Front Cover—A modern container ship, the ACT 7, sails for the United Kingdom after loading a cargo of refrigerated meat at the port of Wellington. This ship can carry just over 2000 containers (1033 refrigerated, 969 general cargo).

Photograph courtesy of Blueport A.C.T. (NZ) Ltd.

Inside Front Cover—Albion Line ship Dunedin leaving Port Chalmers in February 1882 with the first cargo of frozen meat from New Zealand to Great Britain.

Painting courtesy of New Zealand Meat Producers Board.

Back Cover—View across Lake Rotoaira, Tongariro National Park.

Photograph courtesy of Department of Lands and Survey.


Further sources of information, given at the end of each section or subsection, refer generally to official sources, especially parliamentary papers, statistical reports, and other publications of Government departments. These can usually be consulted in the principal public libraries (Parliamentary papers, for example, are collected in annual volumes entitled Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives) or can be purchased from Government Bookshops. Where difficulty is experienced in obtaining publications the responsible Government department or other organisation should be consulted.

Other publications giving fuller information on many of the subjects mentioned in the Yearbook may be found listed in the select bibliography of New Zealand books near the back of the Yearbook.


CAT. NO. 01.001

ISSN 0078-0170

PRICE (N.Z.) $19.95

Table of Contents


The aim of the New Zealand Official Yearbook remains as always to provide a comprehensive statistical survey of the economy and population of New Zealand with a background of text aimed primarily at the non-specialist. Each year the achievement of this aim within the compass of a single volume of modest proportions and price becomes more difficult as the amount of available statistical and other material expands and the cost of production rises.

Last year in this preface I mentioned as a major statistical innovation the series of integrated economic censuses designed by the Department of Statistics to cover the whole economy over a 5-year cycle. This series has continued and the first 5-year cycle is now approaching completion, although most of the results of the very comprehensive Census of Services were available too late for inclusion in this Yearbook. However, the economic censuses that are summarised in the Yearbook cover a wide range of the economy. There are censuses of transport, storage and communication (in Section 13), agricultural contracting services (Section 14), forestry and logging (Section 15), fishing (Section 16), mining and quarrying (Section 17), manufacturing (Section 18), building and construction (Section 19), gas (Section 20), and distribution (Section 21). Early (and in some cases provisional) results from the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings, which is not one of the series of economic censuses, are included in a number of sections, including Section 3 Population, Section 19 Building Construction and Housing, and Section 32 Employment.

The centenary of an event in New Zealand's history which may have lacked glamour and excitement but made up for it by its importance in the country's economic development occurred in February this year. This was the sailing from Lyttelton in 1882 of the first cargo of New Zealand refrigerated meat for the London market. This Yearbook marks the centenary with a special article contributed by the New Zealand Meat Producers Board and pictures of a modern container ship on the cover and of the first refrigerated ship, the Dunedin, on the front end-paper.

Another event that was the subject of a modest celebration in January was the 25th anniversary of the opening of Scott Base in the Ross Dependency. Antarctica, the subject of this year's colour supplement, was also in the news when the Antarctic Treaty powers met in Wellington in June.

As always, every effort has been made to ensure that the information in the Official Yearbook is as full, clear, and up-to-date as limits of space and time allows. Nevertheless, a Yearbook which takes almost 12 months to produce cannot be completely up-to-date, especially in these days of rapid change and development. Each section includes at the end a brief reference to further sources of information. As far as the latest statistics are concerned, among the principal sources are the Monthly Abstract of Statistics and the many scores of Information Service releases put out annually by the Department of Statistics. With the Official Yearbook to provide background and historical perspective and the Monthly Abstract to supply the latest figures, the student of the New Zealand economy is well equipped.

The Yearbook owes much to the assistance and co-operation of other Government departments, producer boards, the Reserve Bank, and a considerable number of other official bodies, as well as to the compiling, editorial, and draughting sections of this department. I would like to express my appreciation to all the people involved, and especially to the staff of the Government Printing Office, without whose work there would be no Yearbook. The editor, N. G. Killick, B.A., would also like to express his appreciation of the assistance and co-operation he has received.



Department of Statistics,



August 1982.

Chapter 1. SYMBOLS

Table of Contents

The interpretation of the symbols used in the tables throughout this publication is as follows:

- nil or zero... not applicable
. . figures not available- - amount too small to be expressed
not yet available—space left blankx revised


The conversion of the system of weights and measures used in New Zealand to metric units was substantially completed by the end of 1976.

As far as possible, statistics in this issue have been converted to the metric system, but for various reasons, this has to be a gradual process extending over a number of years.


Some relationships between common British units and common SI units are shown in the following table.

1 in= 25.4 mm
 = 2.54 cm
1 ft= 30.48 cm
 = 0.305 m
1 yd= 0.914 m
1 mile= 1.609 km
1 mm= 0.039 in.
1 cm= 0.394 in.
1 dm= 3.937 in.
1 m= 39.37 in.
 = 1.094 yds
1 km= 0.621 miles
1 sq ft= 0.093 m2
 = 929.03 cm2
1 sq yd= 0.836 m2
1 acre= 0.405 hectare (ha)
1 sq mile= 2.590 km2
 = 259 ha
1 m2= 10.764 sq ft
 = 1.196 sq yds
1 da= 0.247 acres
1 ha= 2.471 acres
1 km2= 247.1 acres
 = 0.386 sq miles
1 cu in.= 16.387 cm3
1 cu ft= 0.028 m3
1 cu yd= 0.765 m3
1 cm3= 0.061 cu in.
1 m3= 35.315 cu ft
 = 1.308 cu yds
1 pt= 0.568 litres (1)
1 qt= 1.137 l
1 gal= 4.546 l
1 litre= 1.760 pts
 = 0.880 qts
 = 0.220 gal
1 oz= 28.35 grams (g)
1 lb= 0.454 kilograms (kg)
1 cwt= 50.802 kg
1 long ton= 1 016 kg
 = 1.016 tonnes (t)
1g= 0.035 oz
1 kg= 2.205 lb
1 t= 2 204.62 lb
 = 0.984 long tons
 = 1.102 short tonnes
1 mile per hour (mph)1.61 kilometres per hour (km/hr)
1 kilometre per hour (km/h)0.621 miles per hour (mph)
1 pound per sq in. (psi)6.89 kilopascals (kPa)
1 kilopascal (kPa)0.145 pounds per sq in. (psi)
1 ton per sq in. (ton/in.2)15.4 megapascals (MPa)
1 megapascal (MPa)0.0647 tons per sq in. (ton/in.2)
Degree Fahrenheit (°F)9x°/5+32
Degree Celsius (°C)5/9(°F-32)

Chapter 3. Section 1 GEOGRAPHY

New Zealand is in the south-west section of the Pacific. To the west, beyond the Tasman Sea, is Australia, 1600 kilometres away. From its position on the rim of the Pacific basin, New Zealand is a little over 10 000 kilometres from San Francisco and Panama and a similar distance from Tokyo and Singapore. In area 26.9 million hectares, it is similar in size to the British Isles and Japan.

One of the chief charms of the New Zealand landscape is its infinite variety. Such level lowlands as exist are small in area; contrasts between coastal plain and bordering hard-rock mountains are abrupt. High mountains make up most of the South Island area—often stark and bare or mantled in permanent snow. By contrast, most of the North Island is weak-rock hill country. From Cook Strait to the Bay of Plenty a hard-rock mountain core dominates the North Island scene, forming an effective barrier between east and west; the only low level gap across it is at the gorge cut by the Manawatu River near Palmerston North.

A peculiar and special feature of the North Island is the volcanic country of the interior. Here are the largest North Island lakes and in a line from Ruapehu to White Island, most of the still active volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers.

The most spectacular mountains are in the South Island; high mountains, deep and narrow valleys, swift rivers, and glacial lakes, large and small, give infinite variety to the scene. It is in this high country that ice has left its special mark in glacial troughs and fiords and, above all, the noble southern lakes. There is little weak-rock hill country in the South Island; the lowlands are mainly bordering plains, basin plains, and valley plains. Of these the most extensive are the plains of Canterbury and Southland.

New Zealand has large areas of luxuriant forests which are the delight of trampers, campers, and hunters. Forests cover just over a quarter of the total land area, of which national parks and scenic reserves set aside as permanent forest or recreation areas form 2.4 million hectares.

The indigenous forests may be grouped broadly into two main formations: mixed temperate evergreen forest and southern beech forest. The former is a mixed community of many species of broadleaved trees and conifers, and the latter a pure community of one or more of the species of southern beech. Generally, the mixed temperate evergreen forests are the forests of the north and of the warm, wet lowlands and lower mountain slopes. The beeches form the forests of the south, of the high mountains, and of the drier lowlands. But there are extensive areas where the types mingle in forests of extremely varied composition.

Mountains, forests, lakes, rivers, and beaches have influenced the characteristics of the people. New Zealand society has been shaped and subtly tempered by a number of factors—geographical, historical, social and psychological—during more than a century of growth as a nation. New Zealand today represents both an extension and a modification of the European tradition. In addition to its Maori population— New Zealand has experienced in recent years a considerable inflow of Polynesians from its associated territories and elsewhere in the Pacific. Auckland has become the major city of Polynesia, and as such a focal point of the South Pacific. The Polynesian (including Maori) population is of greater significance than its relatively small numbers would suggest. Outside the Pacific area New Zealand may present a basically European face to the world, but the preservation of distinctive life-style by the Maori, together with a close compatibility (extending to frequent intermarriage) between the two races, has doubtless been a determining factor in the evolution of New Zealand society.

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION—The islands of New Zealand have been shaped from the projecting crests of earth folds which rise as broad ridges from the floor of the South Pacific Ocean, 1600 kilometres east of the continent of Australia. There are three main islands—North, South, and Stewart separated only by relatively narrow straits—with adjacent islets and a small group called Chatham Islands, 850 kilometres to the east of Lyttelton. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland peninsula, the New Zealand land mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis. Dating from 1842 the administrative boundaries of New Zealand, including the minor islands, extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from 162 degrees east longitude to 173 degrees west longitude. Inhabited outlying minor islands are Raoul Island in the Kermadec Group, 930 kilometres north-east of the Bay of Islands, and Campbell Island, 590 kilometres south of Stewart Island.

The Ross Dependency, some 2300 kilometres to the south, has been under New Zealand's jurisdiction since 1923 and comprises the sector of the Antarctic continent between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60 degrees south. The land area of the Ross Dependency is estimated at 414 400 square kilometres.

The area of New Zealand can be classified as follows:

AREA OF NEW ZEALAND (1 April 1981)
 Area in Square Kilometres
North Island
    Districts18 494
    Counties93 140
    Cities and boroughs3 085
    Town districts8
    Adjacent Islands not included in a territorial local authority—
        Three Kings7
        Little Barrier28
        Other islands (Browns, Mokohinau, Motiti, Motuhora (Whale), etc.)16
    Other offshore islands—Kermadec33
                Total, North Island114 829
South Island
    Counties150 619
    Cities and boroughs602
    Stewart Island1 746
    Adjacent islands not included in a territorial local authority (Solander, etc.)4
    Other offshore islands—
        Uninhabited—Auckland (612 km2), Snares (2 km2), Antipodes (22 km2), Bounty (2 km2)638
                Total, South Island153 978
                Total, North and South Islands268 808
Ross Dependency (land area only)414 400
                Total, including Ross Dependency683 208

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Coastline—An overall length of more than 1600 kilometres, and a width up to 450 kilometres combine to provide New Zealand with a very lengthy coastline in proportion to its area.

The nature of the coastline has provided New Zealand with numerous sites for harbours although the size of shipping capable of using them varies with the locality. The development of the natural North Island harbours of Whangarei, Auckland, Tauranga, and Wellington and the dredging and breakwater constructions at the South Island harbours of Lyttelton, Timaru, Otago, and Bluff have produced ports suitable for overseas ships.

Strong ocean drifts and high seas along the west coast produce shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances although New Plymouth is one port which has been developed to take overseas shipping. While artificial harbours have been built on the east coast of the North Island at Gisborne and Napier, the large quantities of shingle brought down by the South Island rivers have strictly limited development in many South Island areas to small ports suitable for fishing and coastal shipping only.

Mountains—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 200 m contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (2518 m), Ruapehu (2797 m), Ngauruhoe (2290 m), and Tongariro (1968 m), they do not exceed an altitude of 1800 m. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe have been particularly active from time to time. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.

The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Turakirae Head, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa Ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto Ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Moehau Range parallels the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only area above 1200 m on the west coast of this Island.

The South Island is much more mountainous than the North. Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (3764 m), while 19 named peaks exceed 3000 m. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell Ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Paparoa Range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Richmond Ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.

There are at least 223 named peaks of 2300 m or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 2740 m in the South Island.

Mountain or PeakHeight (metres)
Kaikoura Ranges
Southern Alps
    Mt. Hicks (St. David's Dome)3183
    Malte Brun3176
    Elie de Beaumont3109
    Douglas Peak3081
    La Perouse3079
    Glacier Peak3007
    De la Beche2992
    Aiguilles Rouges2966
    Conway Peak2901
    Bristol Top2898
    Ronald Adair2827
    Hochstetter Dome2822
    The Footstool2765
    The Dwarf2751
Darran Range

Glaciers—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman Glacier has a length of 29 km and a width of 1 km. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (17 km), the Mueller (13 km), the Godley (13 km), and the Hooker (11 km), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is at an altitude of somewhat over 600 m. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 15 km and 13 km respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 200 m and 210 m.

The glaciers are fed by snow brought to the Southern Alps by the prevailing winds off the Tasman Sea. Total yearly snowfalls at the higher elevations (1800-2500 m) vary from 3 m to 6 m. The steeper West Coast glaciers have little moraine (rock debris) carried on their surfaces and have shown a marked terminal retreat in recent decades. The large glaciers on the eastern side of the Southern Alps are mantled with moraine and show some terminal retreat.

In the North Island there are 7 relatively small glaciers on the slopes of Mount Ruapehu compared with more than 360 in the Southern Alps. However, during the ski-ing season the Whakapapa Glaciers, near the Chateau Tongariro, a sited by several thousand people each week.

Rivers—New Zealand rivers, owing to the high relief of the country, are mostly swift-flowing and difficult to navigate. As sources of hydro-electric power the rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. The Waikato and the Rangitaiki in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, Clutha, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes.

Following is a list of the more important rivers. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system, whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.

RiverLength (kilometres)
* Cook Strait is defined as follows: northern limit is a line between northern point of Stephens Island and Kapiti Island: southern limit is a line between Cape Palliser and Cape Campbell.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean
    Waihou (or Thames)175
    Waipaoa (from source, Mata River)121
    Waiapu (from source, Waipapa Stream)113
    Wairoa (from source, Hangaroa River)137
    Mohaka (from source, Taharua River)172
Flowing into Cook Strait*
Flowing into the Tasman Sea
    Waikato (from source, Upper Waikato River)425
    Wairoa (from source, Waiotu Stream)132
    Hokianga (from source, Waihou River)72
RiverLength (kilometres)
Flowing into Cook Strait
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean
    Waiau-uha (or Waiau)169
    Rangitata (from source, Clyde River)121
    Waitaki (from source, Hopkins River)209
    Clutha (from source, Makarora River)322
Flowing into Foveaux Strait
    Aparima (Jacobs River)113
    Waiau (from source, Clinton River)217
Flowing into the Tasman Sea
    Waiho (from source, Callery River)32
    Buller (from source, Travers River)177
    Aorere (from source, Spee River)72
    Takaka (from source, Cobb River)72
    Waimea (from source, Wai-iti River)48

The discovery in 1861 that the beds of rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the early economic development of the country.

Many rivers are valuable for recreational activities such as swimming, canoeing, rafting, jet boating, tramping, camping, and picnicking, and with the very successful acclimatisation of freshwater fish, notably trout, many now provide exceptionally fine fishing.

Lakes—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the two Islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while some of the larger ones of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, have their own particular beauty. As reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the rivers and streams draining them and as a means of flood prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involved, Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, Manapouri, and Wakatipu in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect. A series of narrow man-made lakes have been produced in connection with hydro-electric development along some of the rivers. In 1965 Lake Benmore, New Zealand's largest artificial lake, was created. It lies on the Waitaki River in North Otago and covers 75 sq km in area and consists of two arms, the main arm being 30 km in length and the Ahuriri Arm 18 km in length.

Some particulars of the more important lakes are given in the following table.

LakeLength in KilometresGreatest Breadth in KilometresArea in Square KilometresDrainage Area in Square KilometresApproximate Volume of Discharge in Cubic Metres per SecondMaximum Height Above Sea Level in Metres (Range in Brackets)*Greatest Depth in Metres
* The range in lake levels is not available for all lakes.
Taupo40.227.46063 289130357 (1.5)159
Rotorua12.09.780526 280 (0.6)26
Rotoiti16.14.83464224279 (0.6)70
Tarawera11.28.9361868299 (0.6)87
Rotoaira4.82.81612933564 (0.9) 
Waikaremoana19.39.75434718614 (13.7)256
Wairarapa19.36.4803 201 820
Rotoehu4.83.2844 295 (1.2) 
Rotoma5.23.61231 316 (1.8) 
Okataina6.44.81065 310 (2.7) 
Okareka2.42.0321 354 (1.2) 
Rotomahana6.42.8970 340 (6.7) 
Rerewhakaitu4.02.88  439 (1.2) 
Tikitapu1.61.21  416 
Matahina  3 70  
Otamangakau  2 14613 
Te Wharau
Moawhango  4 12853 
Ohakuri33.80.4134 791155287 
Atiamuri6.40.425 128158252 
Whakamaru21.70.875 581176226 
Maraetai7.20.856 190195188 
Waipapa9.70.426 475207127 
Arapuni16.10.896 876211111 (0.6) 
Karapiro24.10.487 45922654 
Rotoiti8.92.81018412616 (1.8)76
Rotoroa14.53.22337627446 (1.5)152
Brunner8.98.939414 85109
Kaniere9.72.01628 131197
Coleridge17.73.236559 510207
Tekapo17.75.6881 42479713 (12.0)189
Pukaki15.38.01691 355132534 (15.8) 
Ohau17.74.8611 19180524 (4.8) 
Hawea30.68.01411 38963348 (20.0)392
Wanaka45.14.81932 575188280 (3.8) 
Wakatipu77.24.82933 067155312 (2.7)378
Te Anau61.29.73443 302267205 (4.0)276
Manapouri28.98.01424 623401181 (6.4)443
Monowai19.31.63124114196 (4.0) 
Hauroko35.42.47158331156 (1.8) 
Waihola6.42.085 698 (Tidal)16
Ellesmere22.512.91811 930 (Tidal)2
Cobb4.80.42695811 (15.2) 
Waitaki4.80.869 774327232 
Aviemore10.84.1299 701327269 
Roxburgh32.20.4615 857486133 
    Ahuriri Arm18.54.4758 53231936296
    Main Arm29.8

GEOLOGY—The islands of New Zealand are part of the unstable circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. This is a region where volcanoes are active and where the Earth's crust has long been buckling and breaking at a geologically rapid rate. The interplay, in the past, of earth movements and erosion has made the sedimentary rocks that cover almost three-quarters of New Zealand. Land areas that the earth movements have raised have been attacked by erosion, and the sand, mud, shingle, and other debris thus formed has been carried away to the sea, where it has accumulated in great thicknesses to form rocks such as sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and conglomerate; the shells and other skeletons of sea creatures have accumulated to form thick layers of limestone. Many of the sedimentary rocks are in distinct layers called strata. Earth movements have later raised them above the sea to form land, and the strata have in many places been tilted and folded by pressure. Seas have advanced and retreated over the New Zealand area many times and these sedimentary rocks represent almost every geological period since the Cambrian (see Time Scale). Their age is revealed by the Molluscan shells, foraminifera, and other fossils that they contain, as well as by various radioactive techniques.

As well as sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks of various ages, New Zealand incorporates in its complex structure schist, gneiss, marble and other metamorphic rocks, and granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, and other intrusive igneous rocks. Most of these metamorphic and intrusive rocks are hundreds of millions of years old. They were formed at depth in the Earth's crust early in New Zealand's history, in the “roots” of ancient mountain ranges, long ago destroyed, and are visible at the land surface today only because erosion has removed thousands of metres thickness of other rocks that once covered them. The metamorphic rocks developed by the action of heat and pressure on the thick sediments (up to tens of thousands of metres) deposited in huge, elongated sea basins (geosynclines), which continued to sink as the deposits accumulated. When these geosynclines were slowly compressed during major mountain-building episodes the deeper sediments were subjected to great pressure and shearing stress, which caused new minerals and structures to develop, changing the sediments into metamorphic rocks. The granites and other intrusive rocks are coarsely crystalline, and are usually considered to have intruded into the outer crust in a molten state during mountain building; some, however, may be the products of an intense metamorphism of sediments.

ErasPeriodsApproximate Time Since Period Began (Years)
CenozoicHolocene (Recent)Quaternary10 thousand
Pleistocene2 million
PlioceneTertiary11 ”
Miocene25 ”
Oligocene38 ”
Eocene60 ”
Paleocene70 ”
MesozoicCretaceous 135 ”
Jurassic 180 ”
Triassic 225 ”
PaleozoicPermian 270 ”
Carboniferous 350 ”
Devonian 400 ”
Silurian 440 ”
Ordovician 500 ”
Cambrian 600 ”

Geological History—Evidence of the earliest-known events in New Zealand's history is given by ancient rocks in Nelson, Westland, and Fiordland that were formed in the early Paleozoic era, perhaps as long as 600 million years ago (some in Westland may be older). They include thick, geosynclinal sedimentary rocks. This suggests that a large land mass existed nearby at that time to yield the great volume of sediments, but little has been deduced about its shape or position.

The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood. For a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period—probably until the early Cretaceous period—an extensive geosyncline occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during much of the late Paleozoic time, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic tuff were included in the materials that accumulated in the geosyncline, but in the later Permian and Mesozoic times the sediments were mainly sand and mud, derived probably from some land west of present New Zealand; they were compacted into hard greywacke (a type of sandstone) and argillite (hard, dark mudstone).

In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place. Although geosynclinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand the geosyncline elsewhere was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled and broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous land mass. Some of the geosynclinal deposits, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by high temperatures and the tremendous deforming pressures to which the geosyncline was subjected.

The time that has elapsed since the intense folding of the strata in the New Zealand geosyncline in the mid-Cretaceous period may be considered as the later geological history of this country, embracing roughly 100 million years.

During the early part of this late history, erosion slowly wore down the mountains that had risen, producing a land of low relief. Over these worn-down stumps of the Mesozoic mountains the sea gradually advanced, beginning its transgression earlier in some areas than in others. In the early Cretaceous period it began to submerge land in the region of present North Auckland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some parts of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and in the very early Terdary era, land became so reduced in size and relief that little sediment was formed, and only comparatively thin deposits of fine bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine white foraminiferal limestone accumulated. In some areas New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated in swamps on the surface of the old land. These became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.

By the Oligocene period, most of the land was submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments, thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. (Scattered remnant patches of this Oligocene limestone furnish most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime.)

After the Oligocene submergence earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and rapidly filled with sediments. New Zealand's late Tertiary environment has been described as follows: “The pattern of folds, welts, and troughs that developed was on a finer scale than in the Mesozoic . . . the land moved up and down as a series of narrow, short, interfingering or branching folds . . . . We can think of Tertiary New Zealand as an archipelago . . . A kind of writhing of part of the mobile Pacific margins seems to have gone on . . .”. The thick deposits of soft, grey mudstone and sandstone that now make up large areas of the North Island, and some parts of the South Island, are the deposits that accumulated rapidly in the many sea basins, large and small, that developed in the later Tertiary.

Very late in the Cenozoic era—in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods—one of the greatest episodes of mountain building in New Zealand's history took place. Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and other main mountain chains, and determined the general shape and size of the present islands of New Zealand. Much of the movement during this mountain-building period (the Kaikoura Orogeny) took the form of displacement of blocks of the Earth's crust along fractures called faults. The total movements of the Earth blocks adjacent to major faults amounted to thousands of metres. It must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each less than a few metres. The blocks adjacent to “transcurrent” faults moved not only vertically but also laterally along the faults. The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well preserved tilted fault blocks bounded by fault-scarps—steep faces hundreds or even thousands of metres high. Fault movements continue to the present day, and have accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features such as scarplets, fault ponds, and shutter ridges show where movement has been occurring in recent centuries.

Erosion during this time has eaten into the major landscape forms that the earth movements built, carving detailed landscape patterns of peaks, ridges, valleys, and gorges, and the deposition of the debris has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans, and other construction forms. At the coast, waves have driven back the headlands and built beaches, spits, and bars. The Pleistocene period was the time of the Ice Age, and in the high mountains of the South Island glaciers carved deep valleys and carried huge loads of rock, dumping them in the lower parts of the valleys as moraines. The late Pleistocene glaciers carved the fiords of Fiordland and the basins occupied by most South Island lakes; there were small glaciers also on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, and on Mount Egmont and the Tararua Range. Sea-level changes accompanied the formation and later melting of the land ice, affecting the erosion or deposition of the rivers and thus being responsible for the formation of the many prominent river terraces in this country.

Volcanic activity of the past few million years has played an important part in making the rocks and shaping the landscape of parts of the central and northern North Island. Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, also achieved much of its growth then. The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand have been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty Coast: andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later to build the huge volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe. More than 8000 cu km of molten rhyolitic magma was erupted in the form of ignimbrite, pumice, and rhyolite lava, building up the Volcanic Plateau. This is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world.

Mount Egmont is a huge, conical, andesite volcano, with the remnants of two other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of approximately basic andesite composition. The largest is Pirongia, some 900 m high. Auckland city and the area immediately to the south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in late Pleistocene and Holocene times; and many small scoria cones can be seen in the locality. Late Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young cones.

EARTHQUAKES: Geophysical Background—An earthquake occurs when energy is suddenly released from a volume of rock within the Earth's outer layers, and is radiated outwards in the form of elastic waves that can be felt at places near the origin, and detected by sensitive instruments at greater distances. Earthquakes are most common in certain geographically limited regions, one of which includes New Zealand. Within these disturbed zones, young fold mountains, oceanic trenches, volcanoes, anomalies in the Earth's gravitational field, and active geological faulting are also usual, and like the earthquakes have their ultimate cause in the internal processes incidental to the major structural development of the Earth, and as yet imperfectly understood.

The seismically active zones define the margins of a system of stable blocks or plates which are not completely inactive, but experience large earthquakes only infrequently, and are thought to be the primary units of the Earth's crust. Two of these units, the Pacific and Indian Plates, abut in the vicinity of New Zealand, forming a triple junction with a third, the Antarctic Plate, south of Macquarie Island. As a result of thermally generated convective movements in the deeper levels of the earth, relative displacement of the plates is occurring and this provides the continuing source of the energy that is intermittently released as earthquakes.

Instrumental records have shown that at the time of an earthquake large shearing movements take place at the source. It seems probable that all major earthquakes are the result of the breakage of rock under strain, but other factors such as the presence or absence of liquid in the pores and fractures of the rock are also of primary importance in determining the time and place at which a shock occurs.

In large shallow earthquakes a rupture may appear at the surface, forming or renewing movement on a geological fault. In regions where the majority of earthquakes are very shallow, such as California, there is a tendency for the earthquake origins to cluster near geological fault traces, but in regions where there is deeper activity, such as New Zealand, this is not so. For example, there is little activity near the Alpine Fault, which stretches for some 500 km from Milford Sound to Lake Rotoiti, and is considered one of the world's largest and most active faults. Conversely, instances of fault movement that have not been accompanied by earthquakes are known. Practical assessments of earthquake risk must therefore be based upon the statistics of known earthquake distribution and the broader geological setting of the origins.

New Zealand Seismicity—Compared with some other parts of the Pacific margin, such as Japan, Chile, and the Philippines, the level of seismic activity in New Zealand is moderate. It may be roughly compared with that prevailing in California. A shock of Richter magnitude 6 or above occurs on the average about once a year, one of magnitude 7 or above once in ten years, and one of about magnitude 8 perhaps once a century, but in historic times only one shock (the south-west Wairarapa earthquake in 1855) is known to have reached this magnitude.

Other natural disasters and accidents are together responsible for more casualties than earthquakes, the most serious seismic disasters in New Zealand having been the Hawke's Bay earthquake of 1931 in which 256 deaths occurred, and the Buller earthquake of 1929 in which there were 17. The total resulting from all other shocks since 1840 is less than 15 deaths. The last earthquake to cause deaths occurred at Inangahua in 1968, when 3 people died.

Regarded broadly, the zone of seismicity within which New Zealand lies extends continuously from the triple junction south of Macquarie Island to Samoa. When looked at more closely, breaks in continuity and changes in the character of the activity become apparent. There are changes in direction, in the positional relationship of the deeper and shallower activity, and in its association with the other geophysical and geological features of the region.

Within New Zealand itself, at least two separate systems of seismic activity can be distinguished. The Main Seismic Region, which is the larger, covers the whole of the North Island apart from the Northland peninsula, and the South Island north of a line passing roughly between Banks Peninsula and Cape Foulwind. The Southern, or Fiordland, Seismic Region includes Southern Westland, Western Southland, and Western Otago. Less clearly defined activity covers the remainder of the two main Islands, and extends eastwards from Banks Peninsula to include the Chatham Islands.

Shallow earthquakes, which are the most numerous, originate within the Earth's crust, which in New Zealand has an average thickness of some 35 km. These shocks are responsible for almost all damage to property, and now and in the past they have been widely scattered throughout the country. In historically recent times, the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions have been significantly more active than the rest of New Zealand, but neither the Central Seismic Region that lies between them nor the Northland peninsula has been free from damaging shocks. The details of the present pattern are not necessarily unchanging, and could alter significantly after the occurrence of a major earthquake. Because of this, because of the broader geophysical setting, and because of the distance to which the effects of a large earthquake extend, it would be highly imprudent to treat any part of New Zealand as free from the risk of serious earthquake damage.

Many active regions of the Earth have only shallow earthquakes, but in others shocks have been known to occur at depths as great as 700 km below the surface. It is thought that these deep shocks originate within the edges of crustal plates that have been drawn down or thrust beneath their neighbours. Such deep events are common in both the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions of New Zealand, but their relative positions with respect to the shallow activity and to other geophysical features are rough mirror images. This is believed to indicate that in the North Island, the edge of the Pacific Plate lies below that of the Indian Plate, while in the south of the South Island the Pacific Plate is uppermost and the Indian Plate has been thrust beneath it.

The most important system of deep shocks in New Zealand lies in a well-defined zone beneath the Main Seismic Region, stretching from the Bay of Plenty to Nelson and Marlborough. The maximum depth of occurrence is about 400 km at the northern end, and decreases smoothly to a depth of about 200 km before the southern boundary of the region is reached. Along the whole of the system, there is also a decrease in maximum depth from west to east. In northern Taranaki, near the western limit of this activity, a small isolated group of shocks at a depth of about 600 km has also been recorded. In the Central Seismic Region only shallow shocks are known.

The maximum depth of the earthquakes in the Fiordland Region appears to be only about 160 km. Here, the deep activity is more concentrated than in the north, lying close to Lakes Te Anau and Manapouri.

Both earthquakes and volcanoes are found in geophysically disturbed regions, but although small earthquakes usually accompany volcanic eruptions, large ones are rare. Regions of active volcanism are also subject to periodic outbreaks of small earthquakes, all of similar magnitude, and very numerous. These events are known as “earthquake swarms”. Although the number of shocks may cause alarm, it is unusual for even minor damage to result. There is not often a simultaneous volcanic outbreak, but swarms are rare in non-volcanic regions. In New Zealand they have occurred in the volcanic zone that includes Mt. Ruapehu and White Island, in the Coromandel Peninsula, in parts of Northland, and near Mt. Egmont.

Seismological Observatory—Each year the Seismological Observatory, Wellington, a section of the Geophysics Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, publishes the analyses of hundreds of earthquakes originating in the New Zealand region, using data obtained from its own network of recording stations, and from stations in other countries. The instrumental data are supplemented by information about felt effects, supplied by a large number of voluntary observers, who complete a standard questionnaire.

The network of recording stations controlled by the Observatory is now one of the world's largest and most extended, covering the main islands of New Zealand, a large part of the south-west Pacific, and the Ross Dependency. The 33 permanent stations now operating are:

Afiamalu, Apia (Western Samoa); Nadi (Fiji); Niue; Rarotonga (Cook Islands); Raoul Island (Kermadecs); Cape Reinga, Onerahi, Great Barrier, Auckland, East Cape, Karapiro, Whakatane, Gisborne, Wairakei, Tuai, Tarata, Taradale, Mangahao, Castlepoint, Cobb River, Wellington, Kaikoura, Kaimata, Cashmere, Chatham Islands, Milford Sound, Oamaru, Roxburgh, Borland Lodge, Oban; Campbell Island; Scott Base (Antarctica).

At Afiamalu, Rarotonga, Wellington, and Scott Base the equipment includes instruments of internationally standardised pattern designed to record both local and distant activity. At the other stations, many of which record more than one component of the ground motion, the instruments are primarily intended for the study of shocks within about 1000 km. At Wellington there is also a modern Seismic Research Observatory with digital recording, one of only 12 of its kind in the world. Scott Base and several of the island stations provide preliminary readings by radio, but all final analyses are made at the Observatory in Wellington.

Two networks of more closely-spaced stations, connected to central recorders by radio links or land lines, provide for detailed studies of small earthquakes in particular regions. One, for general research purposes, is centred on Wellington, and the other, near Lake Pukaki in the South Island, is primarily intended to monitor any change in earthquake activity associated with the development of a hydroelectric power scheme. These networks also provide valuable readings of New Zealand and overseas earthquakes. Portable equipment is available for more intensive study of aftershock sequences, earthquake swarms, and micro-earthquakes, and for other research projects. In association with the observatory the Geophysical Survey of DSIR operates 3 seismographs in the Tongariro National Park, Victoria University of Wellington operates an instrument on White Island, and the University of Otago has a further instrument in Dunedin. In addition, the Department's Physics and Engineering Laboratory maintains a network of strong-motion recorders intended to provide data on large shocks for engineering purposes.

The information collected and published by the Observatory covers all significant earthquakes in the New Zealand region. It is made freely available to the public and the press, as well as to seismologists, engineers, and other specialists. In addition, a very large number of distant earthquakes are recorded, and readings of these, as well as of the local activity, are regularly sent to international agencies and to overseas seismologists who have a need for them. The Observatory itself carries out a vigorous programme of research into problems of seismicity and earthquake mechanism, and into the structure and constitution of the Earth's crust and its deep interior.

EARTHQUAKES DURING 1981—During the year there were three earthquakes greater than magnitude 6 within the New Zealand region. This is an unusually large number, but none caused any damage. The April 4 event, of magnitude 6.0 was deep under Lake Taupo and the magnitude 6.3 shock on November 17 was to the northwest of White Island, some 200 km deep. Both of these were felt widely, but were of such a depth as to present no danger. The largest event of the year was shallow (about 15 km deep), and thus potentially damaging, but was located 400 km southwest of Stewart Island. It occured on May 25 and was of magnitude 6.4. It was felt in Southland and Otago and as far north as Christchurch, but nowhere very strongly. A small tsunami, 30 cm in height, was observed at Campbell Island on this occasion.

The fact that these three earthquakes were fairly large but were not felt strongly illustrates the nature of the earthquake scale of magnitude. Devised by Professor C. F. Richter in 1935, the magnitude scale assigns one number to the earthquake, as a measure of its overall size. The magnitude is related to the amount of energy released in the earth, so the severity of shaking at any particular place depends not only on the magnitude but also on the distance of the observer from the focus of the shock. In the case of the three large earthquakes in 1981, nobody was close enough to be shaken strongly, by virtue of the large focal depth (April 4 and November 17 events) or the remoteness of the epicentre (May 25 shock).

Two moderate earthquakes shook the Wairarapa late in the year. Both were centered near Cape Turnagain. The first was of magnitude 5.3 and occurred on November 5. The second, of magnitude 5.5, occurred on December 28. The felt areas extended to Wellington and Hawke's Bay and, on the northeast, to Taihape on the first occasion and to Ohakune on the second. No damage was reported.

There were a number of small shocks throughout the year, sufficient to wake sleepers and to cause some alarm, but there was no significant damage. An unusually high proportion of these were felt in Hawke's Bay, but there is no suggestion that this necessarily portends any large event imminent there. On January 6 at 6.35 am there was a small shock felt in Napier, and again on Saturday morning, February 14. Two slightly larger shocks, both of magnitude 5, occurred on April 21 and 22, both felt in Napier. Early in December a further series of small earthquakes were felt in Napier and Hastings, the largest reaching magnitude 4. On June 15 a small shock of magnitude 4.6 was felt in Westport, Murchison and Greymouth. No damage was reported.

WEATHER INFORMATION—The New Zealand Meteorological Service maintains networks of meteorological stations within New Zealand, on its outlying islands, at Scott Base and, by arrangement, in the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The weather observations are transmitted regularly to Wellington for international exchange, for the preparation of weather forecasts and special warnings, for compiling climatological statistics, and for providing a general weather information service for Government departments, industry, and the general public. All weather observations are preserved in the Meteorological Archives, Wellington. The Meteorological Service also has a programme of atmospheric research.

Observations recorded at a few selected stations in 1981 are summarised in tables which follow but for further detailed climatological statistics reference should be made to the annual publications of the New Zealand Meteorological Service; Miscellaneous Publications No. 109 Meteorological Observations, and No. 110 Rainfall Observations. Current statistics appear monthly in the New Zealand Gazette. Special reports are published from time to time to supplement the regular data publications.

Most weather data are now held in computer-accessible data files, and several kinds of output are available to provide an alternative means of dissemination of information to the printed publications.

CLIMATE—Situated between 34°S and 47°S the main islands of New Zealand lie just south of the subtropical mean high pressure belt and penetrate into the hemispheric westerly airstream which is usually strongest in the New Zealand region between 50°S and 55°S. The daily weather patterns are dominated by eastward-moving anticyclones and troughs of low pressure whose frequencies and intensities vary substantially. The troughs normally have a north-west to south-east orientation and are associated with deep depressions centred far to the south. A typical weather sequence commences with a low-pressure trough approaching from the west. Freshening north-westerly winds prevail with increasing cloud, followed by rain for a period during which winds may reach gale force. The passage of the trough, with its associated cold front, is accompanied by a change to cold south-westerly or southerly winds and showery weather, occasionally with some hail and thunder. The barometer then rises with the approach of the next anticyclone from the west. Winds moderate and fair weather prevails for a few days as the anticyclone moves across the country.

While the sequence just described is very common the situation is frequently much more complex. The troughs are very unstable systems where depressions readily form. Some of these develop into vigorous storms that may pass over New Zealand at any time of the year. Occasionally in summer a cyclonic storm of tropical origin accompanied by gales and heavy rain passes over or near New Zealand, affecting mainly northern and eastern districts of the North Island. The anticyclones vary in size, intensity, and rate of movement. Their centres, on the average, follow a track across the North Island but individual centres may pass either north or south of the country, the more northerly tracks being favoured in spring and the southerly tracks in autumn and winter. At times when little development occurs within the troughs the anticyclones follow each other at intervals of about 6–7 days.

The other main factors which influence the climate of New Zealand are, first, its position in the midst of a vast ocean, and second, the shape and topography of the country itself.

Hot air masses from the interior of Australia in summer or freezing air masses from the Antarctic, which occasionally reach New Zealand, retain little of their original characters after their long ocean passages. Since abundant supplies of moisture are supplied by evaporation from the ocean, and depressions are frequent and vigorous, the average precipitation is high.

The chain of high mountains, which extends from south-west to north-east through the length of the country, rises as a formidable barrier in the path of the prevailing westerly winds. The effect is to produce much sharper climatic contrasts from west to east than in the north-south direction. In some inland areas of the South Island just east of the mountains the climate is distinctly continental in character, despite the fact that no part of New Zealand is more than 130 km from the sea.

Winds—Winds from a westerly quarter prevail in all seasons although in individual months easterlies may predominate. In the North Island winds generally decrease for a period in the summer or early autumn. However, in the South Island, July and August are the least windy months. Important modifications to the wind pattern are caused by mountain ranges and by the heating or cooling contrasts between land and sea. The north-westerly föhn wind in eastern areas of both islands gives rise to a characteristic weather type. The blocking effect of the mountain ranges decreases wind strength on the upwind side but increases it in the mountain passes and in Cook and Foveaux Straits and about the Manawatu Gorge. Sea breezes are frequent and in many parts of New Zealand are almost certainly coupled with the mountain winds. North of Taranaki the general air flow is from the south-west and there is a noticeable reduction of windiness in the summer.

An indication of the variation in the frequency of strong winds from summer to winter, and in different parts of the country, is given in the next table. These figures were all obtained by the use of anemographs at airports.

StationAverage Number of Days with Gusts ReachingYears of Data
63 km/h or more96 km/h or more
Hamilton91322 0.60.68
New Plymouth3348812.14.76.822
Palmerston North2622481.10.81.918
Gore2920490.9 0.95

Rainfall—The distribution of rainfall is mainly controlled by mountain features, and the highest rainfalls occur where the mountains are exposed to the direct sweep of the westerly and north-westerly winds. The mean annual rainfall (see map) ranges from as little as 300 mm in a small area of Central Otago to over 8000 mm in the Southern Alps. The average for the whole country is high, but for the greater part lies between 600 and 1500 mm, a range regarded as favourable for plant growth in the temperate zone. The only areas with under 600 mm are found in the South Island to the east of the main ranges. These include most of central and north Otago, and South Canterbury. In the North Island, the driest areas are central and southern Hawke's Bay, Wairarapa, and Manawatu where the average rainfall is 700–1000 mm a year. Of the remainder, much valuable farm land, chiefly in northern Taranaki and Northland, has upwards of 1500 mm. Over a considerable area of both Islands rainfall exceeds 2500 mm a year but, with the exception of Westland, this is mountainous and unoccupied, much of it being forest-covered.

For a large part of the country the rainfall is spread evenly through the year. The greatest contrast is found in the north, where winter has almost twice as much rain as summer. This predominance of winter rainfall diminishes southwards. It is still discernible over the northern part of the South Island but, over the southern half, winter is the season with least rainfall, and a definite summer maximum is found inland due to the effect of convectional showers. The rainfall is also influenced by seasonal variations in the strength of the westerly winds. Spring rainfall is increased in and west of the ranges as the westerlies rise to their maximum about October, while a complementary decrease occurs at the same time in the lee of the ranges.

Areas which are exposed to the west and south-west experience much showery weather, and rain falls on roughly half the days of the year. Over most of the North Island there are at least 130 rain days (days with at least 1.0 mm of rain) a year except to the east of the ranges where there are in places fewer than 110 rain days. Those areas of the South Island with annual rainfall under 600 mm generally have about 80 rain days a year. In the far south the frequency of rain increases sharply; in Stewart Island and Fiordland rain days exceed 200 a year.

On the whole the seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year, the reliability in spring being particularly advantageous for agricultural purposes. It is least reliable in late summer and autumn, when very dry conditions may develop east of the ranges, particularly in Hawke's Bay.

The highest daily rainfall on record is 582 mm which occurred at Rapid Creek, Hokitika Catchment, where the mean annual rainfall exceeds 6000 mm. Other areas with considerably lower rainfall are also subject to very heavy daily falls; such areas are to be found in northern Hawke's Bay and in northeastern districts of the Auckland Province. By contrast, in the Manawatu district and in Otago and Southland daily falls reaching 80 mm are very rare.

Kaitaia Aerodrome799484119152157150165122112102941430
Auckland (Albert Park)6494861141271351371429410784841268
Tauranga Aerodrome8484114114137132137137107114841041348
Hamilton (Ruakura)718184991121321171179710791891197
New Plymouth Aerodrome1071021021171631681631471121351171321565
Masterton (Waingawa)645876711021071029174746976964
Gisborne Aerodrome74619191109112112117747158641034
Waikaremoana (Onepoto)1501401681802111881982261501501471522060
Palmerston North84697474869991846989791041002
Wellington (Kelburn)8184949713213514012410211284861271
Westport Aerodrome1551681571912011881831701701832011852152
Hokitika Aerodrome2312512392342722292412362392572772342940
Milford Sound5315696305264834193784245385466385546236
Nelson Aerodrome7474818911279919476817474999
Hanmer Forest8681919911799104114899789991165
Lake Coleridge616158767971817974767671863
Lake Tekapo514348535348534856515151606
Dunedin (Musselburgh)746176747166564648587171772
Invercargill Aerodrome897994104911076966748694891042

Thunderstorms—Thunderstorms are not numerous. Their frequency is greatest in the north and west where thunder is heard on 15 to 20 days a year; east of the ranges (except in Gisborne) the figure is five or less.

Hail—Hail is most frequent in the south-west where it is reported on about 20 days a year, but for the greater part of the country it occurs on about 5 days a year or less. Most of the hailstones are small, but occasionally large stones cause local damage to glasshouses, and to orchards and market gardens, chiefly in Canterbury and Hawke's Bay.

Temperature—Mean temperatures at sea level decrease steadily southwards from 15°C in the far north to 12°c about Cook Strait, then to 9°c in the south. With increasing altitude, temperatures drop about 2°c per 300 m. January and February, with approximately the same mean temperature are the warmest months of the year; July is the coldest. Some temperature statistics for selected places are included in the table on climatological averages. Highest temperatures are recorded east of the main ranges, where they exceed 30°c on a few afternoons in most summers, usually in association with a north-westerly föhn wind. The extremes for New Zealand (measured in a standard thermometer screen) are 42°c, which has been recorded in three places: Jordan (Marlborough), Christchurch, and Rangiora (Canterbury); and -19°c at Ophir (Central Otago).

As is to be expected, there is a small annual range of temperature (difference between mean temperature of the warmest and coldest months). In Northland and in western districts of both Islands the annual range is about 8°c. For the remainder of the North Island, and east coast districts of the South Island, it is 9°-10°c. Further inland it exceeds 11°c in places, reaching a maximum of 14°c in Central Otago where there is an approach to a continental type of climate.

Frost—It is well known that local variations in frostiness are considerable, even within quite small areas. On a calm, clear night the cold air in contact with a sloping surface gravitates slowly downhill to collect in valleys and depressions, and it is these “katabatic” drifts which are mainly responsible for local temperature variations at night. Gently sloping ground with a northerly aspect tends to be least affected by frost. Favourable sites in coastal areas of Northland are free of frost, although further inland light frosts occur frequently in the winter months. At Albert Park, Auckland, the screen minimum thermometer (1.3 m above the ground) has registered below 0°c only once in 65 years, yet up the harbour at Whenuapai Aerodrome there are eight screen frosts per annum on the average. Excluding the uninhabited mountainous areas, the coldest winter conditions are experienced in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Plains of inland Canterbury, and on the central plateau of the North Island. Even in these areas night temperatures as low as -12°c are rarely recorded. Elsewhere over the North Island the winters are very mild and pastures maintain continuous growth. In both Islands sheep and cattle remain in the open all the year round.

Snow—The majority of New Zealanders rarely see snow except on the mountains. The North Island has a small permanent snow field above 2500 m on the central plateau, but the snow line rarely descends below 600 m even for brief periods in winter. In the South Island snow falls on a few days a year in eastern coastal districts, and in some years may lie for a day or two even at sea level. In Westland it does not lie at sea level. The snow line on the Southern Alps is around 2000 m in summer, being slightly lower on the western side where the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers descend through heavy bush to within 300 m of sea level. In inland Canterbury and Otago, where there are considerable areas of grazing lands above 300 m, snowfalls are heavier and more persistent and have caused serious losses of sheep during severe winters in the past. However, only rarely does the winter snow line there remain below 1000 m for extended periods.

Relative Humidity—Humidity is commonly between 70 and 80 percent in coastal areas and about 10 percent lower inland. It varies inversely to the temperature, falling to a minimum in the early afternoon when temperature is highest and frequently lying between 90 and 100 percent during clear nights. As the following table shows, the diurnal variation is greater than the difference between summer and winter.

StationMean Relative Humidity
3 a.m.3 p.m.3 a.m.3 p.m.
Auckland (Mechanics Bay)85639074
Ohakea Aerodrome87628972

Very low humidity—from 30 percent down to about 5 percent—occurs at times in the lee of the Southern Alps where the föhn effect is often very marked. In summer the hot, dry “Canterbury Nor'-wester” is generally a most unpleasant wind. Cool south-westerlies are also at times very dry when they reach eastern districts. In Northland the humid mid-summer conditions are inclined to be rather oppressive though temperatures rarely reach 30°c. Dull, humid spells are generally not prolonged anywhere, but their frequency shows a marked increase in the south.

Sunshine—The sunniest places are near Blenheim, the Nelson-Motueka area, and Whakatane, where the average duration of bright sunshine exceeds 2350 hours a year. The rest of the Bay of Plenty and Napier are only slightly less sunny. A large portion of the country is favoured with at least 2000 hours. Even Westland, despite its high rainfall, has 1800 hours. Southland and coastal Otago, where sunshine drops sharply to about 1700 hours a year, lie on the northern fringe of a broad zone of increasing cloudiness. Four hundred miles further to the south at Campbell Island the sunshine has the extremely low value of 650 hours a year. A pleasant feature of the New Zealand climate is the high proportion of sunshine during the winter months. To eliminate the effect of varying day-length the summer and winter sunshine at a few selected stations has been expressed as a percentage of the possible sunshine.

New Plymouth5446

As these figures indicate, there is a marked increase in cloudiness in the North Island in winter, but little seasonal change in the South Island, except in Southland.

Climatological Averages—The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.

StationAltitude (metres)Annual AveragesAir Temperatures (Degrees Celsius)
Rain Days (1.0mm or More)Rain Days (5.0mm or More)Bright Sunshine (Hrs)Days of Screen Frost (min. air temp. less than 0°C)Mean Temp.Mean Daily MaximumMean Daily MinimumMean Annual
Kaitaia Aerodrome80138722 138015.52415158282
Kerikeri73135722 014115.12515136290
Dargaville20147722 011314.6231514729-2
Auckland (Albert Park)49140672 140015.42314168273
Tauranga Aerodrome4118642 285814.2241414529-2
Hamilton (Ruakura)40131722 0541713.2231312329-3
Rotorua307123681 9332512.5231212329-3
Gisborne Aerodrome4113552 224614.0241413432-2
Taupo376123662 0683911.8231111229-4
Waikaremoana (Onepoto)643164100 611.120911328-1
Taumarunui171140831 7243912.9241312231-5
New Plymouth (Aerodrome)27142832 102013.12113135260
Napier292432 262614.1241314432-2
Wanganui22117592 092413.5221214529-1
Palmerston North34127621 8261513.0221213428-3
Masterton (Waingawa)114123572 0072912.2241211231-4
Wellington (Kelburn)126124682 014012.52011136261
Nelson Aerodrome296542 4034111.9221212128-3
Blenheim484392 4703612.6231212232-4
Westport Aerodrome21691111 937112.11912124250
Hanmer Forest387115651 9238510.12299-232-9
Hokitika Aerodrome391681181 8832511.3191111326-2
Lake Coleridge3649852 7010.121910-131-7
Christ church785371 9853711.7221112132-4
Timaru1781331 8103911.0211011032-4
Milford Sound3183145 2710.318910225-3
Queenstown32993501 9315310.122810-130-5
Alexandra14164202 0478110.623711-232-8
Dunedin (Musselburgh)2119481 695810.9191011330-2
Gore72137601 6984010.12199031-5
Invercargill Aerodrome0157691 627489.61899028-5

NOTES: (1) Averages of sunshine 1941–70; mean temperature, mean daily maximum and mean daily minimum 1941–70; other temperature data, rain days, and days of screen frost, various periods—all exceeding 10 years.

  • (2) For normal monthly and annual rainfall for these stations, see table under subsection on Rainfall.

  • (3) At Hanmer, Queenstown, and Alexandra the possible sunshine is considerably reduced by hills or mountains, by amounts varying from 3/4 hour per day at Alexandra to 11/2 hours per day at Hanmer and 31/4 hours per day at Queenstown. The reductions in actual sunshine are less than this—mainly between half and three-fifths of the above amounts.


In contrast to 1980, when westerly winds predominated over the country, circulation anomalies favoured easterly wind flows over northern New Zealand in 1981, with consequent compatible departures in climatic means and totals in many areas. Relatively high pressures occurred over the south of the country in late summer, the winter period and November, with a marked absence of westerly winds in the first two periods. During October a strong northwesterly airstream caused widespread damage in the lee of the Southern Alps.

Above average rainfall occurred, mainly in the east of the North Island and in the west and south of the South Island. There were three notable floods this year; in Thames-Coromandel in April, Wairarapa in May and early June, and in Kerikeri in March. Prolonged heavy rain caused the first two floods but obstructions to drainage following a local 'cloud-burst' were partly responsible for the damage in the last event.

Mean recorded temperatures in many parts of New Zealand were 0.5°c above average, but temperatures up to 0.2°c below were recorded at some stations in the west of the South Island.

Most stations recorded around 100 hours less sun than usual this year, and some stations in the east of the North Island and the north and east of the South Island recorded between 200 and 300 hours less sun than usual. Waihi, Masterton, Hanmer, and Dunedin had their lowest annual totals since recording began in 1935.

Monthly Weather Notes

January was warm and dry in most districts. Northland, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, and Coromandel had above average rainfall but the rest of the country was dry, with many districts receiving less than half their normal rainfalls. Temperatures were above average by 1°c or more in all areas except parts of Westland, Fiordland, Southland, and Otago. Inland districts of both islands, Wairarapa and the north of the South Island were 2°c or more above average. For most of the country sunshine hours were close to normal, except for the north and west of the South Island which was sunnier than usual. Many parts of Westland had over 250 hours of sunshine and Westport had its 3rd sunniest January in 45 years. Gale force winds in Otago on the 27th caused minor damage in the area. Stock health was generally good, but grass growth began to slow in drier areas.

February was again a warm, dry month, with strong northeasterly winds in the north and northwesterlies in the south. Much of the country had less than half the average rainfall and areas around Wellington, Nelson, and Marlborough had less than 10 percent of their normal February rainfalls. Wellington had its driest February since 1908, with only 3 mm recorded. Although these areas too were initially dry, localised heavy rainfalls about Coromandel and East Cape on the 28th brought monthly totals in these districts close to or above normal. Sunshine hours were low, with many areas having between 10 and 40 hours less sunshine than usual. Auckland City's total of 127 hours was the lowest for February since the station opened in 1933, while Westport had its lowest February sunshine since 1966. Stock health continued to be generally good, although feed became short and milk production fell in drier areas.

March was warm and cloudy with light northeasterly winds prevailing over the whole country. The North Island was drier than normal apart from some northern areas which had isolated heavy falls. Torrential rain associated with a thunderstorm during the night of the 19th and 20th caused severe flooding around Kerikeri. One death occurred and property damage was extensive. The 24-hour rainfall at Kerikeri was 265 mm and at Waitangi 257 mm. Heavy rain fell in Matamata on the 26th causing flooding of low-lying areas, with 112 mm recorded in 24 hours in the town. The South Island was wet, apart from Southland, Canterbury and Kaikoura which had less rainfall than normal. Mean temperatures were up to 2°c above normal in the North Island and 1°c above normal in the South Island. Sunshine totals were low over the whole country. The north of the North Island had up to 70 hours less sun than usual while the north and west of the South Island had up to 60 hours less than usual. Facial eczema caused some problems in central and northern areas. Record pip fruit crops were recorded, also high grain yields in the South Island.

April was warm and sunny. Winds were predominantly from a westerly quarter in contrast to the easterlies of the previous month. Dry conditions continued in central New Zealand and it was dry in Northland and Otago, but the rest of the country had more rain than normal. Many areas had heavy rain and gales between the 11th and 14th, and the Hauraki Plains - Coromandel areas were particularly affected. Some areas recorded between 500 mm and 750 mm in 72 hours and severe flooding ensued. Heavy rain also fell in Gisborne and Hawke's Bay on the same days. Mean temperatures were 1°c above normal in the North Island and 2°c above normal in the South Island. Western South Island was particularly warm and Westport had its warmest April since 1938. April was sunnier than normal except in Westland, Otago and some areas of Southland.

May was generally relatively cool, dry, and sunny. Winds were predominantly easterly in the north and southwesterly in the south. Gales affected many areas on the 12th and 13th. Rainfall was below normal, except in the Wellington, Wairarapa, and Marlborough Sounds areas and at Farewell Spit. High winds and heavy rain in these areas on the 20th led to flooding and property damage, particularly in Wairarapa where heavy rain continued until the 23rd. Temperatures were close to normal over the whole country. High temperatures were recorded on the 8th and 9th, and on the 9th Wellington had its highest May temperature (22.2°c) since 1869. Snow fell on high country in both Islands on the 12th and 13th. Sunshine hours were above normal everywhere except Invercargill and Blenheim, both of which had about 15 hours less sun than normal.

June was mild and cloudy. The wind was notable for the frequency of northeasterlies in the south—the highest for June for 25 years. Rainfall was above normal in all areas except Blenheim, Southland and South Otago. Heavy falls in South Westland on the 2nd caused local flooding, the rail link to Christchurch was closed by a washout, and the Haast Pass was closed by slips. Parts of Wairarapa were again extensively flooded after heavy rain on the 6th and 7th and severe slipping occurred in some areas. Much of the country had between 3 and 7 more raindays than normal for June, and the wet, muddy conditions caused feed shortage in some areas. Strong northwesterly winds on the 3rd brought temperatures above 20°c to eastern areas between Gisborne and Christchurch. Sunshine hours were low, except in Invercargill and Kaitaia. Both Blenheim and Wellington had their lowest sunshine totals for any month since 1930.

July was generally a mild, wet month, with winds predominantly from the southeast. There were fewer strong winds than normal. Rainfall was above normal everywhere except in Northland, Auckland, Kaikoura, parts of Bay of Plenty, Waikato, Canterbury, and Central Otago. The Dunedin area was particularly wet with many stations recording between 300 percent and 400 percent of their normal July rainfall this month. Prolonged wet weather caused a severe shortage of feed for stock in some areas. Many parts of Otago had heavy snowfalls between the 10th and 18th. Mean temperatures were 0.5°c above average. Sunshine hours were high in the north, near normal in central areas, and low in the south. Auckland City had 177 hours, its highest July total since 1963, while Dunedin had 67 hours, its second lowest July total in the same period.

August was a variable month. Strong winds were less frequent than normal, and winds from the southeast were more frequent than usual, over the whole country. Rainfall was below normal in Manawatu, Auckland, and Coromandel and in the South Island except for coastal areas between Christchurch and Blenheim. Fiordland and Westland were particularly dry, with most stations recording between 10 percent and 30 percent of their average August rainfall. Some eastern areas had more than twice their normal rainfall. Mean temperatures were below average by 0.5°c in the North Island and 1.0°c in the South Island. Maximum temperatures were particularly low, with many areas having their lowest mean maxima for more than 20 years. Lambing losses were recorded in many farming areas due to cold, wet weather in the last week of the month. Sunshine hours were mainly close to or slightly above normal in northern and western areas and slightly below average in other areas.

September was notably dry and windy. Southwesterly winds were especially frequent this month, constituting 80 percent of the winds at Auckland and 50 percent of those at Invercargill, both records for the previous 25 years. Strong winds were also more than usually frequent, and the Auckland region suffered damage to roofs and power lines in high winds on the 6th. Rainfall was lower than normal except in Southland, Westland, Fiordland and the Wanganui - King Country area. Areas of Gisborne, and the Kaikoura and South Canterbury coasts had less than 25 percent of normal rainfall, while parts of Southland had over 200 percent. There were heavy snowfalls in Southland and Otago on the 6th. Mean temperatures were close to normal over most of the country. The east coasts of both Islands, Wellington, Nelson, and Marlborough had between 10 and 50 hours more sun than usual. The rest of the country had less sun than normal, with Ohakea, Hamilton, Westport, and Invercargill having greatest deficits. Low temperatures and lack of sun caused some lambing losses.

October was cool and dry in the north and mild and wet in the south. Northwesterly gales affected inland areas of the South Island, particularly Central Otago, on the 3rd and 4th. The area sustained severe damage to buildings and plantations and one person was killed by flying debris in Twizel. North Island rainfalls were below normal apart from Gisborne, Bay of Plenty, Wairarapa, and Wellington. Parts of Northland, Auckland, and Taupo had less than 50 percent of their usual October rainfall. Rainfalls were close to or above normal in the South Island. Temperatures were mainly close to normal in the North Island and 1° to 2°c above in the South Island. Some coastal areas between Gisborne and Dunedin had maximum temperatures above 25°c during northwesterly conditions between the 1st and 4th. Sunshine hours were above average in northern and eastern districts of the North Island and in inland areas of the South Island but slightly lower than normal in all other areas. Stock were generally reported to be in good condition and spring growth progressed well.

November was dull and mild. Northeasterly winds predominated in the north and westerlies in the south. Pressures were high in the east and southeast this month, and stations throughout New Zealand recorded pressures above 1030 mb on the 23rd and 24th due to an intense anticyclone southeast of New Zealand. Rainfall was variable, ranging from less than 30 percent of normal in areas around Timaru, Dunedin, and Milford Sound to over 300 percent of normal around Coromandel, Bay of Plenty, and Rotorua. Temperatures were mostly above average by 1° to 2°c, except in Northland, Whakatane, East Cape, Napier, Blenheim, and Kaikoura which were up to 1°c below normal. Sunshine totals were between 40 and 60 hours low at many stations. In contrast, Mt Cook had slightly more sun than usual.

December was also dull and warm. Rainfalls were below normal over most of the North Island and north and northeast of the South Island and above normal elsewhere. Areas around Gisborne had less than 10 percent of normal rainfall and Gisborne Airport recorded only 5 mm, the lowest December total since this station opened in 1937. There were widespread thunderstorms in the North Island on the 1st, 23rd, and 24th and in the South Island on the 6th, 8th, and 10th. Temperatures were above normal by an average of 1.5°c in the North Island and 2.0°c in the South Island. Sunshine totals were low, with many stations again recording 40 to 60 hours less sun than usual. Heavy hay crops were cut in dry areas while in areas with good rainfalls grass growth was prolific. Fly strike was a problem in many areas and facial eczema was reported on some central North Island farms.

Summary of Meteorological Observations for 1981—The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1981 were made at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time, i.e. 2100 hours Greenwich mean time, except during January, February, November, and December, when they were made at 0900 hours N.Z. daylight time (2000 G.M.T.).

StationRainfall (mm)Rain Days (1.0 mm or more)Bright Sunshine (hours)Screen Frost Days*Air Temperature (Degrees Celsius)
Mean Temp.Mean Daily MaximumMean Daily MinimumExtremes
* Minimum air temperatures less than 0.0°C.
Whangarei15831471871 15.724.915.515.86.329.20.4
Albert Park Auckland10891342017 16.224.415.017.47.627.63.0
Tauranga Airport14261252166 15.323.7 15.85.427.50.5
Whakarewarewa1482139 1013.223.812.213.73.526.9-1.6
Ruakura, Hamilton113314419251814.225.113.914.03.428.3-2.6
New Plymouth Airport13631542021
Waingawa, Masterton11631381760313.224.912.212.84.631.6-0.5
Gisborne Airport11201082110114.925.914.215.45.434.1-1.1
Onepoto, Waikaremoana2121173 1 -0.3
Palmerston North DSIR878115 113.823.812.314.24.931.3-0.7
Kelburn Wellington12451261995 13.221.511.414.16.427.51.3
Westport Airport25521801705 12.921.212.412.94.625.10.6
Hokitika Airport329717617721812.020.011.611.83.126.0-2.0
Milford Sound5861176 5010.319.28.810.61.326.5-2.4
Nelson Airport9249522654112.824.111.914.01.129.1-3.6
Hanmer Forest97610316958110.824.99.310.0-0.731.5-6.0
Lake Coleridge763105 6210.823.89.610.70.231.7-4.2
Lake Tekapo534902102849.723.35.910.2-1.829.5-8.2
Musselburgh, Dunedin8021311397
Invercargill Airport107814614994510.

For 1981 the mean sea level pressure values in millibars at 0900 hours New Zealand Standard Time were: Auckland, 1015.9; Kelburn, Wellington, 1012.8; Nelson Airport, 1014.2; Hokitika Airport, 1014.0; Christchurch, 1012.4; and Dunedin Airport, 1012.1.

FURTHER INFORMATION—Further information on the geography and climate of New Zealand will be found in the following publications.

New Zealand Atlas—Government Printer.

Encyclopaedia of New Zealand—Government Printer.

New Zealand Gazette—Government Printer.

New Zealand Seismological Report—Geophysics Division, DSIR.

Rainfall Observations—New Zealand Meteorological Service.

Meteorological Observations—New Zealand Meteorological Service.


Table of Contents

The early history of the people of New Zealand and the coming of the Maoris is shrouded in myth and based on orally-transmitted traditions and the knowledge won from midden heaps, burial grounds, and the sites of early settlements by the spade of the archaeologist. It seems probable that the country was sparsely settled by a Polynesian people, ancestors of the present-day Maoris, by about the tenth century A.D. Certainly, by the thirteenth or fourteenth century there were well-established settlements and the early stages of exploration were over.

It is generally accepted that the ancestors of the Maoris came originally from South-east Asia, whence, as proto-Polynesians, they moved eastwards from island to island until they reached the eastern Pacific, where they settled the islands now known collectively as Polynesia. From Polynesia they sailed south-west in ocean-going canoes to reach New Zealand. These voyages were probably spread over several generations, perhaps several centuries. Oral Maori history and genealogy support the view that there was a final wave of migration of considerable magnitude about A.D. 1350. Adapting themselves to a new physical environment, in isolation from the outside world, the Maoris produced forms of social and economic organisation and material culture which were significantly different from their Polynesian prototypes.

Coming from tropical latitudes, the Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island, and when discovered by Europeans were in a high state of neolithic civilisation, with marked superiority in the arts of wood carving and military engineering. Their principal social unit was the family group, and from combinations of the numerous groups were formed the subtribes and tribes. They had highly developed social and ritualistic customs, and their system of land tenure and methods of cultivation were communal within the subtribes. Inter-tribal and intra-tribal warfare was common, and as individuals, Maoris displayed exceptional courage and intelligence.

The introduction of European diseases and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century. However, the virility of the race gradually asserted itself, and from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing.

Discovery by Europeans—On 13 December 1642, Abel Janszoon Tasman, a navigator of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the country to which he gave the name of Staten Land, and which later became known as “Nieuw Zeeland”. Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August 1642, and after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north, he had the misfortune to come into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land.

There is no record of any European visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until Captain (then Lieutenant) James Cook sighted land on 7 October 1769 near Gisborne. Cook and a party of men from the Endeavour landed at Gisborne on 9 October 1769. On his first voyage Cook spent 6 months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. His activities can best be described by saying “he found New Zealand a line on a map, and left it an archipelago”. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the Maoris. He returned to New Zealand again in 1773, 1774, and in 1777. His careful observations made New Zealand known to the western world; the accounts of his voyages were translated into a dozen languages.

First European Settlements—Whaling stations sprang up along the New Zealand coast from 1792 onwards and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. In 1814 Samuel Marsden, chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, was responsible for the establishment of the first mission station in the Bay of Islands.

The growing white population in the Bay of Islands, and the lawlessness of crews of visiting ships led to the appointment by the British Government of James Busby as British Resident at Waitangi in 1833. The Governor of New South Wales in 1837 sent Captain William Hobson, in command of HMS Rattlesnake, from Sydney to the Bay of Islands to report on New Zealand. Among other things, Hobson suggested a treaty with the Maori chiefs and the placing of British subjects under British law. On 29 January 1840 Hobson arrived at the Bay of Islands as Governor to proclaim British sovereignty.

By 1840 numerous mission stations had spread through the northern half of the North Island. Conversion of Maori tribes to Christianity was accompanied by the introduction of new crops and methods of cultivation and the pacification of warring tribes.

Early Constitutional Developments—On 29 January 1840 Captain William Hobson, R.N., arrived in the Bay of Islands. His instructions from the British Government required him to take possession of the country with the consent of the Maori chiefs, this policy being designed by the Colonial Office, strongly influenced by missionary opinion, to safeguard the well-being of the native people. Hobson read his commission at Kororareka on 30 January and on 6 February 46 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, a compact whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights were secured to the chiefs and their tribes (with the Crown having the sole right of purchase) and in return the Queen extended her protection and all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Other chiefs throughout both Islands later adhered to this Treaty.

On 21 May 1840 Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and over the South Island and Stewart Island by right of discovery. New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales until 3 May 1841, when it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter dated 16 November 1840. The capital was at first transferred from Russell to Auckland, but in 1865 it was again transferred, on this occasion to Wellington, where the seat of Government has since remained.

During Governor Grey's term, steps were taken to draft a constitution for the colony. An Act granting representative insututions was passed by the Imperial Parliament on 30 June 1852, and was published in New Zealand by Proclamation on 17 January 1853. Under it, provision was made for the constitution of a General Assembly consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives. Provision was also made for the division of the country into provinces, each province having an elected Council and Superintendent. (The provincial system was abolished in 1875 and the Legislative Council in 1950.) In the first General Assembly of 27 August 1854 certain members of this body were associated with the permanent members of the executive but they did not hold any portfolios. It was not until 7 May 1856 that responsible government was actually established.

One aspect, that of Native Affairs, was withheld from the responsible Ministers, and the Governor, as representative of the Crown, continued to act independently of his elected advisors in this sphere. In 1861 Grey attempted unsuccessfully to hand over this responsibility but the Ministers were unwilling to assume responsibility for the cost of the growing hostilities between Pakeha and Maori. Finally in 1864 Sir Frederick Weld instituted the “self-reliant policy” whereby the colony accepted responsibility for the settlement of difficulties with the Maoris and consented to the withdrawal of troops by the Imperial Government.

Colonisation—The first body of immigrants to reach New Zealand under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived at Port Nicholson, Wellington, on 22 January 1840 to found the initial settlement of the New Zealand Company. The colonists were in the main sturdy resourceful people seeking a better future than was offering in nineteenth century industrial England.

The guiding genius of the company, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, aware of the intention of the British Government to annex New Zealand, had earlier (in 1839), dispatched his agents in order to purchase large areas of land from the Maoris before the Crown could assume a monopoly of land purchase.

Wakefield's scheme of colonisation was based on the sale of land to investors or men of wealth for development by labouring class immigrants. With the profit from land sales the company could bring out more immigrants. Wakefield aimed at a balance between landowners and labourers; in effect he aimed to transplant a cross-section of English society. But, ignorant of the system of tribal ownership of Maori land, the company had bought land from individual Maoris; then Hobson provided that all European land titles should derive from the Crown which would be the only purchaser of land from the Maoris. Title to land remained a difficulty for some years and was a cause of distress to the colonists and, combined with a considerable degree of absentee ownership and land speculation, made most precarious the existence of the early company settlements of Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson. The company had brought nearly 10 000 persons to New Zealand by 1848. The later settlements of Otago, in 1848, and Canterbury, in 1850, organised under the aegis of the New Zealand Company in co-operation with the Free Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively, achieved a much greater measure of success owing to the absence of any large Maori population and to satisfactory land purchase arrangements.

The non-Maori population in the main settlements in 1842 totalled 3801 in Wellington, 2895 in Auckland, 2500 in Nelson, 895 in New Plymouth, 380 in Russell, 263 in Hokianga, and 198 in Akaroa. By 1862 the non-Maori population had reached 125 000 (as against 55 000 Maoris) and by 1866 it had jumped to 200 000 with men from Australia joining in the gold rush to Otago. Migration then dropped away until 1874 when there was a high inflow for several years from Britain under the Vogel policy of assisted immigration and public works development.

War Over Land—After the death of Hobson in 1842, subsequent governors, through lack of funds and weak administration, found themselves unable to protect the small and helpless settlements from threatening Maori aggression engendered by strong feelings on land ownership. The response of the Colonial Office was to appoint Captain George Grey as Governor and to provide him with adequate funds and troops so that he soon restored order and won not only the confidence of the Maoris but also for a time that of the settlers. Grey, through his chief land purchase officer, Donald McLean, endeavoured to buy up land in advance of the settlers' needs in order to prevent conflict between settlers and Maoris. By 1858 the census revealed that the settlers outnumbered the Maoris who, fearful that they were being swamped by the settlers, became increasingly reluctant to sell their land. At the same time the intensified settler pressure for more land led McLean to negotiate only with those Maoris still favourably disposed to land sales. This practice alarmed the other Maoris and finally the war broke out in 1860 over a land dispute at Waitara in Taranaki where settler demand for land was strongest. The return of Grey as Governor did not solve the problem for, as an autocrat, he could not work with elected ministers nor could he regain the confidence of the Maoris, and finally he quarrelled with the commander of the Imperial troops. Widespread confiscation of Maori land by the settlers' government in order to pay the cost of the war included land belonging to friendly as well as hostile Maoris and aroused further resentment. The war had died down by 1870 and during the term of Donald McLean as Native Minister some measure of reconciliation began. However, although a substantial portion of the confiscated land was subsequently purchased or returned, land transactions remained a source of bitterness and potential hostility between Maori and settler.

Public Works and Farm Development—The absence of hostilities and the discovery of gold had allowed the South Island to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally and began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool.

By 1870 the gold boom had ended in the South Island. To remedy the situation of economic stagnation, Sir Julius Vogel began a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction and for immigrant labour. The results of this policy were to double the population to 500 000 by 1880, to immensely improve transport and communications, and to encourage industry in the towns where most of the immigrants had congregated.

With the introduction of refrigeration in 1882 and steam navigation in the late 19th century, the development of exports of frozen meat and dairy products assured the dominance of the United Kingdom in New Zealand's external trade. These developments, with a continued substantial investment of British capital, particularly in farming and food processing industries, established that degree of specialisation to meet the needs of the British market, which shaped the entire New Zealand economy during its first hundred years.

The depression of the 1880s, a consequence of a fall in world price levels, resulted in unemployment and large emigration but export prices recovered in the nineties. From 1880 onwards the natural increase of births over deaths exceeded the net inflow from migration.

In 1891 John Ballance, as leader of the Liberal Party, became Premier to be followed on his death in 1893 by Richard John Seddon, who remained Premier until his death in June 1906. The Government pursued a vigorous legislative programme in which the main emphasis was on social justice.

The expansion of the exports in dairy produce and frozen meat during the 1890s produced more intensive settlement and the rise of a new farming class in which the “cow-cockie” was the dominant figure. These farmers, having benefited by the spread of prosperity, were in 1911 mainly responsible together with the city businessmen for the overthrow of the Liberal regime. The new Reform Government under William Massey introduced measures to strengthen the primary producer, of which the extension of rural credit was typical.

Three years after the advent of the Reform Party, the First World War, 1914-1918, broke out, leading to a coalition Government and an Imperial commandeer of exports which created the precedent for the establishment after the war of central boards to regulate the exports of pastoral products. War activities were marked by heavy casualties in proportion to the population while the landing at Gallipoli signified the growing awareness of a sense of nationhood.

Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period 1921-24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and on the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydroelectric schemes and highways.

Land values rose steeply, accelerated by Government efforts to settle returned servicemen on the land, and between 1915 and 1925 forty percent of the occupied land had changed hands. New Zealand was extremely vulnerable to the overseas price fluctuations of pastoral products. With the advent of the depression by 1930, farmers, despite greatly increased production, were faced with a serious decline in income (over forty percent) together with heavy mortgage commitments on land bought at high prices so that many were faced with foreclosure. In the towns, tradesmen and shopkeepers faced bankruptcy, and wage earners unemployment or reduction in wages. A Coalition Government was formed in 1931 to meet the crisis. Partly as a result of measures taken by this government and partly as a result of a rise in overseas price levels a general economic revival was taking place by 1935. The election of a Labour Government, under the leadership of Michael Savage, in 1935 led to changes in administrative policy and a renewed emphasis on social problems.

War and Post-war—The financial needs of the Second World War from 1939 onwards were met with virtually no overseas borrowing. Financing the war by taxation and internal borrowing also assisted in the achievement of a successful stabilisation policy. Full employment in war was followed by full employment in peace. Expansion and diversification of manufacturing and servicing industries provided avenues of employment for the growing labour force.

At the 1949 election the Labour Government was defeated after holding office since 1936. It was succeeded by a National Government, under the leadership of Sidney Holland.

In 1957, the Labour Party gained a narrow victory at the polls under the leadership of Walter Nash. Budgetary policy to meet a recurrence of the balance of payments crisis proved unpopular and ac the 1960 election, the National Party under the leadership of Keith Holyoake was returned to power. as it was in subsequent elections in 1963, 1966, and 1969. At the 1972 election the Labour Party swept back into power under Norman Kirk. Following Kirk's untimely death in 1974 W. E. Rowling became Prime Minister. At the 1975 election there was a dramatic reversal of the position 3 years earlier, and the National Party under Robert Muldoon was returned to power with a substantial majority. The new Government faced growing economic difficulties and rising unemployment as a result of economic recession overseas, steep rises in oil prices, and the loss or shrinkage of traditional markets for agricultural products. At the 1978 election and again in 1981 the National Party retained power with greatly reduced majorities.

Later Constitutional Developments—In 1907, in recognition of an emerging sense of nationality and an increasing desire for self-reliance in political matters, New Zealand had been given the title of Dominion in lieu of Colony.

A further step in the evolution of New Zealand into full nationhood came in 1947, when New Zealand belatedly adopted the Statute of Westminster, which had been passed by the United Kingdom Parliament in 1931. The draft of this statute had been submitted for the confirmation of the various Commonwealth legislatures before its passage through the United Kingdom Parliament. The statute granted complete autonomy to the various self-governing member countries, but it did not automatically apply to Australia or New Zealand. Its operation in the latter self-governing members of the Commonwealth was declared to require specific adoption by the legislatures of those countries.

Some surviving doubts concerning the authority of the New Zealand Parliament over the Constitution were resolved when, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament passed a Constitution Amendment Act authorising the New Zealand Parliament to amend any of the provisions of the Constitution Act of 1852.

In 1950 the Prime Minister, Sidney Holland, initiated a constitutional change when the Legislative Council, the “second house” of the General Assembly, was abolished on the grounds that it no longer possessed any effective function.

The present Constitution and recent developments are dealt with later in this section under the heading, “The Constitution of New Zealand”.

DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS—The emergence of a distinctive and independent New Zealand foreign policy is usually regarded as dating from 1935, following the election of a Labour Government under Michael Savage. While this did indeed mark a turning point in the development of a more vigorous and assertive New Zealand foreign policy the origins of the foreign service itself can be traced much earlier. Soon after New Zealand became a British colony, following the enactment of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the New Zealand colonists, finding themselves excluded from a system of government in which official business with Great Britain was transacted by correspondence between the Secretary of State for the Colonies and a Governor empowered to act as sole representative of colonial views to the Imperial Government, began to appoint their own colonial agents to make representations on their behalf in London.

Charles Clifford, a Wairarapa farmer, was the first such agent. Deputed by the Wellington Settlers' Constitutional Association, he travelled to England in 1848 to press the case for self-government for the new colony. In 1851 he was followed by William Fox, bearing the title “Honorary Political Agent”.

In 1852 the British Parliament enacted legislation providing for a limited form of self-government for the new colony. The provincial councils that were established in New Zealand as a result of this legislation soon found it necessary to appoint their own business agents in Britain for the explicit purpose of “promoting immigration (and) for protecting and advancing in Great Britain the political or other interests of the said Province” (Otago ordinance). These agents, appointed during the 1850s, though few in number and of doubtful political status in the eyes of the British Colonial Office. can be seen in every respect to be the earliest forerunners of today's unified overseas service which, some hundred and thirty years later, actively promotes New Zealand's political, economic, trading, and security interests around the world.

The provincial agents represented the interests of the individual provinces which, being relatively isolated at the time, were still developing along independent lines. The day-to-day interests of the Central Government, sited first in Russell, then Auckland, and later Wellington, were represented by the British Colonial Office itself. From time to time the Central Government felt the need for more direct representation, and on these occasions ministerial missions were dispatched to London. The most significant of these early missions was in 1870, undertaken against the background of a popular uprising of anti-British feeling and talk of secession. The Imperial Government had moved to withdraw the last British troops at a time when Te Kooti was still active. Two prominent New Zealand politicians, Francis Dillon Bell and Dr Isaac Earl Featherston, were given full representative powers under a Colonial Act passed for the express purpose of securing the status of their mission (the New Zealand Commissioners Act of 1870, in some ways the forerunner of the External Affairs Act of 1943) and were sent to London to persuade the Imperial Government to stay its hand. They failed.

The following year the Vogel ministry moved to consolidate its representation arrangements in London. In 1871 Featherston was sent back to London as a resident Agent-General, a new post designed principally to under-pin the ambitious programme of immigration and public works initiated by Julius Vogel the year before. From 1871 to 1904 a succession of able New Zealanders, amongst them Featherston, Vogel, Francis Dillon Bell, Perceval, and William Pember Reeves, acted as Agents-General, performing all the functions (despite the ambiguity of the title and the nature of the colonial relationship) of diplomatic representatives of a sovereign power.

In 1904 the post of Agent-General was elevated to High Commissioner. In Seddon's eyes, the change was a necessary reflection of the need to ensure the respect and influence due to the New Zealand representative “in the heart of the Empire”. Seddon's definition of the High Commissioner's role, “a diplomat to be in close touch with the Colonial Office, British statesmen, and people, and at the same time financial and commercial representative, ambassador, and courier ... the eyes, ears, and voice of the New Zealand Government in Great Britain ... (able to) simply voice the desire of the people of the colony”, is sufficiently close to the letters of instruction provided to our present-day representatives that in these early beginnings one can clearly see the origins of the New Zealand foreign service as it is today.

What of the country's broader interests? Strictly speaking, a dependent colony, by definition, has no foreign policy and no international relations. But the colony, even before it was raised to Dominion status in 1907, exercised a vigorous interest in the affairs of the Empire and, on occasions, did not hesitate to prosecute an independent line. For example, from 1870 to the close of the century, New Zealand politicians (notably Vogel, Stout, and Seddon), as Governor Grey had before them, bombarded London with arguments in favour of annexing territories in the Pacific for the creation of a Pan-Pacific Empire based on New Zealand. In 1883 the New Zealand Parliament, at Grey's initiative, enacted a Bill to enable the colony to establish relations with such Pacific peoples as might desire them.

The Bill provided for a Pacific Federation and claimed for the colony the power to annex any unappropriated islands. On the advice of the British Colonial Office, Royal assent was not forthcoming and the Bill therefore failed to become law.

The final collapse of these plans in 1899 (when the British Government renounced its rights in Samoa in favour of Germany and America) and 1900, when Seddon's repeated proposals that the administration of Fiji be entrusted to New Zealand were finally rejected, marked the end of a consistent thread in New Zealand foreign policy that had been elaborated since the 1840s. Though the policy that New Zealand's nineteenth century statesmen had vigorously advocated was perhaps over-ambitious given the colony's limited resources of manpower and wealth, it did at least have the advantage of resting on a sound appreciation of New Zealand's geographic position.

Following Seddon's death in 1906, and with the collapse of its Pacific vision, interests, and ambitions, New Zealand entered a period in which for a generation it was generally content to have its foreign policy laid down by the Imperial Government: “having lost contact with their own area, New Zealanders no longer had anything unique to contribute to Imperial policy. It is not without significance that the first flowering of New Zealand nationalism had been expressed in terms of New Zealand's place in the South Pacific”. Paradoxically, the opening of this quieter period in the development of New Zealand's international relations coincided with the elevation to Dominion status in 1907.

The passing of Seddon in 1906 marked the end of an era of vigorous self-assertion and the beginning of a relatively quiescent period in the development of an independent New Zealand foreign policy, a period that was destined to continue until the Savage Government came to power in 1935. But in the intervening years, and notwithstanding the prevailing sentiment that where Britain led in the development of foreign policy we would willingly follow, there were some developments of considerable significance to the later history.

After the First World War, New Zealand participated in the Versailles Conference and was a signatory in its own right to the Treaty of Versailles which came into force in January 1920. A mandate was acquired over Western Samoa. In 1926 a small Imperial Affairs Section, forerunner to the External Affairs Department, was established in the Prime Minister's Department to deal with treaty matters, the League of Nations, and international questions generally. This followed the Imperial Conference of 1926 at which the equal status of members of the British Commonwealth was recognised (the Balfour Declaration). The Imperial Affairs Section remained, however, for some time to come the only practical manifestation of New Zealand's newly acquired freedom to deal directly with other countries: the Dominion took no immediate steps to establish direct relations with foreign governments or—apart from Britain—with other members of the Commonwealth. In 1928 New Zealand entered into its first direct trade agreement with a foreign power, Japan. This was, for all practical purposes, the first such occasion in which the negotiations had been conducted directly rather than through the medium of the British Foreign Office.

The contrast between the policies followed in the 1920s and those adopted under the Savage Government from the close of 1935 is most clearly illustrated by the New Zealand attitude to the League of Nations. From the foundation of the League following the Peace Conference at Versailles, Massey and those who followed took the view that the League was no place for a loyal Dominion to voice views that contradicted Imperial policy. With the coming to power of the Savage Labour Government there re-emerged a willingness to take an independent line that had lain largely dormant since the death of Seddon. New Zealand spoke strongly for the principle of collective security and collective police action on a succession of issues (Abyssinia, Spain, China) at a time when the United Kingdom and other powers were following a policy which would later be described as appeasement.

Despite these differences there was no suggestion that New Zealand was departing from its historically close association with Britain. The course it would follow in the event of war was never in doubt. When war broke out the Prime Minister, the Right Hon. M. J. Savage, expressed New Zealand's position in terms which reflected New Zealand's sovereignty as well as its ties with Britain:

“Behind the sure shield of Britain we have enjoyed and cherished freedom and self-government. Both with gratitude for the past, and with confidence in the future, we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go. Where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we are one and all a band of brothers, and we march forward with a union of hearts and wills to a common destiny.”

The Second World War changed the pattern of power in the world. The New Zealand Government established (in effect from 1943) a career foreign affairs service, and made a beginning in stationing its own diplomatic representatives in countries where New Zealand's interests made their presence necessary. In particular, New Zealand sought to foster good relationships with its neighbours in the Pacific and Asia and to increase the measure of security and welfare in these areas.

Woven into post-war policy was the traditional New Zealand belief in the principles of collective security and international justice, which the United Nations was pledged to support. There was also the belief that the international community should give high priority to the welfare and political advancement of dependent peoples and to the climination of poverty, disease, and other economic and social causes of international tension.

There have been several periods of expansion in the establishment of New Zealand posts overseas. Aside from the three posts set up during the Second World War (Washington, Ottawa, Canberra) to maintain consultations with our closest allies, the first main period of expansion came in the 1950s as a consequence of the recognition that our security was closely bound up with that of South-east Asia. Following the signature of the ANZUS Treaty, which came into force in 1952, and the Manila Treaty in 1954, diplomatic relations were established with a growing number of Asian countries. By the end of the 1950s five New Zealand posts had been set up in Asia and the substance of our bilateral relations had broadened considerably.

A second period of expansion in the 1960s led to the setting up of a number of diplomatic posts in Western Europe in response to the need to defend New Zealand's essential economic and political interests as Britain negotiated its terms of entry into the European Economic Community. At the same time a more gradual expansion was underway in the Pacific. As island states became independent and as the extent of New Zealand's economic and political relations in the South Pacific increased, a number of South Pacific posts were opened. A fourth phase, now underway, is closely related to New Zealand's search for new trading opportunities as the degree of dependence on traditional markets in Western Europe is gradually reduced. The diversification both in the range of goods exported and in markets has led to the strengthening of posts in certain areas—particularly in Asia and the Pacific—and the opening of new posts in the Middle East, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. Over recent years posts have been opened in China and reopened in the Soviet Union and an extensive network of multiple accreditations arranged to allow New Zealand's overseas representatives to cover several countries from the one base.

As at December 1981, New Zealand had 47 posts overseas, details of which are given in the Official Section of this Yearbook.

The Commonwealth—As a member of the Commonwealth, New Zealand is able to consult and cooperate with 45 other countries in a wide variety of activities, both governmental and nongovernmental. The value to New Zealand of its Commonwealth links is derived not only from the practical benefits of what the Commonwealth does, but also from the heterogeneous composition of the association. Its 46 members take in the 6 continents and the 5 oceans of the world. The Pacific region is now well represented in the Commonwealth: Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, and Vanuatu are full members, along with Australia and New Zealand, and Nauru and Tuvalu have special membership status. The Cook Islands and Niue are not eligible for full membership because of their continuing constitutional association with New Zealand. They cannot therefore attend Commonwealth heads of government meetings, but they are entitled to participate in Commonwealth meetings dealing with those subjects for which their governments are responsible.

As the Commonwealth has grown and changed, its relationships have taken on a new scope and emphasis. This was affirmed by the Commonwealth heads of government in the Commonwealth Declaration adopted at their meeting in 1971 which stated that the association “provides many channels for continuing exchanges of knowledge and views on professional, cultural, economic, legal and political issues among member states. These relationships we foster and extend for we believe that our multinational association can expand human understanding and understanding among nations, assist in the elimination of discrimination based on differences of race, colour, and creed, maintain and strengthen personal liberty, contribute to the enrichment of life for all, and provide a powerful influence for peace among nations.” New Zealand, itself a country where different races live in harmony, sees in the Commonwealth a special opportunity for multiracial co-operation and understanding.

The value of the association in providing a forum for the exchange of views between a large number of diverse nations, as set out in the declaration, is illustrated at the heads of government meetings, most recently in 1981 in Melbourne. Discussions are frank, informal, and private, ranging over topics which include changing power relationships, trade, monetary, and other economic issues, security, nuclear testing, development assistance, foreign investment, and international transport. The last two meetings have paid special attention to the world economic situation, especially the problems of developing nations, and South African questions. Periodic meetings of Commonwealth ministers of finance, trade, health, law, and education promote the exchange of views and functional co-operation in diverse fields of national activity. Ministerial meetings are supported by conferences and seminars of officials and professional and technical specialists.

The belief of member countries in the potential of the Commonwealth led to the establishment of a permanent Commonwealth Secretariat in London in 1965 to be the main agency for multilateral communication among Commonwealth governments. The Secretariat promotes consultation and disseminates information on matters of common concern, organises meetings and conferences, and coordinates many Commonwealth activities. Prominent among these is the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, financed by voluntary contributions to promote economic development through self-help and mutual assistance.

Besides contributing to the budget of the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, New Zealand provides financial support to a number of other intergovernmental Commonwealth organisations which promote co-operation in specific areas. New Zealand also contributes to the Commonwealth Foundation, which was established at the same time as the Secretariat to promote close links in the professions throughout the Commonwealth. It has sponsored official and non-official Commonwealth professional organisations and strengthened the links between administrators, engineers, lawyers, accountants, scientists, and private individuals in the different Commonwealth organisations. Like the Secretariat it has provided a focus for Commonwealth activities and a basis for extending international co-operation.

Western Europe—With the countries of western Europe New Zealand's relationship has had a strong economic bias because of the crucial importance of continuing access to the European Community for New Zealand's agricultural exports.

However, the wider political and economic aspects of relations with the states of western Europe, with which New Zealand shares many common interests, have come to assume greater significance, as the benefit of exchanges and co-operation on international issues of mutual concern have become apparent. The European Community is playing an increasing role in international affairs, while the economic and strategic importance of New Zealand's region of the world, including as it does South-east Asia, the South Pacific, and Antarctica, is more widely recognised.

New Zealand has a great deal in common with the countries of Western Europe in terms of historical experience, democratic political systems, shared values, and related lifestyles. New Zealand's membership of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) underlines the community of broad economic interests. The range of bilateral contacts between New Zealand and individual countries of Western Europe, in all fields, steadily expands, their continued development being one of the main aims of New Zealand's foreign policy.

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe—Relations with the countries of Eastern Europe have developed considerably in recent years, especially in the field of trade. This growth has been reflected in the expansion of New Zealand's diplomatic representation in the area. New Zealand's Ambassador in Vienna is accredited to five East European countries, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic; and the Ambassador in Rome is accredited to Yugoslavia. Relations with the U.S.S.R. have been adversely affected by the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979, but the Soviet Union remains an important market for New Zealand's exports.

Middle East—Involvement in the Middle East has increased markedly within the past decade. For more than 30 years New Zealand has watched the Arab-Israeli conflict with concern, if from a distance. Recognising the implications for world peace this country has contributed personnel to United Nations truce observation teams. Early in 1982 it also supplied a small contingent to the Sinai peace keeping force. New Zealand has consistently upheld Israel's right to exist and, equally consistently, the rights of the Palestinian people to self-determination.

Since 1973, when Middle East members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) emerged as a major economic force in the world, the area has increasingly assumed a direct and immediate importance for this country. Most of our oil imports come from the countries around the Persian Gulf. The growing wealth of the region, stemming largely from substantial increases in the price of oil, has created new markets for New Zealand exports, including manufactured goods as well as agricultural products, considerably aiding the diversification efforts being made for such key commodities as lamb and dairy products. In 1981 the region absorbed 40 percent of New Zealand's total lamb exports. The Middle East, moreover, represents a significant source of investment finance.

New Zealand in recent years has made continuing efforts to broaden its range of contacts with Middle Eastern countries. At the same time, those countries have themselves taken a closer interest in New Zealand and the South Pacific and have expanded their diplomatic representation in the area. Egypt and Israel have embassies in Wellington, while Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon have cross-accreditation from Canberra. New Zealand established resident missions in Iran and Iraq in 1975, and in 1977 established a consulate-general in Bahrain, with commercial responsibilities in Saudi Arabia, the Gulf emirates, and the Yemens. The pattern of representation is rounded out by the cross-accreditation of the ambassador in Rome to Egypt and to Saudi Arabia.

Closer relations between New Zealand and the Middle East have been marked by a growing appreciation of each other's concerns. This has been fostered by visits in both directions by ministers, officials, and businessmen. Also, a growing number of tourists, students, and sports teams are coming to New Zealand, a trend that is expected to continue.

Africa—Contacts with African countries have been mainly within the Commonwealth and the United Nations. It is in these settings that the major political and economic issues relating to the emergence to independence and the subsequent development of African countries have been presented. These forums have also been where New Zealand has joined with the international community in opposing South Africa's policy of apartheid or racial separation.

New Zealand does not have resident diplomatic or consular representation in Africa. The New Zealand Ambassador in Athens is cross-accredited as High Commissioner to Tanzania and arrangements are being made for him and the High Commissioner in London to be accredited to Kenya and Nigeria respectively.

The apartheid issue of most concern to New Zealand continues to be that of sporting contacts with South Africa because of traditional links in a number of codes, but pre-eminently rugby football. The Government joined with other Commonwealth governments in June 1977 in a statement, known as the Gleneagles agreement, that condemns apartheid (especially apartheid in sport) and pledges each government to do all it can to discourage sporting contacts with South Africa or any other country where sports are organised on the basis of race. The Gleneagles agreement also seeks the support of individuals and sports organisations in the pursuit of this objective.

In a variety of ways, New Zealand has contributed to the economic and social development of African countries—with bilateral assistance and by contributions to Commonwealth and other multilateral programmes. Support for political development has also been given, most notably in contributions during 1980 to Commonwealth monitoring forces and observer teams in both Zimbabwe and Uganda.

New Zealand's total trade with African countries amounts to only a modest percentage of its global trade, but there has been growth in the volume of both exports and imports. Trade surveys have been undertaken in East, North, and West Africa to identify commercial opportunities. The major New Zealand exports are milk powder, tallow, butter, fish, and wool. The main imports from Africa are cocoa, coffee, sisal, vegetable oil, tanner extract, and tobacco.

Asia—During the last 25 years there has been a considerable expansion in New Zealand's relations with countries in Asia. New Zealand has a direct interest in the maintenance of peace and the growth of prosperity in the area. It enjoys a close relationship with Japan, the Republic of Korea, and with the countries which make up the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN): Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines. Since the establishment of relations with the People's Republic of China in 1972, New Zealand's contacts with China have been increasing.

Trade with Asia is becoming more and more important to New Zealand. Private initiative, with Government assistance, has been able to develop new markets, new products, new selling processes, and new economic and commercial relationships. A pattern of regular economic consultations with our main trading partners has been developed; bilateral economic agreements have been concluded.

New Zealand's growing interests and involvement in Asia are reflected in the changing pattern of its diplomatic representation. Prior to 1955, when New Zealand opened a post in Singapore, it had only one diplomatic mission in the region, in Tokyo. Representation has now been established in all five of the ASEAN countries, and in Peking, Hong Kong, and Seoul. Several of these missions are also accredited to other Asian capitals. The network thus created enables New Zealand to assess external events in the light of this country's own interests and needs, and to work directly with other countries in areas of common concern. New Zealand has also developed its political contacts with countries of the area in other important ways. Exchanges of visits by heads of state and government ministers and parliamentarians have increased, and the development of regular bilateral consultations has also been encouraged.

New Zealand has placed particular emphasis on supporting regional organisations for co-operation and consultation in both the political and economic fields. It is one of a group of nations closely associated with ASEAN, which it sees as a force for stability and economic development in South-East Asia. It has initiated a number of joint projects with ASEAN for development and trade co-operation. Recent developments in Indochina have had major implications for the stability of the region and have been of particular concern to New Zealand. The massive outflow of refugees from Viet Nam and Kampuchea, and the political uncertainties stemming from the continued presence in Kampuchea of Vietnamese forces have together posed difficult problems for the countries of the region. New Zealand has consulted closely with the ASEAN countries over these developments.

The degree of cultural interchange between New Zealand and the countries of Asia has increased steadily. Where once New Zealanders looked largely to Britain for cultural inspiration and experience, now their horizons have broadened. Increased contacts with Asia have brought with them an awareness of what the cultural background of the countries there can offer New Zealand. Professional bodies, sporting associations, cultural groups, and universities today have links with similar organisations in Asia, as well as with more traditional partners such as Britain and Australia. The development of civil air links, and the concurrent growth of tourism, have also helped to bring a wider range of contacts.

Nowhere within the Pacific Basin has New Zealand's adaptation to changed circumstances been more complete than in its relationship with Japan. Today that association is one of the most important that New Zealand has and it is friendly and rewarding for both sides. Its elements are varied—trade, fishing, and a growing range of cultural, educational, sporting, and personal ties. In many ways, the conditions for a developing trading relationship are ideal, for the two countries are located in different hemispheres, their economies are complementary, and each has in abundance some things that the other needs. New Zealand continues to seek improved conditions of access for certain important commodities, including dairy products, and on both sides there are expectations of continued and expanding trade and of closer involvement together in other settings. Meanwhile, the steady growth in the extent and cordiality of New Zealand's relations with the People's Republic of China further illustrates New Zealanders' changing perceptions of Asia. China is now our second largest market there and is important to New Zealand as a major power with a leading role in Asia.

During 1980-81 just under 7 percent of our total exports went to the ASEAN countries, which provided 7 percent of our imports.

The South Pacific—New Zealand has a long history of interest and involvement in the South Pacific. In the latter part of the 19th century Prime Minister Richard Seddon harboured ambitions of a South Pacific empire controlled by New Zealand, and as a result of pressure from Seddon the administration of the Cook Islands and Niue, which were British colonial possessions, was handed over to New Zealand in 1901. The number of New Zealand Pacific dependencies increased when, following the establishment of the League of Nations, Western Samoa, which had been occupied by New Zealand troops at the outbreak of the First World War, became a mandated territory under the administration of New Zealand. In 1925 the Tokelau Islands (now known as Tokelau) then part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, were ceded by the United Kingdom to New Zealand.

Despite its geographical situation, the acquisition of overseas dependencies in the South Pacific, and the ethnic kinship of the Maori and the Polynesian peoples, New Zealand's present identity as a South Pacific country was slow in developing for a number of reasons. Culturally, New Zealand has been closer to Western Europe than to the Pacific. For many years almost all of New Zealand's exports went to the United Kingdom. Politically, New Zealand's outlook was oriented towards Europe and, more recently, South-east Asia. Also the Pacific Islands were, and in some cases still are, administered by other countries.

But during the 1960s there was a dramatic emergence of new nations in the South Pacific. New Zealand led this development with moves in its own territories.

In Western Samoa, which had become a United Nations Trust Territory administered by New Zealand, political and constitutional development was carried forward in accordance with the wishes of the Samoan people. This culminated in the establishment of the independent State of Western Samoa on 1 January 1962. The Cook Islands voted under United Nations supervision in 1965 to become a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Niue achieved a similar status in an act of self-determination in 1974. Under their respective constitutions the Cook Islands and Niue governments have full legislative and executive competence over all their affairs. The constitutional relationship provides for the exercise by New Zealand of certain responsibilities for the defence and external relations of the Cook Islands and Niue (in the former case, in consultation with the Cook Islands Premier). This does not confer upon the New Zealand Government any rights of control: the Cook Islands and Niue governments retain legislative and executive powers in these fields as in all other matters.

The relationship between the Cook Islands and New Zealand was elaborated in the 1973 Exchange of Letters between the then New Zealand Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Norman Kirk, and the Premier of the Cook Islands, Sir Albert Henry. The Prime Minister's letter described the relationship as “one of partnership, freely entered into and freely maintained”. The central features of the partnership are common citizenship and the same head of state. The Cook Islands can at any time amend its constitution to end the “free association” status in favour of complete independence. These points apply equally to the relationship with Niue.

The Cook Islands and Niue not only have full constitutional capacity to conduct their own external relations and to enter directly into international arrangements and agreements, but they also in fact directly conduct certain aspects of their external relations. Their capacity to do so is limited only by the extent to which the governments of other states will accord them recognition and deal with them. In practice, the Cook Islands and Niue have participated on an equal basis with sovereign states in the South Pacific. They are members of the South Pacific Forum, the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC), the South Pacific Commission, and the Forum Fisheries Agency. They have associate membership of ESCAP, and the Cook Islands has joined the Asian Development Bank. The Cook Islands has recently concluded on a bilateral basis with the United States a maritime boundary delimitation treaty and it has applied to accede to the Lome Convention.

Tokelau is still included within the boundaries of New Zealand and is administered under the authority of the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 and its amendments. Tokelauans are New Zealand citizens.

In accordance with United Nations resolutions on non-self-governing territories, New Zealand has committed itself to assisting Tokelau towards a greater degree of self-government and economic self-sufficiency. New Zealand has stated that it will be guided by the wishes of the Tokelauan people regarding political developments in the territory and the pace at which greater self-determination is introduced.

The developments in New Zealand's territories are part of a wider pattern of political evolution in the region. In 1968 Nauru became an independent republic; in 1970 Fiji became independent; and in the same year Tonga rejoined the Commonwealth. In 1975 Papua New Guinea became fully independent after being self-governing since December 1973.In 1978 the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu (formerly the Ellice Islands) became independent. Kiribati (formerly the Gilbert Islands) attained independence in 1979, and Vanuatu (formerly the New Hebrides) in 1980.

It is natural that New Zealand and its South Pacific neighbours should have become very closely associated. One important reason has been the movement of Pacific peoples into New Zealand. Cook Islanders, Niueans, and Tokelauans are New Zealand citizens and move freely back and forth. New Zealand's historical association with Western Samoa, which is reflected in the Treaty of Friendship signed in August 1962, and its close association with the Kingdom of Tonga, have resulted in a flow of immigrants and visitors from both countries.

New Zealand has also played an active role in building up regional co-operation in the South Pacific. A major step in this direction was the creation of the South Pacific Forum, which now comprises the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, Tonga, Western Samoa, the Cook Islands, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Vanuatu, together with Australia, the Federated States of Micronesia, and New Zealand as observers. The first session comprising 5 of the present island members (Fiji, Nauru, Tonga, Western Samoa, and the Cook Islands), as well as Australia and New Zealand, met at the invitation of New Zealand, at Wellington in August 1971. Since then meetings have been held in Canberra (Australia), Suva (Fiji), Apia (Western Samoa), Rarotonga (Cook Islands), Nuku'alofa (Tonga), Nauru, Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea), Niue, Honiara (Solomon Islands), and Tarawa (Kiribati).

The South Pacific Forum provides the opportunity for the leaders of the South Pacific states to discuss common problems, exchange views, consider priorities, and plan programmes for mutual and regional benefit. The topics considered include such matters as regional trade, shipping, civil aviation, telecommunications, education, the law of the sea, fishing, disaster relief, and nuclear testing.

At the Canberra session of the South Pacific Forum in 1972 members agreed to establish the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) to deal with trade and related matters. The main purpose of the SPEC is to advise Forum members on ways of promoting regional trade and free trade among Island members and to encourage collaboration in areas such as regional transport which will assist the economic development of the Island members. The headquarters of the SPEC are in Suva, Fiji.

At the Niue session of the South Pacific Forum in 1978 members agreed to set up the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, which is an organisation designed to facilitate the rational utilisation and conservation of the region's marine resources. The headquarters of the Agency are in Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Recognising that the development of the South Pacific island countries was largely dependent on the existence of regular and reliable shipping services, the governments of the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Western Samoa established the Pacific Forum Line (PFL) in 1977. Subsequently the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu joined the Pacific Forum Line while both Australia and Niue, although not shareholders, have made financial contributions to it.

The Pacific Forum Line presently charters three vessels, the Forum New Zealand, the Forum Samoa and the Fua Kavenga, owned respectively by New Zealand, Western Samoa, and Tonga. The headquarters of the line are in Apia.

The Pacific Forum Line has yet to establish its viability as a regional venture and has incurred substantial losses since it began operations in 1978. Together with other governments in the region, New Zealand has made additional contributions, amounting to $3.5 million in the 1980-81 financial year, to help the line overcome its financial difficulties. Despite these difficulties the line has made an important contribution to trade and economic development in the South Pacific. Accordingly, it was agreed at a special meeting of Forum members held in New Delhi in September 1980 that the line should continue to operate and that funds would be provided to meet the line's deficits in the meantime; up to the end of 1981 these were expected to amount to $9 million.

The South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Co-operation Agreement (SPARTECA), which provides that Australia and New Zealand will grant duty-free and unrestricted access on a non-reciprocal basis for most of the products exported by the Forum island countries, was signed at the Forum meeting held in Tarawa in July 1980. The agreement has since been ratified by New Zealand and a number of other Forum countries and entered into force for these countries on 1 January 1981. SPARTECA also includes provisions relating to economic, commercial, and technical co-operation, aimed at enhancing the export capabilities of the Forum island countries. A Regional Committee on Trade will be set up under the agreement to review its operation regularly.

The South Pacific Commission, created in 1947 by the Canberra Agreement of which New Zealand is a signatory, is the other major regional body. Representatives from 27 governments and territorial administrations from within the South Pacific Commission comprise the South Pacific Conference. The Conference which meets annually decides the work programme of the Commission. Since its establishment the Commission, which is primarily a technical assistance organisation has accomplished much in promoting the economic and social welfare of the South Pacific peoples as well as in helping to build a sense of regional identity. The commission's annual budget (which totalled approximately $4.5 million in 1980) is financed for the most part from proportional contributions by participating governments—Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, France, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Western Samoa. Other member governments contribute on a voluntary basis.

The United Nations and its specialised agencies are also an important source of technical assistance in the South Pacific. The independent countries of the region are members of various UN bodies, and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has offices in Fiji and Western Samoa.

Australia—New Zealand's most comprehensive bilateral relationship is with Australia. Geographical proximity reinforces the important historical, cultural, and Commonwealth ties between the two nations that have given rise to this unusually close and mutually beneficial relationship. New Zealand established a diplomatic office in Australia in 1943, very early in its diplomatic history, and in 1944 the Canberra Pact was signed. This paved the way for a tradition of joint consultation and co-operation that reflects the interdependence of the two nations' interests and the goodwill and friendship of their peoples. In matters of foreign policy, in defence and in the economic field, the degree of co-operation also reflects the importance of each country to the other and a need for continuing close working contacts. Regular and increasingly frequent ministerial and official meetings have taken place, with a minimum of formality, to cover almost the entire range of government activity. Moreover, the two countries are bound together by innumerable personal contacts, and by institutionalised links in business, finance, education, the professions, and in nearly all fields of national activity.

New Zealand and Australia share a common foreign policy objective in acting to promote stability and development in the South Pacific and South-east Asian regions of their immediate vicinity, as well as a more general interest in co-ordinating their positions on major international political and economic questions of current concern, in the United Nations, the Commonwealth, GATT, and elsewhere. In the economic context, Australia is a major trading partner for New Zealand, Australia's largest single market for manufactured exports. Trade has significantly expanded and the two economies have become increasingly related under the New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), dating from 1965-66. In the defence field, the former ANZAC partners continue to co-operate closely, both in relation to training programmes and exercises and the provision of equipment and other supplies, and in terms of the broader issues of defence policy, especially in their common membership of ANZUS.

In 1978 the Deputy Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. B. E. Talboys, paid an extensive visit to Australia. During the visit, Mr Talboys and the Prime Minister of Australia made a joint press statement (the Nareen Declaration) which underlined the determination of both governments to co-operate and consult closely in many fields. The Nareen Declaration also provided for the establishment of an Australia-New Zealand Foundation in both countries to promote the bilateral relationship publicly.

The foundation was set up in 1978 with an annual budget of $50,000 and has sponsored, as part of its work, two studies on closer economic relations between Australia and New Zealand, a workshop on trans-Tasman migration, and a number of other research projects and publications. It has also provided financial support for cultural exchanges between Australia and New Zealand: in 1980, for example, it assisted the Impulse Dance Company on a visit to Australia and sponsored the visit to New Zealand of Australian historian, Professor Manning Clark.

On 6 August 1979 at Lusaka, during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. R. D. Muldoon, met the Australian Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Malcolm Fraser, and agreed that further investigation would be made into broad areas of economic co-operation as well as specific fields where the two countries could work more closely together. A second meeting of the two Prime Ministers took place in March 1980 when agreement was reached on a set of principles outlining the direction of future economic co-operation. Intensive investigations by officials into the development of a closer economic relationship (CER) building on, but superseding, NAFTA are continuing.

The Americas:United States—Continuing and close contact with the United States is an essential part of New Zealand's foreign policy. The United States remains New Zealand's principal security guarantor, is a major trading partner, and has an important influence on the New Zealand way of life. The two countries share a common English-speaking heritage and a friendship of long standing, both in peace and war.

Since the opening in Washington in 1941 of New Zealand's second diplomatic mission, close consultations have been held with the United States on many bilateral questions and international issues of common interest. Basic similarities in political philosophy and social and economic processes have encouraged the development of close governmental relations, which have been supported by increasing contacts, both official and non-official, across a broad range of activities.

This comprehensive bilateral relationship finds expression in political, strategic, economic, and cultural fields. Under ANZUS New Zealand looks to the United States for assistance in the maintenance of its national and regional security. In turn, where national interests coincide, New Zealand is able to offer the United States active support for constructive international and regional diplomatic efforts. On the economic side, the United States is one of New Zealand's major trading partners. For some products, notably beef, it is this countries largest export market. Regular intergovernmental consultations are held to review the trading relationship. Programmes for scientific and technical co-operation, and academic and cultural exchanges, serve to maintain an awareness of New Zealand in the United States and to promote a vigorous and beneficial interchange of ideas and experience.

Canada—With a common British heritage and long association through the Commonwealth, New Zealand and Canada have traditionally enjoyed a close and easy relationship. Since New Zealand established diplomatic representation in Canada in 1942, the association has been marked by ministerial and official exchanges in many fields in which the two countries' shared democratic traditions and similar attitudes have provided a strong basis for bilateral consultation and co-operation. Similarly, in the international field, and particularly in Commonwealth and United Nations contexts, New Zealand and Canada have a sound record of co-operation. New Zealand's particular interest and involvement in the South Pacific and Canada's in the Caribbean, have provided a basis for the exchange of experience, and both countries take a close interest in developments within the Pacific Basin. The visits by the then Deputy Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. B. E. Talboys, to Canada in 1980 and 1981 provided a valuable opportunity to review the relationship at the highest level.

The new trade and economic co-operation agreement concluded in September 1981 provides the basic framework upon which trade and economic relations between the two countries will be developed in future. The 1981 agreement retains the Customs tariff rates currently applying to goods traded between the two countries and, in addition, makes provision for regular consultations with the objective of encouraging a further expansion of trade and economic and technological co-operation. Canada remains one of New Zealand's important trading partners, being at present the second largest market for New Zealand beef and veal.

Caribbean and Latin America—Relations with the Caribbean centre on mutual Commonwealth interests and a useful export trade, largely in dairy products and meat. Since 1974 the New Zealand High Commissioner in Ottawa has been cross-accredited to Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Barbados, and Guyana. New Zealand has given technical assistance to these four Commonwealth countries and to the multilateral Caribbean Development Bank under a modest aid programme. Resident representation, a trade commission, in Trinidad and Tobago, was established in 1958, but closed early in 1982 because of the decline in the proportion of New Zealand's exports going to the Caribbean.

Latin America is a region of increasing importance for New Zealand. Relations with the region, limited in the past by geographical orientation and linguistic and cultural differences, developed rapidly in the 1970s. In 1972 the New Zealand Government opened diplomatic missions in Chile and Peru, primarily to support an expanding trade in dairy products with these countries. By cross-accreditation, diplomatic relations have since been established with Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The official visit to Mexico in 1980 by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. R. D. Muldoon, and a high-level economic mission has led to a rapid expansion of economic and political relations with that country. It is hoped that a resident diplomatic mission will be opened in Mexico City in 1982 or 1983.

Trade in dairy products, meat, and agricultural technology from New Zealand to Latin America has increased steadily, the principal trading partners in these commodities being Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Agriculture is the main field of co-operation, and New Zealand maintains a modest but successful pasture and livestock development project (due to be completed in mid 1982) under its aid programme in the highlands of Peru. Other interests shared with Latin American countries include Antarctica, the law of the sea, and alternative and renewable sources of energy.

UNITED NATIONS—New Zealand was a founder member of the United Nations, and since the organisation's inception on 24 October 1945 successive governments of this country have strongly supported the development of the UN as a major instrument for maintaining peace and security, for developing friendly relations among countries, for promoting international co-operation aimed at solving economic and social problems, and for ensuring respect for human rights. As a consequence, New Zealand has played an active and prominent role in the UN system.

With the expanding work within the UN's six main organs (the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Justice), the increase in UN related bodies, and the growth in the range and complexity of functions undertaken by the specialised agencies, New Zealand has had to adopt a more selective approach, concentrating its efforts on areas where it can play a useful and productive role and where matters of particular relevance are involved.

General Assembly—The New Zealand delegation to the 36th session of the General Assembly, held from 15 September to late December 1981, was led by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The session discussions centred on recent events concerning Afghanistan, Kampuchea, the Middle East, global economic issues, Namibia, apartheid, refugees, arms control and disarmament, and human rights. In these areas New Zealand sought to make constructive contributions in either supporting, co-sponsoring or speaking in favour of resolutions which would help to remove international tension, establish economic and political justice for the deprived, and provide humanitarian relief or development assistance to the needy.

In addition, New Zealand, as outlined below, took an active part in discussions on these and other international issues in other UN forums.

Arms Control, Disarmament, Peacekeeping—When the Inhumane Weapons Convention opened for signature in New York on 10 April 1981, New Zealand was among the countries which signed. It has also been a member of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Second Special Session on Disarmament, which is scheduled to take place at New York in May and June 1982. At the 36th session of the General Assembly, New Zealand co-sponsored a number of resolutions dealing with arms control and disarmament, including a resolution calling for the implementation of a comprehensive nuclear test ban. The need for progress in this area of arms control and the responsibility of the nuclear powers to resume their negotiations were stressed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in his speech to the General Assembly.

Support also continued for UN peacekeeping operations: four New Zealand officers currently serve in the Middle East with the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organisation; and New Zealand's financial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations in 1981 totalled $530,000.

International Economic and Development Activity—During 1981 North-South issues were a feature of almost all aspects of international economic activity. While at times the focus lay outside the direct ambit of the United Nations (e.g. the economic summits in Ottawa and Cancun and the Commonwealth heads of government meeting in Melbourne), attention in the United Nations context focused on the Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy held in Nairobi in August 1981 and on the Conference on the Least Developed Countries in Paris in September 1981. New Zealand participated in both conferences. On development issues, New Zealand stressed the special requirements of the South Pacific Island countries, many of which are not represented at the United Nations. It also welcomed increased assistance to the South Pacific from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), to which the Government contributed $1.2 million in 1981.

International Legal Issues—The third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea held two sessions in 1981, at which New Zealand continued its active participation in this international concern. The first session took place in New York in March, and the second in Geneva during August, both against the background of a United States decision not to allow the almost completed negotiations to conclude until that country's new administration had completed its own law of the sea policy review. Nevertheless the conference made some significant progress. At the August session the remaining major substantive issue was resolved, the sites for the proposed International Seabed Authority and Law of the Sea Disputes Tribunal were determined, and it was decided to give formal status to the Draft Law of the Sea Convention. A firm timetable was also established for what is intended to be the conference's final working session in March/April 1982.

Humanitarian Issues—A continuing concern in international measures to find solutions to the problem of the rapidly expanding numbers of refugees led to New Zealand's working closely with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in resettling Indochinese refugees. In 1981 the Government made a regular annual contribution of $100,000 to the UNHCR, and in addition provided $100,000 for refugee relief in Kampuchea, attended the International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa, gave $200,000 to UNHCR for African refugee relief, and contributed $50,000 to UNHCR for Afghan refugees in Pakistan. The Government also made a $120,000 voluntary contribution to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). In addition, part of the $700,000 annual contribution made by this country to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) goes towards refugee relief.

New Zealand also continues to be concerned to ensure that measures taken within the UN to eliminate discrimination against women are fully implemented. In this regard, New Zealand participates fully in the activities of the UN Decade for Women and gives full support to those practical aspects of the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the Decade established at the mid-Decade Conference in Copenhagen in July 1980. Three contributions, each of $10,000, have been made to a voluntary fund established by the UN to finance programmes and projects benefiting women in developing countries.

Specialised Agencies—The UN system encompasses 15 specialised and intergovernmental agencies which have been independently established with their own intergovernmental organs, secretariats, and budgets. The advantage of membership of these agencies is participation in the co-ordination and standardisation of international systems to handle and advance technical, financial, and development matters. New Zealand is a member of all fifteen, and its contributions to the individual agencies are generally based on the scale of assessment used by the UN organisation.

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)—As an agricultural nation and founding member, New Zealand has taken a particularly active part in the FAO work to promote international food security. New Zealand in 1981 was elected for the fifth time as an FAO Council member. The country's assessed contribution for 1981 was US$432,389.

General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)—New Zealand is a founder member of GATT, which is the only multilateral instrument that lays down agreed rules for international trade. As such, it comprises a contractual balance of trade rules and obligations. The latest round of GATT multilateral trade negotiations (the “Tokyo Round” 1973-79) resulted in a number of agreements on the reduction of tariff barriers and non-tariff trade restrictions.

The GATT framework remains a cornerstone of New Zealand's trading policy despite an imbalance in its treatment of agricultural trade. In 1981 much of the Government's effort in GATT was concentrated on ways of correcting this.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—New Zealand has been a member of the IAEA since 1957 and, although not a member of the Board of Governors, has customarily attended the annual conference of the Agency in Vienna in September. The great value in membership of this Agency is in the information provided by the IAEA on a range of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including the use of isotopes in agriculture and industry. In 1981 the New Zealand contribution to the Agency budget was $244,691.

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO)—New Zealand makes a regular contribution to IMCO, which establishes international standards for maritime activities. Our 1981 assessment was US$11,137.

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)—Established in 1944, ICAO promotes international discussion of civil aviation questions, particularly in the safety, technical, economic, and regulatory fields. Through its membership of the Organisation New Zealand has been able to join with other small countries in expressing its views on current aviation issues and, in this regard, is regularly represented at ICAO's regional and international meetings.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)—New Zealand supports the ILO's concern to protect the basic dignities and rights of the wage earners and also the Organisation's endeavours on a bipartite basis to frame international conventions to improve working and living conditions. New Zealand is a member of the working group for restructuring the ILO. In 1981 its assessed contribution was US$259,099.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)—Membership of the ITU enables New Zealand to work to promote the most rational and efficient operation of worldwide telecommunications services. New Zealand's assessed contribution for 1981 was US$211,924.

Universal Postal Union (UPU)—As an island nation in the South Pacific, New Zealand's membership of the UPU is essential to facilitate the efficient international movement of mails to and from this country. New Zealand's 1981 assessed contribution was US$171,065.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)–New Zealand continues to be closely involved with the work of UNESCO. In addition, it is represented on the executive board and also has a permanent delegate, based at the New Zealand Embassy in Paris. In 1981 New Zealand's assessed contribution was US$546,742.

World Health Organisation (WHO)—New Zealand takes an active part in the work of WHO, and a New Zealander is currently serving on the Executive Board. New Zealand's assessed contribution for 1981 was US$562,295.

World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)—The WMO provides a network for exchanging information on international weather systems. In 1981 New Zealand's assessed contribution was US$100,042.

International Banking and Finance Agencies under the aegis of the UN—Membership of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, also referred to as the “World Bank”), the International Monetary Fund, and the International Finance Corporation enables New Zealand to participate in efforts to increase the stability of international trade and promote the economic development of less developed countries. In the year ended 31 March 1981 New Zealand contributed $2.75 million to the International Development Association, the “soft loan” arm of the IBRD. Membership of these international financial agencies also serves to strengthen New Zealand's own economic position by providing access to financial information and to varied sources of funding for capital projects or for balance of payments purposes.

This country is also a member of one of the regional development banks of the UN—the Asian Development Bank—which fosters economic growth and co-operation in the Asia-Pacific region.

Contributions to UN—Contributions are based on capacity to pay, and New Zealand's assessed contribution rate for the 1980-82 biennium of 0.27 percent, under a UN budget of US$1,247,793,200, required the country to pay US$1,542,455 as its 1981 membership cost.

Contributions to the bodies established by the UN are on a voluntary basis. New Zealand's contributions for the year 1980-81 are shown in the sub-section dealing with multilateral aid on a later page of this section. Along with many other countries New Zealand has been concerned about the rapidly rising operating and programme costs of the UN, its bodies, and the specialised and intergovernmental agencies. Accordingly, in the UN's Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary) and at the general meetings of the specialised agencies, New Zealand has sought to promote trim and efficient financial management through supporting or proposing the introduction of better budgeting techniques, the elimination of defunct programmes, applying savings made elsewhere to more effective programmes, and restraining the introduction of new institutions to an absolute minimum.

DEFENCE POLICIES—After the Second World War the international scene was clouded for many years by the Cold War. New Zealand was affected by the tensions of the period and took steps to provide for its defence in concert with its allies. As a country with limited resources, New Zealand alone could not expect to defend its extensive but isolated territory against aggression by any militarily significant power. It therefore supported efforts to give effect to the provisions of the United Nations Charter which looked to the creation of a universal system of collective security. In the meantime it accepted that it should act in concert with like-minded countries in order to strengthen its security in its own region.

The Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea in late 1978 has created new tensions in South-east Asia. The interests of all countries involved, however, would seem to rule out the possibility of a wider conflict, at least in the immediate future. United States policy continues to emphasise that primary responsibility for long-term stability in South-east Asia rests with the countries of the area. These countries have taken this responsibility seriously. Although no new defence alliances have been established, political and economic co-operation and collaboration on a regional basis, particularly among the members of ASEAN, have grown. While security considerations are important, New Zealand's relations with the countries of the region now encompass a full range of economic and political activities.

By means of training programmes, exercises, staff exchanges, and the provision of training facilities under its Defence Mutual Assistance Programme, New Zealand co-operates with several countries in the South Pacific and South-east Asia in building up one another's defence capabilities, thereby contributing to regional security. The central objective for New Zealand is the maintenance of stability and peaceful development in the South Pacific, New Zealand's immediate strategic neighbourhood.

ANZUS—There is no overt military threat to New Zealand's security. Should a threat develop, New Zealand would be able to turn for assistance to its partners in the ANZUS Pact. The tri-partite security treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States came into force on 29 April 1952.

ANZUS should be seen as a durable expression of a strongly-based community of interest and attitude among the three democracies that are parties to it. The close relationship among the three countries is reflected in the informality and ease of their consultation under the ANZUS Treaty. Meetings of the ANZUS Council, which consists of the foreign ministers of the treaty partners, are generally held once a year.

The Five Power Defence Arrangements—The basis of the Five Power Defence Arrangements is not a formal treaty but a statement incorporated in the communique of the meeting of Ministers of the five powers (Britain, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, and New Zealand) held in London in April 1971. At that meeting the Ministers declared, in relation to the external defence of Malaysia and Singapore, “that in the event of any form of armed attack externally organised or supported or the threat of such attack against Malaysia or Singapore, their governments would immediately consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in relation to such attack or threat”.

Under these arrangements the Australian Government maintains an RAAF presence in Malaysia, while the New Zealand Government maintains a contingent in Singapore (known as New Zealand Force South-east Asia).

The New Zealand Government has decided that, although the Singapore Government has indicated that the Force is welcome to remain, as a matter of principle the Force should return home to New Zealand as soon as practicable. No date has been set however.

Manila Treaty—Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States signed the South-east Asia Collective Defence Treaty, or the Manila Treaty, on 8 September 1954. Although the South-east Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO), established under the treaty, was phased out in 1977 the treaty was not abrogated.

Defence Policy Review—In 1978 the New Zealand Government completed a comprehensive review of defence policy objectives. These as summarised in the Defence Review White Paper are to:

  • Develop our defence activities with emphasis on the preparedness to respond to low-key emergencies in our own region;

  • Provide practical assistance to the governments of the South Pacific if required;

  • Further strengthen relationships within ANZUS;

  • Work towards an enhanced combined defence capability with Australia, including defence supply;

  • Develop, as far as limited resources permit, mutually beneficial military training and exchange programmes with countries of the Pacific and (to a degree) South-east Asia;

  • Supply defence capabilities in support of the needs of New Zealand society.

NEW ZEALAND'S AID AND OTHER RESOURCES FLOWS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES—During 1980-81 Official Development Assistance (ODA) amounted to $62.3 million (0.26 percent of estimated GNP), compared with the previous year's figure of $55.5 million. Bilateral and regional assistance totalled $46.1 million, with $14.7 million going to multilateral agencies.

The following is a summary of 1980-81 ODA expenditure:

Vote: Foreign Affairs$(000)
Vote: Transport
    Pacific civil aviation and meteorological services484
Vote: Permanent Legislative Authority
    Asian Development Bank: World Bank capital contribution942

Almost all of New Zealand's ODA is administered by the External Aid Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Geographic distribution of the 1980-81 assistance to developing countries followed the pattern of previous years, with more than half going to bilateral and regional programmes in the South Pacific. The ASEAN group of countries (Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines) was the second region of bilateral aid concentration. The total programme involves the skills and experience of hundreds of New Zealanders, together with capital and technical back-up from New Zealand.

Government assistance to voluntary agencies in 1980-81 amounted to $384,819—a 21 percent increase on the previous year's figure ($315,924). This comprised the annual grant to Volunteer Service Abroad (VSA) and disbursements under the Voluntary Agency Support Scheme (VASS). Under VASS the Government provides a subsidy for approved projects undertaken by New Zealand non-governmental agencies in developing countries.

The total transfer of resources from New Zealand to developing countries in the calendar year 1980, as reported to the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD in Paris, was estimated (with some margin of allowance for unconfirmed data) at $109.22 million. This figure included private export credits and direct investment by New Zealand interests ($26.16 million) and transfers by New Zealand voluntary agencies ($6.96 million).

Bilateral ODA 1980-81—Under its bilateral (government-to-government) aid programmes, New Zealand responds to the development priorities established by the developing countries themselves, mainly in the South Pacific and South-east Asia. Project aid is the main form of assistance. Hundreds of projects are involved, and New Zealand inputs of expertise and/or material and capital resources are often committed for several years on end.

The main purpose of New Zealand's bilateral assistance is to help promote the economic and social development of the recipient countries by expanding their capabilities to raise the living standards of their peoples. Emphasis is placed on productive sector development such as livestock and pasture improvement programmes, assistance with crops, and the development of forestry, fisheries, and energy resources. Adviser's assignments vary from a few weeks to several years. In 1980-81 the bilateral aid programme had about 120 long-term (2 years or more) advisers in the field, and several hundred on short-term assignments. The transfer of New Zealand expertise to developing countries is supplemented by the provision of bilateral aid study and training awards. In 1980-81 there were about 650 students in New Zealand and over 300 at “third country” institutions. The training is linked with specific requirements in the recipient countries. Bilateral assistance is complemented in the South Pacific and South-east Asia by programmes promoting regional development co-operation, particularly in the fields of forestry, education, livestock improvement, transport, communications, and trade promotion. Bilateral assistance also includes emergency and distress relief.

The following country breakdown of bilateral ODA in 1980-81 shows the direction and scope of New Zealand assistance:

    Cook Islands9,043,095
    Papua New Guinea2,906,692
    Solomon Islands666,498
    Western Samoa4,250,150
    Head of Mission Fund145,979
              Total Pacific33,496,966
South and South-east Asia
        Head of Mission Fund32,080
Africa and Middle EastNZ$
    Sierra Leone13,908
              Total Africa and Middle East1,270,775
Latin America
    Head of Mission Fund5,050
              Total Latin America403,883
              Total Caribbean110,451
Other AsianNZ$
* This figure covers study and training programmes and awards other than those incorporated in the individual Pacific and Asian country disbursements shown under Bilateral Aid.
    Korea (South)36,229
    Sri Lanka54,476
    Head of Mission Fund39,739
              Total Asia9,140,236
Other Bilateral ProgrammesNZ$
    Study and training awards*986,572
    Emergency and distress relief231,314
    Voluntary agencies384,819
    Unallocated administration35,378
              Total other1,693,226
              Total bilateral aid46,115,537

Multilateral ODA 1980-81—The multilateral programme enables New Zealand to make a contribution to development work which would usually be beyond the scope of the bilateral aid programme, either in terms of the scale of the projects or in their ability to help countries beyond the regions of concentration of the bilateral aid effort.

Multilateral disbursements in 1980-81 amounted to $14.7 million. A major item was the contribution of $4.5 million to the Pacific Forum Line. To a large extent the pattern of disbursement to United Nations, Commonwealth, South Pacific, and international development finance institutions and agencies followed that of the previous year.

United Nations institutionsNZ$
    United Nations Development Programme1,250,000
    United Nations Disaster Relief Office10,000
    World Food Programme887,000
    United Nations Children's Fund700,000
    United Nations Fund for Population Activities350,000
    United Nations Relief and Works Agency120,000
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)175,000
    United Nations Education Training Programme for Southern Africa16,000
    United Nations Trust Fund for Southern Africa8,000
    United Nations Trust Fund for Namibia5,000
                Total United Nations3,521,000
Commonwealth programmes
    Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation600,000
    Commonwealth Youth Programme70,000
    Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau38,326
    Zimbabwe Students Trust Fund30,000
                Total Commonwealth738,326
South Pacific institutions
    South Pacific Commission798,059
    South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation261,272
    Pacific Forum Shipping Line4,500,000
    Regional Fisheries Agency50,000
                Total South Pacific5,609,331
Development finance institutionsNZ$
    International Development Association (IDA)—4th Replenishment712,000
    International Development Association (IDA)—5th Replenishment1,941,000
    International Development Association (IDA)—6th Replenishment100,000
    Asian Development Bank (ADB)—Asian Development Fund1,100,000
    Asian Development Bank (ADB)—Technical Assistance Special Fund (TASF)75,000
    Caribbean Development Bank100,000
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)—Oil subsidy account300,000
                Total development finance4,328,000
Other contributions
    International Rice Research Institute25,000
    International Planned Parenthood Fund250,000
    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)25,000
    Miscellaneous multilateral/regional institutions20,207
    Refugee relief250,000
                Total other570,207
                Total multilateral aid14,766,864

THE CONSTITUTION OF NEW ZEALAND: Introduction—The history of the present constitution dates back to the declaration of British sovereignty in 1840. By the Treaty of Waitangi, certain Maori chiefs ceded their sovereignty to that of the British Crown in exchange for guarantees contained in the Treaty. Territory not included in the Treaty was claimed on the ground of discovery. Somewhat surprisingly, the constitution was, and is, wholly Anglo-Saxon in its origin and took no account of Maori custom and usage.

From 1840 until the grant of responsible government in 1856 the colony was subject to gubernatorial rule. Attempts to persuade the Imperial government to establish representative institutions bore fruit in 1846 with the enactment of a Constitution Act (never fully implemented) superseded by a further Constitution Act in 1852 which created a bicameral General Assembly with limited powers and 6 provinces each with its own executive and unicameral legislature or provincial council. The system of government was unitary however—the General Assembly could legislate in areas in which the provinces had jurisdiction and could amend or annul provincial ordinances.

The 1852 Act constituted the governor as part of the General Assembly with the power to summon, prorogue, and dissolve it and to assent or refuse the assent to legislation passed by it, but the actual form of the executive government was omitted from the Act and left to the will of the governors and the Colonial Office. Moreover, the Act was silent about the appointment and tenure of the judges, and matters normally contained in a constitutional document were left to be decided by ordinary legislation.

Amendments to the 1852 Act stemming from political development reflect New Zealand's transition from colonial to fully-independent status within the period 1840-1974. Contemporary concern about the constitution centres on the operation of, and the balance between, the legislature and the executive rather than in the broader context of the merits of monarchy or republic. The result of the 1978 General Election gave impetus to the argument for a system of proportional representation in elections for members of Parliament and it seems likely that New Zealanders will concern themselves for some time with the fine tuning of existing political institutions rather than with the system itself.

The Constitution—The constitution is not a single written instrument granted to, or by, the people but a miscellany of statutory and customary law welded together and given coherence by the operation and observance of formal unwritten rules known as the conventions. The constitutional framework is erected on, and maintained by, the ordinary law as opposed to a supreme or basic law such as that found in most jurisdictions.

Certain statutes and statute-derived law have important constitutional significance. Among the more important are:

Constitution Act 1852—creation of Parliament;

Bill of Rights 1688;

Habeas Corpus Act 1679;

Electoral Act 1956—election of members of Parliament;

Legislature Act 1908—declaration of powers, privileges of Parliament;

Economic Stabilisation Act 1948—wide-ranging powers of the Government to affect socioeconomic activity;

Public Safety Conservation Act 1932—states of emergency, powers of executive;

Letters Patent and Instructions 1917-1919—exercise of prerogative powers by Governor-General.

Such laws exist by force of the ordinary legislative process because of the basic canon of the legislative primacy of Parliament—the legal capacity of the legislature to make and unmake laws and the self-imposed collateral incapacity of any court or forum to impeach the validity of the legislature's exercise of that power when expressed as an Act of Parliament.

Although not as important in New Zealand as they are in the United Kingdom, the personal, i.e., prerogative powers of the Crown, almost all of which are exercisable by the Governor-General, remain part of constitutional law. A prerogative power may be abrogated only by statute.

On the foregoing basis, it is open to Parliament to change or abolish the constitutional framework on which it rests its primacy, and for a later Parliament to reverse that change, one aspect of the rule being that one Parliament cannot bind its successors. Consequently, the five provisions of the Electoral Act are entrenched by section 189 in a political, rather than a strict legal, sense. The section could not act as a bar to the repeal of itself by simple majority, and thereafter the repeal or amendment of one or more of the five sections, also by simple majority.

On paper, major changes to the constitutional framework could be effected with comparative ease and speed, but constitutional history shows that those changes which have been made reflected shifts in social or political attitudes already evident.

PARLIAMENT AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES—The Constitution Act created a bicameral General Assembly empowered to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of New Zealand. Legislative competence was restricted, e.g., laws enacted were not to be repugnant to those of England; laws did not have extra-territorial effect; certain laws needed the Sovereign's assent; and all were subject to Royal disallowance. It was only with the passage of the Constitution Amendment Act 1947 (U.K.) and the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 (N.Z.) that the New Zealand Parliament obtained plenary legislative power, any residual doubts on the matter having been removed by a further amendment to the 1852 Act in 1973.

Until 1950, Parliament consisted of the Governor-General, the Legislative Council, and the House of Representatives. Despite repeated proposals for reform the council remained an appointive chamber, and the decline in its capacity as a curb on the lower House and the Government was accelerated by the partisan nature of the appointments made. Each ministry sought to ensure that its supporters were in a majority. The council's demise was assured when the National Party, which had campaigned for abolition, was returned as the Government in the 1949 General Election. The necessary legislation was passed by both Houses and the council ceased to exist on 1 January 1951. Although it was intended that the council should be replaced by an elected second chamber nothing came of the idea and it is highly unlikely that New Zealand will revert to bicameralism.

Parliament now consists of the Governor-General (the Queen when resident in New Zealand), and the 92-member House of Representatives. The role of the Governor-General, as part of the General Assembly, is purely formal and for all practical purposes “Parliament” is synonymous with “House of Representatives”.

The principal functions of Parliament are to enact laws, supervise the Government's administration, vote supply, provide a government, and redress grievances by way of petition.

The Constitution Act forbids the House to allocate public funds for any purpose unless first recommended by the Governor-General. Although the reasons for this provision are historic, it is also used by governments to defeat legislation brought forward by individual members which ministers are unwilling to support or adopt. On the other hand, the law forbids the Crown to tax citizens without express parliamentary approval.

Constitutional law includes the law and custom of Parliament, itself derived from a variety of sources. The Bill of Rights saves any proceeding in Parliament from being questioned in any forum, other than the House itself, and the Legislature Act 1908 provides that the powers, privileges, rights, and immunities of the House (and its committees and members) are those possessed by the British House of Commons on 1 January 1865. One aspect of the powers of the House is the ability to make rules for the conduct of its business. Most of these are contained in the Standing Orders although some are made on a sessional, and others on an ad hoc, basis. The traditional three readings given to a bill are part of Standing Orders, but it is open to the House to alter or suspend its rules at any time. The House has retained the right to punish breaches of its privileges, whether by members or citizens, from which there is no appeal (although the courts could be asked to decide whether the privilege claimed is one recognised by law).

Perhaps the most important privilege of the House is that of freedom of speech, guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, and claimed by the Speaker upon confirmation in his office by the Governor-General.

The House meets, as Parliament, in answer to a summons from the Governor-General. Sessions of Parliament are marked by a formal opening (the Government's legislative programme is described in the Speech from the Throne read by the Governor-General) and a closing prorogation by proclamation. Unless the House, by resolution made under the authority of the Legislature Act (1977 Amendment), carries forward business to the next session, all business before the House on prorogation lapses. Parliament is dissolved by the Governor-General rather than have it expire by efflux of time.

Because control of the House's business lies with the Government, many of the rules and customs of the House are designed to ensure that members of the House are given a full opportunity to debate any aspect of a government's proposals. Control of the debates and the conduct of members is vested in the Speaker, whose rulings are binding unless overturned by the House.

Detailed scrutiny of legislation and facets of executive activity, e.g., expenditure of public money, is carried out by select committees consisting of a small number of members, usually 7, which report their findings and recommendations to the House. Since 1980, all government bills stand referred to a select committee unless certified by the Speaker as “money bills”. The change was recommended by the Standing Orders Committee (see Parliamentary paper I. 14,1979). This is intended to enable the public and interested bodies to make submissions, in the expectation that better laws will result.

In the context of the party system, it is very unlikely that the Opposition would be in a position to bring down a government by means of a no-confidence vote—there is one recorded instance of a successful no-confidence vote in the history of the New Zealand Parliament, and that was before the development of the party system as it is now. The strength of the parties, especially that of the National and Labour Parties, is so great that many of the rules and customs of the House are based on there being two parties only in the House. The presence of third party members, as at present, has raised a number of problems in relation to speaking times, membership of select committees, and so forth.

Because of the growth of a largely two-party system and the importance that the parties have assumed within the political framework, the party caucus (a meeting of each party's members of Parliament in closed session at regular intervals, once a week when Parliament is in session) is a primary means of developing policies and tactics. Caucus committees of both the National and Labour Parties travel around the country frequently, investigating issues of interest or concern to them. Although the existence of the caucuses and their committees is not recognised by the law, indirect recognition has been given, e.g., travelling allowances are payable to members when travelling as members of a caucus committee.

In the exercise of their functions and powers, the Speaker and the Chairman of Committees are assisted by permanent officials, headed by the Clerk of the House, charged with the administration of the House and the provision of advice on parliamentary law and custom.

The procedure for fixing the salaries and allowances of members and ministers was changed in 1977. Responsibility now rests with the Higher Salaries Commission established by the Act of the same name.

The following table lists the salaries payable from 10 November 1981.

OfficeYearly Rate of Salary Payable On and After 10 November 1981
Members of the Executive$
Prime Minister79,717
Deputy Prime Minister62,146
Each Minister of the Crown holding a portfolio or portfolios (other than the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister)55,115
Each Minister of the Crown without portfolio44,572
Each Parliamentary Under-Secretary42,814
Officers of the House of Representatives 
Speaker of the House of Representatives51,161
Chairman of Committees of the House of Representatives44,134
Leader and Deputy of the Official Opposition$
Leader of the Official Opposition55,115
Deputy Leader of the Official Opposition42,814
Chief Government Whip39,300
Chief Opposition Whip39,300
Junior Government Whip36,665
Junior Opposition Whip36,665
Members of the House of Representatives 
Each member of the House of Representatives to whom the foregoing provisions of this Schedule do not apply32,271

The following allowances are also paid:

OfficeYearly Rate of Expenses Allowance
Prime Minister14,000
Deputy Prime Minister6,000
Each Minister of the Crown holding a portfolio or portfolios (other than the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister)5,750
Each Minister of the Crown without portfolio4,500
Each Parliamentary Under-Secretary4,500
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Additional)5,000
(Additional allowance as Speaker; plus electorate allowance abated by one-third of the appropriate rate, and day allowance)4,600
Chairman of Committees2,500
(Additional allowance as Chairman plus electorate allowance abated by one-third of the appropriate rate, and day allowance)2,700
Leader of the Opposition5,750
(Plus house and travelling allowances) 
Deputy Leader of the Opposition2,500
(Plus additional allowance as Deputy and electorate, night, and day allowances at appropriate rates)2,250
(Plus electorate, day, and night allowances at appropriate rates) 

The rate at which an electorate allowance is paid depends on the nature of each member's electorate, e.g., urban, rural, or semi-rural, and ranges from $4,500 to $9,250.

A day allowance of $12 is payable where indicated for each day on which a member attends a sitting of Parliament or a committee, and a night allowance of $26 for each night a member requires overnight accommodation away from home by reason of such attendance.

In addition to the foregoing allowances, a once-only setting up allowance is paid to members elected for the first time. The current rate is $350.

The Crown and the Governor-General—Constitutional law vests the executive power in the Crown, i.e., the Monarch acting through, or with the advice of, responsible ministers. Primarily because of political developments within the British Empire and, later, the Commonwealth, changes in the substantive law have left the constitutional position, but not the role, of the Monarch in some doubt. By virtue of the Royal Titles Act 1974, the present Monarch is styled “. . . Elizabeth the Second . . . Queen of New Zealand . . .” which, taken together with changes made to the Constitution Act in 1973, tend to suggest that the Queen of New Zealand is a separate legal entity from that of the United Kingdom, a suggestion which has found support in a 1976 Supreme Court decision. If such is the case, English or Imperial law which was thought to be part of New Zealand's law, e.g., the Regency Act 1937-53, may have ceased to be so.

Although not a viceroy, the Governor-General (appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister for a 5-year term) may lawfully exercise most of the Royal powers and functions, whether derived from the general law or statute. The 1917 Instructions, reinforced by a strong convention, require him to accept and act on the advice of his New Zealand ministers, although a reserve power retained by the instructions would enable him to reject advice if he believed that a government was intending to act improperly or unconstitutionally. Events in Australia in 1975 have demonstrated how controversial the use of the reserve powers can be, and it is likely that a Governor-General would seek a political, rather than a legal, solution.

As part of the General Assembly, the Governor-General summons, prorogues, and dissolves Parliament, and his assent to Bills passed by the House is necessary to transform them into Acts. As the Monarch's representative, he is the head of the Executive and his participation, albeit formal in nature, is required to give legal effect to decisions made by the Government or individual ministers.

The Executive Government—The governance of New Zealand is executed by Ministers of the Crown in the name of, and on behalf of, the Monarch. The dual conventions that ministers are responsible to Parliament for their official acts and those of their officials and that the Government is responsible for its acts have been translated, indirectly, into statute. The Civil List Act 1979 provides that no person may be appointed or remain a minister or member of the Executive Council unless he is, concurrently, a member of Parliament.

Following a General Election, the leader of the party which has, or is most likely to secure, a majority of seats in the House is invited by the Governor-General to accept the office of Prime Minister and form a ministry. Although the selection process has varied between the two major parties, the respective leaders have final responsibility for the allocation of portfolios. Acting on the new Prime Minister's advice, the Governor-General appoints a number of members of Parliament as ministers with responsibility for one or more areas of government administration (portfolios), although in rare cases ministers are appointed without portfolio. In addition, a few members are appointed as parliamentary under-secretaries to assist ministers in specific areas. Under-secretaries are neither ministers nor members of the Executive Council.

The Executive Council, constituted under the 1917 Instructions, consists of the ministers, any two of whom together with the person presiding (normally the Governor-General) form a quorum. The council is the legal vehicle for the promulgation of a government's decisions which are intended to form part of the law. It is also one of the primary means whereby the Government tenders formal advice to the Governor-General.

The membership of the council at 11 December 1981, following the General Election on 28 November, became 19.

Unlike the council, the Cabinet owes its existence solely to convention. Although both institutions have the same membership (the Governor-General is a member of neither), their respective functions differ markedly. It is the Cabinet which determines or approves a government's legislative and administrative proposals and policies and co-ordinates the work of ministers.

To facilitate this process, a number of Cabinet committees have been set up, consisting of ministers whose responsibilities are related to the subject matter covered by the committees. Present committees include those dealing with economic affairs, expenditure, communications, Government works, legislation and parliamentary questions, social affairs, state services, and transport. Each committee has power, within its terms of reference, to make decisions and some are supported by interdepartmental groups of officials.

One important, feature of the Cabinet is the informality of its proceedings and their confidentiality, thus allowing for a consensus of views to emerge without the need, in most cases, to take a vote. Cabinet discussion and agreement ensures the Government's support in the House for a minister's legislative or other proposals and supports the convention of collective responsibility.

The Cabinet Office is responsible for the servicing and co-ordination of the Cabinet and its committees to ensure their smooth functioning, as well as providing liaison and advice within the interdepartmental framework. The Secretary of the Cabinet is also Clerk of the Executive Council.

The Judiciary—New Zealand has inherited the strong British tradition of an independent judiciary seen as a bulwark against unnecessary intrusion by the State in the lives of citizens. One means of maintaining that tradition is to provide superior court judges with security of tenure. Accordingly, the law provides that High Court judges are appointed “. . . during good behaviour . . .” and are removable by the Governor-General in answer to an address from the House. Moreover, the salaries of High Court judges cannot be reduced while they remain in office. High Court judges must retire at the age of 68.

As from 1 April 1980 the name of the superior court of New Zealand, hitherto known as the Supreme Court, was changed to the High Court. At the same time, magistrates were renamed District Court Judges and their courts, District Courts. Appeals from the Court of Appeal to the Privy Council were not affected by the changes made.

District Court Judges are appointed, as with High Court judges, by the Governor-General on ministerial advice and are removable by him, without the need for an address from the House, for misbehaviour or inability. Although a District Court judge's security of tenure is not as entrenched as that of a High Court judge, nevertheless, the convention against arbitrary removal ensures his independence of action in the exercise of his judicial functions.

Judicial officers of specialist courts enjoy the tenure provisions of High Court judges or District Court judges depending on the ranking of their court within the judicial structure.

New Zealand courts apply the primacy of Parliament doctrine which, in the judicial context, means that a court will not question the validity of what purports to be an Act of Parliament. However, the doctrine has never prevented them from declaring legislation made by the Executive Council, under delegated authority from Parliament, outside the powers of the council or Governor-General, as the case may be, on the grounds that, in fact, no power to make that particular piece of subordinate legislation exists.

In the constitutional context, the growth and proliferation of tribunals and other administrative bodies as an answer to the complexities of modern administration, and the increasing regulation by successive governments of socio-economic affairs, has challenged the traditional, original, and supervisory jurisdictions of the High Court. In answer to parliamentary attempts to oust or restrict the Court's jurisdiction, the superior courts of many common law countries have dusted off hitherto unused writs and remedies and adapted them to meet modern demands.

The balance between the courts and the administrative agencies has been restored, partially, by the creation in 1968 of an Administrative Division of the Supreme Court (now the High Court) to hear appeals or review the law applied by these agencies, and the institution in 1972 of a simplified procedure to obtain judicial review. Conversely, New Zealand still lacks a coherent policy towards the role and ambit of the High Court's jurisdiction in the field of administrative law.

Because the High Court lacks the capacity to declare an Act unconstitutional or beyond the scope of Parliament's powers, the High Court judges have seen their supervisory jurisdiction over administrative acts as an important means of maintaining the balance of competing interests between the citizen and the State, and have taken steps to stem any erosion of that jurisdiction.

OMBUDSMEN—The position of Parliamentary Commissioner for Investigations (Ombudsman) was created in 1962. Until 1968 the principal function of the Ombudsman was to inquire into complaints from members of the public relating to administrative decisions of Government departments and related organisations only. In 1968 his jurisdiction was extended to hospital boards and education boards and, under the Ombudsmen Act 1975, it was further extended to all other local authorities and to certain national boards and organisations. Under the 1975 Act, provision was made for the appointment of a chief ombudsman and one or more other ombudsmen, who could be permanent or temporary.

Complaints to the ombudsmen must be made in writing. Investigations are conducted in private, but an ombudsman can decide not to investigate where, for instance, the subject-matter is trivial or the complainant has not a sufficient personal interest in the subject-matter of the complaint.

Where an ombudsman forms the opinion that a complaint can be sustained he is required in the case of a Government department or Government organisation to report that opinion and any recommendation that may be made to the department or organisation concerned and to make a copy of the report available to the responsible minister. In the case of a local organisation the ombudsman is required to report the opinion formed to that organisation and to make a copy of the report available to the mayor or chairman.

An analysis of the complaints made to the Ombudsmen during the latest available year is given in the following table.

Action on ComplaintYear Ended March 1981
Declined, no jurisdiction181
Declined or discontinued620
Sustained, recommendation made55
Sustained, no recommendation made97
Not sustained592
Abandoned before investigation182
Still under investigations as at 31 March394
Total number of complaints2,121

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS—The law on elections is contained in the Electoral Act 1956 and its amendments. Responsibility for the electoral process is shared between 4 Government departments. The Post Office maintains and prints electoral rolls and the Department of Justice is responsible for the conduct of the polls, electoral policy, and legislation. The Departments of Statistics and Lands and Survey provide geographical referencing material and mapping services. Following the population census (every 5 years) the boundaries of General (formerly known as European) electorates are revised, and new boundaries come into force at the expiry of the Parliament existing when the Proclamation is issued.

To assist this revision, the Government Statistician is required to supply electoral population figures to the Surveyor-General.

The term “General electoral population” means total population with the following exceptions: Maori electoral population—a figure based on the number of adult New Zealand Maoris registered in Maori electoral districts adjusted to include children. A Maori is defined in the 1980 Amendment as “a person of the Maori race of New Zealand; and includes any descendant of such a person”:

  1. Persons residing on board any ship;

  2. Temporary guests in any guest house, hotel, or motel;

  3. Temporary residents in any defence area;

  4. Patients or inmates in any hospital or institution;

  5. Persons detained in any penal institution.

After the population figures are supplied by the Government Statistician it is then the responsibility of a Representation Commission to define new electoral districts. The commission comprises eight members. Five of these are official members; the Surveyor-General, the Government Statistician, the Chief Electoral Officer, the Director-General of the Post Office, and the Chairman of the Local Government Commission (who is without voting rights). Two are unofficial members, being persons nominated by the House of Representatives, one nominated to represent the Government and one to represent the Opposition. The eighth member is appointed, on the nomination of the official and unofficial members of the commission or a majority of them, to be the chairman of the commission. The chairman and unofficial members cease to be members on the date on which the first periodical census is taken after the date of their appointment.

The number of General electorates is based on population under a formula that allocates 25 seats to the South Island. The general electoral population of the South Island is divided by 25, and the quota thus obtained for each South Island electorate is then divided into the North Island general electoral population to give the number of electorates in the North Island.

The number of Maori seats is fixed at four.

When the boundaries have been provisionally determined, maps are prepared illustrating the proposed electoral districts, and descriptions of each electoral district are published in the New Zealand Gazette. A time limit of 1 month is given during which objections to the proposed boundaries may be lodged. These objections are then considered by the Representation Commission and a final decision is reached on boundaries which then define the new electoral districts.

All general elections and by-elections are held on a Saturday. Polling hours in all electorates are from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.

Any member of the Armed Services aged 18 years or over serving overseas is qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which he or she last resided before leaving New Zealand.

Franchise—Since September 1974, persons 18 years of age and over have had the right to vote in the election of members of the House of Representatives. (From 1893 onwards all persons aged 21 years had voting rights and the qualifying age had been lowered to 20 years in 1969.)

Registration of Electors—Registration as an elector is compulsory, although it is not compulsory to vote. To be qualified for registration as a parliamentary elector in New Zealand a person must have attained the age of 18 years and must (a) be a New Zealand citizen or a permanent resident and, (b) at some period have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least a year, and (c) except in special cases have resided continuously for 3 months or more in the electoral district in respect of which application for registration is made, and not have subsequently resided for 3 months or more in any other electoral district. Maoris and persons of part-Maori descent may elect to be included on either the General or the Maori electoral roll but their options are renewable only at prescribed intervals.

Voting at parliamentary elections is by secret ballot. In general, only those persons whose names are lawfully on the main and supplementary rolls of electors compiled prior to an election may vote at that election.

A vote is normally cast by the elector at a polling booth within his district. An elector may, however, vote as a “special voter”, either at a polling booth outside his district or by post for reasons of distant travel on polling day, sickness, etc.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT: General—The present system of local government in New Zealand has evolved since the abolition of the provinces in 1876. Until fairly recently it has consisted of a structure of territorial local authorities—counties, boroughs, and town districts—and a further structure of ad hoc authorities, such as harbour boards, pest destruction boards, and electric power boards. Major changes were made by the Local Government Act 1974, which provided for the introduction of regional government, and for the establishment of district councils (as a new form of territorial authority) and “communities” (below territorial authority level). The Local Government Act also extended the role of the Local Government Commission in the reorganisation of local government. The Local Government Act as originally enacted has, however, undergone modifications, especially as a result of amending legislation. As from 1 April 1980 the Municipal Corporations Act 1954 and the Counties Act 1956 were repealed.

The Local Government Act contains all the provisions relating to the constitution of regional government (regional councils and united councils), territorial authorities (boroughs, counties, town districts, and districts), and communities. The Act also outlines all the provisions relating to the Local Government Commission.

Territorial Authorities—There are four kinds of territorial authorities in existence:

Boroughs—The Municipal Corporations Act 1876 provided for the incorporation of the 36 boroughs then in existence and for the creation of new boroughs. Boroughs provide for the needs of concentrated populations and until 1978 there had to be a population of at least 1500, with an average density of population of at least one person per 4000m2, before they could be constituted. A borough containing a population of 20 000 or more may be proclaimed a city, but the corporation remains unaltered.

Counties—Counties were originally constituted by the Counties Act 1876. Generally counties are concerned with the needs of rural areas. Initially, there were 63 counties but with increasing settlement this number increased to 129 in 1920. Since then the number of counties has been reduced by mergers and at 1 April 1981 there were 92 counties.

Fiord County was abolished on 1 October 1981 and the area is now included in the adjoining district of Wallace County.

Town Districts—The town district represents a form of territorial local government intermediate between the county and the borough. It implies a certain concentration of population. There were two types of town district—dependent and independent. On the enactment of the Local Government Act 1974, the four existing dependent town districts became community councils. Town districts do not form part of the county within which they are situated, nor are they subject to any county council control. After 1 April 1978 no new town districts are to be constituted.

District Councils—This form of territorial local authority was introduced by the Local Government Act 1974 in recognition of the fact that nowadays many territorial authorities are neither “boroughs” nor “counties” in the sense that they are neither wholly urban nor wholly rural. District Councils may now be constituted either by Local Government Commission scheme or by a borough council or county council passing a special order to that effect. The Governor-General may proclaim a district under a district council to be a city if in his opinion it is predominantly urban and it has a population of not less than 20 000. As at 1 April 1981 there were 9 District Councils: Waitomo; Thames-Coromandel; Whakatane; Waipukurau; Waipawa; Hawera; Rangiora; Otorohanga; and Rotorua. Except for Rangiora, all these districts comprise areas which at one time contained a separate county, borough, or city.

Communities—The Local Government Act provides for the establishment of “communities” within the districts of territorial local authorities. Since 1976 a community may be constituted, by Local Government Commission scheme or by special order of the territorial local authority, only in an urban area within the rural part of a territorial authority district that is predominantly urban in character, or in an urban area within a territorial authority district that is predominantly rural in character, or in the whole of the area of one or more off-shore islands forming part of a territorial authority district. This has brought the position nearer to that existing prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act, which superseded Parts III and IV of the Counties Amendment Act 1968 under which county towns and county boroughs were able to be constituted within counties.

Although not local authorities in the true sense, each community has either a “district community council” or a “community council” of not less than 5 nor more than 12 members, elected by residents and ratepayers for a 3-year term.

District Community Councils—By statute, except for certain reserved powers dealing with finance, staff, and planning, a district community council may exercise all the powers and functions of its parent territorial authority. A district community council may be established only in respect of a community having a population of not less than 1500.

Community Councils—These derive most of their powers by delegation from their territorial authority, at its discretion. Once again, powers dealing with finance, staff, and planning cannot be delegated. In addition to exercising such powers as may be delegated to it by the territorial authority, the general purpose of a community council is to co-ordinate and express to the parent territorial authority the views of the community on any matter of concern to it, after consulting and obtaining the consent of the territorial authority to take appropriate action in the interests of the community, and to undertake, encourage, and co-ordinate activities for the general well-being of the residents of the community.

Regional Government—Apart from the Auckland Regional Authority, which was constituted by a local empowering Act in 1963, the regional bodies being established under the Local Government Act will be new to local government in this country. Regions and united or regional councils are being determined by the Local Government Commission and established by Order in Council giving effect to a final regional scheme of the commission.

As at January 1982, there were 19 regions with a regional government structure. Seventeen of these regions have been constituted under united councils: Nelson Bays; West Coast; Wairarapa; Marlborough; Taranaki; Wanganui; Southland; Bay of Plenty; East Cape; Canterbury; Northland; Tongariro; Horowhenua; Thames Valley; Waikato; Clutha - Central Otago; and Manawatu. Wellington has a regional council and the Auckland Regional Authority is deemed to be a regional council.

Regional bodies possess their functions through several means. First, every united or regional council has two mandatory functions—regional planning (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1977) and civil defence. Besides these two mandatory functions, the Local Government Act provides, with qualifications in some cases, that a united or regional council may undertake functions relating to regional reserves, forestry, regional roading, and community services. The commission's regional scheme constituting a united or regional council may provide for the regional body to undertake the functions of any territorial authority or (where a special-purpose authority or the appropriate Minister concurs) a special-purpose authority. A united or regional council is empowered to undertake exclusively any new regional function which is not undertaken by any other local authority in the region; the commission, by scheme, can provide that that function may be one that other local authorities are not empowered to undertake under any other statute. A united or regional council may also enter into an agreement with a constituent authority to undertake any function of that authority where, in the opinion of either party, that function would be more effectively and economically undertaken by the regional body. Finally, united and regional councils may enter into agreements with the Crown whereby they may exercise any function or provide any service for or on behalf of the Crown.

The main differences between the two types of regional body are as follows:

United Councils—These are to be appointed by the constituent (territorial) authorities. To obtain finance they will make levies on their constituent authorities. One of the constituent authorities is to be appointed as the administering authority of the united council, that is, to staff and service the united council. The united council concept is designed to meet requirements of those regions where the range of functions, or the nature of the responsibilities involved, do not justify the setting up of an organisation of the scale implicit in a directly elected regional council.

In addition, a united council must have the prior consent of the majority of territorial authorities in its region (having sufficient weighting in capital value, population, and area) before it can take on any new function.

Regional Councils—These are directly elected. They function as a completely separate organisation and exercise direct rating powers.

Special-purpose Authorities—Special-purpose authorities differ from territorial authorities in that each is charged with only one major function. The need for the most efficient and economic discharge of the major function being the prime consideration, their boundaries may either extend beyond or fall within those territorial authorities in the same geographical area. Only rarely do the boundaries coincide. Sometimes, as is the case with a number of pest destruction boards and hydatids control authorities, territorial authorities themselves are also constituted as, and perform the functions of, special-purpose authorities. The more important special-purpose authorities are those administering harbours, hospitals, and the retail distribution of electricity. Others are engaged in water supply, urban drainage and transport, soil conservation and rivers control, pest destruction, nassella tussock control, hydatids control, and land drainage.

Number of Local Authorities—Local authorities actively functioning at 1 April 1981 were as follows:

Territorial Authorities—County councils, 91; borough (including city) councils, 129; town councils, 3; district councils, 9.

Communities—Also within the framework of territorial local government, although not local authorities as such, were: district community councils, 15; community councils, 118.

Regional Authorities—United councils, 16; regional councils, 2.

Special-purpose Authorities—River boards (2 boards also have the powers of land-drainage boards), 6; land drainage boards (including 1 territorial authority), 25; urban drainage boards, 4; catchment boards, 13; catchment commissions, 4; regional water boards, 1; water supply board, 1; valley authority, 1; electric power boards (including 1 electric power and gas board), 38; transport board, 1; harbour bridge authority, 1; independent harbour boards, 15; pest destruction boards (separately elected), 60; wallaby board, 1; nassella tussock boards, 2; plantation board, 1; forestry corporation, 1; crematorium board, 1; hospital boards, 29; town hall board of management, 1; museum trust boards, 3; and local railway board, 1. Borough and county councils also functioned as harbour boards in 8 cases, as county pest destruction boards in 37 cases, and as hydatids control authorities in 82 cases. In addition, there were 18 district roads councils of the National Roads Board constituted under the National Roads Act 1953. Although these district roads councils are not local authorities in the strict sense of the term they are intimately connected with certain aspects of local government, providing an advisory service to the National Roads Board concerning the roading needs and the allocation of national roading funds within their respective districts.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMISSION—To promote reform of the structure of local government a Local Government Commission was first established, as a quasi-judicial body, in 1946. The present Local Government Commission, constituted by the Local Government Amendment Act (No. 2) 1977, comprises a chairman appointed by the Minister of Local Government and two other members, one appointed by the Minister on the nomination of the New Zealand Counties Association and the other on the nomination of the Municipal Association of New Zealand. Where the commission is to consider a proposal affecting a local authority other than a territorial authority, it may request the Minister of Local Government to appoint a person having special knowledge of the functions undertaken by that local authority, to be a temporary member of the commission.

The commission undertakes investigations, prepares schemes, and makes recommendations and reports for the purpose of ensuring that the system of local government in any local authority will best provide for the needs and well-being of its residents and the continued development of the district; that local authorities have such district boundaries and such functions and powers as will enable them to provide most effectively and economically essential or desirable local government services and facilities; that local authorities shall have such resources as will enable them to engage adequate services and to obtain and operate adequate technical facilities, plant, and equipment; and that districts shall be of such a size and nature as will promote efficient local government and avoid the necessity of uneconomic expenditure.

The legislation sets out procedures to guide the commission, with emphasis being placed on consultation on proposals at an early stage, prior to formulating a provisional scheme. After the hearing of objections to a provisional scheme, the commission may draw up a final scheme. There are two distinct kinds of schemes which the commission may prepare and issue.

Regional Schemes—A principal task of the commission continues to be the preparation of regional schemes for the constitution of regions and regional bodies (united councils or regional councils) throughout New Zealand. The Minister of Local Government may refer a final regional scheme back to the commission for reconsideration of any of its provisions.

Reorganisation Scheme—Consideration of a proposal for a scheme for the union of local authority districts, the constitution or abolition of any district, the adjustment of boundaries, or a transfer of functions from one local authority to another, may be initiated by the commission itself or at the request of the Minister of Local Government or of any local authority. A new feature is provision for the appointment of conciliators by the commission to inquire into and negotiate on a proposal for a reorganisation scheme.

The Local Government Act as originally enacted brought most special-purpose authorities (other than hospital boards and education boards) within the jurisdiction of the commission. An amendment in 1976, however, removed the automatic jurisdiction of the commission in relation to special-purpose authorities so that it may now act only in those cases where the appropriate Minister or the special-purpose authorities concerned agree to their inclusion in a scheme.

GENERAL POWERS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES—Local authorities in New Zealand derive their powers from the Act under which they are constituted. As mentioned above, the Local Government Act is the main governing Act for territorial authorities, as it is for united, regional, district community, and community councils.

There are several statutory measures which are more or less applicable to all local authorities, such as the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976 and the Local Authorities Loans Act 1956. Other legislation applicable to territorial, regional, and various other types of local authority includes the Rating Act 1967, the Public Bodies Meetings Act 1962, the Local Authorities (Members' Interests) Act 1968, the Public Bodies Leases Act 1969, the Town and Country Planning Act 1977, the Public Works Act 1981, the Local Authorities (Employment Protection) Act 1963, and the Joint Council for Local Authorities Services Act 1977.

For most harbour boards there is, in addition to the general Harbours Act, a special Act for each board which is subordinate to the general Act. Certain types of local authority—urban drainage boards, the Christchurch Transport Board, the Auckland Regional Authority, the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority, and the Waikato Valley Authority—derive their principal powers from special constituting Acts.

A local authority has no legislative powers beyond the authority to make bylaws within limits defined in its constituting Act, but it can promote legislation on matters which affect the government of the area under its jurisdiction and which it is not already empowered to deal with. If the subject is transient and not contentious and is approved by Government, it is usually dealt with by the inclusion of an appropriate section in the annual Local Legislation Act passed by Parliament for this purpose. If, on the other hand, the local authority seeks powers of a permanent or major nature additional to those conferred on it by general Acts it must submit to Parliament a special Local Bill. Ten local Acts were passed in 1981.

Franchise—Under the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976, local elections are held on the second Saturday in October every third year. They were last held on 11 October 1980. Enrolment of residential electors is compulsory. In a poll on any proposal relating to loans or rates, a ratepaying qualification is necessary.

Apart from a few special-purpose authorities, some of whose members are appointed by other local authorities or by Government, members of local authorities are elected triennially, any qualified elector being eligible to seek election. In general the franchise extends to all persons aged 18 years or over who either possess a rating qualification or who possess a residential qualification in the district of the local authority concerned. The right to vote for members of land drainage and river boards is, however. restricted to those who possess rating qualifications. In the case of regional councils the right to vote is limited to those who reside in the region.

A person who is an alien (other than an enemy alien) may vote in local authority elections but is not capable of election or appointment as a member of any local authority.

Voting Procedures—Under the provisions of the Local Elections and Polls Act 1976, any local authority may determine whether an election or poll is to be conducted by personal attendance at a polling booth or by way of postal vote. Where the franchise is to be exercised by personal attendance at a polling booth, the local authority may decide to conduct the election or poll over a period of not more than 11 consecutive days instead of confining voting to a single day.

Remuneration of Members—The remuneration of members of local authorities is governed by the statutes constituting the various types of local authorities. Most special-purpose authorities pay their chairmen an annual allowance with a maximum fixed for each type of authority. The maximum payable to mayors of boroughs and cities and county council chairmen varies according to the population of the local authority. The chairman and members of a united or regional council may also be paid such annual allowances as may from time to time be approved by the Minister of Local Government with the concurrence of the Minister of Finance.

TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING—The Town and Country Planning Act 1977 provides for the making and enforcement of regional, district and maritime planning schemes, and the detailed procedure to be followed in each case is amplified by the Town and Country Planning Regulations 1978. The Government administers the Act through the Minister of Works and Development.

FURTHER INFORMATION—Books dealing with various aspects of the wide range of historical, constitutional, political, economic, and governmental matters touched on in this section will be found listed in the select bibliography of New Zealand books near the back of this Yearbook.

Parliamentary papers which may be found useful include the following:

Report of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Parl, paper A. 1).

Report of the Department of Internal Affairs (Parl, paper G. 7).

Report of the Local Government Commission (Parl, paper G. 9).

Report of the Ombudsmen (Parl, paper A. 3).

Chapter 5. Section 3 POPULATION

By world standards, New Zealand's population is small—less than 3.2 million at the end of 1981. New Zealand's first million of population was recorded in 1908. 68 years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1952, 44 years later, the second million was reached, and the third million late in 1973. Recent predictions are that the fourth million will not he reached until well into the twenty-first century.

Population has two sources of gain—natural increase (excess of births over deaths) and net migration (excess of arrivals over departures). In the early years in New Zealand the bulk of the increase was through migration. From the late 1870s natural increase permanently displaced immigration as the chief contributor to population growth. At the Census of 1881 the percentages of the total population born in New Zealand and born overseas were approximately equal (50.2 percent New Zealand-born to 49.8 percent overseas-born), and each succeeding census until 1951 recorded an increased proportion of New Zealand-born. Since 1951 (when the New Zealand-born made up 86 percent of the population) the proportion has fallen slightly, mainly because increased international travel and tourism have meant that at each census increased numbers of overseas-born tourists and travellers have been included in the population as enumerated on census date. At the 1981 Census, however, data based on the usually resident population (that is, the population excluding tourists and other visitors) showed that 85 percent had been born in New Zealand.

During the present century, natural increase has accounted for over three-quarters of the growth of population. New Zealand's rate of natural increase has, until recently, been relatively high compared with other countries whose population is predominantly of European origin.

The natural increase rate has, in the main, closely reflected the changes in the birth rate with a low point of 8.63 per 1000 in 1935 and high points of 18 per 1000 in 1947 and 1961. In the 1960s the average rate was less than 14 per 1000, and the rate continued to fall throughout the 1970s, reflecting the continued fall in the birth rate, until it has now fallen below the previous low point recorded in 1935 (in 1981 the natural increase rate was 8.12). The fall in the birth rate in the sixties and seventies is a feature that New Zealand shared with a number of other developed countries, and notably with Australia, Canada, and the United States.

The natural increase in recent years is shown in the following table. A 50-year series of vital statistics is included in the Statistical Summary near the back of this Yearbook.

PeriodMarch YearsDecember Years
Births*DeathsNatural IncreaseBirths*DeathsNatural Increase
* Excluding Section 14 birth registrations. These are “late” registrations. See Yearbook Section 4B Births.
    Total, 1946-19812 045.4790.41 255.22 050.9794.61 256.2

In the present century, migration has continued to add to the population quite substantially except during the two world wars and in times of economic difficulties. Gains and losses from external migration since the Second World War are shown in the following table. Movements of the armed forces are not included.

PeriodMarch Years* Migration GainDecember Years Migration Gain

* March years ended in years listed.

†Excess of departures.

Total, 1946-1981226.9213.5

In the past, most of the inward migration has been from the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands. In more recent times increasing numbers have come from the Pacific Islands, notably Western Samoa. As a result of the more difficult economic conditions of recent years there have been substantial annual losses from migration, especially to Australia. The rate of loss is now falling.

Figures of the net inflow or outflow from migration during recent years are shown in the following table and in more detail later in this section.

Year Ended MarchNet Inflow or Outflow* From
Total MigrationPermanent and Long-term Migration
* A minus sign indicates outflow.
197529 64322 439
19766 5675 300
1977-13 727-19 072
1978-22 307-26 708
1979-26 906-40 200
1980-22 299-34 417
1981-15 328-24 825
1982-5 182-11 482

POPULATION STATISTICS—Population statistics are based primarily on the five-yearly population census. Intercensal population estimates are based on the most recent census data available, adjusted in accordance with later figures of births, deaths, and migration. Estimates of the populations of particular localities, e.g., cities and boroughs, also take into account local economic developments, housing schemes, the numbers on school rolls, changes in boundaries, and any other factors leading to, or indicating, changes in population.

The basis adopted for the population census, and virtually throughout population statistics in New Zealand, is that of population physically present in the place of enumeration at the time of enumeration. All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand. Though Tokelau is constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons it is administered separately. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing but the islanders are New Zealand citizens.

The most recent Census of Population and Dwellings in New Zealand was taken on 24 March 1981. The next will be taken in 1986.

The figures in the table following are intercensal estimates and exclude members of New Zealand armed forces who were overseas, and also members of the armed forces of other countries who were in New Zealand.

YearTotal Population at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
Years Ended 31 March
19781 571 9001 574 0003 145 9005 5000.23 128 900
19791 569 2001 575 5003 144 700-1 2003 129 200
19801570 0001 578 5003 148 5003 8000.13 124 800
1981  3 170 90022 4000.73 146 700
Years Ended 31 December
19771 574 0001 577 9003 151 9003 6000.13 127 700
19781 572 8001 578 6003 151 400-5003 129 400
19791 572 1001 578 8003 150 900-5003 124 400
19801 581 1001 583 0003 164 10013 2000.43 131 300
1981  3 195 80031 7001.03 157 300

The following table shows the New Zealand Maori population, defined as persons of half or more New Zealand Maori origin.

YearNew Zealand Maori Population at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
Years Ended 31 March
1978140 700138 800279 5004 7001.7276 800
1979143 500141 700285 2005 7002.0282 000
1980145 000143 200288 2003 0001.1286 500
Years Ended 31 December
1977139 800137 900277 7003 9001.4275 700
1978142 900140 900283 8006 1002.2280 500
1979144 700142 600287 3003 5001.2285 600
1980146 100144 000290 1002 8001.0288 600

INCREASE OF POPULATION—The growth of population is usually substantial in each intercensal period. Before the 1976-81 period, the lowest rates were those of 1926-36, which included some years of economic depression, of 1936-45, which included World War II, and of 1966-71, mainly attributable to a marked change in migration patterns. However, the population increase of only 46 354 between the censuses of 1976 and 1981, covering years of net migration losses and low birth rates, represents a steep fall from any intercensal increase recorded during this century. It is the more significant because the increase of 266 752 during the previous intercensal period was the highest ever recorded in New Zealand. Totals and increase rates from the five most recent censuses are shown below.

Census DatePopulation*Increase
IntercensalIntercensalAnnual Average
* Numbers of persons in New Zealand armed forces overseas are excluded.
18 April 19612 414 984240 92211.082.32
22 March 19662 676 919261 93510.852.11
23 March 19712 862 631185 7126.941.35
23 March 19763 129 383266 7529.321.80
24 March 19813 175 73746 3541.480.30

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—The annual average percentage increases of population for the period 1975-79, are given in the following table for certain selected countries. (Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1979.)

CountryAverage Annual Percentage Increase
Germany, West-0.2
New Zealand0.4
United Kingdom-
United States0.8

POPULATION PROJECTIONS—An indication of possible future growth of the total New Zealand population up to 2011 is given by the detailed alternative projections which follow.

Projections of future population involve an element of uncertainty owing to an incomplete knowledge of the factors underlying changes in fertility, mortality, and migration levels. Also, difficulties in forecasting the future behaviour of these components of population change result from rapidly changing trends brought about by varying social, and especially economic, conditions.

It should be understood that, as with all demographic projections prepared by the Department of Statistics, these projections are not strict forecasts or targets, but conditional forecasts based on the stated assumptions. Presentation and use of the projections, therefore, cannot be divorced from consideration of the assumptions adopted.

These national population projections incorporate alternative short-term assumptions involving changing annual levels of net immigration as described in the footnotes to the table.

Age-sex-specific projections, equivalent to those in the table below, are available on application to the Demographic Specialist Studies Section, Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Christchurch.

At 31 MarchProjected Total New Zealand Population Assuming:*
Long-term Net Annual Migration of Zero and Short-term Migration Variant DesignatedLong-term Set Annual Migration of 5 000 and Short-term Migration Variant Designated

* These projections have as base the estimated population at 31 March 1980. They are based on the following assumptions:

(a) That future fertility experience will be in accordance with the “medium” variant. (See (†) below).

(b) That future mortality experience will be in accordance with the 1975-77 Life Tables mortality rates (total population) with a decrease of 0.4 percent per annum in most ages (percentage decrease being higher for infants and lower for elderly age groups) until 1986, after which time mortality rates are assumed to remain constant.

†Three alternative fertility assumptions—designated “low”, “medium”, and “high” have been derived in terms of age specific fertility rates to project future fertility experience. These rates are generally projected to decrease over the period 1981-1985, after which time fertility rates are assumed to remain constant. The “low”, “medium”, and “high” fertility variants imply approximate long-term average family size of 1.70, 1.91, and 2.12 children respectively.

‡(a) The “low” short-term migration variant assumes net annual migration for the years ending 31 March as follows: -20 000 (1981), -15 000 (1982), -10 000 (1983), -5000 (1984) and zero (1985).

(b) The “medium” short-term migration variant assumes net annual migration for the years ending 31 March as follows: -15 000 (1981), -10 000 (1982), -5000 (1983) and zero (1984).

(c) The “high” short-term migration variant assumes net annual migration for the years ending 31 March as follows:-10 000 (1981), -5 000 (1982) and zero (1983).

Note—A minus sign indicates net annual emigration.

1980 (Base)3 1483 1483 1483 1483 1483 148
19833 1713 1863 2023 1713 1863 202
19843 1873 2083 2243 1873 2083 229
19853 2083 2303 2463 2083 2353 256
19863 2293 2513 2683 2353 2623 283
19913 3363 3593 3773 3683 3973 421
19963 4333 4583 4773 4953 5263 550
20013 5103 5363 5553 6033 6353 660
20063 5613 5883 6083 6853 7183 745
20113 5933 6203 6413 7503 7843 811

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census and are published in 3 parts as Volume 1, Location and Increase of Population, Part A. Population Size and Distribution, Part B. Population Density, and Part C. Usually Resident Population of the Census of Population and Dwellings. In the case of the 1981 Census, prior to the publication of the subject-matter volumes a series of 10 Regional Statistics bulletins has been published, each giving final population, dwelling, and household statistics by population centre and subdivision for a major area of New Zealand.

North and South Islands—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration, and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of NZ Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.

The following table gives the population of the North and South Islands since 1901.

Census YearTotal PopulationPercentages
North IslandSouth IslandTotalNorth IslandSouth Island
1901431 471384 391815 86252.947.1
1911610 599447 7131 058 31257.742.3
1921791 918479 7501 271 66862.337.7
19361 018 038555 7741 573 81264.735.3
19451 146 315556 0151 702 33067.332.7
19561 497 364676 6982 174 06268.931.1
19661 893 326783 5932 676 91970.729.3
19712 051 363811 2682 862 63171.728.3
19762 268 393860 9903 129 38372.527.5
19812 322 989852 7483 175 73773.126.9

The 1981 Census revealed that the population of the North Island continues to increase at a greater proportionate rate than that of the South Island. At the 1981 Census the North Island population was 2 322 989, a 2.4 percent increase en the 1976 total of 2 268 393. At the same census the South Island total was 852 748, a decrease of 1.0 percent on the 1976 total of 860 990. However, between the 1976 and 1981 censuses, births in the South Island totalled over 65 000 and deaths over 38 000, giving a net natural increase of approximately 27 000. The fact that the total population decrease was over 8000 indicates a net migration outflow during the intercensal period of approximately 35 000, but the relative movements to and from overseas and the North Island are not yet available.

In the previous intercensal period (1971-76), there was a total net migration inflow of approximately 10 000. This was attributable to a substantial net gain from overseas, which offset a small loss to the North Island of almost 4000 persons aged 5 years and over.

Statistical Areas—In the following table are shown the areas and enumerated populations of the statistical areas at the two most recent censuses.

Statistical AreaArea (Square Kilometres)Population Census
Northland12 649107 013114 295
Central Auckland5 600797 406829 519
South Auckland - Bay of Plenty36 775472 083491 304
East Coast10 88548 14748 573
Hawke's Bay11 303145 061147 722
Taranaki9 720107 071105 153
Wellington27 715591 612586 423
    Total, North Island114 6472 268 3932 322 989
Marlborough10 85935 03036 027
Nelson18 04675 56277 223
Westland15 41524 04923 489
Canterbury43 371428 586424 280
Otago37 100188 903183 559
Southland29 624108 860108 170
    Total, South Island154 415860 990852 748
    Total, New Zealand269 0623 129 3833 175 737

Statistical Divisions and Urban Areas—Statistical divisions and urban areas are statistical conceptions and not administrative units. Their purpose is to provide definite, stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population. Statistical divisions were introduced in 1971. The basic criterion for a statistical division is a population of 75 000 or more within the area of economic and social interests of a heavily populated centre. Seven statistical divisions have been established, namely, Auckland, Hamilton, Napier-Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington (including Hutt), Christchurch, and Dunedin. The division, like the urban area, does not have any administrative functions, but embraces areas of unified community, economic, and social interests. In addition to the central city or borough,urban areas include neighbouring boroughs and town districts and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population. Minor adjustments of main urban area boundaries have been made because of the peripheral growth of population in some of the urban areas between 1976 and 1981. For the 1981 Census, a new group of 14 secondary urban areas, with populations of over 10 000 but below 30 000, has been structured. The populations of the 7 statistical divisions and the 37 defined urban areas are as follows:

Statistical Division (S. Div.) and Urban Area (U.A.)Population CensusPercentage Increase or Decrease
 Statistical Divisions
Auckland S. Div.—
Main U.A.s—
    Northern Auckland137 421149 32127.38.7
    Western Auckland108 139116 40720.27.6
    Central Auckland289 125275 9140.8-4.6
    Southern Auckland208 101227 91626.19.5
        Sub-total, Combined Auckland Main U.A.s742 786769 55814.33.6
Secondary U.A.—
    Pukekohe12 88913 2929.93.1
    Remainder S. Div.41 73146 66913.111.8
              Total797 406829 51914.24.0
Hamilton S. Div.—
Main U.A.s—
    Hamilton94 77797 90717.33.3
    Remainders. Div.59 82962 3088.44.1
              Total154 606160 21513.73.6
Napier-Hastings S. Div.—
Main U.A.s—
    Napier50 16451 33015.12.3
    Hastings50 81452 56311.63.4
    Remainder S. Div.8 0328 1522.71.5
              Total109 010112 04512.52.8
Palmerston North S. Div.—
Main U.A.—
    Palmerston North63 87366 69111.94.4
Secondary U.A.—
    Feilding11 64512 20310.14.8
    Remainder S. Div.13 20612 9270.9-2.1
              Total88 72491 8219.93.5
Wellington S. Div.—
Main U.A.s—
    Upper Hutt Valley35 58436 52514.82.6
    Lower Hutt Valley97 19494 7325.6-2.5
    Porirua Basin55 69854 65316.4-1.9
    Wellington138 938135 0941.6-2.8
    Sub-total, Combined Wellington Main U.A.s327 414321 0046.4-2.0
Secondary U.A.—
    Kapiti18 91120 08337.76.2
    Remainders. Div.3 3032 89524.5-12.4
                  Total349 628343 9827.9-1.6
Christchurch S. Div.—
Main U.A.—
    Christchurch295 296289 9597.0-1.8
    Remainder S. Div.30 41431 76114.24.4
              Total325 710321 7207.6-1.2
Dunedin S. Div.—
Main U.A.—
    Dunedin113 222107 4451.9-5.1
    Remainders. Div.7 2046 5889.0-8.6
              Total120 426114 0332.3-5.3
Urban Areas Not in Any Statistical Division
Main U.A.s.—
    Whangarei39 06940 21214.82.9
    Tauranga48 15353 09719.310.3
    Rotorua46 675x48 31417.43.5
    Gisborne31 79032 0625.40.9
    New Plymouth43 91444 09513.20.4
    Wanganui39 67939 5954.5-0.2
    Nelson42 43343 12111.71.6
    Timaru29 95829 2253.4-2.4
    Invercargill53 76253 8686.10.2
Secondary U.A.s.—
    Tokoroa19 48119 33317.9-0.8
    Taupo14 67415 35622.04.6
    Whakatane14 28215 15918.46.1
    Hawera11 35111 3446.0-0.1
    Levin18 21318 07010.9-0.8
    Masterton21 00120 4224.2-2.8
    Blenheim21 48122 10412.02.9
    Greymouth11 81111 6046.0-1.8
    Ashburton15 35715 3036.8-0.4
    Oamaru15 09514 6644.0-2.9
    Gore12 10512 0613.0-0.4
    Total, 23 Main Urban Areas2 113 7792 140 04610.71.2
    Total, 14 Secondary Urban Areas218 296220 99812.01.2
    Total, 93 Minor Urban Areas282 044289 86010.12.8
    Total, 7 Statistical Divisions1 945 5101 973 33510.81.4

Local Government Regions—The Local Government Act of 1974 provides for the constitution of these regions, the mandatory function of such being regional planning and civil defence. At the time of preparing this publication, 22 regions had been determined by the Local Government Commission. These cover every territorial local authority in New Zealand with the exception of Chatham Islands County. Extra-county islands and shipboard population are also excluded.

The populations in the following table are for the local government regions as they existed at 1 July 1981; they may be subject to modification as a result of objections lodged by various local body organisations.

Local Government RegionPopulation Census
Northland106 743113 994
Auckland796 506827 980
Thames Valley52 72954 343
Bay of Plenty160 357172 480
Waikato218 247221 850
Tongariro39 27540 089
East Cape52 47253 295
Hawke's Bay134 703137 840
Taranaki105 360103 798
Wanganui69 66668 702
Manawatu110 600113 238
Horowhenua48 30049 296
Wellington329 365323 162
Wairarapa41 00939 689
Nelson Bays64 35265 934
Marlborough35 22037 557
West Coast34 81834 178
Canterbury339 831336 846
Aorangi87 34384 772
Clutha-Central Otago43 54045 402
Coastal-North Otago145 348138 164
Southland108 632107 905
    Total, 22 Local Government Regions3 124 4163 170 514

Cities and Boroughs—The populations and areas of cities and boroughs at the 1981 Population Census is shown in the following table.

City or BoroughPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area in Hectares
Note: Because of rounding, individual figures in this table do not always add to give the stated total.
North Island—
    Kaitaia4 737695
    Kaikohe3 663544
    Whangarei (city)36 5504 911
    Dargaville4 7471 133
    Helensville1 360532
    East Coast Bays (city)28 8661 558
    Takapuna (city)64 8448 670
    Devonport10 410445
    Northcote10 061540
    Birkenhead (city)21 3241 266
    Waitemata (city)87 45237 550
    Henderson6 645517
    Glen Eden9 406503
    New Lynn10 445564
    Auckland (city)144 9637 472
    Newmarket1 21174
    Mt. Albert (city)26 462983
    Mt. Eden18 305598
    Mt. Roskill33 5771 862
    Onehunga15 386761x
    One Tree Hill11 078983
    Ellerslie5 404301
    Mt. Wellington19 5281 650
    Howick13 866621
    Otahuhu10 298574x
    Papatoetoe (city)21 700907
    Manukau (city)159 36256 599x
    Papakura (city)22 4731 384
    Pukekohe9 0701 405
    Waiuku3 654593
    Tuakau1 982442
    Huntly6 534930
    Cambridge8 5141 071
    Ngaruawahia4 435450
    Hamilton (city)91 1096 749
    Te Awamutu7 922713
    Taumarunui6 5411 815
    Paeroa3 702574
    Waihi3 538539
    Te Aroha3 3311 126
    Morrinsville5 080476
    Matamata5 266533
    Putaruru4 222395
    Tokoroa18 7131 359
    Mt. Maunganui113911 910
    Tauranga (city)37 0994 020
    Te Puke4 577532
    Taupo13 6511 446
    Kawerau8 5932 174
    Murupara2 964287
    Gisborne (city)29 9862 628
    Wairoa5 439649
    Napier (city)48 3143 021
    Hastings (city)36 0831 949
    Havelock North8 507563
    Dannevirke5 663526
    Woodville1 647427
    Waitara6 012575
    New Plymouth (city)36 0482 380
    Inglewood2 839284
    Stratford5 518816
    Eltham2 411647
    Patea1 938575
    Ohakune1 481841
    Raetihi1 247388
    Wanganui (city)37 0123 392
    Taihape2 586778
    Marton4 858573
    Feilding11 522855
    Foxton2 719306
    Palmerston N. (city)60 1054 302
    Levin14 6521 298
    Otaki4 301666
    Kapiti15 42317 428
    Upper Hutt (city)31 40548 428
    Lower Hutt (city)63 2458 968
    Petone8 1131 043
    Eastbourne4 5611 273
    Porirua (city)41 1048 383
    Tawa12 216695
    Wellington (city)135 68826 322
    Pahiatua2 599291
    Masterton18 7851 799
    Carterton3 971512
    Greytown1 797442
    Featherston2 458307
    Martinborough1 347442
        Total, North Island cities and boroughs1 739 611308 508x
South Island—
    Picton3 220426
    Blenheim17 8491 770
    Nelson (city)33 3044 762
    Richmond6 8471 052
    Motueka4 6931 021
    Westport4 686308
    Runanga1 264487
    Greymouth8 1031 068
    Hokitika3 414273
    Rangiora6 385357
    Kaiapoi4 894318
    Riccarton6 709339
    Christchurch (city)164 68010 635
    Lyttelton3 1841 036
    Ashburton14 1511 226x
    Geraldine2 128301
    Temuka3 771395
    Timaru (city)28 4122 342
    Waimate3 393312
    Oamaru13 0431 161
    Port Chalmers2917410
    Dunedin (city)77 17615 685
    St. Kilda6 147249
    Green Island6 899781
    Mosgiel9 264787
    Milton2 193204
    Kaitangata1 071518
    Balclutha4 495509
    Tapanui1 042121
    Alexandra4 348987
    Cromwell2 364740
    Queenstown3 367416
    Gore9 185946
    Mataura2 345515
    Winton2 035240
    Invercargill (city)49 4465 616
    Bluff2 720866
    Riverton1 479403
    Total, South Island cities and boroughs524 673x60 249x
    Grand total, all cities and boroughs2 264 284x368 757x

Districts—A new concept in local government—the district—appeared in the 1976 Census statistics in the form of the Thames-Coromandel District, constituted on 1 October 1975 and amalgamating the former Thames and Coromandel Counties and Thames Borough. Similar amalgamations occurred between 23 March 1976 and 1 April 1979, resulting in the constitution of 8 further districts, the largest of which is Rotorua, formed from Rotorua City and Rotorua County.

DistrictPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area in Square Kilometres
Thames-Coromandel18 1752 212
Otorohanga9 3581 976
Waitomo10 8923 405x
Rotorua58 5402 708
Whakatane27 7234 308x
Waipawa5 0801 354
Waipukurau7 9132 031
Hawera12 884500
    Total, North Island150 56518 494x
Rangiora5 391263
    Total, South Island5 391263
    Total, New Zealand155 95618 757x

Town Districts—The population of town districts—i.e., those contained in the following table—is not included with that of the county in which the town district is located.

Town DistrictPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area in Hectares
North Island—
    Hikurangi1 297389
    Waverley1 239202
        Total, town districts3 528797

Communities—The following table lists communities with populations of 1000 or more at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings (24 March 1981). The parent local authority is shown in parentheses. The populations of communities are included in the administrative county populations given in a later table.

CommunityPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area in Hectares
North Island
    Kerikeri (Bay of Islands)1 367404x
    Moerewa (Bay of Islands)1 47075
    Kawakawa (Bay of Islands)1 624229
    Paihia (Bay of Islands)1 740232
    Raglan (Raglan)1 414372
    Kihikihi (Waipa)1 337212
    Whitianga (Coromandel Div.)1 9602 467x
    Whangamata (Thames Div.)1 566485
    Thames (Thames Div.)6 4561 653
    Waihi Beach (Ohinemuri)1 317209
    Katikati (Tauranga)1 682960
    Papamoa Beach (Tauranga)1 856373
    Mangakino (Taupo)1 542261
    Edgecumbe (Whakatane Dist) 1 929172
    Ohope (Whakatane Dist.)1 714544
    Foxton Beach (Manawatu)1 002397
South Island
    Renwick (Marlborough)1 043175
    Kaikoura (Kaikoura)2 180611x
    Darfield (Malvern)1 151233
    Halswell (Paparua)4 822328x
    Pleasant Point (Strathallan)1 099378
    Brighton (Silverpeaks)1 181183x
    Fairfield (Silverpeaks)1 849143x
    Wanaka (Lake)1 155313
    Te Anau (Wallace)2 610395

District Communities—The following table lists the populations of district communities as at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. The parent local authority is shown in parentheses. The populations of district communities are included in the administrative county populations given in the following table.

District CommunityPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area in Hectares
North Island
    Warkworth (Rodney)1 734577
    Wellsford (Rodney)1 621554
    Otorohanga (Otorohanga)2 574358x
    Turangi (Taupo)5 517579
    Waipawa (Waipawa District)1 732692x
    Bulls (Rangitikei)1 839405
    Ashhurst (Oroua)1 906173
    Waikanae (Horowhenua)4 8181 076
    Shannon (Horowhenua)1 465342
    Heretaunga-Pinehaven (Hutt)6 1714 700
    Wainuiomata (Hutt)19 19226 614
    Total48 56936 070x
South Island
    Hornby (Paparua)8 215493x
    Sockburn (Paparua)6 4041 300x
    Total14 6191 793
    Total, District Communities63 18837 863x

Extra-county Islands and Shipboard Population—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, districts, cities and boroughs, and town districts, the New Zealand totals include shipboard population and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any county. The two latter categories comprised an estimated total of 4472 persons at the Census of Population and Dwellings 1981.

Counties—The following table gives the estimated population of individual counties at Census date (24 March 1981) together with the approximate area of each. It should be noted that “administrative counties” do not include boroughs or town districts, which are independent of county control, but include district communities and communities, which form parts of counties.

Administrative CountyPopulation Census 1981Approximate Area, in Square Kilometres
North Island—
    Mangonui8 4852 483x
    Whangaroa2 243622
    Hokianga4 6261 588x
    Bay of Islands18 9612 131
    Whangarei16 9972 675x
    Hobson53171 929
    Otamatea6 3711 108
    Rodney35 6962 334
    Waiheke Is.3 678155
    Great Barrier Is.572285
    Franklin18 9021 477
    Raglan9 7762411
    Waikato16 8211 655
    Waipa15 9501 129
    Taumarunui5 9814 808
    Hauraki Plains5 157603
    Ohinemuri4 941624
    Piako10 4191 168
    Matamata12 3382 541x
    Tauranga21 5932 020x
    Taupo13 9167 244
    Opotiki7 2643 131x
    Waiapu4 6872 824x
    Waikohu2 9602 647x
    Cook8 3982 857x
    Wairoa5 7994 111x
    Hawke's Bay20 7054 838
    Dannevirke4 3852 211
    Woodville1 314404
    Clifton2 1461 176
    Taranaki12 196588
    Inglewood2 744521
    Stratford4 6412 157
    Egmont5 340622
    Eltham2 490509
    Waimate West1 944215
    Patea2 4161531x
    Waimarino1 4532 147
    Waitotara2 9091 226
    Wanganui3 2051 189
    Rangitikei13 9514 549
    Kiwitea1 707930
    Oroua5 485492
    Manawatu6 710692
    Kairanga6 385461
    Horowhenua14 9201 420
    Hutt26 830428
    Pahiatua2 119741
    Eketahuna1 907862
    Masterton4 0992 386
    Wairarapa South2 4771 140
    Featherston2 8482 471
    Total, North Island counties426 05293 137x
South Island—
    Marlborough12 90210 478
    Kaikoura3 5862 382
    Golden Bay4 2122 618
    Waimea16 8787 511
    Buller3 7885 035
    Inangahua2 2182 440
    Grey4 9553 957
    Westland5 75011 440
    Amuri3 0604 296x
    Cheviot1 514875
    Hurunui6 5593 717
    Eyre3 297459
    Oxford1 771814
    Malvern6 2425 046
    Paparua31 836445
    Waimairi70 413115
    Heathcote8 77834
    Mt. Herbert1 036171
    Akaroa1 783437
    Chatham Islands751963
    Ellesmere8 6761 200
    Ashburton10 7746 174
    Strathallan9 3712 676
    Mackenzie7 7037 456
    Waimate5 0693 558
    Waitaki8 7396 314x
    Waihemo1 717880
    Silverpeaks12 2623 205
    Bruce3 2851 350
    Clutha5 5972 698x
    Tuapeka3 8453 560
    Maniototo2 4303 477
    Vincent4 2937 620
    Lake5 02210 235
    Southland26 7859 577
    Wallace13 2819 107x
    Fiord297 861
    Stewart Island6001 746
    Total, South Island counties321 445152 365x
    Grand total, all counties747 497245 502x

Non-administrative Population Centres—For the first time in 1979 population estimates were prepared for other non-administrative centres with total populations of 1000 or more. Populations of these centres are included in the figures for the parent local authority areas given previously. In the table which follows the populations at the 1981 Population Census are compared with the 1976 Population Census figures.

Non-administrative CentrePopulation Census
North Island—
    Temple View (Waipa Co.)1 0621232
    Te Kuiti (Waitomo Dist.)4 8404 795
    Rotorua (Rotorua Dist.)37 848x38 157
    Ngongotaha (Rotorua Dist.)2 4722 881
    Whakatane (Whakatane Dist.)11 54212 286
    Opotiki (Opotiki Co.)3 102x3 388
    Waipukurau (Waipukurau Dist.)3 6323 648
    Opunake (Egmont Co.)1 4631 637
    Hawera (Hawera Dist.)8 5068 400
    Waiouru (Rangitikei Co.)3 2303 154
    Linton Military Camp (Kairanga Co.)9361072
    Total, North Island Centres78 633x80 650
South Island—
    Hope (Waimea Co.)1 1571 049
    Reefton (Inangahua Co.)1 2871 200
    Burnham Military Camp (Malvern Co.)1 6871 159
    Lincoln (Ellesmere Co.)1 5951 769
    Twizel (Mackenzie Co.)5 1854 119
    Total, South Island Centres10 911x9 296
    Total, Non-Administrative Centres89 544x89 946

Urban Concentration of Population—The bulk of New Zealand's population is located in urban areas, where until 1976 the most rapid growth rates occurred. This was due largely to the development of both manufacturing and tertiary industries in urban areas, which provided employment for a growing labour force. Other factors, including better social, cultural, educational, and economic opportunities, served to attract persons to these areas, while the majority of immigrants tended to settle in the larger urban centres. These factors, combined with amalgamation of farms, centralisation of dairy factories, and increasing agricultural mechanisation (resulting in less labour required), had combined to produce a noticeable rural-urban drift. Urban concentration features are common to “developed” countries at advanced stages of economic development.

The 1981 Census figures show that many rural areas and a number of small and intermediate sized towns located outside urban areas are continuing to decline in population, although there are indications that the rate of urbanisation is stabilising. Horticultural and forestry developments in recent years have undoubtedly contributed to this situation. Thirty-eight counties recorded smaller populations than at the previous census in 1976, compared with 40 between 1971 and 1976. Of 54 small self-administrative towns (1000 to 4999 population) 25 had declined in population between 1976 and 1981 compared with 12 during the previous intercensal period. Ten intermediate towns (5000 to 9999 population) showed decreases in population compared with two at the previous census.

Of the 9500 rural gain recorded on 1981 boundaries between 1976 and 1981, over 5000 was within rural areas lying outside urban areas but within the 7 major population centres forming the statistical divisions, so indicating a continuation of the urban expansion that occurred between the 1971 and 1976 censuses. The major population increases in the rural components of statistical divisions between the 1976 and 1981 censuses were in the Auckland and Christchurch Statistical Divisions, which recorded gains of 3965 (12.06 percent) and 1350 (6.88 percent) respectively. With the exception of the Napier-Hastings Statistical Division, the rate of population increase in the rural components of all other statistical divisions slowed during the latest intercensal period (for example, the rural component of Hamilton Statistical Division recorded a growth rate of 4.60 percent for 1971-76 but of only 0.39 percent for 1976-81). Palmerston North and Dunedin Statistical Divisions, in fact, both recorded decreases during the latest intercensal period.

The following table shows intercensal population changes in the rural components of the 7 statistical divisions. The rural component within each statistical division is made up of county territory outside main and secondary urban areas, towns with populations of under 1000, and (where applicable) extra-county islands.

Statistical DivisionPopulation CensusIncrease or Decrease
Auckland28 04032 87636 8414 8363 96517.2512.06
Hamilton25 78226 96727 0711 1851044.600.39
Napier-Hastings7 4957 6927 9981973062.633.98
Palmerston North11 14911 24111 08892-1530.82-1.36
Wellington2 0002 4692 5684699923.454.01
Christchurch17 19219 61220 9622 4201 35014.086.88
Dunedin6 4847 0066 474522-5328.05-7.59
      Total, all statistical divisions98 142107 863113 0029 7215 1399.904.76

The following table shows the urban-rural distribution of the population. Urban population has been defined as that of the 37 defined urban areas plus that of all boroughs, town districts, communities, district communities, and townships with populations of 1000 or over.

* Excludes shipping.
Total Population*
1926952 10267.93449 57232.07
19361 065 22867.89503 88532.11
19451 227 06972.22472 07627.78
19561 625 88774.94543 72725.06
19662 145 60180.30526 50719.70
19712 361 31482.64496 17117.36
19762 614 11983.65511 00416.35
19812 650 90483.59520 48716.41

In the process of urbanisation some centres have grown more quickly than others. There is a tendency towards concentration of population in the largest centres and also a drift of population from the south to the north. Where the two tendencies reinforce each other, as they do in the case of the combined Auckland Urban Areas, the rate of growth has been very rapid.

The initial reason for the drift to the north lay in the change in emphasis of farming activities in which the development of dairying played an important part. The expansion of dairying in itself called for the development of factory processing facilities and service industries. These farming trends have been reinforced by the growth of forest processing industries in the North Island and compounded further by the general tendency for the large-scale manufacturing units to be located close to the biggest local markets.

In addition to the movement of population from the South Island to the North Island, shown on a long-term basis earlier in this section, there has also been a population drift northwards from the south of the North Island, which has intensified during the latest intercensal period. This is illustrated in the following table of the geographic distribution of population.

CensusNorth IslandSouth Island

* Comprises Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington Statistical Areas.

†Comprises Northland, Central Auckland, South Auckland-Bay of Plenty, and East Coast Statistical Areas.

1971787 1311 264 2322 051 363811 268
1976843 7441 424 6492 268 393860 990
1981839 2981483 6912 322 989852 748
Percentage of Total Population

In the larger cities a notable feature of recent decades has been a movement of population from the central or “inner” areas to the perimeter or “outer” areas; residential units in the city centres have been replaced by shops, offices, places of entertainment, and other commercial or industrial buildings. However, in recent years there has been an offsetting movement with the building of multi-storey flats in the inner areas, and more recently still, the petrol crisis has led to a greater desire for inner-city living.

The distribution of population by size of centres is shown in the following table.

Population of Centre (City, Borough, Town District, or Community)CensusCensus
 Number of CentresPercentage of Population in These Centres
1 000- 2 49963454348577.
2 500- 4 99923474039426.
5 000- 9 99911343532315.
10 000-24 999122123252513.315.012.812.511.9
25 000 and over41222252624.132.544.650.451.0

In the South Island a higher proportion of the population is rural, that is outside urban communities, than in the North Island, the proportion at the 1981 Census of Population being 21.1 in the South Island against 14.8 percent in the North Island.

Males and Females—Provisional statistics from the census of 24 March 1981 showed that females outnumbered males by 20 920 in the total population (excluding Armed Forces overseas), there being 1 579 640 males and 1 600 560 females. The changing sex distribution of the population, recorded at successive censuses, is given below.

CensusMalesFemalesFemales Per 1000 Males
* Provisional.
1881293 973240 057817
1901429 108386 754901
1926719 642688 497957
1936799 091774 721970
1945832 909869 4211 044
19561 093 2111 080 851989
19661 343 7431 333 176992
19711430 8561 431 7751 001
19761 562 0421 567 3411 003
19811579 6401 600 5601 013

The table excludes members of the N.Z. Armed Forces overseas at census date.

There are marked differences in the sex composition of the population of different parts of New Zealand. Females tend to outnumber males in urban areas and to be outnumbered in rural areas. One important reason is doubtless the generally better employment and educational opportunities for women and girls in the larger industrial and commercial centres.

DENSITY OF POPULATION—Density of population refers to the relationship between population numbers and land area, and is expressed in terms of numbers of persons per unit of area. It presents a useful tool for the analysis of population distribution providing it is borne in mind that the land area used is the gross area, and includes mountain ranges, rivers, lakes, forests, and barren country. In the case of cities and towns it includes parks, reserves, roads and streets, and the commercial and industrial districts.

The total area of New Zealand, including inland waters, is 268 808 square kilometres, giving an average population density at the 1981 Census of Population of 11.8 persons per square kilometre. This is low by international standards (for example, the United Kingdom has 229 persons per square kilometre, and the Netherlands, 344) but it must be remembered that in New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, and also large areas of rough hilly country which cannot be closely settled.

Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The following table shows the density of population in the 23 main and 14 secondary urban areas for the 1926, 1956, 1976, and 1981 Censuses of Population. Only 2 urban areas, those of Central Auckland and Wellington, have an overall concentration of population exceeding 10 persons per hectare, with respective densities of 18.9 and 12.5 persons per hectare.

Urban AreaArea In Hectares*Persons Per Hectare at Census
* Excludes inland water areas.
Main Urban Areas
Whangarei11 0290.
    Northern Auckland26 4610.92.025.6
    Western Auckland24 7260.
    Central Auckland14 59911.317.419.818.9
    Southern Auckland35 8550.
Combined Auckland U.A's101 6412.
Hamilton25 8510.
Tauranga11 8840.
Rotorua7 6400.
Gisborne8 5921.
Napier9 0902.
Hastings14 2381.
New Plymouth10 5151.
Wanganui10 2362.
Palmerston North17 7891.
    Upper Hutt5 5170.
    Lower Hutt13 5251.
    Porirua Basin14 2740.
    Wellington10 8379.311.312.812.5
Combined Wellington U.A's44 1532.
Nelson14 2461.
Christchurch52 6782.
Timaru7 2452.
Dunedin18 5874.
Invercargill11 7411.
                  Total, 23 main urban areas377 1552.
Secondary Urban Areas
Pukekohe8 7820.
Tokoroa4 2460.
Taupo7 9310.
Whakatane8 2760.
Hawera11 7300.
Feilding4 5991.
Levin10 9140.
Kapiti5 8840.
Masterton13 4680.
Blenheim9 0920.
Greymouth4 2431.
Ashburton7 5311.
Oamaru5 1481.
Gore7 2320.
                  Total, 14 secondary urban areas109 0760.

Density of population as recorded at the 1981 Census is shown by type of local authorities in the following table.

Perhaps the most interesting feature is that South Island towns are, on average, more densely populated than those of the North Island, although the North as a whole had a considerably higher ratio of population to area.

Type of Local AuthorityPersons Per Hectare
North IslandSouth IslandNew Zealand
* Excluding district communities and communities.
District communities1.38.21.7
Town districts4.4 4.4

NEW ZEALAND MAORI POPULATION—For statistical purposes, all persons of half or more Maori ancestry have, in the past, been defined as Maoris. This differs from the wider definition introduced in the Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1974. That Act states that “Maori” means a person of the Maori race of New Zealand; and includes any descendant of such a person.

A total of 280 380 persons stated at the 1981 Census that they were of half or more Maori descent. This compares with 227 414 in 1971 and 270 035 in 1976. However, the 1976 figure included 65 582 persons who indicated that they were of Maori origin but did not specify degree of descent.

The following table shows the N.Z. Maori population during the present century on the basis of persons of half or more Maori origin. Members of the Armed Forces overseas are excluded.

Census YearNew Zealand Maori Population*Intercensal IncreaseIntercensal IncreaseAverage Annual Increase

* Prior to 1976 comprises persons who specified themselves as half or more New Zealand Maori and in 1976 this group plus those who indicated they were persons of the Maori race of New Zealand but did not specify the degree of Maori origin.


190145 5493 4368.161.59
190650 3094 76010.451.98
191152 7232 4144.800.96
191652 9972740.520.09
192156 9873 9907.531.62
192663 6706 68311.732.24
193682 32618 65629.302.62
194598 74416 41819.941.93
1951115 67616 93217.152.89
1956137 15121 47518.563.46
1961167 08629 93521.834.02
1966201 15934 07320.393.84
1971227 41426 25513.052.48
1976270 03542 62118.743.49
1981280 38010 3453.830.75

On the wider definitional basis, the 1981 Census count of all those who specified some degree of Maori origin was 385 210. This was an increase of 28 363 or 7.95 percent on the 1976 Census total of 356 847.

The increasing urbanisation of the Maori population as younger Maoris seek better job opportunities in the cities and boroughs is a population trend of considerable sociological significance. At the 1926 Census the urban N.Z. Maori population totalled 9905 (15.6 percent). By the 1981 Census the comparable figure for usually resident Maoris was 219 030 (78.2 percent), the largest concentration being in the Central and Southern Auckland Urban Areas where a total of 50 990 were enumerated.

Urban population is defined as that of main, secondary, and minor urban areas.

Of the 280 260 usually resident Maoris at the 1981 Census, 261 220 (93.2 percent) were in the North Island.

The following table shows the usually resident Maori population at the 1981 Census by statistical area.

Statistical AreaN.Z. Maoris*

* Persons of half or more Maori descent.


North Island—
    Northland20 6407.36
    Central Auckland68 65024.50
    South Auckland—Bay of Plenty79 04028.20
    East Coast15 0105.36
    Hawke's Bay22 5508.05
    Taranaki8 3802.99
    Wellington46 96016.76
        Total, North Island261 23093.21
South Island—
    Marlborough1 2300.44
    Nelson1 4100.50
    Canterbury8 3202.97
    Otago2 7400.98
    Southland4 7901.70
        Total, South Island19 0306.79
        Total, New Zealand280 260100.00

EXTERNAL MIGRATION—In recent years there has been a large increase in New Zealanders going overseas, seeking better employment opportunities, on business or pleasure trips, and on working holidays, resulting in much higher levels of migration. The arrivals include many New Zealanders returning from travel overseas, as well as growing numbers of tourists from overseas countries.

Total migration figures (excluding only movements of armed forces) are shown in the following table for the most recent available 5 years. (A later year is included in the Latest Statistical Information Section at the back of this Yearbook). “Long-term”, as used here, indicates arrivals or departures for an intended stay of 12 months or more. Conversely, “short-term” refers to less than 12 months.

Through passengers, not included in the “All Passengers” totals, are persons who arrive in New Zealand but do not pass through immigration controls and do not complete arrival declarations. Also described as transit passengers, they normally depart on the same flight or vessel within a few hours of arriving in New Zealand.

Year Ended 31 MarchLong-term (Including Permanent) ArrivalsShort-term MovementsAll Passenger ArrivalsThrough PassengersCrewsTotal Arrivals
N.Z. Residents ReturningTemporary Visitors Arriving
197737 020249 982380 222667 224140 920183 786991 930
197836 972287 868390 940715 780162 733182 1761 060 689
197940 808346 324418 744805 876176 586172 8251 155 287
198041 607439 137445 195925 939176 822175 8101 278 571
198144 965462 006463 456970 427138 378170 9611 279 766
Year Ended 31 MarchLong-term (Including Permanent) DeparturesShort-term MovementsAll Passenger DeparturesThrough PassengersCrewsTotal Departures
N.Z. Residents DepartingTemporary Visitors Departing
197756 092244 998382 404683 494140 920181 2431 005 657
197863 680284 284389 972737 936162 733182 3271 082 996
197981 008343 764407 648832 420176 586173 1871 182 193
198076 024426 805444 424947 253176 822176 7951 300 870
198169 790451 300465 546986 636138 378170 0801 295 094

A summary of arrivals and departures during the latest 5 years by sex is given in the following table. Crews, through passengers, and members of the armed forces, have not been taken into account in this table.

Year Ended 31 MarchArrivalsDeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures
* Excess of departures over arrivals.
1977349 324317 900667 224357 650325 844683 494-16 270*
1978378 344337 436715 780388 076349 860737 936-22 156*
1979424 848381 028805 876438 504393 916832 420-26 544*
1980484 986440 953925 939495 131452 122947 253-21 314*
1981513 469456 958970 427520 370466 266986 636-16 209*

From 1968 to 1970 there was an alteration in the net migration flow. This is illustrated in the following diagram which covers all passenger migration, excluding through passengers and crews. The excess of departures over arrivals recorded during the March years 1967–68 to 1969-70 was a migration feature unknown since the depression of the 1930s. It was followed by 6 years of migration gains, but since 1976-77 there have been substantial annual losses.

Long-term Migration—The following table gives an analysis of long-term (including permanent) arrivals and departures for March years. (Short-term migration is analysed in Section 37, Travel and Tourism.) In the year ended March 1981 there was a net loss of 24 825 from permanent and long-term migration. This net loss represented a decrease of 9592 or 27.9 percent from the 1979-80 migrant loss figure of 34 417. The main area of change was in the number of departures, which decreased by 6234 or 8.2 percent.

Year Ended 31 MarLong-term (Including Permanent) ArrivalsLong-term (Including Permanent) Departures
New Permanent ArrivalsLong-termPermanent and Long-term Arrivals (Immigrants)Permanent Departures of New Zealand ResidentsLong-termPermanent and Long-term Departures (Emigrants)
SubsidisedTotal (Includes Others)N.Z. Residents Returning*Long-term Visitors*N.Z Residents Depart'g*Long-term Visitors Depart'g*
* Arrivals: after absence of, or intending to stay, 12 months or more respectively. Departures: persons intending to stay away for, or after stay in New Zealand of, 12 months or more respectively.
197743713 40015 5228 09837 02013 04836 1646 88056 092
1978-14 18815 6447 14036 97218 33639 4245 92063 680
1979-9 96022 3288 52040 80819 68052 9528 37681 008
1980-10 76923 5617 27741 60723 87546 1625 98776 024
1981-12 52825 7746 66344 96525 53639 1985 05669 790

The countries of origin and destination of these long-term (including permanent) migrants are shown in the following table.

Year Ended 31 MarAustralia*United KingdomUnited StalesWestern Samoa*Cook Islands and Niue*CanadaOceaniaEuropeAsiaAll Other CountriesTotal

* Included in Oceania.

†Included in Europe.

‡Includes unspecified.

Immigrants by Country of Last Residence
197913 9368 9281 8601 0481 04890821 65210 6322 9882 76840 808
198013 2929 9122 0051 0071 01880719 71611 8903 9603 22941 607
198114 06511 4452 0871 19185981720 36014 0914 8782 73244 965
Emigrants by Country of Next Residence
197941 76015 9923 0841 1808561 37649 64018 0323 7085 16881 008
198042 91013 5492 5171 0157201 34549 31515 4162 9524 47976 024
198142 4839 3232 3731 0557041 31248 29210 8483 3683 59769 790

Ages—The following table gives the age distribution-of long-term (including permanent) arrivals and departures for the year ended 31 March 1981.

Age, in YearsLong-term ArrivalsLong-term DeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures
Under 154 9224 6019 5237 6047 13514 739- 5 216
15-191 6611 7863 4473 2114 1427 353- 3 906
20-244 4715 1869 6579 3918 75818 149- 8 492
25-4410 2098 20018 40913 60410 44224 046- 5 637
45 and over1 9431 9863 9292 8712 6325 503- 1 574
    Total23 20621 75944 96536 68133 10969 790- 24 825

Occupations—The following table shows permanent and long-term arrivals and departures during the year ended 31 March 1981 by occupation major groups and by those occupations or groups of occupations which were the main contributors to the movement within each major group.

OccupationPermanent and Long Term Migrants
ArrivalsDeparturesNet Gain or Loss
* Protective service workers include fire fighters, policemen, detectives, security officers, night watchmen, etc.
Professional, technical, and related workers—
    Architects, engineers, and related technicians1 1201 660-540
    Medical, dental, veterinary, and related workers2 2473 111-864
    Teachers2 0382 146-108
    Workers in religion319405-86
    Other2 1153 202-1 087
              Total8 22411 120-2 896
Administrative and managerial workers—
    Managers8831 558-675
              Total9601 635-675
Clerical and related workers—
    Stenographers, typists, and card and tape punching machine operators1 5692 130-561
    Computing machine operators234393-159
    Other2 4614 847-2 386
              Total4 2647 370-3 106
Sales workers—
    Salespeople, shop assistants, and related workers6791 535-856
    Other5511 096-545
              Total1 2302 631-1 401
Service workers—
    Cooks, waiters and waitresses, bartenders, and related workers7271 225-498
    Protective service workers*451579-128
    Other7021 351-649
              Total1 8803 155-1 275
Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen, and hunters—
    Agricultural and animal husbandry workers368723-355
              Total1 0721 746-674
Production and related workers, transport equipment operators, and labourers—
    Food and beverage processors297858-561
    Tailors, dressmakers, sewers, and related workers264531-267
    Machinery fitters, machine assemblers, and precision instrument makers (except electrical)1 3932 229-836
    Electrical fitters and related electrical and electronics workers443848-405
    Plumbers, welders, sheet-metal and structural metal preparers and erectors5221 014-492
    Printers and related workers259412-153
    Bricklayers, carpenters, and other construction workers9791976-997
    Material-handling and related equipment operators, dockers, and freight handlers278734-456
    Transport equipment operators6271 127-500
    Labourers, not elsewhere classified9051 865-960
    Other9902 097-1 107
              Total7 21114 274-7 063
Occupations unidentifiable or inadequately described1 3451 592-247
              Total, actively engaged26 18643 523-17 337
Not actively engaged18 77926 267-7 488
              Total arrivals and departures44 96569 790-24 825

Origin—The following table shows for the latest 3 years the birthplaces of long-term (including permanent) migrants.

Country of BirthImmigrants*Emigrants

* Persons arriving in New Zealand for a period of 12 months or more (including permanent arrivals). Plus New Zealand residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more.

†New Zealand residents departing for a period of 12 months or more (including permanent departures). Plus overseas visitors departing from New Zealand after a stay of 12 months or more.

North America1 6641 5171 5531 7881 3731 326
    United States1 0961 0661 0551 132838864
South America11291888059119
Europe8 4648 6409 73612 88010 3569 065
    Netherlands7167961 180732525444
    United Kingdom6 6286 7897 37310 7248 4827 550
Asia1 9483 2223 6992 2681 6471 679
Oceania28 00827 57729 38263 32862 12957 100
    Australia4 8324 4204 0134 6204 0 13 716
    Cook Islands and Niue932910758596504595
    New Zealand19 81219 88122 14355 52455 61850 657
Other Countries6486442325519
            Total40 80841 60744 96581 00876 02469 790

IMMIGRATION POLICY—New Zealand's immigration policy is designed to encourage the entry of skilled labour into New Zealand, and to protect domestic employment opportunities for New Zealand citizens and residents who have the right to reside here permanently. At the same time, considerable emphasis is placed on humanitarian considerations such as the reunification of families, and the provision of settlement opportunities for refugees.

Permanent Entry: Occupational Grounds—The New Zealand Government periodically determines the occupational skills in demand in New Zealand which warrant recruitment from overseas. A list of these skills, called the Occupational Priority List (OPL), is published by the Department of Labour to assist employers who are unable to fill job vacancies from within New Zealand.

Another measure adopted to assist employers is the Immigration Placement Service (IPS), which operates through the Migration Branch of the New Zealand High Commission in London and the Employment and Vocational Guidance Service of the Department of Labour. This service provides employers with information on suitably qualified prospective migrants in the United Kingdom.

In general, applicants for permanent entry on occupational grounds must be between the ages of 18 and 45 years, of sound mental and physical health and of good character, and, if married, have no more than 4 dependent children. Accommodation and employment are usually required to be pre-arranged.

In certain skilled occupations where there is a known shortage in New Zealand, the New Zealand Government has relaxed the criteria for entry for suitable applicants who are single persons or married couples without children by waiving the requirement of employment and accommodation guarantees. This scheme is currently operating on a trial basis and applies to migrants from certain selected countries only. There is also provision for the entry of business people and entrepreneurs who can bring both skills and capital which the Government considers will benefit New Zealand, for example, by creating additional employment opportunities or by generating new exports.

Applications are occasionally received from persons who have distinguished themselves in the arts or sciences, or in public or cultural life overseas, and who wish to settle in New Zealand. Although they could make a major contribution to New Zealand life, most of them do not qualify in terms of normal occupational criteria. In the same way, applications are sometimes received from persons who, although outside normal criteria, have been actively involved in promoting or protecting New Zealand's interests overseas. The Minister of Immigration may approve such applications in appropriate cases.

Humanitarian Grounds—Consideration is also given to people applying to enter on humanitarian grounds. The policy on family reunification provides for the entry of people who have close family ties with people already living in New Zealand. Applications which can be considered under this heading include those from the spouses and/or children of New Zealand citizens or permanent residents; and the parents or other members of the immediate family (e.g., brothers and sisters if they are single and without dependants) provided they are the sole surviving members of the family permanently resident in the country in which they live.

Western Samoa—Within the South Pacific region, immigrants from Western Samoa constitute by far the largest group entering New Zealand for permanent settlement under a special quota arrangement instituted in 1962. Up to 1100 Western Samoan citizens may be accepted for permanent entry each year, over and above those who qualify under the family reunification provisions of the immigration policy. Applicants who seek entry under the quota are required to meet normal requirements in relation to age, family size, health, character, and accommodation, and to be in possession of a guarantee of employment in any occupation, prior to entry.

The Netherlands—Under the terms of a migration agreement between the Netherlands and New Zealand, New Zealand accepts an annual quota of immigrants from the Netherlands. Migrants accepted under this arrangements are required to meet normal criteria with respect to age, family size, health and character, and the Netherlands Emigration Service guarantees to place such migrants in employment and accommodation after arrival.

Refugees—The admission and resettlement of refugees who come within the mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been an important priority of the New Zealand Government. Refugees have been accepted in New Zealand since 1944 from Europe, Asia, South America, and Uganda. When selecting refugees emphasis is placed on the humanitarian circumstances of each case. The selection criteria may vary for different refugee situations but it is considered in the best interests of the refugees themselves that those selected can be expected to adapt quickly to New Zealand conditions. Account is also taken of any previous association with New Zealand, and of links with friends or relatives living in New Zealand.

Where refugees arrive in large groups (e.g., as in the Indo-Chinese Refugee Programme) the Government provides special assistance in the form of group orientation programmes for up to 6 weeks after arrival. During that period the refugees are accommodated in the Mangere Reception Centre and costs are met by various Government departments including the Department of Social Welfare, which pays a special emergency benefit to meet living expenses until the breadwinner begins working. Medical and dental checks are provided by the Department of Health, and the Department of Education organises general orientation and familiarisation courses (covering aspects of daily living in New Zealand) and instruction in the English language. After completing the orientation programme the refugee settlers are moved to their final destinations where they are helped by their sponsors and, where possible, by other persons from their country of origin, to overcome their early resettlement problems in a local community.

Resettlement committees at each of the district offices of the Department of Labour assist refugee sponsors at the local level with employment and any other problems that the refugees may face, as well as following up each local group's progress.

Current policy establishes quotas of refugees who may be accepted for entry, and the quotas are kept under review. New quotas approved in September 1979 in the continuing programme of acceptance of East European, Russian Jewish, and handicapped refugees provide for the entry of 90 families. A quota of 1000 Indo-Chinese refugees has been approved for entry between 1 January 1981 and 30 June 1982, with the emphasis on the selection of refugees with family connections in New Zealand. Once established in New Zealand, refugee settlers may sponsor the entry of relatives to New Zealand for family reunification under normal family reunification policy. Some 700 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived for resettlement during 1981, bringing the total of Indo-Chinese refugee settlers in New Zealand to just over 4000 at the end of 1981. In July 1981, the Government agreed to resettle 100 Polish refugees in New Zealand. When these migrants were selected account was taken of their occupational skills.

Interdepartmental Committee on Resettlement—The Interdepartmental Committee on Resettlement (ICR), in consultation with other Government agencies and non-Government bodies, reviews the facilities available to assist new migrants, and as appropriate develops proposals to satisfy the reasonable requirements of new migrants.

Migrant Films—As part of the ICR's long-term plan to present migrants with comprehensive pre-departure information about New Zealand, the Asia Pacific Research Unit Ltd. has produced 2 migrant information films. Living In New Zealand concerns the adjustment to living in New Zealand by Pacific Islanders, and Working Together in New Zealand is a general information film for skilled applicants on various aspects of daily life in New Zealand.

Resettlement Unit—As a part of the Immigration Division of the Department of Labour, the Resettlement Unit's role is to assess the range of resettlement services available to new settlers and working visitors. It has undertaken two major projects this year. The first has been to produce a directory entitled “Services for New Settlers: A New Zealand Directory” which lists the organisations available to assist new migrants.

The second project has been to begin an investigative study into the settlement process to assess the difficulties encountered by new settlers, and to identify ways in which new settlers can be assisted. This study will enable the unit to build up a comprehensive picture of the resettlement process.

Temporary Entry—Entry permits for people wishing to visit New Zealand on a temporary basis are generally issued for varying periods of up to 6 months, though further extensions may be granted to bona fide tourists and other visitors to allow a total stay of up to 12 months. Visitors who wish to work while in New Zealand, whether for a New Zealand employer or on behalf of an overseas company, must apply for a temporary work permit; otherwise visitors are prohibited from working here. This requirement does not, however, affect Australian citizens who wish to work while in New Zealand, nor does it affect persons born in the Cook Islands, Niue, or Tokelau, who are New Zealand citizens and therefore have unrestricted right of entry into this country.

South Pacific Work Permit Schemes—New Zealand has special work permit schemes in operation for citizens of Tonga, Fiji, and Western Samoa. Under these schemes, agreed upon after negotiations with the respective governments, workers may undertake employment in response to specific job offers from New Zealand employers. Employers are required to make financial and other commitments to ensure the welfare of Island workers while they are in New Zealand, and the Department of Labour checks that the conditions of employment offered are acceptable and that the accommodation provided is of a suitable standard. The maximum period of employment is 11 months.

From time to time New Zealand makes special arrangements on an ad hoc basis with other Pacific countries to provide employment opportunities as local conditions permit.

Student Entry—Entry may be granted to overseas students to undertake approved courses of study, provided they make prior application and meet a number of requirements (including producing evidence of the availability of the necessary funds). The primary aim in permitting students from other countries to study in New Zealand is to train them to a stage where they can be of value in the development programmes of their own countries. For this reason, students from developing nations have preference.

Formalities: Entry Permits—Except for New Zealand citizens and certain other categories of travellers listed below under “Special Arrangements”, all persons entering New Zealand are required to obtain entry permits under the Immigration Act 1964. All persons intending permanent residence in New Zealand should seek prior approval before setting out on their journey. This may be done by writing to the nearest overseas representative of the New Zealand Government or to the Secretary of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand for the necessary application forms. Visitors to New Zealand from a number of countries may not require visas or prior entry authority, provided the purpose of entry is for tourism or to visit family and friends. Further details are available from the nearest overseas representative of New Zealand.

Passports—All persons who arrive in New Zealand, excepting New Zealand citizens travelling direct from Australia and certain other Trans-Tasman travellers listed below, may be required to produce a valid passport or some other acceptable and recognised travel document.

Special Arrangements: Australian Citizens—Australian citizens are exempt from New Zealand entry permit requirements (but not from other provisions of the Immigration Act). They are not required to produce a passport on arrival in New Zealand if they have travelled direct from Australia.

Trans-Tasman Travellers—British Commonwealth citizens and citizens of the Republic of Ireland who have been granted permission to reside indefinitely without restriction in Australia, providing they have travelled direct from Australia to New Zealand, are not required to obtain a prior entry authority or to produce a passport on arrival. They may, however, be asked to produce some evidence of their entitlement to the exemption. These travellers are not exempted from other provisions of the Immigration Act.

Prohibited Immigrants—The following categories of persons are prohibited from entry to New Zealand whether for permanent or temporary entry:

  1. Mentally disordered persons, or people suffering from tuberculosis, leprosy, or syphilis;

  2. Persons who have been convicted of an offence and sentenced to a term of imprisonment or other form of detention for 1 year or more or to any form of indeterminate detention for which they may be detained for a period of 1 year or more;

  3. Persons who have been deported from New Zealand (except for a certain class of ship deserter), or deported from any other country. Those within any of the above categories who enter New Zealand without first obtaining special permission to do so commit an offence under the Immigrations Act 1964.

Re-entry—People who have the status of permanent residents lose their residential status when they travel out of the country, unless they have first obtained a re-entry authority. A re-entry authority is valid for four years from the date of issue, and entitles the holder to leave and return to New Zealand on any number of occasions while the authority remains valid. Application for a re-entry authority may be lodged at any district office of the Department of Labour before departure. It is advisable to apply at least two weeks before departure.

Remaining in New Zealand Without a Permit—Persons who remain in New Zealand beyond the validity of a temporary permit are committing an offence against the Immigration Act and, if convicted, are liable to be deported.

Deportation—The Immigration Act 1964 makes provision for the deportation of persons in four main categories: persons convicted of certain offences against the Immigration Act; permanent residents who are convicted within specified periods of their arrival in New Zealand of an offence for which the Court has the power to impose imprisonment; those who have engaged in, or who belong to organisations which have engaged in, acts of terrorism; and any person who the Minister of Immigration has certified constitutes a threat to national security.

Appeals Against Deportation—Persons who have been convicted of offences against the Immigration Act may appeal in writing to the Minister of Immigration against deportation on the grounds that it would be unduly harsh or unjust to deport them. In addition, a Deportation Review Tribunal is empowered to hear appeals on humanitarian grounds from permanent residents against deportation orders following convictions for criminal offences.

Further Information—Further information may be obtained from the nearest New Zealand overseas representative, or from district offices of the Department of Labour, or by writing to the Secretary of Labour, Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington.

PASSPORTS—Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1980.

New Zealand passports are issued and renewed within New Zealand by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington, Auckland, Rotorua, Christchurch, and Dunedin, at Rarotonga and Niue by the New Zealand Representatives, and overseas by the representatives of New Zealand at Apia, Athens, Baghdad, Bahrain, Bangkok, Bonn, Brussels, Canberra, Geneva, The Hague, Hong Kong, Honiara, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City (from 1982), Moscow, New York, Noumea, Nuku'alofa, Ottawa, Paris, Peking, Port Moresby, Rome, San Francisco, Santiago (Chile), Seoul, Singapore, Suva, Sydney, Tehran, Tokyo, Toronto, Vancouver, Vienna, and Washington.

United Kingdom, Canadian, Australian, Malaysian, Singapore, Fijian, Western Samoan, and Indian passports are issued and renewed in New Zealand by the respective High Commissioners for those countries.

During the year ended 31 March 1981 there were 87 542 New Zealand passports issued, compared with 103 945 during the previous year.

Entry into New Zealand—As from 1 January 1981 the Department of Labour is responsible for entry requirements into New Zealand.

Departure from New Zealand—It is normal for each person leaving New Zealand (except for British subjects including New Zealand citizens, travelling between New Zealand and Australia or making the round trip to New Zealand's island territories) to be in possession of a valid passport or other document for their onward travel.

CITIZENSHIP—The current basic law on New Zealand citizenship is the Citizenship Act 1977, which is administered by the Department of Internal Affairs. Previously, the relevant law was the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948.

Under the Citizenship Act 1977, New Zealand citizenship may be acquired in the following ways: (a) by birth in New Zealand; (b) by descent (i.e. birth outside New Zealand); (c) by grant of citizenship. Those persons who were citizens under the previous Act (whether by birth, descent, naturalisation or registration) at 31 December 1977, retain their status under the current legislation. The current legislation also allows for citizenship by descent through the female line. To be eligible for a grant of New Zealand citizenship a person (other than the spouse of a New Zealand citizen; or a person under 18 years of age) must—(a) have resided in New Zealand for the 3 years immediately preceding the date of application; (b) be entitled in terms of the Immigration Act 1964 to reside in New Zealand permanently; (c) be of full capacity; (d) be of good character; (e) have sufficient knowledge of the English language and of the responsibilities and privileges attaching to New Zealand citizenship; (f) intend to continue to reside in New Zealand or to enter or continue Crown service under the New Zealand Government, or service in the employment of a person, company, society, or other body of persons resident or established in New Zealand.

Under current legislation adults who acquire New Zealand citizenship by grant may be asked to swear allegiance to the Queen of New Zealand. British subjects or Commonwealth citizens whose country recognises Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State are asked to take the oath on the application form. Other persons whose country of birth does not give this recognition are required to swear allegiance at a public ceremony. Apart from this one differentiation, the Act treats aliens (non-British subjects) on exactly the same basis as British subjects.

New Zealand citizens may be deprived of New Zealand citizenship if they voluntarily acquire a foreign nationality by any formal act other than by marriage and have acted in a manner that is contrary to the interests of New Zealand or voluntarily exercised any of the privileges or performed any of the duties of another nationality or citizenship in a manner that is contrary to the interests of New Zealand. Citizenship obtained by fraud, false representation, mistake, or wilful concealment of relevant information may be withdrawn. Under certain conditions New Zealand citizenship may also be validly renounced.

Upon the introduction of the Citizenship Act 1977 the requirement that aliens be registered was abolished.

There was an increase in applications for citizenship during the year ended 31 March 1981. Applications received totalled 7599 compared with 6837 during the previous year, and 7437 persons were granted citizenship.


The series of tables on the following pages contain statistics from the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. These subject-matter statistics have been obtained by the advance processing of a sample selection of the questionnaires and are therefore provisional. Also, because of the rounding procedures used, totals do not necessarily represent the exact sum of the component parts.

MARITAL STATUS—The marital status of usually-resident persons aged 15 years and over as returned at the Census of Population 1981 is summarised in the following tables.

Age Croup (Years)Never MarriedMarriedSeparated*WidowedDivorcedTotalDe Facto Relationship

* Includes persons who are still married but permanently separated.

†Including persons not specifying status.

‡Persons in this column are also included in one of the preceding formal marital status columns.

15-19152 06080030-40155 0502 590
20-2499 81029 4501 71050300138 77011 140
25-3450 230163 14011 8503705 180239 07016 750
35-4413 940144 3609 6407806 700178 6807 900
45-5411 490125 2906 9202 7206 040154 1204 200
55-649 570108 9803 6705 1804 450132 4601 460
65-745 67071 6501 8409 9602 30091 780410
75 and over2 67024 31053011 13066039 50070
    Total, 1981345 440667 98036 21030 17025 7001 129 44044 530
    Total, 1976313 875700 24437 02427 35515 0051 075 175 
15-19140 0704 9603205010149 9306 820
20-2465 01053 9604 390160690131 99013 330
25-3428 400179 43016 1401 3808 430240 01014 020
35-448 380144 80011 0503 3809 470179 2206 250
45-547 000118 5206 4108 5606 260147 6902 490
55-647 99098 7703 18023 0505 050138 560930
65-748 51055 0901 65041 0403 370109 990210
75 and over7 52013 74037047 36085070 18070
    Total, 1981272 890669 27043 510124 99034 1401 167 55044 120
    Total, 1976240 781703 26421 842114 16420 1491 101 303 

The percentage distribution aged 15 years or over according to marital status is given in the following summary.

Marital Status19761981*

* Provisional.

†Legally separated only.

†All permanent separations of married persons.

Never married29.221.931.223.8

HOUSEHOLDS—There was a provisional total of 1 004 300 private households living in permanent dwellings at the Census in 1981. The following table analyses the type of household by the number of occupants. A complete one-family-only household consists of a husband and wife with or without unmarried children of any age who are living at home.

Type of HouseholdTotal Private Households*Number of Private Households* with Number of Members
1234567 or More
* Resident in permanent dwellings.
    Complete555 220-205 15097 340137 4076 69027 00011 620
    Incomplete with children absent106 850-43 21032 79018 9007 7702 6201 560
    Incomplete with one parent absent
    Incomplete with one parent and child(ren) absent
                  Total662 070-248 360130 130156 32084 46029 62013 180
Other family—
    One family plus other persons (non-family)95 260--23 79021 34020 68014 21015 240
    Multi-family with or without other persons
                  Total95 260--23 79021 34020 68014 21015 240
    Multi-person61 500-43 87011 4604 1701 370420210
    Ore person185 470185 47043 87011 4604 1701 370420210
                  Total246 970185 47043 87011 4604 1701 370420210
                  Grand Total1004 300185 470292 230165 380181 830106 51044 25028 630

In the following table one-complete-family-only households at the 1981 Census are analysed by membership and the employment status of the head of the household.

Employment Status of HeadTotal HouseholdsHusband and Wife OnlyHusband and Wife with
1 Child2 Children3 Children4 Children5 or More Children

* Provisional.

†Includes heads working part-time (1 to 19 hours weekly).

‡Short-term visitors.

Number of Households*
In full-time labour force—
    Self-employed—has employees42 3708 3207 94012 9509 0203 0101 130
    Self-employed—no employees49 67012 7008 44014 7109 3703 4301 020
    Salary or wage earner355 460100 28067 750103 83055 54019 3108 750
    Unemployed, seeking work6 4101 5401 5401 580800540410
    Relative assisting—unpaid490290100602020-
    Not specified (working 20 hrs. or more)890300230210905010
        Total455 290123 43086 000133 34074 84026 36011 320
Not in full-time labour force
    Retired90 39077 5909 4402 25085020060
    Household duties3 7401 58079078034016090
    Other4 7601 890960910600260140
        Total90 62081 52011 3104 0201 830640300
Not defined310200306020--
        Grand total555 220205 15097 340137 42076 69027 00011 620

The following table shows the composition of one-complete-family-only households in 1981 analysed by the age group of the head of the household.

Age Group of Head (Years)Husband and Wife OnlyHusband and Wife withTotal Households
1 Child2 Children3 Children4 Children5 or More Children
* Provisional.
Number of Households*
Under 201 18048014010--1 810
20-2417 5307 6404 4109601302030 690
25-4440 98040 16098 78058 20020 0807 770265 970
45-6476 27041 69032 68017 0906 6903 810178 230
65 and over69 1907 3701 4104301002078 520
          Total205 15097 340137 42076 69027 00011 620555 220
Percentage of Age Group
Under 2065.
65 and over88.
All ages36.917.524.813.84.92.1100.0

Household Incomes—The first of the two tables following shows the incomes (excluding incomes from Social Security benefits) of one-complete-family-only households by composition of households.

Income of Household*Husband and Wife OnlyHusband and wife withTotal Households
1 Child2 Children3 Children4 Children5 or More Children

* Estimated income before Social Security benefits for the year ended 31 March 1981.


‡Includes 310 households headed by short-term visitors.

$Number of Households
Nil17 0801 2801 03057033014020 430
1- 1,99922 3901 44085054016013025 510
2,000- 4,99913 8201 6301 2406502905017 680
5,000- 9,99921 5709 40010 2305 1002 12089049 310
10,000-13,99922 49016 34022 58012 5403 9401 58079 470
14,000-19,99929 06020 32033 02017 1505 4901 770106 810
20,000-24,99929 57013 38020 27010 3203 4401 30078 280
25,000-39,99924 77016 12022 11012 5603 9701 81081 340
40,000-59,9993 1902 9705 16G3 9001 42046017 100
60,000 and over1 0801 0001 8001 3605502306 020
Not specified20 13013 46019 13012 0005 2903 26073 270
      Total205 15097 340137 42076 69027 00011 620555 220

The following table shows incomes (including income from Social Security benefits) of all households in permanent private dwellings by type of household.

Total Household Income incl. Income from Social Security Benefits)Household TypeTotal Households
One Family Only CompleteOne Family Only IncompleteOther FamilyNon-FamilyOne Person

* Provisional.

†Includes 730 households headed by short-term visitors or children.

$Number of Households*
Nil670900402001 8403 650
1- 1,9993 4706 4806605804 83016 020
2,000- 4,9997 8609 5601 6302 13066 69087 870
5,000- 9,99977 68021 9906 6407 92044 300158 530
10,000-13,99977 03012 2508 1108 20027 030132 620
14,000-19,999119 52015 18014 74011 30017 380178 120
20,000-24,99983 4008 62011 5109 9004 280117 710
25,000-39,99987 79011 18019 7809 5302 650130 930
40,000-59,99918 2503 1506 2902 09056030 340
60,000 and over6 2801 3602 40044026010 740
Not specified73 27016 18023 4609 21015 650137 770
      Total555 220106 85095 26061 500185 4701 004 300

People Living Alone—The following tables show persons living alone in 1981 by age, sex, and marital status.

Age Group (in Years)Marital Status
Never MarriedMarriedSeparated*DivorcedWidowedTotal

* Includes persons who are still married but permanently separated.

†Includes children, short-term visitors, and those of unspecified marital status.


Males Living Alone
Under201 6102010--1 710
20-245 79045020010-6 550
25-4411 8102 2304 6202 57012021 950
45-648 5602 4603 5404 2102 79021 830
65 and over3 7201 9401 2201 58011 59020 220
          Total31 4907 1009 5908 37014 50072 260
Females Living Alone
Under201 5103020-101 610
20-243 62050026050-4 520
25-446 5901 1801 6401 51042011 480
45-646 4302 2902 6404 34014 00029 890
65 and over8 0001 7701 2102 77051 82065 710
          Total26 1505 7705 7708 67066 250113 210

GROUP-LIVING QUARTERS—The following table shows the number of inmates and total occupants of various types of group-living quarters at the time of the 1976 Census (1981 Census figures were not available at the time of going to press). In comparing the numbers of inmates with the total number of occupants (especially in the case of prisons and penal institutions) it should be borne in mind that only those staff who actually live in the group-living quarters are included in the table. Those occupying separate residences outside the group-living quarters will have been enumerated in their own homes, even though they may have been on duty in the boarding school, hospital, prison, or other group-living quarters on the night of the census.

Type of Group-living QuartersNumberNumber of Group-living Quarters By Number of InmatesTotal InmatesTotal Occupants Including Staff
Below 2020-99100 and Over
Hotels, motels, hostels, boardinghouses, and motor camps3 1942 7384193739 69147 043
Educational institutions3501271556821 36122 284
Welfare institutions (children's homes, etc.)6344441791112 11713 953
Medical institutions (hospitals, etc.)4542521356727 94129 050
Religious institutions30227824-2 4192 718
Armed forces (including naval base and naval vessels)682625174 7574 780
Works and construction camps and police camps, etc.5073181682112 33212 968
Prisons and penal institutions543113102 9522 987
Seasonal workers' quarters3973943-1 5201 858
Vessels (excluding naval vessels)1671036222 9963 764
Other institutions6494841461911 38912 132
                Total6 7765 1951 329252139 475153 537

RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONS—The following summary presents the main religious professions returned at the 1971, 1976, and 1981 Censuses.

Religious ProfessionNumber of AdherentsPercentage

* Associated Pentecostal Churches of New Zealand.


Anglican (Church of England)895 839915 202817 11031.329.225.7
Presbyterian583 701566 569531 44020.418.116.7
Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined)449 974478 530453 44015.715.314.3
Methodist182 727173 526150 4806.45.54.7
Christian n.o.d.33 18752 478 1.21.7 
Baptist47 35049 44250 8601.71.61.6
Latter Day Saints (Mormon)29 78536 13037 7501.01.21.2
Ratana30 15635 08234 3701.11.11.1
Protestant n.o.d.37 47533 309 1.31.1 
Brethren25 76824 414 0.90.8 
Salvation Army19 37122 019 0.70.7 
Atheist9 29114 283 0.30.5 
Agnostic9 48114 136 0.30.5 
Jehovah's Witness10 31813 392 0.40.4 
Seventh Day Adventist10 47711 958 0.40.4 
Church of Christ8 9308 087 0.30.3 
Congregational7 7046 600 0.30.2 
Lutheran5 9306 297 0.20.2 
Ringatu5 6356 230 0.20.2 
Assemblies of God*3 5995 581 0.10.2 
Hindu3 8455 203 0.10.2 
Pentecostal*1 8594 846 0.10.2 
Undenominational3 7094 222 0.10.1 
Eastern Orthodox4 3194 153 0.20.1 
Hebrew3 8033 921 0.10.1 
Union Church1 1543 045 0.1 
Apostolic*2 3612 693 0.10.1 
Undenominational Christian1 9032 554 0.10.1 
Buddhist1 3702 382 0.1 
Spiritualist1 0151 731 0.1 
Christadelphian1 6671 686 0.10.1 
Reformed Church of N.Z.1 62813 58 0.1  
Society of Friends9661 074  
Humanist5101 060  
Orthodox5801 047  
All other religious professions16 42834 626357 0800.61.111.2
No religion (so returned) and not specified161 018140 591277 0605.64.58.7
Object to state247 019438 511470 6110 8.614.014.8
            Total2 862 6313 129 3833 180 190100.0100.0100.0

The category “All other religious professions” includes also cases of facetious answers and those which were not specified in sufficient detail to allow precise classification. Figures under “Object to state” represent those persons availing themselves of the special statutory right of objecting to answer a question on this subject.

AGE DISTRIBUTION—In the following table the total population at the 1976 and 1981 Censuses of Population is shown by sex and age distribution.

Age (Years)1976 Census1981 Census*Percentage of Total Population

* Provisional

†Under 20 years.

0- 4151 086145 019296 105129 940124 690254 6209.58.0
5- 9159 187152 586311 773149 020143 050292 06010.09.2
10-14163 869156 458320 327155 690150 300305 90010.29.6
15-1794 94391 101186 04491 04088 910179 9505.95.7
18-1958 39256 301114 69364 68061 580126 2703.74.0
20-24131 644127 931259 575140 780133 610274 3908.38.6
25-29125 668123 472249 140120 580122 060242 6408.07.6
30-34100 84798 651199 498122 100120 120242 2206.47.6
35-3989 71787 380177 09794 86095 010189 8705.76.0
40-4477 89974 732152 63185 85085 540171 3904.95.4
45-4984 16178 71716 287875 90073 850149 7405.24.7
50-5478 16677 535155 70180 16075 820155 9805.14.9
55-5966 54770 639137 18673 20074 250147 4504.44.6
60-6460 92466 304127 22861 78068 000129 7804.14.1
65-6949 80556 643106 44854 31062 900117 2003.43.7
70-7433 82642 02975 85539 67050 02089 6902.42.8
75-7919 94230 13650 07823 81034 21058 0201.51.8
80-849 51118 42527 93610 55020 99031 5500.91.0
85-894 3479 49113 8383 97010 74014 7100.40.5
90 and over1 5613 7915 3521 7404 9306 6700.20.2
        Total1 562 0421 567 3413 129 3831 579 6401 600 5603 180 200100.0100.0
Under 15 years474 142454 063928 205434 650418 040852 67029.726.8
15-64 years968 908952 7631 921 6711 010 930998 7502 009 68061.463.2
65 years and over118 992160 515279 507134 050183 790317 8408.910.0
Minors627 477601 4651 228 942590 370568 5301 158 89039.336.4
Adults934 565965 8761 900 441989 2601 032 0502 021 30060.763.6

In the following table provisional figures of the total and Maori populations at the 1981 Census are given for a number of broad age groups.

This demonstrates the relative youthfulness of the Maori population, a fact mentioned in Section 4, Vital Statistics, and elsewhere in this Yearbook.

Age Group (Years)Total PopulationMaori Population
* Persons of half or more N.Z. Maori origin.
Under 15434 650418 040852 67026.856 93055 740112 66040.2
Under 18525 690506 9501 032 62032.567 67066 810134 47048.0
Under 20590 370568 5301 158 89037.374 88073 740148 61053.0
18 and over1 053 9401 093 6302 147 57067.571 92074 060145 91052.0
20 and over989 2601 032 0502 021 30063.664 71067 130131 77047.0
60 and over195 830251 790447 62014.15 2205 67010 8503.9
65 and over134 050183 790317 84010.03 2103 4106 5802.3
80 and over16 26036 66052 9301.73003406200.2
        Total1 579 6401 600 5603 180 200100.0139 570140 810280 380100.0

ETHNIC GROUPS—The following table shows the broad ethnic origins of the usually resident New Zealand population.

Ethnic GroupCensus

* Covers persons who specified themselves as half or more New Zealand Maori, plus those who indicated they were persons of the Maori race of New Zealand, but did not specify the degree of Maori origin.

†Half or more of given descent group.


European2 672 9192 696 640
Maori*269 954280 260
Other origins
    Pacific Island Polynesian—
        Samoan27 747 
        Cook Island Maori18 547 
Other origins
    Pacific Island Polynesian—
        Niuean5 671 
        Tongan3 873 
        Tokelauan1 709 
        Other3 424 
        Sub-total, Pacific Island Polynesian60 97191 580
    Chinese14 23618 450
    Indian8 86110 310
    Fijian1 324 
    Syrian, Lebanese, and Arab740 
    Other ethnic groups5 55011 060
        Sub-total, others30 71139 820
Not specified68 71039 320
        Total3 103 2653 147 620

COUNTRY OF BIRTH—Since 1945 the New Zealand-born population has remained in the range 84 to 86 percent of the total population including short-stay visitors to the country.

For 1976 and 1981, of the population usually resident in New Zealand who specified country of birth, the percentages born in New Zealand were 84.3 and 85.4 respectively.

The next table shows the duration of residence in New Zealand of persons born overseas and usually resident in New Zealand at the 1976 and 1981 censuses.

Years of Residence1976 Census1981 Census*
Number Born OverseasPercentage of Specified CasesNumber Born OverseasPercentage of Specified Cases

* Provisional.

†Specified overseas birthplaces totalled 456 240. An additional 13 730 cases of not specified birthplaces are included in the analysis by duration.

0- 4133 51828.157 78013.2
5- 959 05212.489 55020.5
10-1464 46713.652 47012.0
15-1948 69110.253 43012.2
20 and over169 79235.7183 38042.0
Not specified10 040 33 360 
          Total485 560100.0469 970100.0

INTERNAL MIGRATION—Data on internal migration based on the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings were not available at the time of going to press. At the 1976 Census of Population and Dwellings the questions on internal migration related to place of usual residence 5 years prior to the census, and number of years resided at usual residential address.

The following table (in percentages) gives a summary by statistical areas of the usually resident New Zealand population by their residence 5 years ago (i.e., at 1971 Census). In New Zealand, as a whole, 51.5 percent of the population were living at the same address as 5 years previous. The areas of greatest stability were the East Coast Statistical Area with 58.4 percent unchanged, Westland with 57.8 percent unchanged, and Southland with 55.0 percent unchanged.

Movement within statistical areas was greatest in South Auckland - Bay of Plenty, where 31.8 percent of the population had moved from their address of 5 years ago but had remained within the statistical area. Other statistical areas whose percentage was higher than the overall New Zealand figure of 29.6 percent were Wellington, which recorded 30.9 percent; Southland, 30.8 percent; Canterbury, 30.4 percent; and Central Auckland, 29.9 percent.

Persons who had shifted to a different statistical area between the 1971 and 1976 Censuses comprised 10.9 percent of the usually resident New Zealand population. Marlborough Statistical Area contained the highest proportion of persons who had shifted to the area from elsewhere in New Zealand (21.1 percent), followed by Westland (17 percent), Northland (16.8 percent), and Nelson (16 percent).

Persons whose address 5 years prior to the 1976 Census had been overseas, comprised 5.7 percent of the usually resident New Zealand population.

The highest proportion of these overseas migrants were located in the Central Auckland and Wellington Statistical Areas where 9.1 percent and 6.1 percent respectively of the usually resident population belonged to this category.

In arriving at the percentages in the following table, children under 5 years of age were, of course, excluded.

Usual Residence on Census Sight 1976*Usual Residence 5 Years Prior to Census (1976)
UnchangedChanged But Within Statistical AreaElsewhere in Sew ZealandSew Zealand Residents So Settled Abode or Sot SpecifiedPacific IslandsUnited Kingdom and IrelandAustraliaOther Countries Including Sot Specified OverseasTotal
* Excludes no settled abode or not specified.
Central Auckland49.929.
South Auckland-Bay of Plenty48.831.812.
East Coast58.423.
Hawke's Bay54.626.
        Total North Island50.729.810.
        Total South Island53.828.911.
        Total New Zealand51.529.610.

Statistics on years resided at usual address, together with more detailed statistics on residence 5 years ago, will be found in the 1976 Census Volume 11, Internal Migration.

STATISTICS OF WORLD POPULATION—The area and estimated population of the major areas and selected countries at mid-year 1980 are shown in the following table. (Source: U.N. Population and Vital Statistics Report). The UN report should be consulted for further information and greater detail.

Major Areas and CountriesAreaPopulation

* World and major area figures are provisional totals for mid-1981.

†Includes Central America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii.

Major Areas(000)million
    Africa30 319483
    America—North24 249376
    America—South17 832251
    Asia27 5802 607
    Europe4 937485
    Oceania8 51023
    U.S.S.R.22 402269
        World total135 8304 495*
Selected Countries
    Algeria2 38218.6
    Angola1 2477.1
    Egypt1 00142.0
    Ethiopia1 22231.1
    South Africa1 22129.3
    Sudan2 50618.7
    Zaire2 34528.3
America, North
    Canada9 97623.9
    United States9 363227.6
America, South
    Argentine2 76727.1
    Brazil8 512123.0
    Colombia1 13927.5
    Peru1 28517.8
    China9 597975.2
    Hong Kong15.1
    India3 288663.6
    Indonesia1 904151.9
    Iran1 64837.4
    Saudi Arabia2 1508.4
    Sri Lanka6614.7
    Syrian Arab Republic1859.0
    Ireland, Republic of703.3
    United Kingdom24455.9
    Yugoslavia, Republic of25622.3
    Australia7 68714.6
    New Caledonia190.1
    New Zealand2693.1
    Papua New Guinea4623.1

FURTHER INFORMATION—Other publications containing data on population include the following. Department of Statistics bulletins may be obtained from the Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Wellington or, in some cases, Government Bookshops. Most other official publications may be obtained from Government Bookshops in the main centres.

* Also available for 1981 Census.
    Population and Migration—Department of Statistics (Annual)
        Pt A—Population
        Pt B—Migration
    Census of Population and Dwellings 1981—Department of Statistics.
    Regional Statistics Series
    Bulletin 1-10 (Each bulletin gives final population, dwelling, and household statistics on a major area of New Zealand)
    Provisional Statistics Series:
        Bulletin 1—Local Authority Areas.
        Bulletin 2—National Statistics.
        Bulletin 3—Regional Statistics.
    Census of Population and Dwellings 1976—Department of Statistics.
        Vol. 1—Location and Increase of Population.
            Pt. A—Population Size and Distribution*.
            Pt. B—Population Density.
            Pt. C—Usually Resident Population.
        Vol. 2—Ages and Marital Status.
        Vol. 3—Religious Professions.
        Vol. 4—Labour Force.
    Monthly Abstract of Statistics—Department of Statistics.
    Demographic Bulletin—Department of Statistics.
    New Zealand Sub-national Population Projections 1976-1991 (Series of 20 bulletins)—Department of Statistics.
    Pocket Digest of Statistics—Department of Statistics.
    Miscellaneous Bulletin Series—Department of Statistics.
        No. 1—New Zealand Males and Females—A Statistical Comparison.
        No. 7—New Zealand Maori and Non-Maori Populations.
        No. 10—Family Statistics in New Zealand.
        No. 12—New Zealand Children 1979.
    Social Trends in New Zealand—Department of Statistics (1977).
    The New Zealand People 1971 (Summary of data from 1971 Census of Population and Dwellings)—Department of Statistics.
    Maps of Statistical Boundaries—Department of Statistics.

Chapter 6. Section 4 VITAL STATISTICS


The major components of population growth are natural increase and any gain from migration. The slowing-down of New Zealand's population growth in recent years has been a result of a fall in increments from both components. The balance of migration has, in fact, showed an annual loss of population since 1976-77, and the continued fall in the birth rate over the past 2 decades has substantially reduced the excess of births over deaths.

The following table shows the numbers and rates of natural increase for the latest 5 years, and emphasises the relatively high rate for the Maori component of the population.

YearTotal PopulationMaorisNatural Increase Rates per 1000 Mean Population
BirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseBirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseTotalMaori
197754 17925 96128 2186 7851 4165 3699.0219.47
197851 02924 66926 3606 5801 2155 3658.4219.13
197952 27925 34026 9396 6541 3065 3488.6218.73
198050 54226 67623 8666 4201 3395 0817.6217.61
198150 79425 15025 6446 6051 2905 3158.12 

In the 5 years to 31 December 1981 New Zealand gained by natural increase of population a total of just over 131 000.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—An international comparison of birth and natural increase rates for certain countries is made in the following table. The rates, taken from the United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, are for 1980.

CountryRate per 1000 of Population
BirthsDeathsNatural Increase
New Zealand16.18.57.6
United States16.28.97.3
United Kingdom13.511.81.7
West Germany10.011.5-1.5


REGISTRATION—The law regarding the registration of births is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. A birth is normally registered at the office of the Registrar nearest the place of birth.

Birth statistics are compiled by the Department of Statistics from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year. The figures do not include still births, except where multiple births are discussed. A special classification of still births is given later in this subsection.

Under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, provision is made for births not registered in the ordinary way to be recorded at a later date in a special register kept by the Registrar-General. Such cases include elderly people requiring evidence of age for social welfare purposes. Until 1971 these late registrations were included in published live-birth statistics but they are now excluded. The numbers are normally relatively small; in 1980 they totalled 359.

NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table shows the numbers of births and the rates for the latest 5 years. Late registrations (see above) have been excluded from all these figures. The birth rate, which fell in the early 1960s and then appeared to stabilise at 22 to 23 births per 1000 of mean population in the later 1960s, resumed the decline in the 1970s and, as the decade ended, appeared to be reaching a new stability at a lower level.

YearNumbersRates per 1000 of Mean Population
197754 1796 78517.3224.61
197851 0296 58016.3123.46
197952 2796 65416.7323.30
198050 5426 42016.1422.25
198150 7946 60516.09 

In the following table the New Zealand birth rate is compared with that of Australia, Canada, and the United States.

CountryBirth Rate per 1000 Mean Population
Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics and Statistical Yearbook.
New Zealand20.419.618.317.717.316.316.716.1
United States15.015.014.814.715.315.315.815.8

REFINED BIRTH RATE—“Crude” rates of the number of births per 1000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age, do not take account of variations in the proportion of women of the childbearing ages. Refined rates are provided by computations of the nuptial birth rate per 1000 married women of 16—44 years of age, or the total birth rate per 1000 of women aged 15-44 years. The following table gives both rates for census years (on the basis of the births registered in that year and the population as at the census) together with the “crude” rate for the year.

Census YearBirth Rate per 1000 Women"Crude" Birth Rate per 1000 Mean Population
Married Women 16-44 YearsTotal Women 15-44 Years

The percentage of married women among women in the child-bearing age groups was 66.8 in 1976 compared with 51.6 in 1926. A study of the figures for successive censuses reveals considerable changes in the age composition of married women within the child-bearing ages; as the birth rate varies with age, the change in age composition over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.

The following diagram shows numbers of births and deaths and indicates the relatively high rate of natural increase in New Zealand.

REPRODUCTION INDEX—The reproduction index is based on the fact that the future size of a population is related to the number of women in the reproductive age groups at any given time. The gross rate, is based on the number of female children born, and the average number of girls that will be born to a woman during her reproductive period, while the net rate takes into account fertility rates at different ages and the percentages of female survivors at those ages, obtained from life tables. A net rate of 1,0 indicates zero population growth if the population is closed to migration, and a higher rate a rising population.

Reproduction rates during 6 recent years were as follows:

YearGross RateNet Rate

SEX OF CHILDREN BORN—The numbers of boys and girls born during the latest 5 years are given in the following table.

In each year more boys than girls are born, a disparity in births that is outweighed by the higher death rates of males at every age level. The death rate per 1000 live births for babies under 12 months of age in 1980 was 13.88 for boys and 11.79 for girls; for children of from 1 to 4 years of age it was 0.72 for boys and 0.63 for girls; for children aged 5 to 14 years it was 0.37 for boys and 0.27 for girls; and the pattern repeated itself for each age group through adolescence and adult life.

The following table illustrates the disparity in the numbers born.

YearNumber of Births ofMale Births per 1000 Female Births
197727 78826 3911 053
197826 06224 9671 044
197926 67025 6091 041
198025 93824 6041 054
198126 12624 6681 059

MULTIPLE BIRTHS—In 1980 there were 50 035 confinements which resulted in live births; of these, 513 cases resulted in live multiple births and 14 in which 1 twin was stillborn. The likelihood of still births occurring is much greater in cases of multiple births than in single cases.

YearSingle BirthsTwin BirthsTripletsTotal CasesStill Birth Rate per 1000
LiveStillBoth LiveBoth StillOne Live One StillAll LiveTwo Live One StillSingleMultipleSingle CasesMultiple Cases
* Including 1 case of quadruplets all live-born.
197654 0454035151184-54 4485387.435.3
197753 1053805186195253 4855507.149.1
197849 96234651131211-50 3085376.927.9
197951 2403345031127-51 5745236.524.9
198049 5223274924146-49 849517*6.634.8

AGES OF PARENTS—Information on the relative ages of parents of nuptial living children whose births were registered in 1980 is shown in the following table. Registrations of births under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 are excluded.

Age of Mother, in YearsAge of Father in Years
Under 2020-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-6465 and OverTotal Cases
* Including 6 cases of triplets, all live-born, and 12 cases of twins where one was still-born.
Single Births
Under 202821 1842355785121-1 775
20-241254 9745 9761 1112124718104212 479
25-29116748 1235 496841174582410315 414
30-343647944 0431 75237798431517 190
35-39-877319694398112491911 677
45 and over-123-21071-26
        Total4216 90615 21211 0553 5471 09937817161738 857
Multiple Births
Under 20-153-------18
45 and over-----------
        Grand total4216 96815 36611 1843 5991 11637917262739 274

PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS—The following table gives for 1980 the number of previous issue, i.e., children born alive, in conjunction with the age of mother.

Age of Mother in YearsNumber of Previous IssueTotal Nuptial Cases
0123456-910-1415 and over
* This number represents 38 857 single cases and 417 multiple cases.
Number of Mothers
Under 201325434322-----1 793
20-246 4394 4171 4042733821--12 574
25-295 2615 8053 2479882136222--15 598
30-341 5822 1922 07392832111179--7 286
35-39327363360286167821084-1 697
45 and over5313437--26
          Total14 98913 2537 1622 52477928826612139 274*

In the following table the total issue and average issue are shown for mothers by age groups where a birth occurred in 1980.

Age of Mother in YearsTotal MothersTotal IssueAverage Issue
Under 201 7932 3151.29
20-2412 57420 8811.66
25-2915 59832 3502.07
30-347 28618 8572.59
35-391 6975 5013.24
40-443001 2834.28
45 and over261224.69
    Total39 27481 3092.07

It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz, the average number of children (including those registered in 1980) born up to the present time to those mothers of nuptial children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue born to the existing marriages only. The averages for recent years have been as follows: 1975, 2.19; 1976, 2.17; 1977, 2.13; 1978, 2.11; 1979, 2.11; and 1980, 2.07.

FIRST BIRTH—Statistics of nuptial first confinements show that, during the latest decade, the percentages of first confinements during the first year and first 2 years after marriage initially showed an annual decline and now appear to have stabilised at a lower level.

YearTotal Nuptial CasesTotal Nuptial First CasesPercentage of First Cases to Total CasesFirst Cases Within 1 Year After MarriageFirst Cases Within 2 Years After Marriage
NumberPercentage to Total First CasesNumberPercentage to Total First Cases
197645 07515 83135.124 47228.258 02850.71
197743 45415 75136.244 21326.747 48447.51
197840 33914 79236.663 81225.776 80445.99
197940 90115 05436.813 79825.236 74944.83
198039 27414 98938.173 78325.246 75045.03

The following table gives the duration-of-marriage factor in first confinements over a longer time series. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern births of non-Maoris only.

Duration of Marriage, in YearsPercentage of Total First Confinements
Under 146.2538.4742.6449.8532.3825.2325.24
10 and over1.111.530.940.860.550.801.03

In the following table first confinements occurring to mothers in different age groups are expressed as a percentage of the total first confinements. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern confinements of non-Maoris only.

Age of Mother, in YearsPercentage of Total First Confinements
Under 208.907.339.0819.6417.9610.098.84
45 and over0.

The average ages of mothers at the birth of their first child were as follows: 1934, 25.90; 1944, 25.18; 1954, 25.32; 1964, 23.65; 1974, 23.29; 1978, 24.38; 1979, 24.64; and 1980, 24.76 years. These figures refer to nuptial births only.

EX-NUPTIAL LIVE BIRTHS—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the latest 6 years, with the percentage they bear to total births registered, are given in the following table. Comparisons of the ratio of ex-nuptial births to all live births (either on a year-to-year basis or on an international basis) should be made with caution. Some of the difficulties were discussed in supplements to the January 1967 and November 1975 Monthly Abstracts of Statistics. For example, the ex-nuptial ratio as a true indicator of ex-nuptial fertility is of limited value because it is influenced by extraneous factors. Ex-nuptial ratios may change not so much because of changing numbers of ex-nuptial births but because of a change in nuptial fertility experience as measured by nuptial birth numbers. This situation is well illustrated by experience during the 1962-79 period when ex-nuptial births increased from 5227 to 10 942 while nuptial births showed an overall fall from 59 787 to 41 337, resulting in the ex-nuptial ratio exaggerating the “real” rise in the ex-nuptial fertility level. Again, a social factor to be borne in mind is that unmarried mothers are not infrequently de facto wives with comparatively stable relationships.

* Ex-nuptial live births as a proportion of total live births.
19769 59717.42
197710 26518.95
197810 25420.09
197910 94220.93
198010 85721.48
198111 44122.52

The long-term trend in the rate of ex-nuptial births is indicated by the movements in the proportion of ex-nuptial births per 1000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters, widows, and divorced women—at the reproductive ages. Up to 1961 the statistics relate to non-Maoris only; from 1966 Maoris are included. The figures for census years are as follows:

Census YearUnmarried Women 15-44 Years of AgeEx-nuptial BirthsEx-nuptial Birth Rate per 1000 Unmarried Women
* Provisional. Based on sample of census questionnaires and refers to usually resident population.
1945156 3261 82511.67
1951130 3431 93514.85
1956129 8772 31017.79
1961138 0183 33224.14
1966183 9966 94037.72
1971199 1478 98145.10
1976224 1859 59742.81
1981241 860*11 44147.30

In 1980 the total number of ex-nuptial confinements resulting in live births was 10 761. Of these, 10 665 cases were single births, 93 cases were twins, and there was 1 case of quadruplets. There were 2 cases of twins where 1 child was stillborn. The total number of ex-nuptial live births was 10 857. From the following table, it can be seen that of the 10 761 mothers, 4075 or 37.87 percent were under 20 years of age.

AgeNumber of Mothers
181 178
191 205
201 100
24-292 217
45 and over5
          Total10 761

Reregistration—An ex-nuptial child whose parents have later married may be reregistered from birth by reason of such marriage. Applications for registration must be made within 3 months after the date of the marriage.

The number of reregistrations in each of the latest 6 years were as follows: 1975, 1433; 1976, 1478; 1977, 1284; 1978, 1288; 1979, 1075; and 1980, 1328.

The Children and Young Persons Act 1974 requires that all ex-nuptial births be notified to a social worker so that inquiries may be made concerning the circumstances of each mother and child for the purpose of offering advice and assistance.

The following table shows the outcome of the inquiries made in recent years. Inquiries relate to some births from the preceding year and do not cover all births in the year stated.

Location of Infants19791980
Reregistered after marriage of parents23032142
Remaining with mother (parents cohabiting)3 167413 51742
Remaining with mother (parents not cohabiting)2 913382 84034
Placed with relatives20733805
Placed with strangers with view to adoption66084265
Placed with strangers, no expressed wish to adoption1213
In children's home or other institution on a long-term basis813
Committed to care of Social Welfare2012
Not traced439690011
                Total7 7311008 384100

ADOPTIONS—The following table shows the number of adoptions which have been registered during recent years.

19753 322
19762 942
19772 523
19782 380
19792 050
19802 125

In 1972, for the first time for many years, there was a substantial drop in the number of adoption orders made by the Court and this trend has continued. Of the 2125 adoptions finalised in 1980, social workers of the Department of Social Welfare were concerned with 1957 or 92 percent. Maori welfare officers handled most of the others.

The following table, which relates only to cases handled by the department, shows the number and status of children adopted over the last 5 years.

Status of Children Adopted19761977197819791980
* These arc cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.
Ex-nuptial1 9021 5361 5261 3751 323
Not known*594381205317
              Total2 5542 1162 1301 9541 957

In 1980, 63 percent of the children adopted were born out of wedlock. Of these children born out of wedlock, 66 percent were aged less than 1 year at the time of placement for adoption. The next table shows the age at placement according to the status of the children adopted in 1980.

AgeNuptialEx-NuptialNot KnownTotal
* These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.
Under 1 year7880913900
1-5 years2252478
6 years and over139224
Not known*295362298955
              Total4081 2323171 957

The following table shows the original relationship between adopted children and their new parents.

Strangers1 3471 0521 067845715
One parent and spouse913792782773894
Relative or close friend294272281336348
                Total2 5542 1162 1301 9541 957

STILLBIRTHS—Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. Particulars of causes of still births will be found in Section 4C relating to deaths. A stillborn child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. Still births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths.

The following table shows for the latest 6 years the numbers of still births and the rate per 1000 total births.



The death rate (by which is usually meant the crude death rate, the number of deaths per 1000 of total mean population) is less subject to fluctuation than the birth rate. In the absence of wars, epidemics, and other large-scale disasters, it changes slowly. The New Zealand crude death rate was 8.80 in 1930 and 50 years later, in 1980, it was 8.52. In between, it had reached a peak of 11.05 in 1942, during the Second World War, and a low point of 7.88 in 1978. In contrast, the birth rate (19.30 in 1930 and 16.14 in 1980) had been as high as 27.64 in 1947 and is now falling below even the level of the 1930s Depression years. Depressions, wars, peace, prosperity, changing social attitudes, and the popularisation of improved methods of birth control have all left their mark on the birth rate.

Under normal conditions the most important factor affecting the crude death rate is the age structure of the population, which (like the death rate itself) changes slowly. An ageing population will tend to have a high death rate, while a young one (provided that infant mortality is not abnormally high) will have a low one.

The following table sets out the numbers of deaths and the crude death rates per 1000 of mean population. (Maoris are defined as persons with half or more Maori ancestry and the term non-Maori covers all other persons.)

YearNumbersCrude Rate per 1000 of Mean Population
197724 5451 41625 9618.615.148.30
197823 4541 21524 6698.234.337.88
197924 0341 30625 3408.474.578.11
198025 3371 33926 6768.914.648.52
198123 8601 29025 150  7.97

The chief merit of the crude death rate is that it is easily calculated, requiring only the number of deaths and the size of the population “at risk”. However, it is very misleading when comparisons are being made between two or more populations with different age structures, such as the Maori and non-Maori populations of New Zealand. The Maori population is a “young” one, with a high proportion of children and young people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally very low, and relatively few elderly people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally high. The non-Maori population is older, with a considerably smaller proportion of children and young people and a larger proportion of elderly people. The result is that a comparison of crude death rates gives a false picture of Maori mortality as compared with non-Maori.

In the following table, based on 1980 figures, adjustments made to effect a truer comparison show that mortality for Maoris is generally relatively higher than for non-Maoris; in addition, a comparison is supplied in age-specific rates for the two races in each sex (age-specific rates are the number of deaths per 1000 (or per 10 000, etc.) of the population in the specified age groups).

Ethnic GroupAll Ages Rates per 10 000 Mean PopulationAge-specific Rates per 10 000 of Population at Ages
Crude RateMaori Rate Adjusted to Son-Maori PopulationUnder 5 Years5-14 Years15-24 Years25-44 Years45-64 Years65 Years and Over
Non-Maori95.8 31.73.715.116.9113.1714.6
Both Sexes

For both Maoris and non-Maoris the death rate in males exceeds the death rate in females by a considerable margin. The following table sets out the number of deaths and the respective crude death rates for each sex separately for the latest 5 years.

 Deaths of MalesDeaths of FemalesTotal DeathsMale Deaths to Every 100 Female Deaths
* Deaths per 1000 of mean population.
197714 3179.1611 6447.4325 9618.30123
197813 6008.7011 0697.0724 6697.88123
197913 9428.9611 3987.2825 3408.11122
198014 3209.1612 3567.8826 6768.52116
198113 670 11 480 25 1507.97119

Deaths of Maoris, included in these figures, in 1981 totalled 1290, of whom 743 were males and 547 females.

DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR—In 1979 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were August and July, with totals of 2426 and 2352 respectively. December had the least number of deaths, 1262, followed by February with 1810.

AGES AT DEATH—Deaths registered during the year 1980 are shown according to age in the following table.

Age, in YearsMalesFemalesTotal
* Excludes adjustments by the National Health Statistics Centre as a result of analysis and collation of registration forms and death certificates.
Under 1*360290650
1- 47563138
5- 9583896
50-546333701 003
55-599945961 590
60-641 3548032 157
65-691 90812783 186
70-742 1751 5333 708
75-792 1741 8304 004
80-841 5481 8673 415
85-899051 4952 400
90-944269271 353
100 and over113344
        Total14 32012 35626 676

The Maori population is a young one compared with the non-Maori and as a result there is a considerable variation in the percentages of deaths of Maoris and non-Maoris which take place at various ages. The following table illustrates the position for the year 1980.

Age, in YearsNumber of DeathsPercentage of Total DeathsPercentage of Maori Deaths in Total Deaths per Age Croup
Under 56411472.5310.9818.65
25-441 Oil1693.9912.6214.32
45-644 93045219.4633.758.40
65 and over18 01946771.1234.882.53
                  All ages25 3371 339100.00100.005.02

In the following table is given a time series for rates of death per 1000 of mean population by age groups. Health measures have achieved an immense saving of young life and a prolongation of life, especially among elderly women.

YearUnder 1*1-45-1415-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465-7475 and Over

* Per 1000 live births in this case.

†Non-Maori figures only as Maori at ages not available for these years.

(Rates per 1000 of mean population in each age group)
Both Sexes

The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of the total population by sex is shown in the following table. Prior to 1974 the data relates to the non-Maori population only.

age (years)
194158 6559.60

The average age of death of Maoris in 1980 was 50.51 and 51.05 years for males and females respectively. The younger age composition of the Maori population is an important factor to be borne in mind.

EXPECTATION OF LIFE—Life tables, depicting the pattern of mortality over the age span of life for particular calendar periods for the non-Maori component of New Zealand's population, have been constructed at regular intervals since 1880. The most recent tables prepared by the Department of Statistics are based on the 1976 population census, together with mortality statistics for 1975-77.

Life tables contain a measure of the degree of longevity of the population called the “expectation of life”. The expectation of life at any age is the average remaining lifetime for persons of this age, assuming that mortality rates at each age continue at the level shown by the life table. The life expectancy at selected ages at the present time, for the non-Maori population in New Zealand, is shown in the table below. The overall longer span of life enjoyed by females, compared with males, is evident.

Further details concerning life table methodology and construction and trends in New Zealand life expectancies can be obtained from New Zealand Life Tables 1975-77, obtainable from Government bookshops.

Exact Age (Years)Life Expectancy (Years)

The long-term trend since 1880 for non-Maoris has been a steady improvement in life expectancy for both sexes. The improvement has been striking for the younger ages but relatively small for the advanced ages. Progress in medical science, coupled with improved social conditions, has resulted in substantial reductions in mortality for all ages up to middle age. This trend has continued up to 1975-77 for females. The decrease in male mortality experienced between 1965-67 and 1975-77 up to the age of 80 years was sufficient to offset the increase in mortality between 1960-62 and 1965-67, and male life expectancy returned to about the 1960-62 level at all but the youngest ages. The following table displays the life expectancy for non-Maoris revealed by each life table compiled during the past 60 years for the 3 exact ages of 0, 20, and 60 years.

Life TableLife Expectancy (Years)
Males Aged ExactlyFemales Aged Exactly

The expectation of life at various ages for the Maori population is shown in the following table. These expectations are taken from New Zealand Life Tables 1975-77.

Exact Age (Years)Life Expectancy (Years)

Life expectancy at birth for Maori males increased by 2.39 years between 1970-72 and 1975-77 while that for Maori females increased by 2.79 years. These increases in Maori life expectancy are, however, slightly overstated because of problems of classification of ethnic origin and non-response to the relevant question at the 1976 Census of Population. These led to an overstatement of the Maori population exposed-to-risk of mortality during 1975-77, and Maori life-expectancy at all ages was consequently overstated. The opposite is true for non-Maoris.

The expectation of life of Maoris is shorter than that of non-Maoris at all except the highest ages. A comparison at age 0 shows that life expectancy is 6.02 years greater for non-Maori males and 8.13 years greater for non-Maori females. For the period 1970-72, the differences were 8.13 years and 10.20 years respectively.

The table below compares the life expectancy at birth for the total population of New Zealand with that for selected overseas countries. Sources: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1977, Population and Australia, and Mortality Statistics 1976—England and Wales.

CountryPeriodLife Expectancy at Birth (Years)
England and Wales1974-7669.675.8
New Zealand1975-7769.0175.45
United States197568.776.5

REGISTRATION OF DEATH, BURIAL, AND CREMATION—Deaths are required to be registered by the funeral director within 3 days after the day of burial. The law governing burial and cremation in New Zealand is found in the Burial and Cremation Act 1974. The registration by local authorities of funeral directors and mortuaries operated by them is provided for in the Health (Burial) Regulations 1946. Local authorities are charged with ensuring that adequate provision exists for the disposal of the dead. Cremation may be carried out if the deceased is not known to have left any written direction to the contrary.

The rate of cremation for every 100 deaths registered doubled between 1950 and 1970, and has continued to increase, exceeding 50 percent in 1980. The following table relates cremations to the number of deaths since 1950. Prior to 1970 the statistics concern deaths of non-Maoris only.

YearDeaths RegisteredCremationsRate per 100 Deaths Registered
195016 7151 7991 4543 25319.46
196019 5242 9582 5825 54028.38
197024 8405 4184 4749 89239.82
197824 6696 6455 46212 10749.07
197925 4106 8275 74612 57349.48
198026 6767 2106 24013 45050.42

DEATHS BY CAUSES—The selection of cause of death recommended by the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases is based on the concept of selecting the underlying cause of death.

The certifier's statement largely determines the cause but to obtain more accurate data the nosologists also refer to all autopsy reports received, cancer case registrations, coroners' reports, and hospital case summaries.

Medical practitioners certified 81 percent of deaths registered in 1979 and 19 percent were certified by coroners. Of the deaths certified by doctors, 13 percent were subject to autopsy whilst 99 percent of deaths certified by coroners were subject to autopsy. Overall, 30 percent of all deaths had autopsies performed.

Detailed information about causes of death is published annually by the National Health Statistics Centre in New Zealand Health Statistics Report—Mortality and Demographic Data.

The following table is a summary of causes of death, numbers and rate per million of mean population for the years 1977 to 1979. New Zealand adopted the Ninth Revision of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases in 1979. As a result, care must be taken when comparing 1979 figures with those for previous years. Rates particularly affected are asterisked in the Cause of Death table.

The sharp increase in rates for “All other accidents” is chiefly attributable to the effects of the Mount Erebus air disaster in 1979.

Cause of DeathNumber of DeathsRate per Million of Mean Population
*1979 data not comparable with previous years due to introduction of 9th Revision of WHO International Classification of Diseases.
Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases353936111212
Tuberculosis of respiratory system272225978
Other tuberculosis including late effects443731141210
Infectious hepatitis16914534
Syphilis and its sequelae243111
All other infective and parasitic diseases667956212518
Malignant neoplasm5 2505 2115 3661 6791 6651 717
Benign neoplasm and neoplasm of unspecified nature404133131311
Diseases of thyroid gland251517855
Diabetes mellitus426342382136109122
Avitaminoses and other nutritional deficiency8129343
Alcoholic psychosis and alcoholism*60692619228
Multiple sclerosis3127261098
Paralysis agitans736685232127
Chronic rheumatic heart disease*224214162726852
Hypertensive disease359314362115100116
Ischaemic heart disease7 4726 9727 1132 3892 2282 277
Other forms of heart disease*8188131 144262260366
Cerebrovascular disease3 1622 9953 0271 011957969
Diseases of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries673709634215227203
Acute respiratory infections including influenza1066052341917
Pneumonia9241 0721 028295343329
Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma*1 2731 207825407386264
Other diseases of respiratory system*1821715595855179
Peptic ulcer140136132454342
Intestinal obstruction and hernia1059498343031
Cirrhosis of liver179141166574553
Diseases of gallbladder534145171314
Nephritis and nephrosis*11212548364015
Infections of kidney824248261315
Hyperplasia of prostate44203214610
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium1056322
Rheumatoid arthritis633555201118
Congenital anomalies291253261938184
Birth injury, difficult labour, other anoxic and hypoxic conditions, and other causes of perinatal mortality273229220877370
All other diseases9901 0941 228317350393
Motor vehicle accidents889688594284220190
All other accidents874776914279248293
Suicide and self-inflicted injury36532230211710397
All other external causes9680100312632
    Total25 96624 67825 3738 3027 8868 121

Source: National Health Statistics Centre.

PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF DEATH—Heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), and cerebrovascular disease were again the leading causes of death in 1979 (the latest year for which data are available). These 3 causes accounted for approximately 67 percent of all deaths in 1979—ischaemic heart disease accounted for 28 percent of deaths, malignant neoplasms (cancer) for 21 percent, and cerebrovascular disease for approximately 12 percent.

Death rates per million of mean population from leading causes of death are shown in the following table.

Cause of Death19751976197719781979
 Deaths per million
All heart disease2 6432 7492 8152 6302 781
Malignant neoplasms (cancer)1 62216511 6791 6651 717
Cerebrovascular disease1 0489861 011957969
Accidental causes533508548457483

Heart Disease—Heart disease as a group of diseases is still the leading cause of death in New Zealand but death rates from this cause have fallen in recent years. The standardised mortality ratios for all forms of heart disease show that for both sexes the rates have fallen by 11 percent between 1970 and 1979. Numbers of deaths and standardised mortality ratios for heart disease, excluding acute rheumatic forms and congenital malformations, are shown below.

YearAll Forms of Heart Disease
NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*
* Base years 1950-52 = 100.
19654 7101003 39479
19704 886993 40572
19754 845923 31564
19765 012913 55464
19775 147923 65665
19784 843853 38759
19795 101883 58961

The standardised mortality ratio shows the number of deaths registered in the year of experience expressed as a percentage of those which would have been expected in that year had there operated the sex-age mortality of a standard period (the 3 years 1950-52 were chosen). The standardised mortality ratio has been adopted to eliminate the distorting effect of the changes which take place over a period in the age-structure of the population.

Cancer—In New Zealand 1 death in 5 in 1979 was caused by cancer. The cancer crude death rate has increased in each of the latest 5 years for which figures are available from 162.2 per 100 000 population in 1975 to 171.7 in 1979.

A detailed report on cancer mortality and morbidity in New Zealand is published annually by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health. These reports cover mortality from cancer and also survey all cases reported to the National Cancer Registry.

A summary of numbers of deaths from cancer, crude death rates, and standardised mortality ratios is provided in the following table.

YearNumber of Deaths from CancerCrude Death Rate per 100 000Standardised Mortality Ratios*Number of Deaths from CancerCrude Death Rate per 100 000Standardised Mortality Ratios*
* Base years 1950-52 = 100.
  Males  Females 
19601 724144.31011 566132.592
19702 436173.01262 024143.599
19752 726176.91292 281147.6101
19762 815180.81302 330149.4101
19772 848182.31302 402153.4102
19782 801179.21252 410153.9102
19792 901186.01282 465157.5103

A classification of cancer deaths during 1979 according to age and sex is shown below. Ninety-three percent of deaths from cancer during 1979 were at 45 years of age or above, and 61 percent were at 65 years of age or above.

Age Group in YearsDeaths of MalesDeaths of Females
NumbersRate per 100 000 of Population at Ages GivenPercentage of Total Deaths at Ages GivenNumbersRate per 100 000 of Population at Ages GivenPercentage of Total Deaths at Ages Given
* All ages crude rate.
65 and over1 7881 406.420.71 476865.317.5
                All ages2 901186.0*20.82 465157.5*21.6

Cancer of the lung continues to be the major site in male deaths from cancer. Almost 6 percent of all male deaths in 1979 were caused by lung cancer. Breast is the major cancer site in females and accounted for 4 percent of all female deaths.

The following table shows deaths from cancer (malignant neoplasms) by sex and selected sites, registered in New Zealand during 1978 and 1979.

SiteSexNumbersRates per Million Mean Population
Buccal cavity and pharynxM74564736
Large intestineM267247171158
Bronchus, trachea, and lungM811859519551
Cervix uteriF105796750
Corpus uteriF61553935
Ovary, fallopian tube, and broad ligamentF1531559899
Bladder and other urinary organsM17913611587
Skin, all formsM74944760
Lymphosarcoma and reticulum-cellsarcomaM35432228
All other and unspecified sitesM514540329346
              Total cancer deathsM2 8012 9011 7921 860
F2 4102 4651 5391 575

Cerebrovascular Disease—Cerebrovascular disease, the third of the principal causes of death in New Zealand, affects mainly the late-middle-aged and the elderly. In 1979, 3027 persons died of the disease. Of these, only 107 were below 50 years of age, and 2920 were 50 years of age or above.

The World Health Organisation defines cerebrovascular disease as follows: “Cerebrovascular diseases are diseases of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) of vascular origin. The term covers a wide range of clinical manifestations, varying from subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from a rupture of Berry aneurysm on the one hand to arteriosclerotic Parkinsonism and dementia on the other.”

The incidence of deaths from cerebrovascular disease over a series of years is shown in the following table. After reaching a peak in 1972 the rate declined each year until 1977. The 1979 rate of 969 per million of mean population is 1 percent higher than the 1978 rate.

* Rate per million of mean population.
19642 7571 061
19652 8751 086
19663 0671 143
19672 8251 035
19683 1101 128
19693 0701 104
19703 2131 140
19713 3101 156
19723 4471 182
19733 5131 179
19743 4581 136
19753 2351 048
19763 074986
19773 1621 011
19782 995957
19793 027969

INFANT AND PERINATAL MORTALITY—The following table shows New Zealand perinatal mortality numbers and rates for three recent years. An infant death is defined as a live-born infant dying before the first year of life is completed. A neonatal death is defined as the death of a live-born infant before the 28th day of life; a post neonatal death as the death of a live-born infant between the 28th day and the first year of life.

Perinatal Mortality—Perinatal deaths comprise still births and deaths in the first week of life. The late fetal death (still births) and the perinatal mortality rate are calculated per 1000 total births (still births plus live births), while the death rate for neonatal and infant death is calculated per 1000 live births.

DeathYearMaoriNon-MaoriTotal Population
Late fetal1978446.63187.13627.0
Early neonatal1978507.62575.83076.0
Post neonatal1978599.02676.03266.4

In a review of neonatal and postnatal deaths, issued by Department of Health in November 1976, it was shown that 8 countries, selected on the basis of their having one million or more population and on their reporting of data regarded by World Heath Organisation as complete, had a lower mortality rate than New Zealand. These 8 were Sweden, Finland, Japan, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, France, and Switzerland. The following table shows infant mortality rates for selected countries (including some of the 8) during 1978. The figures represent deaths per 100 000 live births.

CountryAge of Child
Under 1 YearUnder 1 Day1 and Under 7 Days7 and Under 28 Days1 Month and Under 1 Year
Sources: World Health Statistics Annual; Deaths, Australian Bureau of Statistics 1978; Mortality Statistics, England and Wales 1978.
Deaths per 100 000 Live Births
New Zealand1 378378223137639
Australia1 207499207105397
England and Wales1 321374338158452

Causes of Infant Mortality—Deaths from the principal causes of infant mortality, and-the rate per 1000 live births, are shown for the Maori, non-Maori, and total population in the following table. The data refer to 1979.

Cause of DeathMaoriNon-MaoriTotal Population
Number DeathsRate Per 1000 Live BirthsNumber of DeathsRate Per 1000 Live BirthsNumber of DeathsRate Per 1000 Live Births
Infectious and parasitic diseases50.850.1100.2
Malignant neoplasms10.240.150.1
Diseases of the nervous system60.9140.3200.4
Diseases of the circulatory system20.350.170.1
Diseases of the respiratory system111.7360.8470.9
Diseases of the digestive system--1 1 
Congenital anomalies172.61543.41713.3
Perinatal causes—
    Birth injury20.3170.4190.4
    Hyaline membrane disease213.2471.0681.3
    Other anoxic and hypoxic conditions30.5110.2140.3
    Other perinatal causes162.4681.5841.6
Sudden infant death syndrome203.01302.81502.9
Accidents, poisonings, and violence (external causes)71.1210.5280.5
Remainder (all other causes) under30.580.2110.2
    Total, all infant deaths one year12218.354812.067012.8

Source: National Health Statistics Centre.

The data for infants shown in the previous table are not strictly comparable with those for previous years. The adoption of the Ninth Revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases for use with 1979 data has influenced coding practices. The main changes include a re-assignment of infectious and respiratory diseases from their specific categories into that of “Other perinatal causes” and an internal restructuring of the whole perinatal area. This latter modification is related to the recommendation by WHO of a restyled Medical Certificate of Causes of Fetal and Neonatal Death which was adopted by New Zealand in 1978. This provided for a dual emphasis on both the main disease or condition in the fetus or infant and on the main maternal disease or condition affecting the fetus or infant. In the table, the cause of death has been selected according to the main disease affecting the neonate.

Another change which is related to the use of the Ninth Revision is that there is now a specific code for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

MATERNAL DEATHS—The New Zealand Maternal Mortality Research Amendment Act of 1979, which replaced the Maternal Mortality Research Act of 1968, defines a maternal death as:

  1. A death that occurs during pregnancy or within a period of 3 months after the date of the conclusion of a pregnancy.

  2. A death of a women who at the time of her death was suffering from chorionepithelioma or hydatidiform mole.

This definition is for national use only and covers a wider range of cases than the maternal, mortality definition recommended by the World Health Organisation. Maternal deaths from complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the Puerperium numbered 6 in 1979, with a rate of 1.1 per 10,000 live births.

Maternal deaths occuring during pregnancy or within 3 months of delivery but not due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth or the Puerperium numbered 11 in 1979 with a rate of 2.1 per 10,000 live births.

DEATHS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN—Recent Yearbooks have included a review of mortality rates among children aged 1 to 4 years in New Zealand and in selected overseas countries. New Zealand's ranking has been disappointingly low.

In 1979 New Zealand's age-specific mortality rate for children aged 1-4 was 71.3 per 100,000 compared with 36.1 per 100,000 in Sweden (1978), 50.3 per 100,000 in England and Wales (1979), and 68.8 per 100,000 in the United States (1977).

Various explanations have been attempted, but the fact remains that New Zealand pre-schoolers are at a higher risk of accidental death than pre-schoolers in many other countries with similar standards of living.

The following table shows the number of deaths of pre-school children from accidents and violence in New Zealand during 1979. The leading causes, accounting for 46 of the 70 deaths, were accidents involving motor vehicles and drowning.

Causes of DeathSexAges (In Years)Total
Motor vehicle accidentsM425415
Injury caused by animalM2---2
Water transportM-1-12
Inhalation of stomach contentsM11--2
Inhalation of other objectF--1-1
Electric currentM-1--1
Injury undetermined whether accidently or purposely inflictedM---11

DEATHS AMONG TOTAL POPULATION FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES—Accidents, poisonings, and violence caused approximately 8 percent of the total deaths in each of the years 1976 to 1979.

The following table shows deaths from external causes for the latest 3 years. In this table, falls on board ship and from horseback (if any) are classified as transport accidents.

The sharp increase in rates for “Other transport accidents” is influenced by the deaths of aircraft passengers and crew in the Mount Erebus air disaster of 1979. Over half of those deaths were not registered until 1980, so it is expected that 1980 rates will also show an increase.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate per Million of Mean Population
* Includes drowning from water transport.
Motor-vehicle accidents889688594284220190
Other transport accidents4759179151957
Accidental poisoning25483281510
Accidental falls40226335912984115
Accidents caused by machinery35352011116
Accidents caused by fire and explosion of combustible material444746141515
Accidents caused by firearms111521457
Accidental drowning and submersion*135161131435142
Suicide and self-inflicted injury36532230211710397
All other external causes216170177695457
Total deaths from accidents, poisoning, or violence2 2241 8661 910711596611

Procedural Change in 1977—The number of deaths as a result of accidents involving motor vehicles increased sharply from 663 in 1976 to 889 in 1977, an increase of 34 percent. This increase in registrations could be attributed to changes in registration procedures introduced by the Registrar-General's office in 1977. Prior to 1977, the registration of deaths referred to coroners for investigation was delayed until all investigations were completed. In 1977 this practice was amended to permit interim registration pending the outcome of coroners' investigations. The numbers of deaths registered as being due to other accidental or violent causes also increased as a result of this procedural change. Consequently, 1978 and 1979 mortality data show a pattern more comparable with 1976 than with 1977.

An analysis of deaths registered during 1979 by the principal external causes and by sex and age group is given in the following table and in the notes following it.

Age Group (In Years)Motor Vehicle AccidentsAccidental DrowningsAccidental PoisoningsAccidental Falls
Under 15442930143192
75 and over1717--1173172
Age GroupSuicide and Self-inflicted InjuryHomicideAll Accidents, Poisonings, and Violence*
* Includes causes other than those shown in table.
Under 15--4512065
75 and over13711112221

Accidental Falls—There were 359 deaths from accidental falls in 1979. This is one accident area in which the total female mortality exceeds the male. However, as shown in the preceding table, there is an excess of male deaths over female deaths between the ages of 15 and 64 years. At 75 years of age and above the higher life expectancy of females ensures that more elderly women than elderly men are exposed to the risk of fatal falls.

In 1979 the home was the place of occurrence of 35 percent of fatal accidental falls and, in fact, falls are the chief cause of death in home accidents.

Site of Non-transport Accidents—The place of occurrence of fatal non-transport accidents (excluding surgical and medical misadventure and late effects of accidental injury) is shown in the following table. As mentioned previously, falls are the chief cause of accidental fatalities in the home, exacting a heavy toll of the aged and infirm. Accidents occurring at home and in residential institutions (rest homes, hospitals, etc.) accounted for 58 percent of all fatal non-transport accidents in the 3-year period 1977 to 1979.

Place of OccurrenceNumber of AccidentsRate per Million of Mean Population
Home (including home premises and vicinity and any non-institutional place of residence)294255263948184
Farm (including buildings and land under cultivation, but excluding farm and home premises3629251298
Mine and quarry573221
Industrial places and premises36402512138
Places for recreation and sport71310243
Street and highway161524558
Public building (building used by the general public or a particular group of the public)162316575
Residential institution (homes, hospitals, etc.)144107142463445
Other specified places142130115454237
Place not specified72287223923

Approximately 38 percent of fatal non-transport accidents in 1979 occurred in or about the home.

Water Accidents by Location—The following table, prepared by the New Zealand Water Safety Council, shows drownings by location and age group during the year ended March 1981. Particularly significant is the relatively large number of drownings of small children below 5 years of age, especially in private swimming pools.

LocationAge in Years
Under 55-1011-1516-2021-3031-4041-5051-60Over 60Total
* Includes 1 of unspecified age.
Rivers, streams, and other running water3-223--1517*
Seas and beaches1--113-3211
Swimming pools—
Drains and ditches-----1-113
Pools and ponds1--1-----2
Farm trough1--------1
Home bath2-------2
Scuba diving----3-1--4
Snorkel diving----1----1
Duck shooting—river----1----1
Boating accidents—
    Lakes and lagoons---11-1--3


Marriage may be solemnised in New Zealand either by a celebrant included in the list of marriage celebrants under the Marriage Act 1955, or before a duly appointed registrar or deputy registrar of marriages. A licence must be obtained from a registrar of marriages before a marriage by a marriage celebrant can be solemnised. Marriage by a marriage celebrant may be solemnised at any time between 6 o'clock in the morning and 8 o'clock in the evening. Marriage before a registrar can be solemnised at any time during the hours the office of the registrar is open for the transaction of public business; notice of intended marriage must be given to a registrar of marriages by one of the parties to the proposed marriage.

The Marriage Amendment Act 1976 extended the right of solemnising marriages to nominated members of approved organisations of a non-religious character. Justices of the Peace may also be nominated to act as marriage celebrants.

In the case of a person under 20 years of age, not being a widow or widower, the consent of parents or guardian is necessary. Consent of a District Court judge may be sought in cases of refusal by any person whose consent is required.

Since 1933 the minimum age for marriage has been 16 years of age. No marriage shall be deemed to be void, however, by reason only of an infringement of the minimum age.

Since 1 April 1952 it has been required under the Maori Purposes Act 1951 that every marriage to which a Maori is a party shall be solemnised in the same manner, and its validity shall be determined by the same law, as if each of the parties was a non-Maori.

NUMBERS AND RATES—The numbers of marriages and rates during recent years are shown below. The marriage rate, like the birth rate, has been declining in recent years, but 1980 shows a slight increase.

YearNumberRate per 1000 of Population
197624 1547.75
197722 5897.22
197822 4267.17
197922 3267.15
198022 9817.34
1981*23 6647.50

Comparison with Other Countries—Marriage rates for certain countries for 1980 are given below. (Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.)

CountryRate per 1000 of Mean Population
West Germany5.9
New Zealand7.3
United Kingdom7.4
United States10.9

MARITAL STATUS PRIOR TO MARRIAGE—The following table gives marital status prior to marriage for the latest available 5 years.

YearSingleWidowedDivorcedTotal Persons Married
197620 06120 2379411 0213 1522 89648 308
197718 32918 6619831 0363 2772 89245 178
197818 20618 3838429193 3783 12444 852
197917 90918 1928449283 5733 20644 652
198018 40018 6968518763 7303 40945 962

The following table shows marriages by marital status of marriage partners prior to that event.

YearMarriages Between Bachelors andMarriages Between Widowers andMarriages Between Divorced Men and
SpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced Women
197618 4702561 3351884542991 5793111 262
197716 8751951 2591885022931 5983391 340
197816 6072151 3841534082811 6232961 459
197916 3791901 3401654322471 6483061 619
198016 8231811 3961574112831 7162841 730

In the period 1976-80 more male divorcees than female divorcees remarried.

Forty years ago during the 1938-40 period, remarriages of widows totalled only 67 to every 100 remarriages of widowers. In the changed social climate of 1976-80, 107 widows remarried to every 100 widowers who did so.

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED—Until recently, the proportion of minors among persons marrying had been increasing over a fairly long period of years but it is now declining slightly. On 1 January 1971 the age of majority was lowered from 21 to 20 years of age. In 1980, 1 bride in every 5 was under 20 years of age. Bridegrooms were usually older than their brides; only 1 in every 24 was under 20 years of age.

Of the persons married in 1980, 5317 or 11.57 percent were under 20 years of age; 21 156 or 46.03 percent were returned as 20-24 years; 9234 or 20.09 percent as 25-29 years; 5824 or 12.67 percent as 30-39 years; and 4431 or 9.64 percent as 40 years of age and over.

The following table relates to the year ended December 1980.

Age of Bridegroom, in YearsAge of Bride, in YearsTotal Bridegrooms
Under 2020-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445 and Over
Under 206752482011--945
20-243 0156 44260094176210 176
25-295623 2691 537300681655 757
30-349576482950015751132 409
35-391216331031220566251 093
45 and over936671511782681 1941903
Total brides4 37210 9803 4771 5377855131 31722 981

The following table shows the percentage distribution by age group of males and females marrying. It refers to the 5-year period 1965-69 and to recent individual years.

PeriodUnder 20*20-24*25-2930-3435-3940-4445 and OverTotal
* Under 21 and 21-24 respectively before 1971.

The average ages (arithmetic mean) at marriage for both males and females are shown in the following table.

YearAverage Age at Marriage

The average ages of bachelors and spinsters at marriage are considerably lower than those shown in the preceding table, which covers all parties and is naturally affected by the inclusion of remarriages of widowed and divorced persons. The average ages of grooms and brides for each of the latest 5 years according to marital status were as shown in the next table.

Age in Years

The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the modal or most popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed. The modal age for brides in 1980 was 20 years. In the case of bridegrooms the most popular age has varied and for recent years it has been 21 to 24; in 1980 it was 22 years.

Marriages of Minors—Of every 1000 men who married in 1980, 41 were under 20 years of age. Among brides. 190 in every 1000 were under 20. Since 1 January 1971 the age of majority has been 20 years. In 675 marriages in 1980 both parties were given as under 20 years of age, in 3697 marriages the bride was returned as a minor and the bridegroom as an adult, and in 270 marriages the bridegroom was a minor and the bride an adult.

As already stated, the proportion of minors among persons marrying now appears to be levelling off or even falling. The main reason for this is the changing age structure of the population, with a slowly diminishing proportion consisting of minors of marriageable age.

In the table below figures are given for the latest available 5 years.

YearAge in YearsTotal Minors and 20-Year-olds
161718192016-20 Years16-19 YearsRate per 100 Marriages 16-20 YearsRate per 100 Marriages 16-19 Years
1976121133909721 9923 4791 48714.406.16
197717903367931 7272 9631 23613.115.47
197815743087811 6062 7841 17812.415.25
197910732577231 5022 5651 06311.494.76
198010552566241 4332 37394510.354.11
19763879492 0323 1363 3819 8856 50440.9226.93
19772787181 8312 7523 0838 6625 57938.3424.69
19782446861 6612 5773 0378 2055 16836.5823.04
19791745781 5232 4743 0037 7524 74934.7221.27
1980160457i 3512 4043 0997 4714 37232.5119.02

MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS CHURCHES—Of the 22 981 marriages performed in 1980, Anglican clergymen officiated at 4606, Presbyterian at 3953, Roman Catholic at 2869, Methodist at 1363, and clergymen of other churches and marriage celebrants at 5871, and 4319 marriages were solemnised by registrars.

The following table shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the largest churches and before registrars in each of the 5 latest years.

ChurchPercentage of Marriages
* Including 3515 marriages (15.30 percent) performed by marriage celebrants other than ministers of religion.
Roman Catholic13.4813.0612.5212.2212.49
Before registrars26.2524.2521.8320.7118.79

The foregoing figures must not be taken as an exact indication of the religious professions of the parties married, as it does not necessarily follow that both (or even one) of the parties are adherents of the church whose officiating minister performed the ceremony, and persons married before registrars may belong, in greater or lesser proportion, to any or none of the churches. Of the total population at the 1981 Census of Population, 25.7 percent were recorded as adherents of the Anglican Church, 16.7 percent Presbyterian, 14.3 percent Roman Catholic, 4.7 percent Methodist, 23.5 percent were of no religion, or objected to stating their religious profession, or did not specify any religious profession.

DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE—Under the Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1963, a petition for divorce could be presented to the High Court on one or more of several grounds, which included adultery, desertion, separation by agreement for not less than 2 years, separation by decree of separation or separation order for not less than 2 years, and the parties living apart for 4 years and not likely to be reconciled. Where the parties were separated or living apart one of the parties must have been resident in New Zealand for at least 2 years immediately preceding the filing of the petition. The Court was required to give consideration to the possibility of reconciliation of the parties to the marriage.

The Family Proceedings Act 1980, which replaces the Matrimonial Proceedings Act, came into force on 1 October 1981. It lays down only one ground on which an order dissolving a marriage can be made—that is, that the marriage has broken down irreconcilably. To establish that the marriage has broken down irreconcilably, the parties must be living apart, and have been doing so for the previous 2 years. The provisions for counselling and the promotion of conciliation have been strengthened.

The following table gives the grounds of petitions and decrees during the 2 years, 1979 and 1980.

GroundPetitions FiledDecrees Absolute Granted
Husbands' PetitionsWives' PetitionsHusbands' PetitionsWives' Petitions
Separation by agreement1 8192 0971 8862 2031 6401 7531 6411 872
Separation by Court Order540539763834432506641716
Having lived apart for 4 years or more342368327365302329308293
                Total3 3253 5513 5353 8752 9663 1343 1353 359

The figures shown for decrees absolute cover all such granted during the year, whether the antecedent decree nisi was granted in the same or in a previous year. A decree nisi normally applies for at least 3 months before a decree absolute is granted.

The next table shows the duration of marriage by ages of husbands and wives at the time of marriage, for cases in which decrees absolute were granted in 1980.

Duration of Marriage (in Years)Age (in Years) at Marriage
Under 2020-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445 and Over (including Sot Staled)Total
Husbands (All Petitions)
Under 543175832122736387
5- 92901 1183291005936902 022
10-14209834287933423571 537
15-1998604192642915251 027
20 and over958294131162510321 520
                Total7353 5601 304394169912406 493
Wives (All Petitions)
Under 51501334416101024387
5- 9898800152612220692 022
10-14671638117332413411 537
15-194214706736123181 027
20 and over48480315529204251 520
                Total2 6242 84453517588501776 493

Dissolution of a Voidable Marriage—Under the Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1963, a decree of dissolution of a voidable marriage put an end to the marriage from the date of the decree. On average there were only about 20 such decrees in New Zealand each year. The principal ground was non-consummation. The Family Proceedings Act 1980 abolished the decree, of dissolution of a voidable marriage.

MARRIAGE GUIDANCE—A National Marriage Guidance Council was established in 1950 as a voluntary agency to assist with social problems arising from unhappy or maladjusted marriages. With the support and advice of the Department of Justice, the council is now largely responsible for the provision and administration of educational services in the field of marriage and family life. Over 165 tutors have been trained to lead courses in the community on such topics as marriage enrichment, parent education, human relations and communication.

The 24 councils affiliated to the National Marriage Guidance Council provide counselling centres served by 272 accredited counsellors. During the past year these people have provided skilled professional assistance in 6155 cases to couples who have approached the service on their own initiative and in addition they have assisted the Courts by serving as conciliators under the Domestic Proceedings Act. They have dealt with 1844 cases in this way. All in all, 25 084 counselling interviews were provided during the year.

The National Marriage Guidance Council employs a full-time director to organise and co-ordinate the work of affiliated councils. At the local level the work of 655 trained volunteers in the fields of counselling and marriage education is supported and co-ordinated by 5 full-time and 11 part-time directors, 5 visiting supervisors, and 34 receptionists or secretaries. The 5 visiting supervisors mentioned above represent an important extension of marriage counselling services into provincial towns. Supervisors from neighbouring councils are funded 1 day a fortnight to travel to smaller centres in order to stimulate and supervise the development of local volunteers. This has the effect of placing professional services in marriage education, counselling, and conciliation services closer to the people in rural communities.

FURTHER INFORMATION—Further information on vital statistics will be found in the following publications.

Department of Statistics publications—

Vital Statistics (Annual).

Monthly Abstract of Statistics.

Family Statistics of New Zealand 1978 (Bulletin, 1978).

New Zealand Children 1979 (Bulletin, 1979).

Justice Statistics 1978: Divorce and Domestic Proceedings (Bulletin, 1979).

Life Tables 1975-77 (1979).

Demographic Bulletin.

Social Trends in New Zealand (1977).

New Zealand Males and Females: A Statistical Comparison (Bulletin, 1980).

Pocket Digest of Statistics (Annual).

Department of Health publications—

Trends in Health and Health Services (3-yearly).

Mortality and Demographic Data (Annual).

Hospital and Selected Morbidity Data (Annual).

Cancer Data (Annual).

Department of Health Special Report Series—

Infant and Foetal Loss in New Zealand (1964).

Occupational Mortality Among Male Population Other than Maori, 20 to 64 Years of Age (1967).

Maori-European Comparisons in Mortality (1972).

Cancer of the Lung in New Zealand (1973).

Bibliography of the Epidemiology of New Zealand and its Island Territories (1969).

Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat in Maori Children (1965).

Trends in Notifiable Disease (1964).

Domestic Accidents (1970).

Lung Function and Chronic Bronchitis in New Zealand (1978).

Perinatal Mortality in New Zealand, 1972-73 (1977).

Parliamentary papers—

The Public Health (Annual report of the Department of Health, Parl, paper E. 10).

Report of the Department of Social Welfare (Parl, paper E. 12).

Chapter 7. Section 5 HEALTH AND HOSPITALS


The nation's health services are the responsibility of a partnership of Central and local government, private medical practitioners, para-medical workers, charitable and religious organisations, and private citizens, with the Central Government providing encouragement, financial assistance and incentives, and assuming final responsibility. This has been a deliberate policy of successive Governments, although emphases have varied from time to time according to political and economic conditions and demands for specific services. Growing urbanisation and industrialisation, with consequent intensification of the problems of pollution of water, air, and land, have in recent years resulted in a renewed emphasis on the importance of environmental health.

Public health services in the Department of Health have recently been reorganised to reflect growth and development in 2 distinct and identifiable areas; viz, environmental factors affecting health, and the promotion of personal good health in the community. The Division of Public Health continues to be responsible for environmental health, quarantine, occupational health and toxicology, radiation protection, and the quality of food.

A new division, the Division of Health Promotion, now gives greater emphasis to disease prevention and better personal health through the expansion of family health, health education, nutrition, and public health nursing services. Dental health services, principally to the school child population, are provided by the Division of Dental Health.

ADMINISTRATION—The functions of local authorities are defined by statute and regulation. Elected local authorities must appoint a sufficient number of health inspectors qualified under the Health Inspectors Qualifications Regulations 1975. Where a local authority is too small to need a separate, full-time inspector, the Act permits two or more to combine to share the cost. In some smaller sparsely-populated districts where a local authority does not employ its own inspector, the departmental inspectors of health do the work and the authority pays for it. Only 25 percent of inspectors are employed by the department.

In each of the 18 health districts, the medical officer of health, who is a medical practitioner with special qualifications in community medicine, is the adviser to all local authorities in his district; in some cases his approval is required before action can be taken by a local authority, and in others he is the first line of appeal against its decisions. He is required to keep the Director-General of Health and the Board of Health informed of local authority deficiencies in their responsibilities under the Health Act.

Diseases which are scheduled in the Health Act 1956 must be notified by doctors and hospitals to the medical officer of health who is responsible for control measures; within this area the local authority health inspector is subject to his direct supervision and control. New programmes of immunisation are undertaken by the department and, when these have been established, vaccines are provided free to general practitioners who are encouraged in this work. Quarantine arrangements for both aircraft and ships comply with obligations under the International Health Regulations. Medical officers of health administer this service. The broad objective is the control of communicable and chronic diseases in man and the keeping of New Zealand free of quarantinable diseases.

Accident prevention and the health of industrial and agricultural workers is the care of the Department of Health in conjunction with the Department of Labour. The aim is to prevent occupational disease, control toxic hazards, raise standards of first-aid services, and ensure the safe use of agricultural chemicals. Food and nutrition standards aimed at protecting the consumer are laid down. An extensive programme, backed by legislation, governs the packaging, labelling, storage, and sale of poisons. Special environmental problems, such as radiation protection, occupational health, and atmosphere pollution, are also the responsibility of the Department of Health.

The objectives of health education programmes are to increase understanding of the value of health, to inform people of health services available, and to equip them with knowledge and skills they can use to solve health problems.

Family health responsibilities include medical and nursing supervision of infant, pre-school, and school children; the inspection of schools and child care centres; and the immunisation of infants against poliomyelitis, etc.

A dental service, directed by dental officers and staffed by dental nurses, provides regular dental treatment for all pre-school, primary and intermediate school children. Arrangements with private dental practitioners ensure similar treatment for adolescents up to the age of 16 years and for dependants up to the age of 18 years. Dental health education is also undertaken.

The Department of Health is responsible for the organisation and control of nursing services to the public in general; in hospitals (public or private); in homes for the aged, incapacitated, or infirm; and in any other places where the Department of Health has responsibility. Considerable delegation has taken place, mainly to hospital boards whose chief nursing officer is responsible for the administration of the services provided. The department keeps its nursing services and those provided by hospital boards under continuous review. Basic nursing education is provided in 26 hospital schools of nursing and 9 technical institutes. Formal post-basic nursing education at diploma/degree level is available from Victoria and Massey Universities, and 4 technical institutes have post-basic diploma courses. Short post-basic courses in learning and teaching are available from 2 teachers' colleges, and similar short courses in community health nursing are available from 4 technical institutes. “Bridging” courses to enable registered nurses to gain comprehensive registration are available from 2 technical institutes.

Within its public health nursing service, the department employs nearly 500 qualified nurses. Their work includes supervising the health of babies and small children, taking part in child health (including health education) programmes, providing a service to small industries and people in “at risk” occupations, taking part in disease control programmes, and assisting elderly people and people with mental health problems.

The Department of Health works closely with and seeks the advice and help of boards, committees, and councils such as the Board of Health, the Medical Research, Dental, Hospitals Advisory, Pharmacy, Nursing, and Radiation Protection Advisory Councils, the Hospital Works, and Medical Services Advisory Committees, and the Dietitians, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Opticians, and Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Drainlayers Boards. In all, officers of the department serve on over 100 boards, committees, and other organisations concerned with health.

In addition, there are very close working relationships with professional and other associations, voluntary health and welfare agencies, the universities, and other Government departments.

The department is responsible for the administration of a number of Acts dealing with health and social welfare. These will be found listed under Public General Acts in the Official section of this Yearbook.

Expenditure of the Department of Health in the 4 latest years is given in the following table.

Activity Programme1977-781978-791979-801980-81

* Mostly grants to hospital boards.

†From 1 April 1979 all expenditure is funded from Consolidated Account.

‡From 1 April 1978 combined with public health and environmental protection and medical and pharmaceutical services

§See Works Programme (Page 687).

Administrative services5,5106,8658,51110,625
Dental services19,76421,60928,82430,864
Hospital services*572,701703,135827,6931,010,211
Family health services9,667---
Medical research4,0204,3425,0376,723
Medical and pharmaceutical services153,580190,326213,497238,184
Public health and environmental protection27,49232,64340,45150,376
Welfare services6,4558,3838,4145,470
Data processing services7,1237,4475,1095,573
Funded from Consolidated Account806,312974,7501,137,5361,358,026
Psychiatric hospital buildings3,1685,090§§
Public buildings construction2521,210§§
Funded from Works and Trading Account3,4206,300--
            Less departmental receipts1,2791,0861,3221,857
            Net expenditure808,453979,9641,136,2141,356,169

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH: Local Authority Control—The provision and proper maintenance of public water supplies and sewerage systems, the disposal of refuse, the condition of dwellinghouses, the control of offensive trades, the control of noise nuisances, and the hygiene of premises (including eating houses) in which food is manufactured and sold, are primarily the responsibility of local authorities, but the Department of Health exercises general supervision. In the case of some of the smaller local authorities the necessary inspections are made by departmental inspectors on behalf of, and by arrangement with, the local authority. The department undertakes the basic training of health inspectors employed by local authorities and conducts specialist and refresher courses for them.

Department of Health Control—The objectives of the Department of Health in environmental health control are: (a) to create and maintain a healthy environment for the general public by the application of the principles of preventive medicine and the administration of legislation directly and indirectly related to this end; (b) to conserve hearing through the control of excessive noise from occupational and other environmental sources; (c) to control air pollution; (d) to provide scientific services and undertake research on all aspects of the use of ionising radiation with special emphasis on the medical applications and public health aspects. To monitor public exposure to radiation from all sources and to take action to reduce this where necessary. To promote general understanding of the nature of the hazards involved in radiation exposure in their current perspective.

Air Pollution Control—The Clean Air Act 1972 provides for the control of existing and potential sources of air pollution through a system of licensing processes known to emit air pollutants, and a requirement for all sources of emission to adopt the best practicable means for containment, thus minimising emissions to the atmosphere. Under the Clean Air Act the Clean Air Council gives advice directly to the Minister of Health and the Director-General of Health on clean air matters of concern to individuals or groups of individuals or the owners and operators of over 900 licensed premises throughout New Zealand. These licensed premises, particularly the larger ones, are monitored by Health Department officers to ensure they conform to the requirement for containment by meeting their licence conditions.

Clean air zones, the first of which has been established in Christchurch, can be required, under section 12 and 14 of the Act, when a need arises to impose special controls on the emission of air pollutants. In Christchurch there is a particular problem with domestic coal smoke and the Act provides for tighter control of domestic heating appliances and the granting of financial assistance to certain householders with the object of reducing domestic smoke emissions from coal burning.

Air pollution monitoring programmes are conducted in some main centres, and particularly in Christchurch and Auckland. These surveys indicate that the winter-time pollution levels in Christchurch exceed the WHO recommended standards for particulate concentrations on many occasions: and evidence of a significant contributions from motorcar exhaust emissions, in terms of carbon monoxide and lead, has been noted particularly in busy intersections. However, the low level of photochemical smog detected in the country reduces the need for legislation to control exhaust emissions beyond that already proposed for lead in petrol reductions when expanded refinery facilities become operative after 1984.

CONTROL OF DRUGS—The definitions of “drug” in the Food and Drug Act 1969 established groups to which differing provisions apply. Therapeutic drugs (that is, those substances or mixtures used internally or externally for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of any illness or injury of the human body or for modifying any physiological process or desires or emotions, and chemical contraceptives) are required, before being introduced commercially, to be “acceptable”, according to a procedure under the Food and Drug Act 1969. No new therapeutic drug may be distributed in New Zealand without the consent of the Minister of Health, under sections 12 and 13 of the Act.

This Act also requires that any drug which has been changed in any way in use, strength, or labelling must not be distributed until 90 days after notice of the change has been given to the Director-General of Health, who may consent to earlier distribution of a changed drug if he is satisfied of the drug's safety. If the Director-General considers the change to be of such character or degree that the drug ought not to be distributed without the consent of the Minister, the drug is referred to the Minister and may not be distributed until the Minister's specific consent has been obtained. A therapeutic drug is also restricted to sale from pharmacies only, unless special authority is given for general distribution in a schedule to the Therapeutic Drugs (Permitted Sales) Regulations 1978.

A cosmetic, dentifrice, detergent, disinfectant, or antiseptic does not have to be “cleared” for marketing unless claims in labelling or advertising bring it within the definition of a “therapeutic drug”.

The Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis of any drug which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any drug intended for sale. Measures provide for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where drugs are manufactured or packed. Control over medical advertisements is also incorporated in this legislation.

Under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964, certain drugs may not be sold to the public except on the prescription of a doctor, a dentist, or a veterinary surgeon. This legislation also requires specific warning statements to be included in the labelling of certain drugs such as the antihistamines, aspirin, paracetamol, and hexachlorophane.

Controlled Drugs—Under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 the import, export, cultivation, production, possession, distribution, supply, and administration of a wide range of narcotic and other drugs is strictly controlled. Except for medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists, veterinary surgeons, those having the care of patients being lawfully supplied with drugs, the patients themselves, and other specified persons, or those who have been issued with a licence under the Act, the procuration, manufacture, possession, consumption, supply, or offer to supply controlled drugs is a serious offence.

Controlled drugs are divided into three classes. The heaviest penalties are for offences involving drugs in Class A, which include heroin, lysergide, desomorphine, and cantharidin. Offences involving the possession or use of drugs in Class C, which include cannabis plants, fruit, and seeds, are to be punished with fines but not by imprisonment unless by reason of previous convictions or exceptional circumstances.

Illegal dealing in controlled drugs is subject to heavy penalties.

To curb drug abuse, the Departments of Health, Customs, and Police jointly set up a National Drug Intelligence Bureau in 1972.

FOOD AND NUTRITION—The Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis, by analysts appointed under the Act, of any articles of food or drink which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food intended for sale. Stringent measures are provided for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where food is manufactured or packed. Regulations lay down minimum standards for many classes of food, control additives of all kinds, and deal with labelling of food packages. Control is also established over all utensils and appliances coming into contact with food. Regular sampling of foods is undertaken by departmental inspectors and the samples are analysed in the Chemistry Division (DSIR) or its branch laboratories.

An important provision of the Act controls all kinds of publicity whereby a purchaser of any food would possibly be deceived in regard to the properties of that food, whether or not it is standardised by regulations.

A new Food Act was prepared in 1980 which represents a further stage in the revision of the Food and Drug Act 1969 and the Poisons Act 1960. It follows the Toxic Substances Act 1979 and is a companion to the new Medicines Act.

This new Food Act consolidates and amends the provisions of the Food and Drug Act 1969 that relate to food, and should come into force in 1982.

A Food Standards Committee, composed of highly qualified persons, meets regularly to discuss the latest technical advances in food production and to make appropriate recommendations for amendments to the legislation.

The nutrition section of the Department of Health provides advice on nutrition and dietetics to dietary departments of hospitals, and food service departments of welfare and other institutions. It is responsible for nutrition education programmes and provides a nutrition information service for Government departments, organisations concerned with the production and marketing of food, and the public. The section also carries out dietary research projects, generally in liaison with medical research teams concerned with nutrition research.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY—Since 1957 medical officers of health have been directly responsible for occupational health within their own districts. The objective of the occupational health programmes is, in consultation with labour, management, the medical profession, and other groups, to assist in maintaining and where possible improving the health of workers.

The Department of Labour, which is responsible for accident prevention, hours of work, employment of women and children etc., calls to the attention of the Department of Health any health problems which factory inspectors may encounter. The Health Act 1956 gives to medical officers of health or other authorised officers of the Department of Health the same powers and authority as inspectors of factories with regard to the health and welfare sections of the Factories and Commercial Premises Act 1981. The Department of Health suspends workers on health grounds, approves respirators for use when abrasive blasting or when working with asbestos, and arranges for any necessary medical examinations.

A similar understanding has been established with the Waterfront Industry Commission and New Zealand Railways, and illustrates the general pattern of arrangements between the Department of Health and other Government departments. There is an occupational health laboratory in Wellington. Teams of specialist doctors, nurses, and scientists reinforce the usual staff available to medical officers of health to investigate particular occupational health problems occurring in districts. These teams also study problems arising in industries such as forestry, which are to be found throughout the country.

Occupational Diseases—Notifiable occupational diseases are scheduled in the Health Act 1956 and details of diseases notified are published annually in the report of the Director-General of Health.

Commercial, Household, and Agricultural Poisons—The advertising, distribution, use, labelling, and packing of all poisons and toxic substances is controlled under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964.

A manufacturer or importer must notify the Registrar of Poisons before importing or marketing any toxic substance which has not been notified as industrial, be it chemical, household preparation, cosmetic, or drug. Special safeguards have been provided relating to the handling of certain hazardous chemicals, used in agriculture and horticulture. It is an offence to pack poisons in bottles that are ordinarily used for food, drink, or medicine. Labels for “Restricted Poisons” must bear a statement of the precautions to be taken in use, the symptoms of poisoning and the remedial treatment, and must be approved by the Registrar of Poisons.

The Toxic Substances Act, which was passed in 1979, will replace the Poisons Act and will come into force after the Toxic Substances Regulations have been promulgated.

Control of Health Hazards—An increasing number of specific health hazards are formally controlled, namely: asbestos, lead processes, electroplating, spray painting, sand blasting (siliceous blasting agents in factories are prohibited), fumigation, aerial application of poisons (where, in conjunction with the Civil Aviation Division of the Ministry of Transport, a special rating is required by pilots), and agricultural chemicals. Consideration is being given to the production of guidelines for the aluminium, lead, spray painting, and electroplating industries.

Medical, Nursing, and First-aid Services—Minimal first-aid requirements have been laid down by the Department of Health, which generally endeavours to encourage both the development of medical and nursing services and the raising of first-aid standards throughout industry generally. Although industry is not obliged to provide medical and nursing services, an increasing number of factories do provide them. To meet the needs of small factories the department has developed occupational health centres—in ports with financial support from the Waterfront Industry Commission; in other places the Accident Compensation Corporation has provided financial assistance. An occupational health service provided by a visiting nurse is now being tested.

Pre-employment Examinations—Pre-employment medical examinations are required for young workers before entering factory employment.

National Acoustics Centre—The National Acoustics Centre assists with the early detection of deafness and conservation of hearing. The centre conducts and promotes research into noisy industries, occupational deafness, and other forms of deafness. An advisory service is provided for those working with deaf people and training is given to those responsible for testing groups for hearing loss. Investigations into environmental noise are also undertaken by the regional noise engineers.

Radiation Protection—The National Radiation Laboratory provides the administrative and technical services required by the Radiation Protection Act 1965 and Regulations 1973 and the Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations 1973. Prior approval must be obtained for the import or export of any radioactive material. Each owner of irradiating apparatus (source of X-rays) or radioactive material must ensure that they are used only under the control of a person specifically licensed for the purpose.

The laboratory provides the licensees with free monitoring, advisory, calibration, or other services which will assist in achieving radiation safety. Trained officers regularly visit all places where sources of ionising radiation are used. A service is available for measuring the exposures received by radiation workers.

The laboratory advises the requirements for the transport and disposal of radioactive materials and is responsible for monitoring a wide range of environmental samples for natural or man-made radioactivity.

FAMILY HEALTH—Medical practitioners give ante-natal, neo-natal, and post-natal attention under the Social Security Act. Free ante-natal clinics are established in connection with all public maternity hospitals and maternity wards. Ante-natal classes to prepare mothers for the baby's arrival are also available, and doctors can refer patients to these to supplement their own ante-natal instructions In the case of women living far away from the main centres of population, ante-natal work is supplemented by the public health nurses employed by the Department of Health, or by district nurses employed by hospital boards.

Approximately 99 percent of confinements take place in maternity hospitals or in maternity units of public hospitals. The medical care of the mother and child is based on co-operation between the Department of Health, hospital boards, and the medical and nursing professions. All private maternity hospitals are licensed under the Hospitals Act 1957 and the Department of Health has responsibility for ensuring that regulations regarding buildings, equipment, and staff are observed. Medical officers of health, through their senior nursing staff, exercise general supervision over the work of private hospitals in the local areas.

Family Planning—Family planning advice can be obtained from general practitioners, private specialists, and from any one of the 40 clinics operated by the N.Z. Family Planning Association (Inc.) in various centres throughout the country. The Government provides a grant to meet the cost of salaries of doctors, nurses, and health assistants (clinical) employed by the association in approved clinics.

In addition, the Government also provides a grant to the N.Z. Association of Natural Family Planning (Inc.) to meet the payment of the salary of the national co-ordinator, an initial 1-week residential training course for up to 70 teachers each year, and an annual 3-day training course for up to 100 teachers.

A number of hospital boards have established family planning clinics within their obstetrics and gynaecology departments to provide additional facilities for the public and training for doctors, medical students, and nurses, and other boards are being encouraged to provide these facilities.

Child Health—The Department of Health offers a preventive child health service. Babies are normally examined at about 6 weeks of age and again at 9 months. Additional examinations are given whenever there is anxiety over physical, mental, or emotional development. Public health nurses undertake supervision of infants and pre-school children although the major proportion of this service is provided by the nurses of the Plunket Society. A comprehensive examination including vision and hearing testing is recommended for all children between the ages of 3 and 4 years. When necessary the children are referred to family doctors or medical officers of the Department of Health.

A consultative service is provided for schools, with special emphasis on the health supervision of handicapped children, both in the normal schools and in special education classes. Nursing staff make regular visits to all schools and, in consultation with teachers and parents, investigate children who appear to be in need of support and refer them if necessary for the appropriate services. All new entrants to school receive a health assessment by the public health nurse. Parent participation is encouraged. Correspondence School children are kept under health supervision as necessary and any school child requiring treatment is referred to the appropriate family doctor. Vision and hearing testing is carried out by trained staff for pre-school children, and again in Junior I and Form I. These tests are available on request to any child suspected of either defect. Tests are also offered to pupils in secondary schools.

The Government supports the Children's Health Camps Board which maintains six permanent camps for the short-stay placement of children convalescent after illness, for those whose physical health is unsatisfactory, and for those suffering from minor emotional disorders. Medical officers select children for admission and undertake general health supervision of the camps. Children derive benefit from the ordered routine of camp life which provides a diet designed to improve nutrition and a balance of free activity, rest, and sleep. The Department of Education maintains school classes with emphasis on remedial teaching.

A new health camp began construction in July 1981 to serve the Bay of Plenty and Waikato areas. It is sited in the suburb of Lynmore, Rotorua, and is scheduled to be opened in January 1983.

Immunisation Programme—Immunisation, which is free, is usually done by the family doctor. The course of injections should be commenced as soon as possible after babies are 3 months old. Protection against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus is a routine procedure and a triple vaccine is used at 3 months and 5 months of age together with an oral vaccine for poliomyelitis. Arrangements can be made for mothers who do not have family doctors to attend with their children at departmental clinics. If necessary, in country areas the public health nurse will visit the home to immunise the child. Booster doses (against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio) are given at 18 months and an additional polio vaccine at 5 years of age. Further booster doses against tetanus only are given at 15 years of age and recommended at 20-yearly intervals and on injury. Measles (Morbilli) vaccination is available from family doctors for infants from 12 months of age onwards. Rubella vaccination is available from family doctors for women and girls in the childbearing age groups. Rubella immunisation is also offered to 11-year-old girls at school.

HEALTH HAZARDS AND HEALTH EDUCATION: Alcoholism—In New Zealand alcoholism rates as a major public health problem. There is no accurate measure of the number of alcoholics but experts in the field suggest that there are at least 53 000 chronic alcoholics, and that an average of 10 people (family, friends, and working colleagues) are affected in each case. The figure for chronic alcoholics does not include excessive drinkers, estimated to number over 200 000.

The Alcoholic Liquor Advisory Council Act 1976 provided for the establishment of the Alcoholic Liquor Advisory Council, which was created in 1977. The Council's primary objectives are to encourage and promote moderation in the use of liquor, to discourage its misuse, and to reduce the personal. social, and economic evils resulting from this misuse of liquor.

In its first four years the council received an income of $1.4 million, $1.8 million. $1.65 million and $2.3 million, mainly from levies on alcohol, to meet its wide range of functions. During this period, the Alcoholic Advisory Council carried out surveys on the drinking habits and attitudes to alcohol of 10 000 adult New Zealanders, and the extent of (and attitudes to) alcohol use among 3000 school pupils. The findings of both surveys have been analysed and published. The council has also established a multi-disciplinary alcohol research unit in association with the Medical Research Council and the University of Auckland School of Medicine and supported independent research projects. It has established an alcoholism counsellor training course which has produced 58 graduates and it has aided in the establishment of 18 basic treatment facilities by hospital boards.

In association with the Department of Education the council has developed a Health Education Resources Project. This has now provided the first of several kits of resource material on alcohol-related matters for use in secondary schools. Financial assistance and advice has been provided to a wide range of voluntary agencies working in alcohol-related fields; and a library and information resource centre has been established to provide pamphlets, posters, and films. The council has interested over 80 firms and organisations in developing programmes in industry for the treatment of alcohol problems. Handbooks have been developed for doctors and para-medical counsellors, and a series of education and awareness programmes has been promoted through T.V., radio, magazines, and newspapers. When applicable, the council has provided advice and statistical data to the Government, Government departments, and other agencies on control policies, treatment methods and facilities, and other alcohol-related matters.

Smoking—Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is an acknowledged public health hazard. It is implicated as an important causative factor in lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, and it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and certain pregnancy-related and neo-natal disorders.

The following table indicates the smoking habits of New Zealand residents (excluding visitors) as recorded at the 1981 Population Census. The percentages are based on provisional figures derived from a 10 percent randomly-selected sample of households with their occupants. In calculating the percentages the relatively small numbers of unspecified cases were omitted.

The census results indicated that approximately a third (32 percent) of New Zealanders of 15 years of age and over were regular smokers, and that 34.6 percent of males smoked as compared with 29.4 percent of females. The disparity in the percentages of male and female smokers was most marked in the older age groups—for example. 27.2 percent of men aged 60 or over were regular smokers compared with only 16.5 percent of women aged 60 or over. On the other hand, in the youngest age group surveyed, the 15 to 19 year olds, the percentage of girls who smoked regularly exceeded the percentage of boys, a fact that was also noted at the previous survey based on the 1976 Census.

Smoking PracticeAge Groups (Years)Total§
15-1920-2930-3940-5960 and over19811976

* Never smoked cigarettes regularly or never smoked them at all.

†Do not smoke now, but used to smoke regularly (one or more cigarettes a day).

‡Smoke regularly (one or more cigarettes a day).

§1981 figures relate to New Zealand residents aged 15 years and over, whereas 1976 figures relate to all persons (including visitors) in the same age groups.

Never smoked*67.447.941.531.728.841.638.7
Not smoking5.513.321.330.844.023.821.7
Never smoked*64.048.850.454.667.456.456.7
Not smoking6.213.516.315.416.114.111.6

Cigarette smoking in New Zealand is probably less prevalent than in the past and in fact, the figures indicate a slight fall between the surveys taken in conjunction with the last two censuses in 1976 and 1981. However, the high level of smoking among young people, particularly young women and girls, is a major health problem.

Health Education and Information—It is being increasingly recognised that the individual must be encouraged to take an active interest in, and responsibility for, his or her own health. This is particularly relevant in such areas as smoking, immunisation, sexually-transmitted diseases, and hearing protection. These and other topics are covered by the health education programmes of the Department of Health.

Medical and dental officers, public health nurses, dental nurses, and inspectors of health all devote some of their time to health education. The health education officer acts as a co-ordinator and stimulates and extends health teaching and health programmes in the district. Advertisements on health subjects are screened on television and published in national periodicals. Leaflets, pamphlets, and posters on many health topics are available from district health offices.

The Department of Health's magazine Health has a circulation of over 95 000 and is issued free on request to the public four times a year. It gives health information and publicises various aspects of the department's work.

Officers are available for lectures and discussions on health with schools and community groups.

DENTAL HEALTH—New Zealand's dental health service combines a school dental service for children, dental benefits for adolescents, and private practice for adults. There are 15 dental districts, a school for dental nurses in Wellington, and the school of dentistry at the University of Otago.

School Dental Service—The objective of the service is to maintain a high standard of dental health of pre-school and school children by regular and systematic treatment at 6-monthly intervals, commencing at the age of 2 1/2 and continuing through the highest class at primary or intermediate school.

The school dental nurse, after completing the two-year training course, is appointed to a school dental clinic where she provides routine dental care for children. Regular visits are made to the clinic by the Principal Dental Officer and the Supervising Dental Nurse, who assist the dental nurse to maintain a high standard of performance in all aspects of the work. The School Dental Service Gazette is published bi-monthly as a medium for continuing education.

The dental care comprises examination, application of disease prevention measures, fillings in temporary and permanent teeth, extraction of deciduous teeth, and dental health education. Some children are referred to dentists for additional care which is beyond the scope of the school dental nurses.

In 1981, 1120 school dental nurses provided dental care for 572 153 children. The treatment included 875 754 fillings and 28 277 extractions. Indicators of the success of the service are the acceptance (66 percent of pre-school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 and 95 percent of the primary school children are enrolled) and the small number of extractions.

Adolescent Dental Service—Dental care for teenagers up to 16 years of age and, if dependent, up to 18 years of age is provided by private dentists as dental benefits under the Social Security Act, the dentist being reimbursed on a fee-service basis. Children who remain at school after their sixteenth birthday and qualify for the extended family benefit, or who are otherwise dependent upon parents for support, continue to receive dental benefits to their eighteenth birthday.

Treatment is essentially of a nature designed to conserve the natural teeth. Dental supervision of adolescents is on a basis of examination and treatment at 6-monthly intervals. There is free choice of dentists, and dentists have the right to decline patients.

At 31 March 1981, a total of 267 277 children were enrolled for general dental benefits. Private practitioners completed 371 077 treatments under the scheme during the year ended 31 March 1981.

Dental Health Education—Dental health education is an integral part of the school dental service and includes activities in the clinics and the classroom. Educational materials are produced by the Department of Health for the school dental service and for general use in the community. Materials specifically for dentists are produced by the Dental Health Committee of the New Zealand Dental Association.

Dental Research—The Dental Unit of the Medical Research Council carries out research in a wide range of dental problems. Further research is undertaken by the School of Dentistry at the University of Otago and there is also a small research unit within the Division of Dental Health of the Department of Health.

Fluoridation—Approximately 64 percent of all persons living in water-reticulated areas are drinking fluoridated water, which reduces the need for dental treatment. This represents approximately 54 percent of the population of New Zealand.

REHABILITATION OF DISABLED CIVILIANS—The rehabilitation of disabled and handicapped persons has received increasing emphasis over recent years in New Zealand. Public hospitals provide a medical rehabilitation service, with co-operation from the Government and voluntary agencies.

Rehabilitation centres for the treatment of the severely disabled are established at Otara in Auckland, Palmerston North, and at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Rotorua. For the rehabilitation of persons suffering from spinal injuries and paraplegia, specialist spinal injury centres are provided at Auckland and Christchurch. Rehabilitation activities are also carried out in the physical medicine departments of general hospitals, and in psychiatric and psychopaedic hospitals.

The Rehabilitation League is the principal agent of Government in vocational rehabilitation. The main function of the League is to provide facilities for work assessment and work experience for the disabled. Policy is decided by a central board of management and district committees administer the centres which are established in Auckland, Wellington. Christchurch, Dunedin, and Napier.

A National Civilian Rehabilitation Committee, comprising representatives from the Departments of Labour, Social Welfare, Health, and Education, and the Accident Compensation Corporation, advises the Government on steps to co-ordinate and promote rehabilitation in New Zealand.

PHYSICAL MEDICINE—Physical medicine is concerned with the treatment by physical means of such potentially disabling conditions as rheumatic diseases, cerebral palsy, and other disorders of the locomotor system.

The national centre for the treatment of rheumatism is established at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Rotorua, which has approximately 100 beds set aside for diagnosis and research into treatment of these diseases. Full physiotherapy and occupational therapy facilities are provided and active steps towards rehabilitation of patients are carried out. A large number of outpatients are referred from all parts of New Zealand and some from overseas are seen every year.

Physiotherapists and occupational therapists work together in preventing and controlling deformity, and teaching people how to overcome their disabilities. Social workers assist in bridging the gap between rehabilitation and vocational and social resettlement.

A child potential unit is situated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, providing residential accommodation for 20 children. At this unit the activities of a team of nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists are co-ordinated by the supervisor of the unit working under a physician. Patients can be referred by their doctors to the physician in charge of the unit for assessment only, or for admission and treatment. Cerebral palsy visiting therapist services are operating under hospital boards. Post-graduate training is given to physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists.

Cerebral palsy day schools have been established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin. and Invercargill. Parents of cerebral palsy cases who seek their children's admission first apply to the appropriate medical officer of health or education board. The schools are administered by the education boards, but close liaison exists between the schools, the Rotorua unit, and the visiting cerebral palsy therapists.

HEALTH STATISTICS—The National Health Statistics Centre is responsible for the annual publication of Health Statistics Reports on mortality, morbidity, mental health, cancer, and hospital management as well as the publication of Trends in Health and Health Services every 2 years.

The Centre also prepares special statistics for the various divisions of the Department and for research workers in different fields both in New Zealand and overseas. A constant liaison is maintained with the World Health Organisation (WHO), which is supplied with statistical material giving a picture of health trends in New Zealand. In addition, from time to time, special statistical investigations are made into important aspects of public health and diseases that warrant specific study.

Since July 1975 the Centre has been monitoring the incidence of selected congenital malformations reported by medical practitioners to the Department of Health.

NATIONAL HEALTH INSTITUTE—The Institute is the Department of Health's centre for the scientific study of public health problems. It contains an epidemiology section and public health laboratories (microbiology, virology, serology, and environmental health).

The epidemiology section conducts field research into matters of public health interest.

The public health laboratories provide diagnostic and reference services in bacteriology, virology, and mycology for medical officers of health, hospital and private laboratories, and general practitioners, as well as for the other sections of the institute. The Institute is the national centre for those reference services which are organised on an international basis, such as salmonellosis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, influenza, and staphylococcal phage typing.

Public health laboratories have been established at 5 public hospitals in main centres to assist the department with the examination of food, milk, and water and of public health specimens.

MANAGEMENT SERVICES AND RESEARCH UNIT—This unit provides health care administration and health service managers with advice, where possible on a quantitative basis, for decision-making on the use of health care resources.

Survey research undertaken provides the means by which relative levels of needs and demands can be identified, as well as a basis for the promulgation of alternative proposals to meet those needs and demands. The unit is actively involved in health planning at national, local, and community levels, encouraging both providers and consumers of health care to participate in the development of their own services.

In the health services, manpower is the major resource. Projections based on special surveys and regular statistical collections are being developed for many categories of health workers. The implications of these are evaluated at workshops and through other channels so that action can be taken to meet identified needs. Reviews of the patterns of services provided are also undertaken, with increasing attention being paid to the distribution of resources and the use to which they are put.

MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL—The Medical Research Council of New Zealand has the following functions:

  1. To initiate, foster, and support medical research;

  2. To furnish information, advice, and assistance to persons and organisations concerned with medical research;

  3. To collect and disseminate scientific information, including the publication of reports.

At the end of 1981 research was in progress in most fields of medicine including the pre-clinical, clinical and para-clinical sciences. Increased emphasis was also being placed on the fields of social medicine and community health, and on research into health services, and the earlier work of the council on medical research in the South Pacific through its South Pacific Medical Research Committee was being continued.

The council maintains liaison with the research work being carried out by private medical research foundations and societies such as the Cancer Society of New Zealand, and regional medical research foundations established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Palmerston North, Hawke's Bay, Otago, and Southland.

The council administers the Medical Research Endowment Fund, from which an annual expenditure of $7.9 million is incurred in supporting research projects at the medical and clinical schools, and other university departments, and at the institutions of the Auckland, Wellington, North Canterbury, and Otago Hospital Boards.

The council employs a staff of about 50 full-time workers. A further 330 workers are employed by other institutions under project and programme grants from the council.

The council awards scholarships and fellowships to selected graduates and undergraduates who wish to engage in medical research.

The council is empowered to receive bequests and donations to the fund for furthering the objects of the council as set out in the Medical Research Council Act 1950.

MEDICAL COUNCIL—The Medical Council of New Zealand, constituted under the Medical Practitioners Act 1968, consists of the Director-General of Health, the deans of the faculties of medicine in the Universities of Otago and Auckland, and eight registered medical practitioners appointed on a representative basis.

The council deals with all applications for registration under the Act. Until an applicant is able to satisfy the council that he has obtained house officer experience, in a resident medical capacity, of not less than 12 months or has otherwise obtained comparable experience, registration is on a conditional basis. Persons registered conditionally may practise only in an approved hospital. A medical education committee responsible to the council exercises general supervision over the training of persons conditionally registered. The number of medical practitioners on the register at 30 June 1981 was 8327, but not all are in active practice in New Zealand.

The Medical Council is vested with certain disciplinary powers. Right of appeal to the High Court is provided.

DOCTORS AND DENTISTS—The following table, based on figures in World Statistics in Brief 1981, shows for selected countries the number of inhabitants per doctor and per dentist. The years are the latest available and range from 1974 to 1979.

Per DoctorPer Dentist
New Zealand7312 920
Australia6502 460
England and Wales6323 460
Denmark5121 150
Sweden5611 160
France6132 010
Netherlands5832 990
West Germany4901 930
Canada5622 440
United States5691 910
Japan8452 600
U.S.S.R.2892 510
Iran2 58616 410
India3 58664 900
Kenya16 292134 260
Brazil1 6483 120

The definition of doctor (physician) used in compiling this table included all graduates of a medical school or faculty actually working in a country in any medical field (practice, teaching, administration, research, laboratory work, etc.). A similar definition referring to graduates or qualified personnel of a dental faculty or school applied to dentists.

REGISTRATION COUNCILS AND BOARDS: Dentists—The Dental Council was constituted under the Dental Act 1963. The functions of the council are to examine and approve of the qualifications of applicants desiring registration as dentists and to exercise disciplinary control over registered dentists.

The number of practising dentists holding annual practising certificates at 31 May 1981 was 1152. Under provisions of the Dental Technicians Regulations 1968, a Registration Board for Dental Technicians was constituted. In 1981 there were 431 registered dental technicians.

Nurses—The Nursing Council of New Zealand was constituted under the Nurses Act 1971. Its functions include making recommendations on nursing programmes to be undertaken by candidates for examinations in relation to minimum standards required for registration; the conduct of examinations; the granting of approval of Schools of Nursing, subject to Ministerial concurrence; the enrolment and registration of overseas nurses; and the exercise of disciplinary powers.

The Nurses Act 1977, effective from 1 January 1978, repealed the 1971 Act and 1975 Amendment Act and removed the minimum age for the sitting of State Examinations for all classes of students except those for enrolment. It also required male students to undertake the obstetric part of the general and obstetric programme and enabled male persons to undertake midwifery training.

Programmes currently provided for registration or enrolment are as follows: 3-year student-based courses at 9 technical institutes leading to comprehensive nurse registration; 3-year hospital-based courses leading to either general and obstetric, psychiatric, or psychopaedic nurse registration: 1-year hospital-based courses leading to enrolment as nurses; 6-month hospital-based obstetric courses for general nurses leading to general and obstetric nurse registration; 1-year student-based midwifery courses for general and obstetric nurses or for comprehensive nurses; and 2-year hospital-based programmes for nurses holding a basic qualification. A number of student-based “bridging” programmes have been introduced.

These programmes offer the general and obstetric nurse, psychiatric or psychopaedic nurse curriculum. This further qualification entitles a nurse to comprehensive registration.

The Nurses' Regulations following the introduction of the 1977 Act became effective in 1980.

During the year 1980-81 there were 31 470 registered and enrolled nurses holding a valid annual practising certificate; the council's total register/roll exceeds 90 000; of these, 1359 are registered comprehensive nurses.

Physiotherapists—The New Zealand Physiotherapy Board is constituted under the Physiotherapy Act 1949. The board's functions are the examination and registration of candidates for physiotherapy practice, the issuing of special licences, and the conduct of those registered under the Act.

The training period for physiotherapists is 3 years. Full-time training is conducted at the Physiotherapy Department, Auckland Technical Institute, and at the School of Physiotherapy, Otago Polytechnic, Dunedin. From 1 February 1976 the control of this school was transferred from Otago Hospital Board to Otago Polytechnic Council. All students are required to pass the State Examination in Physiotherapy to qualify for registration.

During 1981, 133 physiotherapists were registered, bringing the total on the register (which includes some no longer practising) to 3478.

Occupational Therapists—The Occupational Therapy Board is constituted under the Occupational Therapy Act 1949. The board is concerned with the registration and conduct of persons engaged in the practice of occupational therapy.

The Central Institute of Technology, Upper Hutt, conducts the 3-year course of training and clinical experience is gained at hospitals. Students who successfully complete the course are awarded a diploma in occupational therapy and then registered. There are some 400 occupational therapists in active practice.

Dietitians—The Dietitians Board, constituted under the Dietitians Act 1950, is concerned with the training, examination, and registration of persons engaged in the practice of dietetics.

The training period for a dietitian is, in the case of the holder of a degree of bachelor of home science conferred by the University of Otago or of the holder of a diploma in home science of the University of Otago, 12 months in a hospital training school. In 1980 there were 614 registered dietitians.

Optometrists and Dispensing Opticians—The Optometrists and Dispensing Opticians Act 1976 provides for the constitution of an Opticians Board, consisting of four registered optometrists to be appointed on the nomination of the New Zealand Optometrical Association Incorporated, one registered optometrist who is actively engaged in teaching optometry to be appointed on the nomination of the Council of the University of Auckland, two registered dispensing opticians to be appointed on the nominations of the Association of Dispensing Opticians and Optical Dispensers of New Zealand Incorporated, two ophthalmological specialists who are registered in respect of that speciality under the Medical Practitioners Act 1968, to be appointed on the nomination of the New Zealand Medical Association, and one other person being an officer of the Public Service employed in the Department of Health.

Three hundred and twenty-six Annual Practising Certificates were issued for the year ended 31 March 1982. This included optometrists and dispensing opticians.

Chiropodists—The Medical and Dental Auxiliaries Act 1966 provided for the constitution of a Chiropodists Board. The Chiropodists Regulations 1967 specify that the board shall consist of one officer of the Department of Health, and three persons entitled to registration as chiropodists who have been nominated by the New Zealand Society of Chiropodists, and a medical practitioner who has been nominated jointly by the Medical Association of New Zealand and the Executive Committee of the New Zealand Orthopaedic Association. The board's functions include the promotion of high standards of education and conduct among persons engaged or intending to become engaged in chiropody, the exercising of disciplinary powers in accordance with the Act in respect of registered chiropodists and the conducting of special examinations. The board also deals with all applications for registration under the Act.

There are approximately 300 registered chiropodists, but not all are engaged in active practice. A significant number of those in active practice work only part time. In pursuance of the Government's policy, a number of hospital boards are establishing community-oriented chiropody services, principally intended for the elderly.

Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Drainlayers—The Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Drainlayers Board consists of 13 member/representatives from the Municipal and Counties Association, the Gas Association, the New Zealand Drainlayers Association, an engineer employed by a local authority or drainage board, the Master Plumbers Society (2), the Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Related Trades Industrial Union of Workers (2), Department of Labour, Department of Education, Department of Health, and one other person, to be appointed by the Minister.

The board is concerned with the registration of plumbers, gasfitters, and drainlayers. It issues annual licences to craftsmen and registered plumbers, gasfitters, and drainlayers and limited certificates. It has also authority and responsibility for disciplinary action against craftsmen plumbers and gasfitters if it is established they have done unsatisfactory work.

Drainlaying may be carried out only by registered drainlayers, and gasfitting may be carried out only by craftsmen gasfitters or by registered gasfitters and holders of limited certificates working in the employment, or under the supervision, of craftsmen gasfitters.

Except in specially exempted areas, all sanitary plumbing defined in the Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Drainlayers Act 1976 can be performed only by craftsmen and registered plumbers and holders of limited certificates working in the employment or under the supervision of craftsmen plumbers.

Specifications and standards of workmanship and materials in plumbing work are prescribed in the provisions of the Drainage and Plumbing Regulations enacted under the Health Act.

Pharmacists—In October 1981 there were 2986 names on the Pharmaceutical Register in New Zealand. All registered pharmacists, except those who notify the registrar that they have conscientious objection to membership, automatically become members of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand, the society's affairs being managed by a council constituted by the Pharmacy Act 1970.

The council consists of 12 members, 11 being pharmacists, and 1 a barrister appointed by the Minister of Health. Seven members are elected on a district basis by registered pharmacists who are proprietors of pharmacies and four by members of the Pharmaceutical Society who are not in the previous category. The main function of the council of the Pharmaceutical Society is to administer the Pharmacy Act and generally to protect and promote the interests of the profession of pharmacy and the public interests.

It is a specific requirement of the Pharmacy Act that pharmacies in New Zealand be at all times maintained under the immediate supervision and control of a registered pharmacist.

The present system for pharmacy education requires a minimum of 3 years' attendance at the School of Pharmacy, Central Institute of Technology, Upper Hutt, at which the diploma in pharmacy is obtained. There is also a 4-year degree course in pharmacy at the University of Otago. Graduates from both courses are required to gain 52 weeks pre-registration experience before becoming eligible for registration as pharmacists.

Any pharmacist or company in which not less than 75 percent of the share capital is owned by a pharmacist or pharmacists may establish one pharmacy. Unqualified persons or companies in which less than 75 percent of the share capital is pharmacist-owned must, however, secure the consent of the Pharmacy Authority, set up under the Act, before commencing business, and in all cases the establishment of more than one pharmacy under the same ownership, or the holding of an interest in more than one pharmacy by any person, is subject to the consent of the authority. All pharmacies must be registered with the society. There are about 1120 pharmacies in New Zealand. A recent survey showed that on average there were 1.44 pharmacists per pharmacy; about 250 pharmacists work outside community pharmacies in hospitals, Government departments, and the pharmaceutical industry.

MEDICAL, HOSPITAL, AND OTHER RELATED BENEFITS—Part II of the Social Security Act 1964, administered by the Department of Health and dealing with medical and like benefits, is of general application to all persons ordinarily resident in New Zealand, and makes provision for medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits.

Medical Benefits—Medical benefits apply to such medical treatment as is ordinarily given by medical practitioners in the course of a general practice. Certain services are excluded, these being principally:

  1. Medical services in maternity cases. (These services are covered by maternity benefits and are described under a later heading.)

  2. Medical services involved in any medical examination of which the sole or primary purpose is the obtaining of a medical certificate.

  3. Medic