This publication was produced in the Information Services Division of the Department of Statistics.
The New Zealand Official Yearbook includes the latest information available at the time it was compiled, but, given the time required for the process of publication, it does not necessarily include the latest data available at the publication date. The reader will also notice that some tables contain information that is several years old. This is included either because it is the latest available on a particular subject, or because it is of historical importance.
The scope of current data that is available from the Department of Statistics, supplementing that given in this edition of the Yearbook, is outlined below.
WHERE TO FIND IT
The Department of Statistics collects, processes and publishes information about a wide range of economic and social activity in New Zealand. The department produces approximately 500 publications a year, which range from single page Information Releases to the Yearbook.
A comprehensive list of recent publications, the Descriptive List of Publications, is available free on request from any office of the department. A list of selected publications is included at the end of this Yearbook.
Subscriptions for most departmental publications may be ordered from the bookshops of the Government Printing Office in Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin.
Many statistics are becoming available in computer printout, microfiche or magnetic tape form. Statistics are also available to the public from the department's INFOS computer database of publishable statistics.
To obtain statistical information, or to find out more about the services of the Department of Statistics, visit, telephone, or write to Enquiries Section, Information Services Division, at the department's offices in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch or Dunedin.
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NEW ZEALAND OFFICIAL YEARBOOK
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Table of Contents
This is the 90th edition in the series of New Zealand Official Yearbooks' begun in 1893.
The Yearbook continues to present a textual and statistical record of New Zealand's economic and social situation, as well as information on such subjects as geography, geology, climate and international relations. This year's special article is entitled New Zealand women: their changing situation, 1970-1984, and is inserted to record the end of the United Nations Decade for Women. This article was prepared within the Department of Statistics by Denise Brown, Senior Research Officer, Social Statistics Development.
The attempt to cover such a wide range of facets about life in New Zealand in one volume reflects the need to satisfy the extremely wide readership of the Yearbook. This means that the Yearbook can only be regarded as an introductory work for those requiring detailed information on New Zealand. Nevertheless it is an excellent reference source for those requiring summary statistics of New Zealand.
The Yearbook readership survey conducted by the department during 1984 showed that most readers were satisfied with the content and presentation of the Yearbook but that some changes were desable.
A new feature in this edition is a section entitled ‘Introducing the New Zealand Official Yearbook’, a brief guide to layout, symbols used, rounding of figures, and sources of information. A ‘Glossary’ is also included, at the end of the Yearbook, for the first time.
The Yearbook is prepared and edited by the Department of Statistics from contributions prepared by its own staff, other government departments and official agencies.
I appreciate the efforts of all those involved in copy preparation, editing and printing of the 1985 Yearbook, with special mention of the contribution by the Government Printing Office.
Department of Statistics,
This section explains the way that information is presented, including the symbols and statistical terms.
The main contents of the Yearbook are grouped under 9 main headings, and divided into 39 numbered sections. These include text, tables and graphs.
The final two sections are the special article, the subject of which changes from year to year, and a list of the topics of special articles in previous Yearbooks.
A number of special supplements then follow. The first, the ‘Statistical summary’, gives summaries of major statistical series over a longer time-span than those found in the main text. It is also useful as a quick reference to the major series.
The chronology of New Zealand history is another useful rapid reference, as well as providing a historical context for the Yearbook's contents.
The selected bibliography of New Zealand publications provides a starting point for further research, and indicates the range of New Zealand publishing.
A further, more specific bibliography follows, listing the Department of Statistics' publications.
The ‘Latest Information’ section gives the latest data for important series, which have become available during the main printing of the Yearbook.
A table of weights and measures used in New Zealand provides a reference for conversions, as well as a key to terms used in the Yearbook.
The Glossary gives explanations for many of the statistical terms used in the Yearbook.
The Index at the back covers all sections of the Yearbook.
The following symbols are used throughout:
|x||revised figure or figures.|
|–||nil or zero.|
|..||figures not available.|
|not yet available—space left blank.|
|- -||amount too small to be expressed.|
Totals are generally rounded off to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. In some cases, this rounding off will result in a total which disagrees slightly with the total of the individual items as shown in the tables.
The 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings statistics contained in this publication have been subject to a process of random rounding, whereby all cell values, including row and column totals, have been rounded. Individual figures will therefore not necessarily sum to give the stated totals.
Sources of information are given where these are outside the Department of Statistics. The titles of specific publications giving more detailed information are also provided where appropriate, and a list of New Zealand books and one of the Department of Statistics' publications are included at the back.
New Zealand is in the south-west section of the Pacific. To the west, beyond the Tasman Sea, is Australia, 1600 kilometres away. From its position on the rim of the Pacific basin, New Zealand is a little over 10,000 kilometres from San Francisco and Panama and a similar distance from Tokyo and Singapore. In area 26.9 million hectares, it is similar in size to the British Isles and Japan.
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION—The islands of New Zealand have been shaped from the projecting crests of earth folds which rise as broad ridges from the floor of the South Pacific Ocean, 1600 kilometres east of the continent of Australia. There are three main islands—North, South, and Stewart separated only by relatively narrow straits—with adjacent islets and a small group called Chatham Islands, 850 kilometres to the east of Lyttelton. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland peninsula, the New Zealand land mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis. Dating from 1842 the administrative boundaries of New Zealand, including the minor islands, extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from 162 degrees east longitude to 173 degrees west longitude. Inhabited outlying minor islands are Raoul Island in the Kermadec Group, 930 kilometres north-east of the Bay of Islands, and Campbell Island, 590 kilometres south of Stewart Island.
The Ross Dependency, some 2300 kilometres to the south, has been under New Zealand's jurisdiction since 1923 and comprises the sector of the Antarctic continent between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longtitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60 degrees south. The land area of the Ross Dependency is estimated at 414,400 square kilometres.
AREA OF NEW ZEALAND (1 April 1984)
|North Island—||Area in Square Kilometres|
|Cities and boroughs||3,103|
|Adjacent islands not included in a territorial local authority—|
|Other islands (Browns, Mokohinau, Motiti, Motuhora (Whale), etc.)||16|
|Other offshore islands—Kermadec||34|
|Total, North Island||115,734|
|Cities and boroughs||628|
|Adjacent islands not included in a territorial local authority (Solander, etc.)||4|
|Other offshore islands—|
|Uninhabited—Auckland (612 km2), Snares (2 km2), Antipodes (22 km2), Bounty (2 km2)||638|
|Total, South Island||152,371|
|Total, North and South Islands||268,105|
|Ross Dependency (land area only)||414,400|
|Total, including Ross Dependency||682,505|
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Coastline—An overall length of more than 1600 kilometres, and a width up to 450 kilometres combine to provide New Zealand with a very lengthy coastline in proportion to its area.
The nature of the coastline has provided New Zealand with numerous sites for harbours although the size of shipping capable of using them varies with the locality. The development of the natural North Island harbours of Whangarei, Auckland, Tauranga, and Wellington and the dredging and breakwater constructions at the South Island harbours of Lyttelton, Timaru, Otago, and Bluff have produced ports suitable for overseas ships.
Strong ocean drifts and high seas along the west coast produce shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances although New Plymouth is one port which has been developed to take overseas shipping. While artificial harbours have been built on the east coast of the North Island at Gisborne and Napier the large quantities of shingle brought down by the South Island rivers have strictly limited development in many South Island areas to small ports suitable for fishing and coastal shipping only.
Mountains—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, with less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 200 m contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (2518 m), Ruapehu (2797 m), Ngauruhoe (2290 rn), and Tongariro (1968 m), they do not exceed an altitude of 1800 m. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe have been particularly active from time to time. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.
The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Turakirae Head, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa Ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto Ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Moehau Range parallels the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only area above 1200 m on the west coast of the island.
The South Island is much more mountainous than the North. Along almost the entire length of the island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (3764 m), while 19 named peaks exceed 3000 m. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell Ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Paparoa Range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Richmond Ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.
There are at least 223 named peaks of 2300 m or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 2740 m in the South Island.
|Mountain or Peak||Height (metres)|
|Mt. Hicks (St. David's Dome)||3,183|
|Elie de Beaumont||3,117|
|De la Beche||2,992|
Glaciers—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman Glacier has a length of 29 km and a width of 1 km. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (17 km), the Mueller (13 km), the Godley (13 km), and the Hooker (11 km), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is at an altitude of somewhat over 600 m. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels. At the same time the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 15 km and 13 km respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 200 m and 210 m.
The glaciers are fed by snow brought to the Southern Alps by the prevailing winds off the Tasman Sea. Total yearly snowfalls at the higher elevations (1800-2500 m) vary from 3 rn to 6 m. The steeper West Coast glaciers have little moraine (rock debris) carried on their surfaces and have shown a marked terminal retreat in recent decades. However, latest evidence suggests that, in response to recent cooler wetter weather, the Fox and Franz Josef glaciers are showing signs of limited growth. The large glaciers on the eastern side of the Southern Alps are mantled with moraine and show some terminal retreat.
In the North Island there are 7 relatively small glaciers on the slopes of Mount Ruapehu compared with more than 360 in the Southern Alps. During the skiing season the Whakapapa Glaciers, near the Chateau Tongariro, are visited by several thousand people each week.
Rivers—New Zealand rivers, owing to the high relief of the country, are mostly swift-flowing and difficult to navigate. As sources of hydro-electric power the rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. The Waikato and the Rangitaiki in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, Clutha, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes.
Following is a list of the more important rivers. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system, whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.
|*Cook Strait is defined as follows: northern limit is a line between northern point of Stephens Island and Kapiti Island; southern limit is a line between Cape Palliser and Cape Campbell.|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waihou (or Thames)||175|
|Waipaoa (from source, Mata River)||121|
|Waiapu (from source, Waipapa Stream)||113|
|Wairoa (from source, Hangaroa River)||137|
|Mohaka (from source, Taharua River)||172|
|Flowing into Cook Strait*—|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waikato (from source, Upper Waikato River)||425|
|Wairoa (from source, Waiotu Stream)||132|
|Hokianga (from source, Waihou River)||72|
|Flowing into Cook Strait*—|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waiau-uha (or Waiau)||169|
|Rangitata (from source, Clyde River)||121|
|Waitaki (from source, Hopkins River)||209|
|Clutha (from source, Makarora River)||322|
|Flowing into Foveaux Strait—|
|Aparima (Jacobs River)||113|
|Waiau (from source, Clinton River)||217|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waiho (from source, Callery River)||32|
|Buller (from source, Travers River)||177|
|Aorere (from source, Spee River)||72|
|Takaka (from source, Cobb River)||72|
|Waimea (from source, Wai-ti River)||48|
The discovery in 1861 that the beds of rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the early economic development of the country.
Many rivers are valuable for recreational activities such as swimming, canoeing, rafting, jet boating, tramping, camping, and picnicking, and with the very successful acclimatisation of freshwater fish, notably trout, rivers now provide exceptionally fine fishing.
Lakes—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the 2 islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while some of the larger ones of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, have their own particular beauty. The lakes of both islands are of vital importance as reservoirs, for the maintenance of the rivers and streams draining them and as a means of flood prevention, especially where hydro-electric schemes are involved. Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, Manapouri, Ohau, Monowai, and Wakatipu in the South Island are of particular significance in this respect. A series of narrow man-made lakes have been produced in connection with hydro-electric development along some of the rivers. In 1965 Lake Benmore, New Zealand's largest artificial lake, was created. It lies on the Waitaki River in North Otago and covers 75 sq km in area and consists of two arms, the main arm being 30 km in length and the Ahuriri Arm 18 km in length.
Some particulars of the more important lakes are given in the following table.
|Lake||Length in Kilometres||Greatest Breadth in Kilometres||Area in Square Kilometres||Drainage Area in Square Kilometres||Approximate Volume of Discharge in Cubic Metres per Second||Maximum Height Above Sea Level in Metres (Range in Parentheses)*||Greatest Depth in Metres|
|*The range in lake levels is not available for all lakes.|
|Te Anau||61.2||9.7||344||3,302||267||205 (4.0)||276|
|Ahuriri Arm||18.5||4.4||75||8 532||319||96|
GEOLOGY—The islands of New Zealand are part of the unstable circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. This is a region where volcanoes are active and where the Earth's crust has long been buckling and breaking at a geologically rapid rate. The interplay, in the past, of earth movements and erosion has created the sedimentary rocks that cover almost three-quarters of New Zealand. Land areas that the earth movements have raised have been attacked by erosion, and the sand, mud, shingle, and other debris thus formed has been carried away to the sea, where it has accumulated in great thicknesses to form rocks such as sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and conglomerate; the shells and other skeletons of sea creatures have accumulated to form thick layers of limestone. Many of the sedimentary rocks are in distinct layers called strata. Earth movements have later raised them above the sea to form land, and the strata have in many places been tilted and folded by pressure. Seas have advanced and retreated over the New Zealand area many times and these sedimentary rocks represent almost every geological period since the Cambrian (see Time Scale). Their age is revealed by the molluscan shells, foraminifera, and other fossils that they contain, as well as by various radioactive techniques.
As well as sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks of various ages, New Zealand incorporates in its complex structure schist, gneiss, marble and other metamorphic rocks, and granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, and other intrusive igneous rocks. Most of these metamorphic and intrusive rocks are hundreds of millions of years old. They were formed at depth in the Earth's crust early in New Zealand's history, in the “roots” of ancient mountain ranges, long ago destroyed, and are visible at the land surface today only because erosion has removed thousands of metres of other rocks that once covered them. The metamorphic rocks were developed by the action of heat and pressure on the thick sediments (up to tens of thousands of metres) deposited in huge, elongated sea basins (geosynclines), which continued to sink as the deposits accumulated. When these geosynclines were slowly compressed during major mountain-building episodes the deeper sediments were subjected to great pressure and shearing stress, which caused new minerals and structures to develop, changing the sediments into metamorphic rocks. The granites and other intrusive rocks are coarsely crystalline, and are usually considered to have intruded into the outer crust in a molten state during mountain building; some, however, may be the products of an intense metamorphism of sediments.
|Eras||Periods||Approximate Time Since Period Began (Years)|
|Cenozoic||Holocene (Recent)||Quaternary||10 thousand|
Geological History—Evidence of the earliest-known events in New Zealand's history is given by ancient rocks in Nelson, Westland, and Fiordland that were formed in the early Paleozoic era, perhaps as long as 600 million years ago (some in Westland may be older). They include thick, geosynclinal sedimentary rocks. This suggests that a large land mass existed nearby at that time to yield the great volume of sediments, but little has been deduced about its shape or position.
The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood. For a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period—probably until the early Cretaceous period—an extensive geosyncline occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during much of the late Paleozoic time, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic tuff were included in the materials that accumulated in the geosyncline, but in the later Permian and Mesozoic times the sediments were mainly sand and mud, derived probably from some land west of present New Zealand; they were compacted into hard greywacke (a type of sandstone) and argillite (hard, dark mudstone).
In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place. Although geosynclinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand the geosyncline elsewhere was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled and broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous land mass. Some of the geosynclinal deposits, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by high temperatures and the tremendous deforming pressures to which the geosyncline was subjected.
The time that has elapsed since the intense folding of the strata in the New Zealand geosyncline in the mid-Cretaceous period may be considered as the later geological history of this country, embracing roughly 100 million years.
During the early part of this late history, erosion slowly wore down the mountains that had risen, producing a land of low relief. Over these worn-down stumps of the Mesozoic mountains the sea gradually advanced, beginning its transgression earlier in some areas than in others. In the early Cretaceous period it began to submerge land in the region of present North Auckland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some parts of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and in the very early Tertiary era, land became so reduced in size and relief that little sediment was formed, and only comparatively thin deposits of fine bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine white foraminiferal limestone accumulated. In some areas New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated in swamps on the surface of the old land. These became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.
By the Oligocene period most of the land was submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. (Scattered remnant patches of this Oligocene limestone furnish most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime.)
After the Oligocene submergence earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and rapidly filled with sediments. New Zealand's late Tertiary environment has been described as follows: “The pattern of folds, welts, and troughs that developed was on a finer scale than in the Mesozoic . . . the land moved up and down as a series of narrow, short, interfingering or branching folds . . . . We can think of Tertiary New Zealand as an archipelago . . . A kind of writhing of part of the mobile Pacific margins seems to have gone on . . . “. The thick deposits of soft, grey mudstone and sandstone that now make up large areas of the North Island, and some parts of the South Island, are the deposits that accumulated rapidly in the many sea basins, large and small, that developed in the later Tertiary.
Very late in the Cenozoic era—in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods—one of the greatest episodes of mountain building in New Zealand's history took place. Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and other main mountain chains, and determined the general shape and size of the present islands of New Zealand. Much of the movement during this mountain-building period (the Kaikoura Orogeny) took the form of displacement of blocks of the Earth's crust along fractures called faults. The total movements of the Earth blocks adjacent to major faults amounted to thousands of metres. It must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each less than a few metres. The blocks adjacent to “transcurrent” faults moved not only vertically but also laterally along the faults. The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well preserved tilted fault blocks bounded by fault-scarps—steep faces hundreds or even thousands of metres high. Fault movements continue to the present day, and have accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features such as scarplets, fault ponds, and shutter ridges show where movement has been occurring in recent centuries.
Erosion during this time has eaten into the major landscape forms that the earth movements built, carving detailed landscape patterns of peaks, ridges, valleys, and gorges, and the deposition of the debris has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans, and other construction forms. At the coast, waves have driven back the headlands and built beaches, spits, and bars. The Pleistocene period was the time of the Ice Age, and in the high mountains of the South Island glaciers carved deep valleys and carried huge loads of rock, dumping them in the lower parts of the valleys as moraines. The late Pleistocene glaciers carved the fiords of Fiordland and the basins occupied by most South Island lakes; there were small glaciers also on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, and on Mount Egmont and the Tararua Range. Sea-level changes accompanied the formation and later melting of the land ice, affecting the erosion or deposition of the rivers and thus being responsible for the formation of the many prominent river terraces in this country.
Volcanic activity of the past few million years has played an important part in making the rocks and shaping the landscape of parts of the central and northern North Island. Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, also achieved much of its growth then. The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand have been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty Coast: andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later to build the huge volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe. More than 8000 cu km of molten rhyolitic magma was erupted in the form of ignimbrite, pumice, and rhyolite lava, building up the Volcanic Plateau. This is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world.
Mount Egmont is a huge, conical, andesite volcano, with the remnants of two other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of approximately basic andesite composition. The largest is Pirongia, some 900 m high. Auckland city and the area immediately to the south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in late Pleistocene and Holocene times; and many small scoria cones can be seen in the locality. Late Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young cones.
EARTHQUAKES: Geophysical Background—An earthquake occurs when energy is suddenly released from a volume of rock within the Earth's outer layers, and is radiated outwards in the form of elastic waves that can be felt at places near the origin, and detected by sensitive instruments at greater distances. Earthquakes are most common in certain geographically limited regions, one of which includes New Zealand. Within these disturbed zones, young fold mountains, oceanic trenches, volcanoes, anomalies in the Earth's gravitational field, and active geological faulting are also usual, and like the earthquakes have their ultimate cause in the internal processes incidental to the major structural development of the Earth, and as yet are imperfectly understood.
The seismically active zones define the margins of a system of stable blocks or plates which are not completely inactive, but experience large earthquakes only infrequently, and are thought to be the primary units of the Earth's crust. Two of these units, the Pacific and Indian Plates, abut in the vicinity of New Zealand, forming a triple junction with a third, the Antarctic Plate, south of Macquarie Island.
As a result of thermally generated convective movements in the deeper levels of the earth, relative displacement of the plates is occurring and this provides the continuing source of the energy that is intermittently released as earthquakes.
Instrumental records have shown that at the time of an earthquake large shearing movements take place at the source. It seems probable that all major earthquakes are the result of the breakage of rock under strain, but other factors such as the presence or absence of liquid in the pores and fractures of the rock are also of primary importance in determining the time and place at which a shock occurs.
In large shallow earthquakes a rupture may appear at the surface, forming or renewing movement on a geological fault. In regions where the majority of earthquakes are very shallow, such as California, there is a tendency for the earthquake origins to cluster near geological fault traces, but in regions where there is deeper activity, such as New Zealand, this is not so. For example, there is little activity near the Alpine Fault, which stretches for some 500 km from Milford Sound to Lake Rotoiti, and is considered one of the world's largest and most active faults. Conversely, instances of fault movement that have not been accompanied by earthquakes are known. Practical assessments of earthquake risk must therefore be based upon the statistics of known earthquake distribution and the broader geological setting of the origins.
New Zealand Seismicity—Compared with some other parts of the Pacific margin, such as Japan, Chile, and the Philippines, the level of seismic activity in New Zealand is moderate. It may be roughly compared with that prevailing in California. A shock of Richter magnitude 6 or above occurs on the average about once a year, one of magnitude 7 or above once in ten years, and one of about magnitude 8 perhaps once a century, but in historic times only one shock (the south-west Wairarapa earthquake in 1855) is known to have reached this magnitude.
Other natural disasters and accidents are together responsible for more casualties than earthquakes, the most serious seismic disasters in New Zealand having been the Hawke's Bay earthquake of 1931 in which 256 deaths occurred, and the Buller earthquake of 1929 in which there were 17. The total resulting from all other shocks since 1840 is less than 15 deaths. The last earthquake to cause deaths occurred at Inangahua in 1968, when 3 people died.
Regarded broadly, the zone of seismicity within which New Zealand lies extends continuously from the triple junction south of Macquarie Island to Samoa. When looked at more closely, breaks in continuity and changes in the character of the activity become apparent. There are changes in direction, in the positional relationship of the deeper and shallower activity, and in its association with the other geophysical and geological features of the region.
Within New Zealand itself, at least two separate systems of seismic activity can be distinguished. The Main Seismic Region, which is the larger, covers the whole of the North Island apart from the Northland peninsula, and the South Island north of a line passing roughly between Banks Peninsula and Cape Foulwind. The Southern, or Fiordland, Seismic Region includes Southern Westland, Western Southland, and Western Otago. Less clearly defined activity covers the remainder of the two main islands, and extends eastwards from Banks Peninsula to include the Chatham Islands.
Shallow earthquakes, which are the most numerous, originate within the Earth's crust, which in New Zealand has an average thickness of some 35 km. These shocks are responsible for almost all damage to property, and now and in the past they have been widely scattered throughout the country. In historically recent times, the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions have been significantly more active than the rest of New Zealand, but neither the Central Seismic Region that lies between them nor the Northern peninsula has been free from damaging shocks. The details of the present pattern are not necessarily unchanging, and could alter significantly after the occurrence of a major earthquake. Because of this, because of the broader geophysical setting, and because of the distance to which the effects of a large earthquake extend, it would be highly imprudent to treat any part of New Zealand as free from the risk of serious earthquake damage.
Many active regions of the Earth have only shallow earthquakes, but in others shocks have been known to occur at depths as great as 700 km below the surface. It is thought that these deep shocks originate within the edges of crustal plates that have been drawn down or thrust beneath their neighbours. Such deep events are common in both the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions of New Zealand, but their relative positions with respect to the shallow activity and to other geophysical features are rough mirror images. This is believed to indicate that in the North Island, the edge of the Pacific Plate lies below that of the Indian Plate, while in the south of the South Island the Pacific Plate is uppermost and the Indian Plate has been thrust beneath it.
The most important system of deep shocks in New Zealand lies in a well-defined zone beneath the Main Seismic Region, stretching from the Bay of Plenty to Nelson and Marlborough. The maximum depth of occurrence is about 400 km at the northern end, and decreases smoothly to a depth of about200 km before the southern boundary of the region is reached. Along the whole of the system, there is also a decrease in maximum depth from west to east. In northern Taranaki, near the western limit of this activity, a small isolated group of shocks at a depth about 600 km has also been recorded. In the Central Seismic Region only shallow shocks are known.
The maximum depth of the earthquakes in the Fiordland Region appears to be only about 160 km. Here, the deep activity is more concentrated than in the north, lying close to Lakes Te Anau and Manapouri.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes are found in geophysically disturbed regions, but although small earthquakes usually accompany volcanic eruptions, large ones are rare. Regions of active volcanism are also subject to periodic outbreaks of small earthquakes, all of similar magnitude, and very numerous. These events are known as “earthquake swarms”. Although the number of shocks may cause alarm, it is unusual for even minor damage to result. There is not often a simultaneous volcanic outbreak, but swarms are rare in non-volcanic regions. In New Zealand they have occurred in the volcanic zone that includes Mt. Ruapehu and White Island, in the Coromandel Peninsula, in parts of Northland, and near Mt. Egmont.
Seismological Observatory—Each year the Seismological Observatory, Wellington, a section of the Geophysics Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, publishes the analyses of hundreds of earthquakes originating in the New Zealand region, using data obtained from its own network of recording stations, and from stations in other countries. The instrumental data are supplemented by information about felt effects, supplied by a large number of voluntary observers, who complete a standard questionnaire.
The network of recording stations controlled by the Observatory is now one of the world's most extended, covering the main islands of New Zealand, a large part of the south-west Pacific, and the Ross Dependency. The 33 permanent stations now operating are:
Afiamaiu, Apia (Western Samoa); Nadi (Fiji); Niue; Rarotonga (Cook Islands); Raoul Island (Kermadecs); Cape Reinga. Onerahi, Great Barrier, Auckland, East Cape, Karapiro, Whakatane, Gisborne, Wairakei, Tuai, Tarata, Taradale, Mangahao, Castlepoint, Cobb River, Wellington, Kaikoura, Kaimata, Cashmere, Chatham Islands, Milford Sound, Oamaru, Roxburgh, Borland Lodge, Oban, Campbell Island, Scott Base (Antarctica).
At Afiamalu, Rarotonga, Wellington, and Scott Base the equipment includes instruments of internationally standardised pattern designed to record both local and distant activity. At the other stations, many of which record more than one component of the ground motion, the instruments are primarily intended for the study of shocks within about 1000 km. In Wellington there is also a modern Seismic Research Observatory with digital recording, one of only 12 of its kind in the world. Scott Base and several of the island stations provide preliminary readings by radio, but all final analyses are made at the Observatory in Wellington.
A network of more closely-spaced stations, connected to a central recorder by radio links and land lines, provides for detailed studies of small earthquakes in the Wellington region. This network is for general research but also provides valuable readings of New Zealand and overseas earthquakes. A similar network operated from 1975 to 1983 near Lake Pukaki in the South Island. Its primary function was to monitor the changes in earthquake activity which accompanied the raising of the level of the lake for hydro-electric development. The observatory also has portable equipment available for more intensive studies of aftershock sequences, earthquake swarms, and microearthquakes, and for other research projects.
Other organisations operate seismographs in association with the observatory as follows: the Geophysical Survey of the DSIR in the Tongariro National Park (3 instruments), N.Z. Geological Survey at White Island and Waimangu, and the University of Otago in Dunedin.
The information collected and published by the observatory covers all significant earthquakes in the New Zealand region. It is made freely available to the public and the press, as well as to seismologists, engineers, and other specialists. In addition, a very large number of distant earthquakes are recorded, and readings of these, as well as of the local activity, are regularly sent to international agencies and to overseas seismologists who have a need for them. The observatory itself carries out a vigorous programme of research into problems of seismicity and earthquake mechanism, and into the structure and constitution of the Earth's crust and its deep interior.
EARTHQUAKES DURING 1984—The year's largest earthquake occurred at 10.37 a.m. on December 31, and was fortunately situated well out to sea, about 250 km north of Whakatane. Its magnitude was 6.4 on the Richter scale and it was widely felt around the Bay of Plenty but no damage has been reported. Several foreshocks were recorded in the preceding few days but were not reported as felt.
The year began with a deep earthquake in the Taranaki Bight at 11.55 a.m. on 4 January which was felt from Raglan to Greymouth. Its magnitude was 5.5. At 1.35 a.m. on 30 January a shallow earthquake of magnitude 5.1 near Blenheim was felt on both sides of Cook Strait.
A swarm of over 40 felt earthquakes near Turangi from February 20 to March 13 caused some alarm but the two largest events were only moderate in magnitude-5.3 at 9.23 p.m. on February 21 and 5.5 at 3.07 p.m. on March 5. These two were felt from Hamilton to Wellington. Such swarms of shallow earthquakes are always of concern when they occur in an active volcanic region as there is the possibility that they may presage an eruption, although in most cases, like this swarm, they seem to be unrelated to any volcanic activity.
March 8 saw our only other fairly large earthquake. A deep shock of magnitude 6.4 75 km below Motu occured at 1.40 p.m. Its depth resulted in it being widely felt-from Waihi to Christchurch-but saved us from any damaging intensities.
The South Island's contribution struck at 1.30 a.m. on June 24 near Lake Tekapo. A magnitude 5.9 shallow earthquake, it was strongly felt in Christchurch. Again we are lucky it was not centred near a city.
Other earthquakes of moderate magnitude (about 5 on the Richter sale) felt in New Zealand were:
1.52 p.m. June 28 Western Hawkes Bay
6.42 a.m. August 18 Hawkes Bay
6.53 p.m. October 3 Deep under Taranaki
4.15 a.m. November 10 Southern Hawkes Bay
WEATHER INFORMATION—The New Zealand Meteorological Service maintains networks of meteorological stations within New Zealand, on its outlying islands, at Scott Base and, by arrangement, in the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The weather observations are transmitted regularly to Wellington for international exchange, for the preparation of weather forecasts and special warnings, for compiling climatological statistics, and for providing a general weather information service for Government departments, industry, and the general public. All weather observations are preserved in the Meteorological Archives, Wellington. The Meteorological Service also has a programme of atmospheric research.
Observations recorded at a few selected stations in 1984 are summarised in the tables which follow but for further detailed climatological statistics reference should be made to the annual publications of the New Zealand Meteorological Service: Miscellaneous Publications No. 109 Meteorological Observations, and No. 110 Rainfall Observations. Current statistics appear monthly in the New Zealand Gazette. Special reports are published from time to time to supplement the regular data publications.
Most weather data are now held in computer-accessible data files, and several kinds of output are available to provide an alternative means of dissemination of information to the printed publications.
CLIMATE—Situated between 34°S and 47°S the main islands of New Zealand lie just south of the subtropical mean high pressure belt and penetrate into the hemispheric westerly airstream which is usually strongest in the New Zealand region between 50°S and 55°S. The daily weather patterns are dominated by eastward-moving anticyclones and troughs of low pressure whose frequencies and intensities vary substantially. The troughs normally have a north-west to south-east orientation and are associated with deep depressions centred far to the south. A typical weather sequence commences with a low-pressure trough approaching from the west. Freshening north-westerly winds prevail with increasing cloud, followed by rain for a period during which winds may reach gale force. The passage of the trough, with its associated cold front, is accompanied by a change to cold south-westerly or southerly winds and showery weather, occasionally with some hail and thunder. The barometer then rises with the approach of the next anticyclone from the west. Winds moderate and fair weather prevails for a few days as the anticyclone moves across the country.
While the sequence just described is very common the situation is frequently much more complex. The troughs are very unstable systems where depressions readily form. Some of these develop into vigorous storms that may pass over New Zealand at any time of the year. Occasionally in summer a cyclonic storm of tropical origin accompanied by gales and heavy rain passes over or near New Zealand, affecting mainly northern and eastern districts of the North Island. The anticyclones vary in size, intensity, and rate of movement. Their centres, on the average, follow a track across the North Island but individual centres may pass either north or south of the country, the more northerly tracks being favoured in spring and the southerly tracks in autumn and winter. At times when little development occurs within the troughs the anticyclones follow each other at intervals of about 6-7 days.
The other main factors which influence the climate of New Zealand are, first, its position in the midst of a vast ocean, and second, the shape and topography of the country itself.
Hot air masses from the interior of Australia in summer or freezing air masses from the Antarctic, which occasionally reach New Zealand, retain little of their original characteristics after their long ocean passages. Since abundant supplies of moisture are supplied by evaporation from the ocean, and depressions are frequent and vigorous, the average precipitation is high.
The chain of high mountains, which extends from south-west to north-east through the length of the country, rises as a formidable barrier in the path of the prevailing westerly winds. The effect is to produce much sharper climatic contrasts from west to east than in the north-south direction. In some inland areas of the South Island just east of the mountains the climate is distinctly continental in character, despite the fact that no part of New Zealand is more than 130 km from the sea.
Winds—Winds from a westerly quarter prevail in all seasons although in individual months easterlies may predominate. In the North Island winds generally decrease for a period in the summer or early autumn. However, in the South Island, July and August are the least windy months. Important modifications to the wind pattern are caused by mountain ranges and by the heating or cooling contrasts between land and sea. The north-westerly föhn wind in eastern areas of both islands gives rise to a characteristic weather type. The blocking effect of the mountain ranges decreases wind strength on the upwind side but increases it in the mountain passes and in Cook and Foveaux Straits and about the Manawatu Gorge. Sea breezes are frequent and in many parts of New Zealand are almost certainly coupled with the mountain winds. North of Taranaki the general air flow is from the south-west and there is a noticeable reduction of windiness in the summer.
An indication of the variation in the frequency of strong winds from summer to winter, and in different parts of the country, is given in the next table. These figures were all obtained by the use of anemographs at airports.
|Station||Average Number of Days with Gusts Reaching||Years of Data|
|63 km/h or more||96 km/h or more|
Rainfall—The distribution of rainfall is mainly controlled by mountain features, and the highest rainfalls occur where the mountains are exposed to the direct sweep of the westerly and north-westerly winds. The mean annual rainfall (see map) ranges from as little as 300 mm in a small area of Central Otago to over 8000 mm in the Southern Alps. The average for the whole country is high, but for the greater part it lies between 600 and 1500 mm, a range regarded as favourable for plant growth in the temperate zone. The only areas with average rainfalls under 600 mm are found in the South Island to the east of the main ranges. These include most of Central and North Otago, and South Canterbury. In the North Island, the driest areas are central and southern Hawke's Bay, Wairarapa, and Manawatu where the average rainfall is 700-1000 mm a year. Of the remainder, much valuable farm land, chiefly in northern Taranaki and Northland, has upwards of 1500 mm. Over a considerable area of both islands rainfall exceeds 2500 mm a year but, with the exception of Westland, this is mountainous and unoccupied, much of it being forest-covered.
For a large part of the country the rainfall is spread evenly through the year. The greatest contrast is found in the north, where winter has almost twice as much rain as summer. This predominance of winter rainfall diminishes southwards. It is still discernible over the northern part of the South Island but, over the southern half, winter is the season with least rainfall, and a definite summer maximum is found inland due to the effect of convectional showers. The rainfall is also influenced by seasonal variations in the strength of the westerly winds. Spring rainfall is increased in and west of the ranges as the westerlies rise to their maximum about October, while a complementary decrease occurs at the same time in the lee of the ranges.
Areas which are exposed to the west and south-west experience much showery weather, and rain falls on roughly half the days of the year. Over most of the North Island there are at least 130 rain days (days with at least 1.0 mm of rain) a year except to the east of the ranges where there are in places fewer than 110 rain days. Those areas of the South Island with annual rainfall under 600 mm generally have about 80 rain days a year. In the far south the frequency of rain increases sharply; in Stewart Island and Fiordland rain days exceed 200 a year.
On the whole the seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year, the reliability in spring being particularly advantageous for agricultural purposes. It is least reliable in late summer and autumn, when very dry conditions may develop east of the ranges, particularly in Hawke's Bay.
The highest daily rainfall on record is 582 mm which occurred at Rapid Creek, Hokitika Catchment, where the mean annual rainfall exceeds 6000 mm. Other areas with considerably lower rainfall are also subject to very heavy daily falls; such areas are to be found in northern Hawke's Bay and in northeastern districts of the Auckland province. By contrast, in the Manawatu district and in Otago and Southland daily falls reaching 80 mm are very rare.
NORMAL MONTHLY AND ANNUAL RAINFALL (MILLIMETRES) (1951-80)
|Auckland (Albert Park)||65||96||91||117||124||141||141||139||101||97||89||88||1,289|
|New Plymouth Airport||97||102||97||124||167||150||162||142||109||121||126||117||1,514|
Thunderstorms—Thunderstorms are not numerous. Their frequency is greatest in the north and west where thunder is heard on 15 to 20 days a year; east of the ranges (except in Gisborne) the figure is five or less.
Hail—Hail is most frequent in the south-west where it is reported on about 20 days a year, but for the greater part of the country it occurs on about 5 days a year or less. Most of the hailstones are small, but occasionally large stones cause local damage to glasshouses, and to orchards and market gardens, chiefly in Canterbury and Hawke's Bay
Temperature—Mean temperatures at sea level decrease steadily southwards from 15°C in the far north to 12°C about Cook Strait, then to 9°C in the south. With increasing altitude, temperatures drop about 2°C per 300 m. January and February, with approximately the same mean temperature are the warmest months of the year; July is the coldest. Some temperature statistics for selected places are included in the table on climatological averages. Highest temperatures are recorded east of the main ranges, where they exceed 30°C on a few afternoons in most summers, usually in association with a north-westerly föhn wind. The extremes for New Zealand (measured in a standard thermometer screen) are 42°C, which has been recorded in three places: Jordan (Marlborough), Christchurch, and Rangiora (Canterbury); and—19°C at Ophir (Central Otago).
As is to be expected, there is a small annual range of temperature (difference between mean temperature of the warmest and coldest months). In Northland and in western districts of both Islands the annual range is about 8°C. For the remainder of the North Island, and east coast districts of the South Island it is 9°-10°C. Further inland it exceeds 11°C in places, reaching a maximum of 14°C in Central Otago where there is an approach to a continental type of climate.
Frost—It is well known that local variations in frostiness are considerable, even within quite small areas. On a calm, clear night the cold air in contact with a sloping surface gravitates slowly downhill to collect in valleys and depressions, and it is these “katabatic” drifts which are mainly responsible for local temperature variations at night. Gently sloping ground with a northerly aspect tends to be least affected by frost. Favourable sites in coastal areas of Northland are free of frost, although further inland light frosts occur frequently in the winter months. At Albert Park, Auckland, the screen minimum thermometer (1.3 m above the ground) has registered below 0°C only once in 65 years, yet up the harbour at Whenuapai Aerodrome there are eight screen frosts per annum on the average. Excluding the uninhabited mountainous areas, the coldest winter conditions are experienced in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Plains of inland Canterbury, and on the central plateau of the North Island. Even in these areas night temperatures as low as—12°C are rarely recorded. Elsewhere over the North Island th winters are very mild and pastures maintain continuous growth. In both islands sheep and cattle remain in the open all the year round.
Snow—The majority of New Zealanders rarely see snow except on the mountains. The North Island has a small permanent snow field above 2500 m on the central plateau, but the snow line rarely descends below 600 m even for brief periods in winter. In the South Island snow falls on a few days a year in eastern coastal districts, and in some years may lie for a day or two even at sea level. In Westland it does not lie at sea level. The snow line on the Southern Alps is around 2000 m in summer, being slightly lower on the western side where the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers descend through heavy bush to within 300 m of sea level. In inland Canterbury and Otago, where there are considerable areas of grazing lands above 300 m, snowfalls are heavier and more persistent and have caused serious losses of sheep during severe winters in the past. However, only rarely does the winter snow line there remain below 1000 m for extended periods.
Relative Humidity—Humidity is commonly between 70 and 80 percent in coastal areas and about 10 percent lower inland. It varies inversely to the temperature, falling to a minimum in the early afternoon when temperature is highest and frequently lying between 90 and 100 percent during clear nights. As the following table shows, the diurnal variation is greater than the difference between summer and winter.
|Station||Mean Relative Humidity|
|3 a.m.||3 p.m.||3 a.m.||3 p.m.|
|Auckland (Mechanics Bay)||85||63||90||74|
Very low humidity—from 30 percent down to about 5 percent—occurs at times in the lee of the Southern Alps where the föhn effect is often very marked. In summer the hot, dry “Canterbury Nor'wester” is generally a most unpleasant wind. Cool south-westerlies are also at times very dry when they reach eastern districts. In Northland the humid mid-summer conditions are inclined to be rather oppressive though temperatures rarely reach 30°C. Dull, humid spells are generally not prolonged anywhere, but their frequency shows a marked increase in the south.
Sunshine—The sunniest places are near Blenheim, the Nelson-Motueka area, and Whakatane, where the average duration of bright sunshine exceeds 2350 hours a year. The rest of the Bay of Plenty and Napier are only slightly less sunny. A large portion of the country is favoured with at least 2000 hours. Even Westland, despite its high rainfall, has 1800 hours. Southland and coastal Otago, where sunshine drops sharply to about 1700 hours a year, lie on the northern fringe of a broad zone of increasing cloudiness. Four hundred miles further to the south at Campbell Island the sunshine has the extremely low value of 650 hours a year. A pleasant feature of the New Zealand climate is the high proportion of sunshine during the winter months. To eliminate the effect of varying day-length the summer and winter sunshine at selected stations has been expressed as a percentage of the possible sunshine.
As these figures indicate, there is a marked increase in cloudiness in the North Island in winter, but little seasonal change in the South Island, except in Southland.
Climatological Averages—The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.
|Station||Altitude (metres)||Annual Averages||Air Temperatures (Degrees Celsius)|
|Rain Days (1.0mm or More)||Rain Days (5.0mm or More)||Bright Sunshine (Hrs)||Days of Screen Frost (min. air temp. less than 0°C)||Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||Mean Annual|
|Auckland (Albert Park)||49||140||67||1,904||0||15.7||24||15||16||8||28||3|
|New Plymouth Airport||27||142||83||2,157||2||13.4||22||13||13||5||26||-1|
NOTES: (1) Averages of sunshine 1951-80, mean temperature, mean daily maximum and mean daily minimum 1951-80; other temperature data, rain days, and days of screen frost, various periods—all exceeding 10 years.
(2) For normal monthly and annual rainfall of these stations, see table under subsection on Rainfall.
(3) At Hanmer, Queenstown, and Alexandra the possible sunshine is considerably reduced by hills or mountains, by amounts varying from 3/4 hour per day at Alexandra to 1 1/2 hours per day at Hanmer and 3 1/4 hours per day at Queenstown. The reductions in actual sunshine are less than this—mainly between half and three-fifths of the above amounts.
The North Island was drier than normal. Parts of North Auckland, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Waikato and Taranaki had close to normal rainfall but many southern and eastern areas had only 70 to 80 percent of normal rainfall for the year. The north and east of the South Island also had less rainfall than usual. Areas around Timaru and Kaikoura were particularly dry, receiving only 60 to 70 percent of their normal rainfall. The south and west of the South Island were wetter than normal.
For most of the country mean temperatures were between normal and 0.5°C above normal, although the south and west of the North Island and northeast and west of the South Island were between 0.5°C and 1.0°C warmer than normal.
Sunshine totals were normal or above normal for most of the North Island and the north and east of the South Island but there was less sunshine than usual in the south and west of the South Island.
January was very cool and variable. Southwesterly winds were more frequent than usual and pressures were low. Rainfalls were high in Fiordland and Southland and the northern half of the North Island, while central and eastern districts were very dry. Extremely heavy rainfall in Fiordland and Southland during the 26th-27th caused very severe flooding in Southland, especially around Invercargill. Property damage resulting from the flood cost $55,000,000. In terms of property damage this was New Zealand's worst flood on record. Temperatures were generally between 1°C and 2°C below average. The north and south of the country were slightly cloudier than usual but central districts were very sunny.
February was cool and sunny. Winds were light and there were more northeasterlies and fewer southeasterlies than usual. Pressures were about average. Rainfalls were above average in the North Island except eastern areas of Northland, Coromandel and Bay of Plenty, and in the northeast of the South Island and Central Otago. The rest of Otago and Canterbury were very dry. Temperatures were 0.5°C to 1.0°C lower than usual over most of the North Island and in the east of the South Island. Western areas of the South Island were about 1°C warmer than usual. Sunshine totals were generally very high except in eastern areas which were cloudier than usual.
March was generally warm, wet and cloudy. Northeasterly winds were more frequent than usual and pressures were close to average. It was wetter than usual over much of the country except parts of Hawkes Bay and southwestern areas of the South Island. Milford Sound had its driest March since 1969 and New Plymouth its wettest on record. Thunderstorms were unusually frequent and caused floods in the Dipton-Te Anau area on the 5th and Auckland on the 10th. Hailstorms damaged apple crops in Riwaka-Motueka on the 12th and in Hawkes Bay on the 13th. A tornado caused major damage to several homes in Otumoetai, Tauranga, on the 31st. Damage was estimated at $1/2 million. Mean temperatures on the west coast of the South Island, Marlborough and in central areas of the North Island were 1.5°C to 2°C above average and 0.5°C to 1°C above average elsewhere. Most of the country was cloudier than usual, especially Marlborough, Otago and central North Island areas.
April was a dry, sunny month. Southerly winds were more frequent than normal in the north and westerlies in the south. Pressures were very close to normal. Rainfall was below normal except areas in the far south and southwest of the South Island and some central and western areas of the North Island. Parts of Bay of Plenty, southern Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa had only 10 to 20 percent of normal rainfall, while much of the northeast coast of the South Island has less than 10 percent of normal rainfall. Many stations around Kaikoura had their lowest ever April rainfall. Hailstorms and a small tornado caused some damage in the Ashburton-Christchurch area on the 8th. Temperatures were between normal and 1.5°C above apart from northern and northeastern areas of the South Island which were about 0.5°C lower than normal. April was sunnier than usual over the whole country except parts Southland.
May was cool and dry. Winds were close to normal in the north but there were more northwesterlies than usual in the south. Pressures were higher than average. Most of the country had less rainfall than normal. The only areas to receive above average were isolated coastal areas of Northland and Gisborne, some eastern coastal areas of the South Island, Otago and Southland. These areas had up to 150 percent of normal rainfall. Mean temperatures were about 0.5°C lower than usual. Sunshine hours were very close to normal.
June was mild and dry. There were very few strong winds in the north but slightly more in the south, where northwesterly winds were especially frequent. Pressures were very high over the whole country. Except for the East Cape-Gisborne region, Northwest Nelson, Westland and Fiordland the whole country was very dry. Some stations in Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa recorded their lowest rainfall for June on record (some records span over 100 years), and some their lowest rainfall for any month. For much of the country this was the mildest June since 1971. The north and east of the North Island and Fiordland were up to 1°C warmer than usual while the rest of the country was between 1°C and 2.5°C above normal. Eastern areas from Gisborne to Dunedin were sunny, while northern and western areas of both Islands were very cloudy. Both Hokitika and Ohakea had their lowest ever June sunshine totals.
July was mild and cloudy. Winds were close to normal in the South but there were more northwesterlies and fewer southwesterlies than normal in the north. Pressures were generally close to normal. Coastal areas of South Canterbury, Southland and Otago and the north and east of the North Island had average or less rainfall for July while the rest of the country was wetter than usual. Temperatures were higher than normal over the while country this month. The south and southwest of the South Island,East Cape and parts of Northland were up to 1°C warmer than normal, while the rest of the country was between 1°C and 2°C above normal. Many stations in the north and west of the South Island had their warmest July on record; this included Hokitika, where readings have been taken since 1866. Much of the country, except the north of the North Island, was cloudier than usual.
August was mild and generally dry. Northerly winds were more frequent than usual. Most of the North Island and the north and east of the South Island were drier than normal while the south and southwest of the South Island were wet. The Kaikoura coast south to Christchurch was very dry, with less than 40 percent of normal rainfall recorded. Temperatures were again higher than usual. The North Island was mainly between 1 and 2°C above average while the South Island was up to 2.5°C above average in some areas. The mild, dry weather was most suitable for lambing and good percentages were recorded. Sunshine hours were slightly above average in southern and eastern areas, but northern and western areas were cloudy.
September was locally very variable, but generally a little milder and drier than usual. Northeasterly winds were unusually frequent, and pressures were high in the southeast and low in the northwest. Rainfall was below average except in parts of Northland, the east of the North Island, South Otago and Southland. The area around Timaru was again very dry with less than 20 percent of normal rainfall. Snow and heavy rain in the Otago-Dunedin area lead to widespread surface flooding on the 29th. Temperatures were very close to normal, being between half a degree above and below average. Northern and western areas of the North Island and the south and west of the South Island were sunnier than usual while eastern and southern areas of the North Island were especially cloudy.
October was a dry, sunny month. Winds from a southerly quarter were more frequent than normal in the north and westerlies were more so in the south. The North Island and north and east of the South Island had only about half the normal rainfall for the month. Northland, Bay of Plenty, central and northern Hawke's Bay, South Canterbury and Otago were exceptionally dry, many of these areas having less than 10 mm of rain this month. Southern Westland, Fiordland and Southland were wetter than usual. Temperatures were between normal and 0.5°C below in the North Island and the south and west of the South Island but up to 1°C higher in the north and east of the South Island. October was very sunny with many stations recording 40-60 hours more sunshine than usual.
November was mild and wet. Northwesterly winds predominated this month and pressures were much higher than usual. Eastern parts of Northland, North Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Wellington, Nelson, Marlborough, Southland and south Westland had less rain than usual, while the rest of the country had up to 200 percent of normal rainfall. Heavy rain in the Alps between the 21st and 23rd caused floods in Greymouth when the Grey river broke its banks. Severe hailstorms in Auckland and Manawatu on the 4th caused serious losses of export fruit crops and vegetables. Temperatures were between 1°C and 2.5°C above average everywhere. Maximum temperatures were especially high. Sunshine hours were average or a little below average except the east of the North Island and north and east of the South Island.
December was very warm and generally wet. There were more northeasterly winds this month than there have been in December since 1956. Pressures were low. The only areas to record average or below average rainfall were isolated areas around Kaitaia, southern and eastern areas of the North Island and parts of Canterbury and Otago. Much of the north and west of the North Island had over 200 percent of normal rainfall for December. Electrical storms were very frequent and were recorded in some parts of country on all but three days of the month. One man died and two were hospitalised in different parts of the North Island after being struck by lightning during a storm on the 16th. The South Island was up to 1.5°C warmer than usual and the North Island between 1.5 and 3°C above normal. New mean daily temperature records were set at many North Island sites, including Gisborne, Taupo, Kaitaia and Paraparaumu. The North Island had above average sunshine while the South Island was cloudier than usual, especially in the far north and south of the Island.
Summary of Meteorological Observations for 1984—The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1984 were made at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time, i.e. 2100 hours Greenwich mean time, except during January, February, November, and December, when they were made at 0900 hours N.Z. daylight time (2000 G.M.T.).
|Station||Rainfall (mm)||Rain Days (1.0mm or more)||Bright Sunshine (hours)||Screen Frost Days*||Air Temperatures (Degrees Celsius)|
|Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||Extremes|
|*Minimum air temperatures less than 0.0°C.|
|Auckland (Albert Park)||1,248||120||2,138||00||16.0||22.2||15.5||14.4||8.7||26.1||3.0|
|New Plymouth Airport||1,524||129||2,113||01||13.9||20.0||13.7||11.4||6.9||25.0||-0.6|
|Palmerston North DSIR||893||119||1,673||07||13.6||20.9||13.1||11.4||5.6||27.9||-1.2|
TIME-SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS—One uniform time is kept throughout New Zealand. The New Zealand Gazette of 31 October 1868 contained a Government announcement to the effect that the time corresponding to longitude 172°30' east of Greenwich (exactly 11 1/2 hours in advance of Greenwich time) was to be adopted as the New Zealand Mean Time throughout the colony.
This New Zealand Mean Time, 11h 30 min. in advance of Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T.), was observed continuously up to 1927, when on 6 November clocks were advanced 1 hour until 4 March 1928. Summer Time, with clocks advanced only 30 minutes (to 12 h ahead of G.M.T.), became standard practice in the summer months under the Summer Time Act 1929.
The Daylight Saving Emergency Regulations of 1941 provided for the continuance of Summer Time throughout that year, and its continued observance during subsequent war years was provided for by regulations made annually.
By the Standard Time Act of 1945 the time of the meridian 180° east of Greenwich (12 h in advance of G.M.T.) was adopted as the Standard Time for New Zealand. Thus, what was formerly known as “Summer Time” became “New Zealand Standard Time” as from 1 January 1946.
The Time Act of 1974 consolidated the Standard Time Act of 1945 and also enabled the Governor-General, by Order in Council, to introduce 1 hour of daylight saving for specified periods. This time is designated New Zealand Daylight Time, and is 13 h in advance of Universal Time (or Greenwich Mean Time). The first period specified for the use of New Zealand Daylight Time was from 3 November 1974 to 23 February 1975. In recent years the specified period has been from 02h New Zealand Standard Time (N.Z.S.T.) on the last Sunday in October, until 02h N.Z.S.T. on the first Sunday in March in the following year.
Time in the Chatham Islands is 45 minutes ahead of that kept in New Zealand.
The time throughout New Zealand is controlled by the New Zealand Time Service, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington. The Observatory signal clock is checked daily against the caesium beam primary frequency standard at the Physics and Engineering Laboratory, Lower Hutt. The error is usually much less than one millisecond.
The Observatory provides a time service over stations operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand.
FURTHER INFORMATION—Further information on the geography and climate of New Zealand will be found in the following publications.
New Zealand Atlas—Government Printer.
Encyclopaedia of New Zealand—Government Printer.
New Zealand Gazette—Government Printer.
New Zealand Seismological Report—Geophysics Division, DSIR.
Rainfall Observations—New Zealand Meteorological Service.
Meteorological Observations—New Zealand Meteorological Service.
Report of the Department of Internal Affairs (Par. G. 7).
Table of Contents
Early History—The early history of the people of New Zealand and the coming of the Maoris is shrouded in myth and based on orally-transmitted traditions. It is difficult to establish the period when the voyages of the Polynesian people to New Zealand began. Tradition has it that the first voyager to visit New Zealand was Kupe in about 950 A.D., and according to some Maori tribes it was he who named the land Aotearoa ("land of the long white cloud"). Finding no other inhabitants Kupe returned to Hawaiki, the legendary homeland of the Maori. Following his return there were various waves of migration to New Zealand, and the names of the canoes and of their captains and crews are still remembered by the Maoris and are important features of their history and genealogy.
Linguistic and other evidence indicates that Hawaiki was situated in Eastern Polynesia, which makes their voyages impressive and bears testimony to the sophistication of their vessels and navigation.
From the people of each canoe arose tribal groupings claiming common descent and symbolic unity. About 10 major tribes evolved, divided into many subtribes. All tribes can claim their ancestry back to members of one or more of the canoes, and many of the more familiar canoes such as Aotea, Te Arawa, Tainui, and Takitimu have become synonymous today with tribal groupings and territories.
The Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island and the population was organised into descent groups of different scale—tribes (iwi), subtribes (hapu), and extended families (whanau). The main themes in this society were mana (prestige), tapu (sacredness) and utu (the principle of equal return, often expressed in revenge).
The bases of Maori society have changed profoundly from the original subsistence economy in pre-European contact times.
The introduction of European disease and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century. However from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing, and now forms 9 percent of the New Zealand population.
Discovery by Europeans—On 13 December 1642, Abel Janszoon Tasman, a navigator of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the country to which he gave the name of Staten Land, and which later became known as “Nieuw Zeeland”. Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August 1642, and after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north he came into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land.
There is no record of any European visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until Captain (then Lieutenant) James Cook sighted land on 7 October 1769 near Gisborne. Cook and a party of men from HMS Endeavour landed at Gisborne on 9 October 1769. On his first voyage Cook spent 6 months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. His activities can best be described by saying “he found New Zealand a line on a map, and left it an archipelago”. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the Maoris. He returned to New Zealand again in 1773, 1774, and in 1777. His careful observations made New Zealand known to the western world; the accounts of his voyages were translated into a dozen languages.
First European Settlements—Whaling stations sprang up along the New Zealand coast from 1792 onwards and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. In 1814 Samuel Marsden, chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, was responsible for the establishment of the first mission station in the Bay of Islands.
The growing white population in the Bay of Islands, and the lawlessness of crews of visiting ships led to the appointment by the British Government of James Busby as British Resident at Waitangi in 1833. The Governor of New South Wales in 1837 sent Captain William Hobson, in command of HMS Rattlesnake, from Sydney to the Bay of Islands to report on New Zealand. Among other things, Hobson suggested a treaty with the Maori chiefs and the placing of British subjects under British law. On 29 January 1840 Hobson arrived at the Bay of Islands as Governor to proclaim British sovereignty.
By 1840 numerous mission stations had spread through the northern half of the North Island. Conversion of Maori tribes to Christianity was accompanied by the introduction of new crops and methods of cultivation and the pacification of warring tribes.
Early Constitutional Developments—On 29 January 1840 Captain William Hobson arrived in the Bay of Islands. His instructions from the British Government required him to take possession of the country with the consent of the Maori chiefs. Hobson read his commission at Kororareka on 30 January and on 6 February 46 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, a compact whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights were secured to the chiefs and their tribes (with the Crown having the sole right of purchase) and in return the Queen extended her protection and all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Other chiefs throughout both islands later adhered to this Treaty.
On 21 May 1840 Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and over the South Island and Stewart Island by right of discovery. New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales until 3 May 1841, when it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter dated 16 November 1840. The capital was at first transferred from Russell to Auckland, but in 1865 it was again transferred, on this occasion to Wellington, where the seat of Government has since remained.
During Governor Grey's term, steps were taken to draft a constitution for the colony. An Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament on 30 June 1852, and was published in New Zealand by Proclamation on 17 January 1853. Under it, provision was made for the constitution of a General Assembly consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives. Provision was also made for the division of the country into provinces, each province having an elected Council and Superintendent. (The provincial system was abolished in 1875 and the Legislative Council in 1950.) In the first General Assembly of 27 August 1854 certain members of this body were associated with the permanent members of the executive but they did not hold any portfolios. It was not until 7 May 1856 that responsible government was actually established.
One aspect, that of Native Affairs, was withheld from the responsible Ministers, and the Governor, as representative of the Crown, continued to act independently of his elected advisers in this sphere. In 1861 Grey attempted unsuccessfully to hand over this responsibility but the Ministers were unwilling to assume responsibility for the cost of the growing hostilities between Pakeha and Maori. Finally in 1864 Sir Frederick Weld instituted the “self-reliant policy” whereby the colony accepted responsibility for the settlement of difficulties with the Maoris and consented to the withdrawal of troops by the Imperial Government.
Colonisation—The first body of European immigrants to reach New Zealand under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived at Port Nicholson, Wellington, on 22 January 1840 to found the initial settlement of the New Zealand Company. The colonists were in the main resourceful people seeking a better future than was offering in nineteenth century industrial England.
Founder of the company, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, aware of the intention of the British Government to annex New Zealand, had earlier (in 1839) dispatched his agents in order to purchase large areas of land from the Maoris before the Crown could assume a monopoly of land purchase.
Wakefield's scheme of colonisation was based on the sale of land to investors for development by labouring class immigrants. With the profit from land sales the company could bring out more immigrants. Wakefield aimed at a balance between landowners and labourers; in effect he aimed to transplant a cross-section of English society. But, ignorant of the system of tribal ownership of Maori land, the company had bought land from individual Maoris; then Hobson provided that all European land titles should derive from the Crown which would be the only purchaser of land from the Maoris. Title to land remained a difficulty for some years and was a cause of distress to the colonists and, combined with a considerable degree of absentee ownership and land speculation, made most precarious the existence of the early company settlements of Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson. The company had brought nearly 10 000 persons to New Zealand by 1848. The later settlements of Otago, in 1848, and Canterbury, in 1850, organised under the aegis of the New Zealand Company in co-operation with the Free Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively, achieved a much greater measure of success owing to the absence of any large Maori population and to satisfactory land purchase arrangements.
The non-Maori population in the main settlements in 1842 totalled 3801 in Wellington, 2895 in Auckland, 2500 in Nelson, 895 in New Plymouth, 380 in Russell, 263 in Hokianga, and 198 in Akaroa. By 1862 the non-Maori population had reached 125 000 (as against 55 000 Maoris) and by 1866 it had jumped to 200 000 with people from Australia joining in the gold rush to Otago. Migration then dropped away until 1872 when there was a high inflow for several years from Britain under the Vogel policy of assisted immigration and public works development.
War Over Land—In 1845 warfare broke out between the races in the far north (and in 1846 in the southern North Island). The Colonial Office appointed Captain George Grey as Governor and provided him with adequate funds and troops so that he soon restored order and won not only the confidence of the Maoris but also for a time that of the settlers. Grey, through his chief land purchase officer, Donald McLean, endeavoured to buy up land in advance of the settlers' needs in order to prevent conflict between settlers and Maoris. By 1858 the Census of Population revealed that the settlers outnumbered the Maoris who, fearful that they were being swamped by the settlers, became increasingly reluctant to sell their land. At the same time the intensified settler pressure for more land led McLean to negotiate only with those Maoris still favourably disposed to land sales. This practice alarmed the other Maoris and finally war broke out in 1860 over a land dispute at Waitara in Taranaki where settler demand for land was strongest. The return of Grey as Governor did not solve the problem for, as an autocrat, he could not work with elected ministers nor could he regain the confidence of the Maoris, and finally he quarrelled with the commander of the Imperial troops. Widespread confiscation of Maori land by the settlers' government in order to pay the cost of the war included land belonging to friendly as well as hostile Maoris and aroused further resentment. The war had died down by 1870 and during the term of Donald McLean as Native Minister some measure of reconciliation began. However, although a substantial portion of the confiscated land was subsequently purchased or returned, land transactions remained a source of bitterness and potential hostility between Maori and settler.
Public Works and Farm Development—The absence of hostilities and the discovery of gold had allowed the South Island to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally and began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool.
By 1870 the gold boom had ended in the South Island. To remedy the situation of economic stagnation, Sir Julius Vogel began a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction and for immigrant labour. The results of this policy were to double the population to 500 000 by 1880, to immensely improve transport and communications, and to encourage industry in the towns where most of the immigrants had congregated.
With the introduction of refrigeration in 1882 and steam navigation in the late 19th century, the development of exports of frozen meat and dairy products assured the dominance of the United Kingdom in New Zealand's external trade. These developments, with a continued substantial investment of British capital, particularly in farming and food processing industries, established the degree of specialisation to meet the needs of the British markets, which shaped the entire New Zealand economy during its first hundred years.
The depression of the 1880s, a consequence of a fall in world price levels, resulted in unemployment and substantial emigration, but export prices recovered in the nineties. From 1880 onwards the natural increase of births over deaths exceeded the net inflow from migration.
In 1891 John Ballance, as leader of the Liberal Party, became Premier to be followed on his death in 1893 by Richard John Seddon, who remained premier until his death in June 1906. The Government pursued a vigorous legislative programme in which the main emphasis was on social justice.
The expansion of the exports in dairy produce and frozen meat during the 1890s produced more intensive settlement and the rise of a new farming class in which the “cow-cockie” was the dominant figure. These farmers, having benefited by the spread of prosperity, were in 1911 mainly responsible together with the city businessmen for the overthrow of the Liberal regime. The new Reform Government under William Massey introduced measures to strengthen the primary producer, of which the extension of rural credit was typical.
Three years after the advent of the Reform Party, the First World War (1914-1918) broke out, leading to a Coalition Government and an Imperial Commandeer of exports which created the precedent for the establishment after the war of central boards to regulate the exports of pastoral products. War activities were marked by heavy casualties in proportion to the population while the landing at Gallipoli signified the growing awareness of a sense of nationhood.
Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period 1921-24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and on the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydroelectric schemes and highways.
Land values rose steeply, accelerated by Government efforts to settle returned servicemen on the land, and between 1915 and 1925 forty percent of the occupied land had changed hands. New Zealand was extremely vulnerable to the overseas price fluctuations of pastoral products. With the advent of the depression by 1930, farmers, despite greatly increased production, were faced with a serious decline in income (over forty percent) together with heavy mortgage commitments on land bought at high prices so that many were faced with foreclosure. In the towns, tradesmen and shopkeepers faced bankruptcy, and wage earners unemployment or reduction in wages. A Coalition Government was formed in 1931 to meet the crisis. Partly as a result of measures taken by this government and partly as a result of a rise in overseas price levels a general economic revival was taking place by 1935. The election of a Labour Government, under the leadership of Michael Savage, in 1935 led to change in administrative policy and a renewed emphasis on social justice.
War and Post-war—The financial needs of the Second World War from 1939 onwards were met with virtually no overseas borrowing. Financing the war by taxation and internal borrowing also assisted in the achievement of a successful stabilisation policy. Full employment in war was followed by full employment in peace. Expansion and diversification of manufacturing and servicing industries provided avenues of employment for the growing labour force.
At the 1949 election the Labour Government was defeated after holding office since December 1935. It was succeeded by a National Government, under the leadership of Sidney Holland.
In 1957, the Labour Party gained a narrow victory at the polls under the leadership of Walter Nash. Budgetary policy to meet a recurrence of the balance of payments crisis proved unpopular and at the 1960 election the National Party under the leadership of Keith Holyoake was returned to power, as it was in subsequent elections in 1963, 1966, and 1969. At the 1972 election the Labour Party swept back into power under Norman Kirk. Following Kirk's untimely death in 1974, W. E. Rowling became Prime Minister. At the 1975 election there was a dramatic reversal of the position 3 years earlier, and the National Party under Robert Muldoon was returned to power with a substantial majority. The new Government faced growing economic difficulties and rising unemployment as a result of economic recession overseas, steep rises in oil prices, and the loss or shrinkage of traditional markets for agricultural products. At the 1978 election and again in 1981 the National Party retained power with greatly reduced majorities. In 1984 following a snap election the Labour Party gained power under the leadership of David Lange.
Later Constitutional Developments—In 1907, in recognition of an emerging sense of nationality and an increasing desire for self-reliance in political matters, New Zealand had been given the title of Dominion in lieu of Colony.
A further step in the evolution of New Zealand into full nationhood came in 1947, when New Zealand belatedly adopted the Statute of Westminister, which had been passed by the United Kingdom Parliament in 1931. The draft of this statute had been submitted for the confirmation of the various Commonwealth legislatures before its passage through the United Kingdom Parliament. The statute granted complete autonomy to the various self-governing member countries, but it did not automatically apply to Australia or New Zealand. Its operation in the latter self-governing members of the Commonwealth was declared to require specific adoption by the legislatures of those countries.
Some surviving doubts concerning the authority of the New Zealand Parliament over the Constitution were resolved when, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament passed a Constitution Amendment Act authorising the New Zealand Parliament to amend any of the provisions of the Constitution Act of 1852.
In 1950 the Prime Minister, Sidney Holland, initiated a constitutional change when the Legislative Council, the “second house” of the General Assembly, was abolished on the grounds that it no longer possessed any effective function.
The present Constitution and recent developments are dealt with later in this section under the heading, “The Constitution of New Zealand”.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS—The emergence of a distinctive and independent New Zealand foreign policy is usually regarded as dating from 1935, following the election of a Labour Government under Michael Savage.
The contrast between the policies followed in the 1920s and those adopted under the Savage Government from the close of 1935 is most clearly illustrated by the New Zealand attitude to the League of Nations. From the foundation of the League following the Peace Conference at Versailles, Massey and those who followed took the view that the League was no place for a loyal Dominion to voice views that contradicted Imperial policy. With the coming to power of the Savage Government there re-emerged a willingness to take an independent line that had lain largely dormant since the death of Seddon in 1906. New Zealand spoke strongly for the principle of collective security and collective police action on a succession of issues (Abyssinia, Spain, China) at a time when the United Kingdom and other powers were following a policy which would later be described as appeasement.
Despite these differences there was no suggestion that New Zealand was departing from its historically close association with Britain. The course it would follow in the event of war was never in doubt. When war broke out Michael Savage expressed New Zealand's position in terms which reflected New Zealand's sovereignty as well as its ties with Britain:
“Behind the sure shield of Britain we have enjoyed and cherished freedom and self-government. Both with gratitude for the past, and with confidence in the future, we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go. Where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we are one and all a band of brothers, and we march forward with a union of hearts and wills to a common destiny.”
Post-War Policies—The Second World War changed the pattern of power in the world. The New Zealand Government established (in effect from 1943) a career foreign affairs service, and made a beginning in stationing its own diplomatic representatives in countries where New Zealand's interests made their presence necessary. In particular, New Zealand sought to foster good relationships with its neighbours in the Pacific and Asia and to increase the measure of security and welfare in these areas.
Woven into post-war policy was the traditional New Zealand belief in the principles of collective security and international justice, to which the United Nations had pledged support. There was also the belief that the international community should give high priority to the welfare and political advancement of dependent peoples and to the elimination of poverty, disease and other economic and social causes of international tension.
There have been several periods of expansion in the establishment of New Zealand posts overseas. Aside from the three posts set up during the Second World War (Washington, Ottawa, Canberra) to maintain consultations with our closest allies, the first main period of expansion came in the 1950s as a consequence of the recognition that our security was closely bound up with that of South-East Asia. Following the signature of the ANZUS Treaty, which came into force in 1952, and the Manila Treaty in 1954, diplomatic relations were established with five Asian countries.
A second period of expansion in the 1960s led to the setting up of a number of diplomatic posts in Western Europe in response to the need to defend New Zealand's essential economic and political interests as Britain negotiated its terms of entry into the European Community. At the same time a more gradual expansion was under way in the Pacific. As island states became independent and as the extent of New Zealand's economic and political relations in the South Pacific increased, a number of posts were opened. A fourth phase in the 1970s and early 1980s was closely related to New Zealand's search for new trading opportunities as the degree of dependence on traditional markets gradually declined. The diversification both in the range of goods exported and in markets led to the strengthening of posts in certain areas, particularly in Asia and the Pacific, and the opening of posts in the Middle East, Latin America and China, in addition to the reopening of the post in the Soviet Union. Finally, soon after taking office in 1984, the Rt Hon. David Lange announced the Government's intention of opening a post in Africa. In addition to the 47 diplomatic consular posts, there is an extensive network of multiple accreditations allowing New Zealand's overseas representatives to cover several countries from the one base.
Commonwealth—As a member of the Commonwealth, New Zealand is able to consult and co-operate with 48 other countries in a wide variety of activities, both governmental and non-governmental. The value to New Zealand of its Commonwealth links is derived not only from the practical benefits of what the Commonwealth does, but also from the heterogeneous composition of the association. Its 49 members take in the 6 continents and the 5 oceans of the world. The Pacific region is now well represented in the Commonwealth: Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, and Vanuatu are full members, along with Australia and New Zealand, and Nauru and Tuvalu have special membership status. The Cook Islands and Niue are not eligible for full membership because of their continuing constitutional association with New Zealand. They cannot therefore attend Commonwealth heads of government meetings, but they are entitled to participate in Commonwealth meetings dealing with those subjects for which their governments are responsible.
The belief of member countries in the potential of the Commonwealth led to the establishment of a permanent Commonwealth Secretariat in London in 1965 to be the main agency for multilateral communication among Commonwealth governments. The Secretariat promotes consultation and disseminates information on matters of common concern, organises meetings and conferences, and coordinates many Commonwealth activities. Prominent among these is the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, financed by voluntary contributions to promote economic development through self-help and mutual assistance.
Besides contributing to the budget of the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, New Zealand provides financial support to a number of other inter-governmental Commonwealth organisations which promote co-operation in specific areas. New Zealand also contributes to the Commonwealth Foundation, which was established at the same time as the Secretariat to promote close links in the professions throughout the Commonwealth. It has sponsored official and non-official Commonwealth professional organisations and strengthened the links between administrators, engineers, lawyers, accountants, scientists, and private individuals in the different Commonwealth organisations. Like the Secretariat it has provided a focus for Commonwealth activities and a basis for extending international co-operation.
Western Europe—History has linked New Zealand closely to Western Europe, and subsequent developments including trade and involvement with the Europeans in two World Wars, have confirmed the relationship. The majority of New Zealand's settlers came from European countries, notably Britain, and subsequent migration flows have continued these ties. New Zealand's democratic political system, and many of its cultural, religious and social values, derive from a shared European tradition. Although more recently New Zealanders have become increasingly aware of their identity as a Pacific country, developments in Western Europe still exert a strong influence on contemporary New Zealand life.
The importance of the European Community as a market for New Zealand's agricultural exports has focused particular attention on the economic aspects of the relationship. The EC is New Zealand's largest export market and trading partner. Although New Zealand exports have diversified considerably since Britain joined the EC, the Community remains a key market for sheepmeat and butter. At the same time, New Zealand exports in a range of non-traditional products show encouraging growth. Community imports into New Zealand are substantial and also growing.
Trade is just one aspect of the relationship, and the range of bilateral contacts between New Zealand and the individual countries of Western Europe in all fields is steadily expanding. New Zealand has consultative links with the Community on a range of political and economic issues. New Zealand and Western Europe co-operate closely on international issues and exchange information in multilateral organisations such as the United Nations and the OECD.
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe—New Zealand has in recent years developed stable working relationships with the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe. Trading and economic concerns dominate. While the Soviet market has assumed considerable significance for exports of New Zealand's primary commodities, particularly meat and dairy products, since the late 1970s, trade with Eastern Europe has not fulfilled earlier hopes and remains small. For the Soviet Union the fisheries resources of New Zealand's 200-mile zone are an additional source of economic interest. (A fisheries agreement was signed in 1978.)
On the political side, relations with the Soviet Union were normalised with the return of ambassadorial level representation in Wellington and Moscow in May 1984. The New Zealand Embassy in Vienna is accredited to five East European countries—Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic and the Embassy in Rome to Yugoslavia.
Middle East—Involvement in the Middle East has increased markedly within the past decade. For more then 30 years New Zealand has watched the Arab-Israeli conflict with concern, if from a distance. Recognising the implications for world peace this country has contributed personnel to United Nations truce observation teams. Early in 1982 it also supplied a small contingent to the Sinai peace-keeping force. New Zealand has consistently upheld Israel's right to exist and, equally consistently, the rights of the Palestinian people to self-determination.
Since 1973, when Middle East members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) emerged as a major economic force in the world, the area has increasingly assumed a direct and immediate importance for this country. Although 62 percent of New Zealand's crude oil imports in 1983-84 came from Indonesia, the growing wealth of the Gulf region (due largely to substantial increases in the price of oil) has created new markets for New Zealand exports. These include manufactured goods and agricultural products. In 1983-84 the region absorbed a considerable amount of New Zealand's total sheepmeat exports. The Middle East, moreover, represents a significant source of investment finance.
New Zealand in recent years has made continuing efforts to broaden its range of contacts with Middle Eastern countries. At the same time, those countries have themselves taken a closer interest in New Zealand and the South Pacific and have expanded their diplomatic representation in the area. Egypt and Israel have embassies in Wellington, while Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Libya have cross-accreditation from Canberra. Formal relations have also been established with Qatar, whose Ambassador is based in Tokyo. New Zealand opened resident missions in Iran and Iraq in 1975, and in 1977 established a consulate-general in Bahrain, with commercial responsibilities in Saudi Arabia, the Gulf Emirates, and the Yemens. The Consulate-General was upgraded to an Embassy in 1984. An Embassy in Riyadh was also established in 1984, and New Zealand's first resident Ambassador to Saudi Arabia took up his post early in 1985. Further cross-accreditations will be sought from Riyadh. The pattern of representation is rounded out by the cross-accreditation of the Ambassador in Riyadh to Egypt.
Closer relations between New Zealand and the Middle East have been marked by a growing appreciation of each other's concerns. This has been fostered by visits in both directions by ministers, officials and businessmen. Also, a growing number of tourists, students and sports teams are coming to New Zealand, a trend that is expected to continue.
Africa—New Zealand relationships with Africa have been given new emphasis and new dimensions since the General Election in July 1984. The South African Consulate-General in Wellington was closed; the Government announced a policy on sporting contacts with South Africa which barred South African teams and individual representatives from New Zealand and sought to discourage contacts in South Africa or third countries. At the United Nations New Zealand co-sponsored, for the first time, a wide-ranging resolution on international action against apartheid.
The new Government undertook also to establish New Zealand's first resident diplomatic mission in Africa. In the meantime the New Zealand Ambassador in Athens is cross-accredited as High Commissioner to Tanzania and Kenya. The High Commissioner in London is accredited to Nigeria. In February 1985, New Zealand and Zimbabwe agreed to establish formal relations. Later in 1985, the Prime Minister made the first official visit to Africa by a New Zealand Head of Government (apart from attendance at Commonwealth meetings).
New Zealand joined in 1984 the international response to the emergency needs of many countries in Africa. The Government made available contributions amounting to $3.1 million through international and voluntary agencies. The New Zealand community made its own substantial contributions. In January 1985, New Zealand moved to establish a relationship with the Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference.
New Zealand has contributed to the economic and social development of African countries with bilateral assistance and by contributions to Commonwealth and other multilateral programmes. Support for political development has also been given, most notably in contributions during 1980 to Commonwealth monitoring forces and observer teams in both Zimbabwe and Uganda.
New Zealand's total trade with African countries amounts to only a modest percentage of its global trade, but there has been growth in the volume of both exports and imports. Trade surveys have been undertaken in East, North and West Africa to identify commercial opportunities. The major New Zealand exports are milk powder, tallow, butter, fish and wool. The main imports from Africa are cocoa, coffee, sisal, vegetable oil, tanner extract and tobacco.
Asia—During the last 25 years there has been a considerable expansion in New Zealand's relations with countries in Asia. New Zealand has a direct interest in the maintenance of peace and the growth of prosperity in the area.
Trade with Asia is becoming more and more important to New Zealand. Private initiative, with government assistance, has been able to develop new markets, new products, new selling processes, and new economic and commercial relationships. A pattern of regular economic consultations with the main Asian trading partners has been developed; bilateral economic agreements have been concluded. About a third of this country's export receipts come from Asia.
New Zealand's growing interests and involvement in Asia are reflected in the changing pattern of its diplomatic representation. Prior to 1955, when New Zealand opened a post in Singapore, it had only one diplomatic mission in the region, in Tokyo. Representation has now been established in six of the ASEAN, (Association of South-East Asian Nations), countries, and in Peking, Hong Kong, Seoul and New Delhi. Several of these missions are also accredited to other Asian capitals. The network thus created enables New Zealand to assess external events in the light of this country's own interests and needs, and to work directly with other countries in areas of common concern. New Zealand has also developed its political contacts with countries of the area in other important ways. Exchanges of visits by heads of state and government ministers and parliamentarians have increased, and the development of regular bilateral consultations has also been encouraged.
New Zealand has placed particular emphasis on supporting regional organisations for co-operation and consultation in both the political and economic fields. It is one of a group of nations closely associated with ASEAN, which it sees as a force for stability and economic development in South-East Asia. It has initiated a number of joint projects with ASEAN for development and trade co-operation. Recent developments in Indochina have had major implications for the stability of the region and have been of particular concern to New Zealand. The massive outflow of refugees from Vietnam and Kampuchea, and the political uncertainties stemming from the continued presence in Kampuchea of Vietnamese forces have together posed difficult problems for the countries of the region. New Zealand has consulted closely with the ASEAN countries over these developments.
The degree of cultural interchange between New Zealand and the countries of Asia has increased steadily. Where once New Zealanders looked largely to Britain for cultural inspiration and experience, now their horizons have broadened. Increased contacts with Asia have brought with them an awareness of what the cultural background of the countries there can offer New Zealand. Professional bodies, sporting associations, cultural groups, and universities today have links with similar organisations in Asia, as well as with more traditional partners such as Britain and Australia. The development of civil air links, and the concurrent growth of tourism, have also helped to bring a wider range of contacts.
Nowhere within the Pacific Basin has New Zealand's adaptation to changed circumstances been more complete than in its relationship with Japan. Today that association is one of the most important that New Zealand has and it is friendly and rewarding for both sides. Its elements are varied—trade, fishing, and a growing range of cultural, educational, sporting, and personal ties. In many ways, the conditions for a developing trading relationship are ideal, for the two countries are located in different hemispheres, their economies are complementary, and each has in abundance some things that the other needs. New Zealand continues to seek improved conditions of access for certain important commodities, including dairy products, and on both sides there are expectations of continued and expanding trade and of closer involvement together in other settings. Meanwhile, the steady growth in the extent and cordiality of New Zealand's relations with the People's Republic of China further illustrates New Zealanders' changing perceptions of Asia. China is an important export market and is a major power with a leading role in Asia.
South Pacific—New Zealand has a long history of interest and involvement in the South Pacific. In the latter part of the 19th century Prime Minister Richard Seddon harboured ambitions of a South Pacific empire controlled by New Zealand, and as a result of pressure from Seddon the administration of the Cook Islands and Niue, which were British colonial possessions, was handed over to New Zealand in 1901. The number of New Zealand Pacific dependencies increased when, following the establishment of the League of Nations, Western Samoa, which had been occupied by New Zealand troops at the outbreak of the First World War, became a mandated territory under the administration of New Zealand. In 1925 the Tokelau Islands (now known as Tokelau) then part of the Gilbert (Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (Tuvalu) Colony, were ceded by the United Kingdom to New Zealand.
Despite its geographical situation, the acquisition of overseas dependencies in the South Pacific, and the ethnic kinship of the Maori and Polynesian peoples, New Zealand's present identity as a South Pacific country was slow in developing for a number of reasons. Culturally, New Zealand has been closer to Western Europe than to the Pacific. For many years almost all of New Zealand's exports went to the United Kingdom. Politically, New Zealand's outlook was oriented towards Europe and, more recently, South-East Asia. Also the Pacific Islands were, and in some cases still are, administered by other countries.
But during the 1960s there was a dramatic emergence of new nations in the South Pacific. New Zealand led this development with moves in its own territories.
In Western Samoa, which had become a United Nations Trust Territory administered by New Zealand, political and constitutional development was carried forward in accordance with the wishes of the Samoan people. This culminated in the establishment of the independent State of Western Samoa on 1 January 1962. The Cook Islands voted under United Nations supervision in 1965 to become a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Niue achieved a similar status in an act of self-determination in 1974. Under their respective constitutions the Cook Islands and Niue governments have full legislative and executive competence over all their affairs. The constitutional relationship provides for the exercise by New Zealand of certain responsibilities for the defence and external relations of the Cook Islands and Niue (in the former case, in consultation with the Cook Islands Prime Minister). This does not confer upon the New Zealand Government any rights of control: the Cook Islands and Niue governments retain legislative and executive powers in these fields as in all other matters. Cook Islanders and Niueans are New Zealand citizens.
The relationship between the Cook Islands and New Zealand was elaborated in the 1973 Exchange of Letters between the then New Zealand Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Norman Kirk, and the Premier of the Cook Islands, Sir Albert Henry. The Prime Minister's letter described the relationship as “one of partnership, freely entered into and freely maintained”. The central features of the partnership are common citizenship and the same head of state. The Cook Islands can at any time amend its constitution to end the “free association” status in favour of complete independence. These points apply equally to the relationship with Niue (though the Cook Islands now has its own Queen's Representative).
The Cook Islands and Niue not only have full constitutional capacity to conduct their own external relations and to enter directly into international arrangements and agreements, but they also in fact directly conduct certain aspects of their external relations. Their capacity to do so is limited only by the extent to which the governments of other states will accord them recongnition and deal with them. In practice, the Cook Islands and Niue have participated on an equal basis with sovereign states in the South Pacific. They are members of the South Pacific Forum, the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC), the South Pacific Commission, and the Forum Fisheries Agency. They have associate membership of ESCAP, and the Cook Islands has joined the Asian Development Bank. The Cook Islands has signed a bilateral maritime boundary delimitation treaty with the United States.
Tokelau is still included within the boundaries of New Zealand and is administered under the authority of the Tokelau Act 1948 and its amendments. Tokelauans are New Zealand citizens.
In accordance with United Nations resolutions on non-self-governing territories, New Zealand has committed itself to assisting Tokelau towards a greater degree of self-government and economic self-sufficiency. New Zealand has stated that it will be guided by the wishes of the Tokelauan people regarding political developments in the territory and the pace at which greater self-determination is introduced. The Tokelau Amendment Act 1982 was passed at the request of the General Fono, Tokelau's traditional decision-making body, imposing a community services levy on salaries, wages and honoraria paid by the Tokelau Administration.
The developments in New Zealand's territories are part of a wider pattern of political evolution in the region. In 1968 Nauru became an independent republic; in 1970 Fiji became independent; and in the same year Tonga rejoined the Commonwealth. In 1975 Papua New Guinea became fully independent after being self-governing since December 1973. In 1978 the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu (formerly the Ellice Islands) became independent. Kiribati (formerly the Gilbert Islands) attained independence in 1979, and Vanuatu (formerly the New Herbrides) in 1980.
It is natural that New Zealand and its South Pacific neighbours should have become very closely associated. One important reason has been the movement of Pacific peoples into and out of New Zealand. This includes Cook Islanders, Niueans, and Tokelauans, who, as New Zealand citizens all move freely back and forth. New Zealand's historical association with Western Samoa, which is reflected in the Treaty of Friendship signed in August 1962, and its close association with the Kingdom of Tonga, have resulted in a flow of immigrants and vistors from both countries. In 1982 a protocol was added to the Treaty of Friendship on the subject of citizenship.
New Zealand has also played an active role in building up regional co-operation in the South Pacific. A major step in this direction was the creation of the South Pacific Forum, which now comprises the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, Tonga, Western Samoa, the Cook Islands, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Vanuatu, together with Australia, and New Zealand. The Federated States of Micronesia has observer status. The first session comprising 5 of the present Island members (Fiji, Nauru, Tonga, Western Samoa, and the Cook Islands), as well as Australia and New Zealand, met at the invitation of New Zealand at Wellington in August 1971. Since then meetings have been held in Canberra (Australia), Suva (Fiji), Apia (Western Samoa), Rarotonga (Cook Islands), Nuku'alofa (Tonga), Nauru, Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea), Niue, Honiara (Solomon Islands), Tarawa (Kiribati), Vila (Vanuatu), Rotorua (New Zealand) and Funafuti (Tuvalu).
The South Pacific Forum provides the opportunity for the leaders of the South Pacific states to discuss common problems, exchange views, consider priorities, and plan programmes for mutual and regional benefit. The topics considered include such matters as regional trade, shipping, civil aviation, telecommunications, education, the law of the sea, fishing, disaster relief, and nuclear testing.
At the Canberra session of the South Pacific Forum in 1972 members agreed to establish the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) to deal with trade and related matters. The main purpose of the SPEC is to advise Forum members on ways of promoting regional trade and free trade among Island members and to encourage collaboration in areas such as regional transport which will assist the economic development of the Island members. The headquarters of the SPEC are in Suva, Fiji.
At the Niue session of the South Pacific Forum in 1978 members agreed to set up the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, which is an organisation designed to facilitate the rational utilisation and conservation of the region's marine resources. The headquarters of the Agency are in Honiara, Solomon Islands.
Recognising that the development of the South Pacific Island countries was largely dependent on the existence of regular and reliable shipping services, the governments of the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Western Samoa established the Pacific Forum Line (PFL) in 1977. Subsequently the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and Kiribati joined the Pacific Forum Line while both Australia and Niue, although not shareholders, have made financial contributions to it.
The Pacific Forum Line presently charters three vessels, the Forum New Zealand, the Forum Samoa and the Fua Kavenga, owned respectively by New Zealand, Western Samoa, and Tonga. The headquarters of the line are in Apia, Western Samoa.
The Pacific Forum Line has incurred substantial financial losses since it began operations in 1978. Together with other governments in the region, New Zealand has made additional contributions to help the line overcome its financial difficulties. Under an agreement negotiated with the European Investment Bank and endorsed by the 1982 Forum, measures have been taken to put the line on a sound financial basis. New Zealand agreed to contribute half the US$12.6 million required from Forum members. New Zealand and Australia also agreed to fund jointly a new feeder service to Kiribati and Tuvalu managed by the PFL.
The South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Co-operation Agreement (SPARTECA), which provides for Australia and New Zealand to grant duty-free and unrestricted access on a non-reciprocal basis for most of the products exported by the Forum Island countries, was signed at the 1980 Forum in Tarawa. The agreement has since been ratified by New Zealand and a number of other Forum countries and entered into force for these countries on 1 January 1981. SPARTECA also includes provisions relating to economic, commercial, and technical co-operation, aimed at enhancing the export capabilities of the Forum Island countries. A Regional Committee on Trade was set up under the agreement to review its operation regularly.
The South Pacific Commisson, created in 1947 by the Canberra Agreement of which New Zealand is a signatory, is the other major regional body. Representatives from 27 governments and territorial administrations from within the South Pacific Commission comprise the South Pacific Conference. The Conference which meets annually decides the work programme of the commission. Since its establishment the commission, which is primarily a technical assistance organisation, has accomplished much in promoting the economic and social welfare of the South Pacific peoples as well as in helping to build a sense of regional identity. The commission's annual budget (which in 1985 will total approximately $6.0 million and in 1986 will total approximately $6.6 million) is financed for the most part from proportional contributions by participating governments—Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, France, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Western Samoa. Other member governments contribute on a voluntary basis.
The United Nations and its specialised agencies are also an important source of technical assistance in the South Pacific. The independent countries of the region are members of various UN bodies, and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has offices in Fiji and Western Samoa.
Australia—New Zealand's most comprehensive bilateral relationship is with Australia. Geographical proximity and shared foreign policy and defence interests reinforced the important historical, cultural, and Commonwealth ties between the two nations that have given rise to this unusually close and mutually beneficial relationship. New Zealand established a diplomatic office in Australia in 1943, very early in its diplomatic history, and in 1944 the Canberra Pact was signed. This paved the way for a tradition of joint consultation and co-operation that reflects the interdependence of the two nations' interests and the goodwill and friendship of their peoples. In 1983, the two countries concluded the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA or CER for short). This, the most comprehensive trade treaty ever concluded by either country, will bring about a full free trade area by 1995. The agreement contains provision for co-operation in a range of activities, such as investment, trade practices and standards.
In matters of foreign policy, in defence and in the economic field, the degree of co-operation also reflects the importance of each country to the other and a need for continuing close working contacts. Regular and increasingly frequent ministerial and official meetings have taken place, with a minimum of formality, to cover almost the entire range of government activity. Moreover, the two countries are bound together by innumerable personal contacts, widespread family ties, and by institutionalised links in business, finance, education, the professions, and in nearly all fields of national activity. A significant ingredient in the relationship which facilitates these contacts is the free movement of people between the two countries under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.
New Zealand and Australia share a common foreign policy objective in acting to promote stability and development in the South Pacific and South-east Asian regions in their immediate vicinity, as well as a more general interest in co-ordinating their positions on major international political and economic questions of current concern in the United Nations, the Commonwealth, GATT, and elsewhere. In the economic context, Australia is a major trading partner for New Zealand which is in turn Australia's largest single market for manufactured exports. The trade liberalisation provisions of the CER treaty have given added impetus to the significant expansion of trade achieved under the 1966 New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which ANZCERTA has replaced. In the defence field, the former ANZAC partners continue to co-operate closely, both in relation to training programmes and exercises and the provision of equipment and other supplies, and in terms of the broader issues of defence policy, including their common membership of ANZUS.
The determination of both governments to co-operate and consult closely in many fields was underlined by the 1978 Nareen Declaration, a joint statement by the then Australian Prime Minister and New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister, which among other things provided for the establishment of an Australia-New Zealand Foundation in both countries to promote the bilateral relationship.
The foundation was set up in 1978 and has sponsored, as part of its work, studies on closer economic relations and investment between Australia and New Zealand, a workshop on trans-Tasman migration, and a number of other research projects and publications, as well as cultural exchanges between Australia and New Zealand.
Americas:United States—Continuing and close contact with the United States is an essential part of New Zealand's foreign policy. The two countries share a common English-speaking heritage and a friendship of long standing, both in peace and war. The United States has an important influence on the New Zealand way of life.
Since the opening in Washington in 1941 of New Zealand's second diplomatic mission, close consultations have been held with the United States on many bilateral questions and international issues of common interest. Basic similarities in political philosophy and social and economic processes have encouraged the development of close governmental relations, which have been supported by increasing contacts, both official and non-official, across a broad range of activities.
This comprehensive bilateral relationship finds expression in political, strategic, economic, and cultural fields. Under ANZUS New Zealand and the United States co-operate in the maintenance of national and regional security. On the economic side, the United States is one of New Zealand's major trading partners. For some products, notably beef and casein, it is this country's largest export market. Regular intergovernmental consultations are held to review the trading relationship. Programmes for scientific and technical co-operation, and academic and cultural exchanges, serve to maintain an awareness of New Zealand in the United States and to promote a vigorous and beneficial interchange of ideas and experience.
Canada—With a common British heritage and long association through the Commonwealth, New Zealand and Canada have traditionally enjoyed a close and easy relationship. Since New Zealand established diplomatic representation in Canada in 1942, the association has been marked by ministerial and official exchanges in many fields in which the two countries' shared democratic traditions and similar attitudes have provided a strong basis for bilateral consultation and co-operation. Similarly, in the international field, and particularly in Commonwealth and United Nations contexts, New Zealand and Canada have a sound record of co-operation. New Zealand's particular interest and involvement in the South Pacific and Canada's in the Caribbean, have provided a basis for the exchange of experience, and both countries take a close interest in developments within the Pacific Basin.
The Trade and Economic Co-operation Agreement, which came into effect in 1982, is intended to encourage economic co-operation in every sense. In addition to consultations on matters of trade and economic interest, the agreement calls for increased co-operation in investment, joint ventures and technology transfer. The first meeting of the Consultative Committee was held in Wellington in 1983.Canada is an important tourist market for New Zealand. It is expected that the resumption of direct air services between New Zealand and Canada late in 1985 will assist with the development of the tourist industry.
Caribbean and Latin America—Relations with the Caribbean centre on mutual Commonwealth interests and a useful export trade, largely in dairy products and meat. Since 1974 the New Zealand High Commissioner in Ottawa has been cross-accredited to Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Barbados, and Guyana. New Zealand has given technical assistance to these four Commonwealth countries and to the multilateral Caribbean Development Bank under a modest aid programme. Resident representation, a trade commission in Trinidad and Tobago, was established in 1958, but closed early in 1982 because of the decline in the proportion of New Zealand's exports going to the Caribbean.
Latin America is a region of increasing importance for New Zealand. Relations with the region, limited in the past by geographical orientation and linguistic and cultural differences, developed rapidly in the 1970s. In 1972 the New Zealand Government opened diplomatic missions in Chile and Peru, primarily to support an expanding trade in dairy products with these countries. By cross-accreditation, diplomatic relations have since been established with Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The official visit to Mexico in 1980 by the then Prime Minister and a high-level economic mission has led to a rapid expansion of economic and political relations with that country. A resident diplomatic mission was opened in Mexico City in 1983.
Trade in dairy products, meat, and agricultural technology from New Zealand to Latin America has increased steadily, the principal trading partners in these commodities being Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Agriculture is the main field of co-operation. Other interests shared with Latin American countries include Antarctica, the law of the sea, and alternative and renewable sources of energy.
UNITED NATIONS—The United Nations was formed forty years ago on 24 October 1945. New Zealand was a founding member and, since then, successive governments of this country have strongly supported the development of the UN as a major instrument for maintaining peace and security, for developing friendly relations among countries, for promoting international co-operation aimed at solving economic and social problems, and for ensuring respect for human rights. As a consequence, New Zealand continues to play an active and prominent role in the UN system.
With the expanding work within the UN's six main organs (the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Justice), the increase in UN related bodies, and the growth in the range and complexity of functions undertaken by the specialised agencies, New Zealand has had to adopt a more selective approach, concentrating its efforts on areas where it can play a useful and productive role and where matters of particular relevance are involved.
General Assembly—The New Zealand delegation to the 39th session of the General Assembly, held from 20 September to late December 1984, was led by the Prime Minister. Discussion centred on recent events concerning the Middle East, Central America, global economic issues, torture, racism and apartheid, Southern Africa, refugees, arms control and disarmament, and human rights and humanitarian relief for Africa. In these areas New Zealand sought to make constructive contributions in either supporting, co-sponsoring or speaking in favour of resolutions which would help to remove international tension, establish economic and political justice for the deprived, and provide humanitarian relief or development assistance to the needy. New Zealand ends a 3-year term on the Economic and Social Council in December 1985.
In addition, New Zealand, as outlined below, took an active part in discussions on a wide range of international issues in other UN forums.
Arms Control, Disarmament, Peacekeeping—At the 39th session of the General Assembly, New Zealand co-sponsored a number of resolutions dealing with arms control and disarmament, including a resolution calling for the implementation of a comprehensive nuclear test ban. Unfortunately the need for progress in this area of arms control, and the responsibility of the nuclear powers to resume their negotiations remain as pressing as ever, although New Zealand has welcomed the recent resumption of bilateral discussions between the USSR and the U.S.
Support also continued for UN peacekeeping operations. Four New Zealand officers currently serve in the Middle East with the United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation and a 35-strong contingent is integrated with Australian troops in the helicopter support unit of the Sinai Muiltinational Force and Observers (although with Australia withdrawing in 1986 New Zealand will have to consider the future of its participation). New Zealand's direct financial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations in 1984 was in the order of $1.07 million.
International Economic and Development Activity—North-South issues remained a feature of almost all aspects of international economic activity during 1984. Within the United Nations framework attention focused on these issues at the sixth United Nations Conference in Trade and Development in Belgrade in June, where the Prime Minister led the New Zealand delegation. They also received attention in other meetings, including the Williamsburg Summit, the Commonwealth Finance Ministers' Meeting in Trinidad and Tobago, and the annual meetings of the IBRD and IMF.
On development issues, New Zealand continued to stress the special requirements of the South Pacific Island countries, many of which are not represented at the United Nations. It also welcomed increased assistance to the South Pacific from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), to which the Government contributed $2.0 million in 1984.
International Legal Issues—In 1984, the Secretary-General of the United Nations presented a study on Antarctica prepared in accordance with the resolution adopted at the previous (1983) session of the General Assembly. A further resolution was adopted acknowledging this study and proposing that the question of Antarctica be considered at the next Assembly late in 1985.
New Zealand's position on Antarctica is based on the Antarctic Treaty of 1959. Please refer to section 36 of this Yearbook on the Ross Dependency.
Humanitarian Issues—A continuing concern in international measures to find solutions to the problem of the rapidly expanding numbers of refugees led to New Zealand's working closely with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in resettling Indochinese refugees. In 1984 the Government made a regular annual contribution of $100,000 to the UNHCR, and in addition provided $200,000 to the UNHCR's General Programme Appeal to assist refugees in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The Government also made a $120,000 voluntary contribution to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). In addition, part of the $700,000 annual contribution made by this country to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) goes towards refugee relief.
New Zealand also continues to be concerned to ensure that measures taken within the UN to eliminate discrimination against women are fully implemented. In this regard, New Zealand participates fully in the activities of the UN Decade for Women and gives full support to those practical aspects of the programme of action for the second half of the decade established at the mid-decade conference in Copenhagen in July 1980. The Government has established a fund of $30,000 to support projects by women's groups in New Zealand to mark the end of the decade. Projects are expected to make a positive contribution to one or more of the decade's three aims: equality, development and peace. A further contribution of $12,000 was made to a voluntary fund established by the UN to finance programmes and projects benefiting women in developing countries.
Human Rights—New Zealand is committed to the eradication of all forms of racism and racial discrimination. A Second Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination was introduced in 1983. As required in terms of the International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights, New Zealand reports annually to the Human Rights Committee.
Specialised Agencies—The UN system encompasses 15 specialised and intergovernmental agencies which have been independently established with their own intergovernmental organs, secretariats, and budgets. The advantage of membership of these agencies is participation in the co-ordination and standardisation of international systems to handle and advance technical, financial, and development matters. New Zealand is a member of all fifteen, and its contributions to the individual agencies are generally based on the scale of assessments used by the UN organisation.
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)—As an agricultural nation and founding member, New Zealand has taken a particularly active part in the FAO work to promote international food security. New Zealand in 1981 was elected for the fifth time as an FAO Council member. The country's assessed contribution for 1984 was $920,805.
General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)—New Zealand is a founder member of GATT, which is the only multilateral instrument that lays down agreed rules for international trade. As such, it comprises a contractual balance of trade rules and obligations. The latest round of GATT multilateral trade negotiations (the “Tokyo Round” 1973-79) resulted in a number of agreements on the reduction of tariff barriers and non-tariff trade restrictions.
The GATT framework remains a cornerstone of New Zealand's trading policy despite an imbalance in its treatment of agricultural trade. New Zealand is actively participating in the work of the Committee on Trade in Agriculture, which was established following the 1982 GATT Ministerial Meeting with a mandate to achieve liberalisation in the trade of agricultural products. The committee is due to report back to a ministerial session at the end of 1984. The committee reported to the 1984 session of the Contracting Parties which endorsed recommendations that, as a basis for possible future negotiations, the committee elaborate approaches under which quantitative restrictions and other related measures, including subsidies, be brought within the purview of strengthened and more operationally effective GATT rules and disciplines.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—New Zealand has been a member of the IAEA since 1957 and, although not a member of the Board of Governors, has customarily attended the annual conference of the Agency in Vienna in September. The great value in membership of this Agency is in the information provided by the IAEA on a range of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including the use of isotopes in agriculture and industry. In 1984 the New Zealand contribution to the Agency budget was $291,054.
Intergovernmental Maritime Organisation (IMO)—New Zealand makes a regular contribution to IMO, which establishes international standards for maritime activities. In 1984 New Zealand's assessed contribution was $22,918.
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)—Established in 1944, ICAO promotes international discussion of civil aviation questions, particularly in the safety, technical, economic, and regulatory fields. Through its membership of the organisation New Zealand has been able to join with other small countries in expressing its views on current aviation issues and, in this regard, is regularly represented at ICAO's regional and international meetings.
International Labour Organisation (ILO)—The ILO acts, on a tripartite basis, to protect the basic dignities and rights of the wage earners and also the organisation's endeavours to frame international conventions to improve working and living conditions. In 1984 New Zealand's assessed contribution was $498,595.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)—Membership of the ITU enables New Zealand to work to promote the most rational and efficient operation of worldwide telecommunications services. New Zealand's assessed contribution for 1984 was $369,246.
Universal Postal Union (UPU)—As an island nation in the South Pacific, New Zealand's membership of the UPU is essential to facilitate the efficient international movement of mails to and from this country. New Zealand's 1984 assessed contribution was $346,564.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)—New Zealand continues to be closely involved with the work of UNESCO. It has a Permanent Delegate, based at the New Zealand Embassy in Paris. In 1984 New Zealand's assessed contribution was $500,736.
World Health Organisation (WHO)—New Zealand takes an active part in the work of WHO. New Zealand's assessed contribution for 1984 was $884,974.
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)—The WMO provides a network for exchanging information on international weather systems. In 1984 New Zealand's assessed contribution was $185,734.
International Whaling Commission (IWC)—New Zealand rejoined the IWC in 1976, and since then has played an active role as a conservationist nation. New Zealand's assessed contribution for 1984 was $19,556.
International Banking and Finance Agencies under the aegis of the UN—Membership of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, also referred to as the “World Bank”), the International Monetary Fund, and the International Finance Corporation, enables New Zealand to participate in efforts to increase the stability of international trade and promote the economic development of less developed countries. In the year ended 31 March 1984 New Zealand contributed $2.45 million to the International Development Association, the “soft loan” arm of the IBRD. Membership of these international financial agencies also serves to strengthen New Zealand's own economic position by providing access to financial information and to varied sources of funding for capital projects or for balance of payments purposes.
This country is also a member of one of the regional development banks of the UN—the Asian Development Bank—which fosters economic growth and co-operation in the Asia-Pacific region.
Contributions to UN—Contributions are based on members' capacity to pay. New Zealand's assessed contribution rate for 1983, 1984 and 1985 of 0.26 percent set its dues at $2,528,127 for 1984.
Contributions to the certain bodies established by the UN are on a voluntary basis. New Zealand's voluntary contributions for the year 1983-84 are shown in the subsection dealing with multilateral ODA in the next section. Along with many other countries New Zealand has been concerned about the rapidly rising operating and programme costs of the UN, its bodies, and the specialised and intergovernmental agencies. Accordingly, in the UN's Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary) and at the general meetings of the specialised agencies, New Zealand has sought to promote trim and efficient financial management through supporting or proposing the introduction of better budgeting techniques, the elimination of defunct programmes, applying savings made elsewhere to more effective programmes, and restraining the introduction of new institutions to an absolute minimum.
NEW ZEALAND'S PROGRAMME OF ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES—In 1983-84 Official Development Assistance (ODA) disbursed under Vote Foreign Affairs amounted to $80,405 million, summarised as follows:
|South Pacific Shipping||9,000|
Almost all of New Zealand's ODA is administered by the External Aid Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Geographic distribution of the 1983-84 assistance to developing countries followed the pattern of previous years, with over two-thirds going to bilateral and regional programmes in the South Pacific. The ASEAN group of countries (Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines) was the second region of concentration. The total programme involves the skills and experience of hundreds of New Zealanders, together with capital and technical back-up from New Zealand.
Government assistance to voluntary agencies in 1983-84 amounted to $1.077 million. This comprised the annual grant to Volunteer Service Abroad (VSA) and disbursements under the Voluntary Agency Support Scheme (VASS). Under VASS the Government provides a subsidy for approved projects undertaken by New Zealand non-governmental agencies in developing countries.
The total transfer of resources from New Zealand to developing countries in the calendar year 1983, as reported to the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD in Paris, was estimated (with some margin of allowance for unconfirmed data) at $184.6 million. This figure included private export credits and direct investment by New Zealand interests ($82.8 million) and transfers by New Zealand voluntary agencies ($10.2 million).
Bilateral ODA 1983-84—Under its bilateral (government-to-government) programmes, New Zealand responds to the development priorities established by the developing countries themselves, mainly in the South Pacific and South-east Asia. Development projects comprise the main form of assistance. Hundreds of projects are involved, and New Zealand inputs of expertise and/or material and capital resources are often committed for several years on end.
The main purpose of New Zealand's bilateral assistance is to help promote the economic and social development of the partner countries by expanding their capabilities to raise the living standards of their peoples. Emphasis is placed on productive sector development such as livestock and pasture improvement programmes, assistance with crops, and the development of forestry, fisheries and energy resources. Advisors' assignments vary from a few weeks to several years. In 1983-84 the bilateral programme had about 60 long-term (2 years or more) advisors in the field, and several hundred on short-term assignments. The transfer of New Zealand expertise to developing countries is supplemented by the provision of study and training awards. In 1983-84 there were about 600 students in New Zealand and about 150 at “third country” institutions. The training is linked with specific requirements in the recipient countries. Bilateral assistance is complemented in the South Pacific and South-east Asia by programmes promoting regional development co-operation, particularly in the fields of forestry, education, livestock improvement, transport, communications and trade promotion. Bilateral assistance also includes emergency and distress relief.
The following country breakdown of bilateral ODA in 1983-84 shows the direction and scope of New Zealand assistance:
BILATERAL OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 1983-84
|*This figure covers study and training programmes and awards other than those incorporated in the individual Pacific and Asian country disbursements shown under Bilateral ODA.|
|Papua New Guinea||3,351|
|South and South-East Asia—|
|Total Latin America||74|
|Total Middle East||50|
|Study and Training Institutes*||448|
|Total Bilateral Aid||59,932|
Multilateral ODA 1983-84—The multilateral programme enables New Zealand to make a contribution to development work which would usually be beyond the scope of the bilateral programme, either in terms of the scale of the projects or in their ability to help countries beyond the regions of concentration of the bilateral effort.
Multilateral disbursements in 1983-84 amounted to $11.47 million. To a large extent the pattern of disbursement to United Nations, Commonwealth, South Pacific, and international development finance institutions and agencies followed that of the previous year.
MULTILATERAL ODA 1983-84
|United Nations Institutions||NZ$|
|UN Development Programme||1,500|
|UN Disaster Relief Office||10|
|World Food Programme||900|
|UN Children's Fund||700|
|UN Fund for Population Activities||350|
|UN Relief and Works Agency||120|
|UN High Commission for Refugees||100|
|UN Education Training Programme for Southern Africa||16|
|UN Trust Fund for Southern Africa||8|
|UN Trust Fund for Namibia||5|
|Total United Nations||3,709|
|South Pacific Institutions—|
|South Pacific Commission||712|
|South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation||376|
|Forum Fisheries Agency||217|
|Total South Pacific||1,305|
|Development Finance Institutions—|
|International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)||450|
|International Development Association (IDA)||3,353|
|Asian Development Bank (ADB)—Asian Development Fund||1,000|
|Asian Development Bank (ADB)—Technical Assistance Special Fund (TASF)||75|
|Caribbean Development Bank||50|
|Total Development Finance||4,928|
|Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation||750|
|Commonwealth Youth Programme||70|
|Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau||58|
|International Rice Research Institute||25|
|International Planned Parenthood Fund||250|
|International Committee of the Red Cross||50|
|Total Multilateral Aid||11,473|
THE CONSTITUTION OF NEW ZEALAND: Introduction—The history of the present constitution dates back to the declaration of British sovereignty in 1840. By the Treaty of Waitangi, 50 Maori chiefs ceded their sovereignty to the British Crown in exchange for guarantees contained in the Treaty. Territory not included in the Treaty was claimed on the ground of discovery. The constitution is wholly Anglo-Saxon in its origin and takes no account of Maori custom and usage.
Since its signing the Treaty has remained a contentious issue. Maori grievances focus on the following points: the full implications of the Treaty were not explained at the time; Maori translation of the Treaty was in parts misleading; and its promises have not been honoured.
From 1840 until the grant of responsible government in 1856 the colony was subject to gubernatorial rule. Attempts to persuade the Imperial government to establish representative institutions bore fruit in 1846 with the enactment of a Constitution Act (never fully implemented) superseded by a further Constitution Act in 1852, which created a bicameral General Assembly with limited powers and 6 provinces each with its own executive and unicameral legislature or provincial council. The system of government was unitary however—the General Assembly could legislate in areas in which the provinces had jurisdiction and could amend or annul provincial ordinances.
The 1852 Act constituted the governor as part of the General Assembly with the power to summon, prorogue, and dissolve it and to assent or refuse the assent to legislation passed by it. But the actual form of the executive government was omitted from the Act and left to the will of the governors and the Colonial Office. The appointment and tenure of the judges, and matters normally contained in a constitutional document were left to be decided by ordinary legislation.
Amendments to the 1852 Act stemming from political development reflect New Zealand's transition from colonial to fully-independent status within the period 1840-1973. Contemporary concern about the constitution centres on the operation of, and the balance between, the legislature and the executive rather than in the broader context of the merits of monarchy or republic.
The Constitution—The constitution is not a single written instrument granted to, or by, the people but a miscellany of statutory and customary law welded together and given coherence by the operation and observance of formal unwritten rules known as the conventions. The constitutional framework is erected on, and maintained by, the ordinary law as opposed to a supreme or basic law such as that found in most jurisdictions.
Certain statutes and statute-derived law have important constitutional significance. Among the more important are:
Constitution Act 1852—creation of Parliament;
Bill of Rights 1688;
Habeas Corpus Act 1679;
Electoral Act 1956—election of members of Parliament;
Legislature Act 1908—declaration of powers, privileges of Parliament;
Economic Stabilisation Act 1948—wide-ranging powers of the Government to affect socio-economic activity;
Public Safety Conservation Act 1932—states of emergency, powers of executive;
Letters Patent 1983—exercise of prerogative powers by Governor-General.
Such laws exist by force of the ordinary legislative process because of the basic canon of the legislative primacy of Parliament—the legal capacity of the legislature to make and unmake laws and the self-imposed collateral incapacity of any court or forum to impeach the validity of the legislature's exercise of that power when expressed as an Act of Parliament.
Although not as important in New Zealand as they are in the United Kingdom, the personal, i.e., prerogative powers of the Crown, almost all of which are exercisable by the Governor-General, remain part of constitutional law. A prerogative power may be abrogated only by statute.
On the foregoing basis, it is open to Parliament to change or abolish the constitutional framework on which it rests its primacy, and for a later Parliament to reverse that change, one aspect of the rule being that one Parliament cannot bind its successors. Consequently five provisions of the Electoral Act, which can be changed only by a vote of 75 percent of the members of Parliament, are entrenched in a political, rather than a strict legal, sense. The section which entrenches them could not act as a bar to the repeal of itself by simple majority, and thereafter the repeal or amendment of one or more of the five sections, also by simple majority.
On paper, major changes to the constitutional framework could be effected with comparative ease and speed, but constitutional history shows that those changes which have been made reflected shifts in social or political attitudes already evident.
PARLIAMENT AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES—The Constitution Act created a bicameral General Assembly empowered to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of New Zealand. Legislative competence was restricted, e.g., laws enacted were not to be repugnant to those of England; laws did not have extra-territorial effect; certain laws needed the Sovereign's assent; and all were subject to Royal disallowance. It was only with the passage of the Constitution Amendment Act 1947 (U.K.) and the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 (N.Z.) that the New Zealand Parliament obtained plenary legislative power, any residual doubts on the matter having been removed by a further amendment to the 1852 Act in 1973.
Until 1950, Parliament consisted of the Governor-General, the Legislative Council, and the House of Representatives. Despite repeated proposals for reform the council remained an appointive chamber, and the decline in its capacity as a curb on the lower House and the Government was accelerated by the partisan nature of the appointments made. Each ministry sought to ensure that its supporters were in a majority. The council's demise was assured when the National Party, which had campaigned for abolition, was returned as the Government in the 1949 General Election. The necessary legislation was passed by both Houses and the council ceased to exist on 1 January 1951. Although it was intended that the council should be replaced by an elected second chamber nothing has so far come of the idea.
Parliament now consists of the Governor-General (the Queen when resident in New Zealand), and the 95-member House of Representatives. The role of the Governor-General, as part of the General Assembly, is purely formal and for all practical purposes “Parliament” is synonymous with “House of Representatives”.
The principal functions of Parliament are to enact laws, supervise the Government's administration, vote supply, provide a government, and redress grievances by way of petition.
The Constitution Act forbids the House to allocate public funds for any purpose unless first recommended by the Governor-General. Although the reasons for this provision are historic, it is also used by governments to defeat legislation brought forward by individual members which ministers are unwilling to support or adopt. On the other hand, the law forbids the Crown to tax citizens without express parliamentary approval.
Constitutional law includes the law and custom of Parliament, itself derived from a variety of sources. The Bill of Rights saves any proceeding in Parliament from being questioned in any forum, other than the House itself, and the Legislature Act 1908 provides that the powers, privileges, rights, and immunities of the House (and its committees and members) are those possessed by the British House of Commons on 1 January 1865. One aspect of the powers of the House is the ability to make rules for the conduct of its business. Most of these are contained in the Standing Orders although some are made on a sessional, and others on an ad hoc, basis. The traditional three readings given to a bill are part of Standing Orders, but it is open to the House to alter or suspend its rules at any time. The House has retained the right to punish breaches of its privileges, whether by members or citizens, from which there is no appeal (although the courts could be asked to decide whether the privilege claimed is one recognised by law).
Perhaps the most important privilege of the House is that of freedom of speech, guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, and claimed by the Speaker upon confirmation in his office by the Governor-General.
The House meets, as Parliament, in answer to a summons from the Governor-General. Sessions of Parliament are marked by a formal opening (the Government's legislative programme is described in the Speech from the Throne read by the Governor-General) and a closing prorogation by proclamation. Unless the House, by resolution made under the authority of the Legislature Act (1977 Amendment), carries forward business to the next session, all business before the House on prorogation lapses. Parliament is dissolved by the Governor-General or expires by efflux of time after 3 years.
Because control of the House's business lies with the Government, many of the rules and customs of the House are designed to ensure that members of the House are given a full opportunity to debate any aspect of a government's proposals. Control of the debates and the conduct of members is vested in the Speaker, whose rulings are binding unless overturned by the House.
Proposed laws are placed before the House in the form of draft laws known as ‘bills’. There are 3 types of bills—public bills, dealing with the most important subjects of a public and general nature (most public bills are introduced by the Government), local bills, which are promoted by local authorities to give themselves special powers or validate illegal action they may take, and private bills, which are promoted by private individuals or companies also to give themselves special powers. The procedure for passing each of these types of bill through Parliament differs.
Detailed scrutiny of legislation and facets of executive activity, e.g., expenditure of public money, is carried out by select committees consisting of a small number of members, usually 7, which report their findings and recommendations to the House. Since 1980, all government bills stand referred to a select committee unless certified by the Speaker as “money bills”. The change was recommended by the Standing Orders Committee (see Parliamentary paper I. 14, 1979). This is intended to enable the public and interested bodies to make submissions, in the expectation that better laws will result.
In the context of the party system, it is unlikely that the Opposition would be in a position to bring down a government by means of a no-confidence vote—there is no instance of a successful no-confidence vote in the history of the New Zealand Parliament since 1928. The strength of the parties, especially that of the National and Labour Parties, is so great that many of the rules and customs of the House are based on there being two parties only in the House. The presence of third party members, as at present, has raised a number of problems in relation to speaking times, membership of select committees, and so forth.
Because of the growth of a largely two-party system and the importance that the parties have assumed within the political framework, the party caucus (a meeting of each party's members of Parliament in closed session at regular intervals, once a week when Parliament is in session) is a primary means of developing policies and tactics. Caucus committees of both the National and Labour Parties travel around the country frequently, investigating issues of interest or concern to them. Although the existence of the caucuses and their committees is not recognised by the law, indirect recognition has been given, e.g., travelling allowances are payable to members when travelling as members of a caucus committee.
In the exercise of their functions and powers, the Speaker and the Chairman of Committees are assisted by permanent officials, headed by the Clerk of the House, charged with the administration of the House and the provision of advice on parliamentary law and custom.
The procedure for fixing the salaries and allowances of members and ministers was changed in 1977. Responsibility now rests with the Higher Salaries Commission established by the Act of the same name.
The following table lists the salaries payable from 10 November 1981.
|Office||Yearly Rate of Salary Payable On and After 10 November 1981*|
|*In addition the cost of living allowance granted by the Government of the day, April 1984.|
|Members of the Executive||$|
|Deputy Prime Minister||62,146|
|Each Minister of the Crown holding a portfolio or portfolios (other than the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister)||55,115|
|Each Minister of the Crown without portfolio||44,572|
|Each Parliamentary Under-Secretary||42,814|
|Officers of the House of Representatives|
|Speaker of the House of Representatives||51,161|
|Chairman of Committees of the House of Representatives||44,134|
|Leader and Deputy of the Official Opposition|
|Leader of the Official Opposition||55,115|
|Deputy Leader of the Official Opposition||42,814|
|Chief Government Whip||39,300|
|Chief Opposition Whip||39,300|
|Junior Government Whip||36,665|
|Junior Opposition Whip||36,665|
|Members of the House of Representatives|
|Each member of the House of Representatives to whom the foregoing provisions of this Schedule do not apply||32,271|
The following allowances are also paid:
|Office||Yearly Rate of Expenses Allowance|
|Deputy Prime Minister||6,000|
|Each Minister of the Crown holding a portfolio or portfolios (other than the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister)||5,750|
|Each Minister of the Crown without portfolio||4,500|
|Each Parliamentary Under-Secretary||4,500|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs (Additional)||5,000|
|(Additional allowance as Speaker; plus electorate allowance abated by one-third of the appropriate rate, and day allowance)||4,600|
|Chairman of Committees||2,500|
|(Additional allowance as Chairman plus electorate allowance abated by one-third of the appropriate rate, and day allowance)||2,700|
|Leader of the Opposition||5,750|
|(Plus house and travelling allowances)|
|Deputy Leader of the Opposition||2,500|
|(Plus additional allowance as Deputy and electorate, night, and day allowances at appropriate rates)||2,250|
|Members (Plus electorate, day, and night allowances at appropriate rates)||2,500|
The rate at which an electorate allowance is paid depends on the nature of each member's electorate, e.g., urban, rural, or semi-rural, and ranges from $4,500 to $9,250.
A day allowance of $12 is payable where indicated for each day on which a member attends a sitting of Parliament or a committee, and a night allowance of $26 for each night a member requires overnight accommodation away from home by reason of such attendance.
In addition to the foregoing allowances, a once-only setting up allowance is paid to members elected for the first time. The current rate is $350.
The Crown and the Governor-General—Constitutional law vests the executive power in the Crown, i.e., the Monarch acting through, or with the advice of, responsible ministers. Primarily because of political developments within the British Empire and, later, the Commonwealth, changes in the substantive law have left the constitutional position, but not the role, of the Monarch in some doubt. By virtue of the Royal Titles Act 1974, the present Monarch is styled “... Elizabeth the Second ... Queen of New Zealand ...” which, taken together with changes made to the Constitution Act in 1973, tend to suggest that the Queen of New Zealand is a separate legal entity from that of the United Kingdom, a suggestion which has found support in a 1976 Supreme Court decision. If such is the case, English or Imperial law which was thought to be part of New Zealand's law, e.g., the Regency Act 1937-53, may have ceased to be so.
Although not a viceroy, the Governor-General (appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister for a 5-year term) may lawfully exercise most of the Royal powers and functions, whether derived from the general law or statute. The 1983 Letters Patent reinforced by a strong convention, require him to accept and act on the advice of his New Zealand ministers. By convention the discretion or reserve powers which may be exercised by the Governor-General enable him in certain extraordinary circumstances to reject advice if he believed that a government was intending to act improperly or unconstitutionally. Events in Australia in 1975 have demonstrated how controversial the use of the reserve powers can be, and it is likely that a Governor-General would seek a political, rather than a legal, solution.
As part of the General Assembly, the Governor-General summons, prorogues, and dissolves parliament, and his assent to Bills passed by the House is necessary to transform them into Acts. As the Monarch's representative, he is the head of the Executive and his participation, albeit formal in nature, is required to give legal effect to decisions made by the Government or individual ministers.
Sir David Stuart Beattie assumed office as Governor-General on 6 November 1980. For further information on previous Governors-General refer to the 1982 Yearbook.
The Executive Government—The governance of New Zealand is executed by Ministers of the Crown in the name of, and on behalf of, the Monarch. The dual conventions that ministers are responsible to Parliament for their official acts and those of their officials and that the Government is responsible for its acts have been translated, indirectly, into statute. The Civil List Act 1979 provides that no person may be appointed or remain a minister or member of the Executive Council unless he is, concurrently, a member of Parliament.
Following a General Election, the leader of the party which has, or is most likely to secure, a majority of seats in the House is invited by the Governor-General to accept the office of Prime Minister and form a ministry. Although the selection process has varied between the two major parties, the respective leaders have final responsibility for the allocation of portfolios. Acting on the new Prime Minister's advice, the Governor-General appoints a number of members of Parliament as ministers with responsibility for one or more areas of government administration (portfolios), although in rare cases ministers are appointed without portfolio. In addition, a few members are appointed as parliamentary undersecretaries to assist ministers in specific areas. Under-secretaries are neither ministers nor members of the Executive Council.
The Executive Council, constituted under the 1983 Letters Patent, consists of the ministers, any two of whom together with the person presiding (normally the Governor-General) form a quorum. The council is the legal vehicle for the promulgation of a government's decisions which are intended to form part of the law. It is also one of the primary means whereby the Government tenders formal advice to the Governor-General.
The membership of the council, following a snap election on 14 July 1984, remained at 20.
Unlike the council, the Cabinet owes its existence solely to convention. Although both institutions have the same membership (the Governor-General is a member of neither), their respective functions differ markedly. It is the Cabinet which determines or approves a government's legislative and administrative proposals and policies and co-ordinates the work of ministers.
To facilitate this process, a number of Cabinet committees have been set up, consisting of ministers whose responsibilities are related to the subject covered by the committees. Each committee has power within its terms of reference to make decisions. On 30 July 1984 the structure of Cabinet committees was changed and now includes committees on policy; social equity; development and marketing; transport, communications, and state enterprises; external relations and security; management and state employment; legislation; honours and appointments; and terrorism.
One important feature of the Cabinet is the informality of its proceedings and their confidentiality, thus allowing for a consensus of views to emerge without the need, in most cases, to take a vote. Cabinet discussion and agreement ensures the Government's support in the House for a minister's legislative or other proposals and supports the convention of collective responsibility.
The Cabinet Office is responsible for the servicing and co-ordination of the Cabinet and its committees to ensure their smooth functioning, as well as providing liaison and advice within the interdepartmental framework. The Secretary of the Cabinet is also Clerk of the Executive Council.
The Judiciary—New Zealand has inherited the strong British tradition of an independent judiciary seen as a bulwark against unnecessary intrusion by the State in the lives of citizens. One means of maintaining that tradition is to provide superior court judges with security of tenure. Accordingly, the law provides that High Court judges are appointed “... during good behaviour ...” and are removable by the Governor-General in answer to an address from the House. Moreover, the salaries of High Court judges cannot be reduced while they remain in office. High Court judges must retire at the age of 68.
As from 1 April 1980 the name of the superior court of New Zealand, hitherto known as the Supreme Court, was changed to the High Court. At the same time, magistrates were renamed District Court judges and their courts, District Courts. Appeals from the Court of Appeal to the Privy Council were not affected by the changes made.
District Court judges are appointed, as with High Court judges, by the Governor-General on ministerial advice and are removable by him, without the need for an address from the House, for misbehaviour or inability. Although a District Court judge's security of tenure is not as entrenched as that of a High Court judge, nevertheless, the convention against arbitrary removal ensures his independence of action in the exercise of his judicial functions.
Judicial offices of specialist courts enjoy the tenure provisions of High Court judges or District Court judges depending on the ranking of their court within the judicial structure.
New Zealand courts apply the primacy of Parliament doctrine which, in the judicial context, means that a court will not question the validity of what purports to be an Act of Parliament. However, the doctrine has never prevented them from declaring legislation made by the Executive Council, under delegated authority from Parliament, outside the powers of the council or Governor-General, as the case may be, on the grounds that, in fact, no power to make that particular piece of subordinate legislation exists.
In the constitutional context, the growth and proliferation of tribunals and other administrative bodies as an answer to the complexities of modern administration, and the increasing regulation by successive governments of socio-economic affairs, has challenged the traditional, original, and supervisory jurisdictions of the High Court. In answer to parliamentary attempts to oust or restrict the Court's jurisdiction, the superior courts of many common law countries have dusted off hitherto unused writs and remedies and adapted them to meet modem demands.
The balance between the courts and the administrative agencies has been restored, partially, by the creation in 1968 of an Administrative Division of the Supreme Court (now the High Court) to hear appeals or review the law applied by these agencies, and the institution in 1972 of a simplified procedure to obtain judicial review. Conversely, New Zealand still lacks a coherent policy towards the role and ambit of the High Court's jurisdiction in the field of administrative law.
Because the High Court lacks the capacity to declare an Act unconstitutional or beyond the scope of Parliament's powers, the High Court judges have seen their supervisory jurisdiction over administrative acts as an important means of maintaining the balance of competing interests between the citizen and the State, and have taken steps to stem any erosion of that jurisdiction.
CONTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL: ROLE AND POWERS—The Controller and Auditor-General is an officer of the Crown appointed by the Governor-General on behalf of Her Majesty. Much like the judiciary, he/she is independent of the Executive, being obliged to report only to Parliament and only able to be removed from office by the Governor-General upon an address from the House of Representatives. He/she has a Deputy whose mode of appointment and tenure of office are the same. It is also laid down by statute that no Minister is in any way responsible for the carrying out or exercise by the Audit Office of its functions, duties, and powers.
With some exceptions, the Controller and Auditor-General functions through the Audit Office, which is defined by the Public Finance Act 1977 as the Controller and Auditor-General and any person under delegation or appointment by him to perform or exercise any particular function, duty, or power.
The role of the Audit Office embraces 2 main activities. The major and better known, is the audit of the accounts of all Government departments and local authorities, and most Government-owned or controlled corporations, boards, and companies. The lesser known but constitutionally important role is that of the control of issues of money out of the Public Account to meet Government expenditure. No money can be issued out of the Public Account unless it is covered by some authority given by Parliament, and it is the responsibility of the Audit Office to ensure that the rule is observed.
In relation to its role as auditor of the public sector, the Audit Office is required to carry out financial audits, to review procedures, and is empowered to undertake examinations to determine whether resources have been applied effectively and efficiently. The Audit Office cannot question policies on which broad spending decisions are made. To enable it to carry out these functions, the Audit Office has a number of powers. These include rights of access to the books, accounts, and property of its clients, and the right to require persons to supply information or deliver up books and accounts in their possession, or under their control.
The Controller and Auditor-General has no general power of sanction to remedy shortcomings discovered during an audit. The principal recourse is to report to the management of the organisation, either by letter or in the formal audit opinion on financial statements, to a Minister, or to Parliament.
However, if the shortcoming involves a deficiency or loss of public money or stores, the Controller and Auditor-General has the power to surcharge the person or persons responsible to recover the amount involved. This power is used rarely.
OMBUDSMEN—The position of Parliamentary Commissioner for Investigations (Ombudsman) was created in 1962. Until 1968 the principal function of the Ombudsman was to enquire into complaints relating to administrative decisions of Government departments and related organisations. In 1968 the jurisdiction was extended to hospital boards and education boards and, under the Ombudsmen Act 1975, the jurisdiction was further extended to all local authorities. Under the 1975 Act, provision was made for the appointment of a Chief Ombudsman and one or more other Ombudsmen, whose appointments could be permanent or temporary.
Complaints to the Ombudsmen must be made in writing and investigations are conducted in private. An Ombudsman may decide not to investigate a complaint where there appears to be an alternative administrative avenue of redress available to the complainant; where the complaint relates to a matter which has been within the complainant's knowledge for more than 12 months; where the complaint is trivial or where the complainant has not a sufficient personal interest in the subject matter of the complaint. The Ombudsman has no authority to investigate certain complaints, for example, complaints against private companies and individuals, decisions of judges, complaints directed at decisions of Ministers of the Crown or at the full council or board of a local organisation. However, an Ombudsman may investigate recommendations made to a Minister by any Government department, organisation or employee thereof or to a full council by any committee, sub-cornmittee, officer, employee or member. An Ombudsman may not investigate a complaint where the complainant has a statutory right of appeal on the merits of the case to a Court or statutory tribunal unless there are special circumstances why it would not be reasonable to expect that person to have exercised that right of appeal.
Where an Ombudsman forms the opinion that a complaint can be sustained, he reports his opinion to the Government department or Government organisation concerned and any recommendation that he may make for remedial action. A copy of the report is also made available to the responsible Minister. In the case of a local organisation, the Ombudsman reports the opinion to that organisation and makes a copy of his report available to the Mayor or Chairman. Each Ombudsman reports annually to Parliament on the work of the Office.
With effect from 1 July 1983 the Ombudsmen have also assumed certain responsibilities under the Official Information Act 1982. Under the Act, individuals and companies may request access to either official or personal (i.e., about the requestor) information from certain central Government departments and organisations and Ministers of the Crown. On receipt of a written complaint an Ombudsman has a responsibility to investigate any decision made on a request for information: for example, a refusal of the whole or part of the request; or a decision on what charge is to be made for providing the information. An Ombudsman may also investigate undue delays in responding to requests.
An analysis of the complaints made to the Ombudsmen for the year ended 31 March 1984 is as follows:
OMBUDSMEN ACT 1975
|Action on Complaint||Year Ended March 1984|
|Declined, no jurisdiction||169|
|Declined or discontinued s. 17||488|
|Discontinued because complaint remedied||187|
|Sustained, recommendation made||24|
|Sustained, no recommendation made||114|
|Not pursued by complainant after explanation given||195|
|Still under investigation as at 31 March||453|
OFFICIAL INFORMATION ACT 1982
|Action on Complaint||Period 1 July 1983 to 31 March 1984|
|Declined, no jurisdiction||14|
|Declined or discontinued s. 17||24|
|Discontinued because complaint remedied||31|
|Sustained, recommendation made||24|
|Sustained, no recommendation made||1|
|Not pursued by complainant after explanation given||15|
|Still under investigation||193|
ROYAL COMMISSIONS AND COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY—The Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908, which has been amended from time to time as necessary, provides that the Governor-General may by Order in Council, appoint any person or persons to be a commission to inquire into and report upon any question arising out of, or concerning:
The administration of the Government;
The working of any existing law;
The necessity or expediency of any legislation;
The conduct of any officer in the Service of the Crown;
Any disaster or accident (whether due to natural causes or otherwise) in which members of the public were killed, injured, were or might have been exposed to risk of death or injury;
Any other matter of public importance.
A Royal Commission is appointed by the Governor-General pursuant to his Letters Patent, but in other respects derives its powers from the Commissions of Inquiry Act. Royal Commissions, appointed as they are in the name of the Sovereign, are generally regarded as having a greater prestige and standing.
A committee of inquiry may be set up by a Minister to investigate some matter but such a committee has no statutory basis in the normal course of events, although there are ancillary powers in some instances.
Amendments to the legislation in 1979 and 1980 now confer new rights upon any person if he/she is a party to the inquiry or satisfies the commission that he/she has an interest in the inquiry apart from any interest in common with the public.
Usually the terms of reference for a commission are quite specific. While there is frequently a final term of reference which appears to include everything else, this term of reference must be considered in context. It does not confer the right on almost anyone to become a party or participant in the inquiry.
The Department of Internal Affairs, (originally the Colonial Secretary's Office), administers the Commissions of Inquiry legislation and provides basic services to the various commissions. These inquiries are not part of the justice system, nor are they part of the conventional administrative bureaucracy. The department retains important constitutional responsibilities and in this context is held responsible to ensure that complete independence and impartiality of investigations is maintained.
Commissions of Inquiry must report to the Governor-General, who in turn, refers the findings and report to his/her Ministers. It is frequently the custom for the report to be published and copies are available from the Government Printing Office.
Although a costly exercise, the role of Commissions of Inquiry in a parliamentary democracy with an unicameral system is a significant one. Besides serving as a valuable channel for public disquiet, a commission is able to weigh the submissions according to the accuracy with which they are formulated, make findings, seek comment, and arrive at considered conclusions.
Further information is available in the following publications: Royal Commissions and Commissions of Inquiry, published by the Government Printing Office in 1974; A Checklist: New Zealand Royal Commissions, Commissons and Committees of Inquiry 1864-1981, published by the New Zealand Library Association in 1982; and the Report of the Department of Internal Affairs (Parl. paper G. 7).
PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS—The law on elections is contained in the Electoral Act 1956 and its amendments. Responsibility for the electoral process is shared between 4 Government departments. The Post Office maintains and prints electoral rolls and the Department of Justice is responsible for the conduct of the polls, electoral policy, and legislation. The Departments of Statistics and Lands and Survey provide geographical referencing material and mapping services. Following the population census (every 5 years) the boundaries of all electorates are revised, and new boundaries come into force at the expiry of the Parliament existing when the Proclamation is issued.
To assist this revision, the Government Statistician is required to supply general electoral population figures to the Surveyor-General.
The term “general electoral population” means total population with the following exceptions:
Maori electoral population—a figure based on the number of adult New Zealand Maoris registered in Maori electoral districts adjusted to include children. A Maori is defined in the 1980 amendment as “a person of the Maori race of New Zealand; and includes any descendant of such a person”:
Persons residing on board any ship;
Temporary guests in any guest house, hotel, or motel;
Temporary residents in any defence area;
Patients or inmates in any hospital or institution;
Persons detained in any penal institution.
After the population figures are supplied by the Government Statistician it is then the responsibility of a Representation Commission to define new electoral districts. The commission comprises eight members. Five of these are official members; the Surveyor-General, the Government Statistician, the Chief Electoral Officer, The Director-General to the Post Office, and the Chairman of the Local Government Commission (who is without voting rights). Two are unofficial members, being persons nominated by the House of Representatives, one nominated to represent the Government and one to represent the Opposition. The eighth member is appointed, on the nomination of the official and unofficial members of the commission or a majority of them, to be the chairman of the commission. The chairman and unofficial members cease to be members on the date on which the first periodical census is taken after the date of their appointment.
The number of general electorates is based on population under a formula that allocates 25 seats to the South Island. The general electoral population of the South Island is divided by 25, and the quota thus obtained for each South Island electorate is then divided into the North Island general electoral population to give the number of electorates in the North Island.
The number of Maori seats is fixed at four.
When the boundaries have been provisionally determined, maps are prepared illustrating the proposed electoral districts, and descriptions of each electoral district are published in the New Zealand Gazette. A time limit of 1 month is given during which objections to the proposed boundaries may be lodged. The objections are published and a further 2 weeks is allowed for lodgment of counter objections. Both objections and counter objections are then considered by the Representation Commission and a final decision is reached on boundaries which then define the new electoral districts.
FRANCHISE—Since September 1974, persons 18 years of age and over have had the right to vote in the election of members of the House of Representatives. (From 1893 onwards all persons aged 21 years had voting rights and the qualifying age had been lowered to 20 years in 1969.)
Registration of Electors—Registration as an elector is compulsory, although it is not compulsory to vote. To be qualified for registration as a parliamentary elector in New Zealand a person must have attained the age of 18 years and must (a) be a New Zealand citizen or a permanent resident and (b) at some period have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least a year and (c), except in special cases, have resided continuously for 3 months or more in the electoral district in respect of which application for registration is made, and not have subsequently resided for 3 months or more in any other electoral district. Maoris and persons of part-Maori descent may elect to be included on either the General or the Maori electoral roll but their options are renewable only at prescribed intervals.
Voting—Voting is controlled in each electoral district by a Returning Officer appointed to arrange voting facilities and staffing, conduct the election, supervise the counting of votes, and formally declare the election result. A preliminary count of ordinary votes is available on election night and final results are generally available 2 weeks later after all overseas and special votes are received and counted.
Voting is by secret ballot. In general, only those persons whose names are lawfully on the electoral rolls compiled prior to an election are qualified to vote. All general elections and by-elections are held on a Saturday and polling booths are open from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.
Any member of the armed forces aged 18 years and over serving overseas is qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which he or she last resided before leaving New Zealand.
The vote is normally cast by the elector at a polling booth within his/her district. He/she may however vote as a “special voter”, either at a polling booth outside his/her district or by post for reasons of distant travel on polling day, sickness, etc. Provision is also made for overseas voting.
Voting papers list the surnames of candidates nominated for the electoral district concerned and the elector indicates his/her preference by striking out the name of every candidate except the one for whom he/she wishes to vote. The candidate obtaining the highest number of votes is elected to represent that electoral district as a member of the House of Representatives.
General Election Results—A general election of Parliamentary representatives was held on 14 July 1984, voting in New Zealand for both General and Maori electorates taking place on that day. The strength of the political party representation among members of Parliament after this election was Labour 56, National 37, Social Credit, 2.
The relative strengths of the political parties in Parliament following the last 8 general elections are shown in the following table.
The total number of electors on the master roll for the 1984 election was 2 111 651. A total of 1 978 798 votes were cast; this represents 93.71 percent of electors on the master roll.
A second table shows the number of votes recorded by the main political parties, along with the percentages that the various party votes represent of the total valid votes, at the four most recent general elections.
|Political Party||Valid Votes||Percentage of Total Valid Votes|
|Total valid votes||1 602 777||1 710 173||1 801 303||1 929 201||100.00||100.00||100.00||100.00|
|Totals||1 611 02 0||1 721 443||1 810 301||1 936 766|
National Licensing Poll—The licensing poll of 14 July 1984, held in conjunction with the parliamentary elections, was the twentieth at which the three issues—national continuance, State purchase and control, and national prohibition (without compensation)—were submitted to the electors. Official figures of the 1984 poll, together with those of five preceding polls, were as follows:
|For national continuance||903,962||931,778||1,094,445||1,053,268||1,124,258||1,319,518|
|For State purchase and control||242,499||244,003||235,374||252,154||247,217||222,049|
|For national prohibition||176,055||203,791||250,640||374,194||384,780||352,949|
Poll on Term of Parliament—On 23 September 1967 a special general poll was held on a proposal that the term of the House of Representatives be changed. Votes for a maximum of 3 years, as at present, totalled 678 960; votes for a maximum term of 4 years totalled 317 973.
|Parliament||Period of Session|
|Thirty-seventh||15 February 1973-16 March 1973|
|5 June 1973-23 November 1973|
|4 February 1974-29 March 1974|
|28 May 1974-8 November 1974|
|25 March 1975-10 October 1975|
|Thirty-eighth||23 June 1976-14 December 1976|
|28 February 1977-4 March 1977|
|19 May 1977-16 December 1977|
|11 May 1978-6 October 1978|
|Thirty-ninth||17 May 1979-14 December 1979|
|15 May 1980-12 December 1980|
|20 May 1981-23 October 1981|
|Fortieth||7 April 1982-17 December 1982|
|7 April 1983-16 December 1983|
|31 May 1984-14 June 1984|
|Forty-first||15 August 1984-|
The Forty-first session was called on 15 August 1984, following the Parliamentary elections of 14 July, and, in line with the policy of the new government, will sit continuously, with short breaks, until the next election is called.
Summary of Parliamentary Proceedings—
*In hours and minutes.
†Third session, Fortieth Parliament.
|Hours of sitting after midnight*||4:04||27:43||31:17||-|
|Public Bills introduced by Government||73||107||96||12|
|Public Bills referred to Select Committees||62||86||80||10|
Parliamentary Representation—Parliamentary representation of women is shown in the following table. The ages of Members of Parliament are also compared with that of the total voting population.
|Percentage of Total Members of Parliament||Percentage of Total Voting Age Population*|
|*As at 30 September 1984.|
|60 years and over||8.4||20.7*|
Legislation 1983—During the parliamentary session of 1983, 155 Public Acts were passed, compared with 185 passed in 1982. During the third session of the Forty-first Parliament 1984, 2 Public Acts were passed. A list of current Legislation is included in Section 37: Official.
Governor-General of New Zealand—His Excellency the Hon. Sir David Stuart Beattie, G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., Q.C.
Official Secretary—James Brown.
Rt. Hon. D. R. LANGE, Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister in Charge of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service.
Hon. G. W. R. PALMER, Deputy Prime Minister, Leader of the House, Attorney-General, Minister of Justice, Minister in Charge of the Legislative Department, Minister in Charge of the Government Printing Office.
Hon. M. K. MOORE, Minister of Overseas Trade and Marketing, Minister of Tourism, Minister in Charge of Publicity, Minister of Recreation and Sport.
Hon. R. O. DOUGLAS, Minister of Finance, Minister in Charge of the Inland Revenue Department, Minister in Charge of Friendly Societies.
Hon. R. W. PREBBLE, Minister of Transport, Minister of Civil Aviation and Meteorological Services, Minister of Railways, Minister of Pacific Island Affairs, Associate Minister of Finance.
Hon. K. T. WETERE, Minister of Maori Affairs, Minister of Lands, Minister of Forests, Minister in Charge of the Valuation Department.
Hon. D. F. CAYGILL, Minister of Trade and Industry, Minister of National Development, Associate Minister of Finance.
Hon. C. R. MARSHALL, Minister of Education, Minister for the Environment.
Hon. F. D. O'FLYNN, Q.C., Minister of State, Minister of Defence, Minister in Charge of War Pensions, Minister in Charge of Rehabilitation, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Associate Minister of Overseas Trade and Marketing.
Hon. Dr M. E. R. BASSETT, Minister of Health, Minister of Local Government.
Hon. A. HERCUS, Minister of Social Welfare, Minister of Police, Minister of Women's Affairs.
Hon. R. J. TIZARD, Minister of Energy, Minister of Statistics, Minister of Science and Technology, Minister in Charge of the Audit Department.
Hon. C. J. MOYLE, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Fisheries, Minister in Charge of the Rural Banking and Finance Corporation.
Hon. S. J. RODGER, Minister of Labour, Minister of State Services.
Hon. J. L. HUNT, Minister of Broadcasting, Postmaster-General.
Hon. F. M. COLMAN, Minister of Works and Development, Minister in Charge of the Earthquake and War Damage Commission, Associate Minister of Energy.
Hon. T. K. BURKE, Minister of Regional Development, Minister of Employment, Minister of Immigration.
Hon. M. SHIELDS, Minister of Customs, Minister of Consumer Affairs.
Hon. Dr P. TAPSELL, M.B.E., Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Civil Defence, Minister for the Arts, Associate Minister of Local Government, Associate Minister of Tourism.
Hon. P. B. GOFF, Minister of Housing, Minister in Charge of the Government Life Insurance Corporation, Minister in Charge of the State Insurance Office, Minister in Charge of the Public Trust Office.
Executive Council—Membership of the Executive Council is identical with the Cabinet and comprises all the Ministers. The Clerk of the Executive Council is P. G. MILLEN, M.A. (OXON).
D. J. BUTCHER, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Agriculture and Fisheries, Lands, and Forests.
T. A. DE CLEENE, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Finance, with special responsibility for the Inland Revenue Department.
E. E. ISBEY, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Labour, Employment, and Immigration.
W. P. JEFFRIES, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Transport, and Works and Development.
P. NEILSON, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Trade and Industry.
P. T. E. WOOLLASTON, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Local Government and Environment.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES—
Prime Minister—Rt. Hon. D. R. Lange.
Leader of the Opposition—Hon. J. R. McLay.
Speaker—Dr. G. A. Wall*.
Chairman of Committees—J. J. Terris.
Clerk of the House—C. P. Littlejohn. LL.M.
*Sir Basil Arthur Bt. died in office as Speaker on 1 May 1985 and his successor, Dr Wall, was elected Speaker on 28 May 1985.
|Name*||Year of Birth||Previous Occupation||Electoral District|
*Names are given in the form in which individual Members prefer to be addressed.
‡Following by-election 15 June 1985.
|Anderton, J. P.†||1938||Company director||Sydenham|
|Angus, D. A.||1938||Freezing company stock buyer||Wallace|
|Austin, H. N.||1925||Farmer||Bay of Islands|
|Austin, W. R.||1931||Farmer||Awarua|
|Banks, J. A.||1946||Restauranteur||Whangarei|
|Bassett, Hon. Dr M. E. R.†||1938||Lecturer||Te Atatu|
|Batchelor, Mrs M. D.†||1927||Trade union organiser||Avon|
|Birch, Hon. W. F.||1934||Consultant surveyor-engineer||Franklin|
|Bolger, Hon. J. B.||1935||Farmer||King Country|
|Boorman, R. G.†||1935||Superannuation consultant||Wairarapa|
|Braybrooke, G. B.†||1935||Sales manager||Napier|
|Burdon, P. R.||1939||Company director||Fendalton|
|Burke, Hon. T. K.†||1942||Teacher||West Coast|
|Butcher, D. J.†||1948||Research officer||Hastings|
|Caygill, Hon. D. F.†||1948||Barrister and solicitor||St. Albans|
|Clark, Helen†||1950||Lecturer||Mt. Albert|
|Colman, Hon. F. MacD.†||1925||Secretary of Labour Party Headquarters||Pencarrow|
|Cooper, Hon. W. E.||1933||Motelier||Otago|
|Cox, M. E. C.||1939||Accountant||Manawatu|
|Cullen, Dr M.†||1945||Lecturer||St. Kilda|
|de Cleene, T. A.†||1933||Barrister and solicitor||Palmerston North|
|Dillon, R.†||1933||Barrister and solicitor||Hamilton East|
|Douglas, Hon. R. O.†||1937||Company secretary||Manurewa|
|Dunne, P. F.†||1954||Deputy chief executive officer||Ohariu|
|East, Paul||1946||Barrister and solicitor||Rotorua|
|Elder, Jack†||1949||Teacher||West Auckland|
|Falloon, Hon. J. K.||1942||Farm management consultant||Pahiatua|
|Fraser, Mrs Anne.†||1954||Teacher||East Cape|
|Friedlander, Hon. A. P. D.||1944||Farm appraiser||New Plymouth|
|Gair, Hon. G. F.||1926||Personal Assistant to General Manager, Air New Zealand||North Shore|
|Gerbic, F. M.†||1932||Industrial conciliator||Onehunga|
|Gerard, R. J.||1936||Farmer||Rangiora|
|Goff. Hon. P.†||1953||Lecturer||Roskill|
|Graham, D. A. M.||1942||Barrister and solicitor||Remuera|
|Gray, R. M.||1931||Farmer||Clutha|
|Gregory, Dr B.†||1937||Doctor of Medicine||Northern Maori|
|Hercus, Hon. Ann†||1942||Member of Commerce Commission||Lyttelton|
|Hunt, Hon. Jonathan†||1938||Teacher||New Lynn|
|Isbey, E. E.†||1917||Watersider||Papatoetoe|
|Jeffries, W. P.†||1945||Barrister and solicitor||Heretaunga|
|Jones, N. P. H., Q.S.M.||1923||Teacher||Invercargill|
|Keall, Mrs J. M.†||1942||Teacher||Glenfield|
|Kidd, D. L.||1941||Barrister and solicitor||Marlborough|
|King, Mrs Annette†||1947||Dental tutor||Horowhenua|
|Knapp, G. T.||1947||Businessman||East Coast Bays|
|Lange, Rt. Hon. D. R.†||1942||Barrister and solicitor||Mangere|
|Lee, G. E.||1935||Company director||Hauraki|
|Luxton, J. F.||1923||Farmer||Matamata|
|McClay, R. N.||1945||Teacher||Waikaremoana|
|McKinnon, D. C.||1939||Real estate agent||Rodney|
|McLay, Hon. J. K.||1945||Barrister||Birkenhead|
|McTigue, M. P.‡||1940||Farmer||Timaru|
|Marshall, Hon. C. R.†||1936||Minister and teacher||Wanganui|
|Marshall, Denis||1943||Farmer and company director||Rangitikei|
|Matthewson, Dr Clive†||1944||Civil engineer||Dunedin West|
|Moore, Hon. M. K.†||1949||Freezing worker||Christchurch North|
|Morrison, N. J.||1938||Manufacturer||Pakuranga|
|Moyle, Hon. C. J.†||1929||Teacher/Farmer||Otara|
|Muldoon, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, G.C.M.G., C.H.||1921||Accountant||Tamaki|
|Neilson, Peter†||1954||Civil servant||Miramar|
|Northey, Richard†||1945||Advisory officer||Eden|
|O'Flynn, Hon. F. D., Q.C.†||1918||Barrister and Queen's Counsel||Island Bay|
|O'Regan, Mrs Katherine||1946||Farmer||Waipa|
|Palmer, Hon. Geoffrey†||1942||Lecturer||Christchurch Central|
|Peters, W. R.||1945||Barrister and solicitor||Tauranga|
|Prebble, Hon. R. W.†||1948||Barrister and solicitor||Auckland Central|
|Richardson, Ruth||1950||Legal adviser/Farmer||Selwyn|
|Rodger, Hon. S. J.†||1940||M.O.W.D. employee||Dunedin North|
|Scott, Noel†||1929||Education administrator||Tongariro|
|Shields, Hon. Margaret†||1941||Research worker||Kapiti|
|Shirley, K. L.†||1950||Scientist||Tasman|
|Smith, Dr Lockwood||1948||Managing Director||Kaipara|
|Storey, W. R.||1936||President of Federated Farmers||Waikato|
|Sutton, J. R†||1941||Farmer||Waitaki|
|Sutton, Dr Bill†||1944||Scientist||Hawke's Bay|
|Talbot, Hon. R. L. G.||1923||Farmer||Ashburton|
|Tapsell, Hon. Dr Peter M.B.E.†||1930||Doctor of Medicine||Eastern Maori|
|Terris, J. J.†||1939||Broadcaster||Western Hutt|
|Tirikatene-Sullivan, Hon. Mrs T. W. M.†||1932||Political scientist||Southern Maori|
|Tizard, Hon. R. J.†||1924||Teacher||Panmure|
|Townshend, C. B.||1931||Farmer||Kaimai|
|Upton, S. D.||1958||Student/Teacher||Raglan|
|Wall, Dr G. A.†||1920||Doctor of Medicine||Porirua|
|Wallbank, A. R.†||1937||Farmer||Gisborne|
|Wellington, Hon. M. L.||1940||Teacher||Papakura|
|Wetere, Hon. K. T.†||1935||Farmer||Western Maori|
|Wilde, †||1948||Journalist||Wellington Central|
|Woollaston, P. T. E.†||1944||Teacher||Nelson|
|Young, T. J.†||1925||General Superintendent of New Zealand Alliance||Eastern Hutt|
|Young, Hon. V. S.||1929||Farmer||Waitotara|
NOTE: For further information on previous ministries, Prime Ministers and Governors-General, refer to the 1982 Yearbook.
GENERAL—Local government in New Zealand is characterised by 6 principles which are outlined below:
Each local authority is established by Act of Parliament (either by its own special or local Act of Parliament or, more commonly, by a public Act of Parliament);
Each local authority has its powers defined in the Act of Parliament under which it is established, and under such other Acts of Parliament that apply to local authorities generally;
Each local authority has a specific district within which it operates;
Each local authority is controlled by its own council;
All local authorities except for hospital boards rely on 1 or more of the following sources of funding—local taxes on land (rates), levies on other local authorities, and/or charges derived from trading utilities under their control. Hospital boards are the exception in that they are totally funded by central government;
All local authorities are able to determine their own expenditure priorities and, except for hospital boards, all local authorities are free to set their own overall levels of expenditure.
Local government in New Zealand does not involve itself in the funding, administration or management of education, social welfare, police, or urban fire services, and, except for a small number of specified urban areas, it does not involve itself in traffic control and enforcement. In the New Zealand context, these services are seen as being either the responsibility of central government, or of specialised agencies which are themselves closely involved with central government. For example urban fire services are provided for by the New Zealand Fire Service Commission (see Section 10B of this Yearbook) while education services are provided for through a variety of education boards and councils funded by central government (see Section 7A of this Yearbook). In the New Zealand context, neither the New Zealand Fire Service Commission nor these various education boards and councils are regarded as local authorities.
A particular feature of local government in New Zealand is the importance placed on its accountability to its electors. The emphasis in local government is on local accountability. This precludes central government from becoming directly involved in local government decision-making, (although in the case of catchment authorities there is some central government involvement through representation on each catchment authority). It also means that the decisions of local authorities cannot be reviewed or overturned by central government. Although hospital boards are funded from central government, they have always been locally responsible for the services they provide to meet the health-needs of the populations of their districts. With the advent in 1982 of a population-based system of funding hospital boards, greater emphasis has been placed on local decision-making and accountability in which central government does not have a role to play.
Although central government is unable to review decisions made by local authorities, this does not mean that local government decisions are not subject to review. There is, for example, provision for the Ombudsmen to investigate complaints regarding specific instances of maladministration in local government—a responsibility which they undertake in addition to their duties concerning complaints about central government maladministration. There is also provision for the Controller and Auditor General to carry out investigations regarding any financial misconduct or conflict of financial interest that may occur either on the part of local government officers or elected members. Such investigations can, in certain circumstances, result in automatic forfeiture of office and/or prosecution in terms of the Local Authorities (Members Interests) Act 1968 or the Local Government Act 1974. (The Controller and Auditor General is an officer of State who is directly responsible to Parliament on all matters affecting central government and local government which relate to financial management and control.) Apart from the issues of maladministration and misconduct, there is further scope for review of local government decisions in a limited number of areas by means of appeal to various judicial tribunals or to the District Court. The Planning Tribunal acts as the appropriate appeal body on issues which concern land-use planning and related issues. Under the Local Government Act and related legislation, the District Court acts as an appeal body on some more minor issues relating to local government and property. (This responsibility is in addition to its normal function as the Court for minor civil and criminal proceedings.)
Apart from specialised tribunals and the District Court, local authorities are subject to the general power of judicial review of the High Court. The Administrative Division of the High Court has jurisdiction to consider appeals from the District Court and from judicial bodies, such as the Planning Tribunal. In the case of the Planning Tribunal, appeals are only on points of law. In addition, the Administrative Division of the High Court has general jurisdiction to consider applications for review arising from the exercise of any statutory power by any organisation, including any local authority. Under the Bylaws Act 1910 the Administrative Division of the High Court can quash or amend any bylaws of a local authority on the grounds that they are ultra vires of the local authority, or repugnant to the laws of New Zealand, or unreasonable.
The ability of a local authority to incur debts is also subject to control. Since 1926 all local authorities have been subject to loan-raising controls which are exercised by the Local Authorities Loans Board (a statutory board composed of 4 local government and 3 central government members). Since 1983, some local authorities and some categories of loans have been exempted by central government on the recommendation of the Local Authorities Loans Board. In addition, hospital and harbour boards are subject to capital expenditure controls. (In the case of hospital boards, these controls are exercised by central government, and, in the case of harbour boards, these controls are exercised by the National Ports Authority.) However apart from hospital and harbour boards, local authorities in New Zealand are not subject to any capital expenditure controls other than the loan-raising controls already referred to. In practice, where central government wishes to influence the policies of local government, its only effective means of doing so is through appropriate subsidy and grant schemes, the reason being that local authorities can, and do, finance most of their expenditure from local land taxes (rates), and/or charges from trading utilities under their control.
Local government in New Zealand falls into 4 broad categories:
Territorial local government;
Special purpose local government;
Regional local government;
Community local government.
TERRITORIAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT—Territorial authorities in New Zealand act as directly elected general purpose authorities with responsibilities for roading, water supply, sewage disposal, rubbish disposal, parks and reserves, libraries, community development, land subdivision, land-use planning, pensioner housing, health and building inspection, urban passenger transport, parking meter enforcement and civil defence. The present system of territorial local government in New Zealand has evolved since the abolition of provincial government in 1876. (From 1853, New Zealand had operated a system of provincial government with each province having its own provincial council able to pass its own enactments known as provincial ordinances, but in 1875 Parliament provided for the abolition of the provinces to take effect in 1876.) In 1876, Parliament passed the Rating Act, the Municipal Corporations Act and the Counties Act. These 3 Acts established a system of locally-elected general purpose territorial local authorities funded from local taxes on land (rates). Municipalities were provided for in urban areas, and these included 36 municipalities already in existence which had been incorporated under an earlier Municipal Corporations Act. The remainder of the North and South Islands, together with Stewart Island, was divided into counties, although in the more sparsely settled counties it was intended that no county councils would be immediately established. The last of these designated counties to come under the control of a county council was Fiord County. This happened in 1981 when it was included in the district of the Wallace County Council.
In 1901, Parliament authorised the establishment of a county council for the Chatham Islands (although the first elections for this county council were not held until 1925). In 1912, Parliament authorised the establishment of a county council for Great Barrier Island and in 1970 the Waiheke County Council was constituted covering Waiheke Island (formerly under the control of the Waiheke Road Board) and also covering a number of small islands in the Hauraki Gulf. Apart from some small usually uninhabited offshore islands, all of New Zealand is now covered by directly elected territorial local government—231 territorial authorities in total.
New Zealand's system of directly elected general purpose or territorial local government now comprises counties, district councils and municipalities. There are, in turn, 3 separate classes of municipalities (boroughs, town districts and cities). With the repeal of the Counties Act and the Municipal Corporations Act in 1980, all territorial authorities are now constituted under the Local Government Act. Particular features of all of the types of territorial authority mentioned above are as follows:
Counties—Counties were originally constituted by the Counties Act 1876. Generally, counties are concerned with the needs of rural areas. Initially, there were 63 counties but with increasing settlement this number increased to 129 in 1920. Since then, the number of counties has been reduced by mergers and at 1 April 1985 there were 90 counties. The members of each county council are responsible for electing once every 3 years one of their number to be the chairman of the county council. A complete table of counties with their populations and land areas is set out in Section 3A of this Yearbook.
Municipalities—The Municipal Corporations Act 1876 provided for the incorporation of the 36 boroughs then in existence and for the creation of new boroughs. Boroughs provide for the needs of concentrated populations and, until 1978, there had to be a population of at least 1500, with an average density of population of at least one person per 4000 square metres, before they could be constituted. By 1955, there were 146 boroughs in existence, but by 1 April 1985 there were 128 boroughs—this reduction having resulted from some boroughs being incorporated into adjoining boroughs or counties.
The town district represents a form of municipality that was originally provided for in the Town Districts Act 1881, and later in the Municipal Corporations Act, for areas that had a certain concentration of urban population but not sufficient to justify the formation of a borough. Since 1978, no new town districts can be constituted, and there are now only 3 town districts in existence.
A city is in legal terms merely a borough which has a population of more than 20 000 and has been designated as a city by the Governor-General by Proclamation. Provision for this was originally made in 1886 in the Municipal Corporations Act and the figure of 20 000 population as a requirement for city status has remained unaltered since 1886. In 1886 there were only 5 cities—Dunedin, Christchurch, Wellington, Auckland and Nelson. The Municipal Corporations Act 1886 provided that these 5 cities were deemed to have been cities from the year in which they had legally been incorporated as boroughs, although these cities had previously been recognised as such by provincial ordinances in the case of Dunedin, Wellington and Auckland, and by Letters Patent issued by Queen Victoria in the case of Christchurch and Nelson as well as Auckland and Wellington. By 1955 there were 15 cities (these being included in the figure of 146 boroughs already mentioned above) and in 1985 there were 27 cities (these being included in the figure of 128 boroughs already mentioned above).
Each borough and city has a mayor who is directly elected by the electors of the borough or city, while a town district has a chairman elected by the council of the town district. Apart from acting as the chairman at all meetings of the council, the legal powers of a mayor which directly relate to the function of the borough or city are no greater than the powers of any other member of the council of a borough or city.
A table showing the population and land area of each borough and city is set out in Section 3A of this Yearbook, and a separate table for town districts is also included in this section.
District Councils—This form of territorial local authority was introduced by the Local Government Act 1974 in recognition of the fact that nowadays many territorial authorities are neither wholly urban nor wholly rural. District councils may now be constituted either by Local Government Commission schemes resulting in a merger of a county and a borough or a county and a city, or by a borough council or county council deciding to become a district council. The Governor-General may by Proclamation designate a district under a district council to be a city if, in his opinion, it is predominantly urban and it has a population of not less than 20 000. As at 1 April 1985, there were 10 district councils. Eight of these districts comprise areas which have resulted in a merger of a separate county and borough, or a separate county and city. Some districts have a chairman who is appointed in the same way as the chairman of a county council. Other districts have a mayor who is directly elected by the electors of the district in the same way as the mayor of a borough or city. A table showing the population and land areas of each of these districts is set out in Section 3A of this Yearbook.
SPECIAL PURPOSE LOCAL GOVERNMENT—During the late 19th century various special purpose local authorities were established to carry out specific tasks thought to be beyond the capacity of territorial local authorities. Special purpose local authorities differ from territorial local authorities in that a special purpose local authority is charged with only 1 major function. In the majority of cases the boundaries of special purpose local authorities bear little relationship to the boundaries of the districts of territorial authorities in the same geographical area. Most special purpose local authorities include all or part of a number of territorial authority districts within their own district. Sometimes territorial authorities themselves are also constituted as, and perform the functions of, special purpose local authorities. The more important special purpose local authorities are those administering harbours, hospital services, the retail distribution of electricity, and soil conservation and rivers control (including management and allocation of water resources). Other special purpose local authorities are involved in water supply, urban drainage and transport, pest destruction, nassella tussock control, land drainage, and in some areas the liquor and hotel trade. (Territorial authorities also function as harbour boards in 8 cases, as pest destruction boards in 37 cases, and as electric power supply authorities in 23 cases.) Most special purpose local authorities are directly elected by the electors of the local authority's district, although a minority of special purpose local authorities are indirectly elected in that their membership involves representation from other local authorities that are themselves directly elected. Apart from catchment authorities, pest destruction and nassella tussock boards, there are no Government representatives on any special purpose local authorities, or indeed on any other type of local authority.
The major categories of special purpose local authorities and the number involved in each category are: hospital boards (29); electric power boards including 1 energy (electric power and gas) board (38); harbour boards (15); and catchment authorities (including the Waikato Valley Authority) (18). These categories of special purpose local authorities are found throughout New Zealand. Electric power boards and harbour boards are all directly elected local authorities. Of the 18 catchment authorities, 13 are directly elected catchment boards (although with some Government representation not exceeding one-third of the membership of any catchment board), 4 are indirectly elected catchment commissions with the majority of their members appointed to represent constituent territorial authorities and a minority of their members appointed to represent central government, and the remaining one is the Waikato Valley Authority which is also indirectly elected in the same way. As mentioned above, catchment authorities are responsible for soil conservation and rivers control (including management and allocation of water resources).
In addition to the special purpose local authorities already mentioned, there are various minor categories of special purpose local authorities which are found only in some parts of New Zealand. These include 30 directly elected liquor licensing trusts (which are community controlled liquor and hotel businesses), 60 directly elected pest destruction boards, 2 directly elected and 2 indirectly elected urban drainage boards, 23 directly elected land (rural) drainage boards, 6 directly elected river boards (2 of which are also land drainage boards), 2 directly elected charitable lands trusts, 1 directly elected transport board, and 1 directly elected rural water supply board. (The names of all directly elected special purpose local authorities are found in the Local Authority Election Statistics published by the Department of Internal Affairs.)
There are also a small number of indirectly elected special purpose local authorities. Apart from the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority, all of the indirectly elected special purpose authorities referred to in Section 2c of the 1983 edition of the New Zealand Official Yearbook are still in existence.
REGIONAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT—In 1963, the Auckland Regional Authority was established under its own Act of Parliament as a directly elected regional council to carry out a range of regional functions within the Auckland metropolitan area and its immediately adjoining rural hinterland—an area which contains 27 percent of New Zealand's total population. The range of functions carried out by the Auckland Regional Authority includes the operation of the Auckland International Airport, urban public passenger transport, regional planning, regional parks and reserves, regional urban water supply, regional drainage, regional refuse collection and disposal, regional roads, community development, regional civil defence, and assistance to beach patrol rescue services and the regional orchestra. The Auckland Regional Authority also carries out within its region the various responsibilities that in other parts of the country are carried out by catchment authorities.
The only other regional council apart from the Auckland Regional Authority is the Wellington Regional Council (established in 1980), which contains within its region 10 percent of New Zealand's population. The Wellington Regional Council was established in terms of the Local Government Act 1974 and carries out within its region the various responsibilities that in other parts of the country are carried out by catchment authorities, as well as also being responsible for regional planning, regional civil defence, regional parks and reserves, regional urban water supply, forestry and urban public passenger transport planning.
In addition to the Wellington Regional Council, in the period 1977 to 1983, 20 united councils were established in terms of the Local Government Act 1974, each with its own region. The principle behind the establishment of these 20 united councils was that they were seen as providing a form of regional government for those regions that are generally accepted as not justifying the expense of a regional council. Particular features of united councils which distinguish them from regional councils are:
The membership of the united council is appointed directly by the territorial authorities of the region (rather than by election by the electors of the region, as in the case of a regional council);
The finance of the united council is by way of levy on the territorial authorities of the region (rather than by way of a rate payable by the ratepayers of the region, as in the case of a regional council);
In addition, a united council must have the prior consent of the majority of territorial authorities in its region (having sufficient weighting in capital value, population and area) before it can take on any new function. (This again is a restriction that regional councils are not subject to.)
Most united councils also have an arrangement whereby their staff are seconded to them by 1 of the territorial authorities of the region—this territorial authority being known as “the administering authority”. (This is a situation which is unlike that which pertains to regional councils which employ their own staff and resources.)
Regional councils and united councils possess their functions through several means. First, every united or regional council has 2 mandatory functions—regional planning (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1977) and regional civil defence (under the Civil Defence Act 1983). Besides these 2 mandatory functions, the Local Government Act provides, with qualifications in some cases, that a united or regional council may undertake functions relating to regional reserves, forestry, regional roading, and community services. A united or regional council may, in certain circumstances, undertake the functions of any territorial authority or (where a special purpose local authority or the appropriate Minister of the Crown concurs) the functions of that special purpose local authority. A united or regional council is empowered to undertake exclusively any new regional function which is not undertaken by any other local authority in the region. A united or regional council may also enter into an agreement with a constituent authority to undertake any function of that authority where, in the opinion of either party, that function would be more effectively and economically undertaken by the regional body. Finally, united and regional councils may enter into agreements with the Crown whereby they may exercise any function or provide any service for or on behalf of the Crown.
The regions of the 20 united councils and the 2 regional councils (Auckland and Wellington) cover all of the country, except for Great Barrier Island County which is not yet included in any region, and the Chatham Islands County which, because of its isolation, is specifically excluded from the requirement to be part of a region. A table listing all the regions, together with their populations, is set out in Section 3a of this Yearbook.
COMMUNITY LOCAL GOVERNMENT—This is a form of local government participation which is subordinate to territorial local government. The Local Government Act provides for the establishment of “communities” within the districts of territorial local authorities. Since 1976, a community may be constituted only in an urban area within the rural part of a territorial authority district that is predominantly urban in character, or in an urban area within a territorial authority district that is predominantly rural in character, or in the whole of the area of one or more offshore islands forming part of a territorial authority district. (These provisions are broadly in line with earlier provisions which had enabled “county towns” and “county boroughs” to be formed within counties, and most “communities” are in fact former “county towns” or “county boroughs”.) Notwithstanding the provisions for establishing “communities”, a number of towns in rural areas do not have “community” status, usually because these towns feel they are sufficiently large that their interests will not be overlooked by their territorial authority.
Although not local authorities in the true sense, each “community” has either a “district community council” or a “community council” of not less than 5 nor more than 12 members, elected by residents and ratepayers for a 3-year term. These “district community councils” or “community councils” are legally committees of their parent territorial authority. The differences between “district community councils” and “community councils” are as follows:
District Community Councils—The district community has direct representation on its parent territorial authority. By statute, except for certain reserved powers dealing with finance, staff and planning, a district community council may exercise all the powers and functions of its parent territorial authority. A district community council may be established only in respect of a community having a population of not less than 1500. As at 1 April 1985 there were 15 district community councils. These 15 district community councils together had the equivalent of 1.9 percent of New Zealand's population within their “communities”. A table listing these district community councils together with their populations and the name of their parent territorial authority is set out in Section 3a of this Yearbook.
Community Councils—A community council does not have direct representation on its parent territorial authority. Community councils derive their powers by delegation from their territorial authority, at its discretion, but powers dealing with finance, staff and planning cannot be delegated. In addition to exercising such powers as may be delegated to it, the general purpose of a community council is to coordinate and express to the parent territorial authority the views of the community on any matter of concern to it, and to undertake, encourage and co-ordinate activities for the general well-being of the residents of the community. Although a community council does not have direct representation on its parent territorial authority, it is entitled to have one of its members present at meetings of the council of the territorial authority with speaking rights on issues relating to the community. As at 1 April 1985,there were 118 community councils. These 118 community councils together had the equivalent of 2.8 percent of New Zealand's population within their “communities”. A table showing those community councils which have a population of 1000 or more and the name of their parent territorial authority is set out in Section 3a of this Yearbook.
GENERAL POWERS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES—Local authorities in New Zealand derive their powers from the Act under which they are constituted. As mentioned above, the Local Government Act is the main governing Act for territorial authorities, as it is for united, regional, district community and community councils. Special purpose local authorities are constituted under other Acts of Parliament.
There are several statutory measures which are more or less applicable to all local authorities, such as the Public Bodies Meetings Act 1962, the Local Authorities (Members Interests) Act 1968 and the Local Authorities Loans Act 1956. Other legislation applicable to territorial, regional and various other types of local authority includes the Rating Act 1967, the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976, the Public Bodies Leases Act 1969, the Town and Country Planning Act 1977, the Public Works Act 1981, the Reserves Act 1977, the Health Act 1956, the Local Authorities (Employment Protection) Act 1963 and the Joint Council for Local Authorities Services Act 1977.
A local authority's powers to levy local taxes on land (rates) are dealt with in Section 27 of this Yearbook. A local authority can make bylaws within limits defined in its constituting Act. In the case of a special purpose local authority these bylaws are subject to approval by a Minister of the Crown. In the case of territorial authorities and regional councils, their bylaws (apart from fire bylaws) do not require the prior approval of central government if they have been made solely under the Local Government Act. A local authority can promote Parliamentary legislation on matters which affect the government of the area under its jurisdiction and which it is not already empowered to deal with. If the subject is transient and not contentious and is approved by Government, it is usually dealt with by the inclusion of an appropriate section in the annual Local Legislation Act passed by Parliament for this purpose. If, on the other hand, the local authority seeks powers of a permanent or major nature additional to those conferred on it by general Acts, it must submit the proposal to Parliament in the form of a local Bill. If it is approved by Parliament, the proposal then is enacted as a local Act. Thirteen local Acts were passed in 1983.
Elections—Under the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976, local government general elections are held on the second Saturday in October every third year. Relevant statistics from these elections are published by the Department of Internal Affairs in its publication Local Authority Election Statistics. The local government general elections were last held on 8 October 1983. All territorial authorities are responsible for conducting their own elections as well as the elections of those special purpose local authorities and the regional, community and district community councils whose districts cover all or part of the territorial authority districts.
Each territorial authority is required to use its electoral roll for regional council elections and community and district community council elections where applicable, and for the elections of all special purpose local authorities, other than land drainage boards, river boards and pest destruction boards.
Where a territorial authority has a population of less than 70 000 it is required to choose once every 3 years whether its council is to be elected with the territorial authority district being constituted as one electorate; or, whether the territorial authority district should be constituted as separate electorates (known as “wards” in cities and boroughs, and “ridings” in counties); or, if the elections could be held with some members of the council elected from the district as a whole, and others from separate “wards” or “ridings” within the district. (In this situation where a territorial authority decides to divide its district into “wards” or “ridings” for electoral purposes, the council has the sole responsibility for determining the number of “wards” or “ridings” and the area, population and representation of each “ward” or “riding”.) Where a territorial authority has a population of 70 000 or more it is required to hold its elections on a “ward” basis as determined by the Local Government Commission. In the case of the 1986 local government general elections where a territorial authority had wards in 1983 it will be able to use these same wards without a requirement to seek a Local Government Commission determination.
In the case of the 2 regional councils and most of the elected special purpose local authorities, the district of the regional council or the special purpose local authority is divided into separate electorates—the boundaries of which usually coincide with territorial authority district boundaries. The electoral districts of regional councils and special purpose local authorities are determined on the basis specified in the various Acts of Parliament under which these authorities are constituted.
Voting Procedures—Under the provisions of the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976, any territorial authority may determine whether an election or poll is to be conducted by personal attendance at a polling booth or by way of postal vote. Where the franchise is to be exercised by personal attendance at a polling booth, the territorial authority may decide to conduct the election or poll over a period of not more than 11 consecutive days instead of confining voting to a single day.
The method of casting a vote is broadly similar to that used for Parliament. The names of candidates are printed on the ballot paper and the elector must indicate on the ballot paper the name of the candidate or candidates for whom the elector wishes to vote. In so doing, the number of candidates chosen by the elector must not exceed the number of positions shown on the ballot paper. In addition in filling out a ballot paper an elector may not allocate more than 1 vote for any candidate, nor is there any provision for an elector to otherwise indicate a preference for any candidate.
Franchise for Electors—In general, the franchise extends to all persons aged 18 years or over who are New Zealand citizens or are permanent residents (as defined in the Electoral Act), and who either possess a ratepayer qualification or have resided for 3 months in the district of the local authority concerned. (In the case of persons who do not have a ratepayer qualification but who have resided for 3 months in the district—these persons are deemed to be qualified to be residential electors.) Each legally defined property has attached to it 1 ratepayer qualification, and this is irrespective of the number of persons who own the property or the status these persons have. Unless the owners of a property determine otherwise, the ratepayer qualification is exercised by the person whose name appears first in the Valuation Department's records for the property concerned, and this is so whether or not the person who holds this qualification resides within the district. No person can hold more than one ratepayer-elector qualification in each territorial authority district, nor can a person exercise a residential elector qualification in addition to a ratepayer-elector qualification. In the case of residential electors, these persons must have applied for enrolment at the office of their territorial authority, although if they are on the current published Parliamentary electoral roll and are still resident at the address which is shown on that roll, they can vote even though their names are not found on the territorial authority roll.
For regional councils the franchise is limited to those who are resident within the region and have a ratepayer-elector qualification or a residential elector qualification, and in the case of licensing trusts and the two charitable lands trusts the right to vote is similarly restricted to those who are qualified by residence within the district. (The significance of these variations is that persons who are ratepayers and who live outside the region or district cannot vote for these categories of local authority, although as absentee ratepayers they can still vote for the territorial authority in whose district they hold their qualification.)
Membership of Local Authorities—All persons eligible to vote are also eligible to stand for election for the council of the local authority concerned. Depending on the Act of Parliament under which the local authority is constituted, vacancies in the elected membership of the council of the local authority may be filled by either election or appointment. In the case of a territorial authority or a regional council, a petition by 5 percent of the electors of the district is sufficient to require the territorial authority to hold a by-election. In the case of most special purpose local authorities any vacancy in membership is filled by appointment by the territorial authority or territorial authorities whose districts comprise the special purpose local authority electorate in respect of which the vacancy exists.
As far as is known, the earliest case of involvement of a woman as a council member of a local authority was in 1893 when Mrs Elizabeth Yates was elected mayor of Onehunga Borough. In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number of women who are mayors, chairmen and members of councils of local authorities. With the holding of the 1983 local government elections women now comprise 22 percent of the total membership of municipalities, and 9 percent of the total membership of counties and districts. (Figures on the extent of participation of women in the membership of various categories of local authorities are contained in the Local Authority Election Statistics published by the Department of Internal Affairs.)
Remuneration of Members—The remuneration of members of councils of local authorities is governed by the Acts of Parliament constituting the various types of local authorities. Most local authorities pay their chairman an annual allowance with a maximum fixed for each type of authority, while their other members are paid an allowance on a ‘per meeting’ basis. The Local Government Amendment Act 1985 provides that the chairman of all major united and regional councils and the chairmen and mayors of all major territorial authorities will have their maximum or actual annual allowances determined by the Higher Salaries Commission established by the Act of the same name. This Amendment Act provision also requires the Higher Salaries Commission to determine the maximum or actual annual allowance of the chairman of one harbour board, one hospital board, one electric power board and one catchment board. It is intended that these determinations will become the basis for separate determinations which will set the maximum or actual allowances and meeting allowances of the chairmen and members of each category and size of local authority.
PLANNING AND RELATED ISSUES—The Town and Country Planning Act 1977 provides for the making and enforcement of regional, district and maritime planning schemes, and the detailed procedure to be followed in each case is amplified by the Town and Country Planning Regulations 1978. Although the Government administers the Act through the Minister of Works and Development, the statutory responsibility for planning under the Town and Country Planning Act lies with territorial authorities, regional and united councils in the case of district and regional schemes, and in the case of some maritime planning schemes it lies with harbour boards. On planning matters, the Planning Tribunal (which is a specialised judicial body) acts as the appropriate appeal body on issues which concern district land use planning, regional planning, the granting of water rights, the subdivision of land, the preservation of historic places, the making of local government financial levies on subdivisions and on development projects to finance public reserves, the taking of land for public works, the creation of pedestrian malls and the designation of regional roads and limited access roads.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORM—To promote reform of the structure of local government, a Local Government Commission was first established, as a quasi-judicial body, in 1946. The present Local Government Commission, constituted by the Local Government Amendment Act 1985, replaces an earlier Local Government Commission which operated in the period 1978-1985. The present Local Government Commission comprises a chairman and between three and five other members are appointed by the Minister of Local Government. Provision has also been made for appointment of temporary members by the Minister at the request of the Commission.
The Local Government Commission undertakes investigations, prepares schemes and makes recommendations and reports for the purpose of ensuring that:
The system of local government in any local authority district best provides for the needs and well-being of its residents and the continued development of the district;
Local authorities have such district boundaries and such functions and powers as enable them to provide most effectively and economically essential or desirable local government services and facilities;
Local authorities have such resources as enable them to engage adequate services and to obtain and operate adequate technical facilities, plant and equipment; and
Districts are of such a size and nature as will promote efficient local government and avoid the necessity of uneconomic expenditure.
The legislation sets out procedures to guide the Local Government Commission, with emphasis being placed on consultation on proposals at an early stage, prior to formulating a provisional scheme. After the hearing of objections to a provisional scheme, the commission may draw up a final scheme. A commission scheme may provide for the union of local authority districts, the constitution or abolition of any district, the adjustment of boundaries, or a transfer of functions from one local authority to another. A particular feature is provision for the appointment of conciliators by the commission to inquire into and negotiate on a proposal for a scheme, prior to any provisional scheme procedures being initiated.
The Local Government Act, as originally enacted in 1974, brought all special purpose local authorities (other than hospital boards, licensing trusts and charitable lands trusts) within the jurisdiction of the Local Government Commission. An amendment in 1976, however, removed the automatic jurisdiction of the commission in relation to special purpose local authorities, so that it may now include these local authorities in a provisional scheme only where the appropriate Minister of the Crown or the special purpose local authorities concerned are agreed.
All Local Government Commission final schemes are implemented either by an Order in Council promulgated by the Governor-General with the advice and consent of the Executive Council, or by an Act of Parliament to amend or repeal a special or local Act (where the local authority was originally established under its own special or local Act of Parliament).
In addition to the Local Government Commission scheme procedures mentioned above, a local authority can be abolished by an Act of Parliament without reference to the Local Government Commission. The only cases where this has happened in recent years was with the abolition of the Christchurch-Lyttelton Road Tunnel Authority in 1979 and the abolition of the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority in 1984. In both cases this action was taken by an Act of Parliament in the previous year and was consequential to a decision by Central Government to take over the responsibility for the financing and maintenance of these two sections of roading as part of the national roading system.
FURTHER INFORMATION—Books dealing with various aspects of the wide range of historical, constitutional, political, economic, and governmental matters touched on in this section will be found listed in the select bibliography of New Zealand books near the back of this Yearbook.
Parliamentary papers which may be found useful include the following:
Report of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Parl. paper A. 1).
Report of the General Election 1984 (Parl. paper E. 9, 1984).
Report of the Department of Internal Affairs (Parl. paper G. 7).
Report of the Licensing Polls 1984 (Parl. paper E. 9B, 1984).
Report of the Local Government Commission (Parl. paper G. 9).
Report of the Ombudsmen (Parl. paper A. 3).
Local Authority Election Statistics—Department of Internal Affairs.
Table of Contents
By world standards New Zealand's population is small—3.3 million at the end of 1984. New Zealand's first million of population was recorded in 1908, 68 years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1952, 44 years later, the second million was reached, and the third million late in 1973. Recent predictions are that the fourth million will not be reached until well into the twenty-first century.
Population growth has two components—natural increase (excess of births over deaths) and net migration (excess of arrivals over departures. In its early years in New Zealand the bulk of the increase was through migration. From the late 1870s natural increase permanently displaced immigration as the chief contributor to population growth. At the Census of 1881 the percentages of the total population born in New Zealand and born overseas were approximately equal (50.2 percent New Zealand-born to 49.8 percent overseas-born), and each succeeding census until 1951 recorded an increased proportion of the population being New Zealand-born. Since 1951 (when the New Zealand-born made up 86 percent of the population) the proportion has fallen slightly, mainly because increased internationaltravel and tourism have meant that at each census increased numbers of overseas-born tourists and travellers have been included in the population as enumerated on census date. At the 1981 Census, data based on the usually resident population (that is, the population excluding tourists and other visitors) showed that 85 percent had been born New Zealand.
During the present century, natural increase has accounted for over three-quarters of the growth of population. New Zealand's rate of natural increase has, until recently, been relatively high compared with other countries whose population is predominantly of European origin.
The natural increase rate has, in the main, closely reflected the changes in the birth rate with a low point of 8.63 births per 1000 persons in 1935 and high points of 18 per 1000 in 1947 and 1961. In the 1960s the average rate was less than 16 per 1000, and the rate continued to fall throughout the 1970s, reflecting the continued fall in the birth rate, until it has now fallen below the previous low point recorded in 1935 (in 1983 the natural increase rate was 7.59). The fall in birth rate in the sixties and seventies is a feature that New Zealand shared with a number of other developed countries, and notably with Australia, Canada, and the United States.
The natural increase in recent years is shown in the following table. A series of vital statistics is included in the Statistical Summary near the back of this Yearbook.
|Period||March Years||December Years|
|Births*||Deaths||Natural Increase||Births*||Deaths||Natural Increase|
*Excluding Section 14 birth registrations. These are “late” registrations. See Yearbook Section 4b Births.
|Total, 1946-1984||2 196.6||867.2||1 329.4||2 202.9||872.9||1 330.4|
In the present century, migration has continued to add to the population quite substantially except during the two world wars and in times of economic difficulties. Gains and losses from external migration since the Second World War are shown in the following table. Movements of the armed forces are not included.
|Period||March Years* Migration Gain||December Years Migration Gain|
*March years ended in years listed.
†Excess of departures.
The years since the late 1960s stand out because of the major changes in the levels and directions of net external migration. Also, Australia has replaced the United Kingdom as the country having the largest exchange of migrants with New Zealand.
Annual figures of the net inflow or outflow from migration since 1975 are shown in the following table and in more detail later in this section.
|Year Ended March||Net Inflow or Outflow* From|
|Total Migration||Permanent and Long-term Migration|
*A minus sign indicates outflow.
|1977||-13 727||-19 072|
|1978||-22 307||-26 708|
|1979||-26 906||-40 200|
|1980||-22 299||-34 417|
|1981||-15 328||-24 825|
|1982||-5 182||-11 482|
POPULATION STATISTICS—Population statistics are based primarily on the 5-yearly population census. Intercensal population estimates are based on the most recent census data available, adjusted in accordance with later figures of births, deaths, and migration. Estimates of the populations of particular localities, e.g., cities and boroughs, also take into account local economic developments, housing schemes, the numbers on school rolls, changes in boundaries, and any other factors leading to, or indicating, changes in population.
The population census, and other population statistics in New Zealand generally are ‘de facto’ i.e. they represent the population physically present in the place of enumeration, at the time of enumeration. All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand. Though Tokelau is constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons it is administered separately. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing but the inhabitants are New Zealand citizens.
The most recent Census of Population and Dwellings in New Zealand was taken on 24 March 1981. The next will be taken on 4 March 1986.
The figures in the table following are intercensal estimates and exclude members of New Zealand armed forces who were overseas, and also members of the armed forces of other countries who were in New Zealand.
|Year||Total Population at End of Year||Increase During Year||Mean Population for Year|
|Years Ended 31 March|
|1984||1 621 600x||1 643 900x||3,265,500||35,500||1.1||3 235 000x|
|1985||1 633 400*||1 657 900*||3 291 300*||25 900*||0.8*||3 265 300*|
|Years Ended 31 December|
|1984||1 638 300x||1 661 200x||3,299,500||30,000||0.9||3,258,300|
INCREASE OF POPULATION—The growth of population in the most recent intercensal period was unusually low. Before the 1976-81 period, the lowest rates were those of 1926-36, which included some years of economic depression, of 1936-45, which included World War II, and 1966-71, mainly attributable to a marked change in migration patterns. However, the population increase of only 46 354 between the censuses of 1976 and 1981, covering years of net migration losses and low birth rates, represents a steep fall from any intercensal increase recorded during this century. It is the more significant because the increase of 266 752 during the previous intercensal period (1971-76) was the highest ever recorded in New Zealand.
Totals and increase rates from the five most recent censuses are shown below.
|*Numbers of persons in New Zealand armed forces overseas are excluded.|
|18 April 1961||2,414,984||240,922||11.08||2.12|
|22 March 1966||2,676,919||261,935||10.85||2.08|
|23 March 1971||2,862,631||185,712||6.94||1.35|
|23 March 1976||3,129,383||266,752||9.32||1.80|
|24 March 1981||3,175,737||46,354||1.48||0.30|
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—The annual average percentage increases of population for the period 1980-83, are given in the following table for certain selected countries.
|Country||Average Annual Percentage Increase|
|Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1983.|
POPULATION PROJECTIONS—An indication of possible future growth of the total New Zealand population up to 2016 is given in the alternative projection series which follow.
Projections of future population involve an element of uncertainty owing to an incomplete knowledge of the factors underlying changes in fertility, mortality and migration levels. Also, difficulties in forecasting the future behaviour of these components of population change result from rapidly changing trends brought about by varying social, and especially economic, conditions.
It should be understood that, as with all demographic projections prepared by the Department of Statistics, these projections are not strict forecasts or targets, but conditional forecasts based on the stated assumptions. Presentation and use of the projections, therefore, cannot be divorced from consideration of the assumptions adopted.
These national population projections incorporate alternative short-term assumptions involving changing annual levels of net immigration as described in the footnotes to the table.
Age-sex-specific projections, equivalent to those in the table below, are available from the Demographic Specialist Studies Section, Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Christchurch.
|At 31 March||Projected Total New Zealand Population Assuming:*†|
|Long-term Net Annual Immigration of Zero and Short-term Migration Variant Designated‡||Long-term Net Annual Immigration of 5000 and Short-term Migration Variant Designated‡|
*These projections have as base the estimated population at 31 March 1982. They incorporate the following assumptions:
(a) That future fertility experience will be in accordance with the “medium” variant (see (†) below).
(b) That the 1982 (base) age-sex specific mortality rates decrease annually by 2 percent to 1986 and then by 1 percent to 1991 after which time they remain constant. (The base rates are the 1975-77 Life Table Mortality rates (total population) decreased by 10 percent).
†Three alternative fertility variants—designated “low”, “medium”, and “high” have been derived in terms of age specific fertility rates.
These rates are generally projected to decrease over the period 1983-1991, after which time they are assumed to remain constant. The “low”, “medium”, and “high” fertility variants give total fertility rates of 1.59, 1.85, and 2.11 from 1992 onwards. (These rates represent alternative average family sizes in the long-term.)
‡(a) The “low” short-term migration variant assumes net immigration for the years ended 31 March as follows: 15 651 (1983-actual), 15 000 (1984), 10 000 (1985), and 5000 (1986).
(b) The “medium” short-term migration variant assumes net immigration for the years ended 31 March as follows: 15 651 (1983-actual), 20 000 (1984), 15 000 (1985), 10 000 (1986), and 5000 (1987).
(c) The “high” short-term migration variant assumes net immigration for the years ended 31 March as follows: 15 651 (1983-actual), 25 000 (1984), 20 000 (1985), 15 000 (1986), 10 000 (1987), and 5000 (1988).
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census and are published in 3 parts as Volume 1, Location and Increase of Population, Part A. Population Size and Distribution, Part B. Population Density and Part C. Usually Resident Population of the Census of Population and Dwellings. In the case of the 1981 Census, prior to the publication of the subject-matter volumes a series of 10 Regional Statistics bulletins has been published, each giving final population, dwelling, and household statistics by population centre and subdivision for a major area of New Zealand.
North and South Islands—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration, and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of NZ Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.
The following table gives the population of the North and South Islands since 1901.
|Census Year||Total Population||Percentages|
|North Island||South Island||Total||North Island||South Island|
Post-Population Census estimates reveal that the population of the North Island continues to increase at a greater rate than that of the South Island. At 31 March 1984 the North Island population was 2 414 400, an increase of 3.9 percent on the 1981 Population Census figure of 2 322 989. The corresponding South Island population was 851 100, a decrease of 0.2 percent on the 1981 Population Census figure of 852 748. However, between the 1981 Population Census and 31 March 1984, births in the South Island totalled over 36 400 and deaths over 22 400, giving a natural increase of approximately 14 000. The fact that the total population decrease was 1600 indicates a net migration outflow during the period of approximately 15 600 but the relative movements to and from overseas and the North Island are not available.
In the 1976-81 intercensal period there was a net migration outflow from the South Island of approximately 35 100. This was attributable to a substantial net loss of population overseas and a net loss to the North Island of 8700 persons aged 5 years and over.
Statistical Areas—In the following table are shown the areas and enumerated populations of the statistical areas at the most recent Population Census and the estimated populations at 31 March 1984.
|Statistical Area*||Area (Square Kilometres)||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population as at 31 March 1984|
*Includes adjacent islands and land reclamations where appropriate.
†Includes Chatham Islands County.
‡Includes Stewart Island County.
|South Auckland-Bay of Plenty||36 902x||491,304||515,600|
|East Coast||10 914x||48,573||49,300|
|Total, North Island||114 834x||2 322 989||2 414 400|
|Total, South Island||153 978x||852 748||851 100|
|Total, New Zealand||268 812x||3 175 737||3 265 500|
Statistical Divisions—Statistical divisions are statistical concepts and have no general administrative purpose. They were introduced in 1971 and provide stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population which may cover several territorial local authorities. The basic criterion for a statistical division is a population of 75 000 or more within the area of economic and social interests of a heavily populated centre. Seven statistical divisions have been established, namely, Auckland, Hamilton, Napier-Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington (including Hutt), Christchurch, and Dunedin. The populations of the seven statistical divisions are as follows:
|Statistical Division||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984|
|Total, 7 Statistical Divisions||1 973 335||2 036 800|
Urban Areas—Like statistical divisions urban areas are statistical concepts. They embrace areas of unified community, economic and social interests. In addition to the central city or borough, urban areas include neighbouring boroughs and town districts and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population. Minor adjustments of main urban area boundaries have been made because of the peripheral growth of population in some of the urban areas between 1976 and 1981.
A change of definition of ‘main urban areas’ applicable to the Greater Auckland and Greater Wellington areas has been made and became effective on 1 April 1984. The Auckland and Wellington Main Urban Areas now comprise what were formerly defined as the respective Combined Urban Areas and the former so-called Main Urban Areas are now ‘zones’.
For the 1981 Census, a new group of 14 secondary urban areas, with populations of over 1000 but below 30 000 was created. The populations of the 31 defined urban areas are as follows:
|Urban Area (U.A.)||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984|
|*The Auckland and Wellington Main Urban Areas have been redefined and now comprise what were formerly defined as the respective Combined Urban Areas, the former so-called Main Urban Areas are now ‘zones’.|
|Main Urban Area—|
|Northern Auckland Zone||149,321||165,800|
|Western Auckland Zone||116,407||127,200|
|Central Auckland Zone||275,914||273,400|
|Southern Auckland Zone||227,916||249,000|
|Upper Hutt Valley Zone||36,525||37,200|
|Lower Hutt Valley Zone||94,732||93,800|
|Porirua Basin Zone||54,653||54,400|
|Wellington City Zone||135,094||133,200|
|Total, 17 Main Urban Areas||2 140 046||2 204 200|
|Secondary Urban Area—|
|Total, 14 Secondary Urban Areas||220 998||225 500|
NOTE: Because of rounding, the individual figures in this table do not always sum to give stated totals.
Local Government Regions—The Local Government Act of 1974 provides for the constitution of these regions, the mandatory function of such being regional planning and civil defence. At the time of preparing this publication, 22 regions had been determined by the Local Government Commission. These cover every territorial local authority in New Zealand with the exception of Chatham Islands County. Extra-county islands and shipboard populations are also excluded.
The populations in the following table are those enumerated at the 1981 Population Census and estimated for the local government regions as they existed at 31 March 1984; they may be subject to modification as a result of objections lodged by various Local Authorities.
|Local Government Region||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population as at 31 March 1984|
*Includes the populations of extra-county islands (islands not within county or city or borough boundaries) and populations on board vessels in New Zealand waters.
†Includes the population of Chatham Islands County.
|Bay of Plenty||172,480||186,200|
|Remainder North Island*||3,233||3,200|
|Total, North Island||2 322 989||2 414 400|
|Remainder South Island*†||1,990||2,000|
|Total, South Island||852 748||851 100|
|Total, New Zealand||3 175 737||3 265 500|
Cities and Boroughs—The populations of cities and boroughs enumerated at the 1981 population census and estimated at 31 March 1984 are shown in the following table.
|City or Borough||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|*While estimates are given at 31 March 1984, they relate to Local Authority boundaries existing at 1 April 1984.|
|East Coast Bays (city)||28,303||34,200|
|Mt. Albert (city)||26,462||26,100|
|One Tree Hill||11,078||11,000|
|New Plymouth (city)||36,048||36,700|
|Palmerston N. (city)||60,105||62,200|
|Upper Hutt (city)||31,405||31,900|
|Lower Hutt (city)||63,245||62,800|
|Total, North Island cities and boroughs||1 740 448||1 805 000|
|Total, South Island cities and boroughs||523 646||520 200|
|Total, New Zealand Cities and Boroughs||2 264 094||2 325 200|
NOTE: Because of rounding, individual figures in this table do not always add to give the stated total.
Districts—A new concept in local government—the district—appeared in the 1976 Census of Population and Dwellings statistics with the creation of the Thames-Coromandel District, constituted on 1 October 1975. Nine further districts, the largest of which is Waimairi—formerly Waimairi County—were constituted between 23 March 1976 and 1 April 1982. For the most part these have been the result of amalgamations between boroughs and surrounding counties or the re-designation of boroughs.
|District||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|*While estimates are given at 31 March 1984, they relate to Local Authority boundaries existing at 1 April 1984.|
|Total||18 175||19 600|
|Total||10 892||10 800|
|Total||58 540||61 900|
|Total, North Island||150 565||156 300|
|Total, South Island||75 804||77 800|
|Total, New Zealand||226 369||234 000|
NOTE: Because of rounding, the individual figures in this table do not always sum to give the stated totals.
Town Districts—The populations of town districts—i.e. those areas contained in the following table—are not included in that of the county in which the town district is located.
|Town District||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|*While estimates are given at 31 March 1984, they relate to Local Authority boundaries existing at 1 April 1984.|
|Total, New Zealand||3 528||3 660|
Communities—The following table lists communities with estimated populations of 1000 or more as at 31 March 1984 and the corresponding enumerated 1981 Population Census figures. The parent local authority is shown in parentheses. The populations of communities are included in the administrative county populations given in a later table.
|Community||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|Kerikeri (Bay of Islands)||1,367||1,650|
|Russell (Bay of Islands)||932||1,030|
|Moerewa (Bay of Islands)||1,605||1,640|
|Kawakawa (Bay of Islands)||1,624||1,640|
|Paihia (Bay of Islands)||1,740||1,900|
|Whitianga (Coromandel Div.)||1,960||2,140|
|Coromandel (Coromandel Div.)||946||1,080|
|Whangamata (Thames Div.)||1,566||1,830|
|Thames (Thames Div.)||6,456||6,480|
|Waihi Beach (Ohinemuri)||1,317||1,400|
|Papamoa Beach (Tauranga)||2,221||2,840|
|Edgecumbe (Whakatane Dist.)||1,929||2,030|
|Waipawa (Waipawa Dist.)||1,732||1,710|
|Foxton Beach (Manawatu)||1,002||1,020|
|Woodend (Rangiora Dist.)||981||1,080|
|Pleasant Point (Strathallan)||1,099||1,140|
|Te Anau (Wallace)||2,610||2,690|
District Communities—The following table lists the estimated populations of district communities as at 31 March 1984 and the enumerated 1981 Population Census figures. The parent local authority is shown in parentheses and the populations are also included in the administrative county populations.
|District Community||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|Total||47 014||46 600|
|Total||19 437||19 200|
|Total. District Communities||66 451||65 800|
NOTE: Because of rounding, the individual figures in this table do not always sum to give the stated totals.
Extra-county Islands and Shipboard Population—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, districts, cities and boroughs, and town districts, the New Zealand totals include shipboard populations and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any Local Authority. These two categories comprised an estimated total of 4470 persons as at 31 March 1984.
Counties—The following table gives the enumerated populations of individual counties at the 1981 Population Census together with estimated populations as at 31 March 1984. It should be noted that “administrative counties” do not include boroughs or town districts, which are independent of county control, but include district communities and communities, which form parts of counties.
|Administrative County||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984*|
|Bay of Islands||18,961||20,500|
|Great Barrier Is.||572||730|
|Total, North Island counties||425 215||446 300|
|Total, South Island counties||252 059||251 900|
|Total, New Zealand counties||677 274||698 100|
NOTE: Because of rounding, the individual figures in this table do not always sum to give the stated totals.
Non-administrative Population Centres—For the first time in 1979 population estimates were prepared for other non-administrative centres with total populations of 1000 or more. Populations of these centres are included in the figures for the parent local authority areas given previously.
|Non-administrative||Population Census 1981||Estimated Population at 31 March 1984|
|Temple View (Waipa Co.)||1,232||1,310|
|Te Kuiti (Waitomo Dist.)||4,795||4,840|
|Rotorua (Rotorua Dist.)||38,157||38,900|
|Ngongotaha (Rotorua Dist.)||2,881||3,820|
|Whakatane (Whakatane Dist.)||12,286||13,050|
|Opotiki (Opotiki Co.)||3,388||3,530|
|Waipukurau (Waipukurau Dist.)||3,648||3,690|
|Bell Block (Taranaki)||3,062||3,420|
|Opunake (Egmont Co.)||1,637||1,700|
|Hawera (Hawera Dist.)||8,400||8,510|
|Waiouru (Rangitikei Co.)||3,154||3,030|
|Linton Military Camp (Kairanga Co.)||1,072||1,150|
|Total, North Island Centres||87 712x||87 000|
|Hope (Wairmea Co.)||1,049||1,020|
|Reefton (Inangahua Co.)||1,200||1,180|
|Burnham Military Camp (Malvern Co.)||1,159||1,750|
|Lincoln (Ellesmere Co.)||1,769||1,810|
|Twizel (Mackenzie Co.)||4,119||2,420|
|Total, South Island Centres||9 296||8 180|
|Total, Non-Administrative Centres||93 008||95 200|
Note: Because of rounding, the individual figures in this table do not always sum to give the stated totals.
Urban Concentration of Population—The bulk of New Zealand's population is located in urban areas, where until 1976 the most rapid growth rates occurred. This was due largely to the development of both manufacturing and tertiary industries in urban areas, which provided employment for a growing labour force. Other factors, including better social, cultural, educational, and economic opportunities, served to attract persons to these areas, and the majority of immigrants tended to settle in the larger urban centres. These factors, combined with amalgamation of farms, centralisation of dairy factories, and increasing agricultural mechanisation (resulting in less labour required), had combined to produce a noticeable rural-urban drift. Urban concentration features are common to “developed” countries at advanced stages of economic development.
The 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings figures show that many rural areas and a number of small and intermediate sized towns located outside urban areas are continuing to decline in population, although there are indications that the rate of urbanisation is stabilising. Horticultural and forestry developments in recent years have undoubtedly contributed to this situation. Thirty-eight counties recorded smaller populations than at the previous Census in 1976, compared with 40 between 1971 and 1976. Of 54 small self-administrative towns (1000 to 4999 population) 25 had declined in population between 1976 and 1981 compared with 12 during the previous intercensal period. Ten intermediate towns (5000 to 9999 population) showed decreases in population compared with two at the previous Census.
Of the 9500 rural gain recorded on 1981 boundaries between 1976 and 1981, over 5000 was within rural areas lying outside urban areas, but within the 7 major population centres forming the statistical divisions, so indicating a continuation of the urban expansion that occurred between the 1971 and 1976 Censuses. The major population increases in the rural components of statistical divisions between the1976 and 1981 Censuses were in the Auckland and Christchurch Statistical Divisions, which recorded gains of 3965 (12.06 percent) and 1350 (6.88 percent) respectively. With the exception of the Napier - Hastings Statistical Division, the rate of population increase in the rural components of all other statistical divisions slowed during the latest intercensal period (for example, the rural component of Hamilton Statistical Division recorded a growth rate of 4.60 percent for 1971-76 but of only 0.39 percent for 1976-81). Palmerston North and Dunedin Statistical Divisions, in fact, both recorded decreases during the latest intercensal period.
The following table shows intercensal population changes in the rural components of the 7 statistical divisions. The rural component within each statistical division is made up of county territory outside main and secondary urban areas, towns with populations of under 1000, and (where applicable) extracounty islands.
|Statistical Division||Population Census||Increase or Decrease|
|Napier - Hastings||7,495||7,692||7,998||197||306||2.63||3.98|
|Total, all statistical divisions||98 142||107 863||113 002||9 721||5 139||9.91||4.76|
The following table shows the urban-rural distribution of the population. Urban population has been defined as that of the 37 defined urban areas plus that of all boroughs, town districts, communities, district communities, and townships with populations of 1000 or over.
In the process of urbanisation some centres have grown more quickly than others. There is a tendency towards concentration of population in the largest centres and also a drift of population from the south to the north. Where the two tendencies reinforce each other, as they do in the case of the combined Auckland Urban Areas, the rate of growth has been very rapid.
The initial reason for the drift to the north lay in the change in emphasis of farming activities in which the development of dairying played an important part. The expansion of dairying in itself called for the development of factory processing facilities and service industries. These farming trends have been reinforced by the growth of forest processing industries in the North Island and compounded further by the general tendency for the large-scale manufacturing units to be located close to the biggest local markets.
In addition to the movement of population from the South Island to the North Island, shown on a long-term basis earlier in this section, there has also been a population drift northwards from the south of the North Island, which has intensified during the latest intercensal period. This is illustrated in the following table of the geographic distribution of population.
|Census||North Island||South Island|
*Comprises Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington Statistical Areas.
†Comprises Northland, Central Auckland, South Auckland-Bay of Plenty, and East Coast Statistical Areas.
|Percentage of Total Population|
In the larger cities a notable feature of recent decades has been a movement of population from the central or “inner” areas to the perimeter or “outer” areas; residential units in the city centres have been replaced by shops, offices, places of entertainment, and other commercial or industrial buildings. However, in recent years there has been an offsetting movement with the building of multi-storey flats in the inner areas, and more recently still, the petrol crisis has led to a greater desire for inner-city living.
The distribution of population by size of centres is shown in the following table.
|Population of Centre (City, Borough, Town District, or Community||Census||Census|
|Number of Centres||Percentage of Population in These Centres|
|1 000- 2 499||63||45||43||48||57||7.5||3.0||2.4||2.4||2.8|
|2 500- 4 999||23||47||40||39||42||6.2||7.2||5.0||4.7||5.0|
|5 000- 9 999||11||34||35||32||31||5.9||9.6||8.8||7.4||6.9|
|10 000-24 999||12||21||23||25||25||13.3||15.0||12.8||12.5||11.9|
|25 000 and over||4||12||22||25||26||24.1||32.5||44.6||50.4||51.0|
In the South Island a higher proportion of the population is rural, that is outside urban communities, than in the North Island, the proportion at the 1981 Census of Population being 21.1 in the South Island against 14.8 percent in the North Island.
Male and Females—Statistics from the Census of 24 March 1981 showed that females outnumbered males by 17 883 in the total population (excluding Armed Forces overseas), there being 1 578 927 males and 1 596 810 females. The changing sex distribution of the population, recorded at successive Censuses, is given below.
|Census||Males||Females||Females Per 1000 Males|
The table excludes members of the N.Z. Armed Forces overseas at Census date.
There are marked differences in the sex composition of the population of different parts of New Zealand. Females tend to outnumber males in urban areas and to be outnumbered in rural areas. One important reason is doubtless the generally better employment and educational opportunities for women and girls in the larger industrial and commercial centres.
POPULATION DENSITY—Density of population refers to the relationship between population numbers and land area, and is expressed in terms of numbers of persons per unit of area. It presents a useful tool for the analysis of population distribution providing it is borne in mind that the land area used is the gross area, and includes mountain ranges, rivers, lakes, forests, and barren country. In the case of cities and towns it includes parks, reserves, roads and streets, and the commercial and industrial districts.
The total area of New Zealand, including inland waters, is 268 808 square kilometres, giving an average population density at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings of 11.8 persons per square kilometre. This is low by international standards (for example, the United Kingdom has 229 persons per square kilometre, and the Netherlands, 344) but it must be remembered that in New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, and also large areas of rough hilly country which cannot be closely settled.
Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The following table shows the density of population in the 23 main and 14 secondary urban areas for the 1926, 1956, 1976, and 1981 Census of Population. Only 2 urban areas, those of Central Auckland and Wellington, have an overall concentration of population exceeding 10 persons per hectare, with respective densities of 18.9 and 12.5 persons per hectare.
|Urban Area||Area In Hectares*||Persons Per Hectare at Census|
|*Excludes inland water areas.|
|Main Urban Areas|
|Combined Auckland U.A.||101,615||2.1||3.9||7.3||7.6|
|Combined Wellington U.A.||44,025||3.0||5.1||7.4||7.3|
|Total, 23 main urban areas||374 639||2.0||3.5||5.6||5.7|
|Secondary Urban Areas|
|Total, 14 secondary urban areas||108 879||0.7||1.2||2.0||2.0|
The series of tables on the following pages contain statistics from the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. The figures in the following tables have been rounded using simple random rounding to base three, and because of the rounding procedures used, totals do not necessarily represent the exact sum of the component parts.
MARITAL STATUS—The marital status of usually-resident persons aged 15 years and over as returned at the Census of Population 1981 is summarised in the following tables.
|Age Group (Years)||Never Married||Married||Separated*||Widowed||Divorced||Total†||De Facto Relationship‡|
*Includes persons who are still married but permanently separated.
†Including persons not specifying status.
‡Persons in this column are also included in one of the preceding formal marital status columns.
|75 and over||2,640||25,140||567||11,331||609||40,485||84|
|Total, 1981||346 470||668 688||35 745||29 796||26 055||1 130 340||44 016|
|Total, 1976||313 875||700 244||17 024||27 355||15 005||1 075 175|
|75 and over||7,242||14,691||360||46,833||987||70,425||51|
|Total, 1981||271 875||670 221||42 405||125 460||33 708||1 166 364||43 941|
|Total, 1976||240 781||703 264||21 842||114 164||20 149||1 101 303|
The percentage distribution aged 15 years or over according to marital status is given in the following summary.
*Legally separated only.
†All permanent separations of married persons.
‡Percentages are calculated only on cases specifying marital status.
HOUSEHOLDS—Statistics from the 1981 Census on the family composition of New Zealand households, compared to the 1976 Census, show fewer children per family; an increasing percentage of childless couples; a decline in two-parent family numbers; and a sharp rise in families with one parent. Overall the proportion of households made up of one or two persons only, has increased to form 48 percent of all households, a rise of 76 325 (19 percent) since 1976. There was a total of 1 003 113 private households living in permanent dwellings at the Census in 1981. The following table analyses the type of household by the number of occupants. A complete one-family-only household consists of a husband and wife with or without unmarried children of any age who are living at home.
|Type of Household||Total Households||Number of Members Per Household|
|1||2||3||4||5||6||7 or More|
|*Parent absent permanently (3660 households) or temporarily (2097 households).|
|Number of Households|
|Family with one parent absent (permanently)||59,451||-||29,910||17,805||7,581||2,796||894||462|
|Family with one parent absent (temporarily)||11,154||-||2,958||4,485||2,556||825||234||90|
|Family with children absent||29,499||-||6,681||9,198||7,434||3,795||1,419||972|
|Family with children and one parent* absent||5,757||-||2,673||1,779||804||324||108||75|
|Total, one-family-only||661 422||-||249 372||129 606||155 364||84 369||29 622||13 083|
|One family with other (non-family) persons||78,534||-||-||23,607||18,735||16,704||10,491||8,994|
|Two or more families (with or without other persons)||16,986||-||-||-||3,432||3,504||3,504||6,540|
|Total, other family||95 514||-||-||23 607||22 170||20 208||13 998||15 534|
|Two or more persons||61,188||-||43,635||11,427||4,182||1,371||399||174|
|Total, non-family||246 180||184 992||43 635||11 427||4 182||1 371||399||174|
|Total households||1 003 113||184 992||293 007||164 640||181 707||105 945||44 019||28 791|
In the following table one-complete-family-only households at the 1981 Census are analysed by membership and the employment status of the head of the household.
|Employment Status of Head||Total Households||Husband and Wife with|
|Husband and Wife Only||1 Child||2 Children||3 Children||4 Children||5 or More Children|
*Includes heads of households working part-time (1 to 19 hours weekly).
|In full-time labour force—||Number of Households|
|Salary or wage earner||357,954||101,538||67,563||104,361||56,541||19,434||8,514|
|Unemployed, seeking work||6,315||1,731||1,410||1,455||873||465||378|
|Not specified (working 20 hrs or more)||1,125||402||237||234||144||66||48|
|Total||454 962||124 854||85 110||132 651||74 973||26 304||11 073|
|Not in full-time labour force*—|
|Total||100 392||82 170||11 202||4 302||1 641||660||411|
|Grand total||555 561||207 150||96 339||136 989||76 629||26 967||11 484|
The following table shows the composition of one-complete-family-only households in 1981 analysed by the age group of the head of the household.
|Age Group of Head (Years)||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with||Total Households|
|1 Child||2 Children||3 Children||4 Children||5 or More Children|
|Number of Households|
|65 and over||69,120||7,068||1,491||372||99||54||78,210|
|Total||207 150||96 339||136 989||76 629||26 967||11 484||555 561|
|Percentage of Age Group|
|65 and over||88.4||9.0||1.9||0.5||0.1||0.1||100.0|
Household Incomes—The first of the 2 tables following shows the incomes (excluding incomes from Social Security benefits) of one-complete-family-only households by composition of households.
|Income of Household*||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with||Total Households|
|1 Child||2 Children||3 Children||4 Children||5 or More Children|
*Estimated incomes excluding Social Security benefits for the year ended 31 March 1981.
†Includes 207 households headed by short-term visitors or children.
|$||Number of Households|
|60,000 and over||1,188||1,059||1,713||1,359||507||198||6,024|
|Total||207 150||96 342||136 986||76 629||26 970||11 484||555 561|
The following table shows income (including income from Social Security benefits) of all households in permanent private dwellings by type of household.
|Total Household Income (incl. Income from Social Security Benefits)||Household Type||Total Households|
|One Family Only Complete||One Family Only Incomplete||Other Family||Non-Family||One Person|
|*Includes 534 households headed by short-term visitors or children.|
|$||Number of Households|
|60,000 and over||6,363||1,260||2,151||420||288||10,485|
|Total||555 561||105 855||95 514||61 188||184 992||1 003 113|
People Living Alone—The following tables show persons living alone in 1981 by age, sex, and marital status.
|Age Group (in Years)||Marital Status|
*Includes persons who are still married but permanently separated.
†Includes children, short-term visitors, and those of unspecified marital status.
|Males Living Alone|
|65 and over||3,912||2,079||1,209||1,641||11,355||20,301|
|Total||31 884||7 221||9 669||8 259||14 610||72 567|
|Females Living Alone|
|65 and over||7,545||2,016||1,131||2,529||51,282||64,635|
|Total||25 413||5 865||5 883||8 538||66 132||112 425|
GROUP-LIVING QUARTERS—The following table shows the number of inmates and total occupants of various types of group-living quarters at the time of the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. In comparing the numbers of inmates with the total number of occupants (especially in the case of prisons and penal institutions) it should be borne in mind that only those staff who actually live in the group-living quarters are included in the table. Those occupying separate residences outside the group-living quarters will have been enumerated in their own homes, even though they may have been on duty in the boarding school, hospital, prison, or other group-living quarters on the night of the Census.
|Type of Group-living Quarters||Number||Number of Group-living Quarters By Number of Inmates||Total Inmates||Total Occupants Including Staff|
|Below 20||20-99||100 and Over|
|Hotels, motels, hostels, boardinghouses, and motor camps||3,162||2,469||633||54||51,585||56,151|
|Welfare institutions (children's homes, etc.)||780||567||198||12||13,743||15,522|
|Medical institutions (hospitals, etc.)||456||219||171||63||27,303||27,960|
|Armed forces (including naval base and naval vessels)||84||39||30||12||5,460||6,747|
|Works and construction camps and police camps, etc.||438||270||150||18||10,704||11,199|
|Prisons and penal institutions||51||24||12||12||2,892||2,913|
|Seasonal workers' quarters||195||198||-||-||996||1,245|
|Vessels (excluding naval vessels)||138||135||9||-||498||3,258|
|Total||6 393||4 671||1 452||264||144 414||158 280|
RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONS—The following summary presents the main religious professions returned at the 1971, 1976, and 1981 Censuses.
|Religious Profession*||Number of Adherents||Percentage|
*This is the only census question carrying a statutory right to object to providing the information sought.
†Associated Pentecostal Churches of New Zealand.
|Anglican (Church of England)||895,839||915,202||814,740||31.3||29.2||25.7|
|Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined)||449,974||478,530||456,858||15.7||15.3||14.4|
|Latter Day Saints (Mormon)||29,785||36,130||37,686||1.0||1.2||1.2|
|Assemblies of God†||3,599||5,581||12,525||0.1||0.2||0.4|
|Seventh Day Adventist||10,477||11,958||11,520||0.4||0.4||0.4|
|Church of Christ||8,930||8,087||6,372||0.3||0.3||0.2|
|Eastern Orthodox Catholic||4,319||4,153||3,813||0.2||0.1||0.1|
|Reformed Church of N.Z.||1,628||1,358||1,923||0.1||–||0.1|
|All other religious professions||19,664||36,961||36,414||0.7||1.2||1.1|
|No religion (so returned) and not specified||161,018||140,591||275,832||5.6||4.5||8.7|
|Object to state||247,019||438,511||473,115||8.6||14.0||14.9|
|Total||2 862 631||3 129 383||3 175 737||100.0||100.0||100.0|
The category “All other religious professions” includes also cases of facetious answers and those which were not specified in sufficient detail to allow precise classification. Figures under “Object to state” represent those persons availing themselves of the special statutory right of objecting to answer a question on this subject.
AGE DISTRIBUTION—In the following table the total population at the 1976 and 1981 Censuses of Population is shown by sex and age distribution.
|Age (Years)||1976 Census||1981 Census||Percentage of Total Population|
|90 and over||1,561||3,791||5,352||1,650||4,869||6,519||0.2||0.2|
|Total||1 562 042||1 567 341||3 129 383||1 578 927||1 596 810||3 175 737||100.0||100.0|
|Age (Years)||1976 Census||1981 Census||Percentage of Total Population|
|Under 20 years.|
|Under 15 years||47 4142||454,063||928,205||433,206||415,368||848,574||29.7||26.7|
|15-64 years||968,908||952,763||1 921671||1,012,149||998,817||2,010,972||61.4||63.3|
|65 years and over||118,992||160,515||279,507||133,566||182,628||316,191||8.9||10.0|
ETHNIC GROUPS—The following table shows the broad ethnic origins of the usually resident New Zealand population.
|Ethnic Group||Usually Resident in N.Z. Population|
|1976 Census||1981 Census|
*Covers persons who specified themselves as half or more New Zealand Maori, plus those who indicated they were persons of the Maori race of New Zealand, but did not specify the degree of Maori origin.
†Half or more of given descent group.
|Pacific Island Polynesian—|
|Cook Island Maori||18,547||23,880|
|Subtotal, Pacific Island Polynesian||60,971||88,824|
|Syrian, Lebanese, and Arab||740||900|
|Other ethnic groups||5,550||9,762|
|Total||3 103 265||3 143 307|
NOTE—For further information on Pacific Island Polynesian population refer to Section 3c.
COUNTRY OF BIRTH—Since 1945 the New Zealand-born population has remained in the range 84 to 86 percent of the total population including short-stay visitors to the country.
For 1976 and 1981, of the population usually resident in New Zealand who specified country of birth; the percentages born in New Zealand were 84.3 and 85.6 respectively.
The next table shows the duration of residence in New Zealand of persons born overseas and usually resident in New Zealand at the 1976 and 1981 censuses.
|Years of Residence||1976 Census||1981 Census*|
|Number Born Overseas†||Percentage of Specified Cases||Number Born Overseas†||Percentage of Specified Cases|
*Specified overseas birthplaces totalled 450 939. An additional 13 314 cases of not specified birthplaces are included in the analysis by duration.
|20 and over||169,792||35.7||180,561||41.8|
|Total||485 560||100.0||464 253||100.0|
INTERNAL MIGRATION—At the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings the questions on internal migration related to place of usual residence at the 1981 census, and usual residence 1 year and 5 years prior to the census.
Between the censuses of 1976 and 1981, 1 203 435 persons of the usually resident New Zealand population aged 5 and over changed their place of residence within New Zealand at least once. They represented 43.3 percent of the population resident in New Zealand at both censuses. In 1981 the remaining 56.7 percent (1 574 319 persons) were still living in the same dwelling they occupied in 1976.
The regional patterns of migration show that between 1976 and 1981 there were only 2 areas of New Zealand in which incoming migrants exceeded outgoing migrants. These were the upper half of the North Island and the northern tip of the South Island.
The following table shows the movements of persons arriving and leaving each statistical area (the 13 broad geographic regions into which New Zealand is divided for statistical purposes):
REGIONAL PATTERNS OF MIGRATION, 1976-81*
|Statistical Area||North Island||Statistical Area||South Island|
|Persons Arriving in Area||Persons Leaving Area||Persons Arriving in Area||Persons Leaving Area|
*Excludes children under 5 years and other persons who are not resident in New Zealand or are without a specified address at both census dates.
†To ensure anonymity within small groups of figures, all cell values have been rounded using simple random rounding to base 3. As a result, a total will not necessarily be the exact sum of its component parts.
|Bay of Plenty||55,482||49,311||Canterbury||34,416||36,336|
|Wellington||51,171||63,900||Total†||307 326||307 326|
Statistics on residence 1 year ago, together with more detailed statistics on residence 5 years ago, will be found in the 1981 Census Volume 11, Internal Migration.
STATISTICS OF WORLD POPULATION—The area and estimated population of the major areas and selected countries at mid-year 1983 are shown in the following table. (Sources: U.N. Population and, Vital Statistics Report, January 1985, and U.N. Demographic Yearbook, 1983.) The U.N. report should be consulted for further information and greater detail.
|Major Areas and Countries||Area||Population|
*Includes Central America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii.
†Estimate by Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat.
|Major Areas||km2 (000)||(000)|
|World total||13 5837||4 685|
|Selected Countries||km2 (000)||(000)|
|United Republic of Tanzania||945||20.4|
|Republic of Korea||121||19.2†|
|Republic of Korea||98||39.9|
|Syrian Arab Republic||185||9.6|
|Federal Republic of|
|Ireland, Republic of||70||3.5|
|Yugoslavia, Republic of||256||22.8|
|Papua New Guinea||462||3.2|
NOTE—All population estimates except for that of New Zealand are provisional.
For statistical purposes, all persons of half or more Maori origin have, in the past, been defined as Maoris. This differs from the wider definition introduced in the Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1974. That Act states that “Maori” means a person of the Maori race of New Zealand; and includes any descendant of such a person.
A total of 279 255 persons stated at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings that they were of half or more Maori origin. This compares with 227 414 in 1971 and 270 035 in 1976. However, the 1976 figure included 65 582 persons who indicated that they were of Maori origin but did not specify degree of descent.
The following tables show the New Zealand Maori population during the present century on the basis of persons of half or more Maori origin. Members of the Armed Forces overseas are excluded.
MAORI POPULATION: CENSUSES 1901-1981
|Census Year||New Zealand Maori Population*†||Intercensal increase||Intercensal Increase||Average Annual Increase|
*Prior to 1976 comprises persons who specified themselves as half or more New Zealand Maori. In 1976 and 1981 this group plus those who indicated they were persons of the Maori race of New Zealand, but did not specify the degree of Maori origin, are included.
†Includes temporary visitors from overseas who were in New Zealand on Census night.
MAORI POPULATION: LATEST 5 YEARS
|Year||New Zealand Maori Population at End of Period||Increase During Year||Mean Population for Year|
|Year Ended 31 March|
|Year Ended 31 December|
Census data on the New Zealand Maori population are presented in the following table using 2 classifications—those of half or more New Zealand Maori origin, and a wider category containing all persons of Maori descent irrespective of their degree of Maori origin.
MAORI POPULATION BY CATEGORY OF ORIGIN
|Census Year||Half or More Maori Origin*||Maori Descendants|
|Total Population†||Average Annual Increase||Proportion of Total Population||Total Population||Average Annual Increase||Proportion of Total Population|
*Prior to 1976 comprises persons who specified themselves as half or more New Zealand Maori. In 1976 and 1981 this group plus those who indicated they were persons of the Maori race of New Zealand but did not specify the degree of Maori origin are included.
†(Includes temporary visitors from overseas who were in New Zealand on Census night.
|1951 (17 April)||115,676||2.9||6.0||134,842||2.7||7.0|
|1961 (18 April)||167,086||3.7||6.9||202,535||4.2||8.4|
|1971 (23 March)||227,414||3.1||7.9||290,501||3.7||10.1|
|1981 (24 March)||279,252||2.1||8.8||385,524||2.9||12.1|
Births, Deaths, Infant Mortality—For statistics comparing Maori and non-Maori rates of births, deaths, infant and perinatal mortality by cause, and life expectancy, refer to Section 4, Vital Statistics.
Geographical Distribution—The increasing urbanisation of the Maori population is a significant population trend. At the 1926 Census of Population and Dwellings the urban New Zealand Maori population totalled 9905 (15.6 percent). By the 1981 Census the comparable figure for usually resident Maoris was 219 174 (78.5 percent), the largest concentration being in the Central and Southern Auckland Urban Areas where a total of 49 821 were enumerated.
Urban population is defined as that of main, secondary, and minor urban areas.
Between 1971 and 1976 the proportion of Maori population in the North Island dropped from 93.9 percent to 92.8 percent, but the proportion rose again to 93.0 percent (259 590) in 1981.
The following table shows the usually resident Maori population at the 1981 Census by statistical area.
MAORI POPULATION BY STATISTICAL AREA
|Statistical Area||N.Z. Maoris*†|
*Persons of half or more Maori descent.
|South Auckland - Bay of Plenty||79,710||28.56|
|Total North Island||259 590||93.02|
|Total South Island||19 491||6.98|
|Total, New Zealand||279 084||100.00|
Age Distribution—At the 1981 Census, 40 percent of the Maori population were under the age of 15 years, compared with 26.7 percent of the total population. The youthfulness of the Maori population is further demonstrated by the fact that at the 1981 Census, over half (53 percent) of the Maori population were under 20 years of age, compared to 36.4 percent of the total population.
Only 3.9 percent of Maoris are over 60 years of age. This compares with 14.0 percent of the total population.
In the following table, figures of the Maori and total population at the 1981 Census, are given for a number of broad age groups.
MAORI POPULATION AND TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUP
|Age Group (Years)||Total Population†||Maori Population*†|
*Persons of half or more N.Z. Maori origin.
†Includes temporary visitors from overseas who were in New Zealand on Census night 1981.
|Under 18||526,293||504,126||1030 422||32.4||68,031||65,709||133,737||47.9|
|18 and over||1,052,628||1,092,687||2,145,315||67.6||71,874||73,632||145,500||52.1|
|20 and over||988,230||1,031,007||2,019,240||63.6||64,593||66,513||131,100||46.9|
|60 and over||194,586||251,211||445,794||14.0||5,244||5,526||10,761||3.9|
|65 and over||133,566||182,628||316,191||10.0||3,189||3,315||6,498||2.3|
|80 and over||17,154||36,735||53,889||1.7||300||369||666||0.2|
|Total||1578927||1596810||3175737||100.0||139911||139 344||279 255||100.0|
Sex Ratio—The earliest reliable statistics on the Maori population show a high predominance of males. In 1881 there were 81.1 females per 100 males and the gap has progressively closed until in 1976, there were 98.9 females to every 100 males. At the 1981 Census there were 139 911 males and 139 344 females in the total Maori population, a difference of only 567, representing a sex ratio of 99.6 females to every 100 males.
Labour Force—The resident Maori full-time labour force grew by 14 497 (16.2 percent) between 1976 and 1981 to reach 104 181 (7.8 percent of the total full-time resident labour force who specified their ethnic origin) at the 1981 Census. Intercensal growth for the non-Maori labour force was due mainly to growth in the female workforce. In contrast the increase in the male workforce for the Maori labour force was greather than for the female workforce.
MAORIS IN THE LABOUR FORCE
|Full-time Labour Force*||1976||1981||Intercensal Change†|
†Includes cases where ethnic origin was not specified.
|Total||89 684||104 181||14 497||16.2|
|Total||1 169 418||1228 161||58 743||5.0|
The number of wage and salary earners in the Maori labour force increased by 7.6 percent between 1976 and 1981. However, the proportion of wage and salary earners within the Maori labour force dropped from 88.7 percent in 1976 to 82.1 percent in 1981, largely because of an increase in the number of unemployed.
At the 1981 Census the unemployed represented 14.1 percent of the Maori labour force compared with 3.7 percent of the non-Maori labour force. Maoris, in fact, made up nearly a quarter (24.2 percent) of the total unemployed. Almost half (49 percent) of the unemployed Maori population were aged between 15 and 19 years, while a further 21.6 percent were aged 20-24 years.
The following table shows Maori labour force by employment status at the 1976 and 1981 Censuses. The most dramatic feature of the table is the increase of 8668 (146.3 percent) in the number of Maoris unemployed and seeking work. In comparison non-Maori unemployed increased by 19 606 to 45 660 (132.9 percent).
MAORI LABOUR FORCE BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS
|*Includes persons seeking work.|
|Wage and salary earner||79,247||88.7||85,248||82.1|
The 1981 Census rates (number of unemployed per 100 population) have been collated with those for Pacific Island Polynesians, and analysed as Polynesian Unemployment Rates. This analysis has been carried out for two different samples: Under-25-year-olds and Over-25-year-olds.
These samples were compared with a Non-Polynesian Unemployment Rate sample, also divided into the 2 age groups. When differences resulting from the factors of age, sex, region, educational level and marital status were accounted for (‘standardised’), there were still major differences in rates between the Polynesian and Non-Polynesian groups, especially for the Under-25 sample.
The Non-Polynesian unemployment rate was 7.3 (per 100 population) in the Under-25 sample. The unstandardised Polynesian Unemployment rate was 24.2, and the standardised rate was 18.8.
In the Over-25 sample, the Non-Polynesian Unemployment rate was 2.1, the unstandardised Polynesian Unemployment rate was 6.7, and the standardised Polynesian rate was 4.6. (For further information, see the Department of Statistics' publication 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings: Volume 12, General Report, 1985.)
Main Occupational Groups—The main occupational groups of Maoris differ from those of the total New Zealand labour force. Maoris are more predominant amongst the unemployed and semi- and unskilled occupations, than among the professional and skilled white collar occupations. The principal occupational groups for Maori males were labourers (12.2 percent of the Maori male labour force), food and beverage processors (11.3 percent), and transport equipment operators (8.6 percent). Farmers, machinery fitters/assemblers, and managers were the principal occupational groups for males in the total labour force.
The main occupational groups for Maori females in the full-time labour force were tailors, dressmakers and sewing machine operators (6.8 percent), clerical workers (6.3 percent), and agricultural and animal husbandry workers (6.2 percent). This compares with clerical workers, salespersons/shop assistants and stenographers/typists/punch machinists for females in the total labour force.
The following table gives main occupational groups of the Maori full-time labour force at the 1981 Census for Population and Dwellings.
MAORI LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS
|Ranking||Occupation||Number Engaged†||Percentage of Maori Labour Force||Percentage of Maoris in Total Labour Force|
*Predominant occupational groups at each Census.
†N.Z. residents, 1981 Census.
|1||2||Food and beverage processors||7,899||11.3||19.8|
|3||3||Transport equipment operators||6,036||8.6||16.0|
|5||4||Agricultural and animal husbandry workers Material handlers and related equipment—||4,899||7.0||12.5|
|4||5||Operators, dockers, and freight handlers||4,560||6.5||13.2|
|7||7||Wood preparation workers and paper makers||2,613||3.7||27.7|
|6||8||Bricklayers, carpenters, and other construction workers||2,487||3.6||6.1|
|8||9||Machinery fitters, machine assemblers, and precion-instrument makers||2,202||3.2||4.3|
|12||10||Protective service workers||1,887||2.7||8.4|
|Total full-time labour force||69 852||100.0||8.0|
|1||1||Tailors, dressmakers and sewers||2,331||6.8||12.3|
|2||2||Clerical and related workers||2,160||6.3||3.4|
|6||3||Agricultural and animal husbandry workers||2,121||6.2||13.4|
|3||5||Cooks, waitresses, and bartenders||1,857||5.4||12.8|
|11||6||Building caretakers and cleaners||1,455||4.2||19.3|
|5||7||Housestaff and related housekeeping services||1,434||4.2||15.5|
|9||8||Food and beverage processors Material handlers and related equipment—||1,380||4.0||26.8|
|8||9||Operators, dockers, and freight handlers||1,269||3.7||16.7|
|7||10||Salespersons, shop assistants and related workers||1,179||3.4||3.3|
|Total full-time labour force||34 329||100.0||7.5|
Income—The most common income group for Maori males in the full-time labour force at the 1981 Census was $10,000–$11,999, the same as for non-Maori males. For Maori females the most common income group, $8,000–$9,999 was also the same as for non-Maori females.
However excluding those with nil income, the median income (point at which half of the incomes are lower and half were higher) was $9,936 for Maori males ($11,975 for non-Maori males). Similarly the median income was lower for Maori females ($6,837) compared to non-Maoris ($7,762). While the income differential can be partly explained in terms of the younger age structure of the Maori workforce, it also results from factors such as lower educational attainment and hence underrepresentation of Maoris in the higher-paid occupations.
EDUCATION: The Maori Education Foundation—The Maori Education Foundation was established in 1961 by Act of Parliament, for the general purpose of promoting and encouraging the better education of Maoris and of providing financial assistance for that purpose. The capital resources of the Foundation are $3,000,000. The principal purpose for which the Board of Trustees is empowered is to apply the income of the Foundation to the education and vocational training of Maoris. This includes the provision of grants to pre-school groups and the employment of a pre-school officer; sponsorship of the 4 annual speech contests; grants to secondary school pupils, and to students attending university or other tertiary institutions of similar status; the provision of scholarships and fellowships to students undertaking graduate and post-graduate study in New Zealand and overseas; and grants to students undertaking research or study which will be of ultimate benefit to the Maori people.
In the 1984 academic year a total of $1,425,282 was spent on grants. Of this, $28,000 was for preschool activities; $1,195,282 was for grants to secondary school pupils; $160,000 was for grants at undergraduate level; $24,000 was for grants to Teachers College students; and $42,000 on grants at graduate and post-graduate level. In addition the Foundation made grants totalling $126,000 in support of the teaching and development of the Maori language.
Pacific Islands Polynesian Education Foundation—In 1972 the Pacific Islands Polynesian Education Foundation was established to assist Pacific Island students who reside permanently in New Zealand. The aims and objectives of the Foundation are similar in most respects to those of the Maori Education Foundation, and assistance is also given to all levels of education. In the 1984 academic year $40,000 was spent on grants and a total of 385 students were assisted.
School Qualifications—At the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings, School Certificate or equivalent was the highest qualification attained by 15.3 percent of the Maori population aged 15 years and over (22.1 percent for non-Maoris). For a further 3.7 percent of Maoris (18.5 percent for non-Maoris), University Entrance or equivalent was the highest school qualification held.
In the younger age groups, 26.1 percent of Maoris aged between 15 and 19 years had attained School Certificate or University Entrance as their highest school qualification. This compares with 60.1 percent of non-Maoris of that age. Maoris aged 15 years and over with no secondary school qualifications totalled 80.9 percent compared to 59.0 percent of the non-Maori population. In the age group with the highest level of unemployment (15–19 years) 73.8 percent of Maoris had no secondary school qualifications, compared to 39.8 percent of non-Maoris.
The following tables show years of attendance at secondary schools, school qualifications gained, and destinations of Maori school leavers at the end of 1982.
|Attainment||Years of Attendance of School Leavers* During or at the End of|
|1st Year||2nd Year||3rd Year||4th Year||5th Year||6th Year||Total|
|*Does not include deceased or students leaving to attend another secondary school.|
|University Bursaries examination||1||60||46||4||2||65||48||113|
|Higher School Certificate||1||68||69||22||7||90||77||167|
|Sixth Form Certificate||226||291||166||197||13||13||405||501||906|
|Three or more School Certificate subjects||59||74||126||143||24||30||1||2||210||249||459|
|Two School Certificate subjects||59||84||109||128||18||15||1||2||187||229||416|
|One School Certificate subject||150||163||125||174||21||25||1||1||297||363||660|
|Total||124||87||892||707||1 436||1 472||1 119||1 346||500||576||69||38||4 140||4 226||8 366|
|Destination of Maori School Leavers||1982||1983|
|*Requiring further part-time or directed education.|
|Further Full-time Education—|
|Attending university full-time||15||19|
|Other (including kindergarten)||32||35|
|Other full-time education||80||91|
|Technical or professional work*—|
|Technicians and other||103||92|
|Clerical, sales and related work||800||807|
|Production, service industries (including Armed Forces), agricultural and manual occupations||1,988||2,116|
|No occupation or unknown||4,090||4,055|
|Total||8 352||8 366|
Vocational Training for Maori and Pacific Islanders—This programme has been operating for over 20 years. It encourages young Maori and Pacific Islanders into opportunities for higher education, and to participate in pre-apprentice and vocational courses aimed at improving employment prospects.
A total of $4.1 million was spent on vocational training by the Department of Maori Affairs for the year ended 31 March 1985. The programmes are concentrated in polytechnics and community colleges and the effectiveness of the scheme is largely dependent upon liaison with these institutions and with the Department of Education.
In recent years there has been a move to supplement the ‘institution’ based courses with training in the work place. The department has entered into agreements with several employers to engage young Maori and Pacific Island people under a joint incentive training scheme. This provides for the employer to accept an applicant for training in skills relevant to the employer's operation. The trainee receives an award wage but this is subsidised by the department to the extent of the standard training allowance. There is normally an undertaking by the employer to engage the trainee at the completion of the training period.
The following table lists the number of trainees engaged in the various courses and compares numbers with 2 previous years:
|Farming training, fishing, and horticulture (Including joint venture horticulture programmes.)||52||50||45|
|Pre-apprentice training courses—|
|Auto-diesel; carpentry (1st and 2nd year); coachbuilding; electrical wiring; fitting and turning; fitting and welding; metal trades; hairdressing; joinery; meat retailing; motor mechanics; painting and decorating; plumbing and gasfitting and sheetmetal||434||434||452|
|Vocational or non-trade courses—|
|Carving and Maori language (2 year course); chef cooking and catering; general merchandising; hotel receptionists, secretarial and typing; technicians; building and engineering; office training; and joint venture||304||316||300|
|Tu Tangata university programme—|
|BBS Massey University; BBM Waikato University; B.For.Sc. (Forestry) Canterbury University||64||72||76|
|Introductory awareness and short-term courses—|
|Key-to-disc operations, journalism, radio announcing and nursing||96||130||171|
|Total trainees||1 087||1 002||1 044|
Historically, an important aspect of the programme has been the satisfactory placement of trainees in an appropriate trade or occupation at the conclusion of the course, and in most cases this has been achieved. In 1984, about 88 percent of all trainees on courses in 1983 were placed in jobs.
Over the past 5 years much emphasis has been placed on support for university students. This support is now extended to 63 students engaged in Business Studies; 4 more are studying at the School of Forestry in Canterbury, and others are pursuing specific courses ranging from Horticultural Studies to Social Work.
MAORI HOUSING—The Department of Maori Affairs provides financial assistance to house Maori and Pacific Island families under the Maori Housing Act 1935.
From the inception of Maori Housing to 31 March 1985, the department has provided finance for 22 841 new houses, and the purchase of 4193 existing houses. An additional 14 846 advances have been made for additions and repairs to houses and other buildings.
The 1981 Census data on Maori Housing shows, though, that significant disparities in terms of home ownership attainment between Maori and non-Maori continue to exist.
Whilst 72.9 percent of permanent, private non-Maori dwellings were owned (with or without a mortgage), less than half (45.3 percent) of Maori dwellings were owned.
The following table gives 1981 census data on tenure of permanent private dwellings of Maoris and non-Maoris.
|Tenure||Permanent Private Dwellings|
|Rented—not from employer||23,166||38.8||20.0|
|Provided free—not with job||1,296||2.2||1.2|
|Provided free—with job||1,461||2.4||2.1|
The average number of occupants per Maori dwelling at the 1981 Census was 4.2 (4.6 at 1976 Census) which compares with 2.9 for non-Maori dwellings (3.1 at 1976 Census). A total of 4686 Maori dwellings (7.8 percent) had 8 or more occupants (0.8 percent for non-Maori dwellings).
Amenities—The Department of Maori Affairs housing policies are directed towards bridging the gap that exists between Maori and non-Maori home ownership levels. In terms of the overall community development perspective of the department its housing priorities are aimed to promote the development and strengthening of the whanau (family), for example by Papakainga housing (or housing on land in multiple ownership).
The provision of kaumatua flats (housing for kaurnatua (elders) around or near the marae), Maatua Whangai (additional loan assistance for extensions or improvements to existing homes for families involved in the Maatua Whangai programme) and research into low cost housing are also important aspects of this development.
In addition the Department of Maori Affairs has loan finance available to Maori and Pacific Island families for the purchase or erection of a new home, for the purchase of an existing home, or for additions and repairs to existing dwellings.
TU TANGATA PROGRAMME—Under its Tu Tangata programme, the Department of Maori Affairs has encouraged a partnership with the Maori people in the area of community administration.
The high success rate of community programmes such as Rapu Mahi, Kokiri, Kohanga Reo, Maatua Whangai and other Tu Tangata activities is largely due to the better use of “Maori systems”. In particular, the whanau (extended family system) is bringing more cohesiveness to community action especially between the various Maori organisations and Government agencies.
Maoridom is experiencing a major revolution in its tikanga Maori (social and cultural order). Maori people are restructuring their community organisations and adopting a wide range of activities aimed at providing a better future for their young people. The following Tu Tangata programmes are currently operating:
Te Kohanga Reo (The Language Nest)—The Kohanga Reo programme is designed to stimulate growth of Maori Whanau Centres that offer the best childcare in an environment of Maoritanga, where Maori is the language, and where love and care spring from the whanau. These centres may be in homes, maraes, in churches, in factories, offices, Kokiri centres; anywhere people decide to use the Whanau value system.
Te Kohanga Reo continues to be an exciting and strong self management programme.
PHOTO: ANS WESTRA
Waitangirua (Porirua) Delegation, Maori Women's Welfare League Conference, Auckland 1983.
As at 31 March 1985 there were 389 Kohanga Reo whanau centres catering for over 5063 preschoolers. There are 794 Kaumatua (elders), who as ‘Koro’ or ‘Kuia’ participate on a daily basis, create the Maori cultural environment for the children. There are 525 native speakers of Maori who are either receiving a Koha or are giving their time freely to service the 389 Kohanga Reo operations. This remuneration by way of Koha is controlled and financed by each Kohanga Reo whanau management group.
One hundred and seventeen Kohanga Reo centres are licensed with the Department of Social Welfare. However licensing has been a sensitive issue and has had to move at the pace of the whanau. Many Kohanga Reo centres have resisted trading off important cultured factors in order to qualify for funding. This has been understood by the Department of Social Welfare and childcare regulations have proposed amendments that move satisfactorily towards recognising the special nature of Te Kohanga Reo.
Te Kohanga Reo Trust was incorporated in 1983 to provide national leadership, guidance and control. It has produced a training syllabus for workers, comprising 900 hours of practical experience and study. The syllabus is based on the concept of whanau learning and therefore meets the special cultural needs of Te Kohanga Reo.
Te Kohanga Reo Trust, which is responsible for the implementation of the Trust Certificate Training programme, has established 48 Training Branches. This is a partnership with the Department of Labour which allows for up to 6 trainees in each Kohanga Reo, aged 17- to 60-years, to be paid a training allowance by the Department of Labour for 17 months of the 2-year training course. Each Kohanga Reo whanau is to be responsible for the sharing and learning experience of its trainee over this period.
Maatua Whangai—In 1981 the Hui Whakatauira (Maori elders conference) gave unanimous support to the Department of Maori Affairs for the promotion of a programme to take young Maoris out of Social Welfare and Justice institutions and to place them back with their tribal groups.
These three departments are working together towards the programme's objectives, but the participation of the Maori community is crucial to its success. The community is depended on for court support, and to offer alternatives to the placing of young Maori people in custody.
Kokiri Units—Kokiri Units were set up to strengthen Maori community administration. The Kokiri Unit concept allows groups to concentrate energies and resources on those areas identified by the community as the most essential. By this means the community group is able to work out its own strategies for dealing with any situation, and those closest to the issues are able to make decisions about what sort of action is appropriate in their neighbourhood.
Each unit is staffed by Maori Affairs officers, and operates under the ‘umbrella’ of a Kokiri Community Management Group which sets the priorities for community action. Such tasks involve visiting schools to promote achievement, vocational selection in secondary schools, finding jobs for the unemployed, acting in a support and advisory capacity in the courts, providing language learning, and stimulating cultural activities within communities.
This new style of community administration began in Wellington in 1981 with the Poneke (Wellington city), Heretaunga (Hutt Valley), and Porirua units. The success of these units led to the establishment of 7 Kokiri Units in Auckland (Waitemata, Waipareira, Tamaki, Maungarei, Otara, Mangere, and Counties).
Kokiri Centres—Kokiri centres are becoming increasingly active in developing and managing Labour Department Project Employment and Work Skills Development Schemes. Each Kokiri centre has its own executive management committee independent of the Department of Maori Affairs, and action programmes are decided by the Maori community in which the Kokiri centre operates. Government assists management committees to meet operating costs through the allocation of small seeding grants on approved budgets. However the Maori community itself tends to play the major role in supporting their Kokiri centre through donations of money, materials, equipment and voluntary labour. On average, 7 volunteers per centre look after the daily domestic arrangements while four tutors teach skills ranging from traditional carving, weaving, language and arts, through basic carpentry, horticulture, cooking and childcare, to the more esoteric teachings of Maori philosophy, religion and tribal history. Kokiri centres may earn income from these activities and this helps to meet expenses.
Although of recent origin (the legislation was enacted in 1980) the Kokiri centre programme has proved to be a highly successful innovation to meet the needs of young Maori people in particular, in larger cities and towns. The popularity of the programme is indicated by the establishment of 61 centres since 1980, and new centres are being opened at a rate of 12 each year to meet the demand from the Maori community.
Rapu Mahi Programme—In October 1981 the Government approved grants to assist the Maori community to take its own initiatives in finding employment for young Maoris. This was a challenge the Maori people themselves had been pressing for, as it allowed the strengths of the whanau (family) and iwi (tribe) to be brought to bear on this concern of the people. The people, with departmental back up and support, took the initiative. Over the period November 1983 to March 1984:
(a) 3738 school leavers and young unemployed people were involved;
(b) 949 young unemployed were placed in jobs and 924 were referred for additional tuition, with a further 1051 being placed in Department of Labour Schemes (Project Employment Programme and Work-Skills Development).
By 31 March 1984, the department had made grants totalling $200,000 to Maori community groups, which as part of their contribution gave $115,832 either in cash donations or in time and materials (e.g., use of private motor-vehicles, free use of facilities, donations of food and equipment such as typewriters and office equipment). The main emphasis was on identifying Maori resources, people within the larger workforce, who could take on a young person in a full-time job, or locate job vacancies through the whanau (tribal network).
COMMUNITY SERVICE FOR MAORI PEOPLE AND PACIFIC ISLAND POLYNESIANS—The legislative basis of the Maori Community Services Programme is the Maori Community Development Act 1962, and the aim is the social and economic advancement and the promotion and maintenance of the health and general well-being of the Maori community, and the facilitation of full integration of the Maori race into the social and economic life of the country. The Act provides for subsidies to be paid on moneys raised by Maori people through their associations for the promotion of community services. An important feature of the Community Services Programme is that it calls upon the Maori and Pacific Island people to exercise the control and direction of their own communities.
The Maori organisations consist of 2 statutory groups and many voluntary groups. The statutory groups are:
(a) Maori associations comprising the New Zealand Maori Council, the district Maori councils, Maori executive committees, and the Maori committees. All are democratically elected and work independently of the Department of Maori Affairs.
(b) The Department of Maori Affairs—The broad functions of the department are to assist Maori and Pacific Island peoples, particularly in social, economic, and cultural matters. Through its Community Services Division, the department gives assistance in the fields of education, employment, housing, and health.
New Zealand Maori Council—The primary functions of the New Zealand Maori Council are to encourage Maoris as individuals and in groups to take the initiative in matters affecting their own welfare and that of their kinsfolk; and to be a forum of discussion in which they can crystallise their ideas and gain the co-operation of others in actively pursuing mutually agreed objectives, and eventually achieving progressive improvement in the various spheres of welfare. By its own request it is charged with the duty of maintaining and promoting harmony between Maori and non-Maori.
The New Zealand Maori Council has undertaken the administration of the reappointments of Maori Wardens, and the Maori Community Development Act will be amended accordingly.
Maori Wardens—Maori Wardens continue to play a prominent role in the Maori community, for they are a valuable resource in dealing with urban social issues where Maori people are involved. Government agencies have called on their services on numerous occasions over the past year, and the assistance of the Wardens has been appreciated. In several instances their knowledge of Maoritanga, and their ability to communicate and mediate in tense situations, led to the peaceful resolution of confrontations between Maori people and Police or other authority figures.
A review of Maori Warden's role, responsibilities, functions, supervision, training, appointments and reappointments is to be undertaken and this will clarify their position. New Zealand society has changed since Wardens were established in 1945, and Wardens themselves have asked to have their duties and responsibilities reviewed.
Maori Women's Welfare League—The League established in 1951 is a national Maori organisation, its members spread throughout eight tribally based Regions. The League has emerged as an important link within Maoridom. Its purpose is to enable its members to play an effective part in the cultural, social, educational and economic development of Maori people, and the people of New Zealand. The League over the years has always been in the forefront of efforts towards the social advancement of the Maori people. Its most recent achievement has been a Health survey conducted in 1981 by Maoris themselves to determine the Maori woman's perception of her own health and the health of her family. The Health Report is now available and provides a base for positive health action programmes to improve Maori health.
Community Officers—Community Officers with the Department of Maori Affairs carry out a different range of functions from those of other social workers. Their primary function is to work with groups rather than individuals. For example, it is not strictly a Maori community officer's duty to deal with a Maori child playing truant from school, but if truancy is a common problem amongst Maori students in any locality, it is the community officer's duty to hold discussions with parents and try to convince them of the importance of ensuring that their children attend school regularly. A great deal of the time of the community services staff is occupied in informing Maori and Pacific Island parents about all of the Tu Tangata programmes, vocational opportunities open to their children, including recruiting and organising vocational training groups for school leavers, stimulating the formation of Kohanga Reo, and in dealing with youth problems in the cities. The whole emphasis is on youth and community development and the strengthening of the family and kin groups which have traditionally supported the individual.
Honorary Community Officers—There are 520 honorary community officers who continue to work in the community, towards assuring that people have awareness of the Tu Tangata policies implemented by the Department of Maori Affairs. Their tasks range from work on Children's Boards, to work associated with Maatua Whangai. They also play an important role in other Kokiri programmes and assist in the formation of support groups for the Kokiri concepts.
Out-of-pocket expenses are reimbursed through a departmental grant to Honorary Community Officer Associations in each district.
MAORI LAND—Before European settlement, all land was held by the various groups and tribes of the Maori people in accordance with their traditional customs and usages, and the land remaining in this tenure is termed Maori customary land. By the Treaty of Waitangi the right to purchase land from Maoris was reserved to the Crown. Almost all of what had been Maori customary land was converted to other forms of title by one or other of the following processes:
Purchase or other acquisition by the Crown (from whom the European colonists obtained land for farms, etc.).
The issue of a Crown grant to a Maori owner on the recommendation of the Maori Land Court.
The issue of a freehold order by the Maori Land Court in favour of the Maori or Maoris found entitled upon an investigation of title. This process was used instead of process (b) after the introduction of the land transfer system into New Zealand.
Land in titles issued under processes (b) and (c) became known as Maori freehold land.
A Maori may buy or otherwise acquire land which is not Maori freehold land, i.e. general land, and for this reason there is an unknown but considerable amount of general land owned by Maoris in addition to their holdings of Maori freehold land.
The area of Maori freehold land in New Zealand is over 1 300 000 hectares. Maori freehold land is subject to the jurisdiction of the Maori Land Court pursuant to the Maori Affairs Act 1953 and some general land owned by Maoris is subject to certain provisions of that Act.
Maori Land Court—The Maori Land Court consists of a Chief Judge and such other judges as the Governor-General may from time to time appoint. It is a Court of Record and its general function is to deal with problems peculiar to multiple ownership of Maori lands, including the partitioning and combining of titles for better utilisation, the effecting of exchanges, directing the holding of meetings of owners, and confirming or disallowing resolutions passed by such meetings, confirming sales, and making other miscellaneous orders including in certain cases, determining entitlement to, and vesting in persons entitled, the beneficial interests of deceased owners, in Maori freehold land.
The Maori Appellate Court consists of any 3 or more Judges of the Maori Land Court, provided that 2 Judges at least shall concur in every decision of the court. With certain exemptions, the Appeiiate Court determines appeals, whether on law or on fact, from all final orders of the Maori Land Court.
During the year ended 31 March 1984 the Maori Land Court conducted 76 sittings throughout New Zealand and dealt with 4952 applications, from which a total of 14 871 orders were made.
Maori Land Development and Rural Lending—The Board of Maori Affairs is constituted by section 5 of the Maori Affairs Act 1953, with one of its main objectives being to promote the occupation of Maori land by Maori people, particularly for farming purposes. The board is assisted by district Maori Land Advisory Committees. Owners of Maori land have access to usual lending institutions but it is not easy to borrow money for land development unless mortgage security can be given. Multiplicity of ownership often prevents this. Under the Maori Affairs Act 1953 the board, through the Department of Maori Affairs, may lend money for the development and settlement of Maori land. This does not affect the legal ownership, but the rights of the owners are suspended and the board has the right to exclusive occupation of the land. At 30 June 1984, stations farmed by the department contained a total of 96 517 hectares, 60 688 hectares of which were in grass.
The grassing programme produced 1069 hectares of new pasture during 1983–84.
The original objective of Maori land development was to subdivide developed blocks for settlement by Maori farmers. A recent trend has been a preference by owners to form incorporations or trusts to assume control on their behalf when properties are sufficiently consolidated and have attained financial stability. Horticultural enterprises are becoming a most effective means by which Maori land can be utilised with the added advantage of providing employment opportunities.
The board makes loans to suitably qualified Maori trusts and incorporations to enable them to purchase farms or to enter into leasing or share farming contracts. New loans and further advances are also made available to existing farmers.
Maori Trustee—The Maori Trust Office was originally created to take over from the Public Trust Office the administration of certain Maori reserves, estates of deceased Maoris, and those under disability. It is headed by the Maori Trustee, who is also an officer of the Department of Maori Affairs and who is comparable in status and functions with the Public Trustee. Maori Trustee activities have been decentralised by the delegation of wide powers to the directors of the Department of Maori Affairs, who deal most with Maori Trustee matters in their district.
Administration of leases of Maori land and distribution of rent to numerous owners, also lending to Maoris for businesses, are now major activities of the Maori Trustee. The Maori Trust Office operates independently but within the general framework of the Department of Maori Affairs.
The following table is a summary of the assets and liabilities of the Maori Trustee as at 31 March in each of the latest 3 years.
|Item||As at 31 March|
|Cash and short-term investments||965||1,324||597|
|Local authority debentures and stock||2,854||2,731||1,319|
|Mortgages and charges||9,072||9,399||9,664|
|Conversion Fund land interests||1,442||1,481||1,307|
|Amounts held for beneficiaries||10,248||10,308||10,006|
|Creditors and miscellaneous||920||778||973|
The total Pacific Island Polynesian population in New Zealand numbered 89 697 at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings and was 2.9 percent of the total New Zealand population compared with 2.0 percent in 1976. Of these persons, 873 were temporary visitors in New Zealand on census night leaving a resident Pacific Island Polynesian population of 88 824 (60 966 at the 1976 Census), an intercensal increase of 27 861 (45.7 percent). Nearly half (42 078 or 47.4 percent) of the resident Pacific Island Polynesian population were Samoans while more than a quarter (23 880 or 26.9 percent) were Cook Island Maoris.
Age Distribution—The Pacific Island Polynesian population in New Zealand is characterised by high proportions of children (0–14 years) and also by high proportions in the main working ages (25–44 years). Some 41.3 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian population were under 15 years of age compared with 40.0 percent of the New Zealand Maori population and only 25.2 percent of the population excluding New Zealand Maoris and Pacific Island Polynesians.
However, while both the Maori and Polynesian populations in New Zealand have youthful age structures, the proportion in the major working ages (25–44) is a distinguishing feature when comparing the two populations.
The following table shows that 29.6 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian population were aged between 25 and 44, compared with 23.7 percent of Maoris and 26.8 percent of the population excluding Maoris and Polynesians.
|Age (Years)||Resident New Zealand Population|
|Pacific Island Polynesian||N.Z. Maori||European* and Other|
|*Population excluding Pacific Island Polynesians and New Zealand Maoris.|
|60 and over||2.6||3.9||15.2|
Geographical Distribution—The Central Auckland Statistical Area had the largest resident Pacific Island Polynesian population—57 462 or 64.7 percent of the resident Pacific Island Polynesian population of New Zealand. They represented 7.1 percent of the resident population of the statistical area.
The next largest concentration was in the Wellington Statistical Area with a Pacific Island Polynesian population of 17 580 (3.1 percent of the population of the area) representing 19.8 percent of the resident Pacific Island Polynesian population in New Zealand. Only 6.5 percent (5793) of the New Zealand Pacific Island Polynesian population lived in the South Island at the 1981 Census.
Urbanisation—At the 1981 Census, 97.9 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian population were in areas classified as ‘urban’ and this population was concentrated within particular urban centres.
The Porirua Basin Main Urban Area has the highest proportion of Polynesians with 12.0 percent (6513) of the population being Pacific Island Polynesians. Tokoroa Secondary Urban Area had the next highest proportion of Polynesians with 2232 persons, constituting 11.6 percent of the resident population of the urban area.
In the Porirua Basin Main Urban Area, the Pacific Island Polynesian population exceeded the New Zealand Maori population. This was also the case in Central Auckland Main Urban Area which had a Pacific Island Polynesian population of 23 769 (8.7 percent of the resident population). The largest Pacific Island Polynesian population was in Southern Auckland Main Urban Area with 25 320 representing 11.2 percent of the resident population. Between them, these four urban centres accounted for 65.1 percent of the resident Pacific Island Polynesian population in New Zealand.
Labour Force—The Pacific Island Polynesian full-time labour force of 35 019 represented 2.6 percent of the New Zealand resident labour force in 1981. The intercensal increase in the Polynesian labour force, of 44.8 percent (10 830), was proportionately greater than that for either the Maori labour force (16.2 percent) increase intercensally, or the labour force excluding Maoris and Polynesians (4.2 percent).
The full-time labour force represented 39.4 percent of the resident Pacific Island Polynesian population. Over half (56.1 percent) of the labour force were aged between 25 and 44 years.
The following table shows that in contrast to the New Zealand Maori labour force (40.0 percent were under the age of 25), only 29.9 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian labour force were under 25.
|Age (Years)||Resident Full-Time Labour Force|
|Pacific Island Polynesian||N.Z. Maori||European* and Other|
|*Full-time labour force excluding Pacific Polynesians and New Zealand Maoris.|
|60 and over||1.1||1.5||4.4|
The numbers in the Pacific Island Polynesian labour force who were unemployed increased by 2575 (246.9 percent) between 1976 and 1981 to reach 3618 or 10.4 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian full-time labour force in 1981, compared with 4.3 percent in 1976. Largely as a result, the proportion of wage and salary earners dropped from 94.0 percent in 1976, to 87.8 percent of the Pacific Island Polynesian full-time labour force in 1981. However the following table shows that the proportion of wage and salary earners in the Pacific Island Polynesian labour force (87.8 percent) remains higher than that for the New Zealand Maori labour force (82.1 percent) or for the remainder of the labour force (81.9 percent).
|Employment Status||Resident Full-Time Labour Force|
|Pacific Island Polynesian||N.Z. Maori 1981 Percent||European* and Other 1981 Percent|
|1975 Percent||1981 Number||Percent|
|*Full-time labour force excluding Polynesians and Maoris.|
|Wage and salary earner||94.0||30,546||87.8||82.1||81.9|
The main industry for the Pacific Island Polynesian labour force was manufacturing which employed 18 285 workers, over half (58.2 percent) of the Pacific Island Polynesian full-time labour force in specified industries at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings.
However, the proportion in the manufacturing industry has dropped since 1976, with resulting increases in the proportions in some other industry groups—in particular, “wholesale, retail and restaurant”, “finance, insurance and business” and “community, social and personal services”. The high degree of urbanisation of the Pacific Island Polynesian population is reflected in the low proportion of workers in agriculture and related industries.
|Industry Major Group||Resident Full-Time labour Force|
|Pacific Island Polynesian||N.Z. Maori 1981 Percent||European* and Other 1981 Percent|
|*Labour force excluding Polynesians and Maoris.|
|Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing||1.3||588||1.9||13.1||11.3|
|Mining and quarrying||0.1||39||0.1||0.7||0.3|
|Electricity, gas, water||0.6||213||0.7||1.6||1.2|
|Building and construction||5.3||1,182||3.8||8.6||6.6|
|Wholesale, retail and restaurant||7.1||2,517||8.0||9.0||17.9|
|Transport, storage, communication||8.2||2,460||7.8||10.5||8.2|
|Finance, insurance, business||1.7||723||2.3||1.8||7.7|
|Community, social, personal||14.3||5,424||17.3||19.5||24.4|
Income—The most common income group for Pacific Island Polynesian males in the full-time labour force was $8,000–$9,999. The most common income group for both Maori male labour force and for the remainder of the male labour force was $10,000–$11,999. The median income for the Polynesian male labour force was also lower ($9,593) than that for either the Maoris ($9,936) or the remainder of the male labour force ($12,068).
For Polynesian females in the full-time labour force the most common income group was $8,000–$9,999, the same as that for Maori females and for the remainder of the female labour force. However, the median income for Pacific Island Polynesian women ($7,342) was higher than that for Maori women ($6,837) and compared with $7,780 for the remainder of the female labour force.
Pacific Island Polynesian Dwellings—Some 18 096 permanent and private dwellings were classified as Pacific Island Polynesian at the 1981 Census. They represented 1.8 percent of all permanent and private dwellings in New Zealand.
There were 85 707 occupants in these dwellings giving an average occupany rate of 4.7 persons per dwelling. This compares with an average occupancy rate of 4.2 persons per dwelling for New Zealand Maori dwellings and 2.9 for all other permanent and private dwellings (i.e. excluding Polynesian and Maori).
A total of 2217 (12.3 percent) Pacific Island Polynesian dwellings had 8 or more occupants, the equivalent proportions for New Zealand Maori dwellings being 7.8 percent and for “other” dwellings just 0.6 percent. Some 6.1 percent of Pacific Island Polynesian dwellings had one occupant compared with 8.9 percent of New Zealand Maori dwellings and 19.3 percent of all other dwellings.
|Number of Occupants||Permanent and Private Dwellings|
|Pacific Island Polynesian||New Zealand Maori||European* and Other|
|*Excluding Polynesian and Maori dwellings.|
|8 and over||12.3||7.8||0.6|
The majority of Pacific Island Polynesian dwellings were rented (10 773 or 60.3 percent), the proportion being higher than that for both Maori dwellings (50.1 percent) and other dwellings (23.1 percent). In comparison, 38.9 percent (6951) of Pacific Island Polynesian dwellings were owned (with or without a mortgage) compared with 45.3 percent of Maori dwellings and 73.6 percent of the remaining dwellings.
Households—The following table shows that both Pacific Island Polynesian and New Zealand Maori households had lower proportions of households as “one family complete” than did the remainder of the population.
Nearly a third of Pacific Island Polynesian households (5658 or 31.3 percent) were “other family households” (i.e. multi-family or families plus other persons). For Maoris, 24.1 percent were “other family households” while the proportion for all other households was only 8.1 percent.
For the Pacific Island Polynesian population some 75.8 percent of these “other family households” consisted of one family plus other persons while the remaining 24.2 percent were “multi-family households”.
Only 6.1 percent of Polynesian households were one person households compared to 8.9 percent of Maori and 19.3 percent of all other households.
|Household Type||Proportion of Households||Average Number of Members Per Household|
|Pacific Is. Polynesian||N.Z. Maori||European* and Other||Pacific Is. Polynesian||N.Z. Maori||European* and Other|
*Total permanent, private dwellings excluding those classified as Pacific Island Polynesian and New Zealand Maori.
†Households of which total occupants consist of members of one family (husband, wife, unmarried children), but with one or more members absent on Census night.
|One family complete||46.4||45.5||56.2||4.6||4.3||3.3|
|One family incomplete†||10.6||15.7||10.2||3.8||3.7||3.0|
|One family plus other persons||23.7||18.2||6.8||5.8||5.4||4.4|
|Total, other family||31.3||24.1||8.1||6.4||6.0||4.6|
FURTHER INFORMATION—For further information relating to the Pacific Island Polynesian population on education, housing and community services programmes refer to Section 3B. Immigration regulations and the Citizenship (Western Samoa) Act 1982 are contained in Section 3E.
In the past 30 years there has been a marked change in the social and economic factors which affect traditional roles in the community. These factors include changes in the structure of the population, in the family cycle and its composition, and employment opportunities available for both men and women.
This process of social and economic change is characteristic of industrialised nations in particular. It has led to increasing attention to the role and status of women, including the commitment of the international community to the United Nations Decade for Women 1976-85, and the adoption of the final text of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979.
It is in this context that the following government bodies have been established. Their role is, or has been, to advise the Government of the day on particular issues relating to the achievement of equal opportunities for women, and their full integration into all aspects of national life.
Committee on Women—The Committee on Women had its origins in a National Development Council subcommittee established in 1969 and convened by Mrs (now Dame) Miriam Dell, and a paper produced by that subcommittee in 1970 on “The Role of Women in National Development”.
In 1974 the NDC subcommittee was raised to full sector council status and its membership was expanded from 3 to 5. At this time it was responsible to the Prime Minister and serviced through the Cabinet Office.
The committee was given responsibility for the implementation of International Women's Year (1975) and established a working party to organise the year's activities. One such activity was an evaluation of the Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Women's Rights which had been published in June 1975.
In 1976 the Committee on Women was expanded to a total membership of 12.
Responsibility for the Committee on Women was returned to the Minister for National Development, and the committee was charged with the following tasks:
to promote the objectives of the World Plan of Action for IWY and the UN Decade for Women;
to assess New Zealand's progress towards achievement of these objectives;
to advise the Government through the Minister for National Development on these and all other matters affecting women in New Zealand.
These tasks were expanded in 1978 to include administration of a special project fund of $25,000 per annum, set up to provide assistance for projects of benefit to women.
In 1979, responsibility for the Committee on Women passed to the then Minister of Justice who was appointed to the newly-created Cabinet position of Government Spokesman on Women's Affairs. In 1981 the committee was restructured as the Advisory Committee on Women's Affairs and given expanded terms of reference (see ACWA below).
Advisory Committee on Women's Affairs (ACWA)—The Advisory Committee on Women's Affairs was created from September 1981.
The ACWA's terms of reference were:
to evaluate government policies on the basis of the identified needs of women in New Zealand;
to generate appropriate policies on the basis of the identified needs of women in New Zealand;
to promote the co-ordination of activities, programmes and policies of all agencies relevant to the concerns of women.
Members were appointed by Government, not as representatives of any particular organisations or special interests, but as individuals who were familiar with a wide range of issues affecting women. ACWA originally had 6 members including the Chair, but membership was increased to 7 in 1982 following the dis-establishment of the National Advisory Committee on Women and Education.
The restructuring of the Committee on Women to become the Advisory Committee on Women's Affairs was aimed at increasing the level of impact the Committee had on policy development. In order to provide a co-ordinating link between ACWA and the policy development processes in Government departments, the State Services Commission requested departments to refer all proposals that fell within the terms of reference of ACWA to the ACWA Secretariat, which was staffed by the State Services Commission. It circulated guidelines to assist departments in determining which policy proposals should be referred.
In addition to these, ACWA continued with activities originally undertaken by the Committee on Women, such as administration of the Project Fund (which remained at $25,000), production of a news sheet, promotion of the UN Decade for Women, and maintenance of the women's resources library.
It also housed and provided administrative assistance for the Women's Appointment File (WAF), which is a curriculum vitae resource of over 800 women who are willing and available to serve on government boards and committees. The WAF was set up in 1979 and aims to counteract the imbalance of men and women in public office, and to encourage greater participation by women in the decisionmaking process. It is managed by a voluntary committee comprising various representatives of voluntary women's organisations.
ACWA also provided an administrative base for a nationwide Women in Agriculture network (WAg). This evolved from a “Focus on Women in Agriculture” initiated by a group of women with an interest in agriculture, education and employment, who began meeting in the offices of the Committee on Women in 1981.
To enable ACWA to deal with its extensive brief, a subcommittee structure was evolved reflecting the areas of concern to ACWA. The subcommittees were convened to respond to particular issues and needs as they arose or were identified. They covered ACWA's priority areas which were Economic Status, Education, Health, Violence, and End of Decade.
ACWA was disbanded when the Ministry of Women's Affairs was established in 1984.
Ministry of Women's Affairs—With the change of Government in July 1984, the number of women members of Parliament increased by four to twelve, and for the first time, there were two women in Cabinet. Hon Ann Hercus was appointed the first Minister of Women's Affairs, as well as Minister of Social Welfare, and Minister of Police. Hon Margaret Shields was appointed Minister of Customs, and Minister of Consumer Affairs.
In November 1984, Cabinet approved the establishment of a Ministry of Women's Affairs. Its purpose, in consultation with relevant Ministers and other agencies, is to:
advise the Minister of Women's Affairs on the implications of the Government's policies and public sector plans and expenditure programmes in terms of their differential impact on women;
monitor and initiate legislation and regulations in order to promote equality of opportunity for women;
advise the Minister of Women's Affairs of suitable nominees for the appointment of women to statutory bodies and other quasi-governmental bodies;
advise the Minister of Women's Affairs on any matter relevant to the implementation of the Government's Manifesto where this has implications for, or explicitly refers to, women.
In March 1985, the State Services Act 1962 was amended to add the Ministry of Women's Affairs and the position of Secretary of Women's Affairs to the list of departments of state and their permanent heads.
A series of open forums was held around the country in the last months of 1984, to give women the opportunity to select priorities for action from the Government's programme of equality for women, and to say how they thought the Ministry should operate. However, implementation of the government's policy for women is not the responsibility of the Ministry alone. One of the Ministry's roles is to encourage action by other government departments.
National Advisory Council on the Employment of Women (NACEW)—The National Advisory Council on the Employment of Women was set up in 1967. It is composed of a Chairperson and twelve other members. The Chair and six Council members are appointed by the Minister of Employment for their knowledge and experience in women's employment matters. The remaining six members represent the major employee and employer organisations in the private and public sectors, and the Departments of Labour and Education. NACEW thus has a tripartite nature.
The Council's primary function is to advise the Minister of Employment on all matters relating to the employment of women: for example, equal opportunity for girls and women in employment and training, parental leave, child-care and the social security system as it affects women. The most significant instances of this to date are the planning which preceded the Commission of Inquiry into Equal Pay and the drafting of the maternity leave legislation.
The Council's second function is to promote a greater public knowledge and understanding of women's employment and its implications. Accordingly, the Council has made submissions to bodies such as the Commission of Inquiry into Equal Pay, the Royal Commission on Social Security, the Select Committee on Women's Rights and the Select Committee on the Human Rights Commission Bill.
Thirdly, in co-operation with the Department of Labour, which provides secretarial assistance to NACEW, the Council has published statistical and pamphlet material on women's employment issues; promoted research into the employment of women and related topics such as industrial child-care; and promoted pilot schemes to explore ways of assisting disadvantaged groups of women in the paid workforce.
Women's Advisory Committee of the Vocational Training Council (WAC/VTC)—The Women's Advisory Committee of the Vocational Training Council was established in 1975 to advise the council on matters relating to women's training and to act as a catalyst to change the traditional attitudes affecting the vocational training of women and girls. The council, which formerly reported to the Minister of Education, now reports to the Minister of Labour.
Membership of the committee comprises representatives from the Federation of Labour, the Employers Federation, State Services Co-ordinating Committee, the Combined State Unions, the Departments of Education and Labour, the Technical Institute/Community College system, the Polynesian Advisory Committee of the VTC, the National Advisory Council on the Employment of Women, and the Advisory Committee on Women's Affairs. There is also provision for an additional person with experience and knowledge of the special needs of women in relation to training and employment.
The committee is chaired by a Ministerial appointee to the VTC.
Since its establishment, the committee has been directing its efforts towards achieving equality of opportunity for women in the areas of training, and the promotion of non-traditional occupations for women is one of its current major programmes.
National Advisory Committee on Women and Education (NACWE)—The National Advisory Committee on Women and Education replaced an ad hoc committee originally set up to organise the 1975 conference “Education and the Equality of the Sexes” which was jointly sponsored by the Committee on Women and the Department of Education. This ad hoc committee continued in order to monitor the implementation of recommendations from the conference, and its work expanded to the extent that the Minister of Education set up a formal advisory committee in 1979.
The NACWE had 16 members, representative of relevant interest groups, who advised the Minister of Education on matters pertaining to the education of girls and women; the achievement of equality of opportunity and treatment for women in the education service; and ways in which the education system could contribute to equality of the sexes in New Zealand society.
The NACWE was disestablished by the Government in June 1982, and its work programme passed to various sections of the Department of Education. The Chair of NACWE was subsequently appointed to ACWA. In 1985 Government is considering proposals to form a reconstituted NACWE.
The Equal Employment Opportunities Unit (EEOU) of the State Services Commission—The Equal Employment Opportunities Unit (EEOU) of the State Services Commission has the overall functional responsibility for the promotion, co-ordination and monitoring of equal employment opportunity policies, programmes and practices within the Public Service.
The State Services Commission established the EEOU in 1983 to implement its policies in the areas of recruitment, conditions of employment, career development, selection and promotion to ensure that people are given equal access and consideration to pursue their careers without having their chances reduced by factors such as race, sex, country of origin, physical disability, marital status, or personal beliefs.
An EEO network was set up to facilitate the co-ordination between the EEOU and departments at central and regional level. In each of the 37 government departments, the senior manager responsible for the promotion, development and co-ordination of EEO policies reports back to the EEOU on the progress achieved in accordance with the positive approach set out in the EEO policy statement agreed by members of the State Services Co-ordinating Committee in February 1984.
In March 1984 a Regional Liaison Officer, EEO—Auckland, was appointed to ensure that frontline experience of EEO problems in the largest urban area was taken into account.
In June 1984 the EEOU set up a 12 member Inter-departmental Standing Advisory Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities (ISAC-EEO) to assist the EEOU in formulating new policy and determining long term EEO objectives. The Committee advises the Commission on the monitoring of the suitability and effectiveness of existing EEO practices in the Public Service.
The EEOU publishes a quarterly newsletter to keep public servants informed of EEO developments and provide a forum for ideas to which employees can contribute.
The ongoing programme of the EEOU is full and varied. Along with assisting the departments in the preparation of their EEO management plans by providing advice and resource material, the unit initiates and reviews policies and updates EEO modules for use in departmental training programmes. The EEOU also organises seminars and workshops on EEO principles and practices for departmental managers and EEO Liaison Officers; it promulgates positive action programmes which are planned, result-oriented programmes designed to achieve equal employment opportunities for women, ethnic minorities and disabled persons.
For unlawful discrimination on grounds of sex, see Human Rights Commission. Section 10A: Justice.
Legislation—The following legislation, either removing legal discriminations against women or directly aimed at assisting women, has been passed since 1970.
Domestic Proceedings Amendment Act 1971—Extended provisions for maintenance orders.
Equal Pay Act 1972—Established the principle of equal pay for equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex.
Social Security Amendment Act 1973—Established the domestic purposes benefit for solo parents. Accident Compensation Amendment Act 1973—Extended compensation provisions to non-earners. Matrimonial Property Act 1976—Provided for a more equitable division of property on the dissolution of a marriage.
Domicile Act 1976—Provided that a woman's domicile does not have to follow that of her husband.
Social Security Amendment Act 1977—Introduced national superannuation without discrimination.
Human Rights Commission Act 1977—Prohibited discrimination in such areas as employment, and access to goods and services on the grounds of sex or marital status.
Citizenship Act 1977—Accorded all New Zealand citizens the same rights with respect to the citizenship of spouses and children.
Social Security Amendment Act 1979—Provided for the payment of sickness and unemployment benefits to women and men on an equal basis.
Evidence Amendment Act 1980—Provided some restrictions on the cross-examination or presentation of evidence pertaining to a victim's sexual history.
Family Courts Act 1980—Removed family law to special court with special support services.
Family Proceedings Act 1980—Introduced no fault dissolution of marriage, and revised the law relating to matrimonial and domestic proceedings.
Guardianship Amendment Act 1980—Introduced custodial provisions which ensure that the welfare of the child is paramount and no one person can be preferred as custodial parent on the basis of sex.
Maternity Leave and Employment Protection Act 1980—Guaranteed up to 26 weeks unpaid leave to most women workers expecting a baby or planning to adopt a young child.
Factories and Commercial Premises Amendment Act 1981—Lifted restrictions on women working during night hours.
Domestic Protection Act 1982—Extended protection to the victims of domestic violence in whatever situation this occurs.
Coal Mines Amendment Act 1983—Provided for the repeal of the restriction on employment of women underground. New Zealand is no longer bound by the International Labour Convention 45.
Estate and Gift Duties Amendment Act 1983—Provided for a gift duty exemption when a matrimonial property agreement results in the non-owner spouse receiving half the matrimonial property.
EXTERNAL MIGRATION—For the first time since 1980 there has been a decrease in the number of permanent and long-term arrivals to New Zealand, whilst the permanent and long-term departures from New Zealand has continued to decline. The movement in permanent and long-term migrants has shown a recovery from a net loss to population of 34 417 in 1980 to a net gain to population of 6558 in 1984.
Total migration figures (excluding only movements of armed forces) are shown in the following table for the most recently available 5 years. (A later year is included in the Latest Statistical Information Section at the back of this Yearbook). “Long-term”, as used here, indicates arrivals or departures for an intended stay of 12 months or more. Conversely, “short-term” refers to less than 12 months.
Through passengers, not included in the “All Passengers” totals, are persons who arrive in New Zealand but do not pass through immigration controls and do not complete arrival declarations. Also described as transit passengers, they normally depart on the same flight or vessel within a few hours of arriving in New Zealand.
ARRIVALS IN NEW ZEALAND
|Year Ended 31 March||Long-term (Including Permanent) Arrivals||Short-term Movements||All Passenger Arrivals||Through Passengers||Crews||Total Arrivals|
|N.Z. Residents Returning||Temporary Visitors Arriving|
DEPARTURES FROM NEW ZEALAND
|Year Ended 31 March||Long-term (Including Permanent) Departures||Short-term Movements||All Passenger Departures||Through Passengers||Crews||Total Departures|
|N.Z. Residents Departing||Temporary Visitors Departing|
A summary by sex of arrivals and departures during the latest 5 years is given in the following table. Crews, through passengers, and armed forces personnel on military exercises have not been taken into account in this table.
|Year Ended 31 March||Arrivals||Departures||Excess of Arrivals Over Departures*|
|*A minus sign denotes an excess of departures over arrivals.|
From 1968 to 1970 there was an alteration in the net migration flow. This is illustrated in the following graph which covers all passenger migration, excluding through passengers and crews. The excess of departures over arrivals recorded during the March years 1967–68 to 1969–70 was a migration feature which has not occurred since the depression of the 1930s. Although this period was followed by 6 years of migration gains, the March years 1976–77 to 1981–82 recorded substantial annual losses, totalling an excess of 107 236 departures over arrivals. However, both the 1983 and 1984 March years have shown a reversal of this trend, recording an excess of arrivals over departures of 15 442 and 10 557 respectively.
Long-term Migration—The following table gives an analysis of long-term (including permanent) arrivals and departures for March years. (Short-term migration is analysed in Section 9, Travel and Tourism.) In the year ended March 1984 there was a net gain of 6558 from permanent and long-term migration. The main area of change was in the number of departures, which decreased by 14 100 or 24.8 percent.
|Year Ended 31 March||Long-term (Including Permanent) Arrivals||Long-term (Including Permanent) Departures|
|Permanent Arrivals||Long-term||Permanent and Long-term Arrivals (Immigrants)||Permanent Departures of New Zealand Residents||Long term||Permanent and Long-term Departures (Emigrants)|
|N.Z. Residents Returning*||Long-term Visitors*||N.Z. Residents Depar'g*||Long-term Visitors Depart'g*|
|*Arrivals: after absence of, or intending to stay, 12 months or more. Departures: persons intending to stay away for, or after stay in New Zealand of, 12 months or more.|
The countries of origin and destination of these long-term (including permanent) migrants are shown in the following table.
|Year Ended 31 March *||Australia†||United Kingdom||United States*||Western Samoa*||Cook Islands and Niue||Canada||Oceania||Europe||Asia‡||all other Countries||Total|
*Included in Oceania.
†Included in Europe.
|Permanent and Long-term Migrants Arriving by Country of Last Residence|
|Permanent and Long-term Migrants Departing by Country of Next Residence|
Ages—The following table gives the age distribution of long-term (including permanent) arrivals and departures for the year ended 31 March 1984.
|Age, in Years||Permanent and Long-term Arrivals||Permanent and Long-term Departures||Excess of Arrivals Over Departures*|
|*A minus sign denotes an excess of departures over arrivals.|
|45 and over||1,938||1,871||3,809||1,736||1,709||3,445||364|
|Total||20 608||20 097||40 705||17 246||16 901||34 147||6 558|
Occupations—The following table shows permanent and long-term arrivals and departures during the year ended 31 March 1984 by occupation major groups and by those occupations or groups of occupations which were the main contributors to the movement within each major group.
|Occupation||Permanent and Long-term Migrants|
|Arrivals||Departures||Net Gain or Loss|
|*Protective service workers include fire fighters, policemen, detectives, security officers, night watchmen, etc.|
|Professional, technical, and related workers—|
|Architects, engineers, and related technicians||981||723||258|
|Medical, dental, veterinary, and related workers||1,976||1,981||-5|
|Workers in religion||299||269||30|
|Total||6 797||6 591||206|
|Administrative and managerial workers—|
|Clerical and related workers—|
|Stenographers, typists, and card and tape punching machine operators||1072||914||158|
|Computing machine operators||219||231||-12|
|Salespeople, shop assistants, and related workers||605||723||-118|
|Cooks, waiters and waitresses, bartenders, and related workers||679||677||2|
|Protective service workers*||268||316||-48|
|Total||1 647||1 736||-89|
|Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen, and hunters—|
|Agricultural and animal husbandry workers||341||495||-154|
|Production and related workers, transport equipment operators, and labourers—|
|Food and beverage processors||283||396||-113|
|Tailors, dressmakers, sewers, and related workers||185||283||-98|
|Machinery fitters, machine assemblers, and precision instrument makers (except electrical)||1,147||889||258|
|Electrical fitters and related electrical and electronics workers||417||374||43|
|Plumbers, welders, sheet-metal and structural metal preparers and erectors||579||355||224|
|Printers and related workers||183||189||-6|
|Bricklayers, carpenters, and other construction workers||962||553||409|
|Material-handling and related equipment operators, dockers, and freight handlers||302||308||-6|
|Transport equipment operators||543||477||66|
|Labourers, not elsewhere classified||701||678||23|
|Total||6 364||5 457||907|
|Occupations unidentifiable or inadequately described||1 328||825||503|
|Total, actively engaged||22 500||21 488||1 012|
|Not actively engaged||18 205||12 659||5 546|
|Total arrivals and departures||40 705||34 147||6 558|
Origin—The following table shows for the latest 3 years the birthplaces of long-term (including permanent) migrants.
PERMANENT AND LONG-TERM MIGRANTS
|Country of Birth||Arrivals*||Departures†|
*Persons arriving in New Zealand for a period of 12 months or more (including permanent arrivals), plus New Zealand residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more.
†New Zealand residents departing for a period of 12 months or more (including permanent departures), plus overseas visitors departing from New Zealand after a stay of 12 months or more.
|North America||1 506||1 774||1 554||1 101||1 079||914|
|Europe||11 346||10 733||8 134||6 584||5 326||5 341|
|Asia||2 693||2 435||2 780||1 507||1 374||1 345|
|Oceania||29 202||30 284||27 697||47 123||34 563||26 166|
|Cook Islands and Niue||696||707||472||486||441||344|
|Total||45 292||45 854||40 705||56 774||42 674||34 147|
DEPARTURE FROM NEW ZEALAND—All persons leaving New Zealand must have a valid travel document (except for short visits by New Zealand citizens to Rarotonga and direct return). As from 1 July 1981 New Zealand citizens were required to have a passport to enter Australia. This greatly affected the number of passports issued as noted below. New Zealand citizens do not require a visa to enter Australia.
Passports—All persons who arrive in New Zealand, except New Zealand citizens travelling direct from Australia and certain other trans-Tasman travellers listed below, may be required to produce a valid passport or some other acceptable and recognised travel document. Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1980.
New Zealand passports are issued and renewed within New Zealand by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington, Auckland, Rotorua, Christchurch, and Dunedin, at Rarotonga and Niue by the New Zealand Representatives, and overseas by the representatives of New Zealand at Apia, Athens, Baghdad, Bahrain, Bangkok, Bonn, Brisbane, Brussels, Canberra, Geneva, The Hague, Hong Kong, Honiara, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Moscow, New York, Noumea, Nuku'alofa, Ottawa, Paris, Peking, Port Moresby, Rome, San Francisco, Santiago (Chile), Seoul, Singapore, Suva, Sydney, Tehran, Tokyo, Vancouver, Vienna, and Washington. New Delhi reopened in January 1985.
During the year ended 31 March 1984 there were 139 640 New Zealand passports issued, compared with 173 810 during the previous year.
IMMIGRATION POLICY—New Zealand's immigration policy is designed to encourage the entry of skilled labour into New Zealand, and to protect domestic employment opportunities for New Zealand citizens and residents who have the right to reside here permanently. At the same time, considerable emphasis is placed on humanitarian considerations such as the reunification of families, and the provision of settlement opportunities for refugees.
Further information may be obtained from the nearest New Zealand overseas representative, from district offices of the Department of Labour, or by writing to the Secretary of Labour, Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington.
Permanent Entry on Occupational Grounds—The New Zealand Government periodically determines the occupational skills in demand in New Zealand which warrant recruitment from overseas. A list of these skills, called the Occupational Priority List (OPL), is published by the Department of Labour to assist employers who are unable to fill job vacancies from within New Zealand.
Another measure adopted to assist employers is the Immigration Placement Service (IPS), which operates through the Migration Branch of the New Zealand High Commission in London. The Service provides sufficient information for employers to tentatively assess migrants' work skills and experience against the requirements of job vacancies they are finding it difficult to fill on the local labour market.
In general, applicants for permanent entry on occupational grounds must be between the ages of 18 and 45 years, of sound mental and physical health and of good character, and, if married, have no more than 4 dependent children. Accommodation and employment are usually required to be prearranged.
In certain skilled occupations where there is a known shortage in New Zealand, the New Zealand Government has relaxed the criteria for entry by waiving the requirement of employment and accommodation guarantees. This applies to suitable applicants from selected countries, who are single or married couples without children. There is also provision for the entry of business people and entrepreneurs who can bring both skills and capital which the Government considers will benefit New Zealand, for example, by creating additional employment opportunities or by generating new exports.
Applications are occasionally received from persons who have distinguished themselves in the arts or sciences, or in public or cultural life overseas, and who wish to settle in New Zealand. Although they could make a major contribution to New Zealand life, most of them do not qualify in terms of normal occupational criteria. In the same way, applications are sometimes received from persons who, although outside normal criteria, have been actively involved in promoting or protecting New Zealand's interests overseas. The Minister of Immigration may approve such applications in appropriate cases.
Family Reunification—The policy on family reunification provides for the entry of relatives who are spouses and/or dependent children of New Zealand citizens or permanent residents; parents of New Zealand citizens or permanent residents if they have no children living in their own country; brothers, sisters, and children of New Zealand citizens or permanent residents if they are single without dependants, and alone in their country of residence. Other cases where there are special circumstances such as a high degree of financial or emotional dependence on the New Zealand citizen or permanent resident may also be considered.
Western Samoa—Within the South Pacific region, immigrants from Western Samoa constitute by far the largest group entering New Zealand for permanent settlement, under a special quota arrangement instituted in 1962. Up to 1100 Western Samoan citizens may be accepted for permanent entry each year, over and above those who qualify under the family reunification provisions of the immigration policy. Applicants who seek entry under the quota are required to meet normal requirements in relation to age, family size, health, character, and accommodation, and to be in possession of a guarantee of employment in any occupation, prior to entry.
As a result of the passing of the Citizenship (Western Samoa) Act 1982 by the New Zealand Parliament in September 1982, many Western Samoan citizens who were in New Zealand at that time became eligible to apply to the Department of Internal Affairs for New Zealand citizenship. Applications from Western Samoan citizens for permanent residence in New Zealand continue to be considered in accordance with the policies outlined above.
The Netherlands—Under the terms of a migration agreement between the Netherlands and New Zealand, an annual quota of immigrants from the Netherlands is accepted. Migrants accepted under this arrangement are required to meet normal criteria with respect to age, family size, health and character, and the Netherlands Emigration Service guarantees to place such migrants in employment and accommodation after arrival.
Refugees—The admission and resettlement of refugees who come within the mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been an important priority of the New Zealand Government. Refugees have been accepted in New Zealand since 1944 from Europe, Asia, South America, and Uganda. When selecting refugees emphasis is placed on the humanitarian circumstances of each case. The selection criteria may vary for different refugee situations but it is considered in the best interests of the refugees themselves that those selected can be expected to adapt quickly to New Zealand conditions. Account is also taken of any previous association with New Zealand, and of links with friends or relatives living in New Zealand.
Where refugees arrive in large groups (e.g., as in the Indo-Chinese Refugee Programme) the Government provides special assistance in the form of group orientation programmes for up to 6 weeks after arrival. During that period the refugees are accommodated in the Mangere Reception Centre and costs are met by various Government departments including the Department of Social Welfare, which pays a special emergency benefit to meet living expenses until the breadwinner begins working. Medical and dental checks are provided by the Department of Health, and the Department of Education organises general orientation and familiarisation courses (covering aspects of daily living in New Zealand) and instruction in the English language. After completing the orientation programme the refugee settlers are moved to their final destinations where they are helped by their sponsors and, where possible, by other persons from their country of origin, to overcome their early resettlement problems in a local community.
Resettlement committees at each of the district offices of the Department of Labour assist refugee sponsors at the local level with employment and any other problems that the refugees may face, as well as following up each local group's progress.
Current policy establishes quotas of refugees who may be accepted for entry, and the quotas are kept under review. Quotas approved in the continuing programme of acceptance of East European, ex USSR, Jewish, and handicapped refugees provide for the entry of 90 families. The New Zealand Government agreed to the entry of up to 650 Indo-Chinese refugees for resettlement in New Zealand between 1 July 1984 and 30 June 1985. Priority was given to those refugees with immediate family already resident in New Zealand. Once established in New Zealand, refugee settlers may sponsor the entry of relatives to New Zealand for family reunification under normal family reunification policy. During 1984, 705 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived for resettlement bringing the total number of Indo-Chinese refugee settlers in New Zealand to 6014 at the end of 1984.
In November 1982 the Government agreed to resettle a third group of 100 Polish refugees in New Zealand. By 31 March 1983, 292 Polish refugees had been resettled in New Zealand. When these migrants were selected, account was taken of their occupational skills and links with New Zealand. The East European quota is expected to cater for any future applications from Polish refugees.
Interdepartmental Committee on Resettlement—The Interdepartmental Committee on Resettlement (ICR), in consultation with other Government agencies and non-Government bodies, reviews the facilities available to assist new migrants, and as appropriate develops proposals for assistance to new migrants.
Resettlement Unit—As a part of the Immigration Division of the Department of Labour, the Resettlement Unit's role is to assess the range of settlement services available to new settlers and working visitors, and to make recommendations to Government agencies, the ICR and other interested bodies. The Resettlement Unit has focused its attention this year on the information needs of migrants, and ways in which they can be better informed about New Zealand and the services available to them in New Zealand. Work undertaken by the Unit has also been aimed at fostering a better understanding in New Zealand of the difficulties faced by migrants and working visitors, encouraging recognition of the value of the contribution that new settlers make to New Zealand society, and suggesting ways in which these settlers may be assisted to take their place in the community.
Temporary Entry—Entry permits for people wishing to visit New Zealand on a temporary basis are generally issued for varying periods of up to 6 months, though further extensions may be granted to bona fide tourists and other visitors to allow a total stay of up to 12 months. Visitors who wish to work while in New Zealand, whether for a New Zealand employer or on behalf of an overseas company, must apply for a temporary work permit; otherwise visitors are prohibited from working here. This requirement does not, however, affect Australian citizens who wish to work while in New Zealand, nor does it affect persons born in the Cook Islands, Niue, or Tokelau, who are New Zealand citizens and therefore have unrestricted right of entry into this country.
South Pacific Work Permit Schemes—New Zealand has special work permit schemes in operation for citizens of Tonga, Fiji, and Western Samoa. Under these schemes, agreed upon after negotiations with the respective governments, workers may undertake employment in response to specific job offers from New Zealand employers. Employers are required to make financial and other commitments to ensure the welfare of Island workers while they are in New Zealand, and the Department of Labour checks that the conditions of employment offered are acceptable and that the accommodation provided is of a suitable standard. The maximum period of employment is 11 months.
From time to time New Zealand makes special arrangements on an ad hoc basis with other Pacific countries to provide employment opportunities as local conditions permit.
Student Entry—Entry may be granted to overseas students to undertake approved courses of study, provided they make prior application and meet a number of requirements (including producing evidence of the availability of the necessary funds). The primary aim in permitting students from other countries to study in New Zealand is to train them to a stage where they can be of value in the development programmes of their own countries. For this reason, students from developing nations have preference.
Entry Permits—Except for New Zealand citizens and certain other categories of travellers listed below under “Special Arrangements” and “Trans-Tasman Travellers”, all persons entering New Zealand are required to obtain entry permits under the Immigration Act 1964. All persons intending permanent residence in New Zealand should seek prior approval before setting out on their journey. This may be done by writing to the nearest overseas representative of the New Zealand Government or to the Secretary of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand for the necessary application forms. Visitors to New Zealand from a number of countries may not require visas or prior entry authority, provided the purpose of entry is for tourism or to visit family and friends. Further details are available from the nearest overseas representative of New Zealand.
Special Arrangements for Australian Citizens—Australian citizens are exempt from New Zealand entry permit requirements (but not from other provisions of the Immigration Act). They are not required to produce a passport on arrival in New Zealand if they have travelled direct from Australia.
Trans-Tasman Travellers—British Commonwealth citizens and citizens of the Republic of Ireland who have been granted permission to reside indefinitely without restriction in Australia, providing they have travelled direct from Australia to New Zealand, are not required to obtain a prior entry authority or to produce a passport on arrival. They may, however, be asked to produce some evidence of their entitlement to the exemption. These travellers are not exempted from other provisions of the Immigration Act.
Prohibited Immigrants—The following categories of persons are prohibited from entry to New Zealand whether for permanent or temporary entry:
Mentally disordered persons, or people suffering from tuberculosis, leprosy, or syphilis;
Persons who have been convicted of an offence and sentenced to a term of imprisonment or other form of detention for 1 year or more or to any form of indeterminate detention for which they may be detained for a period of 1 year or more;
Persons who have been deported from New Zealand (except for a certain class of ship deserter), or deported from any other country.
Those within any of the above categories who enter New Zealand without first obtaining special permission to do so commit an offence under the Immigration Act 1964.
Re-entry—Persons who have the status of permanent residents lose their residential status when they travel out of the country, unless they have first obtained a re-entry authority. Multiple re-entry authorities are valid for a period of up to four years and entitle the holder to leave and return to New Zealand on any number of occasions while the authority remains valid. Application for a re-entry authority may be lodged at any district office of the Department of Labour before departure.
Remaining in New Zealand Without a Permit—Persons who remain in New Zealand beyond the validity of a temporary permit are committing an offence against the Immigration Act and, if convicted, are liable to be deported.
Deportation—The Immigration Act 1964 makes provision for the deportation of persons in four main categories: persons convicted of certain offences against the Immigration Act; permanent residents who are convicted within specified periods of their arrival in New Zealand of an offence for which the Court has the power to impose imprisonment; those who have engaged in, or who belong to organisations which have engaged in, acts of terrorism; and any person who the Minister of Immigration has certified constitutes a threat to national security.
Appeals Against Deportation—Persons who have been convicted of offences against the Immigration Act may appeal in writing to the Minister of Immigration against deportation on the grounds that it would be unduly harsh or unjust to deport them. In addition, a Deportation Review Tribunal is empowered to hear appeals on humanitarian grounds from permanent residents against deportation orders following convictions for criminal offences.
SOCIAL INDICATORS SURVEY 1980-81—In 1980-81 the Department of Statistics carried out the Social Indicators Survey, with a nationally representative sample of 6891 New Zealand adults living in private households in permanent dwellings. Topics covered were: employment, health, housing, education, income, personal safety and justice, leisure, social participation, and family and social attachments.
In addition to gathering objective data about aspects of life, the survey aimed to find out how people felt about these aspects of their lives. One way of doing this was to show people the faces shown in the chart below and ask them—
“Which face comes closest to expressing how you feel about ...?”.
This question was asked for each of the aspects listed, and the chart below shows the percentage who chose each face. For every aspect, the majority gave a positive response. The aspects most likely to produce the widest smiles were family, friends and life as a whole. The aspects most likely to produce a frown were education, income and housework, but even for these aspects fewer than one in six choose a frowning face.
In one of the questions in the leisure section, respondents were shown the list of activities in the first table and asked how often in the previous year they had participated in each. Virtually all the respondents reported a leisure activity that they had done at least weekly: the average number of weekly activities was six; and almost everyone took part in a number of leisure pursuits. The most popular activities on a weekly basis were reading, watching television, and listening to music. Entertaining family or friends was also very popular. Few respondents had gone to the cinema, theatre, concerts or exhibitions once a week, perhaps accounted for by the universal popularity of television. The Social Indicators Survey confirms the image of New Zealanders as a sports-minded nation. A quarter of the respondents had taken part in indoor sports at least monthly; 40 percent had taken part in outdoor sport at least once a month; and just over a third had gone out to watch sport that often.
In the education section of the questionnaire, respondents were asked whether they were currently enrolled at a school or college or receiving any tertiary education. About half of those aged 15 to 19, and about a fifth of those aged 20 to 24 were enrolled, either full or part-time (see table below). The results suggest that the education people receive depends to some degree on the education their parents had. Only a small number of respondents had a father with tertiary level education. But those respondents were markedly more likely to be enrolled than those whose father had reached some lower level. This is true of every age group shown in the second table. Of the 20-24 age group more than 30 percent of respondents whose father had a tertiary education were enrolled at university or teacher's college; nearly 50 percent were enrolled in either secondary or tertiary education. Of the other respondents in this age group, only about 5 percent were at university or teacher's college and 13 percent enrolled at all.
FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES*
|Daily||At Least Once a Week||At Least Once a Month||At Least Once a Year|
|*Frequency of participation over the past year. Note that categories are cumulative: once a week includes daily; once a month includes both once a week and daily; etc.|
|Read a newspaper, magazine or book||83||97||98||99|
|Spent time on hobbies, arts and crafts||20||54||65||75|
|Had family or friends around to visit||11||70||92||99|
|Listened to music||66||83||89||93|
|Done any gardening||12||49||68||82|
|Played cards, housie, and other indoor games||3||21||39||63|
|Taken part in any kind of drama, singing or music||1||8||11||19|
|Gone out to a restaurant, club or pub||1||22||48||85|
|Visited friends or family||5||57||87||98|
|Gone to the cinema, theatre, concerts or exhibitions||†||4||24||73|
|Gone out to watch sports or athletics||18||35||61|
|Gone on a picnic, or for a drive||1||19||54||87|
|Taken part in any active outdoor sports, athletics, swimming, tramping, cycling||5||29||40||51|
|Taken part in any indoor sports, or any kind of dancing||2||17||25||40|
CURRENT ENROLMENT* BY AGE AND FATHER'S LEVEL OF EDUCATION
|Number of Respondents||Percentage Enrolled||Number of Respondents||Percentage Enrolled||Number of Respondents||Percentage Enrolled|
*Includes full-time and part-time enrolment at a school, college or tertiary educational institution.
†Only given where respondents had been living with their father or father-substitute at the age of 15.
‡Either respondents had not been living with their father at the age of 15, or did not know the level of education their father reached.
|Father's level of education†|
Post-stratification—The data presented here have been post-stratified to ensure that they are representative of persons aged 15 and over living in permanent, private households. An effect of the post-stratification is that in some cases the numbers of respondents in groups may not sum exactly to the total
Symbols—† percentage close to zero and subject to sampling errors too great for most practical purposes.
Sampling errors—Since these data are based on a sample survey, they are subject to sampling errors.
For further details contact the Senior Research Officer, Social Indicators Section, Department of Statistics, Wellington.
Report on the Social Indicators Survey 1980-81. (Department of Statistics, 1984).
FURTHER INFORMATION—GENERAL—Other publications containing data on population include those listed below. Further details are given in the Select List of the department's publications at the end of the Yearbook.
Population and Migration—Department of Statistics (Annual)
Pt. B—External Migration
Department of Statistics (Annual)
Census of Population and Dwellings 1981—Department of Statistics.
Regional Statistics Series
Bulletin 1-10 (Each bulletin gives final population, dwelling, and household statistics on a major area of New Zealand)
Vol. 1—Pt. A—Location and Increase of Population.
Pt. B—Population Density.
Pt. C—Usually Resident Population.
Vol. 2—Ages, Marital Status, and Fertility.
Vol. 3—Religious Professions.
Vol. 4—Labour Force.
Vol. 6—Education and Training.
Vol. 7—Birthplaces and Ethnic Origin.
Vol. 8A—Maori Population and Dwellings.
8B—Pacific Island Polynesian Population.
Vol. 10—Households, and Families.
Vol. 11—Internal Migration.
1983 Electorate Profiles.
Bulletin on Cigarette Smoking.
Monthly Abstract of Statistics—Department of Statistics.
Demographic Bulletin—Department of Statistics.
New Zealand Population Projections 1983-2016—Department of Statistics.
Pocket Digest of Statistics—Department of Statistics.
Miscellaneous Bulletin Series—Department of Statistics.
No. 1—New Zealand Males and Females—A Statistical Comparison.
No. 7—New Zealand Maori and Non-Maori Populations
No. 10—Family Statistics in New Zealand.
No. 12—New Zealand Children 1979.
Occasional Paper Series—Department of Statistics.
No. 4—New Zealand Rural Profile.
No. 5—An Investigation of Official Ethnic Statistics.
Social Trends in New Zealand—Department of Statistics (1977).
Maps of Statistical Boundaries—Department of Statistics.
Report of the Department of Maori Affairs (Parl. paper E. 13).
Profile of Women—Department of Statistics (1985).
FURTHER INFORMATION ON WOMEN—A large proportion of population and other tables in the New Zealand Official Yearbook and other Department of Statistics' publications include separate female and male totals, allowing information specifically on women to be derived. The Department of Statistics has published a Profile of Women volume in 1985, drawing on such figures.
Information on women and employment is given in Section 32, Employment, and the index should be consulted for other specific references to women included in the Yearbook.
The special article in the 1985 Yearbook, New Zealand women: their changing situation, 1970-1984. Marks the end of the United Nations Decade for Women, and discusses the changing role of women in New Zealand over this period. It includes a bibliography.
The major components of population growth are natural increase and migration. The varying rate of New Zealand's population growth in recent years has been a result of changes in both components. The balance of migration showed an annual loss during 1976-81, but is now providing net gain to population growth. However the continued fall in the birth rate over the past 2 decades has substantially reduced the natural increase from the excess of births over deaths.
The following table shows the numbers and rates of natural increase for the latest 5 years, and emphasises the relatively high rate for the Maori component of the population.
|Year||Total Population||Maoris||Natural Increase Rates per 1000 Mean Population|
|Births||Deaths||Natural Increase||Births||Deaths||Natural Increase||Total||Maori|
In the 5 years to 31 December 1984 New Zealand gained by natural increase of population an estimated total of 124 600.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—An international comparison of birth, death and natural increase rates for certain countries is made in the following table. The rates, taken from the United Nations Population and Vital Statistics Report, are for 1983.
|Country||Rate per 1000 of Population|
REGISTRATION—The law regarding the registration of births is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. A birth is normally registered at the office of the Registrar nearest the place of birth.
Birth statistics are compiled by the Department of Statistics from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year. The figures do not include still births, except where multiple births are discussed. A special classification of still births is given later in this subsection.
Under Section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, provision is made for births not registered in the ordinary way to be recorded at a later date in a special register kept by the Registrar-General. Such cases include elderly people requiring evidence of age for social welfare purposes. Until 1971 these late registrations were included in published live-birth statistics but they are now excluded. The numbers are normally relatively small; in 1983 they totalled 305.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table shows the numbers of births and the rates for the latest 5 years. Late registrations (see above) have been excluded from all these figures. The crude birth rate fell in the early 1960s and in the later 1960s appeared to stabilise at 22 to 23 births per 1000 of mean population. During the 1970s the crude birth rate continued to decline, and following a period of stability in the late 1970s, has fallen again.
A more refined cross-sectional measure called the total fertility rate is also shown in the following table for the latest 5 years. The total fertility rate at which any population replaces itself, under certain conditions, is approximately 2.10 births per woman. In New Zealand this situation is unlikely to arise until early next century because of the existing population age-structure.
|Year||Live Births||Crude Birth Rate*||Total Fertility Rate†|
*Per 1000 of mean population.
†Average number of births a woman would have during her reproductive life if she were exposed to the fertility rates characteristic of various childbearing age-groups.
REFINED BIRTH RATE—“Crude” rates of the number of births per 1000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age, do not take account of variations in the proportion of women of the childbearing ages. Refined rates are provided by computations of the nuptial birth rate per 1000 married women of 16-44 years of age, or the total birth rate per 1000 women aged 15-44 years. The following table gives both rates for Census years (on the basis of the births registered in that year and the population as at the Census of Population and Dwellings) together with the “crude” rate for the year.
|Census Year||Birth Rate per 1000 Women||"Crude" Birth Rate per 1000 Mean Population|
|Married Women 16-44 Years||Total Women 15-44 Years|
|*New Zealand residents only.|
The percentage of married women among women in the child-bearing age groups was 61.8 in 1981 compared with 66.0 in 1966. A study of the figures for successive Censuses reveals considerable changes in the age composition of married women within the child-bearing ages; as the birth rate also varies with age, the change in age composition over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.
The following diagram shows numbers of births and deaths and indicates the current decreasing rate of natural increase in New Zealand.
REPRODUCTION INDEX—The reproduction index is based on the fact that the future size of a population is related to the number of female children born to women in the reproductive age groups at any given time. The gross rate is based on the average number of girls that will be born to a woman during her reproductive period given the prevailing age-specific fertility rates. The net rate takes into account prevailing mortality rates. A net rate of 1.0 indicates zero population growth if the population is closed to migration, and its age-sex structure has long-term stability.
Reproduction rates during the 6 most recent years were as follows:
|Year||Gross Rate||Net Rate|
SEX OF CHILDREN BORN—The numbers of boys and girls born during the latest 5 years are given in the following table. In each year more boys than girls are born, a disparity in births that is outweighed by the higher death rates of males at every age level. The death rate per 1000 live births for babies under 12 months of age in 1983 was 13.64 for boys and 11.38 for girls. Per 1000 mean population the death rate for children of from 1 to 4 years of age was 0.62 for boys and 0.48 for girls; for children aged 5 to 14 years it was 0.35 for boys and 0.24 for girls; and the pattern repeated itself for each age group through adolescence and adult life.
The following table illustrates the disparity in the numbers born.
|Year||Number of Births of||Male Births per 1000 Female Births|
MULTIPLE BIRTHS—In 1983 there were 527 confinements resulting in all live multiple births, including 9 cases of triplets. There were also 9 cases where one of the twins was stillborn and 4 cases where both twins were stillborn.
|Year||Single Births||Twin Births||Triplets||Total Cases||Still Birth Rate per 1000|
|Live||Still||Both Live||Both Still||One Live One Still||All Live||Two Live One Still||Single||Multiple||Single Cases||Multiple Cases|
|*Including 1 case of quadruplets all live-born.|
AGES OF PARENTS—Information on the relative ages of parents of nuptial living children whose births were registered in 1983 is shown in the following table. Registrations of births under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 are excluded.
|Age of Mother, in Years||Age of Father, in Years|
|Under 20||20-24||25-29||30-34||35-39||40-44||45-49||50-54||55-64||65 and Over||Total Cases|
|45 and over||-||-||-||-||3||2||10||6||1||-||22|
|Total||224||5 504||14 187||11 738||4 303||1 138||373||121||58||5||37 651|
|Age of Mother, in Years||Age of Father, in Years|
|Under 20||20-24||25-29||30-34||35-39||40-44||45-49||50-54||55-64||65 and Over||Total Cases|
|*Including 8 cases of triplets, 5 cases all live born, and 3 cases where one was still-born.|
|45 and over||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Grand Total||224||5 548||14 343||11 882||4 360||1 154||375||121||59||5 38 071|
PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS—The following table gives for 1983 the number of previous issue, i.e., children born alive, in conjunction with the age of mother.
|Age of Mother, in Years||Number of Previous Issue||Total Nuptial Cases|
|0||1||2||3||4||5||6-9||10-14||15 and over|
|Number of Mothers|
|45 and over||3||3||2||3||4||3||3||1||-||22|
|Total||14 538||12 952||6 706||2 519||806||312||197||20||1||38 071|
In the following table the total issue and average issue are shown for mothers by age groups where a birth occurred in 1983.
|Age of Mother, in Years||Total Mothers||Total Issue||Average Issue|
|45 and over||22||102||4.64|
|Total||38 071||78 760||2.07|
It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz, the average number of children (including those registered in 1983) born up to the present time to those mothers of nuptial children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue resulting from existing marriages only. The averages for recent years have been as follows: 1977, 2.13; 1978, 2.11; 1979, 2.11; 1980, 2.07; 1981, 2.08; 1982, 2.08, and 1983, 2.07.
FIRST BIRTH—Statistics of nuptial first confinements show that, during the last 5 years, the percentages of first confinements during the first year and first 2 years after marriage have stabilised at a lower level than that prevailing in earlier periods.
|Year||Total Nuptial Cases||Total Nuptial First Cases||Percentage of First Cases to Total Cases||First Cases Within 1 Year After Marriage||First Cases Within 2 Years After Marriage|
|Number||Percentage to Total First Cases||Number||Percentage to Total First Cases|
The following table gives the duration-of-marriage factor in first confinements over a longer time series.
|Duration of Marriage, in Years||Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|10 and over||1.11||0.94||0.55||1.25||1.69|
In the following table first confinements occurring to women in different age groups are expressed as a percentage of the total first confinements.
|Age of Woman, in Years||Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|45 and over||0.04||0.09||0.01||0.01||0.02|
The average ages of women at the birth of their first child were as follows: 1964, 23.65; 1974, 23.29; 1980, 24.76; 1981, 24.88; 1982, 25.13; and 1983, 25.44 years. These figures refer to nuptial births only.
EX-NUPTIAL LIVE BIRTHS—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the last 6 years are given in the following table. The ex-nuptial birth rate relates ex-nuptial births to the number of women not married aged 15-49 years and is a more relevant measure than the previously published percentage of ex-nuptial births to total births. Ex-nuptial births include children born to women living in de facto relationships.
*Per 1000 mean number of women not married aged 15-49 years.
In 1983 the total number of ex-nuptial confinements resulting in live births was 11 865. Of these, 11 749 cases were single births, and 116 cases of twins. There were 2 cases of twins where 1 child was stillborn. The total number of ex-nuptial live births was 11 979. From the following table, it can be seen that of the 11 865 mothers, 3716 or 31.32 percent were under 20 years of age.
|Age||Number of Mothers|
|45 and over||2|
Reregistration—An ex-nuptial child whose parents have later married may be reregistered from birth. Applications for registration must be made within 3 months after the date of the marriage.
The number of reregistrations in each of the latest 6 years were as follows: 1978, 1288; 1979, 1075; 1980, 1328; 1981, 1473; 1982, 1430; and 1983, 1520.
Under the former provisions of Section 10 of the Children and Young Persons' Act 1974 Social Workers were required to make enquiries into all ex-nuptial births. The purpose of these enquiries was to establish the circumstances of both mother and child and offer help and advice where necessary. This provision was repealed in the Children and Young Persons' Amendment Act 1982 which became effective from 1 January 1983. In cases where the mother is under the age of 18, the Social Workers continue, by administrative arrangement, to offer help and advice.
The last year for which statistics on the outcome of ex-nuptial birth enquiries conducted by Social Workers is available is therefore the 1982 calendar year.
ADOPTIONS—The following table, which relates to cases handled by the Department of Social Welfare, shows the number and status of children adopted over the last 5 years ended 31 March.
|Status of Children Adopted||1979||1980||1981||1982||1983|
|*These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.|
|Total||1 954||1 957||1 647||1 582||1 544|
In 1983, 61 percent of the children adopted were ex-nuptial births. Of these children born out of wedlock, 61 percent were aged less than 1 year at the time of placement for adoption.
The next table shows the age at placement according to the status of the children adopted in 1983.
|*These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.|
|Under 1 year||59||581||20||660|
|6 years and over||8||11||-||19|
The following table shows the original relationship between adopted children and their new parents.
|One parent and spouse||773||894||763||782||670|
|Relative or close friend||336||348||328||322||412|
|Total||1 954||1 957||1 647||1 582||1 544|
STILLBIRTHS—Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. Particulars of causes of still births will be found in Section 4C relating to deaths. A stillborn child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. Stillbirths are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths.
The following table shows for the latest 6 years the numbers of still births and the rate per 1000 total births.
The death rate (by which is usually meant the crude death rate i.e: the number of deaths per 1000 of total mean population) is less subject to fluctuation than the birth rate. In the absence of wars, epidemics, and other large-scale disasters, it changes slowly. The New Zealand crude death rate was 8.35 in 1933 and 50 years later, in 1983, it was 8.06. In between, it had reached a peak of 11.05 in 1942, during the Second World War, and a low point of 7.85 in 1978. In contrast, the birth rate (17.67 in 1933 and 15.65 in 1983) had been as high as 27.64 in 1947 and is now below even the level of the 1930s Depression years. Depressions, wars, peace, prosperity, changing social attitudes, and the popularisation of improved methods of birth control have all left their mark on the birth rate.
Under normal conditions the most important factor affecting the crude death rate is the age structure of the population, which (like the death rate itself) changes slowly. An ageing population will tend to have a high death rate, while a young one (provided that infant mortaliy is not abnormally high) will have a low one.
The following table sets out the numbers of deaths and the crude death rates per 1000 of mean population. (Maoris are defined as persons with half or more Maori ancestory and the term non-Maori covers all other persons.)
|Year||Numbers||Crude Rate per 1000 of Mean Population|
The chief merit of the crude death rate is that it is easily calculated, requiring only the number of deaths and the size of the population “at risk”. However, it is very misleading when comparisons are being made between two or more populations with different age structures, such as the Maori and non-Maori population of New Zealand. The Maori population is a “young” one, with a high proportion of children and young people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally very low, and relatively few elderly people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally high. The non-Maori population is older, with a considerably smaller proportion of children and young people and a larger proportion of elderly people. The result is that a comparison of crude death rates gives a false picture of Maori mortality as compared with non-Maori.
In the following table, based on 1983 figures, a comparison is supplied in age-specific rates for the two races in each sex (age-specific rates are the number of deaths per 10 000 or per 1000, etc. of the population in the specified age groups).
|Ethnic Group||Age-specific Death Rates per 10 000 of Population at Ages|
|Under 5 Years||5-14 Years||15-24 Years||25-44 Years||45-64 Years||65 Years and Over|
For both Maoris and non-Maoris the death rate in males exceeds the death rate in females by a considerable margin. The following table sets out the number of deaths and the respective crude death rates for each sex separately for the latest 5 years.
|Year||Deaths of Males||Deaths of Females||Total Deaths||Male Deaths to Every 100 Female Deaths|
|*Deaths per 1000 of mean population.|
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR—In 1983 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were July and August, with totals of 2753 and 2471 respectively. Excluding December (a proportion of deaths occurring in that month were not registered until January 1984), February had the least number of deaths, 1696, followed by March with 1993.
AGES AT DEATH—Deaths registered during the year 1983 are shown according to age in the following table.
|Age, in Years||Males||Females||Total|
|*Excludes adjustments by the National Health Statistics Centre as a result of analysis and collation of registration forms and death certificates.|
|100 and over||15||39||54|
|Total||13 978||12 013||25 991|
The following table gives a time series for rates of death per 1000 of mean population by age groups. Health measures in New Zealand have achieved an immense saving of young life and a prolongation of life, especially among elderly women.
|Year||Under 1*||1-4||5-14||15-24||25-34||35-44||45-54||55-64||65-74||75 and Over|
*Per 1000 live births in this case.
†Non-Maori figures only as Maori at ages not available for these years.
|(Rates per 1000 of mean population in each age group)|
The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of the total population by sex is shown in the following table. Prior to 1974 the data relate to the non-Maori population only.
MAORI DEATHS—There were 1263 Maori deaths registered in 1984, compared with 1326 for 1983, and 1318 for 1982 (Maori ethnicity is defined as persons with half or more Maori ancestry). The crude death rate was 4.34 per 1000 mean population in 1984, compared with 4.62 in 1983, and 4.65 in 1982. Of the 1263 Maori deaths registered, 746 were males, and 517 females. The average age of death of Maoris in 1983 was 49.92 years and 52.49 years for males and females respectively. The younger age composition of the Maori population is an important factor to take into consideration when comparing figures on crude death rates and average age of deaths with other populations.
EXPECTATION OF LIFE—The life table is a statistical device for depicting the pattern of mortality of a given population group over a particular reference period. Life tables for the total New Zealand population have been constructed at regular intervals since the calendar period 1950-52. The most recent series prepared by the Department of Statistics are based on mean populations together with mortality statistics for the calendar years 1980-82.
Life tables contain a measure of the degree of longevity of the population called the “expectation of life”. The expectation of life at any age is the average remaining lifetime for persons of this age, assuming that mortality rates at each age continue at the level shown by the life table for the given reference period. The life expectancy at selected ages for the calendar period 1980-82 for the total population of New Zealand, is shown in the table below. The longer span of life on average enjoyed by females at all ages, compared with males, is evident.
Further details concerning life table methodology and construction and trends in New Zealand life expectancies can be found in New Zealand Life Tables 1980-82, obtainable from Government bookshops.
|Exact Age (Years)||Life Expectancy (Years)*|
The trend since 1950-52 in the life expectancy of New Zealand's population has varied somewhat according to age and sex. Whereas females have experienced steady improvements, these being considerable for the younger ages and less significant for the oldest ages, males showed little improvement between 1950-52 and 1970-72. Between 1975-77 and 1980-82 there have been sharp increases in life expectancy for both males and females at all ages:
|Life Table||Life Expectancy (Years)|
|Males Aged Exactly||Females Aged Exactly|
The expectation of life at various ages for the Maori population is shown in the following table, which is based on the calendar period 1980-82.
|Exact Age (Years)||Life Expectancy (Years)*|
Life expectancy at birth for Maori males increased by 0.49 years between 1975-1977 and 1980-1982 while that for Maori females increased by 0.74 years. By comparison, non-Maori male life expectancy at birth rose by 1.45 years between these periods and non-Maori female life expectancy by 1.07 years.
A significant trend evident from the latest (1980-82) life tables is that the long-term convergence of the Maori and non-Maori levels of life expectancy at birth has not been maintained for either males or females. However, the rate at which these differentials are changing cannot be measured with complete reliability because of deficiencies in ethnic origin specific mortality data.
The table below compares the life expectancy at birth for the total population of New Zealand with that for selected overseas countries. Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1983.
|Country||Life Expectancy at Birth (Years)|
|England and Wales||1980-82*||71.09||77.11|
REGISTRATION OF DEATH, BURIAL, AND CREMATION—Deaths are required to be registered by the funeral director within 3 days after the day of burial. The law governing burial and cremation in New Zealand is found in the Burial and Cremation Act 1974. The registration by local authorities of funeral directors and mortuaries operated by them is provided for in the Health (Burial) Regulations 1946. Local authorities are charged with ensuring that adequate provision exists for the disposal of the dead. Cremation may be carried out if the deceased is not known to have left any written direction to the contrary.
The rate of cremation for every 100 deaths registered doubled between 1950 and 1970, and has continued to increase, exceeding 50 percent in the past 4 years. The following table relates cremations to the number of deaths since 1950. Prior to 1970 the statistics concern deaths of non-Maoris only.
|Year||Deaths Registered||Cremations||Rate per 100 Deaths Registered|
DEATHS BY CAUSES—The selection of cause of death recommended by the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases is based on the concept of selecting the underlying cause of death.
The certifier's statement largely determines the cause but to obtain more accurate data the nosologists also refer to all autopsy reports received, cancer case registrations, coroners' reports, and hospital case summaries.
Medical practitioners certified 81 percent of deaths registered in 1982 and 19 percent were certified by coroners. Of the deaths certified by doctors, 13 percent were subject to autopsy whilst 99 percent of deaths certified by coroners were subject to autopsy. Overall, 30 percent of all deaths had autopsies performed.
Detailed information about causes of death is published annually by the National Health Statistics Centre in New Zealand Health Statistics Report—Mortality and Demographic Data.
The following table is a summary of causes of death, numbers and rate per million of mean population for the years 1980 to 1982. New Zealand adopted the Ninth Revision of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases in 1979. As a result, care must be taken when comparing figures since 1979 with those for previous years. Rates particularly affected are asterisked in the Cause of Death table.
The sharp increase in rates for “All other accidents” in 1980 is chiefly attributable to the effects of the Mount Erebus air disaster in 1979. Over half of those deaths were not registered until 1980.
|Cause of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|*Data which is not comparable with years prior to 1979 is due to introduction of 9th Revision of WHO International Classification of Diseases.|
|Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases||24||19||21||8||6||7|
|Tuberculosis of respiratory system||20||19||15||6||6||5|
|Other tuberculosis including late effects||44||30||31||14||10||10|
|Syphilis and its sequelae||2||4||4||1||1||1|
|All other infective and parasitic diseases||71||70||68||23||22||21|
|Benign neoplasm and neoplasm of unspecified nature||32||39||32||10||12||10|
|Diseases of thyroid gland||25||24||13||8||8||4|
|Avitaminoses and other nutritional deficiency||11||6||5||4||2||2|
|Alcoholic psychosis and alcoholism*||34||20||37||11||6||12|
|Chronic rheumatic heart disease*||156||128||125||50||41||39|
|Ischaemic heart disease||7,459||7,142||7,301||2,382||2,262||2,294|
|Other forms of heart disease*||1,053||1,043||1,068||336||330||336|
|Diseases of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries||713||623||602||228||197||189|
|Acute respiratory infections including influenza||241||62||63||77||20||20|
|Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma*||958||790||753||306||250||237|
|Other diseases of respiratory system*||720||642||720||230||203||226|
|Intestinal obstruction and hernia||74||79||68||24||25||21|
|Cirrhosis of liver||149||144||140||48||46||44|
|Diseases of gallbladder||44||45||41||14||14||13|
|Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis*||188||174||178||60||55||56|
|Infections of kidney||37||36||57||12||11||18|
|Hyperplasia of prostate||27||22||18||9||7||6|
|Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium||7||3||7||2||1||2|
|Birth injury, difficult labour, other anoxic and hypoxic conditions, and other causes of perinatal mortality||187||173||156||60||55||49|
|All other diseases||1,178||1,271||1,247||376||403||392|
|Motor vehicle accidents||622||707||730||199||224||229|
|All other accidents||1,012||730||712||323||231||224|
|Suicide and self-inflicted injury||337||320||364||108||101||114|
|All other external causes||80||68||74||26||22||23|
|Total||26 688||25 147||25 547||8 526||7 965||8 026|
PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF DEATH—Heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), and cerebrovascular disease were again the leading causes of death in 1982 (the latest year for which data are available). These 3 causes accounted for approximately 67 percent of all deaths in 1982-ischaemic heart disease accounted for 29 percent of deaths, malignant neoplasms (cancer) for 22 percent, and cerebrovascular disease for approximately 11 percent.
Death rates per million of mean population from leading causes of death are shown in the following table.
|Cause of Death||1978||1979||1980||1981||1982|
|Deaths per million|
|All heart disease||2,630||2,781||2,845||2,699||2,730|
|Malignant neoplasms (cancer)||1,665||1,717||1,745||1,770||1,798|
Heart Disease—Heart disease as a group of diseases is still the leading cause of death in New Zealand. The standardised mortality ratios for all forms of heart disease show that between 1965 and 1982 rates for males have fallen by 17 percent and rates for females have fallen by 28 percent.
Numbers of deaths and standardised mortality ratios for heart disease, excluding acute rheumatic forms and congenital malformations, are shown below.
|Year||All Forms of Heart Disease|
|Number||Standardised Mortality Ratio*||Number||Standardised Mortality Ratio*|
|*Base years 1950-52 = 100.|
The standardised mortality ratio shows the number of deaths registered in the year of experience expressed as a percentage of those which would have been expected in that year had there operated the sex-age mortality of a standard period (the 3 years 1950-52 were chosen). The standardised mortality ratio has been adopted to eliminate the distorting effect of the changes which take place over a period in the age-structure of the population.
Cancer—In New Zealand 1 death in 4 in 1982 was caused by cancer. The cancer crude death rate has increased over the latest 5 years for which figures are available from 166.5 per 100 000 population in 1978 to 179.8 in 1982.
A detailed report on cancer mortality and morbidity in New Zealand is published annually by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health. These reports cover mortality from cancer and also survey all cases reported to the National Cancer Registry.
A summary of numbers of deaths from cancer, crude death rates, and standardised mortality ratios is provided in the following table.
|Year||Number of Deaths from Cancer||Crude Death Rate per 100 000||Standardised Mortality Ratios*||Number of Deaths from Cancer||Crude Death Rate per 100 000||Standardised Mortality Ratios*|
|*Base years 1950-52 = 100.|
A classification of cancer deaths during 1982 according to age and sex is shown below. Ninety-three percent of deaths from cancer during 1982 were at 45 years of age or above, and 61 percent were at 65 years of age or above.
|Age Groups, in Years||Deaths of Males||Deaths of Females|
|Numbers||Rate per 100 000 of Population at Ages Given||Percentage of Total Deaths at Ages Given||Numbers||Rate per 100 000 of Population at Ages Given||Percentage of Total Deaths at Ages Given|
|65 and over||1,925||1 429.5||21.8||1,578||854.7||18.1|
|All ages||3 076||194.5||22.2||2 647||165.3||22.6|
Cancer of the lung continues to be the major site in male deaths from cancer. Six percent of all male deaths in 1982 were caused by lung cancer. Breast is the major cancer site in females and accounted for 4 percent of all female deaths.
The following table shows deaths from cancer (malignant neoplasms) by sex and selected sites, registered in New Zealand during 1980 to 1982.
|Site||Sex||Numbers||Rates per Million Mean Population|
|Buccal cavity and pharynx||M||57||68||80||36||43||51|