Kingdom,—      
England66,59049,951116,541117,070-529-0
Wales1,2908582,1482,214-66-2.98
Scotland28,89021,54550,43551,916-1,481-2.85
Ireland24,83521,20246,03747,634-1,597-3.35
Where born.Census, 1896.Census, 1891. Persons.Increase or Decrease.
Males.Females.Persons.Numerical.Centesimal.

NOTE.—The minus sign (™) indicates decrease.

(a) Norfolk Island, 30; Pacific Islands (British), 31; Straits Settlements. 20; Hongkong, 6; Mauritius, 54; British South Africa, 121; Natal, 13; West Africa, 8; Fast Africa, 2; British Guiana, 35; British Honduras, &c, 8; Falkland Islands, 6.

(b) Turkey, 25; Roumania, 4; Montenegro, 1.

(c) Syria, 217; Arabia, 4; Persia, 4: Japan, 15; Argentina, 10; Brazil, 21; Chili, 19; Hayti, 2;. South America, &c, 78; Pacific Islands, 115.

Separating persons of European descent born in Asia from those of Asiatic race leaves the following:—Chinese, 3,685 (males, 3,671; females, 14); Indians, 46 males; Syrians, 195 (males, 153; females, 42); Arabs, 4 males; Persians, 4 (males, 3; female. 1); Japanese, 15 (males, 7; females, 8). Total Asiatics, 3,949 (males, 3,884; females, 65).

New Zealand221,085220,576441,661366,71674,94520.44
Queensland45147993048144993.35
New South Wales2,2992,2374,5362,8331,70360.11
Victoria5,0765,39510,4718,9411,53017.11
South Australia6076151,22298323924.31
Western Australia6052112763647.37
Tasmania1,6971,4633,1602,62953120.20
Australia (colony not stated)5966041,200
Fiji68831511054643.81
Other British Possessions,— Gibraltar21284950-1-2.00
Malta482371611016.39
India and Ceylon, &c.7675741,3411,16817314.81
Cape of Good Hope118128246285-39-13.68
St. Helena30205055-5-9.09
British North America, Canada8515611,4121,447-35-2.42
West Indies1757224723893.78
Others (a)1911433342944013.61
Foreign,— Austria- Hungary74913288156431756.21
Belgium91471381152320.00
Denmark and Possessions1,3737522,1252,053723.51
France and Possessions494204698711-13-1.83
Germany3,0101,5854,5954,663-68-1.46
Greece9532127943335.11
Italy33885423397266.55
Netherlands and Possessions11517132143-11-7.69
Poland70311019922.02
Portugal and Possessions14924173205-32-15.61
Russia and Possessions330353653204514.06
Spain and Possessions632588761215.79
Sweden1,3102041,5141,4141007.07
Norway8923691,2611,288-27-2.10
Switzerland25884342362-20-5.52
Other European Countries (b)17133034-4-11.76
China3,695243,7194,470-751-16.80
Africa7262134183-49-26.78
America (North America)6203499691,016-47-4.63
United States of America54223878066711316.94
Other Foreign Countries (c)33315248527620975.72
At Sea6476751,3221,295272.08
Unspecified4071976041,017-413-40.61
Allegiance.      
British subjects360,238229,765690,003612,06477,93912.73
Foreign subjects11,1772,18013,35714,594-1,237-8.47

PART IV.—AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 20.

INFORMATION as to the number of people at each year of age has been compiled. But it is desirable to consider first the numbers for eight groups of important age-periods which are given below, and compared with those of the previous census.

Chapter 21. PERSONS

 April, 1891.April, 1896.
Under 5 years83,20483,659
5 years and under 10 years86,08086,025
10 years and under 15 years81,08485,467
15 years and under 21 years77,80895,584
21 years and under 40 years167,181199,261
40 years and under 55 years86,74392,135
55 years and under 65 years29,24839,631
65 years and upwards14,34220,756
Unspecified968842
      All ages626,658703,360
 Increase, 1886 to 1891.Increase, 1891 to 1896.
Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years-3,624-4.174550.55
5 years and under 10 years1,7652.09-55-0.06
10 years and under 15 years13,69920.334,3835.40
15 years and under 21 years8,22711.8217,77622.85
21 years and under 40 years11,6897.5232,08019.19
40 years and under 55 years5,0226.155,3926.22
55 years and under 65 years8,81243.1210,38335.50
65 years and upwards3,90937.476,41444.72
Unspecified-1,323-57.75-126-13.02
     All ages48,1768.3317,70212.24

The increase on the population under five years of age since 1891 is only 455 persons. But between 1886 and 1891 there was a decrease for that age-period of 3,624 persons, although the population at the ages increased 8.33 per cen., against 12.24 per cent. for 1891–96. The number of children under one year, and the total population at all ages, according to the results of three censuses, was —

 Children under One Year.Total Population (all ages.)
Census, 188618,355578,482
Census, 189116,443626,658
Census, 189617,070703,360

Thus, in 1886, with a population of 578,482 persons, there were 18,355 children under one year, against 17,070 children of that age in 1896 to a population of 703,360 persons.

The births registered in 1885 were 19,693, against 18,546 in 1895, and the birth rate has fallen from 34.35 per 1,000 of the population in the former year to 26.78 in the latter.

Deducting 1,637, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1895, from 18,546, the number of births for that year, leaves 16,909, or within 161 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.

The number of persons under 21 years in April last was 350,735, and over 21 years 351,783, besides 842 unspecified as to age, but nearly all adults.

Comparison of the population under and over 21 years for 1886, 1891, and 1896 shows that the number over 21 years is increasing in proportion to the population at all ages.

Chapter 22. PROPORTION PER CENT. OF PERSONS—ALL AGES.

 188618911896
Under 21 years53.4752.4649.94
Over 21 years46.5347.5450.06
 100.00100.00100.00

The numbers of the people of either sex in the eight age-groups previously referred to are found to be as under, and the increase or decrease for each since 1891 is shown—

Chapter 23. MALES.

Ages.Census.Increases, 1891 to 1896.
1891.1896.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years42,25942,4481890.45
5 years and under 10 years43,49443,561670.15
10 years and under 15 years40,75543,0442,2895.61
15 years and under 21 years38,57747,8739,29624.10
21 years and under 40 years88,577103,61315,03616.98
40 years and under 55 years51,55353,0321,4792.87
55 years and under 65 years18,63024,7566,12632.88
65 years and upwards8,33612,5034,16750.00
Unspecified696585-111-15.95
 332,877371,41538,53811.57

Chapter 24. FEMALES.

Ages.Census.Increases, 1891 to 1896.
1891.1896.Numerical.Centesimal.
Under 5 years40,94541,2112660.65
5 years and under 10 years42,58642,464-122-0.29
10 years and under 15 years40,32942,4232,0945.19
15 years and under 21 years39,23147,7118,48021.62
21 years and under 40 years78,60495,64817,04421.68
40 years and under 55 years35,19039,1033,91311.12
55 years and under 65 years10,61814,8754,25740.92
65 years and upwards6,0068,2532,24737.41
Unspecified272257-15-5.52
 293,781331,94538,16412.91

The males under 21 years in 1896 were 176,926, and the adults 193,904, leaving 585 unspecified as to age, but of whom few were children. The females under 21 numbered 173,809, and adults 157,579, leaving 257 unspecified. The proportions per cent. of population over 21 years of age of each sex are higher for 1896 than for 1891.

Chapter 25. PROPORTIONS PER CENT

 MalesFemales
1891189618911896
Under 21 years49.6947.7255.5752.39
Over 21 years50.3152.2844.4347.61
 100.00100.00100.00100.00

Of the proportions per cent. at various ages, those for the period 0–5 years (childhood) exhibit a decrease in respect of each sex according to the figures for three censuses.

Chapter 26. PROPORTION OF PERSONS UNDER FIVE YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION

 188618911896
Persons15.0713.3011.91
Males14.1212.7211.45
Females16.1813.9512.42

At 5 to 15 years, the school-going period, the proportions to the total of all ages are lower in 1896 than in 1891 and 1886, showing decrease with time, but the figures for 1891 are a little higher than those for 1886.

Chapter 27. PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 5–15 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 188618911896
Persons26.3226.7224.42
Males24.6725.3623.36
Females28.2728.2525.59

At 15–21 years the proportions rise with time—

Chapter 28. PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 15—21 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 188618911896
Persons12.0812.4413.61
Males11.0511.6112.01
Females13.2713.3714.38

It is satisfactory to find that the proportions of those at the period 21–40 years are more than maintained in the last ten years—

Chapter 29. PROPORTIONS OF PERSONS 21–40 YEARS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

 18861896
Persons26.9928.36
Males27.7127.94
Females26.1428.84

The numbers at this important period belonging to what are termed the supporting ages, in contradistinction to the dependent ages, rise on the male side from 86,028 in 1886 to 88,577 in 1891, and 103,613 in 1896, and increase faster on the female side, being 69,464, 78,604, and 95,648 for these years respectively.

While there is a slight fall in the proportions at the group 40–55 since 1891, the figures increase at the periods 55–65 and 65 and upwards. The progression in case of the aged people at the last period is especially important to notice, and figures for nine census years, extending from 1864 to 1896, are given accordingly—

Chapter 30. PERSONS 65 YEARS AND UPWARDS PER CENT. OF POPULATION.

18640.63
18670.86
18711.08
18741.22
18781.29
18811.41
18861.81
18912.29
18962.95

The numbers at the age-periods most often in request may be described thus: Infancy and extreme youth (under 5 years) — males, 42,448; females, 41, 211: School age (5 to 15 years) — males, 86,605; females, 84,887: Women of the reproductive ages (15 to 45 years) — 158,214: The athletic age (21 to 40 years) — males, 103,613; females, 95,648: The militia age (17 to 55 years) — males only,* 188,086: The elderly period of life (55 to 65 years) — males, 24,756; females, 14,875: Old-age (65 years and upwards) — males, 12,503; females, 8,253.

* The total number of males liable to be called out for service in the militia in April last was in round numbers 130,000, consisting of all males between 17 and 40 years, with the unmarried between 40 and 55 years, less the exemptions numbering about 18,000 persons. They are classified as under—

Class I. Unmarried, between 17 and 30 years75,828
Class II. Married, between 17 and 30 years12,973
Unmarried, between 30 and 40 years16,893
Class III. Married, between 30 and 40 years29,360
Unmarried, between 40 and 55 years12,894
Total147,948
Deduct exemptions18,000
Number available for service129,948

Chapter 31. FULL DETAILS OF Ages.

A table is appended to this portion of the Report showing the number of persons at each year of age as taken from the census schedules. A glance at this table will show that many people, either through disregard of truth, or carelessness, have set down their ages as at the nearest decennial or quinquennial period (30, 35 40, &c.). To ascertain the true number living at each year of age, the total numbers in each quinquennial or decennial group should be distributed proportionately over the single years, and this has accordingly been done by the Actuary of the Government Life Insurance Department in respect of the numbers for each sex. The two tables showing the adjusted numbers are given with the one alluded to above.

The numbers and proportions at each period of five years are probably nearly correct, and are stated beneath. These numbers diminish in a regular progression from the 5– to 10-year period. That the number under 5 years should be smaller than that at the next period is unsatisfactory, as evidencing that there are not sufficient living at the earliest years to come on and maintain the numbers of those 5 years and under 10 now found in the table.

Chapter 32. PROPORTIONS AT QUINQUENNIAL PERIODS OF AGE.

 Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females. 
Under 5 years83,65942,44841,21111.9711.5612.42
5 years and under 10 years86,02543,56142,46412.3111.8612.80
10 years and under 15 years85,46743,04442,42312.2311.7212.79
15 years and under 20 years80,73440,36440,37011.5510.9812.17
20 years and under 25 years68,71634,26434,4529.819.3010.39
25 years and under 30 years59,59530,60528,9908.498.268.74
30 years and under 35 years45,21323,74721,4666.416.356.47
35 years and under 40years40,58722,50618,0815.735.995.45
40 years and under 45 years34,85419,99914,8554.895.264.48
45 years and under 50 years29,55516,83012,7254.144.423.84
50 years and under 55 years27,72616,20311,5233.904.293.47
55 years and under 60 years22,84914,2528,5973.233.812.59
60 years and under 65 years16,78210,5046,2782.382.831.89
65 years and under 70 years10,2406,4593,7811.461.741.14
70 years and under 75 years5,4243,2192,2050.770.870.67
75 years and under 80 years3,2311,8431,3880.460.500.42
80 years and under 85 years1,2656775880.180.180.18
85 years and upwards5963052910.090.080.09
Unspecified842585257
     All ages703,360371,415331,945100.00100.00100.00

The proportions of the sexes at each quinquennial period of age are shown hereunder—

Chapter 33. PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD

Ages.Proportion of Sexes in every 100 Persons living at each Age-period.
Males.Females.
Under 5 years50.7449.26
5 years and under 10 years50.6449.36
10 years and under 15 years50.3649.64
15 years and under 20 years49.9850.02
20 years and under 25 years49.7850.22
25 years and under 30 years51.1248.88
30 years and under 35 years52.0647.94
35 years and under 40 years54.8745.13
40 years and under 45 years56.5143.49
45 years and under 50 years56.0643.94
50 years and under 55 years57.7542.25
55 years and under 60 years61.9538.05
60 years and under 65 years62.2937.71
65 years and under 70 years62.8837.12
70 years and under 75 years59.2240.78
75 years and under 80 years57.0142.99
80 years and under 85 years53.4046.60
85 years and upwards51.1748.83
 52.5447.46

At the first three of these the males and females are nearly equal in number, though the male element slightly preponderates, but at 150 to 20 and 20 to 25 there are actually more females than males; the figures being: 15 to 20, males 49.98 and females 50.02; 20 to 25, 49.78 and 50.22. At 25 to 30 years the males are again found to be in excess of the females, though not greatly so. The difference widens until at 65 to 70 the proportions are 62.88 and 37.12 respectively. At 85 and upwards there were 51.17 of males and 48.83 of females in every 100 persons.

The numbers at each year of age were as follow: but, as previously pointed out, the clusters at the quinquennial periods show that these are not by any means absolutely correct, so that it has been necessary to add further tables giving the adjusted figures in respect of the numbers of each sex.

Chapter 34. POPULATION AT EACH YEAR OF AGE.

[Numbers as compiled from Returns.]

Ages.Including Chinese. ChineseExcluding Chinese.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total population703,360371,415331,9453,7113,68526699,649367,730331,919
Total specified ages702,518370,830331,6883,6553,62926698,863367,201331,662
Under 1 year17,0708,7748,29641317,0668,7738,293
1 year15,1927,6547,5381115,1917,6537,538
2 years17,2408,7378,5036617,2348,7318,503
3years16,9518,5678,3841116,9508,5678,383
4years17,2008,7168,49032117,2038,7148,489
5years16,8518,5208,3312216,8498,5208,329
6years17,0908,6358,45521117,0888,6348,454
7years17,2828,8038,47921117,2808,8028,478
8years17,6508,8468,8041117,6498,8468,303
9years17,1528,7578,3951117,1518,7568,395
10years17,6668,8588,80817,6668,8588,808
11years17,0198,5528,4671117,0188,5528,466
1217,4668,8298,63717,4668,8298,637
13years16,6288,3918,2371116,6278,3908,237
14years16,6888,4148,2741116,6878,4138,274
15years16,4378,2218,2164416,4338,2178,216
16years16,5468,2118,3354416,5428,2078,335
17years16,0147,9828,0323316,0117,9798,032
1816,0108,0487,9621312115,9978,0367,961
19years15,7277,9027,8251110115,7167,8927,824
20years14,8507,5097,3412623314,8247,4867,338
21years14,1947,1167,0783129214,1637,0877,076
22years13,3576,6226,7353029113,3276,5936,734
23years13,2426,5636,679191913,2236,5446,679
24years13,0736,4546,619262613,0476,4286,619
25years13,2666,7026,5646361213,2036,6416,562
26years12,7646,5856,1794544112,7196,5416,178
27years11,4145,9115,503444411,3705,8675,503
28years11,8296,1255,704797911,7506,0465,704
29years10,3225,2825,040545410,2685,2285,040
30years12,0796,3225,75713413411,9456,1885,757
31years7,8784,1143,76457577,8214,0573,764
32years9,2034,8344,3691011019,1024,7334,369
33years8,0664,2633,80355558,0114,2083,803
34years7,9874,2143,77391917,8964,1233,773
35years9,2265,2144,0121421429,0845,0724,012
36years8,7594,6914,0681061058,6534,5864,067
37years7,2514,0223,22974747,1773,9483,229
38years8,1274,5343,5931241248,0034,4103,593
39years7,2244,0453,17980807,1443,9653,179
40years10,1865,9024,2842772769,9095,6264,283
41years5,5563,2332,32393935,4633,1402,323
42years7,1764,2102,9661601607,0164,0502,966
436,1853,4582,72776766,1093,3822,727
44 year5,7513,1962,55591915,6603,1052,555
45 years7,6764,4513,2251711717,5054,2803,225
46years5,7413,2222,5191221225,6193,1002,519
47years5,1432,9342,2091071075,0362,8272,209
48 years6,0693,4112,6581311315,9383,2802,658
49 years4,9262,8122,11465654,8612,7472,114
50 years7,9094,5343,37519819717,7114,3373,374
51 years4,0922,3651,72763634,0292,3021,727
52 years5,6563,3322,32478785,5783,2542,324
53 years4,7842,7672,01753534,7312,7142,017
54 years5,2853,2052,08061615,2243,1442,080
55 years5,6993,5192,18089895,6103,4302,180
56 years5,5623,5392,02368685,4943,4712,023
57 years3,8452,4201,42536363,8092,3841,425
58 years4,1952,5261,66933334,1622,4931,669
59 years3,5482,2481,30029293,5192,2191,300
60 years5,4453,3602,085616015,3843,3002,084
61 years2,5471,60094717172,5301,583947
62 years3,1681,9801,18826263,1421,9541,188
63 years3,0931,9711,12219193,0741,9521,122
64 years2,5291,59393612122,5171,581936
65 years3,0381,9261,11222223,0161,9041,112
66 years2,3091,476833662,3031,470833
67 years1,8231,12569815151,8081,110698
68 years1,6501,040610991,6411.031610
69 years1,420892528331,417889528
70 years1,7631,041722661,7571,035722
71 years92357534811922574348
72 years1,017613404331,014610404
73 years88350637755878501377
74 years83848435422836482354
75 years92753139611926530396
76 years907511396907511396
77 years581331250581331250
78 years478276202478276202
79 years33819414411337193144
80 years41422419022412222190
81 years24112711411240126114
82 years245129116245129116
83 years18097831809783
84 years1851008518510085
85 years14279631427963
86 years12662641266264
87 years633429633429
88 years632736632736
89 years411823411823
90 years532725532726
91 years231211231211
92 years18991899
93 years15781578
94 years1411314113
95 years15871587
96 years11741174
97 years413413
98 years413413
99 years
100 years321321
101 years
102 years
103 years1111
Unspecified age, under 21442618442618
Unspecified age, over 217985592395656742503239

AGES OF MALES IN SINGLE YEARS, 1896.

Total Males.New-Zealand-Born Males.
Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.
NOTE.—The adjusted figures have been supplied by the Government Life Insurance Commissioner.
08,7748,774553,5193,06508,7378,737555858
17,6547,654563,5392,97017,5717,571562929
28,7378,737572,4202,86728,5578,557571313
38,5678,567582,5262,75038,2518,2515899
48,7168,716592,2482,60048,4088,4085977
 42,44842,448 14,25214,252 41,52441,524 116116
58,5208,520603,3602,44558,1718,171601111
68,6358,635611,6002,26568,3068,3066133
78,8038,803621,9802,09478,4858,4856255
88,8468,846631,9711,93088,5368,5366333
98,7578,757641,5931,77098,4808,4806444
 43,56143,561 10,50410,504 41,97841,978 2626
108,8588,720651,9261,605108,4958,3706544
118,5528,680661,4761,440118,1868,3006633
128,8298,629671,1251,284128,4088,2016744
138,3918,550681,0401,135137,9088,0806844
148,4148,46569892995147,8747,9206933
 43,04443,044 6,4596,459 40,87140,871 1818
158,2218,375701,041860157,6277,7057022
168,2118,25571575735167,4427,4807122
177,9828,11972613629177,0917,2227222
188,0487,94573506535186,9326,8757311
197,9027,67074484460196,6506,46074....
 40,36440,364 3,2193,219 35,74235,742 77
207,5097,27075531425206,0825,7607511
217,1167,00576511410215,3225,1807611
226,6226,8047733138822-4,5744,7807722
236,5636,65578276345234,2804,44578....
246,4546,53079194275244,0824,17579....
 34,26434,264 1,8431,843 24,34024,340 44
256,7026,42580224224254,0243,950Unspecified119119
266,5856,30081127127263,9233,760
275,9116,15582129129273,4293,556
286,1255,980839797283,3443,315
295.2S25,74584100100292,8613,000
 30,60530,605 677677 17,58117,581
306,3225,075857979302,9152,570
314,1144,780866262311,8752,120
324,8344,672873434321,8721,801
334,2634,625882727331,4701,560
344,2144,595891818341,2791,360
 23,74723,747 220220 9,4119,411
355,2144.574902727351,2951,175
364,6914,556911212361,0291,050
374,0224,526929937816929
384,5344,460937738832820
394,0454,39094111139717715
 22,50622,506 6666 4,6894,689
405,9024,285958840725615
413,2334,170967741424539
424,2104,034971142486466
433,4583,865981143428405
443,1963,64599....44322360
 19,99919,999 1717 2,3852,385
454,4513,4901002245414335
463,2223,3901002246306311
47Unspecified5855852,9343,34047267287
483,4113,31048279266
492,8123,30049178245
 16,83016,830 1,4441,444
504,5343,29550264225
512,3653,285   
51159205   
523,3323,25852193180
532,7673,21553134140
543,2053,150548080
 16,20316,203 830830      
 .... 371,415371,415 .... 221,085221,085

AGES OF FEMALES IN SINGLE YEARS, 1896.

Total Males.New-Zealand-Born Males.
Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.Age.Census Numbers.Adjusted Numbers.
NOTE.—The adjusted figures have been supplied by the Government Life Insurance Commissioner.
08,2968,296552,1802,02008,2528,252554444
17,5387,538562,0231,84017,4477,447564242
28,5038,503571,4251,68228,3168,316571515
38,3848,384581,6691,57538,1318,131581212
48,4908,490591,3001,48048,1758,175591818
 41,21141,211 8,5978,597 40,32140,321131131 
58,3318,331602,0851,40057,9897,989601818
68,4558,455619471,34068,1438,1436155
78,4798,479621,1881,26578,1718,1716299
88,8048,804631,1221,18388,5118,5116377
98,3958,395649361,09098,1138,1136455
 42,46442,464 6,2786,278 10,92740,927 4444
108,8088,565651,112960108,4488,1786566
118,4678,54066833845118,1338,1306655
128,6378,50067698741128,2038,0806733
138,2378,44468610650137,7598,0006866
148,2748,37469528585147,7457,9006922
 42,42342,423 3,7813,781 40,28840,288 2222
158,2168,29570722530157,6167,7557022
168,3358,21571348480167,6377,5707111
178,0328,10072404440177,1937,3557222
187,9627,96073377390187,0157,0107311
197,8257,80074354365196,7746,54574....
 40,37040,370 2,2052,205 36,23536,235 66
207,3417,48575396325206,0765,92575....
217,0787,15576396300215,5995,45576....
226,7356,84277250283224,9275,06277....
236,6796,59578202260234,6244,7817811
246,6196,37579144220244,5124,5157911
 34,45234,452 1,3881,388 25,73825,738 22
256,5646,19580190190254,4154,250Unspecified9898
266,1796,04081114114264,0363,986
275,5035,83032116116273,5773,725
285,7045,600838383283,4643,450
295,0405,325848585292,9793,000
 28,99028,990 588588 18,47118,471
305,7574,900856363302,8772,560
313,7644,495866464311,9492,130
324,3694,181872929321,8551,813
333,8034,010883636331,4521,555
343,7733,880892323341,2701,345
 21,46621,466 215215 9,4039,403
354,0123,785902626351,2161,160
364,0683,715911111361,0621,010
373,2293,631929937764880
383,5933,535938838778760
393,1793,415943339660670
 18,08118,081 5757 4,4804,480
404,2843,260957740728590
412,3233,095964441357515
422,9662,940973342434454
432,7272,825983343446400
442,5552,73599....44349355
 14,85514,855 1717 2,3142,314
453,2252,6601001145378315
462,5192,590101....46279285
472,2092,535102....47222260
482,6582,4901031148251240
492,1142,450 ....49193233
 12,72512,725 22 1,3231,323
503,3752,413Unspecified25725750223210
511,7272,37051153190
522,3242,32052184163
532,0172,26053123130
542,0802,160549080
 11,52311,523 773773
 .... 331,945331,945 .... 220,576220,576

PART V.—CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 35.

OF 367,730 males, exclusive of Chinese, 255,184 were returned as unmarried, 102,736 as husbands, 9,348 as widowers, and 462 were unspecified as to conjugal condition.

These figures show a proportion of 69.48 per cent. of males to have been unmarried, 27.97 as husbands, and 2.55 as widowers, or, eliminating all males under 14 years who were necessarily unmarried, 54.54 per cent. not married, 41.67 per cent. husbands, and 3.79 widowers.

Of females, numbering altogether 331,919, there were 213,583 unmarried, 103,193 wives, 15,048 widows, and 95 not specified as to condition. Or, represented proportionally, of females at all ages, 64.37 per cent. were not married, 31.10 were wives, and 4.53 widows. Shutting off those under years, the proportions stand as 44.76 unmarried, 48.22 wives, 7.02 widows.

The proportions for successive census periods exhibit on the male side a slight decrease in the percentage of the married men and a steady increase in regard to widowers since the year 1878. On the female side the percentage of the unmarried rose with regularity until the year 1891, while the married diminished. The percentage of widows increased steadily. Chinese are excluded from the calculations.

Year.Males.Females.
Unmarried.Married.Widowed.Unmarried.Married.Widowed.
187870.0928.061.8562.5934.323.09
188170.3927.731.8863.6433.053.31
188670.3527.612.0464.5931.743.67
189170.0227.612.3764.9530.944.11
189669.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53

The proportions at different age-periods show, for males, that the unmarried decrease from 99 per cent. at the period 17.20 to 65 per cent. at the period 25–30 years. At 30–35 years the husbands, who were only 34.22 per cent. at the previous period, exceeded the unmarried, the proportion being of husbands 58.21, unmarried 40.56, and widowers 1.23 per cent. At 80–85 years the widowers were in the highest proportion per cent., the figures being 11.61 unmarried, 43.90 husbands, and 44.49 widowers.

Of the females, 99 per cent. were spinsters at the period 14–18 years; thence onwards the proportion diminished and the wives and widows increased, until at 25–30 years the wives were in the highest proportion—i.e., 57.83 per cent., against 41.02 of unmarried females, and 1.15 of widows. At 70–75 years the widows had increased so as to exceed the wives, being 54.09 per cent. Against 41.14, while the spinsters had diminished to 4.77 per cent. At 85 and upwards the widows were 81.73 per cent of the whole number of females.

The numbers and proportions according to conjugal condition for each age-period are exhibited in full detail:—

NUMBERS LIVING.

Males
Ages.Total.Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.Not stated.
All ages367,730255,184102,7369,348462
Specified ages367,201254,947102,6219,324309
14 years and upwards246,576134,322102,6219,324309
Under 14 years120,625120,625.........
14 years to 15 years8,4138,413.........
15 years to 16 years8,2178,217.........
16 years to 17 years8,2078,207.........
17 years to 18 year7,9797,9763......
18 years to 19 year8,0368,020216......
19 years to 20 years7,8927,867232...
20 years to 21 years7,4867,3799611...
21 years to 2526,65224,2962,2812946
25 years to 30 years30,32319,75210,35815855
30 years to 35 years23,3099,44413,55128727
35 years to 40 years21,9816,45314,97452925
40 years to 45 years19,3034,50214,12464334
45 years to 50 years16,2343,36411,99984724
50 years to 55 years15,7513,25511,3261,15020
55 years to 60 years13,9972,70610,0311,24218
60 years to 65 years10,3702,1546,7921,40915
65 years to 70 years6,4041,2853,9611,1499
70 years to 75 years3,2026431,79775111
75 years to 80 years1,84128589565110
80 years to 85 years674782952992
85 years and upwards30526991782
Unspecified52923711524153
Females
Ages.Total.Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.Not stated.
All ages331,919213,583103,19315,04895
Specified ages331,662213,495103,06215,01491
14 years and upwards213,84995,682103,06215,01491
Under 14 years117,813117,813.........
14 years to 15 years8,2748,274.........
15 years to 16 years8,2168,2106......
16 years to 17 years8,3358,31124......
17 years to 18 years8,0327,97062......
18 years to 19 years7,9617,7192393...
19 years to 20 years7,8247,3754472...
20 years to 21 years7,3386,51382023
21 years to 25 years27,10819,4377,5856521
25 years to 30 years28,98711,88216,75433318
30 years to 35 years21,4664,39516,42663510
35 years to 40 years18,0802,11915,0199348
40 years to 45 years14,8541,17012,4251,2545
45 years to 50 years12,72575110,3981,5742
50 years to 55 years11,5225748,9651,9794
55 years to 60 years8,5973446,2492,0004
60 years to 65 years6,2772814,0981,8926
65 years to 70 years3,7811592,0701,5493
70 years to 75 years2,2051059061,1913
75 years to 80 years1,388484189202
80 years to 85 years588301134441
85 years and upwards29115382371
Unspecified25788131344

PROPORTION TO EVERY 100 LIVING AT EACH AGE.

Ages.Males.Females.
Unmarried.Husbands.Widowers.Unmarried.Wives.Widows.
All ages69.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53
Specified ages69.4827.982.5464.3931.084.5
14 years and upwards54.5441.673.7944.7648.227.02
Under 14 years..................
14 years to 15 years..................
15 years to 16.........99.930.07...
16 years to 17.........99.710.29...
17 years to 1899.960.04...99.230.77...
18 years to 1999.800.20...96.963.000.04
19 years to 2099.680.290.0394.265.710.03
20 years to 2198.721.28...88.7911.180.03
21 years to 2591.328.570.1171.7628.000.24
25 years to 3065.2534.220.5341.0257.831.15
30 years to 3540.5658.211.2320.4876.562.96
35 years to 4029.3968.202.4111.7283.115.17
40 years to 4523.3673.303.347.8883.688.44
45 years to 5020.7574.025.235.9081.7312.37
50 years to 5520.6972.007.314.9877.8417.18
55 years to 6019.3671.768.884.0072.7223.28
60 years to 6520.8065.5913.614.4865.3530.17
65 years to 7020.0961.9417.974.2154.7941.00
70 years to 7520.1556.3123.544.7741.1454.09
75 years to 8015.5748.8835.553.4630.1666.38
80 years to 8511.6143.9044.495.1119.2575.64
85 years and upwards8.5832.6758.755.1713.1081.73

The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is still steadily diminishing, while the proportion from 35 to 45 years is regularly increasing. Women in New Zealand are therefore not marrying at such early ages as they did in former years. The process brings the relative proportions closer to those that obtain in England:—

PROPORTIONS FOR 100 MARRIED WOMEN AT THE AGES 15 TO 45.

Ages.England.New Zealand.
1881.1878.1881.1386.1891.1896.
Under 20 years1.102.452.161.811.191.12
20 and under 35 years59.3261.9060.5360.0360.1259.57
35 and under 45 years39.5835.6537.3138.1638.6939.31
100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00 

Chapter 36. CONJUGAL CONDITION OF CHINESE.

Of 3,685 male Chinese living in the colony, 88 were stated as married and 14 widowed. The instruction on the census schedule was that Chinese not having wives in this or any other Australasian Colony should be returned as unmarried. Of 26 Chinese females, 11 were returned as married, 11 of the rest being young people under 14 years of age, and 4 from 18 to 25 years old. The half-caste Chinese are referred to on page 47.

Chapter 37. BACHELORS AND SPINSTERS.

Of 254,947 unmarried males of specified ages, 85,622 were over 20 years of age, and of 213,495 unmarried females, 87,408 were found to be over 15 years; the excess of bachelor over spinsters was therefore 1,786. Accepting the above as the marriageable ages, the number of bachelors to every 100 spinsters was 98.

That a process of equalization in the numbers of bachelors and spinsters abs been going on steadily past years is proved by the results of previous censuses.

NUMBER OF BACHELORS AGED 20 YEARS AND UPWARDS TO EVERY 100 OF SPINSTERS AGED 15 AND UPWARDS.

Census 1874238
Census 1878191
Census 1881162
Census 1886123
Census 1891105
Census 189698

Chapter 38. HUSBANDS AND WIVES.

The number of husbands of specified ages was 102,621, and wives 103,062, giving an excess of wives over husbands amounting to 441. There were 100 husbands to every 100 wives in the colony, notwithstanding the small numerical excess of wives above mentioned As in the case of the bachelors and spinsters, a process of equalization in the number of husbands and wives has also been in operation, the number of husbands to every 100 wives having fallen from 102 in 1874 to 101 in 1881, and again to 100 in 1891 and 1896.

Chapter 39. WIDOWERS AND WIDOWS.

The widowers of specified ages numbered 9,214, and the widows 15,014, being a proportion of 62 widowers to every 100 widows. At the census of 1891 the proportion was 64 to every 100 widows.

Chapter 40. Divorced Persons.

One hundred and thirty-seven persons—namely, 87 men and 50 women—were entered on the census schedules as being divorced. These numbers are not likely to represent fully the actual facts, but are interesting as, no doubt, an approximation to the truth. If the conditions on which divorce is procurable are ever relaxed by the law, as has been done in some of the neighbouring colonies, the results now given for 1896 will be useful for comparative purposes.

Chapter 41. MARRIAGE RATES IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.

It was remarked in the report on the census of 1891 that the marriage rate in New Zealand, from being the highest in the Australasian colonies, had fallen to be the lowest, and that the same process had been going on in regard to birth rates. The lapse of five years leaves the position almost the same, the marriage rate being lower than in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, but slightly higher than in Tasmania and South Australia.

MARRIAGE RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1874.1886.1891.1895.
Queensland8.628.677.186.23
New South Wales7.707.997.396.35
Victoria6.337.847.696.00
South Australia8.006.247.315.88
Western Australia6.967.988.006.83
Tasmania6.837.266.635.32
New Zealand8.815.996.045.94

In the year 1880, New Zealand had the highest birth rate of any of the Australasian Colonies, but since 1887 the position is exactly the opposite, except that in 1895 the rate for Western Australia is lowest—a position caused by the large influx of males since the discovery of gold in that colony.

BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

 1887.1891.1895.
Queensland38.0936.3532.85
New South Wales36.4234.5030.66
Victoria32.3933.5728.57
South Australia34.6333.9230.23
Western Australia37.3434.8525.62
Tasmania33.8733.3730.10
New Zealand32.0929.0126.78

The remarks in the portion of this report devoted to the “Ages of the People” are to be note in connection with the above figures, for, with a fall in the birth rate and marriage rate, are found lower numbers in 1896 of each sex living at the period under five years than at the next period, which “is unsatisfactory, as evidencing that there are not now sufficient living at the earliest years to come on and maintain the number of those of five years and under ten now found in the tables.” Thus the census in a way proves the correctness to a great extend of the birth rates, and the falling marriage rate is another fact tending to show that the results of the statistics and census describe the true state of affairs.

Chapter 42. HALF-CASTE CHINESE

The schedules showed that at the time of the census 78 European women were married to or were living with Chinese, the result of such unions being 148 children (88 males and 60 females). If these half-caste children be added to the number of pure-bred Chinese in the colony the result would be,—

 Persons.Males.Females.
Chinese3,7113,68526
Chinese half-castes1488860
 3,8593,77386

PART VI.—EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

Chapter 43.

THE replies given by householders to the inquiry showed that in every 100 persons living (excluding Chinese), 80.60 per cent. could read and write, 2.89 could read only, and 16.51 were unable to read. The proportion per cent. unable to read fell from 23.72 in 1878 to 21.19 in 1886, and further to 16.51 in 1896. Of those who could read only, the proportion diminished form 6.76 in 1878 till in 1896 in stood at 2.89 per cent. The following shows the percentages at each census period:—

 Read and Write.Road only.Cannot Read.
 Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
187869.5272.1166.336.765.917.8023.7221.9825.87
188171.3278.3168.945.635.016.3923.0521.6824.67
188674.0175.4072.414.804.365.3121.1920.2422.28
189177.2777.9776.483.973.744.2418.7618.2919.28
189680.6081.0680.092.892.713.0816.5116.2316.83

Besides the improvement in the degree of education shown above, which is observed in respect of females as well as males, it will be noticed that whereas the difference in the percentage able to read and write is very considerably in favour of the male sex for the year 1878, the proportions approximate more closely at each successive census year, until in 1896 there are found to have been 80.09 per cent. of the female sex who could read and write, against 81.06 of males. Doubtless when the results of the next census are known, the education of the females, taking as a standard the knowledge of reading and writing, will be equal to that of the males. But with a system of free and compulsory education this would be expected in time, and the census results have no longer the degree of importance or interest they had years ago.

It is in considering the proportions of the population at different age-periods that the improvement in education is even more clearly proved, as seen by reference to the next table:—

PROPORTION TO EVERY 100 AT EACH QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIOD.

Ages.Persons.Males.Females.
 Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
All ages80.602.8916.5181.062.7116.2380.093.0816.83
Specified ages80.592.8916.5281.052.7116.2480.083.0816.84
Specified ages above 5 years91.593.205.2191.693.005.3191.493.425.09
Under 5 years0.5799.43 0.4899.520.6699.34
5 years to 10 years58.7514.4026.8557.5715.0327.4059.9713.7426.29
10 years to 15 years98.730.650.6298.520.750.7398.950.540.51
15 years to 20 years99.170.220.6198.980.280.7499.360.170.47
20 years to 25 years99.060.260.6898.790.360.8599.330.150.52
25 years to 30 years98.800.350.8598.590.371.0499.010.330.66
30 years to 35 years97.990.721.2997.700.761.5498.320.661.02
35 years to 40 years96.871.251.8896.891.092.0296.851.431.72
40 years to 45 years95.441.982.5895.941.482.5894.792.632.58
45 years to 50 years94.162.513.3394.831.793.3893.313.443.25
50 years to 55 years92.303.664.0493.602.354.0590.535.444.03
55 years to 60 years92.043.993.9793.602.693.7189.516.104.39
60 years to 65 years90.474.664.8792.502.854.6587.137.655.22
65 years to 70 years89.755.654.6091.833.524.6586.229.244.54
70 years to 75 years86.627.356.0388.865.355.7983.3610.266.38
75 years to 80 years84.628.337.0586.605.617.7982.0011.936.07
80 and upwards82.199.748.0784.197.917.9079.9511.908.25
Unspecified age under 2134.3865.6226.3273.6846.1553.85
Unspecified age over 2191.482.965.5691.812.825.3790.953.175.88

Here it is found that in 1896, of persons at the age-period 10–15 years, 98.73 per cent. were able to read and write, while 0.65 per cent. could merely read, and 6.62 per cent. were unable to read. The proportion who could not read increased slowly with each succeeding quinquennial period of age until at 50–55 years it stood at 4.04 per cent. At 75–80 years the proportion was 7.05, and at 80 and upwards it advanced to 8.07. Similarly, the proportion of persons who could read only increased from 0.65 at 10–15 years to 3.66 at the period 50–55, and again to 9.74 at 80 and upwards. The better education of the people at the earlier ages is thus exhibited. The numbers upon which the above proportions are based are:—

NUMBERS (EXCLUDING CHINESE).

 Persons.Males.Females.
Ages.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknown.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknown.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Education unknown.
All ages561,77720,114115,1112,647296,8279,93859,4211,544264,95010,17655,6901,103
Specified ages561,24020,097115,0582,468296,4979,92859,3881,388264,74310,16955,6701,080
Specified ages above 5 years561,24019,62031,8912,468296,4979,72517,1531,388264,7439,89514,7381,080
Under 5 years..47783,167....20342,235....27440,932..
5 years to 10 years49,80012,20122,7601,25624,7016,44911,75565325,0995,75211,005603
10 years to 15 years84,15855152922642,27032231513541,88822921491
15 years to 20 years79,90918249011839,8441123007540,0657019043
20 years to 25 years67,82717646911233,6541242897134,1735218041
25 years to 30 years58,47820650612029,8261113147228,6529519248
30 years to 35 years43,7883205788922,7151773595821,07314321931
35 years to 40 years38,7144987519821,2422394415917,47225931039
40 years to 45 years32,49867587810618,4562854966614,04239038240
45 years to 50 years27,1867279598715,3452905475211,84143741235
50 years to 55 years25,0929941,0998814,6943696365210,39862546336
55 years to 60 years20,7498998955113,071376518327,07852337719
60 years to 65 years15,019774808469,564295481305,45547932716
65 years to 70 years9,113573468315,867225297153,24634817116
70 years to 75 years4,668396325182,83917118571,82922514011
75 years to 80 years2,723268227111,58910314361,134165845
80 and upwards1,5181801491182077775698103726
Unspecified age under 2111..21125..1476..75
Unspecified age over 215261732167325101914920171318

Statistics showing the proportion of persons married in different years and who signed the register with a mark, corroborate the census results as to advance in education. In the year 1881 32 males and 58 females per 1,000 of either sex were found to be illiterate, as being not able to sign their names. These proportions fell to 19.21 males per 1,000 and 28.96 females per 1,000 of that sex in 1886, and again to 16.33 and 19.23 in 1890; while in 1895 the proportions stood at 9.48 for males, and the same for females.

A table is now added to show particulars in respect of the various principal religious denominations, and of marriages by Registrars:—

PERSONS IN EVERY 1,000 MARRIED WHO SIGNED BY MARK.

Denomination.1881.1886.1890.1895.
 M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Church of England16.5927.159.3312.006.084.863.213.21
Presbyterians10.2529.619.797.628.5915.275.001.00
Wesleyans and other Methodists32.4141.796.3314.7815.2010.144.654.65
Roman Catholics117.78133.3346.4565.5735.2642.8217.3928.26
Other denominations10.3620.7211.4922.9915.000.0010.0010.00
By Registrars39.2293.5135.9862.0329.7740.6022.0220.73
Total marriages320457.9819.2128.9616.3319.239.489.48

In all the preceding proportions and numbers the Chinese have been excluded.

Occupiers of houses were directed, in filling up census schedules, to see that Chinese should be set down as unable to read or write unless they could read and write English. Out of a total of 3,711 Chinese, 271 were returned in conformity with these instructions as capable of reading and writing, 20 as able to read only, and 3,420 as not able to read or write.

Chapter 44. ATTENDANCE AT SCHOOL.

An inquiry was made as to the number of children attending schools of various kinds, besides those receiving tuition at home; also, as to the number of Sunday-school scholars and teachers. While information is always obtainable from the Education Department as to the children attending public school, the number at private schools can only be got by means of the census, or by special applications made for the purpose to the proprietors, which is done once a year. The census figures serve to check the returns received from private schools; while for Sunday-schools, and tuition at home, there is no other source of information.

The compiled tables give, for April, 1896:—

 Total.Boys.Girls.
At Government primary schools133,36468,70664,658
At college, high, grammar, or private schools17,6008,1469,454
Being taught at home6,3522,7563,596

Comparison with former censuses shows increasing numbers at the schools, but latterly a decline in the home tuition. Possibly a gradually advancing density of population in the country districts accounts for the diminution in the children taught at home. The figures at last four successive censuses are:—

 At Government Primary Schools.At College, High, Grammar or Private Schools.Receiving Tuition at Home.
April, 188187,81113,5387,348
March, 1886110,64414,9487,567
April, 1891124,06317,0478,178
April, 1896133,36417,6006,352

As to attendance at Sunday-schools, a comparison can only be made if the teachers be included with the scholars. Proceeding on these lines, a large development is found since 1878:—

ATTENDING SUNDAY-SCHOOLS (INCLUDING TEACHERS.)

Census year.Totals.Males.Females.
187862,27330,70731,566
188699,88448,50951,375
1896116,04554,06361,982

The excess of females over males would seem to grow greater, considered numerically, as well as in proportion to the numbers, with time.

The number of scholars at the Sunday-schools in 1896 was 104,934, of whom 50,096 were boys and 54,838 girls. The teachers were 11,111 of both sexes, 3,967 being males and 7,144 females.

PART VII.—SICKNESS AND INFIRMITY.

Chapter 45.

AN instruction was given in the household schedule that in regard to all persons “unable to follow their usual occupation,” by reason of sickness or accident, the fact was to be stated when the form was being filled up. And by means of the information thus obtained the proportion of persons incapacitated from work on the day of the census has been ascertained, and is shown in the tables according to various age-periods.

Besides persons suffering from sickness or accident, those afflicted with certain infirmities were also distinguished. These include the “deaf-and-dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm.”

The results of the investigation show that 9.94, or close upon 10 persons in every 1,000, were suffering from sickness or accident of the 12th April, 1896, using the word sickness to mean inability to work on that day; and that, besides these, there were 7.89, or nearly 8 persons in every 1,000, who were either affected with blindness, or deaf-and-dumb, lunatic, idiot, epileptic, &c.

These figures admit of being compared with the results obtained in New South Wales in 1891:—

SICKNESS, ACCIDENT, AND INFIRMITY.—PROPORTIONS FOR 1,000 LIVING.

 New Zealand.New South Wales.
Persons17.8319.79
Males20.9222.90
Females14.3616.13

The difference shows in favour of this colony in case of males as well as females.

The sickness and infirmity of the males is found to be higher than that of the females in each colony, and the degree of variation is practically the same in each: New Zealand showing 20 males per 1,000 living of that sex against 14 females per 1,000, and New South Wales 22 males per 1,000 against 16 females out of a similar number of females.

The proportions of males and females suffering from sickness, accident, or specified infirmity in this colony are shown according to age-periods in the following statement. In regard to males, after the period 35–40 the proportion of sickness rises steadily at each quinquennium of age; while under accident the proportion is highest at the period 65–70 years. The rate of sickness per 1,000 males living at 35–40 years was 5.46, and this increased to 19.08 at 55–60, to 43.66 at 65–70, and to 77.39 at 80 and upwards. In regard to females, the sickness is not so great at 30–35 years as at 25–30, but from 35–40 it increases, and from 55 to 60 very rapidly, though the numbers on which the proportions are based are admittedly small from this point onwards. The rates per 1,000 were 9.24 at 35–40 years, 15.59 at 55–60, and 75.09 at 80 and upwards.

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Persons.
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
* Including the “deaf-and-dumb,” “blind,” “lunatics,” “idiots,” “epileptics,” “paralytic,” “crippled and deformed,” “debilitated and infirm.”
Specified ages7.560.921.467.8917.83
Under 5 years1.180.110.130.511.88
5 years to 10 years1.880.210.421.784.29
10 years to 15 years2.140.340.532.905.91
15 years to 20 years4.480.381.144.1010.10
20 years to 25 years7.100.321.504.4513.37
25 years to 30 years7.920.501.496.2116.12
30 years to 35 years7.520.551.617.7217.40
35 years to 40 years7.140.592.129.7819.63
40 years to 45 years9.550.952.1811.9924.67
45 years to 50 years11.201.492.8114.6530.15
50 years to 55 years12.802.242.8818.5036.42
55 years to 60 years17.772.933.5521.4945.74
60 years to 65 years26.814.353.6428.1262.92
65 years to 70 years40.537.035.8638.1891.60
70 years to 75 years51.819.225.3546.09112.47
75 years to 80 years63.7612.073.0963.45142.37
80 years and upwards76.308.604.8492.42182.16
 Males.   
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
Specified ages7.651.182.399.7020.92
Under 5 years1.110.090.140.611.95
5 years to 10 years1.880.210.532.094.71
10 years to 15 years2.090.370.793.376.62
15 years to 20 years4.040.351.984.9811.35
20 years to 25 years5.930.352.686.0415.00
25 years to 30 years6.630.622.457.3217.02
30 years to 35 years6.190.632.829.0118.65
35 years to 40 years5.460.623.3810.6620.12
40 years to 45 years8.401.403.4014.0527.25
45 years to 50 years10.341.544.4615.4531.79
50 years to 55 years12.412.474.1320.8039.81
55 years to 60 years19.083.165.0523.5050.79
60 years to 65 years28.185.145.2431.6170.17
65 years to 70 years43.669.448.9844.28106.36
70 years to 75 years58.7112.127.7756.23134.83
75 years to 80 years66.2016.824.3471.62158.98
80 years and upwards77.399.165.9106.93198.57
 Females.   
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
Specified ages7.450.630.425.8614.36
Under 5 years1.170.120.120.411.82
5 years to 10 years1.880.210.311.463.86
10 years to 15 years2.190.310.262.435.19
15 years to 20 years4.930.420.303.228.87
20 years to 25 years8.270.290.322.8711.75
25 years to 30 years9.280.380.485.0415.18
30 years to 35 years8.990.470.286.2916.03
35 years to 40 years9.240.550.558.6819.02
40 years to 45 years11.100.340.549.2221.20
45 years to 50 years12.341.410.6313.5927.97
50 years to 55 years13.361.911.1315.2731.67
55 years to 60 years15.592.561.0518.1437.34
60 years to 65 years24.533.020.9622.3050.81
65 years to 70 years35.172.910.5327.7766.38
70 years to 75 years41.724.991.8131.2979.81
75 years to 80 years60.525.761.4452.59120.31
80 years and upwards75.097.964.5576.22163.82

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 LIVING.

Females are proved to be very much less liable to accident than males, the proportions being 0.42 per 1,000 of females, and 2.39 per 1,000 of males, or better stated for this purpose, 4.16 per 10,000 females and 23.89 per 10,000 males. As with sickness, the proportions increase with advancing age: for instance, among males, 2.68 per 1,000 were suffering from accident at the group 20–25 years, 3–40 per 1,000 at 40–45, and 8.98 at the period 65–70 years. Among females the highest proportion per 1,000 is found at 70–75 years, being a rate 1.81, or 18.14 per 10,000 living.

The numbers on which the above proportions are based are:—

Persons.
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
All ages5,3186471,0245,56012,549
Specified ages5,3116441,0245,54212,521
Under 5 years9591143158
5 years to 10 years1621836153369
10 years to 15 years1832945248505
15 years to 20 years3623192331816
20 years to 25 years48822103306919
25 years to 30 years4723089370961
30 years to 35 years3402573349787
35 years to 40 years2902486397797
40 years to 45 years3333376418860
45 years to 50 years3314483433891
50 years to 55 years35562805131,010
55 years to 60 years40667814911,045
60 years to 65 years45073614721,056
65 years to 70 years4157260391938
70 years to 75 years2815029250610
75 years to 80 years2063910205460
80 years and upwards142169172339
Unspecified731828
 Males.   
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
All ages2,8424388863,6087,774
Specified ages2,8384368863,5977,757
Under 5 years47462683
5 years to 10 years8292391205
10 years to 15 years901634145285
15 years to 20 years1631480201458
20 years to 25 years2031292207514
25 years to 30 years2031975224521
30 years to 35 years1471567214443
35 years to 40 years1231476240453
40 years to 45 years1682868281545
45 years to 50 years1742675260535
50 years to 55 years2014067337645
55 years to 60 years2724572335724
60 years to 65 years2965455332737
65 years to 70 years2826158286687
70 years to 75 years1893925181434
75 years to 80 years122318132293
80 years and upwards7695105195
Unspecified421117
 Females.   
 Sick.Specified Complaints.Suffering from Accident.Total* Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness, Accident, and Infirmity.
All ages2,4762091,9524,775
Specified ages2,4732081381,9454,764
Under 5 years48551775
5 years to 10 years8091362164
10 years to 15 years93131l103220
15 years to 20 years1991712130358
20 years to 25 years285101199405
25 years to 30 years2691114146440
30 years to 35 years193106135344
35 years to 40 years1671010157344
40 years to 45 years16558137315
45 years to 50 years157188173356
50 years to 55 years1542213176365
55 years to 60 years134229156321
60 years to 65 years154196140319
65 years to 70 years133112105251
70 years to 75 years9211469176
75 years to 80 years848273167
80 years and upwards667467144
Unspecified31711

Sickness and infirmity can only be compared for New Zealand, in respect of persons over 15 years of age, with the results of the census of 1891 and previously. The proportions are:—

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 PERSONS OVER 15 YEARS.

 Sickness and Accident.Specified Infirmities.Total Sickness and Infirmity.
Census, 187412.645.3217.96
˝ 187811.165.7016.88
˝ 188111.207.2218.42
˝ 188612.617.8220.43
˝ 189112.7811.0823.86
˝ 189614.2811.4125.69

SPECIFIED INFIRMITIES

The total of these under the various heads amounted to 5,560 of both sexes and all ages. The males were 3,608, and the females 1, 952, the proportions for every 10,000 persons being 78.89; for males 97.00, and for females 58.64 per 10,000 of each sex respectively. These infirmities are specially treated of one by one in the succeeding paragraphs.

DEAF AND DUMB.

There were 202 persons—111 males and 91 females—returned as deaf and dumb, or dumb only: of these, 47 were inmates of the Sumner Institution, leaving 155 deaf-mutes who were living at home or in some other private residence. The total show a proportion of 2.86 persons per 10,000 living, against 2.65 ascertained in 1891. The proportions of the deaf and dumb taken according to the sexes did not different much. The figures are given for six census years.

DEAF AND DUMB (IN SEXES).—PROPORTIONS PER 10,000 OF POPULATION

 Males.Females.
Census, 18742.051.71
˝ 18782.252.18
˝ 18812.232.45
˝ 18862.372.22
˝ 18912.802.49
˝ 18962.992.71

The number at the census of 1896 for quinquennial age-periods are:—

NUMBERS OF THE DEAF AND DUMB AT LAST CENSUS.

 M.F.
All ages11191
 
Under 5 years12
5 years to 10 years2510
10 years to 15 years2323
15 years to 20 years1615
20 years to 25 years139
25 years to 30 years810
30 years to 35 years89
35 years to 40 years44
40 years to 45 years51
45 years to 50 years32
50 years to 55 years34
55 years to 60 years2
60 years to 65 years
65 years to 70 years
70 years to 75 years1
75 years to 80 years
80 years and upwards
Unspecified1

The highest numbers are shown at the ages 5 to 10 and 10 to 15.

The occupations of the deaf and dumb were returned in 1896 as under:—

OCCUPATIONS OF THE DEAF AND DUMB.

 Persons.MF
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Domestic servant211
Hairdresser11
Saddler22
Tanner11
Cabinetmaker11
Tailor413
Dressmaker33
Bootmaker11
Brewer's assistant11
Sawmiller11
Carpenter, joiner44
Slater11
Labourer (undefined)413
Farmer22
Relative assisting farmer11110
Labourer (farm)33
Threshing-machine assistant22
Gold-miner (alluvial)22
Independent means321
No occupation312
Domestic duties371027
Government scholar431
Receiving tuition at home211
Dependent relative483117
Inmate of lunatic asylum44
Inmate of deaf-and-dumb institution472621
Occupation not stated853
  
 20265465041

In 1891 deaf-mutes were found to exist in the Australasian Colonies in the following proportions, with which is given the proportion for New Zealand in 1896:—

DEAF-MUTEISM IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1891.

South Australiahad1deaf-mute in every1,369˝
Queensland˝1˝2,557˝
Tasmania˝1˝2,716˝
New South Wales˝1˝2,867˝
Victoria˝1˝3,133˝
Western Australia˝1˝4,526˝
New Zealand (1896)˝1˝3,482˝

BLIND.

There were 211 males and 133 females, making a total of 344 persons returned as blind, including 43 who were given in the schedules as “nearly” or “party” blind. Of the above total number, 37 were inmates of the Jubilee Institute for the Blind at Auckland. It would thus appear that only one out of every nine persons in the colony who suffered from blindness had been received into the institution. The number of blind persons in 1891 was 274. The proportions in every 10,000 of population show a continuous rise at successive censuses, and that there is more blindness amongst males than females.

PROPORTIONS OF BLIND TO EVERY 10,000 PEOPLE.

 Persons.Males.Females.
18742.342.452.18
18782.562.422.73
18812.822.932.68
18863.223.652.70
18914.374.913.71
18964.905.694.01

The number of the blind in quinquennial periods of age is stated for each sex. Of 211 males, 73 were under and 1368 upwards of 50 years old. OF 133 females, 62 were under 50, and 71 over that age.

NUMBERS OF THE BLIND AT AGE-PERIODS.

 Persons.M.F.
All ages344211133
Under 5 years844
5 years to 10 years963
10 years to 15 years1486
15 years to 20 years261313
20 years to 25 years1284
25 years to 30 years1055
30 years to 35 years1486
35 years to 40 years1495
40 years to 45 years734
45 years to 50 years21912
50 years to 55 years28226
55 years to 60 years402812
60 years to 65 years392514
65 years to 70 years322111
70 years to 75 years21156
75 years to 80 years261412
80 and upwards231310

Of the total number of the blind, 344 persons, there were 55 in regard to whom no occupation was stated; 56 (females) were returned as engaged in domestic duties, 68 persons as inmates of hospital, asylum, or blind institute, 21 as dependent relatives, 22 as of no occupation, 19 as farming, 12 of independent means, and the rest (91) of various occupations in small numbers each. A complete statement is added, in regard to which it must be remarked that may of the occupations are evidently the past occupations of persons whom blindness has prevented from continuing to work at their usual calling.

OCCUPATION OF THE BLIND.

 Persons.MF
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Barrister (not in practice)11
Teacher of the blind22
School-teacher (retired)11
Teacher of music22
Boardinghouse-keeper22
Assistant, hotel11
Capitalist Landowner11
Stationer's traveller11
Dairyman22
Grain merchant11
Fruiterer11
Grocer11
Ironmonger22
Shopkeeper, storekeeper431
Hawker11
Clerk11
Mariner11
Lumper22
Message-boy11
Basketmaker44
Piano-tuner22
Saddler11
Tanner11
Bootmaker, shoemaker22
Milliner, dressmaker11
Matmaker11
Baker22
Cordial-maker11
Soap-maker11
Road contractor11
Sawyer11
Carpenter33
Plasterer's labourer11
Labourer (undefined)88
Gardener44
Farmer19181
Relative assisting farmer211
Farm labourer.33
Dairy-farmer11
Sheep-farmer11
Fisherman11
Bushman11
Miner, quartz11
Miner, alluvial11
Miner, undefined11
Pensioner22
Annuitant11
Independent means1293
Settler11
No occupation22139
Domestic duties56155
Government scholar321
Private school211
Receiving tuition at home22
Dependent relatives21156
Inmate of hospital1174
Inmate of benevolent asylum16133
Inmate of lunatic asylum431
Inmate of blind institute3791495
In receipt of charitable aid523
Occupation not stated55127819
 
 3443148026107

Blindness in the Australian Colonies existed in 1891 in the following proportions, contrasted with which are the 1896 figures for New Zealand:—

BLINDNESS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1891.

Tasmaniahad1blind person in every889persons.
Western Australia˝1˝922˝
Victoria˝1˝1,146˝
South Australia˝1˝1,297˝
New South Wales˝1˝1,517˝
Queensland˝1˝1,978˝
New Zealand (1896)˝1˝2,045˝

LUNACY.

The lunatics enumerated were 2, 198 persons, 1,330 males and 868 females, nearly all of whom were inmates of the asylums for the insane in the colony. Departmental returns show 2,206 persons as the total number of inmates; but this number includes Maori patients.

Comparison with the results of previous censuses shows a continually increasing proportion of lunatics to the population in respect of either sex, and that there is considerably more lunacy among the males element than the female.

LUNATICS.—PROPORTIONS PER 10,000 OF POPULATION.

 Persons.Males.Females.
Census, 187419.9323.2815.48
˝ 187820.8525.0715.54
˝ 188122.8627.3017.43
˝ 188626.5031.0321.18
˝ 189127.8231.8223.92
˝ 189631.1335.7026.02

The numbers of persons, males and females, who were lunatics, were highest at the period 50–55 years, as will be found by the further statement.

LUNATICS.—NUMBERS AT QUINQUENNIAL AGE- PERIODS.

Ages.Persons.M.F.
All ages2,1981,330868
Under 5 years11
5 years to 10 years33
10 years to 151248
15 years to 20 years422418
20 years to 25 years765125
25 years to 30 years1448361
30 years to 35 years18410975
35 years to 40 years251140111
40 years to 45 years271167104
45 years to 50 years263152111
50 years to 55 years303189114
55 years to 60 years25515699
60 years to 65 years18011763
65 years to 70 years1158233
70 years to 75 years462818
75 years to 80 years271413
80 years and upwards1477
Unspecified1165

The proportion of lunatics per 10,000 males living at the above age-periods was only 5.95 at 15–20 years, but had advanced to 62.21 at 35–40 years, to 109.46 at 55–60, and reached its maximum at the period 65–70, when the proportion was 126.96. In the case of females, the proportions rose to a maximum of 115.16 at 55–60.

In 1896 one person in every 320, exclusive of Maoris, in New Zealand was afflicted with lunacy. This proportion, though less than that found to obtain in Victoria in 1891, is greater than the proportions at that time for the other Australian Colonies.

LUNACY IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1891.

Victoriahad 1lunatic in every302persons.
New South Wales˝˝359˝
South Australia˝˝376˝
Tasmania˝˝383˝
Western Australia˝˝386˝
New Zealand (1896)˝˝320˝

Stated in proportions to 10,000 persons living, the comparison for the Home country and these colonies is:—

LUNACY (INCLUDING IDIOCY).

United Kingdom (1891)35.52 per10,000persons.
England ˝32.58 per˝˝
Scotland ˝38.43 per˝˝
Ireland ˝45.04 per˝˝
Victoria ˝36.17 per˝˝
New South Wales ˝30.38 per˝˝
New Zealand (1896)33.15 per˝˝

IDIOCY.

The number of idiots of both sexes enumerated in the census was 144, against 128 in 1891; the proportion of 10,000 of population being 2.02 against 2.03 at the previous census. As with lunacy, the proportion of idiocy amongst the males (2.62 per 10,000) is far higher than amongst the females (1–36). In comparison with Australasian Colonies, excepting Western Australia, New Zealand has fewer idiots in proportion to the population than any of the other colonies.

IDIOCY IN THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1891.

Tasmaniahad 1idiot in every3,188persons.
Victoria˝˝3,212˝
South Australia˝˝3,815˝
New South Wales˝˝3,930˝
Western Australia˝˝4,112˝
New Zealand (1896)˝˝4,884˝

EPILEPSY.

The number of epileptics stated in the census was 320. However imperfect the return may be, any objection to giving information would probably be about the same in degree at one census as at another, so that comparisons may be useful. The proportions per 10,000 living were—

EPILEPSY PER 10,000 LIVING.

 MalesFemales
Census, 18914.093.27
˝ 18964.724.34

The numbers at successive census years increase as under, but it is very improbable that these in any way nearly represent the real facts:—

EPILEPTICS.—NUMBERS AT SUCCESSIVE CENSUS YEARS.

 Persons.Males.Females.
Census, 18741156847
Census 187816410163
˝ 188119411282
˝ 188622113091
˝ 189123213696
˝ 1896320176144

Epilepsy, like lunacy and idiocy, is less frequently found amongst females than males.

PARALYSIS.

Persons set down as paralytic increased from 468 in 1891 to 548 in 1896. The proportions are:—

PARALYTIC PER 10,000 LIVING.

 Males.Females.
Census, 18919.275.45
˝ 18969.306.06

The males again are represented as suffering most from this complaint.

CRIPPLED AND DEFORMED.

These numbered 1,225 persons, 959 males and 266 females. The numbers include persons who had lost a limb, and the comparison with the previous census shows a higher rate for 1896 than existed in 1891.

PROPORTIONS PER 10,000 LIVING OF CRIPPLED AND DEFORMED PERSONS.

 Persons.Males.Females.
Census, 189115.6422.917.43
˝ 189617.4225.848.02

Part VIII.—Occupations Of The People.

Table of Contents

Chapter 46.

THE remarks on the new classification of occupations, first used for the purposes of the census of 1891, can be repeated with advantage here. They will be required by persons desiring to use the tables, and the subject-matter can scarcely be differently described to advantage.

The Classification.

At a Conference of Statisticians* of the Australasian Colonies, held at Hobart in March, 1890, a series of resolutions was passed, and a form of schedule agreed to, with the view of securing the uniformity so necessary for comparative purposes in system and heads of inquiry. A new classification of occupations was devised and adopted “as a means of overcoming the great difficulties with which the systematic grouping of the occupations of a people of a country has always been found to be attended.” The old classification of Dr. Farr purported to divide the population so as to distinguish the commercial from the industrial class; but, in allotting the various occupations to the different classes, the principle adopted was that of grouping all workers and dealers in different matters together according to the material dealt in or worked upon, and placing the whole in the industrial class. Thus the dealers, who are really commercial, went to swell the number of the industrial at the expense of the commercial class. General labourers were cast out of the industrial into the indefinite class, merely because the material on which they worked was not stated, &c. The new classification, while preserving Farr's professional class nearly intact, transfers, among other changes, a large number of women and children from the domestic to the dependent class, and completes the commercial class by including “trade and transport” along with the agorici of Farr. The industrial class now consists of part of what was assigned to it by Farr, but includes general labourers. Miners and other primary producers are placed with the agricultural and pastoral class, as being engaged in obtaining raw materials from natural sources. The indefinite class is greatly reduced in number, and the class styled “dependent” introduced. The Conference readily agreed to a proposal for distinguishing “employers” from “employed”—a division first attempted in New Zealand at the suggestion of the writer of this report on the occasion of the census of 1886, and renewed in 1891. The importance of affording the means of distinguishing persons in business from wage-earners is obvious, besides being absolutely essential to an improved classification of occupations.

* The names of the members of the Conference were as under: H. H. Hayter, C.M.G., late Government Statist (Victoria), since deceased; R.M. Johnston, F.L.S., Government Statistician (Tasmania); T.A. Coghlan, A.M.I.C.E., then Government Statistician (New South Wales); H.J. Andrews, then Under-Secretary (South Australia); E.J. von Dadelszen, then Deputy Registrar-General(New Zealand). Consulting member: E.C. Nowell, formerly Government Statistician Tasmania.

The Conference also arranged for bringing out the occupations of the people in seven groups of ages, instead of merely distinguishing the number of each sex under and over 20 years of age as formerly. (The full details will be found in the census volume.) A desire that this should be done was intimated by the Imperial authorities in the year 1889.

The full description of the arrangement of occupations in the seven classes used under the new method is as follows:—

CLASSES OF OCCUPATION AGREED UPON BY THE AUSTRALASIAN CENSUS CONFERENCE HELD AT HOBART, MARCH, 1890, AND USED AT THE CENSUSES OF APRIL, 1891, AND 1896, IN NEW ZEALAND.

  1. PROFESSIONAL (Andrici, Farr).—Embracing all persons mainly engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the higher intellectual and moral requirements and the special social wants, not included in the material services rendered by other classes hereafter specified or classed.

  2. DOMESTIC.—Embracing all persons engaged in rendering personal services, and in the supply of board and lodging for which remuneration is usually paid.

  3. COMMERCIAL (Trade and Transport, United States Census, 1881; Agorici, Farr).—Embracing all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials, but who as a rule do not effect any material change in the nature of the objects which pass through their hands.

  4. INDUSTRIAL (part of the Technici of Farr).—Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, who are principally engaged in various works of utility or in specialties connected with the construction, modification, or alteration of materials, so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding as far as possible all who are engaged mainly or solely in the service of interchange.

  5. AGRICULTURAL, PASTORAL, MINERAL, and other PRIMARY PRODUCERS (Georgici, and part of the Technici, of Farr).—Embracing all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources.

  6. INDEFINITE.—Embracing all persons who derive their income from services rendered, but the direction of which services cannot be exactly determined.

  7. DEPENDENTS.—Embracing all persons dependent upon relatives or natural guardians, including wives, children, and relatives not otherwise engaged in pursuits for which remuneration is usually paid, and all persons supported by private or public charity, or dependent upon the public revenue.

It will be noticed that in the professional class are included persons described as “officers of Government;” but the numbers given under this heading in the subsequent tables do not represent the whole number employed by the Government, the principle adopted having been to complete the other groups where the scheme of classification required it, rather than to show completely all persons paid by Government. Thus, Postal and Telegraph officers are classified in the group “Transport of Passengers, Goods, or Communications,” belonging to Class III. Railway employés are similarly dealt with. The full statement of persons paid by Government but not dealt with in Order 1 would include some or all under each of the following headings: Persons connected with defence, law courts, penal establishments and police, charitable or benevolent institutions, hospitals and lunatic asylums, museums, education, life insurance, railways, harbours, lighthouses, post and telegraph; also civil engineers, electricians, surveyors and assistants, architects and draughtsmen, printers and binders in the Government Printing Office, and artisans, in Government railway workshops. It is highly important that persons making use of the tabulated results of the information as to occupations should be aware of and bear in mind the above facts.

The numbers under “Commerce” and “Industry” include all persons whose occupations were sufficiently defined to enable them to be classified in connection with the industry in which they are engaged. Many, chiefly those whose employment was of the nature of unskilled clerical assistance, while entering “clerk” under the heading “Occupation,” did not state in what trade or industry they were employed. These, of course, could not be allotted to any special industry. Those engaged as agents or assistants in any occupation belonging to Classes III. to VI. have been, generally speaking, included with the principals. All persons stated as both producers and dealers or sellers have been classed as producers only, under Class V. All persons stated to be both manufacturers and dealers have been grouped as makers under Class IV. Persons out of employment are included under their ordinary or former occupations. Inmates of hospitals, asylums, industrial schools, and refuges, together with all persons in gaols, have not been classed according to their ordinary occupations, but in Class VII., as part of the dependent population.

The difficulty of tabulating the occupations of the people shown in the census is certainly lessened by the introduction of the card system; but there remains an unsatisfactoriness in the work on account of the different ways in which people return themselves when their occupation is virtually the same, and the number of instances in which unskilled labour is not defined as having to do with the industry on which it is temporarily employed. These causes prevent the published results horn being what they ought to be, even with perfect care in the compilation-work. The basis of such work is often enough faulty or incomplete, and it is impossible to remedy the defect. One man may be “a carter at brewery,” and returns himself accordingly. Another omits the words “at brewery,” and thus the total number of persons employed in the brewing business becomes deficient. As continual instances of these irregularities are found, it arises that the census industrial statistics often differ materially as to “hands employed” from the results brought out under the head of “Occupation ” in regard to labourers and others attached to various industries. The numbers being brought out for no less than seven groups of ages will afford evidence of what occupations the rising generation is mostly taking to.

NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS IN THE CLASSES.

The population, specified as to occupation, is divided into two sections—

 Totals.Males.Females.
Breadwinners292,932239,86253,070
Dependents, or non-breadwinners408,735130,729278,006
Occupation not stated1,693824869

The dependent population consists chiefly of wives, relatives, and others employed in household duties but unpaid, children, persons supported by charity, &c. Its proportion to the whole increases with the process going on of equalization in numbers of the sexes.

The male breadwinners were nearly twice as numerous as the male dependents, who were mostly under fifteen years of age, but the female dependents were more than five times as many as the breadwinners of that sex.

Breadwinners are divided into the six classes previously alluded to:—

Primary Producers.—Males, 103,018; females, 3,114. This is the most important class numerically. It includes persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits, fishing, and mining.

Males 27.80, females 0.94 per cent. of population of either sex.

Industrial.—Males, 68,571; females, 13,243: persons engaged in manufacture or other processes where materials are employed combined.

Males 18.50, females 4.00 per cent.

Commercial.—Males, 46,262; females, 4,118. Persons engaged in trade (males 24,703, females 3,364) are most numerous. Transport comes next (males 16,612, females 325). In finance or property: males 4,031, females 429. In storage, males 916.

The commercial group forms 12.48 per cent. of the male and 1.24 per cent. of the female population.

Professional.—Males, 11,999; females, 7,247. These are persons, not otherwise classed, engaged in Government, defence, law and order, or ministering to religion, charity, health, education, art, science, or amusement.

Males 3.24, females 2.19 per cent.

Domestic (but directly earning money).—Males, 5,880; females, 22,930: persons supplying board and lodging, or personal services for which payment is rendered.

Males 1.59, females 6.93 per cent.

Indefinite.—Males, 4,134; females, 2,418: persons living on incomes earned in the past, or indefinitely described.

Males 1.11, females 0.73 per cent.

The population of each class, and the proportion per cent. of the total population, are tabulated below:—

 Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total population703,360371,415331,945100.00100.00100.00
Section A.-Breadwinners.      
Class I. Professional19,24611,9997,2472.743.242.19
Class. II. Domestic28,8105,88022,9304.111.596.93
Class. III. Commercial—      
Sub-class A. Property and Finance4,4604,0314290.641.090.13
Sub-class B. Trade28,06724,7033,3644.006.661.01
Sub-class C. Storage916916...0.130.250.00
Sub-class D. Transport and Communication16,93716,6123252.414.480.10
Class. IV. Industrial81,81468,57113,24311.6618.504.00
Class. V. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—      
Sub-class A. Agricultural73,22170,4882,73310.4419.020.83
Sub-class B. Pastoral10,0799,7063731.442.620.11
Sub-class C. Mineral18,59018,58372.655.020.00
Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers4,2404,23910.601.140.00
VI. Indefinite6,5524,1342,4180.931.110.73
Section B.—Non-breadwinners (Dependents).      
Class VII. Dependents—      
Sub-class A. Dependent on natural guardians402,927127,211275,71657.4234.3383.28
Sub-class B. Dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support5,8083,5182,2900.830.950.69
Occupations not stated1,693824869.........

No less than 35.28 per cent. of the male population are shown to be dependent, and 83.97 per cent. of the females. These consist of 127,211 males and 275,716 females dependent upon natural guardians; and 3,518 males and 2,290 females, persons dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support. The greater number of those dependent upon natural guardians are scholars and students. There are also a large number of dependent relatives who were not stated to be performing domestic duties, and, of females, many persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid.

EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED

The breadwinners of the colony are also classified according to the grade of their occupations, by which means the entire population can be brought under six heads:—

 Males.Per Cent. of Breadwinners.Females.Per Cent. of Breadwinners.
Employers28,81812.021,6273.06
Independent workers42,59917.765,73110.80
Wage-earners132,72755.3337,16870.04
Unemployed14,7596.152,6374.97
Relatives assisting and not specified20,9598.745,90711.13
Breadwinners239,862100.0053,070100.00
Dependents130,729278,006
Not stated824869
Totals371,415331,945

The proportion of the male breadwinners who are employers (12.02 per cent.) is nearly the same as in 1891 (11.98 per cent.). On the female side the proportion of employers was 3.06 per cent, at both censuses. Male wage-earners, employed or unemployed, were 61.48 per cent., against 58.10 per cent, in 1891. Female wage-earners, whether in work or not, were 75.01 per cent, in 1896, but only 61.53 per cent. in 1891, indicating a growing use of female labour.

The proportion of employers in New Zealand does not differ much from the rates obtaining in three of the neighbouring colonies in 1891.

Employers.Males per cent. of Breadwinners.Females per Cent. of Breadwinners.
New Zealand (1896)12.023.06
New South Wales (1891)14.223.53
Victoria (1891)10.192.68
Tasmania (1891)10.702.98

THE UNEMPLOYED.

The unemployed male population in New Zealand in April, 1896, formed 6.15 per cent. of the breadwinners. The proportions for the two principal Australian Colonies in 1891 were not much lower:—

Unemployed Males per 100 of Male Breadwinners.

New South Wales (1891)5.11
Victoria (1891)5.25
New Zealand (1896)6.15

Of the unemployed—

4,060 are found in Order 20: Industrial workers imperfectly defined (chiefly general labourers).

3,916 in Order 21 (2,174 agricultural, 537 pastoral, 935 mining, gold, coal, &c., 196 bushmen, and 74 fishermen and others).

1,511 in Order 19: Road- and railway-works labourers, &c.

905 in Order 13: Road, railway, tram, or sea and river traffic.

887 in Order 14: Manufacturers of tools, implements, furniture, carriages, &c.

516 in Order 11: General dealers.

440 in Order 18: Workers in metals, &c. (foundry hands, &c.).

383 in Order 15: Workers in textile fabrics and dress.

327 in Order 16: Workers in drinks, narcotics, and stimulants.

319 in Order 7: Dealers in drinks, narcotics, and stimulants,—

The balance being fairly evenly distributed over the remaining Orders of Occupations.

Of the regular agricultural workers, only three in every hundred were found to be unemployed.

It is in the industrial class, not the primary producers from the land, that by far the largest proportion of unemployed to the total of the class will be found. On the whole class the proportion was 11.44 per cent. of males and 5.66 of females. The proportion was high among general and road labourers, printers and bookbinders, boilermakers and fitters, coachbuilders and wheelwrights, shipwrights, cabinetmakers and upholsterers, tailors, bookmakers, blacksmiths, stonemasons and bricklayers, carpenters, plasterers, house-painters, and plumbers.

Generally, the results of the investigation into the occupations of the people agree with the result of the inquiry into the development of manufactures and works, which is given further on in this report (Appendix B). It is found in regard to industries that spring directly from land settlement, such as butter and cheese-making, meat-freezing, and sawing of timber, the development since 1801 was considerable; but in regard to some industries, like iron foundries, coachbuilding, shipbuilding, &c., the results were in some cases not very good. The occupation tables show that there was a considerable number of persons unemployed at the time of the census who belonged to such callings, including the building and allied trades. The exact number of the 17,496 persons unemployed, belonging to each specific occupation, will be found in the Census volume, p. 332.

GRADES OF OCCUPATIONS.

The numbers and proportions of persons of each sex in the different classes of occupation, divided according to grade—i.e., employers, independent workers, wage-earners, unemployed, and relatives assisting, are given in the two following statements:&

OCCUPATIONS.—EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED.

 Males.Females.
Occupations.Employers.In Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Males.Employers.In Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for wages Wages or Salary.Wage earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Females.
Section A.-Breadwinners.            
I. Professional9371,7338,76332124511,999429705,4293414657,247
II. Domestic1,2866633,4702452165,88030478419,7111,42470722,930
III. Commercial—            
A. Property and Finance4121,0472,287632224,0313121415..169429
B. Trade3,8334,20014,7461,21471024,7031898391,646666243,364
C. Storage48417516313916............
D. Transport and Communication4321,17413,92990517216,6126329899325
IV. Industrial6,2355,39747,9737,8461,12068,5714941,7499,88775036319,243
V. Primary Producers—            
A. Agricultural13,27116,76422,9362,17415,34370,48850357479..1,5572,733
B. Pastoral1,2307126,7875374409,7064777912156373
C. Mineral4239,4967,41693531318,5834......87
D. Other Primary Producers1965183,183270724,239........11
VI. Indefinite5158544861862,0934,134752112451,8332,418
Totals28,81842,599132,72714,75920,959239,8621,6275,73137,1682,6375,90753,070
Section B.—Dependents (Non-breadwinners).            
VII. Dependents—            
A. On Natural Guardians..........127,211..........275,716
B. On the State or Public Charity..........3,518..........2,290
Not stated..........824..........331,945
Totals..........371,415..........331,945

OCCUPATIONS.—PROPORTION OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED IN EACH CLASS.

 Males.Females.
Occupations.Employers.In Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for Wages or Salary.Wage earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Males.Employers.In Business on own Account but not employing other Persons.Working for wages Wages or Salary.Wage earners unemployed.Relatives assisting but not receiving Wages, and Others undescribed.Total Females.
Section A.-Breadwinners.            
I. Professional7.8114.4473.032.682.04100.000.5813.3874.914.716.42100.00
II. Domestic21.8711.2859.014.173.67100.001.333.4285.966.213.08100.00
III. Commercial—            
A. Property and Finance10.2225.9756.741.565.51100.007.2349.883.5039.39100.00 
B. Trade15.5217.0059.694.922.87100.005.6224.9448.931.9618.55100.00
C. Storage5.244.4781.996.881.42100.00............
D. Transport and Communication2.607.0783.855.451.03100.001.850.9291.692.772.77100.00
IV. Industrial9.097.8769.9611.441.64100.003.7313.2174.665.662.74100.00
V. Primary Producers—            
A. Agricultural18.3323.7832.543.0821.77100.0018.4121.002.80..57.70100.00
B. Pastoral12.677.3469.935.534.53100.0012.6020.6424.400.5441.82100.00
C. Mineral2.2851.1039.915.031.68100.0057.14......42.86100.00
D. Other Primary Producers4.6212.2275.096.371.70100.00........100.00100.00
VI. Indefinite12.4620.6611.754.5050.63100.000.2921.550.491.8675.81100.00
Totals12.0117.7655.346.158.74100.003.0610.8070.044.9711.13100.00

The classes are divided into 24 orders, which again are divided into 108 sub-orders. The items of the sub-orders are the specific occupations. In the succeeding tables each specific occupation is given according to the classification, and explanatory notes showing the unskilled assistance and other particulars included with the numbers for the various industries, &c. The totals of the orders and sub-orders precede the figures for the items contained in each sub-order.

An alphabetical arrangement of specific occupations shown in the census is added at the end of this report.

Chapter 47. CLASS I.—PROFESSIONAL.

ORDER 1.&PERSONS engaged in GOVERNMENT (not otherwise classed), DEFENCE, LAW, and PROTECTION.

0.95 per cent. of total male population.

0.01 per cent. of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Officers of General Government (not otherwise classed)7272980121012813
2. Officers of local Government1539541022412
3. Persons ministering to defence7309316316
4. Persons ministering to law and order2401,7712,011425292,040
Totals, Order 1, 18963343,2043,538637433,581
Totals, Order 1, 18912272,8003,027119203,047

The first sub-order consists of persons occupied in connection with Government whom it was not necessary to allot to other classes in carrying out the principle of classification. Hence the total number does not by any means represent the full number of persons employed by Government. It is a residue left after completing other groups—for instance, that of transport and communications, to which is carried the number of persons engaged in railways, telegraph, telephone, and postal service, although the employes in these services are paid by Government. Similarly with offices of local bodies, but to a less extent.

It has been asked why the full number of persons employed by Government is not given. But the classification is not intended to show any such result, and the census is not the proper source from which to look for such information. It could not be given by means of the census, for the word “Government” is constantly omitted by the householders in describing occupations. When the total number of persons employed by Government is wanted, it is found necessary ill all colonies to have a special return compiled from departmental sources, distinguishing “permanent” from “temporary” employment.

The full details of the specific occupations in the order are given. In Sub-order 4 the barristers and solicitors will be found to number 604, against 571 in 1891. Law clerks increased from 491 to 591 in five years, but law students decreased from 44 to 34.

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—General Government.   
The Governor11..
Cabinet Minister (not otherwise described)66..
Member of Parliament (not otherwise described)77..
Officer of Government Department (not otherwise denned)79978712
Sub-order 2.-Local Government.   
Officer of local body4054032
Others (including mayors or members of local bodies whose ordinary occupation is not stated)77..
Sub-order 3.—Defence.   
Permanent Militia officer in actual service2626..
Permanent Militia non-commissioned officer, private187187..
Naval officer in actual service77..
Naval petty officer, sailor1111..
Others (including Militia or Volunteer officer whose ordinary occupation is not stated) (1)8585..
Sub-order 4.—Law and Order.   
Judge (Chief Justice, and Judges of the Supreme, District, and Native Land Court)1818..
Law-court officer (Supreme, District, Magistrate, and Native Land Court official)113113..
Magistrate1818..
Barrister241241..
Solicitor363363..
Law-clerk59157714
Law-student3434..
Others connected with the law (2)4444..
Police491491..
Penal officer (3)12310815
Others: private detective44..
 M.F.
(1) Drill instructor120
Drill caretaker10
Engineer, Torpedo Corps30
Magazine keeper30
Permanent Milltia clerk120
Soldier10
Torpedo-man390
Volunteer officer140
(2) Judge's associate, secretary, &c.100
Justice of the Peace70
Law-writer and others connected with the law70
(3) Chief warder50
Gaoler200
Matron013
Penal officer80
Prisons officer32
Warder and assistant780

ORDER 2.—PERSONS ministering to RELIGION, CHARITY, HEALTH, SCIENCE, EDUCATION, and ART.

2.28 per cent, of total male population.

2.18 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over20.Totals.Under20.Over20.Totals.
1. Persons ministering to religion71,0931,10082092171,317
2. Persons ministering to charity (exclusive of hospitals)229317132139170
3. Persons ministering to health2701,4541,724341,6691,7033,427
4. Persons connected with literature16469485123850535
5. Persons connected with science4697313477
6. Persons engaged in civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, and surveying901,3581,4481,448
7. Persons connected with education2341,7501,9848032,8883,6915,675
8. Persons connected with fine arts6647454074229303843
9. Persons connected with music153333481268741,0001,348
10. Persons connected with amusements187541728475097825
Totals; Order 2, 18968917,5708,4611,1126,0927,20415,665
Totals, Order 2, 18917776,2787,0551,0014,7185,71912,774

In Sub-order 1 the number of the clergy is given as 777. In 1891 the number returned was 732. Besides the regular clergy, there were 11 Mormon missionaries and 221 Salvation Army officers, of whom 112 were females; also, 17 evangelists, 52 missionaries (11 women), and 45 preachers. The number of the clergy on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is 885, and the denominations to which they belong are as under:—

NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS, 1897.

Denomination.No.
Church of England289
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand114
Roman Catholic Church139
Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland84
Wesleyan Methodist Church142
Congregational Independents18
Baptists23
Primitive Methodist Connexion29
Lutheran Church12
Hebrew Congregations6
Church of Christ10
Independent Wesleyan1
Disciples of Christ1
Brethren1
The New Church1
The Forward Movement1
Salvation Army8
Catholic Apostolic Church2
Seventh-day Adventists3
The Brotherhood Church1
Total885

There were 25 theological students, 72 church officers, such as sextons and others, 82 members of religious orders not ministering to charity or education; and 15 others complete the group.

Included in Sub-order 3 are 411 medical men in practice, against 362 returned in 1891. (The number of medical practitioners registered in the colony is 651, including 79 whose addresses are not known and 113 who have left New Zealand.) Medical students numbered 48. There were 82 persons who are grouped in the detailed tables as irregular medical practitioners, including, among others, 5 Chinese doctors, 31 herbalists and 11 assistants. 11 medical galvanists,5 homœopathists, and 19 vendors of medicine. Dentists numbered 275 (including apprentices), against 145 in 1891. Pharmaceutical chemists and assistants were 656, against 530 at the previous census. The number of midwives, monthly nurses, and sick-nurses was 1,108, and of veterinary surgeons 65.

The full details in this order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Religion.   
Clergyman777777..
Irregular clergy (1)346222124
Theological student2525..
Church officer (2)72684
Members of religious order not classed as ministering to charity or education82181
Others connected with religion (3)1578
Sub-order 2.—Charity (exclusive of Hospitals).   
Officer or servant of charitable or benevolent institutions1303199
Sister of charity40..40
Sub-order 3.—Health.
Medical man in practice411411..
Medical student48417
Irregular medical practitioner (4)826913
Dentist, including apprentice (5)27525916
Pharmaceutical chemist, druggist, and assistant (6)65663521
Hospital or asylum officer, nurse, or attendant (7)739228511
Midwife, monthly nurse718..718
Sick-nurse3904386
Veterinary surgeon65641
Medical assistant, masseur, masseuse, &c.431330
Sub-order 4.—Literature.   
Author, editor, journalist36935514
Reporter, shorthand writer1028121
Interpreter48462
Others (typewriters, &c.)16313
Sub-order 5.—Science.   
Analytical chemist (8)17161
Assayer, metallurgist1010..
Geologist, mineralogist77..
Naturalist, biologist, botanist1313..
Others (9)30273
Sub-order 6.—Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, and Surveying.   
Civil engineer232232..
Civil engineer's assistant, clerk, cadet2424..
Directing or consulting mechanical engineer (10)8484..
Electrician (not connected with telegraph or telephone service)1717..
Surveyor335335..
Surveyor's assistant, chainman, cadet, labourer415415..
Architect165165..
Architect's assistant (11)3131..
Draughtsman (undefined, engineer's, surveyor's, architect's, railway)145145..
 M.F.
(1) Evangelist161
Missionary4111
Missionary Mormon110
Preacher450
Salvation Army officer109112
(2) Caretaker, church121
Church officer193
Sexton and assistant370
(3) Agent, N.Z. Tract Society10
Others connected with religion68
(4) Chinese doctor50
Herbalist265
Herbalist assistant to101
Homoeopathy41
Medical galvanist and assistant83
Vendor of medicine, and others163
(5) Dentist1647
Dentist's apprentice949
Dentist's clerk10
(6) Apprentice651
Chemist, druggist52810
Clerk131
Dispenser70
Dispenser's assistant01
Messenger60
Salesman160
(7) Hospital— Clerk41
Cook723
Dispenser60
Dresser10
Matron, attendant, servant16312
Nurse069
Officer240
Porter160
Secretary80
Steward40
Warder190
Lunatic Asylum— Clerk, accountant70
Cook, baker52
Messenger20
Warder, attendant109103
Proprietor of private hospital01
(8) Analytical chemist160
Analytical chemist student01
(9) Conchologist10
Museum assistant, curator, clerk140
Phrenologist113
Zymologist10
(10) Mechanical engineer830
Mechanical engineer apprentice10
(11) Architect's assistant190
Architect's assistant apprentice40
Architect's assistant clerk80
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 7.—Education.   
Officer of Education Department (1)63621
University professor, demonstrator, lecturer, 'c. (2)48471
Schoolmaster, mistress, teacher (3)4,6871,7732,914
Tutor, governess51325488
Teacher of languages or other accomplishment, not art or music1112487
Others (4)25353200
Sub-order 8,—Fine Arts.   
Artist, painter, art student300147153
Sculptor1515..
Engraver4040..
Photographer and assistant464321143
Others (5)24177
Sub-order 9.—Music.   
Musician, vocalist20513768
Music teacher1,107182925
Others (organist, chorister, student of music)36297
Sub-order 10.—Amusements.   
Actor, actress1667789
Theatre proprietor, lessee, manager, doorkeeper, ticket-taker (6)36351
Racecourse ranger, caretaker, secretary1818..
Jockey361361..
Cricket-ground, bowling-green, tennis-court, caretaker, professional player1111..
Billiard-table proprietor, keeper, marker107107...
Others (7)1261197
 M.F.
(1) Cadet31
Cleric120
Inspector of Schools380
Officer of Education Department60
Secretary of Education Board130
(2) Anatomist01
University professor, lecturer470
(3) Probationer14314
Pupil-teacher112276
Schoolmaster, mistress, teacher1,0822,624
(4) Lady Superintendent, School of Domestic Instruction01
Member of religious community (teaching)31176
Prioress of religious community (teaching)05
School caretaker, cleaner115
School caretaker manager10
School caretaker matron07
Secretary Grammar School10
Student Normal School41
Teacher of dancing03
Teacher of deaf-mutes10
Teacher of navigation20
Truant Officer20
(5) Principal, School of Arts10
Teacher of painting, drawing167
(6) Theatre proprietor, lessee, manager1
Doorkeeper, ticket-taker50
(7) Bookmaker360
Circus hand90
Handicapper10
Huntsman110
Professor of dancing10
Professional athlete112
Professional club swinger10
Pugilist10
Showman, lecturer335
Stage machinist and artist10
Starter at races30
Teacher of swimming10
Totalisator proprietor10
Tourist agent and clerk50
Whip to huntsman10
Others30

Chapter 48. CLASS II. —DOMESTIC.

ORDER 3.—PERSONS engaged in the SUPPLY of BOARD and LODGING, and in rendering PERSONAL SERVICE for which Remuneration is usually paid.

1.59 per cent. of total male population.

6.93 per cent. of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over20.Totals.Under20.Over20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging1141,8571,9711681,2101,3783,349
2. Persons engaged in attendance9542,9553,9098,40013,15221,55225,461
Totals, Order 3, 18961,0684,8125,8808,56814,36222,93028,810
Totals, Order 3, 18919874,5505,5377,76511,62619,39124,928

Details of occupations in the foregoing sub-orders were:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.-Board and Lodging   
Hotelkeeper, innkeeper (1)2,1211,558563
Coffee-house, restaurant, eating-house keeper (2)18111269
Board-and-lodging-house keeper (3)986244742
Manager, secretary, steward of club-house35323
Others (4)26251
Sub-order 2.-Attendance.   
Domestic servant17,7911,07316,718
Housekeeper8954891
Hotel, club, coffee-palace, restaurant servants (5)3,4201,2182,202
Barman, barmaid406196210
Companion, lady-help3872385
Porter, gatekeeper50473
Charwoman, cleaner2264222
Barber, hairdresser (6)5225184
Laundryman, washerwoman92772855
Cook (not hotel or domestic servant)43740433
Watchman8888..
Caretaker, attendant, office-boy27725819
Others (7)352510

The total number of persons engaged in or connected with the sale or manufacture of wine, beer, spirits, cordials, &c., is found to be returned as under:—

 Males.Females.Persons.
Hotelkeeper1,3342041,538
Relative assisting157348505
Manager, clerk671178
Hotel, club, &c., servant1,1362,0753,211
Manager, secretary, steward, of club-house32335
Barman, barmaid196210406
Wine, spirits, ale, merchant4343
Assistant516
Clerk, bookkeeper, accountant, traveller, storeman4444
Cordial, &c., merchant, salesman55
Brewer, bottler2344238
Manager, clerk, traveller5353
Relative assisting, apprentice1818
Cellarman, assistant, carter, &c.1511152
Maltster and assistants118118
Distiller, bottler22
Wine-maker,-bottler99
cordial, &c., maker2936299
Clerk, bookkeeper, traveller66
Totals3,9032,8636,766
 M.F.
(1) Hotelkeeper1,334204
Hotel clerk254
Hotel manager427
Hotel relative assisting157270
Hotelkeeper, wife assisting078
(2) Coffee-house, restaurant keeper8945
Relative assisting2120
Temperance hotel clerk24
(5) Board-and-lodging-house keeper226627
Relative assisting18101
Wife assisting014
(4) Caterer80
Sailors' home servant, steward, &c.171
(5) Coffee-palace, restaurant servant82127
Club servant4323
Hotel cook201245
Hotel servant8921,808
(6) Barber, hairdresser4753
Hairdresser's apprentice60
Hairdresser's assistant371
(7) Bath attendant121
Bath keeper40
Bath proprietor22
Custodian, Women's Christian Temperance Union02
Shoeblack10
Tourist guide63

Chapter 49. CLASS III.—COMMERCIAL.

SUB-CLASS A.—PROPERTY AND FINANCE.

ORDER 4.-PERSONS performing Offices in connection with the EXCHANGE, VALUATION, INSURANCE, LEASE, LOAN, or CUSTODY of MONEY, HOUSES, LAND, or PROPERTY-RIGHTS.

1.09 per cent. of total male population.

0.13 per cent. of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20.Over20.Totals.Under20.Over20.Totals.
1. Persons performing offices in connection with banking and finance1681,5821,750355581,808
2. Persons performing offices in connection with insurance and valuation1681,0041,1722681,180
3. Persons performing offices in connection with land and household property211,0801,10113623631,464
4. Parsons performing offices in connection with property-rights not otherwise classed178.........8
Totals, Order 4, 18963583,6734,03164234294,460
Totals, Order 4, 18913243,0903,41433393423,756

Details of the Sub -orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Banking and Finance.   
Banker, bank director, manager204204..
Officer, clerk8908882
Building society, savings-bank director, manager, officer, clerk (1)2323..
Share and stock broker, dealer, jobber, speculator, mining agent3433421
Moneybroker, financier, capitalist (2)29424153
Pawnbroker (3)31292
Bank messenger2323..
Sub-order 2.—Insurance and Valuation.   
Manager, director, agent of insurance company (4)7577507
Actuary, average-stater3232..
Underwriter2020..
Auctioneer, appraiser, valuer (5)3623611
Friendly, benefit society officer11..
Official Trade Assignee (6)88..
Sub-order 3.—Land and Household Property.   
Land owner, proprietor speculator594437157
Land, estate agent (7)2462442
Others connected with dealings in land (8)651
House proprietor582379203
House agent (9)3434..
Others22..
Sub-order 4.-Property-rights not otherwise Classed.   
Patentee, owner of trade-mark, design, &c.22..
Patent agent, trade-marks agent66..
 M.F.
(1) Building society—  
Accountant, clerk60
Manager, secretary80
Savings-bank accountant, clerk, manager90
(2) Accountant, loan company130
Capitalist, financier, money-broker18552
Financial agent191
Manager, secretary, financial company240
awnbroke212
assistant to80
(4) Accountant, insurance company190
Agent2414
Cadet100
Canvasser, traveller173
Clerk3480
Manager, director1020
Messenger20
Office-boy10
Secretary100
(5) Auctioneer, valuer2050
Accountant, bookkeeper, cashier1190
Assistant91
Manager30
Salesman50
Storeman200
(6) Official or Trade Assignee60
Clerk to Official Assignee10
Deputy Assignee in Bankruptcy10
(7) Land or estate agent, broker1991
Bookkeeper to, clerk331
Native Land Agent120
(8) Office-boy to Land, &c,10
Office Others connected with dealings in land41
(9) House agent310
Assistant, clerk30

SUB—CLASS B.—TRADE

[These, it must be remembered, are dealers only, not makers. The exclusion of the latter, and compliance with, the rule of grouping persons stated to be both manufacturers and dealers as makers under Class IV., leaves some very small numbers, such as watch- and clock-dealers, 3, in Sub-order 7; while the watch- and clock-makers number 506 in Class IV.]

ORDER 5.—PERSONS leading in ART or MECHANICAL PRODUCTIONS in which Matters of various Kinds are employed in Combination.

0.43 per cent. of total male population.

0.06 per cent. of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20OverTotals. 20
1. Persons dealing in books, publications, and advertising12440052454146570
2. Persons dealing in musical instruments124759371069
3. Persons dealing in prints, pictures, and art-materials22628..2230
4. Persons dealing in ornaments, minor art-products, and small wares148397216788185
6. Type, designs, medals, and dies..11......1
7. Persons dealing in watches, clocks, and scientific instruments..22..113
10. Persons dealing in machines, tools, and implements699105167112
11. Carriages and vehicles21416......16
12. Persons dealing in harness, saddlery, and leatherware32427......27
13. Persons dealing in ships, boats, and marine stores72633..1134
14. Persons dealing in building-materials and house-fittings48337385......385
15. Persons dealing in furniture7647114576
16. Persons dealing in chemicals and by-products43539..1140
17. Persons dealing in paper and paper makers' materials51153204101828232
Totals, Order 5, 18962801,3111,591411481891,780
Totals, Order 5,18912491,0721,321301531831,504

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Books, Publications, and Advertising.   
Bookseller, book-canvasser, &c. (1)28425628
Book-lender, librarian (2)614516
Advertising agent, billsticker, bill distributor2727..
News agent, newspaper seller (3)1871861
Others11101
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical instruments dealer, assistant (4)695910
Sub-order 3.—Prints. Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Picture dealer1091
Art. photographic materials dealer, importer17161
Picture-frame dealer33..
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Basketware, wickerware dealer11..
Fancy goods dealer (5)1718586
Toys and minor art-products dealer871
Others (6)541
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Designs, patterns, medals, type, and dies dealer11..
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, and Scientific Instruments.   
Watches and clocks dealer321
Sub-order 10.—Machines, Tools, and Implements   
Agricultural machinery and implements dealer (7)1313..
Sewing-machines dealer (8)86797
Other machines, tools, and implements dealer (9)99..
Others44..
Sub-order 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.   
Perambulator, wheel-chair, bicycle dealer1616..
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.   
Harness and saddlery dealer (10)1414..
Saddlers' ironmongery dealer66..
Leatherware dealer33 
Clerk to leather dealer44..
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and Marine Stores.   
Ships and boats dealer66..
Other marine stores dealer, ship-chandler (11)28271
Sub-order 14.—Building Materials and House-fittings.   
Oil and colourman, paperhangings, wall-paper seller (12)3737..
Timber merchant (13)348348
Sub-order 15.—Furniture.   
Furniture dealer, hirer (14)76715
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Chemical by-products dealer11..
Others (15)39381
Sub-order 17.—Paper, Paper-makers' Materials.   
Paper dealer1313..
Stationer (16)21718928
Rag, waste-paper dealer22..
 M.F.
(1) Agent, book-canvasser274
Apprentice to bookseller50
Assistant to bookseller5315
Bookseller1489
Clerk to bookseller110
Shop-boy to bookseller60
Traveller to bookseller60
(2) Librarian3514
Assistant librarian102
(3) News agent, news-vendor1430
News agent, clerk17I
News-boy250
Relative assisting news-vendor10
(4) Musical instrument dealer262
Assistant music-shop166
Clerk to music-seller20
Salesman, saleswoman152
(5) Assistant to Taney goods dealer1415
Clerk to fancy goods dealer50
Fancy goods dealer3843
Salesman, saleswoman1437
Storeman40
Traveller101
(6) Curio dealer01
Others40
(7) Agricultural implement dealer110
Traveller20
(8) Agent, sewing-machines290
Clerk, sewing-machine company60
In sewing-machine shop65
Manager, sewing-machine company60
Sewing-machine dealer92
Traveller, canvasser230
(9) Agent, machinery50
Other machine, tools, &c, dealer40
(10) Harness and saddlery dealer80
Clerk20
Salesman30
Traveller10
(11) Clerk to ship-chandler10
Marine stores dealer341
Salesman to ship-chandler20
(12) Clerk to oil and colour merchant30
Oil and colour man250
Salesman90
(13) Agent for timber company90
Assisting timber merchant140
Clerk660
Labourer in timber-yard880
Manager, timber trade100
Measurer, timber trade30
Order-man, timber trade20
Salesman timber trade260
Timber carter110
Timber merchant1190
(14) Clerk, furniture house90
Furniture dealer391
Salesman, saleswoman234
(15) Assistant in drug warehouse171
Clerk in drug warehouse60
Traveller for wholesale druggist150
(16) Stationer10313
Stationer's apprentice30
Stationer's assistant6115
Stationer's Clerk190
Stationer's traveller30

ORDER 6.—PERSONS engaged in the SALE, HIRE, or EXCHANGE of TEXTILE FABRICS and DRESS, and of FIBROUS MATERIALS.

0.89 per cent, of total male population.

0.26 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of textile fabrics7432,2122,9552144967103,665
2. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of dress652743394298140479
3. Persons engaged in the sale, hire, or exchange of fibrous materials 1414 4418
Totals, Order 6, 18968082,5003,3082565988544,162
Totals, Order 6, 18916262,0082,6341323785103,144

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub order 1.—Textile Fabrics.   
Manchester warehouseman (1)1,1711,08289
Draper, linen, woollen draper (2)2,4741,855619
Silk dealer, mercer1515..
Others (3)532
Sub-order 2.—Dress.   
Clothes dealer, outfitter, slop-seller (4)1099118
Hosier, glover, hatter, haberdasher (5)916724
Shoe, boot dealer (6)24017565
Umbrella, parasol, stick dealer11..
Second-hand clothes dealer954
Others (saleswoman at milliner's)29..29
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.   
Tent, tarpaulin dealer18144
 M.F.
(1) Agent, soft-goods store60
Assistant in warehouse773
Apprentice, soft-goods warehouse71
Buyer10
Clerk1395
Inspector and auditor, soft-goods store10
Manchester warehouseman1331
Manager, soft-goods warehouse120
Packer122
Salesman, saleswoman35375
Storeman, storewoman612
Traveller650
Warehouseman (undefined)2150
2) Assistant to draper744417
Apprentice to draper667
Boy340
Clerk6430
Draper878120
Manager12
Porter140
Relative assisting1141
Shopwalker100
Traveller272
(3) Draper's machinist08
Others30
(4) Clothes dealer, outfitter525
Clothier's apprentice10
Clothier's assistant167
Clothier's errand-boy30
Clothier's manager20
Clothier's salesman, saleswoman176
(5) Hosier, hatter, &c.6114
Hosier, assistant to610
(6) Clerk to shoe and hoot dealer31
Errand-boy to shoe and boot dealer80
Manager40
Relative assisting410
Salesman, saleswoman8748
Shoe, boot dealer656
Traveller40

ORDER 7.—PERSONS engaged in Dealing in FOOD, DRINKS, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

2.02 per cent, of total male population.

0.21 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in animal food8173,2534,070351101454,215
2. Persons engaged in dealing in vegetable food1489621,110632573201,430
3. Persons engaged in dealing in drinks, narcotics, and stimulants6691,6482,317321872192,536
Totals, Order 7, 18961,6345,8637,4971305546848,181
Totals, Order 7, 18911,5284,9506,4781034545577,035

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.   
Milk-seller, dairyman (1)64055981
Butcher, meat salesman (2)3,1793,14336
Provision dealer26215
Poulterer, game dealer23212
Fishmonger, fish-hawker, oyster, shell-fish dealer (3)31729621
Others (4)3030..
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.   
Corn, flour, meal merchant, dealer (5)3193154
Bread and biscuit dealer (6)14511827
Confectionery, pastry dealer (7)1748787
Greengrocer, potato dealer, fruiterer (8)664466198
Others: produce dealer, salesman (9)1281244
Sub-order 3.—Drinks, Narcotics, Stimulants.   
Wine, spirits, ale merchant, salesman, Australian wine-seller (10)93921
Ginger-beer, soda-water, mineral-water, cordial merchant, salesman55..
Coffee, chicory dealer1515..
Grocer, tea dealer (11)2,2912,091200
Tobacconist (12)13011317
Others211
 M.F.
(1) Assistant to dairyman578
Dairyman, milkseller43546
Milk-boy, -girl, milk-cart driver293
Relative assisting milkman3824
(2) Butcher, meat salesman2,55210
Apprentice490
Boy850
Carter80
Clerk, bookkeeper305
Labourer150
Relative assisting13013
Rider-out70
Salesman, saleswoman2181
Tripe-dresser10
Pork-butcher437
Pork-butcher assistant to50
(3) Fishmonger, fish-hawker, &c.25010
Fishmonger's assistant4111
Fishmonger's clerk50
(4) Butter expert and assistant190
Drysalter110
(5) Corn, flour, meal merchant, &c.1120
Agent101
Assistant162
Carrier120
Clerk, bookkeeper401
Engine-driver30
Labourer510
Salesman90
Sampler30
Storeman520
Score-manager30
Traveller40
(6) Bread and biscuit dealer462
Clerk, bookkeeper20
Driver600
Relative assisting614
Shopman, shopwoman411
(7) confectionery, pastry dealer8785
Assistant02
(8) Assistant, greengrocery and fruit5833
Greengrocer, fruiterer341129
Relative assisting1635
Shopboy, fruit-shop30
Storeman60
Vegetable-hawker421
(9) Assistant to produce dealer322
Carter190
Clerk10
Produce merchant dealer701
Relative assisting21
(10) Assistant to wine and spirit merchant51
Clerk, bookkeeper, accountant160
Storeman130
Traveller150
Wine, spirits, ale merchant, &c430
(11) Grocer, tea dealer81499
Grocer's assistant65435
Grocer's clerk96
Grocer's carter360
Grocer's delivery-boy190
Grocer's manager80
Grocer's messenger150
Grocer's relative assisting4653
Grocer's shopman, shopwoman2752
Grocer's traveller190
Tea agent, broker271
Tea packer, sorter533
Tea storeman10
Tea traveller190
Tea wrapper21
(12) Tobacconist10210
Relative assisting04
Salesman, saleswoman113

ORDER 8.—PERSONS engaged in Dealing in and treating ANIMALS, and Dealing in ANIMAL and VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES (excluding Dealers in Food).

0.46 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in dealing in and treating living animals1981,2111,409.........1,409
2. Persons engaged in dealing in manures and animal waste products...11.........1
3. Persons engaged in dealing in leather, raw materials, and manufactures53742.........42
4. Persons engaged in dealing in other animal matters1291103.........103
5. Persons engaged in dealing in seeds, plants, fodder, &c.281121402911151
6. Persons engaged in dealing in other vegetable matters (not included elsewhere)...55.........5
Totals, Order 8, 18962431,4571,70029111,711
Totals, Order 8,18912071,0571,2822351,287

Details for the sub-orders are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Living Animals.   
Live-stock dealer (1)272272..
Animal-trainer, horsebreaker461461..
Groom (not domestic)624624..
Others (2)5252..
Sub-order 2.—Manures and Animal Waste Products.   
Bone, &s, dealer1 ..
Sub-order 3.—Leather, Raw Materials, and Manufactures.  ..
Hide, skin dealer1414..
Prepared skins, leather dealer (3)2626 
Others22..
Sub-order 4.—Other Animal Matters.  ..
Wool broker, dealer (4)9898..
Tallow, fat dealer55..
Sub-order 5.—Seeds, Plants, Flowers, Vegetable Products for Fodder and Gardening Purposes.   
Seed merchant (5)1161142
Florist, flower-seller26179
Hay and straw dealer (6)44..
Others (7)55..
Sub-order 6.—Other Vegetable Matters not included elsewhere.   
Hop merchant55..
 M.F.
(1) Cattle dealer510
Horse dealer420
Live-stock dealer980
Rabbit dealer30
Sheep dealer190
Stock agent300
Stock agent&s clerk150
Stock agent&s salesman60
Stock and station agent80
(2) Bird dealer30
Inspector (rabbit)100
Inspector (stock)320
Rabbit agent60
Sheep expert10
(3) Leather-dealer80
Leather-dealer's clerk60
Leather-dealer's salesman120
(4) Wool-broker570
Wool-broker's assistant90
Wool-broker's clerk80
Wool-broker's labourer100
Wool-broker's storeman100
Wool-classer20
Wool-sorter20
(5) Seed merchant610
Seed-merchant's apprentice70
Seed-merchant's clerk111
Seed-merchant's shopman, shopwoman341
Seed-merchant's traveller10
(6) Hay and straw dealer30
Message-boy10
(7) Engine-driver in chaff store10
Others40

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Stone, Clay, Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.   
Stone, gravel, sand dealer11..
Lime dealer44..
Brick and tile dealer22..
Potteryware, earthenware dealer541
Glass, glassware dealer77..
Chinaware, crockeryware dealer (1)43349
Sub-order 2.—Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones.   
Gold, silver buyer22..
Sub-order 3.—Metals other than Gold and Silver.   
Antimony, lead dealer11..
Iron-ore, pig-iron, scrap-iron dealer11..
Iron bar, plate, rod, wire dealer (2)88..
Ironmonger, hardware dealer (3)82881315
Kauri-gum buyer (4)1581571
 M.F.
(1) Chinaware, crockeryware dealer171
Crockery warehouse—  
Assistant73
Clerk02
Message-boy10
Salesman, saleswoman93
(2) Iron bar, plate, rod, wire dealer,&c.70
Iron merchant's clerk10
(3) Ironmonger, hardware dealer3322
Ironmonger's—  
Apprentice261
Assistant1905
Clerk722
Carter10
Manager40
Porter, packer100
Salesman, saleswoman1195
Shop-boy40
Storeman10
Traveller390
Warehouseman150
(4) Kauri-gum buyer381
Gum merchant's—  
Assistant100
Clerk70
Labourer60
Packer50
Sorter590
Storeman280
Scraper40

ORDER 11.—PERSONS engaged as GENERAL DEALERS, or in undefined MERCANTILE PURSUITS.

2.45 per cent, of total male population.

0.48 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged as general dealers (undefined)7644,2354,9992608931,1536,152
2. Persons engaged in other mercantile pursuits (undefined)8133,2574,0701083334414,511
Totals, Order 11, 18961,5777,4929,0693681,2261,59410,663
Totals, Order 11, 18911,3326,3377,6692538571,1103,779

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—General Dealers (undefined).   
Merchant, importer (1)5415338
Shopkeeper, storekeeper, wife assisting (2)4,1903,1091,081
General dealer (3)26423430
Hawker, pedlar33230923
Broker2020..
Commission agent (4)77976811
Others (5)2626..
Sub-order 2.—Other Mercantile Persons (undefined).   
Officer of public company (6)1061042
Clerk, cashier, accountant, bookkeeper (commercial or other undefined)3,3113,186125
Commercial traveller, salesman, saleswoman946676270
Others (7)14810444
 M.F.
(1) Merchant, importer4206
Merchant's—  
Apprentice40
Assistant372
Manager100
Relative assisting30
Salesman20
Storeman390
Traveller180
(2) Storekeeper, shopkeeper1,942672
Storekeeper's—  
Apprentice41
Carter160
Clerk939
Manager270
Packer180
Relative assisting186159
Salesman, saleswoman9632
Stableman40
Storeman, storewoman31721
Shop-assistant212106
Shop-boy, girl743
Store-assistant12021
Wife assisting057
(3) General dealer20123
General dealer's assistant185
Relative assisting152
(4) Agent—  
Assistant to381
Clerk to382
Commission6143
Customhouse160
Labour62
Manufacturer's120
Undefined443
(5) In business on own account70
Manager, mercantile house120
Trader (undefined)70
(6) Agent, public company102
Clerk, public company440
Manager public company220
Officer public company280
(7) Canvasser6212
Debt collector370
Registry-office keeper427
Type-writer15

SUB-CLASS C.—STORAGE

ORDER 12.—PERSONS engaged in STORAGE.

0.25 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in storage139777916.........916
Totals, Order 12, 1896139777916.........916
Totals, Order 12, 18911129221,034...111,035

Details of the sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Storekeeper, clerk, connected with free or bonded stores (not shopkeeper)146146 
Store labourer, storeman (not shopman) (1)764764 
Others connected with storage (not dealers)66 
 M.F.
(1) Store—  
Assistant690
Clerk130
Labourer6530
Packer290

SUB-CLASS D.—TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION.

ORDER 13.—PERSONS engaged in the TRANSPORT of PASSENGERS, GOODS, or COMMUNICATIONS.

4.48 per cent, of total male population.

0.10 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged on railways (not railway-construction) or tramways2873,8044,091 444,095
2. Persons engaged on roads5654,0594,6243694,633
3. Persons engaged on seas and rivers4095,4365,845164655,910
4. Persons engaged on postal service1095486571198109766
5. Persons engaged on telegraph and telephone service25857383133105138969
6. Persons engaged in delivery of documents, parcels, and messages463101564   564
Totals, Order 13, 18962,09114,52116,6124827732516,937
Totals, Order 13, 18911,94613,32315,2691712714415,413

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—On Railways (not Railway Construction) or Tramways.   
Railway manager, officer, stationmaster, clerk, or agent848848..
Railway engine-driver, stoker, cleaner594594..
Railway guard, porter, pointsman, signalman, shunter (1)6366324
Railway ganger or fettler, platelayer, labourer (not construction)1,7991,799..
Tram service218218..
Sub-order 2.—On Roads.   
Coach, omnibus, cab-proprietor, agent (2)3223175
Coach, omnibus, cab driver, conductor, servant572572..
Drayman, carrier, carter, express-driver (3)2,9152,9132
Livery-stable keeper, horse letter (4)4554532
Others (5)369369..
Sub-order 3.—On Seas and Rivers.   
Harbour, pier service, officer (6)1341331
Pilot1818..
Lighthouse keeper7272..
Shipowner, agent, manager (7)3383371
Shipmaster, officer, seaman (merchant service)2,8212,821..
Engineer, stoker, coal-trimmer of steamer (merchant service)901901..
Ship servant, steward, stewardess(8)53747562
Bargeman, lighterman1717..
Stevedore, lumper823823..
Waterman, boatman, boat proprietor, agent (9)158158..
Others (10)91901
 M.F.
(1) Crossing caretaker04
Railway guard, porter, pointsman6320
(2) Coach, omnibus, cab-proprietor2934
Relative assisting231
Manager, bus company10
(3) Carrier, career, &c.2,8022
Carrier's relative assisting920
Carrier's clerk190
(4) Livery-stable keeper, horse letter1592
Clerk100
Groom1570
Hostler370
Stable-boy900
(5) Bullock-driver720
Driver (undefined)890
Clerk to forwarding agent150
Forwarding agent250
Forwarding assistant30
Horse-driver890
Packer on roads420
Teamster340
(6) Harbour, pier service officer1231
Harbour labourer100
(7) Agent, shipping370
Bookkeeper, accountant100
Clerk, shipping2241
Marine superintendent10
Shipowner, agent, &c.400
Storeman to shipping agent250
(8) Purser70
Steward, stewardess.46862
(9) Ferryman400
Waterman, boatman, &c.1180
(10) Boiler-cleaner, marine30
Caretaker, ships'60
Clerk, tally, wharf530
Hulk-keeper70
Manager, ferry company20
Marine surveyor70
Signalman, signalwoman121
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 4.—On Postal Service.   
Postal officer, postmaster, postmistress, clerk, sorter524418106
Letter-carrier159159..
Mail contractor41383
Mailman, mail-guard4242..
Sub-order 5.—On Telegraph and Telephone Service.   
Telegraph officer, stationmaster, stationmistress, operator, clerk51350211
Electrician, lineman105105..
Telephone service16034126
Messenger1911901
Sub-order 6.—Delivery of Documents, Parcels, and Messages.   
Messenger and porter (not railway)211211..
Errand boy344344..
Others99..

Chapter 50. CLASS IV.—INDUSTRIAL.

[In Sub-class B of the commercial class all persons engaged in dealing were included; the makers or manufacturers have now to be considered.]

ORDER 14.— PERSONS engaged in the Manufacture of or in other PROCESSES relating to ART and MECHANIC PRODUCTIONS in which Materials of various Kinds are employed in Combination.

2.96 per cent, of total male population.

0.15 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1 Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of books and publications7881,6902,4781201702902,768
2.Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of musical instruments48791.........91
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of prints, pictures, and art materials37144181.........181
4.Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ornaments, minor art products and small wares40150190242751241
5. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of equipment for sports and games...22...224
6. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of designs, medals, type, and dies457611 162
7. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of watches, clocks, and scientific instruments83433516...55521
8. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of surgical instruments and appliances11213...1114
9. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of arms and explosives8455322113386
10. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of machines, tools, and implements2851,5191,804.........1,804
11. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of carriages and vehicles3291,2341,5631121,565
12. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of harness, saddlery, leather, and leatherware3901,3861,7765491,785
13. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of ships, boats, and their equipment38569607...22609
14. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of furniture3511,1781,5291435491,578
15. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of chemicals and by-products309112133942163
Totals, Order 14, 18962,3888,59710,98522026748711,472
Totals, Order 14, 18912,2507,1299,3791471462939,672

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Books and Publications.   
Publisher, newspaper proprietor (1)1531458
Printer, printing-office manager (2)1,0371,01027
Compositor97990871
Others employed in printing (3)1941904
Bookbinder, machine-ruler (4)397217180
Others (5)88..
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.   
Musical-instrument maker3232..
Musical-instrument tuner, repairer5959..
Sub-order 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.   
Lithographer, lithographic, zincographic printer (6)131131..
Picture-frame maker, picture restorer, cleaner4545..
Others (7)55..
 M.F.
(1) Publisher, newspaper proprietor661
Clerk, accountant342
Manager90
Machinist10
Office-boy10
Reader195
Sorter10
Traveller140
(2) Printer, printing-office manage7947
Apprentice821
Assistant10417
Clerk, printing-office302
(3) Employed in printing.1324
Printer's assistant10
Printer's machinist70
Printer's messenger400
Printer's storeman100
(4) Bookbinder, machine-ruler200107
Apprentice73
Assistant933
Folder124
Sewer013
(5) Envelope folder60
Envelope stamper10
Paper-ruler10
(6) Lithographer, &c.974
Lithographer, apprentice140
Lithograph artist150
Lithograph draughtsman30
Photo-engraver20
(7) Camera-maker40
Colour-man10
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.   
Carver in wood, stone, bone, ivory, or other materials (sculptor excepted)64622
Modeller, image-maker44..
Taxidermist17161
Toy-maker13121
Basket and wickerware maker (1)75732
Artificial flower and other workers in minor art products1147
Others (2)571938
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sports and Games   
Cricket, croquet, baseball, lawn-tennis equipment maker422
Gymnasium equipment maker
Sportsmen&c fishing-tackle maker
Others
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.   
Stamp, die, medal maker44..
Pattern designer, maker3636..
Rubber-stamp maker44..
Others : Electrotyper, stereotyper (3)18171
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, and Scientific Instruments.   
Chronometer, watch, clock maker (4)5065033
Scientific instrument maker......
Optician15132
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments, and Appliances.   
Surgical instrument maker55..
Surgical appliance, truss, bandage maker981
Sub-order 9.—Arms and Explosives.   
Armourer, gunsmith4545..
Powder and other explosive compound maker1129
Fuse, cartridge maker30624
Sub-order 10.—Machines, Tools, and Implements.   
Engine, boiler maker, mechanical engineer, fitter, iron turner (5)1,6251,625..
Millwright5353..
Agricultural machinery and implement maker (6)3838..
Sewing-machine repairer11..
Cutlery, tool maker, saw maker1919..
Gas, water, meter maker11..
Others (7)6767..
Sub-order 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.   
Railway-carriage, wagon, trolly, -builder, -maker (8)132132..
Road-carriage, wagon, cart, vehicle, barrow, -builder, -maker (9)9089071
Bicycle, perambulator, wheel-chair maker (10)1461451
Wheelwright (11)377377..
Coach-spring maker22..
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, Leather, and Leatherware.   
Saddlery and harness maker (12)1,2141,2086
Leather-belt, whip, satchel maker14122
Leather cutter, designer77..
Portmanteau-maker2020..
Leather tanner, currier, manufacturer(13)5295281
Others11..
 M.F.
(1) Basket and wickerware maker692
Basketmaker's apprentice20
Basketmaker's assistant20
(2) Card-box maker820
Card-cutter01
Cork-cutter30
Paper-bag maker817
(3) Electrotyper50
Stereotyper121
(4) Watchmaker, &c.4402
Watchmaker's apprentice280
Watchmaker's assistant351
(5) Mechanical engineer, &c.1,3500
Apprentice570
Assistant320
Clerk10
Driller10
Hammerman90
Pattern-maker360
Engine fitter940
Apprentice160
Machinist40
Painter10
Riveter60
Smith120
Turner60
(6) Agricultural machinery maker, &c.250
Assistant10
Clerk80
Engineer40
(7) Oven-maker60
Range-maker350
Range-fitter260
(8) Railway-carriage builder, &c.710
Railway-carriage assistant110
Railway-carriage fitter140
Railway-carriage lifter120
Railway-carriage painter, polisher160
Railway-carriage trimmer70
Railway boiler-maker10
(9) Coachbuilder, &c.4570
Coachbuilder apprentice300
Coachbuilder assistant290
Coach painter2130
Coach painter apprentice100
Coach trimmer361
Coach smith120
Coach smith apprentice90
Machinist10
(10) Bicycle, perambulator maker, &c.1271
Bicycle-maker&c apprentice180
(11) Wheelwright3510
Wheelwright apprentice130
Wheelwright assistant130
(12) Saddlery and harness maker1,0531
Apprentice720
Assistant785
Clerk50
(13) Currier's apprentice120
Leather tanner, currier, &c.3570
Assistant20
Leather dresser100
Leather finisher10
Tannery—  
Assistant330
Basil dresser100
Beamsman150
Carter100
Clerk81
Engine-driver80
Flesher110
Labourer490
Manager20
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment   
Shipwright, boat-builder, designer, worker (1)415415..
Ship-rigger66..
Block, oar, mast maker66..
Sailmaker (2)1821802
Sub-order 14.—Furniture.   
Furniture, cabinetmaker (3)1,1551,1496
Bed, mattrass, hammock maker, upholsterer (4)30227230
Undertaker, coffin-maker42402
Others (5)796811
Sub-order 15.—Chemicals and By-products.   
Manufacturing chemist (6)40373
Ink, blacking maker431
Salt, soda, alkali, starch, blue maker18171
Chemical-manure maker (7)3636..
Others (8)652837
 M.F.
(1) Shipwright3870
Shipwright apprentice120
Shipwright assistant40
Shipwright joiner90
Shipwright painter20
(2) Sailmaker1710
Sailmaker assistant40
Sailmaker manager01
Sailmaker relative assisting51
(3) Cabinet furniture maker3211
Apprentice580
Assistant501
Chairmaker360
French polisher844
(4) Bed, mattress maker25224
Upholsterer's apprentice70
Upholsterer's assistant136
(5) Blind-maker380
Boxmaker1411
Packing-case maker140
Others20
(6) Assistant to chemical engineer10
Employé, acid works30
Employé perfumery works20
Manufacturing chemist213
(7) Chemical-manure maker90
Labourer, chemical - manure works230
Manager ditto40
(8) Employé, match factory432
Paint worker125
Sheep-dip manufacturer70
Varnish-maker50

ORDER 15.—PERSONS engaged in the MANUFACTURE of, or REPAIRING, CLEANSING, or other PROCESSES relating to TEXTILE FABRICS, DRESS, and FIBROUS ML.

2.12 per cent, of total male population.

3.64: per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals. both Sexes.
Under 20.Over 20.Totals.Under 20.Over 20.Totals.
1. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture, repairs, cleansing, &c., of textile fabrics1935677602663516171,377
2. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of dress1,4964,8456,3414,3147,08011,39417,735
3. Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture of fibrous materials199549748251439787
Totals, Order 15, 18961,8885,9617,8494,6057,44512,05019,899
Totals, Order 15, 18912,5226,1768,6984,5596,18010,78919,437

Chapter 51.

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupation.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order I.—Textile Fabrics.   
Woollen manufacturer, spinner, burler, and other workers (all branches) (1)1,284695589
Silk manufacturer, spinner, and other workers (all branches)44..
Dyer, scourer, calenderer64568
Others : Fancy Berlin-wool worker (2)25520
Sub-order 2.—Dress.   
Clothing manufacturer, tailor, cutter, fitter, sewing-machinist (3)4,5612,1082,453
Milliner, dressmaker (4)7,44187,433
Shirtmaker, seamstress (5)59519576
Hat, cap, bonnet maker (6)693039
Sock, stocking maker, knitter21113198
Furrier, rug-maker1174
Boot, shoe manufacturer, maker, repairer, cutter, sewing-machinist (7)4,6824,085597
Umbrella fan, parasol maker, mender604515
Feather-dresser, glove-cleaner1019
Others (8)952570
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.   
Mat, matting maker1616..
Rope, cord maker (9)1451432
Canvas, sailcloth maker871
Tent, tarpaulin maker36315
Bag, sack, sacking maker18135
phormium, flax-miller, owner, and all workers (10)4704691
Others (11)946925
 M.F.
(1) Woollen manufacturer. &c.124
Woollen mills—  
Assistant1814
Burler019
Carder505
Carpet-weaver20
Classer620
Clerk70
Cloth-finisher222
Designer100
Dresser20
Dyer260
Darner110
Engine-driver, fireman130
Factory hand144139
Factory warehouseman20
Flock-maker61
Fuller20
Knitter545
Machinist03
Machine-cleaner018
Manager101
Mender01
Night watchman40
Piecer57
Presser200
Scourer160
Sorter582
Spinner694
Stapler150
Stocking-finisher02
Tenterer20
Traveller40
Trimmer10
Tuner (loom-tuner)240
Tweed-finisher52
Warper191
Washer120
Wearer29272
Winder032
Woolworker20
Yarn-scourer50
Yarn-twister115
(2) Fancy Berlin-wool worker518
Lace-maker02
(3) Clothing manufacturer, tailor, tailoress16141851
Apprentice11749
Assistant136411
Button-hole worker02
Clerk110
Cutter942
Errand-boy120
Machinist495
Machinist relative assisting014
Manager, clothing factory102
Pattern-cutter121
Presser (tailor's)721
Relative assisting tailor2122
Trimmer (tailor's)53
(4) Milliner, dressmaker46012;
Dressmaker's apprentice0326;
Dressmaker's assistant0705
Dressmaker's machinist184
Dressmaker's relative assisting082
Mantle-maker1118
Milliner's apprentice035
Milliner's assistant064
Staymaker217
(5) Shirtmaker, seamstress8293
Needlewoman0104
Sewing-machinist0130
Shirt cutter82
Shirt factory hand341
(6) Assistant, hat factory28
Hatter, cap and bonnet maker2121
Straw-hat maker710
(7) Boot and shoe maker, &c.3,702539
Bootmaker's—  
Apprentice14815
Assistant15933
Clerk192
Cordwainer71
Errand-boy100
Relative assisting408
(8) Waterproof manufacturer1467
Apprentice01
Oilskin-maker112
(9) Rope maker860
Rope factory apprentice80
Rope factory assistant312
Rope factory labourer180
(10) Flax miller, owner, &c.490
Carter100
Catcher21
Clerk20
Contractor (flax)10
Cook110
Cutter340
Dresser610
Engine-driver160
Feeder10
Manager30
Mill hand2550
Paddocker30
Presser20
Scutcher140
Specialist20
Stripper20
Washer20
(11) Brush and broom maker6317
Apprentice10
Assistant58

ORDER 16.—PERSONS engaged in the MANUFACTURE of, or other PROCESSES relating to, FOOD, DRINK, NARCOTICS, and STIMULANTS.

1.47 per cent, of total male population.

0.6 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Male.Female.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in processes relating o the production of animal food2711,1401,411810181,429
2. Persons engaged in processes relating to the production of vegetable food.6832,3623,04568791473,192
3. Persons engaged in processes relating to drinks, narcotics, and stimulants1648269901521361,026
Totals, Order 16, 18961,1184,3285,446911102015,647
Totals, Order 16, 18919013,3984,29975791544,453

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.   
Slaughterhouse-keeper, slaughterman (1)1471461
Meat-preserver, sausage-maker, ham-curer (2)246246..
Fish-curer (3)69654
Cheese, butter maker, milk-preserver (4)3833749
Animal food refrigerator (5)5815774
Others33..
Sub-order 2,—Vegetable Food.   
Miller, meal, flour worker (6)4774752
Baker, biscuit, pastry maker (7)2,2792,19287
Fruit-preserver, jam-maker (8)414625
Confectionery maker (9)23320033
Sugar-mill owner, refiner (10)124124..
Baking-powder manufacturer88..
 M.F.
(1) Slaughterhouse-keeper, slaughterman1251
Slaughteryard labourer210
(2) Meat preserver, &c.420
Assistant90
Boner20
Clerk, book-keeper70
Engine-driver30
Fat collector50
Flesher50
Gutter and runner50
Ham-and bacon-curer460
Labourer at meat-works680
Labourer at rabbit - canning factory130
Manager10
Meat-packer60
Meat-preserver150
Sausage-skin manufacturer120
Storeman at bacon-factory10
Tinsmith to meat-preserver60
(3) Fish-curer650
Fish-curer assistant04
(4) Assistant in cheese-factory130
Assistant in dairy-factory892
Butter-maker1006
Butter packer30
Cheesemaker181
Labourer, cheese-factory50
Messenger, dairy-factory1460
(5) Freezing-works—  
Assistant184
Butcher930
Carter30
Clerk470
Engineer, fireman720
Expert, foreman30
Fellmonger110
Freezer40
Freezer on steamer30
Greaser90
Labourer2840
Manager260
Mechanical engineer20
Mutton sorter10
Timekeeper10
(6) Miller3221
Apprentice80
Assistant270
Clerk251
Carter60
Engine-driver250
Fireman40
Labourer370
Manager10
Relative assisting120
Traveller80
(7) Baker, &c.1,69621
Baker's apprentice340
Baker's assistant30019
Baker's boy210
Baker's labourer393
Baker's relative assisting6419
Biscuit-factory—  
Assistant3020
Clerk50
Engine-driver10
Manager10
Packer05
Traveller10
(8) Fruit-preserver, jam-maker2810
Assistant, jam-factory1815
(9) Confectioner16811
Confectioner's apprentice11
Confectioner's assistant1621
Confectioner's sugar-boiler, &c100
Confectioner's traveller50
(10) Sugar-mill—  
Owner, refiner, &c.90
Clerk70
Employe240
Fireman10
Labourer830
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 3.—Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.   
Brewer, bottler, and others engaged in connection with brewing (1)4614565
Maltster (2)118118..
Distiller and rectifier of spirits, bottler22..
Wine-manufacturer (not grower), bottler99..
Ginger-beer, soda-water, mineral-water, cordial manufacturer (3)3052996
Coffee, chicory roaster (4)1515..
Tea mixer, taster3434..
Tobacco, cigar, cigarette, snuff manufacturer (5)231310
Spice, mustard, pepper maker11..
Pickles, sauce, vinegar maker (6)463115
Others (7)1212..
 M.F.
(1) Brewer, bottle2344
Brewery—  
Apprentice40
Assistant391
Bottle-washer10
Carter180
Cellarman330
Clerk250
Cooper50
Engine-driver40
Labourer510
Manager70
Son assisting140
Traveller210
(2) Maltster1030
Maltster Labourer90
Maltster Son assisting60
(3) Ginger-beer, cordial maker, &c1985
Cordial-factory—  
Aёrated-water bottler191
Assistant530
Clerk40
Driver30
Relative assisting200
Traveller20
(4) Coffee, chicory roaster90
Assistant60
(5) Tobacco, cigar maker, &c.36
Employe, tobacco-factory104
(6) Pickle, sauce maker2310
Employé, pickle-factory85
(7) Herbal-beer maker80
Hop-beer maker40

ORDER 17.—PERSONS (not otherwise classed) engaged in MANUFACTURES or other PROCESSES connected with ANIMAL and VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.

1.23 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in manufactures or other processes connected with animal matters (not otherwise classed)23774197822980
2. Persons engaged in working in wood5032,9293,432449,436
3. Workers in vegetable produce for fodder22678989
4. Paper-manufacturers1450641111276
Totals, Order 17, 18967763,7874,563135184,581
Totals, Order 17, 18916172,9063,5232812403,563

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Animal matters (not otherwise classed).   
Soap-boiler (1)1241222
Tallow-melter, boiler-down (not meat-preserver) (2)2727..
Fellmonger (3)800800..
Bonedust-manure manufacturer (4)1313..
Others (5)1616..
 M.F.
(1) Soap-boiler510
Soap and candle works—  
Apprentice110
Candle-maker250
Candle-packer21
Clerk91
Labourer220
Manager20
(2) Tallow-melter, boiler-down, &C.120
Labourer, boiling-down works30
Tallow-man120
(3) Fellmonger4910
Apprentice260
Clerk10
Labourer610
Relative assisting210
Skinner, flesher90
Skin-dresser, splitter10
Wool and skin cleaner1740
Wool classer160
(4) Bonedust-manure manufacturer60
Assistant70
(5) Fiddle-string maker60
Assistant20
Glue-maker80
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 2.—Working in Wood   
Firewood, billet chopper180180..
Fencer, hurdle-maker (1)165165..
Bark-mill owner, worker11..
Cooper (2)200200..
Saw-mill owner, sawyer (3)2,8502,8464
Others (4)4040..
Sub-order 3.—Workers in Vegetable Produce for Fodder   
Chaff-cutter (5)8989..
Sub-order 4.—Paper Manufacturers.   
Paper maker, labourer (6)766412
 M.F.
(1) Fencer, hurdle-maker1150
Fencing contractor180
Fencing labourer320
(2) Cooper1800
Apprentice40
Assistant30
Relative assisting130
(3) Saw-mill owner, sawyer8233
Benchman410
Blacksmith40
Bullock-driver290
Bushman850
Carpenter40
Carter, truckman480
Clerk700
Contractor, sawyer420
Cook101
Engine-driver1640
Feeder, planing-machine80
Fireman100
Foreman40
labourer1,2700
Log-getter120
Machinist480
Manager430
Relative assisting430
Saw sharpener, &c.240
Timber rafter100
Timber stacker10
Tramway layer130
Trollyman90
Watchman150
Yardman160
(4) Wood machinist180
Wood moulder120
Woodware manufacturer50
Woodware labourer50
(5) Chaff-cutter420
Engine-driver110
Labourer300
Relative assisting60
(6) Paper maker401
Paper mills, folder, packer,&c.229
Relative assisting12
Traveller10

ORDER 18.—PERSONS engaged in the ALTERATION, MODIFICATION, or MANUFACTURE of, or other PROCESSES relating to, METALS or MINERAL MATTERS.

1.74 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in the conversion of coal, &c, to purposes of heat, light, &c.3029932922331
2. Persons engaged in manufactures and processes relating to stone, clay, earthenware, glass, &c. 126614740113743 
3. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to gold, silver, and precious stones632072701010280
4. Persons engaged in manufactures relating to metals other than gold and silver1,2793,8225,101225,103
Totals, Order 18,18961,1984,9426,440116176,457
Totals, Order 18, 18911,4724,2705,742818265,768

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—In the Conversion of Coal and other Substances to Purposes of Heat, Light, or Forms of Energy not otherwise classed.   
Gas-works service, officer, clerk, workman, fitter (1)2582562
Coke manufacturer55..
Electric light or energy producer, officer, clerk (2)6363..
Charcoal burner22..
Others33..
Sub-order 2.—Manufactures and Processes related to Stone, Clay, Earthenware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.   
Stone-cutter, dresser, monumental mason (not engaged in houses or buildings)7474..
Lime-burner (3)5757..
Plaster, cement maker (4)2020..
Brick, tile maker (5)4434421
Pottery maker (6)94922
Glass manufacturer, worker99..
China, earthenware maker, mender33..
Asphalt and pitch manufacturer3232..
Others1111..
Sub-order 3.—Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones   
Goldsmith, silversmith, jeweller (7)2442386
Lapidary, precious stones worker1818..
Electroplater, plater13121
Others523
Sub-order 4.—Metals other than Gold and Silver..... 
Coppersmith, worker (8)4646..
Tin, zinc worker (9)551551..
Lead, antimony worker11..
Malleable-iron manufacturer, worker, roller, smelter, puddler (10)8181..
Cast-iron founder, moulder, worker (11)562562..
Blacksmith, whitesmith, farrier (12)3,6403,6382
Brass founder, moulder, worker, brazier (13)155155..
Locksmith1818..
Others (14)4949..
 M.F.
Gasworks service, officer, &c.1991
Clerk, secretary121
Engineer150
Lamplighter300
(2) Electric light, officer, clerk40
Electrician200
Electric engineer310
Motor-driver80
(3) Lime-burner2800
Engineer30
Labourer210
Relative assisting50
(4) Plaster, cement maker180
Cement works, miller10
Engine-driver10
(5) Brick, tile maker3381
Apprentice40
Assistant240
Engine-driver50
Labourer470
Relative assisting240
(6) Pottery maker530
Apprentice10
Assistant132
Engine-driver40
Pipe-maker200
Relative assisting10
(7) Goldsmith1841
Apprentice190
Assistant283
Clerk41
Relative assisting31
(8) Coppersmith430
Apprentice30
(9) Tinsmith4780
Apprentice230
Assistant410
Relative assisting90
(10) Iron-works, manufacturer110
Apprentice10
Clerk40
Engine-driver10
Furnace-man40
Galvaniser170
Puddler10
Worker420
(11) Foundries—  
Cast-iron founder3790
Apprentice280
Assistant470
Clerk160
Engine-driver150
Furnace-man60
Labourer530
Striker180
(l2) Blacksmith3,0782
Apprentice1460
Assistant1380
Hammer-man130
Horseshoer880
Labourer160
Relative assisting1180
Striker420
(13) Brass founder690
Apprentice90
Finisher680
Moulder90
(14) Heel and tip maker10
Nailmaker60
Wireworkcr420

ORDER 19.—PERSONS engaged in the MAKING or REPAIRING of BUILDINGS, ROADS, RAILWAYS, DOCKS, EARTHWORKS, &C.; in the DISPOSAL of SILT, DEAD MATTER, or REFUSE; or in MECHANICAL OPERATIONS or LABOUR the Nature of which ia undefined.

4.18 per cent, of total male population.

0.00 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes.
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals.
1. Persons engaged in making or repairing houses and buildings1,57810,26411,84224611,848
2. Persons engaged in making or repairing roads, railways, bridges, &c.3013,2293,5303,530
3. Persons employed in the disposal of dead matter or refuse51061111115,490
Totals, Order 19, 18961,88113,59915,48334715,490
Totals, Order. 19, 18911,27011,39712,6671481212,679

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Houses and Buildings.   
Master builder, contractor, measurer, foreman, clerk, inspector (1)9629602
Mason, hewer, hodman, mason's labourer (2)335335..
Bricklayer, bricklayer's labourer, hodman (3)833833..
Carpenter, joiner, turner, carpenter's labourer (4)6,3356,335..
Slater, shingler, slater's labourer3434..
Plasterer, labourer (5)217217
House-painter, paperhanger, glazier, decorator (6)2,0692,0663
House-plumber, bellhanger(7)9799781
Others (8)8484
Sub-order 2.—Roads, Railways, Bridges, Earthworks, Docks, &c, or undefined.   
Road, railway contractor (9)377377..
Skilled assistant, foreman, inspector, timekeeper,   
clerk (10)203203..
Carter, waggoner350350..
Engine-driver, fireman (at works)2828..
Navvy, road, railway labourer, excavator, ballastman2,3332,333..
Stonebreaking machine worker, stone-breaker7171..
Dredge-worker, diver (11)3434..
Drainer, ditcher, labourer (12)111111..
Others (13)2323..
Sub-order 3.—Disposition of Dead Matter or Refuse.   
Cemetery-keeper, grave-digger, labourer77..
Scavenger, street-cleaner2222..
Chimney-sweep5555..
Nightman, nightcart-driver2020..
Others : bottle-gatherer871
 M.F.
(1) Builder8721
Apprentice80
Assistant340
Clerk41
Labourer190
Relative assisting230
(2) Stonemason3190
Apprentice20
Assistant80
Concrete mason60
(3) Bricklayer7610
Apprentice170
Assistant380
Relative assisting170
(4) Carpenter5,9460
Apprentice1270
Assistant1260
Relative assisting1070
Sash and door maker140
Assistant50
Engine-driver10
Machinist50
Stair-builder30
Wood-dresser10
(5) Plasterer2030
Apprentice30
Assistant20
Relative assisting90
(6) Painter, &c.1,9020
Apprentice430
Assistant711
Clerk50
Relative assisting452
(7) Plumber, &c.8600
Apprentice490
Assistant450
Clerk50
Relative assisting191
(8) Sign-writer830
Ticket-writer10
(9) Road contractor3170
Bridge-builder490
Relative assisting110
(10) Skilled assistant, &c.590
Bridge carpenter440
Clerk, road, railway works60
Foreman railway works310
Inspector railway works380
Overseer, works250
(11) Dredge-worker220
Engineer, dredge40
Diver80
(12) Drainer320
Ditcher50
Labourer, drainage740
(13) Crane-driver130
Contractor, draining swamp10
Cook, camp10
Telegraph constructor80

ORDER 20.—INDUSTRIAL WORKERS imperfectly defined.

4.80 per cent, of total male population.

0.14 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20OverTotals. 20
1. Industrial workers imperfectly defined2,76315,04217,80518527846318,268
Totals, Order 20, 18962,76315,04217,80518527846318,268
Totals, Order 20, 18912,83712,05114,88825366114,949

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub order I.—Imperfectly Defined.   
Mechanic, manufacturer (so defined)1367462
Factory-worker (undefined) (1)271160111
Engineer, fireman (undefined) (2)873873..
Labourer (undefined)16,29916,299..
Others (3)689399290
 M.F.
(1) Factory-manager40
Worker150111
(a) Engineer7860
Apr entice500
Assistant370
(3) Handyman150
Machinist56268
Mill assistant6822
Mill labourer1400
Mill manager10
Mill owner50
Wage-earner1080

Chapter 52. Class V.—Agricultural, Pastoral, Mineral, And Other Primary Producers.

ORDER 21.—PERSONS directly engaged in the CULTIVATION of LAND, or in BEARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, or in obtaining RAW PRODUCTS from NATURAL SOURCES.

27.80 per cent, of total male population.

0.94 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20OverTotals. 20
1. Persons directly engaged in agricultural pursuits16,02454,46470,4888751,8582,73373,221
2. Persons directly engaged in pastoral pursuits1,3688,3389,70612524837310,079
3. Persons directly engaged in fisheries,&c.3451,3381,683111,684
4. Persons directly engaged in forestry, or the acquisition of raw products yielded by vegetation2862,0742,3602,360
5. Persons engaged in the conservancy of water13183196196
6. Persons engaged in mines, quarries, &c.1,55317,03018,5837718,590
Totals, Order 21, 189619,58983,427103,0161,0012,1133,114106,130
Totals, Order 21, 189115,97271,88887,8608911,7952,68690,546

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Agricultural Pursuits.   
Farmer31,20430,1241,080
Relative assisting16,47314,9531,520
Farm bailiff, overseer, manager373373..
Farm servant, agricultural labourer (1)20,23620,15680
Market-gardener (2)1,4021,38715
Fruit-grower (3)29127219
Hop grower, picker, labourer24222
Wine-grower, vigneron3333..
Horticulturist, gardener (4)2,2052,1978
Agricultural-implement owner, worker (5)640640..
Others (6)3403319
Sub-order 2.—Pastoral Pursuits.   
Runholder, grazier, sheep or cattle farmer1,6381,59543
Relative assisting28025225
Station overseer, manager477477..
Stock rider, drover, herd-feeder, shearer shepherd, and pastoral labourer (7)6,7426,70042
Dairy-farmer43035080
Milkers, and others connected with the dairy (8) 425425255170
Others (9)877710
Sub-order 3.—Fisheries, the Capture, Preservation, or Destruction of Wild Animals, or the Acquisition of Products yielded by Wild Animals.   
Fisherman (10)755755..
Oyster, crayfish, shrimp, shell-fish, capturer, collector1010..
Engaged in whale, seal, porpoise, fishery pursuits (all branches)1111..
Hunter, trapper, rabbit-catcher, fowler, bee-hunter, bee-keeper (11)890890..
Others (12)18171
Sub-order 4.—Forestry, or the Acquisition of Raw Products yielded by Natural Vegetation.   
Director, overseer, bailiff, and others engaged in forestry (13)3434..
Grubber, bushman, woodsman, axeman, lumberer, timber-getter (14)2,0352,035..
Others (15)291291..
Sub-order 5.—Engaged in the Conservancy of Water in all its Forms and in Water- supply from Natural Sources.   
Officer, clerk, caretaker, workman connected with the conservancy and supply of water (16)152152 
Well-sinker, digger4444
 M.F.
(1) Farm—  
Assistant2,25239
Boy420
Bullock—driver130
Cadet1240
Carter210
Cook6411
Cowherd800
Fencer390
Gardener390
Groom300
Harvester170
Milker16810
Ploughman5120
Rabbiter140
Rouseabout180
Servant16,71220
Shepherd10
Stableman90
Stockman10
(a) Market-gardener1,1919
Assistant860
Labourer440
Relative assisting656
Planter10
(3) Fruit-grower2169
Assistant263
Relative assisting307
(4) Gardener1,8834
Apprentice160
Assistant2330
Relative assisting954
(5) Agricultural—implement owner710
Assistant190
Cook140
Engine-driver1080
Labourer4280
(6) Agriculturist71
Cropper110
Cropper assistant10
Farm contractor450
General grower20
Grass-seed sower110
Harvest contractor30
Nurseryman1750
Assistant172
Relative assisting211
Ploughing contractor290
Potato digger20
Visitor assisting on farm34
Wattle farmer, grower31
Wattle farm labourer10
(7) Stockrider, &c.2,7860
Bookkeeper500
Roundary-rider30
Bullock-driver730
Bushman10
Butcher, baker140
Cadet710
Carpenter50
Carter, &c760
Cook20531
Cowherd1100
Dairyman338
Farm servant1860
Fencer1220
Gardener700
Grass-seed sower200
Groom850
Labourer1,7500
Musterer300
Packer320
Ploughman2070
Rabbiter3430
Roustabout120
Scourer170
Shepherd's relative assisting290
Smith30
Stockman1320
Storekeeper71
Visitor, assisting31
Wood-cutter350
Wool-classer1401
(8) Milker7937
Milker, assistant5714
Milker boy100
Milker relative assisting109119
(9) Contractor—;  
Fencing70
Station210
Ostrich farmer10
Poultry farmer2210
Stud groom70
Stud owner190
(10) Fisherman6970
Fisherman assistant210
Fisherman boy10
Fisherman relative assisting360
(11) Rabbit-catcher, &8300
Bee farmer190
Rabbit agent260
Rabbit fence keeper150
(12) Pisciculturist111
Wild horse hunter60
(13) Director, &c, forestry30
Forest ranger280
Reserve employé30
(14) Bushman2,0150
Bushman assistant200
(15) Bush bullock—driver210
Bush carter20
Bush contractor1590
Bush cook910
Bush foreman70
Bush horse-driver20
Fern collector90
(16) Waterworks officer890
Waterworks clerk, &c.70
Water-race—;  
Caretaker130
Manager50
Waterworks—  
Engine-driver60
Inspector50
Labourer200
Turncock70
Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 6.—Mines, Quarries, or the Acquisition of Natural Products.   
Mine proprietor, overseer, miner, clerk, and others engaged in gold-mining (lode) (1)3,9943,994..
Mine proprietor, overseer, miner, clerk, and others engaged in gold-mining (alluvial) (2)9,0629,0611
Mine proprietor, overseer, miner, clerk, and others engaged in silver and silver-lead mining (3)33..
Mine proprietor, overseer, miner, clerk, and others engaged in coalmining (4)1,5631,5633
Mine proprietor, overseer, miner, clerk, and others engaged in mining for other kinds of minerals (5)2929..
Quarry proprietor, overseer, clerk44..
Quarryman, labourer, and others engaged in quarries117117..
Kauri-gum digger, scraper, worker (6)3,3433,3403
Others(7)475475..
 M.F.
(1) Miner, &c. (lode)3,6390
Amalgamator160
Assayer260
Battery-boy110
Battery engine-driver570
Battery feeder60
Battery labourer920
Battery manager430
Cyanide process worker20
Quartz carter130
Quartz manager880
Prospector10
(2) Miner, &c. (alluvial)8,6931
Clerk50
Dredge-master210
Engine-driver410
Winchman60
Worker, labourer690
Mine manager170
Miner, relative assisting2090
(3) Miner, &c. (silver)20
Prospector10
(4) Miner, &c. (coal)1,4263
Assistant60
Carpenter30
Carter30
Clerk70
Engine-driver290
Horse-driver80
Manager310
Relative assisting130
Trucker180
Mining engineer170
(5) Antimony miner30
Cinnabar miner260
(6) Kauri-gum digger3,2503
Cook30
Packer60
Picker10
Prospector40
Relative assisting digger420
Scraper50
Sorter290
(7) Engine-driver at mine120
Mining engineer490
Mine manager150
Mine surveyor's assistant10
Mining student280
Miner (undefined)1100
Petroleum borer1900
Prospector700

Chapter 53. Class VI.—Indefinite.

ORDER 22.—PERSONS whose OCCUPATIONS are UNDEFINED or UNKNOWN, embracing those who derive Incomes from Sources which cannot be directly related to any other Class.

1.ll per cent, of total male population.

0.73 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20OverTotals. 20
1. Persons of independent means, having no specific occupation, or undefined141,8141,828201,4861,5063,334
2. Others undefined, both as regards means and particular occupation2882,0182,3061627509123,218
Totals, Order 22, 18963023,8324,1341825,2362,4186,552
Totals, Order 22, 18913094,0324,341723,3383,4107,751

Details for each sub-order are—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Persons of Independent Means, having no Specific Occupation, or undefined.   
Pensioner16614620
Annuitant414211203
Independent means, lady, gentleman (so returned) (1)2,7541,4711,283
Sub-order 2.—Others Undefined, both as regards Means and Particular Occupation.   
Manager, assistant, apprentice, partner, proprietor, employer, contractor, overlooker, foreman (so returned) (2)1,4621,44220
Others: Boarder, lodger, visitor (not performing domestic duties) (3)1,756864892
 M.F.
Independent (lady, gentleman)1,2111,235
Private means2231
Retired23817
(2) Manager, &c.235
Apprentice393
Assistant451
Cadet10
Contractor1,1582
Assistant840
Cashier50
Employer112
Foreman, &c.73
Manager361
Overseer160
Private secretary03
Travelling170
(3) Assisting in business187
Bailiff20
Caretaker50
Director10
Enumerator20
Exporter20
Infirm2133
Invalid2834
Inventor30
Lodger1418
No occupation301159
Out of business399
Past work339
Professional10
Professor10
Relative (occupation not stated)70134
Secretary50
Steward10
Swagger60
Student01
Tourist3923
Traveller200
Unemployed17212
Visitor, not performing domestic duties92473

Chapter 54. Class VII.—Dependents.

ORDER 23.–PERSONS DEPENDENT upon NATURAL GUARDIANS.

34.33 per cent, of total male population.

83.28 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20OverTotals. 20
1. Persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid1355418925,093126,132151,225151,414
2. Dependent scholars and students78,15812878,28678,5716078,631156,317
3. Dependent relatives not stated to be performing domestic duties48,57616048,73645,24961145,86094,596
Totals, Order 23, 1896126,869342127,211148,913126,803275,716402,927
Totals, Order 23, 1891121,741669122,410140,958105,810246,768369,178

Details for each sub-order are:—

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Domestic Duties for which Remuneration is not paid.   
Wife, widow, of no specified occupation96,052..96,052
Son, daughter, relative, performing domestic duties47,79217947,613
Visitor, lodger, stated to be performing domestic duties6,950106,940
Head of house, unmarried620..620
Sub-order 2.—Dependent Scholars and Students.   
Son, daughter, relative supported at universities, &c.487280207
Son, daughter, relative at school148,29275,36772,325
Child, relative, receiving tuition at home8,1382,6395,499
Sub-order 3.—Dependent Relatives not stated to be performing Domestic Duties.   
Father, mother (dependent upon children)23666170
Son, daughter, relative90,84047,18543,655
Visitor, lodger, boarder3,5201,4852,035

ORDER 24.—PERSONS DEPENDENT upon the STATE, or upon PUBLIC or PRIVATE SUPPORT.

0.95 per cent, of total male population.

0.69 per cent, of total female population.

Occupations, in Sub-orders.Males.Females.Totals, both Sexes
Under 20Over 20Totals.Under 20Over 20Totals. 20
1. Persons supported by voluntary and State contributions5662,4763,0416881,5552,2435,284
2. Criminal class194584774747524
Totals, Order 24, 18965842,9343,5186881,6022,2905,808
Totals, Order 24, 18916752,4463,1214431,1531,5964,717

Details for each sub-order are —

Occupations.Persons.Males.Females.
Sub-order 1.—Supported by Voluntary and State Contributions.   
Inmate of hospital917533384
Inmate benevolent asylum1,435838597
Inmate lunatic asylum2,1041,229875
Inmate orphan asylum (including those boarded out)478271207
Inmate industrial school19910891
Inmate refuge26323
Foundling11..
Others receiving charitable aid1245866
Sub-order 2,—Criminal Class.   
Prisoner in gaol52447747
Occupation not stated1,693824869

OCCUPATIONS OF THE CHINESE.

The Chinese enumerated at the census numbered 3,711, against 4,444 in 1891, a decrease of 16.49 per cent.

Of the number in 1896, 3,685 were males and 26 females. Of the males, 88 were returned as married. The number of the Chinese under 14 years of age was only 14 males and 11 females. These numbers do not include the issue of unions between Chinese men and European women.

The occupations show 2,162 gold-miners, 527 market and other gardeners with 129 assistants, 94 greengrocers and 38 assistants, 94 shop- or store-keepers and 30 assistants, 59 labourers, 43 hotel servants, 31 vegetable, 27 general, and 25 fish hawkers, 31 laundrymen and women, 31 domestic servants, 29 lodging-house keepers, 27 cooks (not domestic), 24 farm-labourers, 19 eating-house keepers, 19 grocers with 21 assistants, 16 fishermen, 11 merchants with 6 assistants, 7 drapers and 1 assistant. Amongst various others in small numbers each, are returned 1 law-clerk, 2 missionaries, 5 medical men, 1 dentist, 1 chemist, 1 interpreter, 2 bankers, 1 opium-seller.

Three of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 3 others of benevolent asylums. While 22 were lunatics, only 2 were prisoners in gaol.

Appendix A.

APPENDIX A.—INDUSTRIES; PUBLIC LIBRARIES, AND OTHER LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS; PLACES OF WORSHIP.

INDUSTRIES: COMPARISON OF TOTAL RESULTS, 1896, 1891, 1886.

THE results of the compilation of the special returns relating to the various manufactories, works, &c, in the colony are compared with those shown for each of the two previous censuses in the statement next tabulated.

It must be remembered that, while all establishments or works are included which are of the nature of a factory, employing a number of persons, using some kind of machinery or plant, and probably steam- or water-power, the smaller establishments, where only a few persons may be engaged in making articles for retail disposal, or in repairs, as a general rule are kept out of the tables, which do not therefore give the value of all the work done in such matters as boot and shoe, general clothing, and furniture making, &c. But, though it is not easy to settle in all cases what to put in and what to leave out, it can be fairly well done, and quite sufficiently so to admit of reliable comparisons being given of different census results, so as to afford a just idea of the development or otherwise of the various branches of industry. The totals for the industries do not include mining and quarrying, which are dealt with separately.

The annual value of all manufactures increased between 1890 and 1895 by the sum of £775,523, while the increase for the previous quinquennium was as great as £2,062,458. But a moderate increase in money signifies, in respect of some items, a greater increase in production. The increases of quantity are stated in the special tables for the more important industries. It will be found that generally these increases are very satisfactory where the industries are such as meat-freezing, butter- and cheese-making, sawing of timber, and others which depend directly on work done upon the lands which are being developed; but in regard to some of the smaller manufacturing industries carried on in the towns the development is not always great, and in some cases these have retrograded.

The development of the butter- and cheese-making industry by way of factory work has helped greatly to make up the total increase shown since 1890; on the other hand, the decline of the flax- and grain-milling has operated unfavourably on the comparison for the years 1890 and 1895.

The great rise of the meat-freezing industry happened between 1885 and 1890, and this large increase, representing in money no less than £920,781, is probably the principal cause of the increase for the whole of the manufactures being so much greater for the period 1885–90 than for 1890–95; but there is also, amongst many other causes, the fact that flax-milling was prosperous in 1890 (showing an increase over 1885 amounting to £214,207), but in 1895 in a state of the utmost depression, the value of the product of the mills being only £32,546, against £234,266 in 1890.

MANUFACTORIES AND WORKS, 1896, 1891, 1886.

 April, 1896.April, 1891.March, 1886.Increase, 1891–96.Increase, 1886–91.
*Omitting Government Railway Workshops and Government Printing Office.
 No.No.No.No.No.
Number of establishments* Hands employed-2,4592,2541,946205308
Males22,98622,66419,6013223,063
Females4,4032,9692,4941,434475
Totals +27,38925,63322,0951,7563,538

MANUFACTORIES AND WORKS, 1896, 1891, 1886—

 Year 1895.Year 1890.Year 1885.Increase, 1890–95.Increase, 1885–90.

*No information available.

† Omitting Government Railway Workshops and Government Printing Office.

 £££££
Wages paid— To Males1,776,0761,705,641*70,435*
To Females131,516102,999*28,517*
Totals1,907,5921,808,640*98,952*
 H.-P.H.-P.H.-P.H.-P.H.-p.
Horse-power28,09621,69615,4916,4006,205
 &&&&&
Total approximate value of manufactures or produce†9,549,3608,773,8376,711,379775,5232,062,458
Total approximate value of Land1,063,9891,286,7351,477,996-222,746-191,261
Buildings1,743,0731,483,9021,446,082259,17137,820
Machinery and plant2,988,9552,491,1892,172,852497,766318,337
Totals†5,796,0175,261,8265,096,930534,191164,896

Under the heading “Hands employed,” the males increased from 19,601 in 1886 to 22,986, or at the rate of nearly 18 per cent. in ten years; but the numerical increase was higher between 1886 and 1891 than from 1891 to 1896. On the other hand, the females employed increased in number between 1891 and 1896 far more than in the previous period, the increase for 1891–96 being at the rate of 48 per cent., and only 19 per cent. for 1886–91, or 77 per cent. for ten years.

No attempt was made in 1886 to obtain any account of the wages paid in the factories or large industrial works dealt with in the census returns. But in 1891 the total amount returned for the year 1890 was £1,808,640, and for 1895 the sum was £1,907,592, an increase of £98,952 in the annual payment, or 5.47 per cent.

The average annual amount of wages paid to male hands was £77.27 in 1895 and £75.26 in 1890. For females, £29.87 in 1895 against £34.69 at the previous census. The wages of males would seem to have been more than maintained. In regard to females, possibly a larger proportion of girl labour may have been employed in 1895 than in 1890, which would tend to lower the average rate for females of all ages.

The increase for the year 1896 over 1891 in the horse-power stated in the returns was 6,400, against 6,205 for 1891, over that for 1886.

The approximate value of the land used for purposes of the factories and industries retired from £1,477,996 in 1886 to £1,286,735 in 1891, and, further, to £1,063,989 in 1896. The value of the lands used for mining is not included in the above figures, and the value of Crown lands has been omitted throughout.

A very satisfactory development will be found in the value of the machinery and plant, from £2,172,852 in 1886 to £2,988,955 in 1896, being at the rate of 14.65 per cent. for the period 1886–91, and 19.98 per cent. for 1891–96. The value of the buildings also increased.

INDUSTRIES IN PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

All the various industries for which returns were received in 1896 are given in the statement below, which thus enumerates completely the manufactories and works in operation in the colony, specifying the provincial districts in which they are situated:—

Manufactories. Works, &c.Number of Industries in Provincial Districts.Total Number of Industries.
Auckland.Taranaki.Hawke's Bay.Wellington.Marlborough.Nelson.Westland.Canterbury.Otago.
Animal food—          
        Meat freezing and preserving works5245I....4930
        Bacon-curing establishments4....2..2..III837
        Fish curing and preserving worksI3....22..2..827
        Butter and cheese factories2I538I82I0..I444170
        Rabbit-preserving works................22
        Condensed-milk factory1................1
Vegetable food—          
        Grain-mills1241918..322390
        Biscuit factories4..1311..2517
        Fruit-preserving and jam-making works1311....1..3322
        Sugar-boiling and confectionery works3....1......2612
        Sugar-refining works1................1
        Baking-powder factories8............2..10
Drinks, narcotics, and stimulants—          
        Breweries1I55123124161785
        Malthouses3..2325..10631
        Colonial-wine making4..3221..5219
        Aerated-water factories2679234923022132
        Coffee- and spice-works4....4..113518
        Tobacco manufactories2................2
        Sauce and pickle factories1I..13......6324
        Vinegar-works..........1....12
        1ce factories2..1..........3 
Animal matters (not otherwise classed)—          
Soap- and candle-works7..16..2..5122
Bone-mills4311..1..1415
        Glue factory1..............12
        Sausage-skin factories2..12......1..6
        Boiling-down works4..24......1213
        Oleomargarine works..............1..1
Working in wood—          
        Cooperages5127......332I
Sawmills, sash and door factories4919236444225225I299
Barrow and ladder factory1..............1 
Woodenware factories6....2..2..5419
Fire-kindler factories2..............2 
Vegetable produce for fodder—          
Chaff-cutting establishments13....3..10..20652
        Grass-seed dressing establishments..............3..3
Paper manufacture—          
Paper-mills................33
        Paper bag and box factories4....1......319
        Gasworks51241224627
Processes relating to stone, clay, glass, &c.—          
         Lime and cement works10....1..1..1114
        Brick, tile, and pottery works2I31317<