REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF NEW ZEALAND, 1889.


Table of Contents

INDEX.
1. REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF NEW ZEALAND, 1889.
INTRODUCTORY.
DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT.
BOUNDARIES AND AREA OF THE COLONY.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
POPULATION AND VITAL STATISTICS.
POPULATION.
THE NATIVE RACE.
VITAL STATISTICS.
BIRTH-RATES.
PROPORTION OF ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS IN EVERY 100 BIRTHS.
MARRIAGES IN EVERY 1,000 OF THE POPULATION.
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER 1 YEAR OF AGE TO EVERY 100 BIRTHS.
DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER 1 YEAR OF AGE TO EVERY 100 BIRTHS.
DEATHS FROM PHTHISIS.
DEATHS FROM CANCER IN EVERY 10,000 PERSONS LIVING OF EACH SEX IN NEW ZEALAND.
TRADE AND INTERCHANGE.
SHIPPING.
VESSELS INWARDS.
VESSELS OUTWARDS.
SAILING-VESSELS.
STEAM-VESSELS.
VESSELS ENTERED.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
EXPORTS OF NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.
RE-EXPORTS.
EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM OF HOME PRODUCTIONS IN 1889 to—
POSTAL AND ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
SAN FRANCISCO SERVICE.
DIRECT STEAM SERVICE, NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING COMPANY.
PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL AND ORIENT LINES SERVICES.
WAGES.
FINANCE, ACCUMULATION, AND PRODUCTION.
FINANCE.
GROSS PRIVATE WEALTH.
ACCUMULATION.
PRODUCTION.
SYSTEMS OF DISPOSAL OF CROWN LANDS UNDER THE EXISTING LAND ACTS.
LAW, CRIME, AND EDUCATION.
LAW AND CRIME.
EEDUCATION.
MISCELLANEOUS.
DEFENCE AND POLICE.
FIRE BRIGADES.
LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES.
A. APPENDICES.
APPENDIX A.DATES OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF NEW ZEALAND.
APPENDIX B.
CUSTOMS AND EXCISE DUTIES OF NEW ZEALAND, INCLUDING COMMISSIONER'S DECISIONS.
EXCISE DUTIES.
APPENDIX C. THE THERMAL-SPRINGS DISTRICT OF NEW ZEALAND and the GOVERNMENT SANATORIUM AT ROTORUA.
WRITTEN FOR AN APPENDIX TO THE REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF NEW ZEALAND FOR THE YEAR 1889, BY A. GINDERS, M.D., ETC., MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT.
2.

INDEX.

Ages of Parties to Marriage 44
Ages of Population 20
Ages Males, at Militia 21
Ages Reproductive, Women at, New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom 22
Ages Supporting and Dependent Population, Proportions at, New Zealand, Australia, England 21
Agricultural, Pastoral and Dairy Produce 123, 124
Agricultural, Statistics (see Cultivation) 116
Alcohol, Consumption of 130
Alcohol, Consumption of Nine Years 82
Aliens, Naturalisation of 30
Appendix A. Dates of Principal Events 155
Appendix B. Customs and Excise Duties, with Commissioners’ Decisions to 31st December, 1890 167
Appendix C. Report on Thermal Springs District by Dr. Ginders 213
Area of Australasian Colonies (each) 7
Area compared with European Countries 8
Area of New Zealand 6
Area of New Zealand North, Middle, Stewart, and other Islands 6
Area of United Kingdom compared with New Zealand 8
Arrivals (see Immigration).
Arrivals and Departures (see Immigration and Emigration).
Asylums, Benevolent 68
Asylums, Lunatic 68
Asylums, Orphan 68
Australasian Statistics (see broadsheet).

Bankruptcy 128
Bankruptcy Realisation of Assets 128
Banks of Issue, Assets and Liabilities 111
Banks of Advances and Discounts 111
Banks of Deposits 111
Banks of Notes in Circulation, &c. 111
Banks of Deposits in all Classes of 112
Banks of Savings, Private 112
Banks of Savings, Private Deposits, Withdrawals 112
Banks of Savings, Post-office 112
Banks of Savings, Post-office, Deposits, Withdrawals, Open Accounts, Amounts to Credit 112
Barley, Cultivation of 121
Barley, Export of 88
Beer, Consumption of, per Head 81
Benevolent Asylums and Orphanages 68
Birth-places of Population 18
Birth-rate, Ten Years 33
Birth-rate, Causes of Decline 34
Birth-rate, compared with United Kingdom 34
Birth-rate, compared Australasian Colonies 34
Birth-rate, Decline of 34
Births 33-37
Births Excess of, over Deaths for Ten Years 16
Births Illegitimate 16
Births Illegitimate in Australian Colonies, Ten Years 36
Births Numbers Born in each Sex 36
Births registered, Ten Years 33
Births Registration of 16
Births Registration of Limit of Time for 16, 34
Births Twins 36
Boroughs, Expenditure of 147
Boroughs, Indebtedness of 147
Boroughs, Principal, Population of 23, 24
Boroughs, Revenue of 147
Boroughs, Value of Rateable Property 147
Boundaries of New Zealand 5
Breadstuffs, Consumption of, in various Countries and Colonies 120
Building Societies 112
Building Societies Amounts deposited with 112
Building Societies Income, Assets, Liabilities, Reserve Funds 112
Butter 89
Butter Export of 86,89
Butter Export of to United Kingdom, Five Years 89

Cattle 122
Causes of Death 54,66
Causes of Death Accident 65
Causes of Death Cancer 63
Causes of Death Cancer Increase in Deaths by 63
Causes of Death Cancer Rate from New Zealand, England 63
Causes of Death Circulatory System 64
Causes of Death Childbirth 65
Causes of Death Diarrhœal Diseases 57
Causes of Death Diarrhœal Diseases Rate varying with Temperature 58
Causes of Death Dietetic Diseases 59
Causes of Death Diphtheria 56
Causes of Death Diphtheria Death-rates in Provincial Districts 57
Causes of Death Nervous Diseases 64
Causes of Death Phthisis 60
Causes of Death Phthisis Ages and Length of Residence in Colony of Persons Causes of Death Phthisis dying from 61
Causes of Death Phthisis Deaths from, increased by Introduction of Phthisical Persons 60
Causes of Death Phthisis Deaths from, in Proportion to New Zealand born 62
Causes of Death Phthisis Deaths from, at various Ages 62
Causes of Death Phthisis Rates from New Zealand, Australia, and England 60
Causes of Death Phthisis Principal Zymotic Diseases 56
Causes of Death Phthisis Respiratory Organs 65
Causes of Death Phthisis Small-pox 56
Causes of Death Phthisis Specific Febrile or Zymotic Diseases 56
Causes of Death Phthisis Suicide 66
Causes of Death Phthisis Typhoid or Enteric Fever 59
Causes of Death Phthisis Typhoid or Enteric Fever, Rates from, England, New Zealand, and Australia 59
Causes of Death Phthisis Violence 65
Census, Summary of Results (see broadsheet).
Charitable-aid 66,68
Charitable-aid Boards 68
Cheese 89
Cheese, Export of 86
Chinese 14
Chinese Immigration and Emigration of 25
Chinese Poll-tax on 25
Cities (see Boroughs).
Clothing, Imported 80
Coal, Description of, in New Zealand 124,125
Coal, Import and Export 124
Coal, Output of 124
Conjugal Condition of People 23
Consolidated Stock Act 103
Consolidated Stock Act Creations under, equal to Increase of Sinking Fund 103
Constitution and Government 5
Coroners’ Inquests 139
Costley Training Institution 70
Counties (see Local Bodies).
Courts, all kinds, Total Civil Cases 128
Courts, Bankruptcy 128
Courts, Civil Cases, Supreme and District 127
Courts, District, Indictments before 130
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Civil Cases 128
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Charges for Offences before 129
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Charges and Convictions, Ten Years, with Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Proportion to Population 131
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Committals 130
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Decrease in Charges and Convictions before 130
Courts, Resident Magistrates’, Summary Convictions before 129
Courts, Supreme, Indictments before 130
Courts, Supreme, and District, Decrease in Convictions 131
Courts, Supreme, Divorce and Separation 128
Crime (see Courts and Offences).
Crown and Native Lands, Value of Rateable 146
Crown Lands, Alienated 113
Crown Lands, Systems of Disposal 114
Crown Lands (see Lands).
Cultivation, Barley 121
Cultivation, Extent of Land in 117
Cultivation, Holdings over 1 acre, occupied 117
Cultivation, Holdings to every 100 Adult Males 117
Cultivation, Hops 121
Cultivation, Land in sown Grasses 122
Cultivation, Land under Grain Crops in Provincial Districts 118
Cultivation, Oats 120
Cultivation, Oats in Australian Colonies 120
Cultivation, Orchards 122
Cultivation, Potatoes 121
Cultivation, Tobacco 121
Cultivation, Turnips 121
Cultivation, Wheat 118
Cultivation, Wheat in Australian Colonies 118
Customs and Excise Duties Tariff 167
Customs Duties, Revenue from Imports for Ten Years 100
Customs Duties, Revenue from Imports for Australasian Colonies 101
Customs Primage Duty, 1888-89 101

Dairy Factory Companies 113
Dairy Produce, Export of 86, 89
Dairy Produce, Value of 123
Deaf-mutes, Institution for 144
Death-rate, 1880-89, New Zealand 47
Death-rate, 1880-89, various Countries and Colonies 47
Death-rate, Affected by Proportions Living at different Age-periods 47
Death-rate, Adjusted 47
Death-rate, Adjusted New Zealand and Australian compared with England 49
Death-rate, Adjusted Rule to find 48
Death-rate, at Age-periods, New Zealand, Australia, and England 51
Death-rate, Infantile, in Chief Towns 54
Death-rate, of Children, under Five Years 38, 51
Death-rate, of Children, under Five Years Australia and England 38
Death-rate, of Infants 54
Death-rate, of Infants Australasian Colonies 54
Death-rate, of Sexes at Age-periods 52
Deaths 46, 66
Deaths Amount left by each Deceased Person 107
Deaths Average Age at 53
Deaths Causes of (see causes).
Deaths Excess of Male Births met by high Mortality among Male Infants 53
Deaths in Hospital 67
Deaths of Persons over Seventy-five Years of Age 52
Deaths Sexes of Deceased Persons 51
Debt, General Government (see Public Debt).
Debt, of Local Bodies 108
Defence, Permanent Militia 149
Defence, Police 149, 150
Defence, Volunteers 150
Defence, Fire Brigades 150
Deferred-payment Lands, Receipts from 102
Deferred-payment Lands, Disposal of 114
Departures (see Immigration and Emigration).
District Courts, Civil Cases 127
Divorce and Separation 128
Divorce New Zealand, Australia, and England 129
Drunkenness 130
Drainage Board, Revenue 149

Education (see Schools).
Education Boards, Income of 143
Education Boards, Expenditure of 144
Education University 141
Electorates 31
Electric Telegraph 98
Emigration (see Immigration and Emigration).
Excise Duties 212
Expenditure, Boroughs 147
Expenditure, Charges of Public Debt 103
Expenditure, Counties 146
Expenditure, General Government 103
Expenditure, Life Assurance Companies 151
Expenditure, on Education 103
Expenditure, on Railways 105
Expenditure, on Railways, Government, Working 109
Expenditure, on Reproductive Public Works 105
Expenditure, out of Loan by General Government 103
Expenditure, out of Loan by General Government on certain Public Works 104
Expenditure, out of Revenue and out of Loan 103
Exports 84, 96
Exports and Imports, Total Value of 91
Exports from United Kingdom to various Countries and Colonies 95
Exports of Butter to United Kingdom, Five Years 89
Exports of Coal 124
Exports of Dairy Produce 89
Exports of Frozen Meat 86, 88
Exports of Frozen Meat Quantity and Value, Eight Years 89
Exports of Gold 87
Exports of Grain 88
Exports of Grass-seed 86
Exports of Home Produce from New Zealand, Victoria, and New South Wales, compared 84, 93
Exports of Home Produce per Head, 1875-79 and 1885-89 84
Exports of Home Produce per Head, for each of Australasian Colonies 93
Exports of Phormium, Growth of 85, 89
Exports Re-exports, exclusive of Specie 85
Exports Re-exports, of New South Wales compared with New Zealand 85
Exports Value of, from different Ports, 1888-89 90
Exports Value of, Principal Articles, 1888-89 86
Exports Value of, Principal Articles of New Zealand Produce, 1875 to 1889 85
Exports Value of, Re-export Trade 85
Exports Wool, Exported, Ten Year 87
Exports Wool, Increase in Quantity and Value of 87

Factories 126,127
Finance 100,110
Fire Brigades 150
Fire Inquests 139
Friendly Societies (Lodges, &c., Assets, Receipts, Sick and Funeral Funds, Expenditure, Sick Pay, Funeral Donations, Management Expenses) 113
Frozen Meat Industry 88
Frozen Meat Export of 86
Frozen Meat Export of Eight Years, Quantity and Value 89
Frozen Meat Increase of Trade encourages Settlement 88

Gaols—Ages, Birthplaces, and Religions of Distinct Prisoners 133, 134, 136
Gaols Ages and Offences of New-Zealand-born Prisoners 136, 137
Gaols Convicted Prisoners, Decline of, in Proportion to Population 133
Gaols First Offenders treated under Probation Act 135
Gaols First Offenders Ages of 135
Gaols Imprisonment of Distinct Persons, Comparison for Five Years 132
Gaols Offences for which Imprisonments 132
Gaols Persons repeatedly imprisoned in Year 133
Gaols Persons sent to, on account of Infirmity only 133
Gaols Prisoners received in 132
Gaols Prisoners received not counting Readmissions 132
Gaols Proportions of Prisoners at each Age-period 138
Gaols Proportions of Sexes amongst Convicted Prisoners 138
Glaciers in Middle Island 11
Gold Exported 87
Gold Produced 87,88
Gold Produced New Zealand second in Importance of Australasian Colonies 88
Government (see Constitution).
Government, Representation, Australian Colonies, United Kingdom, &c. 30
Government, General Assembly of New Zealand 30
Government, Native Members 30
Government, Reduction of Electorates 31
Grain grown in each Provincial District 118
Grain exported 88
Grain (see also Cultivation).
Grazing-runs, Small 103,116
Grass Sown, Extent of 122
Grass-seed, Export of 86

Harbours, North Island 11
Harbours, Boards’ Revenue 149
Hops, Cultivated 121
Horses 122
Hospitals, Accommodation in 67
Hospitals, Admission to 67
Hospitals, Contributions by Local Bodies raised by Rates 66
Hospitals, Deaths in 67
Hospitals, Functions of District Boards 66
Hospitals, Incorporated 67
Hospitals, Outdoor Relief 67
Hospitals, Revenues of Boards, how Raised 66
Hot Springs (see Thermal Springs).
House of Representatives 30

Illegitimacy 36
Illegitimacy in Australasian Colonies 36
Immigration and Emigration 24,29
Immigration and Emigration Assisted and Unassisted Immigrants, Ten Years 27
Immigration and Emigration each Australian Colony 29
Immigration and Emigration England and Australasian Colonies, Ten Years 29
Immigration and Emigration Excess of Immigration 25,26
Immigration and Emigration Excess of Immigration Ten Years 17
Immigration and Emigration Excess of Departures in 1888 17
Immigration and Emigration Excess of Departures on Reduction of Expenditure Immigration and Emigration in Loan Money 27
Immigration and Emigration from United Kingdom, Australian Colonies, and other Places 26
Immigration and Emigration Gain by net Immigration in Ten Years 27
Immigration and Emigration Increase of Population by 17
Immigration and Emigration Nominated Immigrants, and Terms for 24
Immigration and Emigration of Chinese 25
Immigration and Emigration Poll-tax on Chinese 25
Immigration and Emigration Proportion of Emigrants from England to Australia coming to New Zealand 28
Imports and Exports, Total Value of 91
Imports and Exports, for Ten Years 91
Imports and Exports, of Coal 124
Imports 78,94
Imports Beer, Spirits, and Wine, Consumption of 82
Imports for Provincial Districts, Increase or Decrease of 83
Imports from different Countries, 1888-89 83
Imports from India, 1888-89 93
Imports from United Kingdom to Australasia 94
Imports from United States, Nine Years 92
Imports of Beer 81
Imports of Coal 124
Imports of Spirits 81
Imports of Wine 81
Imports per Head of Population, Ten Years 91
Imports, Principal Articles, in groups, 1887-88-89 79
Imports, Principal Articles, Clothing, &c 80
Imports, Sugar and Tea, per Head of Population 80
Imports, Sugar and Tea, Consumption of 81
Imports, Tobacco, Consumption of 82
Imports, Value of 78
Imports, Value of Deducting Specie 78
for Eight Years 78
Imports, Value of per Head of Population, Australian Colonies 93
Indebtedness, Foreign Unsecured, how to arrive at Amount of 106
Indebtedness, of Boroughs 147
Indebtedness, of Local Bodies 108
Indebtedness, of Local Bodies for Ten Years 145
Indebtedness, to Persons outside Colony 106
Industrial Schools 70,139
Industrial Schools Committed Children at 70
Industrial Schools Committed Children at Religious Denominations of 70
Industrial Schools Cost of 144
Industrial Schools Costley Training Institution in connection with 70
Industries, Various 126, 127
Inquests, Coroners’, on Bodies 139
Inquests, on Fires 139
Insanity (see Lunatic Asylums).
Iron, Machinery, &c., Imported 79
Islands, Description of the Antipodes 6
Islands, Description of Auckland 6
Islands, Description of Bounty 6
Islands, Description of Campbell 6
Islands, Description of Chatham 13
Islands, Description of Kermadec 7,14
Islands, Description of Middle 11
Islands, Description of North 8
Islands, Description of Stewart 13

Joint-Stock Companies 113

Kauri Gum exported 86

Lakes 10,12
Land alienated from Foundation of Colony 114
Land disposed of on Agricultural Lease 115
Land disposed on Homestead System 115
Land disposed on Perpetual Lease 116
Land disposed on Perpetual Lease Revenue from 103
Land disposed as Pastoral Runs 116
Land disposed as Pastoral Runs Revenue from 103
Land disposed as Small Grazing Runs 116
Land disposed as Small Grazing Runs Revenue from 103
Land disposed without Sale 113
Land fit for Agriculture and Pasture 9-14
Land Quality of 9-14
Land sold on Deferred Payments 115
Land sold on Deferred Payments Revenue from 102
Land sold for Cash 113,114
Land sold for Cash Revenue from 102
Land Village-settlements, sold on Deferred-payments and for Cash 116
Land Crown, Methods of Disposal of, by (1) Cash, (2) Deferred-payment, (3) Lease, (4) Homestead, (5) Agricultural Lease on Goldfields, (6) Small Grazing-runs, (7) Pastoral Runs 114
Law and Crime 127
Legislative Council 30
Letters 96
Letters Post-cards, Parcels, and Newspapers per Head 96
Life Assurance Companies 150
Life Assurance Decrease of Insurances effected 151
Life Assurance Expenditure of Companies 151
Life Assurance Expenses of Companies per cent. of Revenue 152
Life Assurance Expenses of Management 152
Life Assurance Insurances effected in 1889 150
Life Assurance Management Expenses of Companies 152
Life Assurance Policies Discontinued 151
Life Assurance Policies Outstanding, end of 1889 151
Life Assurance Policies Surrendered or Lapsed 151
Life Assurance Policies Transferred 151
Life Assurance Revenues of Companies 151
Live Stock 122
Live Stock Export of 86
Live Stock in Australasian Colonies 123
Loans, General Government (see Public Debt).
Loans, Local Bodies, Annual Charge on 146
Loans, Local Bodies, Outstanding at various Interest 146
Local Bodies, Expenditure of Boroughs 147
Local Bodies, Expenditure of Counties 146
Local Bodies, Indebtedness 109
Local Bodies, Indebtedness of Boroughs 147
Local Bodies, Indebtedness Ten Years 145
Local Bodies, Outstanding Loans, Annual Charge on 146
Local Bodies, Outstanding Loans, at Various Rates of Interest 146
Local Bodies, Property in Town Districts 147
Local Bodies, Rates Collected in Ten Years 145
Local Bodies, Revenue of 145
Local Bodies, Revenue of Boroughs 147
Local Bodies, Revenue of Counties 146
Local Bodies, Revenue of Drainage Boards 149
Local Bodies, Revenue of Harbour Boards 149
Local Bodies, Revenue of River Boards 149
Local Bodies, Revenue of Road Boards 149
Local Bodies, Revenue of Town Boards 148
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Crown and Native Lands 146
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Property, Three Years 148
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Property, Capitalising Annual Values 148
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Property in Boroughs 147
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Property in Road Districts 147
Local Bodies, Value of all Rateable Property Outlying Road Districts 146
Local Bodies, Taxation by 149
Lunatic Asylums 68-70
Lunatic Asylums Chinese Inmates 70
Lunatic Asylums Proportion of Lunatics Recovered 69
Lunatic Asylums Proportion of Lunatics to Population 69
Lunatic Asylums Proportion of Lunatics in Australian Colonies 69

Mail Services, Cost of, England and New Zealand 97
Manufactories 126, 127
Manufactures, Value of 124,126, 127
Maoris 31-33
Maoris Charges and Convictions, all Courts 131
Maoris Marriage between 42
Maoris need not register Births and Deaths 14
Maoris Offences, charged with 129,131
Maoris, Paucity of Numbers at earlier Ages 32
Maoris, Population 31
Maoris, Decrease of, and Cause 31,32
Maoris, their part in Government 33
Maoris, they Contribute towards Taxation 33
Maoris, Prisoners in Gaol 132
Maoris, Schools for 139,140,143
Marriage, Ages at which Sexes may contract 45
Marriage, Ages at which Sexes may contract in various Countries 45
Marriage, Average Age of each Sex at 45
Marriage, Age of Parties to 44
Marriage, between Maoris 42
Marriage, by Registrars 42
Marriage, Brides and Bridegrooms under Twenty-one Years 46
Marriage, Children to & 37
Marriage, Children to & Decrease in 37
Marriage, Children to & in European Countries 38
Marriage, Children living to each 39
Marriage, Children living to each in France 39
Marriage, Children surviving Fifth Year of Age, New Zealand, Australia, and England 39
Marriage, Conditions of Parties to 42
Marriage, Forms of 42
Marriage, in different Quarters of Year 41
Marriage, of Minors, Consent necessary for 44
Marriage, of Minors, England and New Zealand compared 46
Marriage, Proportions of each Denomination 43
Marriage, Rate, New Zealand and Australian Colonies, Ten Years 40
Marriage, Rate, New Zealand the lowest 40
Marriage, Rate, considered as an Index to Prosperity 40
Marriage, Rate, New Zealand lower than England 41
Marriage, Rate, in European Countries 41
Marriage, Signatures by Mark 43
Marriage, solemnised by various Religious Denominations 42
Memorabilia 155
Meteorology 71
Middle Island, Description of 11
Militia, Permanent 149
Mills 126,127
Mining and other Produce 124
Money Orders 97
Mountains 10,11

Native race (see Maoris).
Naturalisation of Aliens 30
New Zealand, Abolition of Provincial Governments in 5
New Zealand, Area of 6
New Zealand, Arrival of Missionaries in 3
New Zealand, Boundaries of 5
New Zealand, Captain Cook's Visits to 2
New Zealand, Coast-line of 8
New Zealand, Colonisation of 3
New Zealand, Colony divided into Six Provinces 5
New Zealand, County Government in 5
New Zealand, Discovery of 1
New Zealand, General Assembly of 5
New Zealand, Lieutenant Hanson's Visit to 3
New Zealand, Made a separate Colony 4
New Zealand, Map of (after title).
New Zealand, Middle Island of, Description of 11
New Zealand, New Zealand Company 3
New Zealand, North Island of, Description of 8
New Zealand, Provincial Governments abolished in 5
New Zealand, Representative Government granted in 5
New Zealand, Settlement at Port Nicholson 4
New Zealand, Settlement at Otago 4
New Zealand, Settlement at Canterbury 4
New Zealand, Settlement at Nelson 4
New Zealand, Settlement at New Plymouth 4
New Zealand, Sovereignty of Queen proclaimed 4
New Zealand, Surville and Marion du Fresne's Visit 2
New Zealand, Tasman's Visit 2
New Zealand, Treaty of Waitangi 4

Oat Crop of Australasian Colonies 120
Oats, Cultivation of 120
Oats, Export of 88
Offences against Person and Property 130
Offences against Persons and Property, Convictions for Five Years, with Proportions to Population, in all Courts 131
Offences Assault, Five Years 130
Offences Charges for, before Resident Magistrates’ Courts 129,131
Offences Committals for 130
Offences Decrease in 130
Offences Drunkenness, Five Years 130
Offences Larceny, Five Years 130
Offences less Numerous in New Zealand than in Principal Australian Colonies 131
Offences Maoris charged with 129,131
Offences Maoris Convicted before Supreme and District Courts 131
Offences Maoris Summarily Convicted 129,131
Offences Summary Convictions for 129
Oil, Mineral 125
Orchards 122
Orphanages 68,139

Parliament of New Zealand 30,31
Pastoral and Dairy Produce 123
Pastoral Leases, Operations under 116
Pastoral Leases, Receipts from 103
Permanent Militia 149
Perpetual Leases, Description of 115
Perpetual Leases, Operations under 116
Perpetual Leases, Receipts from 103
Petroleum Oil 125
Phormium, Export of 85,89
Phormium, Falling Price 89
Phormium, Mills 90
Physical Features of New Zealand 9
Police 149
Population, 1889 14
Population, at Age-periods 22
Population, at Census 1886 15
Population, at Supporting and Dependent Ages 21
Population, Birthplaces of 18
Population, Chinese 14
Population, Conjugal Condition of 23
Population, Different Islands 15
Population, Females at Reproductive Ages 22
Population, in Principal Towns and Suburbs 23
Population, Males at Militia Age 21
Population, Maoris 14,31
Population, Maoris Ages of 32
Population, Maoris Ages of Decrease of, and Cause 31
Population, Natural Increase of 16
Population, of Australasian Colonies, 1889 18
Population, Proportions of Persons at Age-periods, New Zealand, Australia, and England 21
Population, Proportions of the Sexes in New Zealand and Australian Colonies 18
Population, Religious Denominations 19
Post Office 96
Post Office Average Time in which Mails delivered 98
Post Office Increase of Correspondence 96
Post Office Letters posted, per Head of Population 96
Post Office Post-cards 96
Post Office Books and Parcels 96
Post Office Newspapers 96
Post Office Money Orders 97
Post Office Mail Services, England and New Zealand, Cost of 97
Post Office Savings Banks 97,112
Potatoes, Cultivation of 121
Potatoes, Export of 86
Primage Duty, 1888-89 101
Prisoners (see Gaols).
Probation Act, First Offenders treated under 135
Produce, Agricultural, Pastoral, and Dairy 123,124
Produce, Mining, Manufacturing, &c. 124
Produce, Total estimated, of Colony 124
Property-tax 100
Public Debt 104
Public Debt Charges of 103
Public Debt Net Indebtednes 104
Public Debt of Australasian Colonies 108
Public Debt old Provincial Loans 104
Public Debt Sinking Fund accrued 104
Public Debt Sinking Fund Increase of Stock created for 103

Railways, Australasian Colonies, Miles of, in 110
Railways, Government, Goods and Live-stock carried 109
Railways, Government, Length and Cost 109
Railways, Government, Particulars of Revenue from 110
Railways, Government, Passengers 109
Railways, Government, Profit on Working 110
Railways, Government, Revenue and Expenditure 109
Railways, Government, Train miles 109
Railways, Private 110
Railways, Private Cost of Construction, Revenue, and Working 110
Rainfall 71
Rateable Property, Value of, in Boroughs 147
Rateable Property, Value of, in Colony, capitalised 148
Rateable Property, Value of, in Colony for Three Years 148
Rateable Property, Value of, in Road Districts 147
Rateable Property, Value of, in Town Districts 147
Rateable Property, Value of, in Outlying 146
Rates, collected by Local Bodies, Ten Years 145
Religious Denominations 19
Representation, Australian Colonies, United Kingdom, France, and United States 31
Representation, Electorates reduced in Number 31
Representation, New Zealand, European 30
Representation, New Zealand, Maori 30
Resident Magistrates’ Courts, Civil Cases 128
Revenue from Customs Duties on Imports for Australian Colonies, Ten Years 101
Revenue from Customs Duties on Imports for Ten Years 100
Revenue from Government Railways 109
Revenue from Primage Duty (1888-89) 101
Revenue from Property-tax 100
Revenue General Government (Ordinary and Territorial) 100
Revenue General and Local Government 104
Revenue of Boroughs 147
Revenue of Counties 146
Revenue of Drainage Boards 149
Revenue of Harbour Boards 149
Revenue of Life Assurance Companies 151
Revenue of Local Bodies 104,145
Revenue of River Boards 149
Revenue of Road Boards 149
Revenue of Town Boards 148
Revenue Territorial (see Lands) 102
Rivers 10,13
River Boards, Revenue 149
Road Boards, Revenue 149
Road Boards, Value of Rateable Property 147

Sanatorium at Rotorua. Appendix C 213
Savings Banks, Post-office 112
Savings Banks, Private 112
Schools, Children under Fifteen leaving Public 143
Schools, Costley Training Institution 70
Schools, Expenditure of Education Boards 144
Schools, Income of Education Boards 143
Schools, Industrial 70,139
Schools, Industrial Cost of 144
Schools, Institution for Deaf-mutes 144
Schools, Maori Children attending 143
Schools, Native, Village, &c. 139,143
Schools, Native, Village, &c. Expenditure on 144
Schools, Numbers in Attendance 140
Schools, Orphan 139
Schools, Private 139
Schools, Private Number, Attendance 141
Schools, Proportion of Children, Seven to Fifteen, not accounted for 143
Schools, Public 139
Schools, Public Attendance at 140
Schools, Public Subjects of Instruction 140
Schools, Public Teachers at 140
Schools, Public The System 139
Schools, Roman Catholic 141
Schools, Superior, High, Grammar, &c. 139,140
Schools, Total Children receiving Education at 142
Schools, Total Children receiving Education at Ages Five to Fifteen 142
Sheep 122
Shipping 72,78
Shipping Average Size of Vessels 72
Shipping Coastwise, Vessels and Tonnage 77
Shipping Crews 73
Shipping Entered and Cleared, with Cargoes and in Ballast, 1888-89 75
Shipping Foreign, entered, for Three Years 75
Shipping, Increase of, in 1889 74
Shipping, Inwards and Outwards, Ten Years 72
Shipping, Nationality of Vessels 73
Shipping, Registered Vessels, Sailing and Steam 78
Shipping, Sailing and Steam, entered and cleared, comparison of 1888-89 74
Shipping, Size and Crews, Sailing and Steam Vessels 74
Sinking Fund (see Public Debt).
Small-pox 56
Sounds of Middle Island 11
Sown Grasses, Extent of 122
Sown Grasses, New Zealand, compared with Australia 122
Spirits, Consumption per Head 81
Spirits, Consumption per Head Nine Years 82
Statistical Summary of New Zealand, 1840-52 (see broadsheet).
Statistical Summary of New Zealand, 1853-89 (see broadsheet).
Sugar, Consumption of 81
Supreme Court, Civil Cases 127

Tariff of New Zealand. Appendix B. 167
Taxation by General Government 101
Taxation by General Government Rate of, including Maoris 102
Taxation by General Government Property-tax 100,101
Taxation by Local Bodies 149
Taxation per Head in New Zealand, including and excluding Maoris 102
Taxation per Head in Australasian Colonies 102
Tea, Consumption of 81
Telegraph 98
Telephone Exchanges 99
Temperature 71
Thermal Springs District 10
Thermal Springs Area of District 214
Thermal Springs Climate of 213
Thermal Springs Diseases successfully treated at 218,223
Thermal Springs Dr. Ginders’ Report on. Appendix C 213
Thermal Springs Hospital at 215
Thermal Springs Physical Features of District 214
Thermal Springs Principal Baths at 215
Thermal Springs Rotorua Sanitorium 215,223
Thermal Springs The Route to 224
Thermal Springs Varieties of Mineral Waters 214
Timber Exported 86
Tobacco, Consumption of 82
Tobacco, Cultivation of 121
Town Districts (see Local Bodies).
Towns, Principal, and Suburbs 23
Trade 72,96
Trade (see Imports).
Trade (see Exports).
Trade Australasian, Probable vast Expansion of 96
Trade Importance of Australasian Colonies as Markets for Great Britain 95
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of 91
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of Atlantic and Pacific Ports of United Trade New Zealand, Total Value of States, Nineteen Years 92
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of per Head, Population, Ten Years 91
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of with United Kingdom 91
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of with Australia 91
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of with United States 92
Trade New Zealand, Total Value of with India 92
Trade of Australasian Colonies, Value of 93
Trade of Australasian Colonies with United Kingdom 94
Trade of United Kingdom, Proportion of, belonging to New Zealand 94
Trade Shipping (see Shipping).
Trade Total of Australasia with United Kingdom 94
Turnips, Cultivation of 121
Twins 36
Twins Australasian Colonies 36

University of New Zealand 141

Value of Produce 123
Vaccination 56
Vaccination Inattention to 56
Volunteers 150
Vessels (see Shipping).

Wages, Rates of 99
Wealth, Private, by Property-tax Returns 105
Wealth, Private, by Property-tax Returns understated 106
Wealth, Private, Calculated from Probate Returns 107
Wealth, Private, New South Wales and Victoria 108
Wheat, Consumption of, in New Zealand 119
Wheat, Crops of, Australasian Colonies 118
Wheat, Cultivation 118
Wheat, Export of 88
Widows and Widowers 23
Wind 72
Wine, Consumption of, per Head 81
Wine, Consumption of, per Head Nine Years 82
Women, at Reproductive Ages 22
Women, Married, Fertility of 34,35
Wool, Exported 87
Wool, Increase in Production of, Ten Years 87
Wool, used at Local Mills 87
Woollen Manufactures Exported 86

Chapter 1. REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF NEW ZEALAND, 1889.

INTRODUCTORY.

DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT.

THE first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, a Dutch navigator. He sailed from Batavia on the 11th August, 1612, in the yacht “ Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius and discovered Tasmania, named by him “ Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he sailed in an easterly direction, and on the 13th December of that year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “ a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

It has been assumed as probable that the first European who visited New Zealand was Juan Fernandez, who, having started from one of the ports of the west coast of South America in 1576, after sailing for about a month in a south-westerly direction, reached a land described by him as fertile and pleasant, and inhabited by a race of white people, well made, and dressed in a species of woven cloth. But people of brown complexions were often described as white by the Spaniards; and, although there is no direct evidence that the land so discovered was New Zealand, yet no other seems to answer his description. It appears, however, certain that the country was visited before the date of Tasman's arrival in 1642, as the land he came to was shown in the Dutch chart used by him, and was named thereon “ Zeland Nova,” William Bleau, a Dutchman, who died in 1638, having published an atlas in which indistinctly a line of coast is shown with the name against it, “ Zelandia Nova.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw formed part of a great Polar continent, and was part of that country (subsequently found to be an island) discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand. Within about three months after this date Schouten's “ Staaten Land “ was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country which Tasman had called by the same name received instead that of “New Zealand”—an evident restoration of the name previously given — by which name it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Then he sailed along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the Islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot on the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until that of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in a southerly direction in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, and on the 8th of that month east anchor in Poverty Bay. After having circumnavigated the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—the latter having been considered as part of the Middle Island—he sailed from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He again visited New Zealand in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “ Saint Jean Baptiste,” being on a voyage of discovery, sighted the north-east coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. Another visit was shortly after paid by a French officer, a M. Marion du Fresne, Who arrived on the west coast of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was treacherously murdered by the Natives on the 12th June following.

In 1793 the “ Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the Islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand— Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners to Mr. Marsden. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked, in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814, and returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815. It was not until 1821 that the work of evangelisation was put on a somewhat permanent basis; but the first station, established by Mr. Leigh, a Wesleyan missionary, and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo-Wangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.

The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of numerous whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased the land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the Town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A treaty called “ The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, by which all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, it was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Auckland, round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company, having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “ Nelson “ was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site, which resulted in the establishment of the settlement at the head of Blind Bay. About the same time a settlement was commenced at New Plymouth, by the arrival, on the 31st March, 1841, of a body of immigrants despatched by the New Plymouth Company, a colonisation company that had been formed in England, and had purchased 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, in March, 1848, of two ship containing immigrants, despatched by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement in that part of the colony by persons who belonged to or were in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “ Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the settlement of the adjoining country was commenced in a systematic manner, the intention having been to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the United Church of England and Ireland.

The government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Imperial Government; but in 1852 an Act was passed by the Imperial Legislature which granted representative institutions to the colony. The colony was thereby divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The Act also provided for the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony, consisting of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but Responsible Government had not then been granted, the members of the Executive not being responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856.

The Provincial Governments remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into operation.

BOUNDARIES AND AREA OF THE COLONY.

The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude:—

On the north34°30’south latitude.
On the south47°10’south, latitude.
On the east179°0’east longitude.
On the west166°5’east longitude.

These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23, 1863, the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude, and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—

1. The Island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,580 acres.

2. The Island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres.

3. The South or Stewart Island, and adjacent islands, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west; the area being 210,650 acres.

6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33’ south, and longitude 169° 8’ west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a southeasterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in nearly an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

9. The Kermadec Islands, a group of which the largest is called Sunday or Raoul Island, lie about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Sunday Island is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macauley Island, about 3 miles in circumference. Area of the group, 8,144 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

The areas of the various Australian Colonies as given by different authorities differ considerably. Mr. Hayter, in his “ Victorian Year-book,” gives the total area of the Australian Continent at 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but in the case of each colony except Victoria the area computed by Mr. Skene differs from that given in the official records of that colony, the difference in the case of “Western Australia amounting to over 84,000 square miles. The following areas are therefore taken from the official records of each colony:—

 Square Miles.
Queensland668,497
New South Wales310,700
Victoria87,884
South Australia903,690
Western Australia1,060,000
          Total Continent of Australia3,030,771
Tasmania26,375
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471
          Total Australasia3,161,617

The size of these colonies may be better realised by the Australia and comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—amounting on the whole to less than 1,600,000 square miles, are little more than half the area of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total area would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than that of the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand. The area of the Colony of New Zealand is a little more than one-seventh less than the area of the United Kingdom and Ireland, that of the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
Scotland30,463
Ireland32,531
         Total121,305
New ZealandArea in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438
         Total104,471

PHYSICAL FEATURES.

The Colony of New Zealand chiefly consists of the three Islands, the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, extending over nearly thirteen degrees of latitude, and having a coast-line amounting to 4,330 miles in length—namely, North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which extends over more than three I degrees of latitude, takes a north-westerly direction, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the Island, is about 515 statute miles.

This Island is as a whole hilly, and even in parts mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country, available, either now or in the future, when cleared of forest, for agricultural purposes. Of these the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast extending from a point about 30 miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth, which is about 250 miles distant from Wellington. The largest in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a large portion is covered with pumice-sand, and is at present only suitable for wild horses, of which a considerable number live and breed there. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this Island suitable for or capable of being made fit for agriculture has been estimated roughly at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that are capable of drainage; but there is a not insignificant quantity of this land that, from the nature of the soil—being pure or nearly pure clay—or from being covered with pumice, cannot be expected to be profitably worked.

The larger portion of this Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of forest-covered land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed being than sown on the ashes to create pasture-land. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, and wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be, grasses will flourish. Very little of the land is consequently incapable of supplying food for cattle and sheep when treated as above or otherwise laid down to grass. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, being too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the Island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way from the extreme points, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, rising to the south of the lake, flows through it and out of its north-eastern point, and trends thence in a north-westerly direction until it flows into the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about 100 miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from the Europeans, lies to the west of Lake Taupo, and is bounded on the west by the sea.

The River Thames, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable only for small steamers about 50 miles. The other navigable rivers in this Island are the Wanganui and Manawatu, which flow in a south-westerly direction into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed from 1,500ft. to 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few isolated volcanic mountains that are more lofty, one of which, Tongariro (6,500ft.), is still occasionally active. Ruapehu (9,100ft.) and Mount Egmont (8,300ft.) are extinct volcanoes that reach above the limit of perpetual snow. The latter is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most extensive and fertile districts in the colony. The two former are situated south of Lake Taupo and towards the centre of the Island. It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts in the North Island to 300,000 acres.

The Hot Springs District is situated about 40 miles in a north-north-east direction from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana on the occasion of the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the district has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country —the lakes, geysers, and hot springs (the number of which is very great), some of which possess remarkable curative properties for certain complaints—still afford considerable attraction for tourists and invalids.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in this Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours not suitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour—several excellent harbours in the northern peninsula and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a land-locked harbour about 6 miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is about 16 miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about 90. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony, and is constantly traversed by vessels of the magnificent line of coastal steamers that trades in the New Zealand waters.

The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Point Jackson, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point in Otago (the southern) District being about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a mountainous range known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, attaining an altitude of 12,349ft. There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of great beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-sides, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level and into the midst of the evergreen New Zealand forest-vegetation.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the mountains abutting on the south-western coast from the sea. The are long, narrow, some of them having very great depth water, and are surrounded by snow-capped mountains rising precipitously to 5,000ft. and 10,000ft. above the sea. The scenery is sublime.

The general surface of the northern portion of this Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valley and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting a Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strain of about 40 statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the Island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending in a south-westerly direction for 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district; the harbour of Akaroa, considered one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The southern district of Otago is on the whole mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for agricultural purposes. The mountains, except towards the, west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and are suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The interior, lakes are very important features in Otago. The largest, Wakatipu, extends over 54 miles in length, but is not more than 4 miles at its greatest width. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and chiefly wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in the Otago District are those of Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

Generally the District of Westland extends along the west coast of the Middle Island abreast of the Canterbury District. This district is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains out clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line, but on the eastern timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they become of considerable size, and their beds, when not confined by rocky walls, extend over considerable areas, chiefly covered, when the rivers are not in flood, by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the Island and in the colony is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about 30 miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a very short distance from their mouths. They constitute the only ports in the Westland District.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island that may be suitable for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,600,000 acres are suitable for pastoral purposes, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 8,000,000 acres.

Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last Island has an area of only 425,390 acres. It is mountainous in character, and chiefly covered with forest.

The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute Miles east-south-east from Wellington and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal Islands and several unimportant islets. The largest Island contains about 222,490 acres, of which a large and irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with open fern and grass. The hills nowhere rise-to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size. The area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is occupied as sheep-runs.

The only island in any way suitable for settlement in the Kermadec Group is Sunday Island, containing 7,800 acres It rises to a height of 1,720ft., and the surface is chiefly covered with wood and scrub. The other islands are men rocks.

The largest of the Auckland Islands, about 27 miles lone by about 15 miles broad, is very mountainous, the highest part being 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the cast coast has several inlets, and: good harbour both at the north and south ends. There in a good deal of scrubby wood on the island. Neither this nor the rest of the outlying islands of the colony are suitable for settlement.

POPULATION AND VITAL STATISTICS.

POPULATION.

The population of the colony on the 31st December, 1889, was estimated to be as follows:—

 Males.Females.Total.
Population (other than Maoris)331,771288,508620,279
Maoris, as at census of 188622,84019,12941,969
354,611307,637662,246

Of the above numbers, 1,567 males and 18 females were Chinese.

As it is not incumbent on the members of the Native race to register their births and deaths, no means are afforded for making annual estimates of the number then living; so that for each year between the dates of the various censuses it is necessary to reproduce the number of the Natives ascertained in the previous census year, in default of better information, although for years subsequent to the census that number may not be quite correct. The census of the Natives is not taken with the exactitude of a census of the rest of the population, but, as very full and detailed returns were obtained in 1886 from the various Native officers of the numbers and ages of the Natives on their several districts, the numbers ascertained in that year are deemed to have a considerable approach to accuracy.

The rest of the population is periodically estimated by adding the excess of births over deaths, and the excess of immigration over emigration, to the numbers ascertained at the previous census.

The population of the colony according to the census returns obtained in 1886 was as follows :—

 Males.FemalesTotal.
Population (other than Maoris or Chinese)307,694266,246573,940
Chinese4,527154,542
                Total exclusive of Maoris312,221266,201578,482
Maoris22,84019,12041,909
                Total population335,001285,390620,451

Omitting the births and deaths of Maoris, the natural increase of population by excess of births over deaths between the 28th March, 1886, and the 31st December, 1889, amounted to 49,125.

During the same period the excess of emigration over immigration amounted to 7,330, the number of persons who arrived having amounted to 54,383, and the number who left to 61,713.

The following is the estimate of the population of the North Island, of the Middle and Stewart Islands, and also of the Chatham Islands, on the 31st December, 1889:—

North Island and adjacent islets, exclusive of Maoris270,300
Maoris (as in 1886)39,717
                        Total North Island310,017
Middle Island, Stewart Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)349,761
Maoris (as in 1886)2,057
                        Total Middle and Stewart Islands351,818
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Maoris)218
Natives (as in 1880)195
                        Total Chatham Islands413
                        Total for the colony662,248

This estimate has been made on the known natural increase, and the distribution of immigration and emigration proportionally according to population, but no account has been, or can be, taken of the movements of the population within the colony; and it is believed that the results of the census to be taken in 1891 will show a considerable departure from the proportions the numbers now given bear to each other.

The population at the end of 1889 was greater than that at the end of 1888 by 12,899, or only 214 more than the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, the increase by excess of arrivals over departures having been greater th only 214.

There is good reason to believe that very few of th births that take place among the population of European descent are not registered. A special Act was passed 1882 to permit of the registration of unregistered births that had occurred in the colony at any time prior to twelve months before the passing of the Act. Only 87 births were registered under that Act. In 1884 a similar Act was passed—only 41 registrations followed. In 1889 another similar Act was passed, and the registrations thereunder have been only 181. The dates of most of these births extend back many years. If, therefore, the numbers are to be taken as at all an approximate index of unregistered births, registration at the present time would appear to be carried out almost as completely as could be expected.

The number of births in excess of the number of deaths in each of the past ten years was as follows:—

1,88013,904
1,88113,241
1,88213,308
1,88313,341
1,88414,106
1,88513,612
1,88613,164
1,88712,998
1,88813,194
1,88912,685

Thus, in ten years the natural increase of population, apart from increases by excess of immigration, amounted to 133,553 persons, or at the rate of 28.8 per cent. on the population at the end of 1879. That the rate of natural increase has not been very materially affected in consequence of the arrivals of females into the colony is evident from the numbers given, the excess of births over deaths being even less in the later than in the earlier years. If the colony has to rely for growth upon its natural increase alone, it would take twenty years at the above rate for the number of the population to exceed 1,000,000.

In each year but one of the history of the colony the number of persons who arrived has been apparently greater than the number who left. The known exception was in 1888, when 9,175 more persons left than arrived. There may, however, have been other exceptional years, as according to the census of 1886 the population was less than that estimated by 7,194 persons, that number representing the increased loss by emigration since the census of 1881. It is, however, believed that the practice now adopted of obtaining from the pursers of the intercolonial steamers a statement on their return to the colony of the outward-bound passengers will prevent in future the recurrence of any serious discrepancy between the numbers of the estimated and actual population.

The following figures give the increase by excess of immigration over emigration in the past ten years:—

 Excess of Immigration.Excess of Emigration.
1880, increase7,231
1881, increase1,616
1882, increase3,489
1883, increase10,029
1884, increase9,321
1885, increase4,504
1886, increase1,064
1887, increase977
1888, decrease 9,175
1889, increase214
                Total of net increase,29,270 

This net increase represents a gain to the colony of 15,851 males and 13,419 females, or, taking the ages as at the time of arrival, of 13,967 males and 11,890 females over 12 years of age—adults in terms of the Passenger Act, and 3,413 children of both sexes under 12 years of age.

The estimated populations (exclusive of aborigines of Australia) of the Australasian Colonies on the 31st December, 1889, was as follows:—

 Males.Females.Total.
Queensland235,607171,051406,658
New South Wales618,300503,9001,122,200
Victoria593,798524,2301,118,028
South Australia163,277155,889319,166
Western Australia25,06618,63243,698
        Total Australia1,636,0481,373,7023,009,750
Tasmania80,81170,661151,472
New Zealand—
European and Chinese331,771288,508620,279
Maoris22,84019,12941,969
        Total Australasia2,071,4701,752,0003,823,470

Excluding the Maori population, the females in the colony were on the 31st December, 1889, in the proportion of 87.00 to every 100 males, against 86.92 in 1888 and 85.90 in 1887. The reason for the small increase in the proportion in 1889 was that 451 more females left the colony than arrived. The increase of the younger members of the population in nearly equal proportions tends to cause a steady yearly increase in the proportion of females to males (unless any abnormal disturbance is caused by excessive emigration), until the numbers of the two sexes are about equal.

There is an excess of males over females in all the Australasian Colonies. The following were the proportions in 1888 and 1889:—

 Females to every 100 Males.
 1888.1889.
Queensland71.8172.60
New South Wales81.2381.50
Victoria87.6488.28
South Australia93.9595.48
Western Australia73.5874.33
Tasmania87.3087.44
New Zealand86.9287.00

The following table gives the birthplaces of the people according to the census returns of 1886:—

Where born.Males.Females.Total.Persons, Proportions per cent.
British possessions—
    New Zealand150,513149,677300,19051.89
    Australian Colonies8,5028,74317,2452.98
    England and Wales73,60854,030127,63822.06
    Scotland31,75223,05854,8109.48
    Ireland27,93223,47651,4088.89
    Other British possessions2,3441,6093,9530.68
Foreign countries
    Germany3,2551,7525,0070.86
    Denmark and possessions1,4177612,1780.38
    Sweden and Norway2,1446332,7770.48
    France and possessions5512357860.14
    China4,532184,5500.79
    Other countries3,3951,1924,5870.79
    At sea and not specified2,2761,0773,3530.58
              Totals312,221266,261578,482100.00

In 1886 more than one-half of the population (51.89) per cent.) were born in the colony. In 1881 the proportion was 45.60 per cent.

The following table gives a summary of the results of the census of 1886 regarding the religions of the people, also the proportion of each denomination at each of the four last censuses:—

Principal Denomination.Number of Adherents in 1886.Proportions per Cenc. of Population.
1874.1878.1881.1886.
Church of England and Protestants undefined232,36942.4542.5541.5040.17
Presbyterians130,64324.1922.9523.0822.59
Wesleyan Methodists45,1647.597.798.077.81
Other Methodists10,1280.821.351.461.74
Baptists14,3572.122.212.342.48
Congregational Independents7,7871.821.341.371.35
Lutherans5,9171.311.361.181.02
Salvation Army5,276.........0.91
Society of Friends2820.050.040.050.05
Unitarians4660.120.110.100.08
Other Protestants8,9510.901.081.261.55
Roman Catholics and Catholics undefined80,66713.4814.2114.0813.94
Greek Church480.010.020.010.01
Jews1,5590.410.340.310.27
Pagans4,4721.591.051.010.77
Other denominations6190.080.050.110.10
No denomination6,0460.430.530.891.05
No religion9730.050.050.060.17
Not described2,8690.320.420.270.50
Object to state19,8892.262.552.853.44
                  Totals578,482100.00100.00100.00100.00

The ascertained Protestants in New Zealand in 1886 amounted to 79.75 per cent, of the whole population. This, however, may be deemed to be considerably below the real proportion, as the persons who object to state their belief are generally Protestants of various denominations, having objections to being compelled to give the information.

The proportion of Roman Catholics is much greater in Australia than in New Zealand. At the census of 1881 it was 27.63 per cent, in New South Wales, 25.47 per cent, in Queensland, 23.60 per cent, in Victoria, and 15.23 per cent, in South Australia.

Information as to the ages of the people is only obtained when a census is taken.

The following shows the number of males and females at each of the age-periods stated, and the proportion of persons at each age-period to the 100 of population at all ages, at the last census:—

Ages.Males.Females.Total Persons.Proportion of Persons at each Age-period to every 100 Total Population.
Under 5 years43,82043,00886,82815.01
5 and under 10 years42,52441,79184,31514.58
10 and under 15 years34,06533,32067,38511.65
15 and under 21 years34,30935,27269,58112.03
21 and under 40 years86,02869,464155,49226.88
40 and under 55 years50,83030,89181,72114.13
55 and under 65 years12,8577,57920,4363.53
65 and upwards6,0034,43010,4331.80
Unspecified1,7855062,2910.39
            Totals312,221266,261578,482100.00

Of the proportion of unspecified persons, 0.37 consisted of those evidently over 21 years of age. Thus, of the total population (exclusive of Maoris) 53.26 per cent, were under 21 years of age. Dealing with the sexes separately, 57.64 per cent, of the females were under 21, but only 49.57 per cent, of the males were under 21. At each year of age under 15, except at the years 1 to 2 and 12 to 13, the males were more numerous than the females; but between the years 15 to 20 the females were more numerous than the males. At 20 to 21 the males were in the minority, but at all ages above 21 the males were most numerous.

The proportion of persons at the ages of 15 to 65, called the supporting-ages, steadily diminished until 1881; since then it has increased. The following were the numbers per 10,000 of the population at each of the census years 1871, 1878, 1881, and 1886:—

 1874.1878.1881.1886.
Under 15 years4,1504,2224,2444,126
15 to 65 years5,7285,6495,6155,694
65 years and upwards122129141180
 10,00010,00010,00010,000

The increase at the age-period 15 to 65 is attributable to an increased proportion at the ages 15 to 21, for at the higher portion of the period 21 to 65 years the proportion is still diminishing.

 1881.1886.
15 to 21 years1,0401,203
21 to 65 years4,5754,491

The proportion of persons at the supporting-ages (15 to 65 years) per 10,000 of the population is smaller in New Zealand than in any other of the Australasian Colonies, and, with the exception of Queensland, the proportion of aged persons is least in New Zealand. On the other hand, the proportion of children under 15 is much higher than in either of the other colonies.

The following shows the proportion per 10,000 living at each of the several age-periods mentioned in the Australasian Colonies respectively and in England:—

 Under 15 Years.15 to 65 Years65 Years and upwards.
New Zealand, 18864,1265,694180
New South Wales, 18813,9875,768245
Queensland, 18863,3486,527125
Victoria, 18813,8475,908245
South Australia, 18813,8855,879236
Western Australia, 18813,8555,891254
Tasmania, 18813,8115,702487
England, 18813,6455,897458

The ages at which males in New Zealand are liable to serve in the Militia are between 17 and 55 years, namely, between 17 and 30 years in the first class, between 30 and 40 years in the second class, and between 40 and 55 years in the third class.

When the census of 1886 was taken, the numbers at these ages were (exclusive of Chinese and Maoris) approximately as follows:—

Males from 17 to 30 years of age65,584
Males from 30 to 40 years of age40,328
Males from 40 to 55 years of age49,324
                 Total155,236

From this total the adult foreigners who were not naturalised should be deducted. The male foreigners who were not British subjects (deducting Chinese) numbered then 9,177. Doubtless these were chiefly adults. The above number of 155,236 may be fairly reduced by 8,000 for the number of adult foreigners to represent those liable to Militia service. If allowance be made for the departures since then of adult males, and for deaths of males between 17 and 55 years of age, also for the numbers who increased in age to over 17 and to over 55, the number at the Militia ages at the end of 1889 would be about 154,400.

Of the 266,261 females enumerated at the census of 1886, the ages of 265,755 were given. Of these, 117,890, equal to 44.36 per cent., were at the reproductive ages, 15 years to 45 years inclusive. This proportion is, with two exceptions, lower than that which obtains in any of the Australasian Colonies.

The following is the proportion of females in the Australasian Colonies at the ages of 15 years to 45 years in every 100 females at all ages:—

South Australia, 188145.61
Victoria, 188145.40
New South Wales, 188145.09
Queensland, 188647.42
Tasmania, 188144.34
Western Australia, 188144.04
New Zealand, 188644.36

In England and Wales the proportion in 1881 was as high as 49.45 per cent.

In 1886, of the 307,964 males (exclusive of Chinese and Maoris), 215,429, or 70.01 per cent., were stated to be not married, and of the female population 171,857, or 64.55 per cent., were unmarried; 66,014 of the unmarried males were over 20 years of age, and 53,675 of the unmarried females were over 15 years of age. There were thus 12,339 bachelors over 20 years of age in excess of the number of spinsters over 15 years of age. In 1881 there were 22,997 bachelors over 20 years of age in excess of the number of spinsters over 15 years of age.

The ratio of increase in the number of spinsters over 25 years of age between the censuses of 1881 and 1886 was 49 per cent., the increase in the whole population having been only at the rate of 18 per cent, during the same period.

The widows in 1886 numbered 9,764, and the widowers 6,253: at all ages the widows were more numerous than the widowers. The following were the relative proportions of widowers to every 100 widows in 1881 and 1886:—

 1881.1886.
Under 30 years43 widowers50 widowers.
30 years to 50 years69 widowers60 widowers.
50 years and upwards69 widowers64 widowers.

There is not in New Zealand, as in each of the other Australasian Colonies, one metropolitan centre of population, overshadowing by comparison the other towns of the colony. The configuration of the country made it specially adapted for the establishment of settlements comparatively remote from one another. As a result, several minor centres of population grew up, which became rival provincial capitals. The principal towns or boroughs are those of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

Auckland Borough, situate in the northern part of the North Island, had at the end of 1889 a population estimated at 33,307 persons. The population of the adjoining boroughs and districts which constitute the suburbs amounted in 1886 to 23,887.

The Borough of Wellington, the seat of Government, situate on the borders of Port Nicholson, at the southern extremity of the North Island, had at the end of 1889 a population estimated at 31,028 persons. The suburbs of Wellington contained in March, 1886, a population amounting to 1,888 persons.

The Borough of Christchurch is situated in the Canter-bury District of the Middle Island. The estimated population in December, 1889, was 17,116. The suburban population, partly consisting of that of the adjoining boroughs of Sydenham and St. Albans, amounted in 1886 to 29,423.

The Borough of Dunedin, the principal town of the former Province of Otago, was estimated at the end o 1889 as having 24,168 persons. The suburbs, consisting of adjoining and surrounding boroughs, contained in 188 a population of 22,275 persons.

The number of persons who arrived in the colony in 1889 was 15,392, an increase of 1,786 on the number in 1888. In the immigration returns all persons above 12 years of age are classified as adults, those under 12 as children. On that basis the number of adults who arrived was 13,616, namely, 9,230 males and 4,386 females. The number of children was 1,776; of these, 928 were males and 848 were females.

Of those who arrived, 3,275 came from the United Kingdom, 5,532 from Victoria, 5,061 from New South Wales and Queensland, 7 from South and Western Australia, 612 from Tasmania, 239 from Fiji, 591 from Hawaii and the South Seas (these include passengers from San Francisco), and 75 from other ports.

There was not any free immigration in 1889, but 91 persons arrived whose passages were partially paid for by the Government, all of whom were nominated by friends in the colony. Of these, 26 were English, 22 Irish, 10 Scotch, and 3 were Germans. The terms of nomination were, that for each adult £10, and for each child between the ages of 1 and 12 years £5, was pd in the colony by friends. The number of nominated immigrants was less by 345 in 1888, and by 1,195 in 1889, than in 1887.

No persons arrived in the colony in 1889 under the regulations for the introduction of small farmers.

The number of Chinese who arrived in the colony in 1889 was only 16, against 308 in 1888.

In 1881 an Act was passed imposing a tax of £10 on Poll-tax on. every Chinese landing in the colony, except in the case of any one of a crew of a vessel who might not remain in the colony. The object of the Act was to restrict the introduction of Chinese. Its effect at first was almost to put a stop to the immigration of such persons. The number of Chinese that arrived in each of the past ten years is stated below:—

1,880296
1,8811,029
1,88223
1,88344
1,88484
1,88594
1,886239
1,887354
1,888308
1,88916

As 104 Chinese left and 34 died in the colony in 1889, there was a decrease during the year of 122 in the number of this portion of the population. In 1881, when the census was taken, there were 5,004 Chinese in the colony; at the census of 1886 the number had decreased to 4,542; at the end of 1889, the number of arrivals since 1886 having been somewhat greater than the combined number of departures and deaths, the Chinese numbered 4,585.

The number of persons whose departures from the colony in 1889 were recorded was 15,178, of whom 9,493 were males and 5,685 were females, inclusive of 2,603 children under 12 years of age. Of these, 2,039 went direct to the United Kingdom, 4,748 to Victoria, 7,109 to New South Wales and Queensland, 7 to South and Western Australia, 280 to Tasmania, 126 to Fiji, 651 to Hawaii and the South Seas (including passengers for San Francisco calling at Hawaii), and 218 to other ports.

There was a gain to the population by excess of immigration over emigration of 214. The gain to the working-strength of the colony was, however, greater, for the excess of immigration in the number of males over 12 years of age was 1,026, and of females over 12 years 15; but 827 more children under 12 years of age left than arrived. There was a gain of 1,236 persons on the direct passenger traffic with the United Kingdom, but a loss of 932 on that with Australia and Tasmania.

The information is presented in the following form:—

Country.1889.1888.
Arrivals therefrom.Departures thereto.Excess of Immigration.Excess of Emigration.Excess of Emigration.Excess of Emigration.
United Kingdom3,2752,0391,236..2,714..
New South Wales and Queensland5,0617,1092,0483,888  
Victoria5,5324,748784....6,985
South and Western Australia77......6
Tasmania612280332..14..
Fiji239126113..90..
Hawaii and South Seas591651..60..369
Other ports75218..143..205
            Totals15,39215,178214....9,175

The following table shows the movements of population between New Zealand and the United Kingdom, the Australian Colonies and Tasmania, and other places in each of the past ten years:—

United Kingdom,—Arrivals from.Departures to.
1,8808,514683
1,8813,507669
1,8823,205464
1,88310,398912
1,8849,8601,457
1,8857,2411,857
1,8866,8932,385
1,8874,9062,086
1,8884,1381,964
1,8893,2752,039
          Totals61,93714,516

Australian Colonies and Tasmania,—

1,8805,8996,506
1,8815,5796,757
1,8826,9756,297
1,8838,0567,434
1,8849,0648,171
1,8857,8999,103
1,8868,13311,686
1,8878,0359,600
1,8888,73419,649
1,88911,21212,144
        Totals79,63697,347
Other places,—Arrivals from.Departures to.
1,880741734
1,881602646
1,882765695
1,883761840
1,8841,0971,072
1,8851,059735
1,8861,075966
1,8877481,026
1,8886841,168
1,889905995
              Totals8,4378,877

In the above period of ten years the gain by net immigration was as follows: Males over 12 years of age, 13,997; females over 12 years, 11,890; male children, 1,884; female children, 1,529; but, while there was a considerable gain in exchange of population with the United Kingdom, there was a serious loss on that with the Australian Colonies.

Males over 12.Females over 12.Males under 12.Females under 12.Total.
Gain on passenger traffic with the United Kingdom, 1880-8920,82016,2195,5414,84147,421
Loss on passenger traffic with Australian Colonies6,7134,2443,5433,21117,711
Loss on passenger traffic with other ports14085114101440

It will be observed that the arrivals from the Australian Colonies have been more numerous than the departures in only three of the ten years—1882, 1883, and 1884. Nearly 82 per cent, of the excess of emigration of adult males to those colonies occurred in 1888. In that year the expenditure by the General Government out of loan money was reduced to £739,674, from £1,487,850 in the year 1887. The large expenditure out of loans has evidently attracted to the colony a large number of persons whose employment is made dependent on such expenditure, and when that is curtailed they move off to other fields.

The following table shows the immigration—distinguishing between the unassisted and the assisted—and the emigration for the past ten years:—

Year.Unassisted Immigrants.Free and Assisted Immigrants.Total Immigrants.
1,88012,4652,68915,154
1,8819,5851039,688
1,88210,21972610,945
1,88313,3135,90219,215
1,88416,1333,88820,021
1,88515,1271,07216,199
1,88615,18491716,101
1,88712,4031,28613,689
1,88813,12148513,606
1,88915,3019115,392
Year.Emigrants.Excess of Immigrants.Excess of Emigrants.
1,8807,9237,231...
1,8818,0721,616...
1,8827,4563,489...
1,8839,18610,029...
1,88410,7009,321 ...
1,88511,6954,504...
1,88615,0371,064...
1,88712,712977...
1,88822,781...9,175
1,88915,178214...

The returns of the Bod of Trade do not distinguish between the departures for New Zealand and those for Australia. The departures for Australasia as a whole are only given. In 1889 these amounted to 28,834. The number of persons that arrived in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom in that year amounted to 3,275, or 11.36 per cent, of the entire direct immigration from the United Kingdom for the Australasian Colonies.

This proportion is much less than in 1888, when it was 13.04 per cent. There has not only been a large annual decrease of late years in the number of persons that leave England for the Australasian Colonies, but also progressive decrease in the proportion of such emigrants bound direct for New Zealand.

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in New Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.
1,88025,4388,51433.47
1,88124,0933,50714.55
1,88238,6043,2058.30
1,88373,01710,39814.24
1,88445,9449,86021.46
1,88540,6897,24117.80
1,88644,0556,89315.65
1,88735,1984,90613.94
1,88831,7254,13813.04
1,88928,8343,27511.36

The following shows the immigration and emigration for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1889. As there is no complete record of those who travel overland from one Australian Colony to another, the numbers given refer to those who arrive and depart by sea, except that those for Queensland and South Australia include arrivals and departures by train across the border. The figures for departures are admittedly imperfect, as many persons leave by sea of whose departure no record is obtained:—

Colony.Arrivals, 1889.Departures, 1889.Excess of Arrivals over Departures, 1889.
Queensland35,60624,68010,926
New South Wales64,19743,55720,640
Victoria84,58268,41816,164
South Australia9,2308,736494
Western Australia2,8502,272578
Tasmania23,44320,7712,672
New Zealand15,39215,178214

Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation, which entitle them to all the rights and capacities which a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom ca enjoy or transmit in this colony. 42 aliens were naturalised in 1889, of which Germany contributed 13—a larger number than any other country.

The number of aliens of each nationality naturalised during the last ten years is shown hereunder:—

Natives of
Germany634
Denmark327
Sweden206
China178
Norway152
Switzerland78
Austria60
Italy57
France50
Finland19
Russia15
Natives of 
Holland1
Portugal1
Poland1
United States of America1
Greece 
Belgium5
Hungary5
Other places8
        Total1,855

The natives of Germany comprised 34 per cent, of all the aliens naturalised, Swedes and Norwegians 19 per cent., and natives of Denmark 18 per cent. It will be observed that 178, or more than 9 per cent, of those naturalised during the period, were Chinese.

The number of members of the General Assembly at the end of 1889 was 136, of whom 41 were members of the Legislative Council, holding their seats under writs of summons from the Governor, the appointments being for life, unless vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two of the members of the Legislative Council were aboriginal native chiefs. The number of members of the House of Representatives, who are elected for a period of three years, was 95; of these, 91 were representatives of European constituencies, and 4 of Native constituencies; three members of the Maori Districts being aboriginal natives, and one a half-blood between European and Maori.

The proportion of representatives, members of Parliament or Congress, to population, in each of the Australasian. Colonies (exclusive of Maori members and Maori population in New Zealand) and the countries named was as follows:—

Country.Year.Population.No. of Members.Average Number of Population to each Member.
New Zealand1,889620,279916,816
Queensland1,889406,658725,648
New South Wales1,8891,122,2001249,050
Victoria1,8891,118,0778613,000
South Australia1,889319,166526,137
Tasmania1,889151,472364,207
United Kingdom (middle of year)1,88837,440,49467055,881
France1,88838,890,00056868,468
United States1,88964,554,000334193,275

After the expiration, in the course of the current year, of the existing Parliament in New Zealand, the number of members, other than those for Maori electorates, will be reduced from their present number. 91. to 70.*

* The Parliament has been dissolved since this was written, and a new election for the reduced number of members is now impending.

THE NATIVE RACE.

The number of the Maori race at the time of the first foundation of the colony was estimated at about 80,000. Twenty years previously the number had been estimated at 100,000. In 1857 the results of an attempted enumeration of the race gave a total of 56,049 of both sexes. Owing to the objections made by the Natives to stating their numbers, and the difficulties experienced in obtaining information in those parts to which the European was not allowed access, the subsequent attempts at enumeration have not been altogether satisfactory. The latest, and probably most accurate, of these enumerations was made in 1886. This gave the number of the males at 22,810, and of the females at 19,129—a total of 41,969.

It has been previously stated that there are no records of the births and deaths that occur among these people, consequently no estimate can be made of their present numbers; but a consideration of the number living at each age-period in 1886 leads to the conclusion that in all probability the decrease in the numbers of the race as a whole is still progressing, although there is good reason to believe that in some districts the numbers are stationary if not somewhat increasing.

The males under 15 years of age were in 1886 in the proportion of 31.82 to every 100 of the male population, and the similar proportion among the females was 33.59, these being less than the proportions in 1881, and considerably less than those among the increasing European portion of the population—an evidence of a low birth-rate or a high juvenile mortality, leading to racial decrease.

On comparing the proportions living at each quinquennium under 20 and at each decennium above that period with the corresponding proportions in the population of England, and that of the New Zealand Europeans, it is found that at all ages under 20 the proportions among the Maoris are far less than among the other two populations, and at each age above 40 the Maori proportions are larger. It is, of course, a fair inference that the causes of these larger proportions at the higher age-periods are twofold, namely, a low birth-rate and a high death-rate among the younger members of the community.

The smaller proportion of females (83.75) to males (100) also shows a greater mortality among the adult females—thereby diminishing the reproductive power of the people—than among the males, as 42.29 of the females living were under 20 years of age, but only 39.70 per cent, of the males were under 20. The actually smaller proportion at all ages, with a much higher proportion at ages under 20, indicates, as stated, a greater mortality at all ages over 20 among females than males.

Various causes have been given to account for the decrease. Among these may be stated the following: An excessive infantile mortality, owing to improper food, exposure, want of ordinary care and cleanliness, and the constitutions of the parents debilitated by past debauchery; the practice of placing their sick in the hands of the Native doctor (tohunga), instead of applying, until too late, to the medical officer of the district; the sterility induced by the widespread immorality among quite young females before marriage; the partial adoption of European habits and costume, and the continual reversion to the habits and costume of barbarism, with a system rendered more susceptible to outside influences, especially those of a humid and changeable climate, thereby tending to promote the spread of diseases, notably those affecting the lungs; and to a certain extent the continued intertribal marriages, resulting in diminished fruitfulness and enfeebled constitutions.

The manifest decrease in the numbers of the race is much to be regretted, for the Maoris show great aptitude for civilisation. They possess fine characteristics, mental and physical, and rapidly adopt the manners and customs of their civilised neighbours. The Native members of both the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives take a dignified, active, and intelligent part in the debates, especially in those having any reference to the interests of their race.

The Maoris contribute largely to the taxation of the country through the Customs duties, and, having regard to the relations now subsisting between the races, they may be regarded as constituting an important clement of strength in the population of the colony.

VITAL STATISTICS.

The number of births registered in 1889 was 18,457, being in the proportion of 30.07 to every 1,000 of the population. The number of births was less by 445 than in 1888. The birth-rate has decreased year by year in the last 10 years, and there has been in the last 6 years a steady annual decrease in the number of births.

Year.Number of Births.Births per 1,000 of the Population.
1,88019,34140-78
1,88118,37237-95
1,88219,00937-32
1,88319,20236-28
1,88419,84635-91
1,88519,69334-35
1,88619,29933-15
1,88719,13532-09
1,88818,90231-22
1,88918,45730-07

A decrease in the birth-rate in a young country is not to be wondered at, as there is up to a certain point an increasing proportion of the population under 21 years of age. In 1878 52.17 per cent., in 1881 52.96 per cent., and in 1886 53.27 per cent, of the population were under 21 years of age. The decrease in the rate is, however, proportionately much greater than the increase in the number under 21. But an actual decrease in the number of births is different from what might reasonably have been looked for. The decrease cannot be attributed to neglect of registration (the numbers given are those only of registered births), for the result of recent Acts to permit of the registration of births not registered within the time allowed for doing has shown not only a prevalent desire to obtain the benefits of registration, but that the number unregistered is very small, so much so that the registration may at present be deemed to be as complete as could be expected. Other causes must be looked for. Among these may be stated,—

(1.) The smaller proportion of wives under 45 years of age to the total population, and their higher average age.

In 1881 the wives under 45 years of age were in the proportion of 117.30 to every 1,000 of the population; but in 1880 the proportion was only 108.39. As since then there has not been much difference in the annual number of marriages, while the population has been increasing, it may be assumed that the proportion is now less than in 1886.

(2.) Another cause is doubtless the lessened fertility of the married women under 45 years of age; no doubt partially due to their higher average age. The extent of this cause in the decrease in the birth-rate may be somewhat estimated from the following statement, which shows the proportion of births to population and to married women. This information can only be given for census years, as then only can the number and ages of married women be ascertained :—

Year of Census.Married Women under 45 Years of Age.Legitimate Births in Twelve Months ending 30th September.Proportion of Legitimate Births.
Per 1,000 of the Population.Per 1,000 Married Women under 45 Years of Age.
1,88157,46718,30837.95318.58
1,88662,70419,01833.15303.30

The effect of this difference in the fertility of the wives may be illustrated thus: If the births had been in the same proportion to the number of wives in 1886 as in 1881, the number of legitimate births would have been 19,976, instead of 19,018; and, adding the illegitimate births, the proportion to the population would have been 35-58 per 1,000 in 1886 instead of 33.15; but this supposititious rate is less by 2.60 per 1,000 than that in 1881. It seems evident that lessened fertility is only one of the causes of the decrease in operation, another being the decrease in the marriage-rate, referred to further on. It seems also evident that the continued and considerable decrease in the numbers indicates intentional restraints upon the birth-rate.

The birth-rate, 30.07, in 1889, is lower than any on record for England and Wales during the past 35 years. It is also lower than the rates in Scotland, but much higher than those in Ireland, which have ranged between 22.9 and 28.1.

The rate in New Zealand in 1889 was the lowest in the Australasian Colonies. The following shows the birth-rate of those several colonies in each of the past six years. It will be observed that, while as compared with 1884, the birth-rate in 1889 was considerably lower in New Zealand, Tasmania, South Australia, and New South Wales, it was higher in Queensland, Western Australia, and Victoria:—

BIRTH-RATES.

Colony.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
Queensland35.7536.6640.2138.0937.7736.27
New South Wales38.5337.6437.0336.4236.1833.73
Victoria30.4930.7431.2332.3932.4932.95
South Australia38.3837.3035.3234.6333.3432.37
Western Australia33.8435.2239.2137.3435.8837.14
Tasmania35.6635.0834.1533.8733.1031.94
New Zealand35.9134.3533.1532.0931.3230.07

The male births in New Zealand in 1889 numbered 9,514, and the female 8,943. The proportion was thus 106.38 males to 100 females. The proportion of male to female births was highest in Queensland (107.4) of all the Australasian Colonies, and lowest in South Australia (105.0). There are on an average more male to female births in all the Australasian Colonies than in England; but the proportions of male births are greater in many of the European States.

There were 152 cases of twin births (304 children) in 1889. The whole number of births was 18,457: thus 18,305 mothers gave birth to living children. Of these, on an average 1 in 120 gave birth to twins. In 1888 the proportion was 1 in 97, and 1 in 102 in 1887.

The births of 612 children were registered as illegitimate: thus, there were 10 illegitimate to every 292 legitimate births, or 1 in every 30 births was illegitimate, or 3.32 to every 100 children born. The proportion, after having fallen in 1888, increased in 1889 to larger dimensions than any on record.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. It will be observed that the rate in New Zealand has steadily and greatly increased, but is less than that in either of these colonies except South Australia:—

PROPORTION OF ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS IN EVERY 100 BIRTHS.

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
1,8804.314.354.80....2.43
1,8814.204.355.092.25..2.85
1,8824.404.264.752.254.402.87
1,8833.664.244.691.753.962.78
1,8844.054.404.292.104.462.95
1,8854.084.604.362.424.553.20
1,8863.974.654.752.384.433.12
1,8874.494.594.782.493.403.23
1,8884.135.084.802.673.623.05
1,8894.685.334.972.474.023.32

There is a marked increase in the rate of illegitimacy in the Colonies of New Zealand, New South Wales, and South Australia, also in Victoria, since 1884; but in that colony there had been a previous decrease from a rate as high in 1880 as in 1888. The rate in Victoria is as high as that which now obtains in England, and that in New South Wales higher. The rates in the other colonies are lower than that in England, but this last shows a decreasing tendency.

The average number of children to a marriage may be ascertained by comparing the number of legitimate births for a series of years with the number of marriages during a series of years of the same number, but commencing with the marriages in the year preceding that for which the first number of births is taken; for although in the earlier years births will be included that are the fruits of marriages solemnised prior to the commencement of the period, yet there will be omitted the number of children that might be born, subsequently to the period, of parents married within that time.

As the records of illegitimate births cannot be accepted as at all reliable prior to 1875, that year has been taken as the starting-point for the calculation.

YearMarriagesLegitimate BirthsProportion of Births to every Marriage solemnised in the Preceding Year
1,8753,209....
1,8763,19616,8075.24
1,8773,11416,5055.16
1,8783,37717,3415.57
1,8793,35217,6555.23
1,8803,18218,8705.63
1,8813,27918,1985.72
1,8823,60018,4635.63
1,8833,61418,6685.19
1,8843,80219,2595.33
1,8853,81519,0635.01
1,8863,48918,6974.90
1,8873,56518,5185.31
1,8883,61718,3255.14
1,889..18,4575.10
        Sums and proportion48,211254,8265.29

This gives for the full period an average of 5.29 children born to a family, or 529 in every 100 families. The proportion to a family is decreasing. For the first 7 of the years commencing with 1876 the average number born was 5.44 to a marriage, for the last 7 it was 5.14, a difference of 30 children in 100 families. This decrease is not confined to New Zealand, for in the Victorian Year-book for 1888-89 it is stated that “It seems that in all the colonies” (Australasian) “except Tasmania there is a tendency for the average number of children to a marriage to decrease in numbers.”

The average number of children to a marriage appears to be greater in New Zealand than in either of the other Australasian Colonies. The number given in the Victorian Year-book for each of the colonies named is as follows:—

Victoria.New South Wales.Queensland.Tasmania
Mean of numbers for eight years, 1880-874.304.684.624.35

The following information giving the number of children to a marriage in various European countries is taken from the Victorian Year Book:—

 Children to each Marriage.
Ireland5.46
Italy4.56
Scotland4.43
Holland4.34
Belgium4.21
England4.46
Sweden4.01
Denmark3.55
France2.98

With the exception of Ireland, the largest number of children to a marriage in either of the colonies or countries mentioned is in New Zealand, and it appears to be doubtful whether the number given for Ireland is not too large, as the registration of marriages is not so complete in that country as the registration of births.

The numbers given represent the number of children born to a marriage; but a comparison of the strength of families in the several countries cannot well be instituted without taking into consideration the variations in the mortality of children. These differences are thus shown:—

In New Zealand.In New South Wales.In Victoria.In England.
Proportion per 1,000 of children born who die under 5 years of age121.37173.77178.68233.50

Consequently the average number of children in each family living to the age of 5 years would be as follows:—

New Zealand.New South Wales.Victoria.England.
4.653.873.533.19

Or for every 100 families there would be the following number of children who had survived the fifth year of age:—

In New Zealand465
In New South Wales387
In Victoria353
In England319

The very leading position held by New Zealand is undoubtedly due to the much lower rate of mortality among infants under 1 year of age.

The above numbers are in startling contrast with certain results shown by M. Jacques Bertillon, in a paper read before the Statistical Society of Paris on the 10th May, 1888, in which the following were given as the average number of children actually surviving in each family in the Department of the Seine at the time the French census of 1886 was taken. In every 1,000 families there were*

* This information has been obtained from the Victorian Year-book, 1888-89.
328 with no child surviving.
270 with 1 child surviving.
198 with 2 children surviving.
106 with 3 children surviving.
54 with 4 children surviving.
25 with 5 children surviving.
12 with 6 children surviving.
7 with 7 or more children surviving.

Or to the 1,000 families about 1,450 children; but some of the families enumerated had been too recently married to have children.

The number of marriages in 1889 was 3,632, being only 15 more than in 1888. The marriage-rate was 5.92 per 1,000 persons living, the lowest on record not only in this colony but in either of the Australasian Colonies. The following table shows the number of marriages to every 1,000 of the population in the several Australasian Colonies during each of the past ten years:—

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand
1,8806.977.676.228.667.427.396.71
1,8817.708.266.798.006.607.396.64
1,8828.568.747.098.557.078.037.07
1,8838.938.877.438.336.959.016.82
1,8848.918.497.738.437.417.816.87
1,8858.938.137.727.667.517.976.65
1,8868.677.997.846.247.987.265.99
1,8878.217.427.626.317.586.715.97
1,8888.637.378.036.707.486.585.97
1,8898.376.768.146.476.996.505.92
Means8.397.977.467.507.247.466.46

If the marriage-rate be taken as an index of the prosperity of the people, it appears that the general prosperity has been greater in all the other colonies during the past ten years than in New Zealand. The somewhat improved prices for produce and the large increase in the exports of the colony have not apparently been beneficially felt by the bulk of the population of New Zealand. This is no doubt caused by the whole of the increase being required as a set off against the interest remitted from the colony and, apparently, of capital withdrawn. Queensland seems to have enjoyed the greatest amount of prosperity. In New South Wales, which has been the second most generally prosperous of the colonies, there has been a decreasing rate since 1883. The rate in South Australia has decreased considerably during the decennium, indicating a less prosperous condition in the late than during the early part of the period. The rate for Victoria shows a marked upward tendency during the past two years.

The marriage-rate in 1888 in New Zealand was less than that in England for that year, and greater than that in either Scotland or Ireland; but it was below the rates of most of the European countries.

MARRIAGES IN EVERY 1,000 OF THE POPULATION.

England, 18887.1
Scotland, 18886.25
Ireland, 18884.2
Denmark, 18887.1
Sweden, 18876.25
Austria, 18887.9
Hungary, 18888.95
Switzerland, 18887.05
German Empire, 18887.85
The Netherlands, 18886.9
Belgium, 18887 35
France, 18887.2
Spain, 18886.7
Italy, 18887.8

The greatest number of marriages in 1889 occurred in the autumn quarter ending the 30th June, and the smallest in the September quarter ending the 30th of that month. Marriages have been generally most numerous in the autumn quarter, next in the summer quarter ending the 31st March, next in the spring quarter ending the 31st December, and least numerous in the winter quarter; but, while the proportions in the 100 marriages fluctuate irregularly between the spring and winter quarters, there appears to be a steady order in the proportions between those in the summer and autumn quarters: thus, in each of the six years, 1875 to 1880 inclusive, the marriages were most numerous in the March (or summer) quarter, and in the nine years, 1881 to 1889 inclusive, they were most numerous in the June quarter.

The following shows the number and percentage of marriages in each quarter:—

Quarter ended on the last Day ofNumber of Marriages, 1889.Percentage, 1889.Percentage, 1878-88 inclusive.
March85523.5425.75
June1,01828.0326.69
September82422.6923.34
December93525.7424.22

Of the marriages which occurred in 1889, 3,182 were between bachelors and spinsters, 131 between bachelors and widows, 217 between widowers and spinsters, and 102 between widowers and widows. These include marriages between 7 divorced males classified as bachelors, and 5 divorced females, one of whom was a widow as well as divorced.

The proportion of each class of marriage to all the marriages approximates very closely from year to year, thus:—

Marriages between—Per 1,000 Marriages.
18861887.1888.1889.
Bachelors and spinsters86.2786.8786.0487.61
Bachelors and widows4.394.574.753.61
Widowers and spinsters6.196.126.475.97
Widowers and widows3.152.442.742.81

The number of marriages given does not include those between persons both of whom are of the aboriginal native race, these people being excluded from the operation of the Marriage Act, although they are at liberty to take advantage thereof; but only 10 marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1889 according to the provisions of the Act.

Of the full number of marriages in the past year, 840, or 23.03 per cent., were solemnised by ministers of the Church of England; 972, or 26.75 per cent., by ministers; of the Presbyterian Churches; 548, or 15.08 per cent., by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches; 378, or 10.40 per cent., by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church; 190, or 5.23 per cent., by ministers of other denominations; and 705, or 19.43 per cent., by Registrars.

There was an increase in the numbers and proportions of marriages solemnised by ministers of the Church of England, Presbyterian, and the Wesleyan and Methodist Churches on those in 1888, but a decrease in the numbers and proportions of those solemnised by Ministers of the Roman Catholic Church and by Registrars.

The following shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the principal denominations in the four years 1886-89, and the proportions of the persons of these denominations to the total population:—

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1886.
1886.1887.1888.1889.
Church of England21.5021.6021.9523.1140.17
Presbyterians26.3424.4924.3326.7522.59
Wesleyan and other Methodists13.5814.7314.1015.089.55
Roman Catholic10.4911.8111.6910.4013.95
Other denominations4.994.155.705.23..
By Registrars23.1023.2222.2319.43..

It is apparent that not only do the ministers of the Presbyterian and Wesleyan denominations solemnise all marriages between members of their bodies, but in addition many between members of other bodies: and that a large proportion of the marriages solemnised before Registrars consists of those between professing members of the Church of England. As all marriages between members of the Roman Catholic Church are, by requirement of that Church, solemnised by the ministers thereof, it appears that fewer marriages in proportion to their numbers occur among the members of that Church than among members of other bodies.

Of the men married in 1889, 73, or 20.1 in every 1,000, and of the women 94, or 25.88 in every 1,000, signed the register by marks. The number and proportion of each sex that signed by marks was greater in 1889 than in 1888. The proportion signing by marks was, as in former years, greatest among the members of the Roman Catholic Church, and next greatest amongst those married before Registrars.

The following are the proportions per 100 marriages in each denomination of those who signed by marks in each of the past four years:—

Denomination.1886.1887.1888.1889.
M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Marriages according to the rates of the—
    Church of England0.931.200.651.441.391.510.570.?
    Presbyterians0.980.761.602.520.451.251.131.?
    Wesleyan and other Methodists0.831.481.331.520.591.961.090.?
    Roman Catholics4.646.562.385.465.445.914.506.?
    Other denominations1.152.301.350.000.501.942.631.?
Marriages by Registrars3.606.203.745.682.243.614.115.?

When comparing these proportions it should be born in mind that a large proportion of the marriages Registrars must be, as has been previously stated, nominal members of the Church of England.

Of the persons married, 59 males and 836 females were under 21 years of age; 7 of the males were under 19, 7 the females were under 16, and 25 between 16 and years of age. The following are the proportions of m and women married at each age-period to every marriages during the past three years:—

Age.1887.1888.1889.
M.F.M.F.M.F.
Under 21 years1.9125.491.8524.301.6323.0
21 and under 2527.9542.4128.1742.0527.4544.0
25 and under 3035.2819.7033.8121.1534.2220.5
30 and under 4024.648.8426.028.9826.219.0
40 and under 507.052.866.692.747.652.6
50 and under 602.500.532.520.612.040.5
60 and under 700.530.170.880.140.630.1
70 and upwards0.14...0.06(one)0.17...

Registrars of Marriages in New Zealand are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage d minors without the consent of their parents or law guardians, if there be any in the colony. If a declaration be made in any case that there is no parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen days following the date on which the notice of intended marriage has been given.

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriage are the same as in England, namely, 12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriages may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

For the period 1874-89 inclusive 12 females under 14 years of age have married. Of these, 1 was only 11 years old. During the same time only 3 males under 17 have married; these had all reached 16 years of age.

The following statement gives the ages at which persons can contract binding marriage in each of the countries named:—

Country.Males Age.Females Age.

* Roman Catholics and Orthodox Greek Church.

† Protestants.

‡Dispensation for serious motives.

$ Dispensation possible, but rare.

Varying in different cantons.

Austria14*12*
1815
Belgium1815
Denmark2016
France1816$
Greece1512
Italy1815
Netherlands1816
Portugal1412
Russia1814
Russia (generally)1816
Norway2016
Sweden2115
Switzerland14-2012-18

The average age of the males in this colony who married in 1889 was 29.9 years, and of the females 24.6 years. In the case of the men this was higher than the average age 28.3 years) in England in 1888; but the average age of the women was greater in England (26.0 years).

The proportion of males under 21 who marry in England is much greater than in New Zealand; but the proportion of females under 21 who marry is much greater the colony.

In 1888 of every 100 marriages in England 6.3 were of males under 21 and 19.9 of females under 21. In New Zealand the corresponding proportions were 1.6 males a 23 females under 21.

Taking 10 years, 1879-88 for England and 1880-89 f New Zealand, in every 1,000 marriages the numbers under 21 years of age were as follow:—

 In New Zealand.In England.
 1880-89.1879-88.
Bridegrooms18.671.7
Brides265.6211.1

While in New Zealand the proportion of bridegroom under 21 years of age fluctuates within narrow limits, th proportion of brides under 21 years of age appears to steadily decreasing. This is evident from the following table, giving the proportions for each sex under 21 year of age in every 100 marriages:—

Year.Bridegrooms.Brides.
1,8802.1729.74
1,8811.9529.08
1,8821.8029.39
1,8831.5227.18
1,8841.8727.10
1,8851.9726.49
1,8861.9526.09
1,8871.9125.49
1,8881.8524.30
1,8891.6228.02

Thus, in 1889 there were 7 fewer brides who were under 21 years of age in every 100 than there were in 1880, but only 1 bridegroom under 21 less in every 20 men married.

The deaths in 1889 numbered 5,772, being equivalent to a rate of 9.40 in every 1,000 persons living. The rate 9.43, in 1888 was noted as the lowest on record, but that in 1889 was still lower.

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very strikingly with those in the other Australasian Colonies and with European countries, and furnishes evidence of the great salubrity of the climate of the colony. The following table gives the death-rates for a series of years in the several countries mentioned:—

Country.1880.1881.1882.1883.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
New Zealand11.4611.1311.1911.4510.3910.7610.5410.299.439.40
Queensland13.5915.0217.9918.8222.9719.5817.2914.5614.6615.44
New South Wales15.4715.1716.1214.6816.1416.4114.8913.1513.5413.42
Victoria13.7014.1616.2314.2814.4614.9815.1515.7015.3417.54
South Australia14.7913.9014.8414.5515.2412.4813.3812.7712.0910.98
Western Australia13.2413.8014.1617 9321.8717.6121.5616.8315.9114.19
Tasmania16.1214.7715.7917.0615.5015.4014.5815.4514.1114.10
England20.518.919.619.519.519.019.318.817.8..
Scotland20.519.319.320.119.419.118.618.717.6..
Ireland19.817.517.419.217.618.417.918.318.0..
Denmark20.418.319.318.418.417.918.218.319.7..
Norway15.916.818.417.116.416.516.116.016.9..
Sweden18.117.717.417.317.517.816.410.1....
Austria29.730.630.830.129.229.929.428.929.2..
Hungary37.334.435.332.030.831.631.433.5....
Switzerland21.922.421.920.420.221.320.720.219.9..
German Empire26.025.525.725.926.025.726.224.223.8..
The Netherlands23.521.520.721.822.221.921.519.720.4..
France22.822.022.222.222.221.922.522.021.8..
Italy30.527.627.527.526.726.628.327.526.8..

The comparison of the above rates appears to place the Australasian Colonies as a whole in the foremost place for salubrity of climate and healthiness of people, New Zealand taking the lead by a wide interval; but a mere death-rate calculated on the whole population—that is, the proportion of all the deaths to every 1,000 of the population living in the middle of the year—although a very fair index of the sanitary condition of the population of the same country if compared from year to year, and also useful for comparing the healthiness of different countries whose respective populations contain a fairly-equal proportionate number of persons living at each age-period of life, cannot be regarded as a fair index of the comparative healthiness of new and old countries, or even of that of new countries one with another, when the relative proportions living at the several age-periods vary considerably.

Of the forms of single death-rate that have been devised to furnish a better index of comparison between all countries, that proposed by Mr. Hayter, the Government Statist of Victoria, and designated by him the “adjusted death-rate,” appears best worthy of adoption. It is thus described:—

“To construct a standard of comparison probably less open to objection than any other, it appears necessary arbitrarily to adopt the relative proportions in regard to age existing in a model population, and upon the basis of the deaths which have actually occurred at various age-periods, to discover what number would have occurred if the proportions living at the same periods in the actual had corresponded with those in the model population. It is essential that the model population thus used should be in a normal condition in regard to age, or, in other words free from such fluctuations and disturbances as are incident to the building-up and growth of the population of a new country. Such a population appears to be that d England and Wales.”*

* “Victorian Year-book,” 1886-1887, page 286, par. 594.

The following is the mode of procedure: The number living in every 10,000 persons in England and Wales in 1881 at the several quinquennial age-periods to 25, and decennial age-periods 25 to 75, designated the “model population,” is first ascertained. Then the actual death-rate per 1,000 persons living at each of those age-periods in the colony or country under consideration is used as basis to find what the number of deaths would be for the numbers given at each age-period in the model population. The result represents the total number of deaths in the colony per 10,000 persons living in the proportions as to age-periods given in the model population.

The result, however, of only computing the rates on deaths under 75 years of age is that the death-rates so arrived at cannot be compared with the death-rates of other countries in respect of which no information may be readily available as to the proportions of the population living at the several age-periods, and, consequently, as to the death-rates at ages. The disturbance of the comparisons caused by including the deaths of persons over 75 years of age is not so serious as might be supposed. Thus, the general death-rate in England in 1886 was 19.28 per 1,000 living, but the rate on ages up to 75 was only 17.17, a difference of 2.11 per 1,000. The New Zealand adjusted rate at all ages for 1886 was 12.82, but on ages up to 75 it was 11.24, a difference of 1.58 per 1,000, being only 0.53 less than the similar difference in the English rates.

The difference being so small, it appears desirable to compute the adjusted death-rates on all ages, as then the published rates for European countries — in which, as populations are of a normal character, the proportions living at each period will probably approximate closely to those that obtain in England—can be compared with the colonial adjusted death-rates.

There is, however, this disadvantage: that the proportions living at each age-period vary in a colony from year to year, and they can only be correctly ascertained when a census is taken. Calculations as to death-rates at age-periods must therefore be considered to have an annually-increasing measure of error as the last census-date becomes more remote.

The following table illustrates the method adopted:—

Ages.Model Population, being Actual Proportions per 10,000 Persons in England and Wales at the Census of 1881.New Zealand Death-rates experienced in Census-year 1886.Deaths in Model Population according to Rates in Previous Column.
Under 5 years1,35628.5238,673
5 and under 10 years1,2123.063,709
10 and under 15 years1,0782.462,652
15 and under 20 years9813.453,384
20 and under 25 years8965.114,579
25 and under 35 years1,4606.078,862
35 and under 45 years1,1327.878,909
45 and under 55 years83711.879,935
55 and under 65 years59127.7716,412
65 and under 75 years32846.4715,242
75 and upwards129123.1615,888
          Totals10,000..128,245

This amounted to a rate at all ages of 12.82 per 1,000 of the New Zealand population in 1886, grouped in the proportions at each age-period according to the numbers in the model population; but if the rate be limited to ages under 75 it would be 11.24 per 1,000.

The following table gives the death-rates for 1886 in the Australian Colonies mentioned, adjusted according to the above method, and also the ordinary death-rate for England and Wales, which is the same as the adjusted rate:—

New Zealand.Victoria.Queensland.New South Wales.South Australia.Tasmania.England.
Ordinary10.5415.1517.2914.8913.3815.4019.28
Adjusted for all ages12.8217.0019.0017.2219.1712.33
Adjusted rate to 75 years only11.2415.0417.2215.1617.1710.2217.17

The difference between the adjusted rates for deaths a ages up to 75 years and for deaths at all ages, varied from 1.58 in New Zealand to 2.11 in Tasmania, an extreme variation of only 0.53, which is not so great but that the adjusted rates for all ages may well be used, having regard to the comparisons that can be made between these rates and the ordinary rates in old settled countries.

For the purpose of compiling the above (also the next following table), the proportions living at each age-period have been assumed to be the same in each colony as at the time of the previous census, which was 1886 in New Zealand and Queensland, and 1881 in the other colonies. As, however, these proportions differ somewhat in each colony from year to year—a result of varying rates of increase in the population—it does not appear to be expedient to carry on the calculations for a later period than 5 years from the census-year. Annual adjusted rates for all these colonies cannot therefore be made with accuracy for the purpose of comparison until the proportions living at various ages have assumed somewhat of a normal condition.

In considering the above figures it will be observed that, although New Zealand had an ordinary death-rate in 1886 much smaller than that in Tasmania, yet the adjusted death-rate shows a real rate of mortality in Tasmania for that year less than that in New Zealand, the higher rate in Tasmania being due to the larger proportion of aged persons in that colony. The lower rates of mortality, as shown by the adjusted rates in New Zealand and Tasmania, are due to a much smaller rate of infantile mortality in these two colonies.

The following were the death-rates per 1,000 persons living in New Zealand, the Australian Colonies named, and England, at successive age-periods, for the year 1886:—

Age.New Zealand.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.England.
Under 5 years28.5249.4442.4644.5140.0933.5055.58
5 and under 103.063.202.903.883.343.064.65
10 and under 152.462.221.972.471.741.502.96
15 and under 203.458.503.523.523.454.094.38
20 and under 255.1112.565.905.754.536.455.51
25 and under 356.0711.748.778.377.608.127.41
35 and under 457.8713.5210.4411.529.647.3911.15
45 and under 5511.8716.1716.5917.1813.0211.2417.06
55 and under 6522.7730.9728.4928.1726.2820.3730.81
65 and under 7546.4750.0359.2655.0456.3464.3668.15
75 and upwards123.16133.57159.90152.18155.25160.76163.59

The contrast between the proportions of deaths of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand and the other Australasian Colonies and England is very great. The contrast is even greater if the death-rate of children in New Zealand for 1889 be compared with the other rates above given. In 1886 the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age was 2,492, the rate, as above shown, being 28.52 per 1,000 living at that age. In 1889 the number of such deaths was 1,953 (a decrease on 1886 of 539), in the proportion of 21.13 per 1,000 living. This smaller death-rate of children is one of the principal causes of the lower general death-rate. Between the ages of 5 and 25 there is a greater general approximation of rates. At ages 25 to 65 the approximation is greatest between the rates in Tasmania and New Zealand, the rates in the other colonies being considerably higher.

It will be observed that the death-rate, or, in other words, the liability to death, is less between 10 and 15 years of age than at any other quinquennial period of life.

Of the 5,772 persons who died in 1889. 3,356 were males and 2,416 were females, respectively equivalent to 10.22 in every 1,000 of the male and 8.46 in every 1,000 of the female population living. These proportions are similar to those in 1888, when they were of male deaths 10.21, and of female deaths 8.47.

The following table shows the mortality in every 1,000 of each sex living at each age-period mentioned for the past three years. It must, however, be observed that the numbers at each age living are only estimated on the assumption that the proportion at each age was the same as in 1886 when the census was taken; but, as the proportions vary somewhat annually, the degree of inaccuracy in these estimates increases with the greater length of time from the census-year:—

Age-periods.Deaths per 1,000 living at each Age-period.
Males.Females.
1887.1888.1889.1887.1888.1889.
Under 1 year103.4977.9781.8386.0861.0370.19
1 and under 58.997.397.488.317.096.17
5 and under 103.183.212.932.502.902.07
10 and under 152.362.152.151.922.052.16
15 and under 203.143.803.303.673.373.47
20 and under 256.315.075.064.885.474.30
25 and under 355.555.274.496.095.795.83
35 and under 458.377.677.267.547.157.41
45 and under 5512.0512.5213.109.728.7910.10
55 and under 6526.7526.7529.8620.9822.8322.70
65 and under 7554.2955.7657.0039.2251.4748.10
75 and upwards124.56150.45137.7291.73132.68125.04

The mortality was in proportion to the numbers living greater among the males at each age-period except at those from 10-15, 15-20, 25-35, and 35-45 years. The difference in favour of the females in infancy and old age is very pronounced.

Of the males who died in 1889, 199 were over the age of 75: of these, 95 were from 75 to 80 years of age, 96 from 80 to 90 years, and 8 over 90 years; 1 reached the age of 98, and 1 that of 99. Of the females, 64 were between 75 and 80 years of age, 70 between 80 and 90 years, and 9 over 90 years: of these, 2 were stated to have reached the great age of 102 years.

The combined ages of all the males who died amounted to 108,261 years, and those of the females amounted to 66,911 years, giving an average age at death of 32.29 years for males and of 27.69 years for females. In 1888 the average age of the males who died was 32.12, and that of the females 27.85 years. These averages were much higher than in 1887, when that for males was 28.78 and for females 23.37 years, the higher averages being due to the smaller numbers and proportions of infantile deaths.

The natural law in operation that causes the births of males to be more numerous than those of females is met by another law involving a greater mortality among male than among female infants. In 1889 the number of male children born was 9,514, the number of deaths of male infants under 1 year of age was 798, being at the rate of 84 in every 1,000 born; the number of females born was 8,943, the number that died under 1 year of age was 658, being in the proportion of over 73 in every 1,000 born.

The following gives the proportion of deaths of male and female infants at the ages stated to the 1,000 births of males and females respectively for the year 1889, and also the numbers and averages for the ten years 1880-89:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.2 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.
* Total number of births, 97,531 males and 93,675 females.
DEATHS TO THE 1,000 BIRTHS.
1889Male31.3215.8718.2918.4083.88
Female25.3815.2116.8816.1173.58
NUMBER OF DEATHS.
Ten years, 1880-89*Male3,1281,811,9952,4519,390
Female2,3681,5101,6362,1207,634
DEATHS TO THE 1,000 BIRTHS.
Ten years, 1880-89Male32.0718.6420.4525.1396.27
Female25.2816.1217.4622.6381.49

The probability of living during the first year of age is thus much greater in favour of female than of male infants. The results of the past ten years show that in equal numbers born there are—

100 deaths of males to 76.88 deaths of females under 1 month of age.
100 deaths of males to 86.48 deaths of females from 1 to 3 months of age.
100 deaths of males to 85.13 deaths of females from 3 to 6 months of age.
100 deaths of males to 90.05 deaths of females from 6 to 12 months of age.
100 deaths of males to 84.65 under 12 months of age.

The rates of infantile mortality, that is, the proportions the deaths of children under 1 year of age bear to the births, are higher in all the rest of the Australasian Colonies than those that obtain in New Zealand. The following table gives the rate in each of the colonies named in each of the 10 years 1880-1889:—

NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER 1 YEAR OF AGE TO EVERY 100 BIRTHS.

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
1,88010.5511.3611.8613.5711.239.33
1,88111.1711.5611.4912 7410.349.24
1,88213.9513.1213.9115.1910.368.83
1,88313.3411.4811.4414.5612.3910.39
1,88414.7412.6211.3713.429.987.93
1,88514.8513.1212.5711.3411.268.92
1,88612.5912.8512.7312.6210.489.84
1,88711.2910.5913.0011.1210.099.38
1,88812.0711.0912.759.599.437.07
1,88913.6212.5315.219.4210.647.89

The infantile mortality is as a rule greatest in the large towns, where the population is most dense and the sanitary conditions are less favourable, than in the country districts. The following shows the proportion of infantile deaths to births in each of the four principal boroughs in New Zealand during the past five years:—

DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER 1 YEAR OF AGE TO EVERY 100 BIRTHS.

Boroughs.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.Means.
Auckland14.4517.3114.4011.3610.8013.66
Wellington10.2817.2616.1610.4112.4213.30
Christchurch13.4315.0312.2513.2313.1113.41
Dunedin9.6211.2510.097.309.599.57

The climate of and conditions in Dunedin appear to be much more favourable to infantile life than those of either of the other boroughs.

The following statement gives the classification of diseases, with the percentage of deaths to the total mortality, and the proportion to the 10,000 of population in each class and order, in the years 1887, 1888, and 1889:—

Class and Order.Per 100 Deaths.Per 10,000 of the Population.
1887.1888.1889.1887.1888.1889.
Class I.—Specific Febrile or Zymotic Diseases      
    Order 1. Miasmatic diseases7.516.904.967.736.514.66
    Order 2. Diarrhœal diseases7.743.756.157.963.535.78
    Order 3. Malarial diseases0.08...0.060.08...0.07
    Order 4. Zoogenous diseases............
    Order 5. Venereal diseases0.360.260.310.370.250.29
    Order 6. Septic diseases0.931.321.270.961.241.19
                  Total Class I.16.6212.2312.7517.1011.5311.99
Class II.—Parasitic Diseases 0.520.350.280.540.330.26
Class III.—Dietetic Diseases 0.830.821.020.860.780.96
Class IV.—Constitutional Diseases 17.0817.8517.5217.5716.8316.47
Class V.—Developmental Diseases 6.767.817.436.967.376.99
Class VI.—Local Diseases      
    Order 1. Diseases of nervous system11.0311.9810.9511.3511.3010.30
    Order 2. Diseases of organs of special sense0.120.050.120.120.050.11
    Order 3. Diseases of circulatory system6.678.529.206.868.038.65
    Order 4. Diseases of respiratory system12.2712.9311.9412.6312.1911.22
    Order 5. Diseases of digestive system9.228.468.859.497.988.33
    Order 6. Diseases of lymphatic system and ductless glands0.160.160.100.170.150.10
    Order 7. Diseases of urinary system2.202.613.142.262.462.95
    Order 8. Diseases of reproductive system—      
    (a) Of organs of generation0.280.340.470.280.310.44
    (b) Of parturition1.151.260.921.191.190.86
    Order 9. Diseases of organs of locomotion0.360.370.400.370.350.37
    Order 10. Diseases of integumentary system0.290.330.240.300.310.23
                  Total Class VI.43.7547.0146.3345.0244.3243.56
Class VII.—Violence      
    Order 1. Accident or negligence8.118.227.838.357.757.37
    Order 2. Homicide0.050.090.170.050.080.16
    Order 3. Suicide0.850.680.800.870.640.75
    Order 4. Execution0.03....0.03....
                  Total Class VII.9.048.998.809.308.478.28
Class VIII.—Ill-defined and Not specified Causes 5.404.945.875.554.665.52

The deaths in 1889 from specific febrile or zymotic diseases amounted to 736, being at the rate of 120 in every 100,000 persons living, an increase of 38 on the number in 1888, and of 5 in the proportion to population. The increase is attributed to the greater mortality in 1889 from diarrhœal diseases. In 1887 these diseases caused 475 deaths; in 1888, 214; and in 1889, 355. There was, however, a considerable decrease in 1889 in the number of deaths from diphtheria, enteric or typhoid fever, and whooping-cough.

The following are the diseases in this class which caused the greatest mortality in each of the past six years:—

Diseases.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
Measles311492852
Scarlet fever and scarlatina17127182119
Diphtheria1121047892143113
Whooping-cough167911321387219
Diarrhœal diseases208399455475214355
Enteric or typhoid fever104118123158130118
Puerperal fever204833243925

Small-pox is still absent as a cause of death. Owing doubtless to the immunity the colony has had from invasion by that disease, there appears to be an increasing disregard to the necessary precautionary measure of vaccination. If small-pox should unfortunately be introduced, an occurrence, even although the greatest care be exercised, by no means impossible, the present inattention to vaccination may be a cause of much regret.

In 1887 the children under 1 year of age vaccinated numbered 10,293, or 53.79 per cent. of those born; in 1888 the number was 9,659, or 51.10 per cent. of the births; and in 1889, 8,928, or 18.37 per cent. of the births: nor is the diminished number compensated for by vaccinations of older children, for, with 3,123 children from 1 to 14 years of age vaccinated in 1888, there were only 2,985 at the same age-period vaccinated in 1889.

Although the deaths from diphtheria were not so numerous as in 1888, yet they were more than in the years preceding that one. Of these deaths in 1889, 33 occurred in the Otago District and 27 in Canterbury; Wellington took third place, with 13; but Taranaki, with 12, suffered most in proportion to population from this complaint.

The rates of mortality from this disease in every 10,000 persons living in the several provincial districts were in the last three years as follows:—

 1887.1888.1889.
Auckland0.71.30.6
Hawke's Bay0.82.71.9
Taranaki1.110.46.2
Wellington1.02.31.5
Marlborough3.51.73.3
Nelson2.67.30.9
Westland0.00.04.8
Canterbury4.03.72.1
Otago0.50.52.1

In the past two years diphtheria has been more prevalent in proportion to population in Taranaki than in either of the other districts.

It has already been stated that there was a considerable increase in the number of deaths from diarrhœal diseases in 1889 upon that in 1888. The mortality from these diseases is largely regulated by the temperature; it is greatest in the summer and early autumn—the months of January to April inclusive. It is very low in the winter and early spring months; the increase is small after that until January.

The following statement shows how the mortality from diarrhœal diseases rises and falls with the temperature. The mean maximum temperature in the months named is given:—

1886.
Jan.Feb.March.Mean.
 Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘
Auckland75 376 072 074 43
Wellington70 270 468 569 70
Lincoln70 674 466 370 43
Dunedin66 366 560 162 47
          Average of means.........69 25
Deaths from diarrhœal diseases.........455
Proportion of those deaths to every 10,000 persons living.........7.82
1887.
Jan.Feb.March.Mean.
 Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘
Auckland78 077 374 376 53
Wellington75 471 169 071 83
Lincoln76 473 073 574 30
Dunedin77 270 667 571 77
          Average of means......73 60
Deaths from diarrhœal diseases......47
Proportion of those deaths to every 10,000 persons living.........7.9
1888.
Jan.Feb.March.Mean.
 Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘
Auckland72 270 969 270 77
Wellington67 566 766 867 00
Lincoln73 571 168 571 03
Dunedin70 265 762 566 13
          Average of means......68 73
Deaths from diarrhœal diseases......214
Proportion of those deaths to every 10,000 persons living.........3.53
1889.
Jan.Feb.March.Mean.
 Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘Fahr. 0 ‘
Auckland76 074 872 674 46
Wellington70 670 465 568 83
Lincoln74 171 971 472 47
Dunedin73 367 063 267 83
          Average of means......70 89
Deaths from diarrhœal diseases......355
Proportion of those deaths to every 10,000 persons living.........5.78

The deaths from typhoid fever, which numbered 158 in 1887, were only 130 in 1888, and 118 in 1889. The following shows the number of these deaths in every 10,000 persons living in each of the provincial districts during the past three years:—

 1887.1888.1889.
Auckland4.04.11.8
Hawke's Bay5.12.74.9
Taranaki(1 death)2.62.0
Wellington3.62.12.4
Marlborough2.61.70.0
Nelson0.61.31.3
Westland0.0(1 death)(1 death)
Canterbury2.91.33.10
Otago1.21.40.70

Of the deaths from typhoid fever 25 occurred in the Provincial District of Auckland, of which 4 took place in the Borough of Auckland; of 20 deaths in the Wellington District 10 occurred in the Borough of Wellington; of 40 deaths in the Canterbury District 5 occurred in Christchurch. Only 11 deaths from this cause occurred in Otago, but not one in the borough of Dunedin.

Deaths from enteric or typhoid fever are, proportionately to the population, higher in the Australasian Colonies than in England. The following shows the number of deaths from that disease in every 10,000 persons living:—

England, 18881.69
New Zealand, 18891.92
Queensland, 18884.32
New South Wales, 18884.08
Victoria, 18885.09
South Australia, 18894.06
Tasmania, 18897.59

The deaths from dietetic diseases include those of 27 males and 12 females from alcoholic intemperance. This was an increase of 5 in the number of deaths of males and 6 in that of females from the same cause in 1888. But these numbers do not include all the deaths caused by abuse of intoxicating drinks, as many deaths are attributed to diseases which are caused or developed by habits of intemperance.

Phthisis causes more deaths than any other disease; consequently the consideration of the climatic influences of any country in either developing, warding off, or retarding the progress of this disease is of great interest. Phthisis caused 499 deaths in 1889, an increase of 23 on the number in 1888. Of those who died, 263 were males and 236 females. The deaths were in the proportion of 8.19 in every 10,000 persons living, or among males 8.01 in every 10,000 living, and among females 8.27 in every 10,000 living of that sex.

The death-rate from phthisis in 1889, though high than in 1888, was below that in either of the Australasian Colonies except Tasmania, and not much more than has the rate that obtains in England, where the rate has for some years past largely and steadily decreased.

DEATHS FROM PHTHISIS.

Year.In 10,000 Persons living.Year.In 10,000 Persons living.
New Zealand1,8887.861,8898.13
Queensland1,88712.431,88813.04
New South Wales1,8879.561,8889.82
Victoria1,88715.261,88814.39
South Australia1,88811.741,8899.16
West Australia1,8889.961,8899.09
Tasmania1,8888.041,8898.13
England1,88715.911,88815.41

The death-rates from phthisis in all these colonies are materially increased by the deaths of persons who have arrived in a diseased condition or constitutionally predisposed thereto. There is, however, no reason to supposed that the rate is more affected by this cause in the other colonies than in New Zealand, consequently the lower rate in this colony may be accepted as an indication of the superiority of its climate for withstanding the development of phthisical tendencies.

The following table gives the ages, with the length of residence in the colony, of those who died from phthisis in 1889:—

Length of Residence in the Colony.Age at Death.
Under 5.5 to 10.10 to 15.15 to 25.25 to 35.35 to 45.45 to 55.55 to 65.65 to 75.Total.
MALES.          
Under 1 month..............................
1 to 6 months............221...16
6 to 12 months.........31............4
1 to 2 years.........2513......11
2 to 3 years............5113...10
3 to 4 years.........221...1...6
4 to 5 years............3...1......4
5 to 10 years.........310851128
10 to 15 years.........381262...31
15 to 20 years.........37951...25
20 to 25 years.........12...33110
25 years and upwards............982412760
Not known.........1...741...13
Born in colony212321251......55
    Totals212506654542410263
FEMALES.          
1 to 6 months..............................
6 to 12 months............1............1
1 to 2 years.........22............4
2 to 3 years.........12............3
3 to 4 years............21...1...4
4 to 5 years...............2.........2
5 to 10 years......241242......24
10 to 15 years.........814851...36
15 to 20 years.........64123...227
20 to 25 years............1515113
25 years and upwards............17118128
Not known.........111.........3
Born in colony534472561....91
    Totals53670694227113236
    Totals both sexes74812013596813513499

Of those who died from phthisis 146, or 29 per cent., were born in the colony. In 1888 the similar number was 145, and the proportion 30 per cent. 39 of the deaths, or 7.82 per cent., were of persons who had not resided three years in the colony, and may probably be considered to have arrived in a diseased condition. Of the 16 whose length of residence was not stated, some may have been only short time in the colony; and of the rest, many, possibly, who have survived a three-years’ residence may yet own their deaths to constitutional weakness affecting them before arrival. There is much, therefore, to make what may be termed the liability to the development of phthisis in New Zealand less than would appear from the rates previously given.

In 1886 the New-Zealand born comprised 51.89 per cent, of the population. It is estimated that in the middle of 1889 the proportion was about 55.5 per cent., that in that nearly 338,000 of the then population were born in the colony. The number of deaths from phthisis amounted to 8.13 per 10,000 of the population, against 7.86 in 1888 Of these deaths in 1889, only 146 were of persons born in the colony, the proportion being 4.32 to every 10,000 of the New-Zealand-born population. The proportion in 1888 was scarcely 4.40. The remaining deaths gave a proportion in 1889 of 12.79 in every 10,000 persons born outside of the colony, and in 1888 a proportion of 12.02.

The following table gives the number and proportion in each sex per 100 deaths from phthisis at each age-period for the ten years 1880 to 1889 inclusive:—

Age at Death.Males.Females.
Number of Deaths.Per 100 Deaths from Phthisis.Number of Deaths.Per 100 Deaths from Phthisis.
Under 5 years642.33763.58
5 and under 10 yrs.190.69492.31
10 and under 15 yrs.281.02843.96
15 and under 20 yrs.1866.7626312.40
20 and under 25 yrs.38113.8537717.77
25 and under 35 yrs.78128.3962929.64
35 and under 45 yrs.58121.1237217.53
45 and under 55 yrs.45916.691758.25
55 and under 65 yrs.1926.98723.39
65 and under 75 yrs.511.85210.99
75 and upwards80.2920.09
Not specified10.0320.09
 2,751100.002,122100.00

It will be observed that at all ages under 20 years the mortality from this disease was greater among females than males, but after that age many more males than females died, the disproportion increasing in favour of the females with the increase in the ages.

In previous reports reference has been made to the numerical and proportional increase in the deaths from cancer. In 1889 the deaths were not quite so numerous, although the decrease is trifling and the proportion to the increasing population is necessarily less.

In 1887 the deaths from this disease numbered 238, in 1888 263, and in 1889 260. In the previous years there has been a large increase in the death-rates from cancer both in New Zealand and England. The following shows the death-rates from this disease to the 10,000 persons living:—

Year.New Zealand.England.
1,8802.805.14
1,8812.695.20
1,8822.895.32
1,8832.995.46
1,8843.465.60
1,8853.135.66
1,8863.685.83
1,8873.995.06
1,8884.346.10
1,8894.24...

The apparent increase in the mortality from cancer has been deemed to be in part due to improved diagnosis and more careful definition of the cause of death. The greater apparent proportionate increase in the deaths of males from cancer is considered to support this opinion, as “the cancerous affections of males are in much larger proportion internal or inaccessible than are those of females, and consequently are more difficult of recognition, so that any improvement in medical diagnosis would add more to the male than to the female figures.”

The following statement, showing the more rapid growth in the death-rates from cancer of males than of females in the colony, seems to support the above opinion; but the great increase in the rates for both sexes in the last ten years appears to be hardly sufficiently accounted for by that cause only:—

DEATHS FROM CANCER IN EVERY 10,000 PERSONS LIVING OF EACH SEX IN NEW ZEALAND.

Year.Males.Females.
1,8802.363.36
1,8812.253.16
1,8822.793.00
1,8832.703.32
1,8843.263.69
1,8852.823.43
1,8863.693.67
1,8873.964.03
1,8884.194.53
1,8893.474.06

Diseases of the nervous system caused 632 deaths in 1889, being at the rate of 10.30 in every 10,000 persons living. The mortality from these diseases is greater among males than females. Of the 632 deaths, 369 were of males and 263 of females. The following are the diseases in this group or order which caused the greatest mortality in the past three years:—

Disease.Deaths in 1887.Deaths in 1888.Deaths in 1889.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Inflammation of the brain624760426045
Apoplexy844399658568
Hemiplegia and paralysis462844415233
Epilepsy311820131413
Convulsions967384627756

Of the deaths from diseases of the nervous system in 1889, 196 were of children under 5 years of age, of which 128 were from convulsions and 38 from inflammation of the brain.

531 persons, of whom 332 were males and 199 were females, died in 1889 from diseases of the circulatory system. This was an increase of 45 on the number in 1888, and of 122 on that in 1887. The mortality from these diseases is much greater among males than among females; in 1889 it amounted to 10.11 in every 10,000 males living, and to 6.97 in every 10,000 females living.

Diseases of the respiratory organs caused 689 deaths in 1889, a decrease of 49 on the number in 1888. The most fatal of these diseases were—croup, which caused 47 deaths of males and 21 of females; bronchitis, 150 of males, 125 of females; and pneumonia, 147 deaths of males, 82 of females.

Diseases of parturition caused 53 deaths; diseases from puerperal fever—pyæmia and septicæmia — caused 25. These two numbers, 78, represent the mortality incidental to child-bearing. This is in the ratio of 1 death of a mother to every 237 children born, or, allowing for twin births, 1 in every 235 child-bearing women died. This is a much less ratio than that in 1888, when 1 in every 169 child-bearing women died. The smaller mortality, from whatsoever cause it arose, meant a saving to the State of 33 child-bearing women and their future children.

The violent deaths numbered 508, equivalent to 8.28 in every 10,000 persons living. The proportion in 1888 was 8.47. Of these deaths in 1889, 417 were of males and 91 of females, being in the proportion of 12.70 in every 10,000 males living, and 3.19 in every 10,000 females living. 10.5 per cent. of male and 4.40 of the female violent deaths were suicidal.

The following gives the number of deaths from external or violent causes in the ten years 1880-89:—

Accident or negligence—M.F.
    Fractures, &c.1,605160
    Gunshot-wounds1065
    Cut, stab4719
    Burns and scalds225219
    Poison8330
    Drowning1,338234
    Suffocation14385
    Otherwise22663
              Total accidents3,773815
Homicide—  
    Murder or manslaughter3838
    Battle-wounds20
              Total homicides4038
Suicide—  
    Gunshot-wounds1077
    Cut, stab726
    Poison7928
    Drowning4217
    Hanging11016
    Unspecified242
              Total suicides43476
Execution—  
    Hanging50

“The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1885, constituted 28 hospital districts, each consisting of one more counties, with the several interior boroughs, the whole number comprising all that portion of the colon included within the three principal islands, the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands. These districts are presided over by elected Boards. The revenues of the Boards arise from Hospital or Charitable-aid Funds, established by the Act, and consisting chiefly of—

  • (1.) Rents and profits of land and endowments vested in the Board or set apart for the benefit of particular institutions;

  • (2.) Voluntary contributions;

  • (3.) Grants from contributory local authorities; and

  • (4.) Subsidies from the Consolidated Fund (these being at the rate of 10s. for every £1 of bequests, but in no case exceeding £500 in respect of any one bequest; 1 4s. for every £1 of voluntary contributions; and £1 for every £1 received from any local authority).

The contributory local authorities—being the County and Borough Councils, and Boards of road and town districts where the Counties Act is not in operation—are empowered by the Act to raise by special rates the amounts assessed by the Hospital District Boards as the proportionate contributions for the purpose of the fund mentioned.

The District Boards undertake the general management and control of hospitals that are not incorporated in terms of the Act, and are required to contribute to the support of incorporated hospitals. Incorporated hospitals are those having not less than one hundred subscribers, who contribute not less than £100 annually to the institution by amounts of not less than 5s., and have been declared by the Governor in Council, after receipt by him of a duly-signed petition, to be a body politic and corporate.

Of the 38 hospitals in the colony, 25 are incorporated institutions, and 13 are directly managed and controlled by District Boards.

These several hospitals afford on the whole accommodation for 976 male and 428 female patients, a total of 1,404. There was increased bed-accommodation supplied during the year for 38 male and 51 female patients. The number of cubic feet space included within the walls of all the sleeping wards was 1,859,739, which gave an average of 1,325 cubic feet to each bed. As the cubic space for each bed averaged 1,362 feet at the end of 1888, the increased accommodation has resulted in a reduction of this average by 37 cubic feet.

4,756 males and 1,925 females were admitted as patients during the year 1889, and 536 male and 181 female patients were inmates at the end of the year. The total number of indoor patients during the year was 7,380, namely, 5,286 males and 2,094 females, an increase on the numbers in 1888 of 268 males and 211 females. Of the patients in 1889, 451 males, or 8.53 in the 100 male patients, and 140 females, or 6.69 in the 100 female patients, died. The deaths in 1888 in the hospitals were of males 8.81 and of females 6.61 per cent. of the respective sexes. Of the 7,380 patients, 1,189 were suffering from accidents, of whom 42 died; and 12 from attempts at suicide, of whom 4 died.

In addition to the indoor patients, outdoor relief was given to 9,525 distinct persons. This number does not fully represent the number of those who received such relief, as in some of the hospitals no records are kept of outdoor patients, and no returns of the numbers relieved can be made.

27 of the inmates of lunatic asylums in New Zealand were Chinese, the proportion being 1 to every 170 of the Chinese population in the colony.

There are 4 industrial schools maintained by the Government, and 1 industrial school maintained wholly by the local authorities. In addition, 3 orphanages under the control of the Roman Catholic clergy have been constituted industrial schools for the reception of children committed under the Industrial Schools Act: the Government pays a contribution of 1s. a day for each child committed to these institutions. 169 children of both sex were committed to these schools in 1889, namely, 110 boys and 59 girls, a decrease of 9 in the number of boy and of 12 in that of girls committed in 1888.

The number of committed children belonging to these schools at the end of 1889 was 1,525, namely, 896 boys and 629 girls. Of these, 600 were actually in the schools, 454 were boarded out, 326 were at service, 122 were with friends, and the others were variously accounted for.

Of the 169 admitted during the year, 47 had been guilty of punishable offences.

Of 201 children discharged from the schools during the year, 17 were transferred to the Costley Training Institution of Auckland. This institution was established and is maintained out of funds bequeathed for such a purpose chiefly by the generosity of one private individual, and has for its objects the selection of a certain number of boys and girls of ages fit to be apprenticed, being inmates of the schools established under “The Industrial Schools Act, 1882,” in or near the City of Auckland, and the apprenticing boys to suitable trades, the maintaining such boys at the said institution until they are capable of being left to their own control, and the providing such girls with domestic service or other suitable employment.

With respect to the religious denomination of the committed children the following shows the number and proportion of each of the three principal denominations, and the percentage of each denomination to the total population; but the religious belief should perhaps rather be deemed that of the parents of the children than of any convictions of their own:—

Denomination of Children.Numbers committed in 1889.Percentage.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1886.
Church of England6337.2840.17
Roman Catholic5834.3213.95
Presbyterian3923.0822.59

Observations were taken in 1889 at 9.30 a.m. daily at 6 different stations, namely, at Auckland, in the northern part of the North Island; at Te Aroha and Rotorua, in the Hot-springs District; at Wellington, at the extreme south of the North Island; at Lincoln, in the Canterbury District, about midway in the Middle Island; and at Dunedin, in the southern district of the Middle Island. The differences of elevation and latitude between the several stations involved considerable differences of temperature. The mean temperature in the shade for the year ranged from 59.5° Fahr. in Auckland to 51.1° in Dunedin, being 2° higher in Auckland and 1.4° higher in Dunedin than in 1888. The maximum recorded temperature in the shade was 93° at Te Aroha. At Auckland it was 82°, at Rotorua 88.5°, at Wellington 80°, at Lincoln 90.6°, and at Dunedin 86°. The minimum temperature in the shade recorded was at Auckland 40°, at Te Aroha 27°, at Rotorua 23.2°, at Wellington 31.5°, at Lincoln 22°, and at Dunedin 24°. The extreme range during the year was thus least in Auckland, 42°, and greatest at Lincoln, 68.6°.

The rainfall was very much heavier in the northern portion of the North Island in 1889 than in 1888; but at Wellington and the southern stations the rainfall was very light both comparatively and actually in 1889.

1888.1889.
Station.Rainfall. Inches.Number of Days on which Rain fell.Rainfall. Inches.Number of Days on which Rain fell.
Auckland34,60017441,970162
Te ArohaNo observations55 620130 
Rotorua40,12012650,630131 
Wellington41,00918631,356155 
Lincoln29,15512820,384109 
Dunedin48,35615723,446131 

The greatest rainfall in any twenty-four hours in 1889 occurred at Rotorua, 3.250in.

Daily observations have not been continued at Hokitika, on the west coast of the Middle Island, since 1880; but for the ten years, 1871 to 1880 inclusive, the annual rainfall there averaged 122.990in., the greatest rainfall in either of those years having been 154-446 in., and the smallest 96.170in.

The windy days in Wellington, although much less numerous in 1889 than in 1888, were far in excess of those at the other stations.

 Number of Days on which there were Gales or High Wind.Maximum Velocity of Wind in Miles in any 24 Hours.
Auckland39880
Te Aroha34...
Rotorua2...
Wellington77850
Lincoln26670
Dunedin18720

TRADE AND INTERCHANGE.

SHIPPING.

The shipping in 1889 amounted to 781 vessels inwards, of a total of 602,634 tons, and to 762 vessels, of a total of 593,252 tons outwards. The number of vessels and tonnage was in each case very much greater than in 1888. The following table gives the number and tonnage of vessels inwards and outwards during the past ten years:—

Year.Vessels Inwards.Vessels Outwards.
 No.Tons.No.Tons.
1,880730395,675786424,041
1,881765420,134762413,487
1,882795461,285769438,551
1,883805494,926851507,565
1,884852529,188872534,242
1,885786519,700780513,000
1,886725502,572707488,331
1,887653489,754675493,583
1,888683526,435701531,478
1,889781602,634762593,252

In 1863 the average size of the vessels that arrived in the colony was 364 tons. In 1880 it was 512, and in 1889, 771 1/2. Of the shipping inwards in 1889, 300 were steam-vessels, of an average of 1,208 2/3 tons, and 481 were sailing-vessels, of an average of 499 tons.

Of the shipping inwards and outwards in 1889, more than 20 per cent. of the vessels and 35 per cent. of the tonnage were British, more than 69 per cent. of the vessels and 52 per cent. of the tonnage were colonial, and nearly 10 per cent. of the vessels and more than 12 per cent. of the tonnage were foreign. The following are the respective numbers of vessels, tons, and crews:—

VESSELS INWARDS.

Nationality.Number.Tons.Crews.
British158206,8255,348
Colonial547319,13114,162
Foreign7676,6783,139
          Totals781602,63422,649

VESSELS OUTWARDS.

Nationality.Number.Tons.Crews.
British160211,8725,714
Colonial527307,08313,762
Foreign7574,2973,171
          Totals762593,25222,647

The crews of colonial vessels gave an average of 1 man to about 22 1/2 tons. The crews of foreign vessels gave 1 man to about 23 tons, and those of British vessels 1 man to nearly 38 tons. The proportion of crew to tonnage is largely affected by the size and character of the vessel, whether sailing or steam, and somewhat by the general nature of the voyage made, whether coastal or ocean-going. The colonial sailing-vessels were on an average the smallest in size, but had proportionately the largest crews; the foreign sailing-vessels ranked next, with larger vessels but smaller crews; and the British vessels, which were the largest, had the smallest crews; but the foreign steam-vessels, which occupied the middle place as to size, had proportionately the largest crews of all vessels.

Size, and crews of sailing- and steam-vessels.

SAILING-VESSELS.

Nationality.Average Size. Tons.Average Number of Tons per Man of the Crews.
British983.2248.49
Colonial297.4835.70
Foreign544.1742.98

STEAM-VESSELS.

Nationality.Average Size. Tons.Average Number of Tons per Man of the Crews.
British2,292.2829.68
Colonial961.3719.46
Foreign1,869.4219.21

The following table gives the number, tonnage, and crews of vessels that entered and cleared in 1888 and 1889:—

Description.Year 1888.Year 1889.
No.Tons.Crews.No.Tons.Crews.
Entered—      
    Steam-vessels264345,53116,158300362,60717,040
    Sailing-vessels419180,9044,625481240,0275,609
          Totals683526,43520,783781602,63422,649
Cleared—      
    Steam-vessels270349,96516,222295364,43617,100
Sailing-vessels431181,5134,739467228,8165,547
          Totals701531,47820,961762593,25222,647

The increase in 1889 extended to the numbers and tonnage of both classes of vessel; but the increase was greater in the number and tonnage of sailing- than in those of steam-vessels.

The following are the numbers and tonnage of each foreign nationality that entered in the past three years:—

VESSELS ENTERED.

Nationality.Sailing or Steam.1887.1888.1889.
Number.Tonnage.Number.Tonnage.Number.Tonnage.
AmericanSailing136,754116,9752212,084
AmericanSteam1732,9631834,9021834,902
FrenchSailing2813....1317
ItalianSailing........1747
AustrianSailing........1452
GermanSailing178,54262,48895,676
GermanSteam1340........
NorwegianSailing73,30254,56086,241
SwedishSailing21,28032,27321,451
DanishSailing25182649....
DutchSailing....1394....
ChilianSailing117311332306
BolivianSailing........1587
TonganSailing185....2170
HawaiianSteam915,417915,417813,704
Cook IslandsSailing........141
        Totals..7270,1875667,7917676,678

Of the 781 vessels that entered in 1889, 627, or 80.28 per cent., arrived with cargoes, and 154, or 19.72 per cent., arrived in ballast. This was an increase of 41 in the member and of 3.18 in the percentage of the vessels that arrived in ballast in 1888. The following statement gives the particulars for the past three years of the vessels inwards and outwards with cargoes and in ballast:—

With Cargoes.In Ballast.
Inwards—Number.Percentage.Number.Percentage.
    Vessels, 188759791.42568.58
    Vessels, 188857083.4611316.54
    Vessels, 188962780.2815419.72
    Tons, 1887467,38795.4322,3674.57
    Tons, 1888456,23786.6770,19813.33
    Tons, 1889501,60483.12101,63016.88
Outwards—    
    Vessels, 188760589.637010.37
    Vessels, 188868798.00142.00
    Vessels, 188973496.33283.67
    Tons, 1887455,78792.3437,7967.66
    Tons, 1888524,87498.766,6041.24
    Tons, 1889577,08797.2816,1652.72

The growth of the colonial trade can be to an extent gauged by the shipping returns. In 1888 the imports required less tonnage than in 1887; but in 1889 the requirement for tonnage inwards with cargo was greatly in excess of that in 1888. The large expansion in the volume of the export trade is perceptible by the number and tonnage of ships that arrived in ballast seeking cargoes, and the greatly increased tonnage of vessels outwards with cargoes in each of the two past years over the year proceeding.

The following table shows the number and tonnage of the vessels inwards and outwards for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1889:—

Colony.Inwards.Outwards.Total.
 Vessels.Tons.Vessels.Tons.Vessels.Tons.
Queensland760506,780773494,2291,5331,001,009
New S. Wales3,2542,632,0813,2292,689,0986,4835,321,179
Victoria2,8552,270,8272,8862,328,3515,7414,599,178
South Australia1,036978,5321,046980,8102,0821,959,342
W'st'n Australia349497,232345507,5866941,004,818
Tasmania842458,247819453,9991,661912,246
New Zealand781602,634762593,2521,5431,195,986
      Totals9,8777,946,3339,8608,047,32519,73715,993,658

The tonnage of New Zealand shipping was about one-thirteenth of the total for all the Australasian Colonies, the population of the colony, exclusive of Maoris, having been about one-sixth of the population of the whole group. When making the comparison it must not be overlooked that the shipping from New Zealand represents chiefly a direct trade without calling at intermediate ports; but the large steamers of the ocean lines leaving the Australian ports call at more than one of these colonies where each is entered, thus largely adding to the shipping tonnage of the port of call.

The following table shows the tonnage of vessels inwards from and outwards to different countries with cargoes and in ballast in 1888 and 1889:—

Countries whence arrived or for which cleared.Entered, 1888.Entered, 1889.Cleared, 1888.Cleared, 1889.
With Cargo.In Ballast.With Cargo.In Ballast.With Cargo.In Ballast.With Cargo.In Ballast.
 Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.
United Kingdom127,787...147,108...197,258...211,914...
Australia193,57864,846226,57189,285234,6873,887271,5427,178
Tasmania63,0142,46049,18971731,5854532,348...
Fiji11,46719910,752558,671...7,590...
Other Pacific islands36,88281339,1442,16135,06656436,0731,430
Guam............1,585...709...
United States—........................
    East Coast10,545...9,900...5,614...9,504...
    West Coast......1,352......887...1,116
China and Hongkong4,027...2,108...1,109...2,503...
India and Burmah3,026...5,174...5,4721,2211,6531,080
Java873...3,316...1,459.........
Mauritius3,945...4,9611,574252.........
Cape Colony...1,127...1,429......834...
Natal.........1,296............
Brazil.........1,115............
Argentine Republic...753...3,998............
Peru.....................3,186
Chili.....................1,852
Portugal............1,023.........
Germany..................1,336...
Whale Fisheries1,093...1,429...1,093...1,081323

These was again in 1889, as in 1888, a decrease in the coastal traffic on that in the previous year.

In 1887 the number of sailing-vessels entered coastwise were 4,584, of 268,514 tons; in 1888, 4,436, of 235,765 tons; and in 1889, 4,192, of 220,491 tons. This falling-off of tonnage in the sailing-vessels has not been met by a corresponding increase in the tonnage of steam-vessels. In 1887 the number of steam-vessels entered coastwise was 12,947, of 3,367,667 tons; in 1888, 12,718, of 3,394,637 tons; and in 1889, 12,974, of 3,380,232 tons.

The difference between the number and tonnage of vessels on the New Zealand register in the two past years was very small, but it was, as regards the tonnage, in favour of 1889:—

Upon the Register.Sailing-vessels.Steam-vessels.Totals.
 No.Tons, net.No.Tons, net.No.Tons, net.
Dec. 31, 188835835,46416629,86152465,325
Dec. 31, 188935034,91017030,91952065,829

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.

The declared value of all the imports in 1889 amounted to £6,297,097, being an increase on the value in 1888 of £355,197. If the specie imported be deducted in each case, the increase in 1889 of other articles imported amounted to £538,767.

The following table gives the value of imports yearly for the last eight years:—

Year.Imports, inclusive of Specie.Imports, exclusive of Specie.
 £      £      
1,8828,609,2708,343,950
1,8837,974,0387,773,966
1,8847,663,8887,326,208
1,8857,479,9217,278,101
1,8866,759,0136,319,223
1,8876,245,5156,064,281
1,8885,941,9005,430,050
1,8896,297,0975,968,817

The following table shows the value of certain principal articles imported in each of the years 1887, 1888, and 1889:—

Groups of Principal Articles imported.1887.1888.1889.
 £      £      £      
Apparel and slops169,521236,707330,304
Boots and shoes159,390145,742117,907
Cotton piece-goods200,990266,646330,534
Drapery742,281508,558360,226
Haberdashery80,81580,37674,513
Hosiery39,77855,61757,992
Hats and caps28,47537,45953,854
Linen manufactures17,40723,46444,914
Millinery29,07531,74922,336
Silks8,44332,69475,248
Woollens97,33791,001125,622
                Totals1,573,5171,510,0131,593,450
Agricultural implements14,10211,9227,740
Cutlery13,57213,50217,883
Hardware and ironmongery165,134140,572149,207
Iron rails and railway-bolts, &c.31,32513,94314,016
Iron, other—pig, wrought, wire, &c.324,680248,948380,897
Machinery197,012164,462190,676
Nails20,68224,25624,182
Railway plant38,14123,92613,161
Sewing-machines18,65110,28124,981
Steel and steel rails18,58818,21440,086
Tools, artificers’31,17327,75838,972
                Totals873,060697,784901,801
Sugar437,694350,637398,527
Tea233,244186,217137,925
                Totals670,938536,854536,452
Beer61,10847,85254,323
Spirits191,586154,594182,740
Tobacco82,406106,246105,402
Wine53,12442,40747,214
                Totals388,224351,099389,679
Groups of Principal Articles imported.1887.1888.1889.
 £      £      £      
Paper122,60294,614107,885
Printed books112,19994,423110,874
Stationery67,88758,54366,219
                Totals302,688247,580284,978
Bags and sacks77,982152,140178,727
Coals108,28898,431114,053
Fancy goods68,26664,80669,448
Fruits (including fresh, preserved, bottled, dried)123,506113,31183,317
Oils92,173121,159121,232
Other imports (excluding specie)1,785,6391,536,8731,695,680
    Totals (excluding specie)6,064,2815,430,0505,968,817
    Specie imported181,234511,850328,280
    Total imports6,245,5155,941,9006,297,097

In the clothing group the large decrease in the imports of boots and shoes appears to indicate a considerable expansion of the local industry in the manufacture of these articles. While the imports of cotton piece-goods have largely increased, those of drapery have been very largely contracted. The difference between the imports of drapery in 1889 and 1887 is very great—a decrease of 50 per cent.; but the difference is greater if comparison be made with 1885, when these imports amounted to £1,089,640, a decrease in 1889 of £729,414, or more than 67 per cent. The large increase in the value of silk imports is hardly consistent with the cry of “hard times” that has been expressed.

The value of imports of sugar was greater in 1889 than in 1888, but it was only a little more than half that in 1884. There was a considerable decrease both in the values and quantities of tea imported in 1889.

The percentage per head of population (excluding Maoris) of these imports in each of the past three years is shown in the following statement:—

1887.1888.1889.
Total.Per Head.Total.Per Head.Total.Per Head.
          TEA.Lb.Lb.Lb.Lb.Lb.Lb.
Imported4,718,7617.914,627,8497.643,548,5295.78
Entered for consumption4,815,2868.074,036,7296.663,696,2436.02
          SUGAR     .
Imported54,727,79291.7746,990,27277.6259,799,31197.42
Entered for consumption51,365,77686.1850,180,19982.8948,87,33979.62

The consumption of tea by the Maoris is inconsiderable. It has been estimated by a competent authority on Native customs that on an average they do not consume more than Lb. of tea per head per annum, but that their consumption of sugar may probably be equal to about one-fourth of the quantity consumed by an equal number of Europeans. On that basis the annual consumption per head of the European portion of the population for the last three years would be reduced to the following:—

1887.1888.1889.
 Lb.Lb.Lb.
Tea8.006.605.95
Sugar84.6681.5078.26

There was a considerable increase in 1889 in the values of beer, spirits, and wine imported; but the test of the measure of consumption is the amount cleared from the warehouse for consumption. According to that amount the consumption of spirits was again less per head of population in 1889, but a larger quantity of beer and wine was consumed.

The following table gives the consumption per head of the population, including and excluding the Maoris, showing separately the proportion of beer, wine, and spirits for the last nine years. The amount of beer manufactured in the colony in each year, except the quantity exported, has been included, as well as the amount brought into consumption from imports:—

Year.Beer.Spirits.Wine.
Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.
 Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.
1,88110,2159,3771,1591,0640.3350.308
1,88210,5239,6841,1531,0610.3510.323
1,8839,4358,7091,0881,0050.3150.291
1,8848,7698,1210.9990.9230.2720.253
1,8858,4147,8400.8990.8250.2610.243
1,8867,8617,3330.8200.7650.2120.198
1,8877,6517,1480.7700.7190.1980.185
1,8887,1336,6700.8200.7670.1670.156
1,8897,6247,1360.5980.5600.1760.165

The apparent increase in the quantity of spirits consumed in 1888 is accounted for by speculative clearances from the warehouse in November of that year, in anticipation of an increase in the duty. Under ordinary circumstances, the amount cleared for home consumption represents fairly the amount actually consumed, as, on account of the high duty, the goods are left in bond until required for use.

The value of tobacco imported was slightly less than in 1888, although much greater than in 1887. The quantity entered for consumption was 1,251,813lb. in 1889, against 1,242,410lb. in the previous year. The consumption per head of population, including Maoris (who consume large quantities of tobacco), was in 1885, 2.13lb.; in 1886, 1.96lb.; in 1887, 1.93lb.; in 1888, 1.92lb.; and in 1889, 1.91lb. The increasing proportion of the younger members of the population may account for this steady but small decrease. It is seldom that regular smokers give up the use of tobacco, and their consumption does not vary much in quantity.

There was an increase in 1889 in the value of the imports from the United Kingdom, but a decrease in those from the rest of Europe, the increase in the imports from some of the States having been more than counterbalanced by the decrease from others. There was a decrease in the value of imports from all Australia, but a considerable increase in the values of imports from Mauritius and India.

The following are the values of imports from different countries in 1888 and 1889, given in the order of the increase or decrease from each:—

Country.1888.1889.Increase.
 £      £      £      
United Kingdom3,725,6244,126,311400,687
Mauritius90,496129,94339,447
India and Ceylon172,306204,37332,067
Java23,02544,02621,001
United States323,069342,43619,367
Philippine Islands5,95319,23913,286
Fiji and Pacific Islands142,175153,34411,169
Japan6,1198,2972,178
Singapore6,0777,9921,915
Belgium7492,4201,671
Switzerland7431,592849
Egypt1,2481,980732
Germany18,67618,964288
Brazil...55
Australian Colonies and Tasmania1,218,5931,107,132Decrease. 111,461
Hongkong and China183,049111,62171,428
France11,7427,2314,511
All other unmentioned European countries5,0353,3861,649
Canada and New Brunswick4,2953,1321,163
Asia Minor1,3241,110214

The increase or decrease of imports in each provincial district in 1889 compared with those in 1888 was as follows:—

Provincial District.Increase.Decrease.Rate per Cent.
 £    £     
Auckland...32,9272.30
Taranaki1,799...10.04
Hawke's Bay29,038...20.06
Wellington127,910...11.81
Marlborough2,967...16.70
Nelson...16,64810.20
Westland...32,03434.16
Canterbury53,089...4.13
Otago222,003...13.01

The value of all the exports in 1889 was £9,339,263, against £7,767,327 in 1888, an increase of £1,571,940, being at the rate of over 20 per cent. The exports in 1888 had exceeded those in any previous year by £671,326. The exports which were the produce and manufactures of the colony amounted in value to £9,042,008, an increase of £1,786,880 on the value of similar exports in 1888.

The material progress of the colony may be shown by comparing the exports of home produce during the quinquennial period of 1875-79 with that for the period 1885-89. For the former period the value of home produce amounted to an average of £14 0s. 2d. per head of population; in the latter period the average was £12 1s. 2d. If, however, the gold and wool be excluded from consideration, then the value of home produce amounted in the former period to £2 9s. 3d, and in the latter period to £5. If the calculation be made on the basis of the number of the adult males, then the progress is made more evident.

The following table gives the exports of home produce per head of population of adult males for the Colonies of New Zealand, Victoria, and New South Wales for the periods mentioned:—

New Zealand.Victoria.New South Wales.
1875-79.1875-79.1875-79.
 £ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.
Value home produce per head population14 0 212 10 816 14 4
Value home produce per head adult males47 8 1146 1 958 12 4
Value home produce, less wool and gold, per head population2 9 34 17 97 17 4
Value home produce, less wool and gold, per head adult males8 7 017 19 427 11 8
 1885-89.1885-88.1885-89.
Value home produce per head population12 1 210 7 013 16 6
Value home produce per head adult males44 16 839 7 348 9 6
Value home produce, less wool and gold, per head population5 0 05 14 35 8 1
Value home produce, less wool and gold, per head adult males18 11 1021 14 318 18 10

Thus, although, in consequence of the much smaller yield of gold and the largely-reduced value in wool, the exports from New Zealand of all home products were less per head in the quinquennium of 1885-89 than in the period of 1875-79, yet the value of exports of all products except wool and gold have very largely increased.

The following table gives the values of the several exports of New Zealand produce in each of the last 15 years:—

EXPORTS OF NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.

YearWool.Gold.Frozen Meat.Butter and Cheese.Agricultural Produce.ManufacturesOther N.Z. Produce.Total.
 £      £      £      £      £      £      £      £      
1,8753,398,1551,407,770...2,522253,71940,272373,4065,475,844
1,8763,395,8161,268,599...7,398374,40148,177394,5105,488,901
1,8773,658,9381,476,312...40,171339,39355,789507,8816,078,484
1,8783,292,8071,244,190...21,479617,98044,530559,5225,780,508
1,8793,126,4391,134,641...2,259708,47556,954534,6875,563,455
1,8803,169,3001,220,263...10,333973,00861,751667,7456,102,400
1,8812,909,760996,867...14,6081,089,73987,321663,9555,762,250
1,8823,118,554921,66419,33962,2181,169,020121,447841,1086,253,350
1,8833,014,211892,445118,32848,9121,537,015121,4461,122,8876,855,244
1,8843,267,527988,953345,09091,667968,517104,4251,176,3076,942,486
1,8853,295,275890,056373,857138,129688,415120,5391,175,6406,591,911
1,8863,072,971939,648427,193151,194688,804109,656997,2166,386,682
1,8873,321,074747,878455,870109,483588,022124,3821,204,3726,551,081
1,8883,115,098914,309628,800197,170905,907233,3831,260,4617,255,128
1,8893,976,375785,490783,374213,9451,424,297569,8801,288,6479,042,098

The fluctuations in the values of agricultural produce exported are chiefly caused by the variations in prices, resulting in a greater or smaller breadth of land being cultivated with grain. The sudden large growth of phormium exports in 1889 have materially increased the value of manufactures exported in that year.

Of the exports in 1889, the produce of other countries re-exported, exclusive of specie, amounted in value to £139,347. From the following, which shows the value of re-exports, exclusive of specie, from the colony in each of the past ten years, it is apparent there is no material, development of the re-export trade of this colony:—

RE-EXPORTS.

 £      
1,880129,988
1,881132,868
1,882142,115
1,883156,784
1,884147,741
1,885146,951
1,886198,238
1,887129,691
1,888148,078
1,889139,347

I. 1889 the re-export trade of New South Wales, exclusive of specie, amounted to £2,707,778, or more than nineteen times that of New Zealand, with a population not double the number.

In the following table the principal articles produced in the colony exported in 1888 and 1889 are stated, with the export values of each, and the increase or decrease during the past year:—

Principal Articles exported.1888.1889.Increase.Decrease.
 £      £      £      £      
Wool3,115,0083,976,375861,367...
Tallow124,950159,46034,510...
Hides37,53941,6414,102...
Sheepskins and pelts83,574110,60827,034...
Rabbitskins91,90896,0394,131...
Gold914,309785,490 128,819
Coal61,36776,22814,861...
Silver and minerals11,87623,58611,710...
Flour48,248158,296110,048...
Bran and sharps45,01646,2701,254...
Wheat379,784489,728109,944...
Barley14,29085,77871,488...
Malt8539,8398,986...
Oats258,384360,086101,702...
Beans and peas12,82325,22812,405...
Oatmeal15,22027,37712,157...
Potatoes42,26893,99651,728...
Hops9,02015,9636,943...
Grass-seed70,33645,181...25,155
Live-stock—    
    Cattle11,57710,425...1,152
    Horses34,65520,728...13,927
    Sheep3,5813,764183...
Butter118,252146,84028,588...
Cheese78,91867,10511,813...
Bacon and hams21,79031,1569,366...
Salt beef and pork21,62228,8537,231...
Preserved meats86,128106,77220,644...
Frozen meats628,800783,374154,574...
Sausage-skins9,64712,9933,346...
Fish6,3939,9093,516...
Oysters11,9278,745...3,182
Leather37,84365,36127,518...
Ale and beer1,8981,98284...
Soap3,2462,804...442
Woollen manufactures34,43730,841...3,596
Phormium (N.Z. hemp)75,269361,182285,913...
Timber—    
    Sawn and hewn177,877177,608...269
    Logs1,397124...1,273
Kauri-gum380,933329,590...51,343
Fungus19,20415,903...3,301

There was not only a large increase in the value of the wool exported in 1889, but the quantity was greater than in 1888 by 19,001,621lb., and greater than in any previous year by 11,373,610lb. The export in 1889 amounted to 102,227,354lb.; but the annual production of wool can be best estimated by taking the exports for the twelve months prior to the 30th September in any year, immediately preceding the commencement of shearing, and adding thereto the quantity used in the colony for manufacturing purposes.

The following shows the produce on that basis for the last ten years ending respectively on the 30th September:—

Year ending 30th September.Quantity exported.Quantity purchased by Local Woollen Mills.Total Annual Produce.
 Lb.      Lb.      Lb.      
1,88062,586,189917,22363,503,412
1,88160,477,151*1,500,00061,977,151
1,88264,402,7122,200,00066,602,712
1,88372,842,9491,900,00074,742,949
1,88477,022,8941,580,00078,602,894
1,88578,174,0341,922,93280,096,966
1,88689,485,7571,879,99991,365,756
1,88795,914,1812,001,15597,915,336
1,88889,276,2684,079,56393,355,831
1,88995,618,5073,556,00499,174,511
Estimated.

The smaller quantity of wool purchased for the mills indicates a contraction in the output of woollen fabrics. This is also, to a small extent, shown by the decrease of £3,596 in the value of New Zealand woollen manufactures exported.

Although the value of gold exported in 1889 was less by £128,819 than in 1888, yet the production was greater in 1889 than in 1888.

1888.1889.
 Oz.    £      Oz.    £      
Gold exported229,608914,309197,492785,490
Gold produced201,219801,066203,211808,549

The amount entered for duty for exportation has been taken as the amount produced, although probably the actual production is somewhat greater.

The total quantity of gold entered for duty for exportation to the 31st December, 1889, which may be stated as approximately the amount obtained in the colony, was 11,625,028oz., of the value of £45,652,191. New Zealand takes the second place among the Australasian Colonies for gold-production, although a long way behind the first—Victoria. The produce of gold in that colony in 1888 was 625,026oz., more than three times the quantity obtained in New Zealand.

In 1889 grain took the second place in the list of exports for value. The value of wheat, barley, malt, oats exported was £945,431, being greater than th value of the gold exported by £159,941. The wheat exported amounted to 2,694,143 bushels, more than th amount in 1888 by 386,172 bushels. The quantity of oats exported in 1889 was very little more than in 1888, 2,655,900 bushels, against 2,610,985; but the value was much greater, £360,086, against £258,384. The average value given for oats exported in 1889 is considered to have been too high by about 12 1/2 per cent. This should reduce the value for that year from £360,086 to £315,076.

Frozen, preserved, and salted meats as a whole ranked next for importance in the list of exports. The value of these exports in 1889 amounted to £919,999, of which frozen meats contributed £783,374. The exports of frozen meats are increasing in quantity and value year by year. In 1889 the value was greater than that in 1888 by £154,574, and, on account of the projected establishment of new and the enlargement of existing works, a still greater development of this export may be looked for in the immediate future. The increase in this export tends to promote a further increase, as the establishment of sure markets for the sale of the meat at fairly remunerative prices encourages settlement and the conversion of waste into pasture lands for the purpose of breeding sheep both for wool and to supply the freezing-works.

The following statement of the quantities and declared values of frozen meats exported in the last eight years shows the rapid growth of this branch of industry and its importance to the colony :—

Year.Cwt.£
1,88215,24419,339
1,88387,975118,328
1,884254,069345,090
1,885296,473373,857
1,886346,055427,193
1,887402,107455,870
1,888552,298628,800
1,889656,822783,374

The value of the exports of dairy produce in 1889 exceeded those in 1888 by only £16,775, for although the value of butter exported was greater by £28,588, that of cheese was less by £11,813. More than half (55 per cent.) of the butter exported was sent to the United Kingdom. The following shows how the exports to the Mother-country of butter are increasing :—

Year.Total Export of Butter.Butter exported to the United Kingdom.
 Cwt.Cwt.
1,88524,923273
1,88623,175635
1,88717,0186,937
1,88829,99511,460
1,88937,95521,099

The evidence thus afforded that the British markets can be opened advantageously for the sale of New Zealand butter will tend greatly to increase the production, as a great drawback to dairy enterprise in previous years has been the extremely low and unremunerative prices that, owing to limited local markets, have ruled in the colony in the summer season. Of the butter exports in the earlier years the bulk was sent to the Australian Colonies, principally to New South Wales. The export of cheese to the United Kingdom fell from 25,436cwt. in 1888 to 7,633cwt. in 1889, but the quantity exported to the Australian Colonies increased from 10,509cwt. to 18,100cwt.

The exports of phormium were greatly stimulated in 1889 by the very high prices that ruled in the European markets for all kinds of fibrous materials. In 1887, 1,578 tons were exported; in 1888, 4,042 tons; and in 1889, 17,084 tons. The great fall in the prices of fibres has caused the discontinuance of work at a considerable number of mills, as on account of the bulky nature of the product and the charges thereon the fibre cannot generally be dressed profitably. The export this year, 1890, will therefore be greatly reduced in amount.

The following comparison of the number of phormium-mills and their output in 1886 and 1889 shows how greatly an increase in the price of the fibre to a fairly-remunerative point will expand the dimensions of this branch of industry:—

 March, 1886.March, 1890.
Number of mills30246*
Number of hands2494,804
Amount of horse-power2732,558
Number of machines48414
Raw material used9,173 tons142,813 tons
Fibre dressed1,39719,508 tons
* There were in addition 59 mills from which no returns could be obtained.

The following table gives the value of the exports from each of the ports for the years 1888 and 1889, with the increase or decrease for the past year:—

1888.1889.Increase.Decrease.Rate of Increase or Decrease per cent.
 £    £    £    £     
Lyttelton2,063,1112,021,225 41,886-2.03
Wellington1,209,3891,386,922177,533 14.68
Dunedin1,043,2081,210,397167,189 11.91
Auckland933,9581,042,087108,129 11.57
Napier686,9301,000,382313,452 45.63
Timaru459,322665,638206,316 44.92
Invercargill and Bluff442,265477,94935,684 8.07
Oamaru307,511474,818167,307 54.41
Greymouth10,105180,241170,136 1683.68
Wairau72,505154,45581,950 113.44
Wanganui89,139131,47342,334 47.49
Poverty Bay85,068126,09741,029 48.23
Kaipara77,58590,83913,254 17.08
Hokitika27,09286,87659,784 220.66
Nelson59,86385,22925,366 42.38
New Plymouth52,40361,5209,117 17.40
Picton57,05947,849 9,210-16.14
Patea8,08135,22227,141 33.59
Westport31,47630,365 1,111-3.53
Russell11,31617,3446,028 53.27
Hokianga3,2165,4512,235 69.49
Mongonui6,1493,069 3,080-50.09
Whangaroa11,4023,027 8,375-73.45
Tauranga 790790 Inf.
Fox ton16,299  16,299-100.00
Thames2,273  2,273-100.00

The total value of the external trade in 1889 was £15,636,362, equivalent to £25 9s. 10d. per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris. In 1888 the corresponding amount per head was £22 12s. 11d. The highest record was in 1873, when the total trade per head amounted to £41 19s. 3d.; the imports alone then amounted to £22 9s. 4d. per head, against £10 5s. 4d. in 1839.

For reasons which have been given in previous reports, it has been the practice to exclude the Maori population from consideration in estimating the trade per head; not that they have not an influence on the amount of trade, but that such influence is proportionately so much less than in the case of Europeans that a nearer approximation to correctness in respect of the European portion of the population is obtained by excluding than by including them. The effect of including them would be to reduce the proportion from £25 9s. 10d. to £23 16s. 10d.

The values of imports and exports per head of population, excluding Maoris, were for each of the past ten years as follows:—

Year.Imports.Exports.Total.
 £ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.
1,88012 19 1013 7 1026 7 8
1,88115 2 312 5 827 7 11
1,88216 18 113 1 529 19 6
1,88315 1 313 8 228 9 5
1,88413 17 412 16 826 14 0
1,88513 4 912 1 525 6 2
1,88611 12 211 9 323 1 5
1,88710 9 511 10 321 19 8
1,8889 16 412 16 722 12 11
1,88910 5 415 4 625 9 10

The trade in 1889 with the United Kingdom amounted to £10,725,993, being an increase of £1,291,852 on that in 1888. This trade amounted in 1889 to 68.6 of the total trade; in 1888 the proportion was 68.8.

The trade with the Australian Colonies and Tasmania amounted to £3,252,803, of which that with New South Wales amounted to £1,561,878 (an increase on that in 1888 of £447,295), and that with Victoria to £1,359,437 (a decrease on that in 1888 to the extent of £50,614). The trade with Fiji increased from £149,839 in 1888 to £170,181 in 1889, and that with the other Pacific Islands, including Norfolk Island, from £113,217 to £127,727.

The value of the trade with the United States was slightly greater in 1889 than in 1888, but it was less than in 1881. Although the values fluctuate yearly, there is no permanent growth. Of the stated value of the exports to the States in 1889, £341,362, kauri gum contributed £201,318; gold, not specie, £35,722; specie, £23,297; wool, £7,639; sheep skins without wool, £1,007; and phormium, £62,130 : 1 total of £331,113. The export of phormium in 1889 was exceptional, owing to the high prices of other fibres. There was no direct export of this article to the United States in 1888. If, therefore, the phormium exports in 1889 be excluded from consideration, the trade, limited as it is to a few articles, would appear less than in 1888.

The following table shows the value of the total trade with the United States in each of the past nine years :—

Year.Imports fromExports toTotal Trade.
Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.
 £££££
1,881302,13841,507116,629239,158699,432
1,882398,15365,340126,583308,101898,177
1,883357,87161,379158,426272,563850,239
1,884300,18548,372183,93930,430562,926
1,885366,87334,659130,053274,825806,410
1,886304,57132,751166,92680,474584,722
1,887263,37735,359241,388168,092708,216
1,888285,86437,205204,302119,414646,785
1,889307,15635,280242,77898,584683,798

The total trade with India was greater than in 1888: the imports increased, but the exports fell off in value. The export trade to India is very small. Of £12,973, the value of exports in 1889, the value of horses was £8,715. The imports consist chiefly of bags and sacks, woolpacks, tea, coffee, castor-oil, and rice. The following shows the total trade in each of the past two years :—

Year.Imports from India.Exports to India.Total Trade.
 £££
1,888172,30616,394188,700
1,889204,37312,973217,346

Ceylon and Burmah are included in the term India.

The following table exhibits the value of the trade of the Australasian Colonies for the year 1889 :—

Colony.Imports.Per Head of Population.Exports.Per Head of Population.Total Trade.Per Head of Population.
 ££ s. d.££ s. d.££ s. d.
Queensland6,052,56215 4 107,736,30919 9 813,788,87134 14 6
New South Wales22,863,05720 7 423,294,93420 15 146,157,99141 2 5
Victoria24,402,76022 2 012,734,73411 10 837,137,49433 12 8
South Australia0,804,45121 6 107,259,36522 15 414,063,81644 2 2
Western Australia818,12719 0 0761,39117 13 81,579,51836 13 8
Tasmania1,611,03510 16 61,459,8579 16 23,070,89220 12 8
New Zealand6,297,09710 5 49,339,26515 4 615,636,36225 9 10
Totals and averages68,840,08918 9 262,585,35516 15 7131,434,94435 4 9

The values of the exports of these colonies—chiefly those of South Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria—are largely increased by the inclusion of articles the produce or manufacture of other colonies and countries. The following shows the value of home productions or manufactures exported from each colony in 1889, and the rate per head of the population :—

Colony.Home Produce exported.Per Head of Population.
 ££ s. d.
Queensland7,511,75418 18 4
New South Wales17,423,31115 15 8
Victoria9,776,6708 17 8
South Australia3,694,69211 11 9
Western Australia748,89817 7 11
Tasmania1,422,6059 11 2
New Zealand9,042,00814 14 7
Total49,619,93813 6 1

The total value of the Australasian products exported in 1889 was greater than that in 1888 by £2,057,766, and the amount per head of population greater by 2s. 7d. The amount was greater than that in 1887 by £7,169,220. The home produce exported was less in 1889 than in 1888 by £579,963 from Victoria, and by £976,081 from South Australia; but it was greater from all the other colonies. The value of these exports from Victoria was only 7 1/2 per cent. greater than the value of similar exports from New Zealand, but the number of the New Zealand population was equal to about 55 1/2 per cent. that of the Victorian population. The value of the trade between New Zealand and the United Kingdom amounted in 1889 to 18 per cent. of the total trade between that country and all the Australasian Colonies; the population of New Zealand, exclusive of Maoris, having comprised 16.4 per cent. of that of all these colonies.

The amount of the trade of each of these colonies with the United Kingdom in 1889 is set forth below :—

Colony.Imports from the United Kingdom.Exports to the United Kingdom.Total Trade with the United Kingdom.
 £££
Queensland2,862,8732,498,1355,361,008
New South Wales8,736,4788,964,62517,701,103
Victoria11,414,6827,036,58518,451,267
South Australia2,008,0023,412,3015,420,303
Western Australia364,386506,024870,410
Tasmania517,681251,835769,516
New Zealand4,126,3116,599,68210,725,993
Totals30,030,41329,269,18759,299,600

This trade was greater in value than in 1888 by £438,692. The trade with Queensland was greater by £253,930 than in 1888, that with New South Wales was greater by £11,453, that with Victoria was less by £450,456, and that with South Australia by £755,129. There was an increase in the trade between the United Kingdom and Western Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, amounting in the case of this last-named colony to £1,291,852.

The following statement shows the relative importance of the Australasian Colonies as markets for the productions of the United Kingdom :—

EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM OF HOME PRODUCTIONS IN 1889 to—

British India...£30,955,778
United States...£30,293,942
Australasia—  
    Queensland£2,362,408 
    New South Wales7,014,827 
    Victoria7,721,118 
    South Australia1,618,740 
    Western Australia347,918 
    Tasmania490,530 
    New Zealand3,194,587 
    Fiji21,028 
...22,771,156
Germany...18,343,243
France...14,551,294
Argentine Republic...10,681,879
Holland...9,704,264
Cape of Good Hope and Natal...8,942,781
Canada...7,702,298
China and Hongkong...7,210,181
Belgium...7,160,132
Italy...7,113,040
Brazil...6,232,316
Turkey...6,160,534
Russia...5,332,251
Spain...4,220,162
Japan...3,888,188

The exports of produce to other countries did not in any case amount to £3,000,000.

The amounts given as the value of exports of home produce from the United Kingdom to the several Australasian Colonies are different from the values given of all imports into the colonies from the United Kingdom (the latter include more than British products), and, as the twelve months for arrival of these exports would not correspond with the twelve months during which they were exported, the time of transit must be allowed for.

It is manifest that, having regard to the actually very large trade with Australasia, and to its extremely high rate in proportion to population compared with other countries, to the rapid growth of population, and the consequent future prospects of trade, it is of the highest importance to the United Kingdom to adopt every method that will tend to knit these colonies in closer ties to it, and preserve unimpaired its present proportionate amount of trade with them.

At the present time less than 4,000,000 of Australasians require about 22 3/4 millions’ worth of British products. What, then, may be expected when the population is trebled, which, at the present rate of increase, may come to pass within thirty years? Then Australasia will, at the present rate of requirements, absorb an amount of British products equal to the present consumption by the United States, British India, and Belgium combined, and still with an untold future of expansion.

POSTAL AND ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

There were 1,167 post-offices in New Zealand at the end of 1889, being an increase of 22 on the number in 1888.

There was a large increase during the year in the number of letters, post-cards, book-packets, &c., delivered and posted, also of newspapers posted, but a decrease in the number delivered. The numbers in each of the past two years were as under-stated :—

1888.1889.Increase.
Letters delivered20,895,31621,274,396379,080
Letters posted19,502,70421,026,8371,524,133
Post-cards delivered820,391914,34293,951
Post-cards posted833,706935,818102,112
Books and parcels delivered2,362,2302,604,719242,489
Books and parcels posted2,366,0782,776,774410,696
Newspapers delivered8,461,4538,448,635Dec. 12,818
Newspapers posted7,741,3968,272,381530,985

The average number of letters posted per head of the population in each of the past three years was—

1887.1888.1889.
Letters31.3832.2234.25
Post-cards1.421.371.52
Books and parcels3.783.914.52
Newspapers12.1612.7913.48

During 1889, 172,076 money-orders, for a total amount of £589,545 14s. 9d., were issued by the various post-offices in the colony. This was an increase of 9,689 on the number issued in 1888, and of £33,549 14s. on the amount. The orders payable in the colony were 150,500 in number, of the amount of £540,890 17s., being an increase of 6,050 on the number in 1888, and of £27,162 8s. 10d. on the amount. There was a decrease of 430 in the number, and of £3,321 9s. 11d., in the amount, payable in the United Kingdom and foreign offices. The orders payable in the United Kingdom and foreign countries represented an amount greater by £52,279 2s. 7d. than that of the orders issued in those countries and payable in the colony. There was an increase in the year of 4,838 in the number, and of £9,453 2s. 6d. in the amount, of the orders payable in the Australian Colonies, &c.; the amounts payable therein were less by £4,492 14s. 6d. than the amounts payable in New Zealand on orders issued in the Australian Colonies, &c.

The cost of the various mail services between England and New Zealand was, in each of the years 1888 and 1889, as follows : —

SAN FRANCISCO SERVICE.

 1888.1889.
Payments—£ s. d.£ s. d.
    Subsidies and bonus to ocean companies25,990 0 021,876 13 8
    Light-dues, interprovincial and other charges5,601 14 25,517 14 4
 31,591 14 227,394 8 0
Receipts—  
    Postages collected in England and the colony26,061 0 1125,295 14 1
    Payments by non-contracting colonies5,507 4 85,011 8 4
 31,568 5 730,307 2 5
Cost to the colony23 8 7...
Profit to the colony...2,912 14 5

DIRECT STEAM SERVICE, NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING COMPANY.

 1888.1889.
Payments—£ s. d.£ s. d
    Correspondence, bonus, &c.19,661 9 216,544 16
    Light-dues and interprovincial service3,936 0 03,936 0
 23,597 9 220,480 16 10
Receipts—  
    Postages collected in England and the colony16,917 5 1015,189 0
Cost to the colony6,680 3 45,291 16 8

PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL AND ORIENT LINES SERVICES.

 1888.1889.
Payments—£ s. d.£ s. d.
    To Victoria and New South Wales593 14 3519 8
    Transit through Europe26 15 228 13
    Intercolonial services, &c.157 3 10212 19
 777 13 3761 0
Receipts—  
    Postages collected in England and the colony815 5 9862 17
Profit to the colony37 12 6101 17

The total amount of postages collected for all these services was £46,359 0s. 6d., against £49,300 17s. 2d. in 1888, and £45,327 13s. 1d. in 1887.

The average number of days in 1889 within which the mails were delivered between London and each of the under-mentioned ports in New Zealand was as follows :—

 San Francisco Service.Direct Service.P. and O. Line.Orient Line.
London to—    
    Auckland35.6248.2343.4644.69
    Wellington37.3845.7742.4644.65
    Christchurch38.1346.9243.1244.23
    Dunedin38.7747.5442.6744.08
    Bluff39.5248.4641.9243.12

There were 4,874 miles of telegraph-line open at the end of 1889, requiring 11,827 miles of wire. 1,802,987 telegrams were transmitted during the year; of these, the private and press messages numbered 1,589,157, yielding a revenue of £106,462 18s. 4d., being an increase on the results of 1888 of 40,924 telegrams and of £151 6s. 10d. of revenue, but the number and revenue were less than in 1887.

There were 14 telephone exchanges on the 31st March, 1890, the same number as at the end of the previous twelve months. The number of subscribers was increased from 2,254 in March, 1889, to 2,384 in March last.

The subscriptions received during the past year amounted to £18,581 11s. 7d.; the cost of maintenance amounted to £12,194 10s. 1d. In addition there were 82 private wires, which yielded receipts amounting to £1,161.

WAGES.

The average rates of wages were about the same in 1889 as in 1888. The following were some of the ruling rates in the past year: they varied in different parts of the colony, being generally highest in the gold-fields districts, where the cost of living is greater than in other districts :—

Farm-labourers, with board, from 12s. to 25s. per week.

Farm-labourers, without board, from 4s. to 8s. per day.

Ploughmen, with board, from 12s. to 30s. per week.

Ploughmen, without board, from 4s. to 8s. per day.

Shepherds, with board, from £39 to £90 per annum.

Masons, plasterers, and bricklayers, from 7s. to 16s. per day.

Carpenters, from 7s. to 14s. per day.

Married couples as servants, without family, with board, from £50 to 90 per annum.

General house-servants, with board, from 7s. to 15s. per week.

Needlewomen without board, from 3s. 6d. to 6s. per day.

General labourers, without board, from 5s. to 9s. per day.

Seamen, with board, from £4 10s. to £8 15s. per month.

Rates of wages.

FINANCE, ACCUMULATION, AND PRODUCTION.

FINANCE.

The ordinary and territorial revenue of the colony received during the year 1889 amounted to £3,991,919 13s. 4d., of which the ordinary revenue amounted to £3,635,768 6s. 7d., and the territorial revenue to £356,151 6s. 9d. The receipts from the property-tax were less by £265,111 in 1889 than in 1888. In explanation of this it may be stated that the property-tax collected in the calendar year 1888 was equal to the whole amount collected for one financial year and half that for another. The property-tax for any financial year may be collected by instalments in two calendar years, and therefore, although the proceeds of the tax may be fairly uniform, the amounts collected in different calendar years must fluctuate very greatly. There was a considerable increase in the Customs revenue, but the Postal, Stamp, and Railway revenues hardly varied from the amounts in 1888.

The following were the amounts of revenue realised by Customs duties on imports in each of the past ten years :—

Year.Amount.Increase.Decrease.Rate per Cent. of Increase or Decrease.Customs Revenue per Head of Population.
Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.
 £££ £ s. d.£ s. d.
1,8801,258,11423,272...1.962 13 12 8 6
1,8811,421,609163,495...12.992 17 72 12 11
1,8821,515,90694,297...6.632 19 62 14 9
1,8831,414,182...101,7246.712 13 52 9 4
1,8841,413,014...1,1680.082 11 22 7 4
1,8851,427,97814,964...1.062 9 102 6 5
1,8861,311,808...116,1708.132 5 12 2 0
1,8871,280,585...31,2232.382 2 112 0 1
1,8881,396,391115,806...9.042 6 22 3 2
1,8891,467,31670,925...5.082 7 102 4 19

The amounts above given represent the actual collections in the year, and differ from those given in the finance tables of the statistical volume, which include only the amounts brought to account before hank-closing hours on the last day of the year. The receipts from the imposition of the primage duty of 1 per cent. are included in the Customs revenue for 1888 and 1889.

This duty was discontinued after the 30th September, 1890. It was specially imposed for the purpose of paying off a sum of £128,600, the amount of the deficiency bills issued for the purpose of liquidating part of the deficiency for the year ending the 31st March, 1888.

The following were the amounts of Customs revenue in the several Australasian Colonies in 1889, and the rates per head of the population :—

Colony.Customs Duties Revenue in 1889.Number of Mean Population.Amount per Head of Population.
 £ £ s. d.
Queensland1,344,472397,0613 7 8
New South Wales1,905,8831,103,9701 14 6
Victoria2,879,8301,104,3002 12 2
South Australia529,433318,8531 13 2
Western Australia171,99043,0533 19 11
Tasmania307,352148,8152 1 3
New Zealand—   
    Excluding Maoris1,467,316613,8302 7 9
    Including Maoris655,7992 4 10

For the purpose of calculating the rate of taxation it is necessary to take into account the amount of the property-tax collected in the financial year ending the 31st March, instead of that collected in the year ending the 31st December, as, from the varying dates of collection, the amounts received in each calender year may differ widely even on the same rate of assessment.

In the following statement, showing the amount raised by taxation in each of the past ten years, the property-tax collected during the twelve months ending the 31st March in the year following is included, instead of that collected in each calendar year, otherwise the amounts are those collected in the several calendar years :—

Amount of Revenue raised by Taxation.Amount per Head of Population (excluding Maoris).
Year.££ s. d.
1,8801,755,4143 14 0
1,8811,890,6793 16 8
1,8821,956,5573 16 10
1,8831,957,0803 13 11
1,8841,815,6743 5 9
1,8852,016,7303 10 10
1,8861,882,0503 4 8
1,8871,876,2353 2 11
1,8882,031,6583 7 1
1,8892,090,4053 8 1

As the Maoris contribute somewhat to the Customs revenue, an allowance should be made on that account to ascertain more correctly the amount of taxation per head of the Europeans. It has been shown that by including the Maori population the Customs duties per head of the rest of the population would be reduced by 3s. If this amount be deducted from the taxation per head given for 1889, the rate would be reduced from £3 8s. 1d. to £3 5s. 1d. This last rate may fairly be used for comparison with the rates in the neighbouring colonies.

The following were the rates of taxation per head in the Australasian Colonies in 1889 :—

 £ s. d.
Queensland3 16 4
New South Wales2 8 6
Victoria3 7 11
South Australia2 4 7
Western Australia4 10 3
Tasmania2 16 9
New Zealand (allowing for taxation paid by Maoris through the Customs)3 5 1

Thus, the taxation is proportionately lighter in New Zealand than in Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia, but higher than in the other Australian Colonies.

The territorial revenue in 1889 amounted to £356,151, against a similar revenue of £330,234 in 1888. Of this the land sales for cash amounted to £35,474, a decrease of £15,507 on the receipts in 1888. The receipts on account of land on deferred payments were £56,153 in 1889, £15,278 in 1888, and £47,872 in 1887. The largest source of territorial revenue consists of depasturing licenses, rents, &c., which yielded £172,839 in 1889, against £156,024 in 1888, and £172,937 in 1887. These do not include rents from perpetual leases and small grazing runs, which amounted to £28,070 in 1889, against £19,225 in 1888, and £11,586 in 1887.

There are two classes of expenditure—out of revenue, and out of loans. The ordinary and territorial expenditure chargeable against revenue amounted to £3,981,721 2s. 9d. in 1889, being less than the revenue received for the same period by £10,198 10s. 7d. The expenditure, as stated in the accounts of the Treasury, is in excess of this amount by £275,200; but “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884,” authorised the creation of stock to the amount of the annual increases of the Sinking Fund, the proceeds of such stock to form part of the Consolidated Fund. As the amount so raised by loan practically meets part of the charges on the Sinking Fund, a reduction, equivalent to the proceeds of the debentures issued under the Act, has been made in the amount paid on account of that fund, in order that the actual expenditure chargeable against revenue might be shown. The proceeds of these debentures have therefore not been included in the revenue in the amounts above given.

The expenditure on account of charges of the public debt amounted in 1889 to £1,891,701 15s. 5d., against £1,832,756 15s. 11d. in 1888, an increase in the year to the extent of £58,944 19s. 6d. of annual charge. The expenditure on account of public instruction, including expenditure on school buildings, amounted to £377,716 1s. 7d., equal to 12s. 3 1/2d. per head of population.

Exclusive of £58,425 19s. 10d. advanced as loans to local bodies, the expenditure in 1889 charged against loans amounted to £456,632 4s. 11d., of which £244,906 5s. 9d. was for railway construction, £92,333 2s. 10d. for roads made, &c., £33,577 for public buildings, and £22,660 10s. 8d. for land purchases. The balance was expended on account of various other services.

Besides the revenue raised by the General Government, the County and Borough Councils, and the Town, Road, River, Harbour, and Drainage Boards, levy rates, and obtain revenue from other sources.

To give a just idea of the full cost of Government to the people in the year 1889 the revenue of the local bodies must be added to that of the General Government. This is done in the following statement:—

 £ s. d.£ s. d.
General Government revenue for the year ending 31st December, 1889 3,991,919 13 4
Local bodies revenue (County and Borough Councils, Town, Road, and River Boards for the year ending 31st March, 1890; Drainage and Harbour Boards for the year ending 31st December, 1889)1,168,027 11 2 
    Deduct amount of receipts from the Government139,319 10 8 
 1,028,708 0 6
Total revenue 5,020,627 13 10

An amount equivalent to £8 3s. 7d. per head of the mean population.

The public debt of the colony amounted on the 31st December, 1889, to £38,483,250, being an increase of £157,700 during the year. The net indebtedness (after deducting the accrued sinking fund) was £37,162,891 1s. 1d., being an increase of £191,120 0s. 10d. on the net indebtedness at the end of the previous year. The difference between the amount of increase in the gross and that of the net indebtedness is caused by a decrease to the extent of £33,420 0s. 10d. in the amount of the accrued sinking funds.

Portions of the existing loans were either raised by the several Provincial Governments when in existence, or consist of loans raised for the purpose of paying off their several liabilities. There is considerable difficulty in ascertaining the exact expenditure by the Provincial Governments on public works, or their allocation of the proceeds of loans.

The following may be stated as approximately representing the loan expenditure by the General Government on certain public works to the 31st March, 1890 :—

 £    
Telegraphs590,356
Waterworks on goldfields560,280
Immigration2,143,327
Roads and bridges3,552,999
Land purchases1,178,554
Lighthouses, harbour, and defence works879,151
Public buildings, including schools1,757,965
Coal-mines and thermal springs22,584
Railways by the Provincial and General Governments15,028,353

The total of these various items of expenditure amounts to £25,713,569. The expenditure by local bodies on harbours, roads, and other public works out of loans raised by them is not included, nor are the amounts expended out of loans by the Provincial Governments before their abolition on immigration and public works except railways. The expenditure on directly reproductive works—railways, telegraphs, and waterworks — has been £16,179,029. The expenditure on land purchases may be considered reproductive, and that on immigration, roads, bridges, and lighthouses as of an indirectly reproductive character.

The burden of a public debt depends on the degree of prosperity enjoyed by, and the measure of the wealth of, the people.

The gross private wealth of the colony, according to the returns made to the Property-tax Department in 1888, was £135,881,176, as shown hereunder, excluding real estate belonging to Natives :—

GROSS PRIVATE WEALTH.

 £
Real estate, exclusive of education, church, municipal, and other reserves84,208,230
Furniture and household goods4,102,947
Live-stock7,857,137
Produce, merchandise, and agricultural implements13,597,008
Shipping1,580,000
All other property, including deposits in banks, but excluding mortgages and other debts24,535,854
 £135,881,176

The debts due to persons, whether secured by mortgage or not, have not been included as assets, because the values of the properties mortgaged or otherwise liable for debts have been given without any deduction on account of such debts.

From this should be deducted the amount of indebtedness to persons outside the colony, of which the amount secured by mortgage has been estimated in the Property-tax Department at £16,205,356, and the amount not secured at £8,108,350, giving a total amount owed outside the colony of £24,313,706. If this amount be deducted from the gross private wealth the balance, £111,567,470, should represent the net private wealth in the colony at the period mentioned. The returns made to the Property-tax Department in 1885 gave on the same basis as the above the net private wealth at £108,762,000; so that in the three years the increase in the total amount of not private wealth was seemingly £2,805,470; but the respective amounts gave £188 per head in 1885 and £184 in 1888, the wealth not having increased at the same rate as the population.

In the reports for 1887 and 1888 the net private wealth was given at £113,305,630. For the purpose of arriving at that amount the unsecured foreign indebtedness had been estimated at £7,000,000; but, as it is considered that the best method for ascertaining the amount of unsecured foreign indebtedness is to deduct the amount of debts returned to the Property-tax Department as owed to persons making statements from the total indebtedness shown in statements, the foreign unsecured indebtedness in 1885 would have been more accurately stated at £11,543,000 than at £7,000,000, and the amount of net private wealth be thus reduced from £113,305,630 to £108,762,630.

The property-tax returns, on account of understatement of values, &c., are not considered to fully represent the private wealth of the people. The private wealth may be estimated by means of the values of estates of deceased persons, but fairly correct estimates can only be formed by including together the results of several years, as any one year's results may be materially affected by the deaths in that year of a few very wealthy persons. The following result is arrived at by this method:—

Years, inclusive.Amount sworn to.Total Number of Deaths,Average Amount left by each Person.Average Number of Persons living.Average Total Wealth for the Period.
 £ £ s. d. £
1882-866,366,73629,718214 4 9549,334117,687,942
1887-893,793,18917,617215 6 3605,191130,305,186

The period of three years, 1887-89, is, however, too short for the above purpose, and in two of the three years some very wealthy persons died, thus exceptionally swelling the amounts for those years. The results of these returns indicate, however, that, notwithstanding the general decrease in the value of real estate in recent years, the total wealth of the people of the colony has not decreased. If the years 1882-89 be taken as one period for the purpose of this calculation the following results are arrived at:—

Years, inclusive.Amount sworn to.Total Number of Deaths.Average Amount left by each Person.Average Number of Persons living.Average Total Wealth for the Period.
 £ £ s. d. £
1882-8910,159,92547,335214 12 9570,281122,403,687

The average amount left by each deceased person may be taken as equal to the average amount possessed by each person living. If, then, the average amount per head, viz., £214 12s. 9d., at the end of 1889 was as great as for the nine-yearly period 1882-89 (and the results for the period 1887-89 indicate that the amount would be greater rather than less), the total wealth of the colony possessed by the 620,279 persons living at the end c. 1889 would amount to £133,135,134. This does not represent the full amount of private wealth, as the amounts sworn to do not include those of properties left to the husband or wife, on which no stamp duty is payable. The total of these must be considerable, although probably on the average much less than the values of other properties left by will, and they should give a substantial increase to the average amount per head, and therefore to the total wealth.

The private wealth of Victoria, calculated in the same manner by the Government Statist for that colony, for the years 1882-87 amounted to an average of £309 per head of population, or an average total for the whole population of £293,575,029. The Government Statist for New Scotland Wales similarly calculated the wealth of that colony for the period 1882-86 at £305 for each person, giving an average total private wealth of £286,000,000.

If these rates per head of population be applied to the populations of the two colonies as at the end of the year 1889 the following result is shown :—

 £      
New South Wales342,271,000
Victoria345,470,652

The amounts stated refer only to private wealth. In New Zealand, as well as in the other colonies, there is also, in addition to the private wealth and the value of the unsold lands and other property, works, &c., of the General Government, the value of the public works and reserves of the local bodies, of which no estimate can be given.

The following shows the debt of each of the Australasian Colonies on the 31st December, 1889 :—

Colony.Amount of Debt.Amount of accrued Sinking Fund.Rate of Net Indebtedness per Head of Population at End of Year.
 £££ s. d.
Queensland25,840,950...63 10 11 
New South Wales46,646,449...41 11 4 
Victoria37,367,027...33 8 5 
South Australia20,435,500...62 19 7 
Western Australia1,371,98170,36529 15 9 
Tasmania5,019,050103,18132 9 0 
New Zealand38,483,2501,320,35959 18 3 

The amount of indebtedness per head of population was thus greater in Queensland and South Australia than in New Zealand. The debts stated do not include those of municipal boroughs, harbour boards, or other local bodies, which, in New Zealand, amounted at the end of the respective last financial years of these bodies to £5,978,059, details of which will be found further on in connection with remarks on these bodies.

The length of Government railways opened for traffic on the 31st March, 1890, was 1,813 miles 14 chains, the total cost thereof having been £13,899,955, the average cost per mile being £7,666. The returns from the Railway Department give a somewhat different mileage, the last being calculated for revenue purposes, and differing somewhat from the exact measurement which has been paid for.

The cash revenue for the year amounted to £1,095,569 13s. 10d., an increase of £97,954 10s. 1d. on the amount received in 1888-89; but as the expenditure, amounting to £682,787 4s. 6d., was greater than that in the previous year by £35,742 2s. 11d., the net revenue in 1889-90 was greater than that in 1888-89 by only £61,212 7s. 2d. The value of the postal services is not included in the revenue. The net cash revenue amounted to £112,782 9s. 4d., equal to a rate of £2 19s. 5d. per cent. of the capital cost. In 1888-89 the rate of interest realised was £2 12s., and in 1887-88 £2 6s. The percentage of expenditure to revenue in 1889-90 was 62.32, against 64.86 in the previous year, and 69.09 in 1887-88. The following statement shows the number of miles of Government railways open, the number of train-miles travelled and passengers carried, also the goods traffic, for the past four years :—

Year.Length open.Train-mileage.Passengers.Season Tickets issued.Goods and Live-stock.*

* The equivalent tonnage for live-stock has been given.

† Not including passengers who have season tickets.

1886-871,7223,008,9493,426,40311,8211,783,524
1887-881,7542,994,7863,451,85011,5181,770,638
1888-891,7732,796,0073,132,80311,8171,954,126
1889-901,8132,868,2033,376,45912,3112,112,734

The particulars of the revenue and expenditure for the past four years are herewith given :—

Year.Passenger Fares.Parcels and Luggage.Goods and Live-stock.Rents and Miscellaneous.Total.Expenditure.Net Revenue.Percentage of Expenditure to revenue.
 £££££££ 
1886-87356,25333,749581,35027,416998,768699,072299,69669-99
1887-88352,72634,727579,35928,031994,843687,328307,51569-09
1888-89323,44734,102610,48829,578997,615647,045350,57064-86
1889-90369,34837,097655,00734,1171,095,569682,787412,78262-32

The average revenue per train-mile was 7s. 7 1/2 7 1/2 d. in 1889-90, 7s. 1 1/2 d. in 1888-89, 6s. 9d. in 1887-88, and 6s. 7 1/2 d. in 1886-87.

In addition to the above railways there were 103 miles 44 chains of private lines open for traffic on the 31st March, 1890, namely, the Wellington—Manawatu Railway, 84 miles; the Kaitangata Railway Company's line, 4 miles; and the Midland Railway, 15 miles 44 chains.

The cost of the construction of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway was £740,986, being at the rate of £8,821 per mile. The revenue for the twelve months ending the 28th February, 1890, amounted to £67,167; the working-expenses to £23,339, equivalent to 34.15 per cent. of the revenue.

The following statement shows the number of miles of railway open for traffic and in course of construction in each of the Australasian Colonies at the end of 1889 :—

Colony.Number of Miles open for Traffic on December 31, 1889.Number of Miles in course of Construction on December 31,1889.
Queensland2,064571
New South Wales2,28310
Victoria2,341558
South Australia1,75655
Western Australia499302
Tasmania37467
New Zealand1,912176

ACCUMULATION.

The total average liabilities and assets of the banks within the colony for the last two years were as follows :—

 1888.1889.
Liabilities£12,108,353 16 1£12,486,717 0 6
Assets18,709,444 10 817,652,915 10 8

The assets have decreased during the year to the extent of £1,056,529, but the liabilities have increased by £378,363.

There has been a considerable reduction of late years in the amount of advances by the banks: in 1886 these amounted to £15,834,877, equal to £27.20 per head of the population; in 1889 the amount was £14,272,481, equal to £23.25 per head. The discounts were less in amount in 1889 than in any year since 1873. The highest amount of discounts was in 1879, £6,061,959, at the rate of £13.52 per head of population; in 1889 the amount had fallen to £2,850,944, at the rate of £4.64 per head. The deposits, on the other hand, amounted to £11,528,428 in 1889, the highest amount on record for any year: the ratio to population was £18.78 per head.

The average amount for the year of deposits not bearing interest, exclusive of Government deposits, decreased from £3,336,217 in 1888 to £3,306,732, a decrease of £29,485; but the average amount bearing interest increased from £7,256,332 to £7,775,465, or by £519,133. There was thus as a whole an increase of £189,618 in the average amount of private deposits.

The following shows the average amount of notes in circulation, notes and bills discounted, and bullion and specie in the banks in each of the two past years:—

1888.1889.Increase or Decrease.
 £££
Notes in circulation873,045879,440lac. 6,395
Notes and bills discounted3,171,8972,850,945Dec. 320,952
Specie and bullion2,319,3252,217,833101,492

There were 295 Post-Office Savings-banks open at the end of 1889, an increase of 5 during the year.

The deposits received during the year amounted to £1,515,281 11s. 3d., being less than the amount in 1888 by £29,485 16s. 8d., but greater than the amount of deposits in any preceding year, except 1888, by £174,280 8s. 1d. The withdrawals during the year amounted to £1,457,081 5s., being less than the amount of deposits by £58,200 6s. 3d. There were 90,745 open accounts at the end of 1889, at increase of 6,257 on the number at the end of 1888. The total amount standing to the credit of all open accounts at the end of last year was £2,191,451 14s. 2d., which gave an average amount at credit of each account of £24. 2s. 11d., against £24. 4s. 10d. in 1888.

There are seven savings-banks in the colony which are not connected with the Post-Office Savings-banks. The total amount deposited in them in 1889 was £367,761 12s. 8d., of which £10 only was deposited by Maoris. The withdrawals amounted to £372,397 12s. 4d., being more than the deposits by £4,634 19s, 8d. The total amount to the credit of depositors at the end of 1889 was £667,193 6s. 9d., of which the sum of £173 6s. 2d. was to the credit of Maoris. The average deposits stated for the banks of issue represent the average for the four quarters of the year. If the amount of deposits at the end of the year be assumed to be equal to the average amount for the last quarter, then it may be stated that, exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits in the several banks of issue and in the two classes of savings-banks amounted at the end of 1889 to £13,976,801 4s. 1d. In addition there was an amount of £282,917 13s. 10d. deposited with building societies; and it is also known that there were deposits with financial companies, of which the amount cannot be ascertained. The known deposits amounted on an average to £22 19s. 9d. per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris, against £22 7s. 2d. in 1888.

There were 49 registered building societies in the colony on the 31st December, 1889, two less in number than in 1888. Of these, only 2 were terminable societies, the rest were permanent.

Returns were not received from 2 of these societies, 1 being in its first year.

The total income of the 47 societies during 1889 amounted to £726,972 10s. 5d., of which deposits comprised £325,464 4s. 2d.

The assets at the end of the year amounted to £996,780 0s. 4d., and the liabilities to £996,551 13s. 5d., of which the liabilities to shareholders, reserve fund, &c., amounted to £696,512 17s. 9d., those to depositors to £282,917 13s. 10d., and those to other creditors to £17,121 1s. 10d.

The Registrar of Friendly Societies received returns for the year ending the 31st December, 1888, from 353 lodges, courts, tents, &c., of various friendly societies throughout the colony. The number of members on that date was 21,938, an increase of only 10 during the year.

The total value of the assets of these societies was £403,754 8s. 4d., equivalent to £16 3s. 10d. per member, against £15 7s. 8d. in 1887 and £15 8s. 9d. in 1886. Of the total assets, the value of the sick and funeral benefit funds amounted to £355,979 6s. 1d., an increase of £16,365 5s. 3d. on the value of these funds at the end of 1887.

The receipts during 1888 on account of the sick and funeral funds amounted to £56,170, and the expenditure to £39,896, of which the sick-pay to members amounted to £22,414. The sum of £4,176 was paid as funeral donations.

In addition to sick-pay out of the benefit funds, the sum of £23,400 was expended out of the medical and management expenses fund for medical attendance and medicine.

103 joint-stock companies, with a nominal capital of £3,893,375, were registered during the year; of these, 37 were for gold-mining or dredging, and only 3 were dairy factory companies.

PRODUCTION.

42,617 acres 3 roods of Crown land were sold for cash or money-scrip during the year, the cash received having amounted to £33,228 3s. 8d. The lands absolutely disposed of without sale amounted to 60,708 acres, of which the reserves set apart for public purposes amounted to 13,785 3/4 acres, the grants to Europeans or Natives under Native Reserves Acts, &c., or in fulfilment of engagements, amounted to 17,787 acres, those to Natives or Europeans by grants under Native Lands Acts to 29,088 1/2 acres, and those in satisfaction of land-scrip or otherwise to 46 3/4 acres.

The total area of land alienated from the foundation of the colony to the 31st December, 1889, amounted to 19,378,511 acres. This does not include lands sold direct by Natives to Europeans for which no Crown grants have been issued. Although the exact quantity so sold which still remains without Crown grants cannot be ascertained, it is believed to be very small.

Before referring to the results of each of the various systems in operation in 1889 for the disposal of Crown lands, it seems desirable to give a précis of the systems now in force.

SYSTEMS OF DISPOSAL OF CROWN LANDS UNDER THE EXISTING LAND ACTS.

Rural lands are open for application on immediate or deferred payments, or on perpetual lease, at option of applicant.

  • 1. Immediate Payment (area restricted to 640 acres of first-class land and 2,000 acres of second-class land in any one land district) :—-

  • Town lands, sold by auction; minimum upset price, £30 per acre.

  • Suburban lands, sold by auction; minimum upset price, £3 per acre.

  • Village lands (sections under 1 acre), on application, at £5 per section.

  • Village lands (termed “small farms,” 1 to 50 acres), on application, at not less than £1 per acre.

  • Rural lands, sold by auction or on application, up to £2 or more per acre, according to quality.

  • 2. Deferred Payment (area restricted to 640 acres of first-or second-class land) :—

  • Suburban lands, sold at £4 10s. per acre.

  • Rural lands, sold at not less than £1 per acre, except in certain parts, when price may be less, according to quality.

  • Village lands, sections under 1 acre, and small farms, 1 to 50 acres, not less than £1 per acre.

  • 3. Lease for First Term of 30 Years, with Perpetual Right of Renewal at Intervals of 21 Years (area restricted to 640 acres of first-class land or 2,000 acres of second-class land) :—

  • Land taken up under this system is subject to a rental of 5 per centum annually on the capital value, which varies according to the position and quality of the land from about £1 to £3 per acre, with right of purchase as soon as conditions of improvement have been complied with.

  • 4. Homestead System (area restricted to 200 acres for a family or household).

  • 5. Agricultural Lease on Goldfields:

  • In force in Otago. Permits of land being made available for agriculture while liable to be taken for mining purposes.

  • 6. Small Grazing-runs (area not exceeding 20,000 acres):— Runs thus classed are let by public auction for a term of 21 years, with a right of renewal for a second term of 21 years. The lessee has the exclusive right of the natural pasturage, and may cultivate any part, or all, of the area leased. At the end of the term of lease full valuation is allowed for improvements. The upset price is 2 1/2 per cent. on the capital value. Rents vary from 3d. to 1s. 8d. per acre.

  • 7. Pastoral Runs :—

  • These runs are let in areas from 5,000 acres and upwards for terms not exceeding 21 years. Twelve months before a lease falls in a new lease of the run is offered for sale by auction for another term. The outgoing tenant is allowed a valuation, not exceeding three years’ rental, for improvements. There is no restriction as to the number of runs which may be leased by one person or company.

  • The average rental of these runs is about 4d. per acre.

In 1889, 45,016 1/2 acres were taken up under the deferred-payment system. The total area of land taken up under this system, from its commencement to the 31st December, 1889, amounted to 1,134,422 acres. Of this quantity, the area forfeited was 231,191 acres. As 377,270 of the acres taken up have been finally alienated after completion of payments, there remained at the end of the year 525,958 acres held under the system. The following statement gives the number of acres taken up under this system in each of the past ten years :—

 Acres.
1,880136,739
1,881109,769
1,88283,930
1,883138,414
1,88448,502
1,88558,722
1,88652,711
1,88738,832
1,88882,017
1,88945,016

The lands in the village settlements are partly disposed of upon deferred payments and partly for cash. The transactions have been included among the sales of land for cash or on deferred payments, but the following details of the number and area of selections to the 31st December, 1889, are given in order to show the extent of these settlements:—

 No.A.R.P.
Village sections for cash79951228
Village sections on deferred payments310177023
Small-farm sections for cash5374,938038
Small-farm sections on deferred payments1,06313,298036
        The freeholds acquired have been—    
Village sections14683237
Small-farm sections4634,904327
        The forfeitures were—    
Village sections7852127
Small-farm sections1171,306130

There were 833 holdings, having a total area of 242,791 acres, taken up on perpetual leases during the year. This was an increase of 146 on the number of holdings and of 64,652 in the number of acres similarly taken up in 1888. The total area in occupation under the perpetual-lease system on the 31st December, 1889, was 544,914 1/2 acres, in 2,336 holdings, the average size of the holdings being thus 233 1/4 acres.

The lands held from the Government on depasturing leases (exclusive of small grazing-runs) amounted to 11,788,912 acres, in 1,479 runs, yielding an annual rental of £151,100 18s. 10d. The small grazing-runs numbered 279, containing a total area of 522,237 acres. The rent received in 1889 was £9,994 6s. 5d.

A collection is annually made in the month of February of the statistics of the various crops, &c., cultivated on holdings above one acre in extent, exclusive of those on lands occupied by the Maoris. As the harvest is generally incomplete when the statistics are collected, the time varying much according to the situation of the land and its geographical position, being usually much earlier in the northern than in the southern parts of the colony, the estimates of produce can only be considered as more or less approximate, according to the conditions of the crops and the judgment of the farmer, although believed to be on the whole fairly reliable. In cases where doubts have been cast on the correctness of the estimates, subsequent inquiries have on the whole confirmed the returns made.

The number of cultivated holdings over one acre in extent in February, 1890, was 38,178, an increase of 2,431 on the corresponding number in 1889. These do not include Maori holdings, but they include those in which the only cultivation may be that of land under artificial grasses. The following table shows the progressive annual increase in the number of holdings in each year to every 100 adult males in the colony:—

Year (February).Estimated Number of Adult Males.Number of Occupied and Cultivated Holdings over One Acre in extent.Average Number of Holdings to every 100 Adult Males.
1,876115,88317,25014.88
1,877121,04518,75015.49
1,878122,64020,51916.73
1,879126,35421,04816.66
1,880134,31323,12917.22
1,881139,56424,14717.30
1,882141,37026,29818.60
1,883144,98327,35218.86
1,884150,13128,58719.04
1,885155,23529,81419.20
1,886157,50331,76320.17
1,887159,58433,33220.88
1,888162,31134,74321.41
1,889161,75935,74722.10
1,890164,39238,17823.22

The extent of land in cultivation (including grass-sown land and land broken up but not in crop) amounted to 8,015,426 acres, being an increase of 345,259 on the similar extent in February, 1889. The area under artificial grasses comprised 81.41 per cent., against 81.87 in 1889 and 81.50 in 1888; and that under grain crops amounted to 10.31 per cent., against 10.35 in 1889 and 10.14 in 1888. More than half of the grain crops in 1889 and 1890 were grown in the Canterbury District, and more than one-third in Otago. The following shows the acreage and proportion of land under grain crops in each provincial district:—

 Acres.Per cent.
Canterbury416,11150.35
Otago290,75635.18
Auckland33,7014.09
Wellington32,2583.90
Marlborough15,8611.92
Hawke's Bay15,3941.86
Nelson13,2551.60
Taranaki9,1661.10
Westland3...
Totals826,505100

The area under wheat at the beginning of 1890 was 335,861 acres, less by 26,292 acres than the corresponding acreage in 1889. The produce in 1890 was estimated at 8,448,506 bushels, or less than that in 1889 by 321,740 bushels: this gave an average of 25.15 bushels to the acre in 1890, against 24.22 bushels in the previous year. The highest average yield per acre was in Hawke's Bay District, 37.04 bushels; the next highest was in Otago, 28-03; and the next in Wellington, 27.62. In Canterbury the produce was at the rate of 24.27 bushels to the acre. The extent of land under wheat in New Zealand at the harvest of 1890 was less than one-eleventh (8.68 per cent.) of the whole of the wheat-land in the Australasian Colonies, but the produce in New Zealand was nearly one-fifth (19.89 per cent.) of that for all these colonies.

The following shows the area and estimated produce for each of these colonies:—

Colony.Wheat crop, 1890
Acres.Bushels.Bushels per Acre.
Queensland8,549134,33515.88
New South Wales419,7586,570,33515.65
Victoria1,178,73511,495,7209.75
South Australia1,842,96114,577,3587.91
Western Australia35,517497,23814.00
Tasmania49,055756,63915.43
New Zealand335,8618,448,50625.15

The total average consumption of wheat in New Zealand for the period 1877 to 1889 inclusive, estimated according to the method adopted in the following table, was apparently 8-63 bushels par head of population, including Maoris. This included the requirements for seed purposes, estimated at 2 bushels to the acre. Exclusive of quantity retained for seed, the requirements for food and other sources of local consumption to 7.56 bushels per head.

*In equivalent bushels of wheat.
Year.Produce (including estimated Quantity of Maori-grown Wheat and Imports of Wheat and Flour*).Exports of Wheat and Flour*Retained in the Colony.Used as Seed at 2 Bushels per Acre.Difference for Food-consumption.Mean Population (including Maoris).Proportion per Head for Total retained for Food-consumption.
For Food, &c.Total retained.
Bushels.Bushels.Bushels.Bushels.Bushels.Persons.Bushels.Bushels. 
1,8774,374,620906.5433,468,077486,8122,981,265451,9436.607.66
1,8786,537,7701,897,3544,640,416529,7224,110,694467,0008.809.94
1,8796,272,9142,580,7983,692,116540.3963,151,720491,8866.417.51
1,8807,801,8923,147,5864,654,306649,8984,004,408518,2757.738.98
1,8818,264,1673,918,1074,346,060731,4303,614,630537,5796.728.08
1,8828,360,2953,721,8124,638,483781,6363,856,847552,9916.918.39
1,88310,329,9075,195,7035,134,204755,4124,378,792572,5397.658.97
1,8849,934,1012,885,3907,048,711540.0866,508,625595,41110.9311.84
1,8856,950,8541,596,8205,354,034347,7825,006,252615,7578.138.66
1,8864,290,8261,675,2012,615,625506.0502,109,575624,0863.384.19
1,8876,368,140707.1825,660,958614,7185,046,240638,3437.908.87
1,8889,472,8952,547,0336,925,862724,3066,201,556647,3409.5810.70
1,8898,784,8013,397,7525,387,049671,7224,715,327655,7997.198.21
Totals97,743,18234,177,28163,565,9017,879,97055,685,9317,368,949Mean. 7.56Mean. 8.63

The difficulty of correctly estimating the consumption of bread stuffs is shown by the great differences in the estimates arrived at. Mr. Mulhall, in his “ Dictionary of Statistics,” gives the consumption of wheat per inhabitant as follows:—

 Bushels of 60lb. each per Head
United Kingdom330lb., equal to 5.50
France455lb., equal to 7.58
Germany166lb., equal to 2.22

The quantity of wheat required in Victoria to supply the wants of the people for food purposes (exclusive of seed requirements) is estimated by the Government Statist of that colony at from 4 1/2 to 5 bushels per head. The Government Statist of New South Wales has given the average yearly consumption per head of the population at 6.11 bushels, including the quantity required for seed.

The number of acres under oats at the commencement of 1890 was 426,071, an increase of 58,846 on the number in 1889. The produce was estimated in 1890 at 13,673,584 bushels, or 2,696,519 more than in 1889. In 1889 the average production per acre was estimated at 29.89 bushels; in 1890 at 32.10. The highest average yield per acre in any provincial district was in the Wellington District, 36.23 bushels; but in smaller divisions the average yields were frequently much greater: in one county the yield was estimated at 63.13 bushels per acre. Of the total estimated oat crop of 13,673,584 bushels, 7,235,696, or 52.92 per cent, of the whole, were grown in the Otago District, and 4,823,527, or 35.27 per cent., in Canterbury. The next largest product in any district was 634,897 bushels, or 4.64 per cent., in Wellington. The oat crop in New Zealand in 1889-90 comprised 64 per cent, of the crop grown in all the Australasian Colonies.

Colony.Oat Crop, 1890.
Acres.Bushels.Bushels per Acre.
Queensland75014,56119.41
New South Wales22,358543,33024.30
Victoria236,4965,644,86723.87
South Australia10,297131,44912.76
Western Australia2,07541,50020.00
Tasmania40,1691,148,93528.60
New Zealand426,07113,673,58432-10
Totals738,21621,198,226...

The yield in all these colonies was much greater per acre in 1890 than in 1889. The total crop for all was only about 14,882,628 bushels in 1889.

There was a decrease in the quantity of land sown with Barley, barley from 45,027 to 42,402 acres, the decrease in the crop being estimated at 59,714 bushels, namely, from 1,402,537 bushels in 1889 to 1,342,823 bushels in 1890. The average yield per acre was 31.67 bushels in 1890 and 31.15 in 1889.

In February, 1890, there were 30,577 acres under cultivation for potatoes, an increase on the area in the previous year of 4,246 acres. The crop was estimated at 159,729 tons, equivalent to an average yield of 5.22 tons per acre.

The number of acres under turnips and rape was 352,903. This was an increase on the number in 1889 by 17,970, and in 1889 the area in turnips and rape was greater than that in 1888 by 21,640 acres.

The following shows the acreage in turnips and rape in each of the past ten years:—

In February.No. of Acres in Turnips and Rape.
1,881235,188
1,882285,526
1,883285,679
1,884352,809
1,885352,956
1,886316,171
1,887318,653
1,888313,293
1,889334,933
1,890352,903

The increase in the area cultivated with hops is very Hops. small. In 1888 there were 519 acres; in 1889, 564 acres; and in 1890, 585 acres in hops. The crop for the last harvest was estimated at 5,715cwt. As the imports of hops amounted to only 552cwt. in 1889, while the exports of New-Zealand-grown hops amounted to 2,661cwt., it appears that the amount grown in the colony is sufficient to supply all that is required for consumption therein, and to give a comparatively considerable surplus for export.

Of the 585 acres in hops in 1890, 524, or about 90 per cent., were in the Counties of Waimea (459) and Colling-wood (65), in the Nelson Provincial District.

Tobacco was cultivated on only 25 acres in 1890, the Tobacco, estimated yield of dried leaf being 11,370lb. This was a decrease of 9 on the number of acres under tobacco in 1889, but an increase of 6 on the number in 1888. The estimated yield for 1890 averaged under 455lb. to the acre, against an estimate in 1888 of 838lb.

The acreage of land in orchards was greater in 1890 by 525 acres. In 1888, 14,215 acres were in orchards; in 1889, 15,246; and in 1890, 15,771.

The extent of land in sown grasses in February, 1890, was 6,525,049 acres, an increase of 245,738 acres during the previous twelve months. Of this quantity, 3,027,912 acres had been previously ploughed, and 3,497,137 not previously ploughed had been surface-sown. The acreage of land in sown grasses is very small in the rest of the Australasian Colonies.

ACREAGE OF LAND IN SOWN GRASSES, 1890.
 Acres.
Queensland16,120
New South Wales217,403
Victoria146,143
South Australia28,331
Western Australia44,425
Tasmania190,717
New Zealand6,525,409

The acreage of sown-grass land in the whole of Australia and Tasmania is much less than one-tenth of the similar acreage in New Zealand. The climate of New Zealand is eminently suitable for the cultivation of artificial grass, which makes the average productiveness of the land for purely grazing purposes in comparison with the average productiveness for grazing of Australian lands probably as 9 to 1, so that the land of this colony covered with artificial grass may be considered equal for grazing purposes to an area of Australian territory about nine times as great.

Returns of sheep are sent annually in the month of May to the Stock Department; but full returns of other stock are only obtained when a census is taken.

The number of sheep in May, 1890, was 16,200,358, showing an increase since May, 1889, of 697,095.

The number of cattle and horses in March, 1886 (no later information is obtainable), was as follows:—

Cattle853,358
Horses187,382

The following gives the number of each of these kinds of live-stock in the several Australasian Colonies:—

Colony.Sheep.Cattle.Horses.

* In 1886.

† Including 42,103 cattle belonging to the Maoris.

Queensland, 188914,470,0954,872,416352,364
New South Wales, 188950,106,7681,741,592430.777
Victoria, 188910,882,2311,394,209329,335
South Australia, 18896,386,617324 412170.515
Western Australia, 18892,366,681119,57142,806
Tasmania, 18891,551,429150.00429,778
New Zealand, 189016,200,358*895.461*187.382

The following is an estimate of the value of the agricultural, pastoral, and dairy produce in New Zealand in 1889. The prices of grain were chiefly an average of those ruling at the localities where grown, not the export prices for the colony. The value per head of sheep and cattle consumed has been fixed upon, after consideration, as representing the average prices given by the butchers for the carcase only, exclusive of wool on sheep. The consumption of meat has been considered equal to 2 1/2 sheep for every person and 1 bullock for every 4 persons in the year.

PASTRAL AND DAIRY PRODUCE.
Sheep, frozen, exported in 1889, 990,486£641,888
Lambs, frozen, exported in 1889, 118,79459,965
Beef, frozen, exported in 1889, 68,205cwt.81,521
Consumption of sheep, 1,534,575, at 10s.767,287
Increase in flocks during the year, 697,095, at 4s.139,419
Cattle killed, at 1 to 4 persons, 150,957, at £6905,742
Milk, butter, and cheese, equal to £5 a cow from 272,344 breeding-cows1,361,720
Wool exported, 18893,976,375
Wool consumed locally, 3,556,004lb., at 9 3/4d.137,745
Pigs, say, 135,000, at £1 each135,000
Horses, increase, say, 9,369, at £874,952
Preserved meat exported106,772
Salted meat exported28,853
Rabbit-skins exported96,039
Eggs consumed, 2 per head of population per week, at 1d. each265,990
Poultry consumed, 1,379,621, at 1s. 6d.125,826
Total pastoral and dairy produce£8,905,094
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE.
 ££
Grain2,389,615 
Less one-quarter produce of oats consumed on farms242,136 
 2,147,479
Root crops765,565 
Less turnips, rape, and mangold consumed on farms.446,107 
 319,458
Hay and green forage397,241 
Less one-half hay and all green forage consumed on farms290,852 
 106,389
Hops and other crops 34,520
Grass-seed 158,444
Gardens and orchards 365,085
Total agricultural produce £3,131,375

The produce above given, amounting on the whole to £12,036,469, does not represent the total produce of the colony, in which is included the product from mining, manufactures, and all other industries. The estimated value of the products from these sources is about £11,199,830; this would give an estimated produce for the colony in 1889 of about 23 1/4 millions sterling.

The output of coal in 1889 from the various mines in the colony amounted to 586,445 tons, a decrease on the output in 1888 of 27,450 tons.

The exports of New Zealand coal in 1889 amounted to 79,490 tons, against 69,040 tons in 1888, and 44,312 tons in 1887. But the imports of coal amounted to 128,063 tons, against 101,311 in 1888. Of the foreign coal imported, 6,915 tons were subsequently exported. The imports of coal are maintained chiefly by the Union Steamship Company's steamers bringing coal from New South Wales in default of other cargo.

The approximate total output of the coal-mines to the 31st December, 1889, was 5,819,277 tons.

Extensive coalfields exist in the colony, coal being found in various parts, and mines being worked in the Provincial Districts of Auckland, Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago. No accurate survey of all the coalfields has yet been made, and the estimates of probable produce are therefore imperfect. The coal is of three different kinds:—

1. Brown Coal: This is coal of an inferior class, valuable for local consumption only. It is of no value for the production of gas or steam. As far as the surveys have been made, it is roughly estimated that the fields of this coal contain about 500,000,000 tons.

2. Pitch-coal : This is a valuable coal for fuel and steam purposes, but does not yield gas. The estimated quantity in the known areas of coalfields of this class is also about 500,000,000 tons. The valuable character of some of this coal for steam purposes was recently shown when H.M.S. “Calliope,” while using it, was enabled to weather the hurricane at Samoa which was so disastrous to vessels of other nations, and escape to sea.

3. Bituminous Coal : This coal is of a very superior kind, being equal to, and even better than, the best descriptions used in any part of the world. It is especially valuable for gas companies, the small quantity from the Brunner Mine hitherto available in New Zealand and Australian markets, having been eagerly bought up for gasworks and iron-foundries, whose managers generally pay for it from 10 to 20 per cent, more than for any other coal. Engineers of local steamers esteem it 20 per cent, better than the best New South Wales coal for steam purposes. The fields of this class of coal have been estimated to contain about 200,000,000 tons; but, as they are found on the west coast of the Middle Island, and partly in somewhat inaccessible districts, where the surveys have been far from complete, the estimate is considered to be very much short of the actual quantity that may be found to be available.

Some very fine petroleum oils have been found in the colony. In reference to this, Sir James Hector remarks: “There are three principal localities, and these produce each a distinct kind of oil—the Sugar Loaves, in the Taranaki Province; Poverty Bay, on the east coast of the Province of Auckland; and Manutahi, Waiapu, East Cape. The oil from the first has a very high specific gravity—0.960 to 0.964 at 60° Fahr. (water at 1). It has thus too much carbon in its composition for its commercial success as an illuminating oil, but is capable of producing a valuable lubricating oil. The second kind, from Waipaoa, Poverty Bay, is a true paraffin oil, resembling the Canadian oil. The third produces a pale-brown oil, nearly or quite transparent—specific gravity, 0.829 at 60° Fahr.—which burns well in a kerosene-lamp for some time, and is therefore of a very superior class. It contains only traces of paraffin, and produces 84 per cent, of an illuminating oil fit for use in kerosene-lamps by means of a single distillation.” Specimens of oil-shales have been found at Kaikorai and Blueskin, in Otago; and at Orepuki, in Southland, extensive and apparently valuable formations of shale have been discovered. Attempts have been made to develop the oil-resources at Waipaoa; but marketable petroleum cannot yet be classed among the industrial products of the colony.

Information relating to the various industries in the colony is only obtained at the time of a census. Between December, 1880, and December, 1885, the increase in the number of industries amounted to 625, being at the rate of 38 per cent, for the period. The increase in the number of hands employed amounted to 7,717, being at the rate of 43 per cent.

The following table shows the number of principal industries at the end of 1885, the number of hands employed, the estimated capital invested, and the value of the produce or manufactures in that year:—

Nature of Industry.Number of each Kind.Number of Hands employed.Estimated Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant.Estimated Value of Produce and Manufacture in 1885.
Printing establishments1352,107331,723273,886
For machines, tools, and implement2232666,025126,663
Coach-building and -painting89664128,346100,238
Ship- and boat-building5317217,09456,132
Furniture manufactories7570793,032162,375
Chemical works65630,40934,283
Haematite-paint manufactories5195,1752,178
Woollen mills6867203,279194,311
Boot factories421,65470,935276,725
Clothing factories111,26937,530237,781
Hat and cap factories811814,79013,695
Flax-mills3024918,01620,059
Rope- and twine-works2124256,41349,821
Sail factories3211815,37025,574
Cheese and butter factories3611047,51343,094
Grain-mills121448329,304754,030
Breweries98475323,756325,182
Boiling-down, meat-freezing, and preserving works44838442,962543,878
Soap- and candle-works1820475,928130,475
Fellmongering, tanning, and wool-scouring971,093138,750634,915
Saw-mills2685,042964,0951,177,713
Collieries791,448148,773255,326
Brick-, tile-, and pottery-works126598151,41191,797
Iron and brass foundries581,748239,938351,379
Geld- and quartz-mining works1011,156211,021374,837
Hydraulic gold-mining124617224,78774,190
Other industries5633,3101,310,7421,099,312
Totals2,26825,6555,697,1177,436,649

The extent of the progress since that date in the various industries cannot he ascertained until after the collection of the census in next year (1891).

LAW, CRIME, AND EDUCATION.

LAW AND CRIME.

The number of writs of summons tested in the Supreme Court during 1889 was 1,023, a decrease of 108 on the number in 1888. The number of civil cases tried was 195, against 206 in the previous year: 111 of the cases were tried before a Judge without a jury. The total of the amounts for which judgments were recorded was £147,422 19s. ld. 153 writs of execution were issued during the year from the Supreme Court.

The number of civil cases disposed of in the District Courts was 70, of which 21 were tried before juries and 29 before a Judge only; 20 cases having lapsed or been discontinued .The total of the amounts sued for was £7,654 13s. 2d., and judgments were recorded for a total amount of £2,532 19s. ld. 18,822 civil cases, representing claims to the amount of £291,493 4s. 5d., were commenced in the various Resident Magistrates’ Courts.

The total number of civil cases in all the Courts was 19,087, against 24,589 in 1888; the total amount for which judgments were recorded was £446,570 in 1889, against £342,586 in 1888.

The petitions in bankruptcy numbered 724 in 1889, of which 689 were made by debtors and 35 by creditors. This number was less by 157 than the number in 1888.

The following gives the number of petitions, the total amount of the unsecured assets, the amount of the secured debts, and the amount of dividends paid for the past five years:—

Year.No. of Petitions in Bankruptcy.Debtors’ Statements of Assets, excluding Assets secured.Amounts realised by Official Assignees.Amount of Debts proved.Amounts paid in Dividends and Preferential Claims.
  £££ 
1,885984297,306109.862332,88794,188
1,8861,089415,953128,370566,291102.966
1,8871,036311,745135,633503.759109.255
1,888881252,32298,213571,74179,843
1,889724441,874187,048755,16595,032

Taking the average results of the transactions in the five years it appears that the realised assets amounted to 38.34 per cent, of the assets as set forth in the creditors’ statements, equal to 7s. 8d. for every pound. The payments to creditors amounted to 73 per cent, of the amounts realised. The payments include preferential claims paid in full. Excluding all preferential claims proved and paid, the dividends paid to unsecured non-preference creditors have amounted on an average to 2s. 10d. in the pound on the debts proved.

The petitions in 1889 under “ The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act, 1867,” were 33 in number, of which 26 were for dissolution of marriage and 7 for judicial separation; 17 decrees for dissolution of marriage were granted. The proceedings under the Act for the past four years were as follows:—

Year.Petitions forDecrees for
Dissolution of Marriage.Judicial Separation.Dissolution of Marriage.Judicial Separation.
1,88631324...
1,887266161
1,88835332...
1,889267171

The petitions for dissolution of marriage amounted on an average for the four years to 8.25 in every 1,000 marriages, and the decrees for dissolution of marriage to an average of 6.22. The decrees for dissolution amounted to over 75 per cent, of the petitions for dissolution of marriage.

The proportion of petitions and decrees for dissolution of marriage to the number of marriages is much higher in New Zealand than in either England and Wales, Victoria, or New South Wales. The annual average in every 1,000 marriages is as follows:—

Colony.Petitions for Dissolution of Marriage.Decrees for Dissolution of Marriage.
New Zealand8.256.22
England and Wales1.880.95
New South Wales4.973.33
Victoria3.791.82

The number of charges against persons for various offences brought before the Magistrates’ Courts in 1889 was 18,845. These include repeated charges against the same person. In 1888 the number was 19,167, in 1887 20,336, and in 1886 21,662. Of these charges in 1889, 369 were against persons of the aboriginal native race—an increase of 31 on the corresponding number in 1888.

The summary convictions numbered 14,082, including of persons of the Native race. Of the number of persons convicted. 7,426 were fined, 1,912 were imprisoned in lien of fine on finding surety, and 1,857 were sentenced to terms of imprisonment. Whipping was ordered in 66 cases. 469 males, including 29 Maoris, and 22 females, of whom 2 were Maoris, were committed for trial by the superior Courts—a decrease on the numbers similarly committed in 1888 of 20 males and 5 females. 379 persons, of whom 26 were Maoris, were indicted in the Supreme and District Courts in 1889. There was a decrease of 66 on the number of persons other than Maoris indicted in the previous year, but an increase of 13 in the number of Maoris.

Of the persons other than Maoris, 27 males and 3 females were convicted of offences against the person, 146 males and 6 females of offences against property, and 41 males and 2 females of other offences.

The number of summary convictions in the various Magistrates’ Courts for certain of the most numerous offences, in each of the past five years, together with the proportion per 1,000 of the mean population (exclusive of Maoris), are given herewith:—

 Number.
1885.1886.1887.1888.1882
Assaults780705731633636
Larceny768845764882988
Drunkenness6,4945,9835,3725,4025,152
Per 1,000 of the Population.
 1885.1886.1887.1888.1,889
Assaults1.381.211.231.051.04
Larceny1.361.451.281.461.61
Drunkenness11.4910.289.018.928.39

While it is to be lamented that there is an increase in the number and proportion of convictions for larceny, the continued decrease both in the number and proportion of convictions for drunkenness can only be a cause of much satisfaction. It will be observed by reference to page 82 that there is a continued steady decrease in the quantity and proportion of alcoholic drinks consumed.

It is again a pleasing duty to have to record a decrease in the number and proportion of charges before the various Magistrates’ Courts; also a decrease in the number of convictions before the superior Courts.

In the following table the charges against and convictions of Maoris have been excluded:—

Year.Charges before Magistrates.Summary Convictions.Convictions in Superior Courts.
No.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.No.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.No.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.
1,88020,75043.7414,77831.16295.62
1,88119,2973,91113,79528.16214.43
1,88222,10843.4116,22031.85200.39
1,88322,51142.5216,59031.35189.36
1,88423,10541.8117,67231.98219.39
1,88522,70939.6117,56630.64223.39
1,88621,22736.4616,42828.22259.44
1,88719,92433.4115,27825.61334.56
1,88818,82930.9214,25923.55255.42
1,88918,47630.1013,86122.57225.37

The convictions for offences against the person and property in the inferior and superior Courts were in each of the past five years in the following proportions per 1,000 of the population:—

 1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
Offences against the person1.521.391.431.251.22
Offences against property2.222.422.462.352.49

The convictions for offences against the person and property are less numerous in New Zealand than in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, or Tasmania; but they are more numerous than in South Australia.

PER 1,000 OF THE POPULATION.
New Zealand.Queensland.N.S. Wales.Victoria.S. AustraliaTasmania.
Offences against the1889.1889.1889.1889.1889.1889.
Person1.223.544.461.611.031.85
Offences against property2.492.994.022.710.832.79

In 1889 there were 331 Maori males and 35 Maori females charged in the various Magistrates’ Courts with the commission of various offences. Of these, 204 males and 17 females were summarily convicted, and 29 males and 2 females were committed for trial by the superior Courts. 10 Maoris, all males (the same in number and sex as in 1888), were convicted in the superior Courts during the year. Of these last, three were found guilty of murder.

The returns from the various gaols, give a total of 4,053 prisoners received during the year 1889, a decrease of 436 on the number in 1888, and 745 on the number in 1887. Of those received in 1889, 176 were confined on account of debt or lunacy, including 17 Maoris, and 91 were Maoris who had been charged with various offences. Exclusive of debtors, lunatics, and Maoris, 3,786 persons were received in the gaols during the year, a decrease of 380 on the number in 1888.

The number received includes persons awaiting trial but not convicted during the year, also the repeated admissions of the same persons, and transfers from gaol to gaol of persons undergoing sentence. In addition to the usual returns, a separate card for each admission is furnished from each gaol; this, by throwing out all the cards over one referring to the same person, enables the actual number of distinct persons received in the various gaols during the year to be ascertained.

The number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) received in gaols during the year who were convicted of offences was 2,043, a decrease of 488 on the number in 1888. These numbers do not include children committed to the industrial schools who had not been convicted of any statutory offence.

The following shows the number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) imprisoned in the past five years who were convicted of offences, only one cause being given when the person was imprisoned at different times, either for the same or some other offence:—

Offences.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
Felony and larceny598594526563527
Misdemeanour1009012097131
Injury to property4254624753
Assault and resisting the police180209178162170
Acts of Vagrancy244205238251351
Drunkenness1,2001,0771,038938802
Other offences688545477473365
Totals3,0522,7742,6392,5312,399

In 1885 these convicted prisoners averaged 53.56 in every 10,000 of the population; in 1886 the average was 47-82; in 1887, 44.25; in 1888, 41.81; and in 1889 it was 39.00. There has thus been in the period a decrease at the rate of 21.39 per cent, in the number of distinct convicted prisoners, and a reduction of 14-56 per cent, in the proportion to the population.

It must be understood that the actual number of imprisonments for some of the above offences were much more numerous than the figures given, as a considerable number of persons underwent repeated imprisonments for either the same or some other offence. Thus, many persons given as imprisoned for larceny underwent other imprisonments for drunkenness, &c. Many imprisoned for drunkenness were several times in gaol during the year for the same or other offences, as assault, riotous or indecent conduct, &c. In many cases there were several charges against the same person at the one time, of which the most serious followed by conviction has been selected. These numbers do not include Maori prisoners.

The numbers committed for acts of vagrancy include many, both male and female, whose only crime, as stated by the Inspector of Prisons, appeared to be that, from old age and infirmities, they were unable to cam their living, and should have been sent to some home or refuge instead of to prison. Had suitable accommodation been provided for such persons the number of committed prisoners would have been less, and the proportion to the population smaller, than is shown by the above numbers.

As the tables in the statistical volume which give the ages, birthplaces, and religions of prisoners include every admission, there is a repetition of the same particulars of a prisoner for every fresh admission of that person into gaol. The following tables show the number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) received into gaol and convicted for each class of offence stated in 1889, classified according to the religious denominations to which they belong, their birthplaces, and ages:—

DISTINCT CONVICTED PRISONERS, 1889.
Felony and Larceny.Misdemeanour.Injury to Property.Assault and Resisting Police.Vagrancy.Drunkenness.Other Offences.Totals.
M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Religions.—
    Church of England23817621174596121412804713115908131
    Roman Catholic126183311935987838219619728631157
    Presbyterian581320 5 25131171171954531055
    Wesleyan1926 2 3 10213251587
    Others36 8 3 9 1124222721866
Totals47750129246715515251100671131314512,043356
Birthplaces.—
    England and Wales165841 1524349128243331221272087
    Scotland351018 4221128141082047526152
    Ireland93122911424545925210606322513126
    New Zealand961419 31264332528731723658
    Australian Colonies284515 811251281538522
    Other British Possessions3 4   3 419 3 261
    China13 1   1 3   1 19 
    Other Countries44212 5 8121261332218310
Totals47750129246715515251100671131314512,043356
Ages—
    Under 101   1         2 
    10 and under 1241            41
    12 and under 151641 1       1 194
    15 and under 207545 11102912429211323
    20 and under 254732013 233262083539419136
    25 and under 306861418 2522816571041624141
    30 and under 401011435 126403692019533931755193
    40 and under 50871233 13 3346925188456819491105
    50 and under 6056513 3 1213561302743329242
    60 and over2218 4 6 15164920 18911
Totals47750129246715515251100671131314512,043356

Of the above prisoners convicted, 32 males and 4 females were released on probation under “The First Offenders’ Probation Act, 1886.” The report of the Inspector of Prisons shows that 83 first offenders were treated under this Act in 1889 and 82 in 1888. These probationers would all have been included among the prisoners if that Act had not been in operation, and the number must be taken into consideration in estimating the number of persons committing crime involving imprisonment in any one year.

The Inspector of Prisons in his recent report stated as follows: “ As regards the First Offenders’ Probation Act, I cannot speak too highly of its usefulness, and I have no hesitation in stating that many a young and thoughtless offender has been rescued from a career of crime through its intervention. The Act continues to work smoothly and satisfactorily, and is proving year by year one of the most useful measures ever passed by any Legislature.”

The following table gives the ages and terms of probation of offenders placed under “The First Offenders’ Probation Act, 1886,” during the year 1889:—

Ages.Three Months and under.Six Months.Nine Months.Twelve Months.Eighteen MonthsTwo Years.Total.
Under 10 years       
From 10 to 15 years82   111
From 15 to 20 years1212 3 128
From 20 to 25 years7326  18
From 25 to 30 years4313 112
From 30 to 40 years13 2  6
From 40 to 50 years41 1  6
From 50 to 60 years    1 1
60 years and upwards1     1
Totals37243151383

The number of distinct convicted prisoners cannot be compared with the number of prisoners in any other country for the purpose of estimating the relative amount of criminality in each country, as nowhere else, so far as it is known, is any accurate account taken of the full number of distinct prisoners apart from the number of admissions into prison. The data are therefore dissimilar for the purpose of comparison.

The following are the proportions of those belonging to each of the four principal denominations in every 100 distinct convicted prisoners in each of the four past years:—

Denominations of Convicted Prisoners.Proportion per 100 of Convicted Prisoners.Proportion of Denomination per 100 of Population at Census of 1886.
 1886.1887.1888.1889. 
Church of England41.7143.5442.9943.3140.17
Roman Catholic34.3932.5131.8832.8513.95
Presbyterian15.5715.3116.4815.2122.59
Wesleyan2.272.612.452.719.55

Still excluding Maoris, the following are the proportions of distinct convicted prisoners, classified according to birthplace, for each of the past four years:—

BIRTHPLACES OF PRISONERS.
Birthplaces.Number of Convicted Prisoners.Proportion of each Nationality to every 100 Prisoners.Proportion of Person of each Nationality to every 100 of Population.
 1886.1887.1888.1889.1886.1887.1888.1889.1886.
England and Wales98691284880735.5434.5633.5133.6422.06
Scotland37033732831313.5512.7712.9613.059.48
Ireland75070170363927.0426.5627.7826.648.89
New Zealand28030231929410.0911.4412.6012.2551.80
Australian Colonies1261081021074.544.094.034.462.28
Other British Possessions42564427     
China101712190.580.650.470.790.79
Other Foreign Countries1982061751937.147.816.918.043.23

The decrease since 1885 in the number of prisoners who were born in the United Kingdom is very marked, but the number of prisoners born in New Zealand was greater in 1889 than in 1886, and had it not been for the operation of the First Offenders’ Probation Act the increase would have appeared much greater. The absolute number is however small, considering that the New-Zealand-born comprise more than half of the population, and it is somewhat satisfactory with an increasing native-born population to find an absolute decrease in the number of New-Zealand-born prisoners in 1889 upon the number in 1888.

The following table relates to the New-Zealand-born prisoners (exclusive of Maoris). These are also so many distinct persons:—

DISTINCT NEW ZEALAND-BORN CONVICTED PRISONERS RECEIVED DURING THE YEAR 1889.
Offences.Under 10.10 and under 12.12 and under 15.15 and under 20.20 and under 25.25 and under 3040 and under 40.40 and upwards.Totals.
M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.M.F.
Felony and larceny1 41134433172103612 9614
Misdemeanour    1 2 6 5 4 1 19 
Wilful injury to property1      11 1     31
Assault and resisting police      41738 3 4 264
Acts of vagrancy      861112655 323325
Drunkenness       1624115 33287
Others    1 5211183412 317
Totals2 4115462145920421237215523658
Totals, 18885 10 35 6319611140942139226554
Totals, 18874 4 1717919601139737156324656
Totals, 188661027915939399280
Totals, 1885612108654332824253

The New-Zealand-born males imprisoned for felony and larceny were less numerous in 1889 than in 1888 by 23. Of these prisoners in 1889, 275 were under 20 years of age, against 61 under 20 in 1888. There were 14 New-Zealand-born female prisoners sentenced for felony and larceny in 1889, against 6 in 1888. Of these, 8 in 1889 were under 20 years of age, against 4 in 1888.

It will be observed that, for all offences, there were 102 distinct New-Zealand-born prisoners of both sexes in 1889 under 20 years of age, against 132 in 1888 and 124 in 1887. The number in 1889 was in the proportion of 37 to every 100,000 New-Zealand-born persons under 20 years of age.

There was a decrease in 1889 in the distinct number of New-Zealand-born prisoners convicted of felony and larceny, of drunkenness, and of minor offences, but an increase in the numbers imprisoned for the other offences, the increase under the head “Acts of Vagrancy,” having been from 20 males and 13 females in 1888 to 33 males and 25 females in 1889.

Of the convicted prisoners of all nationalities the males comprised 85.16 per cent., against 83.5 in 1888. and the females comprised 14.84 per cent., against 16.5 in 1888. The males were in the proportion of 6.22 to every 1,000 of the male population; the proportion of females was 1.08 to every 1,000 of the female population. In 1888 the respective proportions were—males 6.5 and females 1.2 per 1,000 of each sex living. In equal numbers living the proportion of distinct male prisoners was 149 to every 100 female prisoners.

The following were the respective proportions of the convicted prisoners at each age-period of life to every 100 prisoners of each sex for each of the past two years :—

AGES OF PRISONERS.
Age.Male Prisoners.Per 100 Male Prisoners.Female Prisoners.Per 100 Female Prisoners.
1888.1889.1888.1889.1888.1889.1888.1889.
Under 20 years1641387.766.7631287.427.87
20 and under 30 years46943222.2021.15897721.2921.63
30 and under 40 years57555127.2126.971389333.0126.12
40 and under 50 years57649122.5324.0310910526.0829.49
50 and under 60 years80729214.5314.2940429.5711.80
60 years and upwards1221395.776.8011112.633.03
 2,1132,043100.00100.00418356100.00100.00

Inquests were held during the year on the bodies of 581 males and 183 females. Of these, the deaths of 300 males and 52 females were attributed to accidental causes. Of the males 126, and of the females 19, were drowned. Of these, 2 males and 1 female were drowned in tubs, and 3 males in a ditch or drain. The deaths of 16 males and 2 females were attributed to various accidents on a railway or tramway, including those of 9 males and 2 females run over by train or trucks, and 1 male by a tramcar. In 1888 there were 13 inquests on deaths from railway accidents.

The number of inquests on suicidal deaths was 47,41 of males and 6 of females, against 44 in 1888 and 52 in 1887.

There were 43 inquests held on fires in 1889, a decrease of 19 on the number in 1888. In 9 cases a verdict of incendiarism was given, and 9 fires were proved to be accidental. In 25 cases there was not sufficient evidence to enable a decision as to the cause of fire to be arrived at.

EEDUCATION.

At the end of 1889 there were in the colony 1,558 schools of all classes at which members of the European and Maori races were being educated. This was an increase of 17 on the number in 1888. The public primary schools numbered 1,155 in 1889, against 1,128 in 1888, 21,093 in 1887, and 1,054 in 1886. The number of aided or endowed colleges and grammar and high schools was 22 in 1889, the same as in the previous year. The number of private schools was 293, a decrease of 6 on the number in 1888. There were also 10 industrial schools and orphanages, public and private. The number of schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 78 in 1889, a decrease of 4 on the number in 1888.

Education at the public schools is free (except at those which have been converted into district high schools, at which the pupils taught the higher branches are charged fees) and purely secular. The attendance of all children between the ages of 7 and 13 is compulsory, except when special exemptions are granted, or they are being otherwise sufficiently educated.

The subjects of instruction at the primary schools are required by the Education Act to be the following: Reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar and composition, geography, history, elementary science and drawing, object-lessons, vocal music, and (in the case of girls) sewing and needlework, and the principles of domestic economy. It is also required that provision shall he made for the instruction in military drill of all boys in those schools.

The number of young people of European descent, including half-castes living among Europeans, on the rolls of attendance of the various schools in the last quarter of 1889 was 131,871, an increase on the corresponding number in 1888 of 2,343. Of these, 115,019 attended the public schools, 2,147 attended the colleges and grammar and high schools, 13,458 attended the private schools, 815 were inmates of industrial schools or orphanages, and 438 attended the Native village schools.

There was thus, as compared with the numbers (exclusive of Maoris) at the end of 1888, an increase of 2,729 in the attendance at the public schools, and of 27 in the number attending the colleges and superior schools; but decrease of 395 in the numbers attending private schools.

Exclusive of Maoris, but including 330 male and 33 female half-castes living among the Europeans, there wen 59,290 boys and 55,729 girls in attendance at the public primary schools during the last quarter of 1889 an increase on the numbers in 1888 of 1,157 boys and 1,572 girls. The average attendance of the pupils was better than in the previous year, having amounted to 81.7 per cent, of the roll-number, against 79.3 per cent, in 1888 The proportion of average attendance varies in difference parts of the colony. It was highest in Otago, 85.7 per cent., and lowest in Taranaki, 72.4 per cent.

There were 1,291 male and 1,603 female teachers (exclusive of 164 sewing-mistresses) at the public schools a the end of 1889. Of the males, 239, and of the females 676, were pupil-teachers.

The secondary or superior schools consist of aided of endowed colleges and grammar and high schools. of the 21 schools of this class, 8 were for boys only, 6 for girls only, and 8 for boys and girls. The number of regular instructors in 1889 was 115, and that of visiting instructors, 23. The number of pupils on the rolls for the last term of 1889 was 2,147; of these, 1,281 were boys and 866 were girls. There was a decrease of 54 in the number of boys, but an increase of 81 in the number of girls on the rolls for the last term of 1888.

The New Zealand University is not a teaching body; the undergraduates for the most part keep their terms at one or other of the affiliated institutions, which are the following: the Auckland University College, the Canterbury College, and the University of Otago, each having a staff of professors. 62 males and 51 females attended the lectures of the Auckland University College in 1889; of these, 4 males and 2 females were graduates, 30 males and 18 females were undergraduates, and 28 males and 31 females were non-matriculated students. 140 matriculated and 139 non-matriculated students attended lectures at the Canterbury College during 1889; and the lectures at the Otago University were attended by 138 matriculated and 58 matriculated students. The number of graduates of the New Zealand University on the 1st June, 1890, who had obtained direct degrees was 230. The number of undergraduates on the roll of the University at that date was 1,063, but only 509 were then keeping terms, of whom 337 were males and 172 were females. 30 of the males were medical students at the University of Otago.

There were 293 private schools in operation in the colony at the end of 1889; the number was less by 6 than that in 1888. 37 were for boys, 51 for girls, and 205 for children of both sexes. The number of pupils therein was 13,506, of whom 10 boys and 48 girls were Maoris. The number of pupils at these schools was less than in 1888 by 347. Of the private schools, 95 were Roman Catholic, with an attendance of 9,024 pupils.

The following gives for the past four years the number of private schools, and of pupils attending them, exclusive of Maoris, the number of Roman Catholic schools and pupils being also shown separately:—

Year.Number of Private Schools.Pupils.Total Pupils.Included in previous Numbers.
Boys.Girls.Roman Catholic Schools.Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.
1,8862885,2167,25712,473837,991
1,8872995,7717,61613,387908,946
1,8882995,8747,97913,853969,346
1,8892935,7787,68013,458959,024

The number of children attending private schools that were not Roman Catholic has remained nearly stationery: in 1886 it was 4,482; in 1889, 4,434.

The total number of children of European descent (including only those half-castes who live among Europeans known to be in the receipt of some educational training at the end of 1889 was 131,871, of which 126,926 were at the ages 5-15, against 124,515 at the same ages in 1888. In is estimated that there were about 163,759 children living at the end of 1889 who were between 5 and 15 years of age. Deducting 126,926 known to be at school, there is the number left of 37,233 children at 5-15 years not at school. The number of children living at 5-7 is estimator at 32,438, and the number of those ages at school was23,233, leaving 9,205 at 5-7 not at school. Deducting these from the numbers at 5-15 not at school, there remains the number of 28,028 children at 7-15 not at school—the compulsory school-age commencing at 7 years.

This number includes children who have attended and have left school, and the number receiving home tuition.

In 1886 there were 39,565 children at 7-10 years attending the public schools. In 1889 these children should have been from 10-13 years of age, but in that year there were only 37,725 at 10-13 at the public schools, a difference of 1,849, or, allowing for deaths, of 1,661, who had left school. Again, in 1887 there were 23,866 children at 11-13. years at the public schools; in 1889 the number at from 13-15 years of age was 12,596; an allowance for deaths gives 11,150 living at ages 13-15 who had left school. These, together, give at least 12,811 who had left school, out of the 23,866 children at 7-15 years not at school. Of the remainder, about 7,000, judging from the results of the census of 1886, may be considered as receiving home tuition, leaving thus 8,214 not accounted for. Of these, some may have been for a time at Private schools: the number amounts to a proportion of 6.22 in every 100 children between 7 and 15 years of age.

The number of Native village schools at the end of 1889 either supported or subsidised by the Government was 72, a decrease of 3 on the number in 1888. In addition there were 4 boarding schools for Native children, the cost of whose maintenance was paid either by the Government or from endowments, and 2 private Native schools.

The number of Maori children attending schools at the end of 1889 was 2,736, namely, 1,592 males and 1,144 females. These included 68 children of mixed European and Native blood who live as members of Native tribes.

The number at the several schools in each of the two past years is as follows :—

Schools.Maori Children attending Schools.
Boys.Girls.Total of both Sexes.
1888.1889.1888.1883.1888.1889.
At public European schools231273164164395437
At Native village schools1,1831,1598918712,0742,030
At subsidised or endowed boarding-schools1041067753181159
At private European or Native schools3854425680110
Totals1,5561,5921,1741,1442,7302,736

There was thus an increase in 1889 of 36 in the number of Maori boys, but a decrease of 30 in the number of Maori girls, who were attending school.

The total income of the various Education Boards for the year 1889 amounted to £369,845 17s. 7d., exclusive of the balances at the beginning of the year amounting to £48,202 4s. 9d. Of this the sum of £335,118 5s. 5d. was received from the Government—a decrease of £29,938 4s. 10d. on the Government grants in 1888, and of £52,938 1s. on the similar grants in 1887. These grants consisted (1) of a statutory allowance of £3 15s. per child in daily average attendance, (2) a further capitation allowance of 1s. 6d. for scholarships, and (3) the sum of £11,578 18s. 3d. for buildings.

The total expenditure in 1889 amounted to £386,435 9s. 3d., of which the sum of £328,099 16s. 6d. was for maintenance of the schools, £9,683 19s. 8d. for expenses of the Boards, £10,197 14s. 1d. for inspection of schools and examination of pupil-teachers, £38,321 15s. 5d. for school buildings, and £132 3s. 7d. for miscellaneous payments.

The expenditure in the past year on account of the Native village schools was £13,151 5s. 3d., against £14,276 10s. in 1888. Further sums amounting to £2,605 12s. 10d. were expended for the following purposes: Maintenance of Maori children at subsidised boarding schools (£1,483 14s. 5d.), inspection (£681 0s. 4d.), and miscellaneous services (£440 18s. 1d.).

The following was the cost of the Government industrial schools in 1889:—

School.Cost of School.Cost of Boarding out.Recoveries.Net Cost.
 £ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.
Auckland454 17 7538 4 6219 15 2773 6 11
Kohimarama1,510 2 71,056 63 10719 14 11,847 7 4
Burnham3,047 2 03,838 10 102,405 16 94,479 16 1
Caversham3,266 13 03,623 8 114,559 10 32,330 11 8
 8,278 15 29,057 5 17,904 16 39,431 2 0
Salary and expenses of visiting officers259 8 4
Total£9,690 10 4

The net cost of these schools was less than in 1888 by £1,960 9s. 7d., due chiefly to the smaller expenditure on account of boarding out, caused by a decrease in the average number boarded out during the year and a reduced rate of payment for all new cases.

In addition to the children stated as attending schools, there were at the end of 1889 42 pupils at the Summer Institution for Deaf-mutes. The children are taught to speak with their mouth and to read articulate speech by observing the movement of the lips. Many of the pupils who have left the institution have thus become qualified to take a part in ordinary conversation, and were capable of becoming useful members of society.

The expenditure for the school during 1889 was £3,253 5s. 8d. The amount contributed by the parents of the pupils amounted only to £253 11s.

MISCELLANEOUS.

The total revenue for the past financial year of the various County and Borough Councils, and Road, Town, River, Drainage, and Harbour Boards, amounted to £1,374,712 2s., of which the receipts from rates amounted to £160,302 14s. 9d., and those from the General Government to £139,319 10s. 8d.

The rates collected by the various local bodies have increased in the ratio of 85 per cent, since 1881, and it may be noted that the increase of indebtedness for the same period was in the ratio of 97 per cent.

The following shows the revenue derived from rates for each of the past ten years, and the amount of indebtedness from loans at the end of each year :—

Year ended 31st March.Rates collected by Local Bodies.Outstanding Loans of Local Bodies.
 £ s. d.£
1881249.087 4 93,039,807
1882297.327 18 93,277,584
1883327.128 8 113,540,046
1881398.659 5 113,962,330
1885401.392 18 64,313,223
1886410.638 15 34,943,270
1887434.236 12 25,620,747
1888433.831 12 75,812,803
1889445.928 19 105,892,050
1890460.302 14 95,978,059

The rates collected by the Drainage and Harbour Boards included in the above amounts were for the calendar years respectively.

10

Of the outstanding loans at the end of the last financial year, those raised in the colony amounted to £908,609, at rates of interest varying from 5 to 9 per cent.: the amount at 9 per cent, is only £200; £307,283 bore interest from 5 and under 6 per cent.; £365,369 bore interest at 6 and under 7 per cent.; £215,085 bore interest at 7 per cent.; and on £20,872 the rate of interest exceeded 7 per cent. Of the loans raised outside the colony, amounting to £5,069,450, the sum of £2,340,900 bore interest not exceeding 5 per cent. (the greater portion at 5 per cent.), £2,495,050 bore interest at 6 per cent., and £233,500 at 7 per cent

The loans do not include those advanced by the General Government under special statutes, and repayable by instalments, of which the outstanding debentures at the end of March, 1890, represented the amount of £338,656 19s. 6d.

The annual charges on account of loans raised outside the colony which carry higher rates of interest than 4 1/2 per cent, amount to £258,078. A reduction of interest to 4 1/2 per cent, would lessen this amount by £52,467 per annum, equal to one-fifteenth of the amount spent by the various local bodies on public works during the past year.

The total value of rateable property in counties which was not included in any road or town district was on the 31st March, 1890, £26,732,795; of this, the value of the rateable Crown and Native lands on which rates were paid by the Government amounted to £6,040,655. The rateable value of Crown and Native lands was less than in the previous year by £191,690, and that of the rest of the lands by £279,257, giving together a decrease of £473,947.

The revenue for the past financial year of all the counties in which the Counties Act is in full operation was £251,013, an increase of only £1,298 on the revenue of the previous year. Of the last revenue, the sum of £121,215 was raised by rates.

The expenditure of these counties amounted altogether to £302,188 4s. 11d., of which the sum of £207,012 7s. 4d. was spent on public works, £39,503 10s. 8d. on management, and £27,775 18s. on hospitals and charitable aid.

In the majority of the boroughs the rates are levied on the annual values of the rateable properties, and the returns only give those values; but in 11 boroughs the capital values only are the bases for rating purposes. The total annual value of properties in 74 of these boroughs was in March, 1890, £2,082,338, a decrease on the value in the previous year of £10,956. The Act under which the valuation is made provides for a reduction from the renting value of 20 per cent, on houses and buildings and 10 per cent, on land. The actual annual values of the properties will therefore be greater than the rating values by from 11 to 25 per cent.

The estimated capital value in the remaining eleven boroughs was £2,311,694.

The total revenues of the boroughs for the past year amounted to £432,502 1s. 5d.; of this the sum of £211,152 12s. 1d. was received from rates.

Of a total expenditure by the boroughs amounting to £497,438 2s. 3d., the sum of £214,576 10s. 3d. was spent on public works, £20,496 11s. 8d. on charitable aid and hospitals, and £45,515 18s. 2d. on management.

The indebtedness of the boroughs on account of outstanding loans was at the end of March, 1890, £2,541,453, an increase of £6,897 on the similar indebtedness at the end of March, 1889.

The properties in the various town districts are not rated on a uniform system. In the majority of the districts the rate is levied on the total value of the property, in the others on the annual value; but in each of the road districts the rate is levied on the total value.

The estimated annual value of properties in the first-mentioned town districts in March, 1890, was £1,528,415, and the net annual value of the properties in the rest of the districts was £51,800. This shows a decrease compared with the values in the previous year of £54,996 in the annual value, but an increase of £780 in the capital value.

The total rateable value of the rateable properties in the road districts was £43,702,383, a decrease on the value in March, 1889, of £1,029,412. In each case the values of rateable Crown and Native lands are included. These in March, 1890, amounted to £2,687,175 of the total values of rateable properties in road districts; also to £36,657 of the capital value, and to £2,549 of the annual value, of property in town districts.

Excluding the Crown and unoccupied Native lands, the values of the rateable properties in the colony in each of the years ending in March, 1888, 1889, and 1890 were as follows:—

31st March, 1888. Rated on31st March, 1889. Rated on31st March, 1890. Rated on
Total Value.Annual Value.Total Value.Annual Value.Total Value.Annual Value
 ££££££
In counties not in road districts20,277,043...20,971,397...20,692,140...
In road districts of counties42,826,126...41,882,668...41,075,208...
In town districts1,629,57457,9451,540,18349,5941,491,75849,251
In boroughs2,052,0632,166,0052,123,2942,279,4919,082,3382,311,694
Totals66,784,8062,223,95066,517,5422,329,08565,341,4442,369,945

Assuming that the capital value is worth sixteen times the net annual value (it should be worth more, for, as has been previously remarked, the net annual value should be increased from 11 to 25 per cent., according to whether the property consists of land or houses, in order to arrive at the full annual value), then the total value of all rateable property, excepting Crown and unoccupied rateable Native lands, in each of the past four years would be as follows:—

Year.Value of Properties rated on Basis of Total Value.Annual Value of Properties rated on that Basis.Annual Value capitalised by multiplying by 16.Total Value of Rateable Property in Colony, except Crown and Native Lands.
 ££££
1886-8764,458,3142,353,41037,654,560102,112,874
1887-8866,784,8062,223,95035,583,200102,368,006
1888-8966,517,5422,329,08537,265,360103,782,902
1889-9065,341,4442,360,94537,775,120103,116,564

The total revenue of the Town Boards amounted to £15,347 9s. 7d., of which rates yielded £5,191 5s. 10d.

The total revenue of the Road Boards amounted to £136,332 13s. 4d., of which the receipts from rates were £81,988 1s. 4d.

The total revenue of the River Boards, exclusive of the Inch-Clutha Board, which is also a Road Board, amounted to £10,879 0s. 10d., of which the receipts from rates were £7,879 10s. 10d.

Of the total revenue of the Harbour Boards, amounting to £304,744 2s. 9d, rates yielded £15,750 3s. 9d.

There is only one Drainage Board, that for the Christ-church District. The revenue for the past year amounted to £17,209 3s. 3d., which was chiefly obtained from rates (£17,125 10s. 8d.)

The amount of direct taxation imposed on the people by these local bodies in the form of rates, amounting on the whole to £460,302, 14s. 9d., was equivalent to an average of 15s. per head of the population.

DEFENCE AND POLICE.

The New Zealand Permanent Militia Force is divided into two branches, the Artillery and Torpedo.

The Artillery branch consisted at the end of 1889 of 7 commissioned and 16 non-commissioned officers and 111 rank and file. The Torpedo branch consisted of 2 commissioned and 12 non-commissioned officers and 40 rank and file. The Permanent Force thus consisted of 191 of all ranks, being 3 fewer than in the previous year.

The force was, with the exception of 1 non-commissioned officer at Opunake, not very distant from the pa of To Whiti at Parihaka, distributed between the four posts where fortifications have been erected, namely, Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, and Dunedin.

The strength of the Police Force at the end of 1889 was 498 of all ranks, an increase of 16 during the year. The force consisted of 13 commissioned and 65 noncommissioned officers and 420 rank and file. It is recruited from the Permanent Militia, and no persons who have not served in the Permanent Force are eligible for the Police so long as recruits from that Force can be obtained. During 1889 26 gunners were transferred from the Permanent Force to the Police. With annual training the Police would under this system afford a valuable reserve of artillerymen for duty in the batteries in case of emergency. There was a decrease during 1889 of 18 in the number of Volunteer corps, 17 having been disbanded or converted into rifle clubs, and the number of cadet corps being reduced by 1. Exclusive of the cadets, the number of corps was less by 17, their total strength being, however, greater by 34; but, as there was a decrease of 103 in the strength of the Cadet corps, the strength of all corps was less by 69.

The following gives the total strength of all ranks of each class of Volunteer corps in each of the two past years:—

Corps.1888.1889.
Corps.Strength.Corps.Strength.
Cavalry1160610555
Mounted Infantry21092102
Naval Artillery201,220171,318
Artillery1470113735
Engineers31543171
Rifles904,895754,661
Honorary......3177
Cadets422,447412,344
Totals18210,13216410,063

FIRE BRIGADES.

The number of fire brigades in 1889 was 66, with a total strength of 189 officers and 1,051 men. This, compared with the numbers in 1888, shows an increase of 7 brigades, 2 officers, 110 men.

LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES.

There were 8 life assurance companies doing business in the colony in 1889, in addition to the Life Insurance Department of the New Zealand Government.

The total number of policies for life assurances and endowments issued in the colony during the year by these companies and the Government Insurance Department, exclusive of policies transferred to the colony, was 7,437, representing a total amount insured of £1,917,870. This was a decrease on the insurances effected in 1888 of 2,348 in the number of policies, and of £182,876 in the amount insured. The number of policies for assurance and endowments transferred to the colony in the past year was 51, representing the amount of £19,250.

The number of policies discontinued during the year (exclusive of transfers from the colony) was 7,565, representing a total amount of £1,448,455. Of these, the surrenders numbered 1,023, representing a total insured amount of £320,902, and the lapses 6,015, with an insured amount of £975,716. The rest were accounted for by death maturity of policy, or other causes.

The number of existing policies at the end of 1889 was 51,904, representing a gross amount insured of £15,098,157, equivalent to an average of £291 for each policy. The number of policies amounted to an average proportion of 83 in every 1,000 persons living, or to 181 in every 1,000 adults, or to 310 in every 1,000 male adults.

The total revenue of New Zealand life assurance business during the year was £627,932 1s. 3d., of which the sum of £52,188 0s. 1d. was received on account of new premiums and £398,154 9s. 4d. on account of renewals. The interest credited to the revenue amounted to £166,098 16s. 7d.

The total expenditure during the year in respect of New Zealand business amounted to £353,646 4s. 10d., of which the payments on account of claims amounted to £156,765 9s. 3d. The payments on account of surrenders amounted to £55,442 14s. 5d., a decrease of £623 2s. 8d. on the amount paid for surrenders in 1888, but an increase of £5,644 7s. 5d. on the similar amount paid in 1887, and of £15,090 2s. 11d. on that paid in 1886. The almost stationary large amount of payments on account of surrenders indicates that the pressure of straitened means caused by the trade depression that has prevailed throughout the colony had not been lifted to any appreciable extent from the shoulders of the body of policyholders.

The management expenses during the year amounted to £131,135 9s. 5d. The proportion of expenses to revenue varied greatly in the different companies, being very much higher in those companies which have been the shortest period in operation in the colony.

The following shows the proportion per cent, of expenses to revenue in the New Zealand business for the several insurance companies in the years 1888 and 1889:—

Office.Number of Years of Business in the Colony.Revenue in 1889.Expenses in 1889.Percentage of Expenses to Revenue.
  £ s. d.£ s. d.18891888.
Australian Mutual Provident Society28219,379 8 1027,102 11 612.412,0
Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society (Limited)623,832 2 914,173 16 859.564.5
Equitable Insurance Association of New Zealand52,269 15 02,038 14 689.883.0
Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States520,534 12 07,153 0 634.830,7
Mutual Assurance Society of Victoria (Limited)69,987 6 114,784 11 747.951.1
Mutual Life Association of Australasia1326,282 11 09,791 12 037.359,6
National Mutual Life Association of Australasia (Limited)1023,252 18 48,666 2 637.334.2
New York Insurance Company33,683 19 61,666 14 145.8103,8
The Life Insurance Department of the New Zealand Government20298,709 6 1155,738 6 118.716,9

WM. R. E. BROWN,Registrar-General.

Appendix A. APPENDICES.

APPENDIX A.DATES OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF NEW ZEALAND.

DEC. 13, 1642.—Discovery of New Zealand by Abel Jansen Tasman.

Oct. 8, 1769.—Captain Cook landed at Poverty Bay on his first visit.

1814.—First arrival of Rev. Mr. Marsden at Bay of Islands, and introduction of Christianity. Horses, oxen, sheep, and poultry first brought to the colony.

1823, 1828.—Acts passed by the Imperial Parliament extending the jurisdiction of the Courts of justice in New South Wales to all British subjects in New Zealand.

1825.—First attempt at colonisation by an expedition under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf.

1827.—Destruction of mission-station at Wangaroa by Hongi's forces.

1831.—Application of thirteen chiefs for the protection of King William the Fourth.

1833.—Mr. Busby appointed British Resident, to live at the Bay of Islands.

1835.—Declaration of independence of the whole of New Zealand as one nation, with the title of “The United Tribes of New Zealand.”

1838.—The Roman Catholic Bishop Pompallier, with several priests, arrived at Hokianga.

May 12, 1839.—Departure of the preliminary expedition of the New Zealand Company from England.

June, 1839.—Issue of Letters Patent authorising the Governor of New South Wales to include within the limits of that colony any territory that might be acquired in sovereignty by Her Majesty in New Zealand.

Sept. 16, 1839.—First body of New Zealand Company's emigrants sailed from Gravesend.

Sept. 20, 1839.—Arrival in Port Nicholson of the preliminary expedition of the New Zealand Company under Colonel Wakefield.

Jan. 22, 1840.—Arrival of first body of immigrants at Port Nicholson.

Jan. 29, 1840.—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands. On the following day (Jan. 30) he hoisted the Union flag, and read the commission, under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, which extended the boundaries of the Colony of New South Wales so as to embrace and comprehend the Islands of New Zealand; also his own commission as Lieutenant-Governor over territory that might be acquired in sovereignty.

Feb. 5, 1840.—Date of Treaty of Waitangi.

May 21, 1840.—Date of Proclamations of sovereignty over the Islands of New Zealand.

June 17, 1840.—The Queen's sovereignty over the Middle Island formally proclaimed at Cloudy Bay, by Major Bunbury, H.M. 80th Regiment, and Captain Nias, R.N.

Aug. 11, 1840.—The British flag hoisted at Akaroa by Captain Stanley, R.N., and British authority established. The French frigate “L'Aube” arrived there on the 15th August, and the vessel “Comte de Paris,” with 57 immigrants, on the 16th August, in order to establish a French colony.

Sept. 18, 1840.—The British flag hoisted at Auckland. The Lieutenant-Governor's residence established there.

1840.—Formation of Wanganui settlement under the name of “Petre.”

Feb. 12, 1841.—Issue of charter of incorporation to the New Zealand Company.

Mar. 31, 1841.—Arrival of first New Plymouth settlers.

May 3, 1841.—New Zealand proclaimed to be independent of New South Wales.

Oct., 1841.—Formation of settlement at Nelson.

May 29, 1842.—Arrival of Bishop Selwyn in the colony.

Sept. 10, 1842.—Death of Governor Hobson. Lieutenant Shortland, R.N., Colonial Secretary, became Acting-Governor until the arrival of Captain Fitzroy.

June, 1843.—Affray with Natives at the Wairau, and massacre by Rangihaeata of Captain Wakefield, R.N., agent at Nelson of the New Zealand Company, and others, who had surrendered.

Dec. 1, 1843.—Arrival of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., as Governor.

July 8, 1844.—The Royal flagstaff at Kororareka cut down by Heke.

Mar. 10, 1845.—Attack on and destruction of Town of Kororareka by Heke.

Sept., 1845.—Receipt of notification of recall of Governor Fitzroy.

Nov. 14, 1845.—Arrival of Captain Grey, as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony, from South Australia.

Jan. 11, 1846.—Capture of pa at Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands, and termination of Heke's war.

Mar. 3, 1846.—Commencement of Native hostilities in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington.

May 16, 1846.—Attack by Natives on a military outpost in the Hutt Valley.

July 23, 1846.—Capture of Te Rauparaha at Porirua, near Wellington; he was detained for a year as prisoner on board a ship of war.

Aug. 28, 1846.—The New Zealand Government Act passed by the Imperial Parliament, under which a charter was issued dividing the colony into two provinces, and granting representative institutions.

May 19, 1847.—Attack by Natives on settlement of Wanganui.

Nov., 1847.—Arrival of Mr. E. J. Eyre, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Munster.

Jan. 1, 1848.—Captain Grey sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, also as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster.

Jan. 3, 1848.—Major-General Pitt appointed by Governor Grey to be Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Ulster.

Feb. 21, 1848.—Peace ratified at Wanganui.

Mar. 7, 1848.—Suspension by Imperial statute of that part of the New Zealand Government Act which had conferred representative institutions.

Mar., 1848.—Otago founded by a Scotch company under the auspices of the Free Church of Scotland.

Oct., 1848.—Severe earthquake at Wellington.

July, 1850.—Surrender of the New Zealand Company's charter, all its interests in the colony reverting to the Imperial Government.

Dec., 1850.—Canterbury founded by the Canterbury Association in connection with the Church of England.

Jan. 8, 1851.—Death of Major-General Pitt, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Ulster.

April 14, 1851.—Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Ulster.

1852.—Discovery of gold at Coromandel by Mr. Charles Ring.

June 30, 1852.—The Constitution Act passed by the Imperial Parliament, granting representative institutions to the colony, and subdividing it into six provinces.

Jan., 1853.—Promulgation of the Constitution Act.

Mar. 7, 1853.—Assumption by Sir George Grey, K.C.B., of the duties of Governor of the colony in terms of the appointment after the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, and cessation of the duties of the Lieutenant-Governors of New Ulster and New Munster.

Dec. 31, 1853.—Departure of Governor Sir George Grey.

Jan. 3, 1854.—Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard assumed the administration of the Government.

May 27, 1854.—Opening at Auckland of the first session of the General Assembly by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, Administrator of the Government.

Jan., 1855.—Very severe earthquake on each side of Cook Strait.

Sept. 6, 1855.—Arrival of Governor Colonel T. Gore Browne, C.B.

May 7, 1856.—Appointment of the first Ministry under the system of Responsible Government, under Mr. Sewell, Colonial Secretary.

May 14, 1856.—Defeat of Mr. Sewell's Ministry.

May 20, 1856.—Appointment of a Ministry under presidency of Mr. W. Fox as Attorney-General.

May 28, 1856.—Defeat of Mr. Fox's Ministry, by a majority of one, on a direct vote of want of confidence.

June 2, 1856.—Appointment of a Ministry under the presidency of Mr. Stafford.

1857.—First payable goldfield in the colony opened at Collingwood, in the Nelson Province.

Nov. 1, 1858.—Establishment of the Province of Hawke's Bay.

March, 1859.—Te Teira offered land at Waitara for sale to the Government.

Nov. 1, 1859.—Establishment of the Province of Marlborough.

Mar., 1860.—Commencement of hostilities against Wiremu Kingi to Rangitake at Waitara.

Mar. 18, 1860.—Capture of Maori pa at Waitara.

Mar. 28, 1860.—Engagement at Waireka.

June 27, 1860.—Engagement of Puketakauere at Waitara.

Nov. 6, 1860.—Defeat at Mahoetahi, with heavy loss, of a force of Waikato Natives who had crossed the Waitara River to join Wiremu Kingi.

Dec. 31, 1860.—Capture of the Matarikoriko Pa and defeat of a large body of Waikato Natives.

Jan. 23, 1861.—The Natives made a determined attack on the redoubt at Huirangi occupied by Imperial troops, and were repulsed with heavy loss.

April 1, 1861.—Establishment of Province of Southland.

May 21, 1861.—A truce agreed to.

May, 1861.—Discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, Otago.

July 5, 1861.—Defeat of Mr. Stafford's Ministry, by a majority of one, on a vote of want of confidence.

July 12, 1861.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. Fox.

July 29, 1861.—Incorporation of the Bank of New Zealand.

Sept. 26, 1861.—Arrival of Sir George Grey, K.C.B., at Auckland from the Cape Colony, to succeed Governor Gore Browne. Sir George Grey was sworn in as Governor on the 3rd October.

Oct. 2, 1861.—Departure of Governor Gore Browne.

June 28, 1862.—Coromandel proclaimed a goldfield.

July 28, 1862.—Defeat of Mr. Fox's Ministry by the casting vote of the Speaker, on a proposed resolution in favour of placing the ordinary conduct of Native affairs under the administration of the Responsible Ministers.

Aug. 6, 1862.—Appointment of a Ministry under the leadership of Mr. Alfred Domett.

Feb. 7, 1863.—Wreck of H.M.S. “Orpheus” on Manukau Bar; 181 lives lost.

Feb. 26, 1863.—Definite relinquishment by the Imperial Government of control over administration of Native affairs.

May 4, 1863.—Treacherous assault near Tataraimaka by Natives on a military escort. Murder of Lieutenant Tragett, Dr. Hope, and five soldiers of the 57th Regiment.

June 4, 1863.—Defeat of Natives at Katikara by a force under Lieut.-General Cameron.

July 17, 1863.—Action at Koheroa, in the Auckland Province. Commencement of the Waikato war.

Oct. 27, 1863.—Resignation of the Domett Ministry in consequence of difficulties experienced in connection with arrangements for finding a fitting representative of the Government in the Legislative Council.

Oct. 30, 1863.—Appointment of the Ministry formed by Mr. Fox, under the premiership of Mr. F. Whitaker.

Nov., 1863.—Acceptance by the General Assembly of colonial responsibility in Native affairs.

Nov. 20, 1863.—Battle at Rangiriri. Defeat of Natives and unconditional surrender of 183.

Dec. 1, 1863.—The first railway in New Zealand opened for traffic by W. S. Moorhouse, Superintendent of Canterbury. The line was from Christchurch to Ferrymead Junction.

Dec. 3, 1863.—The New Zealand Settlements Act passed, giving the Governor power to confiscate the lands of insurgent Natives.

Dec. 8, 1863.—Occupation of Ngaruawahia. The British flag hoisted on the Maori King's flagstaff.

Feb. 11, 1864.—Engagement with Natives on Mangapiko River. Major (then Captain) Heaphy, of the New Zealand forces, won the Victoria Cross for distinguished bravery on this occasion.

Feb. 22, 1864.—Defeat of Natives at Rangiaohia.

April 2, 1864.—Attack on and capture of pa at Orakau, Waikato.

April 21, 1864.—Engagement near Maketu, Bay of Plenty. Tribes of the Rawhiti defeated by Arawa Natives under Captain McDonnell.

April 29, 1864.—Assault on Gate Pa, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty, and repulse of large British force by the Maoris. The pa was abandoned by the Natives during the following night.

April 30, 1864.—Repulse of attack by rebel Hauhau Natives on redoubt at Sentry Hill, Taranaki.

May 14, 1864.—Battle of Moutoa, an island in the Wanganui River, between friendly and rebel Hauhau Natives. Complete defeat of rebels.

June 21, 1864.—Engagement at Te Ranga, near Tauranga by Lieut.-Colonel Greer, 68th Regiment. Severe defeat of the Natives.

1864.—Discovery of gold on the west coast of the Middle Island.

Sept. 10, 1864.—Escape of Maori prisoners from Kawau.

Nov. 24, 1864.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. F. A. Weld, the Whitaker-Fox Ministry having resigned during the recess.

Dec. 17, 1864.—Confiscation of Native lands in Waikato by Sir George Grey.

Feb., 1865.—Removal of the seat of Government to Wellington.

Mar. 2, 1865.—Barbarous murder of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, a Church of England missionary at Opotiki, by Hauhau fanatics, under Kereopa.

June 8, 1865.—Submission of the Maori Chief Wiremu Tamihana te Waharoa (William Thompson).

June 17, 1865.—Murder of Mr. Fulloon, a Government officer, and his companions at Whakatane by Hauhau fanatics.

July 22, 1865.—Capture of the Wereroa Pa, near Wanganui.

Aug. 2, 1865.—Assault and capture of the Pa Kairomiromi, at Waiapu, by Colonial Forces under Captain Fraser, and Native Contingent under the chief Te Mokena. Eighty-seven rebels killed.

Sept. 2, 1865.—Proclamation of peace issued by Governor Sir George Grey, announcing that the war which commenced at Oakura was at an end.

Sept. 30, 1865.—Murder by Hauhaus, at Kakaramea, of Mr. Broughton, when sent as a friendly messenger to them by Brigadier-General Waddy.

Oct. 12, 1865.—Resignation of Mr. Weld's Ministry, on account of a resolution adverse to the Government policy having been defeated only by the casting-vote of the Speaker.

Oct. 16, 1865.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. E. W. Stafford.

Dec. 25, 1865.—Defeat of rebel Natives at Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, by Colonial Forces and Native Contingent.

Jan. 4, 1866.—Defeat of Natives at Okotuku Pa, on the west coast of the North Island, by force under Major-General Chute.

Jan. 7, 1866.—Assault on and capture of Putahi Pa by force under Major-General Chute.

Jan. 13, 1866.—Assault on and capture of Otapawa Pa by force under Major-General Chute.

Jan. 17, 1866, to Jan. 25, 1866.— Period of Major-General Chute's march through the bush to New Plymouth.

Jan., 1866.—Escape of a large number of Native prisoners from the hulk at Wellington; many were drowned in trying to swim ashore.

Mar. 29, 1866.—Submission of the rebel chiefs Te Heuheu and Herekiekie, of Taupo District.

Mar., 1866.—A detachment of Maori prisoners sent to the Chatham Islands.

June 15, 1866.—Commencement of Panama steam mail-service.

Aug. 26, 1866.—The Cook Strait submarine telegraph cable laid.

Oct. 2, 1866.—Engagement with rebel Natives at Pungarehu, West Coast, by Colonial Forces, under Major McDonnell.

Oct. 8, 1866.—First Act passed to impose stamp duties.

Oct. 12, 1866.—Defeats of rebel Natives at Omaranui and at Petane, Hawke's Bay, by Colonial Forces.

Oct. 10, 1867.—An Act passed to establish an Institute for the Promotion of Science and Art in the colony.

Oct. 10, 1867.—An Act passed for the division of the colony into four Maori electorates, and the admission of four Maori members to the House of Representatives.

Jan., 1868.—Establishment of the County of Westland.

Feb. 5, 1868.—Arrival of Governor Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G.

July 4, 1868.—Seizure by Maori prisoners, under the leadership of Te Kooti, of the schooner “Rifleman,” and their escape from the Chatham Islands.

July 12, 1868.—Night attack by Natives on redoubt at Turuturu Mokai. Sub-Inspector Ross and 7 Europeans killed. Natives driven off by the arrival of a force under Major Von Tempsky.

Aug. 8, 1868.—Pursuit by Lieut.-Colonel Whitmore of escaped Chatham Island prisoners, and indecisive engagement in the gorge of the Ruake Ture.

Aug. 21, 1868.—Attack on Ngutu-o-te-Manu by force under Lieut.-Colonel McDonnell. Defeat of Natives; 4 Europeans killed and 8 wounded.

Sept. 7, 1868.—Engagement in bush at Ngutu-o-te-Manu. Major Von Tempsky, Captains Buck and Palmer, Lieutenants Hunter and Hastings, and 14 men killed.

Nov. 7, 1868.—Attack on Moturoa. Repulse of Colonial Forces with severe loss.

Nov. 10, 1868.—Massacre of 32 Europeans at Poverty Bay by Te Kooti's band of Natives who had escaped from the Chatham Islands.

Nov. 24, 1868, Dec. 3, 1868, Dec. 5, 1868.—Engagements between friendly Natives and rebels under Te Kooti, at Patutahi, Poverty Bay District.

Jan. 5, 1869.—Assault on, and capture of, Ngatapa Pa, Poverty Bay District, after a siege of six days, by the Colonial Forces of Europeans and friendly Natives. Dispersion and pursuit of Te Kooti's band. More than 136 rebel Natives were killed.

Feb. 13, 1869.—Treacherous murder of the Rev. John Whitely and 7 other Europeans at the White Cliffs, Taranaki.

Feb. 18, 1869.—Attack by rebel Natives on a foraging-party at Karaka Flat; 1 sergeant and 6 men killed.

Mar. 3, 1869.—Termination of Panama mail-service.

Mar. 13, 1869.—Attack on, and defeat of, Titokowaru's force at Otauto.

April 10, 1869.—Native pa at Mohaka taken by Te Kooti, who killed 40 friendly Natives and several Europeans in the neighbourhood.

April 12, 1869.—First arrival of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in Wellington, in H.M.S. “Galatea.”

May 6, 1869.—Surprise and capture of Ahikereru and Oamaru Teangi Pas, Waiwera country. Defeat of Te Kooti.

June 13, 1869.—Surrender to Major Noake and Mr. Booth, R.M., of the chief Tairua, with 122 men, women, and children of the Pakakohe Tribe, near Wanganui.

June 24. 1869.—Defeat of Mr. Stafford's Ministry on a want-of-confidence motion.

June 28, 1869.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. W. Fox.

Oct., 1869.—74 prisoners from the bands of Te Kooti and Titokowaru sentenced to death after trial for treason. The sentences of 78 were commuted to penal servitude for various terms.

Oct. 4, 1869.—Pourere Pa stormed and taken by Lieut.-Colonel McDonnell, with a mixed force of Europeans and Natives.

Jan., 1870.—300 friendly Natives under Topia, and 300 under Major Kepa (known as Kemp), started up the Wanganui River in pursuit of Te Kooti, who retreated into the Urewera country.

Jan. 25, 1870.—Capture of Tapapa Pa, occupied by Te Kooti.

Feb. 24, 1870.—The last detachment of the Imperial troops left the colony.

Mar. 25, 1870.—Major Kepa, with Native force, captured the position held by Te Kooti at Maraetahi, in Urewera country; 19 rebels killed and 73 of Te Kooti's men taken prisoners. Te Kooti escaped with 20 followers.

Mar. 26, 1870.—Commencement of San Francisco mail-service.

June 28, 1870.—Enunciation in the House of Representatives of the public-works policy by the Colonial Treasurer, Mr. Vogel.

July, 1870.—30 prisoners of Te Kooti's band sentenced to death. The sentences were commuted to penal servitude.

Aug. 27, 1870.—Arrival in Wellington of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, in H.M.S. “Galatea”—second visit.

Sept. 12, 1870.—An Act passed to establish the New Zealand University.

Sept. 12, 1870.—The Land Transfer Act passed, to simplify the title to land and dealings with real estates.

Oct. 6, 1870.—Southland Province reunited with Otago.

Dec. 5, 1870.—Honiani te Puni, the chief of the Ngatiawas, a staunch friend of the Europeans, died at Pitone, near Wellington, aged 90 years.

Mar., 1871.—Commencement of railway construction under the public-works policy.

Aug. 4, 1871.—Death of Tamati Waka Nene, the great Ngapuhi chief and friend of the Europeans.

Nov., 1871.—Capture of the notorious rebel Kereopa, tho murderer of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, by the Ngatiporous.

Jan. 5, 1872.—Execution of Kereopa at Napier.

Jan., 1872.—Remission of sentences on 58 Native prisoners then undergoing imprisonment for rebellion.

Feb. 22, 1872.—Visit of William King, the Maori chief of Waitara, to New Plymouth, and resumption of amicable relations with the Europeans.

May 9, 1872.—A general thanksgiving-day for the recovery of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales.

Sept. 6, 1872. — Defeat and resignation of Mr. Fox's Ministry.

Sept. 10, 1872.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of the Hon. E. W. Stafford.

Oct. 4, 1872.—Defeat of the Stafford Ministry on a vote of want of confidence moved by Mr. Vogel.

Oct. 11, 1872.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of the Hon. G. M. Waterhouse, M.L.C.

Oct. 11, 1872.—First appointment of Maori chiefs (two) to be members of the Legislative Council.

Oct. 25, 1872.—The Public Trust Office Act passed.

Jan., 1873.—Establishment of the New Zealand Shipping Company.

Mar. 3, 1873.—The Hon. W. Fox appointed Premier on the resignation of that office by the Hon. G. M. Waterhouse; the other members of the Ministry being confirmed in their offices.

Mar. 19, 1873.—Departure of Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G.

Mar. 21, 1873.—Assumption of the Government by Sir G. A. Arney, Chief Justice, as Administrator.

April 8, 1873.—Resignation of the premiership by the Hon. W. Fox on the return of the Hon. J. Vogel, C.M.G., from Australia. Appointment of Mr. Vogel as Premier; the other Ministers being confirmed in their offices.

June 14, 1873.—Arrival of Governor Sir J. Fergusson, P.C.

Aug. 22, 1874.—The Imprisonment for Debt Abolition Act passed.

Dec. 3, 1874.—Arrival of Governor the Marquis of Normanby, P.C.

1874.—31,774 immigrants were introduced this year under the immigration and public-works policy.

Jan. 3, 1875.—Vi of Sir Donald McLean to the Maori King; resumption of amicable relations.

July 6, 1875.—Resignation of the Ministry in consequence of the absence of Sir J. Vogel, K.C.M.G., in England, and his being unable to attend the session of Parliament. Reconstitution thereof under the premiership of the Hon. Dr. Pollen, M.L.C.

July, 1875.—Establishment of the Union Steam Shipping Company of New Zealand.

1875.—18,324 immigrants were introduced this year under the immigration and public-works policy.

Oct. 12, 1875.—The Abolition of Provinces Act passed.

Feb. 15, 1876.—Resignation of the Hon. Dr. Pollen's Ministry, and reconstitution under the premiership of Sir J. Vogel, K.C.M.G.

Feb. 18, 1876.—Completion of the work of laying the telegraph cable between New Zealand and New South Wales.

June, 1876.—Death of Dr. Isaac Earl Featherston while acting as Agent-General for the colony in England. He was the first to hold that office, and had been Superintendent of the Province of Wellington during the whole time of the existence of provincial representative institutions.

Sept. 1, 1876.—Resignation of Sir J. Vogel's Ministry in view of the appointment of Sir J. Vogel as Agent-General. Formation of a Ministry under the premiership of Major Atkinson.

Sept. 13, 1876.—Resignation of Major Atkinson's Ministry in consequence of doubts being entertained as to the constitutional position thereof. Reconstruction of the Ministry under the premiership of Major Atkinson.

Nov. 1, 1876.—”The Abolition of Provinces Act, 1875,” came into full operation. Complete abolition of provincial institutions. The colony subdivided into counties and municipal boroughs.

Oct. 8, 1877.—Defeat of the Atkinson Ministry on a vote of want of confidence moved by Mr. Larnach.

Oct. 15, 1877.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Sir George Grey, K.C.B.

Nov. 29, 1877.—The Education Act, providing for the free and compulsory education of children, passed.

Feb. 29, 1879.—Departure of Governor the Marquis of Normanby.

Mar., 1879.—Removal of surveyors from the Waimate Plains by Natives acting under Te Whiti's orders.

Mar. 27, 1879.—Arrival of Governor Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson, G.C.M.G.

May 25, 1879.—The Natives from Parihaka, by order of Te Whiti, began ploughing up lands occupied by Europeans.

June, 1879.—Arrest of 180 of these Natives for causing disturbances.

July 29, 1879.—Defeat of the Grey Ministry on an amendment to the address in reply moved by Sir W. Fox, followed by a dissolution of Parliament.

Oct. 3, 1879. — Defeat and subsequent resignation of Sir George Grey's Ministry.

Oct. 8, 1879.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of the Hon. John Hall.

Dec. 19, 1879.—An Act passed to assess property for the purpose of taxation.

Dec. 19, 1879.—The Triennial Parliament Act passed.

Dec. 19, 1879.—An Act passed to qualify every resident male of 21 years of age and upwards to vote.

June, 1880.—First portion of the Maori prisoners released by the Government.

Sept. 8, 1880.—Departure of Governor Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson, G.C.M.G.

Oct., 1880.—Release of the last portion of the Maori prisoners.

Nov. 29, 1880.—Arrival of Governor Sir A. H. Gordon, G.C.M.G.

Nov. 5, 1881.—March of force of Constabulary and Volunteers on Parihaka, and arrest of Te Whiti and Tohu without bloodshed.

April 21, 1882.—Resignation (during the recess) of the Hon. J. Hall's Ministry, and its reconstruction under the premiership of the Hon. F. Whitaker, M.L.C.

June 23, 1882.—Departure of Governor Sir A. H. Gordon.

June 24, 1882.—Assumption of the Government by Sir J. Prendergast, Chief Justice.

1882.—Frozen meat first exported in this year.

Jan. 20, 1883.—Arrival of Governor Sir W. F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B.

Jan. 26, 1883.—A direct line of steam communication between England and New Zealand inaugurated by the New Zealand Shipping Company.

Feb. 13, 1883.—Proclamation of amnesty to Maori political offenders.

Feb. 19, 1883.—Liberation of Te Whiti and Tohu.

Sept. 25, 1883.—Resignation of the office of Premier and his seat in the Ministry by the Hon. F. Whitaker, and the appointment of the Hon. Major H. A. Atkinson to be Premier; the members of Mr. Whitaker's Ministry being confirmed in their offices.

June 11, 1884.—Defeat of Major Atkinson's Government.

June 27, 1884.—Dissolution of the General Assembly.

Aug. 16, 1884.—Resignation of Major Atkinson's Ministry in consequence of the result of the general election. Formation of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. Robert Stout.

Aug. 20, 1884.—Defeat of Mr. Stout's Ministry by an amendment, expressive of want of confidence, to the address in reply being carried.

Aug. 28, 1884.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Major Atkinson.

Aug. 29, 1884.—Defeat of Major Atkinson's Ministry on a vote of want of confidence.

Sept. 3, 1884.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Mr. Robert Stout.

Nov. 8, 1884.—An Act passed to enable certain loans of the New Zealand Government to be converted into inscribed stock and the accrued sinking funds released.

Aug. 1, 1885.—The New Zealand Industrial Exhibition opened at Wellington.

June 10, 1886.—Volcanic eruptions at Tarawera, and destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces.

May 28, 1887.—Defeat of Sir Robert Stout's Ministry.

July 15, 1887.—Dissolution of the General Assembly after prorogation on the 10th June.

July 21, 1887.—A Proclamation issued declaring the Kermadec Islands to be annexed to, and form part of, the Colony of New Zealand.

Oct. 8, 1887.—Appointment of a Ministry under the premiership of Major H. A. Atkinson, Sir R. Stout's Ministry having resigned in consequence of the result of the election.

Dec. 19, 1887.—An Act passed to reduce the number of members of the House of Representatives, after the expiration of the General Assembly then sitting, to seventy-four, including four Maori representatives.

Dec. 23, 1887.—The Australian Naval Defence Act, being an Act to provide for the establishment of an additional naval force on the Australian station, at the joint charge of the Imperial and the several Colonial Governments, was passed by the New Zealand Legislature.

Mar. 22, 1889.—Departure of Governor Sir W. F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from the colony.

May 2, 1889.—Assumption of the Government by the Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G.

APPENDIX B.

CUSTOMS AND EXCISE DUTIES OF NEW ZEALAND, INCLUDING COMMISSIONER'S DECISIONS.

Corrected to the 31st December, 1890.

N.B.—The abbreviations “a. & m. s.” wherever found signify articles and materials suited only for, and to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods in the colony.

ACCOUNT-BOOKS, 25 per cent, (see Stationery)

Accoutrements for military purposes, to include: Morris tubes; adjustable liners; barrel-coolers; barrel-reflectors; cartridge-bells and covers; cleaning apparatus for rifles; elevator- and wind - gauges; light-definers; Martini-Henri and Snider cartridge belts and covers; rifle-slings; scoring-books; sight-protectors; shooting-orthoptics; targets of canvas, paper, or pasteboard; verniers; ventometers; Wimbledon shooting-bags and cases; free

Accoutrements for military purposes, but excepting uniform clothing, free

Acctate of soda, crude, free

Acid, acetic, 11/2d. per lb.

Acid, acetic (Coutts's), 11/2d. per lb.

Acid, boracic, free

Acid, carbolic, in bulk, free

Acid, carbolic, in 1-gal. tins, as in bulk, free

Acid, carbolic, perfumed solution of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Acid, citric, crystals, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Acid, fluoric, free

Acid, muriatic, free

Acid, nitric and pyrogallic, free

Acid, oleic (tallow-oil), free

Acid, oxalic, free

Acid, salicylic, free

Acid, sulphuric, free

Acid, tartaric, 1d. per lb.

Acidometers, free

Acme malt-cleaner and grader, as machinery, 20 per cent.

A¨rated and mineral waters and effervescing beverages, 20 per cent.

A¨rated water bottle stoppers, free

A¨rating-machine, beer, as soda-water machine, free

Agricultural and garden implements that require to be worked by horse-power, free

Agricultural machinery, free

Air-beds and cushions as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Air-bricks, iron, 20 per cent.

Air-gratings, 20 per cent, (see Metal manufactures)

Air pistols and guns, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Alabaster ornaments, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Albo-carbon, free.

Alboline or saxoline, in bulk, as mineral oil, 6d. the gal.

Albumenized paper, free

Albums, 25 per cent.

Albums, postage-stamp, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Ale, dandelion, as ale, porter, &c., 1s. 6d. per gallon

Ale, porter, beer of all sorts, cider and perry, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles or twelve reputed pint bottles, 1s. 6d.

Aleurometers, free

Alfred shirtings, stripes, as coloured cotton shirtings, free

Allen's Lung Balsam, 25 per cent.

Allen's paper-blue, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Almonds, Barbary, Sicily, and French, used in confectioners’ manufactures, free

Almonds, Valencia, used in confectioners’ manufactures, free

Almonds in the shell, 2d. per lb.

Almonds, shelled, 3d. per lb.

Alpaca cloth, with border, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Alpacas, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Alum, free

American cloth for carriages, free

Ammoniaphones, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Anchors, free

Anchovies, French, in bottle, as fish preserved, 2d. per lb.

Anchovies, salted, in casks, free

Angola mendings, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Aniline dyes, free

Aniseed, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Annatto and annatto-seed, free

Anti-fouling composition for ships’ bottoms, free

Anti-incrustators, “Octopus,” free

Antimacassars, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Antipyrine, as drugs, 15 per cent.

Anvils, free

Apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Apparatus for chimney-sweeping, 20 per cent.

Apparatus, other, for raising water, 20 per cent.

Apparel—viz., woollen clothing (Dr. Jaeger's)—25 per cent.

Apparel and ready-made clothing, and all articles made up wholly or in part from textile or other piece-goods, 25 per cent.

Apparel and ready-made clothing, to include: Coats, vests, trousers, overcoats, ulsters, capes, jumpers, gaiters, leggings other than leather; jersey suits, football, boating, franklyn and navy-frock jerseys; cardigan jackets and vests; gloves of all kinds, mittens, mitts, cuffs; belts, braces, shirts, dresses, mantles, costumes, skirts, robes, tea-gowns, dressing-gowns, jackets, jerseys, fichus; night shirts and dresses, chemises, drawers, combinations, and underclothing of all kinds, not woven; camisoles, monthly-gowns, muslin robes, infants’ cloaks, pelisses, bibs, stay-bands, aprons, head-flannels, pinafores, blouses; ladies’ supports, corsets, bodices, bustles, crinolettes, dress-improvers, collarettes; clouds, fancy squares, cross-overs; boas, capes, opera-cloaks, petticoats, polkas, muffs; waterproof clothing; neckerchiefs, cravats, scarves, ties; mufflers of all kinds; shirt neck-bands, insertion fronts; 25 per cent.

Muff and bag combined, 25 per cent.

Apples, fresh, 1/2d. per lb.

Apricots, fresh, 1/2d. per lb.

Apricots, dried, 2d. per lb.

Aprons, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Aprons and elevators for reaping-and-binding machines, 15 per cent.

Aprons and elevators, one to accompany each reaper-and-binder, free

Aprons, waterproof, carriage, as textiles made up, 25 per cent.

Argol, free

Arithmetical frames, school-apparatus, free

Arithmometer, free

Arrowroot, free

Arsenic, free

Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Commissioner) which are suited only for, and are to be used and applied solely in, the fabrication of goods within the colony, free. All decisions of the Commissioner in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette

Articles and materials suited only for, and to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods in the colony, to include: Black and slate linens, book-locks, boot cashmere, lasting and felt; corrugated brace braids for broom- and brush - making, stamped brass for cartridge-making, felt for making saddle-cloths, felt for lining horse-covers, felt for piano-making, canvas for making horse-covers, bed-lace, carpet-bindings, flushing for lining felt boots; silk, merino, and cashmere into pieces not exceeding 20in. square, before importation or in bond, for hat making; fittings for, and not being portions of, musical instruments; organzine, or raw silk, for use in making tweeds; sawn oak heads and staves in the rough, for making casks; decorated sheet-tin, not being hand-painted, of kinds known as “stencilled” and “crystallized;” thick vellum for bookbinding; materials, in addition to those enumerated in Schedule B, suitable only for making umbrellas, parasols, or sunshades, when imported with borders, or cut up into shapes, or upon being cut up into shapes, in bond, for making into these articles; cotton, jute, linen or woollen yarns suitable only for making carpets

Hat-leathers, upholsterers’ wadding, “Nelson's photographic gelatine No. 1,” and “Heinrich's emulsion gelatine,” for making gelatine dry plates

Harmless vegetable colours for making confectionery; drills for lining boots and shoes; linens and hollands dyed, of all colours, for lining clothing

Perforated sheet-tin for making coffeepots, &c.; buckram for making cap-, net-, and hat-shapes

Tires for railway-engine wheels, range-knobs, stove screws and bolts

Paris net for making bonnets or hats, lithographic varnish for reducing litho ink

Check-actions, wooden pulleys; cord-tips of bone, brass, or wood; plain cotton or linen cord or line for Venetian blinds

Textile for making filter-bags and sheaths for sugar-refining; iron wove wire and brass wove wire

Hatters’ ribbons, when cut into lengths not exceeding 34in. before importation or in bond

Kola-nuts, for chocolate-making; potters’ stilts, for pottery - making; steel springs for flax-machines

Desiccated white of egg; oak heads and staves in the rough

Articles made up from textiles, to include brush- and comb-bags, nightdress-cases; eiderdown quilts, pillows, and dressing - gowns; tea - cosies; handkerchiefs, hemmed or embroidered; horse-clothing; 25 per cent.

Articles, not otherwise enumerated, free Artificers’ tools, free

Artificial limbs, free

Artificial teeth, free

Artists’ canvas, colours, brushes, and pallet-knives, free

Art-studies, as paintings, pictures, or stationery, 15 per cent.

Art-union prizes, admissible at discount of 25 per cent, off nominal prize-value.

Asbestos engine-packing, free

Ash boards, planed, free

Ashpans, 20 per cent.

Ash, soda, 1s. per cwt.

Ash sticks for making aprons and elevators for agricultural machinery, as a. & m.s. free

Ash timber, unwrought, free

Asphyxiator, for rabbit-killing, free

Assay-appliances for School of Mines, as school-apparatus, free

Astrakhan trimming (imitation fur), as drapery, 20 per cent.

Attalea twills, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Attendance books and tickets, Sunday-school, as school-apparatus, free

Australian wine, 5s. per gal. (see Wine, Australian)

Awl-handles, as part of artificers’ tools, free

Axes and hatchets, free

Axle-arms, free

Axle-boxes, free

Axle-caps, as part of axles, free

Axles and springs (Timken's), as carriages, 20 per cent.

Axles, free

BACON and hams, 2d. per lb.

Baggage and effects, passengers,’ free (see Passengers’ baggage)

Bagging and bags, 15 per cent.

Bag-leather, 6d. per lb.

Bagpipe-reeds, as musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Bags, bran, of hessian, as hessian bags, 20 per cent.

Bags, brush-and-comb, 25 per cent.

Bags, calico, forfar, hessian, and linen, 20 per cent.

Bags, carpet, 20 per cent.

Bags, flour, 20 per cent.

Bags, gunny, free

Bags, leather, 20 per cent.

Bags, leather-cloth, 20 per cent.

Bags, travelling, 20 per cent.

Bags, ore, gunny-, as gunny-bags, free

Bags, paper, coarse, including sugar-bags, 7s. 6d. per cwt.

Bags, paper, 25 per cent.

Bags, paper, “Union,” as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Bags, seed, of paper, as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Bags, tin-foil paper, as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Baize, for quartz-crushing machines, 20 per cent.

Baize, plain and printed, stair oil, as floorcloth, 15 per cent.

Baize, wood and fancy oil, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Baking-powder, 15 per cent.

Balances, assay and bullion, as weighing machines, 15 per cent.

Ball-clay, potters’, free

Ball-cocks, shells for, 2 cent.

Bananas, dried, as fruits, dried, 2d. per lb.

Bandages, indiarubber, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bandages, surgical, elastic webbing, free

Band-instruments for Volunteers, as musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Band-saw filing machine, as engineers’ machine tools, free

Bands, surveyors’, steel, free

Bank-notes, free

Barbary almonds, used in confectioners’ manufactures, free

Barbed iron fencing-wire, 2s. per cwt.

Barilla soap, 5s. per cwt. (see Soap)

Bariquand's sheep-shearing machine, as- agricultural machinery, free

Bar-iron, free

Bark extract, oakwood, as tanning materials, crude, free

Bar-lead, free

Barley, 2s. per 100lb.

Barley-awner, as machinery for agricultural purposes, free

Barley, patent (Robinson's), as ground grain, 1s. per 100lb.

Barley, pearl, 1s. per cwt.

Barley screen, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Barometers, free

Barrels, gun, as fire-arms, 15 per cent.

Barrow-wheels, 20 per cent.

Barry's Pain-relief, as mixed spirits in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Bars, copper, free

Bar-tin, free

Basils, leather, 2d. per lb.

Basket-furniture, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Baskets and wickerware, 20 per cent.

Bass-brooms, as brushware, 20 per cent.

Batteries, electric, and magneto-electric machines, as druggists’ sundries, 15 percent.

Beading, steel, polished, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Bean- and malt-mills, 20 per cent.

Beans, cocoa, free

Beans, locust, as dried vegetables, 20 per cent.

Beds, air-, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bedford cords, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Bed-lace, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Beds, water-, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Beef, extract of (Brand's), as provisions, 20 per cent.

Beehives, machinery for the manufacture of, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Beehives, wooden, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Beer, 1s. 6d. per gal. (see Ale)

Beer-a¨rating machine, as soda-water machine, free

Boer-engines and fittings, 20 per cent.

Beeswax, prepared, in sheets, for wax flowers, free

Belladonna plaster, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bellit (blasting material), free

Bellows, blacksmiths’, free

Bellows-nails, free

Bellows other than forge, 15 per cent.

Bell-settings, electric, except cells for batteries, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Bells, church, as musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Bells, fire, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Belting, canvas, cotton, indiarubber composition, or any other belting used as a substitute for leather belting, 20 per cent.

Belting, indiarubber, 20 per cent.

Belting, leather, if part of machinery imported, to be treated on same footing as the machinery

Belting, leather, and belt-leather, 6d. per lb.

Belting, leather, made up, as leather manufactures, 20 per cent.

Bolt-fasteners, mill, as hardware, 20 percent.

Belts, apparel, 25 per cent.

Belts, electric, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bench-vices, as artificers’ tools, free

Bending-rollers for making water-race pipes, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Bent mouldboard plates, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Benzoin, gum, free

Bevelled glass, for fabrication of goods in colony, free (see Glass, round, &c.)

Bezique cards, as playing-cards, 6d. per pack

Bibs, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Bicarbonate of soda, 1s. per cwt.

Bicycle-fittings, weldless steel tube, as a. & m.s., free

Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles, 20 per cent.

Bicycles, tricycles, &c., fittings for, to include rough hollow U rims, backbones, forks, heads, necks, and spokes, also drop-forgings and rubber tires, free

Bicycles, tricycles, &c., parts of, to include plated heads, necks, and handle-bars; ball and other pedals, bearings, and all finished portions of a like character; saddles, springs, saddle-bags, or pockets (under section 14 of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1888”); 20 per cent.

Bill-files, 20 per cent.

Billheads, 25 per cent.

Billhooks, 20 per cent.

Billiard-tables, and parts of, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Binder-twine, 15 per cent.

Bindings, carpet, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Bindings, minor articles for making up, free

Bindings, silk, worsted, and cotton, tailors trimmings, free

Bindings, staymakers’, free

Birdcages, 20 per cent.

Birdseed, free

Birthday-books, as stationery, 15 per cent

Birthday cards, as pictorial prints, 25 per cent.

Biscuit-making machine, as machinery, 2 per cent.

Biscuit-paper or wafer-paper, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Biscuits, ships’, plain and unsweetened, 3s. per cwt.

Biscuits, dog, as other kinds, 2d. per lb.

Biscuits; other kinds, 2d. per lb.

Bisulphide of carbon, free

Bisulphide of lime, free

Bitters, in bottles, jars, or other vessels, packed in cases or other packages, 16s per liq. gal.

Bitters, in bulk, 15s. per liq. gal.

Bitters, orange (W. J. Jackson and Co.’s), as bitters in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Bits, saddlers’ ironmongery, free

Black and brown canvas, tailors’ trimmings, free

Black and slate linens, for fabrication of goods in the colony, free

Blackboards, for schools, as school-apparatus, free

Blacking and boot-gloss, 20 per cent.

Black, ivory, free

Blacklead, 20 per cent.

Blacklead crucibles, 20 per cent.

Blacksmiths’ bellows, free

Blacksmiths’ files, as artificers’ tools, free

Blacksmiths’ tongs, 20 per cent.

Blacksmiths’ vices, as artificers’ tools, free

Blanketing for printing-presses, as printing materials, free

Blankets, 20 per cent.

Blank nuts, as metal manufactures, 20 per cent.

Blasting-powder, free

Bleaching solution (Landes's), as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Blind webbing and tape, free

Blocks, compressed leather, for carriage brakes, as leather manufactures, 20 per cent.

Blocks, hatters’, as artificers’ tools, free

Blocks, metal sheaves for, free

Blocks, pulley, 20 per cent.

Blocks, wooden tackle, 20 per cent.

Blood and offal drying-machines, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Blotting-pads, as stationery, 25 per cent.

Blotting-paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Blouses, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Blower, dental, as artificers’ tools, free

Blower, patent rotary, as machinery, 20 percent.

Blow-lamps (Kent's patent), as artificers’ tools, free

Blue, 2d. per lb.

Blue-lights, ships’, free

Blue paste, for ruling-ink, bookbinders’, free

Blue, ultramarine, as paints, free

Blue-weft shirtings, as coloured-cotton shirtings, free

Boards, ash and hickory, planed, free

Boas, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Boat-hooks, 20 per cent.

Bobbins, as parts of machinery, 20 per cent.

Bodices, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Bodice steel and sits (see Minor articles for making up), free

Bodkins, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Body-lining, union, as tailors’ trimmings, free

Boehm's perfumed essence, as perfumed spirits, 21s. per liq. gal.

Boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candy, 2d. per lb., including internal packages

Boiler-composition (Rocket), free

Boiler-composition (“Scale Cure”), free

Boiler-fluid (anti-fouling composition), free

Boiler-plate iron, free

Boilers, land and marine, 20 per cent.

Boilers and furnaces, copper, 20 per cent.

Boiler-tubes, steam, free

Boiler-tubes, flanged, as parts of boilers, 20 per cent.

Bole Armenian, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bolt-iron, free.

Bolt-rings, 20 per cent.

Bolts and nuts, 20 per cent.

Bolts and locks for cabin-doors, 20 per cent.

Bolts and nuts, carriage and cart, free

Bolts and nuts, galvanised screw, known as gutter-bolts, 20 per cent.

N.B.—Bolts and nuts for mine tramways are not included in the exemption under machinery for mining purposes.

Bolts, copper and composition, free

Bolts, railway, of metal, 20 per cent.

Bolts and screws, stove, free

Bonnet-making, straw, plaits for, free

Bonnet- and hat-shapes, 20 per cent.

Bonnets, trimmed, 20 per cent.

Bookbinders’ laying-press, 15 per cent.

Bookbinders’ materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue paste for ruling-ink, staple-presses, wire staples, staple-sticks, free

Book-covers, printed or lithographed, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Booklets, as printed books, free

Book-locks, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Books, printed, free

Books, ruled, plain and faint-lined, 25 per cent.

Boot and shoe vamps, uppers, and laces, 20 per cent.

Boot cashmere, lasting, and felt, for fabrication of goods in colony, free.

Boot-elastic, free.

Boot-gloss, 20 per cent.

Boot-protectors, as grindery, free

Boots, gum, free

Boots, shoes, slippers, goloshes, clogs, and pattens, 20 per cent.

Boots, shoes, and slippers, children's, Nos. 0 to 3, free

Boot stretchers and trees, as grindery, free.

Boot-webbing, as grindery, free

Boracic acid, free

Borax, free

Borax soap, as soap, scented, 25 per cent.

Bosisto's eucalyptus oil, in bulk or bottles, as proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Bottlejacks, lifting, 20 per cent.

Bottles for fitting up druggists’ shops, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Bottles, all kinds, empty, free

Bottles and brushes, gum, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Bottles (containing perfumed spirit), when of cut, ground, frosted, etched, or ingrained glass, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Bottles, empty, small and plain, with ground-glass stoppers, as bottles, empty, free

Bottles empty—viz., glass jars, with mouths not exceeding 21/4 in., and having a Now Zealand jam-manufacturer's name moulded thereon—as empty bottles, free

Bottles, glass feeding, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Bottles, ink, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Bottles, syphon, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Bottles, pomade, with wooden tops, empty, as bottles, empty, free

Bottle-washing machinery, 20 per cent.

Bottling-corks, 15 per cent.

Bottling-machine, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Bottling-wax, free

Bottling-wire, free

Bowick's Restorine and Lactina for cattle, as patent medicines, 25 per cent.

Bows, violin, as musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Boxed robes, not made up, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Boxes, cardboard or paper, containing ad valorem goods, same rate as goods

Boxes, cardboard or paper, empty, fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Boxes, iron, 20 per cent.

Boxes, stencil, 20 per cent.

Box-papers, free (see Cardboard boxes)

Brace-braid, corrugated, for broom- and brush-making in colony, free

Brace-elastic and brace-mountings, free

Brace-making punches and mallets, as artificers’ tools, free

Braces, apparel, 25 per cent.

Braces, wrought-iron, 20 per cent.

Brace, web, as saddlers’ ironmongery, free

Brackets, electric, free (see Electric brackets)

Brackets, fancy, as fancy goods, 20 percent.

Brackets, metal, 20 per cent.

Bradford's drying-closets, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Braid, gold and silver, for military clothing (see Minor articles for making apparel), free

Braids, free (see buttons)

Braids, silk, worsted, and cotton, tailors’ trimmings, free

Brakes, Westinghouse, as parts of locomotives, free

Bran, bags, of hessian, as hessian bags, 20 per cent.

Branch-pipes, brass and copper, 20 per cent.

Brass-headed tacks, as tacks of all kinds, free

Brass and steel springs (see Agricultural machinery), free

Brass cocks, valves, unions, lubricators, and whistles, 20 per cent.

Brass hinges, carriage, free

Brass, in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets, free

Brass labels for knife-boards, as brass manufactures, 20 per cent.

Brass manufactures, 20 per cent.

Brass rods, solid, free

Brass, stamped for cartridge-making in colony, free

Brass tubing and stamped work in the rough, for gasaliers and brackets, free

Brass wire, free

Brass wove wire for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Brattice-cloth for wool-scouring, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Brazed copper-pipes, 20 per cent.

Bread, passover, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Brewery and distillery plant, as hardware 20 per cent.

Bricks, fire, silica, free

Bricks, terra-cotta, as building materials, free

Bridges, iron and iron material for the construction of bridges, 20 per cent.

Bridle-leather, 6d. per lb.

Bright's Phosphodyne, as patent medicines 25 per cent.

Bright wrought-iron shafting, 20 per cent.

Brimstone, rough, as sulphur, 6d. per cwt.

Bristles, hemp, and flax, as grindery, free

Broadcloths of all kinds, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Bromide gelatine-paper, as photographic goods, 20 per cent.

Bromide of potassium, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Bromide opals, as gelatine dry-plates, free

Bronze-powder, as paints, free

Bronzes, 20 per cent, (see Statues)

Brooch-pins, as jewellery, 20 per cent.

Brooke's soap, as furniture- and plate-polish, 15 per cent.

Brooms and brushes, 20 per cent.

Brooms, bass, as brushware, 20 per cent.

Brown holland, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Brown linen, tailors’ trimmings, free

Brown paper, wrapping, 4s. per cwt.

Brown Windsor and honey composition for soap-making, free

Brownware, 20 per cent.

Brush-and-comb bags, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Brushes, 20 per cent.

Brushes, artists’, free.

Brushes, damping, stationery, 15 per cent.

Brushes, jewellers’ plate, as brushes, 20 per cent.

Brushes, paint, as artists’ or artificers’ tools, free

Brushes, painters’ stencil, distemper, or whitewash, as artificers’ tools, free

Brushes, stencil, as brushware, 20 per cent.

Brushes, stippling, papering, and stock, as artificers’ tools, free

Brushes, tar, as brushware, 20 per cent.

Brushes, weatherboard, as artificers’ tools, free

Brushware, 20 per cent.

Brush woodware, free

Bryant's Indian fluid for cattle and sheep. as patent medicines, 25 per cent.

Bucket-handles and bails, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Buckets and tubs of wood, 20 per cent.

Buckles, hat, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel)

Buckles, leather-covered, as saddlers’ ironmongery, free

Buckles, legging, free

Buckles, tailors’, free

Buckram for making cap-, bonnet-, and hat-shapes, free

Buckram, tailors’ trimmings, free

Buffers, iron and rubber, as iron fittings for carriages, free

Buff leather, 2d. per lb.

Building materials, free

Bungs, cork, free

Bungs or corks for pickle-bottles, as bottling-corks, 15 per cent.

Bunting, suitable only for ships’ flags, free

Burners, gas, patent (Peebles's), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Burnett's cocaine, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Burnishing-ink for heels of boots, as grindery, free

Bustles, apparel, 25 per cent.

Butchers’ knives, choppers, cleavers, steels, and saws, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Butter- and cheese-cloth, free

Butter-colouring, free

Butter-kegs, material for, sawn oak heads and staves in the rough, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Butter-paper, as wrapping-paper, 5s. per cwt.

Butter-powder, as carbonate of soda, 1s. per cwt.

Butter, tins for packing, as tinware, 25 per cent.

Butter-wraps, waxed paper, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Button-hooks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Button-making machines, free

Button shanks and shells, free

Buttons, braids, tapes, wadding, pins, needles, and such minor articles required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols and sunshades, as may be enumerated in any order of the Commissioner and published in the Gazette, free

Butyrosoter, free

CABINETS for object-lessons, school-apparatus, free

Cabinets for sewing-machines, as cabinet-ware, 25 per cent.

Cabinetware other than iron, 25 per cent.

Cabin-furnishings (see Passengers’ baggage), free

Cabin-hooks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Cabin-locks and bolts, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Cages, bird, 20 per cent.

Cahoon hand seed-sower, as agricultural machinery, free

Cake, linseed, free

Cake-rollers, 20 per cent.

Cakes, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Calendars, pictorial, 25 per cent.

Calico bags, 20 per cent.

Calicoes, hatmakers’, free

Calico, seamless, as calico in the piece, free

Calicoes in piece, white and grey, free

Calico cut into bag lengths, as calico in the piece, free

Calico, seamless, made up into bags, as calico bags, 20 per cent.

Calico, tubular, with cross-seam woven for bag-making, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Calorific fluid, free

Calf's-foot jelly, 2d. per lb., or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight

Cameras, photographic, free

Camisoles, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Camp-ovens, 20 per cent.

Candied peel, 5d. per lb.

Candlenut oil, free

Candlenuts and kernels, free

Candles, 2d. per lb., or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight

Candle-wick, free

Cane-sugar (sucrose), 1/2d. per lb.

Cans, oil, tin, 25 per cent.

Canvas, artists’, free

Canvas belting, 20 per cent.

Canvas, black and brown, tailors’ trimmings, free

Canvas, for making horse-covers, free

Canvas horse-covers, as made-up textile, 25 per cent.

Canvas hose, woven in one piece, free

Canvas on stretchers, for artists’ use, as artists’ canvas, free

Canvas, “Willesden,” free

Cap-badges, metal, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Capers, 20 per cent.

Capes, apparel, 25 per cent.

Cap-fronts, millinery, 20 per cent.

Caps, apparel, 20 per cent.

Caps, metal, for broom-making, as a, & m.s., free

Caps, percussion, 1s. per 1,000

Caps, trimmed, 20 per cent.

Caps, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Capstans 20 per cent.

Caps.... metallic, free

Caramels as syrups, 20 per cent.

Carbolic acid, in bottle, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Carbolic acid, in bulk, free

Carbolic acid, perfumed solution of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Carbolic household soap, as scented soap, 25 per cent.

Carbolic soap, as scented soap, 25 per cent.

Carbolic soft-soap, 5s. per cwt. (see Soap)

Carbolineum avenarius, wood-preservative, free

Carbolised catgut ligatures, free

Carbolised tow, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Carbolised wool, 15 per cent.

Carbonate-crystal, as soda-crystals, 2s. per cwt.

Carbonate of soda, 1s. per cwt.

Carbon, bisulphide, free

Carbon, fluid, as mineral oil, 6d. per gal.

Carboys containing oil of lemon, free

Cardboard boxes containing ad valorem goods, same rate as goods

Cardboard boxes, empty, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Cardboard boxes, material for — namely, gold and silver paper, plain and embossed, gelatine and coloured papers, known as box-papers—free

Cardboard, coloured, tinted, or enamelled, not figured, and not less than royal, as cardboard and pasteboard, plain, free

Cardboard or pasteboard, plain, of sizes not less than that known as “royal,” free

Cardboard tickets not printed on, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Cardigan jackets and vests, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cards, bezique, as playing-cards, 6d. per pack

Cards, Christmas, New Year, and birthday, as pictorial prints, 25 per cent.

Cards, fancy, stamped text, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Cards, lithographed, as lithographed stationery, 25 per cent.

Cards, members’ (Scripture Union), as printed papers, free

Cards, playing, 6d. per pack

Cards, playing, Chinese, 6d. per pack

Cards, playing, toy, 6d. per pack

Cards, printers’ programme, as printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Cards, Scripture, motto, for wall-decoration, as printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Cards, Sunday-school pictorial, as pictorial lithographs, 25 per cent.

Carpenters’ pencils, as artificers’ tools, free

Carpet-bags, 20 per cent.

Carpet-bindings, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Carpets, 15 per cent.

Carpet-samples, if of no commercial value, free

Carpet-samples, in 11/4d. lengths, as carpet, 15 per cent.

Carpet-squares, as carpets, 15 per cent.

Caraway-seeds, 15 per cent.

Carriage- and cart-makers’ materials—viz., springs, mountings, trimmings, brass hinges, bolts and nuts, tacks, tire-bolts, shackle-holders and other iron fittings, rubber cloth, American cloth—free

Carriage- and cart-shafts, spokes and felloes in the rough, elm hubs, poles if unbent and unplaned, free

Carriage materials, viz.,—

Cloth, woollen, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Floorcloth, as floorcloth, 15 per cent.

Lamps, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Lining-cloth, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Lining-nails, as iron fittings, free

Red silk, as silk, 25 per cent.

Springs and axles (Timken's), as carriages, 20 per cent.

Transfer - ornaments, as carriage - trimmings, free

Carriage bent glass, as glass, 15 per cent.

Carriage-door keys, as iron fittings for carriages, free

Carriages, carts, drays, wagons, and perambulators, and wheels for same, 20 per cent.

Carriage shafts, spokes, felloes, and naves or hubs, bent wheel-rims, and other bent carriage-timber, 15 per cent.

Carriage-steps, back- or side-lights, as finished parts of carriages, 20 per cent.

Cartmakers’ materials, free (see Carriage)

Cartridge-cases, 15 per cent.

Cartridge, continuous, drawing-paper, stationery, 15 per cent.

Cartridge, mounted, and tenax drawing-paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Cartridges, 15 per cent.

Cartridges for saloon-rifles, as cartridges, per cent.

Cartridge wrapping-paper, 5s. per cwt.

Carts, and wheels for same, 20 per cent.

Caryatid of cement, as building materials free

Cases, spectacles, free

Cases, watch and jewellery, as fancy goods 20 per cent.

Cashmere, boot, for fabrication of goods it colony, free

Cashmere for hat-making, free (see Article and materials for fabrication of goods is colony)

Cashmeres, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Casings for engines, painted and brass, 2 per cent.

Casks constructed for liquids, but imported empty (not being returned empties) filled with goods for which they are not a necessary package, as woodware, 15 per cent.

Castile-soap, as drug sundries, 15 per cent.

Casting hobbles, 20 per cent.

Castings, engine, 20 per cent.

Castings malleable (see Agricultural machinery), free

Castings of steel, 20 per cent.

Cast-iron cylinders, 20 per cent.

Cast-iron of all sorts, moulded, 20 per cent.

Cast-iron tees, bends, elbows, knees, and the like articles through which water or gas passes unobstructed, as waterworks pipes, iron, or gas-pipes, iron, 5 per cent.

Cast-iron valves, boxes, tobies, hydrants, and the like articles, as cast-iron of all sorts moulded, 20 per cent.

Castroline, a lubricant, free

Casts (see Statues), 20 per cent.

Casts, plaster, being drawing-models for schools, as school-apparatus, free

Cast tue-irons, 20 per cent.

Catalogues and price-lists in book-form, as printed books, free

Cathartic pills, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Catsup, 20 per cent.

Caulking-irons, as ship-chandlery, free

Caulophyllin et pulsatilla liq., as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Caustic potash, free

Caustic soda, free

Caviare, as preserved fish, 2d. per lb.

Cayenne pepper, 15 per cent.

Ceiling-ornaments of carved wood, as wooden ware, 15 per cent.

Cells for batteries, as electric appliances, free

Cellular cloth, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Celluloid (a substitute for cardboard), of sizes not less than royal, free

Celluloid, of less size than royal, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Cellulose, free

Cement, 2s. per barrel

Cement-testers, free

Centrifugal machine for silk dressing flour, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Certificates, Masonic, free

Chaff, £1 per ton

Chaff-cutters, corn-crushers, corn-shellers, 20 per cent.

Chaff-cutting knives (see Agricultural machinery), free

Chains, back, dog, plough, trace, tug, or other, fitted with swivel, hook, or other attachment, as hardware or ironmongery, 20 per cent.

Chains, hobble, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Chains, iron, free

Chains, twisted coil, as iron chains, free

Chairs and couches, Chinese, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Chairs, dentists’, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Chairs, railway, metal, 20 per cent.

Chair-seating of perforated wood, as wood-ware, 15 per cent.

Chalk, 1s. per cwt.

Chalk, prepared, school-apparatus, free

Chamois leather, 15 per cent.

Champagne limejuice, as limejuice sweetened, 20 per cent.

Champagne, quinine, as wine, 6s. per gal.

Chartometer, gold, or wealemefna, as jewellery, 20 per cent.

Charts and maps, free

Check-actions and wooden pulleys for Venetian-blind making in colony, free

Checked and striped drills, tailors’ trimmings, free

Checked and striped drills, as textile piece-goods, unless imported by or for tailors, 20 per cent.

Cheese- and butter-cloth, free

Cheese-making machinery, as machinery for dairying purposes, free

Cheese-moulds and spale-boards, as dairying machinery, free

Chemical cabinets, school-apparatus, free

Chemical food, syrup of phosphates(Squires’), as patent and proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Chemicals for ice - making, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Chemicals, photographic, 15 per cent.

Chemicals specially imported for educational purposes, as school apparatus, free

Chemises, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cheque-papers, hand-made as stationery, 15 per cent.

Cheques, 25 per cent.

Cherries, 1/2d. per lb.

Chest-protectors, of cellular cloth, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Chicory, 3d. per lb.

Chicory-nibbers, 20 per cent.

Chignons, hair, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Children's wool boots, bootees, and gaiters, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Chillies, dried, free

Chillies, in brine, free

Chimneys and globes for lamps, 15 percent.

Chimney-sweeping apparatus, as hardware, 20 per cent.

China, porcelain, and parian ware, 20 per cent.

China preserves, as preserves, 2d. per lb.

Chinese Pa Qua nuts, as nuts, 2d. per lb.

Chinese playing-cards, 6d. per pack

Chin-straps, metal, as hardware, 20 percent.

Chloride of calcium, coarse, free

Chloride of gold, as photographic chemicals, 15 per cent.

Chloride of lime, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Chloride of zinc, free

Chocolate, 3d. per lb.

Chocolate confectionery and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa, 3d. per lb., including internal packages

Choppers and cleavers, butchers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Christmas, New Year, birthday, and Sunday-school pictorial cards, as pictorial prints, 25 per cent.

Chronometers and clocks combined, as clocks, 20 per cent.

Chronometers, ships’, not being chronometer watches, as ships’ chandlery, free

Church-bells, as musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Church-windows, as glass, coloured or other kinds, 15 per cent.

Churns, free

Chutney, 20 per cent.

Cider, 1s. 6d. per gallon (see Ale)

Cider-mill and appliances, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Cigarettes, 7s. per lb.

Cigarette-papers in covers, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Cigars, 7s. per lb.

Cigars, cigarettes, and snuff manufactured in colony, to 31st December, 1891, 1s. 6d. per lb.

Circulars, 20 per cent.

Cisterns, iron, for water-closets, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Cisterns, wrought-iron, 20 per cent.

Cisterns, wrought-iron galvanised, as metal manufactures, 20 per cent.

Citrate of magnesia (Burgoyne's), as proprietary medicine, 25 per cent.

Citric-acid crystals, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Cleavers, butchers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Clippers, hair, 20 per cent.

Cloaks, infants’, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cloaks, opera, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Clocks and watches, 20 per cent.

Clogs, 20 per cent.

Clog-soles, as parts of clogs, 20 per cent.

Cloth, alpaca, with border, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Cloth, American, for carriage, free

Cloth, bookbinders’, free

Cloth, emery, free

Cloth, hair, for hop-kilns, free

Cloth, scrim, free

Cloth, wire, for quartz-crushing machinery, free

Clothes-lines, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Clothes-lines, galvanised-wire rope, as iron and steel cordage, free

Clothes-pegs, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Clothing, fire-brigade, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Clothing, ready-made, 25 per cent.

Clothing, Volunteer, 25 per cent.

Cloth-lined boards, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Cloth-lined paper, as stationery, 15 per cent

Clouds, apparel, 25 per cent.

Clout-nails, under 1in., even if called tach or iron nails, 2s. per cwt.

Clover-seed drawer, as agricultural machinery, free

Coacholine, as harness-oil, composition, and leather-dressing, 15 per cent.

Coal-scoops and scuttles, 20 per cent.

Coal-tar soap, as soap, scented, 25 per cent.

Coal-vase fittings—viz brasshandles, hinges, knobs, stars, and straps—as a. & m. s., free

Coarse chloride of calcium, free

Coat-collar springs, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Coat-hangers, free (see Minor articles for making apparel)

Coatings, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Coat-labels, as a. & m. s., free

Coats, vests, and trousers, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Coca-wine, “Mariani, “as druggists'sundries, 15 per cent.

Cochineal, free

Cocks, brass, 20 per cent.

Cocoa, 3d. per lb.

Cocoa and milk, 3d. per lb.

Cocoa-beans, free

Cocoa-beans, crushed, or cocoa-nibs, a cocoa, 3d. per lb.

Cocoa-butter, free

Cocoaine (Burnett's), as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Cocoanut oil, as vegetable oil, 6d. per gal.

Cocoanuts, free

Cod-liver oil, free

Coffee, essence of, 15 per cent.

Coffee, essence of, with milk, 15 per cent.

Coffee-mills, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Coffee, raw, 3d. per lb.

Coffee, roasted, 5d. per lb.

Coffin-furniture, as tin or japanned ware, 25 per cent.

Coffin-plates, as tin or japanned were, 35 per cent.

Coir, free

Coir yarn, free

Cold-water soap (Sinclar's), as common soap, 5s. per cwt.

Cold-water soap (Kitchen's), as soap, scented and fancy, 25 pee cent.

Collar check, free

Collarettes, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Collar-pads, zinc, as saddlery, 20 per cent.

Collars and cuffs of paper or other material 25 per cent.

Cologne water, £1 1s. per liq. gal.

Colonial ovens and metal fittings for as metal-manufacture, 20 per cent.

Coloured cotton shirting, in the piece, free.

Coloured glass, 15 per cent.

Coloured glass, for fabrication of goods in colony, free (see Glass, round, &c.)

Colouring, butter, free

Colour-saucers, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Colours, artists’, free

Colours and paints, ground in oil, 2s. per cwt.

Colours and paints, mixed ready for use, 4s. per cwt.

Colours, vegetable, harmless, for making confectionery in colony, free

Columns, iron, for buildings and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent.

Combinations, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Combinations, knit or woven throughout, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Combs, 20 per cent.

Comfits, 2d. per lb. (see Boiled sugars)

Common soap, 5s. per cwt.

Compass, pocket, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Compasses, drawing, 1/2 sets not exceeding £1 4s. per doz., free (see School apparatus)

Compasses for chalk, school-apparatus, free

Compo, or leather-board, as leather, 1d. per lb.

Composition for harness, 15 per cent.

Composition for ships’ bottoms, anti-fouling, free

Composition piping, 3s. 6d. per cwt.

Composition rod (see Copper), free

Composition, tarpaulin coating, free

Composition valve for circulating-pump, as pares of steam engine, 20 per cent.

Compressed gas, or nitrous oxide, free

Condensers for salt-water and steam-engines, 20 per cent.

Condensing-engines, the area of whose cylinders exceeds 2,500 circular inches, free

Cones, blacksmiths’, as artificers’ tools, free

Confectionery, 2d. per lb., including internal packages

Confectioners’ steel-cutters, as artificers’ tools, free

Confectionery, chocolate, and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa, 3d. per lb., including internal packages

Confectionery, ornaments for, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Confectionery—viz., boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candies, 2d. per lb., including internal packages

Connecting- or split-links, 20 per cent.

Connecting-rods, 20 per cent.

Conserved salt, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Contractors’ forgings, 20 per cent.

Copper and composition rods, bolts, sheathing, and nails, free

Copper boilers and furnaces, 20 per cent.

Copper branch-pipes, 20 per cent.

Copper in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets, free

Copper kettle-bottoms, as copper manufactures, 20 per cent.

Copper manufactures, 20 per cent.

Copper pipes, brazed, 20 per cent.

Copper rod, free

Copper sash-lines, as copper-manufacture, 20 per cent.

Copper sheets, plated, as copper manufactures, 20 per cent.

Copper, sulphite of, free

Copper toes, two grindery, free

Copper tokens, as copper-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Copper wire, free

Copper wire, galvanised, for sofa and chair springs, as copper wire, free

Copybooks, blank and headlines, 25 per cent.

Copying and white tissue-papers, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Copying-presses, 15 per cent.

Cordage and rope, 20 per cent.

Cordage, iron and steel, free

Cord, gold and silver for military clothing, free (see Miner articles for making apparel)

Core-boxes, moulders’, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Cordials, in bulk, 15s. per gal.

Cordial limejuice (Gillon's and Heddle's), as limejuice, sweetened, 20 per cent. Limejuice cordial (Higgins's), as lime-juice, sweetened, 20 per cent.

Cordial limejuice (Thom and Cameron's), as cordials in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Cordial, St. Lucia limetta, as limejuice, sweetened, 20 per cent.

Cordial, West India limejuice, as limejuice, sweetened, 20 per cent.

Cordial, St. Lucia lemonjuice, as lemonjuice, sweetened, 20 per cent.

Cordials in bottles, jars, or other vessels, packed in cases or other packages, 16s. per liq. gal.

Cord or line, plain cotton or linen, for Venetian-blind making in colony, free

Cordovan leather, 3d. per lb.

Cord, royal, slipper-making, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel, &c.)

Cord sash-lines, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Cord-tips of bone, brass, or wood, for making Venetian blinds in colony, free

Corduroy, cotton, in piece, free

Coriander-seed, druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Cork socks, as cork soles, free

Cork bungs, free

Cork-drawers, wire or steel, 20 per cent.

Corks, bottling, 15 per cent.

Cork soles, free

Corn-crushers, 20 per cent.

Cornflour and maizena, 1/2d. per lb.

12

Corn-plasters and shields, Alcock's, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Corn riddles and sieves, free

Corn-sacks, free

Corn-shellers, 20 per cent.

Cornwall stone, potters’, free

Corrugated black sheet-iron, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Corset-fasteners, staymakers’, free

Corsets, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cosies, tea, 25 per cent.

Costume paper patterns, free

Costumes, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cotell, staymakers’ binding, free

Cotton belting, 20 per cent.

Cotton bindings, tailors’ trimmings, free

Cotton canvas, as sailcloth, free

Cotton counterpanes, 20 per cent.

Cotton damasks or dimity, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Cotton dimity, 10 per cent.

Cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Cotton piece-goods, to include cotton prints, muslins, Attalea and Indian twills, dungaree, derries, denims, dimity, lambskins, swanskins, and all cotton goods unmixed with other material and unenumerated in tariff or decisions, when in the piece as it leaves the loom, 10 per cent.

Cotton rugs, 20 per cent.

Cotton sheetings, as calico in the piece, free

Cottons, crochet, darning, knitting, and angola mending, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Cotton, sewing, free

Cotton shirtings, coloured, in the piece, free

Cotton, silks, and threads, sewing, free

Cotton-waste, free

Cotton yarns, suitable only for making carpets in the colony, free

Couches and chairs, Chinese, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Coulters, circular, as part of ploughs, free

Counterpanes, cotton, 20 per cent.

Coutts's acetic acid, 11/2d. per lb.

Covers, rick and wagon, 15 per cent.

Crab-winches, cranes, capstans, and windlasses, 20 per cent.

Cranes, hydraulic, free

Cranes, 20 per cent.

Crane, steam, for quarrying, as cranes, 20 per cent.

Crapes, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Cravats, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cream of tartar, 1d. per lb.

Creams, face and shaving, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Creosote, crude or commercial, free

Creosote or essential oil of tar, as vegetable oil, 6d per gallon

Creosote, refined, as drugs, 15 per cent.

Crimean shirtings, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Crinolettes, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Crochet-cottons, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Crochet, Swiss and embroidered edgings of all kinds, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Crosscut saws, as artificers’ tools, free

Crossovers, apparel, 25 per cent.

Crowbars, 20 per cent.

Crown, sheet, and common window-glass 2s. per 100ft. super.

Crucibles, blacklead, 20 per cent.

Crude dye-stuffs and dyeing-materials, free

Crude glycerine, free

Crude tanning-materials, free

Crumb-cloth, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Crust chamois—viz., unfinished but partly-dressed leather—as leather, 1d. the lb.

Crystal, carbonate, as soda-crystals, 2s, per cwt.

Crystals, citric-acid, as druggists, sundries, 15 per cent.

Crystals, soda, 2s. per cwt.

Crystoleum (concave glass plates), as photo-graphic goods, 20 per cent.

Cubeb-oil capsules, Denouall's, as proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Cucumbers, salted, as preserved vegetable, 20 per cent.

Cuffs, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Cuffs, of paper or other material, 25 per cent

Culinary dried herbs, free

Cups, presentation, as plate or platedware 20 per cent.

Cups, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Curled hair, upholsterers’, free

Curling-papers, as paper, wrapping, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Curriers’ finishing-oil, as oil, 6d. per gallon

Curry-combs, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Curry powder and paste, 20 per cent.

Curtain-rings, wooden, as turnery, 15 per cent.

Curtains, lace, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Cushions, air-, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Cushions, hair, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Cutbills, brass, iron, and copper, as grindery free

Cutlery, 20 per cent.

Cyanide priming, free

Cylinders, cast-iron, 20 per cent.

DAMASK napkins, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Damask, stair, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Damask, table, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Dampers and frames, metal, 20 per cent.

Damping brushes and sheets, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Dandelion-ale, as ale, 1s. 6d. per gal.

Dandelion-root, as chicory, 3d. per lb.

Danger-signals, ships’, free

Darning-cotton, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Darning-weavers, patent, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Date-cases, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Davison's smut-eradicator, free

Death on Dirt soap, as soap, scented and fancy, 25 per cent.

Deck-scrapers and deck-scrubs, as ship-chandlery, free

Deck-spikes, as iron nails, 2s. per cwt.

Demijohns, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Denims, cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Denouall's cubeb-oil capsules, 25 per cent.

Dental-blower and furnace, as artificers’ tools, free

Dental instruments, free

Dentists’ chairs, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Dentists’ engines, free

Dentists’ lathes, as artificers’ tools, free

Dentists’ mills, as artificers’ tools, free

Dentists’ screw-press, free

Dentists’ vulcanizer, free

Derrics, cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Desiccated cocoanut free

Desiccated cocoanut, sweetened, free

Desiccated white of egg, free

Desks, 20 per cent.

Despatch-boxes, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Detective cold-water soap, James's, as common soap, 5s. per cwt.

Detonators, dynamite, free

Dextrine, as grindery, free

Diagrams, wall, as school-apparatus, free

Diamond dyes, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Diamonds, glaziers’, as artificers’ tools, free

Diaper and damask napkins, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Diapers in the piece, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Diaphanie, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Diaries, 25 per cent.

Dimity, or cotton damasks, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Dip, glycerine, as sheep-dip, free

Direction-plates, street, 20 per cent.

Discs for harrows (see Agricultural machinery), free

Disinfecting fluid, 15 per cent.

Dissolving-view apparatus and slides, 20 per cent.

Distemper brushes, as artificers’ tools, free

Distillery and brewery plant, 20 per cent.

Diving-dress apparatus and fittings, free

Does, textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Dog-biscuits, 2d. per lb.

Dog-chains, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Dogs, rail, of metal, 20 per cent.

Door-knockers, 20 per cent.

Door-porters, 20 per cent.

Doors for safes and vaults, iron, 20 per cent.

Doors, glazed, with ornamental glass, 4s. each

Doors, plain, 2s. each

Dowlas, sheeting, exceeding 7d. the yard, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Dowlas sheeting, free (see Forfar)

Dr. Jaegar's woollen clothing, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Drags, hop, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Drainage pipes and tiles, 20 per cent.

Drained peel, 3d. per lb.

Drain grates and frames, 20 per cent.

Drain gratings, 20 per cent.

Draining tools, as shovels, free

Drapery, 20 per cent.

Drapery to include table-covers, toilet-covers, toilet-sets, tea-sets; table-napkins, cloths, and damask; diapers in the piece, diaper and damask napkins, tickings, towels, knitted-wool sofa-covers, antimacassars, lace curtains, laces and lace goods in the piece; crochet, Swiss and embroidered edgings of all kinds; frillings and rufflings in the piece, handkerchiefs in the piece, tapestry, wood and fancy oil-baize, skirtings, crapes; boxed robes, not made up, 20 per cent.

Drawers, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Drawers, knit or woven throughout, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Drawing instruction-books, printed, free

Drawing-books, 25 per cent.

Drawing-instruments, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Drawing-instruments, certain kinds, free (see School apparatus)

Drawing-paper—viz., cartridge continuous, cartridge mounted, and tenax, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Drawing-pins, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Drawings, 15 per cent.

Drawings in water-colours, as paintings, 15 per cent.

Drays and dray-wheels, 20 per cent.

Dredging appliances, free

Dredges, free

Dress-improvers, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Dresses, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Dresses, night, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Dressing-cases, 20 per cent.

Dressing-gowns, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Dressing-gowns, eiderdown, as articles made from textiles, 25 per cent.

Dressmakers’ belting, as a. & m. s., free

Dress-material of silk, or having the larger portion of silk, as silk, 25 per cent.

Dress-preservers, miner articles for making apparel, free

Dried chillies, free

Dried fish, 10s. per cwt.

Dried fruits, 2d. per lb.

Dried herbs, culinary, free

Dried vegetables, 20 per cent.

Driers, dry, free

Driers, liquid, as turpentine, 6d. per gal.

Driers, patent, mixed with oil, as paints ground in oil, 2s. per cwt.

Drill for lining boots and shoes in colony, free

Drills, striped and checked, tailors’ trimmings, free

Drills, striped or checked, as textile piece-goods, unless imported by or for tailors, 20 per cent.

Driving-gear for sheep-shearing machine, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Drop-scenes for theatres, as paintings, 15 per cent.

Drugget, 15 per cent.

Druggists’ shop-fitting bottles, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Drugs and druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Drug-sifter, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Drying-closets, Bradford's as hardware, 20 per cent.

Drying-papers, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Dry plates, gelatine, free

Dry soap, 20 per cent.

Duck in piece, free

Dugong-oil (Ching's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Dumbbells, 20 per cent.

Dungaree, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Dyes, aniline, free

Dyes, Crawshaw's, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Dyes, Diamond, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Dyes, hair, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Dyes, Judson's, simple, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Dye-stuffs and dyeing-materials, crude, free

Dynamite detonators, free

EAR-TELEPHONES or -trumpets, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Earthen flooring and garden-tiles, 20 per cent.

Earthen gas-retorts, 20 per cent.

Earthen jars, full or empty, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Earthen urinals for hotels, theatres, &c., as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware, 20 per cent.

East India kip, ld. per lb.

Eau de Suez, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Edge-trimmers, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Edgings — viz., crochet, Swiss, and embroidered—as drapery, 20 per cent.

Egg-powder, as baking-powder, 15 per cent.

Eiderdown quilts, pillows, and dressing-gowns, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Eikonogen, as photographic chemicals, 15 per cent.

Elastic bands, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Elastic brace, free

Elastic boot, free

Elastic stockings, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Elastic webbing, staymakers’, as a. & m. s., free

Elastic webs, as grindery, free

Electrical apparatus, for surgeons’ use, free

Electrical hoist, as machinery, electric, and appliances, free

Electric batteries and magneto - electric machines, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Electric-bell fittings, except cells for batteries, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Electric belts, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Electric brackets, electroliers, &c., being fittings for distributing the light, free.

Electric globes, free

Electric machinery and appliances, free

Electric pens and duplicating presses, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Electroliers, free

Electro-motors and hand - dynamos, as electric machinery and appliances, free

Elevators for reapers-and-binders, 15 per cent.

Elixir for zoedone, as syrups, 20 per cent.

Elm hubs, free

Embossing-paper, free

Embossing-press, printers,’ as printing machinery, free

Embrodiery, Swiss, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Emery-cloth, free

Emery - grinding machines, as engineers’ machine tools, free

Empty bottles, small and plain, with ground-glass stoppers, as empty bottles, free

Empty bottles of all kinds, free

Enamel for butter-preserving, free

Enamelled leather, free

Enamel paints, all kinds except Beniall's, as varnish, 1s. 6d. per gal.

Enamel paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Encaustic and ornamental tiles, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

End-papers, bookbinders’, free.

Engine-castings, 20 per cent.

Engine cranks and pillars, marine, 20 per cent.

Engineers’ forgings, 20 per cent.

Engineers’ machine-tools, to include lathes for metal-work, free

Engineers’ machine-tools—viz., screwing-machine—free

Engineers’ machine-tools, free

Engineers’ set-screws, 20 per cent.

Engineers’ wrenches, as artificers’ tools, free

Engine for electric-lighting machinery, as steam-engines, 20 per cent.

Engine-packing, asbestos, free

Engine-packing, indiarubber, sheet, for, free

Engines, beer, and fittings, 20 per cent.

Engines, dentists’, free

Engines, gas, free

Engines, portable and traction, free

Engines, steam, for use in mine, as mining machinery, free

Engines, steam, condensers for, 20 per cent.

Engines, steam, and parts of, 20 per cent.

Engravings or futures in portfolios or books, with printed descriptions, as printed books, free

Engravings, 15 per cent.

Envelopes, initialled or embossed, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Envelopes, not printed, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Epaulettes, as apparel, &c., 25 per cent.

Erasers, ink and pencil, as stationery 15 per cent.

Essence of coffee, 15 per cent.

Essence of coffee, with milk, 15 per cent.

Essence of ginger, Burnett's, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Essences, flavouring, 15 per cent.

Essences, perfumed, Boehm's, £1 1s. per liq. gal.

Essential oil of tar, or creosote, as vegetable oil, 6d. per gal.

Essential oils, free

Essential oils, to include angelica, aniseed, amber (ol. succini), attar or otto of roses, bay, bergamot, birch, bitter almonds, bouquet cologne, cachou, calamis, cajeput, carraway, cascarilla, cassia, cedar, cedrah, celery, chamomile, cherry, citron, cloves, citronella, cinnamon, copaiba, coriander, cubebs, “ Cymini,” dill, dipteritis, eucalyptus in bulk only and without indication of proprietorship, elder, elemi, fennel, geranium, German cologne, ginger, heliotrope, hop, lavender, jasamine, juniper, laurel, lemon, lilac, limes, magnolia, mace, melissa, marjoram, mignonette, mint, myrben, myrtle, nutmeg, orange, orange-flowers (neroli), origanum, orris, pea, parsley, patchouli, peach-kernel, peppermint, petch grain, pink, pimento, rhodium, rondeletia, rosemary, rosewood, rue, sabina, sage, sandalwood, sassafras, serapis, syringa, spearmint, spiroca, savine, theobroma, thyme, tuberose, valerian, vanilla, verbena, violet, wallflower, winter-green, wormwood, ylang-ylang, free

Ether-inhaler (a surgical instrument), free

Ether, sulphuric, as drug-sundries, 15 per cent.

Eucalyptus-oil (see Essential oils)

Eucalyptus-oil, Bosisto's, in bottle or bulk, 25 per cent.

Exercise-books for school use, as school-books, free

Exhauster or wing-disc fan, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Expansion flues (Adamson's), as parts of boilers, 20 per cent.

Expansion flue-rings, furnace, as parts of boilers, 20 per cent.

Expansion-rings, Bowling's, free

Extract of beef (Brand's), as provisions, 20 per cent.

Extract of ginger, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Extract of malt, as a recommended specific, 25 per cent.

Extract of meat (Liebig's), as provisions, 20 per cent.

Extract of opium, as opium, £2 per lb.

Extract of soap, 20 per cent.

Extractor, honey, free

Eyebolts, galvanised, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Eyelet-holes, staymakers’, free

Eyelets, as grindery, free

Eyelets, sailmakers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Eye-piece for astronomical telescope, free

Eye-shades, gelatine, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Eye-shades, silk-covered, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

FACE POWDERS, paints, and creams, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Family plate, if not imported by passengers, 20 per cent.

Family portraits (in oil), duty to be charged on the frames only, 15 per cent.

Family portraits, photographs, free.

Fancy and scented soap, 25 per cent.

Fancy goods and toys, 20 per cent.

Fancy articles of glass, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Fan for blacksmiths’ forge, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fanning-mill, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Fasteners, paper, 15 per cent.

Fastenings, railway, 20 per cent.

Feathers, ornamental, including ostrich, 25 per cent.

Feathers, ornamental, to include all such as may be found in bonnets, hats, or in trimmings, as well as those imported separately, 25 per cent.

Feeders, oil, tin, 25 per cent.

Feeding-bottles, glass, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Felloes, carriage, 15 per cent.

Felloes, carriage and cart, in the rough, free

Felloes, hickory, free

Felt, boot, for fabrication in colony, free

Felt, for lining house-covers in colony, free

Felt for making saddle-cloths in colony, free

Felt for piano-making in colony, free

Felt hoods, hatmakers’, free

Felt, paper and wool, for lining roofs, &c., as felt sheathing, free

Felt, sheathing, free

Fencing-wire, barbed iron, 2s. per cwt.

Fencing-wire, iron, 1s. per cwt.

Fenders, 20 per cent.

Fenugreek-seed, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Ferro-prussiate paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ferrules, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Fichus, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Field-glasses, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Figures and letters, wrought-iron or steel, 20 per cent.

Files, blacksmiths’, as artificers’ tools, free

Files, bill, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Files, saw-, and saw-sets, as artificers’ tools, free

Filter-bags, druggists’, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Filter-bags for sugar-refining, as bags, 15 per cent.

Filter-bags sheaths for sugar-refining, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Filters, 20 per cent.

Fingers (see Agricultural machinery), free

Fire-arms, fowling-pieces, rifles, and other kinds, 15 per cent.

Fire-bells, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fire-bricks, silica, free

Fire-bricks, fire-clay ground, and fire-clay goods, 20 per cent.

Fire-brigade clothing, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Fire-brigade uniforms, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Five-clay goods. 20 per cent.

Fire-clay, ground, 20 per cent.

Fire, coloured, as fireworks, 20 per cent.

Fire-destroying, liquid for, free

Fire-dogs, 20 per cent.

Fire-engines, free

Fire-guards, 20 percent.

Fire-pumps, bucket, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fireworks, 20 per cent.

Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, 10s. per cwt.

Fish, frozen, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Fish-oil, in bulk, free

Fish-paste, 20 per cent.

Fish, potted and preserved, 2d. per lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight

Fishing-lines, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Fittings, diving, free

Fittings for, not portions of, musical instruments, for fabrication in the colony, free

Fittings for pumps, engines, and machinery, 20 per cent.

Fittings for threshing-mills (see Agricultural machinery), free

Fittings, metal, for colonial ovens, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Fittings, metal, for pormanteaux, travelling-bags, and leggings, free

Fittings, tinsmiths’, free

Flags for ships, as ships’ chandlery, free

Flannelettes, Alfreds, and Galateas, to be cut into 7ft. lengths and under before admission as shirtings, free

Flannels, 20 per cent.

Flavouring-essences, 15 per cent.

Flax-hackles, as parts of agricultural machinery, free

Flax-hackling machines, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Flax sheeting, free (see Forfar)

Flax sheeting exceeding 7d. per yard, 20 per cent.

Flax sheeting not exceeding 7d. per yard, cut to bag-lengths, as flax sheeting in the piece, free

Flax yarn, free

Flesh-gloves, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Floor-cloth, 15 per cent.

Floor-cloth, carriage, 15 per cent.

Flooring-tiles, Hyatt's glass, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Flooring-tiles, earthen, 20 percent.

Flour-bags, 20 per cent.

Flour-dressing silk, free

Flour-mills (hand), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Flour-mills, patent porcelain or steel-roller, free

Flour-mills (roller), to include patent automatic vibrating feed-machine, wheat-grader, patent first-break roller-mill, single and double horizontal roller-mill, double vertical roller-mill, scalping machine, gravity-purifier, patent single and double purifier, patent “x.l.” purifier and travelling filtering-cloth dust-collector combined, horizontal bran-duster

Flour, pea, in tins, as ground pulse, 1s. per 100lb.

Flour, rice, 6s. per cwt.

Flower-pots, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Flowers, millinery, 20 per cent.

Flower-stands, metal, 20 per cent.

Fluoric acid, free

Flushing for lining felt boots in colony, free

Flute-keys, as finished parts of musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Fly-papers, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Fly-traps of wire and tin, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Foil-paper, for theatrical decorations, free

Foods, farinaceous or infants’, Hanbury's, Neave's, Mellin's, Nestle's, Savory's, Carrick's, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Forfar bags, 20 per cent.

Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting in the piece, the fair market value of which does not exceed 7d. the yard, free

Forfar sheeting exceeding 7d, the yard, 20 per cent.

Forge-backs, free

Forged levers, 20 per cent.

Forges, free

Forgings, contractors’, 20 per cent.

Forgings, engineers’, 20 per cent.

Forgings for ploughs (see Agricultural machinery), free

Forks, garden, as forks, free

Forks, hay, as forks, free

Forks, shovels, and spades, free

Forril covers, as leather-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Fountain, ornamental (for presentation), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fowling-pieces, 15 per cent.

Framed paintings, 15 per cent.

Frames and drain-grates, 20 per cent.

Frames and dampers, 20 per cent.

Frames, picture, 15 per cent.

Freezing-composition, patent, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

French almonds, used in confectioners’ manufacture, free

French mustard, as mustard, 2d. per lb.

French polish, as furniture polish, 15 per cent.

Fresh vegetables, 20 per cent.

Fret- and frame-saws, as artificers’ tools, free

Fret glaze, potters’, free

Fretwork, printed design for, free

Frigiline, free

Frillings in piece, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Frontings, linen and union, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Fronts, insertion, apparel, 25 per cent.

Frozen fish, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Fruit-dryer as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fruit, fresh—viz., apples, pears, cherries, peaches, plums, nectarines, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, and lemons—1/2d. per lb.

Fruit-paring machine, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fruit preserved by sulphurous acid, 1/2d. per lb.

Fruit-pulp and partially-preserved fruit, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Fruits, dried, 2d. per lb.

Fruits, preserved in juice or syrup, 20 per cent.

Fruits preserved in spirits, duty to be charged on the spirits in addition to duty on fruits

Frypans, galvanised, 20 per cent.

Fuel-cartridges, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Fullers’ earth toilet, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Fullers’ earth, crude, free

Funnels, of glass, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Furnace, dental, as artificers’ tools, free

Furnaces, corrugated, as parts of boilers, 20 per cent.

Furnaces, jewellers’ melting, as fire-clay goods, 20 per cent.

Furnaces, muffle, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Furniture and cabinetware other than iron, 25 per cent.

Furniture, coffin, 20 per cent.

Furniture, knife, and plate powder and polish, 15 per cent.

Furniture, planished, tinsmiths’, free

Furniture specially imported for places of public worship, 25 per cent.

Furniture, tinsmiths’, 25 per cent.

Furs, 25 per cent.

GAITERS, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Gaiters, wool, children's, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Galatea stripes, as coloured cotton shirtings, when cut into 7ft. lengths and under, free

Galerie wire, free

Galloons, statute, free (see Minor articles for making apparel)

Galloons, hatmakers’, free

Gall-nuts, free

Galvanised frypans, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Galvanised iron, corrugated sheets, screws, and nails, 2s. per cwt.

Galvanised - iron manufactures to mean articles made up from galvanised iron or from plain sheet-iron and then galvanised

Galvanised-iron meat-choppers, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Galvanised-iron spike-nails, 2s. per cwt.

Galvanised manufactures, iron, 25 per cent.

Galvanised screw-bolts and nuts, known as “gutter-bolts,” 20 per cent.

Galvanised wire-rope clothes-lines, as iron and steel cordage, free

Garden-forks, free

Garden-implements on wheels (Planet, jr.), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Garden-implements that require to be worked by horse-power, free

Garden reels, rollers, seats, and syringes, 20 per cent.

Garden-tools, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Garden-tiles, 20 per cent.

Gas apparatus, dentists’, as artificers’ tools, free

Gas-burners, patent (Peebles's), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Gas, compressed, or nitrous oxide, free

Gas engines and hammers, free

Gas-making apparatus (small), as machinery, 20 per cent.

Gas-meters, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Gas, nitrous oxide or compressed, free

Gasogenes, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Gasolene, as oil, mineral, 6d. per gallon

Gas-pipes, iron, 5 per cent.

Gas regulators and governors, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Gas-retorts, earthen, 20 per cent.

Gates and gate-posts, iron, 20 per cent.

Gauze other than silk, as millinery, 20 per cent.

Gear, driving, for sheep-shearing machine, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Gear, horse-power, 20 per cent.

Gelatine, 15 per cent.

Gelatine (Coignet's), as gelatine, 15 per cent.

Gelatine dry-plates, free

Gelatine eye-shades, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Gelatine, Nelson's photographic, No. 1, and Heinrich's emulsion gelatine, for making gelatine dry-plates, free

Gimp, upholsterers’, free

Ginger-brandy, if containing less than 40 per cent, of proof spirits, as wine, 6s. per liq. gal.

Ginger, essence of (Burnett's, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Ginger, extract of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Ginger, preserved in syrup, or dry, in sugar, as preserves, 2d. per lb.

Ginger, whole or ground, to be classed as spices

Ginger-wine, containing less than 40 per cent, of proof spirits, 6s. per gal.

Girders (rolled), iron, free

Girth-webs (see saddlers’ ironmongery), free

Glacé kid, 1d. per lb.

Glacialine, free

Glass, bent carriage, as glass, 15 per cent.

Glass, bent common window, 2s. per 100ft. super., as glass, window

Glass, crown, sheet, and common window-2s. per 100ft, super.

Glass, ground, as glass, other kinds, 15 per cent.

Glasses, field, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Glasses, looking, 15 per cent.

Glasses, watch, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glasses, reading and magnifying, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Glass globes for ships’ masthead lights, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glass jars, as glassware (full or empty), 15 per cent.

Glass-makers’ moulds, free

Glass, opal, as glass, 15 per cent.

Glass-paper, free

Glass, plate, polished, coloured, and other kinds, 15 per cent.

Glass, rolled plate (rippled), as glass, 15 per cent.

Glass, round, square, or oblong, bevelled, plain or coloured, in sizes suitable for making railway lanterns, hand-lamps, and engine-lamps, for manufacture of goods in colony, free

Glass shades, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glass shades (white opaque), for electric lamps, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glass spirit-kegs with taps, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glass stoppers, with cork rings, free

Glass tumblers containing marmalade, &c., as glassware, 15 per cent.

Glassware, 15 per cent.

Glauber's salt, as sulphate of soda, free

Glaziers’ diamonds, as artificers’ tools, free

Globes and chimneys for lamps, 15 percent.

Globes, lamp, electric, free

Globes, school-apparatus, free

Glove- and handkerchief-boxes, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Glove-fasteners, free

Glove, kid, 1d. per lb.

Gloves of all kinds, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Gloz (paste for paper-bag making), free

Glucose, 1d. per lb.

Glue and size, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Glue, marine, free

Glycerine, refined, 15 per cent.

Glycerine, crude, free

Glycerine dip, as sheep dip, free

Goatskins, dressed, 2d. per lb.

Goatskins, undressed, free

Goatskins, Levant, 2d. per lb.

Gold and silver braid, cord, and lace for military clothing, as minor articles for making up apparel, free

Gold and silver wire, beaded and galeria, free

Gold and silver plate, 20 per cent.

Gold-braid trimming, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Gold-leaf, free

Gold paint, in powder, as paints, free

Gold pellets, dental, free

Gold-size, free

Gold springs for artificial teeth, free

Goloshes, 20 per cent.

Goodall's quinine wine, as wine, other kinds, 6s. per gallon

Gorse-masticator, as agricultural machinery, free

Gossamers, as silks, 25 per cent.

Governors, gas, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Gowns, tea and dressing, 25 per cent.

Grain—viz., barley—2s. per 100lb.

Grain and pulse of every kind, 9d. per 100lb.

Grain and pulse of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, 1s. per 100lb.

Granite dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, 20 per cent.

Granite, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent.

Grass-cutters, hand, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Grates, 20 per cent.

Gratings for drains, 20 per cent.

Gratings, ornamental, 20 per cent.

Greenhouse heating-apparatus, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Greenstone, cut and polished, 20 per cent.

Gridirons, 20 per cent.

Grindery, heel- and toe-plates only, 20 per cent.

Grindery, except heel- and toe-plates, free

Grindery, to include lasting-tacks, pegs, brass rivets, iron rivets; brass, iron, and copper cutbills; steel points, sparrow-bills; wrought, cut, and malleable hobnails; Hungarian nails, wrought and cut tip-nails, bristles, hemp and flax, eyelets and hook-eyelets, tingles; sole, heel, stiffening, and toe-cap knives; heel-balls, riveting-stands for iron lasts, boot-webbing, elastic webs, boot-protectors, copper-toes, boot-stretchers and trees, japanned toe-tips, burnishing-ink, and dextrine

Grindstone-fittings, 20 per cent.

Grindstones, free

Groats, prepared, free

Grooved iron plates for street-channels, free

Grooving machine, as tinsmiths’ fittings, free

Ground pepper, 4d. per lb.

Guards, fire, 20 per cent.

Guillotine shears and springs, as tinsmiths’ fittings, free

Gum Arabic and tragacanth, free

Gum benzoin, free

Gum boots, free

Gum bottles and brushes, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Gum, damar, free

Gum, liquid, in bottles, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Double-barrels, as fire-arms, 15 per cent.

Gun-metal engine-fittings, 20 per cent.

Gunny-bags, free

Gunny-cloth, cut into lengths for bag-making, as a. & m. 5., free

Gunny ore-bags, as gunny-bags, free

Guns, air, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Guns, parts of, imported separately, as fire-arms, 15 per cent.

Gun-wads, free

Gutta-percha, not being apparel, free

Gutta-percha soles, free

Gutta-percha solution, free

Guttering, iron, galvanised, 20 per cent.

Guttering, zinc, 20 per cent.

HABERDASHERY, 20 per cent.

Haberdashery, to include embroidery and crewel silks; crochet, darning, and knitting cottons; angola mendings; safetypins; dress- and stay-laces; 20 per cent.

Hackling-machines, ropemakers’, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Hair brushes and combs, 20 per cent.

Hair-clippers, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hair-cloth for hop-kilns, free

Hair, curled, upholsterers’, free

Hair cushions, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Hair (human), free

Hair plaits, pads, and chignons, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Hair seating, imitation hair seating, curled hair, webbing, gimp, tufts and studs, free

Hair sieves, as woodware, 15 per cent.

Hair washes, dyes, and restorers, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Halters, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Hames, as saddlers’ ironmongery, free

Hammers and hatchets, shingling and lath, as artificers’ tools, free

Hammers, gas, free

Hammers, napping, quartz, and spalling, 20 per cent.

Hams, 2d. per lb.

Handbills, programmes, and circulars, playbills and printed posters, 20 per cent.

Hand grasscutter, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Handkerchiefs, hemmed or embroidered, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Handkerchiefs in piece, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Handles, wooden, imported separately, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Hand seed-sower, Cahoon, as agricultural machinery, free

Hand seed-sower, free

Hand paint-mills, as artificers’ tools, free

Handy hoist, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware, 20 per cent.

Harmoniums, 20 per cent, (see Musical instruments)

Harness, 20 per cent.

Harness-leather, 6d. per lb.

Harness, mounts for, free

Harness oil and composition, and leather-dressing, 15 per cent.

Harrows and ploughs, free

Harrows, discs for, free

Harvest-gloves, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Hasps and staples, 20 per cent.

Hat- and arm-bands, as made-up textile fabrics, 25 per cent.

Hat-buckles, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel)

Hatchets, free

Hatchets, shingling and lath, as artificers’ tools, free

Hat-labels, as a. & m. s., free

Hat-leathers, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Hat-lining, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel, &c.)

Hatmakers’ materials—viz., silk plush, felt hoods, shellac, galloons, calicoes, spale-boards for hat-boxes—free

Hats and caps, 20 per cent.

Hats and hoods, wool, children's, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Hats, hoods, and sun-bonnets, infants’, as millinery, 20 per cent.

Hat-shapes, as millinery, 20 per cent.

Hatstands, metal, 20 per cent.

Hats, trimmed, 20 per cent.

Hatters’ blocks, as artificers’ tools, free Hatters’ ribbons, when cut into lengths not exceeding 34in. before importation or in bond, free

Hatters’ tassels, as minor articles required for the making-up of hats, free

Hat-ventilators, free (see Minor articles for making apparel &c.)

Hay-and straw-press, as machinery for agricultural purposes, free

Hay-forks, as forks, free

Hay-rakes, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Hay-rakes, wooden, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Headbands, bookbinders’, free

Head-flannels, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Hearse-plumes, as feathers, ornamental, 25 per cent.

Hearthrugs, as rugs, 20 per cent.

Heating-apparatus, for greenhouses and buildings, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Heel- and toe-plates, 20 per cent.

Heel-balls, as grindery, free

Heel-tips, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hellebore, as druggists’ wares, 15 per cent.

Helmets for Volunteers, as hats, 20 per cent.

Hemp and flax bristles, as grindery, free

Hemp yarn, free

Herbs, dried, culinary, free

Herculine (Overton, Henry, and Co.’s), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Herman's vermin-destroyer, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Herrings, red, in cask or tin, 10s. per cwt.

Hessian bags, 20 per cent.

Hessians, free

Hessians, tailors’ trimmings, free

Hickory boards, planed, as hickory, un-wrought, free

Hickory rims, straight, as hickory felloes, free

Hickory rims, bent, as bent wheel-rims, 15 per cent.

Hickory spokes and felloes, free

Hickory, unwrought, free

Hinges, hook-and-eye, 20 per cent.

Hinges, unplanished, for tea- or coffee-pots, as tinsmiths’ furniture, 25 per cent.

Hobble-chains, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hobbles, casting, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hobnails, wrought, cut, and malleable, as grindery, free

Hogskins, free

Holder (Climax), as electric appliances, free

Holdfasts, 20 per cent.

Hole indicators, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hollands and linen, dyed, of all colours, for lining cloth in colony, free

Hollands, brown and dressed, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Hollands, window, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Holloware, 20 per cent.

Honey, 2d. per lb.

Honey and brown Windsor composition for soap-making, free

Honeycomb-making machine, 20 per cent.

Honey-extractor, free

Honey-knives, as artificers’ tools, free

Hoods, infants, as millinery, 20 per cent.

Hook-eyelets, as grindery, free

Hooks-and-eyes, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel)

Hooks-and-eyes for lathe-belts, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hooks and thimbles, iron, as ship-chandlery, free

Hooks, cabin, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hooks, meat, 20 per cent.

Hooks, reaping, 20 per cent.

Hoop-iron, plain, galvanised, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Hoop-iron, free

Hoop-iron with rivets attached, as hoop-iron, free

Hoops, steel, for wool-baling, as iron hoop, free

Hop bitters, 16s. per liq. gal.

Hop-drags, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hops, 6d. per lb.

Horse and cattle spice (Philpot's), as patent and proprietary medicine, 25 per cent.

Horse-clothing, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Horse-covers, canvas as made-up textile, 25 per cent.

Horse-power gear, 20 per cent.

Horse-rakes, 20 per cent.

Horse-rasps, as artificers’ tools, free

Horse-shoes, 20 per cent.

Hose, canvas, woven in one piece, free

Hose-piping, indiarubber mixed with textile, free

Hosiery, 20 per cent.

Hosiery, to include: hose, half-hose, three-quarter hose, and socks, of all materials, including silk; knit or woven throughout undershirts, vests, drawers, pants, and combinations; children's wool boots, bootees, gaiters, hoods, and hats, 20 per cent.

Household effects, not exceeding £100, free (see Passengers’ baggage)

House-line, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Hubs, birch, as carriage-hubs, 15 per cent.

Hubs, carriage and cart, 15 per cent.

Hubs, elm, carriage and cart, free

Hurdles, iron, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hurdles, wooden, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Hydraulic cranes, free

Hydraulic lifting-jacks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hydraulic lifts, 20 per cent.

Hydraulic mains, 20 per cent.

Hydraulic rams, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Hydroleine, as washing-powder, 20 per cent.

Hydrometers, free

ICK-CHESTS, 20 per cent.

Ice-making, chemicals for, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Icing-pipes, confectioners’, as artificers’ tools, free

Icing-sugar, as sugar, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Imitation Astrakhan trimming, 20 per cent.

Imitation Bedford cord, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Imitation hair seating, upholsterers’, free

Imitation moleskin, as cotton moleskin, free

Imitation sealskin, for gold-saving, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Implements of trade, free (see Passengers’ baggage)

Incline-rollers for tramways, as tramway plant, 20 per cent.

Incubators, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Incubators, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Indian fluid for cattle and sheep (Bryant's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Indian-ink, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Indian twills, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Indiarubber bandages, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Indiarubber composition belting, 20 per cent.

Indiarubber hose mixed with textile, free

Indiarubber, sheet, for engine-packing, free

Indiarubber soles for tennis-shoes, free

Indiarubber syringes, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Indicators, repairing, for steam-engines, as artificers’ tools, free

Indigo, unmanufactured, free

Infants’ fronts, as made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Ink-bottles, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink-bottles (fancy glass cups with metal holders), as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Ink cans and wells, school apparatus, free

Ink-extractors, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Inkoleum, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink-pellets, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink-powders, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink, printing, free

Inkstands, wood or glass, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink, stencil, free

Ink-wells, china, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ink-wells, as school-apparatus, free

Ink, writing, 20 per cent.

Insect-destroyer (Slug-shot), as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Insect-powder, in bulk, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Insertion irons, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Instruments, dental, free

Instruments, drawing, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Instruments of trade (see Passengers’ baggage), free

Instruments, surgical, free

Insulating copper-wire machine, as a knitting-machine, free

Invigorator, containing less than 40 per cent, proof spirit, as wine, 6s. per gal.

Iodide of potassium, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Iridis, tincture of, 75 o.p., as spirits of wine, 16s. per proof gal.

Iron and steel cordage, free

Iron air-bricks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Iron bars with holes punched and countersunk, as rails for tramways, free

Iron, black sheet, corrugated, 20 per cent.

Iron, black sheet, perforated, 20 per cent.

Iron blocks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Iron boiler-plates (to include unworked and unflanged plates only), and end-plates for boilers (to include plain and unflanged circular plates only), free

Iron bolts, nuts, plates, rivets, screws, and castings for ships, free

Iron bridges and iron material for the construction of bridges, wharves, jetties, or patent slips, 20 per cent.

Iron, cast, of all sorts, moulded, 20 per cent.

Iron chains, free

Iron cisterns for water-closets, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Iron columns for buildings, and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent.

Iron doors for safes and vaults, 20 per cent.

Iron fencing-wire, 1s. per cwt.

Iron fencing-wire, barbed, 2s. per cwt.

Iron fittings, other, carriage and cart, free

Iron, galvanised, corrugated sheets, screws and nails, 2s. per cwt.

Iron, galvanised, manufactures, 25 per cent.

Iron, galvanised, tiles, ridging, guttering, and spouting, 20 per cent.

Iron gas-pipes, 5 per cent.

Iron gates and gate-posts, staples, standards, straining-posts and apparatus, 20 per cent.

Iron girders, rolled, free

Iron hooks and thimbles, ship-chandlery, free

Iron hoop with rivets attached, as hoop-iron, free

Iron hurdles, 20 per cent.

Iron lamp-posts, 20 per cent.

Iron, malleable, in market lengths, and otherwise exactly in the same state in which it left the rolling-mill, free

Ironmongery, 20 per cent.

Ironmongery, saddlers’, free (see Saddlers’ ironmongery)

Iron nails, 2s. per cwt.

Iron or rubber buffers for carriages, free

Iron pig-troughs, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Iron pipes and fittings for same, wrought, 5 per cent.

Iron pipes, cast, for hot air, as metal manufactures, 20 per cent.

Iron, plain black sheet, free

Iron, plain galvanised sheet and hoop, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Iron plates, grooved, for street-channels, free

Iron, rod, bolt, bar, hoop, and pig, free

Irons, caulking, free

Irons, sad, 20 per cent.

Iron safes and boxes, 20 per cent.

Irons, cast tue, 20 per cent.

Iron sluice-valves, 20 per cent.

Iron sheets, enamelled, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Irons, soldering, 20 per cent.

Iron, spinal-support, free

Iron, stamped, for making heel-tips for boots, as a. &. m.s., free

Iron-stands, 20 per cent.

Iron tanks, 10s. each

Iron tanks of and under 200 gallons, 5s. each

Iron-tapped nuts, separately imported, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Iron urinals for public use, 20 per cent.

Ironware, stamped, 20 per cent.

Iron waterworks-pipes, 5 per cent.

Iron weighbridges for carts, 20 per cent.

Iron-wire netting, free

Iron wire, free

Iron wire, Nos. 12, 13, 14, as iron wire, free

Ironwork and wirework, 20 per cent.

Iron wove wire for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Iron, wrought, wheelbarrows, 20 per cent.

Iron, wrought, wheelbarrow-wheels, 20 per cent.

Isinglass, 15 per cent.

Italian cloth, tailors’ trimmings, free

Ivory black, free

JACKETS, as apparel, 25 per cent.

“Jaeger's clothing” (see Dr. Jaeger's)

Jams, jellies, marmalades, and preserves, 2d. per lb., or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

Jam-tins, empty, as tinware, 25 per cent.

Japanese wax, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Japanned and lacquered metal-ware, to include only goods made up from black, tinned, or galvanised sheet-iron or from tin, and finished in japan or lacquer, 25 per cent.

Japanned leather, free

Japanned sheepskins, free

Jars containing sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic acids, free

Jars containing ad valorem goods, at same rate as goods

Jars containing potash, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Jars, earthen, full, if other than ad valorem goods, or empty, 20 per cent.

Jars, glass, full or empty, 15 per cent.

Jars, glass or earthenware, with mouths not exceeding 2 1/4in., and having a New Zealand jam-manufacturer's name moulded thereon, as empty bottles, free

Jeans, staymakers’, free

Jeans, tailors’ trimmings, free

Jelly, calf's-foot, as jellies, 2d. per lb.

Jellies, 2d. per lb. (see Jams)

Jellies, concentrated, as jellies, and at actual weight, 2d. per lb.

Jerseys, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Jerseys, football, boating, franklyn, and navy frock, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Jersey suits, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Jewellers’ mills, as artificers’ tools, free

Jewellers’ rollers, free

Jewellery, 20 per cent.

Jewellery-cases, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Judson's simple dyes, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Juice, lime or lemon, sweetened or a¨rated. 20 per cent.

Juice, lime, lemon, and orange, unsweetened, free

Jumpers, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Jute yarns, suitable only for making carpets in colony, free (see Yarns)

KALIUM meta-sulphite, or sulphite of potash, free

Kamptulicon, in strips, as floorcloth, 15 per cent.

Kangaroo-skins, undressed, free

Kangaroo (tanned) leather, 3d. per lb.

Kegs for sheep-dip, free

Kegs, spirit, glass, with taps, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Kent's patent blow-lamps, as artificers’ tools, free

Kettle-bottoms, copper, as copper-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Keys, axle, as artificers’ tools, free

Keys, steel, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Keys, watch, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Kid, mock, glacé, and glove, as leather, 1d. per lb.

Kilting-machines, free

Kindergarten toys, as school-apparatus, free

Kip, East India, 1d. per lb.

Kip (other than East India kip) leather, 3d. per lb.

Kitchen-ranges, 20 per cent.

Kitchen's cold-water soap, as soap, scented and fancy, 25 per cent.

Kits, manilla, as baskets, 20 per cent.

Knapsack engine (the Fire Victor), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Knife and plate powder and polish, 15 per cent.

Knife-boards, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Knitting-cottons, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Knitting-machines, free

Knives, butchers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Knives, chaff-cutting, free

Knives, honey, as artificers’ tools, free

Knives, paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Knives, sole, heel, stiffening, and toe-cap knives, as grindery, free

Knives, tailors’ cutting, as artificers’ tools, free

Knobs, range, free

Knotting, patent, as varnish, 1s. 6d. the gal.

Kola nuts, for chocolate-making in colony, free

LABELS, and other printed and ruled paper, 25 per cent, (see Stationery)

Labels, brass, for knifeboards, 20 per cent.

Labels for presentation-books, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Labels, shirt, as a and m.s., free

Labels’ (unprinted tags), as stationery, 15 per cent.

Lace curtains, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Lace, gold and silver, for military clothing, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel)

Laces and lace goods in piece, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Laces, boot and shoe, 20 per cent.

Laces, dress and stay, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Laces, or lace goods (in the piece) of silk, as silks, &c., 25 per cent.

Lacquered metal-ware, 25 per cent.

Lambskins, cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Lambskins, dressed, 2d. per lb.

Lamp-holders—viz., lamp-harps and tin reflectors combined—as parts of lamps, 15 per cent.

Lamp-posts, 20 per cent.

Lamps and lamp-wick, 15 per cent.

Lamps, carriage, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Lamps, globes and chimneys for, 15 per cent.

Lamps or lanterns, street, for electric lighting, as lamps, lanterns, &c., 15 per cent.

Lamps, safety, for collieries, free

Lamps, ships’, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Lamps, signal, for ships’ use, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Lamp-wick, 15 per cent.

Landes's bleaching-solution, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Land-plaster, free

Lanterns and lamp-wick, 15 per cent.

Lanterns, magic, 20 per cent.

Lard, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Lard oil, 6d. per gallon

Lasting-tacks, as grindery, free

Lathe, metal- and wood-working combined, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Lathe, woodworking, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Lathes for metal-work, as engineers’ tools, free

Laths, 2s. per 1,000

Lawn-mower, 20 per cent.

Laying-press, bookbinders’, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Lead and composition piping, 3s. 6d. per cwt.

Leadenware, 20 per cent.

Lead foil, as lead in sheets, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Lead in pigs or bars, free

Lead in sheets, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Lead wire, free

Leather bags, 20 per cent.

Leather, belting and belt, harness, bridle, legging, and bag, 6d. per lb.

Leather belting, made up, as leather-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Leather belting, when forming part of machinery, to be treated on same footing as machinery

Leather-board or “compo,” 1d. per lb.

Leather, bookbinders’, free

Leather, buffed (i.e., hammered), split, roans, Persians, sheepskins, basils, lambskins, and goatskins, dressed, 2d. per lb.

Leather, chamois, 15 per cent.

Leather-cloth, free

Leather-cloth bags, 20 per cent.

Leather, compressed blocks for carriage-brakes, as leather manufactures, 20 per cent.

Leather cut into shapes, 20 per cent.

Leather-dressing, 15 per cent.

Leather, East India kip split, as split leather, 2d. per lb.

Leather-gimp, upholsterers’, as a. & m.s., free

Leather, kip (other than East India kip), cordovan, kangaroo (tanned), levant cow-and horse-hides, 3d. per lb.

Leather, belly, levanted, as levant cow-and horse-hide, 3d. per lb.

Leather leggings, 20 per cent.

Leather manufactures, 20 per cent.

Leather, morocco, japanned and enamelled, free

Leather, including sole-leather and East India kip, 1d. per lb.

Leather, rough tanned hides, 1d. per lb.

Leathers, hat, for fabrication of goods in the colony, free

Leather-straps for perambulators, as fittings for perambulators, free

Leather whip-thongs, 20 per cent.

Leeches, free

Legging-buckles, free

Legging-leather, 6d. per lb.

Leggings, metal fittings for, free

Leggings other than leather, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Lemon-juice, sweetened or a¨rated, 20 per cent.

Lemon-juice, unsweetened, free

Lemon-rinds in brine, free

Lemons, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Lenses, photographic, free

Letter-clips, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Letters and figures, wrought-iron or steel, 20 per cent.

Levant cow hides, 3d. per lb.

Levant goatskins, as goatskins, dressed, 2d. per lb.

Levant horse-hides, 3d. per lb.

Levantine and reversible silk mixtures, not less than 44in, in width, as umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Levels, surveyors’, free

Levers, forged, 20 per cent.

Lever punching - machine, as engineers’ machine-tools, free

Life-saving apparatus, free

Life-syrup, Router's, as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Lifting bottle-jacks, 20 per cent.

Lifting-jacks, hydraulic, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Lifts, hydraulic, 20 per cent.

Ligatures, carbonised, catgut, free

Lightning multiplier, stationery, 15 per cent.

Lignozote, as varnish, 1s. 6d. per gal.

Lignum-vitæ, free

Limbs, artificial, free

Lime-bisulphite, free

Lime, chloride of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Limejuice champagne, as limejuice sweetened, 20 per cent.

Limejuice cordial (Gillon's and Heddle's), as limejuice sweetened, 20 per cent.

Limejuice cordial (Higgins's), as limejuice sweetened, 20 per cent.

Limejuice cordial (Pew and Co.’s), as lime-juice, sweetened, 20 per cent.

Limejuice cordial (Thom and Cameron's), as cordials in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Limejuice, sweetened or a¨rated, 20 per cent.

Limejuice, unsweetened, free

Lime-screens (Gregory's), as hardware, per cent.

Lincrusta, Walton, as paperhangings, 15 per cent.

Linen-bags, 20 per cent.

Linen, brown, tailors’ trimmings, free

Linens, pillow, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Linens and hollands, dyed, of all colours, for lining clothing in colony, free

Linens, black and slate, for manufacture goods in colony, free

Linens, plain and fancy dress, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Linen sheetings, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Linen yarns, suitable only for making carpets in colony, free

Lines, fishing, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Lines, plough, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Lines, plough, with spring-snaps attached, 20 per cent.

Lining-cloth, carriage, 20 per cent.

Linings, hat, free (see Minor articles making apparel, &c.)

Lining-nails for carriages, free

Lining, union body, tailors’ trimmings, free

Links, connecting or split, 20 per cent.

Linseed, free

Linseed-cake free

Linseed-meal, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Lint, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Liq. santal, flav., c. buchu et cubeba (Hewlett's), as patent medicines, 25 per cent.

Liqueurs, in bottles, jars, or other vessels, packed in cases or other packages, 16s per liq. gal.

Liqueurs in bulk, 15s. per liq. gal.

Liquid driers, as turpentine, 6d. per gal.

Liquid for fire-destroying, free

Liquorice, 15 per cent.

Liquorice in fancy shapes, as liquorice, 15 per cent.

Lithographed cards, as lithographed stationery, 25 per cent.

Lithographed stationery, 25 per cent.

Lithographic varnish, fabrication of goods in colony, free

Lithographs, pictorial, 25 per cent.

Liver pills, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Locks and bolts for cabin-doors, 20 per cent.

Locks for portmanteaux, as metal fittings for, free

Locomotives, free

Locust-beans, 20 per cent.

Log-books, ships’, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Logwood-chips, as dye-stuffs, crude, free

Looking-glasses, 15 per cent.

Lozenges, medicated, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Lozenges, medicated, having proprietary names, as proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Lozenges, 2d. per lb. (see Boiled sugars)

Lubricant (tar and oil), free

Lubricators, brass, 20 per cent.

Lung Balsam (Allen's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Lupilin, extract of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Lustres, textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Lye (Greenbanks's), double concentrated, as soda caustic, free

MACCARONI and vermicelli, free

Machine, bone-crushing, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine, boring, woodworkers’, as artificers’ tools, free

Machine, card-cutting, hand, as printing machinery, free

Machine, centrifugal, flour-dressing, for roller flour-mill, free

Machine-drills, as engineers’ machine tools, free

Machine, flock, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine for biscuit-making, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine for curving corrugated from, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine for insulating copper wire, as a knitting machine, free

Machine for fruit-paring, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Machine for label-cutting, as printing machinery, free

Machine for making honeycomb, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Machine for manufacture of wire-netting, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine for paper-cutting, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine for paper-cutting, as printing machinery, free

Machine for punching and flaring hoops, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machine (hand), pill-making, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Machine, twine-balling, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machinery, bottle-washing, 20 per cent.

Machinery, electric, and appliances, to include brackets, electroliers, globes, and other fittings for distributing electric light, free

Machinery, fittings for, 20 per cent.

Machinery for agricultural purposes, also material for manufacturing the same—viz., reaper-knife sections, fingers, brass and steel-springs, tilt-rakes, chaff-cutting knives, set-screws, malleable castings fittings for threshing-mills, discs for harrows, forgings for ploughs, mouldboard-plates and steel share-plates cut to pattern, and skeith-plates—free

Machinery for brick-making, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machinery for dairying purposes, free

Machinery for mining purposes, including dredges and dredging appliances, free

Machinery for oil-refining and boring, free

Machinery for refrigerating and preserving meat, free

Machinery, paper-bag making, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machinery, printing, free

Machinery, 20 per cent.

Machinery, to include machinery in general or collectively; the working-parts of a machine, engine, or instrument arranged and constructed so as to apply and regulate force. “Machine” means an engine, an instrument of force; any instrument or organization by which power is applied and made effective, or a desired effect produced. 20 per cent.

Machine-saws, free

Machines, button-making, free

Machines, emery-grinding, as engineers’ machine-tools, free

Machines, seed-dressing, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Machines, soda-water, free

Machines, sheep-shearing (Wolseley's), as agricultural machinery, free

Machines, sheep-shearing, driving gear for, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machines, sifting and whisking, for dough-making, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Machines, weighing, 15 per cent.

Magic lanterns and dissolving-view apparatus and slides, 20 per cent.

Magnesia, citrate of (Burgoyne's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Magneto-electric machines, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Magnifying-glasses, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Mahogany knobs, as turnery, 15 per cent.

Mains, hydraulic, 20 per cent.

Maize, 9d, per 100lb.

Maizena and cornflour, 1/4d. per lb.

Malleable castings (see Agricultural machinery), free

Malt, 2s. per bushel

Malt-cleaner and -grader (Acme), as machinery, 20 per cent.

Malt, extract of, as a recommended specific, 25 per cent.

Malt-extract with cod-liver oil, without proprietary name, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Malting plant, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Malt-mills, 20 per cent.

Manchester yellow, for colouring soap, free

Manganese, free

Manger-rings, 20 per cent.

Mangles, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Manifold writers, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Mantelpieces, 20 per cent.

Mantles, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Map and plate papers, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Maps and charts, free

Maps, wall, school apparatus, free

Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, 20 per cent.

Marble, granite, and other stone, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent.

Marble, sawn on more than two sides, 20 per cent.

Marble ornaments, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Marble paper, bookbinders’, free

Marbling-colours, bookbinders’, free

“Marceline,” as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

“Mariani,” coca-wine, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Marine-engine cranks and pillars, 20 per cent.

Marline, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Marmalade, 2d. per lb. (see Jams)

Masonic certificates, free

Massage instruments, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Mastic cement, as drugs and druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Masticator, gorse, as agricultural machinery, free

Matches, wax, “plaid vestas,” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 4d. gross boxes

Matches, wax, “pocket vestas,” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches, 2s. gross boxes

Matches, wax, “sportsman's,” “ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas,” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches, 5s. 6d. gross boxes

Matches, wax, other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. 9d. gross boxes

Matches, wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches, 1s. gross boxes

Matches, wooden, in boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches, 2s, gross boxes

Matches, wooden, in boxes containing more than 100 matches, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. gross boxes.

Materials for printing, free

Mats, 15 per cent.

Mats, for boat-seats, as mats, 15 per cent.

Matting, 15 per cent.

Mattocks, 20 per cent.

Mattocks and handles, 20 per cent.

Mattresses, spring, 25 per cent.

Mattresses, wire, 20 per cent.

Mattress wire staples, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Maul-rings, 20 per cent.

Mauls and picks, quarry, 20 per cent.

Meal, linseed, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Meat-choppers of galvanised iron, 20 per cent.

Meat, extract of (Liebig's), as provisions, 20 per cent.

Meat-hooks, 20 per cent.

Meat-preserving machinery, free

Meats, potted or preserved, 20 per cent.

Mechlins, as milinery, 20 per cent.

Medicated lozenges, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Medicated lozenges, having proprietary names, as patent medicines, 25 per cent.

Medicinal spirits, to be charged at actual quantities

Medicines, patent or proprietary, 25 per cent, (see Patent medicines)

Melons, water, free

Mendings, Angola, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Merino for hat-making in colony, free (see Articles and materials)

Merinos, French, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Metal cap-badges, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Metal chin-straps, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Metal fittings for portmanteaux, travelling-bags and leggings, free

Metal frames for bags and satchels, free

Metallic capsules, free

Metallic paper, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Metallic pencils, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Metallic pocket-books, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Metallic tape-lines, 20 per cent.

Metal manufactures—namely, air-gratings, ash-pans, barrow-wheels, bill-files, brackets, bolts and nuts, blacksmiths’ tongs, boat-hooks copper boilers and furnaces, bolt-rings, lifting bottle-jacks, wrought-iron braces, copper and brass branch-pipes, brazed copper pipes, cake-rollers, camp-ovens and three-legged pots; cast-iron of all sorts, moulded, castings of steel, cast-iron cylinders, wrought-iron cisterns, coal scoops and scuttles, contractors’ forgings, condensers for salt water and steam-engines, wire and steel cork-drawers, crowbars, blacklead crucibles, dampers and frames, door-knockers, porters and scrapers, drain-grates and frames, drain-gratings, dumb-bells, engine-castings, engineers’ forgings, fenders, fire-dogs, fire-guards, flower-stands, fittings for pumps, engines and machinery; garden reels, rollers, scats, and syringes; grates, gridirons, grindstone-fittings, gun-metal engine-fittings; napping, quartz, and spalling hammers; hasps and staples, hat-stands, heel- and toe-plates, holdfasts, hook-and-eye hinges, horse-shoes, hay-rakes and horse-rakes, horse-power gear, hydraulic mains, kitchen ranges and colonial ovens, lamp-posts, leadenware, wrought-iron or steel letters and figures, forged levers, connecting- or split-links, hydraulic lifts, manger-rings, mangles, marine-engine cranks and pillars, maul-rings, meat-hooks, monkeys for pile-driving, ornamental gratings, painted and brass castings for engines; pepper-, malt-, bean-, and cat-mills; picks and mattocks, pulley-blocks, quarry mauls and picks, quoits; railway chairs, bolts, fastening, and rail-dogs; connecting-rods, roller-skates, sack-trucks, iron safes and boxes, sash-weights, bright wrought-iron shafting, iron sluice-valves, soldering-iron-stands, stamped ironware, stench-traps, troughs, truck-wheels, cast-iron, wedges, wrought-iron wheelbarrows, and wheels; 20 per cent.

Metal sheaves for blocks, free

Metal ware, japanned and lacquered, 25 per cent.

Meters, water and gas, 20 per cent.

Methylated spirits, 1s. per liq. gal.

Microscopes, free

Middling's grader, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Milkpans, tinned, 25 per cent.

Milk, preserved, 20 per cent.

Mill-belt fasteners, 20 per cent.

Millboard, free

Millinery—viz., trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets—20 per cent.

Millinery, to include cap fronts, infants’ hoods, hats, and sun-bonnets; flowers, ornaments other than feathers, tulle, mechlins, hat- and bonnet-shapes

Millinery not otherwise enumerated, 20 per cent.

Mills, coffee, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Mills, dentists’ and jewellers’, as artificers’ tools, free

Mills, flour, hand, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Mills for crushing horse-feed, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Mills, pepper, malt, bean and oat, 20 per cent.

Millstones, free

Mill, tan-bark, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Mill, tea, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Mineral oil, 6d. per gal.

Mineral oil, unrefined, free

Mineral waters, 20 per cent.

Mineral wax, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Minor articles for making up apparel, to include bindings, skirt-steel, bodice-steel and sets, whalebone, wire ribbon, satin and wire piping, hooks-and-eyes, webbing, silk ferrets and statute galloons, dress-preservers, hat - buckles, coat - hangers, royal cord for slipper-making; gold and silver lace, cord, and braid for military clothing; hat-linings, hat-ventilators; free

Mist, pepsinæ co. c. bismuth o., Hewlett's, as patent medicines, 25 per cent.

Mittens, mitts, and cuffs, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Mixers, wheat, 20 per cent.

Mock kid, 1d. per lb.

Models for schools of art, as school apparatus, free

Mohair worsted yarn, 20 per cent.

Molasses, 1/2d. per lb.

Molasses, when mixed with bone-black, &c., free (see Treacle)

Moleskin, cotton, in piece, free

Moleskin imitation, as cotton moleskin, free

Monkeys, for pile-driving, 20 per cent.

Monthly gowns, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Mops, wool, ship-chandlery, free

Morocco leather, free

Mouldboard and steel share-plates cut to pattern (see Agricultural machinery), free

Mouldboard plates, as parts of ploughs, free

Moulders’ brushes, as artificers’ tools, free

Moulders’ core-boxes, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Moulders’ plumbago blacking, free

Moulds, glassmakers’, free

Moulds, wooden, for manufacturing hosiery, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Mountings, brace, free

Mountings, carriage- and cart-makers’, free

Mounts and handles for walking-sticks, as parts of walking-sticks, 20 per cent.

Mounts, photographic, 20 per cent.

Mouthpieces for brass instruments, as finished parts of musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Mouthpieces for tobacco-pipes, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Mowers, lawn, 20 per cent.

Muff and bag combined, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Muffle furnaces, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Mufflers of all kinds, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Muffles, as crucibles, 20 per cent.

Muffs, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Muriatic acid, free

Musette-reeds, as finished parts of musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Musical instruments—viz., organs, pianofortes, harmoniums, and parts of either (except action-work not made up)—20 per cent.

Music, printed, free

Musk, grain, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Muslins, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Mustard, 2d. per lb.

Mustard, French, as mustard, 2d. per lb.

Mustard-hulls, free

Mustard-seed, free

Myrban oil, as essential oil, free

NAILS, clout, under 1 in., even if called tacks, as iron nails, 2s. per cwt.

Nails, copper and composition, free

Nails for mine tramways are not included in the exemption under machinery for mining purposes

Nails, galvanised iron spike, 2s. per cwt.

Nails, Hungarian, as grindery, free

Nails, iron, 2s. per cwt.

Nails, iron, galvanised, 2s. per cwt.

Nails, iron-wire, under 1in., sometimes imported as tacks, as iron nails, 2s. per cwt.

Nails, lining, carriage-fittings, free

Nails, 3s. per cwt.

Naptha, 6d. per gal.

Napkins, diaper and damask, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Napkins, table, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Napping-hammers, 20 per cent.

Naves, carriage, 15 per cent.

Neckbands, shirt, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Neckerchiefs, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Nectarines, 1/2d. per lb.

Needle-cases, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Needles, free (see Buttons)

Nervine vitæ, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Nets and netting, 20 per cent.

Netting-twine, as twine, 20 per cent.

New Year, Christmas, and birthday cards, as pictorial prints, 25 per cent.

Nibbers, chicory, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Nicotine, free

Nightdress-cases, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Night-lamp food-warmers (Clarke's), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Night-lights (Price's), as candles, 2d. per lb.

Night shirts and dresses, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Nitrate of silver, free

Nitrate of soda, free

Nitre, sweet spirits of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Nitric acid, free

Non-condensing steam-engines, the area of whose cylinder or cylinders exceeds 1,000 circular inches, free (see Steam-engines)

Notches, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Notes, bank, free

Numbering-machine (hand), as stationery, 15 per cent.

Nuts and bolts, galvanised screw, known as gutter-bolts, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Nuts, blank, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Nuts, gall, free

Nuts of all kinds except cocoanuts, 2d. per lb.

Nuts, Pa Qua (Chinese), 2d. per lb.

OAK heads and staves, sawn, in the rough, in sizes for making butter-kegs in colony, free

Oak- heads and staves, in the rough, free

Oars, as ship-chandlery, free

Oat-mills, 20 per cent.

Oboe-reeds, as finished parts of musical instruments, 15 per cent.

Obstetric-binders, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Official seals for public bodies, free

Oil, candlenut, free

Oil-cans, tin, as tinware, 25 per cent.

Oil, cocoanut, as vegetable, 6d. per gal.

Oil, cod-liver, free

Oil, crude penguin, as a. & m.s., free

Oil, curriers’ finishing, 6d. per gal.

Oil, dugong (Ching's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Oiled sheets, stationery, 15 per cent.

Oil, eucalyptus, in bulk and without indication of proprietorship, as essential oil, free

Oil-feeders, tin, as tinware, 25 per cent.

Oil, fish, whale and seal, in bulk, free

Oil, harness, 15 per cent.

Oil, in half-gallon bottles, as oil in bottle, 15 per cent.

Oil, lard, as oil, 6d. per gal.

Oil, mineral, 6d. per gal.

Oil, mineral, unrefined, free

Oil, myrban, as essential oil, free

Oil, olive, in bulk, 6d. per gal.

Oil, palm, free

Oil, perfumed, 25 per cent.

Oil, refining and boring machinery, free

Oil, rhodium, free

Oil, sandalwood, in capsules, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Oil, sewing-machine, as oil in bottle, 15 per cent.

Oilstones, free

Oil, tattoo, 4s. per cwt.

Oil, vegetable, in bulk, 6d. per gal.

Oil, vegetable or other, in bottle, 15 per cent.

Oil, 6d. per gal.

Oil, when not in bottle, to be deemed in bulk

Oils, essential, free

Oleic acid (tallow-oil), free

Oleum declinæ, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Olive-oil, in bulk, 6d. per gal.

Olives, 20 per cent.

Opal glass, as glass, 15 per cent.

Opera-cloaks, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Operating-table, surgical, free

Opium, £2 per lb.

Opium, extract of, as opium, £2 per lb.

Opossum rugs, 20 per cent.

Opthalmoscopes (including lamps), free

Orange bitters (W. J. Jackson and Co.), as bitters in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Orange juice, unsweetened, free

Ore-bags of gunny, as gunny-bags, free

Organette, stamped paper for, as parts of organettes, 20 per cent.

Organ-pipes, as finished parts of musical instruments, 20 per cent.

Organs, 20 per cent, (see Musical instruments)

Organzine, or raw silk, for use in making tweed in colony, free

Ornamental gratings, 20 per cent.

Ornamental tiles, earthenware, 20 per cent.

Ornaments, alabaster and marble, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Ornaments, ceiling, of carved wood, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Ornaments for confectionery, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Ornaments other than feathers, as millinery, 20 per cent.

Ornaments, transfer, for carriages, free

Ostrich-feathers, 25 per cent.

Ovens, camp, 20 per cent.

Ovens, colonial, 20 per cent.

Ovens, colonial, metal fittings for, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Overcoats, ulsters, capes, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Overmantels fitted with mirrors, as looking-glasses, 15 per cent.

Oxalate of potash, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Oxalic acid, free

Ox-gall, prepared as stationery, 15 per cent.

Ox-tongues, salted, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Oysters, preserved, 2d. per lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight

Ozone soap (see Soap), 5s. per cwt.

Ozone soap for toilet and bath, as soap, scented and fancy, 25 per cent.

PADDING, tailors’ trimmings, free

Pads, hair, plaits, and chignons, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Pads of indiarubber, for toilet-tables, as mats, 15 per cent.

Paging-machine (treadle), as printing machinery, free

Painkiller, as mixed spirits in case, 16s. per liq, gal.

Pain Relief (Barry's), 16s, per liq. gal.

Paint, Tarr and Wonson's patent metallic or copper (anti-fouling composition), free

Paint-brushes (artificers’ or artists’ tools), free

Painted and brass casings for engines, 20 per cent.

Painting-books, as stationery, manufactured, 25 per cent.

Paintings, framed or unframed, 15 per cent.

Paintings, statuary, and works of art presented to or imported by any museum, public library, or other public institution, for use therein, or for public exhibition, free

Paint-mill, hand, as an artificers’ tool, free

Paint-removing paste, free

Paints and colours, ground in oil, 2s. per cwt.

Paints and colours, mixed ready for use, 4s. per cwt.

Paints, enamel, all kinds (except Beniall's), as varnish, 1s. 6d. per gal.

Paints, face, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Paints, free

Palings, 2s. per 100

Palettes, artists’, as artificers’ tools, free

Pallet-knives, artists’, free

Palm-oil, free

Pancreaticus, Benger's, liq., as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Pants, knit or woven throughout, as hosiery, 20 per cent.

Paper, albumenised, free

Paper-bag-making machinery, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Paper bags, coarse, including sugar bags, 7s. 6d. per cwt.

Paper bags, “Union,” as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Paper bags, 25 per cent.

Paper bags or pockets, seed, as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Paper, biscuit and wafer, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Paper, blotting, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, blue, Allen's, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Paper boxes containing ad valorem goods, same rate as goods

Paper boxes, empty, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Paper-brushing machines, as painting machinery and materials, free

Paper, butter-, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper-cutting machines, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Paper, drawing—viz., cartridge continuous, cartridge mounted, and tenax—as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, embossing, as paper for printing purposes only, free

Paper, enamel, 15 per cent.

Paper fasteners, knives, and weights, plain, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, ferro-prussiate, 15 per cent.

Paper foil for theatrical decorations, free

Paper, for newspaper wrappers, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, for printing purposes only, free

Paper, gelatine and coloured, known as box-papers, free

Paper, gelatine-bromide, as photographic goods, 20 per cent.

Paper, glass, free

Paper, glazed cap, glazed casing, and foiled casing, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, gold and silver, plain and embossed, free

Paper, gummed, when entered for printing purposes only, free

Paper, hand-made or machine-made book or writing, of sizes not less than the size known as demy, when in original wrappers and with uncut edges as it leaves the mill, free

Paperhangers’ scissors, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Paperhangings, 15 per cent.

Papering brushes, as artificers’ tools, free

Paper, insulating, for freezing-works, free

Paper-knives, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, lithographic printing, as for printing purposes only, free

Paper, metallic, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper patterns for costumes, free

Paper, plain ruled, as paper, writing, 15 per cent.

Paper-perforating machine, as printing machinery, free

Papers, box, free (see Cardboard boxes)

Papers, cheque, hand-made, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Papers, cigarette, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Papers, curling, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Papers, fly, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Papers, printed, free

Papers, map and plate, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, stamped for organette, as parts of organettes, 20 per cent.

Paper, stereotype, of sizes larger than demy, as printing material, free

Paper, tinfoil, for bag-making, when cut into sizes not exceeding 11 1/4in. x 13in., as a. & m.s., free

Paper, tinfoil tea, as paper, wrapping, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, tissue, coloured, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, tissue, copying and white, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, transfer patterns, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Paper, unprinted, ruled for money columns, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, waxed, for cigarettes, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, waxed for butter-wraps, as wrapping-paper, other kinds, 5s. per cwt.

Paper-weights, plain, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Paper, “Willesden,” free

Paper, wrapping, brown, 4s. per cwt.

Paper, Wrapping, other kinds, including cartridge, small hand, and sugar-paper, 5s. per cwt.

Paper, writing, 15 per cent.

Paper, writing, initialled or embossed, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Papier-maché ware, 20 per cent.

Papyrographs, stationery, 15 per cent.

Paraffine wax, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Parasols, 20 per cent.

Parchment, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Parchment, vegetable, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Parian-ware, 20 per cent.

Paris cord, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Paris net, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Partially-preserved fruit, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Passengers’ baggage and effects, including only wearing-apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the colony; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of such persons; and household effects not exceeding £100 in value used abroad for more than a year by the persons or families bringing them to the colony, and not intended for any other person or persons or for sale; also cabin-furnishings belonging to such persons; free

Passover cakes or bread, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Paste for removing paint, free

Pasteboard, plain, of sizes not less than that known as “royal.” free

Paste, fish, 20 per cent.

Paste, tooth, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Patent and proprietary medicines, and medicinal and other preparations or compounds recommended to the public under any general name or title as specifics for any disease or affection whatever affecting the human or animal bodies, 25 per cent.

Patent and proprietary medicines—viz., pills specified as “cathartic” and “liver pills” and the like—25 per cent.

Patent barley (Robinson's), as ground grain, 1s. per 100lb.

Patent driers mixed with oil, as paints ground in oil, 2s. per cwt.

Patent freezing-composition, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Patent porcelain flour-mill, free

Patent rotary blower, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Patent slips, iron material for construction of, 20 per cent.

Patent water-closets, as earthenware or hardware, 20 per cent.

Patterns, 20 per cent. (see Boots)

Peaches, 1/2d. per lb.

Peaches, dried, as fruit, dried, 2d. per lb.

Pea-flour in tins, as ground pulse, 1s. per 100lb.

Peanuts, American, as pulse, 9d. per 100lb.

Peanuts, for manufacture of oil, free

Pearlash, free

Pearl-barley, 1s. per cwt.

Pearling-machine, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Pears, 1/2d. per lb.

Pears, dried, as fruits, dried, 2d. per lb.

Peas, split, 2s. per cwt.

Peel, candied, 5d. per lb.

Peel, drained, 3d. per lb.

Pegs for boots, as grindery, free

Pelisses, as apparel, 20 per cent.

Pencil-holders, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pencils, carpenters’, as artificers’ tools, free

Pencils, ivory-handled, lead, copying-ink, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pencils, slate, school-apparatus, free

Pen-cleaners, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pens, electric, and duplicating presses, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pens, quill and steel, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Penholders, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pen-makers, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pen-racks, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pen-trays, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Pepper and pimento, ground, 4d. per lb.

Pepper and pimento, unground, 2d. per lb.

Pepper, cayenne, 15 per cent.

Pepper-mills, 20 per cent.

Peptonising powders and pepsine zimine tablets, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Peptonoids, liquid, as patent and proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Perambulator-bodies, as parts of perambulators, 20 per cent.

Perambulator, brass spring bends for, as finished parts of carriages, 20 per cent.

Perambulator-handles, as finished parts of perambulators, 20 per cent.

Perambulators, and wheels for same, 20 per cent.

Perambulators, bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles, 20 per cent.

Perambulators, bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles, fittings for, free

Perambulator “sets” or “gears,” as carriage material (excepting wheels), free

Percussion-caps, 1s. per 1,000

Perforated black sheet-iron, 20 per cent.

Perfumed oil, 25 per cent.

Perfumed spirits and Cologne-water, £1 1s. per liq. gal.

Perfumery and toilet preparations, to include hair washes, dyes, and restorers; face powders, paints, and creams; tooth powder, paste, and washes; shaving soap, cream, and sticks; 25 per cent.

Perfumery, 25 per cent.

Perry, 1s. 6d. per gal. (see Ale)

Persians (leather), 2d. per lb.

Pessaries, druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Petroleum-gas engine, as gas-engines, free

Petticoats, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Phosphodyne (Bright's), as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Phosphorus, free

Phosphorus pills, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Photographic cameras and lenses, free

Photographic chemicals, 15 per cent.

Photographic goods, 20 per cent.

Photographic mounts, 20 per cent.

Photographs, family portraits, free

Photographs on opal, as pictures, 15 per cent.

Pianofortes, 20 per cent. (see Musical instruments)

Pickled fish, 10s. per cwt.

Pickles, 2s. per doz. pints or reputed pints, and in the same proportion for larger or smaller reputed sizes

Picks, 20 per cent.

Picks and handles, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Picks, quarry, 20 per cent.

Pictorial calendars, show-cards, and other pictorial lithographs and prints, 25 per cent.

Pictorial illustrations having words printed thereon indicating that they are published with a newspaper, periodical, or book, free

Picture-frames, 15 per cent.

Pictures and engravings, 15 per cent.

Pictures and engravings in portfolios or books with printed descriptions, as printed books, free

Pig-copper, free

Pig-iron, free

Pig-lead, free

Pig-tin, free

Pig-troughs, iron, 20 per cent.

Pile-driving, monkeys for, 20 per cent.

Pillars and cranks, marine-engine, 20 per cent.

Pillows, eiderdown, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Pills, “cathartic” and “liver” pills, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Pills not prepared according to private formula or secret art, nor subject to stamp-tax in the country where made, as apothecaries’ wares, 15 per cent.

Pills, phosphorus, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Pimento and pepper, ground, 4d. per lb.

Pimento and pepper, unground, 2d. per lb.

Pinafores, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Pins, brooch, as jewellery, 20 per cent.

Pins, free (see Buttons)

Pins, safety, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Pipes, bellows, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Pipes, brazed copper, 20 per cent.

Pipes, drainage, 20 per cent.

Pipes, gas, iron, 5 per cent.

Pipes, iron, and fittings for same, wrought, 5 per cent.

Pipes, tobacco, 15 per cent.

Pipes, waterworks, iron, 5 per cent.

Piping, lead and composition, 3s. 6d. per cwt.

Piping, satin and wire, free (see minor articles for making up apparel)

Piping, zinc, 20 per cent.

Pistols, air, 20 per cent.

Piston-packing or valve-yarn, free

Pitch and tar, free

Pit-saws, as artificers’ tools, free

Plaidings, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Plain and faint-lined ruled books, 25 per cent.

Plain cotton or linen cord or line for Venetian-blind making in colony, free

Plain ruled paper, as paper, writing, 15 per cent.

Plaits, hair, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Planet, jun.’s, garden-implements on wheels, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Planimeter, free

Planing and thicknessing machine, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Planished furniture and tinsmiths’ fittings, free

Plant, distillery and brewery, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Plant, railway, tramway, and materials, 20 per cent.

Plaster-casts, being drawing-models for schools, as school-apparatus, free

Plaster of Paris, free

Plate- and knife-powder, 15 per cent.

Plated steel rules, as artificers’ tools, free

Platedware, 20 per cent.

Plate, family, if not imported by passengers, 20 per cent.

Plate-glass, 15 per cent.

Plate, gold and silver, 20 per cent.

Plate-polish, 15 per cent.

Plate, presentation, as plate, 20 per cent.

Plates, coffin, as tin or japanned, ware, 25 per cent.

Plates, end, for boilers, iron, free

Plates, silver, plain, rolled, and unadorned, free

Platinum wire, for artificial teeth, free

Play-bills, 20 per cent.

Playing-cards, 6d. per pack

Playing-cards, Chinese, 6d. per pack

Playing-cards, toy, 6d. per pack

Pledge-cards, temperance, as pictorial prints, 25 per cent.

Plotting-scales, surveyors’, free

Plough-breasts and mould-board plates, bent, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Plough-lines, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Plough-lines with spring-straps attached, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Plough-rests, as parts of ploughs, free

Ploughs and harrows, free

Ploughs, forgings for, free

Ploughshares, cast, as metal-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Ploughshares of wrought iron, as forgings for ploughs, free

Plumbago blacking, moulders’, free

Plumes, hearse, as feathers, ornamental, 25 per cent.

Plums, 1/2d. per lb.

Plushes, 25 per cent. (see Silks)

Plush for gold-washing, if other than silk, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Plush, silk, hatmakers’, free

Pocket-books, metallic, as manufactured stationery, 25 per cent.

Pocket-compass, 20 per cent.

Pocketings, tailors’ trimmings, free

Poles, carriage, if unbent and unplaned, free

Polished glass, 15 per cent.

Polished steel beading, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Polish, furniture, 15 per cent.

Polkas, apparel, 25 per cent.

Pomade-bottles, empty, with wooden top, as bottles, empty, free

Poonah colours and brushes, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Pop-corn, sugared, as confectionery, 2d. per lb.

Porcelain, 20 per cent.

Porous plaster (Alcock's), as patent and proprietary medicines, &c., 25 per cent.

Portable and traction engines, free

Porter, 1s. 6d. per gal. (see Ale)

Porters, 20 per cent.

Portfolios, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Portmanteau-pockets, as a. & m.s., free

Portmanteaux, metal fittings for, free

Portmanteaux, trunks, other than iron, and travelling-bags, 20 per cent.

Postage-stamps, used or unused, free

Posts, straining, and apparatus, iron, 20 per cent.

Posts, timber, 8s. per 100

Potash, bichromate of, as dye-stuffs and dyeing materials, crude, free

Potash and caustic potash, free

Potash, oxalate of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Potassium, bromide and iodide of, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Potato-hooks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Pots, flower, as earthenware, 20 per cent.

Pots, three-legged, 20 per cent.

Potted fish, 2d. per lb. (see Fish, potted)

Potted meats, 20 per cent.

Potters’ stilts, for pottery-making in colony, free

Potters’ white-lead, free

Pounce and pounce-boxes, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Powder, baking, 15 per cent.

Powder, blasting, free

Powder, bronze, as paint, free

Powder, sporting, 6d. per lb.

Powder, washing, 20 per cent.

Precious stores, unset, free

Preparations, toilet, 25 per cent.

Presentation-cups, as plate, 20 per cent.

Preserved fish, 2d. per lb. (see Fish, potted)

Preserved fruit, by sulphurous acid, 1/2d. per lb.

Preserved fruit, in juice or syrup, 20 per cent.

Preserved ginger, in syrup, as preserves, 2d. per lb.

Preserved meats, 20 per cent.

Preserved milk, 20 per cent.

Preserved vegetables, 20 per cent.

Preserves, 2d. per lb. (see Jam)

Preserves, China, as preserves, 2d. per lb.

Preserving-powder, “Baniani,” antiseptic, free

Preservitas (butter-preservative), free

Press and stamp, jewellers’, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Presses, duplicating, and electric pens, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Price-lists in book-form, as printed books, free

Price's night-lights, as candles, 2d. per lb.

Pride of the Kitchen soap, 5s. per cwt. (see Soap)

Printed books, papers, and music, free

Printed calendars, having the word “Specimen” printed across the face, free

Printed covers for exercise-books, as printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Printed designs for fretwork, free

Printed drawing-instruction books, as school-books, free

Printed posters, 20 per cent.

Printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Printers’ embossing-press, as printing machinery, free

Printers’ programme cards, as printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Printing-ink, free

Printing machinery, presses, type, and materials, free

Printing-presses, free

Prints, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Prints, photo-lithographs and chromos, for fancy-box making, as a. & m.s., free

Prints, pictorial, 25 per cent.

Prizes (see Art union)

Programmes and circulars, 20 per cent.

Propellers, as screws and castings for ships, free

Propeller-shafting and -fittings, as Machinery, 20 per cent.

Prophylactine, free

Provisions, 20 per cent.

Prunes, in jars, as fruits, dried, 2d. per lb.

Pudding-powders, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Pulley-blocks, 20 per cent.

Pulp, fruit, 1 1/2d. per lb.

Pulse and grain of every kind, ground or in any way manufactured, 1s. per 100lb.

Pulse and grain of every kind, 9d. per 100lb.

Pump for use in mine, as mining machinery, free

Pumps and other apparatus for raising water, 20 per cent.

Pumps, metal fittings for, 20 per cent.

Punching-machine, lever, as engineers’ machine-tools, free

Putty, 2s. per cwt.

Puzzle, “The Redclyffe,” as toys, 20 per cent.

Pyrogallic acid, free

QUARRY mauls and picks, 20 per cent.

Quartz-hammers, 20 per cent.

Quilts, eiderdown, as articles made up from textiles, 25 per cent.

Quinces, 1/2d. per lb.

Quinine champagne, as wine, 6s. per gal.

Quinine wine (Goodall's), as wines, other kinds, 6s. per gal.

Quinine wine (Melrose, Drover, and Co.’s), as wines, other kinds, 6s. per gal.

Quinine wine (Waters's), as wines, other kinds, 6s. per gal.

Quoits, 20 per cent.

RACKAROCK, explosive, free

Rails for railways and tramways, free

Rails, timber, 4s. per 100

Railway and tramway plant and material, 20 per cent.

Railway chairs, bolts, fastenings, and rail-dogs, of metal, 20 per cent.

Railway-engine tires, for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Rain-gauges (scientific instruments), free

Rakes, hay, wooden, 15 per cent.

Rakes, hay, 20 per cent.

Rakes, horse, 20 per cent.

Rams, hydraulic, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Range-knobs, free (see Articles and materials for fabrication of goods in colony)

Ranges, kitchen, 20 per cent.

Rapeseed, free

Raspberry vinegar, 20 per cent.

Rasps, horse, as artificers’ tools, free

Raw coffee, 3d. per lb.

Raw silk, for use in making tweeds in the colony, free

Reading-glasses, as fancy goods, 20 per cent.

Reaper-knife sections (see Machinery for agricultural purposes), free

Reaping-hooks, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Redclyffe, The, puzzle, as toys, 20 per cent.

Red-herrings, in cask or tin, 10s. per cwt.

Reeds, bagpipe, 15 per cent.

Reels, garden, 20 per cent.

Refrigerating machinery, free

Registering-turnstiles, 20 per cent.

Regulators, gas, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Rennets, free

Restorine and lactine (Bowick's) for cattle, as patent and proprietary medicines, 25 per cent.

Retorts and tubing-glass, being scientific apparatus, free

Retorts, earthen, gas, 20 per cent.

Reuter's Life Syrup, as patent medicine, 25 per cent.

Rex magnus, food-preservative, free

Rhodium-oil, free

Ribbon of Bruges, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Ribbons and trimmings, of silk, satin, velvet plush, or silk mixed, 25 per cent.

Ribbon, wire, free (see Minor articles for making up apparel, &c.)

Ribs, umbrella-makers’ materials, free

Rice and rice-flour, 6s. per cwt.

Rice, manufactured into starch, in bond, 2s. per cwt.

Rice, undressed and dressed, in bond, 4s. per cwt.

Rick- and wagon-covers, 15 per cent.

Riddles, all kinds, free

Ridging, iron, galvanised, 20 per cent.

Ridging, zinc, 20 per cent.

Rifles, 15 per cent.

Rims, hickory, free (see Hickory rims)

Rings, for use in the making of umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, free

Rings, manger, 20 per cent.

Rings, maul, 20 per cent.

Riveting-stands, for iron lasts, as grindery, free

Riveting-studs, for wool-bailing, free

Rivets and washers of all kinds, free

Rivets, brass and iron, as grindery, free

Rivets, for ships, iron, free

Road-grader as machinery, 20 per cent.

Roans, 2d. per lb.

Roasted coffee, 5d. per lb.

Robes, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Robes, boxed, not made up, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Robes, muslin, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Rockets, ship, free

Rock-salt, free

Rod-iron, free

Rods, brass, solid, free

Rods, copper and composition, free

Rolled plate-glass, rippled, as glass, 15 per cent.

Rollers, bending, for making water-race pipes, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Rollers, cake, 20 per cent.

Rollers, garden, 20 per cent.

Rollers, incline, for tramways, as tramway-plant, 20 per cent.

Rollers, jewellers’, as artificers’ tools, free

Roller-skates, 20 per cent.

Rollers, wooden, for window-blinds, as furniture, 25 per cent.

Roller-webs, as saddlers’ ironmongery, free

Rolling-pins, metal, for confectioners, as artificers’ tools, free

Root, dandelion, as chicory, 3d. per lb.

Rope and cordage, 20 per cent.

Rope, flat, for mining-gear, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Rope-grease (whale-oil refuse) free

Ropemakers’ hackling-machines, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Rosin, free

Round glass, for fabrication of goods in colony, free (see Glass, round, &c.)

Rowlocks, boat, as ship-chandlery, free

Royal cord, for slipper-making (see Minor articles for making up apparel, &c.), free

Rubber and iron buffers, as iron fittings for carriages, free

Rubber cloth, for carriages, free

Ruddle, free

Rufflings, in piece, as drapery, 20 per cent.

Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other kinds, 20 per cent.

Rugs, hearth, as rugs, 20 per cent.

Rulers, flat, not exceeding 3d. each, free (see School-apparatus)

Rulers, flat, 12in., marked in inches, not exceeding 6d., as school-apparatus, free

Rulers, office, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Rules, steel, plated, as artificers’ tools, free

Ruling-machine, as printing machinery, free

Runners, umbrella makers’ materials, free

Russia crash, textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

SACCHARINE, 5s. per oz.

Saccharometers, free

Sacks, corn, free

Sacks other than corn-sacks, 15 per cent.

Sack-trucks, 20 per cent.

Saddle-bags, bicycle, 20 per cent. (see Bicycles)

Saddle-cloth, felt, as saddlery, 20 per cent.

Saddlers’ and shoemakers’ silk twist, free

Saddlers’ hemp, as twine, 20 per cent.

Saddlers’ ironmongery, hames, and mounts for harness; straining surcingle brace-girth and roller webs; collar-check, legging buckles, free

Saddlers’ ironmongery, to include stirrup-irons, bits, and other metal articles required to complete riding- or driving-harness or saddlery made in the colony, and not being substitutes for leather articles, free

Saddlers’ serge, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Saddlery, 20 per cent.

Saddles, bicycle, 20 per cent. (see Bicycles)

Saddle-trees, free

Sad-irons, 20 per cent.

Safes and boxes, iron, 20 per cent.

Safety-lamps, for collieries, free

Safety-pins, as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Saffron, free

Sago and tapioca, free

Sago-flour, as sago, free

Sail-cloth, free

Sailmakers’ eyelets, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Sal ammoniac, free

Sails, as ship chandlery, free

Salicylic acid, free

Salicylic soap, as soap, scented, 25 per cent.

Saloon-rifle cartridges, as cartridges, 15 per cent.

Salt, conserved, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Salt, except rock-salt, 10s. per ton

Salted fish, 10s. per cwt.

Salted ox-tongues, as provisions, 20 per cent.

Saltpetre, free

Salt, rock, free

Salt, Glauber's, as sulphate of soda, free

Sal volatile (spir. am. co., or aromatic spirits of ammonia), spirits in case, 16s. per liq. gal.

Samples, carpet, of no commercial value, free

Samples of curtain material cut to 1 yard and under, as of no commercial value, free

Sandalwood oil, in capsules, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Sarcenets, as silk, 25 per cent.

Sardines, to be charged on actual weight of content of tins, 2d. per lb.

Sarsaparilla, 25 per cent.

Sash-lines, copper, as copper-manufactures, 20 per cent.

Sashes, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. per pair

Sashes, plain, 2s. per pair

Sash-lines, cord, as cordage, 20 per cent.

Sash-weights, 20 per cent.

Satchels, metal frames for, free

Sateen, staymakers’, free

Satins, 25 per cent. (see Silks)

Saucers, colour, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Sauces, 3s. per doz. pints or reputed pints, and in the same proportion for larger or smaller reputed sizes

Sausage-skins, 20 per cent.

Saw files and sets, as artificers’ tools, free

Sawn timber, dressed, 4s. per 100ft. super.

Sawn timber, rough, 2s. per 100ft. super.

Saws and steels, butchers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Saws, fret, crosscut, frame, and pit, as artificers’ tools, free

Saws, machine, free

Scales, as weighing-machines, 15 per cent.

Scales, boxwood, not exceeding 6d. each, free (see School-apparatus)

Scarves, cravats, and ties, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Scented soap, 25 per cent.

Scholars’ tablets for Sunday-schools, as printed papers, free

School-apparatus, to include prepared chalk, compasses for chalk, globes, wall maps and diagrams, arithmetical frames, ink-cans, ink-wells, chemical cabinets, cabinets for object-lessons, slates, slate-pencils; drawing-instruments, viz.,—

 Invoice Price.
s.d.
Compasses, half-sets, in or out of boxes, not exceedingdoz.240
T-squares each1 0each10
Set-squareseach03
Flat rulerseach03
Boxwood scaleseach06
Flat rulers, 12in (marked in inches)each06

plaster casts, being drawing-models; Sunday-school tickets and attendance-books, kindergarten toys; free

School-books, slates, and apparatus, free

Science and art examination papers, as school-apparatus, free

Scientific apparatus, free

Scissors, paperhangers’, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Scissors, tailors’, japanned bent trimming, as artificers’ tools, free

Scoops, coal, 20 per cent.

Scotch mixtures, 2d. per lb. (see Boiled sugars)

Scrapers and scrubs, deck, free

Scrapers, door, 20 per cent.

Screens, lime (Gregory's), as hardware, 20 per cent.

Screw binding-studs, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Screwing-machine, as engineers’ machine-tools, free

Screw-jacks, as hardware, 10 per cent.

Screws, cork, wire, and steel, 20 per cent.

Screws, engineers’ set, as bolts and nuts, 20 per cent.

Screws for heel- and toe-plates, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Screws, iron, galvanised, 2s. per cwt.

Screws, stove, as articles for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Scrim cloth, as hessian, free

Scripture motto-cards, as printed stationery, 25 per cent.

Scrub-exterminator, free

Scuttles, coal, 20 per cent.

Scythes, free

Scythes, to include a set of handles for each blade, free

Sealing as stationery, 15 per cent.

Seal-oil, in bulk, free

Seals, for public bodies, free

Sealskin for gold-washing, as sealskins, undressed, free

Sealskin, imitation, for gold-saving, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Sealskins, undressed, free

Sea-salt (Tidman's), as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Seats, garden, metal, 20 per cent.

Seed, bird, free

Seed, coriander, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Seed drawer, clover, as agricultural machinery, free

Seed-dressing machines, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Seed, fenugreek, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Seed pockets or bags of paper, as paper bags, 25 per cent.

Seeds, carraway, 15 per cent.

Seed-sower, hand, free

Seed-sowers, hand, Cahoon, as agricultural machinery, free

Seltzogenes, as druggists’ sundries, 15 per cent.

Set-screws (see Agricultural machinery), free

Set-squares, not exceeding 3d. each, free (see School-apparatus)

Sewing-cottons, silks, and threads, free

Sewing, knitting, and kilting machines, free

Sewing-machine cabinets, as cabinetware, 25 per cent.

Sewing-machine oil, as oil in bottle, 15 per cent.

Shackle-holders, carriage, free.

Shades, glass, as glassware, 15 per cent.

Shafting, bright wrought-iron, 20 per cent.

Shafts, carriage, 15 per cent.

Shafts, carriage and cart, in the rough, free

Shale, waste or unrefined mineral oil, free

Shanks and shells, button, free

Share-plates, steel, cut to pattern, for ploughs, free

Sharpeners for plane-irons or chisels, as hardware, 20 per cent. (but the grindstone or oilstone therein, free)

Shaving soap, cream, and sticks, as perfumery, 25 per cent.

Shawls, 20 per cent.

Shears, tailors’, as artificers’ tools, free

Sheathing, copper and composition, free

Sheathing, felt, free

Sheaves, metal, for blocks, free

Sheep-brand, in tins, as paints, mixed, 4s. per cwt.

Sheep-dip, free

Sheep-shearing machines (Bariquand's), as agricultural machinery, free

Sheep-shearing machines (Howard Geddes’). as agricultural machinery, free

Sheep-shearing machines (Wolseley's), as agricultural machinery, free

Sheep-shearing machines, driving gear for, as machinery, 20 per cent.

Sheepshears, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Sheepskins, leather, 2d. per lb.

Sheepskins, japanned, free

Sheepwash, tobacco for, after being rendered unfit for human consumption in accordance with prescribed regulations, free

Sheet, crown, and common window-glass, 2s. per 100ft. super.

Sheeting, calico, cut into lengths for bags, as calico in the piece, free

Sheeting, flax, not exceeding 7d. per yard, cut into bag lengths, as flax-sheeting in the piece, free

Sheeting, Forfar, dowlas, and flax, exceeding 7d. per yard, 20 per cent.

Sheeting, Forfar, dowlas, and flax, free (see Forfar)

Sheetings, cotton, a calico in the piece, free

Sheetings, union and linen, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Sheet-iron, plain black, free

Sheet-iron, plain galvanised, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Sheet-lead, 1s. 6d. per cwt.

Sheets, copper, free

Sheets, oiled, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Sheets, zinc, plain, free

Sheet-tin, decorated, not being hand-painted of the kinds known as “stencilled” and “crystallized” for fabrication of goods in colony, free

Shellac, as a. & m. s., free

Shellac, hatmakers’, free

Shells for ball-cocks, 20 per cent.

Shingles, 2s. per 1,000

Shingling and lath hammers and hatchets, as artificers’ tools, free

Ship-chandlery, free

Ships’ biscuits, plain and unsweetened, 3s. per cwt.

Ships’ chronometers, not being chronometer-watches, free

Ships’ flags, as ship-chandlery, free

Ships’ lamps, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Ships’ log-books, 25 per cent.

Ships’ rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals, free

Ships’ side-light lenses, as a. & m. s., free

Shirtings, coloured cotton, in the piece, free

Shirtings, Crimean, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Shirtings, union, exceeding 7d. per yard, as textile piece-goods, 20 per cent.

Shirtings, union, in the piece, the fair market-value of which does not exceed 7d. the yard, free

Shirt neckbands, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Shirts, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Shirts, night, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Shirts, tennis, as apparel, 25 per cent.

Shives and spiles, as woodware, 15 per cent.

Shoe-canvas, cotton, as cotton piece-goods, 10 per cent.

Shoemakers’ silk twist, free

Shoemakers’ tools, as artificers’ tools, free

Shoes and boots, 20 per cent.

Shoes and slippers, children's, Nos. 0 to 3, free

Shoes, horse, 20 per cent.

Shooks, as woodenware, 15 per cent.

Shot, 10s. per cwt.

Shoulder dress-elevators, as minor articles, free

Shovels, forks, and spades, free.

Showcards, pictorial, 25 per cent.

Showcases, as cabinetware, 25 per cent.

Shutters, steel, as hardware, 20 per cent.

Sicily almonds used in confectioners’ manufactures, free

Sieves, corn, free

Sieves, hair, as Woodenware, 15 per cent.

Signal-lamps for ships’ use, as lamps, 15 per cent.

Silesias, tailors’ trimmings, free

Silica firebricks, free

Silicate of soda, free

Silk cord and ribbon for office use, as stationery, 15 per cent.

Silk, dress material of, or having the larger portion of silk, 25 per cent.

Silk ferrets, free (see Minor articles for making apparel)

Silk for flour-dressing, free

Silk, merino, and cashmere, cut into pieces not exceeding 20in. square before importation or in bond, for hat-making, in the colony, free

Silk plush, hatmakers’, free

Silk, potters’, for clay-dressing, as a. & m. s., free

Silk, red, carriage, as silk, 25 per cent.

Silks, embroidery and crewel,. as haberdashery, 20 per cent.

Silks, satins, velvets, plushes, composed of silk m