Table of Contents
THE preparation of this Handbook was undertaken by direction of the Hon. John Ballance, Premier of the Colony, in the beginning of May last.
The requirement that the work should be ready some time during the present session of Parliament, necessitated very special effort being made; and at one time it seemed doubtful whether or not a work, at once comprehensive and sufficiently reliable to be published by authority, could be got ready in the space allowed.
Considerable difficulty is experienced in preparing a book which should give much detail and matter of reference to be of use to persons residing in the colony, and at the same time contain descriptive matter, not overloaded with particulars, for the purposes of persons abroad who desire to form a general idea of what is done in New Zealand, of the peculiar advantages of the colony for settlement and as a place of residence. It is hoped that the material of this Handbook will be found to combine what is wanted for reference purposes with sufficient illustrative matter to serve the requirements of persons at a distance.
To insure publication at so early a date as the 1st September, a few sacrifices have been found unavoidable. The results of the legislation of the present session could not be treated of, and full criminal and private school statistics for 1891 were not to hand. But, with these exceptions, the statistical portion of the work gives complete figures for last year.
Following on the official and statistical information will be found a series of articles on subjects of importance to the colony, such as the leading industries, means of transport, social institutions, &c. Some of these were furnished either wholly or in part from Government departments, and the freest acknowledgment of kindly and willing assistance is due to all.
Full use of the report of the late Registrar-General (Mr. W. R. E. Brown) has been made in preparing the “Statistical Information,” and preceding portion of the work.
The “Descriptions of Forest Trees,” “Strength of Timbers,” a portion of the articles on “Fish” and “Climate,” “Varieties of Soil,” and “Building Stones,” have been taken, by permission, from the works of Sir James Hector.
E. J. VON DADELSZEN.
Wellington, 31st August, 1892.
|Special Articles on||Furnished by|
|Agriculture||M. Murphy, F.L.S.; J. A. Johnstone; J Sawers, through Department of Agriculture.|
|Kauri-gum||J. M. Dargaville, J.P.|
|Labour||E. Tregear, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist S., Secretary, Labour Department.|
|Introduction of Trout||L. H. B. Wilson, Assistant Secretary, Marine Department.|
|Mining||H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Mines Department.|
|Railways||E. G. Pilcher, Secretary, Railway Commissioners.|
|Union Steamship Company||The General Manager.|
|New Zealand Shipping Company||The General Manager.|
|Public Instruction||Rev. W. J. Habens, B.A., Secretary, Education Department.|
|Government Life Insurance||D. M. Luckie, F.S.S., Assistant Commissioner.|
|Public Trust Office||J. K. Warburton, Public Trustee.|
|Patents||C. J. A. Haselden, J.P., Registrar.|
|The Maoris||W. J. Morpeth, Native Department.|
|Map… … …||Surveyor-General.|
|For Statistical and Critical Work||Officers of Registrar-General's Department.|
|For general assistance||Mr. Charles Janion.|
N.B. Every care has been taken to avoid errors, but if any be discovered it is requested that they may be reported. Suggestions will also receive consideration.
Table of Contents
THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The former are known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands. These three islands have a coast-line amounting to 4,330 miles in length—namely, North Island; 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, Bounty Islands, and the Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser. The British Resident was appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government.
New Zealand is a mountainous country in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for the lofty Alps with magnificent glaciers, and its sounds or fiords, the scenery being unrivalled.
New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being seven and a half millions of acres. The land is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, which, after the bush has been burnt off, are mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool- and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very great. The abundance of water and quantity of valuable timber are also leading characteristics.
New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Coal is found in immense quantities, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over forty-seven millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.
The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, a Dutch navigator. He sailed from Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he sailed in an easterly direction, and on the 13th December of that year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”
It has been assumed as probable that the first European who visited New Zealand was Juan Fernandez, who, having started from one of the ports of the west coast of South America in 1576, after sailing for about a month in a south-westerly direction, reached a land described by him as fertile and pleasant, and inhabited by a race of white people, well made, and dressed in a species of woven cloth. People of brown complexions were often described as white by the Spaniards; and, although there is no direct evidence that the land so discovered was New Zealand, yet no other seems to answer his description. It appears, however, certain that the country was visited before the date of Tasman's arrival in 1642, as the land he came to was shown in the Dutch chart used by him, and was named thereon “Zeland Nova,” William Bleau, a Dutchman, who died in 1638, having published an atlas in which indistinctly a line of coast is shown with the name against it, “Zelandia Nova.”
Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw formed part of a great polar continent, and was part of that country (subsequently found to be an island) discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand. Within about three months after this date Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country which Tasman had called by the same name received instead that of “New Zealand”—an evident restoration of the name previously given—by which name it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Day, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he sailed along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot on the country.
There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until that of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in a southerly direction in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having circumnavigated the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—the latter having been considered as part of the Middle Island—he sailed from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He again visited New Zealand in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.
M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” being on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. Another visit was shortly after paid by a French officer, M. Marion, du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was treacherously murdered by the Natives on the 12th June following.
In 1793 the “Dĉdalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.
In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall — who had been sent as forerunners to Mr. Marsden. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked, in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814, and returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815. It was not until 1821 that the work of evangelisation was put on a somewhat permanent basis; but the first station, established by Mr. Leigh, a Wesleyan missionary, and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.
Prior to the discovery and colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both, islands. Papers written in 1874 by Sir William Fox, M.H.R., and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters which are lost in the obscurity which envelops the history of a people, without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that when they came there were probably no other inhabitants of the country. The tradition runs that, generations ago, a large migration took place from an island in the Pacific Ocean, to which the Maoris give the name of Hawaiiki, a chief having been driven from it whose canoe arrived upon the shore of the North Island. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, set on foot a scheme of emigration, whereupon a large fleet of double canoes started for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal “canoes” after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, indicate that about twenty-seven generations have passed since the migration, which would give for its date about the beginning of the fourteenth century. The position of Hawaiiki is not known, but there are several islands of this or a somewhat similar name. Similarity of language indicates a Polynesian origin, which would prove that they advanced to New Zealand through various groups of the Pacific islands, in which they left remains of the same race, who to this day speak the same or nearly the same tongue. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the assistance of a native from Tahiti, whose language proved to be almost identical with that of the New Zealanders, and through the medium of whose interpretation a large amount of the early information respecting the country and its inhabitants was obtained, which could not have been had without it.
A special article will be found further on dealing with the subject of the numbers and present condition of the Maoris.
The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of numerous whaling vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.
In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A treaty called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, by which all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales; but on the 3rd May, 1841, it was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Auckland, round which a settlement was formed.
The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site, which resulted in the establishment of the settlement at the head of Blind Bay. About the same time a settlement was commenced at New Plymouth, by the arrival, on the 31st March, 1841, of a body of immigrants despatched by the New Plymouth Company, a colonisation company that had been formed in England, and had purchased 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.
The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, in March, 1848, of two ships containing immigrants, despatched by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement in that part of the colony by persons who belonged to or were in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.
In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the settlement of the adjoining country was commenced in a systematic manner, the intention having been to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.
The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30′ S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10′ S. lat.; on the east, 179°.0′ E. long.; on the west, 166° 5′ E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.
In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23, 1863, the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.
The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—
The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,580 acres.
The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres.
The South or Stewart Island, and adjacent islands, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.
The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.
The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.
The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33′ south, and longitude 169° 8. west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.
The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between four and five miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.
The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in nearly an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.
The Kermadec Islands, a group of which the largest is called Sunday or Raoul Island, lie about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Sunday Island is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about three miles in circumference. Area of the group, 8,144 acres.
The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.
A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts for the colony as Government Agent in all matters of trade.
* Frederick J. Moss, Esq., late M.H.R., is now British Resident. His salary is paid by this colony.
The areas of the various Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, differ considerably. Mr. Hayter, in his “Victorian Year-book,” gives the total area of the Australian Continent at 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but in the case of each colony, except Victoria, the area computed by Mr. Skene differs from that given in the official records of that colony, the difference in the case of Western Australia amounting to over 84,000 square miles. The following areas are, therefore, taken from the official records of each colony:—
|New South Wales||310,700|
|Total Continent of Australia||3,030,771|
|New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)||104,471|
The size of these colonies may be better realised by the comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—amounting on the whole to less than 1,600,000 square miles, are little more than half the area of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total area would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than that of the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand. The area of the Colony of New Zealand is little more than one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, that of the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.
|United Kingdom.||Area in Square Miles.|
|England and Wales||58,311|
|New Zealand.||Area in Square Miles.|
The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which extends over more than three degrees of latitude, takes a north-westerly direction, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.
This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country available, either now or in the future, when clear of forest or other indigenous vegetation, &c., for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth, which is about 250 miles distant from Wellington. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a large portion is covered with pumice-sand, and is unsuitable for beneficial occupation. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this island suitable for or capable of being made fit for agriculture has been estimated roughly at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that are capable of drainage; also considerable areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the agriculturist, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of this island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of forest-covered land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed being then sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, and wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be, grasses will flourish. Very little of the land is consequently incapable of being made to supply food for cattle and sheep when treated as above or otherwise laid down in grass. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, being too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way from the extreme points, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, rising to the south of the lake, flows through it and out of its north-eastern point, and trends thence in a north-westerly direction until it flows into the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from the Europeans, lies to the west of Lake Taupo, and is bounded on the west by the sea. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable only for small steamers about fifty miles. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wanganui and Manawatu, which flow in a south-westerly direction into Cook Strait.
The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—
The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is that of Ngauruhoe, which attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with, at times, considerable force and noise, the vapours being charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.
Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Tongariro. It is an extinct volcanic cone, and reaches the height of 9,100ft., being in part considerably above the line of the limit of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit. This lake is situated at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, its steep sides being mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, and is about 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and quite inaccessible except by ropes. It is much disturbed by eddies, from which steam or vapour is given off. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, and through other hot springs on the north of the lake in the direction of White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.
Mount Egmont. This is also an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,300ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in its solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty and ceaseless admiration.
It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.
The most remarkable feature of the North Island is the numerous hot springs, which occur in hundreds from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, situated at almost the extreme north of the colony—a distance of 300 miles. Clouds of sulphurous steam are seen rising at all sorts of places over this extensive area, but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua. The district is generally known as the Hot- or Thermal-Springs District.
This district is situated about forty miles in a north-north-east direction from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana on the occasion of the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the district has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the lakes, geysers, and hot springs (the number of which is very great), some of which possess remarkable curative properties for certain complaints—still afford considerable attraction for tourists and invalids. Recently the world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose. A very interesting account of the “Thermal Springs of the North Island” will be found further on.
Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. These on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, not suitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent harbours in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a land-locked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.
Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is about sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony, and is constantly traversed by vessels of the magnificent line of coastal steamers that trade in New Zealand waters.
The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Point Jackson, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southern) District, being about 180 miles.
The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a mountainous range known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, attaining an altitude of 12,349ft.
In the south, in the vicinity of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there is a large number of magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their southerly position, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has aptly been termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, nearly 10,000ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. North-ward beyond this a fine chain of peaks runs as the backbone of the Middle Island to where Mount Cook, or Aorangi, towers majestic in the midst of the grandest scenes of the Southern Alps.
The scenery of the Southern Alps of New Zealand in many instances excels in beauty and grandeur that of the Alps of Switzerland, while in the Southern Alps there is also greater variety. In New Zealand no one has actually succeeded in making a complete ascent of any of the highest mountains. Many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is, in parts of the Middle Island, still a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so, high, is of surpassing grandeur.
There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the western side being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen New Zealand forest vegetation. The largest glaciers on each side of the range are easily accessible.
The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—
|Name.||Area of Glacier.||Length of Glacier.||Greatest Width.||Average Width.|
The Alletsch Glacier, in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.
Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the mountains abutting on the south-western coast, from the sea. They are long, narrow, deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), environed by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line; their steep sides often apparently within the steamer's length of the deck as she ploughs through their calm solitudes, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snow-fields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 10,000ft. above the sea. The great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high, is near one of these sounds.
The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are, some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.
The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending in a south-westerly-direction for 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, considered one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.
The southern district of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for agricultural purposes. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and are suitable for grazing sheep. There are gold-fields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The interior, lakes are very important features in Otago. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but is not more than four miles at its greatest width. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. It covers an area of 114 square miles. Te Anau Lake, which covers an area of 132 square miles, is larger than Lake Wakatipu. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and chiefly wooded country, extending to the ocean.
The chief harbours in the Otago District are those of Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.
The District of Westland extends along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of the District of Canterbury. This district is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snowline; but on the eastern slopes timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.
The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they become of considerable size, and their beds, when not confined by rocky walls, extend over considerable areas, chiefly covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the island and in the colony is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They constitute the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they only admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the only ports available for the coal-export trade, the largest and most important coalfields being in their neighbourhood, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in a deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 24ft. of water on the bars.
The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island that may be available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 8,000,000 acres.
Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres. It is mountainous in character, and chiefly covered with forest.
The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which a largo and irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is occupied as sheep-runs.
The only island in any way suitable for settlement in the Kermadec group is Sunday Island, containing 7,800 acres. The highest point rises to an elevation of 1,720ft. The surface of the land is chiefly covered with wood and scrub. The other islands are mere rocks.
The largest of the Auckland Islands, about twenty-seven miles long by about fifteen miles broad, is very mountainous, the highest part being 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. There is a good harbour both at the north and south ends. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a dépôt of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners. These have already been found of inestimable value by an unfortunate shipwrecked crew condemned to some months' residence on the island.
Neither this nor the rest of the outlying islands of the group are suitable for settlement.
British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive comprised, with the Governor, three gentlemen, holding offices as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.
In August, 1841; May, 1842; and January, 1844, three new members were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. They were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time on the 27th May, 1854, although they remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Between the 14th June and the 2nd September, 1854, the Executive Council was variously constituted with three or four members of the House of Representatives and two Legislative Councillors, without portfolios.
The government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Imperial Government; but in 1852 an Act was passed by the Imperial Legislature which granted representative institutions to the colony. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, consisting of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise practically amounted to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years; but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the electors of the whole province; the members of the Provincial Council by those of the electoral districts. The Provincial Governments remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into operation.
The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.
The present members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor, the appointments being for life unless vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two of the members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs. In future the appointments are tenable for seven years only; but Councillors may be reappointed.
The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time the dissolution of Parliament by the Governor necessitates such general election. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies, three members for the Maori districts being aboriginal natives and one a half-caste. An Act was passed in 1887 which provided that, on the termination of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen in every electoral district appointed for that purpose by the votes of the inhabitants.
In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. This provision greatly increased the effective power of those voters who were registered for one electoral district only, and resulted in a considerable addition to the number of so-called labour members in the House of Representatives. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 2 of “The Public-Offenders Disqualification Act, 1867,” but no other man, is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. The franchise for European representation is that every adult male, if resident one year in the colony and six months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration also entitles a man to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. Maoris possessing a £25 free-hold under Crown title, or being on any ratepayers' roll, can also register. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vole. Registration is not required in Native districts. The proportion of representation to population at the last general election for the House of Representatives, in December, 1890, was one European member to every 8,952 inhabitants, and one Maori member to every 10,413 Natives.
Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (then late Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania might be asked to each appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon, Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and E. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.
These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous conclusion “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”
The seat of Government was, in accordance with the recommendations of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.
Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and 634,058 at the close of the year 1891, exclusive of Maoris.
SUCCESSION OF GOVERNORS OF NEW ZEALAND, AND THE DATES ON WHICH THEY ASSUMED AND RETRIED FROM THE GOVERNMENT.
Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.
[Proclamation of British Sovereignty by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]
Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1812, to 26 Dec., 1843.
Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.
Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey. K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.
[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of his office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.
Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.
Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.
Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.
Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.
The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.
James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.
Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.
James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.
Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.
Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.
The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.
The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892.
MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND PREVIOUS TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT (NOT INCLUDING THE OFFICERS COMMANDING THE FORCES).
Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.
Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.
George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.
William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.
Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.
Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.
[The holders of these three last-mentioned offices were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. They were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, although they remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]
James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Henry Sewell. M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.
Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C, without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.
Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
|NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTS SINCE THE CONSTITUTION ACT PASSED FOR CONFERRING REPRESENTATIVE INSTITUTIONS UPON THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND, WITH THE DATES OF OPENING THE SESSIONS AND DATES OF CLOSING OR DISSOLUTION.|
|No. of Parliament.||Date of Opening of Sessions.||Date of Closing or Dissolution.|
|First Parliament||27 May, 1854||9 August, 1854.|
|31 August, 1854||16 September, 1854.|
|8 August, 1855||15 September, 1855.|
|Second Parliament||15 April, 1856||16 August, 1856.|
|(There was no session held in the year 1857.)|
|10 April, 1858||21 August, 1858.|
|(There was no session held in the year 1859.)|
|30 July, 1860||5 November, 1860.|
|Third Parliament||3 June, 1861||7 September, 1861.|
|7 July, 1862||15 September, 1862.|
|19 October, 1863||14 December, 1863.|
|24 November, 1864||13 December, 1864.|
|26 July, 1865||30 October, 1865.|
|Fourth Parliament||30 June, 1866||8 October, 1866.|
|9 July, 1867||10 October, 1867.|
|9 July, 1868||20 October, 1868.|
|1 June, 1869||3 September, 1869.|
|14 June, 1870||13 September, 1870.|
|Fifth Parliament||14 August, 1871||16 November, 1871.|
|16 July, 1872||25 October, 1872.|
|15 July, 1873||3 October, 1873.|
|3 July, 1874||31 August, 1874.|
|20 July, 1875||21 October, 1875.|
|Sixth Parliament||15 June, 1876||31 October, 1876.|
|19 July, 1877||10 December, 1877.|
|26 July, 1878||2 November, 1873.|
|11 July, 1879||15 August, 1879.|
|Seventh Parliament||24 September, 1879||19 December, 1879.|
|28 May, 1880||1 September, 1880.|
|9 June, 1881||24 September, 1881.|
|Eighth Parliament||18 May, 1882||15 September, 1882.|
|14 June, 1883||8 September, 1883.|
|5 June, 1884||24 June, 1884.|
|Ninth Parliament||7 August, 1884||10 November, 1884.|
|11 June, 1885||22 September, 1885.|
|13 May, 1886||18 August, 1886.|
|26 April, 1887||15 July, 1887.|
|Tenth Parliament||6 October, 1887||23 December, 1887.|
|10 May, 1888||31 August, 1888.|
|20 June, 1889||19 September, 1889.|
|19 June, 1890||3 October, 1890.|
|Eleventh Parliament||27 January, 1891||31 January, 1891.|
|11 June, 1891||5 September, 1891.|
|23 June, 1892|
|SINCE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT IN NEW ZEALAND IN 1856.|
|Name of Ministry.||Assumed Office.||When retired.|
|1. Bell-Sewell||7 May, 1856||20 May, 1856.|
|2. Fox||20 May, 1856||2 June, 1856.|
|3. Stafford||2 June, 1856||12 July, 1861.|
|4. Fox||12 July, 1861||6 August, 1862.|
|5. Domett||6 August, 1862||30 October, 1863.|
|6. Whitaker-Fox||30 October, 1863||24 November, 1864.|
|7. Weld||24 November, 1864||16 October, 1865.|
|8. Stafford||16 October, 1865||28 Tune, 1869.|
|9. Fox||28 June, 1869||10 September, 1872.|
|10. Stafford||10 September, 1872||11 October, 1872.|
|11. Waterhouse||11 October, 1872||3 March, 1873.|
|12. Fox||3 March, 1873||8 April, 1873.|
|13. Vogel||8 April, 1873||6 July, 1875.|
|14. Pollen||6 July, 1875||15 February, 1876.|
|15. Vogel||15 February, 1876||1 September, 1876.|
|16. Atkinson||1 September, 1876||13 September, 1876.|
|17. Atkinson (reconstituted)||13 September, 1876||13 October, 1877.|
|18. Grey||15 October, 1877||8 October, 1879.|
|19. Hail||8 October, 1879||21 April, 1882.|
|20. Whitaker||21 April, 1882||25 September, 1883.|
|21. Atkinson||25 September, 1883||16 August, 1884.|
|22. Stout-Vogel||16 August, 1884||28 August, 1884.|
|23. Atkinson||28 August, 1884||3 September, 1884.|
|24. Stout-Vogel||3 September, 1884||8 October, 1887.|
|25. Atkinson||8 October, 1887||24 January, 1891.|
|26. Ballance||24 January, 1891||Still in office.|
|Name of Premier.||Date of Assumption of Office.||Date of Retirement from Office.|
|Henry Sewell||7 May, 1856||20 May, 1856.|
|William Fox||20 May, 1856||2 June, 1856.|
|Edward William Stafford||2 June, 1850||12 July, 1861.|
|William Fox||12 July, 1861||6 August, 1862.|
|Alfred Domett||6 August, 1862||30 October, 1863.|
|Frederick Whitaker||30 October, 1863||24 November, 1864.|
|Frederick Aloysius Weld||24 November, 1864||16 October, 1865.|
|Edward William Stafford||16 October, 1865||28 June, 1869.|
|William Fox||28 June, 1869||10 September, 1872.|
|Hon. Edward William Stafford||10 September, 1872||11 October, 1872.|
|George Marsden Waterhouse||11 October, 1872||3 March, 1873.|
|Hon. William Fox||3 March, 1873||8 April, 1873.|
|Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.||8 April, 1873||6 July, 1875.|
|Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.||6 July, 1875||15 February, 1876.|
|Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.||15 February, 1876||1 September, 1876.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson||1 September, 1876||13 September, 1876.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry re-constituted)||13 September, 1876||13 October, 1877.|
|Sir George Grey, K.C.B.||15 October, 1877||8 October, 1879.|
|Hon. John Hall||8 October, 1879||21 April, 1882.|
|Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.||21 April, 1882||25 September, 1883.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson||25 September, 1883||16 August, 1884.|
|Robert Stout||16 August, 1884||28 August, 1884.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson||28 August, 1884||3 September, 1884.|
|Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.||3 September, 1884||8 October, 1887.|
|Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.||6 October, 1887||24 January, 1891.|
|John Ballance||24 January, 1891|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Appointment.||Date of Retirement.|
|Hon. William Swainson||16 May, 1854||8 August, 1855.|
|Hon. Frederick Whitaker||8 August, 1855||12 May, 1856.|
|Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley||12 May, 1856||1 July, 1868.|
|Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson||1 July, 1868||14 June, 1879.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||14 June, 1879||23 January, 1891.|
|Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.||23 January, 1891||28 June, 1892.|
|Hon. Henry John Miller||8 July, 1892|
|Name of Speaker.||Dates of Election.||Date of Retirement.|
|Sir Charles Clifford||26 May, 1854|
|15 April, 1856||3 June, 1861.|
|Sir David Monro||3 June, 1861|
|30 June, 1866||14 August, 1871.|
|Sir Francis Dillon Bell||14 August, 1871||15 June, 1876.|
|Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||15 June, 1876||13 June, 1879.|
|Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Knt. Bach.||11 July, 1879|
|24 September, 1879|
|18 May, 1882|
|7 August, 1884|
|6 October, 1887||22 January, 1891.|
|Major William Jukes Steward||22 January, 1891|
(DOWNING STREET, S.W., LONDON), WITH DATES OF APPOINTMENT.
Secretary of State—The Right Hon. Lord Knutsford, 14 Jan., 1887; created Baron Knutsford, 1888. Under-Secretaries—The Right Hon. Baron Henry de Worms, M.P., 20 Feb., 1888; Hon. Robert H. Meade, C.B., 1 Feb., 1892. Assistant Under-Secretaries —John Bramston, D.C.L., C.B., 30 June, 1876; Edward Wingfield, B.C.L., C.B., 19 July, 1878. Edward Fairfield, C.M.G., 1 Feb., 1892. Private Secretary to the Secretary of State—W. A. Baillie Hamilton, C.M.G. Assistant Private Secretaries—H. W. Just, B.A., and W. C. Bridgeman.
Bell, Sir Francis Dillon, K.B., 1873; K.C.M.G., 1881; C.B., 1886.
Buckley, Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G., 1892.
Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.
FitzGerald, James Edward, Esq., C.M.G., 1870.
Fox, Sir William, K.C.M.G., 1879.
Grace, Morgan Stanislaus, Esq., C.M.G.
Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., 1818.
Hall, Sir John, K.C.M.G., 1882.
Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.
Larnach, William James Mudie, Esq., C.M.G, 1879.
O'Rorke, Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.
Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.
Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.
Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G.
Stafford, Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.
Stout, Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.
Vogel, Sir Julius, C.M.G., 1872; K.C.M.G., 1875.
Whitmore, Colonel Sir George Stoddart, C.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.
EX-MINISTERS AND MINISTERS ALLOWED TO RETAIN THE TITLE OF “HONOURABLE” WITHIN THE COLONY.
Messrs. E. W. Stafford, J. Hall, and Colonel T. M. Haultain, gazetted March 23, 1870; Messrs. W. Fox, Julius Vogel, C.M.G., and W. Gisborne, gazetted February 13, 1873; Mr. W. H. Reynolds, by despatch from Secretary of State, May 11, 1876; Mr. E. Richardson, gazetted May 31, 1877; Messrs. W. Rolleston, John Bryce, K, Oliver, T. Dick, and W. W. Johnston, gazetted December 24, 1884; Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., Messrs. E. Richardson, J. Ballance, J. A. Tole, P. A. Buckley, W. H. Reynolds, and W. J. M. Larnach, C.M.G., gazetted February 2, 1888; Messrs. E. Mitchelson, T. Fergus, G. F. Richardson, and T. W. Hislop, gazetted June 4, 1891.
CONSULS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES RESIDING IN, OR WITH JURISDICTION OVER, NEW ZEALAND IN THE YEAR 1892.
Netherlands.—Chevalier Daniel Ploos Van Amstel, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Consul; Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, and David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Vice-Consuls.
Belgium.—Gustave Beckx, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Alexander Beck, Christchurch, and Arthur Masy, Auckland, Consuls.
Italy.—Cavaliere Nicola Squitti, Barone de Palermiti e Guarna, Melbourne, Consul; Alexander Cracroft Wilson, Christchurch, George Fisher, Wellington, Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, Dr. Francesco Rosetti, Hokitika, Geraldo Guiseppe Perotti, Greymouth, and Patrick Comiskey, Auckland, Consular Agents.
German Empire.—A. Pelldram, Sydney, Consul-General; John Hamann, Dunedin (acting), William Henry Simms, Christchurch, Friedrich August Krull, Wanganui, Hermann Brown, Auckland, Consuls; Augustus Friedrich Castendyk, Wellington, Vice-Consul.
France.—Felix Jacques de Lostalot de Bachoué, Wellington Vice-Consul; David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin, and Hon. Edmund William Parker, Christchurch, Consular Agents.
Sweden and Norway.—Fortunatus Evelyn Wright, Christchurch, and Edward Pearce, Wellington, Consuls; Harlan Page Barber, Auckland, Vice-Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Consular Agent.
Denmark.—Edward Valdemar Johansen, Auckland, Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, and Emil Christian Skog, Christchurch, Vice-Consuls.
Spain.—Don Francisco Arenas Y. Bonet, Christchurch, Vice-Consul.
Portugal.—John Duncan, Wellington, Consul; Henry Rees George, Auckland, and Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Vice-Consuls.
United States.—O. M. Spencer, Melbourne, Consul-General; John Darcy Conolly, Auckland, Consul (for New Zealand); Francis Hopes Webb, Auckland, Vice-Consul; Albert Cuff, Christchurch, Henry Stephenson, Russell, Robert Wyles, Mongonui, William Hort Levin, Wellington, and Henry Driver, Dunedin, Consular Agents.
Chili—William Henry Eldred, Sydney, Consul-General; David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Consular Agent.
Argentine Republic.—John Lee Leesmith, Dunedin, Consul.
Columbia.—Thomas P. Fallon, Melbourne, Consul-General.
Hawaiian Islands.—Henry Driver, Dunedin, and James Cruickshank, Auckland, Consuls.
W. B. Perceval, Esq., Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, Esq., C.M.G.
New South Wales.—Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C.B., Westminster Chambers, 9, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—S. Yardley, Esq.
Victoria.—The Hon. James Munro, Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—John Cashel Hoey, Esq., C.M.G.
South Australia.—Sir John Cox Bray, K.C.M.G., Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Assistant, Samuel Deering, Esq.
Queensland.—Sir James E. Garrick, K.C.M.G., Q.C., Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, S.W. Charles Shortt Dicken, Esq., C.M.G.
Tasmania.—Sir Edward N. Coventry Braddon, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 5, Victoria Street, S.W.
Western Australia.—Crown Agents for the Colony—Sir Montagu P. Ommaney, K.C.M.G., and Ernest E. Blake, Esq., Colonial Office Buildings, Downing Street, S.W.
OFFICES: DOWNING STREET, S.W.; AND 1, TOKENHOUSE BUILDINGS, E.C., LONDON.
Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommaney, K.C.M.G., and Ernest Edward Blake. Accountant—J. W. Leonard. Registrar—J. Chadwick. Chief Cashier—L. Adams. Engineering Clerk and Head of Contract Branch—T. R. Marsh, M.A.
GLASGOW, His Excellency the Right Honourable David, Earl of, G.C.M.G., a captain of the royal navy, who served in the White Sea during the Russian war, and in the Chinese war of 1857, and retired in 1878; born 1833; married, in 1873, Dorothea Thomasina, daughter of Sir Edward Hunter-Blair; appointed February 24, and assumed office June 7, 1892, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Government House, Wellington; and Government House, Auckland.
Private Secretary—Colonel Pat Boyle (late Grenadier Guards).
Assistant Private Secretary—George Maurice Gillington.
Aides-de-camp—Reginald Stanley Hunter-Blair (Captain, Gordon Highlanders) and Edward Francis Clayton (Lieutenant, Scots Guards).
ADMINISTRATOR OF THE GOVERNMENT—A dormant commission empowers the Chief Justice of the colony for the time being to administer the Government in case of the death, incapacity, or removal, or departure of the Governor.
Hon. J. Ballance, Premier, Colonial Treasurer, and Commissioner of Trade and Customs.
Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, M.L.C., K.C.M.G., Attorney-General and Colonial Secretary.
Hon. W. P. Reeves, Minister of Education, Commissioner of Stamp Duties, and Minister of Labour.
Hon. R. J. Seddon, Minister for Public Works, Minister of Mines, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Marine.
Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands and Immigration and Minister of Agriculture.
Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister of Native Affairs and Minister of Justice.
Hon. J. G. Ward, Postmaster-General and Telegraph Commissioner.
Hon. J. Carroll (without portfolio), representing the Native race.
[The above Ministers are also members of the Cabinet.]
Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.
Table of Contents
The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is thirty-five. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Councillors have been, hitherto summoned by the Governor for life. On the 17th September, 1891, however, an Act was passed making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the instrument of the Councillor's appointment, though every such. Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised in New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to the amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible to become Councillors. The honorarium is £100 for every session (except in the event of there being two sessions in one year, when the amount is £50 for the second session) if the Councillor reside beyond three miles in a direct line from the General Assembly building. Deductions are made in case of absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. A seat is vacated by any member of the Council—(1), If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. The presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.
|Speaker—The Hon. HENRY JOHN MILLER.|
|Chairman of Committees—The Hon. WILLIAM DOUGLAS HALL BAILLIE.|
|Name.||Provincial District.||Date of Appointment.|
|Acland, the Hon. John Barton Arundel||Canterbury||8 July, 1865.|
|Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas Hall||Marlborough||8 March, 1861.|
|Barnicoat, the Hon. John Wallis||Nelson||14 May, 1883.|
|Bonar, the Hon. James Alexander||Westland||27 June, 1868.|
|Bowen, the Hon. Charles Christopher||Canterbury||23 January, 1891.|
|Buckley, the Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G.||Wellington||25 July, 1878.|
|Dignan, the Hon. Patrick||Auckland||3 February, 1879.|
|Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.||Wellington||13 May, 1870.|
|Hart, the Hon. Robert||Wellington||9 July, 1872.|
|Holmes, the Hon. Mathew||Otago||19 June, 1866.|
|Johnston, the Hon. Charles John||Wellington||23 January, 1891.|
|Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer Thomas||Marlborough||15 May, 1885.|
|Mantell, the Hon. Walter Baldock Durant||Wellington||19 June, 1866.|
|McLean, the Hon. George||Otago||19 December, 1881.|
|Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)||Otago||8 July, 1865.|
|Morris, the Hon. George Bontham||Auckland||15 May, 1885.|
|Oliver, the Hon. Richard||Otago||10 November, 1881.|
|Ormond, the Hon. John Davies||Hawke's Bay||23 January, 1891.|
|Peacock, the Hon. John Thomas||Canterbury||3 June, 1873.|
|Pharazyn, the Hon. Robert||Wellington||15 May, 1885.|
|Pollen, the Hon. Daniel||Auckland||12 May, 1873.|
|Reynolds, the Hon. William Hunter||Otago||6 May, 1878.|
|Scotland, the Hon. Henry||Taranaki||24 February, 1868.|
|Shephard, the Hon. Joseph||Nelson||15 May, 1885.|
|Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel Edward||Otago||15 May, 1885.|
|Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas John||Canterbury||7 March, 1882.|
|Stewart, the Hon. William Downie||Otago||23 January, 1891.|
|Swanson, the Hon. William||Auckland||15 May, 1885.|
|Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori Kerei||Otago||15 May, 1885.|
|Wahawaha, the Hon. Major Ropata, N.Z.C.||Auckland||10 May, 1887.|
|Walker, the Hon. Lancelot||Canterbury||15 May, 1885.|
|Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.||Hawke's Bay||31 August, 1863.|
|Whyte, the Hon. John Blair||Otago||23 January, 1891.|
|Williams, the Hon. Henry||Auckland||7 March, 1882.|
|Wilson, the Hon. John Nathaniel||Hawke's Bay||23 November, 1877.|
of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders
upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.
Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.
Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.
Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.
The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans, and four Maoris. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members— ninety-one Europeans, and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty European members, and the Middle Island forty. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. The qualification for membership is simply registration as an elector, and hot coming within the meaning of section 2 of “The Public Offenders' Disqualification Act, 1867.” The honorarium is £100 a session, with an additional £50 for expenses necessarily incurred; such sum of £50 not to be reducible in case there shall be two sessions of Parliament held in the same year; but members residing within three miles of the General Assembly building are allowed only £25. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand, when any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, to such person in any one financial year, and Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as or of sitting or voting as members. Twenty members, exclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 to 5.30, and resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket to be obtained from the Speaker. The Stranger's Gallery is open free to the public.
|Speaker—The Hon. WILLIAM JUKES STEWARD.|
|Chairman of Committees—WILLIAM LEE REES.|
|Name.||Electoral District.||Date of Notification of Return of Writ.|
|Allen, James||Bruce||12 May, 1892.|
|Ballance, Hon. John||Wanganui||18 December, 1890.|
|Blake, Edwin||Avon||18 December, 1890.|
|Bruce, Robert Cunningham||Rangitikei||13 July, 1892.|
|Buchanan, Walter Clarke||Wairarapa||18 December, 1890.|
|Buckland, William Francis||Manukau||18 December, 1890.|
|Buick, Thomas Lindsay||Wairau||18 December, 1890.|
|Cadman, Hon. Alfred Jerome||Thames||18 December, 1890.|
|Carncross, Walter Charles Frederick||Taieri||18 December, 1890.|
|Carroll, Hon. James||Eastern Maori||6 January, 1891.|
|Dawson, William||Dunedin Suburbs||18 December, 1890.|
|Duncan, Thomas||Oamaru||18 December, 1890.|
|Duthie, John||City of Wellington||18 December, 1890.|
|Earnshaw, William||Peninsula||18 December, 1890.|
|Fergus, Hon. Thomas||Wakatipu||18 December, 1890.|
|Fish, Henry Smith||City of Dunedin||18 December, 1890.|
|Fisher, George||City of Wellington||18 December, 1890.|
|Fraser, William||Te Aroha||18 July, 1891.|
|Grey, Sir George, K.C.B.||Newton||8 April, 1891.|
|Guinness, Arthur Robert||Grey||18 December; 1890.|
|Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G.||Ellesmere||18 December; 1890.|
|Hall-Jones, William||Timaru||18 December; 1890.|
|Hamlin, Ebenezer||Franklin||18 December; 1890.|
|Harkness, Joseph George||City of Nelson||18 December; 1890.|
|Hogg, Alexander Wilson||Masterton||18 December; 1890.|
|Houston, Robert Morrow||Bay of Islands||18 December; 1890.|
|Hutchison, George||Waitotara||18 December; 1890.|
|Hutchison, William||City of Dunedin||18 December; 1890.|
|Joyce, John||Akaroa||18 December; 1890.|
|Kapa, Eparaima te Mutu||Northern Maori||21 February, 1891.|
|Kelly, James||Invercargill||18 December, 1890.|
|Kelly, William||East Coast||18 December, 1890.|
|Lake, Edward||Waikato||12 October, 1891.|
|Lawry, Frank||Parnell||18 December, 1890.|
|Mackenzie, Mackay John Scobie||Mount Ida||18 December, 1890.|
|Mackenzie, Thomas||Clutha||18 December, 1890.|
|Mackintosh, James||Wallace||18 December, 1890.|
|McGuire, Felix||Egmont||24 February, 1891.|
|McKenzie, Hon. John||Waitaki||18 December, 1890.|
|McLean, William||City of Wellington||20 January, 1892.|
|Meredith, Richard||Ashley||18 December, 1890.|
|Mills, Charles Houghton||Waimea-Picton||18 December, 1890.|
|Mills, James||Port Chalmers||18 December, 1890.|
|Mitchelson, Hon. Edwin||Eden||18 December, 1890.|
|Moore, Richard||Kaiapoi||18 December, 1890.|
|Newman, Alfred Kingcome||Hutt||18 December, 1890.|
|O'Conor, Eugene Joseph||Buller||18 December, 1890.|
|Palmer, Jackson||Waitemata||18 December, 1890.|
|Parata, Tame||Southern Maori||6 January, 1891.|
|Pinkerton, David||City of Dunedin||18 December, 1890|
|Rees, William Lee||City of Auckland||18 December, 1890|
|Reeves, Richard Harman Jeffares||Inangahua||18 December, 1890|
|Reeves, Hon. William Pember||City of Christchurch||18 December, 1890|
|Rhodes, Arthur Edgar Gravenor||Geraldine||18 December, 1890|
|Richardson, Hon. George Frederick||Mataura||18 December, 1890|
|Rolleston, Hon. William||Halswell||18 December, 1890|
|Russell, William Russell||Hawke's Bay||18 December, 1890|
|Sandford, Ebenezer||City of Christchurch||18 December, 1890.|
|Saunders, Alfred||Selwyn||18 December, 1890.|
|Seddon, Hon. Richard John||Westland||18 December, 1890.|
|Shera, John McEffer||City of Auckland||18 December, 1890.|
|Smith, Edward Metcalf||New Plymouth||18 December, 1890.|
|Smith, William Cowper||Waipawa||18 December, 1890.|
|Steward, Hon. William Jukes||Waimate||18 December, 1890.|
|Swan, George Henry||Napier||18 December, 1890.|
|Taipua, Hoani||Western Maori||6 January, 1891.|
|Tanner, William Wilcox||Heathcote||18 December, 1890.|
|Taylor, Richard Molesworth||City of Christchurch||18 December, 1890.|
|Thompson, Robert||Marsden||18 December, 1890.|
|Thompson, Thomas||City of Auckland||18 December, 1890.|
|Valentine, Hugh Sutherland||Tuapeka||18 December, 1890.|
|Ward, Hon. Joseph George||Awarua||18 December, 1890.|
|Wilson, James Glenny||Palmerston||18 December, 1890.|
|Wright, Edward George||Ashburton||18 December, 1890.|
of House of Representatives—G. Friend.
Serjeant-at-Arms—Lieut.-Colonel P. F. de Quincey.
Deputy-Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.
Second Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherford.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. D. O'Rorke.
Interpreters—F. S. Hamlin and G. Mair.
Acting Librarian—H. L. James, B.A.
Table of Contents
There is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. But, as the companies which founded the settlements of Wellington, Nelson, and Canterbury gave special facilities to intending settlers who were members of the United Church of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Otago settlement was intrusted to laymen belonging to or sympathizing with the Free Church of Scotland, liberal endowments of land were granted for Church purposes; and Government has subsequently given land for Church purposes—Protestant or Catholic—whenever it has been shown to be required by the inhabitants in any given locality.
The Right Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; appointed 1869.
The Right Rev. Edward Craig Stuart, D.D., Waiapu; appointed 1877.
The Most Rev. Octavius Hadfield, Primate, Wellington; appointed 1870.
The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; appointed 1892.
The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; appointed 1890.
The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; appointed 1871.
The Bishop of Melanesia (Bishopric, June, 1892, vacant).
The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.
The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding their annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—
Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one of the various dioceses.—President, Bishop Hadfield, Primate, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. C. M. Nelson, M.A., Auckland; Lay Secretary, James Allen, Esq., M.H.R., Dunedin. The next General Synod will be held in Nelson, in February, 1893.
Roman Catholic Church.—The Diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses.
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly meets annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch in succession. Moderator. Rev. John Elmslie, M.A., D.D.; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, Napier.
Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Assembly meets annually in November at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. John Steven; Clerk, Rev. W. Bannerman; Church Factor, Mr. Edmund Smith.
Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets in March, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1892-93), Rev. George Bond, Kaiapoi; Secretary, Rev. Henry Bull, Onehunga. The next Conference is to assemble in Dunedin on or about the 1st March, 1893.
Baptist Church.—The annual Conference is held in November, in one of the four principal centres. President, Professor Kirk, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. W. E. Woolley, Thames.
Congregational Union.—The annual meetings are held about the end of February, at such place as may be decided by the vote of the Council. Chairman. Rev. W. J. Habens, B.A., Wellington; Chairman Elect, Rev. H. W. J. Miller, Onehunga; Secretary, Mr. G. Fowlds, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Rev. J. Foster, Ravensbourne, Dunedin. In 1893 the meeting will be held in Christchurch, by invitation of the Congregational Churches of that city.
Primitive Methodists.—The annual Conference is held in the month of January, at one of the four centres. President, James Bellringer, Esq., J.P., New Plymouth; Secretary, Rev. Thomas H. Lyon, Feilding, Wellington.
United Methodist Free Churches.—The Assembly meets annually in January, in Canterbury, Auckland, Wellington, or Hawke's Bay. President, Rev. John W. Worboys; Secretary, Rev. A. Peters.
Hebrew Church.—Ministers, Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; —-, Dunedin; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. Adolph T. Chadowski, Christchurch; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika; Rev. Isaac Zachariah, Greymouth. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are held at these places on the first Sunday in Elul (about the end of August).
Bible Christians.—A General Conference of the Connexion is held annually. Superintendent, Rev. J. Orchard, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. J. Crewes, Wellington; Chapel Secretary, Rev. B. H. Ginger, Cromwell. The next district meeting is to be held at Addington, near Christchurch.
The following shows the number of persons (exclusive of Maoris) belonging to the different religious denominations in New Zealand, and the number of churches and chapels, according to the census of April, 1891; also, the number of officiating ministers, to 1st July, 1892.
|Religious Denominations.||Persons||Churches and Chapels.||Officiating Ministers.|
* Including 42 Dissenters; 55 Christian Israelites.
* Including 2,326 of No denomination, so described.
† Including 1,269 of No religion, so described; 123 Atheists; 65 Secularists.
‡ In addition to the number of churches and chapels here given, there are about 400 schoolhouses, dwellings, or public buildings used for public worship, besides 20 buildings open to more than one Protestant denomination.
|Church of England, and Episcopalians not otherwise defined||250,945||345||265|
|Church of Scotland, Free Church of Scotland, Free Presbyterians, Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland, and Presbyterians otherwise defined||141,477||246||188|
|United Methodist Free Churches, Free Methodists, United Methodists||1,905||14||18|
|Lutheran, German Protestants||5,616||13||10|
|Society of Friends||315||..||..|
|Church of Christ (including Christian, Church of Christ, Christian Disciples, Disciples of Christ, Disciples)||5,241||15||7|
|Brethren (including Christian Brethren, Brethren, Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)||3,537||3||1|
|Believers in Christ||193||..||..|
|Evangelists (including Evangelical Union, Evangelical Church, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Brethren)||93||..||..|
|Swedenborgians (including New Church, New Jerusalem Church)||178||..||..|
|Students of Truth||325||..||1|
|Other Protestants (variously returned)||536*||..||..|
|Mormons, Latter-day Saints||206||..||..|
|Buddhists, Pagans, Confucians||3,928||..||..|
|Others (variously returned)||154||..||..|
|No denomination (variously returned)||2,999*||18||..|
|Object to state||15,342||..||..|
The total number specified as to religion is 625,370 out of the number of adherents to the various Churches given above.
The following return shows the number of churches and chapels, schoolhouses, and other buildings used for public worship by the different religious denominations, in April, 1891; also the number of persons for whom there was accommodation, and the number usually attending, in each provincial district:—
|Provincial Districts.||Churches and Chapels.||School-houses used for Public Worship.||Dwellings or Public Buildings used for Public Worship.||Number of Persons|
|For whom Accommodation.||Attending Services.|
Table of Contents
Colonial Secretary—Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.
Chief Clerk—R. H. Govett
Clerks—R. F. Lynch, L. W. Loveday, R. Leckie, M. J. Hodgins
Housekeeper and Chief Messenger— F. H. Revell
Controller and Auditor-General—J. E. FitzGerald, C.M.G.
Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin
Chief Clerk—J. G. Anderson
Clerks—L. C. Roskruge, W. Dodd, P. P. Webb, A. Rowband, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holdsworth, C. M. Georgeson, J. T. Dumbell, B. A. Meek
Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, J. Swift, A. E. Bybles, J. Ward
Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser
Audit Travelling Inspectors — A. H. Maclean, J. King, C. O'H. Smith, E. J. A. Stevenson, W. R. Holmes, A. W. Eames, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, J. M. Glasgow
Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen Clerks—G. Drury, E. F. Norris, E. H. Lyons, S. Coffey
Government Printer, Stationery Store Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—G. Didsbury
Superintending Overseer—J. Burns
Chief Clerk and Accountant—Samuel Costall
Overseers—J. Gamble, B. Wilson
Overseer, Machine-room—C. Young
Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin
Stamp Printer—H. Hume
Stereotyper and Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk
Readers—A. F. Warren, J. W. Henley, W. Fuller, M. F. Marks
Clerk and Computer—B. B. Allen
Clerks, Stationery Office—F. Barraud, R. Watts, W. Phillips
Advertisement and Invoice Clerk—B. K. Manley
Sub-overseer, Binding Branch — G. F. Broad
Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle
Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers
Forewoman, Binding Branch — Miss Marsden
Colonial Treasurer—Hon. J. Balance
Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver General, and. Paymaster-General — James B. Heywood
Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins
Cashier—W. T. Thane
Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell
Clerks—A. M. Smith, C. Meacham, W. E. Cooper, R. B. Vincent, J. F. Andrews, J. R. Duncan, E. L. Mowbray, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, T. J. Davis, H. N. W. Church, J. Holmes, A. O. Gibbes, C. E. Chitty, J. Eman Smith, A. J. Morgan, F. H. Tuckey
Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Devaney
Commissioner of Taxes—C.M. Crombie
Deputy — Commissioner of Taxes —- J. McGowan
Chief Clerk—G. F. C. Campbell
Clerks—D. Walinsley, G. Maxwell, H.J. Knowles, A. F. Oswin, H. Nancarrow, D. R. Purdie, J. W. Black, J. P. Dugdale, M. C. Barnett, A. J. McGowan, J. M. King, C. V. Kreeft, G. W. Jänisch, H. H. Seed, T. Oswin, D. G. Clark, A. Fowler
Minister of Justice—Hon. A. J. Cadman
Under-Secretary—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.
Chief Clerk—F. Waldegrave
Clerks—C. B. Jordan, E. W. Porritt
Attorney — General — Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.
Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid
Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid
Law Draftsman—J. Curnin
Clerk—E. Y. Redward
Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.
Deputy Registrar—F. Waldegrave
Clerks—J. C. Lewis, F. J. Stewart
Wellington—Sir J. Prendergast, Knt. Bach.
Wellington—C. W. Richmond
Auckland—E. T. Conolly
Christchurch—J. E. Denniston
Dunedin—J. E. Williams
Wairarapa—H. W. Robinson
Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle
Nelson and Westport—L. Broad
Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queenstown, Naseby, Lawrence, Hokitika, Greymouth, and Reefton—C. D. R. Ward
Invercargill—C. E. Rawson
Auckland—H. C. Brewer
New Plymouth—W. Stuart
Gisborne—W. A. Barton
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper
Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam
Hokitika—A. H. King
Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon
Invercargill—F. G. Morgan
Auckland—H. C. Brewer
Taranaki—A. H. Holmes
Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull
Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper
Wairarapa—J. M. Roberts
Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson
Westland North—A. Greenfield
Central Westland—H. Lucas
Marlborough—W. G. P. O'Callaghan
Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam
Timaru—C. A. Wray
Westland—A. H. King
Otago—C. McK. Gordon
New Plymouth—A. Standish
Gisborne—J. W. Nolan
Napier—A. J. Cotterill
Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert
Nelson—C. Y. Fell
Christchurch—J. C. Martin
Timaru—J. W. White
Hokitika—W. M. Purkiss
Dunedin—B; C. Haggitt
Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald
Oamaru—A. G. Creagh
New Plymouth—A. Standish
Hawera—E. L. Barton
Wanganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert
Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden
Hokitika and Greymouth.— W. M. Purkiss
Timaru—J. W. White
Oamaru—A. G. Creagh
Nelson—C. Y. Fell
Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald
Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—T. Jackson
Onehunga, &c.—H. W. Bishop*
Tauranga, &c.—R. S. Bush
Thames, &c.—H. W. Northcroft*
Gisborne, &c.—J. Booth
* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.
New Plymouth—W. Stuart
Opunake, &c.—A. Tuke
Wellington, &c.—H. W. Robinson
Wanganui, &c.—C. C. Kettle
Palmerston North, &c.—H. W. Brabant
Wairarapa—J. M. Roberts
Napier, &c.—A. Turnbull
Nelson, &c.—L. Broad
Westport, Collingwood, &c.—A. Greenfield
Blenheim, &c.—J. Allen*
Christchurch, &c.—B. Beetham
Kaiapoi, &c.—G. A. Preece
Timaru, &c.—C. A. Wray
Greymouth, &c.—J. Keddell*
Hokitika, &c.—D. Macfarlane*
Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew
Oamaru, &c.—H. A. Stratford*
Lawrence, &c.—W. H. Revell*
Clyde, &c.—J. N. Wood*
Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*
Invercargill, &c.—C. E. Rawson
Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne
New Plymouth—A. H. Holmes
Wanganui—A. D. Thomson
Palmerston North—W. Matravers
Wairarapa—F. H. Ibbetson
Nelson—C. H. W. Bowen
Hokitika—C. A. Barton
Greymouth—F. J. D. Elmer
Westport—E. C. Kelling
Ashburton—J. E. Colyer
Oamaru—W. G. Filleul
Queenstown—H. N. Firth
Lawrence—H. J. Abel
Wellington—C. C. Graham
Christchurch-G. L. Greenwood
Thames—F. J. Burgess
Coromandel—J. B. Gatland
Te Aroha—T. M. Lawlor
Whangarei—T. W. Taylor
Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough) — W. A. Hawkins
* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.
Nelson—C. H. W. Bowen
Motueka—H. E. Gilbert
Westport—E. C. Kelling
Charleston—A. A. Winterburn
Greymouth—F. J. D. Elmer
Hokitika—C. A. Barton
Stafford and Goldsborough—D. Hannan
Ross— W. Folley
Jackson's Bay—D. McKenzie
Naseby, St. Bathans, Hyde, Macraes, Hamiltons—B. Harper
Wyndham—C. J. Hinton
Waipori—F. W. Knight
Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey
Queenstown and Arrowtown — H. N. Firth
Lawrence—H. J. Abel
Dunedin (for Hindon)—W. E. Sessions
Riverton—A. M. Eyes
Pembroke—A. E. Remer
Tapanui—F. S. Parker
Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.
Clerk—T. E. Richardson
Gaolers — Auckland, George Sinclair Reston; Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Francis Edward Severne; New Plymouth, Edward Rickerby; Wanganui, Robert T. Noble Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey; Nelson, Thomas E. Pointon
Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Telegraphs—Hon. J. G. Ward.
Superintendent—C. Lemon, Ph.D.
Controller of Money — orders, Savings-banks, and Accountant—G. Gray
Assistant Inspector—J. Grubb
Chief Clerk—E. J. Goodman
Clerks—L. Halliwell, W. R. Morris, H. Plimmer, F. V. Waters, E. Y. Senn, J. C. Williamson, W. Beswick, G. Cenci, A. P. Dryden, L. Ledger, V. J. Brogan, W. Callaghan, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Chegwidden, H. S. B. Miller, H. Huggins, G. V. Hudson, F. Perrin, J. Brennan, H. Cornwall, R. J. Thompson, R. E. Hayes, D. A. Jenkins, J. C. Redmond, C. B. Harton, R. F. Smith, J. D. Avery, H. E. Duff, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, W. H. Carter, J. J. Murray, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, W. Menzies, W. J. Drake, F. Menzies, C. A. Ferguson, E. Harris, B. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod
Electrician—W. C. Smythe
Mechanician—H. F. Smith
Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann
Circulation Branch—J. Hoggard, Chief Clerk
Auckland—S. B. Biss
* Thames—J. E. Coney
* Gisborne—W. W. Beswick
Napier—S. J. Jago
* New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth
* Wanganui—J. F. McBeth
* Blenheim—J. G. Ballard
* Nelson—R. Kirton
* Westport—R. Tait
* Greymouth—H. Calders
* Hokitika—J. Bull
Christchurch—S. J. Dick
* Timaru—E. Cook
* Oamaru—J. A. Hutton
Dunedin—E. D. Butts
* Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin
Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Hon. J. Ballance
* These are combined post- and telegraph-Offices.
Minister of Marine—Hon. R. J. Seddon
Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow
Chief Clerk, Customs—T. Larchin
Clerks, Customs—E. T. W. Maclaurin, C. H. Smith. Audit—H. W. Brewer. H. Crowther (Writer)
Poverty Bay—D. Johnson, jun.
Napier—E. R. C. Bowen
Wellington—W. T. Glasgow
Wairau—E. W. Pasley
Lyttelton and Christchurch—D. McKellar (E. Patten, Acting)
Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain
Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—J. Borrie
Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter
Russell—W. J. Walsh, Officer in Charge
Tauranga—J. Sheath, Officer in Charge
Whangaroa—A. P. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter
Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter
Mongonui—A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge
Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter
Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge
Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter
New Plymouth—T. A. Murphy, Officer in Charge
Foxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge
Patea—M. J. Cleary, Officer in Charge
Picton—J. B. Gudgeon, Officer in Charge
Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne, Sub-Collector
Assistant Secretary—L. H. B. Wilson
Senior Clerk—G. Allport
Nautical Adviser—R. Johnson
Clerk—J. J. D. Grix
Examiners of Masters and Mates—R. Johnson and R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.
Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.
Examiners of Masters and Mates, Auckland—T. C. Tilly and M. T. Clayton
Examiners of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—R. L. Owen and F. D. Gibson
Examiners of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—W. Thomson and John Orkney
Engineer Surveyors, Examiners of Engineers, and Inspectors of Machinery, Auckland — W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood
Engineer Surveyor, Examiner of Engineers, and Inspector of Machinery, Wellington—H. A. McGregor
Chief Inspector of Machinery, Engineer Surveyor, and Examiner of Engineers—W. M. Mowatt
Engineer Surveyor, Examiner of Engineers, and Inspector of Machinery, Christchurch—G. Croll
Engineer Surveyors, Examiners of Engineers, and Inspectors of Machinery, Dunedin—A. Crawford and R. Duncan
Master of S.S. “Hinemoa”—J. Fairchild
Commissioner—Hon. W. P. Reeves
Secretary for Stamps—C. A. St. G. Hickson
Chief Clerk and Accountant — H. O. Williams
Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore
Record and Receiving Clerk — J. P. Murphy
Clerk—C. J. Sisson
Chief Stamper—C. Howe
Gisborne—W. W. Beswick
Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford
Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson
Wanganui —J. F. McBeth
Nelson—W. W. de Castro
Marlborough—A. Y. Sturtevant
Otago—G. G. Bridges
Southland—F. G. Morgan
Westland—A. H. King
Wellington—G. B. Davy
Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford
Canterbury — J. M. Batham and E. Denham
Southland—F. G. Morgan
Westland—A. H. King
Wellington—G. B. Davy
Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford
Marlborough—G. B. Davy
Canterbury—J. M. Batham
Otago—G. G. Bridges
Southland—F. G. Morgan
Westland—A. H. King
Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. P. Reeves
Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools — Rev. W. J. Habens, B.A.
Chief Clerk—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.
Clerks—F. K. de Castro. H. B. Kirk, M.A., W. H. Russell, R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne
Organising Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector, H. B. Kirk, M.A.
Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary
Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary
Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary
Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary
Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary
Marlborough—J. Smith; Secretary
Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary
Grey—E. T. Robinson, Secretary
Westland—J. Gammell, B.A., Secretary
Canterbury North—J. T. Colborne-Veel, M.A., Secretary
Canterbury South — J. H. Bamfield, Secretary
Otago—P. G, Pryde, Secretary
Southland—J. Neill, Secretary
Auckland—H. N. Garland, Secretary
Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary
Wellington—W. H. Warren, Secretary
Hawke's Bay—W. Parker, Secretary
Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary
Nelson—H. Hobden, Secretary
Westland—E. T. Robinson, Secretary
Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves
Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary
Auckland Industrial School — G. P. Hogan, Manager
Auckland Girls' Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager
St. Mary's Industrial School, Ponsonby—Rev. G. M. Lenihan, Manager
Thames Orphanage—Thomas Fulljames, Manager
St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. T. G. Dawson, Manager
St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager
Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Palethorpe, Manager
Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—E. Titchener, Manager
Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.
Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum—E. E. Fookes, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. T. King, M.B.
Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum — H. Gribben
Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison
Ashburn Ball, Waikari (private asylum)—Joint proprietors, Dr. Alexander and J. Hume
Minister of Labour—Hon. W. P. Reeves
Chief Clerk—James Mackay
Clerks—J. Lomas, V. L. Willeston
Native Minister—Hon. A. J. Cadman
Chief Clerk and Accountant—W. J. Morpeth
Translator—G. H. Davies
Interpreter—T. G. Poutawera
Clerks—A. T. Bate, Captain W. de R. Barclay, R. C. Sim, E. A. Welch
Waikato, &c., G. T. Wilkinson; Pokeno, Thomas Jackson, R.M.; Mangonui and Hokianga, Bay of Islands, Whangarei, and Kaipara, H. W. Bishop, R.M.; Tauranga and Opotiki, R. S. Bush, R.M.; Gisborne, James Booth, R.M.; Taranaki, W. Rennell; Middle Island, Alexander Mackay; Chatham Islands, Major F. J. W. Gascoyne, R.M.
Chief Judge—H. G. Seth-Smith
Judges — A. Mackay, D. Scannell, L. O'Brien, R. Ward, G. E. Barton, S. W. von Stürmer, W. E. Gudgeon
Registrars—Auckland, H. F. Edger; Gisborne, J. Brooking; Wellington, W. Bridson
Clerks and Interpreters—A. F. Puckey, H. D. Johnson, E. Hammond, J. W. Browne, A. H. Mackay, R. G. Fountain
Clerks—J. Mackenzie, R. Poraumati, H. C. Jackson, E. S. Withers
R. S. Bush, J. Booth, H. W. Bishop, T. Jackson, H. W. Northcroft, C. C. Kettle, G. A. Preece, W. Stuart, E. H. Carew, Major F. J. W. Grascoyne
Minister of Mines—Hon. R. J. Seddon
Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliott
Inspecting Engineer—H. A. Gordon
Clerks—T. H. Hamer, T. S. M. Cowie, H. E. Radcliffe
Thames and Auckland Districts — G. Wilson; Dunedin and Southland Districts—J. Gow; West Coast Districts, N. D. Cochrane
The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; W. M. Mowatt, Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Thomas Brown, of Denniston; and William Shore, of Kaitangata
Same official members as above Board, with the following private members:—Thomas Dunlop, of Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, of Reefton; George Casley, of Reefton
The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards.
Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines
Director — Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.
Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—R. B. Gore
Assistant Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.
Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard
Astronomical Observer—T. King
Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.
Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey
Minister for Public Works—-Hon. R. J. Seddon
Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow
Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales
Resident Engineer (unattached)—P. S. Hay, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.
Accountant—G. J. Clapham
Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais
Clerks—J. A. McArthur, H. Thompson, W. D. Dumbell, W. Butler, E. Horneman
Draughtsmen — J. Campbell, W. G. Rutherford
District Engineer — Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M.Inst.C.E.
Resident Engineers — Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Te Aroha, G. Fitzgerald; Wellington, G. L. Cook, M.Inst.C.E.; Hunterville, R. W. Holmes; Greymouth, T. H. Rawson; Westport, J. A. Wilson, jun.
Assistant Engineers—W. A. Shain, A. C. Koch, H. Macandrew, J. J. Hay, M.A., W. H. Gavin, J. W. Richmond
Clerks and Draughtsmen — W. Black, C. T. Rushbrook, C. Wood, J. Young, A. R. Stone, J. Meenan
Commissioners — Messrs. J. McKerrow (Chief), J. P. Maxwell, M.Inst.C.E., W. M. Hannay
Secretary—E. G. Pilcher
Clerks—T. W. Waite, J. F. Bell, C. Isherwood, J. A. Tripe, B.A., F. S. Pope, J. E. Widdop
Audit Inspectors—H. Baxter, C. Wallnutt, D. Munro, C. L. Russell
Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife
Clerks—H. Davidson, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, R. Allen, V. Jänisch, A. Morris, E. P. Brogan, W. F. Ambler, F. Hardwick, E. J. Fleming, R. J. Loe, F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, W. Bourke, J. M. O'Brien, E. Nicholson
Stores Manager—R. Carrow
Clerks—G. Pelton, R. E. Mackay, A. M. Heaton, J. Webster, J. E. Hasloch, L. G. Porter, W. B. Dyer, E. J. Maguinness
District Managers — Whangarei, H. B. Dobbie; Kawakawa, J. D. Harris; Auckland, C. Hudson; Wanganui (Traffic Agent), H. Buxton; Napier (Traffic Agent), A. Garstin; Wellington (Traffic Agent), B. Dawson; Greymouth, T. Ronayne; Westport, T. A. Peterkin; Nelson, F. W. Maclean; Picton, H. St. J. Christophers; Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; Dunedin, A. Grant; Invercargill, S. P. Whitcombe
Chief Engineer for Working Railways— J. H. Lowe, M.Inst.C.E.
Resident Engineers—Auckland, J. Coom; Wanganui, C.B. Hankey; Wellington-Napier, W. R. Carruthers; Christchurch, James Burnett; Dunedin, T. C. Maltby; Invercargill, J. I. Lawson
Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotheram
Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, H. H. Jackson; Wellington and Napier-Taranaki, A. L. Beattie; Hurunui-Bluff, A. V. Macdonald
Minister of Defence—Hon. R. J. Seddon
Under — Secretary — Lieut. — Colonel A. Hume (acting)
Clerk—H. S. Royle
Major F. Y. Goring
Major W. B. Messenger
Major A. P. Douglas
Captain H. C. Morrison
Captain J. Coleman
Lieutenant J. E. Hume
Commissioner — Lieutenant — Colonel A. Hume
Clerks—J. M. Goldfinch, John Evans, John Tasker
Minister of Lands and Immigration—Hon. J. McKenzie
Secretary for Crown Lands and Surveyor-General—S. Percy Smith
Superintending Surveyor and Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—Alexander Barron
Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan
Draughtsmen — J. W. Kemp, G. P. Wilson, H. McCardell, T. M. Grant, H. A. R. Farquhar, A. Haylock, D. Watt
Chief Clerk—W. S. Short
Clerks—F. Samuel, J. B. Redward, F. T. O'Neill, A. A. S. Danby, H. M. Gore, J. K. Johnston, E. H. Hawthorne
Bookkeeper—P. C. Willson
Litho-printers—J. Craig, J. Conlin, F. Caulton, S. Smith, G. Jordan, H. Clark
Road Surveyors —C. W. Hursthouse, G. T. Murray, R. H. Reaney
Superintendent of Settlements—J. E. March
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. Müeller
Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington
District Surveyors—P. Simpson, L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries
District Surveyors—E. C. Cold Smith, J. Hay
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—-Sidney Weetman
District Surveyor—H. M. Skeet
Assistant Surveyor-General and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. H. Baker
District Surveyors — L. Smith, J. D. Climie, W. D. B. Murray
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. S. Browning
District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, F. S. Smith
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—H. G. Clark
District Surveyor—R. F. Goulter
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands— J. H. Strauchon
District Surveyor—W. G. Murray
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant
District Surveyors—J. S. Welch, T. N. Broderick
Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Maitland
Chief Surveyor—C. W. Adams
District Surveyors—D. Barron, J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmot
Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. W. Williams
District Surveyor—John Hay
Officer in Charge—P. Sheridan
Land Purchase Officers—W. J. Butler, G. T. Wilkinson
Auckland—G. Müeller, W. P. Moat, R. J. Gill, E. Lake, L. J. Bagnall
Hawke's Bay—T. Humphries, R. Harding, W. W. Carlile, T. Hallett, C. Hall
Taranaki—S. Weetman, T. Kelly, A. Standish, J. Livingston, G. A. Marchant
Wellington — J. H. Baker, W. W. McCardle, W. A. Fitzherbert, A. W. Hogg
Marlborough—H. G. Clark, G. Dodson, A. S. Collins, A. P. Seymour
Nelson—J. S. Browning, F. Hamilton, R. Hursthouse. J. Kerr
Westland — J. Spence, J. Bevan, L. Northcroft, A. Matheson
Canterbury — J. W. A. Marchant, D. McMillan, W. Kitson, W. C. Walkerl
Otago—J. P. Maitland, H. Clark, W. Dallas, J. Duncan, J. W. Thomson
Southland — G. W. Williams, T. Denniston, C. Cowan, A. Kinross
Minister in Charge—Hon. John McKenzie
Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock— John D. Ritchie
Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt
Veterinary Surgeon—John F. McClean
Dairy Instructor—John Sawers
Fruit Expert—Lionel Hanlon
Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw, Auckland; G. S. Cooke, Whangarei; W A. P. Sutton, Hamilton.
Napier—J. Drummond (in charge), H. Oldham, Napier; C. Thomson, Gisborne; D. Munro, Waimata, Herbertville
Wellington-West Coast—J. W. Smith, J. Harvey, jun., Masterton; Richard Hull, Wanganui; A. Monro, Hawera
Marlborough-Nelson—T. G. Richardson (in charge), H. M. Campbell, Nelson; John Moore, Blenheim
Canterbury-Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), J. E. Thomson, Christchurch; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora; W. A. Scaife, Waiau; W. G. Rees, Ashburton; A. Douglass (in charge), Timaru; H. S. Thomson, Lake Tekapo; C. C. Empson, Kurow
Otago—E. A. Dowden, Dunedin; B. Fullarton, Mosgiel; W. Miller, Oamaru; A. Ironside, Clyde; J. C. Miller, Naseby; R. H. Hassall, Tapanui, H. G. J. Hull, Balclutha; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; J. W. Raymond, Bluff
Commissioner—J. H. Richardson
Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie, F.S.S.
Chief Medical Officer — J. Henry, L.R.C.P., Lond., &c.
Accountant—R. J. S. Todd
Assistant Actuary—G. Leslie
Chief Clerk—G. W. Barltrop
Assistant Accountant—J. H. Dean
Clerks—R. C. Niven, J. C. Young, G. A. Kennedy, D. J. McG. McKenzie, W. S. Smith, J. W. Kinniburgh, R. V. Blacklock, A. H. Hamerton, G. Crichton, G. G. Schwartz, R.T. Smith, G. von Schoen, A. R. Kennedy, T. L. Barker, C. E. Galwey, J. A. Thomson, P. Muter, F. B. Bolt, F. K. Kelling, A. D. Ellis, M. J. Heywood, H. S. Manning, L. B. Jordan, A. de Castro, E. J. Gormley, F. M. Leckie, G. D. Gardner, C. W. Palmer, R. P. Hood, W. C. Marchant, J. B. Young, H. Rose
Chief Messenger—W. Archer
Public Trustee—J. K. Warburton
Solicitor—F. J. Wilson
Chief Clerk—A. A. Duncan
Accountant—E. F. Warren
Examiner—T. S. Ronaldson
Clerks—T. T. Stephens, F. H. Morice, H. Beyer, T. D. Kendall, W. A. Fordham, F. Hyde, H. Oswin, E. C. McCarthy, P. Fair
Messenger—A. J. Cross
District Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton
West Coast Settlement Reserves Trustee—Wilfred Rennell
Clerks—A. Grant, Alfred Trimble.
PAID BY THE GOVERNMENT OF NEW ZEALAND, AS ON 31st MARCH, 1892.
[By an Act passed in 1871 the pension system was abolished in New Zealand.]
|* Per diem.|
|Under “The Civil Service Act, 1866.”|
|Allan, A. S.||195||5||0|
|Aubrey, H. R.||223||6||8|
|Baddeley, H. C.||225||0||0|
|Barnard, W. H.||101||18||1|
|Brewer, H. N||124||7||6|
|Brown, S. P.||80||0||0|
|Burn, J. F.||51||0||0|
|Campbell, F. E.||466||13||0|
|Cheeseman, W. F.||154||15||1|
|Clarke, H. T.||400||0||0|
|Daniell, H. C.||266||12||4|
|Dickey, A. J.||122||0||5|
|Eliott, G. E.||400||0||0|
|Fenton, F. D.||630||19||0|
|Gill, R. J.||228||11||5|
|Graham, G. H.||50||10||0|
|Greenway, J. H.||116||16||0|
|Hart, J. T.||193||7||0|
|Kelly, J. D.||130||19||0|
|Laing, E. B.||112||10||0|
|Lawlor, H. C.||130||18||0|
|Lincoln, R. S.||68||17||0|
|Lockwood, W. H.||22||18||4|
|Lodge, W. F.||185||0||0|
|Lusher, R. A.||76||16||8|
|Mathison, J. W.||23||6||8|
|Meikle, A. M.||145||14||3|
|Mitford, G. M.||196||15||0|
|Monson, J. R.||271||16||0|
|Monro, H. A. H.||342||17||2|
|McDonnell, R. T.||150||0||0|
|Parker, T. W.||242||3||9|
|Pauling, G. W.||91||1||5|
|Pearson, W. H.||340||9||0|
|Plimpton, R. E. E.||110||14||3|
|Sealy, H. B.||285||14||3|
|Searancke, W. N.||240||0||0|
|Sheath, A. B.||129||9||0|
|Smith, J. E.||484||11||6|
|Smith, T. H.||371||8||7|
|Snow, C. H.||157||10||0|
|Stewart, J. T.||300||0||0|
|Thomas, W. E.||145||16||8|
|Thomas, G. W.||38||15||0|
|Tizard, E. P.||180||19||0|
|Veale, J. S.||56||2||10|
|Warde, C. M.||186||13||0|
|Wardell, H. S.||366||13||0|
|Wayland, J. M.||205||1||2|
|Wilkin, J. T. W.||127||19||4|
|Wilcocks, E. S.||250||0||0|
|Williams, E. M.||135||0||0|
|Wrigg, H. C. W.||157||2||10|
|Under “The Hamerton Pènsion Act, 1891.”|
|Hamerton, R. C.||250||0||0|
|Under “The Meredith and Others Pensions Act, 1870.”|
|Hamlin, E. B.||50||0||0|
|Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866.”|
|Arapera te Reo||20||0||0|
|Brown, M. R.||75||0||0|
|Buck, C. M.||70||0||0|
|Mere Karaka Kopu||36||0||0|
|Von Tempsky, A.||120||0||0|
|Beamish, I. G.||0||1||6*|
|Coffey, M. F.||25||0||0|
|Crawford, C. F.||0||2||0*|
|Dore, G. H.||0||2||0*|
|Gibbons, M. C.||0||2||2*|
|Hope, E. L.||0||1||6*|
|Monck, J. B.||0||1||0*|
|Percy, J. A.||150||0||0|
|Ross, E. O.||75||0||0|
|Apera te Kengua||0||2||6*|
|Under “The Militia Act Amendment Act, 1862.”|
|Dunn, A. J. N.||0||2||0*|
|King, E. M.||80||0||0|
|Skinner, W. H.||0||2||6*|
|Under “The Nixon Pension Act, 1865.”|
|Sisters of the late Colonel Nixon||150||0||0|
|Under “The Schafer, McGuire, and Others Pensions Act, 1872.”|
|Under “The Supreme Court Judges Act, 1874.”|
|Gresson, H. B.||750||0||0|
|Under “The Walsh and Other Pensions Act, 1867.”|
|Hewitt, E. A.||50||0||0|
The Minister of Justice is charged with all matters relating to the Supreme, District, Resident Magistrates, and Wardens' Courts, Crown Law Office, Coroners' inquests, patents, designs, and trademarks, bankruptcy, criminal prosecutions in the higher Courts, Justices of the Peace, Licensing Committees, and prisons. Circuit sittings of the Supreme Court are held at fourteen places, and offices of the Court are maintained at eleven places. There are five District Court Judges, who hold Courts at seventeen towns. At nearly every town in which sittings of the Supreme and District Courts are held there is a Crown Prosecutor, paid by fees, and a Sheriff.
There are twenty-eight salaried Resident Magistrates, who hold Courts at about one hundred and fifty-four places. Ten of these gentlemen are also Wardens, holding Wardens' Courts in the various goldfields. There are fifty-two civilian Clerks of Courts, and seventy-six who are also police sergeants or constables.
All the Resident Magistrates hold the office of Coroner, and are paid 10s. 6d. for each inquest, in addition to mileage at 1s. per mile, or actual expenses of locomotion. Besides these, there are thirty-four Coroners, who are paid £1 1s. for each inquest, and mileage.
Bankrupt estates are cared for by four Official Assignees, stationed at Auckland; Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin; and by nineteen Deputy Assignees, resident at as many other towns. The new Bankruptcy Act will abolish the distinction between Assignees and Deputy Assignees, and there will then probably be about a dozen Assignees. The Supreme and District Courts have jurisdiction in bankruptcy proceedings. It is proposed, in the new Act, to confer bankruptcy jurisdiction in small estates on some of the Resident Magistrates' Courts.
The Commission, of the Peace contains about seventeen hundred names, and additions are frequently made.
Witnesses in Criminal Courts are paid 6s. per diem, and in addition 4s. for every night they are absent from home. Witnesses in civil cases are paid variously from 6s. to £1 1s. a day, according to their; condition in life.
Intestate estates in New Zealand are dealt with by the Public Trust Office, and are referred to in the article on that institution.
The Native Land Court is an institution for the purpose of enabling Maoris to obtain legal titles to their lands. Its constitution and mode of procedure are referred to in the special article on the numbers-and present condition of the Maoris.
Table of Contents
The defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia, Artillery, and Torpedo Corps; and the auxiliary force, of Volunteers, Cavalry, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies. The whole of these Forces are commanded by an Imperial officer, belonging to the Royal Artillery, who is under the orders of the Defence Minister. There is also an Under-Secretary for Defence, to whom all questions of expenditure are referred; while an engineer has charge of the defence-works, under the designation of Engineer for Defences.
The two islands are divided into eleven districts, commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a competent staff of drill-sergeants.
This Force is divided into four batteries, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; and their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force consists of three majors, two captains, one subaltern, with an establishment of 144 of all ranks.
This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres, for submarine and torpedo work, and consists of two captains, with a total of 64 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steam-launches, and all submarine-mining and torpedo-stores. They are all extensively employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.
There are five troops of Cavalry, three in the North Island and two in the Middle Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for eight days' training annually. The total strength of the five troops is 133 of all ranks.
There are ten corps of Mounted Rifles, seven in the North Island and three in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 538 of all ranks. The efficiency of these corps is, like the Cavalry, maintained by their going into camp for an annual training of eight days.
There are seventeen batteries of this branch of the service, seven in the North Island and ten in the Middle Island, having a total strength of 1,164 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches, and one watch is trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working the heavy ordnance, while the other watch is trained in submarine and torpedo work, as auxiliaries to the Torpedo Corps. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and such-like duties.
There are eleven batteries of Field Artillery, three in the North Island and eight in the Middle Island, with a total of 594 of all ranks. They are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns on field-carriages.
This branch consists of three corps, with a total of 160 of all ranks. There is one corps in the North Island and two corps in the Middle Island. Besides carrying rifles, they are provided with entrenching tools, and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.
In this branch, of the service there are sixty-two corps, nineteen being in the North Island and forty-three in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 3,443 of all ranks, which includes garrison bands at places where four or more corps have their head-quarters.
There is a force of thirty-seven cadet corps—viz., seven in the North Island and thirty in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,085 of all ranks.
The armament at the forts of she four centres consists of 8in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6in. 5-ton of like pattern, and the whole mounted on hydro-pneumatic disappearing carriages; 7in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading 64cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison pillar-mountings, and field-carriages; and Hotchkiss and Maxim quick-firing guns. The Volunteer Field Artillery are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and the whole of the Force have carbines or rifles (short) of Snider pattern.
There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and ground-mines, in charge of the Torpedo Corps, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.
The Permanent Militia are enrolled for five years' service, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after two years' service in the Permanent Militia men are eligible for transfer to police and prison service.
The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, and receive a five years' engagement, alter completing which they return to the Royal Artillery or the Royal Engineers.
An annual capitation of £2 is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £25 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred rounds of Snider ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every efficient Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds to each efficient cadet.
The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”
|EXPENDITURE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF DEFENCES FROM 1884-85 TO 1891-92.|
|Year.||Military Expenditure.||Harbour Defences.||Total.|
Table of Contents
[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets following the Appendix.]
The population of the Colony of New Zealand was ascertained by the census of the 5th April, 1891, to be as under:—
|Population (excluding Maoris)||332,877||293,781||626,658|
|Morioris at Chatham Islands||26||14||40|
Of the total population, 4,944 persons—2,588 males and 2,356 females—were ascertained to be half-castes: 2,184 of these were half-castes living amongst and as Europeans, while 2,760 were found to be living with Maoris. The Maori population given above includes 251 Maori wives married to European husbands.
The Chinese population amounted to 4,444 persons, of whom 18 were females.
The following gives the number of the population of the principal divisions of the colony, according to the census:—
|North Island and adjacent islets, exclusive of Maoris||281,455|
|Middle Island, Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, exclusive of Maoris||344,913|
|Chatham Islands (exclusive of Natives)||271|
|Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)||626,658|
Of the population, 53·09 per cent. were found to be males, and 46·91 females. In 1881 the proportions were 54·98 and 45·02 respectively; and in 1871, 58·62 per cent. and 41·38 per cent., the equalisation of the sexes progressing with the advance of time.
The proportion of females to males is greater in New Zealand than in Queensland, New South Wales, and Western Australia, but less than in Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania.
|Females to every 100 Males at Census 1891.|
|New South Wales||84·12|
The dwellings of the people were found to be 119,766 occupied, 9,558 unoccupied, 425 building, besides 4,085 tents and dwellings with canvas roofs.
The British subjects were 612,064 in number, and the foreign subjects 14,594, or 97·67 and 2·33 per cent. of the population respectively.
The returns of birthplaces gave the following particulars:—
|Born in.||Persons.||Per Cent, of Population.|
|Other British dominions, and at sea||4,998||0·80|
The New-Zealand-born population increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 22·16 per cent., but the population born in the Mother-country, Australian Colonies, other British dominions, and foreign parts diminished in each case more or less during the quinquennium.
The total population of all ages increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 8·33 per cent. The males increased 6·62 per cent., and females 10·34 per cent.
The following shows the number of males and females at each of the age-periods stated, and the proportion of persons at each age-period to the 100 of population at all ages, at the last census:—
|Ages.||Males.||Females.||Total Persons.||Proportion of Persons at each Age-period to every 100 of Population of specified Ago.|
|Under 5 years||42,259||40,945||83,204||13·30|
|5 and under 10 years||43,494||42,586||86,080||13·76|
|10 and under 15 years||40,755||40,329||81,084||12·96|
|15 and under 21 years||38,577||39,231||77,808||12·44|
|21 and under 40 years||88,577||78,604||167,181||26·72|
|40 and under 55 years||51,553||35,190||86,743||13·86|
|55 and under 65 years||18,630||10,618||29,248||4·67|
|65 and upwards||8,336||6,006||14,342||2·29|
Comparing the population at various age-periods in 1891 with the numbers as in 1886 it was found that the number under five years of age had decreased 4·17 per cent. At all previous census-periods an increase had been observed; but when it is borne in mind that the birth-rate fell with annual regularity from 34·35 in 1885 to 29·01 per 1,000 living in 1891, and that the actual number of births registered fell from 19,693 in 1885 to 18,273 in 1891, the results of the 1891 census are found to be just what might be expected. The number living under one year was 16,443 by the census; and the number of births in 1890, less the deaths of infants, was 16,840, thus nearly approximating to the census figures for those living under one year of age.
At all other periods of age, and on each sex, the census of 1891 shows an increase when compared with 1886; but. the increase in the males at the period 40-55 (a most valuable period for supporting the dependent population) is found to be only 1·42 per cent., and at the period 21-40 only 2·96 per cent., the increase at all ages being 6·62 per cent. on the males.
The proportions living at various age-periods show that 13·30 per cent. of the population were under five years, the percentage having fallen from 16·84 per cent. in 1881; and that at the period 65 and upwards the figures increased from 1·41 per cent. in 1881 to 2·29 per cent. in 1891.
The returns of religions showed that 81·03 per cent. of the people belonged to various Protestant denominations; 13·96 were Roman Catholics; and the remainder belonged to other sects, were of no denomination, or objected to state their religious views. The proportion of Roman Catholics is much greater in Australia than in New Zealand.
The subjoined table gives a summary of the results of the census of 1891, as to the religions of the people, with the proportion of each denomination to the whole population at that and each of the three previous censuses:—
|Demomination.||Number of Adherents in 1891.||Proportionsper Cent, of Population.|
|* In calculating the proportions for 1891 the “Unspecified” have not been taken into account.|
|Church of England, and Protestants (undefined)||253,331||42·55||41·50||40·17||40·51|
|Society of Friends||315||0·04||0·05||0·05||0·05|
|Roman Catholics, and Catholics (undefined)||87,272||14·21||14·08||13·94||13·96|
|Object to state||15,342||2·55||2·85||3·44||2·45|
Freethinkers numbered 4,475 persons in 1891 and 3,925 in 1886. They are included above in the numbers for “No denomination.”
Methodists increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 14·61 per cent.; Church of England adherents increased 9·02 per cent.; Presbyterians, 8·29 per cent.; Roman Catholics, 8·12 per cent.; while the Salvation Army had the highest rate of increase, 77·84 per cent.
Of persons of both sexes, 67·62 per cent. were found to be unmarried, 29·18 married, and 3·20 widowed. Taking the male sex, and comparing the results of three censuses, the proportions of unmarried and married diminish, but the proportion of widowed increases. On the female side, the proportions of unmarried and widowed increase, while the married diminish. The figures are as under:—
|Census.||Proportions per Cent. (Males).||Proportions per Cent. (Females).|
The Chinese are not included in the figures from which these calculations are taken.
The number of bachelors aged 20 and upwards was 70,197, and of spinsters aged 15 and upwards 67,700, being 105 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. In Canterbury and Otago only were the spinsters in excess of the bachelors, but notably so in Canterbury, as in 1886.
The number of husbands was 90,371, and of wives 90,765, giving an excess of 394 of the latter.
Of both sexes, 77·25 per cent. of the persons could read and write, 3·98 read only, and 18·77 could not read. Comparing with previous censuses, and for each sex separately, the proportion per cent. who could read and write will be found to rise steadily, while those reading only, or unable to read, diminish in number. The under-mentioned figures illustrate this:—
|Census.||Proportions per Cent. (Males).||Proportions per Cent. (Females).|
|Read and Write.||Read only.||Cannot Read.||Read and Write.||Read only.||Cannot Read.|
Returning to the population of both sexes, the numbers living in 1891 able to “read and write,” “read only,” and “unable to read,” at various quinquennial periods of age, show conclusively that, whatever may be the degree of education of those at the higher ages, and who are passing away, the proportions of those reading only, or not able to read, at the periods when young people leave school are very low indeed, falling to 0·38 and 0·65 per cent. respectively at the age-period 15-20. The figures are as under:—
|PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES.—PROPORTIONS PER CENT. AT VARIOUS AGE-PERIODS.|
|Read and Write.||Read only.||Cannot Read.|
|Under 5 years||..||0·81||99·91|
|5 to 10 years||52·88||18·00||29·12|
|10 to 15 years||97·72||1·28||1·00|
|15 to 20 years||98·97||0·38||0·65|
|20 to 25 years||98·81||0·39||0·80|
|25 to 30 years||98·09||0·74||1·17|
|30 to 35 years||96·87||1·59||1·54|
|35 to 40 years||95·57||2·13||2·30|
|40 to 45 years||93·98||2·83||3·19|
|45 to 50 years||93·06||3·48||3·46|
|50 to 55 years||92·26||3·89||3·85|
|55 to 60 years||91·29||4·68||4·03|
|60 to 65 years||89·56||5·37||5·07|
|65 to 70 years||87·66||6·96||5·38|
|70 to 75 years||85·96||7·77||6·27|
|75 to 80 years||83·70||8·79||7·51|
|80 and upwards||81·21||8·90||9·89|
The columns of the census “household schedule” returned information as to attendance at school under the following heads:—
|Attending Government primary schools||124,063|
|Attending college, high, grammar, or private schools||17,047|
|Receiving tuition at home||8,178|
Of those attending Sunday-schools, 9,971 were Sunday-school teachers. The number attending primary schools increased 12·13 per cent. since 1886; those attending private schools, 14·04 per cent.; attending Sunday-schools, 2·09 per cent.; and receiving tuition at home, 8·07 per cent., the population at 5-15 years of age increasing during the quinquennium by 10·20 per cent. The small increase in the attendance at Sunday-schools is notable, as at previous censuses far higher rates were obtained, while, on comparing the results for 1891 with 1886 as to sex, it is found that for males there is an actual decrease of 0·81 per cent., and for females an increase of only 4·84 per cent.
The compilation of the occupations of the people (exclusive of Maoris) gave the following result:—
|Occupations.||Numbers.||Proportions per Cent.|
|Class I. Professional||15,821||10,082||5,739||2·52||3·03||1·95|
|Class II. Domestic||24,928||5,537||19,391||3·98||1·66||6·60|
|Class III. Commercial||43,196||40,330||2,866||6·89||12·12||0·98|
|Class IV. Industrial||70,521||59,196||11,325||11·25||17·78||3·86|
|Class V. Agricultural, pastoral, mineral, and other primary producers||90,546||87,860||2,686||14·45||26·40||0·91|
|Class VI. Indefinite||7,751||4,341||3,410||1·24||1·30||1·16|
|Section B.—Dependents (Non-breadwinners).|
|Class VII. Dependents||373,895||125,531||248,364||59·67||37·71||84·54|
The professional class embraces all persons not otherwise classed, mainly engaged in the government and defence of the country, in maintaining law and order, and in satisfying the higher intellectual, moral, and social wants of its inhabitants; the domestic, all persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging, and in rendering personal services for which rumuneration is usually paid; the commercial, all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials, and with the transport of persons or goods, or engaged in effecting communication; the industrial, all persons not otherwise classed, who are principally engaged in various works of utility, or in specialities connected with the manufacture, construction, modification, or alteration of materials so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding, as far as possible, all who are mainly or solely in the service of commercial interchange; the agricultural, pastoral, mineral, and other primary producers, all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources; the indefinite, all persons who derive incomes from services rendered, but the direction of which services cannot be exactly determined; the dependents, all persons dependent upon relatives or natural guardians, including wives, children, and relatives not otherwise engaged in pursuits for which remuneration is paid, and all persons depending upon private charity, or whose support is a burthen on the public revenue.
If the population of the colony, as ascertained by the census, be corrected to the 31st December, 1891, by means of the returns showing the natural increase, arrivals and departures, the result is as follows:—
|Population (exclusive of Maoris) as enumerated at census, 5th April, 1891||332,877||293,781||626,658|
|Increase from 5th April to 31st December, 1891,—|
|By excess of births over deaths||4,319||4,727||9,046|
|Less excess of departures over arrivals||1,022||624||1,646||3,297||4,103||7,400|
|Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1891||336,174||297, 884||634,058|
|Maori population, Census, April, 1891||22,861||19,132||41,993|
|Total estimated population of the colony on 31st December, 1891||359,035||317,016||676,051|
It is necessary to explain that annual estimates of the Maori population cannot be made, as very few births or deaths occurring among them are registered; consequently the numbers obtained at one census period are necessarily used for stating the strength of the population until the results of the next census are known.
The population of the North Island and adjacent islets was estimated at 285,165 persons; that of the Middle Island, Stewart, and Chatham Islands, at 348,874 persons. Adding nineteen persons for the Kermadec Islands, the full population of 634,058 persons, excluding Maoris, is arrived at for the 31st December, 1891.
The increase of population during 1891 amounted to 8,557 persons, the excess of births and deaths being 11,755, and the decrease by excess of departures over arrivals 3,198.
The following shows the number of births in excess of the number of deaths in each of the past ten years:—
While the population increased from 517,707 persons in 1882 to 634,058 in 1891, or at the rate of 22 per cent., the excess of births over deaths was as high as 13,308 in the former year, and fell to 11,755 in the latter. Of the decline in the birth-rate, mention will be made further on.
The statistics of the colony show from the beginning an annual excess of immigration over emigration, with the exception of the years 1888, 1890, and 1891. In 1888 the excess of outgo reached 9,175 persons. In the following year there was a small increase by excess of immigration (214). In 1890 the tide again turned against New Zealand by 1,782 persons, while in 1891 the decrease amounted to 3,198. It would appear, however, that the excess of outgo has ceased, judging from the results of the March quarter's returns for the current year (1892), which give—immigration 4,575; emigration, 3,972. The returns for the month of May, being one in which an excess of outgo is looked for on account of the approach of winter, gives for immigration 1,057 persons, and for emigration 1,070 persons.
The populations of the several Australasian Colonies (exclusive of the aborigines of Australia and Maoris in New Zealand) were, as estimated for the 31st December, 1891, as under:—
|New South Wales||1,157,020|
There is not in New Zealand, as in each of the other Australasian Colonies, one metropolitan centre of population overshadowing, by comparison, the other towns of the colony. The configuration and physical features of the colony made it specially adapted for the establishment of settlements comparatively remote from one another. As a result, the colony was formerly divided into nine provinces, each having its capital town. Of these, the principal are the Boroughs of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.
Auckland Borough, situate in the northern part of the North Island, had in April, 1891, a population of 28,613. As the population of the suburbs amounted to 22,514, the total population living in and around Auckland was 51,127.
The Borough of Wellington, the seat of Government, is situated on the border of Port Nicholson, at the southern extremity of the North Island. It contained in April, 1891, a population amounting to 31,021 persons. The suburban population is small, amounting only to 2,203 persons. The whole population in and around Wellington thus numbered 33,224.
The Borough of Christchurch is situated in the Canterbury District of the Middle Island. The recent census returns give a population of 16,223 in that borough, and of 31,623 in the suburbs, in which are included the Boroughs of St. Albans and Sydenham. The total population in the Borough and suburbs of Christchurch was thus 47,846.
The Borough of Dunedin, the principal town of the former Province of Otago, is the centre of a population amounting to 45,865, of which the Borough of. Dunedin contained 22,376, and the eight surrounding boroughs, which are practically suburbs of Dunedin, 23,489.
A complete list of the boroughs in the colony, with populations, is given below:—
|BOROUGHS OF NEW ZEALAND ARRANGED ACCORDING TO POPULATION.|
|* These were town districts at the date of the census, and the populations stated are not exactly according to the borough boundaries.|
The number of persons who arrived in the colony in 1891 was 14,431, a decrease of 597 on the number in 1890. In the immigration returns, all persons above the age of 12 years are classed as adults; those under 12 as children. On that basis, the number of adults who arrived was 12,887, of whom 8,649 were males arid 4,238 were females. The number of children was 1,544, of whom 778 were males and 766 were females.
Of those who arrived, 2,435 came from the United Kingdom, 3,712 from Victoria, 6,704 from New South Wales and Queensland, 9 from South Australia, 719 from Tasmania, 199 from Fiji, 389 from Hawaii and the South Seas, and 264 from other ports.
There was not any free immigration in 1891, but 44 persons arrived who were nominated by friends in the colony, and whose passages were partially paid for by the Government. Of these, the number of each nationality was as follows: 25 English, 17 Irish, 1 Scotch, and 1 German. The terms of nomination were that for each adult £10, and for each child between the ages of 1 and 12 years £5, should be paid in the colony by friends. The system of nominated immigration was discontinued on the 16th December, 1890.
The number of Chinese who arrived in the colony in 1891 was 5.
In 1881 an Act was passed imposing a tax on every Chinese person landing in the colony, except in the case of any one of a crew of a vessel who might not remain in the colony. The object of the Act was so to restrict the introduction of Chinese as to prevent an increase in that part of the population. The following figures show that the desired effect has been so far obtained. In 1881 the Chinese population amounted to 5,004; in 1886 the number had diminished to 4,542, and, when the recent census was taken, there only were 4,444 Chinese in the colony.
Laws restricting the immigration of Chinese have been passed in the Australian Colonies as well as in New Zealand. In December, 1881, an Act was passed in New South Wales imposing a poll-tax of £10 per head on Chinese arriving in the colony. In 1888 the amount of the tax was raised to £100, vessels being also prohibited from carrying to the colony more than one Chinese passenger to every 300 tons. As a result, the number of Chinese who arrived in the colony in 1889 was only 7, of whom 6 held exemptions either as being British subjects or from having been residents in the colony. Chinese landing are also prohibited from engaging in mining without express authority under the hand and seal of the Minister of Mines, and are not permitted to become naturalised subjects.
The number of persons whose departures from this colony were recorded in 1891 was 17,629, of whom 11,396 were males and 6,233 were females, 2,508 being children under 12 years of age. Of these, 1,705 went direct to the United Kingdom, 3,841 to Victoria, 10,000 to New South Wales and Queensland, 16 to South and Western Australia, 1,159 to Tasmania, 149 to Fiji, 449 to Hawaii and the South Seas, and 310 to other ports.
There was a known loss by excess of emigration over immigration of 3,198 persons. The actual loss in the year would be somewhat greater, which is accounted for by unrecorded departures of persons from the colony.
There was a gain on passenger traffic with the United Kingdom of 730. This may be accepted as fairly accurate, the elements of disturbance arising only in the traffic between this and the Australian Colonies. There was an ascertained loss of 3,296 on the passenger traffic with New South Wales and Queensland, 129 on that with Victoria, 7 on that with South and Western Australia, and 440 on that with Tasmania. It may be reasonably assumed that the bulk of the unrecorded loss has been in the direction of that colony which has absorbed our greatest recorded loss, and that New South Wales has largely benefited by an influx of population from New Zealand. At first it may appear that New Zealand has been a great sufferer through this loss of population. If all the persons who went were of a class that would settle down to country pursuits and help to develop the resources of the colony, that opinion might be well founded; but the large expenditure on public works that has obtained for years has brought to, or developed in, the colony a class of persons living solely by such expenditure, who have realised rates of wages that could not be profitably given by farmers. On the cessation of such expenditure the result might reasonably be expected that numbers, unacquainted with farm-labour and disinclined thereto as being less remunerative than the labour they had been accustomed to, should migrate to places where the prospect of employment by expenditure on public works would be better. If they remained in the colony they would in all probability swell the number of those who call for further public expenditure, and, not being producers, it is questionable whether the loss to the colony in instances like these is such as to be deplored.
In the decennial period 1882-91 the apparent gain by net immigration from the United Kingdom was 38,431, while the loss to the Australian Colonies and Tasmania amounted to 22,121 persons, and to other places 867 persons.
By far the largest amount of emigration to the Australian Colonies in any one year occurred in 1888, when the expenditure of loan-money by the General Government was reduced to one-half of what it had been in the previous year, 1887.
The following table shows the immigration — distinguishing between the unassisted and the assisted—and the emigration for the past ten years:—
|Year.||Unassisted Immigrants.||Free and Assisted Immigrants.||Total Immigrants.|
|Year.||Emigrants.||Excess of Immigrants.||Excess of Emigrants.|
These numbers are based on returns sent to the Registrar-General, but the results of the recent census, as also those of the census of 1886, show that a number of persons left the colony, of whose departure there were no records.
There has been a large annual decrease of late years in the number of persons who leave the United Kingdom for the Australasian Colonies.
The number of births registered in 1891 was 18,273, being in the proportion of 29·01 per 1,000 of the population, this proportion being the lowest on record in the colony. The great decrease in the birth-rate is shown in the following table:—
|Year.||Number of Births.||Births per 1,000 of the Population.|
It will be observed that the number of births was less in 1891 than in 1884 by 1,573. A decrease in the birth-rate in a young country is to a certain point a natural result of the increasing proportion of the population under twenty-one years of age, but a decrease in the actual number of births is different from what might reasonably have been looked for.
The smaller proportion of wives under forty-five years of age and their higher average age would have an influence in lowering the birth-rate, but it is evident that lessened fertility is only one of the causes of the decrease in operation, another being the decrease in the marriage-rate; probably the most potent is a disinclination to assume the responsibilities of the burdens of a large family.
The birth-rate of New Zealand, 29·01 in 1891, was the lowest in the Australasian Colonies for that year. It is lower than any on record for the whole of England and Wales, although higher than the rates which obtain in some of the counties. The rate was also lower than that (30·03) in Scotland, but considerably higher than that (22·3) in Ireland, in 1890.
The births of 638 children in 1891 were illegitimate, or a proportion of 34·91 in every 1,000 children born.
The number of marriages in 1891 was 3,805, and the marriage-rate was 6·04 per 1,000 persons living. This rate is below that which obtains in the other Australasian Colonies. The New Zealand figures for ten years are given:—
|NUMBER OF MARRIAGES AND RATE PER 1,000 OF THE POPULATION.|
|Year.||No. of Marriages.||Rate per 1,000 living.|
The number of marriages stated does not include those between persons both of whom are of the aboriginal native race, these persons being exempted from the necessity of complying with the provisions of the Marriage Act, although they are at liberty to take advantage thereof; but only eight marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1891 in terms of that Act.
Of the marriages in the past year, 22·18 per cent. were solemnised by the Ministers of the Church of England, 27·23 per cent. by ministers of the Presbyterian Churches, 15·27 per cent. by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches, 10·07 per cent. by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church, 5·12 per cent. by ministers of other denominations, and 20·13 per cent. by Registrars.
There was an increase in 1891 on the number and proportion of marriages solemnised by ministers of the Church of England and by Registrars during the previous year, but a decrease on the number and proportion of marriages by ministers of other principal denominations.
Registrars of Marriages in New Zealand, are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage of minors without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians, if there be any in the colony. If a declaration be made in any case that there is no parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen clays following the date on which the notice of intended marriage is given.
A marriage may not be solemnised in New Zealand except after the delivery to the minister or Registrar who officiates of a certificate issued by a Registrar, authorising such marriage, and if any persons knowingly and wilfully intermarry without such certificate the marriage is null and void; no clergyman or minister of any denomination is empowered to solemnise marriages until his name has been placed on the Registrar-General's list of officiating ministers for the year.
The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—namely, 12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the option of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.
The deaths in 1891 numbered 6,518, being equivalent to a rate of 10·35 in every 1,000 persons living.
The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with those in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, and furnishes evidence of the great salubrity of the climate of the colony. The following table gives the death-rates for a series of years in the several countries named:—
|New South Wales||16·12||14·68||16·14||16·41||14·89||13·15||13·54||13·42||12·90||14·26|
The comparison of the above rates appears to place the Australasian Colonies as a whole in the foremost place for salubrity of climate and healthiness of people, New Zealand taking the lead by a wide interval; but it must be admitted a mere death-rate calculated on the whole population—that is, the proportion of all deaths to the 1,000 of population living in the middle of the year—although a very fair index of the sanitary condition of the same country if compared from year to year, and also useful for comparing the healthiness of different countries whose respective populations contain a fairly-equal proportionate number of persons living at each age-period of life, can scarcely be regarded as a perfect index of the comparative healthiness of new and old countries, or even of that of new countries one with another, when the relative proportions living at the several age-periods very considerably.
The truest rates of mortality are obtained by ascertaining the proportion of deaths of persons of certain ages to the numbers living at those ages.
The following statement gives the classification of diseases, with the percentage of deaths therefrom to the total mortality, and the proportion to the 10,000 of population in each class and order, in the years 1889, 1890, and 1891:—
|Class and Order.||Per 100 Deaths.||Per 10,000 of the Population.|
|Class I—Specific Febrile or Zymotic Diseases—|
|Order 1. Miasmatic diseases||4·96||7·62||10·57||4·66||7·36||10-94|
|Order 2. Diarrhöal diseases||6·15||4·84||4·89||5·78||4·67||5·06|
|Order 3. Malarial diseases||0·06||0·02||0·02||0·07||0·02||0·02|
|Order 4. Zoogenous diseases||..||..||0·02||..||..||0·02|
|Order 5. Venereal diseases||0·31||0·30||0·20||0·29||0·29||0·21|
|Order 6. Septic diseases||1·27||0·95||1·09||1·19||0·92||1·13|
|Total Class I.||12·75||13·73||16·79||11·99||13·26||17·38|
|Class II.—Parasitic Diseases||0·28||0.33||0·20||0.26||0·32||0·21|
|Class III.—Dietetic Diseases||1·02||0·77||0·95||0·96||0·74||0·98|
|Class IV.—Constitutional Diseases||17·52||17·80||16·32||16·47||17·19||16·89|
|Class V.—Developmental Diseases||7·43||7·96||7·18||6·99||7·68||7·43|
|Class VI.—Local Diseases—|
|Order 1. Diseases of nervous system||10·95||11·19||10·23||10·30||10·81||10·59|
|Order 2. Diseases of organs of special sense||0·12||0·15||0·17||0·11||0·14||0·17|
|Order 3. Diseases of circulatory system||9·20||7·56||8·10||8·65||7·30||8·38|
|Order 4. Diseases of respiratory system||11·94||12·61||13·39||11·22||12·18||13·86|
|Order 5. Diseases of digestive system||8·85||9·23||8·42||8·33||8·91||8·72|
|Order 6. Diseases of lymphatic system and ductless glands||0·10||0·15||0·26||0·10||0·14||0·27|
|Order 7. Diseases of urinary system||3·14||2·67||3·41||2·95||2·58||3·53|
|Order 8. Diseases of reproductive system—|
|(a) Of organs of generation||0·47||0·43||0·29||0·44||0·42||0·30|
|(b) Of parturition||0·92||1·34||1·04||0·86||1·29||1·08|
|Order 9. Diseases of organs of locomotion||0·40||0·23||0·32||0·37||0·22||0·33|
|Order 10. Diseases of integumentary system||0·24||0·35||0·25||0·23||0·34||0·25|
|Total Class VI||46·33||45·91||45·88||43·56||44·33||47·48|
|Order 1. Accident or negligence||7·83||7·51||6·80||7·37||7·25||7·03|
|Order 2. Homicide||0·17||0·11||0·11||0·16||0·11||0·11|
|Order 3. Suicide||0·80||1·07||0·86||0·75||1·03||0·89|
|Order 4. Execution||..||..||..||..||..||..|
|Total Class VII||8·80||8·69||7·77||8·28||8·39||8·03|
|Class VIII.—Ill defined and Not-specified Causes||5·87||4·81||4·91||5·52||4·64||5·08|
Phthisis is by far the most serious cause of death. In 1889 it was the cause of 499 deaths, in 1890 of 520, and in 1891 of 495. Of those who died in 1891, 255 were males and 240 were females. The deaths were in the proportion of 7·86 in every 10,000 persons living; or among males, of 7·63 in every 10,000 living, and among females of 8·12 in every 10,000 living.
The death-rate from phthisis is considerably less than that in any of the Australian Colonies, but differs very slightly from that in Tasmania. In all these colonies the rate is materially increased by the deaths of persons who have arrived in a diseased condition, or constitutionally predisposed thereto; but there is no reason to think that the rate is more affected by this cause in the other colonies than in New Zealand; consequently the lower rate in New Zealand may be accepted as an indication of the superiority of its climate for withstanding the development of phthisical tendencies. The rate in this colony is a little more than half that which obtains in England.
The following table gives the ages, with the length of residence in the colony, of those who died from phthisis in 1891:—
|Length of Residence in the Colony.||Age at Death.|
|Under 5 years.||5 to 10.||10 to 15.||15 to 25.||25 to 35.||35 to 45.||45 to 55.||55 to 65.||65 to 75.||75 and upwards.||Total|
|Under 1 month||..||..||..||1||1||1||..||..||..||..||3|
|1 to 6 months||..||..||..||4||..||2||..||..||..||..||6|
|6 to 12 months||..||..||..||1||..||1||..||..||..||..||2|
|1 to 2 years||..||..||..||1||1||..||..||..||..||..||2|
|2 to 3 years||..||..||..||1||2||3||..||..||..||..||6|
|3 to 4 years||..||..||..||2||..||2||..||..||..||..||4|
|4 to 5 years||..||..||..||..||4||1||..||..||..||..||5|
|5 to 10 years||..||..||..||3||5||6||4||..||..||..||18|
|10 to 15 years||..||..||..||1||3||10||2||1||..||..||17|
|15 to 20 years||..||..||..||3||5||11||11||3||..||1||34|
|20 to 25 years||..||..||..||1||3||3||8||5||3||..||23|
|25 years and upwards||..||..||..||..||8||6||19||13||5||..||51|
|Born in colony||3||1||7||38||16||5||..||..||..||..||70|
|1 to 6 months||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..|
|6 to 12 months||..||..||..||1||..||1||..||..||..||..||2|
|1 to 2 years||..||..||..||..||2||..||..||..||..||..||2|
|2 to 3 years||..||..||..||..||2||1||..||..||..||..||3|
|3 to 4 years||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..|
|4 to 5 years||..||..||..||..||1||..||..||..||..||..||1|
|5 to 10 years||..||..||..||1||7||4||..||..||..||..||12|
|10 to 15 years||..||..||..||7||5||9||..||..||1||..||22|
|15 to 20 years||..||..||..||9||6||5||8||2||1||..||31|
|20 to 25 years||..||..||..||3||4||3||2||1||..||..||13|
|25 years and upwards||..||..||..||..||3||11||7||4||1||2||28|
|Born in colony||8||1||10||71||22||6||..||..||..||..||118|
|Totals of both sexes||11||2||17||148||104||99||64||35||12||3||495|
The shipping entered inwards for the year 1891 comprised 737 vessels, of 618,515 tonnage—viz., 432 sailing-vessels, of 209,590 tons, and 305 steamers, of 408,925 tons. Entered outwards, were 438 sailing-vessels, of 212,646 tons, and 306 steamers, of 413,161 tons.
The following table gives the number and tonnage of vessels inwards and outwards during the past ten years:—
|Year.||Vessels Inwards.||Vessels Outwards.|
The above figures apply to the foreign trade only; but in a new country like New Zealand, as yet deficient in roads, but having an extensive seaboard and a number of good harbours, the coastal trade must be relatively very large, as is evidenced by the figures next given:—
|SHIPPING ENTERED COASTWISE (1891).|
|SHIPPING CLEARED COASTWISE (1891).|
The total value of the imports for the year 1891 was £6,503,849, or, deducting specie, £6,431,101. The yearly values of imports during the past ten years are subjoined:—
|Year.||Imports, inclusive of Specie.||Imports, exclusive of Specie.|
The following is a list of the chief imports during 1891, arranged in groups, with the value set opposite each:—
|Apparel and slops||324,515|
|Boots and shoes||149,495|
|Hats and caps||55,493|
|Woollen piece - goods and blankets||149,991|
|Hardware and ironmongery||160,440|
|Iron rails and railway-bolts, &c.||12,320|
|Iron, other — pig, wrought, wire, &c.||341,535|
|Steel and steel rails||30,677|
|Bags and sacks||165,289|
|Fruits (including fresh, preserved, bottled, dried)||126,537|
|Other imports (excluding specie)||2,030,326|
|Total (excluding specie)||6,431,101|
The import of any article in a given year is seldom identical with the amount consumed in that time. To ascertain the latter we must look to the Quantity actually entered at the Customs for home consumption and subjected to duty within the twelve months. Thus the quantity of sugar, including glucose, molasses, and treacle, entered for consumption in 1891 was 54,769,741lb., which gave an average of 86·97lb. for every person, exclusive of Maoris; but the persons of this race are estimated to consume, on an average, about one-fourth as much as Europeans. On this basis the consumption for the population, exclusive of Maoris, was 85·54lb. per head.
The quantity of tea entered for consumption in 1891 was 4,055,193lb. Supposing Maoris to use, on an average, 1lb. per head per annum, the consumption of tea per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris, would be 6·37lb. in 1891.
The Australasian Colonies seem to be, in proportion to population, the largest tea-consumers in the world. The amount annually used in New South Wales is estimated to be 6·8lb. per head. The consumption for Victoria has been given by the Government Statist of that colony at 10·01lb., and for Tasmania at 5·35lb.; the figures for the United Kingdom being 4·70lb., for Canada 3·69lb., and for the United States 1·40lb. The consumption in New Zealand is thus somewhat less than in Victoria or New South Wales, but greater per head of population than in the other places.
The following table gives the consumption per head of alcoholic liquors by the population, including and excluding Maoris, showing separately the proportion of beer, wine, and spirits for the last ten years. The amount of beer manufactured in the colony in each year, except the quantity exported, has been included, as well as the amount brought into consumption from imports:—
|Excluding Maoris.||Including Maoris.||Excluding Maoris.||Including Maoris.||Excluding Maoris.||Including Maoris.|
The quantity of tobacco entered for use in 1891 was 1,363,556lb. This gave a consumption per head of population—including Maoris, who are heavy smokers—of 2·03lb. For the four years 1887-90 the average per head was 1·92lb.
Subjoined are the values of imports from various countries in 1891, arranged in order of magnitude:—
|Australia and Tasmania||1,013,549|
|India and Ceylon||275,250|
|Fiji and Norfolk Island||178,259|
|Hongkong and China||40,718|
|Canada and Now Brunswick||1,941|
|Malta and Gibraltar||117|
The values of imports in each provincial district during 1891 were as under:—
The value of all the exports in 1891 was £9,566,397; the value of New Zealand produce exported £9,400,094, being at the rate of £14 16s. 6d. per head of population. The following table gives the values of the several exports of New Zealand produce in each of the past ten years:—
|EXPORTS OF NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.|
|Year||Wool.||Gold.||Frozen Meat.||Butter and Cheese.||Agricultural Produce.||Manufactures||Other N.Z. Produce.||Total.|
The most important items of export under the heading “Other New Zealand Produce” are coal, silver, and minerals, kauri-gum, timber, bacon, salted and preserved meats, tallow, sheep- and rabbit-skins, hides, horses, and sausage-skins. The aggregate value of these in 1891 was £1,467,286. The declared-values of the chief articles exported are given in the table immediately below:—
|Silver and minerals||14,854|
|Sawn and hewn||182,431|
|ANIMALS AND PRODUCE.|
|Bacon and hams||25,182|
|Beef and pork (salted)||15,795|
|Pigs and other live-stock||1,767|
|Sheepskins and pelts||171,292|
|Bran and sharps||41,572|
|Beans and peas||19,327|
|Seeds (grass and clover)||34,625|
|Ale and beer||1,809|
|Phormium (New Zealand hemp)||281,514|
|Total exports (colonial produce and manufactures)||9,400,094|
|Other exports (British and foreign)||160,765|
The re-export trade of the colony would seem from the subjoined figures to have been almost stationary for the last ten years.
|EXPORTS OF BRITISH, FOREIGN, AND OTHER COLONIAL PRODUCE.|
With these amounts may be compared the re-export trade of New South Wales—a colony having less than double the population of New Zealand—which, exclusive of specie, amounted in 1890 to £2,644,386, of which the re-exports to New Zealand were of the value of £105,654.
The quantity of wool exported in 1891—-106,187,114lb.—was greater than in any previous year by 3,370,037lb. The value of the wool exported in 1891 was £4,129,686. The annual production and the increase can be best estimated by taking the exports for the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of shearing, and adding thereto the quantity used in the colony for manufacturing purposes.
The following shows the produce on that basis for the last ten years, ending respectively on the 30th September:—
|Year ending 30th September.||Quantity exported.||Quantity purchased by Local Mills.||Total Annual Produce.|
From these figures, it appears that the wool-clip has increased 67 per cent. within the last ten years, and this notwithstanding the large increase in the export of rabbit-skins, from 9,198,837 in number in 1882 to 14,302,233 in 1891, which does not indicate any great relief from the rabbit-pest.
The increase in the wool-production is of course mainly due to the greater number of sheep—namely, 18,128,186 in April, 1891, against 12,500,597 in May, 1882. It will be apparent from the following table that the tendency of increase is in the direction of the multiplication of the smaller flocks, the owners of which would be better able to cope with the rabbit difficulty than the large run-holders:—
|NUMBER OF FLOCKS, 1882 to 1891.|
|Size of Flocks.||1882.||1883.||1884.||1885.||1886.||1887.||1888.||1889.||1893.||1891.|
|500 and under 1,000||841||970||1,033||1,146||1,189||1,139||1,182||1,381||1,528||1,691|
|1,000 and under 2,000||552||609||672||718||747||723||794||826||854||969|
|2,000 and under 5,000||416||467||473||505||532||531||524||597||586||666|
|5,000 and under 10,000||225||244||256||270||263||289||287||279||283||287|
|10,000 and under 20,000||209||200||211||213||228||221||213||239||236||239|
|20,000 and upwards||133||149||154||157||166||166||166||152||160||169|
The amount of gold exported in 1891 was 251,161oz., but the produce (represented by the amount entered for duty) was 251,996oz.
The total quantity of gold entered for duty to the 31st December, 1891, which may be stated as approximately the amount obtained in the colony, was 12,070,217oz., of the value of £47,433,117.
Frozen meat now takes second place among the exports of New Zealand produce. An account of the development of this industry is given in a special article further on.
To ascertain the total value of the meat export in 1891 it is necessary to take into consideration, with the amount of £1,194,724, value of frozen meat before stated, the value of preserved meats, amounting to £111,133; of salted beef and pork, £15,795; and of bacon and hams, £25,182.
The value of the grain exported in 1891 amounted to £676,338, an amount considerably below the average for several years past, mainly owing to the poor harvest of the 1891 season. The grain exports were made up as under:—
|Peas and beans||123,067||19,327|
The quantity of butter exported amounted to 39,430cwt., the declared value of which was £150,258. Of this quantity, 28,989cwt., valued at £106,446, was shipped to the United Kingdom; 4,403 1/2cwt., value £17,911, to Victoria; and 3,589cwt., value £15,476, to New South Wales.
If the export of butter is to assume any large dimensions it must be by producing an article suitable to the requirements of the English market, for on that must the colony chiefly rely. It has been satisfactorily proved that butter from New Zealand can be delivered in good condition in England, and that for good samples remunerative prices are obtainable; but it is necessary that the butter sent should not only be good, but uniform in quality and colour. This can only be obtained by the operations of butter-factories. Upon the multiplication of these the future of the butter-export trade, with all its great possibilities, seems to depend.
The cheese exported was 39,770cwt., of a declared value of £86,675, of which 29,565cwt., valued at £63,271, was sent to the United Kingdom; 5,402cwt., value £11,975, to Queensland; 2,090cwt., value £4,910, to New South Wales; and 1,979cwt., value £4,794, to Victoria.
The following statement shows the total quantity of butter and cheese exported in the past seven years, and the amount of each sent to the United Kingdom:—
|Year.||Total Export of Butter.||Butter exported to the United Kingdom.||Total Export of Cheese.||Cheese exported to the United Kingdom.|
These figures abundantly illustrate not only our power to place satisfactory produce on the English market, but also the importance of that market as an outlet for an increase in our production.
The export of phormium for 1891 shows a falling off. The market prices continue low—under £18 a ton—a condition of things not encouraging to producers. Any considerable increase in the value of the fibre will doubtless result in temporarily increasing the output; but a large permanent development of this industry depends upon the invention of improvements in the machinery used that will result in lessening the cost of production and improving the quality of the fibre.
There were 8,388 tons of kauri-gum, valued at the rate of £52 2s. a ton, exported from the colony in 1891. This gum is obtained only in the extreme northern part of this colony; nowhere else in the world. A special article is devoted to an account of this industry.
The following table gives the value of the exports from each port in New Zealand for 1891, arranged in order of magnitude:—
|Invercargill and Bluff||674,545|
|Wairau and Picton||151,817|
|New Plymouth and Waitara||106,113|
The total value of the external trade in 1891 was £16,070,246, equivalent to £25 10s. 4d. per head of the population, excluding Maoris. It will be seen from the figures given below that the ratio of trade to population has varied but little for several years. The highest record was in 1873, when the total trade per head reached £41 19s. 3d., the imports, in consequence of the large expenditure of borrowed money, having then amounted to £22 9s. 4d. per head, against £10 6s. 6d. in 1891.
It has been the practice to exclude the Maori population from consideration in estimating the trade per head, for, although they have an influence on the amount of trade, that influence is proportionately so much less than in the case of Europeans that a nearer approximation to correctness in respect of the amount per head of the European portion of the population is obtained by excluding rather than by including them. The effect of including them would be to reduce the proportion from £25 10s. 4d. to £23 18s. 5d.
The values of imports and exports per head of population, excluding Maoris, were, for each of the past ten years, as follow:—
|Year.||Imports per Head.||Exports per Head.||Total.|
The trade with the United Kingdom amounted to £11,510,464, comprising 71·8 per cent. of the total trade.
With the Australian Colonies and Tasmania, trade was done during 1891 to the value of £2,719,110, of which New South Wales claimed £1,259,532, and Victoria £1,183,143. The exports to New South Wales amounted in value to £817,886, and the exports to Victoria to £704,166.
The amount of colonial produce sent to New Zealand from the Australian Colonies is small compared with the amount of New Zealand produce sent to Australia. This is shown by the following statement of the trade between New Zealand and New South Wales and Victoria:—
|EXPORTS FROM NEW ZEALAND.|
|To New South Wales, 1891||817,886|
|To Victoria, 1891||704,166|
|EXPORTS TO NEW ZEALAND.|
|From New South Wales, 1891||441,646|
|From Victoria, 1891||478,977|
Of the £441,646 exported from New South Wales, £116,320 was the value of the coal sent. Of the £478,977 exported from Victoria, £60,200 consisted of gold coin minted in Melbourne.
The trade with Fiji made again an advance in the year. In 1888 it was £149,839; in 1889, £170,181; in 1890, £184,684; and in 1891, £221,603. The trade with the other Pacific Islands and Norfolk Island increased from £127,727 in 1889 and £135,592 in 1890 to £173,161 in 1891.
The following table shows the value of the total trade with the United States in each of the past ten years:—
|TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES.|
|Year.||Imports from||Exports to||Total Trade.|
|Atlantic Ports.||Pacific Ports.||Atlantic Ports.||Pacific Ports.|
Of the exports to the United States in 1891 the values of the principal New Zealand products were—kauri-gum, £271,945; phormium, £138,037; gold, £86,250; sheepskins, £3,226; and sausage-skins, £1,014.
The trade with India (including Burmah and Ceylon) reached a total of £277,801. The imports—tea, rice, castor-oil, woolpacks, &c.—were reckoned at £275,250, leaving a balance of only £2,551 for exports. It would appear that ships arriving with cargoes from Calcutta or Rangoon do not return to those places, but load here with wool or other colonial produce for England.
The following table gives the value of the imports and exports of the Australasian Colonies for the year 1891:—
|Colony.||Total Value of||Excess of|
|Imports.||Exports.||Imports over Exports.||Exports over Imports.|
|New South Wales||25,383,397||25,944,020||..||560,623|
The trade per head of the population in each of the colonies was as under:—
|TRADE PER HEAD OF THE POPULATION IN 1891.|
|New South Wales||22||3||11||22||13||9||44||17||8|
|New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris)||10||6||6||15||3||10||25||10||4|
The values of the exports of these colonies—chiefly those of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia—are largely increased by the inclusion of articles the produce or manufacture of other colonies and countries.
The following shows the value of home productions or manufactures exported from each colony in 1891, and the rate per head of the population:—
|Colony.||Home Produce exported.||Per Head of Population.|
|New South Wales||21,103,816||18||9||1|
The amount of the trade of each of these colonies with the United Kingdom in 1891 is set forth below:—
|Colony.||Imports from the United Kingdom.||Exports to the United Kingdom.||Total Trade with the United Kingdom.|
|New South Wales||10,580,230||8,855,465||19,435,695|
The following statement shows the relative importance of the Australasian Colonies as markets for the productions of the United Kingdom:—
|EXPORTS OF HOME PRODUCTION FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM IN 1890 TO—|
|British India and Ceylon||34,562,616|
The exports to other countries did not amount to £10,000,000 in any one case.
The Australasian Colonies as a whole, with a population under 4,000,000, thus take the third place in importance as consumers of British produce, the exports thereto being about two-thirds of the value of the similar exports to British India, with its 285,000,000 inhabitants.
The principal productions of these colonies will, for a lengthened period, consist of those arising from pastoral, agricultural, and mining pursuits. The immense areas of land capable of improvement and more beneficial occupation, and the large mineral resources only partially developed, forbid any expectation for a very considerable time of such an increase in manufacturing industries as would enable colonial, to supersede English products to any very material extent. The consumption per head of the population may be somewhat less in the future as the proportion of adults decreases owing to lessened immigration and increase by births; but the relatively high rates of wages, and the absence of causes for any extensive pauperism, will make the proportionate consumption of products for a long time high. The rapid growth of the Australasian population may thus be expected to largely increase the demand for British products, and the future of the trade between the United Kingdom and the Australasian Colonies will probably be such as to make them by a long way the principal markets for those products, and very important factors in the progress of the Imperial commonwealth.
There were 1,228 post-offices in New Zealand at the end of 1891.
The correspondence delivered and posted in each of the two past years, and the increase in each case, was:—
|Correspondence, &c.||1890.||1891.||Increase in 1891.|
|Books and packets delivered||2,838,329||3,312,781||504,452|
|Books and packets posted||3,320,801||3,827,980||507,179|
The average number of letters, &c., posted per head of the population in each of the past three years was—
|Books and parcels||4·52||5·35||6·08|
The facilities afforded for the transmission of parcels through the Post Office to places within and without the colony has proved of much convenience to the public, and the number of parcels posted is largely increasing annually. The regulations admit of parcels up to 11lb. in weight being sent to almost all the important countries of the world.
The following shows the number and weight of parcels posted in the last three years. The word “parcels” in the previous table includes the parcels herein mentioned:—
|Parcels posted||104,586||Lb. 281,767||121,292||Lb. 336,644||162,282||Lb. 432,635|
The following table shows the number of parcels exchanged with the United Kingdom and the Australian Colonies in 1891:—
|United Kingdom and foreign offices, via London||17,115||3,253|
The declared value of the parcels received from places outside the colony was £23,386, on which the Customs duty amounted to £3,835.
During 1891, 195,239 money-orders, for a total amount of £651,989 19s. 6d., were issued by the various post-offices in the colony. The money-orders from places beyond New Zealand which were paid m the colony numbered 21,514, for the amount of £77,219 3s. 6d.
The cost of the various mail-services between England and New Zealand was, in 1891, as follows:—
|SAN FRANCISCO SERVICE.|
|Interprovincial and other charges||3,416||6||6|
|Postages received from England and the Australian Colonies||11,669||15||5|
|Postages collected in the colony||9,856||15||0|
|Loss to the colony||£3,454||11||11|
|DIRECT STEAM-SERVICE, NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING COMPANY|
|On weight, bonus, &c.||8,667||8||4|
|Postages received from England||6,311||6||6|
|Postages collected in the colony||2,434||0||10|
|Loss to the colony||£2,691||5||7|
|PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL AND ORIENT LINES SERVICES.|
|To P. and O. and Orient Lines||801||0||4|
|Transit across Australia||5||13||10|
|Transit across European Continent||52||3||9|
|Postages collected from England and foreign offices||210||7||7|
|Postages collected in colony||602||11||5|
|Loss to the colony||£370||9||5|
The total amount of postages collected and contributions received for all these services in 1891 was £31,084 16s. 9d.
The average number of days in 1891 within which the mails were delivered between London and each of the under-mentioned ports in New Zealand was as follows:—
|London to—||San Francisco Service.||Direct Service.||P. and O. Line.||Orient Line.|
There were 5,349 miles of telegraph-line open at the end of 1891, requiring 13,194 miles of wire. 1,968,264 telegrams were transmitted during the year: of these, the private and Press messages numbered 1,746,115, yielding a revenue of £117,633 15s. 9d.
There were twelve telephone exchanges and six sub-exchanges on the 31st March, 1892. The number of subscribers was increased from 2,592 in March, 1891, to 3,083 in March, 1892. The subscriptions to these exchanges during the year amounted to £18,571 7s. 8d., of which the working - expenses, maintenance, interest on capital cost, and allowance for depreciation, absorbed £15,026 12s. 2d.
The capital expended in connection with the several telephone exchanges up to the 31st March, 1892, including spare material on hand, was £88,368 17s. 9d.
The revenue of the General Government is of two kinds—ordinary and territorial. The ordinary revenue for the year ended 31st March, 1892, amounted to £3,872,591, and the territorial revenue to £309,436, giving a total of £4,182,027.
The principal heads of ordinary revenue were: The Customs, £1,625,271; stamps (including Postal and Telegraph revenue), £600,050; property-tax, £356,741; beer duty, £57,798; railways, £1,121,989; registration and other fees, £41,839; marine, £21,046; and miscellaneous, £47,857.
The territorial revenue consisted of receipts from land-sales to the sum of £103,240; with depasturing licenses, rents, and miscellaneous items, £206,196.
The revenue, together with the proceeds of debentures (£282,300) issued under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884.” for the accretions of Sinking Fund for the year, amounted to £4,464,327.
The Customs duties constitute the largest item of revenue, nearly all classes of imports being taxed under the tariff.
The direct taxation until lately consisted of a property-tax of 1d· in the pound on all assessed real and personal property (with exemption of £500), and the stamp duties; but in 1891 a Land and Income Assessment Act was passed, with the intention of repealing the property-tax. The Act of 1891 provides for an ordinary land-tax on the actual value of land, a deduction being allowed to each owner of the present value of improvements up to £3,000; and an owner is also allowed to deduct any amount owing by him secured by a registered mortgage. In addition to the above deductions, there is an exemption of £500 allowed when the balance, after making deductions as stated, does not exceed £1,500; and above that a smaller exemption is allowed, but it ceases when the balance amounts to £2,500.
Mortgages are subject to the land-tax. In addition to the ordinary land-tax there is a graduated land-tax which commences when the unimproved value is £5,000. For the graduated land-tax, the present value of all improvements is deducted; but mortgages are not deducted. The scale is as follows:—
|Where the value is £5,000||and is less than £10,000||one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £10,000||and is less than £20,000||two-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £20,000||and is less than £30,000||three-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £30,000||and is less than £40,000||four-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £40,000||and is less than £50,000||five-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £50,000||and is less than £70,000||six-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £70,000||and is less than £90,000||seven-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £90,000||and is less than £110,000||one penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £110,000||and is less than £130,000||one penny and one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £130,000||and is loss than £150,000||one penny and two-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £150,000||and is less than £170,000||one penny and three-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £170,000||and is less than £190,000||one penny and four-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £190,000||and is less than £210,000||one penny and five-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
|Where the value is £210,000||or exceeds that sum||one penny and six-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.|
Income-tax will be levied on all incomes above £300, and from taxable incomes a deduction of £300 will be made. It is proposed to charge a higher rate on incomes derived from business than on those derived from employment or emolument. Companies will pay at the higher rate, and no exemption is allowed. No taxing Act has yet (July, 1892) been passed.
The indirect taxation is by way of Customs duty and excise duty on beer made in the colony. The following statement shows the amount raised by taxation in each of the past ten years:—
|Amount of Revenue raised by Taxation.||Amount per Head of Population (excluding Maoris).|
As the Maoris contribute somewhat to the Customs revenue, an allowance should he made on that account to ascertain more correctly the amount of taxation per head of the rest of the population. By including the Maori population the Customs duties per head of the rest of the population would he reduced by 3s. 1d. for the year 1891. If this amount be deducted from the taxation per head given for that year, the rate would be reduced from £3 9s. 2d. to £3 6s. 1d. This last rate may fairly be used for comparison with the rates in the neighbouring colonies.
The following were the rates of taxation per head in the Australasian Colonies in 1890:—
|New South Wales||2||9||10|
The ordinary expenditure under permanent and annual appropriations was £4,192,947, the chief items being: Charges of the public debt, £1,892,929; subsidies and other payments to local bodies, £167,101; pensions, compensations, and other expenditure under special Acts of the Legislature, £88,751; contributions to cost of naval squadron, £20,712; working railways, £704,186; public instruction, £371,458; postal and telegraph, £266,727; defence, £166,157; and justice, £102,779. The expenditure out of the Land Fund was £120,031. Of this, £94,668 was expended on surveys, and £21,875 on payments to local bodies on account of their endowments. In addition to the above, £30,000 was carried to the Public Works Fund and spent in formation of roads to open up land for settlement. The total ordinary and territorial expenditure was therefore £4,342,978. It will be seen that the revenue for the year exceeded the expenditure by upwards of £121,000, and, adding the surplus at the beginning of the year, £144,000, less £100,000, which was used to pay off floating debt, there remains a surplus on the 31st March last of £165,000.
Debentures were redeemed to the amount of £350,671 during the year out of Sinking Fund moneys set free under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884.”
Besides expenditure out of revenue, there was also an expenditure out of the Public Works Fund of £391,612, of which £154,416 was for construction of railways, £101,716 for roads, £52,397 for purchase of Native lands in the North Island; £34,792 for public buildings, £27,773 for telegraph extension, £7,796 for the Department of Public Works, £7,347 for lighthouses and harbour defences, £2,257 for waterworks on goldfields, £816 for immigration, £264 on the thermal springs, and £2,038 on services not provided for.
The expenditure out of loan, which amounted to a million and a half of money in the year 1837, will be seen to have been greatly curtailed.
Besides the revenue raised by the General Government, the County and Borough Councils, the Town, Road, River, Harbour, and Drainage Boards levy rates and obtain revenue from other sources.
The colony is divided into 90 boroughs and 78 counties; within the latter there are 259 road districts and 46 town districts.
The following table shows the receipts from rates and other sources, with the expenditure and outstanding loans of the local governing bodies, for five financial years:—
|Year.||Receipts of Local Bodies.||Expenditure.||Outstanding Loans.|
|From Rates.||From Government and other Sources, including Loans.|
|* Not including loans repayable to General Government by annual instalments amounting to £384,780.|
Further particulars relating to local finance will be found under the head “Local Governing Bodies.”
The public debt of the colony amounted on the 31st March, 1892, to £38,713,068, being £117,282 less than it was on the 31st March, 1891. The annual charge on the consolidated revenue for interest and Sinking Fund is estimated at £1,842,686. The net indebtedness (after deducting the accrued Sinking Fund — £1,035,449) was £37,677,619.
By means of the sinking funds set free by the conversion of a portion of the debt, debentures to the amount of £350,671 were redeemed during the year under provisions of “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884,” and the public debt was further reduced by £200,000 out of the surplus of the year 1890-91, and out of the balance of released Sinking Funds paid into the Public Works Fund. The debt under “The Consolidated Loan Act, 1867,” was also reduced by £54,500, and the last of the debentures under “The New Zealand State Forests Act, 1885,” amounting to £1,000, were paid off. The total deductions thus amount to £606,171.
The additions made to the debt were £282,300 of debentures under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1881,” issued for estimated increases of the sinking fund of the year, and £157,000 raised under “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886,” while conversion operations increased the debt by £49,589. These additions, amounting in the aggregate to £488,889, when deducted from the total paid off (£606,171), show a net reduction of the public debt of £117,282 on 31st March, 1892, as compared with the amount at the end of the previous financial year.
The following shows the debt of each of the Australasian Colonies on the 31st December, 1890:—
|Colony.||Amount of Debt.||Amount of accrued Sinking Fund.||Rate of Net Indebtedness per Head of Population at End of Year.|
|New South Wales||48,425,333||..||43||3||5|
The amount of indebtedness per head of population was thus greater in Queensland and South Australia than in New Zealand. The net indebtedness per head in this colony has a decreasing tendency. In March, 1889, it was £60 12s. 2d.; in 1890, £60 5s. 4d.; in 1891, £59 11s. 11d.; and in March, 1892, £59 2s. 2d.; the increase of the population having been in a greater ratio than the increase of debt.
|Years ended 31st March||Amount of Debentures and Stock in Circulation.||Gross Indebtedness per Head of European Population.||Amount of Sinking Fund accrued.||Net Indebtedness.||Net Indebtedness per Head of European Population.||Annual Charge (Interest and Sinking Fund).|
The debt of the colony as stated does not include the unpaid loans raised by the several local bodies, amounting at the end of March, 1891, to £6,042,693. These will be referred to when the particulars of the finance of local bodies are being touched upon.
Portions of the existing loans were either raised by the several Provincial Governments, or consist of loans raised for the purpose of paying off provincial liabilities. It is now almost impossible to ascertain the exact expenditure by these Governments on public works, or the allocation of the proceeds of their loans.
The burden of a public debt depends greatly on the extent to which it was expended on reproductive works, and the degree of prosperity enjoyed by the people. The rugged character of the country generally, and the natural difficulties appertaining to many of the sites on which the chief towns were built, very early necessitated a large outlay on roads and public works. The necessity was fully recognised, and to some extent met, by most of the Provincial Governments, which have justly received great credit for their far-seeing and liberal exertions in that direction. A great deal of road-making, often of a very costly character, was accomplished, harbour and other improvements begun, and immigration encouraged. Some railways were made in Canterbury, Otago, and Southland. The City of Christchurch and the agricultural plains of Canterbury were connected with the Port of Lyttleton by a railway, which required the construction of a long and very costly tunnel through the hills surrounding Lyttelton. In Otago, the City of Dunedin was connected with Port Chalmers by a railway, constructed by private individuals under the guarantee of the Otago Provincial Government; and some miles of railway were made in Southland, extending from the Town of Invercargill into the interior; but no general and comprehensive scheme of public works could be carried out by the separate exertions of the Provincial Governments. The General Government, therefore, in 1870, enunciated its public-works and immigration policy, by which it was proposed to raise a loan of ten millions for the construction of main trunk railways, roads, and other public works of colonial importance, and for the promotion of immigration on a large scale, the expenditure to be extended over a period of ten years. This policy was accepted by the Legislature, and embodied in “The Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870.”
The demands for local railways and other works soon caused the original proposals to be departed from, and entailed an expenditure at a much more rapid rate and to a far greater amount than was originally contemplated. Although many of the works undertaken have been directly unremunerative, yet the effect of the policy as a whole has been to largely develop the settlement of the country, and to enormously increase the value of landed property; land, in parts which before the construction of railways was valued at from £1 to £2 per acre, having been subsequently sold at prices varying from £10 to £20 per acre. In addition to the important indirect results of the policy, the railway- and telegraph-lines yield a revenue which covers a large proportion of the interest on their cost after paying working-expenses.
The following may be stated as approximately representing the loan expenditure by the General Government on certain public works to the 31st March, 1892:—
|Waterworks on goldfields||563,358|
|Roads and bridges||3,604,925|
|Lighthouses, harbours, and defence works||889,165|
|Public buildings, including schools||1,815,577|
|Goal-mines and thermal springs||25,435|
|Railways (by the Provincial and General Governments)||15,362,109|
The total of these various items of expenditure amounts to £26,289,833. The expenditure by local bodies on harbours, roads, and other public works out of loans raised by them is not included, nor are the amounts expended out of loans by the Provincial Governments before their abolition on immigration and public works, except their outlay on railways, which, including the sum of £82,259 paid for the Dunedin and Port Chalmers line, represented the amount of £1,104,281. The expenditure on directly reproductive works—railways, telegraphs, and waterworks — has been £16,559,888. The expenditure on land is also partly reproductive, and that on immigration, roads, bridges, and lighthouses is of an indirectly reproductive character.
In 1888, the date of last assessment, the returns made to the Property-tax Department (which excluded the real estate belonging to Natives) gave the following as the gross private wealth:—*
|Real estate, exclusive of education, church, municipal, and other reserves||84,208,230|
|Furniture and household goods||4,102,947|
|Produce, merchandise, and agricultural implements||13,597,008|
|All other property, including deposits in banks, but excluding mortgages and other debts||24,535,854|
The debts due to persons, whether secured by mortgage or not, have not been included as assets, because the value of the properties, mortgaged or otherwise liable for debts, have been given without any deduction on account of such debts.
* The private wealth for 1890 and 1891 is stated on p. 87.
From this should be deducted the amount of indebtedness to persons outside the colony, of which the amount secured by mortgage was estimated by the Property-tax Department at £16,205,356, and the amount not secured at £8,108,350, giving a total amount owed outside the colony of £24,313,706. If this amount be deducted from the gross private wealth, the balance of £111,567,470 should represent the net private wealth in the colony at the period mentioned, an amount equivalent to £184 per head of the population.
The property-tax returns, on account of understatements of values, &c., are not considered to fully represent the private wealth of the people. This might be estimated by adding together the values of all estates admitted to probate in any one year, and dividing the sum by the number of deaths occurring in that year. The quotient would then represent the average wealth per head. But any inference drawn from the figures for a single year would be untrustworthy. For a thinly-peopled country such as New' Zealand, an epidemic among young children, who have no property to leave, will unduly lower the average; while, on the other hand, the deaths of a few wealthy persons will raise it unwarrantably. By putting the figures for several years together, and taking the average for the term, we may partially, if not entirely, get rid of these disturbing elements and arrive at fairly correct results, as thus:—
|Years inclusive.||Amount sworn to.||Total Number of Deaths.||Average Amount left by each Person.||Average Number of Persons living.||Average Total Wealth for each Year of the Period.|
In 1891 the value of the estates of deceased persons amounted to £1,543,361; of these, the value of 11, which were over £20,000 each, amounted to £517,247. If the years 1882-91 be taken as one period for the purpose of this calculation, the following results are arrived at:—
|Amount sworn to||£13,293,988.|
|Total number of deaths||59,847.|
|Average amount left by each person||£222 2s. 8d.|
|Average number of persons living||581,281.|
|Average total wealth for each year of the period||£129,121,886.|
It is, however, manifest that this average does not sufficiently exhibit the actual present amount of wealth. If the average amount per head—£222 2s. 8d.—for the period 1882-91 was the same at the end of the year 1891, then the total wealth possessed by the 634,058 persons in the colony at the end of 1891 would amount to £140,845,416. If, however, the amount per head was equal to the average for the period 1887-91—viz., £229 18s. 4d.—then the total private wealth at the end of 1891 amounted to £145,780,502. The figures given do not, however, represent the full amount of private wealth, as the amounts sworn to do not include the values of estates ca which no stamp duty is payable—viz., lands and goods passing to the husband or wife, and properties under £100. The total of these must be considerable, and they should give a substantial increase to the average amount per head, and therefore to the total wealth.
The private wealth of Victoria, calculated in the same manner by the Government Statist for that colony, amounted to an average of £399 per head of the population for the five years 1885-89 inclusive, or an average for the whole population of £407,284,836.
Similarly, the private wealth of New South Wales is given by the Government Statistician as an average of £369 for each person during the period 1886-90, and (assuming the real value of estates to be 10 per cent. above the value for probate) as amounting to a total of £455,500,000 at the end of the year 1890.
The returns of the property left by deceased persons show a very rapid increase of wealth; this is apparent from the following:—
|Colony.||Average Amount left by each deceased Person.||Average Total Wealth for each Year of the Period.|
|New Zealand, 1882-86||214||4||9||117,687,942|
|New Zealand, 1887-91||229||18||4||140,991,067|
|New South Wales, 1875-79||178||0||0||115,112,600|
|New South Wales, 1880-84||264||0||0||216,110,400|
|New South Wales, 1886-90||369||0||0||455,500,000|
The Government Statistician of New South Wales, in a recently-published paper, offers, instead of the above system, an estimate of wealth of the Australasian Colonies, “based on a valuation of the various elements of which that wealth is composed,” in which he states the total private wealth of Australasia for 1890 at £1,169,434,000, and that of New Zealand at £150,192,000. It will be observed that this sum is not very far in excess of the sum of £145,780,502, arrived at on the basis of the probate duty paid for 1891; and when it is considered that this amount is admittedly short, as not including estates on which no stamp duty is paid, being under £100 in value, or where the estate was left to husband or wife, the result may be said to be, in all probability, very near the truth.
The wealth of the United Kingdom is given by Mr. Giffen at ten thousand millions, equal to £270 per head of the population, but including public as well as private wealth.
The amounts for New Zealand and Australian Colonies stated refer only to private wealth. There is in addition in each colony a large amount of wealth—railways, lands, buildings, &c.—much of it reproductive, which belongs to the colony as a whole, and which requires to be taken into consideration when the burden of the debt is measured.
The length of Government railways open for traffic on the 31st March, 1892, was 1,869 miles, the total cost thereof having been £14,656,691, the average cost per mile being £7,842. The cash revenue for the year 1891-92 amounted to £1,115,431 10s. 10d., excluding the value of postal services; and the total expenditure to £706,517 6s. 2d. The net cash revenue—£408,914 4s. 8d.—was equal to a rate of £2 15s. 9d. per cent. on the capital cost; the percentage of expenditure to revenue was 63·34.
The following statement shows the number of miles of Government railways open, the number of train-miles travelled and of passengers carried, and the tonnage of goods traffic for the past five years:—
|Year||Length open.||Train-mileage.||Passengers.||Season Tickets issued.||Goods and Live-stock.*|
|* The equivalent tonnage for live-stock has boon given.|
It will be observed that the number of passengers during the year 1891—92 was greater than in any previous year. As, however, the Commissioners anticipated, there was a slight falling-off in the net revenue, owing partly to heavier expenditure and partly to decrease in the goods traffic.
The particulars of the revenue and expenditure for the past five years are herewith given:—
|Year.||Passenger Faros.||Parcels and Luggage.||Goods and Live-stock.||Rents and Miscellaneous.||Total.||Expenditure.||Net Revenue.||Percentages of Expenditure to Revenue.||Percentages of Revenue to Capital Cost.|
Although not included in the figures for the revenue, the real gain to the colony is greater than the amount of net revenue shown, by the value of the postal services performed by the railways (carriage of mails, &c.), amounting to £26,000 per annum.
In addition to the above railways there were 142 miles of private lines open for traffic on the 31st March, 1892—namely, the Wellington-Manawatu Railway, 84 miles; the Kaitangata Railway Company's line, 4 miles; and the Midland Railway, 54 miles.
The cost of the construction of the Wellington-Manawatu Railway was £757,966, being at the rate of £9,023 8s. 1d. per mile. The term “construction” used throughout includes equipment, rolling-stock, &c., not merely the construction of the road-line and buildings. The revenue for the twelve months ending the 28th February, 1892, amounted to £82,373, and the working-expenses to 32,746, equivalent to 39·75 per cent. of the revenue.
The revenue from the opened part of the Midland line (26 miles) was for the year ended the 30th June, 1891, £9,144 2s. 1d., and the expenditure £5,143 6s., equivalent to 56·24 per cent. of the revenue. The total expenditure on this line to the 30th June, 1891, was £854,646.
The following statement gives the number of miles of railway open for traffic and in course of construction in each of the Australasian Colonies at the end of 1890:—
|Colony.||Number of Miles open for Traffic on 31st Dec., 1890.||Number of Miles in course of Construction on 31st Dec., 1890.|
* 31st March, 1892.
† Includes lines authorised.
|New South Wales||2,263||151|
The total average liabilities and assets of the banks within the colonies for the last two years were as follows:—
Comparing the amounts with those in 1889, there was in 1891 an increase of £1,333,740 19s. 2d. on the liabilities, and a decrease of £838,397 1s. 1d. on the assets.
There was in 1891 a still further contraction in the average amount of advances by the banks. In 1886 these amounted to £15,834,877, equal to £27·20 per head of the population. In 1889 the amount was £14,272,481, equal to £23·25 per head. In 1890 the amount was further reduced to £13,996,085, equal to £22·55 per head; and in 1891 the amount had fallen to £11,449,745, an average of £18·18 per head of the mean population. The amount of discounts was less than in any year since 1873. The largest amount of discounts in any year was £6,061,959 in 1879, at the rate of £13·52 per head of population. In 1889 the amount was £2,850,944, equal to £4·64 per head of population; in 1890, £2,524,573, equal to £4·07 per head; and in 1891 it was £2,315,325, or £3·68 per head.
There was an increase of £427,488 in the deposits, which amounted to £12,796,098 in 1891, against £12,368,610 in 1890. Exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits bearing interest increased from £8,427,198 to £8,673,326, or by £246,128; and the deposits not bearing interest from £3,513,191 to £3,621,117, or by £107,926. Thus, there was an increase of £354,054 in the average amount of private deposits.
The following shows the average amount of notes in circulation, notes and bills discounted, and bullion and specie in the banks in each of the two past years:—
|Average Amount of||1890.||1891.||Increase or Decrease.|
|Notes in circulation||902,988||937,309||+ 34,321|
|Notes and bills discounted||2,524,573||2,315,325||-209,248|
|Specie and bullion||2,536,529||2,405,099||-131,430|
The number of post-offices open for the transaction of the savings-bank business at the end of 1891 was 322.
There were 25,131 new accounts opened in the year, and 17,872 accounts were closed. The total number of open accounts at the end of 1891 was 104,467, of which 76,077 were for amounts not exceeding £20.
The deposits received during the year amounted to £1,842,987 15s. 2d., and the withdrawals to £1,693,515 9s. 3d., the excess of deposits over withdrawals having thus been £149,472 5s. 11d. The total amount standing at credit of all accounts on the 31st December, 1891, was £2,695,447 11s. 6d., which gave an average amount at credit of each account of £25 16s.
There are seven savings-banks in the colony which are not connected with the Post Office. The total amount deposited in them in 1891 was £398,964 10s. 8d., of which the deposits by Maoris amounted to £112 16s. The withdrawals amounted to £412,374 2s. 7d., being in excess of the deposits by £13,409 11s. 11d. The total amount to the credit of the depositors at the end of the year was £711,501 1s. 3d., of winch the sum of £229 6s. 8d. was to the credit of Maoris.
The average deposits stated for the banks of issue represent the average for the four quarters of the year. If the amount of deposits at the end of the year be assumed to be equal to the average amount for the last quarter, then it may be stated that, exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits in the several banks of issue and in the two classes of savings-banks amounted at the end of 1891 to £15,701,392. In addition there was, in 1890, an amount of £285,528 14s. 8d. deposited with building societies; and it is also known that there were deposits with financial companies, of which no particulars have been supplied to the department. The known deposits amount on an average to £25 7s. 8d. per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris.
There were 44 registered building societies in operation in the colony at the end of 1890. Of these, 3 were terminable societies, the rest were permanent.
The total receipts by these societies during their financial year amounted to £715,393 11s. 11d., of which deposits comprised £323,216 2s.
The assets at the end of the year amounted to £1,030,770 10s., and the liabilities to £1,035,430 16s. 10d., of which the liabilities to shareholders, reserve fund, &c., amounted to £738,222 9s. 4d., those to depositors to £285,528 14s. 8d., and those to other creditors to £11,679 12s. 10d.
The Registrar of Friendly Societies received returns for the year 1890 from 357 lodges, courts, tents, &c., of various friendly societies throughout the colony, also from 31 central bodies. The number of members at the end of 1890 was 26,379.
The total value of the assets of these societies was £451,753, equivalent to £17 2s. 6d. per member. Of the total assets, the value of the sick and funeral benefit funds amounted to £403,290.
The receipts during the year on account of the sick and funeral funds amounted to £59,209, and the expenditure to £37,164, of which the sick-pay to members amounted to the sum of £24,690. In addition to the sick-pay, the sum of £24,832 was paid out of the medical and management expenses fund for medical attendance on and medicine supplied to the members and their families.
The surplus or deficiency ascertained at the last valuation of the different lodges, tents, &c., has been, stated by the Registrar. Of 328 bodies of whose funds and position valuations were made, only 77 were deemed to be solvent—showing a surplus. In 251 cases there was a deficiency which varied from a few shillings, or even less, to as much in one case as £31·50 per member. The Registrar, in his report published in 1891, remarked on the futility of any attempt to generalise the results: “The widest divergence between average values in the lodges, which are thus accidentally brought into juxtaposition, appears in a surplus of £20·7 per member, as contrasted with a deficiency of £22·3. Even within the smaller field of vision, which embraces one society only at a time, the branches exhibit marked contrasts in respect of their financial position.”
The adoption of insufficient scales of contributions, the neglect of the close investment of benefit funds, and, to some extent, the sinking of the capital of the benefit funds in unproductive building instead of having it invested at interest, are the chief factors m the present unsatisfactory condition of so many of the societies; and it almost appears as if the members of many of the bodies will not be convinced of the importance of those questions so frequently urged upon them until disaster has overtaken them.
Before referring to the results of each of the various systems in operation in 1891 for the disposal of Crown lands it is necessary to state that a description of these systems will be found in a special article, entitled “The Crown Lands,” belonging to the Appendix.
There were 56,050 acres of Crown land sold for cash or money-scrip during the year, the cash received having amounted to £53,568 4s. 2d. The scrip represented a value of £2,836 8s. 2d. The lands absolutely disposed of without sale amounted to 209,431 acres 3 roods 22 perches, of which the reserves set apart for public purposes amounted to 73,270 acres and 18 perches; the grants to Europeans or Natives under Native Reserves Acts, &c., or in fulfilment of engagements, 3,106 acres 2 roods 1 perch; those to Natives or Europeans under the Native Land Acts, 132,871 acres 1 rood 11 perches; and those in satisfaction of land-scrip or otherwise, 183 acres 3 roods 32 perches.
The total land alienated from the foundation of the colony to the 31st December, 1891, amounted to 20,013,615 acres. This does not include lands sold by Natives to Europeans direct, for which no Crown grants have been issued. Although the exact quantity so sold which still remains without Crown grants cannot be ascertained, it is believed to be very small.
In 1891 36,604 acres and 34 perches were taken up under the deferred-payment system. The total area of land taken up under this system, from its commencement to the 31st December, 1891, was 1,211,389 1/2 acres. Of this quantity, the area forfeited is 245,082 acres, and 481,356 acres have been finally alienated by completion of payments. The area still held under the system at the end of 1891 was, therefore, 484,951 acres. The following statement gives the number of acres taken up under this system in each of the past ten years:—
The operation of what is called the perpetual-lease system with right of purchase, which became part of the land-law of the colony in 1882, has had the effect of lessening the demand for land on deferred payments, as under the perpetual-lease system the rental is only 5 per cent: on the upset value of the land, and thus, until the purchase he (if at all) effected, the settler has all his capital available for beneficial improvements. 1,019,404 acres were in occupation under this system on the 31st December, 1891, in 3,802 holdings. 273,087 acres, in 827 holdings, were taken up during the year, but only 17,739 acres were converted into freehold. Although the right of converting the land from lease to freehold is highly valued, yet the temptation to postpone the use of that right is very great while interest at from 6 1/2 to 7 per cent. can be had on good investments, and only 5 per cent. need be paid in the form of rental to the Government.
The lands in the village settlements are partly disposed of upon deferred payments and partly for cash. The transactions are included in the sales of land previously stated, but the following details of the number and area of selection to the 31st December, 1891, are given in order to show the extent of these settlements:—
|Village sections for cash||913||598||2||32|
|Village sections on deferred payments||320||182||2||30|
|Small-farm sections for cash||543||4,723||0||4|
|Small-farm sections on deferred payments||1,006||11,499||2||21|
|The freeholds acquired have been—|
|The forfeitures were—|
During 1891, 75 selectors took up 1,418 1/2 acres in village-homestead special settlements on perpetual lease.
The lands held from the Government on depasturing leases (exclusive of small grazing-runs) amounted to 12,519,115 acres, in 1,493 runs, yielding an annual rental of £142,507. The small grazing-runs numbered 47, containing a total area of 78,050 acres, and the rent received in 1891 amounted to £13,884 13s. 1d.
The results of the recent census show that in April, 1891, there were in New Zealand 43,777 occupied holdings of over 1 acre in extent, covering an area of 19,397,529 acres, of which 12,410,242 acres were the freehold of the occupier, and 6,987,287 acres held on lease from— (1) private individuals, (2) Natives, (3) public bodies, and (4) the Crown (for other than pastoral purposes). The following table shows the number of holdings of various sizes, and number of acres held in freehold and leasehold, excluding the Crown lands rented for pastoral purposes only:—
|Sizes of Holdings.||Number of Holdings.||Acreage.|
|* Excluding Crown pastoral leases.|
|Upwards of 100,000 acres||7||397,140||680,700||1,077,840|
The extent of land rented from the Crown for pastoral purposes, including the small grazing-runs, amounted, in April, 1891, to 12,469,976 acres.
The agricultural statistics, which are collected annually in February or March, only take into account such occupied holdings as are wholly or partly under cultivation, and do not include those occupied by aboriginal natives. Information relating to the farming operations of the Maoris is only obtained when a census of the Native race is taken. In 1891 the results of a census then taken showed that the Maoris had under wheat a total area of 11,203 acres; under maize, 5,599 acres; potatoes, 16,093 acres; other crops, 16,221 acres; and in sown grasses, 26,718 acres.
A summary of the results of the agricultural statistics collected in February, 1892, is exhibited in the two following tables: the first showing the number of holdings, and the acreage under various kinds of crops and in sown grasses; the second, the produce of the principal crops in each provincial district:—
|Provincial Districts.||Number of Holdings.||Number of Acres broken up, but not under Crop.||Number of Acres under Crop.||Total under all Kinds of Crops (including Sown Grasses), and of Land broken up, but not under Crop.|
|In Grain and Pulse.||In Green and other Crops.||In Sown Grasses.|
|Wheat.||Oats.||Barley.||Other Crops.||Total under Grain-crops.||Oats sown for Green Food.||Potatoes.||Other Crops.||Total under Green and other Crops.||Hay.||In Grass (including Land in Hay) after having been broken up.||Grass-sown Lands (including Lands in Hay) not previously ploughed.|
|PRODUCE OF PRINCIPAL CROPS.|
From these tables it will be seen that the final results of the recent collection give the number of cultivated holdings over 1 acre in extent occupied by Europeans as 41,224. The practice largely obtains in the Otago and Canterbury Districts of persons taking unimproved lands from the proprietors for the purpose of raising one, two, or three grain-crops therefrom, the land being then sown down with grass-seed. The lands where so occupied are returned as separate holdings. When the low price of grain renders the cultivation for the crop only unprofitable, either land is not taken up in the manner indicated, or land so occupied reverts to the proprietor, and becomes part of his other holding.
In 1876 the number of occupied and cultivated holdings was estimated to be, on an average, 14·88 to every 100 adult males; in 1881, 17·30; in 1886, 20·17; and in 1891, 22·79. Assuming the ratio of adult males to total male population to be still the same as obtained by the census of 1891, the number of holdings in 1892 give an average of 24·43 to every 100 of the adult-male population. It is highly satisfactory to observe the progress, indicating as it does a continually increasing proportion of the grown people settling upon the land.
The extent of land in cultivation (including sown grasses and land broken up but not under crop) amounted to 8,893,225 acres. Of this area, land under artificial grasses comprised 83·25 per cent. of the total; under grain crops, 8·66 per cent.; under green and other crops, 6·51 per cent.; and land in fallow, 1·58 percent.
More than half the land under grain crops was in the Canterbury Provincial District, and more than one-third in Otago; but while the area of land in wheat was greater in Canterbury than in Otago by 194,255 acres, that under oats was less by 51,243 acres.
Of the total extent (24,268 acres) of land in barley, 10,361 acres were in Canterbury, 4,048 in Nelson, 3,960 in Otago, 2,420 in Marlborough, and 2,068 in Hawke's Bay.
The total area under wheat at the beginning of 1892 was 402,273 acres, and the produce was estimated at 10,257,738 bushels, an average yield per acre of 25·50 bushels. The produce in 1892 was greater by no less than 4,534,128 bushels than that obtained in 1891. This enormous difference is accounted for—first, by the larger area of land under wheat (402,273 acres against 301,460 in 1891), and secondly, by the increased average yield per acre, the average in 1891 having been only 18·99 bushels to the acre—the poorest on record.
The following gives the area in wheat and the estimated produce for each of the Australasian Colonies for the season of 1892:—
|Acres.||Bushels.||Bushels per Acre.|
|New South Wales||356,666||3,963,668||11·11|
The amount of wheat consumed by the population or used up by them in any year is estimated by deducting from the results of the crop the amount exported in that year and the quantity of seed required for the next crop. It is impossible by this means to give an exact statement of the quantity required for actual consumption for several reasons: (1.) The crop itself is an estimate, and the actual harvested yield may be either considerably more or less. (2.) The amount retained in any one year may be largely in excess of the local requirements, and may form part of the following year's exports, thus apparently largely increasing the amount retained one year for consumption, and reducing the apparent amount retained for consumption the following year, which is calculated on the supposition that all the exports for that year are to be set against the crop for that year. It is thus clear that the results for any one year cannot be taken for the purpose of ascertaining the requirements of the people, and that even when taken for a term of years there will probably be a slight variation in the result, as any year's results are added to or subtracted from the computation.
The total average consumption of wheat in New Zealand for the period of 1877 to 1891, inclusive, estimated according to the foregoing method, was, apparently, 8·21 bushels per head of population, including Maoris. From this has to be deducted the wheat required for seed-purposes, estimated at 2 bushels to the acre. Exclusive of the quantity for seed, the requirements for food and other items of local consumption amounted to an average of 7·14 bushels per head.
The following table gives the particulars for each year and the results for the whole period:—
|TABLE SHOWING THE AMOUNT OF WHEAT ANNUALLY RETAINED IN THE COLONY.|
|Year.||Produce (including estimated Quantity of Maori-grown Wheat and Imports of Wheat and Flour).*||Exports of Wheat and Flour.*||Retained in the Colony.||Used as Seed at 2 Bushels per Acre.||Difference for Food-consumption.||Mean Population (including Maoris).||Proportion per Head for Total retained for Food-consumption.|
|For Food, &c.||Total retained|
|* In equivalent bushels of wheat.|
|Totals and Averages||112,162,279||40,687,323||71,474,956||9,287,436||62,187,520||8,705,185||7·14||8·21|
The difficulty of correctly estimating the consumption of breadstuffs is shown by the great differences in the estimates arrived at. Mr. Mulhall, in his “Dictionary of Statistics,” gives the consumption of wheat per inhabitant as follows:—
|Bushels of 60lb. each per Head.|
|United Kingdom||330lb., equal to 5·50|
|Prance||445lb., equal to 7·58|
|Germany||160lb., equal to 2·77|
The average quantity required for local consumption per head of the population (exclusive of that for seed purposes) is estimated by the Government Statistician of New South Wales at 6·5 bushels for that colony, and by the Statist of Victoria at 4 1/2 to 5 bushels for the last-mentioned colony.
The consumption of wheaten breadstuffs in New Zealand is thus considerably in excess of that in Victoria, and is also in excess of the consumption per head in New South Wales and the other Australian Colonies. The flour used in the colony is produced by local mills, the quantity imported in 1891 having been only 1,063 centals, less than 50 tons; but the quantity exported amounted, to 3,588 tons.
If, in New Zealand, 7·14 bushels per head be taken as the amount of wheat actually required for home consumption by an estimated mean population in 1892 of 680,000 persons, and allowing seed for 420,000 acres at 2 bushels per acre, there would, on the wheat-crop of 1892 be a surplus available for export of 4,562,538 bushels, equivalent to about 122,219 tons.
The number of acres under oats (for grain) at the commencement of 1892 was 323,508, and the produce was estimated at 11,009,020 bushels, giving an average yield per acre of 34·03 bushels. Of the land in oats in 1892, rather more than 52 per cent., producing over 58 per cent. of the total crop, was in Otago. Canterbury took second place for oat-production, with 36·38 per cent. of the area and 31·28 per cent. of the produce.
The oat-crop in 1892 for all the Australasian Colonies was as follows:—
|Acres.||Bushels.||Average per Acre.|
|New South Wales||12,958||276,259||21·32|
Only 24,268 acres were returned as under barley in 1892, the estimated crop being 688,683 bushels, an average yield per acre of 24·38 bushels. In the previous year the area under barley was 32,740 acres, and the crop 758,833 bushels.
The estimated potato-crop was 162,046 tons from 27,266 acres, or an average yield per acre of 5·94 tons.
The low prices of grain and the rapid expansion of the frozen-meat trade has caused greater attention to be given to sheep-feeding, and, as a result, a large increase in the extent of land under turnips and rape might be expected. In 1892 there were 422,354 acres under this class of crop, an area greater by 20,170 acres than in the previous year.
Only 639 acres were under hops in 1892, giving a total produce of 6,810cwt., but even this comparatively small area is more than sufficient to supply local requirements, the imports in 1891 having been slightly over 266cwt., while the exports amounted to 2,646cwt. In 1890 the total quantity used by the breweries in the colony amounted to 3,940cwt. Of the land under hops in 1892, 524 acres were in the Waimea County and 77 in Collingwood, both in the Provincial District of Nelson.
The cultivation of tobacco does not progress in New Zealand. In 1889, 34 acres were being cultivated; in 1890, 25 acres; in 1891, 16 acres; and in 1892, only 6 acres.
The relative duties imposed upon New-Zealand-grown and imported tobaccos are as follow:—
|New-Zealand-grown tobacco manufactured in the colony||1s. the pound.|
|Imported manufactured tobacco||3s. 6d. the pound.|
|Imported unmanufactured tobacco||1s. 6d. the pound.|
|Imported tobacco manufactured in the colony||1s. the pound.|
If the New-Zealand-grown leaf was of sufficiently good quality to be manufactured by itself the practical protection would amount to 2s. 6d. per pound, (i.e., the difference between the duty on the imported manufactured tobacco, 3s. 6d., and the excise duty on the New-Zealand-grown tobacco manufactured in the colony, 1s.). But, in order to produce a marketable commodity, New-Zealand-grown leaf is mixed with imported unmanufactured tobacco, on which a duty of 1s. 6d. the pound is levied. The difference in duties is not apparently sufficient to encourage the cultivation of tobacco to any extent.
There were 19,627 acres returned as being in orchards in 1892, an increase of 2,580 acres. The success of attempts that have been made to place fruit in a good saleable condition on the English market has given encouragement to cultivators, and fruits are expected in the not distant future to take an important place in the list of New Zealand exports.
New Zealand is pre-eminently and above all things a country suitable for grazing purposes. Wherever there is light and moisture English grasses thrive when the natural bush and fern and other vegetation are cleared off. In fact, the white-clover gradually overcomes the fern; and, from the mildness of the winter season, there are few places where there is not some growth even in the coldest months of the year. In all parts of the colony stock live, although in varying condition, without other food than such as they can pick up. Sown grass, as might be expected, takes the lead in the list of cultivations.
In February, 1892, there were 7,403,881 acres under artificial grasses. Of these, 3,327,755 acres had been previously ploughed, and presumably under grain or other crops, and 4,076,126 acres had not been ploughed; a large proportion consisting of what had been bush- or forest-land sown down with grass after the timber had been burnt or partially burnt off.
The following shows the acreage in sown grasses in each of the Australasian Colonies in 1892:—
|New South Wales||333,238|
|Western Australia (1891)||23,344|
It will be observed that the area of land under sown grasses was over nine times greater in New Zealand than in the whole of Australia and Tasmania. When compared in size with the colonies of Australia, New Zealand is relatively small—about one-thirtieth of their total size—but when the grazing-capabilities are compared the relative importance of New Zealand is much greater. Australia is generally unsuitable, owing to conditions of climate, for the growth of English grasses, and the amount of feed produced by the natural grasses throughout the year is very much less per acre than that obtained from the sown-grass lands in New Zealand—so much so that it may be stated that the average productiveness of the grassland in New Zealand is probably about nine times as great as that in Australia; so that the land of this colony covered with artificial grass may be considered equal, for grazing purposes, to an area of Australian territory about nine times as great.
The total quantity of grass-seed produced was, in 1892, returned at 1,436,936 bushels, of which 572,425 bushels were cocksfoot and 864,511 bushels ryegrass. The value of both kinds together is calculated to be about £294,400.
The total value of all agricultural produce, &c., based on the returns for 1892, is estimated to amount to about £4,887,346, made up as follows:—
|Grain and pulse||2,873,177|
|Hops and other crops||44,787|
|Hay and green forage (excluding grass)||392,314|
|Garden- and orchard-produce||438,525|
|Total value of agricultural produce||£4,887,351|
Returns of sheep are sent annually, in April, to the Agricultural Department, but full returns of other stock are only obtained when a census is taken. The number of each kind of live-stock, according to the returns from the European portion of the population, in the colony in each of the census years 1886 and 1891 is given below:—
|Live-stock.||Census, 1831.||Census, 1886.|
|Brood-mares (included in foregoing)||31,276||29,853|
|Asses and mules||348||297|
|Cattle (including calves)||788,919||853,358|
|Breeding-cows (included in foregoing)||280,711||279,136|
|Milch-cows (also included in breeding-cows)||206,906||Not specified.|
|Sheep (including lambs)||17,865,423||16,564,595|
|Breeding-ewes (included in foregoing)||7,371,429||6,457,355|
The above statement does not include the live stock owned by Maoris. A census was taken of the Native population, their stock and cultivations, about the same time the census of the rest of the population was taken, but not of so elaborate a character. The results of the Native census gave the following numbers of stock owned by them: Sheep, 262,763; cattle, 42,912; pigs, 86,259; no statement of the horses, which are numerous with them, being given. The full number of those kinds of stock for the colony was, therefore,—
The number of sheep, ascertained from the compilation of the census results, was over one and a third million more than the number returned to the Department of Agriculture nearly a month later. The returns of sheep owned by Maoris are required to be made to that department. Some allowance should be made for the number slaughtered for home use and freezing in the interval, but that would only account for a comparatively small part of the difference. The fact that no house escapes visitation at the time of the census, and that the numbers then given are not used for taxing purposes, may probably largely account for the difference, and cause the census results to be accepted as the most accurate.
The following gives the number of the principal kinds of livestock in the several Australasian Colonies:—
* Including those owned by Maoris.
† Excluding those owned by Maoris.
|New South Wales||61,831,416||2,046,347||459,755|
New Zealand thus takes third place in order for number of sheep, and fourth for the number of her cattle.
Butter has always held an important position among the productions of the New Zealand small farmer, but, made by different persons and in different ways, it has not been generally suitable for the requirements of the English market, although considerable quantities have been exported to Australia and also to the United Kingdom; but the success attending the efforts made to produce butter of uniform superior character in dairy factories, and the fairly remunerative prices that have been realised for such butter in England, have caused great attention to be given to the dairy factories for the purpose of supplying produce for the English market.
It is only in census years that any information is obtained of the quantity of butter and cheese annually produced in the colony, and the returns then given by farmers can only be deemed to be estimates, as the majority of them do not keep accounts of their production.
The following are the results of the returns made in the census years mentioned. The numbers represent the quantities produced in the preceding years:—
|ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF—|
|Cheese. Lb.||Butter. Lb.|
|Census year, 1881||3,178,694||8,453,815|
|Census year, 1886||4,594,795||12,170,964|
|Census year, 1891||6,975,698||16,310,012|
The figures for 1891 include 1,969,759lb. of butter and 4,390,400lb. of cheese made in factories.
The importance of the dairy industry to New Zealand caused the Government to appoint a Chief Dairy Instructor, to visit factories and give lectures and addresses on the benefits of co-operative dairying, the manufacture of cheese and butter, and subjects relating thereto. Information as to this industry will be found in a separate article further on.
The number of dairy factories ascertained by the census returns was 71 cheese- and butter-factories and 3 creameries, employing 218 men and 51 women. The total value of the produce for 1890 was £150,957, viz.: Cheese, £68,710; butter, £73,340; bacon, £1,707; other products, £7,200.
The growing importance of our export trade of butter and cheese with the United Kingdom, which must be regarded as the market chiefly to be considered, is shown in the table on page 72.
Important as are the grazing and dairy interests to New Zealand, yet the future is intimately bound up with mining interests: the mineral resources are very great. In the past these have had a most important influence on the development and progress of the colony. Gold to the value of £47,433,117 was obtained prior to the 31st December, 1891. The gold produce in 1891 was of the value of £1,007,488. In the earlier years the gold was obtained from alluvial diggings, but at the present time is largely taken from gold-bearing quartz, which is distributed widely through several parts of the colony, and thus there is a much better prospect for the permanency of this industry than was afforded by the alluvial diggings. The amount of silver extracted to the end of 1891 only amounted to £140,148 in value, but recent discoveries of ore give promise of large production in the future. Of other minerals, the product to the same date amounts to £9,810,255, of which kauri-gum yielded £5,831,743, and coal, with coke, £3,758,947. The following gives the production of precious metals and minerals during the year 1891:—
|Oz.||£||Total Value since 1853.|
The approximate total output of the coal-mines to the 31st December, 1891, amounted to 7,131,986 tons.
[For full account of mines and minerals see special article, post.]
The following table shows the number of principal industries at the end of 1890, the number of hands employed, the amount of wages paid to them, the estimated value of capital invested in land, buildings, machinery, and plant, and the value of the manufactures in that year:—
|Nature of Industry.||Number of each Kind.||Number of Hands employed.||Amount paid in Wages.||Estimated Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant.||Estimated Value of Produce and Manufactures in 1890.|
|Rope- and twine-works||24||222||13,658||36,086||76,711|
|Meat-preserving, freezing, and boiling-down works||43||1,568||138,459||476,151||1,464,659|
|Cheese- and butter-factories||74||269||11,928||100,453||150,957|
|Fruit-preserving and jam-making works||15||117||4,742||10,042||27,255|
|Coffee- and spice-works||17||81||6,562||30,850||64,024|
|Soap- and candle-works||19||209||21,394||74,443||155,714|
|Brick-, tile-, and pottery-works||106||494||25,190||119,780||56,830|
|Iron and brass foundries||68||1,727||152,687||262,042||390,943|
|Spouting- and ridging-works||12||100||7,981||29,670||33,140|
|Gold- and quarts-mining||135||1,971||183,582||241,715||279,893|
|Hydraulic gold-mining and gold-dredging||74||495||32,904||154,270||73,713|
The number of these industries has increased from 2 268 in 1885 to 2,570 in 1890, the number of hands employed from 25,655 to 29,880, and the value of the produce from £7,436,649 to £9,422,146. No information having been obtained at the census of 1886 as to the wages paid, no comparison can be made between the amount paid in 1885 and that in 1890. The value of land, buildings and plant increased only from £5,697,117 to £5,826,976, notwithstanding the increase of 302 in the number of industries.
The number of writs of summons tested in the Supreme Court in 1891 was 744. Of 184 cases tried, 110 were heard by a Judge sitting without a jury. Judgments were recorded for a total of £57,356, and 131 writs of execution were issued.
In the District Courts 72 civil cases were disposed of. Of these 53 were tried, 23 before a Judge alone. Judgments were recorded for £1,588 4s. 2d. The figures for the Resident Magistrates' Courts for 1891 are not yet made up: those for 1890 were—crises tried 17,790; amounts recovered, £141,077 7s. 11d.
The petitions in bankruptcy numbered 605 in 1891, of which 573 were made by debtors and 32 by creditors. This number was the lowest in any one of the past six years.
The following gives the number of petitions, the total amount of
THE items mentioned below having been accidentally omitted from the statement of industries on page 104, it is requested that this slip may be inserted opposite the incomplete table:—
|Nature of Industry.||Number of each Kind.||Number of Hands employed.||Amount paid in Wages.||Estimated Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant.||Estimated Value of Produce and Manufactures in 1890.|
|Printing, &c., establishments||142||2,569||214,185||341,683||354,559|
|For machines, tools, and implements||43||557||45,856||76,783||147,364|
|Coach-building and -painting||108||678||52,601||96,225||139,660|
|Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring||104||1,196||92,442||153,592||1,026,349|
|Ship- and boat-building||37||145||10,831||10,172||35,847|
|Sail and oilskin factories||32||124||6,335||16,799||31,088|
|Hat and cap factories||16||112||6,276||26,005||21,628|
|Boot and shoe factories||47||1,943||124,990||82,137||403,736|
|Year.||Petitions for||Decrees for|
|Dissolution of Marriage.||Judicial Separation.||Dissolution of Marriage.||Judicial Separation.|
Excluding Maoris, 344 persons—321 men and 23 women—were indicated, &c., in the Supreme and District Courts during the year 1891. Of these, 201 men and 13 women were convicted—27 men and 4 women of offences against the person, 133 men and 8 women or offences against property, and 41 men and 1 woman of other offences. There were 12 Maoris indicted, viz. — 5 for larceny 2 for horse- and cattle-stealing), 1 for wilful damage, 2 for perjury, 2 for personation, and 2 for conspiracy: of these 7 were convicted. Thus the total number of persons convicted was 221, of whom 2 (both women) were sentenced to death, 6 men to penal servitude for seven years or upwards; 19 men and 5 women were released under the First Offenders' Probation Act, 10 men were held to bail, 2 men were fined, and the rest sentenced to terms of imprisonment, varying from seven years to one month.
The number of charges against persons for various offences brought before the Magistrates' Courts in 1890 was 18,701. These include repeated charges against the same person. In 1889 the number was 18,845; in 1888, 19,167; and in 1887, 20,336. Of these charges in 1890, 454 were against Maoris.
The summary convictions numbered 14,128, including 243 of Maoris; and 471 males, including 38 Maoris, and 25 females were committed for trial by the superior Courts.
There are in the colony 10 principal gaols and 28 minor ones.
The total number of prisoners in these gaols at the end of the year 1891 was (including 94 Maoris) 534, of whom 472 were males and 62 females. Included are 48 debtors and 83 lunatics.
It has been found impossible to collect complete statistics relating to education for the year 1891 in time for this publication, and the following summary for the previous year is accordingly given. Full details of the Government schools for 1891 will, however, be found in the special article dealing with the system of education in the colony:—
NUMBER OF PUBLIC (PRIMARY) SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, PRIVATE SCHOOLS, INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS, ORPHANAGES, AND NATIVE SCHOOLS, IS THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND, ON 31st DECEMBER, 1890; TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OF INSTRUCTORS, AND THE NUMBER OF SCHOLARS THEREIN.
|Description of Schools.||Number of Schools.||Number of Instructors.||Number of Scholars for the Fourth Quarter of 1890.|
* Exclusive of 162 sewing mistresses.
† Exclusive of 41 sewing mistresses.
|Public (Government) schools (scholars other than Maoris and half-castes)||1,200||1,301||1,677||2,978*||60,216||56,531||116,747|
|Public (Government) schools (half-castes living among Europeans)||328||333||661|
|Colleges, grammar and high schools (aided or endowed)||22||..||..||145||1,293||824||2,117|
|Private schools (excluding Maori scholars)||298||108||630||738||5,759||7,867||13,626|
|Industrial schools and orphanages||10||..||..||10||388||330||718|
|European children attending Native village schools||..||..||..||..||201||205||406|
|School for deaf-mutes||1||3||1||4||28||14||42|
|Native village schools supported by Government (excluding European children stated above)||68||59||35||94†||1,032||821||1,853|
|Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid by Government)||4||5||..||5||40||39||79|
|Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid from endowments)||..||84||19||103|
|Private Native schools||2||..||1||1||38||17||55|
|Maori scholars attending public (Government) schools||..||..||..||..||251||162||418|
|Maori scholars attending private schools for Europeans||..||..||..||..||16||49||65|
|Half-castes living as Maoris attending public (Government) schools||..||..||..||..||56||35||91|
The following gives, for the five years 1886-90, the number of private schools and of pupils attending them, exclusive of Maoris, the number of Roman Catholic schools and pupils being also shown separately:—
|Year.||Number of Private Schools.||Pupils.||Total Pupils.||Included in Previous Numbers.|
|Boys.||Girls.||Roman Catholic Schools.||Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.|
The census figures relating to attendance at school, given previously, will be found to show somewhat higher numbers than these. There are several reasons for this discrepancy, the chief being that the census was taken on the 1st April, 1891, and the attendance for the March quarter is always higher than for the preceding December quarter.
Information as to colleges, grammar and high schools (aided or endowed), industrial schools and orphanages, is given in a special article on “Public Instruction;” and as to Native schools in another article on “The Maoris: their number and present condition.”
The New Zealand University is not a teaching body; the undergraduates for the most part keep their terms at one of the affiliated institutions, which are the following: the Auckland University College, the Canterbury College, and the University of Otago; each having a staff of professors. The number of graduates at the end of 1891 who had obtained direct degrees was 324. The number of undergraduates on the roll of the University on the 1st June, 1891, was 1,161, but only 575 were keeping terms, of whom 364 were males and 211 females. Thirty-three of the males were medical students at the University of Otago. The number of students attending lectures at the affiliated institutions during the year 1891-92 was as follows:—
|Matriculated.||Not matriculated.||Matriculated.||Not matriculated.||Total.|
|Auckland University College||33||59||22||42||156|
|University of Otago||127||40||25||8||200|
The total revenues for the financial year ended 31st March, 1891, of the various County and Borough Councils, and Road, Town, River, Drainage, and Harbour Boards, amounted to £1,363,247 17s. 4d., of which the receipts from rates amounted to £463,581 3s. 7d., and those from the General Government to £144,008 4s. 1d.
The following shows the amount of rates collected and the amount of indebtedness on account of loans at the end of each of the past ten financial years:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Rates collected by Local Bodies.||Outstanding Loans of Local Bodies.|
The rates collected by the Drainage and Harbour Boards included in the above amounts were in each case for the year ending the previous 31st December.
The loans do not include those advanced by the General Government under special statutes, and repayable by instalments, of which the outstanding debentures at the end of March, 1891, amounted to £384,780 12s. 1d.
Of the amount—£6,042,693—-of indebtedness of local bodies for the year 1890-91, £985,114 was raised within and £5,057,579 outside the colony. The debt of the Harbour Boards was the largest item, £3,226,000; the Borough Councils owed £2,540,390; the Christchurch Drainage Board, £200,000; the River Boards, £49,155; Road Boards, £15,200; the counties, £8,010; and the Town Boards, £3,938. The lowest rate of interest paid was 4 per cent.; £2,644,558 of the total indebtedness was raised at 6 per cent., £2,394,329 at 5 per cent., and £399,026 bore interest as high as 7 per cent.
|LOANS OF LOCAL BODIES RAISED WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE COLONY.|
|INDEBTEDNESS of Counties, Boroughs, Town, Road, and River Boards as on the 31st March, 1891, and of Harbour and Drainage Boards as on the 31st December, 1890, classified according to the Rates of Interest paid, distinguishing Loans raised in the Colony from those raised elsewhere. (See Note.)|
|Loans raised in the Colony.|
|Local Bodies.||4%||4 1/2%||5%||5 1/2%||5 3/4%||6%||6 1/2%||7%||7 1/2%||8%||9%||Total.|
|* Not including loans repayable by annual instalments under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 18825,” and “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886,” together amounting to £384,780 12s. 1d.|
|Loans raised outside the Colony.|
|Total Loans raised.|
|Total loans raised||250,000||250,000||2,394,329||46,500||6,000||2,644,558||40,476||399,026||3,820||7,484||200||6,042,693|
The total value of rateable property in counties which was not included in any road or town district was, on the 31st March, 1891, £27,058,062; of this, the value of the rateable Crown and Native lands amounted to £5,855,005. The rateable value of Crown and Native lands was less than in the previous year by £185,650, but the rateable value of the rest of the land was greater by £510,917; the increase in the total of the rateable values being £325,267.
The revenue for the financial year 1890-91 of all the counties in which the Counties Act is in full operation was £239,818 18s. 6d. Of this, the sum of £121,446 19s. 7d. was raised by rates.
The expenditure of these counties amounted altogether to £291,201 8s., of which the sum of £196,550 13s. 5d. was spent on public works, £39,158 2s. 7d. on management, and £25,914 2s. on hospitals and charitable aid.
In the majority of the boroughs the rates are levied on the annual values of the rateable properties, and the returns only give those values; but in thirteen boroughs the capital values only are the bases for rating purposes. The total annual value of properties in 74 of the boroughs was, in March, 1891, £2,079,459, a decrease on the total value in 1890 of £2,879. The Act under which the valuation is made provides for a reduction from the renting-value of 20 per cent. on houses and buildings, and 10 per cent. on land. The actual annual value of the properties will therefore be greater than the rating values by from 11 to 25 per cent.
The estimated capital value in the remaining thirteen boroughs was £2,643,750.
The total revenues of the boroughs for the past year amounted to £425,800 5s. 7d.; of this, the sum of £213,508 12s. 2d. was received from rates.
Of a total expenditure by the boroughs amounting to £443,361 4s. 7d., the sum of £166,548 16s. 3d. was spent on public works, £20,165 4s. 5d. on hospitals and charitable aid, and £44,950 16s. 9d. on management.
The indebtedness of the boroughs on account of outstanding loans was, at the end of March, 1891, £2,540,390.
The properties in the various town districts are not rated on a uniform system. In the majority of the districts the rate is levied on the total value of the property; in the others, on the annual value; but in each of the road districts the rate is levied on the total value.
The estimated total value of properties in the first-mentioned town districts in March, 1891, was £1,377,562, and the annual value of the properties in the rest of the districts was £44,141.
The total rateable value of properties in the road districts was £43,309,243. In each case the value of rateable Crown and Native lands are included. These amounted in March, 1891, to £2,469,865 of the total value of rateable properties in road districts; also to £32,539 of the total value, and to £662 of the annual value, of property in town districts.
Excluding the Crown and unoccupied Native lands, the values of the rateable properties in the colony in each of the years ending in March, 1889, 1890, and 1891 were as follows:—
|—||31st March, 1889. Rated on||31st March, 1890. Rated on||31st March, 1891. Rated on|
|Total Value.||Annual Value.||Total Value.||Annual Value.||Total Value.||Annual Value.|
|In counties (not in road districts)||20,971,397||..||20,692,140||..||21,203,057||..|
|In road districts||41,882,668||..||41,075,208||..||40,839,378||..|
|In town districts||1,540,183||49,594||1,491,758||49,251||1,345,023||43,479|
Assuming that the capital value is worth sixteen times the stated annual value (it should be worth more, for, as has been previously remarked, the stated annual value should be increased from 11 to 25 per cent., according to whether the property consists of land or houses, in order to arrive at the full annual value), then the total value of all rateable property, excepting Crown and unoccupied rateable Native lands, in each of the five past years would be as follows:—
|Year.||Value of Properties rated on Basis of Total Value.||Annual Value of Properties rated on that Basis.||Annual Value capitalised by multiplying by 16.||Total Value of Rateable Property in Colony, except Crown and Native Lands.|
The total revenue of the Town Boards amounted to £14,751 11s. 9d., of which rates yielded £4,874 5s. 5d.
The total revenue of the Road Boards amounted to £127,104 0s. 8d., of which rates yielded £77,699 2s. 3d.
The total revenue of the River Boards, exclusive of the Inch-clutha Board, which is also a Road Board, amounted to £8,598 6s. 9d., of which the receipts from rates amounted to £6,951 8s. 11d.
Of the total revenue of the Harbour Boards, amounting to £287,880 11s. 9d., rates yielded £20,621 10s. 6d. There is only one Drainage Board—that for the Christchurch district. The revenue for 1890-91 amounted to £14,734 3s. 1d., chiefly from rates, which yielded £14,721 18s. 1d.
The amount of direct taxation imposed on the people by these local bodies in the form of rates amounted to a gross sum of £463,581 3s. 7d., equivalent to an average of 14s. 10d. per head of the population.
Table of Contents
IT may be said, without fear of contradiction, that there is no part of the British dominions where agriculture, in its most extended sense, can be carried on with so much certainty, and with such good results, as in New Zealand. The range of latitude, extending as it does from 34° to 47° south, secures for the colony a diversity of climate which renders it suitable for all the products of subtropical and temperate zones, while the insular position secures it from the continuous and parching droughts which periodically inflict such terrible losses on the agriculturist and pastoralist of Australia and South America.
Again, the climate, although somewhat variable, never reaches the extremes of heat or cold. So genial, indeed, is it that most animals and plants, when first introduced to the colony, assume a vigour unknown to them before.
All the best forage-plants and grasses thrive most admirably, continuing to grow throughout the year with little intermission. Stock of all kinds thrive and fatten rapidly on the pastures, coming to maturity at an early age, without the aid of roots or condimental foods. All kinds of cereals flourish equally well, more especially Indian corn, which produces from 50 to 80 bushels per acre.
So full is the soil of plant-food that several continuous crops of potatoes and cereals may be taken with little apparent exhaustion. Wheat, oats, and barley thrive where the soil is not too rich; otherwise they produce enormous crops of straw, without a corresponding yield of corn. The tobacco-plant thrives well, as also hops and sorghum, broom - corn, peanut, hemp, ramee or rheea (China grass), together with a large variety of economic plants, the growth of which will one day afford employment for a large population. In addition to these, oranges, lemons, limes, olives, and vines, with all the British, Chinese, and Japanese fruits, flourish, requiring but ordinary care. Potatoes are grown to a considerable extent, and yield heavy crops.
Much of the country along the south-west and west coast is being rapidly taken up, and the primeval forest is fast disappearing before the settler's axe. For the most part, the soil is fertile, and the growth of grass and clover is extremely rapid and vigorous when sown on the surface, after the felled timber has been destroyed by fire.
To the British husbandman it will seem almost incredible that the best pasture-grasses grow and thrive as they do with no other preparation than the ashes resulting from the burnt timber—no ploughing and no previous loosening of the soil, this, of course, being impossible amongst the forest of stumps; and yet, in less than a year from the date of scattering the seed, this same land will fatten from five to six sheep per acre.
So rapidly are these fertile forest-lands being cleared and converted into pastures that the demand for stock (principally dairy) has greatly increased, and this demand must continue for a series of years before it is fully met.
Before the introduction of the factory system stock were so unsaleable, especially in the North Island, that little or no attention was paid to this branch of rural economy; and the supply fell to the lowest ebb. The demand which has now set in is chiefly due to the settlement of the bush-lands with small selectors and the development of the dairy industry.
Those who in the past have watched the progress of New Zealand, especially of the North Island, have always maintained that as soon as the Maori difficulties should be ended, and other impediments to settlement overcome, the prosperity of the country would advance at a very rapid rate. The time has now come, and all that is now required to enhance and expedite the coming prosperity is wise legislation with respect to settlement, so that the unoccupied lands may be taken up by a thrifty class of small settlers.
There are millions of acres yet unoccupied, a great portion of which is of good quality, and only waiting the hand of man to make it carry, with very little cost, large herds of dairy stock, with flocks of long-wool and crossbred sheep. The west coast of the island is essentially a cattle-country. The midland districts are also adapted to long-wool sheep, as is the country along the east coast. The bulk of the country may be described as good sheep-land, a large portion of which is quite capable of carrying two sheep to the acre, and some of it as many as three or four.
If the North Island has a magnificent inheritance in her forests, the Middle Island can boast of her magnificent plain-lands, rolling downs, and vast mountain-ranges, all of which, to a greater or less degree, have already been made to contribute to the wealth of the colony.
The middle portion of the Middle Island presented to the first-comers a vast plain, covered with little more than waving tussock-grass, offering little or no obstruction to the plough.
Travelling south, the country assumes a different character: easy, undulating downs, well watered, here and there interspersed with fertile plains, the greater portion admirably adapted for agriculture, and all of it for pastoral purposes.
The climate of the Middle Island is not so warm in summer nor so mild in winter as that experienced in the North Island. However, as has already been stated, there are no extremes of heat or cold. Much more might be said in praise of the colony, which is rapidly gaining for itself the right to be called the “Britain of the South.” Without dwelling further upon such topics, it is deemed necessary to say so much as a prelude to the more solid matter-of-fact statements, in order that readers may better comprehend the comparative ease with which agricultural and pastoral pursuits are earned on in New Zealand as compared with other countries less favourably situated.
The Canterbury Plains, the great wheat-growing area of the Middle Island, extend inland forty miles to the commencement of the ranges, by 150 miles running north and south, or an area of about 3,000,000 acres. The greater portion of this vast plain is admirably adapted for the production of wheat of the best quality, the growing of which is carried on extensively, more especially since the introduction of the reaper-and-binder. The area under this cereal in 1891-92 was 279,150 acres, with an estimated yield of 6,952,319 bushels. The land for the most part is free from stones or impediments of any kind. Single-furrow ploughs are now rarely seen, double- and three-furrow ploughs being in general use. Three horses, occasionally four, with a man or boy, can turn over 3 acres per day, at a cost of 6s. per acre. A stroke of the disc or other harrow followed by the seed-drill and light harrow completes the operation of sowing.
Seed-sowing commences in May, and can be continued as weather permits through the winter, and on into September and even October. From 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 and 2 bushels of seed per acre are usually sown, increasing as the season advances.
Good results are usually obtained by feeding-off the early-sown grain with sheep, followed by the harrow and roller. The usual average on the better class of soil is from 40 to 60 bushels per acre of dressed grain. The general average of the whole colony is 25 to 26 bushels. This discrepancy is accounted for by the fact that so much wheat is grown en the lighter soils.
Several varieties of wheat are grown, but Hunter's White, Pearl, and Velvet Chaff are the favourite kinds for winter sowing. Red and White Tuscan are usually sown in spring.
Dressing the seed with genuine bluestone is found to be a certain specific for smut in its various forms.
The Oamaru (North Otago) district is famous for the quality of its wheat, grown on limestone soil.
Otago and Southland also grow wheat, but they excel in the production of oats, the acreage being 84,895 acres of wheat, yielding 2,330,484 bushels, and 168,939 acres of oats, yielding 6,410,325 bushels, this last season, while Canterbury only produced half this quantity of oats.
The usual yield of oats in Otago and Southland is from 40 to 80 bushels per acre, the cost of production being about the same as wheat—viz., £2 per acre when grown out of grass-land, and £1 10s. from stubble The varieties of oats most in favour are Winter Dun, Canadians, Sparrowbill, Tartary, and Danish.
Malting barley, of very superior quality, is grown in Nelson and Marlborough, where the soil and climate appear to be peculiarly adapted to its culture.
The total area and yield of cereals grown in New Zealand last year was—Wheat, 402,273 acres, yielding 10,257,738 bushels; oats, 323,508 acres, yielding 11,009,020 bushels; barley, 24,268 acres, yielding 688,683 bushels; maize, 5,447 acres, yielding 238,746 bushels; rye, 4,730 acres, yielding 91,271 bushels; with peas and beans, 9,552 acres, yielding 245,910 bushels.
Potatoes: Potatoes are largely grown throughout New Zealand. On suitable soils very heavy crops are raised, it being no uncommon thing to dig from eight to ten tons per acre, although the general average is much lower, for the reason that unsuitable land is frequently devoted to this crop. The bulk of the crop is planted without manure, but, where used, bonedust and superphosphate (from 1cwt. to 2cwt. per acre) is applied with good results. The potato is, however, an expensive crop to grow, costing from £5 to £6 per acre, and many farmers are now devoting their potato-land to grass. The land is usually broken out of grass, skim-ploughed in autumn, ploughed deeply in spring, and thoroughly tilled. The seed—15cwt. per acre—is then ploughed in under every third furrow, the after-culture consisting of harrowing just as the crop is appearing over ground. By this means myriads of seedling weeds are destroyed, drill grubbing, hoeing, horse-hoeing, and earthing-up being the subsequent operations. A heavy crop of wheat, beans, or any other cereal can always be relied upon after potatoes.
Turnips: The turnip-crop has now become one of the most important in the colony, ranking next to wheat and oats. The area under this crop this season, according to the agricultural statistics, is 422,354 acres, as against 402,273 acres under wheat. On virgin soil turnips can always be relied upon as a certain crop, even on a single furrow and a couple of strokes of the harrow. But as very much of the soil in Canterbury has already been cropped, turnips cannot now be grown successfully without the aid of manure. In the nature of things, farm-yard manure cannot be procured; artificial manures are therefore largely used, from 1cwt. to 1 1/2cwt. of superphosphate per acre being now applied with the best results, securing ample crops of sound roots, from 15 to 30 tons per acre. The seed is sometimes sown in drills on the flat, the manure being dropped in front of the seed by the same machine, from 1/2lb. to 1lb. per acre of seed being used. Sometimes the manure is sown in a liquid state by machines manufactured for the purpose: this system invariably secures a rapid and vigorous braird, forcing the young plant into the rough leaf, after which it is secure from the attack of the turnip-beetle. So soon as the turnip-plants reach the third or fourth leaf, they are thinned in a primitive and yet in a thoroughly-efficient method. A scuffler, made for the purpose, is drawn across the drills, bunching the turnips and loosening the soil in a thorough manner. The drill-grubber and scuffler are used as required till the leaves meet. This kind of culture produces capital crops. A very large extent is also sown broadcast, and, if found too thickly sown, the harrows are run through them; in any case a stroke of the harrows is a great help to the growth of the plant. The varieties used are Devonshire Grey for early and very late sowing; Purple- and Green-top Aberdeen are the most generally grown. Swede turnips, from their proneness to the attack of the blight aphis, are not so much sown; they, however, produce enormous crops in suitable soils. The turnip-crop is invariably fed-off by sheep intended for freezing. It is estimated that an acre of good turnips, with a little hay or chaff, will fatten from eight to fourteen sheep. Turnip-sowing commences in November, and may be continued till the end of December. Stubble turnips may be sown in March, but this can only be considered as a catch-crop. It, however, often proves of great value, supplying an abundance of green feed for ewes with early lambs. Turnip-land is usually sown with spring wheat, oats, or barley.
Rape is largely grown as sheep-feed, and may be sown either in early spring, or immediately after harvest, the stubble being skim-ploughed. This crop is invaluable in the early spring, and may be fed-off in time for oats or barley.
Mangolds and Carrots are extensively grown in some districts. They cost more money than turnips to produce, as they must be hand-hoed; nor are they so suitable a crop for cleaning the land. Turnip-sowing does not commence till November, affording ample time for the destruction of seedling weeds; this important opportunity is largely lost in the culture of the mangold, which should be sown in October. The mangold is, however, an invaluable crop on a stock farm, as they have only reached their primest condition when the turnip-supply is exhausted. From thirty to sixty tons per acre is not an uncommon yield of these roots.
Carrots are also a valuable crop, especially for horses; on sandy loams the crop reaches fifteen to twenty tons per acre.
Clover: Since the introduction of the humble-bee into New Zealand, growing clover for seed has become a lucrative industry, adding materially to the farmers' income. Clover is sown with a spring crop, usually of corn, lightly grazed in the following autumn, and then reserved for a crop of hay, which, according to the season, yields from two to three tons per acre—cut in November or early in December. The after-growth is then allowed to flower and seed, which it does very freely. Thousands of humble-bees may be seen in the clover-fields during the months of January and February. The seed ripens in March, and is then cut and dried, and threshed out by machines known as clover-shellers. From 200lb. to 300lb. of seed per acre is considered a fair crop, and sells readily at 5d. to 6d. per pound. Thus, an acre of clover may yield in hay and seed quite £10 or £11, as well as a considerable amount of feeding, since clover-haulm is much sought after by stock of all kinds.
Grass-seed saving: All the most valuable of the strong-growing grasses flourish throughout New Zealand. Cocksfoot has been a staple product of Banks Peninsula for many years, the soil for the most part consisting of decomposed volcanic rocks and vegetable mould. The seed is of the finest description, frequently weighing 20lb. to the bushel (12lb. being a standard bushel). This grass thrives on a very wide range of soils, from the richest to the poorest, preferring, of course, the better soils. It may be found on the dry stony plains of the interior green and healthy, while the surrounding herbage has yielded to the heat of the summer sun. Large quantities of the seed are grown in the North Island as well. Out of the total of 572,425 bushels of cocksfoot-seed produced last year, 255,325 bushels were grown in the North Island. This seed sells readily at from 3d. to 4d. per pound.
Growing ryegrass for seed is also an important industry. Last season 864,511 bushels were gathered. Of this, the North Island contributed 191,746 bushels. The seed is usually secured by stripping; sometimes it is cut and tied. The average yield is from 15 to 20 bushels per acre. A common practice is to graze the land till midsummer; to take the stock off for a few weeks, and then to run the stripper over the ground. By this primitive method 10 bushels per acre is sometimes secured. Ryegrass-seed is usually in good demand, and sells readily at from 3s. 6d. to 4s. per bushel.
Meadow-fescue, one of the most valuable of all the grasses for permanent pasture on good land, is grown in the North and Middle Islands, but not very largely as yet. There can be no doubt but that the growing of grass-seeds, including the finer varieties, must become in the near future a very lucrative industry.
Small Seeds: New Zealand, from the nature of her soil and climate, offers a fine field for growing all kinds of farm and garden seeds. It has already attracted the attention of some of the larger seed-merchants of Great Britain, whose agents have recently visited the colony with a view to negotiating with farmers and others to grow certain kinds of seeds. This is an industry peculiarly adapted to small holdings.
Pulse: Peas and beans are largely grown for pig-feeding and for export, and also form an excellent preparation for wheat. An extensive trade in peas of a certain description is done in the manufacturing towns of Great Britain; and efforts are now being made to secure a share of this trade by producing peas suitable for human food. The business is likely to prove a most remunerative one. Thirty bushels of peas is considered a fair crop, while 40 to 70 bushels of beans are often secured.
Cape Barley: The demand for early-spring feed has resulted in the growing of this plant for forage purposes. Its extreme hardiness renders it peculiarly adapted for autumn sowing. If sown in March it is ready for feeding off in May; it may be fed off again in July, and on till the beginning of October, when, if allowed to run to seed, it will produce 40 to 60 bushels per acre, or it may be ploughed-in for turnips. It is equally adapted for dairy stock, horses, and pigs.
Tares are also grown, but not so largely as they deserve to be, especially for dairy stock. Mixed with oats, barley, or rye, they are excellent milk-producers; and, when grown luxuriantly, they destroy all kinds of weeds, and leave the land in fine condition for a spring corn-crop.
Lucerne: This permanent fodder-plant thrives admirably in most parts of New Zealand, yielding three to five cuttings in the year; and, if properly attended to, it will continue to yield liberal cuttings for seven or eight years. This is a most excellent crop for the small or large farmer, furnishing, as it does, an abundant supply of succulent fodder during the drier months of midsummer, as well as in the early spring.
A cursory glance has now been taken at arable farming in New Zealand. Every impartial mind will admit that nature has been lavish of her gifts—she has supplied all the raw material, with climate and soil; all that is necessary is industry, guided by intelligence and perseverance.
It may be thought, because remuneration for manual labour is higher in the colony than it is in Great Britain, that therefore farming operations must cost more.
This is, however, erroneous. It is within the mark to assert that five hundred acres or more can be worked at less cost than probably it would take to work a hundred-acre farm in Great Britain, for the following reasons: firstly, the genial nature of the climate is such that it is not necessary to house stock during the winter months, saving thereby the cost of attendance; secondly, farming operations may be carried on uninterruptedly throughout the ploughing and sowing season; thirdly, the paddocks are so large, and usually level, that the double- and treble-furrow plough may be worked by one man or youth. The colonial farmer has availed himself of all the most modern labour-saving machinery.
The hay-crop is simply cut one day, raked into windrows next, and, in a couple more, it is ready for stacking.
Wheat is cut and tied by machinery, and stooked, requiring no capping. It is frequently threshed out of the stook in favourable seasons, thereby saving the cost of stacking and thatching, but this system is not advocated except in hot, dry seasons.
The manure bill, which is such a heavy item of annual expenditure with the British farmer, is unknown or nearly so to the colonial farmer. As has already been stated, 1cwt. to 1 1/2cwt. of super-phosphates per acre is used with the turnip and other root-crops, and even this is not used in a large number of cases. It will thus be seen how many advantages the colonial farmer has over the farmer of the old country.
Sheep: New Zealand has proved itself to be admirably adapted for the breeding of all classes of sheep, from the fine-combing Merino to the strongest type of Lincoln, with the intermediate breeds. The Merino occupies and thrives on the wild lands of the colony, from the snow-line to the border of the plains, as well as on the drier portions of the plains. The Merino ewe furnishes the foundation for all the cross-bred varieties. On the rich, moist soils the Lincoln and Bomney Marsh flourish, while the finer English and Border Leicesters occupy the drier lands.
Crossbred Sheep: Those bred from Merino ewes and long-wool rams are the most suitable for the frozen-meat trade, and are known as “freezers.”
The dapper little Southdowns flourish wherever crossbreds thrive. Their more ponderous cousins, the Shropshire and Hampshire Downs, have their admirers, especially the Shropshire, which is largely used for crossing, with a view to producing early-maturing lambs. English Leicesters are much sought after also for this purpose.
Since the development of the frozen-meat trade, sheep-farming has undergone a radical change in the colony. At one time wool was the chief consideration, the surplus stock finding their way into the boiling-down vat, the tallow being the only available product. Things have undergone a marvellous change since 1882, the inaugural year of the frozen-meat trade. Banning has assumed a new phase, sheep-raising for mutton being now the most profitable branch of farm management. Sheep have risen 100 per cent. in value since that industry took hold in the colony. Small and large flocks of pure and crossbred sheep are now kept on all farms which are suitable for them, the object being the production of early lambs for freezing, which sell readily at from 10s. 6d. to 12s. each. The percentage of increase all over the colony is very high, particularly so in the paddocks, where 100 to 125 per cent. is not uncommon in favourable seasons, while on the hill and unimproved country it varies from 45 to 80 per cent.
Disease among the flocks is of rare occurrence where ordinary care is taken. Whenever it does occur, it may generally be traced to overstocking, or excessive moisture.
Shearing commences in September, and continues till January. The usual price per hundred is 15s. to £1. Shearing-machines are gradually coming into use, and will doubtless become general when better understood.
The average clips for the various breeds of sheep are approximately as follow: Merino, from 4lb. to 7lb.; quarter-breds, about 6 1/2lb.; half-breds, 7 1/2lb.; three-quarter-breds, 8 1/2lb.; Leicester, 10 1/2lb.; Lincoln, 11lb. Of course, very much larger clips are obtained from special flocks, as much as 25lb. to 30lb. per sheep; but the above figures represent general averages.
The staple of New Zealand wool, especially the long-wool and crossbred, is remarkable for its freedom from breaks and other imperfections incidental to countries subject to long droughts and scarcity of feed.
The coming sheep for New Zealand will be that which combines the best fleece and the most suitable carcase for freezing purposes, together with early maturity. This is the problem which some sheep-breeders have set themselves to work out. Whether such an animal, having fixity of type, can be evolved remains to be proved.
The capability of New Zealand for producing mutton has not nearly reached its limit. When the frozen-meat trade was first seriously considered, an assertion which was made to the effect that the colony could find 1,000,000 sheep per annum for freezing without impairing the breeding-flocks was treated as highly chimerical by sheep-breeders of long experience. It is found, however, on reference to the statistical returns, that during the year 1891 1,788,619 sheep and lambs were exported from New Zealand; and not only so, but the flocks have gone on steadily increasing, numbering, according to returns made to the Agricultural Department, 18,475,500 in 1892, as against 16,753,752 in 1891. There are twenty-one freezing-works in the colony, with a full freezing-capacity of 3,665,000 per annum.
An interesting article on sheep-farming is appended hereto:—
The production of wool and mutton in New Zealand is undoubtedly the premier industry of the colony, as may be inferred from the fact that out of a total of £9,566,397, representing the whole of the past year's exports, no less than £5,662,081, or nearly 60 per cent., was due to sheep-farming, made up as follows:—
|Value of wool exported||4,129,686|
|Value of sheepskins||171,292|
|Value of mutton||1,076,713|
|Value of tallow||173,257|
|Value of preserved meats||111,133|
As the country is probably not much more than half tested as to its sheep-carrying capacity, and its consequent power of production, it can readily be seen that, when increased areas have been opened up and laid down in English grasses, and more winter feed grown—such as turnips, mangolds, &c.—New Zealand will offer more than ever before a wide and lucrative field for industrious men of young or middle age, possessed of moderate means and an intelligent knowledge of that most valuable of all animals—the sheep.
In a brief article like this it is impossible to go into minute details with regard to sheep-farming in New Zealand; and, in consequence, the statements which follow must be regarded as general in their character, but nevertheless they are absolutely reliable.
It is a well-known fact that climate and soil exercise the most potent influence on the development of animals (as well as human beings) reared in any country, and these conditions being exceedingly favourable in New Zealand render this colony the most suitable of the British possessions for sheep-farming.
It may unhesitatingly be asserted that not even Great Britain itself is so favourable to the production of the sheep as is New Zealand, for the colony possesses all the climatic and soil advantages of the Mother - country, without the drawbacks of long and severe winters, wet seasons, foot-and-mouth disease, &c.; and the prolonged droughts of the Australian Continent are unknown.
Until the commencement of the frozen-meat industry, in 1882, sheep-farmers in New Zealand confined their attention exclusively to producing the class of sheep that would cut the heaviest fleece; but of late years the ideal has been, and still is, early maturity of mutton and good fleece together. The two qualities have been best combined by the judicious crossing of Down rams with long-wool ewes in the North Island; and in the Middle Island, of Leicester, Lincoln, Romney Marsh, and Cheviot rams with large-framed four-year-old Merino ewes. The climate and soil in New Zealand are of such varied character that in some districts it has been found that one cross does better than another. For examples the following are given: In the North Island, until lately, the Lincoln and Romney Marsh breeds have predominated; but since the starting of the frozen-meat trade it has been found necessary, in order to produce an earlier maturing of sheep with a better quality of fleece, to put Hampshire, Shropshire, or Southdown rams to the long-wool ewes; and the desired result has in every case been achieved.
In the Middle Island, where the variations in climate and soil are much greater, and the country, generally speaking, more mountainous, the Merino for many years reigned almost supreme. Here, too, however, the export trade of frozen mutton has revolutionised sheep-farming. Merino mutton was not suitable for the Home markets — at all events not so suitable and profitable as the breeding of a larger sheep; besides, it came into competition with the River Plate and Australian mutton, with the result that it made a very low price, and, in consequence, judicious crossing, as already stated, was tried, with eminently satisfactory results.
In the most mountainous districts, pure-bred Merinos are still kept, and ewes of this breed, when three or four years old, always command very payable prices for putting to the long-wool rams on the downs and low-lying lands. In some districts the cross between the Leicester (especially the Border Leicester) and Merino ewe is found most suitable, in others, again, where the climate is wetter, the Romney Marsh cross is regarded as best; whilst on heavy rich lands some prefer the Lincoln cross, and, on high cold country, the Cheviot cross is regarded with much favour by others.
The result of this crossing is a sheep which, if nourished well during lambhood and afterwards kept on good pasture until after first shearing, is considered, so far as quality of mutton is concerned, equal to the best Welsh and Scotch. [See account of “Interesting Experiment by the Earl of Onslow,” at end of article on Frozen Meat.]
The weight of these half-bred sheep at two-tooth varies, according to feeding and breeding, from 56lb. to 65lb. The Border Leicester cross, maturing earlier than the others, gives the best return at two-tooth, if the climatic conditions are favourable. From the wool-producing point of view, the half-bred sheep is the most profitable; at all events, it has been so for many years. Of course, the weight per fleece is much less than in the case of long-wools, but this deficiency is more than counterbalanced by the extra value of the staple. Given two flocks of equally well-fed two-tooth sheep, on properties suitable to each breed—one for instance Lincoln, and the other the half-bred, by Border Leicester rams from Merino ewes—and the result, according to present values, would approximately be this, viz.: Lincoln, two-tooth, clipping 12lb. wool at 6d. = 6s.; half-bred, two-tooth, clipping 9lb. wool at 9d. = 6s. 9d.
Again, the pure-bred sheep would probably have the advantage in weight per carcase to the extent of 4lb. or 5lb.; but the extra value of the half-bred mutton at Smithfield, or any other of the meat-markets—say, 1/2d. per pound—would give the finer (or half-bred) sheep a further advantage over its coarser competitor of 10d. or 1s. per carcase or, say, a total of 1s. 7d. or 1s. 9d. per sheep.
Another advantage that the breeding of half bred sheep possesses is that there is a market in the colony for all the wool of that description that is produced, and the growers, in consequence, very often obtain at their doors more for their wool-clip than they would realise in London, without incurring the very heavy charges incidental to sending it there. American buyers, too, visit the colony annually to purchase this class of wool, and, as it is produced nowhere else in the world to any great extent, New-Zealanders may be said practically to have the trade in this class of wool in their own hands.
Two other important points in connection with sheep-farming in New Zealand call for the special notice of the would-be colonist— namely: (1) the low cost of the production of mutton, (2) the high percentage of natural increase. Respecting the first point, it has been proved beyond all doubt that, under ordinary conditions, the very choicest of mutton can be produced so as to pay the grower handsomely when sold at 2d. per pound for the carcase at the nearest shipping-port. To the British sheep-farmer this statement, of course, is valueless by itself; but, when we add that this mutton would only cost the London butcher, delivered ex steamer at the dock, 3 5/8d. per pound, he will be able to realise in some measure what a wonderful grazing-country New Zealand is, and he will be able to understand how it is that men of the right stamp who have come to the colony-have done so well. Then, with regard to the high percentage of increase, there need only be cited a few average returns from well-known flocks to show what excellent lambings New Zealand farmers, obtain under good management.
|Locality.||Breed of Flock.||Breed of Rams.||Breed of Ewes.||No. of Ewes.||Percentage of Lambs.||Remarks.|
|North Island||Lincoln||Lincoln||Lincoln||7,517||81·04||Land merely surface-sown in English-grass pasture.|
|North Island||Lincoln||Lincoln||7/8 Lincoln||12,177||100·00|
|Middle Island||Merino||Merino||Merino||14,765||75·36||Mountainous country in native past're, unimproved.|
|Middle Island||Merino||B. Leic'str||Merino||4,235||88·94|
|Middle Island||Cross-bred||B. Leic'str||Cross-bred||8,624||80·82||In English-grass pasture.|
|Middle Island||Half-bred||B. Leic'str||Half-bred||2,747||82·79|
|Middle Island||B. Leic'str||B. Leic'str||B. Leic'str||778||90·77|
|Middle Island||R. Marsh||R. Marsh||R. Marsh||253||111·46|
|Middle Island||E. Leic'str||E. Leic'str||E. Leic'str||464||93·34|
|The above returns are fair average ones, hut much higher might have been exhibited if exceptional cases had been selected.|
As showing the activity of the woollen industry in the colony, it may be mentioned that there are now eight woollen-and-worsted-mills in full operation, three of them on a very extensive scale, and their output is yearly increasing. The amount of wool purchased for use in these mills during the year 1891 was about 3,000,000lb.
The following figures show the development of this industry:—
|Number of woollen-mills||6||8|
|Value of wool used||£67,675||£118,081|
The manufacture for the years 1885 and 1890 was—
|Shawls and rugs (number)||17,954||18,728|
Besides the above, large quantities of yarn, knitted goods, shirtings, &c., were turned out.
There are few, if indeed there are any, climates better adapted for the breeding and rearing of horses of all kinds than that of New Zealand. Horses, light and heavy, are always in demand in the Australian Colonies, commanding remunerative prices; and it is more than probable that a lucrative trade will be done in the near future with the Western States of America. Indeed, shipments have already been made to that country of heavy Clydesdales. Some of the best blue blood of this breed has from time to time been imported from Scotland, with the result that the breed is now well established in the colony.
The light-horse stock of the colony has made itself conspicuous by the production of animals which have rendered themselves famous on the Australian turf. The demand for horses suitable for remounts for the cavalry service in India is a continuous one, affording a ready market for the proper stamp of animals. Shipments have from time to time been made to that country with considerable success, and this trade is likely to increase. There is, however, a great scope for enterprise in this direction. During the commercial depression which visited New Zealand in common with every other civilised country, but which has now passed away, giving place to an era of unrivalled prosperity, the breeding of horses was much neglected. Steps are now, however, being taken to repair the loss entailed by such neglect, and it is hoped the colony will therefore soon regain its partially-lost prestige in this direction.
At the date of last census—April, 1891—-there were, including 42,912 owned by Maoris, 831,831 head of cattle in the colony, and although for the last few years the demand has not been encouraging to breeders, it is now satisfactory to note that, with the improved demand for dairy produce and frozen beef, prices for cattle have advanced considerably, and for the future better returns may be looked for.
The colony possesses all the best strains of blood, and this is evidenced by the superior class of cattle to be met with throughout the settled districts.
The trade in frozen beef is now attaining considerable proportions. Last year 103,007cwt. of beef, valued at £108,409, were shipped, principally from the North Island. This trade is likely to largely increase.
The breeding of dairy stock offers an ample field for profitable investment. Milking-cattle now command a comparatively high price, and will continue to do so for an indefinite period, owing to the fact that stock were allowed to run low for want of a market which has lately sprung up with the building of factories. The rearing of well-bred heifer calves will amply repay all the time and trouble bestowed upon them. It may be well to remark that separated milk may be restored to its original value for feeding purposes (or nearly so) by the addition of linseed mucilage, and therefore an acre or so of European flax should be grown upon every farm where stock-rearing is carried on. Much has yet to be done in the way of improving the dairy stock of the colony, a matter which is now attracting a large share of attention. The yield of milk from fairly good milking-cattle is approximately 500gal. per annum, although 700gal. are frequently obtained from selected herds. The average quantity obtained will no doubt be increased as more attention is paid to breeding and proper feeding.
The average yield of butter from milk passed through the separator is 1lb. for every 2 1/2gal. of milk; so that the average cow produces 200lb. of butter, value £10; or 500lb. of cheese, at about equal value with the butter, estimating it at 4 1/2d. per pound. There is thus a good margin of profit.
From £5 to £8 per head can now readily be obtained for young milking-stock. Three years ago they were hardly saleable at any price. To the British farmer this may not appear a satisfactory price; but when it is considered that no housing or hand-feeding is required, the price leaves a very good return.
New Zealand may claim to be the Denmark of the South, without ever having to enter into competition with the Denmark of the North, for the reason that our seasons are opposite. The dairy industry is steadily growing into a very important one. In the North Island, along the west coast, factories are springing up in all directions. This will be the great dairying district of the colony, the humidity of its climate rendering it better adapted to this industry than any other. The luxuriance of the pastures has to be seen to be appreciated. Large tracts of bush-lands are being thrown open for small settlements, and are eagerly taken up for the most part by thrifty hard-working men. Land is procurable either by purchase, deferred payment, or perpetual lease, on the easiest terms. Homes are being built up in all directions, with dairying for the chief industry. The very nature of the industry renders it peculiarly suited to small selectors.
It is hardly necessary to point out that all butter and cheese intended for export will have to be factory made, for the reason that no other will command the highest price, and because so much more can be made of the milk by the use of the separator. One illustration will serve for our purpose. Experience has demonstrated to a certainty that 27 1/2lb. (or 2 1/2gal.) of fairly good milk will produce 1lb. of butter which averages 2d. per pound more than ordinary farmers' butter; whereas it takes 33lb. (or 3gal.) of milk treated in the old-fashioned manner of setting in pans to produce the same quantity of butter—which means exactly 50 per cent. more returns from milk treated on the factory system.
The factory system is now fairly well established. With judicious supervision, and the institution of regulations providing for the grading and proper handling of butter for export, the industry is sure to go on flourishing, and will secure to thousands lucrative employment.
In the Middle Island it has not taken root to the same extent as in the North. It is true that cheese-factories are becoming numerous in Otago and Southland, with a few butter-factories. Like all other new industries, losses have been made; happily, however, the initial stage has now been passed, and, with good prices for the output last season, averaging 4d. to 5d. per pound for cheese at the factory, matters are now in a satisfactory condition. In Canterbury, the dairy-factory system has only been partially adopted. This apparent apathy may be accounted for by the fact that the Canterbury farmers have, from the first, devoted themselves to wheat-growing; subsequently, sheep-raising has been added to their usual occupations with considerable profit. A large quantity of butter has been made on farms in former years, but the price obtainable was as low as from 3d. to 4d. per pound, so that to a very large extent the business was abandoned. It is now found that butter and cheese give a more certain and remunerative return; hence the desire for factories is becoming more general. A movement is now on foot having for its object a central factory for Canterbury, to be fed by creameries in the surrounding districts. The carrying-out of this comprehensive scheme would render Canterbury famous as a butter-producing district. The success which has attended the erection of certain factories on the co-operative principle, a system which experience has amply demonstrated is the only sure foundation to build upon—viz., that the milk-suppliers shall largely be the shareholders—is bearing good fruit, and a large number of factories are being put up on these conditions.
The Chief Dairy Instructor reports:—
“There are now seventy-eight cheese- and butter-factories scattered throughout the colony, the buildings and plant having an aggregate value of nearly £80,000. At the present time (June, 1892) ten new factories are in course of erection, and negotiations are going on in several districts for the establishment of others. Every reasonable assistance is given by the Government to encourage the development of the industry through the employment of itinerant instructors, and by the publication and distribution of pamphlets treating on dairy husbandry.
“These pamphlets are mailed free to all dairy-factory proprietors for circulation among their milk-suppliers, and to any other parties associated with dairying, on application. Parties contemplating the establishment of factories will be supplied free of charge with sketch-plans of buildings suitable to their requirements, and other needful information.
“To meet the many inquiries, plans have been prepared for buildings of various sizes, and detailed information is furnished in pamphlet form, having reference to the business basis, and containing schedule of plant required, so as to insure economy in the application of labour and uniformity in the quality of the productions.
“The formation of dairy associations for the purpose of guarding the interests of the trade is already showing what good service such institutions are capable of rendering.
“It is worthy of note that several of our dairy factories have now earned a desirable distinction in the London market for the quality of their products—both butter and cheese. Brands of butter which were last year quoted at from £1 10s. to £2 under the Danish brands have, during the past season, been quoted at about the highest figures realised on the London market.
“Cheese from our best factories has successfully competed with the best Canadian brands, which seem to dominate the market. But, unfortunately, this distinction is only earned by a few of our best factories.
“Towards showing the benefits derived from the factory system as compared with individual dairying, it is satisfactory to note that, out of an even line of three shipments of butter sent Home, the factory brands realised from £5 15s. to £6 3s., while that from private dairies brought from £4 15s. to £5 15s. The higher quotations must be considered satisfactory.
“It is also pleasing to note the rapid development which the dairy industry has undergone during the last ten years. In 1880 the value of our exports of dairy products was £1,033, while for 1891 the value rose to £236,933, and I am sanguine that the present year's export will show, from the same amount of produce, a considerable increase in pecuniary value. I hope by future efforts to see a still brisker trade established, so that the settlers may derive a benefit, and find some solace for past losses.
“It is generally conceded that no country possesses greater natural advantages for dairy pursuits than New Zealand. This, at any rate, is true of Taranaki. Any one acquainted with the large areas of splendid pasture-land in Taranaki must have had the conviction forced upon him that this locality is pre-eminently fitted to become a great centre for manufacturing dairy products. In soil, climate, seasons, and settlement, Taranaki has every natural advantage. Winter pasturage is generally abundant, and so the farmer is to a great extent relieved of the labour and expense of storing up much winter feed. Little or no housing is required for the cattle throughout the winter, and so the farmer can carry on his business under the most favourable circumstances, as very little of the profits of the season are consumed in maintaining the cows from one season to another.”
Regarding the importation of butter into the united Kingdom during the past two years, Messrs. John McNairn and Co., of Glasgow, in their circular dated 1st April, 1892, report as follows:—
“We have pleasure in bringing before your notice the following tabulated statement with reference to the quantity of butter imported into the United Kingdom during the last two years and also the first two months of the present year, and which, we hope, will be interesting and valuable to our friends in the colonies:—
|To United Kingdom: Butter imported from||Quantities.||Values.|
|ARRIVALS AND VALUE FOR THE FIRST TWO MONTHS OF 1892 AGAINST THE PREVIOUS YEAR.|
|To United Kingdom: Butter imported from||Quantities.||Values.|
|* Principally Australia and New Zealand.|
“You will notice the vast amount of butter that is imported from Denmark and other continental countries, but we are pleased to see also that our colonies are increasing their exports very materially; and, from what we can learn and read, we expect they will be very heavy competitors with the Continent of Europe. This year, throughout Scotland, Australian and New Zealand butter has pleased extraordinarily well, and buyers are feeling that when the season is over it will be a felt want. As already pointed out, the butter preferred is the very highest class, and packed in patent boxes. We would also refer again to the importance of having the butter-boxes lined with grease-proof paper, so as to avoid its being touched by the wood, which is a most important part in the packing.”
Referring to the quality of New Zealand cheese, the same firm (Messrs. John McNairn and Co.), in a memorandum under date of 18th March, 1892, says, “The quality of the cheese this year has been perfection. We have never seen finer New Zealand cheeses; and if the same quality is kept up, we shall always be able to get a price for them second to none.”
The following are the values of exports from this colony for the years 1890 and 1891:—
These useful adjuncts to the dairy hold a very important position on almost all arable farms. The favourite breed is the improved Berkshire. The large and small breeds of White Yorkshire are also to be met with, but are not so generally approved of as the black pigs. The rearing and fattening of pigs is a profitable investment. Unlike the pampered pigs of Britain, they require no better attention than a good grass paddock, with a liberal supply of unthreshed pea-haulm, plenty of water, and shelter from the sun during the warmest summer months.
From the North Cape to the Bluff Hill, in the extreme south of the Middle Island, the climate and soil are eminently adapted for the growth of a large variety of fruits. In the Auckland District, oranges, lemons, and limes flourish: many groves are now coming into full profit, and afford light and pleasant employment to a large number of persons. This employment will go on increasing as the trees become older. The olive flourishes, bearing heavy crops of fruit, and the manufacture of oil will one day become a very important industry.
Vine-growing is also carried on successfully in many districts, tons of fruit being sold in the Auckland markets annually.
Away in the far north the banana grows and ripens its fruit, buy it is not thought that it will ever enter into successful competition with those imported at so cheap a rate from the Pacific Islands.
Extensive orchards of apples have existed in Auckland for more than half a century, producing abundance of fruit of excellent quality, yielding returns equal to £40 or £50 per acre, provided they are kept free from pests. Orchard-planting is progressing rapidly, and must one day become a very important industry.
Now that the problem of landing the fruit in good condition on the London market has been satisfactorily solved, considerable quantities have been shipped Home, with varying success. It is satisfactory to note that fruits of the proper varieties, and which were properly packed, have invariably realised remunerative prices. Much has yet to be done in the way of arriving at the best method of packing and the best treatment on the voyage, the best varieties to grow, and the exact stage of ripening at which the fruit should be picked. Up to the present the trade with the United Kingdom has been mostly of an experimental character. Shipments have been sent Home as ordinary cargo, at little more than half the cost for freight in the cool-chamber, and have realised as much as 16s. per case, leaving a fair profit. The present cost of shipping apples in the cool-chamber is 4s. 4d. per case, the other expenses bringing it up to nearly 8s. per case. Shipped as general cargo the charges would be, approximately, 5s. 6d. per case. If shipping as ordinary cargo is found successful the industry will at once become a most profitable one, adding immensely to the general prosperity of the colony. Pears, plums, quinces, apricots, figs, walnuts, cherries, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, and raspberries grow luxuriantly, producing abundant crops of fruit.
Little has yet been done in the way of bottling or drying fruit for home use. This is an industry which only awaits development.
Cider is manufactured to a considerable extent, and fruit wines are gradually finding their way into consumption.
A considerable trade is also done in colonial-manufactured jams.
Before planting of fruit-trees was commenced on a large scale, with a view to the export trade, little attention was paid to the varieties selected. The result is that many bearing trees have proved unsuitable to the new requirements, and are now being cut down and regrafted or replanted. According to latest advices, the following varieties of apple are said to be in most request in the London market, always commanding a quick sale at good prices—namely, Ribstone Pippin, Cox's Orange Pippin, Waltham Abbey, Stunner Pippin, Scarlet Pearmain, Adam's Pearmain, and New York Pippin. The soil best adapted for growing apples is a strong loam with a clay subsoil; but they will thrive in almost any kind of soil, provided it is in good heart and that water does not stagnate in the subsoil.
One of the peculiarities of the climate of New Zealand is that all kinds of fruit-trees are forced into bearing at an earlier stage than is the case in Great Britain.
This industry is assuming important dimensions, and is incidental to the frozen-meat trade, resulting from the bye-products in the shape of offal. The blood is manufactured into a nitrogenous manure of great value, containing from 11 to 12 per cent. of nitrogen, the other refuse being manufactured into what is commercially known as animal guano.
Above are enumerated a few of the salient points which go to prove conclusively that, as a country for settlement, New Zealand is not surpassed by any part of the British possessions, being one where the industrious man, with moderate means, can settle down with much comfort. The land, it is true, is perhaps dearer in some districts than that which may be found in South America, South Africa, or Canada, but this difference in price is far outweighed by other considerations, such as the superiority of climate, and security to life and property; besides which there are all the privileges of living under a stable system of government. Pit these advantages against the insecurity of life and property in South America and South Africa, and the rigour of Canadian winters, the balance will be immensely in favour of New Zealand. Another great advantage enjoyed by the agriculturist of New Zealand is that he is nowhere far from the sea-board, giving him the advantage of cheap water-carriage for his produce to the markets of the world.
|TABLE SHOWING THE GROSS RETURN FOR THE COLONY OF WHEAT, OATS, BARLEY, ETC.|
|1891—Number of acres, 301,460||yield, 5,723,610||average per acre, 18·99|
|1892- Number of acres, 402,273||yield, 10,257,738||average per acre, 25·50|
|Increase in acres, 100,813||4,534,128||—Increase in bshls. for 1892.|
|1891—Number of acres, 346,224||yield, 9,947,036||average per acre, 28·73|
|1892—Number of acres, 323,508||yield, 11,009,020||average per acre, 34·03|
|Decrease in acres, 22,716||1,061,984||—Increase in bshls. for 1892.|
|1891—Number of acres, 32,740||yield, 758,833||average per acre, 23·18|
|1892—Number of acres, 24,268||yield, 688,683||average per acre, 28·38|
|Decrease in acres, 8,472||70,150||—Decrease in bshls. for 1892.|
|1891—Number of acres, 32,691||yield, 178,121||average per acre, 5·45|
|1892—Number of acres, 27,266||yield, 162,046||average per acre, 5·94|
|Decrease in acres, 5,425||16,075||—Decrease in bshls. for 1892.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF ACRES UNDER WHEAT, OATS, BARLEY, AND POTATOES IN 1892, AND YIELD PER ACRE IN BUSHELS AND TONS FOR THE SEVERAL PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.|
|Canterbury||279,150 acres||yield, 6,952,319||average per acre, 24·91|
|Otago||84,895 acres||yield, 2,330,484||average per acre, 27·45|
|Wellington||12,039 acres||yield, 331,847||average per acre, 27·50|
|Nelson||8,891 acres||yield, 202,456||average per acre, 22·77|
|Marlborough||7,179 acres||yield, 170,212||average per acre, 23·71|
|Auckland||6,459 acres||yield, 169,409||average per acre, 26·23|
|Taranaki||2,386 acres||yield, 68,820||average per acre, 28·84|
|Hawke's Bay||1,274 acres||yield, 32,191||average per acre, 25·27|
|Otago||108,939 acres||yield, 6,410,325||average per acre, 37·94|
|Canterbury||117,696 acres||yield, 3,443,283||average per acre, 29·26|
|Wellington||14,364 acres||yield, 480,310||average per acre, 33·44|
|Auckland||6,633 acres||yield, 195,142||average per acre, 29·42|
|Hawke's Bay||6,189 acres||yield, 169,365||average per acre, 27·37|
|Nelson||4,247 acres||yield, 104,883||average per acre, 24·70|
|Marlborough||2,900 acres||yield, 102,065||average per acre, 35·19|
|Taranaki||2,534 acres||yield, 103,467||average per acre, 40·83|
|Westland||6 acres||yield, 180||average per acre, 30·00|
|Canterbury||10,361 acres||yield, 306,128||average per acre, 29·55|
|Nelson||4,048 acres||yield, 97,797||average per acre, 24·16|
|Otago||3,960 acres||yield, 119,073||average per acre, 30·07|
|Marlborough||2,420 acres||yield, 50,880||average per acre, 21·02|
|Hawke's Bay||2,068 acres||yield, 78,253||average per acre, 37·84|
|Auckland||926 acres||yield, 25,416||average per acre, 27·45|
|Wellington||340 acres||yield, 8,652||average per acre, 25·45|
|Taranaki||145 acres||yield, 2,484||average per acre, 17·13|
|Cocksfoot. Bushels of 12lb.||Ryegrass. Bushels of 20lb.|
|Canterbury||9,532 acres||yield, 65,158||average per acre, 6·84|
|Otago||6,629 acres||yield, 33,860||average per acre, 5·11|
|Auckland||4,450 acres||yield, 20,842||average per acre, 4·68|
|Wellington||1,974 acres||yield, 13,702||average per acre, 6·94|
|Marlborough||1,221 acres||yield, 7,914||average per acre, 6·48|
|Hawke's Bay||1,208 acres||yield, 8,673||average per acre, 7·18|
|Nelson||1,108 acres||yield, 5,265||average per acre, 4·75|
|Taranaki||872 acres||yield, 5,201||average per acre, 5·96|
|Westland||272 acres||yield, 1,431||average per acre, 5·26|
|TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES UNDER TURNIPS AND RAPE.|
|Increase for 1892, 20,170 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES UNDER OTHER CROPS.|
|Decrease for 1892, 5,038 acres.|
|* Including under maize||5,447 acres; produce||238,746 bushels.|
|Including under rye and bore||4,730 acres; produce||91,271 bushels.|
|Including under peas||6,254 acres; produce||147,391 bushels.|
|Including under beans||3,298 acres; produce||98,529 bushels.|
|Including under hops||639 acres; produce||6,810 cwt.|
|Including under tobacco||6 acres; produce||1,482 lb. dried leaf.|
|Including under mangolds, beet, carrots, onions, and parsnips||5,377 acres.|
|Including under maize cut for green fodder||1,679 acres.|
|Including under other crops||3,307 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES UNDER OATS FOR GREEN FODDER AND HAY.|
|Decrease in 1892, 16,210 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF ACRES OF GRASS, AFTER HAVING BEEN BROKEN UP, INCLUDING SUCH AS ARE IN HAY.|
|Increase for 1892, 77,212 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF ACRES OF GRASS - SOWN LANDS (SURFACE-SOWN), NOT PREVIOUSLY PLOUGHED, INCLUDING SUCH AS ARE IN HAY.|
|Increase for 1892, 360,451 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES IN HAY.|
|Increase for 1892, 2,607 acres.|
|TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES UNDER CROP, EXCLUSIVE OF GRASS-LANDS, AND OF LANDS BROKEN UP BUT NOT UNDER CROP.|
|Under Crop (1891).||Under Crop (1892).||Broken up, but not in Crop, in 1891.||Broken up, but not in Crop, in 1892.|
|Increase for 1892, 63,122 acres.||Decrease for 1892, 70,055 acres.|
|NOTE. — In the returns of agricultural statistics as above summarised, gardens, orchards, plantations of forest-trees, holdings of one acre or less in extent, and holdings occupied by aboriginal natives, are not included, but the returns for 1892 show a total extent of land, in gardens, of 9,608 acres; in orchards, of 19,627 acres; and in plantations of forest-trees, of 38,723 acres.|
Table of Contents
One of the most remarkable and rapid developments of trade in New Zealand of late years is the freezing of mutton and beef, and its transport to the English market. It is only a little over ten years ago that the first trial shipment of frozen mutton, conducted by Mr. Thomas Brydone, the general manager of the New Zealand and Australian Land Company, left Port Chalmers, in the ship “Dunedin,” for London, and since that time the growth of this export has been almost phenomenal. The project of sending fresh meat to England was then regarded as impossible of fulfilment; and Mr. Haslam's statement, that vessels would be able to carry carcases of 10,000 sheep, was considered visionary. But the improvements made by him in refrigerating machinery have enabled his prophecy to be more than fulfilled, as vessels are now fitted to carry four and five times the number of sheep he mentioned. The yearly export of frozen meat has gradually increased in value since 1882 from £19,339 to £1,194,724 in 1891, the last representing the carcases of 1,447,583 sheep, 338,444 lambs, and parts of carcases — which weighed 103,007cwt.—of bullocks. The greatly-improved price of sheep caused by the demand for this export trade has much encouraged the farmers of the colony, and has caused increased attention to be given to clearing and laying down bush-land in grass, and otherwise improving holdings, in order to increase the bearing-capabilities of the land. With the total value of the meat export in 1891, it is necessary also to take into consideration the value of preserved meats, amounting to £111,133; of salted beef and pork, £15,795; and of bacon and hams, £25,182.
Notwithstanding the large increase in the numbers of sheep exported in 1890, the sheep returns for April, 1891, gave an addition of nearly 600,000 on the number in May of the previous year, thus showing that, even with the present flocks, there is a reserve that might supply a much larger export than at present; and the further progressive increase in the number of sheep that may be looked forward to from the extension of clearing and improvements gives promise of a future export of a magnitude possibly manifold greater than the present. The markets of the civilised world are, having regard to the growth of population, without a corresponding increased area for food-production, practically unlimited. This export has had the effect of helping the colony through a period of great depression, and, next to the production of wool, with which it is now inseparably connected, may be regarded as the most important factor in our well-being. It would be an idle speculation to consider in what condition New Zealand would have been had the process for meat-freezing now in use not been discovered, but then' can be no doubt that it has been of almost incalculable value to this colony.
The trade outgrew the available shipping. That state of things, however, did not last long, and magnificent cargo and passenger steam- and. sailing-ships, provided with capacious refrigerating-chambers, owned by the Shaw-Savill and Albion and New Zealand Shipping Companies, are constantly visiting the various ports to take in the frozen carcases and meat to convey them direct to the English market. In his very interesting work “New Zealand after Fifty Years,” Mr. Edward Wakefield gives a very comprehensive and graphic account of the growth in this colony of the frozen-meat trade. “Writing of the wonderful success of the pastoral industries, he says,—
“The frozen-meat trade furnishes one of the most remarkable instances of the application of a scientific principle to commerce. The sheep-farmers in New Zealand did not know what to do with their surplus stock. They boiled them down for tallow, or they preserved them in tins. But there was often very little profit on either of those processes, and both together failed to meet the requirements of the case. Meanwhile the great cities in Great Britain were in chronic want of meat, and especially of mutton. One day it was discovered that mutton could be sent from New Zealand to Great Britain in a frozen state without losing anything in quality. The process is in principle this: Air, at the ordinary natural temperature, is compressed to, say, one-third of its natural bulk by steam-power. It is then let into a chamber with walls impervious to heat. The sudden expansion of the air to its natural bulk again reduces it to one-third of its former temperature, producing an intense cold within the chamber, and this process being constantly maintained by steam-power the temperature within the chamber is permanently kept down to a point corresponding to the compression of the air. The carcases of the sheep, ready dressed for sale, are placed in the chamber, where they are frozen quite hard, and remain entirely unchanged until they are landed in England. There they are slowly thawed, and are not only as wholesome, but as palatable and as agreeable in appearance as the best English mutton.
“The arrival of the first vessel, a sailing-ship, with a small cargo of frozen mutton, in 1881, created a profound sensation in England, and the most erroneous and absurd notions were entertained regarding it. A violent prejudice was created against the meat, which was declared to be unfit for human food, and to have lost all its nutriment by being frozen. The Duke of St. Albans wrote to the Times protesting against fresh meat being brought from the Antipodes to compete with English meat. His Grace, however, sought to allay the alarm of the English farmers by assuring them that the thing could not last—that it was merely one of those unnatural experiments which are often attempted but which always fail, and that even if the supply could be kept up from New Zealand, which was impossible, the inferiority of the meat would soon render it unsaleable. The success of the shipment, nevertheless, was unmistakeable, and it was immediately followed by others. Many mistakes were made at first, and heavy losses were incurred, especially by the employment of defective machinery on board the ships, and by exposing the meat too long before it was frozen. For a time the trade appeared to be in a precarious condition, and it looked as if the Duke of St. Albans' prediction would be verified. The colonists, however, pushed it on with great enterprise, rectified their mistakes, adopted a variety of improvements, and very soon found out how to organize the export. The solution of all their difficulties, in fact, was found to lie in having freezing-works, on shore, near to the place of shipment, or near a railway leading to the place of shipment. At Petone, near Wellington, a hulk is used for this purpose, moored to a wharf close to the slaughter-house. The sheep, which are specially bred and selected for the Home market, are taken from adjoining paddocks in perfect condition, skilfully slaughtered, skinned, and dressed, and trucked down to the hulk, the whole interior of which is a freezing-chamber, kept at an even temperature by a powerful steam-engine and a compressor, as already described. As soon as the hulk is full, she is towed across the harbour to the wharf, where the vessel for England is lying, perhaps a mail-steamer of 4,000 or 5,000 tons. The frozen carcases, each encased in a clean calico bag, are promptly transferred from the freezing-chamber of the hulk to the freezing-chamber of the steamer. In other cases no hulk is employed, but the freezing-works consist of a large building with a chamber, and powerful engines constantly at work. The frozen carcases are passed through small hatches into tightly-closed vans, and carted or railed alongside the steamer, and at once transferred to her freezing-chamber. The whole of the operations are perfectly cleanly and inoffensive, the frozen carcases being as hard as marble, and the calico bags as unsoiled as a lady's muslin dress. In this way a large vessel, calling at two or three ports, will take in a cargo of 20,000 or 30,000 carcases in a few clays, and land them in London in precisely the same state in which they left the works.
“Innumerable trials have been made, by which it is incontestably proved that the most fastidious connoisseur cannot tell New Zealand frozen mutton which has been killed two months from English mutton a week from the daisies, when it comes to table. The result is that the trade has already expanded enormously. The export this year (1889) will probably not be less than a million carcases of mutton and lamb, besides a very large quantity of beef. It may be asked, How about the Duke of Albans' assurance that the colony could never keep up the supply? How are the flocks affected by this enormous drain of a million sheep and lambs a year—a thing never before heard of in any country in the world? The reply is that the flocks are not at all diminished by the export. The colony could not afford to have them diminished, because it is to them it looks for its greatest staple of all—its wool. The effect of the export of meat, however, is not to diminish the flocks at all, but merely to keep both the flocks and the pastures up to the highest standard of quality by the regular withdrawal of the surplus stock. Not only prime wethers, but ewes and broken-mouthed sheep are worth exporting, and fetch a remunerative price. Thus there is no overstocking of pastures, and there are no old, unprofitable, degenerate flocks. On the other hand, the certainty of the market for mutton has enabled the farmers to put into permanent pasture great tracts of country which they could not afford to deal with before; and also to resort largely to turnip-feeding, by which means they have immensely increased the carrying-capacity of the country. This process can be extended almost incalculably. In a word, New Zealand can already send a million sheep a year to England as the surplus of her farms, and greatly to their benefit; and there is every reason to believe that within a very few years she will be able to send two millions a year, and still possess larger flocks and better flocks than ever.
“The meat is sold wholesale in London at about 4 1/2d. per pound. At that price the grower gets from 12s. to 14s. per head, including what he makes by the skin and the offal; which pays very well.
“It will be readily understood that a trade of this magnitude employs in all its branches—pasturing, cultivation, shepherding, slaughtering, freezing, carrying, shipping, fellmongering, and so on— a very large population. These are distributed among various classes of the community, and include the wealthiest landowners in the colony, a multitude of smaller landowners or leaseholders, and working-men of all sorts and conditions. The actual freezing of the meat is mostly in the hands of companies, who either buy the stock and freeze them and ship them on their own account, or freeze for the growers on a fixed tariff of charges. These companies are all doing very well, the dividend last year being 10 per cent. in almost all instances, after making ample reserves. One company—the Gear Company, of Wellington—have paid back 60 per cent. of their whole capital in dividends in six years from their start, besides acquiring their land, works, and appliances, which are of great value. The Wellington Refrigerating Company, another important organization at the capital of New Zealand, is also making great strides. On the whole, there is no industry in the colony which is more uniformly flourishing than the meat industry; and all the various classes of people concerned in it may be deemed to be very fortunately situated.”
It will be seen from the following returns that Mr. Wakefield's expectation is likely to be soon fulfilled. There are now twenty-one freezing establishments in the colony—twelve in the North Island and nine in the Middle Island. The weight and value of frozen meat exported, during the period 1882-91 were as follow:—
Preserved meats also form a considerable item of export. The total value in 1891 was: Preserved meats, £111,133; salted beef and pork, £15,795; bacon and hams, £25,182. The quantity tinned in 1890 was 6,291,278lb., valued at £122,230, to which may be added corned beef, valued at £14,006; tallow, £144,282; bonedust, £15,484; oil, horns, hoofs, &c., £13,075; bringing up the total value of all produce in this industry for the year 1890 to £1,464,659.
The results of the census of April, 1891, show the numbers of carcases and value of sheep and lambs frozen, and the quantities and value of beef frozen and meats preserved, in the various provincial districts of the colony, the produce of the year 1890, to have been as follow:—
|Provincial Districts.||Frozen Sheep and Lambs.||Frozen Beef.||Preserved Meats.|
In connection with the foregoing must be taken into account the output, during the same period, of the following products:—
|Provincial Districts.||Tallow.||Corned Beef,||Bonedust.||Neatsfoot and Trotter Oil.||Bones, Horns, Hoofs &c.|
The number of works and hands employed, the total value of all products set forth in the two preceding tables, and the approximate value of the land, buildings, machinery, and plant were as follow:—
|Provincial Districts.||No. of Works.||Number of Hands employed.||Total Value of all Produce for the Year 1890.||Approximate Value of|
|M.||F.||Land.||Buildings.||Machinery and Plant.|
* Taranaki also exported 500,000lb. of chilled meat of the value of £4,000, which is included in this sum-total (£38,204) as the product for that provincial district.
† This item includes the value of 125 bales rabbit-skins (£2,875), and 205 bales sheepskins (£1,700).
During his visit to the Canterbury Agricultural and Pastoral Association's show at Christchurch, in November, 1891, Earl Onslow (then Governor of New Zealand) supplied the Christchurch papers with the result of an experiment which he has recently made with frozen mutton, the object being to ascertain whether the difference in price of English and New Zealand mutton was due to any great divergence of quality, or to prejudice; and, if so, whether the latter had any just cause for its existence.
Six sheep were selected by Mr. John Grigg, at Belfast, and were transmitted in the usual way to Messrs. Fitter. His Excellency selected from the different classes of London society six gentlemen of his acquaintance, who are known to have first-rate cooks, and to have no personal interest in English sheep-breeding. Messrs. Fitter were desired to deliver a sheep thawed and ready for consumption at the London house of each of these six gentlemen.
In writing to advise them of the shipment His Excellency informed them that the sheep were not sent as a present for which any thanks were expected, but that he might, for his own personal information, ascertain whether the freezing process in any way caused deterioration in a joint of mutton which he had himself found when eaten in the colony to be equal to that which careful breeding and considerable expense had enabled him to produce from his own flock of pedigree Southdowns. To make certain that the opinions-given were without favour or prejudice His Excellency caused a seventh sheep to be sent round the world and brought back to him in Christchurch, and he has no reason to doubt the perfect good faith of his correspondents.
The gentlemen selected were Baron Henry de Worms, M.P.; the Earl of Rosebery; Sir Augustus Harris, of Drury Lane Theatre, Sheriff of London; Sir Morell Mackenzie, M.D.; M. Waddington, the Ambassador in London from the French Republic; and General Sir Henry de Bathe, one of the committee of the Beefsteak Club, whose members have a house-dinner once a week, at which one member of the committee has to dine, to select the principal dish, and to be responsible for its excellence.
The following are the opinions which His Excellency received:—
Baron de Worms, M.P., Under-Secretary for Colonies.—“We found it quite excellent. The freezing did not hurt it in the least; in fact, the greatest epicure would fail to discern that it was not Homegrown.”
Lord Rosebery.—“The mutton was excellent, and not to be distinguished from English mutton.”
General Sir H. de Bathe, of the Beefsteak Club.—“Last Friday we had a large assemblage at the B.S.C. to eat your mutton. The consensus of opinion was that it was most excellent. Dick Grain, Frank Burnand Bancroft, G. A. Sala, Alf. Watson, and some dozen others all so agree. I, who am a dweller on the Southdowns, can safely aver that your individual sheep was better than what I can buy in Chichester, where it always wants age and colour. It was as tender as a chicken. Could the club make arrangements for a regular supply of mutton of same quality; and, if so, should we have to pay more than our London butcher's prices?”
Mons. Waddington, French Ambassador in London.—“The New Zealand mutton was a great success. I had recommended it to my cook, and it was carefully roasted. All present pronounced it quite equal to the best English mutton. The freezing of the meat had produced no appreciable difference.”
Sir Morell Mackenzie.—“Last week we had a little dinner of connoisseurs on purpose to sit in judgment on the mutton. I can only say that my friends and I were unanimous in giving a most favourable opinion. It had a great deal of flavour, and was very tender. In fact, I only recollect tasting mutton as good on one or two occasions. I suppose, however, that the specimen you were good enough to send me was much better than the ordinary consignments from New Zealand.”
Sheriff Sir Augustus Harris, Drury Lane Theatre.—“We duly received the sheep. Had it cooked and eaten. It was really delicious. Never had I tasted anything more tender or better flavoured. All I can say is, the trial was perfectly successful, if, as I suppose, it is an experiment of some new process.”
Mr. Grigg has since assured His Excellency that two-thirds of the sheep sent from Belfast are of similar quality. The inference to be drawn is that there is no foundation for any prejudice which may have been formed against New Zealand mutton, and that some effort might, with advantage, be made to induce those at Home who are in a position to set the fashion to use the primest New Zealand meat, and thereby remove any feeling of prejudice which may still exist in the minds of the masses. Also, that it should be made easy for those who desire to do so to obtain in the West End of London the best joints from carefully-selected carcases.
Table of Contents
The indigenous forest of New Zealand is evergreen, and contains a large variety of valuable woods. The general character of these woods resembles the growths of Tasmania and the Continent of Australia, most of them being harder, heavier, and more difficult to work than the majority of European and North American timbers. They vary, however, very much among themselves. Many varieties are very durable, and manuka, totara, kauri, black-birch, kowhai, and matai appear to be the most highly esteemed on the whole. It is estimated that there are in New Zealand at the present time about 10,000,000 acres of forest-land.
From “The New Zealand Handbook” (1886), by Sir James Hector, is extracted the following information, descriptive of the principal forest-trees:—
Dammara australis, Lambert.
Kauri.—The kauri is the finest forest-tree in New Zealand, and attains a height of 120ft. to 160ft. The trunk is sometimes 80ft. to 100ft. high before branching, and attains a diameter at the base of 10ft. to 20ft. The timber is in high repute for masts and spars, deck- and other planking of vessels, and is largely used for house-finishings. There is abundant evidence of its durability for more than fifty years in some of the old mission-buildings at the Bay of Islands. The buried logs of an ancient kauri forest near Papakura have been excavated and found to be in a perfectly sound condition, and used for sleepers on the Auckland and Waikato Railway. On the Thames Goldfield kauri is used for mine-props, struts, and cap-pieces. It forms the bulk of the timber exported from New Zealand. Some of the largest and soundest kauri timber has richly mottled shading, which appears to be of an abnormal growth, due to the bark being entangled in the ligneous growth, causing shaded parts, broad and narrow, according as the timber is cut relative to their planes. This makes a rich and valuable furniture-wood, and in the market is known as “mottled kauri.” The kauri-pine occurs only in the North Island and north of Mercury Bay, and grows best near the sea, on wet clay land. The kauri-forests are largely composed of other trees as well as their characteristic tree. The turpentine of this tree forms the celebrated kauri-gum, which is extensively excavated from the site of old forests as far south as Taranaki. [Fuller particulars concerning this product are given in an article on “Kauri-gum,” and the exports appear on the statistical broadsheet.]
Libocedrus doniana, Endl.
Kawaka, Cypress, Cedar.—This handsome tree attains a height of 60ft. to 100ft., and a diameter of 3ft. to 5ft. Wood, reddish, fine-grained, and heavy; used by the Maoris for carving, and said to be excellent for planks and spars; grows in the North Island, being abundant in the forests near the Bay of Islands, and to the north of Auckland.
Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook.
Pahautea, Cedar.—A handsome conical tree, 60ft. to 80ft. high, 2ft. to 3ft. in diameter. In Otago it produces a dark-red free-working timber, rather brittle, chiefly adapted for inside work. Found on the central ranges of the North Island, and common throughout the forests of the Middle Island, growing at altitudes of 500ft. to 4,000ft. This timber has been used for sleepers on the Otago railways of late years, is largely employed in that district for fencing purposes, and is frequently mistaken for totara. In former years it was believed to be suitable only for inside work.
Podocarpus ferruginea, Don.
Miro, Bastard Black-pine of Otago.—A large ornamental and useful timber tree; attains a height of 40ft. to 60ft., trunk 2ft. to 3ft. in diameter. A useful wood, but not so durable as the matai, or true black-pine wood; reddish, closed-grained, and brittle; the cross section of the timber shows the heartwood star-shaped and irregular. The timber is generally thought to be unfitted for piles, and marine works, except when only partially exposed to the influence of sea-water, as shown in the railway embankment at Bluff Harbour, where it is reported to have been durable. Grows in the North and Middle Islands at altitudes below 1,000ft.
Podocarpus totara, A. Cunn.
Totara.—A lofty and spreading tree, 60ft. to 120ft. high, 4ft. to 10ft. in diameter. Wood very durable and clean-grained, in appearance like cedar, and works with equal freedom; it is adapted for every kind of carpenters' work. It is used extensively in Wellington for house-building and piles of marine wharves and bridges, and railway-sleepers, and is one of the most valuable timbers known. The wood, if felled during the growing-season, resists for a long time the attacks of teredo worms. It splits freely, and is durable as fencing and shingles. Totara post-and-rail fences are expected to last from forty to fifty years. The Maoris made their largest canoes from this tree, and the palisading of their pas consisted almost entirely of this wood. Grows throughout the North and Middle Islands upon both flat and hilly ground; the timber from trees grown on hills is found to be the most durable.
Podocarpus spicata, Br.
Matai, Mai, Black-pine of Otago.—A large tree, 80ft. high, trunk from 2ft. to 4ft. in diameter. Wood yellowish, close-grained, and durable; used for a variety of purposes—piles for bridges, wharves, and jetties, bed-plates for machinery, millwrights' work, flooring, house-blocks, railway-sleepers, and fencing-Bridges in various parts of the colony afford proof of its durability. Mr. Buchanan has described a log of matai that he found had been exposed for at least two hundred years in a dense damp bush in North-east Valley, Dunedin, as proved by its being enfolded by the roots of three large trees of Griselinia littoralis, 3ft. 6in. in diameter, with over 300 growth-rings. Grows in both North and Middle Islands, at altitudes under 1,500ft.
Podocarpus dacrydioides, A. Rich.
Kahikatea, White-pine.—A very fine tree, 100ft. to 150ft. high, trunk 4ft. in diameter. Timber white and tough, soft, and well adapted for indoor work, but will not bear exposure. Abundant throughout the North and Middle Islands. When grown on dry soil it is good for the planks of small boats, but when from swamps it is almost useless. A variety of this tree, known as yellow-pine, is largely sawn in Nelson, and considered to be a durable building-timber.
Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland.
Rimu, Red-pine.—Tree, pyramidal, with weeping branches when young; trunk 80ft. to 130ft. high, and 2ft. to 6ft. in diameter. An ornamental and useful timber; wood red, clear-grained, heavy, and solid; much used for joisting and planking, and general building purposes, from Wellington southward. Its chief drawback is in being liable to decay under the influence of wet. It is largely used in the manufacture of furniture, the old wood being handsomely marked like rosewood, but of a lighter-brown hue. The juice of this pine is agreeable to drink, and was manufactured into spruce beer by Captain Cook. Grows throughout the North and Middle Islands, but is of best quality in the central district.
Dacrydium colensoi, Hook.
Manoao, Yellow-pine.—A very ornamental tree, 20ft. to 80ft. high. Wood light yellow. It is the most durable and strongest timber in Now Zealand. Posts of this wood have been in use among the Maoris for several hundred years. It is found in the North and Middle Islands at an altitude as great as 4,000ft. This tree is curious from having two kinds of leaves on the same branches. It is greatly valued for furniture.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don.
Tanekaha, Celery-leaved Pine.—A slender, handsome tree, 60ft. high; trunk rarely exceeds 3ft. in diameter; wood pale, close-grained, and excellent for planks and spars; resists decay in most positions in a remarkable manner. The bark is highly prized on account of its superior dyeing and tanning properties. It is one of the best vegetable dyes, especially for yellow, pink, and fawn colours. Grows in the North Island, especially in the hilly districts.
Phyllocladus alpinus, Hook.
Toatoa.—A small ornamental and densely-branched tree, sometimes 2ft. in diameter. Bark used for dyeing and making tar. Found in both North and Middle Islands.
Fagus menziesii, Hook.
Tawhai, Red-birch (from the colour of the bark).—A handsome tree, 80ft. to 100ft. high; trunk 2ft. to 3ft. in diameter. The timber is chiefly used in the Lake District in the Middle Island. Durable, and adapted for masts and oars, and for cabinet and coopers' work. Grows in the North Island on the mountain-tops, but abundant in the Middle Island at all altitudes to 3,000ft.
Fagus fusca, Hook.
Tawhai, Tawhairaunui, Black-birch of Auckland and Otago (from colour of bark), Red-birch of Wellington and Nelson (from colour of timber).—This is a noble tree, 60ft. to 90ft. high; the trunk 5ft. to 8ft. in diameter. The timber is excessively tough and bard to cut. It is highly valued in Nelson and Wellington as being both strong and durable for all purposes. It is found from Kaitaia in the North Island to Otago in the Middle Island, but is often locally absent from extensive districts, and grows at all heights up to 3,000ft.
Fagus solandri, Hook.
White-birch of Nelson and Otago (from colour of bark), Black-heart Birch of Wellington.—A lofty, beautiful evergreen tree, 100ft. high; trunk, 4ft. to 5ft. in diameter. The heart timber is darker than that of Fagus fusca, and is very durable. The wood is well adapted for fencing and bridge-piles, and the bark is useful as a tanning material. This tree occurs only in the southern part of the North Island, but is abundant in the Middle Island, at 3,000ft. to 5,000ft. altitude.
Leptospermum scoparium, Forst.
Kahikatoa, Tea-tree of Cook.—It is ornamental, and useful for fuel and fencing; generally a small shrub, but occasionally 20ft. in height in the South. Abundant throughout the Islands.
Leptospermum ericoides, A. Rich.
Manuka.—A slender tree, 10ft. to 80ft. high, highly ornamental, more especially when young. The timber can be had 28ft. to 30ft. long, and 14in. in diameter at the butt, and 10in. at the small end. The wood is hard and dark-coloured, largely used at present for fuel and fencing, axe-handles and sheaves of blocks, and formerly by the Natives for spears and paddles. The old timber, from its dark-coloured markings, might be used with advantage in cabinet-work, and its great durability might recommend it for many other purposes. Highly valued in Otago for jetty- and wharf-piles, as it resists the marine worm better than any other timber found in the district. It is extensively used for house-piles. The lightest-coloured wood, called “white manuka,” is considered the toughest, and forms an excellent substitute for the “hornbeam” in the cogs of large spur-wheels. It is abundant as a shrub, and is found usually on the poorest soils, but is rare as a tree in largo tracts to the exclusion of other trees.
Metrosideros lucida, Menzies.
Rata, Ironwood.—A very ornamental tree; attains a height of from 30ft. to 60ft., and a diameter of 2ft. to 10ft. The timber of this tree forms a valuable cabinet wood; it is of a dark-red colour; splits freely. It has been much used for knees and timbers in ship-building, and would probably answer well for cogs of spur-wheels. Grows rarely in the North Island, but is abundant in the Middle Island, especially on the West Coast.
Metrosideros robusta, A. Cunn.
Rata.—A tall erect tree, 50ft. to 60ft. high; diameter of trunk 4ft., but the descending roots often form a hollow stem 12ft. in diameter. Timber closely resembles the last-named species, and is equally dense and durable, while it can be obtained of much larger dimensions. It is used for ship-building, but for this purpose is inferior to the pohutukawa. On the tramways at the Thames it has been used for sleepers, which are perfectly sound after some years' use. Grows in the North Island; usually found in hilly situations from Cape Colville southwards.
Metrosideros tomentosa, A. Cunn.
Pohutukawa.—This tree has numerous massive arms; its height is from 30ft. to 60ft.; trunk, 2ft. to 4ft. in diameter. The timber is specially adapted for the purposes of the ship-builder, and has usually formed the framework of the numerous vessels built in the northern districts. Grows on rocky coasts, and is almost confined to the Provincial District of Auckland.
Dysoxylum spectabile, Hook.
Kohekohe.—A large forest-tree, about 40ft. to 50ft. high. Its leaves are bitter, and used to make a stomachic infusion; wood tough, but splits freely, and is considered durable as piles under sea-water. Grows in the North Island.
Eugenia maire, A. Cunn.
Mairetawhake.—A small tree about 40ft. high; trunk, 1ft. to 2ft. in diameter. Timber compact, heavy, and durable. Used for mooring-posts and jetty-piles on the Waikato, where it has stood well for many years. It is highly valued for fencing. Common on swampy land in the North Island.
Fuchsia excorticata, Linn.
Kotukutuku. The fruit is called Konini.—A small and ornamental tree 10ft. to 30ft. high; trunk sometimes 3ft. in diameter. It appears to furnish a durable timber. House-blocks of this wood, which had been in use in Dunedin for more than twenty years, were still sound and good. The wood might be used as dye-stuff, if rasped up and bled in the usual way, and, by mixing iron as a mordant, shades of purple may be produced even to a dense black, that makes good writing-ink. The juice is astringent and agreeable, and yields a medical extract. Its fruit is pleasant, and forms the principal food of the wood-pigeon. Grows throughout the islands.
Griselinia littoralis, Raoul.
Pukatea, Broadleaf.—An erect and thickly-branched bush-tree, 50ft. to 60ft. high; trunk, 3ft. to 10ft. in diameter. Wood splits freely, and is valuable for fencing and in ship-building; some portions make handsome veneers. Grows chiefly in the Middle Island and near the coasts.
Olearia avicenniœfolia, Hook.
Mingimingi, Yellow-wood.—An ornamental shrub-tree, flowers numerous; trunk, 2ft. in diameter. Wood close-grained, with yellow markings, which render it desirable for cabinet-work; good for veneers. Occurs in Middle Island.
An ornamental shrub-tree, 20ft. high and 2ft. in diameter. Wood close-grained, with yellow markings; useful for cabinet-work. Found in the mountainous region of the North Island and throughout the Middle Island.
An ornamental shrub-tree, 12ft. to 20ft. high, with very showy flowers. Found abundantly on west coast of Middle Island, and not uncommon in North Island.
Dracophyllum longifolium, Br.
Neinei.—An ornamental shrub-tree with long grassy leaves. Wood white, marked with satin-like specks, and is adapted for cabinet-work. Grows in Middle Island and in Auckland Group and Campbell Island; none of the Middle Island specimens are as large in the foliage as those in the Auckland Islands. The tree in the vicinity of Dunedin attains a diameter of 10in, to 12in.
Nesodaphne tarairi, Hook.
Tarairi.—A lofty forest-tree, 60ft. to 80ft. high, with stout branches. Wood white, splits freely, but not much valued. Grows in northern parts of North Island.
Nesodaphne tarairi, Hook.
Tawa.—A lofty forest-tree, 60ft. to 70ft. high, with slender branches. The wood is light and soft, and is much used for making butter-kegs. Grows in the northern parts of the Middle Island, and also on the North Island, chiefly on low alluvial grounds; is commonly found forming large forests on river-flats.
Atherosperma novœ-zealandiœ, Hook.
Pukatea.—Height, 150ft., with buttressed trunk 3ft. to 7ft. in diameter; the buttresses 15ft. thick at the base; wood soft and yellowish, used for small boat-planks. A variety of this tree has dark-coloured wood that is very lasting in water, and greatly prized by the Maoris for making canoes. Grows in the North Island, and northern parts of the Middle Island.
Knightia excelsa, Br.
Rewarewa.—A lofty slender tree, 100ft. high. Wood handsome, mottled red and brown; used for furniture and shingles, and for fencing, as it splits easily. It is a most valuable veneering wood. Common in the forests of the North Island, growing upon the hills in both rich and poor soils.
Drimys axillaris, Forst.
Horopito.—Pepper-tree, Winter's Bark.—A small slender evergreen tree, very handsome. Whole plant aromatic and stimulant; used by the Maoris for various diseases. Wood very ornamental in cabinet-work, making handsome veneers. Grows abundantly in forests throughout the islands. At altitudes of 1,000ft. the foliage becomes dense and reddish-coloured.
Drimys colorata, Raoul.
This is a very distinct species, very common near Dunedin; it is a very ornamental shrub-tree, with leaves blotched with red.
Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn.
Houhere, Ribbon-wood of Dunedin.—An ornamental shrub-tree, 10ft. to 30ft. high. Bark fibrous and used for cordage, and affords a demulcent drink. Wood splits freely for shingles, but is not durable. Grows abundantly throughout the islands. Bark used for making a tapa cloth by the Maoris in olden times.
Aristotelia racemosa, Hook.
Mako.—A small handsome tree, 6ft. to 20ft. high, quick-growing, with large racemes of reddish nodding flowers. Wood very light, and white in colour, and might be applied to the same purposes as the lime-tree in Britain; it makes good veneers.
Elœocarpus dentatus, Vahl.
Hinau.—A small tree, about 50ft. high, and 18in. thick in stem, with brown bark yielding a permanent blue-black dye, which is used for tanning; and by the Maoris for colouring mats and baskets. Wood a yellowish-brown colour and close-grained; very durable for fencing and piles. Common throughout the islands.
Dodonœa viscosa, Forst.
Ake.—A small tree 6ft. to 12ft. high. Wood very hard, variegated black and white, used for Maori clubs; abundant in dry woods and forests.
Alectryon excelsum, D.C.
Titoki.—A beautiful tree, with large panicles of reddish flowers. Trunk 15ft. to 20ft. high, and 12in. to 20in. in diameter. Wood has similar properties to ash, and is used for similar purposes. Its toughness makes if; valuable for wheels, coach-building, &c. The oil of the seeds was used for anointing the person. Grows in the North and Middle Islands; not uncommon in forests.
Coriaria ruscifolia, Linn.
Tupakihi, Tree Tutu.—A perennial shrub, 10ft. to 18ft. high; trunk 6in. to 8in. in diameter. The so-called berries (fleshy petals) vary very much in succulence, the less juicy bearing seeds which, according to Colenso, are not poisonous. The juice is purple, and affords a grateful beverage to the Maoris; and a wine, like elderberry wine, has been made from them. The seeds and leaves contain a poisonous alkaloid, and produce convulsions, delirium, and death, and are sometimes fatal to cattle and sheep. Abundant throughout the islands.
Sophora tetraptera, Aiton.
Kowhai.—A small or middling-sized tree. It has a splendid appearance, with large pendulous yellow flowers. Wood red; valuable for fencing, being highly durable; it is also adapted for cabinet-work. It is used for piles in bridges, wharves, &c. Abundant throughout the islands.
Carpodetus serratus, Forst.
Tawiri.—White Mapau, White-birch (of Auckland).—A small tree 10ft. to 30ft. high; trunk unusually slender; branches spreading in a fan-shaped manner, which makes it of very ornamental appearance; flower white, profusely produced. The wood is soft and tough, and might be used in the manufacture of handles for agricultural implements and axes. Grows in the North and Middle Islands; frequent by the banks of rivers.
Weinmannia racemosa, Forst.
Towhai, Kamahi.—A large tree; trunk 2ft. to 4ft. diameter and 50ft. high. Wood close-grained and heavy, but rather brittle; might be used for plane-making and other joiners' tools, block-cutting for paper and calico printing, besides various kinds of turnery and wood-engraving. The bark of this tree is largely used for tanning. The extract of the bark is chemically allied to the gum kino of commerce, their value being about equal. Grows in the middle and southern parts of the North Island and throughout the Middle Island.
Coprosma linariifolia, Hook.
Karamu.—An ornamental shrub-tree; wood close-grained and yellow; might be used for turnery. Grows in mountain localities of the North and Middle Islands. Several other species of this genus grow to a considerable size, and have ornamental timber. It has been proposed to use the berries of Coprosma baueriana as a substitute for coffee.
The following table gives the results of experiments, extending over a period of some years, made as to the strength of the principal timbers of the colony. The dimensions of the specimens experimented on were 1in. square and 12in. long:—
|No.||Native Names in Alphabetical Order.||Specific Gravity.||Weight of a Cubic Foot.||Greatest Weight carried with Unimpaired Elasticity.||Transverse Strength.|
|1||Hinau, or pokako (Elaocarpus dentatus)||0·562||33·03||94·0||125·0|
|2||Kahika, supposed white-pine||0·502||31·28||57·3||77·5|
|3||Kahikatea, white - pine (Podocarpus dacrydioides)||0·488||30·43||57·9||106·0|
|4||Kauri (Dammara australis)||0·623||38·96||97·0||165·5|
|5||Kawaka (Libocedrus doniana)||0·637||39·69||75·0||120·0|
|6||Kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile)||0·678||42·25||92·0||117·4|
|7||Kowhai (Sophora tetraptera, var. grandiflora)||0·884||55·11||98·0||207·5|
|8||Maire, black-maire (Olea cunninghamii)||1·159||72·29||193·0||314·2|
|9||Maire-tawhake (Eugenia maire)||0·790||49·24||106·0||179·7|
|10||Mako (Aristotelia racemosa)||0·593||33·62||62·0||122·0|
|11||Manoao (Dacrydium colensoi)||0·788||49·01||200·0||230·0|
|12||Mangi, or mangeao (Tetranthera calicaris)||0·621||38·70||109·0||137·8|
|13||Manuka (Leptospermum ericoides)||0·943||59·00||115·0||239·0|
|14||Mapau, red-mapau, or red-birch (Myrsine urvillei)||0·991||61·82||92·0||192·4|
|15||Matipo - tarata, black - mapau (Pittosporum tenuifolium)||0·955||60·14||125·0||243·0|
|16||Matai (Podocarpus spicata)||0·787||49·07||133·0||197·2|
|17||Miro (Podocarpus ferruginea)||0·658||40·79||103·0||190·0|
|18||Puriri (Vitex littoralis)||0·959||59·05||175·0||223·0|
|19||Rata, or iron - wood (Metrosoideros lucida)||1·045||65·13||93·0||196·0|
|20||Rewarewa (Knightia excelsa)||0·785||48·92||93·0||161·0|
|21||Rimu, red-pine (Dacrydium cupressinum)||0·563||36·94||92·8||140·2|
|22||Taraire (Nesodaphne taraire)||0·888||55·34||99·6||112·3|
|23||Tawa (Nesodaphne tawa)||0·761||47·45||142·4||205·5|
|24||Tawiri -kohu- kohu, or white-mapau (Carpodotus serratus)||0·822||51·24||80·0||177·6|
|25||Titoki (Alectryon excelsum)||0·916||57·10||116·0||248·0|
|26||Totara (Podocarpus totara)||0·559||35·17||77·0||133·6|
|27||Towai, red-birch (Fagus menziesii)||0·626||38·99||73·6||158·2|
|28||Towai, black-birch (Fagus fusca)||0·780||48·62||108·8||202·5|
|29||Whawhako (see also Maire) (Eugenia maire)||0·637||39·63||75·0||120·0|
|30||Whau (Entelea arborescens)||0·187||11·76||13·0||32·0|
The experiments were conducted in the following manner: A pressure of 50lb. was applied for two minutes (as measured by a sand-glass), and the sample was then released; 75lb. were then applied for the same time, and then 100lb., and so on, increasing by 25lb. each time. Each time the sample -was released the point on the deflection-scale to which it returned was read, and when it came to be notably under the original reading it was allowed to remain unloaded for two minutes, to see whether it would in time recover itself. Then the pressure was gradually increased, without being removed, until the specimen broke.
The New Zealand fungus known to commerce is found upon various kinds of decayed timber in the North Island, in what are called new bush settlements. It favours damp localities. After the trees have been cut down, and fire passed through them, the growth of fungus commences. The preparation consists of simply spreading the fungus out to dry. It is used by the Chinese for mixing with food, and for medicinal purposes.
In the year 1888, the export of this article reached 9,844cwt., valued at £19,201; and, in 1891, the figures were 7,934cwt., value £10,943.
The following table shows the quantities and values of timber (sawn and hewn) exported in 1871, 1881, and the last five years:—
|* In 1871 the export of logs, spars, shingles, &ca., amounted in value to £6,079.|
The saw-milling industry stands fourth in importance, estimated by the value of the output of the industries of the colony. The number of mills in the North Island in 1891 was 119, employing 1,990 hands. In the Middle Island there were 124 mills and 1,270 hands.
The total approximate value of the land was £160,750; of the buildings, £92,848; and of the machinery and plant, £246,674.
The details of this industry, showing the number of saw-mills and sash-and-door factories in operation in 1891, the number of hands employed and amount of horse-power in the various provincial districts of the colony, also the produce of the several districts, and the total value of all manufactures for the year 1890 is set forth in the following table:—
|Provincial Districts.||Number of Mills.||Hands employed.||Amount of Horse-power||Produce for the Year 1890.||Value of Undressed Timber resawn, &c., at Country-Mill Prices.||Value of other Materials used||Total Value of all Manufactures for the Year 1890.|
|Sawn Timber.||Value of Posts, Rails, &c.||Rosawing, Planed Flooring, Skirting, &c.||Moulding.||Doors and Sashes.|
The preparation of Phormium for export is an industry of New Zealand which has not made vast progress like that of wool, meat, and some other products, on account of the difficulty of constructing suitable machinery for its treatment. Its value was well known to the Maoris, it having been an article of export since 1809; and as early as in the years 1828-32, when New Zealand was only visited by whalers and Sydney traders, fifty thousand pounds' worth was sold in Sydney alone. In 1861 the increasing demand for white rope, and the limited quantity of manila, led to a rise in its value from £21 to £56 per ton, and even to £76 per ton in America during the late civil war. These high prices stimulated the endeavour to introduce Phormium fibre to compete with manila. But the greatest difficulty in its preparation has been to do away with the gummy or mucilaginous products found in the leaf.
The name Phormium tenax is derived from the Greek word phormos (a basket) and Latin tenax (strong). Sir James Hector, in Appendix I. to his work on the “Phormium Tenax as a Fibrous Plant” (1889), gives fifty-five different names as applied to the Phormium plant by the Maoris, but says it is doubtful if more than twenty marked varieties can be distinguished. The Phormium plant grows in bunches or groups of plants or shoots; each shoot has five leaves. Ten of these shoots go to a bunch on the average, or, in all, fifty leaves. These vary, according to the soil, from 5ft. to 10ft. in length, and each consists of a double-bladed leaf, which, when closed, is from 2in. to 4in. wide.
Select Committees have at various times been appointed by the General Assembly to consider all matters pertaining to the flax industry, and their reports have been published in the Journals of the House of Representatives, and have led to an increased trade in the industry. The latest of these reports was brought up on the 26th August, 1890. The Committee were much impressed with the rapid increase of the export of the New Zealand flax-fibre; and, notwithstanding the serious decline in prices—a decline which was equally shared by kindred fibres—manufacturers were not discouraged, but, on the contrary, were producing largely. Whilst the fibre as now exported is fit only for the manufacture of rope and twine, and for such purposes for which manila and sisal are used, the Committee was strongly of opinion that the New Zealand fibre is capable of greater possibilities; and, that steps might be taken to further the industry, they recommended that the Government should offer a bonus of £10,000 for—
A process of flax-dressing which will reduce the cost of production;
A process which will improve the quality of dressed fibre, making it suitable for textile purposes; and
A mode of utilising the waste products of the industry.
As a result of their investigations, the Committee urged that flax-owners should see that the flax is cut in such a manner as to leave the heart of the flax-fans uninjured, and that attention should be given to the planting and cultivation of the best varieties of flax, with a view to the production of fibre of superior quality. They found that the market price in London was prejudicially affected by the fact that the contents of a single bale, as well as the several bales of one consignment, often vary very widely; also, that, although the Phormium fibre is not liable to spontaneous combustion, dampness has the effect of rotting, or so seriously discolouring the fibre, as to render it almost valueless on reaching the Home market.
With all these drawbacks to the industry, which it is sought to overcome, the export is fluctuating, although the number of flax-mills in the colony has risen from 30 in 1886 to 177 at the census of 1891; the number of hands employed has also risen correspondingly from 249 to 3,204; and the approximate value of the manufacture, during the same period, from £43,094 to £234,266; but a large permanent development of this industry depends upon the invention of improvements in the machinery used that will result in lessening the cost of production and improving the quality of the fibre.
The export of Phormium for the years 1881 and 1887-91, with the quantities and values, was as follows:—
These are exporters' declared values, which would doubtless be higher than the value given by mill-proprietors, quoted above, in the figures showing the output.
Kauri-gum is formed of the turpentine that has exuded from the kauri tree, the finest and, for general purposes, the most useful forest-tree in New Zealand.
Thirty years ago the Maoris were the only people who employed themselves in searching for this gum, which at that time was to be found on, or cropping out of, the surface of the ground where, perhaps ages before, forests of kauri had stood. After a few years' exports this surface-gum became exhausted, and then the Maoris began to dig for the gum that was to be found within a few inches below the surface. As the uses for it increased, its market value rose, and presently Europeans betook themselves to digging for it, until, at the present time, it is estimated that there are probably as many as four thousand whites and a thousand Maoris engaged in the work in the Auckland Provincial District, where alone the gum is to be found. The best qualities are obtained from the undulating, open, fern land north of Auckland; but considerable quantities, although of inferior grade, are taken from the branches of standing kauri-trees in the forest, and, in the summer time, from the bottoms of many of the swamps.
The country on both sides of the Northern Wairoa River, of which the town of Dargaville is the centre, is the chief source of the supply of this commodity, the output of which has steadily increased over the last thirty years, notwithstanding that it is not being reproduced, except to a very inappreciable extent, in the existing forests, and these are being rapidly cut down now, because of the commercial value of the timber. The cause of the increased output is, of course, that a greater number of men are now engaged in gum-digging, attracted, doubtless, by the higher price paid for the gum, and by the comparatively easy and independent mode of life the occupation affords. Within a measurable period of time the production of this gum must cease; although competent persons estimate that it will take fifty years at least, at the present rate, to exhaust the gum-deposits in the Auckland District. It is a remarkable fact that new parties of diggers have been known to work over the same piece of ground year after year, and that the last to work it have obtained as much gum as the first. In some places gum-bearing land has been purchased from the Crown for settlement purposes, and the gum unearthed in ploughing it has sold for enough to pay the purchase-money of the land, and for ploughing, fencing, and sowing it as well.
The ordinary method of searching for the gum is by first feeling for it a little below the surface with a steel-pointed piece of iron about 1/2 in. in diameter and 4ft. long, called a “gum-spear,” and then digging it out with an ordinary spade. A skilful and industrious digger can earn as much as £3 to £4 per week at the work, and even children can make a few shillings a day at it. As, however, the gumfields offer a refuge for all sorts and conditions of men, many who are old and infirm resort to them, and so the average earnings of those engaged in the work is reduced to £1 15s. or £2 per week.
The gum is used principally in the manufacture of varnish, but it is found useful for many other purposes, such as dressing “glazed” calicoes, &c. The best quality, which is scarce, is worth as much as £8 to £10 per hundredweight, while the poorest quality is worth only about £1 per hundredweight, in London.
The following are the quantities and values of the exports in ten-year periods since 1853:—
This last is the highest value for any year. In 1888 the number of tons was the greatest—8,482; but the value—.£;380,933—was less than last year's.
There can be little doubt that as a field of labour New Zealand offers exceptional advantages. The average climate permits of work being done in the open air all the year round, and a large area of the country is fertile. The mineral wealth of the islands is almost inexhaustible, and the geographical position of the colony offers a commercial future of the highest promise. The dangers and hardships endured by the pioneer settlers in the early days are now almost forgotten; and, although there is much heavy work remaining to be done, still, in a country where the Natives are no longer troublesome, and where the lands are traversed by railway and telegraph lines, the settler will find his toil lighter and his reward more sure than that of his predecessors. For those wishing to become citizens of the colony and to secure a share of the success which has attended the efforts of many thousands of hard-working and now prosperous people, the following remarks are intended.
The conditions under which men labour in the country districts differ so much according to the individual training, means, and necessities of each person that it is difficult to give one all-round rule suitable for the requirements of each and every would-be settler. Some desire to see themselves at once masters of property, and owning house, farm, and stock; others are contented if they can only find plenty of employment as wages-men for others. The large majority look forward to some day holding their own farms (either as freehold or under a perpetual lease), and these only accept hire from their richer brothers as a temporary aid enabling them to lay by a store which will some day permit them to become settlers on their own account. They thus gain knowledge as well as pecuniary assistance; and it is a golden rule for a new arrival to guide himself by to endeavour to gain his experience by working for another person until the strangeness and novelty of life under altered conditions has worn off. In bush-farming especially everything must be so new to one coming from another country that he will find countless fresh sources of knowledge opening up everywhere. First, the wood-lore has to be learnt; the names of the trees, their usefulness for sawn timber or for fuel; or, on the other hand, their uselessness save for “burning off.” So, also, the handling of axe and bill-hook so as to avoid danger in under-scrubbing, felling, and clearing, is not learnt in a day, and requires time before anything like skill is developed. “Logging up” the great scorched logs on the burnt spaces, and sowing down the clearings with grass-seed follow the felling; and when the ground is sufficiently clear for the cattle to be able to wander among the stumps and logs, come the tasks of splitting posts and rails for fences, and then of selecting the stock. If the farm selected is in the fern land or open country so much technical knowledge and so much hard toil is not at first required, but in its place comes the use of plough and harrow. Lessons must be learnt concerning the seasons (with their antipodean changing of winter months for summer), and diligent exercise in acquiring local knowledge from neighbours. However well versed a farmer or a farmhand may be in the methods used in cultivating land in other countries, he will achieve little in this colony until he has made himself acquainted with a system fitted to the climate, soil, and markets of his colonial farm. The largest grain-producing districts are in the Middle Island, and a yield far above the average of land in the Old Country results, if we take into consideration the absence of high-farming, and that the soil is seldom treated with heavy dressings of manure. Much of the work on dairy-farms has been lessened by the establishment of factories for the manufacture of cheese and butter. They are generally owned by co-operative societies of the farmers supplying the milk, and these receive a certain agreed-upon price for each gallon of milk supplied, and divide the profits of the butter and cheese afterwards on the ratio of the individual milk-supply. These establishments are by degrees removing the work of butter- and cheese-making from the farmer's family; they will help to firmly establish a large and increasing export trade, and to make the market firm by equalizing and steadying the quality of the product.
To those whose proclivities tend towards a pastoral life, occupation as stockriders, shepherds, &c., on one of the large cattle- and sheep-runs common in the colony may be obtained. These runs in some cases comprise very rich country acquired in early days from the Natives, but such holdings are few. Generally, the runs consist of second-class or slightly-broken land, unfit for the purposes of agriculture; or, if not unfit, still not of so attractive a character as other properties still obtainable from the Crown or private persons. A run usually contains several thousands of acres, and as, very often, parts of it are mountainous, the work of mustering the cattle and sheep is full of excitement and sometimes of danger. The life for some months of the year is by no means a toilsome one, but this is made-up for by the long hours required and untiring activity to be displayed at other times. On a cattle-run the tasks of mustering and drafting the stock and branding the youngsters are very heavy work, needing the display of considerable powers of rough-riding among the horsemen; while on a sheep-run the lambing and shearing-seasons tax every power of the station-hands. A large number of men move about the country as shearing-time approaches, in the hope of being engaged as extra helpers; and these men are hard to wean from their nomadic life to more settled pursuits; but as their labour is almost a necessity at times, both to the sheep-farmer and the agriculturist (at harvest), it is difficult to see how their places could be supplied if their gipsy-life should be discontinued. To those who love the saddle and take interest in the care of animals station-life offers innumerable attractions, and if to this is added (after a due apprenticeship) the ownership of such property, then the hope of a pecuniary reward presents itself, of a value greater than the settler can hope to obtain in any other pursuit.
We will now consider the employment of labour in the country districts at occupations not strictly of a pastoral or agricultural character. First of these is work about saw-mills. Thousands of men are employed in the business of procuring sawn timber and forwarding it to the market. There is a difficulty in obtaining stone and brick for building purposes in localities far from towns; the materials being costly on account of the high wages of labourers, their actual weight, and the difficulty of transport. The place of these materials is generally supplied by the use of sawn timber, a product almost everywhere obtainable, through New Zealand's wealth of forest trees. In the far north many of the mills are worked for the kauri-pine logs. The trees being felled, the logs are rolled down into the streams, which, being dammed up by the timber, rise in times of heavy rain, until they break through in full flood, bearing their burden to the mouths of the rivers on whose banks the mills are erected, and where the logs are captured. In the south, rough tramways are laid down in the bush, and the logs hauled on low carriages to the mills by horse- or bullock-teams. Here the great round baulks of timber are “broken down” being cut lengthwise (by saws moving up and down vertically) into “flitches,” which are passed over to the circular-saws to be ripped into boards and scantling. All this entails, necessarily, a great variety of labour; first, the employment of gangs of men in the bush clearing roads, felling the trees, cross-cutting them into logs, and moving them out with screw-jacks to open points whence they can be shifted to the mill. The team-driving (or in the north, the rafting), the machine-tending, the handling and cartage of planks, &c., offer diversities of labour and degrees of wages suited to all ages of workers and stages of skill.
Next to the saw-mill work as to the number of hands employed comes the occupation of flax-milling. The New Zealand flax, or hemp, is the product of a plant peculiar to this country. When growing, it looks like a clump of broad green sword-like blades, each blade being 2in. or 3in. wide, and rising to 6ft. or 8ft. in height. The clumps stand close together, often covering large tracts of country, much of which is shallow swamp. Men are employed in cutting the leaves close to the ground and gathering them into bundles, which are then carried to the mill. This mill consists of cleaning and scutching machinery, which removes the green portion of the plant and produces the hemp in long white fibres, which are then tied into hanks, pressed into bales, and sent to Europe and America to be made into cordage and binder-twine. A great deal of the work performed about flax-mills is comparatively unskilled labour, although, of course, a certain knowledge of machinery and deftness of manipulation is necessary in working the actual mill itself. [There is a separate article on this subject.]
A very valuable source of revenue to New Zealand has been the fields of kauri-gum, mostly found to the north of Auckland. Kauri-gum is the product of the giant kauri-pine, a tree still found lifting its huge bulk on the hills of the North Island, but which was formerly widely spread over spaces which now are open country. This fact is known by the deposits of amber-like gum which in large masses is found beneath the soil. A wandering population follows the occupation of seeking for this deposit; and, as the gum-digger's outfit consists of a spear, a spade, and a sack, it is a pursuit to which men often turn when out of employment, without capital or other resources. With the spear the digger prods about in localities which seem to him to be probable hiding-places of his treasure, and on the “feel” of the brittle gum beneath the surface be quickly brings it to the light of day by means of his spade. Then the sack is brought into requisition, and the gum is carried to camp, to be scraped and cleaned by the light of the evening fire. It is a free, careless life, usually solitary, and often full of hardship, but having charms for those to whom regular hours and steady employment under the direction of others would be irksome. Nor is it without monetary reward: diggers often make from £2 to £4 a week each, and a man at this employment must be very idle or very stupid who cannot earn a fairly good living. [The value of this product is given in a special article.]
Of our mineral wealth and the large population employed in mining industries it is unnecessary here to speak, since in another portion of this publication the subject will receive attention. Suffice it to say that those to whom agricultural or pastoral life seems tame find in the direction of mining for minerals an outlet for their energies. The life is rough and hard, is full of danger and toil, but it is one which, when commenced, exerts a fascination whose spell is hard to break. A life on the plains or in cities offers little temptation to gold-miners, who, in the mountain air, work with intense energy all day, and at night he down to dream of the riches the hills and rivers could yield if they would disclose their secrets. Of course among gold-miners there are many who prefer a safe weekly -wage to the alternations of hope and disappointment, while among the coal-miners the great bulk of the workers are either wages-men or are on small contracts, whose steady yield almost takes the place of regular earnings.
To many, however, life in the country is hardly endurable. Early habits and training, or the gregarious instinct, induce them to prefer the busy crowded towns to the quiet farm or silent forest. To such at one period New Zealand could offer but small inducement; but with the rapid growth of her cities and encouragement shown to manufacturers a large population now derives its support from industries worked in urban localities. Not only are there numerous shops for the retail distribution of goods, offices and warehouses for the transfer and storage of merchandise, but factories and workshops are everywhere coming into existence, with their attendant workers busily engaged in their various duties. There are factories for the production of woollen goods, clothing, hats, boots, leather, saddlery, agricultural implements, carriages, bicycles, tinware, ironware, railway material, paper, glass soap, candles, cordage, casks, baskets, tinned meats, biscuits, confectionery, &c.; besides flour-mills, breweries, gasworks, freezing-works, foundries, dye-works, fellmongeries, and many other businesses by means of which advancing civilisation supplies the luxuries and necessities of a people.
Besides occupation for those working on the soil of the colony there is the possibility of earning a competency for those willing to gather the ever-renewed “harvest of the sea.” Every bay and harbour (besides many of the open roadsteads) are haunts of incalculable numbers of fish, almost all of which are fit for the table and many of them of great delicacy. They can be caught with little trouble, and without that terrible risk which fills with care and often with sorrow, the breasts of the wives and children of the fishermen who sail the stormy seas of Northern Europe. The fisher-life is followed by a considerable number of persons in New Zealand at the present time, but the work they do is but inconsiderable compared to that which awaits innumerable hands in the future. A few successful attempts have been made to commence the canning and preserving of fish, but the trade is in its infancy, and promises to be an almost unlimited source of profit to those willing to invest their energies and means in its development. As a general rule the fisheries are in the hands of a few poor men, and, as little capital is required for an outfit (a boat, a net, and a few lines), the life offers attractions and reward to any hard-working men.
With the desire of expediting and assisting the engagement of labour, and encouraging local industries, the Government has formed a department, under the direction of the Minister of Labour and administered by the Secretary. The central office is the Bureau of Industries, in the Government Building, Wellington. There is a bureau in each of the large towns, viz., in Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin, and these bureaux are under the charge of the Inspectors of Factories in these cities. In the country districts the police sergeants and local constables everywhere are agents of the Bureau, and send in regular reports as to the requirements of workmen and employers. A new-comer to New Zealand who wishes to ascertain the exact position of any particular occupation (as to wages, market, requirements, &c.) will do well to visit some office of this department and obtain the desired knowledge, which the Bureau agents and Inspectors of Factories will be glad to impart.
The subject of labour in the colony would be incomplete without some reference to the position of women's work. On the farms the wives and daughters of settlers find occupation in duties which present an unceasing round of service. These duties are in many cases now being lightened by the institution of dairy factories, which relieve the women of the task of butter-making; still, the housework, cooking, and washing for a family, if properly carried out prevent any idleness or ennui from visiting the household. The life on the whole is a happy one, blest by the buoyant health of those who live in the clear fresh air; and, except in the cases of the more solitary and isolated farms, there is plenty of visiting and flitting about—no population being so constantly on the wing as that of New Zealand, as is testified by the crowded trains and steamers which serve a people sparse and scattered as it at present is. Domestic service attracts few, and it is difficult to keep good female servants, as they marry as soon as their worth becomes known. In towns the tendency of the young women is to obtain work either in shops or factories, and they prefer the slightly higher wages and regular hours of commerce and manufacture to the obligations of domestic service. It is a preference which does not tend to fit them for the care of a home when they marry and have to provide for the comfort of husband and children; but the semi-independence, shorter hours, and better pay explain its attractiveness for the young; while the necessity for workers, if industries are to be carried on, renders their choice of a calling useful to the bulk of the community.
Having thus briefly spoken of labour for those likely to find employment, it will be well to warn those who are thinking of coming to the colony unprepared to work at any of the occupations mentioned. It is not the mere idler to whom the caution is addressed, for the idle person is as useless in Great Britain as in New Zealand; it is to those who are of diligent and industrious habits, but trained in some calling not required in the colony, and insusceptible of change. The clerk, the shopman, the highly-educated man without capital, will probably find that the openings for employment suitable to them have been already filled or that there are at any rate very many applicants. The chance of a new-comer obtaining a place as clerk or teacher is not great, seeing that he has to compete against sons of men of old standing and influence. It may be broadly stated that the town occupations (even mechanical) are sufficiently well supplied. If, on the other hand, there is a sturdy determination to be ready for any emergency, to rough it in the “bush,” on a farm, a station, a mill, or at any other undertaking which requires pluck and muscle to carry out, then the future need not be feared, but the worker may look forward confidently to the possession shortly of one of the many comfortable and pleasant homes with which New Zealand abounds.
The average rates of wages in each provincial district of the colony are shown in the table next following, and will be found to afford sufficient evidence of satisfactory remuneration for all classes of labour. There is also a table of prices of produce, live-stock, and provisions, which is worthy of attention, especially as regards the prices of meat and other necessaries of life:—
|AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES IN EACH PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OF NEW ZEALAND DURING THE YEAR 1891.|
|Description of Labour.||Auckland.||Taranaki.||Hawke's Bay.||Wellington.||Marlborough.||Nelson.||Westland (Goldfield)||Canterbury.||Otago (Part Goldfield).|
|1. AGRICULTURAL LABOUR|
|With board, per week||8/ to 20/||16/ to 20/||20/ to 25/||15/ to 20/||20/||20/||25/||20/||15/to 20/|
|Without board, per day||5/ to 6/||4/ to 7/||7/||6/6 to 7/||7/||6/||6/||7/||7/|
|With board, per week||12/ to 25/||20/ to 25/||20/ to 25/||15/ to 25/||25/||25/||30/||20/ to 22/6||20/ to 22/6|
|Without board, per day||5/ to 7/||6/ to 7/||7/||..||7/||7/6||7/||..||8/|
|With board, per week||15/ to 25/||48/ to 60/||20/to 25/||20/||30/||48/||40/||40/||40/ to 50/|
|Without board, per day||6/||8/ to 10/||7/||..||7/||9/||..||1/6 p. hour||8/ to 9/|
|With board, per week||15/ to 20/||48/ to 60/||20/ to 25/||20/||30/||60/||40/||50/||40/ to 50/|
|Without board, per day||6/||8/ to 10/||7/||..||8/||11/6||..||1/6 p. hour||8/ to 9/|
|With board, per week||10/ to 15/||40/ to 48/||20/ to 25/||20/||30/||42/||40/||40/||50/ to 60/|
|Without board, per day||6/||6/ to 8/||7/||..||7/||8/6||..||10/||7/ to 10/|
|2. PASTORAL LABOUR.||Per week.|
|Shepherds, with board, per annum||£26 to £52||25/p.week||25/ to 30/||£52 to £100||£60||£75||..||£75 to £80||£; 50 to £; 60|
|Stockkeepers, with board, per annum||£26 to £65||30 p. week||25/ to 30/||£52 to £75||£50||..||..||£50 to £55||£55 to £65|
|Hutkeepers, with board, per annum||£20 to £35||..||20/ to 25/||£1 p. week||£50||..||..||£35 to £40||£50|
|With board, per week||10/ to 15/||20/||20/ to 25/||20/||20/||25/||..||20/ to 25/||15/ to 20/|
|Without board, per day||..||..||..||..||6/||..||..||6/||..|
|With board, per day||8/||..||5/||20/ p. week||7/||..||..||8/||..|
|Without board, per day||10/||..||..||..||..||..||..||9/||7/ to 10/|
|Shearers, with board, per 100 sheep sheared||15/ to 17/6||17/6||17/6||17/6 to 20/||16/||16/8||..||20/||15/to 17/6|
|Men-cooks on stations, with board, per week||10/ to 25/||20/||20/ to 30/||20/ to 25/||25/||30/||..||20/ to 25/||20/ to 25/|
|3. ARTISAN LABOUR (per day, without board).|
|Masons||8/ to 9/||8/||12/||9/ to 12/||10/||12/||14/||10/||9/ to 12/|
|Plasterers||8/||8/||11/||9/ to 12/||12/||12/||14/||10/||9/ to 15/|
|Bricklayers||8/||8/||12/||9/ to 12/||10/||12/||14/||10/||11/ to 12/|
|Carpenters||7/ to 8/||7/ to 8/||9/||8/ to 10/||9/||9/||12/||8/ to 9/||8/ to 11/|
|Smiths||7/ to 10/||8/||10/to 11/||8/ to 12/||10/||11/||12/||8/||8/ to 12/|
|Wheelwrights||7/ to 8/||8/||10/||8/ to 10/||10/||10/||12/||9/||10/ to 12/|
|Shipwrights||8/||..||12/||10/ to 11/||10/||12/||12/||9/||12/ to 15/|
|Plumbers||6/ to 7/||8/||10/||8/ to 10/||9/||12/||12/||8/ 9/||9/ to 13/|
|Painters||6/ to 6/6||6/||9/||7/ to 10/||9/||9/||10/||8/||8/ to 10/|
|Saddlers||6/ to 7/||8||9/||10/*||10/||8/||10/||8/||8/to 10/|
|Shoemakers||6/ to 7/||6/||9/||8/6 to 10/*||8/||8/6||12/||8/||7/6 to 8/|
|Coopers||7/ to 7/6||6/||9/||8/6 to 10/||8/||10/||12/||8/||8/ to 12/|
|Watchmakers||7/ to 12/||8/||10/||10/||10/||10/||15/||8/||9/ to 12/|
|Married couples without family, with board, per annum||£52 to £75||£40 to £50||£70 to £80||£70 to £90||£70||£50||..||£70 to £75||£65 to £80|
|Married couples with family, with board, per annum||£50 to £70||..||..||£65||£60||£45||..||£60 to £70||£50 to £65|
|Grooms, with board, per week||15/ to 25/||20/ to 25/||25/||15/ to 25/||20/||20/||25/||25/ to 30/||15/ to 25/|
|With board, per week||10/ to 25/||20/||25/ to 30/||20/ to 25/||30/||20/||40/||30/||20/ to 30/|
|Without board, per day||6/||6/ to 8/||7/ to 9/||7/ to 9/||8/||..||10/||10/||7/ to 8/|
|Cooks, with board, per week||12/to 20/||10/ to 20/||15/ to 25/||15/ to 25/||20/||11/||25/||15/to 20/||15/ to 20/|
|Laundresses, with board, per week||12/ to 20/||15/||12/ to 15/||12/||12/||12/||20/||15/ to 20/||12/ to 15/|
|General house-servants, with board, per week||5/ to 10/||8/ to 12/6||10/ to 14/||10/ to 15/||10/||10/||15/||15/ to 18/||10/ to 12/|
|Housemaids, with board, per week||5/ to 10/||6/ to 12/6||10/ to 12/||10/ to 15/||10/||10/||15/||10/||10/ to 12/|
|Nursemaids, with board, per week||3/ to 7/||4/ to 9/||5/ to 8/||5/to 10/||7/||7/||10/||7/ to 8/||5/ to 8/|
|With board, per week||10/ to 15/||..||..||13/6||20/||15/||18/||20/||15/|
|Without board, per day||3/ to 4/||4/||2/6 to 4/||3/6 to 5/||3/||..||..||5/||3/to 4/|
|General labourers, without board, per day||5/ to 7/||6/ to 6/6||7/ to 8/||6/ to 8/||7/||7/||10/||6/ to 7||6/ to 7/|
|Stonebreakers, without board, per cubic yard||3/ to 3/6||4/||2/||3/ to 3/6||..||5/||..||3/6||3/6|
|Seamen, with board, per month||£5 to £8||..||£7||£7 to £8||£7||£8||£5 to £8||£7 to £8||£4 to £8|
|Miners, without hoard, per day||6/6 to 7/||8/||..||..||9/||9/||10/||12/||9/ to 10/|
|Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per day.||Per week.|
* £2 to £2 10s. per week.
* Mostly piecework.
† With board,
|Engine drivers, without board||8/||8/ to 9/||8/to 11/||6/to 11/6||11/||10/||12/||12/||9/ to 12/||60/|
40/ to 60/
|Tailors,||8/*||6/||10/||Per day. 10/||9/||9/||10/||8/||8/6 to 9/||50/ to 60/|
5/ to 8/
|3/||5/||5/||3/6||3/ to 4/||25/ to 30/|
|Dressmakers,||3/ to 4/||4/ to 5/||10/to 20/||15/ to 30/||3/||3/||3/||3/||3/||18/|
|Milliners,||4/ to 6/6||4/ to 5/||20/ to 35/||20/||8/||4/6||5/||3/||3/6 to 5/||20/|
|Machinists,||3/6||3/6 to 4/||20/ to 25/||20/ to 25/||5/||2/||5/||3/6||2/6 to 3/||18/|
|Storekeepers,||6/ to 7/||10/||Per week.|
|30/ to 60/||8/||Per week.|
60/ to 100/
|..||7/||50/ to 80/|
|Storekeepers' assistants,||5/ to 6/6||3/ to 8/6||..||18/ to 60/||7/||35/||40/ to 60/||7/||5/||20/ to 50/|
|Drapers' assistants||7/ to 7/6||3/ to 9/||Per week. 40/to 80/||30/ to 60/||8/||40/||60/ to 100/||8/6||5/ to 6/||40/ to 50/|
|Grocers' assistants,||6/ to 6/6||3/ to 9/||40/ to 65/||20/ to 60/||7/||40/||40/ to 60/||7/||5/||20/ to 50/|
|Butchers,||6/ to 7/||7/ to 8/||40/ to 50/||30/ to 60/||7/||40/||40/ to 60/||7/||7/||40/ to 60/|
|Bakers,||6/ to 7/||8/ to 8/6||40/ to 60/||30/ to 50/||8/||40/||40/ to 60/||7/||8/ to 9/||30/ to 35/†|
|Storemen,||6/to 7||5/ to 6/6||40/ to 60/||40/||8/||55/||60/to 70/||8/||9/||40/ to 50/|
|Compositors,||7/to 12/*||8/ to 9/||50/||30/ to 60/||10/||60/||60/ to 70/||10/||9/ to 10/||40/ to 70/|
|AVERAGE PRICES OF PRODUCE, LIVE-STOCK, PROVISIONS, ETC., IN EACH PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OF NEW ZEALAND DURING THE YEAR 1891.|
|Articles.||Auckland.||Taranaki.||Hawke's Bay.||Wellington.||Marlb'rough.||Nelson.||Westland (Goldfield).||Canterbury.||Otago (Part Goldfield).|
|I. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE.|
|Wheat per bushel||3/6 to 5/||3/9 to 5/||4/||4/3 to 4/9||4||4/||5/||4/6||4/6 to 5/|
|Barley per bushel||3/6||3/ to 3/6||2/6||2/9 to 3/3||3/||2/8||3/6||3/6||2/6 to 3/|
|Oats per bushel||2/4 to 2/9||2/ to 2/6||2/6||1/10 to 2/2||1/6||1/10||2/9||1/10||1/6 to 2/|
|Maize per bushel||2/4 to 4/||3/3 to 3/6||3/3||3/ to 4/6||5/||4/6||3/9||2/9 to 5/3|
|Bran per bushel||10d. to 1/6||1/ to 1/9||1/3||7d. to 1/||1/6||1/||1/2||7 1/2d.||9d. to 1/|
|Hay per ton||50/ to 72/6||35/to 60/||£3||60/ to 70/||£3||£3 10s.||£3||40/ to 70/|
|II. FLOUR AND BREAD.|
|Flour, wholesale per ton of 2,000lb.||£12 to £16||£30/ to 310/||£15||£12 to £14||£12||£11||£13 10s.||£13||240/ to 270/|
|Flour, retail||7/ to 8/||7/ to 8/6||8/||7/3 to 8/||7/6||7/||7/6||6/9||6/6 to 7/6|
|Bread per 41b. loaf||7d. to 8d.||7 1/2d.||7d.||7d. to 8d.||7d.||7d.||8d.||6d.||6d. to 7d.|
|III. LIVE-STOCK AND MEAT.|
|Horses, draught per head||£10 to £16||£17 to £20||£20 to £40||£20 to £30||£20||£30||£30||£12 to £23||£20 to £25|
|Horses, saddle and harness, per head||£5 to £14||120/ to 150/||£8 to £20||£10 to £25||£10||£10||£20||£3 to £12||£15 to £18|
|Cattle, fat per head||£4 to £5||£5 to £6||£5 5s.||110/ to 160/||£6||£7||£7 10s.||£5 to £9||£7 to £9|
|Cattle, milch cows per head||70/ to 80/||90/ to 95/||£3 to £6||£4 to £5||£7||£4||£8 10s.||£3 to £8||£3 to £7|
|Sheep, fat per head||14/ to 15/||11/ to 12/||10/6||10/ to 12/||10/||10/||18/||13/ to 16/||14/ to 15/|
|Lambs, fat per head||7/ to 12/6||8/6||8/||8/ to 9/||8/||9/||12/||10/ to 14/||8/ to 11/|
|Beef per lb.||4 1/2d. to 6d.||3d.||4d.||3d. to 5d.||4d.||5 1/2d.||6d.||5d.||4d. to 5d.|
|Mutton per lb.||3d. to 5d.||3d. to 3 1/2d.||3d.||2d. to 4 1/2 d.||3d.||4d.||6d.||3d.||3d. to 4d.|
|Veal per lb.||5d.||4d. to 4 1/2d.||4d.||4d. to 6d.||4d.||6d.||8d.||4d.||3d. to 5d.|
|Pork per lb.||4d. to 5d.||4d. to 5d.||5d.||4d. to 6d.||5d.||6d.||6d.||6d.||4d. to 6d.|
|Lamb per lb.||4d. to 5d.||4d. to 6d.||5d.||6d. to 7d.;3/ to 3/6 per qr||4 1/2d.||5d.||10d.||6d.||4d. to 5d.|
|IV. DAIRY PRODUCE.|
|Butter, fresh per lb.||6 1/2d. to 10d.||8 1/2d. to 9d.||1/3||9d.||6d.||8d.||1/6||10d.||8d. to 1/1|
|Butter, salt per lb.||5d. to 8d.||6d. to 8d.||10d.||7d.||6d.||6d.||1/3||8d.||6d. to 10d.|
|Cheese, colonial per lb.||5d. to 8d.||4 1/2d. to 7d.||6d.||6d. to 7d.||4d.||7d.||9d.||5d.||5d. to 7d.|
|Cheese, imported per lb.||1/||7d.||9d.||10d. to 1/3||6d.||1/||1/||8d. to 1/|
|Milk per quart||3d. to 6d.||3d.||3d.||3d.||3d.||4d.||8d.||3d.||2 1/2d. to 4d.|
|V. FARM-YARD PRODUCE.|
|Geece per pair||7/ to 9/||4/6||8/||6/ to 11/||5/||3/||10/||6||8/ to 10/|
|Ducks per pair||3/ to 4/6||3/6||5/||4/ to 5/6||4/||4/||6/||4/|