Table of Contents


The New Zealand Official Yearbook is recognised as a standard reference work. With an informative background of text, there are presented statistics of the population, their health and education, their employment and their production, their trade and their transport, their wages and their spending, their housing standards and food consumption, their national finances and international aid. Supplementary material gives other social, administrative, and legislative information.

As a series, Official Yearbooks are a rich source of material for research workers and students. The yearly record becomes a survey of both growth and change. Every endeavour is made to give comprehensive accurate information as clearly as possible within the limits of space. Each section is progressively revised and the emphasis varies with economic and social developments.

In this latest issue some sections have been extensively revised; these include Social Work, Superannuation, Shipping, and Science. A statement of functions of Government departments has been added to Section 39, Official.

The metric system of weights and measures will be in common use by 1976, and most statistics in this issue are presented in metric measure.

Special articles cover the revision of the Consumers Price Index (1974), the Household Sample Survey 1973-74, and an introduction to inter-industry studies.

The photographic section features Vista of Colourful New Zealand.

Additional and more recent detail on many subjects may be obtained from publications of the Department of Statistics. These are listed towards the end of this Yearbook and are available from Government bookshops.

The preface to the Yearbook is the appropriate place to express my appreciation of the work of J. B. McKinney, M.A., Director of Information and Publicity, who retired at the end of July 1975. Nineteen Yearbooks were produced under his editorship and direction, and his contribution to the development of the Yearbook through these many years of dedicated work was incalculable. The Yearbook also owes much to the assistance and co-operation of other Government departments and especially to the work of the Government Printing Office.

E. A. Harris,Government Statistician.

Department of Statistics,Wellington. October 1975.


The interpretation of the symbols used in the tables throughout this publication is as follows:

- nil or zero

.. figures not available not yet available — space left blank

... not applicable

- - amount too small to be expressed x revised


New Zealand is to substantially convert to the metric system of weights and measures by the end of 1976.

As far as possible statistics in this issue have been converted to the metric system.


Some relationships between common British units and common SI units are shown in the following table.

1 in.= 25.4 mm
 = 2.54 cm
1 ft= 30.48 cm
 = 0.305 m
1 yd= 0.914 m
1 mile= 1.609 km
1 mm= 0.039 in.
1 cm= 0.394 in.
1 dm= 3.937 in.
1 m= 39.37 in.
 = 1.094 yds
1 km= 0.621 miles
1 sq ft= 0.093 m2
 = 929.03 cm2
1 sq yd= 0.836 m2
1 acre= 0.405 hectare (ha)
1 sq mile= 2.590 km2
 = 259 ha
1 m2= 10.764 sq ft
 = 1.196 sq yds
1 da= 0.247 acres
1 ha= 2.471 acres
1 km2= 247.1 acres
 = 0.385 sq miles
1 cu in.= 16.387 cm3
1 cu fa= 0.028 m3
3 cu yd= 0.765 m3
1 cm3= 0.061 cu in.
1 m3= 35.315 cu ft
 = 1.308 cu yds
1 pt= 0.568 litres (l)
1 qt= 1.137 1
1 gal= 4.546 1
1 litre= 1.760 pts
 = 0.880 qts
 = 0.220 gal
1 oz= 28.35 grams (g)
1 lb= 0.454 kilograms (kg)
1 cwt= 50.802 kg
1 long ton= 1,016 kg
 = 1.016 tonnes (t)
1 g= 0.035 oz
1 kg= 2.205 lb
1 t= 2.204.62 lb
 = 0.984 long tons
 = 1.102 short tons
1 mile per hour (mph)1.61 kilometres per hour (km/h)
1 kilometre per hour (km/h)0.621 miles per hour (mph)
1 pound per sq in. (psi)6.89 kilopascals (kPa)
3 kilopascal (kPa)0.145 pounds per sq in. (psi)
 1 ton per sq in. (ton/in2)
 15.4 megapascals (MPa)
1 megapascal (MPa)0.0647 tons per sq in. (ton/in2)
Degree Fahrenheit (°F)9 x ° + 32/5
Degree Celsius (°C)5/9 (°F-32)

Chapter 1. Section 1 GEOGRAPHY

Table of Contents

New Zealand is in the south-west section of the Pacific, that great ocean stretching across one-third of the earth's surface. To the west, beyond the Tasman Sea, is Australia, 1,600 kilometres away. From its position on the rim of the Pacific basin, New Zealand is a little over 10,000 kilometres from San Francisco and Panama and a similar distance from Tokyo and Singapore. In area 26.9 million hectares, it is similar in size to the British Isles and Japan.

One of the chief charms of the New Zealand landscape is its infinite variety. Such level lowlands as exist arc small in area; contrasts between coastal plain and bordering hard-rock mountains are abrupt. High mountains make up most of the South Island area—often stark and bare or mantled in permanent snow. By contrast, most of the North Island is weak-rock hill country. From Cook Strait to the Bay of Plenty a hard-rock mountain core dominates the North Island scene, forming an effective barrier between east and west; the only low level gap across it is at the gorge cut by the Manawatu River near Palmerston North.

A peculiar and special feature of the North Island is the volcanic country of the interior. Here are the largest North Island lakes and in a line from Ruapehu to White Island, most of the still active volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers.

The most spectacular mountains are in the South Island; high mountains, deep and narrow valleys, swift rivers, and glacial lakes, large and small, give infinite variety to the scene. It is in this high country that ice has left its special mark in glacial troughs and fiords and, above all, the noble southern lakes. There is little weak-rock hill country in the South Island; the lowlands are mainly bordering plains, basin plains, and valley plains. Of these the most extensive are the plains of Canterbury and Southland.

New Zealand has large areas of luxuriant forests which are the delight of trampers, campers, and hunters. Forests cover nearly a quarter of the total land area, of which national parks and scenic reserves set aside as permanent forest form 2 million hectares.

The indigenous forests may be grouped broadly into two main formations: mixed temperate evergreen forest and southern beech forest. The former is a mixed community of many species of broad-leaved trees and conifers, and the latter a pure community of one or more of the species of southern beech. Generally, the mixed temperate evergreen forests are the forests of the north and of the warm, wet lowlands and lower mountain slopes. The beeches form the forests of the south, of the high mountains, and of the drier lowlands. But there are extensive areas where the types mingle in forests of extremely varied composition.

Mountains, forests, lakes, rivers, and beaches have influenced the characteristics of the people. New Zealand society has been shaped and subtly tempered by a number of factors—geographical, historical, social, and psychological during more than a century of growth as a nation. New Zealand today represents both an extension and a modification of the European tradition. In addition to its Maori population, New Zealand has experienced in recent years a considerable inflow of Polynesians from its associated territories and elsewhere in the Pacific. Auckland has become the major city of Polynesia, and as such a focal point of the South Pacific. The Polynesian (including Maori) population is of greater significance than its relatively small numbers would suggest. Outside the Pacific area New Zealand may present a basically European face to the world, but the preservation of distinctive life-style by the Maori, together with a close compatibility (extending to frequent intermarriage) between the two races, has doubtless been a determining factor in the evolution of New Zealand society.

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION—The islands of New Zealand have been shaped from the projecting crests of earth folds which rise as broad ridges from the floor of the South Pacific Ocean, 1,600 kilometres east of the continent of Australia. There are three main islands—North, South, and Stewart separated only by relatively narrow straits—with adjacent islets and a small group called Chatham islands, 850 kilometres to the east of Lyttelton. Dating from 1842 the administrative boundaries of New Zealand, including the minor islands, extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from 162 degrees east longitude to 173 degrees west longitude. Inhabited outlying minor islands are Raoul Island in the Kermadec Group, 930 kilometres north-east of the Bay of Islands, and Campbell Island, 590 kilometres south of Stewart Island.

New Zealand is also responsible for the administration of two island groups in the South-west Pacific—Niue and the Tokelau Islands. These are incorporated within the boundaries of New Zealand. Niue is 2,460 kilometres north-east of Auckland, while the Tokelau Islands are 1,130 kilometres further north. The territorial area reaches to within 8 degrees of the Equator.

The Ross Dependency, some 2,300 kilometres to the south, has been under New Zealand's jurisdiction since 1923 and comprises the sector of the Antarctic continent between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60 degrees south.

The administrative area of New Zealand can be classified as follows. In this Yearbook, in general, New Zealand refers to the group of islands shown in (a) only. Areas are calculated to mean high-water mark. Adjustments have been made to statistics published prior to 1974.

 Area in Square Kilometres
(a) New Zealand 
    North Island114,453
    South Island150,718
    Stewart Island1,746
    Chatham Islands963
    Minor Islands— 
        Kermadec Islands34
        Campbell Island114
      Uninhabited (Auckland and other offshore islands)676
(b) Overseas territories 
    Tokelau Islands, comprised of— 
      Fakaofo Island, Nukunonu Island, Atafu Island10
(c) Ross Dependency (Estimated)114,400

The 16 Cook Islands achieved a status of self-government in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965; more detail is given in Section 38 of this Yearbook.

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Coastline—Since the combined length of the North and South Islands extends over 1,600 kilometres, and since the width of neither Island exceeds 450 kilometres at its broadest point, New Zealand possesses a very lengthy coastline in proportion to its area. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland Peninsula, the New Zealand land mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis, parallel to the direction of its mountain chains.

In the North Island, Whangarei, Auckland, Tauranga, and Wellington are natural harbours which have been developed into ports for extensive use by overseas ships. At Napier and Gisborne artificial harbours have been made. On the east coast of the North Auckland Peninsula several other deep and sheltered harbours exist, but production from the hinterland is limited. In the South Island the Marlborough Sounds and the West Coast Sounds form perfect land-locked harbours, but owing to their situations and the rugged nature of the terrain they have—with the exception of Queen Charlotte Sound—little or no commercial utility. By dredging and by breakwater construction, ports capable of accommodating overseas vessels have been formed in Lyttelton, Otago, and Bluff Harbours and on the coast at Timaru. On the west coast of both Islands the strong ocean drifts and high seas cause shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances, although an overseas port has been developed at New Plymouth, while on the east coast of the South Island similar circumstances prevail, due to the large quantities of shingle brought down by the rivers being spread along the coast by ocean currents.

Mountains—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 200 m contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (2,518 m), Ruapehu (2,797 m), Ngauruhoe (2,290 m), and Tongariro (1,968 m), they do not exceed an altitude of 1,800 m. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe have been particularly active from time to time. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.

The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Turakirae Head, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa Ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto Ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Moehau Range parallels the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only area above 1,200 m on the west coast of this Island.

The South Island is much more mountainous than the North. Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (3,764 m), while no fewer than 16 peaks exceed 3,000 m. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell Ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Papa Range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Richmond Ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.

There are at least 223 named peaks of 2,300 m or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 2,740 m in the South Island.

Mountain or PeakHeight (metres)
Kaikoura Ranges 
Southern Alps 
    Mt. Hicks (St. David's Dome)3,183
    Malte Brun3,176
    Elie de Beaumont3,109
    Douglas Peak3,081
    La Perouse3,079
    Glacier Peak3,007
    De la Beche2,992
    Aiguilles Rouges2,966
    Conway Peak2,901
    Bristol Top2,898
    Ronald Adair2,827
    Hochstetter Dome2,822
    The Footstool2,765
    The Dwarf2,751
Darran Range 

Glaciers—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman Glacier has a length of 29 km and a width of 9 km. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (17 km), the Mueller (13 km), the Godley (13 km), and the Hooker (11 km), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is an altitude of somewhat over 600 m. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 15 km and 13 km respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 200 m and 210 m.

Rivers—New Zealand rivers, owing to the high relief of the country, are mostly swift-flowing and difficult to navigate. As sources of hydro-electric power the rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. The Waikato and the Rangitaiki in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, Clutha, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes.

Following is a list of the more important rivers. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system, whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.

RiverLength (kilometres)
*Cook Strait is defined as follows: northern limit is a line between northern point of Stephens Island and Kapiti Island: southern limit is a line between Cape Palliser and Cape Campbell.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean 
    Waihou (or Thames)175
    Waipaoa (from source, Mata River)121
    Waipaoa (from source, Waipapa Stream)113
    Wairoa (from source, Hangaroa River)137
    Mohaka (from source, Taharua River)172
Flowing into Cook Strait* 
Flowing into the Tasman Sea 
    Waikato (from source, Upper Waikato River)425
    Wairoa (from source, Waiotu Stream)132
    Hokianga (from source, Waihou River)72
RiverLength (kilometres)
Flowing into Cook Strait 
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean— 
    Waiau-uha (or Waiau)169
    Rangitata (from source, Clyde River)121
    Waitaki (from source, Hopkins River)209
    Clutha (from source, Makarora River)322
Flowing into Foveaux Strait 
    Aparima (Jacobs River)113
    Waiau (from source, Clinton River)217
Flowing into the Tasman Sea 
    Waiho (from source Callery River)32
    Buller (from source, Travers River)177
    Aorere (from source, Spee River)72
    Takaka (from source, Cobb River)72
    Waimea (from source, Wai-iti River)48

The discovery in 1861 that the beds of rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the early economic development of the country.

With the very successful acclimatisation of freshwater fish, notably trout, many rivers now provide exceptionally fine fishing.

Lakes—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the two Islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while some of the larger ones of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, have their own particular beauty. As reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the rivers and streams draining them and as a of flood prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involve Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, and Wakatipu in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect. A series of narrow man-made lakes have been produced in connection with hydro-electric development along some of the rivers. In 1965 Lake Benmore, New Zealand's largest artificial lake, was created. It lies on the Waitaki River in North Otago and covers 79 sq km in area and consists of two arms, the main arm being 30 km in length and the Ahuriri Arm 18 km in length.

Some particulars of the more important lakes are given in the following table.

LakeLength, in Kilometres*Greatest Breadth, in Kilometres*Area, in Square KilometresDrainage Area, in Square KilometresApproximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Metres per SecondMaximum Height Above Sea Level in Metres (Range in Brackets)Greatest Depth, in Metres

* 1 kilometre equals 0.621 miles.

† 1 square kilometre equals 0.386 square miles.

‡ The range in lake levels is not available for all lakes.

Taupo40.227.46063,2891,271357 (1.5)159
Rotorua12.09.780526..280 (0.6)26
Rotoiti16.14.83464224279 (0.6)70
Tarawera11.28.9361868299 (0.6)87
Rotoaira4.82.8131297564 (0.9)..
Waikaremoana19.39.75442718614 (13.7)256
Rotoehu4.83.2844..295 (1.2)..
Rotoma5.23.61231..316 (1.8)..
Okataina6.44.81065..310 (2.7)..
Okareka2.42.0321..354 (1.2)..
Rotomahana6.42.8970..340 (6.7)..
Rerewhakaitu4.02.88....439 (1.2)..
Arapuni16.10.8136,876207111 (0.6)..
Rotoiti8.92.81018412616 (1.8)76
Rotoroa14.53.22337627446 (1.5)152
Tekapo17.75.6961,42487715 (7.6)189
Pukaki15.38.0831,355128500 (9.1) 
Ohau17.74.8601,19165527 (1.7) 
Hawea30.68.01191,46963345 (16.2)392
Wanaka45.14.81922,543202279 (4.3) 
Wakatipu77.24.82932,978174310 (2.1)378
Te Anau61.29.73443,302276209 (4.6)276
Manapouri28.98.01424,623386185 (6.4)443
Monowai19.31.62827214196 (4.0)..
Hauroko35.42.47158331156 (1.8)..
Cobb4.80.42736808 (15.2)..
    Ahuriri Arm18.54.4797,77034036096      
    Main Arm29.8      

GEOLOGY—The islands of New Zealand are part of the unstable circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. This is a region where volcanoes are active and where the earth's crust has long been buckling and breaking at a geologically rapid rate. The interplay, in the past, of earth movements and erosion has made the sedimentary rocks that cover almost three-quarters of New Zealand. Land areas that the earth movements have raised have been attacked by erosion, and the sand, mud, shingle, and other debris thus formed has been carried away to the sea, where it has accumulated in great thicknesses to form rocks such as sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and conglomerate; the shells and other skeletons of sea creatures have accumulated to form thick layers of limestone. Many of the sedimentary rocks are in distinct layers called strata. Earth movements have later raised them above the sea to form land, and the strata are in many places tilted and folded by pressure. Seas have advanced and retreated over New Zealand many times and these sedimentary rocks represent almost every geological period since the Cambrian (see Time Scale). Their age is revealed by the shells, foraminifera, and other fossils that they contain.

As well as sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks of various ages, New Zealand incorporates in its complex structure schist, gneiss, marble and other metamorphic rocks, and granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, and other intrusive igneous rocks. Most of these metamorphic and intrusive rocks are hundreds of millions of years old. They were formed at depth in the earth's crust early in New Zealand's history, in the “roots” of ancient mountain ranges, long ago destroyed, and are visible at the land surface today only because erosion has removed thousands of feet thickness of other rocks that once covered them. The metamorphic rocks developed when huge, elongated sea basins (geosynclines) were formed, in which tens of thousands of feet thickness of sediments accumulated. When these geosynclines were slowly compressed during major mountain-building episodes the deeper sediments were subjected to great pressure and shearing stress, which caused new minerals and structures to develop, changing the sediments into metamorphic rocks. The granites and other intrusive rocks are coarsely crystalline, and are usually considered to have intruded into the outer crust in a molten state during mountain building; some, however, may be the products of an intense metamorphism of sediments.

ErasPeriodsApproximate Time Since Period Began (Years)
CenozoicHolocene (Recent)Quaternary10 thousand
Pleistocene2 million
Pliocene11 “
MioceneTertiary25 “
Oligocene20 “
Eocene60 “
Paleocene70 “
MesozoicCretaceous135 “
Jurassic 180 “
Triassic 225 “
PaleozoicPermian 270 “
Carboniferous 350 “
Devonian 400 “
Silurian 440 “
Ordovician 500 “
Cambrian 600 “

Geological History—Evidence of the earliest-known events in New Zealand's history is given by ancient rocks in Nelson, Westland, and Fiordland that were formed in the early Paleozoic era, perhaps as long as 600 million years ago (some in Westland may be older). They include thick, geosynclinal sedimentary rocks. This suggests that a large land mass existed at that time to yield the great volume of sediments, but little has been deduced about its shape or position.

The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood. For a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period—probably until the early Cretaceous period—an extensive geosyncline occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during much of late Paleozoic time, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic tuff were included in the materials that accumulated in the geosyncline, but in the later Permian and Mesozoic times the sediments were mainly sand and mud, derived probably from some land west of present New Zealand; they were compacted into hard greywacke (a type of sandstone) and argillite (hard, dark mudstone).

In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place. Although geosynclinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand, the geosyncline elsewhere was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled and broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous land mass. Some of the geosynclinal deposits, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by the tremendous deforming pressures to which the geosyncline was subjected.

The time that has elapsed since the intense folding of the strata in the New Zealand geosyncline in the mid-Cretaceous period may be considered as the later geological history of this country, embracing roughly 100 million years.

During the early part of this late history, erosion slowly wore down the mountains that had risen, producing a land of low relief. Over these worn-down stumps of the Mesozoic mountains the sea gradually advanced, beginning its transgression earlier in some areas than in others. In the early Cretaceous period it began to submerge land in the region of present North Auckland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some parts of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and in the very early Tertiary, land became so reduced in size and relief that little sediment was formed, and only comparatively thin deposits of fine bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine, white, foraminiferal limestone accumulated. In some areas New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated in swamps on the surface of the old land. These became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.

By the Oligocene period, most of the land was submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments, thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. (Scattered, remnant patches of this Oligocene limestone furnish most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime.)

After the Oligocene submergence earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and rapidly filled with sediments. New Zealand's late Tertiary environment has been described as follows: “The pattern of folds, welts, and troughs that developed was on a finer scale than in the Mesozoic... the land moved up and down as a series of narrow, short, interfingering or branching folds ... we can think of Tertiary New Zealand as an archipelago ... a kind of writhing of part of the mobile Pacific margins seems to have gone on ...”. The thick deposits of soft, grey mudstone and sandstone that now make up large areas of the North Island, and some parts of South Island, are the deposits that accumulated rapidly in the many sea basins, large and small, that developed in the later Tertiary.

Very late in the Cenozoic era—in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods—one of the greatest episodes of mountain building in New Zealand's history took place. Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and other main mountain chains, and determined the general shape and size of the present islands of New Zealand. Much of the movement during this mountain building period (the Kaikoura Orogeny) took the form of displacement of blocks of the earth's crust along fractures called faults. The total movements of the earth blocks adjacent to major faults amounted to thousands of feet. It must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each of a few inches or feet. The blocks adjacent to “transcurrent” faults moved not only vertically but also laterally along the faults. The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well preserved tilted fault blocks bounded by fault-scarps—steep faces hundreds or even thousands of feet high. Fault movements continue to the present day, and have accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features such as scarplets, fault ponds, and shutter ridges show where movement has been occurring in recent centuries.

Erosion during this time has eaten into the major landscape forms that the earth movements have built, carving detailed landscape pattern of peaks, ridges, valleys, and gorges, and has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans, and other construction forms. At the coast, waves have driven back the headlands and built beaches, splits, and bars. The Pleistocene period was the time of the Ice Age, and in the high mountains of the South Island glaciers carved deep valleys and carried huge loads of rock, dumping them as moraines. The late Pleistocene glaciers carved the fiords of Fiordland and the basins occupied by most South Island lakes; there were small glaciers also on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, and on Mount Egmont and the Tararua Range.

Volcanic activity of the past few million years has played an important part in making the rocks and shaping the landscape of parts of the central and northern North Island. Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, achieved much of its growth then. The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand have been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty Coast: andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later to build the huge volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe. More than 8,000 cu km of molten rhyolitic magma was erupted in the form of ignimbrite, pumice, and rhyolite lava, building up the Volcanic Plateau. This is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world.

Mount Egmont is a huge, conical, andesite volcano, with the remnants of two other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of approximately basic andesite composition. The largest is Pirongia, some 900 m high. Auckland city and the area immediately to the south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in late Pleistocene and Holocene times; and many small scoria cones can be seen in the locality. Lafau Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young cones.

Geological maps and an accompanying description were included in issues of the Official Yearbook up to 1971, and are also included in An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand.

A Descriptive Atlas of New Zealand contains geological maps of New Zealand and summaries of New Zealand's geology and landscape development. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 66, the Geological Map of New Zealand, 1:2,000,000, is a lengthier summary with a more detailed geological map and cross sections.

EARTHQUAKES: Geophysical Background—An earthquake occurs when energy is suddenly released from a volume of rock within the earth's outerlayers, and is radiated outwards in the form of elastic waves that can be felt at places near the origin, and detected by sensitive instruments at greater distances. Earthquakes are most common in certain geographically limited regions, one of which includes New Zealand. Within these disturbed zones, young fold mountains, oceanic trenches, volcanoes, anomalies in the earth's gravitational field, and active geological faulting are also usual, and like the earthquakes have their ultimate cause in the internal processes incidental to the major structural development of the earth, and as yet imperfectly understood.

The seismically active zones define the margins of a system of stable blocks or plates which are not completely inactive, but experience large earthquakes only infrequently, and are thought to be the primary units of the earth's crust. Two of these units, the Pacific and Indian Plates, abut in the vicinity of New Zealand, forming a triple junction with a third, the Antarctic Plate, south of Macquarie Island. As a result of thermally generated convective movements in the deeper levels of the earth, relative displacement of the plates is occurring, and this provides the continuing source of the energy that is intermittently released as earthquakes.

Instrumental records have shown that at the time of an earthquake large shearing movements take place at the source. It seems probable that all major earthquakes are the result of the breakage of rock under strain, but other factors such as the presence or absence of liquid in the pores and fractures of the rock are also of primary importance in determining the time and place at which a shock occurs.

In large shallow earthquakes a rupture may appear at the surface, forming or renewing movement on a geological fault. In regions where the majority of earthquakes are very shallow, such as California, there is a tendency for the earthquake origins to cluster near geological fault traces, but in regions where there is deeper activity, such as New Zealand, this is not so. For example, there is little activity near the Alpine Fault, which stretches for some 500 km from Milford Sound to Lake Rotoiti, and is considered one of the world's largest and most active faults. Conversely, instances of fault movement that have not been accompanied by earthquakes are known. Practical assessments of earthquake risk must therefore be based upon the statistics of known earthquake distribution, and the broader geological setting of the origins.

New Zealand Seismicity—Compared with some other parts of the Pacific margin, such as Japan, Chile, and the Philippines, the level of seismic activity in New Zealand is moderate. It may be roughly compared with that prevailing in California. A shock of Richter magnitude 6 or above occurs on the average about once a year, one of the magnitude 7 or above once in ten years, and one of about magnitude 8 perhaps once a century, but in historic times only one shock (the south-west Wairarapa earthquake in 1855) is known to have approached this magnitude.

Other natural disasters and accidents are together responsible for more casualties than earthquakes, the most serious seismic disasters in New Zealand having been the Hawke's Bay earthquake of 1931 in which 255 deaths occurred, and the Buller earthquake of 1929 in which there were 17. The total resulting from all other shocks since 1840 is less than 15. The last earthquake to cause deaths occurred at Inangahua in 1968, when 3 people died.

Regarded broadly, the zone of seismicity within which New Zealand lies extends continuously from the triple junction south of Macquarie Island to Samoa. When looked at more closely, breaks in continuity and changes in the character of the activity become apparent. There are changes in direction, in the positional relationship of the deeper and shallower activity, and in its association with the other geophysical and geological features of the region.

Within New Zealand itself, at least two separate systems of seismic activity can be distinguished. The main seismic region, which is the larger, covers the whole of the North Island apart from the Northland peninsula, and the South Island north of a line passing roughly between Banks Peninsula and Cape Foulwind. The southern, or Fiordland seismic region includes southern Westland, western Southland, and western Otago. Less clearly defined activity covers the remainder of the two main islands, and extends eastwards from Banks Peninsula to include the Chatham Islands.

Shallow earthquakes, which are the most numerous, originate within the earth's crust, which in New Zealand has an average thickness of some 35 km. These shocks are responsible for almost all damage to property, and now and in the past they have been widely scattered throughout the country. In historically recent times, the main and Fiordland seismic regions have been significantly more active than the rest of New Zealand, but neither the central seismic region that lies between them nor the Northland peninsula has been free from damaging shocks. The details of the present pattern are not necessarily unchanging, and could alter significantly after the occurrence of a major earthquake. Because of this, because of the broader geophysical setting, and because of the distance to which the effects of a large earthquake extends, it would be highly imprudent to treat any part of New Zealand as free from the risk of serious earthquake damage.

Many active regions of the earth have only shallow earthquakes, but in others shocks have been known to occur at depths as great as 700 km below the surface. It is thought that these deep shocks originate within the edges of crustal plates that have been drawn down or thrust beneath their neighbours. Such deep events are common in both the main and Fiordland seismic regions of New Zealand, but their relative positions with respect to the shallow activity and to other geophysical features are rough mirror images. This is believed to indicate that in the North Island, the edge of the Pacific Plate lies below that of the Indian Plate, while in the south of the South Island the Pacific Plate is uppermost and the Indian Plate has been thrust beneath it.

The most important system of deep shocks in New Zealand lies in a well-defined zone beneath the main seismic region, stretching from the Bay of Plenty to Nelson and Marlborough. The maximum depth of occurrence at the northern end is about 400 km, and decreases smoothly to merge with the shallow activity before the southern boundary of the region is reached. Along the whole of the system, there is also a decrease in maximum depth from west to east. In northern Taranaki, near the western limit of this activity, a small isolated group of shocks at a depth of about 600 km has also been recorded. In the central seismic region only shallow shocks are known.

The maximum depth of the earthquakes in the Fiordland region appears to be only about 160 km, but it is only recently that instrumental coverage has been adequate for a proper study of this area. Here, the deep activity is more concentrated than in the north, lying close to Lakes Te Anau and Manapouri.

Both earthquakes and volcanoes are found in geophysically disturbed regions, but although small earthquakes usually accompany volcanic eruptions, large ones are rare. Regions of active volcanism are also subject to periodic outbreaks of small earthquakes, all of similar magnitude, and very numerous. These events are known as “earthquake swarms”. Although the number of shocks may cause alarm, it is unusual for even minor damage to result. There is not often a simultaneous volcanic outbreak, but swarms do not seem to occur in non-volcanic regions. In New Zealand they have occurred in the volcanic zone that includes Mt. Ruapehu and White Island, in the Coromandel Peninsula, in parts of Northland, and near Mt. Egmont.

Seismological Observatory—Each year the Seismological Observatory, Wellington, a section of the Geophysics Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, publishes the analyses of several hundred earthquakes originating in the New Zealand region, using data obtained from its own network of recording stations, and from stations in other countries. The instrumental data are supplemented by information about felt effects, supplied by a large number of voluntary observers, who complete a standard questionnaire.

The network of recording stations controlled by the Observatory is now one of the world's largest and most extended, covering the main islands of New Zealand, a large part of the south-west Pacific, and the Ross Dependency. The 36 permanent stations now operating are:

Apia and Afiamalu (Western Samoa); Nadi (Fiji); Niue; Rarotonga (Cook Islands); Raoul Island (Kermadecs); Cape Reinga, Onerahi, Great Barrier, Auckland, East Cape, Karapiro, Whakatane, Gisborne, Wairakei, Tuai, Tarata, Chateau, Taradale, Mangahao, Castlepoint, Cobb River, Wellington, Kaikoura West, Kaimata, Christchurch, Gebbies Pass, Chatham Islands, Mount John, Milford Sound, Oamaru, Roxburgh, Monowai, Waipapa Point; Campbell Island; Scott Base (Antarctica).

At Afiamalu, Rarotonga, Wellington, and Scott Base the equipment includes instruments of internationally standardised pattern designed to record both local and distant activity. The stations at Karapiro and Roxburgh are also equipped to record both local and distant shocks. At the other stations, many of which record more than one component of the ground motion, the instruments are primarily intended for the study of shocks within about 1000 km.

Scott Base and several of the island stations provide preliminary reading by radio, but all final analyses are made at the Observatory in Wellington. Portable equipment is available for more intensive study of aftershock sequences, earthquake swarms, and micro-earthquakes, and for other research projects. In addition, the department's physics and engineering laboratory maintains a network of strong motion recorders intended to provide data on large shocks for engineering purposes.

The information collected and published by the Observatory covers all significant earthquakes in the New Zealand region. It is made freely available to the public and the press, as well as to seismologists, engineers, and other specialists. In addition, a very large number of distant earthquakes are recorded, and readings of these, as well as of the local activity, are regularly sent to international agencies and to overseas seismologists who have a need for them. The Observatory itself carries out a vigorous programme of research into problems of seismicity and earthquake mechanism, and into the structure and constitution of the earth's crust and its deep interior.

Earthquakes During 1974—For the first time since 1968 a shallow earthquake in the New Zealand region attained a magnitude of 6 (Richter scale). This shock occurred on the evening of 5 November 1974, about 20 km off the Taranaki coast near Opunake, where some minor damage occurred. The shock was felt throughout Taranaki and as far afield as Waikato, Wellington, and the north of the South Island. The main shock was followed by numerous aftershocks the largest, of magnitude 5 1/2, occurring a quarter of an hour later.

The largest earthquake in the South Island was a shallow shock near Milford Sound on the morning of 21 September. Its magnitude was 5.9 and its main aftershock, during the early evening of the same day, was almost as large. The main earthquake was felt in Dunedin and coastal Otago, and throughout the south of the South Island. Felt reports of this earthquake were confused by the occurrence, three minutes later, of an unrelated shock of magnitude 5.2 centred about 30 km to the north-west of Christchurch. This earthquake was felt strongly in the Christchurch area, and there was some difficulty in distinguishing between the effects of the two events.

The most damaging earthquake of the year originated a few kilometres south of Dunedin in the early evening of 9 April. Its magnitude was only 5.0, but its closeness to the city and its shallow depth resulted in damage to nearly 2,000 chimneys, and threw goods from shelves in many shops and houses. The Earthquake and War Damage Commission estimated the cost of the damage at about $250,000, more than for any other New Zealand earthquake since the major Inangahua earthquake in 1968. An interesting feature of the Dunedin earthquake was the variation of its effects in parts of the city, because of differences in the type of underlying ground. The shaking was significantly greater in the low-lying alluvial parts of the city, compared with that on the firmer rock of the surrounding hills.

Early in March, a series of shallow earthquakes occurred in the western Bay of Plenty, about 200 km east of Auckland. They were widely felt in the Auckland district, but resulted in only scattered minor damage. The largest of the series, of magnitude 5.6, took place in the early morning of 1 March, and during the next 3 days six other shocks reached a magnitude of 5 or more. Analysis of the records shows that these earthquakes were richer than usual in long-period energy, and that consequently their effects upon tall buildings would be more severe than upon ordinary dwellings.

There were no particularly large deep earthquakes during the year. One, 100 km deep below the Taupo region on 24 June, had a magnitude of 5.1, and was felt between Taupo and Wellington.

The only earthquakes in the volcanic regions that attracted attention were a swarm of small shocks near Rotorua on the morning of 10 January. Nine confirmed shocks were felt between 6 and 7 a.m., with magnitudes ranging from about 2 1/2 to 3 1/2.

Volcanic activity has been mainly confined to Mt. Ngauruhoe, which was active in January and March. On 26 and 28 January pyroclastic avalanches were produced, which flowed down gullies on the northern and western slopes of the mountain. The principal eruption on 28 March was a spectacular ash and gas discharge, unequalled since the 1954 eruptions. This activity was accompanied by only minor earthquakes.

WEATHER INFORMATION—The collection of weather information and the provision of weather forecasts and climatic data for diverse interests in aviation, shipping, agriculture, Government departments, and the general public are functions of the New Zealand Meteorological Service. By arrangement with the administrations concerned the Service performs similar functions for British territories in the Pacific.

Weather reports for use in forecasting are made at about 140 places within New Zealand and 35 in the Pacific islands and are sent by telegraph and radio, along with measurements of winds at upper levels made at 10 radio wind stations, and of temperatures made at 9 radiosonde stations. Daily observations are made for climatological purposes at about 280 places in New Zealand and 60 in the islands. Rainfall measurements are made at a total of about 2,400 places within New Zealand and 120 outside the country.

Detailed climatological statistics are published annually by the New Zealand Meteorological Service in the Meteorological Observations and in Rainfall Observations. Current statistics appear monthly in the New Zealand Gazette.

CLIMATE—Situated between 34°S and 47°S the main islands lie within the broad belt of strong westerly winds which encircles the hemisphere south of about latitude 35°S. Just to the north is the high-pressure ridge of the subtropics from which barometric pressure decreases southwards over New Zealand to the deep low-pressure trough located near latitude 70°S.

The weather pattern from day to day is dominated by a succession of anticyclones, separated by troughs of low pressure, which pass more or less regularly from west to east across the Australia-Tasman Sea - New Zealand area and beyond. In this region there is no semi-permanent anticyclone such as those found in similar latitudes over the Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific Ocean respectively. The troughs normally have a north-west to south-east orientation and are associated with deep depressions centred far to the south. A typical weather sequence commences with a low-pressure trough approaching from the west. Freshening north-westerly winds prevail with increasing cloud followed by rain for a period during which winds may reach gale force. The passage of the trough with its associated cold front, is accompanied by a change to cold south-westerly or southerly winds and showery weather, occasionally with some hail and thunder. Barometers then rise with the approach of the next anticyclone from the west. Winds moderate and fair weather prevails for a few days as the anticyclone moves across the country.

While the sequence just described is very common the situation is frequently much more complex. The troughs are very unstable systems where depressions readily form, some of which develop into vigorous storms that may pass over New Zealand at any time of the year. Occasionally in summer a cyclonic storm of tropical origin passes over or near New Zealand accompanied by gales and heavy rain affecting mainly northern and eastern districts of the North Island. The anticyclones vary in size, intensity, and rate of movement. Their centres, on the average, follow a track across the North Island but individual centres may pass either north or south of the country, the more northerly tracks being favoured in spring and the southerly tracks in autumn. At times when little development occurs within the troughs the anticyclones follow each other at intervals of about 6-7 days.

The other main factors which influence the climate of New Zealand are first, its position in the midst of a vast ocean, and second, the shape and topography of the country itself.

Hot air masses from the interior of Australia in summer or freezing air masses from the Antarctic, which occasionally reach New Zealand, retain little of their original character after their long ocean passage. Thus, there is an absence of extreme variations of temperature. On the other hand, since abundant supplies of moisture are supplied by evaporation from the ocean, and depressions are frequent and vigorous, the average precipitation is high.

The chain of high mountains, which extends from south-west to north-east through the length of the country, rises as a formidable barrier in the path of the prevailing westerly winds. The effect is to produce much sharper climatic contrasts from west to east than in the north-south direction. In some inland areas of the South Island just east of the mountains the climate is distinctly continental in character, despite the fact that no part of New Zealand is more than 80 miles from the sea.

Winds—Winds from a westerly quarter prevail in all seasons, with a general tendency to increase in strength from north to south. However, considerable local modifications to the general air flow occur during its passage across the mountainous terrain. Approaching the main ranges the flow from the west turns towards the north-east and on descending on the eastern side swings towards the south-east. This results in an increased number of south-westerlies in Westland and a predominance of north-westerlies in inland districts of Otago and Canterbury where strong gales from this quarter occur at times in the late spring and summer. Daytime sea breezes usually extend from the coast inland for 30 km or more during periods of settled weather in summer. On the Canterbury coast the wind comes most frequently from the north-east, partly because there is a persistent sea breeze from this quarter, but south of Dunedin south-westerlies predominate. Cook Strait, the only substantial gap in the main mountain chain, acts as a natural funnel for the air flow and is a particularly windy locality afflicted by gales from the south-east as well as the north-west, This “funnel” effect is also in evidence about Foveaux Strait. North of Taranaki the general air flow is more from the south-west, and there is a noticeable reduction of windiness in the summer.

An indication of the variation in the frequency of strong winds from summer to winter, and in different parts of the country, is given in the next table. These figures were all obtained by the use of anemographs at airports (except for Auckland where the site is at Mechanics Bay).

StationAverage Number of Days with Gusts ReachingYears of Data
40 mph or More60 mph or More
New Plymouth3348812.14.76.822
Palmerston North2622481.10.81.918

Rainfall—The distribution of rainfall is mainly controlled by mountain features, and the highest rainfalls occur where the mountains are exposed to the direct sweep of the westerly and north-westerly winds. The mean annual rainfall (see map) ranges from as little as 300 mm in a small area of Central Otago to over 7000 mm in the Southern Alps. The average for the whole country is high, but for the greater part it lies between 600 and 1500 mm, a range regarded as favourable for plant growth in the temperate zone. The only areas with under 600 mm are found in the South Island to the east of the main ranges. These include most of central and north Otago, and South Canterbury. In the North Island, the driest areas are central and southern Hawke's Bay, Wairarapa, and Manawatu where the average rainfall is 700-1000 mm a year. Of the remainder, much valuable farm land, chiefly in northern Taranaki and Northland, has upwards of 1500 mm. Over a considerable area of both Islands rainfall exceeds 2500 mm a year but, with the exception of Westland, this is mountainous and unoccupied, much of it being forest-covered.

For a large part of the country the rainfall is spread evenly through the year. The greatest contrast is found in the north, where winter has almost twice as much rain as summer. This predominance of winter rainfall diminishes southwards. It is still discernible over the northern part of the South Island but, over the southern half, winter is the season with least rainfall, and a definite summer maximum is found inland due to the effect of convectional showers. The rainfall is also influenced by seasonal variations in the strength of the westerly winds. Spring rainfall is increased in and west of the ranges as the westerlies rise to their maximum about October, while a complementary decrease occurs at the same time in the lee of the ranges.

Areas which are exposed to the west and south-west experience much showery weather, and rain falls on roughly half the days of the year. Over most of the North Island there are at least 150 rain days (days with at least 0.2 mm of rain) a year except to the east of the ranges where there are, in places, fewer than 125 rain days. Those areas of the South Island with annual rainfall under 600 mm generally have about 100 rain days a year. In the far south the frequency of rain increases sharply; in Stewart Island and Fiordland rain days exceed 200 a year. Over most of the country between 55 and 65 percent of the rain days also qualify as wet days (2.5 mm or more). The percentage increases to over 70 in Westland, but in the low rainfall area of inland Otago there are only about 40 wet days a year compared with 100 rain days.

On the whole the seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year, the reliability in spring being particularly advantageous for agricultural purposes. It is least reliable in late summer and autumn, when very dry conditions may develop east of the ranges, particularly in Hawke's Bay.

The highest daily rainfall on record is 582 mm which occurred at Rapid Creek, Hokitika Catchment, where the mean annual rainfall exceeds 6000 mm. Other areas with considerably lower rainfall are also subject to very heavy daily falls; such areas are to be found in northern Hawke's Bay and in north-eastern districts of the Auckland Province. By contrast, in the Manawatu district and in Otago and Southland daily falls reaching 80 mm are very rare.

*25 millimetres equal 1 inch.
Kaitaia Aerodrome799484119152157150165122112102941,430
Auckland (Albert Park)649486114127135371429410784841,268
Tauranga Aerodrome848411411413713213713710711484104348
Hamilton (Ruakura)718184991121321171179710791891,197
New Plymouth Aerodrome1071021021171631681631471121351171321,565
Masterton (Waingawa)645876711021071029174746976964
Gisborne Aerodrome74619191109112112117747158641,034
Waikaremoana (Onepoto)1501401681802111881982261501501471522,060
Palmerston North84697474869991846989791041,002
Wellington (Kelburn)8184949713213514012410211284861,271
Westport Aerodrome1551681571912011881831701701832011852,152
Hokitika Aerodrome2312512392342722292412362392572772342,940
Milford Sound5315696305264834193784245385466385546,236,
Nelson Aerodrome7474818911279919476817474999
Hanmer Forest8681919911799104114899789991,165
Lake Coleridge616158767971817974767671863
Lake Tekapo514348535348534856515151606
Dunedin (Musselburgh)746176747166564648587171772
Invercargill Aerodrome897994104911076966748694891,042

Thunderstorms—Thunderstorms are not numerous. Their frequency is greatest in the north and west where thunder is heard on 15 to 20 days a year; east of the ranges (except in Gisborne) the figure is five or less.

Hail—Hail is most frequent in the south-west where it is reported on about 20 days a year, but for the greater part of the country it occurs on about 5 days a year or less. Most of the hailstones are small, but occasionally large stones cause local damage to glasshouses, and to orchards and market gardens, chiefly in Canterbury and Hawke's Bay.

Temperature—Mean temperatures at sea level decrease steadily southwards from 15°C in the far north to 12°C about Cook Strait, then to 9°C in the south. With increasing altitude, temperatures drop about 2°C per 300 m. January and February, with approximately the same mean temperature, are the warmest months of the year; July is the coldest. Some temperature statistics for selected places are included in the table on climatological averages. Highest temperatures are recorded east of the main ranges, where they exceed 30°C on a few afternoons in most summers, usually in association with a north-westerly Föhn wind. The extremes for New Zealand (measured in a standard thermometer screen) are 42°C, which has been recorded in three places: Jordan (Marlborough), Christchurch, and Rangiora (Canterbury); and -19°C Ophir (Central Otago).

As is to be expected, there is a small annual range of temperature (difference between mean temperature of the warmest and coldest months). In Northland and in western districts of both Islands the annual range is about 8°C. For the remainder of the North Island, and east coast districts of the South Island, it is 9°-10°C. Further inland it exceeds 11°C in places, reaching a maximum of 14°C in Central Otago where there is an approach to a continental type of climate.

Temperatures in the preceding paragraphs are recorded on the Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade), and not the Fahrenheit scale. The degree Celsius (°C) equals 5/9 (°F-32).

Frost—It is well known that local variations in frostiness are considerable, even within quite small areas. On a calm, clear night the cold air in contact with a sloping surface gravitates slowly downhill to collect in valleys and depressions, and it is these “Katabatic” drifts which are mainly responsible for local temperature variations at night. Gently sloping ground with a northerly aspect tends to be least affected by frost. Favourable sites in coastal areas of Northland are free of frost, although further inland light frosts occur frequently in the winter months. At Albert Park, Auckland, the screen minimum thermometer (1 m above the ground) has registered below 0°C only once in 65 years, yet up the harbour at Whenuapai Aerodrome there arc eight screen frosts per annum on the average. Excluding the uninhabited mountainous areas, the most severe winter conditions are experienced in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Plains of inland Canterbury, and on the central plateau of the North Island. Even in these areas night temperatures as low as -12°C are rarely recorded. Elsewhere over the North Island the winters are very mild and pastures maintain continuous growth. In both Islands sheep and cattle remain in the open all the year round.

Snow—The majority of New Zealanders rarely see snow except on the mountains. The North Island has a small permanent snow field above 2,500 m on the central plateau, but the snow line rarely descends below 600 m even for brief periods in winter. In the South Island snow falls on a few days a year in eastern coastal districts, and in some years may lie for a day or two even at sea level. In Westland it does not lie at sea level. The snow line on the Southern Alps is around 2,000 m in summer, being slightly lower on the western side where the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers descend through heavy bush to within 300 m of sea level. In inland Canterbury and Otago, where there are considerable areas of grazing lands above 300 m, snowfalls are heavier and more persistent and have caused serious losses of sheep during severe winters in the past. However, only rarely does the winter snow line there remain permanently below 1,000 m.

Relative Humidity—Humidity is commonly between 70 and 80 percent in coastal areas and about 10 percent lower inland. It varies inversely to the temperature, falling to a minimum in the early afternoon when temperature is highest and frequently lying between 90 and 100 percent during clear nights. As the following table shows, the diurnal variation is greater than the difference between summer and winter.

StationMean Relative Humidity
3 a.m.3 p.m.3 a.m.3 p.m.
Auckland (Mechanics Bay)85639074
Ohakea Aerodrome87628972

Very low humidity—from 30 percent down to about 5 percent—occurs at times in the lee of the Southern Alps where the Fohn effect is often very marked. In summer the hot, dry “Canterbury Nor'-wester” is generally a most unpleasant wind. Cool south-westerlies are also at times very dry when they reach eastern districts. In Northland the humid mid-summer conditions are inclined to be rather oppressive though temperatures rarely reach 30°C. Dull, humid spells arc generally not prolonged anywhere, but their frequency shows a marked increase in the south.

Sunshine—The sunniest places are near Blenheim, the Nelson-Motueka area, and Whakatane, where the average duration of bright sunshine exceeds 2,400 hours a year. The rest of the Bay of Plenty and Napier are only slightly less sunny. A large portion of the country is favoured with at least 2,000 hours. Even Westland, despite its high rainfall, has 1,800 hours. Southland, where sunshine drops sharply to 1,700 hours a year, lies on the northern fringe of a broad zone of increasing cloudiness. Four hundred miles further to the south at Campbell Island the sunshine has the extremely low value of 650 hours a year. A pleasant feature of the New Zealand climate is the high proportion of sunshine during the winter months. To eliminate the effect of varying day-length the summer and winter sunshine at a few selected stations has been expressed as a percentage of the possible sunshine.

New Plymouth5347

As these figures indicate, there is a marked increase in cloudiness in the North Island in winter, but little seasonal change in the South Island, except in Southland.

Climatological Averages—The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.

StationAnnual AveragesAir Temperatures (Degrees Celsius)
Altitude (metres)Rain Days (0.2 mm or More)Wet Days (2.5 mm or More)*Bright Sunshine (Hrs)Days of Screen Frost (min. air temp, less than 0°C)Mean Temp.Mean Daily MaximumMean Daily MinimumMean Annual
*2.5 mm equals 0.10 in.
Kaitaia Airport801381032,108015.32415158282
Auckland (Albert Park)491401022,102015.32314168273
Tauranga Airport4118902,297814.0241413529-2
Hamilton (Ruakura)40131992,0031713.0241312329-5
Gisborne Airport4113812,215613.8241413432-2
Waikaremoana (Onepoto)643164131 610.920911328-1
New Plymouth Airport491421162,110013.42113136260
Palmerston North34127911,8111512.8221213428-3
Masterton (Waingawa)114123882,0402912.2241211231-4
Wellington (Kelburn)126124952,020012.42011135261
Nelson Airport296722,4074111.8221212128-3
Westport Airport21691401,941111.91912124250
Hanmer Forest387115881,921859.82299-132-9
Hokitika Airport391681441,8602511.9191111226-2
Lake Coleridge3649874 7010.021910-131-7
Lake Tekapo68370532,223929.12168-330-10
Milford Sound3183165 2710.118910225-3
Dunedin (Musselburgh2119791.689810.9191011330-2
Invercargill Airport01571111,631489.51899128-5

NOTES: (1) Averages of rain days and wet days 1950-70; sunshine 1935-70; mean temperature 1931-60; other temperature data and days of screen frost, various periods—all exceeding 10 years.

(2) For normal monthly and annual rainfall for these stations, see table under subsection on Rainfall.

Brief Review of 1974:Year—The most important feature of 1974 weather, in which it resembled 1971 to some extent, was an exceptionally high frequency of winds from an easterly quarter. The only month in which this feature did not occur was July. These persistent easterlies brought excessive cloud and rain to eastern districts, especially from Christchurch northward, while most western districts experienced comparatively dry sunny conditions.

Rainfall was above normal, mainly by 10 to 40 percent, east of the ranges from Ashburton northward and also in Bay of Plenty, Wellington, and Nelson. For a number of stations in Southern Wairarapa, Wellington City, North Canterbury and Banks Peninsula, this was the wettest year in 40-60 years of observation. By contrast, rainfall was mainly below normal by 10-40 percent on the West Coast along with Southland and the greater part of Central Otago; in Auckland along with western and northern Northland, and in parts of Waikato and Taranaki. It was the driest year on record for Milford Sound and Manapouri.

It was a warm year, with average increases over the 1931-60 normal of 1.0°C in the North Island, 0.7°C in the South Island and 0.8°C over New Zealand, as in 1973. The highest departures were west of the main ranges, the lowest in the east.

Sunshine was above normal by 1-200 hours in western districts, except South Taranaki, and also over most of Northland. It was below normal by about the same amount east of the main ranges from Timaru northward and in Bay of Plenty.

Seasonal Notes—January was a dry month, with the driest, warmest, and sunniest weather in western and northern districts. In parts of the North Island rainfall had been inadequate since September 1973. Dairy production was already seriously affected by the dry weather, and in some places supplementary feed was being supplied to cows and sheep.

February was a very warm month, especially in the north, besides being very cloudy in Canterbury and Otago. Good rains in the second half brought relief to most districts but they were inadequate in parts of the North Island, where the drought persisted in places.

March was a cool month. Rainfall was inadequate to provide significant drought relief in some North Island areas, especially in the west. Napier, Masterton, and Wellington had their lowest March mean temperatures since 1936. The coldest spell was from the 18th to the 22nd, when the mean temperature was 6°C to 7°C below average in many eastern areas north of Christchurch.

April was a warm month, with very cloudy and wet conditions in eastern districts. Good growth was reported in many areas. Over three times the normal monthly rainfall was recorded in some eastern areas and about Cook Strait.

May was a relatively mild month and good growth was reported over the greater part of the country. The week from the 23rd to the 29th was the wettest part of the month.

In June the weather was very wet and cloudy east of the ranges. Parts of Hawke's Bay received up to 250 mm of rain on the 15th, causing serious and extensive Hooding, mainly around Hastings; at Napier Aerodrome 124 mm of rain was recorded in 12 hours. In most areas the health of stock was reported to be good.

July was unusually wet and mild and also very cloudy. Stratford Mountain House received 1573 mm of rain, one of the highest monthly totals ever recorded in New Zealand. Parts of North Otago received as much as 170 mm from the 28th to the 30th. Many Otago rivers were in flood on the 30th; and extensive dislocation of rail traffic both north and south of Dunedin was reported. The coldest spells were from the 3rd to the 6th and from the 9th to the 11th, with snow to low levels in the South Island and on the high country of the North Island.

During August persistent cloud and rain prevailed in eastern districts, where conditions were too wet for the farmers; lambing losses were reported from snow and cold rain, especially in Canterbury.

September was a cloudy, warm month. As in August, the weather was too wet in most eastern districts. Elsewhere however, farmers found the weather favourable, reporting good growth. Parts of the Kaikoura Coast and North Canterbury reported particularly heavy rain on the 3rd and 4th. Clinton River, northwest of Kaikoura, received 236 mm on these two days. Dannevirke, Masterton, and Wellington reported record low sunshine.

October was a cloudy month and mainly also wetter than normal. Considerable losses of lambs occurred in the South Island due to snow to comparatively low levels, on the 8th and 9th. It was also at this time that a large proportion of the rain fell; and a station to the northeast of Nelson received 315 mm in three days, from the 7th to the 9th. Flooding resulted in parts of Nelson and Marlborough, besides Otago. During the period from April to October Wellington had 1430 mm of rain, making this the wettest 7-month period in 113 years of observation. Similar excesses were recorded in southern Wairarapa, on the Kaikoura coast, and in parts of North Canterbury.

November was unusually dry and also rather warm. On the Canterbury Plains this was the driest November so far this century, with totals of 5 to 10 mm of rain.

December was unusually sunny and also warm. In Manawatu, Wellington, and Wairarapa, and also eastern districts of the South Island, farmers were finding conditions too dry. Thunderstorms were comparatively widespread over both Islands on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 17th, and 31st. A severe hailstorm caused serious damage to crops in the Darfield/Hororata area of the Canterbury Plains on the 6th. New Plymouth, Masterton, Wallaceville (Upper Hutt), and Blenheim all recorded their highest December sunshine in 35 to 40 years of observation.

Summary of Meteorological Observations for 1974—The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1974 were made at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time, i.e. 2100 hours Greenwich mean time.

StationRainfall (mm)Rain Days (1.0 mm or More)Bright Sunshine (hours)Screen Frost Days†Mean Temp.Air Temperature (Degrees Celsius)‡
Mean Daily MaximumMean Daily MinimumExtremes
*Partly estimated. †Minimum Air Temperatures less than 0.0°C. ‡°C = 5/9 (°F-32).
Hamilton (Ruakura)1,1581342,1431814.3*24.7*14.411.15.230.4-3.9
Tauranga Aerodrome1,4991272,255014.924.415.
Gisborne Aerodrome1,2231262,027314.323.515.
Lake Waikaremoana2,589186..811.619.910.610.44.229.7-2.5
New Plymouth Aerodrome1,4151312,279114.122.313.812.47.029.2-1.5
Palmerston North1,0691071,972514.022.512.712.96.130.1-1.7
Wellington (Kelburn)1,7061292,066012.819.611.612.16.527.51.0
Nelson Aerodrome1,114982,3602512.821.911.612.41.730.0-3.6
Westport Aerodrome2,1341442,058313.2*20.212.411.55.025.7-3.5
Hokitika Aerodrome2,5591392,0241112.419.211.810.93.225.0-2.5
Hanmer Forest1,6261171,82780*10.2**
Lake Coleridge825100..6310.521.
Lake Tekapo476712,0461009.
Dunedin (Musselburgh)8601401,626711.219.210.310.23.930.9-8.0
Milford Sound4,542,155..3311.1*
Invercargill Aerodrome8121331,717659.717.

For 1974 the mean sea level pressure values in millibars at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time were: Auckland, 1015.1; Kelburn, Wellington, 1014.3; Nelson Aerodrome, 1014.5; Hokitika Aerodrome, 1014.1; Christchurch, 1014.2; and Dunedin Airport, 1013.5.


Table of Contents

EARLY HISTORY: General—When New Zealand was discovered by Europeans in 1642 it was found to be inhabited by a race of Polynesians called Maoris, who had migrated to these islands at least 300 years previously. It is generally accepted that the Maoris came originally from South-east Asia, whence, as proto-Polynesians. they moved eastwards from island to island until they reached the eastern Pacific, where they settled the islands now known collectively as Polynesia. From Polynesia the ancestors of the Maori sailed south-west in ocean-going canoes to reach New Zealand and these voyages were probably spread over several generations, perhaps several centuries. Oral Maori history and genealogy support the view that there was a final wave of migration of considerable magnitude about A.D. 1350. Adapting themselves to a new physical environment, in isolation from the outside world, the Maoris produced forms of social and economic organisation and material culture which were significantly different from their Polynesian prototypes.

Coming from tropical latitudes, the Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island, and when discovered by Europeans were in a high state of neolithic civilisation, with marked superiority in the arts of wood carving and military engineering. Their principal social unit was the family group, and from combinations of the numerous groups were formed the subtribes and tribes. They had highly developed social and ritualistic customs, and their system of land tenure and methods of cultivation were communal within the subtribes. Inter-tribal and intra-tribal warfare was common, and as individuals Maoris displayed exceptional courage and intelligence.

From the early days of European settlement in the first half of the nineteenth century many Maoris believed that their interests were best served by co-operation with the settlers. For the most part the Europeans adopted a humanitarian attitude to the Maori people, who accepted their assurances and found a satisfactory safeguard for their interests in the exercise of their rights and privileges as British subjects. As the Europeans established a self-contained and aggressively growing society, there grew up a rivalry for land and a clash of power. In the 1860s Maori tribes in Taranaki, Waikato, and Bay of Plenty fought the settlers and Government troops in a series of sporadic campaigns based on loss of land rights and rising Maori nationalism. After 1870 there followed the development of a European colony of settlement with Maori people making further economic adjustments to European ways.

The introduction of European diseases and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century. However, the virility of the race gradually asserted itself, and from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing though still forming a minority component.

Discovery by Europeans—On 13 December 1642, Abel Janszoon Tasman, a navigator of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the country to which he gave the name of Staten Land, and which later became known as “Nieuw Zeeland”. Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August 1642, and, after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north, he had the misfortune to come into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land.

There is no record of any European visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until Captain James Cook sighted land on 7 October 1769 near Gisborne. Cook and a party of men from the Endeavour landed at Gisborne on 9 October 1769. On his first voyage Cook spent 6 months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. His activities can best be described by saying “he found New Zealand a line on a map, and left it an archipelago”. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the Maoris. He returned to New Zealand again in 1773, 1774, and in 1777. His careful observations made New Zealand known to the western world; the accounts of his voyages were translated into a dozen languages. The bi-centenary of Cook's first visit to New Zealand was celebrated in 1969; an account of his voyages of discovery in the Pacific is given on pages 1116 to 1128 of the 1969 issue of the Official Yearbook.

The European discovery of Niue Island was made by Captain Cook in 1774. The first recorded discovery of the Tokelau Islands was made by Quiros in 1606.

European Settlement and Colonisation—Whaling stations sprang up along the coast from 1792 onwards and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. In 1814 Samuel Marsden., chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, was responsible for the establishment of the first mission station in the Bay of Islands. To promote the translation of the Bible into Maori, Thomas Kendall (one of Marsden's assistants) took two Maori chiefs with him to England in 1820. The printing of the Bible in Maori was made possible through the establishment of a printing press by William Colenso at Paihia in the Bay of Islands in 1835.

The growing white population in the Bay of Islands, and the lawlessness of crews of visiting ships led to the appointment by the British Government of James Busby as British Resident at Waitangi in 1833. The Governor of New South Wales in 1837 sent Captain William Hobson, in command of HMS Rattlesnake, from Sydney to the Bay of Islands to report on New Zealand. Among other things, Hobson suggested a treaty with the Maori chiefs and the placing of British subjects under British law. On 29 January 1840 Hobson arrived at the Bay of Islands as Governor to proclaim British sovereignty.

By 1840 numerous mission stations had spread through the northern half of the North Island. Conversion of Maori tribes to Christianity was accompanied by the introduction of new crops and methods of cultivation and pacification of the warring tribes.

The first body of immigrants to reach New Zealand under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived at Port Nicholson, Wellington, on 22 January 1840 to found the initial settlement of the New Zealand Company. The colonists were in the main sturdy resourceful people seeking a better future than was offering in nineteenth century industrial England.

The guiding genius of the company, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, aware of the intention of the British Government to annex New Zealand, had earlier (in 1839), dispatched his agents in order to purchase large areas of land from the Maoris before the Crown could assume a monopoly of land purchase.

Wakefield's scheme of colonisation was based on the sale of land to investors or men of wealth for development by labouring class immigrants. With the profit from land sales the company could bring out more immigrants. Wakefield aimed at a balance between landowners and labourers; in effect he aimed to transplant a cross-section of English society. But, ignorant of the system of tribal ownership of Maori land, the company had bought land from individual Maoris; then Hobson provided that all European land titles should derive from the Crown which would be the only purchaser of land from the Maoris. Title to land remained a difficulty for some years and was a cause of distress to the colonists and, combined with a considerable degree of absentee ownership and land speculation, made most precarious the existence of the early company settlements of Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson. The company had brought nearly 10,000 persons to New Zealand by 1848. The later settlements of Otago, in 1848, and Canterbury, in 1850, organised under the aegis of the New Zealand Company in co-operation with the Free Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively, achieved a much greater measure of success owing to the absence of any large Maori population and to satisfactory land purchase arrangements..

The non-Maori population in the main settlements in 1842 totalled 3,801 in Wellington, 2,895 in Auckland, 2,500 in Nelson, 895 in New Plymouth, 380 in Russell, 236 in Hokianga, and 198 in Akaroa. By 1862 the non-Maori population had reached 125,000 (as against 55,000 Maoris) and by 1866 it had jumped to 200,000 with men from Australia joining in the gold rush to Otago. Migration then dropped away until 1874 when there was a high inflow for several years from Britain with the Vogel policy of public works development.

After the death of Hobson in 1842, subsequent governors, through lack of funds and weak administration, found themselves unable to protect the small and helpless settlements from threatening Maori aggression engendered by strong feelings on land ownership. The response of the Colonial Office was to appoint Captain George Grey as Governor and to provide him with adequate funds and troops so that he soon restored order and won not only the confidence of the Maoris but also for a time that of the settlers. Grey, through his chief land purchase officer, Donald McLean, endeavoured to buy up land in advance of the settlers' needs in order to prevent conflict between settlers and Maoris. By 1858 the census revealed that the settlers outnumbered the Maoris who, fearful that they were being swamped by the settlers, became increasingly reluctant to sell their land. At the same time the intensified settler pressure for more land led McLean to negotiate only with those Maoris still favourably disposed to land sales. This practice alarmed the other Maoris and finally the war broke out in 1860 over a land dispute at Waitara in Taranaki where settler demand for land was strongest. The return of Grey as Governor did not solve the problem for, as an autocrat, he could not work with elected ministers nor could he regain the confidence of the Maoris and finally he quarrelled with the commander of the Imperial troops. Widespread confiscation of Maori land by the settlers' government in order to pay the cost of the war included land belonging to friendly as well as hostile Maoris and aroused further resentment. Although the war had died down by 1870 it was only during the term of Donald McLean as Native Minister that some measure of reconciliation began with the establishment of four Maori electorates in 1876.

Public Works and Farm Development—The absence of hostilities and the discovery of gold there had allowed the South Island to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally but began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool.

By 1870 the gold boom had ended in the South Island. To remedy the situation of economic stagnation, Sir Julius Vogel began a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction and for immigrant labour. The results of this policy were to double the population to 500,000 by 1880, to immensely improve transport and communications, and to encourage industry in the towns where most of the immigrants had congregated. After Vogel's plans for these loans to be secured against the land were frustrated by the provinces, he decided that the provincial system, begun in 1853, had outlived its usefulness and that parochialism was a hindrance to the development of the colony. The system was abolished in 1875, local administration being provided for by the Counties Act and the Municipal Corporations Act 1876.

When systematic colonisation began, New Zealand's only important trade association was with the east coast of Australia. It was, however, the inflow of British capital which set the New Zealand economy on a path of growth: that determined by the requirements of markets in the United Kingdom. Britain with a vigorously expanding demand from its working population required from the young colony an assured and increasing supply of food and raw materials, and a guaranteed market for its industrial goods. In accordance with this archetypal pattern of colonial development agricultural trade with the United Kingdom assumed over-riding importance as the land was brought into production. By 1868, in spite of the problem of distance, the United Kingdom had already become New Zealand's principal trading partner.

With the introduction of refrigeration in 1882 and steam navigation in the late 19th century, the development of exports of frozen meat and dairy products assured the dominance of the United Kingdom in New Zealand's external trade. These developments, with a continued substantial investment of British capital, particularly in farming and food processing industries, established that degree of specialisation to meet the needs of the British market, which shaped the entire New Zealand economy during its first hundred years.

The depression of the 1880s, a consequence of a fall in world price levels, resulted in unemployment and large emigration but export prices recovered in the nineties. From 1880 onwards the natural increase of births over deaths exceeded the net inflow from migration.

In 1891 John Ballance, as leader of the Liberal Party, became Premier to be followed on his death in 1893 by Richard John Seddon, who remained Premier until his death in June 1906. The Government pursued a vigorous legislative programme in which the main emphasis was that of social justice, the principal manifestations of which were the breaking up of the large estates, the establishment of the Court of Arbitration, and the introduction of old age pensions. The policy of subdivision of large estates to produce closer settlement included the compulsory purchase of large holdings by the State, but more important were the effects of refrigeration, which encouraged the smaller dairy and fat-lamb farms, the accelerated Government purchase of Maori lands and the widespread introduction of systems of Crown leasehold with subsequent loans to small farmers to establish themselves. In inaugurating the Court of Arbitration, the object was to eliminate strikes by giving labour a recognised bargaining status; and the enactment was in accord with the enlightened code of labour legislation passed at that time under the influence of William Pember Reeves.

The 6 years from 1906 with Joseph Ward as Prime Minister were marked by several notable events in imperial affairs, but, on the whole, the Government's domestic policies were singularly uninspiring.

The expansion of the exports in dairy produce and frozen meat during the 1890s produced more intensive settlement and the rise of a new farming class in which the “cow-cockie” was the dominant figure. These farmers, having benefited by the spread of prosperity, were in 1911 mainly responsible together with the city businessmen for the overthrow of the Liberal regime. The new Reform Government under William Massey, in order to strengthen the primary producer, introduced measures of which the extension of rural credit was typical. Industrial conflict on the waterfront and with the Waihi miners ended in a victory for Massey who relied on the use of troops and special constables to repress the strikes.

Three years after the advent of the Reform Party, the First World War, 1914-1918, broke out, leading to a coalition Government and an Imperial commandeer of exports which created the precedent for the establishment after the war of central boards to regulate the exports of pastoral products. War activities were marked by heavy casualties in proportion to the population while the landing at Gallipoli signified the growing awareness of a sense of nationhood.

Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period 1921-24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and on the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydro-electric schemes and highways. Prime Ministers in the 10 years from 1925 were J. Gordon Coates, Sir Joseph Ward, and George Forbes.

Land values rose steeply, accelerated by Government efforts to settle returned servicemen on the land, and between 1915 and 1925 forty percent of the occupied land had changed hands. New Zealand was extremely vulnerable to the overseas price fluctuations of the pastoral products. With the advent of the depression by 1930, farmers, despite greatly increased production, were faced with a serious decline in income (over forty percent) together with heavy mortgage commitments on land bought at high prices so that many were faced with foreclosure. In the towns, tradesmen and shopkeepers faced bankruptcy, and wage earners unemployment or reduction in wages. A coalition Government, formed in 1931 to meet the crisis had, as its leading figure, Coates, who was Minister of Finance from 1933. In order to produce balanced budgets and cope with the effects of the depression, enactments provided for unemployment relief, for the suspension, in effect, of compulsory arbitration, for the establishment of a Reserve Bank, for a mortgage moratorium, for raising the exchange rate, and for reduction in interest rates and wages. Partly as a consequence of these measures and of a rise in overseas price levels a general economic revival was taking place by 1935.

DEVELOPMENT AS A NATION—The election of a Labour Government in 1935 (with notable politicians including Michael Savage, Peter Fraser, and Walter Nash, who successively became Prime Ministers) reflected the general climate of opinion and led to change in administrative policy, the preoccupation being mainly with social problems. These attitudes were reflected in certain distinctive trends in legislation.

The first major influence was a humanitarian attitude reinforced by a progressive economic policy. Evidence of this is implicit in the provision for a basic wage, and later for a minimum wage, employment-promotion legislation, amendments to workers' compensation, industrial conciliation and arbitration, mining, etc., legislation, the system of basic prices for certain farm products, the creation of farm industry reserves, and the rationalisation of production and marketing by the establishment of boards for certain items of primary produce.

Another dominant trend was the acceptance of the principle that society should take active steps towards the improvement of the working, living, and social circumstances of its members. Foremost in this category was the Social Security Act and its later extensions providing for monetary benefits such as age, superannuation, family allowances, sickness, and unemployment, and by the provision of a system of medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits. (The evolution of social security in New Zealand was summarised in a special article in the 1972 issue of the Official Yearbook; this was an extract from the Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Social Security in New Zealand published in March 1972.)

Other legislative enactments under this heading include the provision for paid annual holidays, reduction of working hours, extension of workers' compensation insurance, improvement in safety and health and welfare conditions in industry, and extension of educational facilities and opportunities.

The financial needs of the Second World War from 1939 onwards were met with virtually no overseas borrowing. Financing the war by taxation and internal borrowing also assisted in the achievement of a successful stabilisation policy. Full employment in war was followed by full employment in peace. Expansion and diversification of manufacturing and servicing industries provided avenues of employment for the growing labour force.

Shaken by conflict with its industrial left-wing, and faced with increasing public impatience at the continued existence of some wartime controls and concern at inflation, the Labour Government was defeated at the 1949 election after holding office since 1936. The National Party took office under the leadership of Sidney Holland and its first term was marked by a conflict with the Waterside Workers' Union. This dispute in 1951 ended in a complete victory for the Government after it introduced most stringent emergency regulations to deal with the situation. For the first time this century, Holland held an emergency election before parliament had run its full 3-year term. The result was to return the National Government with an increased majority.

In 1952, continued inflation and a balance of payments crisis produced restrictions on exchange allocation to importers in an effort to build up overseas reserves. The 1954 election reduced National's majority and was marked by the appearance of a third party, the Social Credit Party which gained 11 percent of the votes.

During his time as Prime Minister, Holland initiated a constitutional change with the abolition of the Legislative Council on the grounds that it no longer possessed any effective function. Illness caused Holland's retirement in 1957 when he was replaced as leader by Keith Holyoake.

In 1957, the Labour Party gained a narrow victory at the polls under the leadership of Walter Nash. Budgetary policy to meet a recurrence of the balance of payments crisis proved unpopular and at the 1960 election, the National Party under the leadership of Keith Holyoake was returned to power, as it was in subsequent elections in 1963, 1966, and 1969. Early in 1972 John Marshall became leader of the National Party. At the 1972 election the Labour Party swept back into power under Norman Kirk; after his untimely death in 1974 W. E. Rowling became Prime Minister.

International affairs have assumed growing importance in recent decades. It was evident when peace returned to the Pacific area in 1945 that New Zealand found itself in a different world, where its relations with the countries geographically closest to it would grow rapidly in importance. This did not, however, alter the extent to which New Zealand identified itself as a European nation. New Zealand took part in the Paris Peace Conference and it was not until 1955 that it altered the planning commitments of its defence forces from security arrangements in the Middle East to similar arrangements in the South-east Asia and Pacific areas.

The most far-reaching reorientation required of New Zealand in this new situation was the need to obtain a guarantee of its security from the United States rather than the United Kingdom to which it had traditionally turned. With Australia it signed the ANZUS pact with the United States in 1951 and this provides the cornerstone of New Zealand's security arrangements. It also gives New Zealand a common interest with the nations of Western Europe in encouraging the United States to maintain outward-looking policies and a global defence capability.

New Zealand's growing regional awareness has been expressed partly in its defence relationships through SEATO, and through the collective defence arrangements with Malaysia and Singapore; but more widely in its participation in the Colombo Plan and other arrangements for extending development aid to South-east Asia, the South-west Pacific and the Indian subcontinent. The stability and well-being of these areas are vital to New Zealand's interests and relationships with the countries of the region are becoming closer every year.

A feature of the 1960s was a series of national conferences on industrial development (1960), export development (1963), agricultural development (1963-64), and national development (1969).

Relations with Europe—Agricultural development has continued to be based on the principle of the family farm, and the New Zealand farmer remains typically both labourer and manager, as well as landowner. The present level of efficiency has been won by hard effort, skilled management, the application of the results of scientific research, and a heavy personal investment in farm improvement. Dairy producers are now faced with problems of maintaining overseas markets as a result of Britain's move to join the European Economic Community.

Farm production has constantly expanded so that New Zealand has become one of the world's greatest exporters of pastoral produce. The bulk of this produce still goes to the British market.

The advantages of a closely bilateral trading relationship with the United Kingdom were not one-sided. The association was grounded in economic logic, and enabled New Zealand to develop its only major natural asset into a pastoral system of unmatched economic efficiency, which, to the present day would, under free trading conditions, enable its farm products to meet any competition.

The pattern of economic dependence developed in accordance with a series of mutually agreed decisions extending over a long period, and these were formalised by the Ottawa Agreement of 1932 between the British and New Zealand Governments which provided preferential access to each other's markets. The advantages of this economic rationalisation were demonstrated most strikingly in the Second World War, 1939-45 when, apart from the New Zealand military contribution, its continued substantial supply of food to a beleaguered Britain was vital to the continuation of the Allied war effort.

Settlers came originally to New Zealand because of some dissatisfaction with the conditions of life they knew in their country of birth. They sought to build a new society which, while retaining what was good in Britain and Europe, would exclude the pressures which they had found damaging to the quality of their own lives. It is perhaps ironic that, to the extent which a new society has been created, this has been achieved by means of, and is contingent upon, continued strong economic ties with Europe. The decision of Britain to become part of the European Economic Community with effect from 1973 and thus subject to a new pattern of trading arrangements would have been disastrous for New Zealand's exports of dairy produce and lamb, but for the negotiations of special arrangements for continuing trade; in these negotiations Holyoake and Marshall were key personalities.

Pacific Orientation—Increasing interest has been taken in the last decade in welfare and social development generally of both the rapidly growing Maori population and the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific with New Zealand ties.

New Zealand has experienced in recent years a considerable inflow of Polynesians from its associated territories and elsewhere in the Pacific. One-tenth of the New Zealand population is Maori or Polynesian, and there are more Niue Islanders in New Zealand than in Niue. Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islanders are New Zealand citizens who freely move back and forth. These people have undoubtedly had a big influence on the character, attitudes, and behaviour of the rest of the New Zealand population—most have some understanding of the “Polynesian way”. New Zealand has a number of other basic links with the South Pacific, due in part to the common colonial history shared with such nations as Fiji. This British heritage has given a common language and the democratic tradition. Today all the independent states of the South Pacific are associated in the British Commonwealth.

The most recent political development is the establishment of the South Pacific Forum. This group, comprising the leaders of the independent and self-governing nations of the South Pacific (Cook Islands, Niue, Western Samoa, Tonga, Fiji and Nauru), together with Australia and New Zealand, has had highly successful meetings in their respective capitals. The South Pacific Forum is a new concept in international relations—an exciting development. There is no constitution, there is no agenda, and there is no formality. The leaders come together in private sessions for frank and concentrated discussion on practical matters of direct relevance to the people of the Pacific. The island leaders themselves suggested the formula and proposed Australian and New Zealand participation. Clearly they saw the need to exchange views, discuss projects and priorities, and generally to secure on a regional basis effective collaboration and co-ordination at the highest level. A South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation has been established with a broad programme of trade, production, and economic development. It is based in Suva.

Expansion of overseas aid to the Pacific and to Asia from 1973 onwards was a feature of the Labour Government under Kirk and subsequently under Rowling.

Sovereignty—On 29 January 1840 Captain William Hobson, R.N., arrived in the Bay of Islands. His instructions from the British Government required him to take possession of the country with the consent of the Maori chiefs, this policy being designed by the Colonial Office strongly influenced by missionary opinion, to safeguard the well-being of the native people. Hobson read his commission at Kororareka on 30 January and on 6 February 46 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, a compact whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights were secured to the chiefs and their tribes (with the Crown having the sole right of purchase) and in return the Queen extended her protection and all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Other chiefs throughout both Islands later adhered to this Treaty.

On 21 May 1840 Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty in the case of the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and in the case of the South Island and Stewart Island by right of discovery. New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales until 3 May 1841, when it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter dated 16 November 1840. The capital was at first transferred from Russell to Auckland, but in 1865 it was again transferred, on this occasion to Wellington, where the seat of Government has since remained.

During Governor Grey's term, steps were taken to draft a constitution for the colony. An Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament on 30 June 1852, and was published in New Zealand by Proclamation on 17 January 1853. Under it, provision was made for the constitution of a General Assembly consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives. Provision was also made for the division of the country into provinces, each province having an elected Council and Superintendent. (The provincial system was abolished in 1875 and the Legislative Council in 1950.) In the first General Assembly of 27 August 1854 certain members of this body were associated with the permanent members of the executive but they did not hold any portfolios. It was not until 7 May 1856 that responsible government was actually established.

One aspect, that of native affairs, was withheld from the responsible Ministers, and the Governor, as representative of the Crown, continued to act independently of his elected advisors in this sphere. In 1861 Grey attempted unsuccessfully to hand over this responsibility but the Ministers were unwilling to assume responsibility for the cost of the war. Finally in 1864 Sir Frederick Weld instituted the “self-reliant policy” whereby the colony accepted responsibility for the settlement of difficulties with the Maoris and consented to the withdrawal of troops by the Imperial Government.

In recognition of a nascent sense of nationality and of an increasing desire for self-reliance in political matters New Zealand was given the title of Dominion in lieu of Colony, the new title taking effect on 26 September 1907.

Of the constitutional events in recent years the passing by the United Kingdom Parliament of the Statute of Westminster in December 1931 was of major importance. The draft of this statute was submitted for the confirmation of the various Commonwealth legislatures before its passage through the United Kingdom Parliament. The statute granted complete autonomy to the various self-governing member countries, but it did not automatically apply to Australia or New Zealand. In other words. its operation in the latter self-governing members of the Commonwealth was declared to require specific adoption by the legislatures of those countries. It was not until 1947 that the New Zealand Government formally adopted the Statute of Westminster.

NEW ZEALAND'S INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS—Until the early 1930s New Zealand's external interests were almost exclusively centred on its relationship with Britain. The British Navy protected New Zealand and Britain took the bulk of New Zealand's exports. Where Britain led, New Zealand followed, not blindly but with pride and conviction. Britain, as a great power, played a major role in world affairs. New Zealand's “foreign policy” consisted chiefly of seeking to modify British policy in those few cases where New Zealand had a strong interest or a viewpoint rather different from that of Britain.

The emergence of a distinctively New Zealand foreign policy is usually regarded as dating from 1935. The Labour Government strongly upheld the principle of collective security and looked on the League of Nations as the custodian of that principle. It pressed for vigorous collective action by the League against aggression in Abyssinia, Spain, and China at a time when the United Kingdom was pursuing the policy which came to be known as “appeasement”. In addition to making its views known in confidential communications to the United Kingdom Government, New Zealand also gave them forthright expression in the Council and Assembly of the League of Nations.

There was nevertheless, no suggestion that New Zealand was departing from its historically close association with Britain. The course it would follow in the event of war was never in doubt. When war broke out the Prime Minister, the Right Hon. M. J. Savage, expressed New Zealand's position in these terms:.

“Behind the sure shield of Britain we have enjoyed and cherished freedom and self-government. Both with gratitude for the past, and with confidence in the future, we range ourselves without fear behind Britain. Where she goes, we go. Where she stands, we stand.”

But the Second World War changed the pattern of power in the world and made it necessary for New Zealand gradually to revise its foreign policy. During the war years the Government had participated in discussions among the allies and it believed that New Zealand, whose armed forces had fought in many theatres of war, should have an effective voice in the development of a post-war world order. To this end the Government established (in effect from 1943) a career foreign affairs service, and made a beginning in stationing its own diplomatic representatives in countries where New Zealand's interests made their presence necessary. In particular. New Zealand sought to foster good relationships with its neighbours in the Pacific and Asia and to increase the measure of security and welfare in these areas.

Woven into post-war policy was the traditional New Zealand belief in the principle of collective security and international justice, which the United Nations was pledged to support. There was also the belief that the international community should give high priority to the welfare and political advancement of dependent peoples and to the elimination of poverty, disease, and other economic and social causes of international tension.

The threat to New Zealand's security posed by Japanese aggression in the Pacific brought this country into close association with two of her Pacific neighbours—Australia and the United States. In 1944, in the Canberra Pact, Australia and New Zealand provided machinery for continuing consultation between the two Governments. The wartime alliance of the two Pacific Commonwealth countries with the United States found expression in peacetime in the ANZUS Treaty, in which, for the first time, New Zealand and Australia entered into a security treaty with a foreign country. The ANZUS Treaty, which came into force in April 1952, gives an assurance of United States support in the event of an armed attack from any quarter in the Pacific and so constitutes New Zealand's major safeguard against aggression in the area. The signing of the Manila Treaty and the establishment of SEATO in 1954, like the formation of the ANZUS alliance, took place against a background of continuing instability and violence in South-east Asia. (Details of New Zealand's defence policies and arrangements are set out later in this chapter.)

The scope of New Zealand's interests in Asia widened considerably in the years following signature of the Manila Treaty. Diplomatic relations were established with a growing number of countries in the area, leading to increased co-operation in fields besides that of defence. By the mid-1960s New Zealand had more widespread representation in Asia than in Western Europe. Subsequent accession to membership of regional organisations such as ECAFE and the Asian Development Bank furnished further evidence of this country's recognition of its constructive links with Asian countries. Diplomatic relations were established with the People's Republic of China in December 1972 and ambassadors have been exchanged. The Government is actively exploring the possibilities for new forms of regional co-operation in Asia.

The political evolution of the South Pacific with the emergence of Western Samoa, Nauru, Fiji, and Tonga as independent states and the Cook Islands as self-governing in free association with New Zealand has led to the development of a new pattern of relationships, bilateral and multilateral, between New Zealand and its South Pacific neighbours. In addition to its special relationship with Western Samoa, a former United Nations Trust Territory administered by New Zealand, and the Cook Islands, New Zealand has close bilateral ties with Fiji, Nauru, and Tonga. It is co-operating with all these countries at the regional level in the South Pacific Forum where the independent and self-governing countries in the South Pacific, together with Australia and New Zealand, discuss their common problems. Also, through its membership of the South Pacific Commission, New Zealand is endeavouring to promote the economic and social welfare of the South Pacific peoples and to foster a strong sense of regional identity.

New Zealand has continued to place special importance upon its membership of the United Nations. It is an active participant in the work of the General Assembly, and has been a member of all Councils of the Organisation. In 1950 it provided troops to the United Nations Command in Korea and has contributed military observers and civilian police in various peace-keeping operations. It has sought to assist all efforts to attain the political and social objectives outlined in the Charter.

The historical links with Britain and with Western Europe and North America remain close, as does the economic relationship with Britain, New Zealand's largest single customer. Although New Zealand has been making satisfactory progress in diversifying her markets, especially within the Pacific Basin, her trading and other interests in the European Economic Community remain a major policy concern.

The Labour Government, which was elected in 1972, has emphasised its wish to strengthen New Zealand's bilateral links with the nations of Asia and the Pacific as well as expand regional cooperation, its commitment to a more vigorous programme of aid to less-developed countries, and its belief that the United Nations can and should do more to protect and advance the interests of its smaller members. It has made clear in action, its total rejection of all doctrines of racial superiority. It intends to ensure that New Zealand plays a more independent role in world affairs.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs—The primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to advise and assist the Government in formulating and executing decisions in the field of New Zealand's external relations. It is the agency through which other governments and their representatives in New Zealand communicate with the New Zealand Government. It operates New Zealand's aid programmes and maintains New Zealand's diplomatic and consular representation abroad. Its overseas functions are discharged through a network of 35 diplomatic and consular posts consisting of embassies, high commissions, consulates-general, and other permanent missions. At home, the preparation and co-ordination of foreign policy recommendations is carried out in close association with a number of other Government departments. The ministry is administered jointly with the Prime Minister's Department. Prime Ministers have often held the Foreign Affairs portfolio. The Secretary of Foreign Affairs is also Permanent Head of the Prime Minister's Department.

The ministry has a substantive role in the formulation and execution of New Zealand's economic policies. In Wellington the ministry works closely on these questions with other departments such as the Treasury, Department of Trade and Industry, Customs Department, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Economic activity is as much part of an overseas mission's everyday work as its political, consular, and trade functions. Officers of the ministry have a major responsibility to inform foreign governments of New Zealand's policies, negotiate agreements, and keep the New Zealand Government informed of economic developments in the country to which they are accredited.

The ministry's involvement in the economic sphere was amply demonstrated in the events leading up to Britain's entry into the EEC. The negotiations in Luxembourg, that decided the terms of British entry and the special arrangement for New Zealand exports of butter and cheese to Britain, were preceded by an intensive campaign of publicity for New Zealand's case, continuous ministerial and official contacts in Britain and Europe, and a series of visits to New Zealand by British and European Ministers, officials and journalists directly concerned with Common Market affairs. In all this activity the ministry played a full part in Wellington, with other departments, and abroad where its officers were heavily involved. (More detailed information on New Zealand's external trade and economic policies is contained in section 22.)

The ministry has a special role also as a clearing house for material provided by New Zealand posts overseas for other departments, and through its posts it performs numerous services on behalf of departments without representatives abroad.

In the Official Section at the end of the Yearbook the diplomatic and other New Zealand representation overseas is listed.

New Zealand in the Commonwealth—As a member of the Commonwealth New Zealand is able to consult and co-operate with 34 other countries in a wide variety of activity, both governmental and non-governmental. The value to New Zealand of its Commonwealth links is derived not only from the practical benefits of what the Commonwealth does but also from the heterogenous composition of the association. Its 34 members take in the 6 continents and the 5 oceans of the world. The Pacific region is now fully represented in the Commonwealth. Fiji, Tonga, and Western Samoa are full members along with Australia and New Zealand, and Nauru has special status.

As the Commonwealth has grown and changed, its relationships have taken on a new scope and emphasis. As Commonwealth heads of government affirmed in the Commonwealth Declaration adopted at their meeting in 1971, the association “provides many channels for continuing exchanges of knowledge and views on professional, cultural, economic, legal and political issues among member states. These relationships we foster and extend for we believe that our multinational association can expand human understanding and understanding among nations, assist in the elimination of discrimination based on differences of race, colour, and creed, maintain and strengthen personal liberty, contribute to the enrichment of life for all, and provide a powerful influence for peace among nations.” New Zealand, itself a country where different races live in harmony, sees in the Commonwealth a special opportunity for multi-racial co-operation and understanding.

The value of the association in providing a forum for the exchange of views between a large number of diverse nations was illustrated again at the 1973 Heads of Government meeting at Ottawa. Discussions were frank, informal, and private, ranging over topics which included changing power relationships, security, nuclear testing, trade, monetary issues, development assistance, private foreign investment, international transport, food shortages, and Southern African questions.

The belief of member countries in the potential of the Commonwealth led to the establishment of a permanent Commonwealth Secretariat in London in 1965. Under the leadership of its Secretary-General, Mr Arnold Smith, it has become the main agency for multilateral communication among Commonwealth governments. The Commonwealth Secretariat promotes consultation and disseminates information on matters of common concern, organises meetings and conferences, and coordinates many Commonwealth activities. Prominent among these is the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation. The fund is financed by voluntary contributions from most Commonwealth countries. Its primary purpose is to promote economic development through self-help and mutual assistance.

New Zealand contributes to the budgets of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, and the Commonwealth Foundation. The foundation was established at the same time as the Secretariat to promote close links in the professions throughout the Commonwealth. It has sponsored official and non-official Commonwealth professional organisations and strengthened the links between administrators, engineers, lawyers, accountants, scientists, and private individuals in the different Commonwealth organisations. Like the Secretariat it has provided a focus for Commonwealth activities and a basis for extending international co-operation.

New Zealand and the Asian/Pacific Area—Since the Second World War, and particularly since 1955, there has been a noteworthy growth in New Zealand's relations with the countries of the Pacific area. New Zealand has a direct interest in the maintenance of peace and the growth of prosperity in the area. Its political and economic relations with Australia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and the countries of South-east Asia are of particular importance.

Almost half New Zealand's overseas trade is with the countries of the Pacific Basin and is growing steadily.

Private initiative, with Government assistance, has been able to develop new markets, new products, new selling processes, and new economic and commercial relationships. A pattern of regular economic consultations with our main trading partners has been developed; bilateral economic agreements have been concluded.

Aid activities have been expanded. In the early 1950s aid programmes, except for assistance to New Zealand's own Pacific territories, were largely directed towards the Indian subcontinent in the form of capital grants, which called for little direct New Zealand participation. Since the mid 1950s, technical assistance programmes have been enlarged to bring students to New Zealand and send New Zealand experts into the area. Aid activities now include New Zealand's industrial and engineering skills as well as those in the more traditional agricultural and health fields. New Zealand has become a full member of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), a member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and a participant in other international bodies co-ordinating aid to countries in the region.

New Zealand's overseas representation has been expanded in response to the growth in New Zealand's interests and involvements overseas. In 1955, when a New Zealand mission in Singapore was established, New Zealand had full diplomatic representation in only four countries in the Pacific area (the United States, Canada, Japan, and Australia). With the opening of posts in Santiago and Lima in 1972, the number of full diplomatic posts in the Asian/Pacific area was increased to 15. This diplomatic network enables New Zealand to assess external events in the light of this country's own interests and needs and to work directly with other countries in areas of common concern. New Zealand has also developed its political contacts with countries of the Asian and Pacific area in other important ways. Three are worthy of particular note: exchanges of visits by Heads of State and Government Ministers and Parliamentarians; participation in many regional arrangements; and the development of regular bilateral consultations.

Cultural contacts with the countries of the Pacific areas have expanded. For many years New Zealanders looked largely to Britain for cultural inspiration and experience. Today, their horizons have been broadened. New Zealand as a cultural entity is much more aware of its own Pacific area than it was 20 years ago. Professional bodies, sporting associations, private business groups, and universities have direct contacts with similar organisations in other countries of the Pacific area where 20 years ago they had links only with Britain and perhaps Australia. Tourism, the development of civil air links, and the general expansion of cultural interests have also helped bring a wider range of contacts.

New Zealand and the South Pacific—New Zealand has a long history of interest and involvement in the South Pacific. In the latter part of the 19th century Prime Minister Richard Seddon harboured ambitions of a South Pacific empire controlled by New Zealand, and as a result of pressure from Seddon the administration of the Cook Islands and Niue, which were British colonial possessions, was handed over to New Zealand in 1901. The number of New Zealand Pacific dependencies increased when, following the establishment of the League of Nations, Western Samoa, which had been occupied by New Zealand troops at the outbreak of the First World War, became a mandated territory under the administration of New Zealand. In 1925 the Tokelau Islands, part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, were ceded by the United Kingdom to New Zealand.

Despite its geographical situation, the acquisition of overseas dependencies in the South Pacific and the ethnic kinship of the Maori and the Polynesian peoples, New Zealand's present identity as a South Pacific country was slow in developing for a number of reasons. Culturally, New Zealand has been closer to Western Europe than to the Pacific. For many years almost all of New Zealand's exports went to the United Kingdom. Politically, New Zealand's outlook was oriented towards Europe and, more recently, South-east Asia. Also the Pacific Islands were, and in some cases still are, administered by other countries.

But during the 1960s there was a dramatic emergence of new nations in the South Pacific. New Zealand encouraged this development in its own territories.

In Western Samoa, which had become a United Nations Trust Territory administered by New Zealand, political and constitutional development was carried forward in accordance with the wishes of the Samoan people. This culminated in the establishment of the independent State of Western Samoa on 1 January 1962. A programme of economic and social development for the Cook Islands was formulated in 1955 and legislative assemblies for the Cook Islands and for Niue were set up in 1957. In 1962 the New Zealand Government gave these bodies full responsibility for allocating the large subsidies granted by New Zealand. In the same year, after the alternatives concerning constitutional development had been submitted to the Island assemblies, the Cooks and Niue chose full internal self-government with a continued association with New Zealand. Events thereafter moved rapidly in the Cook Islands and on 4 August 1965 the Cook Islands became a self-governing nation in free association with New Zealand.

These developments were part of a wider pattern of political evolution in the region. In 1968 Nauru became an independent republic and in 1970 both Fiji and Tonga became independent nations.

It is natural that New Zealand and its South Pacific neighbours should have become very closely associated. One important reason has been the movement of Pacific peoples into New Zealand. Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islanders are New Zealand citizens and move freely back and forth. New Zealand's historical association with Western Samoa, which is reflected in the Treaty of Friendship signed in August 1962, has also resulted in a steady flow of immigrants from that country.

New Zealand has also played an active role in building up regional co-operation in the South Pacific. A major step in this direction was the creation of the South Pacific Forum comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, Fiji, Nauru, Tonga, Western Samoa, the Cook Islands together with Australia and New Zealand which, at the invitation of New Zealand, met for the first time in Wellington in August 1971. Since then meetings have been held in Canberra, Suva and Apia. The South Pacific Forum provides the opportunity for the leaders of the South Pacific states to discuss common problems, exchange information, consider priorities and plan programmes. The topics considered include such matters as regional trade, shipping, telecommunications, education, law of the sea, disaster relief, and nuclear testing.

At the Canberra session of the South Pacific Forum members agreed to establish the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) to deal with trade and related matters. The main purpose of the SPEC is to advise Forum members on ways of promoting regional trade and free trade among Island members and to encourage collaboration in areas such as regional transport which will assist the economic development of the Island members.

The South Pacific Commission, created in 1947 by the Canberra Agreement of which New Zealand is a signatory, is the other major regional body. It is composed of representatives of the administering powers in the Pacific—the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Australia, and New Zealand—together with Fiji, Nauru, and Western Samoa. Since its establishment the commission has done much useful work in promoting the economic and social welfare of the South Pacific peoples. It is primarily a technical assistance organisation. Its budget for 1974 is A$1,991,258. This includes voluntary contributions of A$250,000 each from Australia and New Zealand and A$50,000 from France, all of which were made in 1973. Within the South Pacific Commission the South Pacific Conference is of particular importance. The conference, which meets annually and is attended by representatives of all the countries of the region, has helped build up a sense of regional identity. The conference decides the work programme of the commission and the priorities within the work programme.

The Thirteenth South Pacific Conference, which met in Guam in September 1973, recommended that the meetings of the commission and the conference be merged. This will remove the colonial implication in the division drawn between metropolitan powers and dependent territories, and will thus bring the organisation more into conformity with political realities in the region.

The United Nations and its Specialised Agencies are also an important source of technical assistance in the South Pacific. The independent countries of the region are members of various UN bodies and the UNDP has a regional office in Western Samoa. They are also members of the Asian Development Bank and receive loans from it to promote their economic development.

The political changes in the South Pacific which began with Western Samoa's independence are continuing. Papua New Guinea became self-governing in December 1973. Niue became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on Constitution Day, 19 October 1974. It is written into the Niue Constitution Act 1974 that New Zealand will continue to be responsible for the external affairs and defence of Niue, that Niueans will remain New Zealand citizens, and that New Zealand will provide necessary economic and administrative assistance. In an exchange of letters between the New Zealand Prime Minister and the Premier of the Cook Islands in April 1973 clarifying the special relationship between the Cook Islands and New Zealand, it was agreed that there are no legal of any kind upon the freedom of the Cook Islands to make their own laws and control their own Constitution. Although New Zealand has a statutory responsibility for the external affairs and defence of the Cook Islands, it is intended that the Cook Islands be free to pursue their own policies and interests in these as well as other areas.

New Zealand continues to have responsibility for the Tokelau Islands which have expressed through their councils and fonos a wish to retain their association with New Zealand. There is a measure of self-government in the Tokelau Islands and the people are normally consulted fully before any major decisions affecting them are taken. At the request of the fonos the New Zealand Government has embarked on a pilot scheme to resettle Tokelauans in New Zealand.

New Zealand in the United Nations—If New Zealand is better known in international affairs than some other small states, this is, in some measure at least, because of New Zealand's record of active participation in the United Nations.

New Zealand's share of the United Nations' regular budget is 0.32 percent. In 1974 this meant a New Zealand contribution to the organisation of US$608,175.

United Nations Security and Peace-keeping Activities—New Zealand Governments have acted upon the conviction that it is only through the United Nations that an effective and comprehensive collective security system can eventually be developed and disarmament achieved. At San Francisco in 1945 the New Zealand Prime Minister, the Right Hon. Peter Fraser, argued forcibly but unsuccessfully to eliminate the veto and to strengthen the collective security provisions of the United Nations Charter. Within the United Nations New Zealand has sought to remove the causes which might produce the need for recourse to collective security action. Its representatives have urged that the Assembly be used for harmonising relations between nations; they have voiced the need for restraint in the pursuit of national objectives; they have consistently sought and supported responsible action in aid of an effective international organisation; and they have reiterated the need for the early adoption of a broad programme of supervised disarmament.

New Zealand was elected to the Security Council for the years 1954 and 1955, and for a second term in 1966 when membership of the Council was increased from 10 to 15.

New Zealand has also advocated adequate and timely preparations in case aggression should occur and has supported development of the United Nations' capacity for peace-keeping. New Zealand has been prepared to play its part; forces were supplied to the United Nations Force in Korea and military observers to the United Nations observer groups in Palestine, Kashmir, and Lebanon; and a civilian police unit served in Cyprus.

While recognising that the objective of developing the United Nations' potential in security and peace-keeping is a long-term one, the New Zealand Government has indicated its interest in making a practical contribution by training some New Zealand military units to take part in future United Nations peace-keeping operations.

Economic and Social Activities—In addition to this concern with international peace and security, other aspects of the work of the United Nations have attracted increased attention in recent years. Article 55 of the United Nations Charter recognises that peaceful and friendly relations among nations depend largely on conditions of economic and social progress. Advancement in these latter fields absorbs annually more and more of the United Nations' resources, and represents at least one area in which international goodwill and co-operation are being given practical expression. First the 1960s and now the 1970s have been designated as “development decades” and an international development strategy—an overall plan setting targets for development during the second decade—was adopted by the Twenty-fifth Anniversary Commemorative Session in 1970

More recent concern has focussed additionally on the problems of the environment and an international conference held in Stockholm in 1972 set up for the first time United Nations machinery to co-ordinate future world-wide activity in this important sphere.

The United Nations body with primary responsibility in the wide-ranging economic and social field is the Economic and Social Council (or ECOSOC), an elective body of 27 members, which co-ordinates the activities of the bodies active in these fields, ranging from the functional commissions and committees of the United Nations itself to the autonomous specialised agencies.

The biggest single task now facing ECOSOC is to promote and direct programmes for economic development in the less-developed countries. New Zealand had always recognised the need for this. Its interest in social and economic questions is illustrated by its membership of ECOSOC from 1947 to 1949, 1959 to 1961, and from 1971 to 1973. New Zealand in 1963 became a full regional member of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)*, a body of which it had previously been a non-regional member. The general trend towards closer ties with Asia further demonstrated by membership of the Asian subgroup of various international bodies such as the ILO Asian group, and the AOPU (affiliated body to the UPU) and by participation in the UNESCO Conference on Cultural Policy in Asia which was held in Jogjakarta in 1973. New Zealand has also served terms of office from time to time on the Status of Women Commission, the Technical Assistance Committee, and on the Statistical, Social, Population, Human Rights and Fiscal Commissions. New Zealand is currently serving on the Statistical Commission, the Committee on Science and Technology for Development and the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme (until December 1976).

Specialised Agencies—New Zealand is a member of all the specialised agencies, except the International Development Association, and is also a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which, though not strictly a specialised agency, exists under the aegis of the United Nations. New Zealand's contributions to the regular budgets of the agencies, which are based for the most part on a scale of assessment similar to that used in the United Nations itself, will total US $1,279,244 in 1974. New Zealand has also subscribed capital to the financial agencies.

Convinced of the value of the form of international co-operation that the agencies represent, New Zealand participates actively in their work. In the case of the technical agencies. there are direct benefits to New Zealand in membership. Membership of the Universal Postal Union, for example, is essential to facilitate the efficient international movement of mails to and from this country; and the International Telecommunication Union works to promote the most rational and efficient operation of world-wide telecommunications services. The World Meteorological Organisation is the medium for establishing a world-wide network for the rapid exchange of meteorological information, which is of particular value to remote island countries like New Zealand. In other cases. New Zealand benefits by the free interchange of knowledge and experience, and from the endeavours of the agencies to establish world-wide standards of safety, to facilitate international traffic, and to examine restrictive or discriminatory practices in these fields. The ILO is concerned with protecting the basic dignities and freedoms of the wage earner and brings together representatives of governments, employers, and workers to frame international conventions on working and living conditions.

In addition to its contributions to the regular budgets of the agencies, New Zealand gives voluntary assistance in the form of further monetary grants, the services of experts to developing countries (for example in agriculture, physiotherapy, police work, forestry, and education) and donations of equipment or commodities.

*Since renamed Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP).

In March 1973 the Government announced substantial increases (to some $27 million in 1973-74) in New Zealand multilateral aid programmes under United Nations and other auspices as part of the Labour Government's policy of progressively increasing the proportion of gross national product (GNP) allocated to aid to reach, by 1975-76, the internationally accepted target of 0.7 percent of GNP in official development assistance. In announcing this decision the Prime Minister indicated that the Government planned to play its part in leading New Zealand to the goal of 1 percent of GNP in total resource transfers, stressing that the co-operation of the general public and the business community would be required if New Zealand was to attain this target. Increases in New Zealand's multilateral contributions have included NZ$550,000 to the World Food Programme in 1973-74 as against expenditure of $235,000 in 1972-73; a 100 percent increase in New Zealand's contribution to UNICEF to $300,000; a five-fold increase in New Zealand's pledge to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (to $200,000); a greater contribution to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (from $25,000 to $45,000); and a pledge of $1.5 million for 1973-74 to the United Nations Development Programme, compared with $600,000 in 1972-73. (Details and statistics of New Zealand development assistance programmes are set out in a later part of this section headed “New Zealand's Aid and Other Resource Flows to Developing Countries”.)

New Zealand's membership of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the International Finance Corporation allows this country to participate in international efforts to increase the stability of international trade and promote the economic development of the underdeveloped areas of the world. It also serves to strengthen New Zealand's own economic position by providing access to more varied sources of capital for capital projects or for balance of payments purposes.

New Zealand is also a foundation member of the Asian Development Bank, established in 1967 under the auspices of ECAFE to foster economic growth and co-operation in the Asia/Pacific region.

New Zealand has supported United Nations agency activity which will help the social and economic development of the Pacific Islands. Examples of such projects are: the work of WHO in eradicating yaws and tuberculosis; FAO's efforts to control the rhinoceros beetle which ravages much of the islands' coconut crops, and its support for a regional fisheries development agency; the establishment by UNESCO of a curriculum development unit at the University of the South Pacific; the placement in Suva of a development assistance team, backed by ECAFE and the specialised agencies.

New Zealand has in the past served on the governing bodies of FAO, UNESCO, and UPU, and was a member of the Executive Board of WHO from 1972 to 1974. Although, because of its size and limited scale of contributions, New Zealand is not likely to be elected frequently to the boards of at least the larger agencies, it can expect, over the years, to bear its share of administrative responsibility within them.

Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)—As a result of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development held in Geneva in 1964, the General Assembly agreed to hold a triennial conference on trade and development with the objective of promoting international trade, particularly between countries at different stages of development, with a view to accelerating the economic growth of developing countries. UNCTAD held its second session in New Delhi in 1968 and its third in Santiago in 1972. UNCTAD is the United Nations body generally responsible for all matters relating to trade development. It is open to all United Nations members and other states who are members of the specialised agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The conference has become a permanent organisation, with a trade and development board which conducts the affairs of the organisation between plenary conferences. New Zealand has been a member of the board since its foundation. There are also within the organisation functional committees on commodities, manufactures, finance invisibles, shipping, technology and preferences. New Zealand has been a member of most of these committees.

GATT—New Zealand has been a contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade since its inception in 1947. Although not strictly a specialised agency, the GATT has assumed some of the characteristics of one, and its activities have extended into all aspects of international trade, including more recently, measures to liberalise non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade and to provide special export opportunities for the goods of the developing countries. A major round of tariff negotiations has been initiated.

OECD—In May 1973 New Zealand was accepted into full membership of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The OECD, founded in 1961 as a successor to the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, has a membership of 24 countries—19 from Europe plus the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Yugoslavia has a special status in the organisation. The main role of OECD is to promote co-operation among governments in all fields of economic and social policy. Its activities cover not only economic and monetary questions, but also agriculture, the environment, science, education, manpower, industry, and energy. An important part of OECD's activities is to assist its members to discharge, in the most effective way possible, their responsibilities towards the developing countries of the rest of the world. (See special article at pages 1064-67 of the 1973 issue of the Yearbook.)

(Further details of New Zealand's trading relations are set out in section 22, “External Trade”.)

New Zealand's Defence Policies—Since the Second World War the international scene has been clouded in large measure by the cold war. New Zealand was affected by the tensions of the period and took steps to provide for its defence in concert with its allies. As a small country with limited resources, New Zealand alone was not able to defend its extensive but isolated territory against aggression by any militarily significant power. It therefore supported efforts to give effect to the provisions of the United Nations Charter which looked to the creation of a universal system of collective security. In the meantime it accepted that it should act in concert with like-minded countries in order to strengthen its security in its own region.

Recent developments in international affairs—especially the improvement of the United States' relations with China, the cease-fire in Vietnam, the growth in the number of major power centres (multipolarity)—have led to a relaxation of tensions that has lessened the likelihood that New Zealand might be involved in war. Changes in United States policy, which now emphasises that the primary responsibility for long-term stability in Asia rests with the countries of the area, and the large reduction of the British defence presence outside Europe have given new impetus to regional initiative. The relaxation of cold war tensions has given New Zealand and other small nations greater freedom of action but it has also reinforced the requirement for closer collaboration on a regional basis. It has also meant that New Zealand's relations with the countries of South-east Asia are no longer to be regulated primarily by defence considerations.

The Labour Government elected in 1972 is anxious both to build up closer bilateral links with the countries of South-east Asia and the South Pacific, and to encourage the growth of regional cooperation. By means of staff exchanges, exercises, training programmes, and the provision of facilities, New Zealand and several of the countries in the area contribute to one another's defence capacity and preparedness. In addition, New Zealand retains its membership of multilateral regional defence groupings, the major one of which is the Five Power Defence Arrangement relating to Malaysia and Singapore.

The Five Power Defence Arrangement—New Zealand's defence association with Malaysia and Singapore began before the two countries became independent. In 1955 New Zealand agreed to contribute with Britain and Australia to a Commonwealth Strategic Reserve to be established in Malaya and Singapore. Under the terms of the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement (subsequently extended to Malaysia on its formation in 1963 and accepted as applying also to Singapore after the latter's change to separate existence in 1965), the United Kingdom undertook to assist in the defence of Malaya and maintained extensive forces for this purpose. In 1959 New Zealand together with Australia were associated with AMDA by an exchange of letters with the Malaysian authorities.

In line with the political and constitutional changes which had taken place in the area during the 1960s, Britain withdrew the greater part of its military forces in South-east Asia in 1971. The Anglo-Malaysia Defence Agreement was terminated in October 1971. The five countries which had co-operated in accordance with the terms of the agreement, Britain, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, and New Zealand, as a consequence, set up the Five Power Defence Arrangements which came into effect in November 1971.

The basis of the Five Power Defence Arrangement is not a formal treaty or agreement but a statement incorporated in the communique of the meeting of Ministers of the five powers held in London in April 1971. At that meeting the Ministers declared, in relation to the external defence of Malaysia and Singapore, “that in the event of any form of armed attack externally organised or supported or the threat of such attack against Malaysia or Singapore, their governments would immediately consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in relation to such attack or threat”. The Ministers agreed to establish an Air Defence Council to provide direction to the commander of an integrated air defence system for Malaysia and Singapore, which was established on 1 September 1971; they also decided to set up a Joint Consultative Council to provide a forum for regular consultation at senior official level on matters relating to the defence arrangement.

New Zealand's military contribution to the Five Power Defence Arrangement includes one battalion, a frigate regularly stationed at Singapore, medium-range transport aircraft and helicopters, and strike aircraft periodically deployed to the area from New Zealand. Underlying New Zealand's participation in the Five Power Defence Arrangements is the belief that defence co-operation of this kind contributes significantly to the maintenance of stability and the continuation of development in the region as a whole.

The new Australian Government decided in 1973 to end its deployment of ground forces by reducing their number progressively over an 18-month period up to April 1975. The Australian Mirage squadrons, based at Butterworth in Malaysia, and the naval contribution would remain. Australia would continue its support for the Five Power Arrangement. Commenting on this decision the New Zealand Prime Minister in July 1973 said that there was no question of New Zealand forces being withdrawn in the near future. It is agreed that they will remain as long as New Zealand and its two regional partners find it mutually advantageous and desirable. The Prime Minister also said that in line with the Government's expressed wish for closer bilateral relations with South-east Asian countries, new arrangements occasioned by the Australian withdrawal would emphasise the national character of New Zealand's contribution.

In accordance with this emphasis the New Zealand forces in South-east Asia were grouped into an independent New Zealand command entitled “The New Zealand Force in South-east Asia”, on 31 January 1974.

Parallel with their assistance to Malaysia and Singapore in the defence field, New Zealand, Australia, and Britain have for some 20 years maintained defence arrangements among themselves known first as ANZAM and after 1971, following the changes in Britain's role east of the Suez as ANZUK. These arrangements have not been organisations established by formal treaty and the three countries have agreed to maintain their longstanding practice of close defence consultation and cooperation. The expression “ANZUK” however which, like ANZAM, was associated with the formerly combined command in South-east Asia is likely to fall into disuse.

SEAT—Eight governments—Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines. Thailand, and the United States—signed the South-east Asia Collective Defence Treaty, also known as the Manila Treaty, on 8 September 1974. Pakistan formally withdrew from the organisation in 1973 and France, while remaining a signatory of the Manila Treaty, has given up any role in the day-to-day co-operative activities established under it. Under the terms of the Manila Treaty, each party recognised that aggression by means of an armed attack in South-east Asia or the South-west Pacific against any of the parties or against “a protocol state” would endanger its own peace and safety, and agreed that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes. In the event of any other threat, the parties would consult on the measures to be taken for the common defence.

The South-east Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) established under the treaty is headed by a council, made up of the foreign ministers of the signatory governments, which meets annually in members' capitals. Between meetings a body known as the Council Representatives provides continuity with representation generally provided by the heads of member countries' diplomatic missions in Bangkok; New Zealand is thus represented by its Ambassador to Thailand. The organisation set up under the treaty has also undertaken activities intended to foster the security and stability of the regional member countries and to carry out, on a modest scale, projects designed to promote their economic and social development. It has, for example, sponsored research in the fields of tropical medicine, agriculture, and engineering.

Despite the advantages SEATO provided during the earlier years of its existence, it had a number of inherent weaknesses from the start (e.g., more members outside the region than within it, regional members not contiguous, varying points of view among a widely scattered membership), which gradually made it less relevant to the needs of the region as time passed. The end of the United States confrontation with China and of the military tensions that it created has accentuated the need to adapt SEATO to present-day realities.

Nevertheless, a number of SEATO countries wish to see the Manila Treaty remaining in effect at a time of major change within the region. A major review, which New Zealand fully supported, was held at the SEATO Council Meeting in September 1973 with the aim of making the organisation more relevant to the needs of the region. As a result of this review, the organisation has become more compact, military planning has ceased, and there is less emphasis on military preoccupations. Greater weight is being placed on civil security and on economic and social programmes. Opportunities for co-operative training exercises remain.

ANZUS—There is no direct threat to the security of the New Zealand homeland at present. In the unlikely event of such a threat materialising New Zealand would be able to turn for assistance to its partners in the ANZUS Pact. This tripartite security treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States was signed at San Francisco on 1 September 1951 and came into force on 29 April 1952. It assured New Zealand and Australia of American support in the event of aggression in the Pacific.

The main provision of the ANZUS Pact is that each party recognises “that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of the parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it will act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes”. In the context of the agreement, an armed attack on any of the parties is deemed to include “an armed attack on the metropolitan territory of any of the parties or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or on its armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft in the Pacific”.

In the absence of any foreseeable need to invoke the security provisions of the treaty, ANZUS can be seen as a durable expression of a strongly-based community of interest and attitude among the three democracies that are parties to it. The close relationship among the three countries is reflected in the informality and ease of their consultation under the ANZUS Treaty. Meetings of the Council of Ministers are generally held once a year to discuss matters of common interest.

NEW ZEALAND'S AID AND OTHER RESOURCE FLOWS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES—New Zealand aid is designed to help foster economic and social development and raise living standards in the less affluent countries, particularly New Zealand's near neighbours in the South Pacific and South-east Asia. The determining factor in the type of aid is the needs of the recipient countries themselves.

But aid as commonly understood does not represent the entire resource flow to developing countries. New Zealand's total resource flow (the transfer of goods, services, and capital) to developing countries takes four forms: official development assistance (ODA), other (or non-concessional) official flows, private flows and grants by voluntary agencies (GVA). The internationally recognised resource flow targets, which New Zealand hopes to reach by 1975-76, are 0.7 percent of GNP (at market terms) for ODA and 1.0 percent of GNP for the total resource flow.

Only the ODA target can be regarded purely as an aid target. While ODA and GVA are both flows at concessional terms, and are both directed at promoting economic and social development no separate target exists for GVA. But such flows clearly have a development intention. The remaining non-ODA flows in the overall 1 percent target are of a commercial nature, related to investment or long-term export credits and other lending. They are included because they have potential development impact, whatever the intention or motivation of those involved.

This basic distinction is drawn because ODA is able to be directly influenced by Government policy measures to increase its volume or soften its terms, whereas the bulk of non-ODA flows for most countries are governed mainly by the opportunities arising for gainful commercial transactions.

Total Resource Flow and its Components 1973-74—For the year ended 31 March 1974 (1973-74), the estimated total flow of resources from New Zealand to developing countries was $29,095,000, comprising:

*Bilateral ODA $17,321,923.
Official development assistance24,961*
Other official flows
Private flows202
Grants by voluntary agencies3,932
            Total resource flows29,095

For 1972-73 the total for ODA was $21.01 million and that for the total resource flow was estimated at $32.82 million. The total resource flow included $2.7 million in private flows and $5.0 million in other official flows. In 1973-74 official development assistance amounted to 0.3 percent of estimated GNP (at market prices).

A. Official Development AssistanceBilateral—During 1973-74 bilateral official development aid went mainly to the countries of the South Pacific ($9.4 million) and to Asia ($7.3 million).

In Asia, our major countries of concentration were Indonesia ($2,009,132), Malaysia ($1,126,684), Bangladesh ($397,364), the Republic of Vietnam ($708,803), Thailand ($835,625), the Khmer Republic ($236,881), the Philippines ($520,258), India ($178,970), the Republic of Korea ($205,010), Laos ($170,567), and Pakistan ($105,196).

In the South Pacific, the Cook Islands ($3,924,647), Niue ($1,596,800), Fiji ($687,226), Western Samoa ($1,436,786), the Tokelau Islands ($459,151), and Tonga ($426,625) received the bulk of the ODA expenditure, with a substantial amount ($432,136) being devoted mainly to the University of the South Pacific in Fiji.

The following table sets out bilateral ODA in 1973-74 by purpose and sector.

Purpose and SectorAmount
Technical Co-operation (by area of expertise)—$$$
    Agriculture and forestry—  
    Transport and communications—  
    Energy resources—.. 
        Power generation (including geothermal)..515,851
    Industry: Mining..421,945
    Social sector—  
        Water supply275,8942,776,961
    Total technical co-operation5,604,831..
Capital Assistance (by sector)—$$$
Agriculture and forestry—  
    Energy resources: Power generation..250,000
    Transport and communications—  
        Transport 1,315,940
    Social infrastructure—  
        Water supply168,7432,245,084
            Total capital assistance..9,560,155
Non-project Assistance—  
    Contributions to finance current imports—  
        Food aid 235,076
        Relief aid343,234 
    Contributions not directly linked with imports—  
        Balance of payments support100,066 
        Budgetary support151,980252,046
            Total non-project assistance..1,450,356
            Total bilateral ODA..$17,321,923

Technical co-operation or assistance relates to the provision of know-how or technical expertise, in the form of training facilities (education of students and trainees) or advisory personnel (experts and consultants).

Capital assistance provides resources to increases the stock of physical capital such as buildings, aeroplanes, equipment, materials, livestock, and so on.

Non-project assistance comprises assistance which cannot be identified directly with an investment scheme or project. The substantial budgetary support represented aid to the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Tokelau Islands with general administration, including superannuation schemes and refinancing the public debt.

In the following table bilateral ODA is shown by programme.

Bilateral Aid—Asia and the Pacific (BAAP)9,002,688
Commonwealth Education Scheme (CES) and Medical Aid (CMAP)149,961
Disaster Relief450,197
Maori Affairs Department for South Pacific5,599,660
Ministry of Transport for South Pacific456,584
Trade credit (to Indonesia)554,106
Western Samoa Aid Programme (WSAP)417,455
Other programmes565,272
Regular contributions to the programme of CORSO and VSA (Volunteer Service Abroad)126,000
            Total bilateral ODA$17,321,923

The programme BAAP has continued to be the main vehicle for economic aid to the Colombo Plan countries in Asia. This programme was established when the former Colombo Plan item was expanded in 1970 to include countries and territories in the South Pacific, Fiji, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

Expenditure by the Maori Affairs Department was concentrated on the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Tokelau Islands. It included technical and capital assistance as well as loans. The Ministry of Transport contributed towards regional civil aviation costs in the South Pacific.

CES and CMAP were used almost entirely for technical co-operation activities, mainly in the South Pacific, Asia, and Africa. These are New Zealand's only bilateral ODA programmes devoted specifically to the Commonwealth.

The Disaster Relief programme is flexible, liable to fluctuate from year to year, and on occasions supplemented by expenditure from other programmes. Such funds are typically called on after earthquakes, famines, floods, and other disturbances to provide food and materials to assist refugees and aid reconstruction.

The Indonesian trade credit has been renewed twice since 1970 and is sufficiently soft to qualify as ODA.

Further technical and capital assistance is provided under SAF (with expenditure in the Philippines, Thailand, and the Republic of Vietnam), SPAP (spent in Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and on regional items, particularly the University of the South Pacific in Fiji) and WSAP.

B. Official Development Assistance'Multilateral 1973-74—Of the expenditure on multilateral ODA, the largest portion represented contributions to the ordinary capital ($1,195,650), Multi-Purpose Special Fund ($411,200), and Technical Assistance Special Fund ($75,000) of the Asian Development Bank. This bank now has as members some independent South Pacific (as well as Asian) countries which New Zealand assists.

New Zealand's long association with multilateral programmes organised by the United Nations and its specialised agencies continued in 1973-74. Contributions were made to the United Nations Children's Fund ($300,000), United Nations Development Programme ($1,500,000), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ($45,000), United Nations Relief and Works Agency ($60,000), and the World Food Programme ($748,356).

Other organisations to which New Zealand contributed included the International Development Association ($1 million), South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation ($45,509), South Pacific Commission ($203,390), Asian and Pacific Council bodies ($40,626), the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation ($100,000), Asian Institute of Technology ($200,643), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation ($100,000).

C. Non-ODA Flows—The private flows consisted almost entirely of long-term export credits to developing countries, net of amortisation. This figure was based on a survey, conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of guaranteed credits, and may well be understated. No estimate of private net direct investment by New Zealand companies is available for 1973-74 but the Department of Statistics notes that the total is usually less than $1 million with most of it directed towards the South Pacific. Portfolio investment in developing countries is understood to be zero for the same year.

Another survey by the Ministry provided the estimate of grants by voluntary agencies. This item also is likely to be understated, given the difficulty of covering all agencies which meet the primary criterion of development orientation and the probable exclusion of many ad hoc activities.

Policy on Resource Flows to Developing Countries—By their actions since shortly after the end of the Second World War in extending aid through bilateral and multilateral programmes, New Zealand Governments have shown a willingness to make a contribution towards helping raise the living standards of the people in the poorer countries of the world, particularly those in Asia and the South Pacific. In formulating ODA policy and in actually giving aid, careful attention is paid to the economic and social aspirations of the developing nations themselves to ensure that our assistance contributes to the objectives and priorities of the peoples it is intended to benefit. Emphasis is placed on projects which will make a direct impact on development, will create employment opportunities and will help lift the income of a broad section of the people.

With these considerations in mind, the Government announced in March 1973 that it would make a determined effort over the next three years to reach the internationally recognised target of 0.7 percent of GNP for ODA. This will involve allocating approximately 50 percent additional resources to assistance programmes in each succeeding year to reach a required expenditure level estimated at $62 million for 1975-76. It is realised, however, that the rate at which projects are developed, inflationary trends and the availability of resources may affect the attainment of the third-year target. A particular feature of the ODA policy is a continued marked emphasis on co-operation with New Zealand's neighbours in the South Pacific. Attention is being given also to ways of stimulating the other components of the total flow of resources to developing countries.

The other major elements of the ODA policy adopted by the Government are set out below:

  1. Allocations of bilateral and multilateral ODA were set for 1973-74 in the ratio 70/30 compared with 75/25 for 1972-73. Contributions to development programmes of the United Nations and other multilateral organisations were expanded substantially in the 1973-74 year.

  2. Allocations for the programme Bilateral Aid—Asia and the Pacific of $11.5 million, $16 million, and $21.5 million have been approved for the 3 years commencing 1973-74. Within this programme, which represents our largest bilateral expenditure, aid was offered in 1973-74 for the first time to the British Solomon Islands, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, the New Hebrides. and Papua-New Guinea.

CONSTITUTION OF NEW ZEALAND: General—New Zealand is a sovereign independent unitary state being in form a constitutional monarchy with responsible government and a unicameral legislature.

In common with the United Kingdom, New Zealand has no single written instrument purporting to be its supreme or fundamental law. Its constitution is contained in the statutes of the Imperial and New Zealand Parliaments and the decisions of the superior courts of both jurisdictions. Some statutes have greater constitutional significance than others.

To the extent that its constitution is unwritten it is flexible, but restraints by way of conventions prevent, at least in normal circumstances, arbitrary or improper alteration of the constitution and the abuse or misuse of legislative or executive power.

Statutes such as the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 (United Kingdom) recite law which, by reason of political, legal, and social development, may appear obsolete. If the spirit of the law in such a case cannot readily be observed by the use and development of convention, the law may be repealed, cf. Constitution Amendment Act 1973 (New Zealand). On the other hand, some conventions may be translated into substantive law after a period of time. Thus, the Civil List Act 1950 provides that no person may be appointed or remain a Minister of the Crown unless concurrently, he is a member of the House of Representatives.

The fundamental canon of the constitution is that Parliament is supreme or “sovereign”. The question as to where sovereignty lies does not arise in the sense of its vesting in the people or the legislature or the monarch. Nor can it be argued, except in a very loose sense, that the legislature reflects and executes the will of the people. Reality dictates that the will of the people is expressed through the ballot box in choosing its government and legislature. That is not to say that individuals and organisations do not express their views on measures which may become law but their voice and influence is limited, if only paradoxically, by the very nature of government which the country possesses, that is, representative and responsible.

The constitutional theory of the separation of powers does not operate fully in New Zealand. The Executive Government consists of members of the legislature who are appointed by the Governor-General as Ministers of the Crown but who are, in practice, those members of the government party who are elected to the ministry by their parliamentary fellows through caucus. Strictly speaking, ministers, being members of the legislature, are thereby “responsible” to it for their actions and those of their departments. Moreover, the Executive Government, collectively, is held to be answerable in the same way for its policies and the means of implementation. However, for so long as the two-party system continues to operate in New Zealand so that one party, gaining a majority at the polls, becomes the government of the day, the quantum of responsibility will depend largely on that government's observance of the conventions surrounding the concept. The rigours of individual ministerial responsibility have been eroded to the extent that where it is a question of the appropriate Minister being in the position of respondeat superior for the acts or omissions of his officers or department, the convention that he should resign appears to have fallen into desuetude. Constitutional and political writers appear to be in favour of that convention's demise.

The Sovereign—The Queen, in right of New Zealand, is styled: “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of New Zealand, and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith”, Royal Titles Acts 1953 and 1974.

Being a constitutional monarchy, the Sovereign's powers are defined and circumscribed, first by law and then by convention.

In the Sovereign's absence, most of the royal powers are exercised by her representative, the Governor-General, in terms of the 1852 Act and the Instructions and Letters Patent of 1917. It should be noted that the Governor-General is not a viceroy and it would therefore be possible but unlikely for him to act ultra vires. By convention, the Queen and the Governor-General avoid becoming embroiled overtly in the “politics” of government, although the Sovereign and Governor-General remain an integral part of the legislative process.

Many of the formal procedures associated with government and administration require the participation of the Queen or Governor-General, inter alia, summoning, proroguing, and dissolving Parliament; assenting to measures passed by the House so as to give them the force of law; appointing judges of the Supreme Court and senior officials of State; appointing ministries and individual Ministers; conferring knighthoods and other honours. Most of the royal functions will be performed on advice of the Executive Government and little, if any, information is available as to whether this advice has always been taken without demur within the last 70 years. To reject advice would place the Governor-General in a very difficult situation, his appointment and tenure being at the pleasure, ultimately, of the New Zealand Government. Learned writers have suggested that he would only refuse to act on advice were he reasonably certain that he could find another member of the legislature willing and able to form a government enjoying the confidence of the House or, if this were not feasible, that his rejection would be vindicated by the electorate were he to dissolve Parliament and cause a general election. To reject advice otherwise, or fail having tried the alternatives, would be to invite his own recall.

Speculation remains, of course, on whether the Governor-General would reject advice even in the circumstances outlined above. The question is to determine how much real power, active or residual, is now possessed by the Governor-General. Recent amendments to the 1852 Act have shorn the Governor-General of the legal basis of powers which have lapsed already, in great part, by operation of convention.

Nevertheless it should not be supposed that the Sovereign or the Governor-General have become constitutionally redundant. Many of the powers held and exercised by the Executive Government arise by virtue of the royal prerogative, defined by Dicey as the “residue of discretionary or arbitrary authority, which at any given time is legally left in the hands of the Crown”. While many of the prerogative powers have been superseded by statute (there is debate on whether the prerogative is thereby extinguished or continues to subsist), substantial areas remain untouched, the majority of prerogative powers being exercised by Ministers with or without reference to the Governor-General.

Although calls for its abolition are made from time to time, the Monarchy seems to be an accepted part of New Zealand's constitutional and political structure although overt involvement in the political arena whether by the Queen or the Governor-General might well have the effect of engendering substantial support for abolition.

Parliament—With the abolition of the Legislative Council (Upper House) in 1950. Parliament, for most purposes, has consisted of the Governor-General (the Queen when resident in New Zealand) and the House of Representatives. By convention, this has come to mean the House of Representatives—the Governor-General exercising only those constitutional powers which serve to confer on measures before the House and passed by it, the force of law.

The New Zealand Parliament is a creation of the United Kingdom Parliament and, unlike its creator, cannot claim to be a court of record. However, it has followed Westminster and acts as a court of equity in so far as it will hear petitions from individuals and groups. The basic rule is that the petitioner(s) must have exhausted all available legal and equitable remedies, if the subject matter of the petition if litigious.

By Act, the Parliament claims and possesses all privileges, rights, and immunities, claimed and possessed by the House of Commons as at 1 January 1865. This claim is reiterated by the Speaker to the Governor-General at the time he presents himself for confirmation in his office.

The question of parliamentary privilege escapes precise legal definition. The most that can be said is that the courts will define the ambit of the privilege and within those limits Parliament may do as it will. As yet, the matter has not been tested in a New Zealand court.

The New Zealand Parliament holds plenary power to make laws for New Zealand including those having extra-territorial effect (in this context section 49 of the New Zealand Loans Act 1953 is something of a curiosity). Plenary legislative power was not assumed until 1947 with the passing of the Statute of Westminster (Adoption) Act 1947.

Any residual doubts about the power of the New Zealand Parliament were removed with the passage of the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1973 (New Zealand).

The doctrine that one Parliament cannot bind its successor operates in New Zealand. It would seem therefore that those provisions of the Electoral Act 1956 relating to: (a) the constitution and order of the Representation Commission; (b) the number of European electoral districts, their boundaries based on the total population; (c) the tolerance (5 percent) within which the Commission must work in relation to (b); (d) the age of voting (18 years since 1974); (e) the secret ballot; (f) the duration of Parliament; while expressed as being entrenched by s. 189 of the 1956 Act, in that amendment to any of the above provisions must receive a majority vote of 75 percent or receive the consent of the electors by referendum, are entrenched in a moral sense only. It would be open to any Parliament to repeal section 189 and then proceed to amend or repeal the “entrenched” provisions by ordinary legislation. The same result would be achieved by repealing the 1956 Act in toto.

Meeting, etc., of Parliament—Parliament is summoned, prorogued, or dissolved by the Governor-General and lasts for a maximum of 3 years although there have been some exceptions. The 1852 Act provided for quinquennial Parliaments but this provision was abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act 1879 which substituted a 3-year term. Since 1881 elections have been held at 3-year intervals except that the term of the Parliament during the First World War was extended to 5 years by special legislation and that of the twenty-fourth Parliament to four by the Electoral Amendment Act 1934. The 3-year term was restored by a 1937 Amendment but the term of the twenty-sixth Parliament was extended to 5 years because of war-time conditions. The 3-year term was enacted in the Electoral Act 1956 and a referendum in 1967 favoured its continuation.

By convention, the Governor-General would accept the Prime Minister's advice to dissolve Parliament before expiry, as was done in 1951, unless the Governor-General were of the opinion that the Prime Minister no longer commanded a majority in the House and that a ministry could be formed without having to hold elections.

Until 1973, sessions (the period between summons and prorogation) usually covered the months June through to November. However, in 1974 Parliament met as early as February and sat until early November. The 1974 session lasted 119 sitting days (a record). Unless provided to the contrary, business introduced during a session and not completed at the time of prorogation, lapses and requires to be re-introduced during the next session.

House of Representatives—For all practical purposes “Parliament” is synonymous with “House of Representatives” but from the constitutional viewpoint distinctions need to be drawn.

The House comprises 87 members with 4 of the electorates being Maori. With certain exceptions, for example, the insane, inmates of penal institutions; any person not being an alien and who is 18 years of age or more may vote in a general election.

The Speaker is elected at the start of a new Parliament and presents himself to the Governor-General for confirmation. The act of claiming the rights, privileges, and immunities of the House and its members can only be described as historical re-enactment when real power has passed from the Monarchy to the Executive Government. It is customary in New Zealand, unlike the United Kingdom, for the Speaker to change according to the government of the day. The Chairman of Committees is also elected soon after the start of a new Parliament. Though he performs the same functions as those performed by his seventeenth century predecessors, the original reason for the House having a Chairman of Committees has never arisen in New Zealand, but the manner and form of the Westminster Parliament has been carried over and maintained in this regard so as to form an integral part of the procedure of the House. That is not to say that the New Zealand House is an antipodean mirror of the Westminster Commons—the differences are many but the form of both Houses is not dissimilar.

The primary functions of the House are to vote supply; pass legislation; to exercise supervision and control of the Government; to consider petitions from individuals or organisations seeking redress for alleged grievances or changes in the existing law. The Opposition may, where necessary or desirable, seek to bring down the Government by a vote of no confidence, although within context of a two-party House the chances of a successful vote in this regard would be very few.

Financial control over the Government is exercised by the House in so far as expenditure of public money must be authorised in the form of an Appropriation Act. A more detailed examination of the Estimates is carried out by the Public Expenditure Committee. However, no appropriation can be made without the recommendation of the Crown (i.e., the Government).

Most Bills are introduced by the Government as a result of decisions made in Cabinet. By convention, the procedure for passing a public Bill is: (a) on introduction, formal first reading; (b) some time after, a second reading which is a debate on the principles and policy underlying the Bill; (c) a clause-by-clause debate with the House sitting as a Committee of the Whole House; (d) the Bill is reported back to the House from the committee and later read a third time. Having passed the three readings, the Bill is printed in its final form incorporating amendments (if any) and sent to the Governor-General for the Royal Assent.

Any member may introduce a Bill. Of course, it is always open to a Government to defeat such a Bill at any stage of its progress. A practice has arisen whereby a private member's Bill will sometimes be withdrawn and substituted by a Government measure incorporating all or some of the provisions in the former Bill although it cannot be said that this is done with every Bill.

Special procedures apply to local and private Bills. A local Bill is one which proposes to affect a particular part of the country and is sought, usually, by the appropriate local authority. Each local Bill stands referred to the Local Bills Committee after its first reading. Its recommendation carries weight with both the House and the Government.

A private Bill is one which applies to a person or group of persons and is introduced after public notice, by a member by way of petition on behalf of the Bill's promoters. It may then be referred to a committee of members for consideration and report.

Delegated Legislation—With the ever-increasing complexity and volume of legislation and the range of subjects which it concerns or touches, the House cannot exercise full and proper control over subordinate legislation authorised by statute. Although all Statutory Instruments* require to be laid before the House and are subject to review by the Statutes Revision Committee, in practice such control has not been required.

It is rare for the Government to accept amendments to legislation from the Opposition although it may sometimes do so if the amendment is constructive and does not conflict overtly with the policy considerations (if any) underlying the measure. Much of the legislation is what might be described as “departmental” in that it is sought by a Government department or agency and does not necessarily affect or reflect the political views of either the Government or the Opposition.

With the increasing load thrust on the House it has become customary for the more controversial or complex pieces of legislation to be referred for further consideration to select committees which comprise usually between seven and nine members, the Government party being in the majority. During the 1974 session, there were some 25 select committees. The aim in using these committees is that it affords a chance for the members to consider the measure in a more detailed fashion and gives individuals and organisations whose interests may be affected, should the legislation become law, an opportunity to state and have their views considered. Changes, sometimes substantial, are made to legislation as a result of this procedure. This practice of lobbying, both by groups and individuals, pervades all facets of political life. It can be argued that those who are familiar with the select committee procedure and used to advancing a particular view are in a superior position in being able to make their views known to the members individually and collectively. While issue cannot be taken with this practice provided no element of bribery or corruption enters into it, nevertheless, it can be argued that those who stand to be affected most by law, whether directly or indirectly, do not have the same opportunity to make their views and ideas known. A number of reasons might be advanced for this contention but primarily it would seem to be a case of the greater bulk of people being unaware of how “to work the system”. Although no empirical research has been done, it would be interesting to be able to isolate the extent to which the influence of lobbyists has or has not contributed towards the increasing use of select committees.

The relations of the House with its members and non-members and the relations of member with member within its precincts are contained in the Standing Orders and the rulings thereon of successive Speakers.

*Statutory Instruments include; Orders in Council, ministerial orders, proclamations, departmental instructions.

Party System—The two major political parties are Labour and National, the former comprising the Government since November 1972.

At a general election any person being qualified as an elector may offer himself for election but it seems that only those who are candidates proffered by a political party have more than a marginal chance of election. The party forming the Government is that which gains the majority of seats, not necessarily the majority of votes cast. Unlike Australia, New Zealand does not have a preferential system of voting nor does the law require everyone to vote, although each eligible elector must register as such. The convention operates that if a Government is defeated at a general election it resigns before the House meets and does not wait to be defeated on a vote in the House. The members for each party form their respective caucuses to which the policies and tactics of the party are submitted for discussion and, where necessary, decision. The discussions of caucus are never published.

Salaries, etc.—Until the making of the Wage Adjustment Regulations 1974, section 27 of the Civil List Act 1950 provided that on the recommendation of a Royal Commission the Governor-General might from time to time, by Order in Council, fix the salaries and allowances to be paid to the Prime Minister and other Ministers of the Crown or members of the Executive Council, to Parliamentary Under-Secretaries, and to the Speaker and Chairman of Committees and other members of the House of Representatives, and that a Royal Commission should be appointed for this purpose within 3 months after the date of every general election of members of Parliament. At April in the intervening years, adjustments were made on a basis matching that for the State Services Remuneration and Conditions of Employment Act 1969; the Government Statistician provided the Prime Minister with a certificate specifying the percentage movements in average weekly ordinary time earnings outside the State Services (as ascertained from the April half-yearly survey of industries in the private sector conducted by the Department of Labour) and adjustments might be made by Order in Council to the salaries of Ministers and members. The 1974 regulations suspend the operation of section 27 of the 1950 Act. The salaries and allowances of Ministers and members of Parliament are now considered and fixed by the Higher Salaries Commission established by the 1974 regulations.

The following table sets out the salaries and allowances payable from 1 April 1974. The amounts are in accordance with the recommendations of the Royal Commission upon Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances 1974.

OfficeSalaryExpense Allowance

*An additional allowance of $2,000 is paid to the Minister holding the portfolio of Foreign Affairs.

†Plus travelling allowance $1,275 and house allowance $600.

‡Plus electorate allowance.

Prime Minister27,5005,000*
Deputy Prime Minister21,0002,150*
Minister with Portfolio18,0002,000*
Minister without Portfolio15,5001,600
Parliamentary Under-Secretaries13,5001,600
Chairman of Committees14,000900
Leader of the Opposition18,0002,000
Deputy Leader of the Opposition13,500800
Chief Whips12,5002,395
Junior Whips12,0002,395

There is an additional electorate allowance depending on classification of electorates: (a) electorates which are wholly urban, $110; (b) electorates which are substantially urban, $275; (c) electorates which are partially urban and partially rural, $625; (d) electorates which are ordinary rural, $1,100; (e) electorates which are predominantly rural, $1,380. The special additional allowance for Southern Maori electorate is $420 and for each of the other Maori electorates it is $210. The daily sessional allowance is $4 and the night allowance for members entitled thereto is $10.

In addition to the salary and allowances, members are entitled to certain travel concessions and a stamp allowance.

Former Prime Ministers receive an annual payment of $1,000 for each full year in office, with a maximum of $5,000 a year, after retirement, defeat at the polls, or when a member only. This is subject to a 2-year minimum period having been served as Prime Minister.

An amendment in 1973 to the Civil List Act provides that a defeated member of Parliament will continue to receive salary at the rate of an ordinary member for 3 months after the date of the election.

Under the Superannuation Act 1956 there is a compulsory contributory superannuation scheme for members of the House of Representatives. The scheme provides that a retiring allowance shall be payable to a member after 9 years service and the attainment of 50 years of age, and shall be calculated at the rate of one thirty-second of the basic salary for a member as at the date of his ceasing to be a member, for each year of service with a maximum of two-thirds of that basic salary, or alternatively the member may elect to take a variable retiring allowance so as to secure a level income or he may elect to receive a refund of his contributions. The annual contribution is 11 percent of an ordinary member's salary, and the Government subsidises the fund. The rate of contribution was increased by 1 percent from 1 April 1970 to provide for cost-of-living adjustments to be made to retiring allowances. In the case of a male member dying and leaving a widow surviving, she becomes entitled during her widowhood to receive an annuity of half of the retiring allowance to which her husband would have been entitled had he retired age 60 years at the time of his death, or $260 a year, whichever is the greater.

In addition to the foregoing a new member elected for the first time receives a grant of $100 which is a “once only” payment.

ADMINISTRATION AND EXECUTIVE RESPONSIBILITY—After the election of a new Parliament, it is the responsibility of the leader of the party, which is most likely to secure and retain the support of the majority of members in the House, to form a Government. Although procedures for the selection of new Ministers have varied between the two principal parties, the Prime Minister has the final responsibility for allocating portfolios. A portfolio comprises a specific field of Government activity—for instance all matters relating to education will be allocated to one Minister who is henceforth known as the Minister of Education.

A Minister may have more than one portfolio and in addition responsibility for the supervision of one or more Government departments in which the activities carried out, though important, do not rank as portfolios. Occasionally, a Minister is appointed without portfolio, as, for example, an Associate Minister of Finance. There are also Parliamentary Under-Secretaries without Ministerial rank who assist certain Ministers in the work of their portfolios; the Under-Secretaries are not members of the Executive Council or of Cabinet.

Executive Council—In the legal sense those members of Parliament who have been appointed Ministers comprise the Executive Council. The Governor-General normally presides over meetings of the Council. The powers, duties, and responsibilities of the Governor-General and the Executive Council under the present system of responsible government are set out in Royal Letters Patent and Instructions thereunder of 11 May 1917, published in the New Zealand Gazette of 24 April 1919. The Royal Powers Act 1953 provides that the statutory powers conferred on the Governor-General may be exercised either by Her Majesty the Queen in person or by the Governor-General. In the execution of the powers and authorities vested in him the Governor-General must be guided by the advice of the Executive Council; but, if in any case he sees sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the Council, he may act in the exercise of his powers and authorities in opposition to the opinion of the Council, reporting the matter to Her Majesty without delay, with the reasons for his so acting.

In any such case any member of the Executive Council may require that there be recorded in the minutes of the Council the grounds of any advice or opinion that he may give upon the question.

The Civil List Act 1950, in section 6, provided that no person shall be appointed a Minister or a member of the Executive Council unless he is a member of Parliament and that a person who ceases to be a member of Parliament cannot continue to be a Minister or a member of the Executive Council for more than 21 days. This gave statutory recognition for the first time to what had long been the convention.

At January 1974 the Executive Council consisted of 20 members. Two members, exclusive of the Governor-General or the presiding member, constitute a quorum.

The Governor-General receives a salary and an allowance which are determined from time to time by the Civil List Act 1950 for the salaries and expenses of his personal establishment, plus all expenditure incurred in respect of the transport to and from New Zealand and the travel within or outside New Zealand of the Governor-General and his family and staff.

Cabinet—The membership of the Executive Council and Cabinet is identical but Cabinet, unlike the Executive Council, is not a body created by any legal document. The existence of Cabinet was not recognised by statute until a passing reference was made in the Parliamentary Commissioner (Ombudsman) Act 1962.

The fact that the Juridical Acts to give legal force to certain of the decisions of Cabinet are taken by others—the Crown, the Executive Council, a Minister of the Crown or a Statutory Commission— does not diminish the power and authority of Cabinet. Cabinet is the top committee of the administrative system, with responsibility for co-ordinating the work of the various Ministers and taking those decisions which largely determine the nature of the legislation put before Parliament and the regulations which the Executive Council is asked to approve.

Cabinet discussions are informal and confidential, anonymity being maintained as to the individual advocacy or opposition to particular proposals. The Cabinet system enables general agreement to be reached on any line of action proposed by either an individual Minister or by the Government as a whole. In Parliament a Minister can be confident that his legislative or other proposals will have the unqualified support of the Government no matter what divergences of opinion may have been apparent before general agreement was reached in Cabinet. A consistent and agreed course of action on any particular issue can be determined. The work of Cabinet thus exemplifies the concept of the collective responsibility of the Government.

Cabinet is assisted in its work by some ten Cabinet committees, the membership of which includes those Ministers principally concerned with the subject matters handled by the committee. These include committees covering Policy and Priorities, Economic Affairs, Government Works, Legislation and Parliamentary Questions, Social Affairs, Honours and Appointments, and the State Services. Some of the committees are supported by inter-departmental committees of officials. All Cabinet committees have delegated authority from Cabinet to make decisions within their terms of reference.

The Cabinet Office is responsible for the servicing and co-ordination of Cabinet and its committees to ensure their smooth functioning as well as providing liaison and advice within the inter-Departmental framework. The Secretary of the Cabinet is also Clerk of the Executive Council.

Government Departments—The Minister as the political head of a department of State may in fact have several departments under his control. There are, however, some 40 different departments with separate functions in New Zealand. Each of these has a permanent head who is responsible for the work and administration of the department. He is of course responsible to the Minister in charge of the department, while he also acts as adviser to the Minister on all matters within his appointed competence. Besides ensuring that the ministerial policy and directions communicated to him are effectively put into practice, his functions as the adviser include assessing the consequences of any executive action resulting from his departmental activity, evaluating the merits and demerits, whether political, social, or financial, of various modes of action, and making suggestions for improvements and for new policy measures as derived from departmental experience in the day-to-day execution of policy.

Departments can be broadly classified according to the administrative or regulatory, developmental, or social nature of their activities. Within the first group are the servicing subgroup, such as the Legislative, Prime Minister's, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Printing Office, Crown Law, Valuation, Statistics, and Audit; the finance subgroup—Treasury, Customs, Inland Revenue; the regulatory subgroup—State Services Commission, Internal Affairs, Labour; the defence and law and order subgroup—Ministry of Defence, Justice, Crown Law, and Police; the research subgroup— Scientific and Industrial Research.

In the second group are the transport and communications subgroup, such as Ministry of Transport, Post Office, Railways, and Tourist and Publicity; the developmental—Ministry of Works and Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Lands and Survey, Forest Service, Mines, Electricity, Energy Resources, Maori Affairs, Trade and Industry; The commercial—Public Trust, Government Life Insurance, Housing Corporation, Rural Banking and Finance Corporation, and State Insurance.

The third group comprises the Education, Health, and Social Welfare Departments..

This broad division serves merely to indicate the field of the dominant activity or purpose of the particular department. Most departments have servicing, informative, and regulatory functions, and many are equally regulatory and developmental in nature.

In addition to the system of direct administration in the form of Government departments, there are other activities over which the State exercises some ultimate measure of control or ownership though divorced in varying degrees from immediate supervision. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (the central bank), and one trading bank, are entirely State-owned, although the actual administration is quite independent, subject in the case of the Reserve Bank to the proviso that it must give effect to the monetary policy of the Government, as communicated to the bank by the Minister of Finance, and to any resolution of Parliament in respect of Government monetary policy.

Further instances of this principle are shown by the National Airways Corporation, which, although owned by the State, is administratively self-contained, and by the Tourist Hotel Corporation. In certain other avenues the type of administration is in between the normal departmental form and that evident in the corporation type; of such is the National Roads Board, which, though determining policy to a large degree, yet makes use of departmental administrative structures for implementation of policy.

Some administrative organisations have also quasi-judicial functions. Examples of this class are the Price Tribunal, Transport Charges Authority, Licensing Control Commission, and Local Government Commission.

OMBUDSMEN—Since 1962 there has been an Ombudsman able to investigate, on complaint or on his own initiative, any administrative decision, recommendation, act, or omission of a Government department or related organisation as it affects any individual. The Ombudsman does not have power to reverse departmental decisions, but he may make his recommendations to the department and to the Minister, and if, in his opinion, no appropriate action is taken he may report to the Prime Minister and then to Parliament. He has very wide powers to call for documents and files. The Government cannot refuse information, except in matters relating to the security of the State or to Cabinet proceedings. Jurisdiction is being extended under the Ombudsmen Act 1975 to local authorities and certain national boards and organisations.

JUDICIARY—The hierarchy of courts in New Zealand comprises the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court, and the Magistrate's Court. Apart from these courts of general jurisdiction there are other courts dealing with specific fields. In the latter category are the Industrial Commission concerned with awards and orders governing wage determination and conditions of employment in industry; the Compensation Court dealing with workers' compensation. For further details refer to Section 8 Justice

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS—The law on elections is contained in the Electoral Act 1956. Following each population census, which is normally taken every 5 years, the boundaries of European electorates are revised. In addition, there are four Maori electoral districts, three in the North Island and one covering a portion of the North Island together with the whole of the South Island, where the Maori population is comparatively small. The Governor-General may at any time by Proclamation alter the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts, and, as in the case of European electoral districts, any alterations are to come into force at the expiry of the Parliament existing when the Proclamation is issued.

The Government Statistician is required to supply population figures to the Surveyor-General as soon as possible after the census. The population used as the basis in obtaining the quota for each European electoral district is defined in section 2 (1) of the Electoral Act 1956

The term “European population” means total population with the following exceptions:

  1. Maoris;

  2. Persons residing on board ship, whether as passengers or members of the crew or otherwise;

  3. Persons residing temporarily as guests in any licensed hotel;

  4. Persons residing temporarily in any naval, military, or air force camp, station, or establishment;

  5. Persons residing as patients and inmates in any hospital;

  6. Persons in respect of whom reception orders under the Mental Health Act 1969 are in force;

  7. Persons detained pursuant to convictions in any penal institution.

After the population figures are supplied by the Government Statistician it is then the responsibility of the Representation Commission to define new electoral districts for Europeans. The commission is constituted by virtue of section 15 of the Electoral Act 1956 and comprises seven members. Four of these, the Surveyor-General, the Government Statistician, the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Director-General of the Post Office, are official members. Two are unofficial members, being persons nominated by the House of Representatives, one nominated to represent the Government, and one to represent the Opposition. The seventh member is appointed, on the nomination of the official and unofficial members of the commission or a majority of them, to be the chairman of the commission. The chairman and unofficial members cease to be members on the date on which the first periodical census is taken after the date of their appointment.

The European population of the South Island is divided by 25 and the quotient so obtained is the quota for the South Island. Then the European population of the North Island is divided by the quota for the South Island, and the quotient so obtained is the number of European electoral districts in the North Island. In applying the quota the commission may make an allowance by way of addition or subtraction of 5 percent of the quota to enable districts to be adjusted to meet considerations of topography, community of interest, communications, and existing electoral boundaries.

When the boundaries have been provisionally determined, maps are prepared illustrating the proposed electoral districts, and descriptions of each electoral district are published in the New Zealand Gazette. A time limit of 1 month is given during which objections to the proposed boundaries may be lodged. These objections are then considered by the Representation Commission and a final decision reached on boundaries which then define the new electoral districts.

All general elections and by-elections are held on a Saturday. Polling hours in all electorates are from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.

Any serviceman aged 20 years or over serving overseas is qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which he last resided before he left New Zealand.

Franchise—Since September 1974, persons 18 years of age and over have had the right to vote in the election of members of the House of Representatives. (From 1893 onwards all persons aged 21 years had voting rights and the qualifying age had been lowered to 20 years in 1969.)

Registration of Electors—Registration as an elector is compulsory, although it is not compulsory to vote. To be qualified for registration as a parliamentary elector in New Zealand a person must have attained the age of 20 years and must (a) be a British subject or Irish citizen, (b) be ordinarily resident in New Zealand, (c) at some period have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least a year, and (d) except in special cases have resided continuously for 3 months or more in the electoral district in respect of which application for registration is made, and not have subsequently resided for 3 months or more in any other electoral district. Broadly speaking the qualifications restrict the right to vote to permanent residents. Persons of more than half Maori ancestry register in one of the four Maori electoral districts and persons of half Maori ancestry have the option of registering on either a European or Maori roll.

Voting at parliamentary elections is by secret ballot. In general, only those persons whose names are lawfully on the main and supplementary rolls of electors compiled prior to an election may vote at that election.

A vote is normally cast by the elector at a polling booth within his district. An elector may, however, vote as a “special voter”, either at a polling booth outside his district or by post for reasons of distant travel on polling day, sickness, etc.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT: General—Since 1876, following the abolition of the provinces, the structure of territorial local government has been based on counties, boroughs, and town districts. Since then, however, there has developed a further structure, that of special purpose authorities. In this category there are such authorities as harbour boards, pest destruction boards, and electric power boards. Together, these two groups of local authorities (territorial and special purpose) form our local government system, a system to which, however, the Local Government Act 1974 will bring some change. Before these changes are described below, a brief description of the development of the present system follows.

Boroughs—The Municipal Corporations Act 1876 provided for the incorporation of the 36 boroughs then in existence and for the creation of new boroughs. They are now governed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1954. Boroughs provide for the needs of concentrated populations and before they can be constituted there must be a population of at least 1,500 with an average density of population of at least one person per acre. A borough containing a population of 20,000 or more may be proclaimed a city, although the corporation remains unaltered. With the growth and centralisation of population the number of boroughs, despite amalgamations of adjacent boroughs, steadily increased until 1955 when the total was 146. By 30 November 1974 this figure had decreased to 136.

Counties—Counties were originally introduced by the Counties Act 1876 which has now been superseded by the Counties Act 1956. Generally they cater for the primary needs of rural areas. Initially, there were 63 counties but with increasing settlement this number increased to 129 in 1920. Since then, the number of counties has been reduced by amalgamations and mergers and at 30 November 1974 there were 105 counties, of which 104 were actively functioning, Fiord being a sparsely populated county in which the Counties Act is not wholly in force.

County Towns and County Boroughs—Prior to the Local Government Act 1974 county councils could, under the provisions of the Counties Act 1956, declare areas within counties to be county towns. To qualify, the areas concerned must have had a population of at least 200, with an average density of not less than one person to the acre or not less than 60 houses with an average density of not less than one house to 3 acres. After the constitution of a county town the county council was required to appoint a county town committee of not less than three nor more than seven members, to advise it on the administration of the county town. The county council could conduct a poll in the county town to ascertain the wishes of the electors of the county town in respect of the persons to be appointed to this committee. At 30 November 1974 there were 92 county towns in existence. The Counties Amendment Act 1968 made provision for the constitution of county boroughs. This unit of local government could be formed from an existing county town or borough or town district. It remained an integral part of the parent county, but the county borough council, which was a fully-elected body, had a statutory right to exercise some, but not all, of the powers of the county council within the district of the county borough. The minimum population required for a county borough was 1,500. At 30 November 1974 there were 12 county boroughs. Under the Local Government Act 1974, existing county boroughs became communities under the jurisdiction of district community councils, and existing county towns became communities under the jurisdiction of community councils.

Town Districts—The town district represents a form of local government intermediate between the county and the borough. It implies a certain concentration of population. There were two types of town districts—dependent and independent. Dependent town districts were subject to county control (mainly for roads) and the area of their district formed part of the district of their parent counties. Since the 1954 Municipal Corporations Act no new dependent town districts could be constituted, and on the enactment of the Local Government Act 1974 the four existing dependent town districts became community councils. Independent town districts do not form part of the county within which they are situated nor are they subject to any county council control. The Municipal Corporations Act requires the area of an independent town district be not more than 2 square miles, within which no two points are more than 4 miles distant; having a minimum population of 500 and with a density of population of not less than 1 person to the acre. The number of independent town districts at 30 November 1974 was eight.

Special-purpose Authorities—Special-purpose authorities differ from territorial authorities in that each is charged with only one major function. The need for the most efficient and economic discharge of the major function being the prime consideration, their boundaries may either extend beyond or fall within those of territorial authorities in the same geographical area. Only rarely do the boundaries coincide. Sometimes, as is the case with a number of urban fire authorities and pest destruction boards, territorial authorities themselves are also constituted as, and perform the functions of, special-purpose authorities. The more important special-purpose authorities are those administering harbours, hospitals, and the retail distribution of electricity. Others are engaged in fire fighting, water supply, urban drainage and transport, soil conservation and rivers control, pest destruction, nassella tussock control, and land drainage.

Number of Local Authorities—The number of local authorities actively functioning at 30 November 1974 was 543, made up as follows: county councils, 105; borough (including city) councils, 136; town councils (independent), 8; town councils (dependent), 4; regional authority, 1; river boards (2 boards also have the powers of land-drainage boards), 6; catchment boards, 13; catchment commissions, 4; land-drainage boards, 33; electric power boards, 39; water-supply board, 1; regional water board, 1; urban drainage boards, 4; transport board, 1; local railway board, 1; power and gas board, 1; nassella tussock boards, 2; harbour bridge authority, 1; road tunnel authority, 1; valley authority, 1; plantation board. 1; forestry corporation, 1; crematorium board, 1; wallaby board, 1; pest destruction boards (separately elected), 69; independent fire boards, 60; independent harbour boards, 17; hospital boards, 30. Borough and county councils also function as fire authorities in 231cases, as harbour boards in 8 cases, as county pest destruction boards in 37 cases, as domain boards in 407 cases, and as scenic boards in 138 cases. There are 459 independent domain boards and 129 independent scenic boards. In addition, there were 22 district councils of the National Roads Board constituted under the National Roads Act 1953. Although these district roads councils are not local authorities in the strict sense of the term they are intimately connected with certain aspects of local government, providing an advisory service to the National Roads Board concerning the roading needs and the allocation of national roading funds within their respective districts.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1974—This Act came into force on 1 December 1974 and in time will bring about some changes in the structure of local government outlined above.

Briefly, the Act provides the means for the establishment of a system of regional bodies to deal in a co-ordinated manner with all functions of a regional nature. It continues and improves the procedures of rationalisation of the local government structure in both the special purpose and territorial spheres and provides for the eventual phasing out of the existing dual system of territorial local government based on counties and boroughs. Furthermore, to encourage greater public involvement in local community affairs the Act provides for the establishment of community councils with varying degrees of authority. Finally, the responsibility for introducing and implementing the above changes lies primarily with a reconstituted and enlarged independent Local Government Commission.

Local Government Commission—The Local Government Act, which repealed the Local Government Commission Act 1967, sets up a revised Local Government Commission which is a permanent institution deemed to be a Commission of Inquiry under the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908.

The Act provides that the minimum membership of the commission shall be five, one of which shall be chairman, and at least one member must have experience in urban territorial local government and at least one other must have experience in rural territorial local government.

The principal task of the new commission will be to prepare by 31 December 1979, or as soon as possible thereafter, schemes establishing regional authorities throughout New Zealand. These authorities will be called united councils or regional councils and their nature is described in more detail below.

Allied with the task of establishing regional authorities, the commission is to ensure that united councils or regional councils or territorial authorities (a borough, city, county, district, or independent town council) undertake those functions of special purpose authorities which in the opinion of the commission, should be performed by them. For this purpose, practically all types of special-purpose authorities, except for hospital boards and education boards, have been placed within the jurisdiction of the commission. Accordingly, the commission is also empowered to provide for any function undertaken by a territorial authority which, in the commission's opinion, would be more appropriately performed by a united or regional council to be transferred.

The new commission will continue to carry out investigations, prepare reorganisation schemes, and make recommendations and reports for the purpose of ensuring that the system of local government in any local authority will best provide for the needs and well-being of its residents and the continued development of the district, that local authorities have such district boundaries and such functions and powers as will enable them to provide most effectively and economically essential or desirable local government services and facilities, that local authorities shall have such resources as will enable them to engage adequate services and to obtain and operate adequate technical facilities, plant, and equipment, and that districts shall be of such a size and nature as will promote efficient local government and avoid the necessity of uneconomic expenditure. Furthermore, the commission can ensure that any united or regional council has the power to do anything which will facilitate the discharge of any of its functions and particularly the power to undertake any function, which is regional in nature, operated by any other authority.

United and Regional Councils—Apart from the Auckland Regional Authority which has operated since 1963, the regional bodies to be established under the Act will be new to local government in this country. They will be determined by the commission and established by Order in Council giving effect to a final scheme of the commission. The commission will determine whether the governing body for each region is to be either a united council or a regional council. The essential difference between united councils and regional councils are that the former will be appointed by the constituent (territorial) authorities within the regions concerned while regional councils will be directly elected bodies. In both cases the membership of united and regional councils will be not less than 12. To obtain finance, united councils will make levies on their constituent authorities, while regional councils will have direct rating powers.

No criteria are prescribed by the Act to guide the commission in deciding whether a united council or a regional council is to be set up for a region. However, the united council concept is designed to meet the requirements of those regions where the range of functions, or the nature of the responsibilities involved, do not justify the setting up of an organisation of the scale inherent in a directly elected regional council. On this basis it is envisaged that united councils may be more prevalent in rural areas.

Functions of these authorities can be attained in several ways. First, the Act prescribes that every united council or regional council shall have two mandatory functions—that of regional planning and civil defence. Also, in the commission's scheme constituting a united or regional council the Commission may provide for it to undertake the functions of any territorial authority or special purpose authority. Furthermore, a united or regional council is empowered to undertake solely any new regional function which is not undertaken by any other local authority in its region. In this regard, the commission, by scheme, can provide that that function may be one that other local authorities are not empowered to undertake by any other statute. Besides the two mandatory functions, the Act provides that a united or regional council may undertake the functions of regional reserves, forestry, regional roading and community services. A united or regional council may enter into an agreement with a constituent authority to undertake any function of that authority where, in the opinion of either party, that function would be more effectively and economically undertaken by the regional body. Finally, united and regional councils may enter into agreements with the Crown whereby they may exercise any function or provide any service for or on behalf of the Crown.

District Councils—The Act empowers the commission when bringing down schemes affecting boroughs or counties to redesignate them as districts under the jurisdiction of “district councils”. Although district councils will represent a further type of territorial authority, eventually it is intended that the dual system of territorial local government based on county and borough will be abolished. The rationale behind this provision is that today, many territorial authorities are neither “boroughs” nor “counties” in the sense that they are neither wholly urban nor wholly rural. This provision, however, will not apply to the designations of “city” and “city council”.

The Act also provides that where, as a result of amalgamations or unions the new boundaries of the district of a district council coincide with those of a region, the district council may undertake the functions of a regional body. In this case, no united or regional council need be established for the region.

District Community Councils and Community Councils—The Act provides for the establishment of “communities” within the districts of territorial local authorities. Each community will be administered by either a “district community council” or a “community council”. These communities will not be local authorities in the true sense but will have councils of not less than 5 nor more than 12 who will be elected on a residential franchise for a 3-year term.

Except for certain reserved powers dealing with finance, staff, and planning, a district community council may exercise all the powers and functions of its parent territorial authority. Community councils, however, derive most of their powers by delegation from their territorial authority. Once again, powers dealing with finance, staff, and planning cannot be delegated.

The general idea behind communities is that they will encourage public participation in locality affairs through elected bodies who will represent and place the needs and views of their residents before their parent local authority and any government agencies or other organisations involved. Furthermore, they are intended to give a lead to and encourage community participation in the provision of community activities and amenities, and generally to foster a sense of community pride. This idea is not entirely new to local government in New Zealand. It has been successfully applied for some years in rural areas by the “county town” and “county borough” legislation. In the purely urban areas such as cities and boroughs, however, the establishment of equivalent bodies has not been provided for until the Local Government Act. Immediately the Act came into force all county boroughs were redesignated district community councils and all county towns and dependent town districts became community councils.

General Powers—Local authorities in New Zealand derive their powers from the Act under which they are constituted. In the case of territorial local authorities, the Municipal Corporations Act 1954 and the Counties Act 1956 are the main governing Acts, while united, regional, district, district community, and community councils are under the Local Government Act 1974.

There are several statutory measures which are more or less applicable to all local authorities, such as the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966 and the Local Authorities Loans Act 1956. For most harbour boards there is, in addition to the general Harbours Act, a special Act for each board which is subordinate to the general Act. Certain types of local authority—urban drainage boards, transport boards, the Auckland Regional Authority, the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority, the Christchurch-Lyttelton Road Tunnel Authority, and the Waikato Valley Authority—derive their principal powers from special constituting Acts.

A local authority has no legislative powers beyond the authority to make bylaws within limits defined in its constituting Act, but it can promote legislation on matters which affect the government of the area under its jurisdiction and which it is not already empowered to deal with. If the subject is transient and not contentious and is approved by Government, it is usually dealt with by the inclusion of an appropriate section in the annual Local Legislation Act passed by Parliament for this purpose. If, on the other hand, the local authority seeks powers of a permanent or major nature additional to those conferred on it by general Acts it must submit to Parliament a special local Bill. The extent to which the foregoing privileges are used may be gauged from the fact that the annual Local Legislation Act usually contains 20 to 25 sections, while about 15 local Acts are passed each year.

Franchise—Under the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966, elections are held on the second Saturday in October every third year. The next triennial general elections are due in 1977. Enrolment of residential electors is compulsory. In a poll on any proposal relating to loans or rates, a rate paying qualification is necessary.

Apart from a few special-purpose authorities, some of whose members are appointed by other local authorities, by Government, or, in the case of fire authorities, by insurance interests, members of local authorities are elected triennially, any qualified elector being eligible to seek election. In general the franchise extends to all persons aged 18 years or over who either possess a rating qualification or who, being British subjects, possess a residential qualification in the district of the local authority concerned. The right to vote for members of land drainage and river boards is, however, restricted to those who possess rating qualifications. In the case of regional councils, district community councils and community councils the right to vote is limited to those who reside in the region or community'.

Voting Procedures—Generally speaking, franchise can only be exercised by personal attendance at the polling booth, but the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966 was amended in 1970 to permit county councils to use postal voting. Postal voting will also apply to those district community councils and community councils in counties. Other local authorities are able to use this method only on approval being granted by Order in Council. At the 1974 elections many counties, 8 boroughs, and 4 drainage boards used postal voting. In every such case election participation was appreciably higher than the national average. To a lesser extent use was also made of spread voting where voting is possible at polling booths over a period of up to 6 days instead of being confined to the single day.

Remuneration of Members—The remuneration of members of local authorities is governed by the statutes constituting the various types of local authorities. Most special purpose authorities pay their chairmen an annual allowance with a maximum fixed for each type of authority. The maximum payable to mayors of boroughs and cities and county council chairmen varies according to the population of the local authority. The chairman and members of a united or regional council may be paid such annual allowances as may from time to time be approved by the Minister of Finance after consultation with the Minister of Local Government.

TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING—The Town and Country Planning Act 1953 provides for the making and enforcement of regional and district planning schemes, and the detailed procedure to be followed in each case is amplified by the Town and Country Planning Regulations 1960. The Government administers the Act through the Minister of Works and Development who may delegate his authority to the Commissioner of Works..

District Planning—Every district scheme is required to have for its general purpose the development of the area to which it relates (including where necessary the replanning and reconstruction of an area already built on) in such a way as will most effectively tend to promote and safeguard the health, safety and convenience, the economic and general welfare of its inhabitants, and the amenities of every part of the area. The council of every city, borough, county, and independent town district must provide and maintain a district scheme whether or not a regional planning scheme including its district has been prepared or become operative.

This subject is further discussed in Section 13, Pattern of Development and Land Use.

Chapter 3. Section 3 POPULATION

Table of Contents

POPULATION GROWTH—New Zealand's first million of population was recorded in 1908, 68 years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1952, 44 years later, the second million was reached, and the third million late in 1973.

Population has two sources of gain—natural increase (excess of births over deaths) and net migration (excess of arrivals over departures). In the early years in New Zealand, the bulk of the increase was through migration. From the late 1870s natural increase permanently displaced immigration as the chief contributor to population growth. At the census of 1881 the percentages of the total population born in New Zealand and born overseas were approximately equal (50.2 percent New Zealand born to 49.8 percent overseas born), and each succeeding census until 1961 recorded an increased proportion of New Zealand-born. Since 1961 (when the New Zealand-born made up 86 percent of the population) the proportion has fallen slightly mainly because of increased international travel and tourism. At the 1971 census 85.6 percent of the population was recorded as having been born in New Zealand.

During the present century, natural increase has accounted for over three-quarters of the growth of population. New Zealand's rate of natural increase is relatively high compared with other countries whose population is predominantly of European origin.

The natural increase rate has, in the main, closely reflected the changes in the birth rate, with a low point of 8.63 per 1,000 in 1935 and high points of 18 per 1,000 in 1947 and 1961; in the 1960s the average rate was less than 14 per 1,000. Like the low birth rate of the thirties, the fall in the birth rate in the sixties and seventies is a feature that New Zealand shares with a number of other developed countries, and notably with Australia, Canada, and the United States.

Details are given in the following table.

PeriodMarch YearsCalendar Years
BirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseBirthsDeathsNatural Increase

*Non-Maori population.

†Excluding Section 14 birth registrations.

Totals 1916-1974......2,608.51,038.51,570.2

Migration, however, has continued to add to the population quite substantially except during depression and war periods and the recession conditions of 1968-69. Gains from external migration are shown in the following table. Movements of the armed forces are not included.

PeriodMarch Years* Migration GainCalendar Years Migration Gain

*March years ended in years listed.

†Excess of departures.

Total 1901-1974..598.3

Most of the inward migration has been from the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands. In more recent years increasing numbers have come from the Pacific Islands, notably Western Samoa. A changed economic climate in the country brought a net migration loss to population for 1967, 1968, and 1969 calendar years, but a normal net inflow is again taking place.

CENSUS STATISTICS—Population statistics are based primarily on the five-yearly population census. Intercensal population estimates are based on the most recent census data available, adjusted in accordance with later figures of births, deaths, and migration. Estimates of the populations of particular localities, e.g., cities and boroughs, also take into account local economic developments, housing schemes, the numbers on school rolls, changes in boundaries, and any other factors leading to, or indicating, changes in population.

The basis adopted for the population census, and virtually throughout population statistics in New Zealand, is that of population physically present in the place of enumeration at the time of enumeration.

All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand, i.e., island territories are omitted except where their inclusion is specifically stated. Though Tokelau Islands are constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons they are administered separately. The Cook Islands and Niue Island are self-governing but the islanders are New Zealand citizens.

PRESENT POPULATION—The following table gives a summary of population. A 50-year time series is given in the statistical summary towards the back of this Yearbook.

*Includes population of Kermadec Islands 10 (males) and Campbell Island 9 (males) At 31 December 1974 the population of New Zealand was estimated at 3,094,900.
New Zealand*31 March 19741,522,4001,520,4003,042,800
Island Territory—
    Tokelau Islands25 September 19747388361,574
    Cook Islands31 March 19749,8669,65619,522
    Niue Island30 September 19742,0211,9713,992
Ross Dependency23 March 1971190-190

INCREASE OF POPULATION—The growth of population has been substantial in each intercensal period. The lowest rates are those of 1926-36, which included some years of economic depression, and of 1936-45, which included 6 years of international war, and of 1966-71, mainly attributable to a marked change in migration patterns.

Census DatePopulationIncrease or Decrease
IntercensalIntercensalAnnual Average

*Numbers of persons in New Zealand armed forces overseas not available.

† Includes members of New Zealand armed forces overseas.

31 March 1901*815,862x72,648xx9.771.89
29 April 1906936,309x120,447x14.762.75
2 April 19111,058,312x122,003x13.032.52
15 October 1916*1,149,22590,913x8.591.50
17 April 19211,271,668x122,443x10.652.27
20 April 19261,408,139136,471x10.732.06
24 March 19361,573,812x165,673x11.771.13
25 September 19451,702,330128,5188.17x0.83
25 September 19451,747,711x173,899x11.051.11
17 April 19511,939,472237,142x13.932.37
17 April 19511,941,366193,655x11.081.91
17 April 19562,174,062234,59012.102.31
17 April 19562,176,224234,85812.102.31
18 April 19612,414,984240,92211.082.12
18 April 19612,417,543241,31911.092.12
22 March 19662,676,919261,93510.852.11
22 March 19662,678,855261,31210.812.10
23 March 19712,862,631185,7126.941.35
23 March 19712,864,113185,2586.921.34x

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—The annual average percentage increases of population for the period 1963-72, are given in the following table for certain selected countries.

Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1972.)

CountryAverage Annual Percentage Increase
Germany, West0.8
New Zealand1.5
South Africa3.2
United Kingdom0.4
United States1.1
Western Samoa2.4

INTERCENSAL RECORDS—Intercensal estimates of total population are prepared from the records of vital statistics and of external migration. The figures in the tables following have been revised in line with 1971 Census results and exclude members of New Zealand armed forces who were overseas, and also members of the armed forces of other countries who were in New Zealand.

YearPopulation at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
Years Ended 31 March
Years Ended 31 December

The figures given in the preceding table are for total population inclusive of New Zealand Maoris.

The following table shows the New Zealand Maori population.

YearNew Zealand Maori Population at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
Years Ended 31 March
Years Ended 31 December

POPULATION PROJECTIONS—An indication of possible future growth of the total New Zealand population (including Maoris) up to 2001 is given by the detailed alternative projections which follow.

Projections of future population involve an element of uncertainty owing to incomplete knowledge of the factors underlying changes in fertility, mortality, and migration levels and difficulties in forecasting the future behaviour of these components of population change.

It should be understood that, as with all demographic projections prepared by the Department of Statistics, these projections are not strict forecasts or targets, but conditional forecasts based on the stated assumptions. Presentation and use of the projections, therefore, cannot be divorced from consideration of the assumptions adopted.

These projections are based on fertility assumptions relating to age-of-mother-specific birth rates as marital status data from 1971 Census of Population were not available at time of their preparation. In the department's judgment this will not significantly impair the validity and utility of the projections. A full description of the projection assumptions is contained in the footnotes to the table.

As at 31 MarchProjected Total New Zealand Population*Assuming Net Annual Immigration of

* The base population for these projections is the estimated population as at 31 March 1971. These projections are based on the following assumptions:

(a) That future fertility experience will be in accordance with the alternative trends in ge-of-mother-specific birth rates as described in and § below;

(b) That 1965-67 Life Table Mortality Rates (Total Population) apply throughout the projection period.

†The assumed net immigration is taken to commence from the projection base point of 31 March 1971.

‡The projection based on “Constant Fertility” assumes a continuance of 1971 experience with regard to age-of-mother-specific birth rates.

§The projection based on “medium” fertility assumes the continuation of recent general trends in age-of-mother-specific birth rates, whether increasing or decreasing, for 5 years, with a subsequent continuation of those general trends, somewhat flattened, until 1986. The “high” and “low” assumptions are relative to the “medium” assumption and are based on trends, above and below the “medium” trend respectively, which are considered to be maxima and minima in the light of the assessed reasonably expected range of values which may eventuate. Because of the uncertainty in projecting recent fertility experience for longer than 15-20 years ahead, birth rates which make up the “high”, “medium” and “low” fertility assumptions have been kept constant from 1987 until 2001 at the levels projected for 1986.

1971 (base)1,4301,4312,8611,4301,4312,8611,4301,4312,861
Constant Fertility Assumption
High Fertility Assumption§
Medium Fertility Assumption§
Low Fertility Assumption§

The following diagram presented on a ratio scale shows the growth of actual population from 1880 to 1974 and projections through to 2000.

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census and are published in Volume 1, Increase and Location of Population, of the Census of Population and Dwellings.

North and South Islands—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration, and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of NZ Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.

The following table gives the population of the North and South Islands as disclosed by each census since 1901.

Census YearTotal PopulationTotalPercentages
North IslandSouth IslandNorth IslandSouth Island

The population of the North Island increased at a greater proportionate rate than that of the South Island between the 1966 and 1971 Censuses. At the 1971 Census the North Island population was 2,051,363, including 213,577 N.Z. Maoris, and the South Island population 811,268, inclusive of 13,837 N.Z. Maoris. The increase since the 1966 Census was 158,037 for the North Island and 27,675 for the South Island.

Between the 1966 and 1971 Censuses, births in the South Island numbered just over 82,000, and deaths almost 38,000, giving a net natural increase of just over 44,000. The fact that the total population increase is under 28,000 indicates a net migration outflow from the South Island during the intercensal period. This is in contrast to the 1961-66 intercensal period when a small net migration inflow of approximately 5,000 was recorded.

Statistical Areas—In the following table are shown the areas and the populations of the statistical areas at the 1971 Census and an estimate at 1 April 1974.

Statistical AreaArea (Square Kilometres)Population Census 23 March 1971Estimated Population 1 April 1974
Central Auckland5,569698,400775,460
South Auckland - Bay of Plenty36,744422,299453,350
East Coast10,87847,34248,150
Hawke's Bay11,033133,250141,000
            Totals, North Island114,7292,051,3632,200,500
            Totals, South Island153,946811,268842,300
            Totals, New Zealand268,6752,862,6313,042,800

Statistical Divisions and Urban Areas—Statistical divisions and urban areas are statistical conceptions and not administrative units. Their purpose is to provide definite, stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population. Statistical divisions are a new concept. The basic criterion for a statistical division is a population of 75,000 or more within the area of economic and social interests of a heavily populated centre. Seven statistical divisions have been established, namely, Auckland, Hamilton, Napier-Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington (including Hutt), Christchurch, and Dunedin. The division, like the urban area, does not have any administrative functions, but embraces areas of unified community, economic, and social interests. In addition to the central city or borough, urban areas include neighbouring boroughs and town districts and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population. Maps of statistical boundaries are available at Government bookshops.

Previously there were 18 statistically defined urban areas; there are now 24 urban areas. The additional areas result from splitting the Auckland, Wellington, and Hutt urban areas and adding Masterton. Adjustments of urban area boundaries have been made because of the peripheral growth of population in some of the urban centres.

The populations of statistical divisions and urban areas arc given below.

Statistical Division (S.Div.) and Urban Area (U.A.)1966 Census1971 CensusPercentage IncreaseEstimated Population 1 April 1974
Auckland S. Div.—
    Northern Auckland U.A.86,297107,96534.325.1133,140
    Western Auckland U.A.75,79289,94637.318.7105,350
    Central Auckland U.A.281,192286,7874.42.0291,050
    Southern Auckland U.A.124,886165,04854.732.2196,480
    Remainder S. Div.45,50448,6541.26.949,440
Hamilton S. Div.—
    Hamilton U.A.68,48580,81223.918.092,050
    Remainder S. Div.55,78655,1942.0-1.155,400
Statistical Division (S.Div.) and Urban Area (U.A.)1966 Census1971 CensusPercentage IncreaseEstimated Population 1 April 1974
Napier-Hastings S. Div.—
    Napier U.A.38,38243,60117.013.647,920
    Hastings U.A.40,65545,51214.111.949,670
    Remainder S. Div.7,8747,8204.0-0.77,870
Palmerston North S. Div.—     
    Palmerston North U.A.52,39357,06513.98.961,470
    Remainder S. Div.23,55123,6673.70.323,800 
Wellington S. Div.—
    Upper Hutt Valley U.A.27,39830,98620.913.134,870
    Lower Hutt Valley U.A.88,33792,00314.54.296,950
    Porirua Basin U.A.37,62447,85835.727.254,100
    Wellington U.A.132,005136,7826.13.6141,100
    Remainder S. Div.13,56116,40318.021.019,880
Christchurch S. Div.—
    Christchurch U.A.257,505275,96812.17.2292,520
    Remainder S. Div.24,95426,6426.96.828,010
Dunedin S. Div.—
    Dunedin U.A.108,779111,0593.62.1113,310
    Remainder S. Div.7,0866,681-2.9-5.76,560
Urban Areas Not in Any Statistical Division
Urban Area1966 Census1971 CensusPercentage IncreaseEstimated Population 1 April 1974
New Plymouth35,68038,7808.78.741,840
            Totals, 24 urban areas1,748,5961,930,22615.710.42,095,090
            Totals, 7 statistical divisions1,598,0461,756,45314.39.91,900,940

Cities and Boroughs—The population of cities and boroughs is now given.

City or BoroughEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area in Hectares
*Now includes Glenfield and other parts of former Waitemata County; estimated population 63,200. Waitemata City was created from the major part of Waitemata County; estimated population, 79,000.
North Island—
    Whangarei (city)33,0004,354
    East Coast Bays20,7001,558
    Takapuna (city)*25,0001,336
    Glen Eden7,520503
    New Lynn10,250564
    Auckland (city)152,6007,489
    Mt. Albert27,000983
    Mt. Eden20,700598
    Mt. Roskill34,4001,862
    One Tree Hill13,000983
    Mt. Wellington21,0001,650
    Papatoetoe (city)23,100907
    Manukau (city)127,80062,269
    Hamilton (city)85,6005,555
    Te Awamutu7,140713
    Te Kuiti4,860675
    Te Aroha3,1401,126
    Mt. Maunganui10,3001,411
    Tauranga (city)32,5003,806
    Te Puke3,810532
    Rotorua (city)36,2002,667
    Gisborne (city)29,8002,628
    Napier (city)44,6002,847
    Hastings (city)32,4001,711
    Havelock North8,630514
    New Plymouth (city)37,0002,316
    Wanganui (city)35,8002,997
    Palmerston N. (city)55,8004,302
    Upper Hutt (city)29,40048,428
    Lower Hutt (city)64,1008,967
    Porirua (city)41,4008,508
    Wellington (city)141,80026,343
    Grey town1,740442
            Totals, North Island cities and boroughs1,586,850x252,256
City or BoroughEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area in Hectares
South Island—
    Nelson (city)31,3004,762
    Christchurch (city)170,60010,635
    Timaru (city)29,3002,262
    Port Chalmers2,950410
    Dunedin (city)83,60016,560
    St. Kilda6,400249
    Green Island6,590781
    Invercargill (city)49,7005,574
            Totals, South Island cities and boroughs529,52059,146
            Grand totals, all cities and borough2,116,370x311,402

Town Districts—The population of independent town districts—i.e., those contained in the following table—is not included with that of the county in which the town district is located.

Town DistrictEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area in Hectares
North Island—
    Totals, North Island5,8102,024
South Island—  
            Totals, South Island1,690473
            Grand totals7,5002,497

Communities—The following table lists communities with populations of 1,000 or more at 1 April 1974. The parent county is shown in parentheses. The populations of communities (previously known as county towns or dependent town districts) are included in the administrative county populations given in a later table.

CommunityEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area in Hectares

*Now part of Takapuna City.

†Now part of Waitemata City.

‡Now part of Kapiti borough.

North Island
    Kerikeri (Bay of Islands)1,000347
    Moerewa (Bay of Islands)1,35075
    Kawakawa (Bay of Islands)1,560229
    Paihia (Bay of Islands)1,290232
    Glenfield (Waitemata)*33,6001.860
    Kelston West (Waitemata)11,700656
    Green Bay (Waitemata)3,340191
    Titirangi (Waitemata)10,300119
    Orewa (Waitemata)3,480633
    Raglan (Raglan)1,080372
    Kihikihi (Waipa)1,220212
    Whitianga (Coromandel)1,100293
    Waihi Beach (Ohinemuri)1,000209
    Tokoroa (Matamata)18,000970
    Katikati (Tauranga)1,310960
    Mangakino (Taupo)1,900261
    Edgecumbe (Whakatane)1,210170
    Ohope (Whakatane)1,180520
    Ashhurst (Oroua)1,390125
    Paraparaumu (Hutt)11,6002,764
    Paekakariki (Hutt)2,0502,268
South Island
    Kaikoura (Kaikoura)1,720283
    Halswell (Paparua)4,620204
    Brighton (Taieri)1,000112
    Fairfield (Taieri)1,400143
    Ranfurly (Maniototo)1,020391
    Wanaka (Lake)1,070294
    Te Anau (Wallace)2,020395

District Communities—The following table lists the populations of district communities as at 1 April 1974. The parent county is shown in parentheses. The populations of district communities (previously known as county boroughs) are included in the administrative county populations given in the following table.

District CommunityEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area in Hectares
North Island
    Wellsford (Rodney)1,650554
    Otorohanga (Otorohanga)1,940227
    Ngongotaha (Rotorua)2,100513
    Opotiki (Opotiki)2,620299
    Bulls (Rangitikei)2,000405
    Waikanae (Horowhenua)3,3101,060
    Shannon (Horowhenua)1,690342
    Heretaunga-Pinehaven (Hutt)6,3304,700
    Wainuiomata (Hutt)18,80026,614
South Island
    Hornby (Paparua)9,200491
    Sockburn (Paparua)6,4301,066
            Totals, county boroughs56,07031,272

Extra-county Islands and Shipboard Population—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, cities and boroughs, and independent town districts, the New Zealand totals include shipboard population and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any county. The two latter categories comprised an estimated total of 4,580 persons at 1 April 1974.

Counties—The following table gives the estimated population of individual counties at 1 April 1974 together with the approximate area of each. It should be noted that “Administrative counties” do not include boroughs or town districts independent of county control, but include town districts, district communities, and communities which form parts of counties.

Later in 1974 the county of Patangata was incorporated in that of Waipukurau, and the counties of Geraldine and Levels merged to form Strathallan. The county of Waitemata was dissolved, Orewa going to Rodney County, Glenfield to Takapuna City and the remainder forming a new City of Waitemata.

Administrative CountyEstimated Population 1 April 1974Approximate Area, in Square Kilometres
*See preceding note on dissolution of County.
North Island—
    Bay of Islands15,1302,131
    Great Barrier Is.270285
    Hauraki Plains5,120603
    Hawke's Bay21,2004,842
    Waimate West2,350215
    Wairarapa South2,5401,140
            Totals, North Island counties604,810111,777
South Island—
    Golden Bay3,2802,618
    Mt. Herbert720171
    Chatham Islands730963
    Stewart Island4101,746 
            Totals, South Island counties309,540152,797
            Grand totals, all counties914,350264,574

Urban Concentration of Population—The bulk of New Zealand's population is located in urban areas, where the most rapid growth rates are occurring. This is due largely to the development of both manufacturing and tertiary industries in urban areas, which provide employment for a growing labour force. Other factors, including better social, cultural, educational, and economic opportunities serve to attract persons to these areas, while the majority of immigrants tend to settle in the larger urban centres. These factors, combined with amalgamation of farms, centralisation of dairy factories, and increasing agricultural mechanisation (resulting in less labour required), combine to produce a noticeable rural-urban drift. Urban concentration features are common to “developed” countries at advanced stages of economic development.

The 1971 Census figures showed a continuing decline in the population of rural areas and in many cases also of small and intermediate-sized towns. Seventy-two counties recorded smaller populations than in 1966. Of 58 small towns (1,000 to 4,999 population) 22 declined in population compared with 7 which showed declines between 1961 and 1966. Six intermediate towns (5,000 to 9,999 population situated outside urban areas) showed decreases on this occasion as against only two in 1966.

The following table indicates the urban movement of the total population and Maori population—the urban content has been taken as the population in the 24 urban areas, plus that of all boroughs, town districts, communities, district communities, and townships with population of 1,000 or over.

*Excludes shipping.
Total Population
New Zealand Maori Population

In the process of urbanisation some cities and areas have grown more quickly than others. There is a tendency towards concentration of population in the largest centres and also a drift of population from the south to the north. Where the two tendencies reinforce each other, as they do in the case of Auckland, the rate of growth has been very rapid. Likewise the urban areas of Whangarei, Hamilton, Tauranga, and Rotorua, which had a combined population in 1926 of 40,164, in 1971 comprised 194,942 inhabitants.

The initial reason for the drift to the north lay in the change in emphasis of farming activities in which the development of dairying played an important part. The expansion of dairying in itself called for the development of factory processing facilities and service industries. These farming trends have been reinforced by the growth of forest processing industries in the North Island and compounded further by the general tendency for the large-scale manufacturing units to be located close to the biggest local markets.

In the larger cities a notable feature of the past 35 years has been a movement of population from the central or “inner” areas to the perimeter or “outer” areas as families in decayed areas have moved to State rental houses and as residential units in the city centres have been replaced by shops, offices, places of entertainment, and other commercial or industrial buildings. In recent years there has been an offsetting movement with the building of multi-storey flats in the inner areas.

The distribution of population by size of centres is shown in the following table.

Sizes of Centre (City, Borough, Town District, or Community)Number of CentresPercentage of Population in These Centres
1,000- 2,499634544437.53.02.5x2.4
2,500- 4,9992347x41406.27.2v5.55.0
5,000- 9,9991134x34355.99.6x8.9x8.8
25,000 and over412192224.132.5x40.944.6

In the South Island a higher proportion of the population is rural, that is, outside urban communities, than in the North Island, the proportion being 22.7 in the South Island against 16.9 percent in the North Island, at the 1971 Census of Population.

Males and Females—The census of 23 March 1971 showed that females outnumbered males by 919 in the total population. Females per 1,000 males at the last six censuses have been:

CensusExcluding N.Z. Armed Forces OverseasIncluding N.Z. Armed Forces Overseas

There are marked differences in the sex distribution of the population of different parts of New Zealand, depending largely on educational and employment opportunities. The following figures give the number of females per 1,000 males at the Census of 1971.

Statistical Areas
Hawke's Bay1,029
Central Auckland1,021
East Coast1,000
South Auckland-Bay of Plenty974
Urban Areas
Central Auckland1,062
New Plymouth1,055
Palmerston North1,048
Northern Auckland1,044
Porirua Basin1,023
Lower Hutt Valley1,009
Southern Auckland1,001x
Western Auckland984
Upper Hutt Valley915

DENSITY OF POPULATION—Generally speaking, a dense population must depend upon intensive land utilisation or industrialisation. In New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, and large areas of hilly country which cannot be closely settled, while the growth of mechanisation in farming tends to reduce the size of the labour force engaged in farming operations.

Nevertheless, economic development is providing employment for a growing labour force. More extensive mechanisation, further advances in science and technology, and increases in productivity, wealth, and consumption have paved the way for further specialisation of production and more concentrated urbanisation.

Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The following table provides comparative density figures on a statistical area basis from 1926 to 1971 censuses.

Statistical AreaArea in Square KilometresPersons Per Square Kilometre
Central Auckland5,56942.459.668.692.4110.2125.4
South Auckland - Bay of Plenty36,7443.
East Coast10,8783.
Hawke's Bay11,0336.47.28.310.411.312.1
            Totals, North Island114,7297.810.011.514.716.517.9
            Totals, South Island153,9463.
            Totals, New Zealand268,6755.

NEW ZEALAND MAORI POPULATION—All persons of half or more Maori ancestry are defined as Maoris.

The growth rate of Maoris in the population approaches twice that of the population taken as a whole; an average annual increase in 1966-71 of 2.5 percent as compared with 1.4 percent for the total population. (Nevertheless the growth rate showed a slight fall when compared with the previous intercensal periods.)

The population growth rate among the Maoris is predominantly a result of natural increase, whereas in the total population natural increase is normally supplemented by sizeable increments from migration.

When studying growth rates of the Maori population, however, it should be noted that, as a result of intermarriage, there are increasing numbers of Maori children (half or more Maori) who have one parent not counted in the Maori population, i.e., if a full Maori male marries a full European female or vice versa, the resulting progeny are all counted in the Maori population; this undoubtedly contributes to the high Maori percentage increase.

The decline in the number of Maoris during the early years of European settlement and throughout most of the nineteenth century is a matter of history. The present century has witnessed a resurgence of vitality among the Maori people which has been reflected in a strikingly high birth rate.

A statement of N.Z. Maori population is now given for each census from 1901.

YearNew Zealand Maori PopulationIntercensal IncreaseIntercensal IncreaseAverage Annual Increase
*Includes members of New Zealand armed forces overseas.

The increasing urbanisation of the Maori population as younger Maoris seek better job opportunities in the cities and boroughs is a population trend of considerable sociological significance. As late as the 1936 Census only 8,249 Maoris (10 percent) dwelt in cities, boroughs, or independent town districts. By the 1971 Census the comparative figure was 132,970 (58.5 percent); the largest concentration is in Southern Auckland urban area, where 20,675 Maoris were enumerated in 1971.

Of the 227,414 Maoris at the 1971 Census, 213,577 were in the North Island.

The Maori population, which until recently was not greatly affected by external migration, is a much younger population than the non-Maori.

The following table for 1971 shows the high proportion (49.1 percent) of Maori children under 15 years compared with the total population (31.8 percent), and the low proportion of people in the older age groups.

Age Group (Years)Percentage in Age Groups (1971 Census)
New Zealand MaoriTotal Population
Under 1549.131.8
60 and over3.312.5

EXTERNAL MIGRATION—In recent years there has been a large increase in New Zealanders going overseas on business, on pleasure trips, and on working holidays, resulting in much higher levels of migration. The arrivals include many New Zealanders returning from travel overseas, as well as growing numbers of tourists from overseas countries.

The numbers of arrivals and departures during the last 11 years are given in the table following. Crews of vessels, through passengers, tourists on cruising liners, and members of the armed forces, etc., have not been taken into account in this table.

Year Ended 31 MarchArrivalsDeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures
1968136,760122,621259,381143,259124,212267,471- 8,090
1970156,645136,760293,405157,829137,636295,465- 2,060

From 1968 to 1970 there was an alteration in the net migration flow. This is illustrated in the following diagram which covers all passenger migration, excluding through passengers and crews.

Long-term Migration—The following table gives an analysis of long-term arrivals and departures for March years. (Short-term migration is analysed in Section 39: Travel and Tourism.)

YearLong-term (Including Permanent) ArrivalsLong-term (Including Permanent) Departures
New Permanent ArrivalsLong-termPermanent and Long-term Arrivals (Immigrants)Permanent Departures-of New Zealand ResidentsLong-termPermanent and Long-term Departures (Emigrants)
Assisted SubsidisedTotal (includes others)N.Z. Residents Returning *Long-term Visitors*N.Z. Residents Departing *Long-term Visitors Departing *
*Arrivals: after absence of, or intending to stay, 12 months or more respectively. Departures: persons intending to stay away for, or after stay in New Zealand of, 12 months or more respectively.

The countries of origin and destination of these long-term migrants are shown in the following table.

YearAustraliaCanadaIndiaUnited KingdomCook Islands and NiueFijiWestern SamoaNetherlandsSouth AfricaUnited StatesAll Other CountriesTotal
Immigrants by Country of Last Residence
Emigrants by Country of Next Residence

Ages—The following table gives the age distribution of long-term arrivals and departures for the year ended 31 March 1973.

Age, in YearsPermanent ArrivalsPermanent DeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures
Under 156,8266,36013,1863,1703,0436,2136,973
65 and over6208371,457321468789668

The occupations of working persons in permanent and long-term arrivals and departures for the year ended March 1973 are given in the following table.

Occupation GroupPermanent ArrivalsPermanent Departures
Professional (including nurses and teachers)3,8633,3697,2322,7733,3306,103
Administrative and managerial8695392265353706
Clerical workers1,4874,5816,0681,1074,1085,215
Sales workers1,4185972,0159254081,333
Farmers and fishermen973401,01382850878
Miners and quarrymen111-11154-54
Transport and communications workers1,1462081,354640159799
Tradesmen, factory workers, labourers7,6204958,1155,2044555,659
Personal, servicing8571,0011,8585727621,334
Not specified3962141742043463
            Totals, actively engaged18,74010,36529,10513,1769,36822,544

Origin—The following table shows for the latest 3 years the birthplaces of long-term migrants.

Country of BirthImmigrantsEmigrants
Commonwealth Countries
United Kingdom—
    England and Wales11,54113,26916,7495,1824,7724,109
    Northern Ireland30645562612011299
    Other or undefined60651,6853833479
New Zealand10,86512,84214,52524,95924,67222,526
Pacific Islands—
    Cook Islands and Niue9279731,621169158127
    Western Samoa540333281202272322
    Other Pacific291284345136166227
            Totals, Commonwealth countries35,06540,24249,50635,24334,71332,649
Other Countries
Ireland, Republic of72754037545149
United States1,3121,6081,437548725752
            Totals, other countries4,3124,8575,1442,9212,8332,834
            Grand totals39,37745,09954,65038,16437,54635,483

IMMIGRATION POLICY—The guidelines of a revised immigration policy on permanent entry were announced by the Government in May 1974. A particular concern of the new policy is to eliminate discrimination but this does not imply that New Zealand should accept migrants from all regions or countries, particularly from those with which New Zealand has no affinity or migration links. Harmonious settlement is emphasised and the number of immigrants is to be matched to New Zealand's capacity to provide employment, housing and community services. (In 1974 the net inflow reached 34,000 and imposed considerable strain on the economy). Immigrants are now selected according to defined criteria, including skills and qualifications, health, character, age 18 to 45 years, and families of not more than four dependent children. There is liberal provision for admitting relatives of New Zealand residents and for other cases with strong humanitarian considerations.

The South Pacific is a special situation. The islands, being our nearest neighbours apart from Australia, must be regarded in some measure as our responsibility. Those born in the Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islands are New Zealand citizens and may migrate at any time. Western Samoa, as a former trust territory, holds a special place in the policy. The Samoans take full advantage of the opportunities offered, the inflow at present being about 1,500 a year. Provision has been made for permanent entry of a small number of Fijian citizens and Tongans.

A Review of Immigration Policy was published as parliamentary paper E 21, 1974.

Assisted Immigration—Financially assisted by the Government, the subsidy scheme involves a contribution by employers to immigrants' fares. The contribution made by migrants is the equivalent of £10 sterling for single persons and £20 for married persons.

Employers wishing to take advantage of the subsidy scheme are obliged to provide employment, arrange suitable housing in New Zealand, and meet one-quarter of the cost of migrants' fares either by sea or air; the Government meets the remaining three-quarters. The cost is approximately the same for both methods of travel.

The subsidy scheme operates from Britain, the United States, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The scheme has not been formally approved by the Italian Government but nationals of that country who apply spontaneously to come to New Zealand are permitted to use the scheme. There is no quota on the subsidy scheme. Single people and married men between the ages of 18 and 45 years may be sponsored, but key workers only are sought.

A system of matching skills of immigrants with specific vacancies in New Zealand has been developed by the Chief Migration Officer, New Zealand House, London, for British and most Western European migrants, and similar registers have been established by the New Zealand Immigration Attaché in the Hague for Dutch workers, and by the New Zealand Consul-General in Los Angeles for American migrants. Employers interested in recruiting migrants with certain skills may file details of their vacancies through the Department of Labour in Wellington. The department will also arrange for vacancies to be advertised, if required by employers. In addition, the department holds interview reports for a large number of skilled tradesmen in a variety of occupations and these can be made available to interested employers.

The assisted passage scheme, which operated only from Britain, was limited to 500 migrants a year. This scheme which began in 1947, was terminated in April 1975.

The number of assisted immigrants (excluding displaced persons, and Hungarian and Czech refugees) arriving in the last 11 years are as follows.

Year Ended 31 MarchBritishDutchAustrianGermanDanishSwissGreekOtherTotal

*Includes 68 from United States in 1973 and 59 in 1974.

†Includes subsidy scheme migrants not shown prior to 1971-72; their total was 4,183 in 1971-72 and 3,632 in 1972-73; see a preceding table on long-term migration.


Refugees—New Zealand has a good reputation for accepting refugees who come within the Mandate of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. As well as a number of individual cases, New Zealand accepted over 240 persons under the Ugandan Asian resettlement programme. Assistance in the resettlement of refugees received from the Inter-church Committee on Immigration has been invaluable.

Formalities—The legislation respecting immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Act 1964, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act 1919. This legislation is administered by the Department of Labour.

The Immigration Act prescribes that all persons who are not New Zealand citizens require permits to enter the country. Citizens from countries with which New Zealand has negotiated visa abolition agreements may be exempted from this requirements if they intend visiting New Zealand for short periods.

To obtain permission to settle in New Zealand, intending immigrants, other than Australian citizens, should first write to the nearest overseas representative of the New Zealand Government or write direct to the Secretary of Labour, Private Bag, Te Aro, Wellington, New Zealand for the necessary application forms. Each application is considered on its merits.

PASSPORTS—Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1946 and the Passport Regulations 1946.

New Zealand passports are issued and renewed within New Zealand by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington, Auckland, and Christchurch, at Rarotonga by the High Commissioner, at Niue by the New Zealand representative, and overseas by the representatives of New Zealand at Apia, Athens, Bangkok, Bonn, Brussels, Canberra, Djakarta, Geneva, The Hague, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Moscow, New Delhi, New York, Noumea, Ottawa, Paris, Peking, Rome, Saigon, San Francisco, Santiago (Chile), Seoul, Singapore, Suva, Sydney, Tokyo, Vienna, and Washington. United Kingdom, Canadian, Australian, Malaysian, Singaporean, and Indian passports are issued and renewed in New Zealand by the respective High Commissioners for those countries.

Entry into New Zealand—Apart from British subjects and the wives of British subjects arriving from Australia, no person 16 years of age or over may land in New Zealand unless he is in possession of a valid passport or other recognised travel document. Exemption from the passport requirement (which is additional to the requirements of the Immigration Act and Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act) may be granted in exceptional circumstances by the Minister of Internal Affairs. A British subject who is a master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives does not need to produce a passport.

With the exception of nationals of those countries with which New Zealand has concluded agreements for the mutual abolition of visas, every alien landing in New Zealand requires a visa.

Departure from New Zealand—Every person leaving New Zealand, with the exception of a British subject travelling to Australia or making the round trip to New Zealand's island territories, should be in possession of a valid passport or other travel document.

NATIONALITY AND NATURALISATION—The basic nationality law is the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Citizens of all Commonwealth countries are recognised as British subjects.

New Zealand citizenship may be acquired in the following ways: (a) by birth in New Zealand; (b) by descent; (c) by registration; and (d) by naturalisation. Citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland acquire New Zealand citizenship by registration, as do alien wives and children of New Zealand citizens. Other aliens acquire it by naturalisation. To be eligible for New Zealand citizenship, an alien or a citizen of another Commonwealth country (other than a woman married to a New Zealand citizen, or a minor) must—(a) have resided in New Zealand for the prescribed period; (b) be of full age and capacity; (c) be of good character; (d) have sufficient knowledge of the English language, and of the responsibilities and privileges of New Zealand citizenship; (e) intend to reside in New Zealand, or to enter or continue Crown service under the New Zealand Government. The residential qualification for naturalisation is 5 years, for registration it is generally 3 years but can be reduced to 1 year.

A person who acquires New Zealand citizenship by naturalisation must take the oath of allegiance, a person who acquires it by registration may be required to take the oath. Ceremonies are held at which applicants, in an atmosphere of dignity and solemnity, take the oath of allegiance and are presented with their certificates of naturalisation or registration as New Zealand citizens. During the 1972-73 year there were 118 such ceremonies, at which 1,327 candidates took the oath of allegiance.

New Zealand citizens may be deprived of New Zealand citizenship if they voluntarily acquire a foreign nationality by any formal act other than marriage, or if they voluntarily exercise the privileges or perform any of the duties of a foreign nationality possessed by them. Citizenship obtained by fraud, false representation, or the concealment of any material fact may be withdrawn.

The following table shows the number of persons, by country of birth, who were granted citizenship in the latest 2 years ended 31 March.

Country of Birth1972-731973-74
Hong Kong54449-1919
South Africa145064166480
United Kingdom-702702-891891
United States15112691019
Western Samoa3162165-126126
Other countries4917422335192227

REGISTRATION OF ALIENS—The registration of aliens in New Zealand is provided for by the Aliens Act 1948, which is administered by the Department of Internal Affairs.

The number of aliens on the New Zealand register at any particular date does not constitute the total number in New Zealand, as certain classes are not required to register, including the following: (a) children under 16 years of age; (b) persons holding diplomatic status, consuls, or employees of embassies, legations, and consulates who are resident in New Zealand solely for the purpose of performing official duties; (c) certain temporary visitors to New Zealand. Under the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 a citizen of the Republic of Ireland, though not possessing the status of British subject (or, in alternative phraseology, Commonwealth citizen), is nevertheless not classed as an alien and is not required to register.

The following table shows, by country of nationality, the number of males and females on the register.

Country of Nationality1 April 19731 April 1974
South Africa112148260143155298
United States2,3241,4293,7532,5181,6824,200
Other countries76541306944113

Gains in numbers on the register for any nationality occur for several reasons—mainly, (a) immigrants of 16 years of age and over who arrive during the year, (b) registration (on reaching the age of 16) of children whose parents may have arrived in previous years but are still registered aliens.

Reductions in the numbers of registered aliens in the main come from naturalisations, deaths, or departure overseas.

Five years residence in New Zealand is necessary before an alien can qualify for naturalisation.

STATISTICS OF THE POPULATION CENSUS—Publications containing results from the Census of Population and Dwellings are listed towards the back of this Yearbook.

MARITAL STATUS—The marital status of persons aged 16 years and over as returned at the Census of 1971 is summarised in the following tables.

Age Groups (Years)Never MarriedMarriedLegally SeparatedWidowedDivorcedTotal*
*Including persons not specifying status.
75 and over2,35919,04334310,25141632,687
            Totals, 1971250,372632,10811,59826,79811,442937,954
            Totals, 1966244,834581,5606,81927,3729,435871,854
75 and over6,33912,00625335,62272055,183
            Totals, 1971186,619637,92214,139104,53314,711959,378
            Totals, 1966183,093583,1728,54896,57710,853882,716
75 and over8,69831,04959645,8731,13687,870
            Totals, 1971436,9911,270,03025,737131,33126,1531,897,332
            Totals, 1966427,9271,164,73215,367123,94920,2881,754,570

The percentage distribution of the population aged 16 years or over according to marital status is given in the following summary.

Marital Status196119661971
Never married27.
Legally separated0.

HOUSEHOLDS—There were 801,686 households in permanent private dwellings at the Census in 1971. The following table analyses the type of household by the number of occupants. A one-family-only household consists of a husband and wife with or without unmarried children of any age.

Type of HouseholdTotal HouseholdsNumber of Households with Occupancy of
1234567 or more
*While not strictly an “extended family”, other groupings are included, mainly consisting of such relationships as a mother and widowed daughter.
    Incomplete with children absent25,400-5,7396,5505,5913,5211,9152,084
    Incomplete with one parent absent42,504-20,30710,8526,1312,8981,3041,012
    Incomplete with one parent and child(ren) absent3,540-1,460930552283137178
    One family plus other persons (non-family)76,449-826*19,74516,94715,70010,71512,516
    Multi-family with or without other persons12,040---2,2592,6032,3344,844
    One person113,289113,289------

In the following table these complete one-family-only households are analysed by distribution of the occupants and the occupational status of the head of the household.

Occupational Status of HeadTotal HouseholdsHusband and Wife OnlyHusband and Wife with
1 Child2 Children3 Children4 Children5 or More Children
Actively engaged—
    Own account41,3548,9416,87710,1348,0794,5232,800
    Salary or wages345,95988,20265,86185,01957,47228,83520,570
    Relative assisting20141-311
    Not specified345975276522543
Not actively engaged—
            Grand total485,789153,59286,379107,01174,24438,07226,491

The following table shows the composition of one-complete-family-only households in 1971 by the age group of the head of the household.

Age group of Head (in Years)Husband and Wife OnlyHusband and wife withTotal
1 Child*2 Children*3 Children*4 Children*5 or More Children*
*Unmarried children of any age living at home.
Under 205767428414561,427
65 and over49,0286,5851,50341617012157,823
Under 2040.452.
65 and over84.811.
All ages31.617.822.

The following tables show, for one-complete-family-only households, the number of unmarried children of any age living with their parents on Census night 1971. The income given in the first table is the income of the head of the household, while in the second table the total household income is shown. In a considerable proportion of households, the total household income was substantially above the income of the head of the household, usually indicating at least one other income recipient in the family.

Income of HeadHusband and Wife OnlyHusband and Wife with
One ChildTwo ChildrenThree ChildrenFour ChildrenFive or More Childrens
1- 59910,9641,680675345187190
10,000 and over2,2511,6972,6932,4681,374735
Not specified1,791775814591359378
Total Income of HouseholdHusband and Wife OnlyHusband and Wife with
One ChildTwo ChildrenThree ChildrenFour ChildrenFive or More Children
Nil 16,09063726113299147
1- 5999,913623344212132136
10,000 and over3,8673,8605,8094,8712,7391,924
Not specified2,7551,6781,9241,4058841,064

The following table shows persons living alone in 1971 by age and marital status.

Age Group (in Years)Marital Status
Never MarriedMarriedLegally SeparatedDivorcedWidowedTotal*
Under 20658292--689
65 and over2,6011,7153767527,26312,707
Age Group (in Years)Marital Status
Never MarriedMarriedLegally SeparatedDivorcedWidowedTotal*
*Total includes 313 male heads and 153 females, whose age and marital status were not available.
Under 204092481-442
65 and over5,7582,2014471,27931,23140,916

RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONS—The following summary presents the main religious professions returned at the 1961, 1966 and 1971 Censuses.

Religious ProfessionNumber of AdherentsPercentage
Anglican (Church of England)835,434901,701895,83934.633.731.3
Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined)364,098425,280449,97415.115.915.7
Protestant (undefined)45,10046,09037,4751.91.71.3
Christian (undefined)12,13021,54833,1870.50.81.2
Latter Day Saints17,97825,56429,7850.81.0x1.0
Salvation Army15,45417,73719,3710.60.70.7
Seventh Day Adventist8,2209,55110,4770.30.4x0.4
Jehovah's Witness5,9447,45510,3180.20.30.4
Church of Christ10,48510,3018,9300.40.40.3
Eastern Orthodox3,3283,6054,3190.10.10.2x
Assemblies of God1,0602,0283,599 0.10.1
Apostolic Church1,3991,8412,3610.10.10.1
Undenominational Christian2,1701,9681,9030.10.10.1
Christian Scientist3,7191,1618160.2––––
All other religious professions14,38623,49924,6940.60.90.9x
No religion (so returned)17,48632,78057,4850.71.22.0
Object to state204,056210,851247,0198.47.98.6
Not specified14,19819,300103,5330.60.73.6

The category recorded as “Object to state” represents those persons availing themselves of the special statutory right of objecting to answer a question on this subject. It is probable that the “Not specified” group includes a number of persons objecting to the question.

AGE DISTRIBUTION—Census age-group figures are shown in the following table. Estimates of age distribution for later years are published in the Monthly Abstract of Statistics.

Age (Years)1965 Census1971 CensusPercentage of Total Population
*Under 20 years.
0- 4156,954149,689306,643151,916145,946297,86211.510.4
5- 9152,816146,441299,257158,310151,494x309,80411.210.8
90 and over1,1702,2323.4021,4683,0664,5340.10.2
Under 15 years446,268426,131872,399464,512445,111909,62332.6x31.8
15-64 years802,118779,3091,581,427S62,495846,3461,708,84159.1x59.7
65 years and over95,357127,736223,093103,849140,318244,1678.38.5

ETHNIC GROUPS—The following table gives the broad ethnic origins of the population.

Ethnic GroupCensus
Other Origins—
    Pacific Islanders—
      Cook Island Maori4,4998,66313,772
      Niuean & Tokelauan1,7282,8465,459
            Sub-totals, Pacific Islanders14,34026,27145,413
    Syrian, Lebanese, and Arab1,101x1,099x1,126
    Other ethnic groups2,122x3,589x4,752
            Sub-totals, others16,67223,13728,524

COUNTRY OF BIRTH—From 1945 to 1961 the New Zealand-born population remained at about 86 percent of the total population; since 1966 the proportion has dropped slightly, mainly because increased numbers of New Zealanders have been overseas at census date and increased numbers of overseas tourists have been in New Zealand.

The following table classifies persons by country of birth.

Country of BirthCensus
New Zealand (excluding Cook Islands and Niue)2,074,5092,279,9942,444,169
United Kingdom218,649244,601247,952
Ireland (excluding Northern Ireland)8,8108,4487,456x
Pacific Islands—
    Cook Islands and Niue4,7887,85210,301
    Tokelau Islands....950
    Western Samoa4,4507,44712,354
China (inch Taiwan)4,1944,2184,252
United States2,7974,3066,133x
Other countries and born at sea28,56636,47043,588x

The next table shows the duration of residence in New Zealand of persons born overseas.

Years of Residence1961 Census1966 Census1971 Census
NumberPercentages Specified CasesNumberPercentages Specified CasesNumberPercentages Specified Cases
50 and over41,15512.344,67111.544,40711.0
Not specified5,972..7,379..12,919..

STATISTICS OF WORLD POPULATION—The area and estimated population of the major areas and selected countries at 1 July 1972 are shown in the following table. (Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1972.)

Major Areas and CountriesAreaPopulation
 sq km (000)million
    Major Areas
    World Total135,9063,782.0
Selected Countries
    South Africa1,22123.0
    Tanzania, United Republic of94514.0
    Zaire Republic2,34522.9
    United States9,363208.8
    Hong Kong14.1
    Khmer Republic1816.7
    Saudi Arabia2,1508.2
    Sri Lanka6613.0
    Ireland, Republic of703.0
    United Kingdom24455.8
    Yugoslavia, Republic of25620.8
    New Caledonia190.1
    New Zealand2692.9
    Papua-New Guinea4622.6

Chapter 4. Section 4VITAL STATISTICS


The rate of natural increase (excess of births over deaths) is important to national planning; along with net migration it is the major component of population growth. In recent years the rate of natural increase in New Zealand has been higher than for most other countries of predominantly European stock. The following table shows the numbers and rates of natural increase for the last 11 years, and emphasises the high rate for the Maori component of the population.

YearTotal PopulationMaorisNatural Increase Rates per 1,000 Mean Population
BirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseBirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseTotalMaori
197459,33625,26234,075   11.19 

In the 10 years to 31 December 1974 New Zealand gained by natural increase of population a total of 372,423.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—An international comparison of birth and natural increase rates for certain countries is made in the following table. The rates, which are for 1973 are taken from the United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.

CountryRate per 1,000 of Population
BirthsDeathsNatural Increase
*Rates for 1972.
New Zealand20.48.511.9
Hong Kong19.35.114.2
United States15.09.45.6
United Kingdom13.912.01.9
West Germany10.211.8-1.6


REGISTRATION—The law as to registration of births is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. A birth is normally registered at the office of the Registrar nearest the place of birth.

Births statistics are compiled by the Department of Statistics from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year. The figures do not include still births, except where multiple births are discussed. A special classification of still births is given later in this subsection.

Under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, provision is made for births not registered in the ordinary way to be recorded at a later date in a special register kept by the Registrar-General. Such cases include elderly people requiring evidence of age for social security purposes. Until 1971 these late registrations were included in published live-birth statistics but they are now excluded. The numbers were normally relatively small; in 1971 they totalled 244 and in 1972, 257. In 1973 they totalled 234.

NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table shows the numbers of births and the rates for the last 11 years.

YearNumbersRates per 1,000 of Mean Population

REFINED BIRTH RATE—"Crude" rates of the number of births per 1,000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age, do not take account of variations in the proportion of women of the child-bearing ages. Refined rates are provided by computations of the legitimate birth rate per 1,000 married women of 16-44 years of age, or the total births per 1,000 of all women aged 115-44 years. The following table gives both rates for census years (on the basis of the births registered in that year and the population as at the census) together with the “crude” rate for the year.

Census YearBirth Rate per 1,000 Women
Married Women 16-44 YearsTotal Women 15-44 Years"Crude" Birth Rate per 1.000 Mean Population

The percentage of married women in the child-bearing ages was 68.2 in 1966 compared with 51.6 in 1926. A study of the figures for successive censuses reveals considerable changes in the age constitution of married women within the child-bearing ages; as the birth rate varies with age, the change in age constitution over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.

The following diagram shows birth and death rates and indicates the relatively high rate of natural increase in New Zealand.

The period since the Second World War was marked by a high birth rate until 1961, when the level dropped; this experience was also shared by Australia, Canada, and the United States. In recent years the decline has continued at a slower rate and it appears probable that a state of relative stability is being reached.

CountryBirth Rate per 1,000 Mean Population
(Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics and Statistical Yearbook.)
New Zealand22.422.422.622.422.022.521.720.4
United States18.417.817.617.918.317.215.615.0

The decline of the birth rates over the period from 1961 has been the subject of discussion by demographers, notably at world population conferences. This change in fertility pattern has coincided in time with increasing use of oral contraceptives; their greater effectiveness in birth control appears to have had a significant influence on fertility. Demographers have emphasised the need for further research, stating that it is important to study demographic variables involved in the decline in the birth rate, including changes in age distribution, timing of marriage and birth, past success in achieving the desired family size, and changes in the desired number of children. It could well be that oral contraceptives have presented a practical method of implementing changes in fertility patterns considered desirable from both a social and economic point of view. They may well constitute a means to an end—the attainment of predetermined goals with regard to complete family size—rather than the causes in social altitudes. In New Zealand, considerable increases in the numbers of women in the child-bearing age groups have partially offset the declines in birth rates experienced during the last decade.

REPRODUCTION INDEX—The reproduction index is based on the fact that the future size of a population is related to the number of women in the reproductive age groups at any given time. The gross rate is based on the number of female children born, and the average number of girls that will be born to a woman during her reproductive period, while the net rate takes into account fertility rates at different ages and the percentages of female survivors at those ages, obtained from life tables. A net rate of 1.0 indicates zero population growth, and a higher rate a rising population.

Reproduction rates for the non-Maori population during the latest 11 years were as follows.

YearGross RateNet Rate

SEX OF CHILDREN BORN—Statistics for the latest 5 years are given in the following table.

YearNumber of Births ofMale Births per 1,000 Female Births

MULTIPLE BIRTHS—The number of cases of multiple births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total Give births only) during the latest 6 years are shown in the following table.

YearTotal BirthsTotal CasesCases of TwinsCases of TripletsMultiple Cases per 1,000 of Total Cases
*Includes one case of quadruplets.

There were 62,595 confinements in 1972 resulting in live births; of these, 607 produced multiple living births and in a further 12 cases 1 of the twins was still-born. The ratio of multiple confinements with live births to total live confinements was 1:101. In eleven additional cases both twins were still-born.

YearCases of TwinsCases of Triplets, Quads, and QuinsTotal Multiple CasesRate per 1,000 Confinements
Both Born AliveOne Born Alive One Still-bornBoth Still-bornTotalAll Born AliveOne Born Alive Two Still-bornTwo Born Alive One Still-bornAll Still-bornQuads, all AliveQuins, all AliveTotal
*The thirteen cases of triplets in 1972 comprised five cases where there were two females and one male; three cases where there were two males and one female; two cases all males; and three cases all females.
Average of 5 year6371776619-----967010.8

The likelihood of still births occurring is much greater in cases of multiple births than in single cases. This is exemplified in the following table. The figures in respect of multiple cases include all cases where one or more of the children were still-born.

YearStill-birth Cases per 100 of Total Cases (Including Still Births)
Single CasesMultiple Cases
Average of 5 years0.973.76

AGES OF PARENTS—Information as to the relative ages of parents of nuptial living children whose births were registered in 1972 is shown in the following table for the total population.

Registrations of births under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 are excluded.

Age of Father, in YearsAge of Mother, in Years
Under 2121-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-6465 and OverTotal Cases
*Including 13 cases of triplets and 11 cases where 1 of twins was still-born.
single Births
Under 212,5274,1751,012155311082117,922
45 and over----2534124158
Multiple Births
Under 211332102-----57
45 and over-----------
            Grand Totals2,91811,63318,89811,6154,8552,243772246801253,272*

PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS—The following table gives for 1972 the number of previous issue, i.e., children born alive, in conjunction with the age of mother.

Age of Mother in YearsNumber of Previous IssueTotal Nuptial Cases
0123456-910-1415 and Over
*This number represents 52,725 single cases and 547 multiple cases.
Under 215,9321,85018512-----7,979
45 and over1055777123258

In the following table the total issue and average issue are shown for mothers by age groups where a birth occurred in 1972.

Age of Mother in YearsTotal MothersTotal IssueAverage Issue
Under 217,97910,2931.29
45 and over583125.38

It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz., the average number of children (including those registered in 1972) born up to the present time to those mothers of nuptial children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue born to the existing marriages only. The averages for recent years have been as follows: 1967, 2.57; 1968, 2.53; 1969, 2.50; 1970, 2.44; 1971, 2.36; and 1972, 2.29.

FIRST BIRTHS—Statistics of nuptial first confinements show that in recent years there have been reduced proportions occurring within 1 year after marriage and within 2 years after marriage.

YearTotal Nuptial CasesTotal Nuptial First CasesProportion of First Cases to Total CasesFirst Cases Within 1 Year After MarriageFirst Cases Within 2 Years After Marriage
NumberProportion to Total First CasesNumberProportion to Total First Cases
   percent percent percent

The following table gives the duration-of-marriage factor in first confinements over a longer time-series. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern births of non-Maoris only.

Duration of Marriage, in YearsPercentage of Total First Confinements
Under 146.2538.4742.6449.8541.3841.6638.41
10 and over1.111.530.940.860.530.510.46

In the following table first confinements occurring to mothers in different age groups are expressed as a percentage of the total first confinements. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern confinements of non-Maoris only.

Age of Mother, in YearsPercentage of Total First Confinements
Under 208.907.339.0819.6420.4520.6520.53
45 and over0.

The average ages of mothers at the birth of their first child were as follows: 1924, 26.39; 1934, 25.90; 1944, 25.18; 1954, 25.32; 1964, 23.65; 1969, 23.42; 1970, 23.46; 1971, 23.40; and 1972, 22.99 years.

EX-NUPTIAL BIRTHS—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the latest 10 years, with the percentages they bear to total births registered, are given in the following table. The percentages in recent years are higher than those for Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States but lower than those for Sweden. Meaningful international comparisons can only be made with caution; some of the difficulties are discussed in a supplement to the January 1967 issue of the Monthly Abstract of Statistics. Unmarried mothers are not infrequently de facto wives with comparatively stable relationships.

YearNumberPercentage of Total Live Births
*Excludes registrations under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.

The long-term trend in the rate of ex-nuptial births is indicated by the movement in the proportion of ex-nuptial births per 1,000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters, widows, and divorced women—at the reproductive ages. The figures for census years are as follows. Up to 1961 the statistics relate to non-Maoris only; from 1966 Maoris are included.

Census YearUnmarried Women 15-44 Years of AgeEx-nuptial BirthsEx-nuptial Birth Rate per 1,000 Unmarried Women

In 1972 the total number of ex-nuptial confinements was 9,323, of these 9,251 cases were single births, 71 were twins, while there was 1 case of twins in which 1 child was still-born. The total number of ex-nuptial live births was 9,394. From the following table, it will be seen that of the 9,323 mothers, 4,912 or 52.69 percent, were under 21 years of age.

AgeNumber of Mothers
45 and over6

Re-registration*—An ex-nuptial child whose parents have later married may be re-registered from birth by reason of such marriage. Applications for registration must be made within 3 months after the date of the marriage.

The numbers of re-registrations in each of the latest 5 years were as follows: 1968,1,310; 1969, 1,386; 1970, 1,513; 1971, 1,749; 1972, 1,619; 1973, 1,482.

The Children and Young Persons Act 1974 requires that all ex-nuptial births be notified to a social worker so that inquiries may be made concerning the circumstances of each mother and child for the purpose of offering advice and assistance.

*Was formerly known as Legitimation, but name was changed when the Status of Children Act 1969 was introduced.

The following table shows the outcome of the inquiries made in recent years. Inquiries relate to some births from the preceding year and do not cover all births in the year stated.

Location of Infants197119721973
Re-registered after marriage of parents336431342744
Remaining with mother (parents co habiting)1,855231,881242,03724
Remaining with mother (parents not cohabiting)2,178272,293302,45529
Placed with relatives319425032984
Placed with strangers with view to adoption2,409302,128281,88322
Placed with strangers, no expressed wish to adoption1161971731
In children's home or other institution on a long-term basis46159136-
Committed to care of Social Welfare34-36-34-
Not traced738952371,21014

ADOPTIONS—The following table shows the number of adoptions which have been registered during the latest 5 years.


Of the 3,524 adoptions registered in 1973, 1,648 were children under the age of 1 year, 1,203 were aged 1 to 4 years, 428 were aged 5 to 9 years, and 245 were aged 10 years or over.

In 1972, for the first time for many years, there was a substantial drop in the number of adoption orders made by the Court and this was followed by a further drop in 1973. Of the 3,524 adoptions finalised in 1973, social workers of the Social Welfare Department were concerned with 3,088 or 88 percent. Maori welfare officers handled most of the others.

The following table, which relates only to cases handled by the department, shows the number and status of children adopted over the last 4 years.

Status of Children Adopted1970197119721973
*These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.
Not known*36516986

In 1973, 83 percent of the children adopted were born out of wedlock. Of these children born out of wedlock, 86 percent were aged less than one year at the time of placement for adoption. Sixty-five percent were placed with strangers.

The next table shows the age at placement according to the status of the children adopted in 1973.

AgeNuptialEx-nuptialNot KnownTotal
*These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.
Under 1 year2952,36482,667
1-5 years409715152
6 years and over53131278
Not known*637751191

The following table shows the original relationship between adopted children and their new parents.

One parent and spouse738801770
Relative or close friend317343318

STILL BIRTHS—Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. Particulars of causes of still births will be found in Section 4C relating to deaths. A still-born child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. Still births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths. The rate was 0.84 per 100 births in 1974.

The registration of still births during each of the latest 5 years were as follows.

YearMale Still BirthsFemale Still BirthsTotalMale Still Births per 1,000 Female Still BirthsPercentage of Still Births to
Living BirthsAll Births
1974  503  0.84

The percentage of ex-nuptial births among still-born infants in 1972 was 16.49, and among infants born alive, 14.86.

Of the total of 643 still births in 1972, 552 were non-Maori and 91 Maori; of the Maori total 48 were males and 43 females.


NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table sets out the numbers of deaths and the crude death rates per 1,000 of mean population. (Maoris are defined as persons with half or more Maori ancestry and the term non-Maori covers all other persons.)

YearNumbersCrude Rate per 1,000 of Mean Population
197423,9881,27325,262  8.30

The chief merit of the crude death rate is that it is easily calculated, requiring only the number of deaths and the size of the population “at risk”. However, it is very misleading when comparisons arc being made between two or more populations with different age-structures, such as the Maori and non-Maori populations of New Zealand. The Maori population is a “young” one, with a high proportion of children and young people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally very low, and relatively few elderly people in those age groups in which the death rate is normally high. The non-Maori population is older, with a considerably smaller proportion of children and young people and a larger proportion of elderly people. The result is that a comparison of crude death rates gives a false picture of Maori mortality as compared with non-Maori.

In the following table for 1966 adjustments made to effect a truer comparison show that mortality for Maoris is relatively higher than for non-Maoris; in addition, a comparison is supplied in age-specific rates for the two races in each sex.

RaceAll Ages Rates per 10,000 Mean PopulationAge-specific Rates per 10,000 of Population at Ages
Crude RateMaori Rate Adjusted to Non-Maori PopulationUnder 5 Years5-14 Years15-24 Years25-44 Years45-64 Years65 Years and Over
Both Sexes

For both Maoris and non-Maoris the death rate in males exceeds the death rate in females by a considerable margin. The following table sets out the respective crude rates for each sex separately for the latest 11 years in the total population.

YearDeaths per 1,000 of Mean PopulationMale Deaths to Every 100 Female Deaths

DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR—In 1973 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were September, August, and July, with totals of 2,433, 2,426, and 2,305 respectively. Excluding December (a proportion of deaths occurring in that month not being registered till January), November had the least number of deaths, 1,755, followed by February with 1,768.

AGES AT DEATH—Deaths registered during the year 1973 are shown according to age in the following table.

Age, in YearsMalesFemalesTotal
Under 1591394985
1- 4132104236
5- 97948127
100 and over72128

The Maori population is a very young one compared with the non-Maori and as a result there is a considerable variation in the proportions of deaths of Maoris and non-Maoris which take place at various ages. The following table illustrates the position for the year 1973.

Age, in YearsNumber of DeathsPercentage of Total Deaths
Non-MaoriMaoriNon-MaoriMaoriPercentage of Maori Deaths in Total Deaths per Age Group
Under 51,0331884.3213.6215.40
65 and over15,94839966.6428.922.44
            All ages23,9321,380100.00100.005.45

In the following table is given a time series for rates of death per 1,000 of mean population by age groups. Health measures have achieved an immense saving of young life and a prolongation of life especially among elderly women.

YearUnder 1*1-45-1415-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465-7475 and Over

*Per 1,000 live births in this case.

†Non-Maori figures only as Maori deaths at ages not available for these years

(Rates per 1,000 of mean population in each age group)
Both Sexes

The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of non-Maori persons of each sex is shown in the following table.

 age (years)

The average age of death of Maoris in 1973 was 45.45 and 48.32 years for males and females respectively. The age composition of the Maori population is quite different as explained previously.

EXPECTATION OF LIFE—Life tables, depicting the pattern of mortality over the age span of life for particular calendar periods for the non-Maori component of New Zealand's population, have been constructed at regular intervals since 1880. The most recent tables prepared by the Department of Statistics are based on the 1971 population census, together with mortality statistics for 1970-72.

Life tables contain a measure of the degree of longevity of the population called the “expectation of life”. The expectation of life at any age is the average remaining lifetime for persons of this age, assuming that mortality rates at each age continue at the level shown by the life table. The life expectancy at selected ages at the present time, for the non-Maori population in New Zealand, is shown in the table below. The overall longer span of life enjoyed by females, compared with males, is evident. Further details concerning life table methodology and construction and trends in New Zealand life expectancies can be obtained from New Zealand Life Tables 1970-72.

Exact Age (Years)Life Expectancy (Years)

The long-term trend since 1880 for non-Maoris has been a steady improvement in life expectancy for both sexes. The improvement has been striking for the younger ages but relatively small for the advanced ages. Progress in medical science, coupled with improved social conditions, has resulted in substantial reductions in mortality for all ages up to middle age. This trend has continued up to 1970-72 for females, but the decline in male mortality between 1965-67 and 1970-72 was not sufficient to offset the increase between 1960-62 and 1965-67, and male life expectancy has not returned to the 1960-62 level. The following table displays the life expectancy for non-Maoris revealed by each life table compiled since 1880 for the three exact ages of 0, 20, and 60 years.

Life TableLife Expectancy (Years)
Males Aged ExactlyFemales Aged Exactly

The expectation of life at various ages for the Maori population is shown in the following table. These expectations are token from New Zealand Life Tables 1970-72.

Exact Age (Years)Life Expectancy (Years)

Life expectancy at birth for Maori males decreased by 0.48 years between 1965-67 and 1970-72 while that for Maori females increased by 0.18 years. This is the first time that a decline in Maori male life expectancy has been experienced in the history of Maori life tables—first produced in 1950-52. It can be attributed to increased mortality in most ages resulting from a greater number of fatal accidents and a higher incidence of cancer. A similar decline in life expectancy was experienced by non-Maori males between 1960-62 and 1965-67, while similar trends were evident in some other western countries about this time.

The expectation of life of Maoris is shorter than that of non-Maoris at al! except the highest ages. A comparison at age 0 shows that life expectancy is 8.13 years greater for non-Maori males and 10.20 years greater for non-Maori females. For the period 1965-67, the differences were 7.23 years and 10.06 years respectively.

The table below compares the life expectancy at birth for the total population of New Zealand with that for selected overseas countries. (Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook.)

CountryPeriodLife Expectancy at Birth (Years)

*White population only.

†Both sexes.

England and Wales1969-7168.8075.10
New Zealand1970-7268.5574.60
United States*1,96966.8075.10

REGISTRATION OF DEATH, BURIAL AND CREMATION—Deaths are required to be registered by the funeral director within 3 days after the day of burial. The law governing burial and cremation in New Zealand is found in the Burial and Cremation Act 1964. The registration by local authorities of funeral directors and mortuaries operated by them is provided for in the Health (Burial) Regulations 1946. Local authorities are charged with ensuring that adequate provision exists for the disposal of the dead. Cremation may be carried out if the deceased is not known to have left any written direction to the contrary.

The rate of cremation for every 100 deaths registered has more than doubled since 1950. The following table relates cremations to the number of deaths since 1950. Prior to 1965 the statistics concern deaths of non-Maoris only.

YearDeaths RegisteredCremationsRate per 100 Deaths Registered

Numbers and rates of cremations for statistical areas in 1973 are shown in the following table.

Statistical AreaDeaths RegisteredCremationsRate per 100 Deaths Registered
Central Auckland6,2991,8551,5953,45054.77
South Auckland - Bay of Plenty3,2256374531,09033.80
East Coast42437246114.39
Hawke's Bay1,27925323648938.23

DEATHS BY CAUSES—The accuracy of death data even in medically certified deaths will be affected by two factors—the proportion of deaths in hospitals where diagnostic equipment is available and the proportion of deaths in which a post-mortem report is available for reference.

In recent years in approximately one-third of all deaths, a post mortem was conducted. In the cases of deaths certified by doctors, 19 percent of non-Maori and 11 percent of Maori deaths were followed by an autopsy. In the cases certified by coroners almost all deaths are subject to autopsy.

The Eighth (1965) Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death replaced the Seventh (1955) Revision with effect from 1 January 1968.

Total deaths and the rates per million of total population for the latest 3 years, classified according to the Abbreviated List of 50 Causes for Tabulation of Mortality, are contained in the following table. Certain diseases (plague, smallpox, typhus, and malaria) are not listed in the table as there were no deaths from these causes in the years shown.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate per Million of Mean Population
Typhoid fever--1---
Bacillary dysentery and amoebiasis11----
Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases695053241818
Tuberculosis of respiratory system552739201013
Other tuberculosis, including late effects484452171618
Whooping cough-13--1
Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever-1-----
Meningococcal infection1133411
Syphilis and its sequelae9810333
All other infective and parasitic diseases718397252933
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue4,4604,4864,5261,5821,5911,552
Benign neoplasms and neoplasms of unspecified nature383732131311
Diabetes mellitus366372459130132157
Avitaminosis and other nutritional deficiency1544511
Active rheumatic fever254121
Chronic rheumatic heart disease2942492631048890
Hypertensive disease387354400137126137
Ischaemic heart disease6,7886,9327,1002,4072,4592,434
Other forms of heart disease905881624321312214
Cerebrovascular disease3,2133,3103,4471,1401,1741,182
Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma1,0239871,030363350353
Peptic ulcer117107130413845
Intestinal obstruction and hernia909095323233
Cirrhosis of liver107104125383743
Nephritis and neophrosis9612895344533
Hyperplasia of prostate666739232413
Other complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium, delivery without mention of complication19149753
Congenital anomalies320303308113107106
Birth injury, difficult labour and other anoxic and hypoxic conditions148176163526256
Other causes of perinatal mortality327332291116118100
Symptoms and ill-defined conditions146104125523743
All other diseases2,0201,8642,133716661731
Motor vehicle accidents649674719230239247
All other accidents937895904332317310
Suicide and self-inflicted injuries271237262968490
All other external causes595149211817

In a variety of conditions and in external causes of death the mortality rate for Maoris is very much higher than the non-Maori experience. Much of this disparity is concealed, however, by crude rates which are calculated by dividing the total population into the number of deaths from any particular disease or circumstance. With two populations so very dissimilar in age structure (at ages under 5 years non-Maoris are seven times more numerous than Maoris, but at ages 75 years and upward they are 85 times as numerous), it is necessary to resort to an adjustment of Maori rates so that the figures for any condition become directly comparable in any particular year. This has been done in the following table by firstly calculating age-specific rates for the Maori and then applying these to the non-Maori population, age group to age group. This computation provides an "expected" number of Maori deaths in each age group and these added together and then divided by the non-Maori population give an adjusted rate. In addition to the rates expressed per million of population the absolute numbers of deaths in the two races are furnished for the same 50 causes.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRates per Million of Population (Non-Maori: Crude Rate—Maori: Adjusted Rate)
Typhoid fever---1----
Bacillary dysentery and amoebiasis1-------
Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases3218381512491465
Tuberculosis of respiratory system16112910612811100
Other tuberculosis, including late effects331140121311415142
Whooping cough1-21--13
Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever1-------
Meningococcal infection3-211-13
Syphilis and its sequelae6282225319
All other infective and parasitic diseases65188017251143092
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue4,2842024,3092171,6502,5501,6072,868
Benign neoplasms and neoplasms of unspecified nature35227513391049
Diabetes mellitus3343842138129543157480
Avitaminosis and other nutritional deficiency4-4-2-1-
Active rheumatic fever323116111
Chronic rheumatic heart disease21633219448334282434
Hypertensive disease3233135842124440134561
Ischaemic heart disease6,6912416,8492512,5773,9512,5553,612
Other forms of heart disease8414058044324708216747
Cerebrovascular disease3,231793,369781,2441,3521,2571,034
Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma90978959713501,314358987
Peptic ulcer1016124639904696
Intestinal obstruction and hernia83788732713351
Cirrhosis of liver995116938524385
Nephritis and nephrosis112168411431263165
Hyperplasia of prostate64337225651456
Other complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, delivery without mention of complication131815536
Congenital anomalies273302713710598101132
Birth injury, difficult labour and other anoxic and hypoxic conditions140361392454945261
Other causes of perinatal mortality27953257341071399687
Symptoms and ill-defined conditions96812053710645115
All other diseases1,7441202,0201136721,4227541,150
Motor vehicle accidents569105606113219585226563
All other accidents8039284361309713314387
Suicide and self-inflicted injuries2325255789349516
All other external causes42942716651634

Age-specific rates and Maori age-adjusted rates have been published for a comprehensive list of diseases in Maori-European Standards of Health, one of a series of special reports issued by the Department of Health.

The comparatively poor state of health of the Maori is shown by the excess in the Maori adjusted rates for most diseases. As can be seen in the table, the absolute numbers of Maoris dying from any cause of death is small. This is because the Maori population has a high proportion of young people, and most diseases which cause death develop at the older ages.

The susceptibility of the Maori to epidemic and communicable disease is well known. Again there is a Maori excess mortality in cancer and diabetes. The disparity is also very noticeable in acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease; in certain other forms of degenerative heart disease and hypertension; in both acute and chronic chest conditions, and in gastro-intestinal and kidney infections. Recent health surveys have indicated that an inclination towards overnutrition, combined with a racial predisposition to excess weight, may underlie the early development of degenerative conditions and the high incidence of metabolic disorders.

In addition to the greater susceptibility to disease processes, the Maori shows a much higher accident rate. Especially accident prone is the Maori child and young adult, while proportionately many more Maoris are involved in road fatalities.

Cancer—Cancer is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than any other cause except diseases of the heart. While it is most prevalent in middle and old age, cancer is a leading cause of death at all ages, even among children and adolescents.

A detailed report on cancer mortality and morbidity in New Zealand was issued in 1974 by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health. This report covers mortality from cancer from 1970 to 1971, and also surveys all cases reported to the National Cancer Registry by hospitals and by the various cancer clinics established in New Zealand under the auspices of the Cancer Society of New Zealand.

Attention is drawn to the transference, under the 1948 Revision of the International Classification, of Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, etc., into the category of malignant disease. This classification was introduced in New Zealand in 1950, and all cancer figures quoted for that and subsequent years include these conditions*.

In 1972 there were 4,526 deaths from cancer, of which 217 were Maori. While the 1972 non-Maori crude cancer death rate of 160.7 was much higher than the Maori crude rate of 92.0 (both per 100,000 of population), these figures are misleading as a measure of the incidence of malignant disease in the two groups. When allowance is made for the comparatively few persons in the Maori population at older ages where cancer is most frequently diagnosed, it is seen that Maori cancer mortality is markedly higher than non-Maori cancer mortality. This fact is no indication at all that in general the Maori is more prone to cancer (in cancers of the intestines in both sexes and in two sites in the Maori female, the cervix and the lung, the incidence appears to be higher), but that there is more delay in reporting the symptoms of cancer by Maoris and that more cancer in Maoris goes untreated.

*The 1965 Revision of the International Classification transferred Polycythaemia Vera and Myelofibrosis into the malignant categories but these are not included in cancer figures

A summary of numbers, crude rates, and standardised mortality ratios is provided in the following table.

YearNumber of Deaths from CancerCrude Death Rate per 100,000Standardised Mortality RatiosNumber of Deaths from CancerCrude Death Rate per 100,000Standardised Mortality Ratios*
*Base years 1950-52= 100.

The standardised mortality ratio shows the number of deaths registered in the year of experience expressed as a percentage of those which would have been expected in that year had there operated the sex-age mortality of a standard period (the 3 years 1950-52 were chosen). The standardised mortality ratio has been adopted to eliminate the distorting effect of the changes which take place over a period in the age structure of the population. The standardised mortality ratio for males has risen from 99 in the year 1950, to 101 in 1960 and 121 in 1972. This would indicate that there has been a real increase in the death toll in the male sex and this, as discussed ater, is mainly attributable to the rise in lung cancer. The mean standardised mortality ratio for females has fluctuated between 97 in 1950 and 99 in 1972.

A classification of cancer deaths during 1972 according to age subdivisions, ethnic origin, and sex is now given. Ninety-two percent of deaths from cancer during 1972 were at ages 45 and upwards, and 58 percent were at ages 65 years and upwards.

Age Group, in YearsRaceDeaths of MalesDeaths of Females
NumbersRate per 100,000 of Population at AgesPercentage of Total Deaths at AgesNumbersRate per 100,000 of Population at AgesPercentage or Total Deaths at Ages
*All ages crude rate.
Under 5Non-Maori128.92.01410.83.3
15-24Non Maori2410.26.7146.210.9
65 and overNon-Maori1,3621,309.617.71.180835.314.6
            All ages Non-Maori2,288170.9*18.32,021150.618.5 

Cancer contributes substantially to the total of non-Maori deaths at all ages. In the non-Maori female from 25 to 64 years one death in three is a cancer death and for males the proportion is one death in five.

For Maoris the proportions of cancer deaths to total deaths are very much lower than for non-Maoris, by reason that the competing risks from other diseases are so very much higher.

A summary of all cancer deaths occurring in New Zealand during 1972 by location of the disease is shown in the following table. Figures by site for Maoris have not been separated as the numbers are so small for most sites. Rates for Maoris tend to be higher in cancers involving the digestive tract, the respiratory organs, and the female genital organs.

Site of DiseaseNumbersRates per Million of Mean Population
Buccal cavity and pharynx472067321423
Intestine, except rectum227286513156196176
Lung, bronchus, and trachea636172808436118277
Bone and connective tissue202848141916
Cervix, uterus-8484-5829
Other and unspecified parts of uterus-7474-5125
All other and unspecified sites5125431,055351372362
Leukaemia and aleukaemia136124260938589
Lymphosarcoma and other neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue10360163714156

There is considerable variation in the numbers and rates for different sites in both males and females. The site principally involved in the male is the lung and bronchus and one male cancer death in every four relates to this site. Cancer of the stomach is very much more common in the male than the female but the position is reversed in cancer involving the intestines. The leading site in the female is the breast, which contributes one-fifth to total female cancer deaths.

The world-wide phenomenal increase over the last 30 years in cancer of the lung and bronchus (excluding trachea and pleura) is accepted as being associated with cigarette smoking and atmospheric pollution. The following table shows the increase in deaths from cancer of this site in each group and in each sex over the latest 11 years.

YearNumber of Deaths from Cancer of Lung and BronchusCrude Rate per 100,000 of Mean Population

The crude rates for the Maori conceal the true relative incidence of lung cancer. Adjusted to the non-Maori population structure, the Maori rates exceed the non-Maori rates, the greatest margin being in the female.

While cancer is undoubtedly increasing in numerical incidence it is not doing so out of proportion to the population exposed to the cancer risk. The following table shows the movement in the standardised mortality ratio, the standard population employed being that of New Zealand 1950-52.

Buccal cavity and pharynx598877876469
Large intestine, except rectum111126117888990
Biliary passages and liver125157150789698
Lung, bronchus and trachea211241221177162312
Skin (including melanoma)117141155142128122
Uterus, all parts---716974
Ovary, fallopian tube---97111121
Bladder, urinary organs11310712993104145
Brain, nervous system110142155 81161
Lymphosarcoma and reticulo-sarcoma9211313511510487
Hodgkin's disease14811013512211682
Leukaemia and aleukaemia112120118131129151

The upward trend in the total male cancer death toll can be ascribed chiefly to the steep rise in lung and bronchus cancer, already commented upon. Lung cancer among females showed a substantial rise in the 1966-68 period, but has declined again in more recent years.

Heart Disease—Heart disease is still the leading cause of death in New Zealand, but the mortality rate has dropped a little in each of the latest five years for which figures are available, from 31.7 per 10,000 population in 1968 to 28.5 in 1972. However, when allowance is made for the general ageing of the population by employing the standardised mortality ratio it is seen that, although a rise to 6 percent above the 1950-52 level occurred in males in 1968, there was a fall of 7 percent to below the 1950-52 level again by 1972. The female rate in 1971 and 1972 was 30 percent below the 1950-52 level used as the standard for the mortality ratio.

A disease phenomenon of recent years has been the rapid increase in deaths assigned to coronary heart disease, and in 1972 no less than 28 percent of all deaths were due to this single disease entity. During the 10 years from 1962 to 1972 there was a rise of 23 percent for males and 41 percent for females in this form of heart disease. It is a matter of conjecture as to whether the real incidence of coronary heart disease in the community has risen to this extent or whether it is due, in part at least, to increased recognition of the condition.

The numbers of deaths and standard mortality ratios for heart disease, excluding acute rheumatic forms and congenital malformations, for the last 11 years are tabled for a series of years, males and females separately.

YearAll Forms of Heart DiseaseCoronary Heart Disease
NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*NumberStandardised Mortality Ratio*
*Base years 1950-52 = 100.

Coronary heart disease is predominantly a disease of old age in both sexes, although among men appreciable numbers of deaths occur in middle age. There are marked differences in the mortality from the disease both between men and women, and between non-Maoris and Maoris.

The following table averages both the numbers and the age-specific rates for coronary heart disease in both non-Maoris and Maoris over the 5 years 1968-72.

RaceAges 35 to 44 YearsAges 45 to 54 YearsAges 55 to 64 YearsAges 65 Years and Over
Average Number of Deaths Each YearAverage Rate per 10,000 of Population at AgesAverage Number of Deaths Each YearAverage Rate per 10,000 of Population at AgesAverage Number of Deaths Each YearAverage Rate per 10,000 of Population at AgesAverage Number of Deaths Each YearAverage Rate per 10,000 of Population at Ages

For non-Maoris at ages 35 to 44 years male coronary heart disease rates exceed female rates by over 4 to 1, the ratio decreasing as age advances to a ratio of under 2 to 1 at ages 65 years and upwards.

The absolute numbers of Maori deaths from the disease are small but when related to the population at risk produce fairly similar rates to the non-Maori population in the male sex.

Maori women have a very much greater chance of dying from a coronary condition than non-Maori women, the risk being over twice as great at ages 35 to 44 years, almost four times greater at ages 45 to 54 years and twice as great at ages 55 to 64 years. Hypertensive forms of heart disease are also very much more common in Maori women in middle age, while both sexes in the Maori have a higher mortality from rheumatic valvular heart disease.

INFANT MORTALITY—Infant mortality concerns deaths of children under 1 year of age. Statistics for non-Maoris and Maoris are given in the following table.

YearNumbersRates per 1.000 of Live Births

Male rates of infant loss are about 41 percent above female rates and this tends to counterbalance the male excess in births.

When international infant death rates are compared it is seen that Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates in the world. The following table sets out the rates for a number of countries in 1972. It is pointed out, however, that definitions and practices are not precisely alike in all countries.

CountryDeaths Under 1 Year per 1,000 Live Births in 1972

(Source: World Health Statistics Report, Vol. 26, No. 12.)

*1971 Rates.

New Zealand16.5
England and Wales17.3
Germany (East)22.8
United States18.5
Germany (West)17.7

One out of every six infant deaths is a Maori infant death and the Maori rate of loss is nearly 50 percent higher than the non-Maori. The excess in the Maori rate is largely due to infants who die between the end of the fourth week of life and the first birthday. This is illustrated in the following table showing numbers and rates of infant deaths by race and age for the year 1972.

RaceUnder 1 Day1 Day and Under 1 Week1 Week and Under 28 DaysTotal Under 28 Days28 Days and Under 12 MonthsTotal Under 1 Year
All races30924483636351987
Rates per 1,000 Live Births
All races4.93.91.310.15.615.6

The explanation of the higher rate for Maoris between the twenty-eighth day and the end of the first year is the susceptibility of the Maori baby in its home environment to forms of infection such as gastro-enteritis and pneumonia.

The infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births for the two sexes combined at different periods during the first year of life are now given for a series of years.

Under 1 Day1 Day and Under 2 Days2 Days and Under 1 Week1 Week and Under 28 Days28 Days and Under 12 MonthsUnder 1 Day1 Day and Under 2 Days2 Days and Under 1 Week1 Week and Under 28 Days28 Days and Under 12 Months
19635. 517.5

The following diagram illustrates infant mortality rates.

Causes of Infant Mortality—Deaths from the principal causes of infant mortality and the rate per 1,000 live births, are shown in the following table for 1972.

Cause of DeathNumber of DeathsRate per 1,000 Live Births
Influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis89301191.63.81.9
Gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, also dysentery1213250.21.70.4
Congenital anomalies178201983.22.53.1
Neonatal disorders arising from certain diseases of the mother7812901.41.51.4
Birth injury, difficult labour, and other anoxic and hypoxic conditions4810580.91.30.9
Asphyxia of newborn unspecified296350.50.80.6
Haemolytic disease of newborn11-110.2-0.2
Hyaline membrane disease324360.50.60.6
Immaturity and multiple pregnancy4611570.81.40.9
All other causes304543585.56.95.7
Total infant deaths82716098714.920.315.6

PERINATAL MORTALITY—Perinatal deaths comprise still births and deaths in the first week of life. Numbers and rates are shown in the following table. The still births and the perinatal mortality rate are calculated per 1,000 total births (still births plus live births), while the death rate for the first week of life is calculated per 1,000 live births.

Still births6486489.910.29.910.110.810.1
Deaths under 1 week5965538.911.
            Perinatal deaths1,2441,20118.721.419.108.719.418.8

MATERNAL DEATHS—Improvements in the standard of antenatal care and obstetrical skill, as well as advances in medical science, have reduced the numbers of deaths from septic abortion, puerperal sepsis, and toxaemia, and deaths from complications of childbirth are few. Maternal deaths during the latest 3 years are given in the following table.

Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and toxaemia unspecified4-3
Complications of—

DEATHS FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES—Deaths from external causes, apart from suicide, claim approximately 6 percent of the total deaths and again the Maori rate is higher than the non-Maori. The following table shows deaths from external causes for the 3 latest years classified according to the Intermediate List of the 1965 Revision of the Intermediate Classification. In this table, falls on board ship and from horseback are included as transport fatalities.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate per Million of Mean Population
*Includes drowning from water transport.
Motor-vehicle accidents649674719230235247
Other transport accidents434233151511
Accidental poisoning54412019147
Accidental falls440454527156158181
Accidents caused by machinery38442713159
Accidents caused by fire and explosion of combustible material332836121012
Accidents caused by hot substance, corrosive liquid, steam, and radiation477122
Accidents caused by firearms191712764
Accidental drowning and submersion*147135108524737
All other accidental causes118118116424140
Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons (not in war)34253012910

Drownings are a leading cause of accidental death in New Zealand. Included in the preceding table for 1972 are 39 deaths from drowning due to accidents in water transport.

Transport Accidents—The number and rate of deaths resulting from railway, motor vehicle, and aircraft accidents during each of the last 11 years are as follows. Road accidents are further analysed in the section on Roads and Road Transport.

YearDeaths Due to AccidentRate per 10,000 of Mean Population
RailwayMotor VehicleAircraftRailwayMotor VehicleAircraft

Non-transport Accidents—The 1965 Revision of the International List makes provision for non-transport accidents (excluding therapeutic misadventure in treatment, complications following vaccination or inoculation, and late effects of injury and poisoning) to be grouped according to the place where the accident or poisoning occurred. The following table shows the deaths, both numbers and rates, for the latest 3 years, according to this classification.

Place of OccurrenceNumberRate per Million of Mean Population
Home (including home premises and vicinity and any non-institutional place of residence)328350392116122134
Farm (including buildings and land under cultivation, but excluding farm and home premises)535837192013
Mine and quarry1246412
Industrial place and premises283230101110
Place for recreation and sport5614122084
Street and highway192216775
Public building (building used by the general public or a particular group of the public)111317456
Resident institution (homes, hospitals, etc.)142139142504949
Other specified places10093113353239
Place not specified575768202023

Approximately 47 percent of fatal non-transport accidents occur in or about the home.

Falls are the chief cause of home fatalities, exacting a heavy toll of the aged and infirm. This is clearly illustrated in a special report on domestic accidents issued by the Department of Health in 1970. Another important cause of death in the home is asphyxia from regurgitation of food and inhalation of other objects, or mechanically from pillows and bedclothes; this is the principal hazard of the first 6 months of life, though a proportion of these deaths is probably due to some undisclosed and 2 years of age who fall into rivers, creeks, and ponds in the vicinity of the home.

Accidents with tractors are the main feature of fatalities on farms. Later sections deal with statistics of industrial and farm accidents.

Water Accidents—The following table shows drowning 1973.

LocationsAge in Years
Under 55-1516-3031-50Over 50Totals*

*Includes victims of unspecified age.

† Public and Private.

Boating accidents151512437
Rivers and streams916104544
Seas and beaches1454420*
Pools, ponds, troughs, sheep dips41---5
Lakes and lagoons116--8
Household bath1----1
Swimming pools and baths571-114

Suicide—The were 255 suicidal deaths of non-Maoris in 1972-170 males and 85 females—the death rate per 100,000 of population being 12.7 for males and 6.3 for females. For Maoris there were 7 suicidal deaths—3 males and 4 females—the death rates per 100,000 of population being 2.5 for males and 3.4 for females.

Rates per 100,000 of population showing the age distributions, averaged over the years 1970 to 1972, are shown next for the total population, by age groups.

SexAge Group (Years)

These figures show the typical increase in the suicide rates with increasing age and the fall in the rates after the age of 75.

The next table presents the average, over 3-yearly periods, and most recent years, of standardised mortality ratios of suicides, standardised on years 1950-52 = 100.

Annual Average DuringMalesFemales


GENERAL—Marriage may be solemnised in New Zealand either by a minister included in the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act 1955, or before a duly appointed Registrar or Deputy Registrar of Marriages. A licence must be obtained from a Registrar of Marriages before a marriage by an officiating minister can be solemnised. Marriage by an officiating minister may be solemnised at any time between 6 o'clock in the morning and 8 o'clock in the evening. Marriage before a Registrar can be solemnised at any time during the hours the office of the Registrar is open for the transaction of public business; notice of intended marriage must be given to a Registrar of Marriages by one of the parties to the proposed marriage.

In the case of a person under 20 years of age, not being a widow or widower, the consent of parents or guardian is necessary. Consent of a Magistrate may be sought in cases of refusal by any person whose consent is required.

Since 1933 the minimum age for marriage has been 16 years of age. No marriage shall be deemed to be void, however, by reason only of an infringement of the minimum age.

Since 1 April 1952 it has been required under the Maori Purposes Act 1951 that every marriage to which a Maori is a party shall be solemnised in the same manner, and its validity shall be determined by the same law, as if each of the parties was a non-Maori.

Particulars regarding divorce will be found later in this subsection.

NUMBERS AND RATES—The numbers of marriages and rates during the last 21 years are now given.

YearNumberRate per 1,000 of Population

Comparison with Other Countries—Marriage rates for certain countries for 1973 are given below. (Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.)

CountryRate per 1,000 Mean Population
*Figures relate to 1972.
Germany, East8.1
Germany, West6.4
Ireland, Republic7.5
New Zealand8.8
United Kingdom8.6*
United States10.9

MARITAL STATUS PRIOR TO MARRIAGE—The following table gives marital status prior to marriage for the latest 5 years.

YearSingleWidowedDivorcedTotal Persons Married

The nature of the marriage according to marital status of persons prior to marriage is given next.

YearMarriages Between Bachelors andMarriages Between Widowers andMarriages Between Divorced Men and
SpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced Women

During the years 1938-40 there were 95 male divorcees who remarried for every 100 female divorcees who remarried. In the period 1969-73 more male divorcees than female divorcees remarried.

The number of widows per 100 widowers who remarried was 67 in 1938-40, but with a changed social outlook the position in 1969-73 was that 104 widows remarried for every 100 widowers.

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED—The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period of years. On 1 January 1971 the age of majority was lowered from 21 to 20 years of age. In 1973 one bride in every three was under 20 years of age, the proportion of grooms being one in eleven.

Of the persons married in 1973 10,738 or 20.43 percent, were under 20 years of age; 25,495 or 48.52 percent, were returned as 20-24 years; 8,017 or 15.26 percent, as 25-29 years, 3,959 or 7.53 percent, as 30-39 years; and 4,339 or 8.26 percent, as 40 years of age or over.

The following table relates to the 1973 year.

Age of Bridegroom, in YearsAge of Bride, in YearsTotal Bridegrooms
Under 2020-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445 and Over
Under 201,8863661353--2,273
45 and over5488513015S2451,2371,908
            Total brides8,46511,6882,7949985244401,36526,274

The following table shows since 1950 the proportions of men and women married at each age group to every 100 marriages.

PeriodUnder 21*21-24*25-2930-3435-3940-4445 and OverTotals
*Under 20 and 20-24 respectively from 1971.

The average ages (arithmetic mean) at marriage for both males and females are shown in the following table.

YearAverage Age at Marriage

The average ages of bachelors and spinsters at marriage are considerably lower than those shown in the preceding table, which covers all parties and is naturally affected by the inclusion of remarriages of widowed and divorced persons. The average ages of grooms and brides for each of the latest 5 years according to marital status were as shown in the next table.

Age in Years

The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the modal or popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed. The modal age for brides in 1973 was 20 years. In the case of bridegrooms the most popular age has varied and for recent years it has been 21 to 24; in 1973, it was 21 years.

Marriage of Minors—Of every 1,000 men married in 1973, 87 were under 20 years of age, while 322 in every 1,000 brides were under 20. Since 1 January 1971 the age of majority has been 20 years.

In 1,886 marriages in 1973 both parties were given as under 20 years of age, in 6,579 marriages the bride was returned as a minor and the bridegroom as an adult, and in 387 marriages the bridegroom was a minor and the bride an adult.

The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period, and in the table below figures are given for the last 5 years.

YearAge in YearsTotal Minors
161718192016-20 Years16-19 YearsRate per 100 Marriages 16-20 YearsRate per 100 Marriages 16-19 Years

MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS CHURCHES—Of the 26,274 marriages performed in 1973, Anglican clergymen officiated at 6,425, Presbyterians at 5,710, Roman Catholics at 3,884, Methodists at 1,897, and clergymen of other churches at 2,042, while 6,316 marriages were solemnised by Registrars.

The following table shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the largest churches and before Registrars in each of the 7 latest years.

ChurchPercentage of Marriages
Roman Catholic15.4515.8315.3315.2415.4415.1314.78
Before Registrars18.4617.9919.0219.9621.5422.7024.04

The foregoing figures must not be taken as an exact indication of the religious professions of the parties married, as it does not necessarily follow that both (or even one) of the parties are adherents of the church whose officiating minister performed the ceremony, and persons married before Registrars may belong, in greater or lesser proportion, to any or none of the churches. Of the total population at the general census of 1971, 31.3 percent were recorded as adherents of the Anglican Church, 20.4 percent Presbyterian, 15.7 percent Roman Catholic, 6.4 percent Methodist, and 26.2 percent were of other religion or of no religion, or objected to stating their religious profession.

NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS—The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act was 41, 70 in February 1975 and the churches to which they belong are shown hereunder.

Roman Catholic Church883
Anglican (Church of England)736
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand664
Methodist Church of New Zealand336
Salvation Army244
Ratana Church of New Zealand133
Latter Day Saints118
Ringatu Church66
Assemblies of God54
Associated Churches of Christ63
Jehovah's Witness76
Seventh Day Adventist42
Apostolic Church29
Liberal Catholic Church20
Christian Revival Crusade8
Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Conference16
Absolute Reformed Maori Church of Aotearoa13
Congregational Union11
Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi17
Commonwealth Covenant Church11
Reformed Churches of New Zealand14
Evangelistic Church of Christ9
Elim Church8
Congregational Church of Samoa16
Church of the Nazarene12
Open Air Campaigners (NZ)10

The Ratana Church of New Zealand, the Ringatu Church, the United Maori Mission, and the Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi are Maori organisations.

DIVORCE AND OTHER MATRIMONIAL PROCEEDINGS—From 1 January 1969, some important changes have applied in the principal legislation on grounds for divorce; the period of 3 years was reduced to 2 years for separation by agreement and decree of separation or separation order, and in cases living apart and unlikely to be reconciled the period of 7 years was reduced to 4 years. This amendment to the Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1963 has had an accelerating effect on divorce statistics in 1969.

Divorce—A petition for divorce may be presented to the Supreme Court on one or more of several grounds, which include adultery, desertion, separation by agreement for not less than 2 years, separation by decree of separation or separation order for not less than 2 years, and the parties living apart for 4 years and not likely to be reconciled. Where the parties are separated or living apart one of the parties must have been resident in New Zealand for at least 2 years immediately preceding the filing of the petition. The Court is required to give consideration to the possibility of reconciliation of the parties to the marriage.

Petitions filed and decrees granted by the Supreme Court in recent years are shown in the following table.

YearDissolution of Marriage*Judicial Separation
Petitions FiledDecrees NisiDecrees AbsolutePetitions FiledDecrees for Separation
*Includes nullity cases which are usually very few; they totalled only two in 1971, one in 1972, and one in 1973.

The next table gives the grounds of petitions and decrees during the two latest years.

GroundsPetitions FiledDecrees Absolute Granted
Husbands' PetitionsWives' PetitionsHusbands' PetitionsWives' Petitions
Separation by agreement1,0671,2121,0861,279859888933925
Separation by Court order or decree571471372364283130164
Living apart303304290320271242266279

The figures shown for decrees absolute cover all such granted during the year, whether the antecedent decree nisi was granted in the same or in a previous year. A decree nisi normally applies for at least 3 months before a decree absolute is granted.

In 725 of the 3,616 cases where decrees absolute were granted during 1973 there was no living issue of the marriage. The number of living issue was 1 in 655 cases, 2 in 955 cases, 3 in 676 cases, and 4 or more in 605 cases.

The table which follows shows the duration of marriage in all cases for which decrees absolute were granted in the latest 5 years.

Duration of Marriage, in YearsHusbands' Decrees Absolute GrantedWives' Decrees Absolute Granted
Under 5128164184216191138182188168221
30 and over1331391281251199891876364

The number of living issue affected by the decrees absolute of their parents during each of the last 5 years were as follows: 1969, 5,604; 1970, 5,927; 1971, 6,635; 1972, 6,872; and 1973, 7,457.

The following table shows the duration of marriage by ages of husbands and wives at the time of marriage, for cases in which decrees absolute were granted in 1973.

Duration of Marriage (in Years)Age (in Years) at Marriage
Under 2020-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445 and over (Including not Stated)Total
Under 5412237024191124412
20 and over28446250761797833
Under 5150172381712419412
20 and over228445109311235833

Dissolution of a Voidable Marriage—A decree of dissolution of a voidable marriage puts an end to the marriage from the date of the decree. On average there are only about 40 such decrees in New Zealand each year and the principal ground is non-consummation.

CONCILIATION PROCESSES—Under the Domestic Proceedings act 1968, the principle was introduced of having specialist magistrates to exercise jurisdiction in domestic matters. The Act aims to encourage by all practicable means the reconciliation of married couples who institute court proceedings. Domestic proceedings became a separate division from civil and criminal proceedings in Magistrates' Courts. (See Section 8: Justice.)

There is a Court Conciliation Centre in Auckland providing a full-time conciliation service for cases referred by the Magistrates' Courts. In 18 other centres local marriage guidance councils make available to the courts in their areas their more experienced counsellors to provide trained help to those involved in domestic proceedings. Through these agencies it is possible to offer specialist help in over 80 percent of cases in this category.

MARRIAGE GUIDANCE—A National Marriage Guidance Council was established in 1950 as a voluntary agency to assist with social problems arising from unhappy or maladjusted marriages. From 1959 to 1968 an adviser in marriage guidance was attached to the staff of the Justice Department. An advisory committee was also set up to keep Government informed and to organise, with the assistance of appropriate professional groups, a programme for the selection, training, and accrediting of voluntary marriage counsellors. Although the training system is kept under constant review, the procedures followed have become well established and administration has now been taken over largely by the National Council with the support and advice of the department.

There are now 24 councils affiliated to the National Marriage Guidance Council and these provide counselling centres staffed by over 130 accredited counsellors and some 60 counsellors in training. Accredited counsellors, in many centres, assist the courts by serving as conciliators under the Domestic Proceedings Act. (See also Section 8, Justice.)

The National Marriage Guidance Council employs a full-time director to organise and co-ordinate the work of affiliated councils. There are also seven directors employed by the larger of the local councils. These appointments, were necessary because of the rapid development of the Marriage Guidance Service.

Educational work includes the conducting of courses for young couples in preparation for marriage, and parent groups. Secondary schools have been assisted by local marriage guidance councils with the arranging of courses in personal relationships. In many cases tutors are recruited and trained by local councils.

The marriage guidance service is readily available to those whose marriages are in difficulty. There is a growing recognition by the public of the importance of this service and a greater readiness of people in trouble to make use of it.

Chapter 5. Section 5 HEALTH AND HOSPITALS


GENERAL—Responsibility for the nation's health is undertaken by a partnership of central and local government, private medical practitioners, para-medical workers, charitable and religious organisations and private citizens, with Central Government providing encouragement, financial assistance and incentives, and assuming final responsibility. This has been a deliberate policy of successive Governments, although emphases have varied from time to time according to political and economic conditions and demands for specific services. Growing urbanisation and industrialisation, with consequent intensification of the problems of pollution of water, air, and land, are imposing a current emphasis nationally and locally on environmental health.

Public health services have to do with environmental health, communicable diseases and quarantine, occupational health and toxicology, food and nutrition, health education, family health, dental services and certain aspects of nursing. In the case of environmental health the concern of the Department of Health and local authorities is with matters such as the provision and protection of public water supplies, sewage treatment and disposal, food hygiene and housing standards. Its objectives are the maintenance of a healthy environment by the application of the principles of preventive medicine.

The functions of local authorities are defined by statute and regulation Elected local authorities must, under the Health Inspectors Qualifications Regulations 1958. appoint a sufficient number of qualified health inspectors. Where a local authority is too small to need a separate, full-time inspector, the Act permits two or more to combine to share the cost. In sonic smaller sparsely-populated districts where a local authority does not employ its own inspector, the departmental inspectors of health do the work and the authority pays for it. Only 25 percent of inspectors are employed by the department.

In each of the 18 health districts, the medical officer of health, who is a medical practitioner with special qualifications in public health, is the adviser to all local authorities in his district: in some cases his approval is required before action can be taken by a local authority, and in others he is the first line of appeal against its decisions. He is required to keep the Director-General of Health and the Board of Health informed of local authority deficiencies in their responsibilities under the Health Act.

Scheduled communicable diseases must be notified by doctors and hospitals to the medical officer of health who is responsible for control measures; within this area the local authority health inspector is subject to his direct supervision and control. New programmes of immunisation are undertaken by the department and, when established, vaccines arc provided free and the general practitioner encouraged in this work. Quarantine arrangements for both aircraft and ships comply with obligations under the International Health Regulations. Medical officers of health administer this service. The broad objective is the control of communicable and chronic diseases in man and the keeping of New Zealand free of quarantinable diseases.

The health of industrial and agricultural workers is the care of the Department of Health in conjunction with the Department of Labour, including co-operation in accident prevention. The aim is to prevent occupational disease, control toxic hazards, and raise standards of first-aid services. Agricultural health includes attention to the safe use of agricultural chemicals.

Food and nutrition administration aims to protect the consumer. There is an extensive programme backed by legislation, to govern packing, labelling, storage, and sale of poisons. Special environmental problems, including radiation protection, occupational health, and atmosphere pollution, are also the responsibility of the Department of Health.

The objectives of health education programmes are to increase understanding of the value of health, to inform people of health services available, and to equip them with knowledge and skills they can use to solve health problems.

Maternal and child health responsibilities include licensing and supervision of maternity hospitals; medical and nursing supervision of infant, pre-school, and school children; inspection of schools and child care centres; immunisation of infants against poliomyelitis, etc.; and the administration of regulations bearing on home safety.

A dental service, directed by dental officers and staffed by dental nurses, provides regular dental treatment for all pre-school, primary, and intermediate school children. Arrangements with private dental practitioners ensure similar treatment for adolescents up to the age of 16 years. Dental health education is also undertaken.

The Department of Health is responsible for the organisation and control of nursing services to the public in general; in hospitals (public or private); in homes for the aged, incapacitated, or infirm; or in any other places where the Department of Health has statutory responsibility. Considerable delegation has taken place mainly to hospital boards whose chief nursing officer is responsible to the chief medical officer for the day-to-day administration of the services provided. The department reviews nursing services in public and departmental hospitals, district nursing services, and public health nursing services.

Nursing education is provided in 55 schools of nursing in New Zealand and there are normally about 7,000 students undertaking basic nursing programmes. The Department of Health organises and controls the School of Advanced Nursing Studies.

Within its public health nursing service, the department employs over 300 well-qualified nurses. Infant welfare occupies a high proportion of their time, but other work includes child health programmes in schools.

Scientific support for State health activities comes from the National Health Institute, the Medical Research Council, the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and the research institutes of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Standards of professional education are established by the appropriate professional councils or boards on which the department is represented, while training is conducted by universities (doctors, dentists, engineers, etc.); hospital boards or the department (nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, health educators, laboratory technicians, radiographers, dietitians); and polytechnics (health inspectors, pharmacists).

The Department of Health works closely with and seeks the advice and help of boards, committees, and councils such as the Board of Health, Medical Research, Dental, Hospitals Advisory Pharmacy, Nursing, and Radiological Advisory Councils, the Hospital Works, Medical Services Advisory Committees, and the Dietitians, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Opticians, and Plumbers and Gasfitters Boards. In all, officers of the department serve on over 100 boards, committees, and other organisations concerned with health.

In addition, there are very close working relationships with professional and other associations, voluntary health and welfare agencies, the universities, and other Government departments.

In addition to the Health Act 1956, the following Acts are administered by the department:

Burial and Cremation Act 1964
Children's Health Camps Act 1972
Clean Air Act 1972
Dental Act 1963
Dietitians Act 1950
Food and Drug Act 1969
Hospitals Act 1957
Human Tissue Act 1964
Maternal Mortality Research Act 1968
Medical and Dental Auxiliaries Act 1966
Medical Practitioners Act 1968
Medical Research Council Act 1950
Mental Health Act 1969
Narcotics Act 1965
Nurses Act 1971
Occupational Therapy Act 1949
Opticians Act 1928
Physiotherapy Act 1949
Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964
Poisons Act 1960
Radiation Protection Act 1965
Social Security Act 1964 (Part II)
Tuberculosis Act 1948

A detailed report of the activities of the Department of Health is given in the annual report of the Director-General of Health (parliamentary paper E. 10).

A general history of public health services may be found in A Health Service for New Zealand (parliamentary paper H. 23, 1974). This report contains radical proposals for a reshaped health service to come into operation on 1 April 1978.

Activity Programme1971-721972-731973-74

*Mostly grants to hospital boards.

†Mostly grants of Medical Benefits under Social Security Act.

‡The Government provides a subsidy of $1 for $2 on the total cost of approved works for main water supply facilities, sewerage reticulation am. sewerage disposal schemes which have been put into effect by local authorities. Expenditure in the three years above was $1,769,383, $3,090,079 and $5,064,589 respectively.

§Expenditure funded from Works and Trading Account was previously provided for in Vote—Works.

Administrative services2,4942,7663,164
Dental services9,57610,60911,837
Hospital services*207,233242,365282,106
Family health services5,4045,5115,783
Medical research1,1671,3532,511
Medical services and drug control53,12664,04376,634
Public health and environmental protection6,0897,33110,240
Welfare services3,7115,5976,769
Funded from Consolidated Revenue Account288,800339,575399,044
Psychiatric hospital buildings--2,777
Public buildings construction--59
Funded from Works and Trading Account--2,836§
            Less departmental receipts1,099757785
            Net expenditure287,701338,818401,095
Expenditure as percentage of gross national product4.44.64.7

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH: Local Authority Control—The provision and proper maintenance of public water supplies and sewerage systems, the disposal of refuse, the condition of dwellinghouses, the control of offensive trades, and the hygiene of premises in which food is manufactured and sold, including eating houses, are primarily the responsibility of local authorities, but the Department of Health exercises general supervision. In the case of some of the smaller local authorities the necessary inspections are made by departmental inspectors on behalf of and by arrangement with the local authorities. The department undertakes the basic training of health inspectors employed by local authorities and conducts specialist and refresher courses for health inspectors.

Department of Health Control—The objectives of the Department of Health in environmental health control are: (a) to create and maintain a healthy environment for the general public by the application of principles of preventive medicine and the administration of legislation directly and indirectly related to this end; (b) to control air pollution; (c) to provide physical services and undertake research on all aspects of the use of ionising radiation with special emphasis on the medical applications and public health aspects. To monitor radiation exposure of the population from all sources and to take action to reduce this where necessary. To promote general understanding of the nature of the hazards involved in radiation exposure in their current perspective; and (d) to conserve hearing and detect its early deterioration.

Air Pollution Control—Air pollution has been a growing health problem with advancing urbanisation and the rising consumption of energy for industrial activity and transport. The Clean Air Act 1972 provides for the control of all sources of air pollution, both existing and potential. Placing considerable emphasis on co-operation among Central Government, local authorities, industry, and the public, the Act in effect imposes on every person an obligation to minimise his interference with the air environment.

It provides for a technical advisory body, the Clean Air Council, which as its first task will advise the Government on the desirability of immediate regulations to control pollution from motor vehicles. The Act also seeks to integrate the work of local authorities in pollution control by making available to them the specialist technical knowledge that only Central Government can provide. General provisions in the Act provide for the control of industrial sources of pollution to a standard as high as that attained in any other country. Special provisions concern the setting up of clean air zones. They are a recognition that in some parts of the country, where ventilation by natural process is poor, the smoke from domestic fires is an important air pollution problem. The clean air zone provisions make it possible for a local authority to tackle this problem where it has the support of local residents.

A general duty is imposed by the Act on occupiers of industrial or trade premises to take certain steps designed to reduce air pollution. Certain provisions apply in respect of locomotive engines, aircraft, hovercraft, and motor vehicles, and power is taken to make regulations designed to minimise the emission of air pollutants from these sources. Special provision is also made for ships. Standards may be prescribed in respect of the emission of air pollutants by any trade, industry process, fuel burning equipment, or industrial plant. Failure to observe these standards will be an offence unless the occupier of the relevant premises is exempted by the Director-General of Health.

There are 26 classes of process requiring registration and they include the control of odours and the supervision of rendering processes. Most registrable processes are governed by the requirement to adopt the best practicable means to control noxious discharges and emissions, but there are limiting standards for lead and acid gases. All new installations or extensions of these registrable processes require approval by the Department of Health.

Some 250 works are registered and regularly inspected by chemical inspectors. Industries not registered are the responsibility of local authorities. New industrial plants being established in New Zealand are required to meet standards as rigorous as any in the world for industrial sources of air pollution.

CONTROL OF DRUGS—The definitions of “drug” in the Food and Drug Act 1969 establish groups to which differing provisions apply. Therapeutic drugs, that is those substances or mixtures whether used internally or externally for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of any illness or injury of the human body or for modifying any physiological process or desires or emotions, and chemical contraceptives are required, before being introduced commercially, to be “acceptable”, according to a procedure under the Food and Drug Act. No new therapeutic drug may be distributed in New Zealand without the consent of the Minister of Health, under sections 12 and 13 of the Act.

This Act also requires that any drug which has been changed in any way, in use, strength, or labelling must not be distributed until 90 days after notice of the change has been given to the Director-General of Health. He may consent to earlier distribution of a changed drug if he is satisfied of the drug's safety. If the Director-General considers the change to be of such character or degree that the drug ought not to be distributed without the consent of the Minister, the drug is referred to the Minister and may not be distributed until the Minister's specific consent has been obtained. A new therapeutic drug is also restricted to sale from pharmacies only, unless special authority is given for general distribution in a schedule to the Therapeutic Drugs (permitted sales) Regulations 1970.

A cosmetic, dentifrice, detergent, disinfectant, or antiseptic does not have to be “cleared” for marketing unless claims in labelling or advertising bring it within the definition of a “therapeutic drug”.

As in the case of food, the Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis of any drug, which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any drug intended for sale. Measures provide for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where drugs are manufactured or packed. Control over medical advertisements and publicity is also incorporated in this legislation.

Under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964, certain drugs may not be sold to the public except on the prescription of a doctor, a dentist, or a veterinary surgeon. This legislation also requires specific warning statements to be included in the labelling of certain drugs such as the antihistamines, aspirin, phenacetin, paracetamol, and hexaclorophane.

Narcotics—Under the Narcotics Act 1965, and the Narcotics Regulations 1966, the Director-General of Health is the competent authority for the purpose of the international conventions and for the oversight of the legitimate distribution and use of narcotics within the country. Written approval of the Minister of Health is required for the import or export of cannabis, desomorphine, heroin, ketobemicone, etorphine, and acetorphine, including their salts, and preparations containing them. The import, export, cultivation, production, possession, distribution, supply, and administration of narcotics is strictly controlled. Balanced quantitative records of transactions and stock are generally required to be kept. There is an extensive system of notification to medical officers of health of narcotics supplied and a system of control of habituated persons.

Legislation consolidating and amending the Narcotics Act 1965 in the form of Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Bill was introduced in Parliament in 1974.

To curb illicit drug abuse, a National Drug Intelligence Bureau has been set up jointly by the Departments of Health, Customs, and Police.

FOOD AND NUTRITION—The Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis, by analysts appointed under the Act, of any articles of food or drink which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food intended for sale. Stringent measures are provided for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where food is manufactured or packed. Regulations lay down minimum standards for many classes of food, control additives of all kinds, and deal with labelling of food packages. Control is also established over all utensils and appliances coming into contact with food. Regular sampling of foods is undertaken by departmental inspectors and the samples are analysed in the Chemistry Division (DSIR) or its branch laboratories.

An important provision of the Act controls all kinds of publicity concerning any food whereby a purchaser would possibly be deceived in regard to the properties of such food, whether or not it is standardised by regulations.

A Food Standards Committee, with a membership of highly qualified persons, meets regularly to discuss the latest technical advances in food production and to make appropriate recommendations for amendments to the legislation.

The nutrition section of the Department of Health provides advisory services on nutrition and dietetics to dietary departments of hospitals, and food service departments of welfare and other institutions. It is responsible for nutrition education programmes and provides a nutrition information service for Government departments, organisations concerned with production and marketing of food, and the public. The section also carries out dietary research projects, generally in liaison with medical research teams concerned with nutrition research.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY—Since 1957 medical officers of health have had responsibility for occupational health. The objective of the occupational health programmes is to work with labour, management, the medical profession, and other groups to assist in improving the health of the worker.

The Department of Labour, which is responsible for accident prevention, hours of work, employment of women, and children etc., calls to the attention of the Department of Health any health problems which the factory inspectors may encounter. The Factories Act 1946 gives to medical officers of health or other authorised officers of the Department of Health the same powers and authorities as inspectors of factories with regard to the health and welfare sections of the Act. The suspension of workers on health grounds, approval of respirators and similar protective equipment, and the arrangements for medical examinations are undertaken by the Department of Health. A series of regulations deal with health hazards, many of them being administered by the two departments, each in its own sphere.

A similar understanding has been established with the Waterfront Industry Commission and New Zealand Railways, and illustrates the general pattern of arrangements between the Department of Health and other Government departments or agencies concerned with particular aspects of workers' health. An occupational health laboratory was established at Wellington in 1964.

Occupational Diseases—The notifiable occupational diseases are scheduled in the Health Act 1956 and details of diseases notified are published annually in the report of the Director-General of Health.

Commercial, Household, and Agricultural Poisons—The advertising, distribution, use, labelling, and packing of all poisons and toxic substances is controlled under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964. A manufacturer or importer must notify the Registrar of Poisons before importing or putting on the market any new substance which might be toxic, be it a chemical, household preparation, cosmetic, or drug. Special safeguards are provided for certain hazardous chemicals, used in agriculture or horticulture. It is an offence to pack poisons in bottles that are ordinarily used for food, drink, or medicine. Labels for “Restricted Poisons” must bear statements of the precautions to be taken in use, the symptoms of poisoning and the remedial treatment, and must be approved by the Registrar of Poisons. This legislation is at present under extensive review.

Control of Health Hazards—An increasing number of specific health hazards are coming under formal control, namely, lead processes, electroplating, spray painting, sand blasting (siliceous blasting agents in factories are prohibited), fumigation, aerial application of poisons, where in conjunction with the Civil Aviation Division of the Ministry of Transport a special rating is required by pilots, and agricultural chemicals. The organisation of radiation protection is dealt with by the National Radiation Laboratory, while a number of other specific hazards are currently receiving consideration.

Medical, Nursing, and First-aid Services—Minimal first-aid requirements have been laid down by the Department of Health, which generally endeavours to encourage both the development of medical and nursing services and the raising of first-aid standards throughout industry generally. While there are no statutory obligations on industry to provide medical and nursing services, an increasing number of factories do provide such services. To meet the needs of small plants the department has developed industrial health centres with financial support from the Waterfront Industry Commission in the case of harbour areas, and the Accident Compensation Commission in the case of general industry.

Pre-employment Examinations—Pre-employment medical examinations are required for young workers before entering factory employment.

National Audiology Centre—The National Audiology Centre assists with the early detection of deafness and conservation of hearing. The centre conducts and promotes research into noisy industries, occupational deafness, and other forms of deafness. An advisory service is provided for those working with deaf people and training is given to those responsible for testing groups for hearing loss.

Radiation Protection—The National Radiation Laboratory provides the administrative and technical services required to maintain the primary X-ray standard for New Zealand and also reference standards for the accurate measurement of radioactive substances used in clinical work. Control of radiation sources is effectively obtained by licensing operators at each place where ionising sources are used, and the Electrical (X-ray) Wiring Regulations 1944 provide for the compulsory registration of all X-ray plants in the country. The importation and use of radioactive materials is strictly controlled, and requests for such materials on overseas suppliers must be authorised by the laboratory, which acts as the procurement agency for most of the radioisotopes required.

The laboratory operates a field service whereby trained physicists regularly visit all places where ionising sources are used. During these visits measurements are taken, protection problems discussed, and everything possible is done to ensure that persons associated with the ionising sources adopt safe working habits. Apart from the obvious groups, e.g., medical and dental users, the laboratory is also concerned with specialised equipment, such as mass X-ray units, X-ray apparatus used in schools, radar and television equipment, X-ray diffraction units, electron microscopes, research accelerators, etc.

Air, rainwater, and soil are monitored for radioactive contamination from fall-out.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH—Medical practitioners give ante-natal, neo-natal, and postnatal attention under the Social Security Act. Free ante-natal clinics are established in connection with the St. Helens Hospitals, all public maternity hospitals and maternity wards. Ante-natal classes to prepare mothers for the baby's arrival are also being developed, and doctors can refer patients to these to supplement their own ante-natal instructions. In the case of women living far away from the main centres of population, ante-natal work is supplemented by the public health nurses employed by the Department of Health, or by district nurses employed by hospital boards.

Approximately 99 percent of confinements take place in maternity hospitals or in maternity units of public hospitals. The medical care of the mother and child is based on co-operation between the Department of Health, hospital boards, the medical and nursing professions, and the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children (Plunket Society). All private maternity hospitals are licensed under the Hospitals Act 1957 and the Department of Health has responsibility for ensuring that regulations regarding buildings, equipment, and staff are observed. Medical officers of health, through their senior nursing staff, exercise general supervision over the work of private hospitals in the local areas.

Family Planning—General practitioners provide the major portion of family planning services. Contraceptives are provided free for those who need them for medical reasons, where cost would be a barrier. Since 1971 priority has been given to family planning as a health measure. In addition to the private doctor service 20 Family Planning Association clinics are now in operation in various centres of the country. Government provides financial assistance towards operating costs, education material, and to help establish new clinics.

A number of hospital boards have established family clinics within their obstetrics and gynaecology departments to provide additional facilities for the public and training for doctors, medical students, and nurses, and other boards are being encouraged to provide these facilities.

Child Health—The Department of Health provides a preventive child health service. Infants are examined by doctors at three stages between birth and 3 months of age and another medical examination is undertaken before the end of the first year for those requiring further investigation. Public health nurses undertake supervision of infants and pre-school children although the major proportion of this service is provided by the nurses of the Plunket Society. Where necessary the children are referred to family doctors or medical officers of the Department of Health.

A consultative service is provided for schools, with special emphasis on the health supervision of handicapped children, both in the normal schools and in special education classes. Nursing staff make regular visits to all schools and from pre-school record cards and by consultation with teachers and parents refer children for examination by medical officers. Correspondence School children are kept under health supervision as necessary and any school child requiring treatment is referred to the appropriate family doctor. Vision and hearing testing is carried out by trained staff for pre-school children at school entry and in Form I.

The Government supports the Children's Health Camps Board which maintains six permanent camps for the short-stay placement of children convalescent after illness, for those whose physical health is unsatisfactory, and for those suffering from minor emotional disorders. Medical officers select children for admission and undertake general health supervision of the camps. Children derive benefit from the ordered routine of camp life which provides a diet designed to improve nutrition and a balance of free activity, rest, and sleep. The Department of Education maintains school classes with emphasis on remedial teaching.

Immunisation Programme—Protection by two doses of the oral vaccine for poliomyelitis is available to all infants. Protection against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus is a routine procedure and a triple vaccine is used. It is preferable that immunisation be done by the family doctor, and the course of injections should be commenced as soon as possible after babies are 3 months old. Arrangements can be made for mothers who are unable to have the immunisation done privately to attend with her child at a departmental clinic. If necessary in country areas the public health nurse will visit the home to immunise the child. Booster doses (against diphtheria and tetanus) are given at 18 months and after the child's fourth birthday or as soon as possible after the child commences school. Further booster doses (against tetanus only) are recommended at 10-yearly intervals and on injury. Measles vaccination is available from family doctors for infants from 10 months of age onwards. Rubella vaccination is available from family doctors for pre-school children.

HEALTH EDUCATION—Medical and dental officers, public health nurses, dental nurses, and inspectors of health all devote some of their time to health education. The health education officer acts as a co-ordinator and stimulates and extends health teaching and health programmes in the district. Most health education officers are women and the majority hold the diploma in health education issued by the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Daily newspapers and national periodicals carry advertisements of health subjects. Leaflets, pamphlets, and posters are available on many health topics from district health offices.

The Department of Health's official bulletin Health has a circulation of over 78,000 and is issued free to the public 4 times a year. It gives health information and publishes various aspects of the department's work.

Officers are available for lectures and discussions on health with schools and community groups.

DENTAL HEALTH—New Zealand's dental health service combines a school dental service for children, dental benefits for adolescents, and private dental practice for adults. There are 14 dental districts and 3 schools for the training of school dental nurses at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch.

School Dental Service—Briefly, the functions of the service are to improve the standard of dental health of school children (and of pre-school children) by regular and systematic treatment at 6-monthly intervals commencing from the primer classes (or earlier when possible), and continuing through to the highest class of the primary (or intermediate) school. Thereafter they are eligible for enrolment in the adolescent service.

On completing her 2-year course of training, a school dental nurse is posted to a school dental clinic, where she becomes responsible to the principal dental officer of her district for the dental treatment of a group of approximately 500 patients. She is visited at regular intervals by the principal dental officer and by a dental nurse inspector who assist the dental nurse to maintain a high standard of performance in. all aspects of work.

In 1974 there were 1,356 school dental nurses responsible for a total of 610,709 children in 2,544 schools. School dental treatment during 1973-74 included 2,589,019 fillings and 63,756 extractions, a ratio of 2.5 extractions to every 100 fillings. A further 183,634 children under 18 years of age received regular treatment from private dentists under the social security (dental benefits) scheme, and from a limited number of salaried dental officers.

Dental treatment comprises fillings in both temporary teeth and permanent teeth, cleaning and scaling of the teeth, extractions when necessary, and sodium fluoride treatment. The aim of the service is to promote dental health by conserving the natural teeth and preventing dental decay. Only a small number of teeth have to be extracted as unsavable, less than 3 for every 100 saved by conservative treatment.

Adolescent Dental Service—Dental care for adolescents up to 16 years of age and if dependent up to 18 years of age is provided by private dentists as a dental benefit under the Social Security Act, the dentist being reimbursed on a fee-service basis. Children who remain at school after their sixteenth birthday and qualify for the extended family benefit, or who are otherwise dependent upon parents for support, will continue to receive the dental benefit to their eighteenth birthday.

Eligibility for dental treatment as an adolescent is contingent upon a person's having undergone regular dental care up to within 3 months of the time of application, either at a school dental clinic or from a private dental practitioner.

Treatment is essentially of a nature designed to conserve the natural teeth. Dental supervision of adolescents is on a basis of examination and treatment at 6-monthly intervals. There is free choice of dentists, and dentists have the right to decline patients.

The treatment (other than treatment requiring special approval) which may be provided as dental benefits, and the fees payable, are indicated in the Schedule to the Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations 1960.

Dental Health Education—The dental health education activities of the department include the production of posters, pamphlets, sound films, filmstrips, radio talks, newspaper advertisements, and all other types of advertising media.

Officers of the service are kept in touch with health education and other matters by means of the School Dental Service Gazette, which is published bi-monthly.

Dental Research—Dental research is directed by the dental research committee of the Medical Research Council. The staff consisting of a director, three professional assistants, and three associated workers are primarily engaged in a long-term programme of research in dental problems.

Dental Bursaries—The Government grants bursaries each year to selected students to assist them to qualify as dentists. The bursaries are the equivalent of the bursary that would be payable under the University Bursary Regulations plus $350 a year. Students who are granted bursaries must enter into an agreement to pursue their studies diligently and, on graduating, to enter the service of the Crown or of a hospital board appointed by the Crown for a specified period not exceeding 3 years.

Fluoridation—Approximately half of all persons living in water-reticulated areas are drinking fluoridated water, which reduces the need for dental treatment.

REHABILITATION OF DISABLED CIVILIANS—The rehabilitation of disabled and handicapped civilians has received increasing emphasis over recent years in New Zealand. Public hospitals are the hub for development of an adequate medical rehabilitation service, with co-operation from Government and voluntary agencies in furthering the medical, social, and vocational welfare of the disabled.

Civilian rehabilitation centres are established at Otara, under the Auckland Hospital Board's administration, and Palmerston North under the Palmerston North Hospital Board's administration; for the treatment and overall restoration of those injured in employment or road accidents. For the rehabilitation of persons suffering from spinal injuries and paraplegia, specialist spinal injury centres are in course of development at Auckland and Christchurch. Rehabilitation activities are also being carried out at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Rotorua, and in many of the psychiatric and psychopaediatric hospitals.

The Disabled Re-establishment League is the principal agent of Government in vocational rehabilitation. The main function of the league is to provide facilities for work assessment and work-experience for the disabled. Policy is decided by a central board of management and district committees administer the centres which are established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Napier, and Invercargill.

A National Civilian Rehabilitation Committee, comprising representatives from the Departments of Labour, Social Welfare, Health, and Education, advise Government on steps to co-ordinate and promote rehabilitation in New Zealand.

PHYSICAL MEDICINE—Physical medicine is concerned with potentially disabling conditions such as rheumatic diseases, cerebral palsy, and other disorders of the locomotor system.

The national centre for the treatment of rheumatism is established at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Rotorua, which has approximately 100 beds set aside for diagnosis, research, and treatment of these diseases. Full physiotherapy and occupational therapy facilities are provided and active steps towards rehabilitation of patients are carried out. A large number of outpatients referred from all parts of New Zealand and a few from overseas are seen every year.

Physiotherapists and occupational therapists work together in preventing and controlling deformity, and teaching people how to overcome their disabilities. Social workers assist in bridging the gap between rehabilitation and vocational and social resettlement.

A cerebral palsy unit is situated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital providing residential accommodation for 20 children. At this unit the activities of a team of physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists are co-ordinated by the supervisor of the unit working under a physician. Patients can be referred by their doctors to the physician in charge of the unit for assessment only, or for admission and treatment. Cerebral palsy visiting therapist services are operating under hospital boards. Post-graduate courses are given to physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists.

Cerebral palsy day schools have been established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill. Parents of cerebral palsy cases who seek their children's admission first apply to the appropriate medical officer of health or education board. The schools are administered by the education boards, but close liaison exists between the schools, the Rotorua unit, and the visiting cerebral palsy therapists.

Cerebral palsy schools administered by education boards have been established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill. Close liaison exists between the schools, the Rotorua unit, and the visiting cerebral palsy therapist. Parents seeking the admission of their children to one of the schools make application to the appropriate education board. A medical report on a child's condition is required by the schools.

HEALTH STATISTICS—The National Health Statistics Centre is responsible for the compilation of the statistics included in the Annual Reports on the Health Statistics of New Zealand. The centre also prepares special statistics for the various divisions of the department and for research workers in different fields both in New Zealand and overseas. A constant liaison is maintained with the World Health Organisation, which is supplied with statistical material giving a picture of health trends in

New Zealand. In addition, from time to time special statistical investigations are made into important aspects of public health and diseases that warrant specific study. The centre publishes Trends in Health and Health Services every 2 years.

A question in the 1971 Census of Population revealed that 17,430 persons were under treatment for diabetes, of whom 5,516 were being treated with insulin. These statistics are believed by the medical profession to be understated.

There are 4,300 registered blind people and the number is being added to by 12 every week.

NATIONAL HEALTH INSTITUTE—The Institute is the Department of Health's centre for the scientific study of public health problems. It contains an epidemiology section and public health laboratories (microbiology, virology and environmental health).

The epidemiology section conducts field research into matters of public health interest.

The public health laboratories provide diagnostic and reference services in bacteriology and virology for medical officers of health, hospital and private laboratories, and general practitioners, as well as for the other sections of the institute. The Institute is the national centre for those reference services which are organised on an international basis, such as salmonellosis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, influenza, and staphylococcal phage typing.

MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL—The Medical Research Council of New Zealand has the following functions:

  1. To initiate, foster, and support medical research;

  2. To furnish information, advice, and assistance to persons and organisations concerned with medical research;

  3. To collect and disseminate scientific information, including the publication of reports.

At the end of 1974 research was in progress in many fields, including the following: dentistry; experimental endocrinology and metabolism; human genetics; hydatids; Island Territories research; toxicology; electron microscopy; renal physiology; cardiology; hypertension; environmental physiology; coronary disease; immunology and genetics of tissue transplantation; mechanisms of action of psychotropic drugs; diabetes; molecular biology of bacterial viruses; biology; pathology; rheumatic diseases; human nutrition; maternal and infant health; tumour virology; social medicine and community health.

The council maintains liaison with the research work being carried out by private medical research foundations and societies such as the Cancer Society of New Zealand, and regional medical research foundations established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Palmerston North, Hawke's Bay, Otago, and Southland.

The council administers the Medical Research Endowment Fund, from which an annual expenditure of $2.3 million is incurred in supporting research projects at the University of Otago, the University of Auckland, Massey University, and the institutions of the Auckland, Wellington, North Canterbury, Palmerston North, Southland, and Otago Hospital Boards.

The council employs a staff of about 50 full-time workers. A further 200 workers are employed by other institutions under project grants from the council.

The council awards scholarships and fellowships to selected graduates and undergraduates who wish to engage in medical research.

The council is empowered to receive bequests and donations to the fund for furthering the objects of the council as set out in the Medical Research Council Act 1950.

MEDICAL COUNCIL—The Medical Council of New Zealand, constituted under the Medical Practitioners Act 1968, consists of the Director-General of Health, the deans of the faculties of medicine in the Universities of Otago and Auckland, and eight registered medical practitioners appointed on a representative basis.

The council deals with all applications for registration under the Act. Until an applicant is able to satisfy the council that he has obtained house officer experience, in a resident medical capacity, of not less than 12 months or has otherwise obtained comparable experience, registration is on a conditional basis. Persons registered conditionally may practise only in an approved hospital. A medical education committee responsible to the council exercises general supervision over the training of persons conditionally registered. The number of medical practitioners on the register at 30 June 1974 was 5,603, but not all are in active practice in New Zealand.

The Medical Council is vested with certain disciplinary powers. Right of appeal to the Supreme Court is provided.

DOCTORS IN PRACTICE—ADMINISTRATION—A report made in 1970 by the Joint Committee on Medical Graduate Needs assessed that in 1968 the doctors in active practice in New Zealand totalled 3,182 and that they were engaged as follows:

Type of PracticeDoctors


†Non-specialist psychiatrist medical officers.

‡Includes preventive and social medicine and medically qualified teachers in non-clinical subjects.

§Hospital boards, armed services, student health, trainees and industry, Government (other than Department of Health), family planning associations, research, etc.

General practice1,335
House surgeons247
Obstetrics and gynaecology82
Health administration—
    Department of Health36
    Hospital boards22
            Medical Officers in Department of Health—
      Psychiatric hospitals48
Medical education not included elsewhere26

On this basis the doctor to population ratio in 1968 was 1:866. For Australia in 1966 the ratio was reported by the World Health Organisation as 1:840 and for selected other countries in 1965 as: Sweden 1:910; England and Wales 1:870; United States 1:700. The New Zealand target is 1:720. Medical graduates from the University of Otago have totalled 114 annually, from 1973 this output has been supplemented by graduates from the University of Auckland to a total of 165. Medical graduates are expected to reach 207 a year by 1977.

At present, there is, on average, one active general practitioner for every 2,400 people in New Zealand. Whether there are sufficient general practitioners is a matter for debate. More important than the overall population/doctor ratio is the fact that there are areas where this ratio is 50 percent above or below the national average. In recent years financial inducements have helped to redress the imbalance between urban and rural areas in this respect. However, the problem has not been solved entirely. There remains the intra-urban maldistribution, where well-established, middle-class areas tend to be relatively overprovided with general practitioners, while some other areas are often characterised by a shortage of general practitioners.

REGISTRATION COUNCILS AND BOARDS: Dentists—Under the Dental Act 1963 there is constituted a Dental Council, the functions of which are to examine and approve of the qualifications of applicants desiring registration as dentists and to exercise disciplinary control over registered dentists.

The number of private dentists holding annual practising certificates at 1 September 1970 was 901 and in addition there were 150 dentists in Government, hospital, research, and university employment.

Under provisions of the Dental Technicians Regulations 1968, a Registration Board for Dental Technicians has been constituted and 310 dental technicians are on the register.

Nurses—Under the Nurses Act 1971 is constituted the nursing council. The council controls nursing education programmes, conducts examinations and effects registrations.

Provision is made in Nurses Registration Regulations 1966 for 3-year programmes for registration as nurse and maternity nurse, male nurse, psychiatric nurse, and psychopaedic nurse. Provision is also made for 18-month programmes for registration as maternity nurse and community nurse, and 6-month programmes for registration as midwife and, where registration has already been obtained as nurse, as maternity nurse.

Physiotherapists—Under the Physiotherapy Act 1949 is constituted the New Zealand Physiotherapy Board. The board's functions are the training, examination, and registration of candidates for physiotherapy practice, the issuing of special licences, the approval of physiotherapy training schools, and the conduct of those registered under the Act.

The training period for physiotherapists is 3 years. Full-time training is conducted at the New Zealand School of Physiotherapy, Dunedin, administered by the Otago Hospital Board, and the final year is spent at one of the subsidiary training schools in various parts of New Zealand. All students are required to pass the State Examination in Physiotherapy to qualify for registration.

Occupational Therapists—Under the Occupational Therapy Act 1949 is constituted the Occupational Therapy Board. The board is concerned with the registration and conduct of persons engaged in the practice of occupational therapy.

The Central Institute of Technology, Wellington, conducts the 3-year course of training and clinical experience is gained at hospitals. Students who successfully complete the course are awarded a diploma in occupational therapy and then registered. There are some 200 occupational therapists in active practice.

Dietitians—Under the Dietitians Act 1950 is constituted the Dietitians Board, which is concerned with the training, examination, and registration of persons engaged in the practice of dietetics.

The training period for a dietitian is, in the case of the holder of a degree of bachelor of home science conferred by the University of Otago or of the holder of a diploma in home science of the University of Otago, 12 months in a hospital training school.

Opticians—The Opticians Act 1928 provides for the constitution of an Opticians Board, consisting of the Director-General of Health (the Registrar), three persons engaged in practice as opticians in New Zealand, and a registered medical practitioner with special knowledge of diseases of the eyes. The board deals with all applications for registration under the Act. There are approximately 270 opticians registered, but not all are engaged in active practice.

Plumbers—The Plumbers and Gasfitters Board consists of 10 members—the Director-General of Health as chairman, a registrar (deputy chairman), and representatives of the Department of Education, the Municipal and Counties Association, the Gas Association, the Master Plumbers Society (2), the Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Related Trades Industrial Union of Workers (2), and a nominee of a borough council or drainage board.

The Board is concerned with the registration of plumbers and gasfitters. It issues annual licences and limited certificates for plumbers and gasfitters. It has also authority and responsibility for disciplinary action against registered plumbers and gasfitters if it is established they have done unsatisfactory work.

In New Zealand, except in specially exempted areas, all sanitary plumbing as defined in the Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964 can only be performed by registered plumbers and holders of limited certificates working in the employment or under the supervision of registered plumbers.

Specifications and standards of workmanship and materials in plumbing work are prescribed in the provisions of the Drainage and Plumbing Regulations enacted under the Health Act.

Pharmacists—There are now 2,545 names on the Pharmaceutical Register in New Zealand. All registered pharmacists, except those who notify the registrar that they have conscientious objection to membership, automatically become members of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand, the society's affairs being managed by a council constituted by the Pharmacy Act 1970.

The council consists of 12 members, 11 being pharmacists, and 1 a barrister appointed by the Minister of Health. Seven members are elected on a district basis by registered pharmacists who are proprietors of pharmacies and four by members of the Pharmaceutical Society who are not in the previous category. The main function of the council of the Pharmaceutical Society is to administer the Pharmacy Act and generally to protect and promote the interests of the profession of pharmacy and the public interests.

It is a specific requirement of the Pharmacy Act that pharmacies in New Zealand be at all times maintained under the immediate supervision and control of a registered pharmacist.

The present system for pharmacy education requires a minimum of 3 years' attendance at the School of Pharmacy, Central Institute of Technology, Upper Hutt, at which the diploma in pharmacy is obtained. There is also a 4-year degree course in pharmacy at the University of Otago. Graduates from both courses are required to serve 12 months' practical training before becoming eligible for registration as pharmacists.

Any pharmacist or company in which not less than 75 percent of the share capital is owned by a pharmacist or pharmacists may establish one pharmacy. Unqualified persons or companies in which less than 75 percent of the share capital is pharmacist-owned must, however, secure the consent of the Pharmacy Authority, set up under the Act, before commencing business, and in all cases the establishment of more than one pharmacy under the same ownership is subject to the consent of the authority. All pharmacies must be registered with the society. There are about 1,160 pharmacies in New Zealand. A survey in 1973 showed that on average there were 1.56 pharmacists per pharmacy; about 200 pharmacists work outside the retail trade in hospitals, Government departments and the pharmaceutical industry.

MEDICAL, HOSPITAL, AND OTHER RELATED BENEFITS—Part II of the Social Security Act 1904, administered by the Department of Health and dealing with medical and like benefits, is of general application to all persons ordinarily resident in New Zealand, and makes provision for medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits.

Medical Benefits—Medical benefits apply to such medical treatment as is ordinarily given by medical practitioners in the course of a general practice. Certain services are excluded, these being principally:

  1. Medical services in maternity cases. (These services are covered by maternity benefits and are described under a later heading.)

  2. Medical services involved in any medical examination of which the sole or primary purpose is the obtaining of a medical certificate.

  3. Medical services other than anaesthetic services, involved in or incidental to the extraction of teeth by a medical practitioner.

  4. Medical services in respect of which fees are payable under the Social Security (X-ray Diagnostic Services) Regulations 1941, Social Security (Physiotherapy Benefits) Regulations 1951, and Social Security (Laboratory Diagnostic Services) Regulations 1946—see later headings.

  5. Medical services afforded by means of advice given by telephone, telegram, or letter except under circumstances specifically approved by the Director-General of Health and medical services not rendered by a medical practitioner in person.

Every medical practitioner who renders any of the prescribed services is entitled, on behalf of the patient, to receive from the Department of Health a fee of $1.25 for a service provided in normal hours and up to $2.00 for a service rendered at night or on Saturdays, Sundays, or holidays; for social security beneficiaries, including those for whom the family benefit is payable, the benefit ranges from $3 to $7. The department pays a fee of $5 for an initial consultation with a recognised specialist physician, psychiatrist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, or paediatrician, and of $3.50 in the case of other recognised specialists. These rates apply only to the first occasion on which a patient is referred by a general practitioner to a specialist and, in the case of inter-specialist referral, with the prior concurrence of the original doctor. For subsequent visits, the fee paid by the department reduces to $1.25 for each visit, except in the case of social security beneficiaries and pensioners and their dependants for whom the fee is $3. In designated rural areas, an incentive bonus is payable. In 1972 immunisation benefits were introduced; they apply to children and adolescents up to their sixteenth birthday; the benefit is $1.50 if the vaccine is administered by a doctor, or $1.25 if administered by a registered nurse in his employ.

Most doctors (91 percent) make a claim directly from the Department of Health and ask patients for the balance of their fees. A minority require their patients to pay the whole fee and make personal claims on the Department of Health.

The number of doctors providing general and specialist medical services in March 1974 was 2,607 and the cost per head of population in the year ended 31 March 1972 was $6.57, the average population per active practitioner was 1,638.

Pharmaceutical Benefits—Persons receiving medical attention under the Act are entitled, generally without cost to themselves, to those medicines, drugs, approved appliances, and materials, prescribed for their medical practitioners and which are included in the Drug Tariff.

Prescriptions passed for payment in the year ended 31 March 1974 totalled 21,070,618 or 7.1 per head of population. The average cost per prescription was $2.07, the cost per head of population being $14.70.

Hospital Benefits—Treatment is provided free by public hospitals where a patient is entitled to hospital benefits under the Act. In the case of private hospitals and other approved institutions benefits paid are in partial satisfaction of claims against the patients. The rates from 1 October 1971 are as follows:

  1. For surgical treatment S9.00 a day, with a minimum of $18.00.

  2. For medical (including psychiatric) treatment $5.50 a day.

Free treatment is accorded outpatients at public hospitals; this also covers the supply of artificial aids, including contact lenses, hearing aids, artificial limbs, surgical footwear, wheelchairs, orthopaedic implants in private hospitals, ileostomy and colostomy appliances, and urinals. It does not include dental treatment or services in respect of which fees are payable under specific Social Security Regulations (X-ray diagnostic services, laboratory diagnostic services) referred to under later headings. In respect of surgical footwear, part payment by the patient is required.

Psychiatric Hospitals—Treatment of patients in public psychiatric hospitals is also free. A licensed (private) psychiatric hospital may be recognised and approved by the Minister as a hospital for the purposes of the Act, and hospital benefits in respect of treatment are payable accordingly.

Maternity Benefits—Maternity benefits cover ante-natal and post-natal advice and treatment by medical practitioners, and the services of doctors and nurses at confinements in maternity hospitals or elsewhere. Recognised specialists may make a charge on the patient over and above the benefit. Licensed maternity hospitals are entitled to receive fees of S9.00 in respect of the day of birth of the child and for each of the succeeding 14 days.

X-ray Diagnostic Services—These X-ray diagnostic services on the recommendation of a medical practitioner, attract a health benefit:

  1. The making of X-ray examinations with the aid of a fluorescent screen.

  2. The taking of X-ray photographs.

  3. The supply and administration of any drugs or other substances for the purposes of any such examination or photograph.

X-ray photographs or X-ray examinations made or taken for dental purposes or for the purposes of life assurance, visas, emigration permits, and examinations for the sole or primary purpose of obtaining medical certificates for production to some other person, are not included in the free services. Eligible X-ray examinations at public hospitals are free, but those undertaken by private radiologists are limited to a specified benefit. Additional charges are the patient's responsibility.

Laboratory Diagnostic Services—The benefits concerning laboratory diagnostic services comprise the supply of all materials or substances required for the purpose of providing laboratory diagnostic services, and associated medical services.

The following services are not included:

  1. Examination of specimens for public health.

  2. Post-mortem examinations.

  3. Laboratory services for dental purposes or for the purposes of life insurance.

  4. The preparation of sera and vaccines.

Physiotherapy Benefits—Physiotherapy treatment afforded by contracting physiotherapists is the subject of a benefit under the Social Security (Physiotherapy Benefits) Regulations 1951. The standard benefit is $1 for each recommended treatment, but a higher rate of $1.50 is payable for beneficiaries and their dependants who qualify for the higher medical benefit. Where patients are treated in groups the universal benefit is 40 cents per patient.

To qualify for the benefit, physiotherapy treatment must in all cases be recommended by a registered medical practitioner. Treatment is limited to 6 weeks on a single recommendation but in the case of certain specified illnesses the Director-General of Health may extend the period of treatment on any one recommendation up to 6 months.

Home-nursing Services—Under the Social Security (District Nursing Services) Regulations 1944, home-nursing services are provided free where the services are afforded by a registered nurse, midwife, or maternity nurse in the employ of the Department of Health, a hospital board, or an organisation recognised for the purpose.

Domestic Assistance—Monetary assistance is given to approved incorporated associations formed for the purpose of providing domestic help in the home, where it is required because of age and infirmity, or to support family situations in which the mother is incapacitated or needs help on account of family commitments.

Dental Services—The Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations 1960 provide for free dental treatment. These benefits are confined to persons who are under 16 years of age or under 18 years in the dental department of a public hospital, if still attending school. Treatment may be provided in a State dental clinic by a contracting dentist for whom there is a prescribed scale of fees, or in the dental department of a public hospital.

Artificial Aids—The Social Security (Hospital Benefits for Outpatients) Regulations 1947 made provision for the supply of artificial aids, such as artificial limbs, hearing aids, and contact lenses.

Contact Lenses—These may be supplied in respect of the following optical disabilities: (a) conical cornea, (b) high myopia, where the degree of myopia present in the greatest axis of the better eye is not less than—10 diopters, (c) monocular aphakia, if the restoration of binocular vision is highly desirable by reason of the patient's occupation or other circumstances and binocular vision cannot be restored without the use of contact lenses. In each case the supply of such lenses must be recommended by an approved ophthalmologist.

Lenses may also be supplied in respect of any other ocular condition which cannot be corrected by ordinary spectacles; in these cases recommendation by two ophthalmologists is necessary.

Hearing Aids—A free aid may be supplied, or a subsidy of $45 is payable towards the purchase of a hearing aid where the patient suffers a hearing loss which renders the use of an aid necessary. A subsidy of up to $70 is payable towards the cost of an aid for a patient under 16 years of age.

Eligibility on medical grounds for the provision of a hearing aid is to be determined by an otologist employed or engaged by a hospital board or the Department of Health.

Normally a patient will be eligible for the payment of the full benefit only once every 5 years. However, if in the opinion of the authorising otologist, a patient's existing aid is inadequate after less than 5 years from the date of its issue, and a new aid is required to improve hearing ability, the hearing aid benefit at full rates is to be payable.

Artificial Limbs—The free supply of artificial limbs is subject to the following conditions:

  1. The patient has not obtained or is not entitled to obtain a limb as an ex-serviceman under the provisions of the War Pensions Regulations 1956 or under the provisions of the Accident Compensation Act 1972.

  2. The supply of the limb is recommended by an approved orthopaedic surgeon.

  3. The limb is of an approved type and can, in the opinion of the supplier's orthopaedic adviser, be satisfactorily fitted.

For the purposes of the regulations “artificial limb” includes artificial arms, artificial hands, artificial legs, and artificial feet, and includes limb socks for such limbs and for female amputees, replacement understockings.

Orthopaedic Implants—Artificial hips and similar implants also qualify for benefit under the arrangements for artificial aids.

Wheelchairs—Manually operated wheelchairs are available through hospital boards on a free loan basis to disabled persons who require them on medical grounds. Motorised wheelchairs are the subject of a 50 percent benefit towards their cost. The balance of the cost may be assisted with grants from lottery funds.

The following table gives details of expenditure on the various classes of health benefits during the last five financial years.

Maternity Benefits— 
    Medical practitioners' fees2,5422,6703,3173,3643,269 
    Medical practitioners' mileage fees7282105101101 
    Obstetric nurses' fees23422 
Medical benefits— 
    General medical services9,0999,7859,69211,82017,378 
    GMS mileage191181159151137 
    Specialist medical services-1,2561,2861,7212,148 
    Rural practice bonus and other incentives-292337405545 
    Immunisation benefit---127407 
Private practice and post-graduate grants-11322427 
Special area and other arrangements — section 117 Social Security Act410152117164153 
Hospital Benefits— 
    Treatment in private hospitals—maternity benefits341377394397388 
    Treatment in private hospitals—medical, surgical, and Karitane4,5905,2915,9157,0167,541 
    Treatment in approved institutions423495526626700 
Pharmaceutical Benefits— 
    Drugs supplied— 
      By chemists26,69730,15432,48039,32344,397 
      By medical practitioners and Department of Health278168206181207 
      To institutions and private hospitals332462550515562 
Supplementary Benefits— 
    Dental services2,3392,8002,7992,8493,135 
    Laboratory services4,1425,3356,5847,3557,860 
    Artificial aids1614182124 
    Physiotherapy services227234242246251 
    Radiological services7087877577881,184 
    Specialist services (neurosurgery)44322 

WELFARE SERVICES—Government assistance is offered to religious and voluntary organisations and local authorities in providing housing, accommodation, and services for elderly people and others whom it is considered are in special need. Under this partnership with Government, the social service agencies of all the major religious bodies, as well as other welfare organisations, have established additional accommodation for the aged, frail, and sick who need residential care in either an old people's home or a geriatric hospital. Where it is not possible to meet the need of elderly people through these agencies, the provision of residential care for the aged becomes a hospital board responsibility. At 31 March 1974 religious and welfare organisations provided 6,968 home and hospital beds for the elderly. Hospital boards maintain 1,109 old people's home beds, while approximately 4,700 of their hospital beds (42 percent) are required for care of the elderly sick, either on a short-stay or long-term basis.

Other measures which are of importance in assisting elderly people to remain in their homes as long as possible are receiving increased attention. Chief amongst these are the provision of district nursing services, home aid, meals-on-wheels, laundry services, and occupational therapy. In general the services are provided by hospital boards with voluntary organisations and old people's welfare councils assisting in various ways. The importance of old people's clubs and social centres, with an adequate range of services, is also receiving increasing recognition. Government lottery funds are being used to assist in providing suitable premises and assisting welfare councils with administrative costs. At 31 December 1973 the number of meals delivered daily by the meals-on-wheels service was 4,245; the service is operated by 28 hospital boards.

Old People's Homes and Hospitals—Subject to maximum subsidies of $9,000 per bed for old people's homes and $12,000 for a geriatric hospital, capital cost limits per bed of $10,000 and $13,000 respectively, and certain other conditions, religious or welfare organisations providing accommodation for old people may be granted 100 percent of the approved building cost. In addition, a subsidy of up to $500 per bed is available towards initial land and land development costs. Since April 1966, the policy has been widened to provide a 50 percent subsidy towards the cost of approved improvements and the upgrading of existing accommodation, and 75 percent for fire protection work as required by the local authority. The administration of policy is a Department of Health responsibility.

During the year 1973-74, subsidies amounting to $6,282,134 were approved to assist in the provision of accommodation for 489 old people. From April 1950 to 31 March 1974. subsidies totalling $31,896,966 have been approved, and buildings erected as a result will accommodate 6,285 old people.

VOLUNTARY WELFARE ORGANISATIONS—Over the years voluntary welfare organisations have made valuable contributions to certain aspects of the field of public health. In many cases they are encouraged and assisted in their work by grants from the public funds.

National voluntary health organisations in New Zealand as at November 1973 are listed below.

There is no national index of voluntary organisations working in the health field. This list has been drawn from several sources, but may well be incomplete.

Family Health

Children's Health Camps Board.

The New Zealand Family Planning Association (Inc.).

Royal N.Z. Society for the Health of Women and Children (Plunket Society).

Society for Protection of the Unborn Child.

New Zealand Crippled Children Society Inc.

New Zealand League for Hard of Hearing.

Mental Health

Al Anon Family Groups.

Alcoholics Anonymous.

National Society on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (N.Z.) Inc.

New Zealand Society for the Intellectually Handicapped.

Recovery (New Zealand) Inc.

New Zealand Trust Board for Home Schools for Curative Education.

Disease Control

Cancer Society of New Zealand. Glaucoma Society.

New Zealand Haemophilia Society Inc.

National Heart Foundation of New Zealand.

National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

New Zealand Asthma Society Inc.

Muscular Dystrophy Association.

New Zealand Federation of Tuberculosis Associations.

The Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation of New Zealand Inc.

Paraplegics Associations of New Zealand.

Neurological Foundation.

Cystic Fibrosis Association of New Zealand.

Diabetic Association of New Zealand Inc.

Psoriasis Association of New Zealand.

Public Health

Nutrition Society of New Zealand.


New Zealand Red Cross Society Inc.

St. John Ambulance Association.

Rehabilitation League (Inc.).

Council of Christian Social Services.

New Zealand Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation.

Australian and New Zealand Clean Air Society.

Laura Fergusson Trust for Disabled Persons.

Royal New Zealand Foundations for the Blind.

Overseas Welfare


Medical Aid Abroad.

Volunteer Service Abroad.

Lepers Trust Board.

Leprosy Mission of New Zealand.


GENERAL—The Hospitals Act 1957 requires the Minister of Health to ensure the provision and maintenance by hospital boards of hospitals and hospital services and to encourage the provision and maintenance of private hospitals. The Department of Health advises the Minister on or determines in respect of boards the extent and standard of hospital and allied services, the building requirements to provide these services, the numbers and levels of the main groups of professional staffs to be employed, the appropriate annual financial grants, the salaries and conditions of employment of about 60 percent of staff and the measure of financial assistance to be given to private hospitals, including loan finance. The department also licenses and supervises private hospitals, inspects the work of all hospitals and compiles financial and statistical data about them. There are 30 hospital boards and over 150 private hospitals.

Since 1 April 1958, the cost of hospital treatment in public hospitals has been borne entirely by the State. Private hospitals which provide about one-sixth of the available beds, receive payment from the Government for hospital treatment of patients; additional fees may be claimed from the patients.

The report A Health Service for New Zealand (parliamentary paper H.23, 1974) proposes that regional health authorities replace hospital boards from 1 April 1978.

Hospital and home nursing services involve the Department of Health in establishing and assisting to maintain minimum standards of nursing service in general hospitals, in homes for the aged, etc., in advising, inspecting and reporting on such services in hospitals; and generally advising the Minister on nursing.

Experience has been that, generally speaking, boards, committees and councils play a most valuable part in helping to formulate health policies and programmes, and, in certain cases, in administering policies or programmes laid down by Government. The setting-up of such agencies enables the Minister and the Department of Health to draw upon expert advice and wide experience and ensures that non-departmental people with up-to-date knowledge, day-to-day working experience and responsibility in particular areas of health play a worthwhile part in health administration. A partnership of this kind is particularly important in the case of public hospitals, which are run by democratically elected boards. Recognition of this is seen in the requirements of the Hospitals Act that the Minister of Health may not act in certain public hospital matters without a recommendation from the Hospitals Advisory Council.

The department's objectives in the case of physical medicine and rehabilitation are to stimulate interest and co-ordinate treatment of diseases such as chronic arthritis, poliomyelitis, and cerebral palsy; to promote and maintain a unified rehabilitation service and to maintain and develop physiotherapy and occupational therapy services. It supervises physiotherapy and occupational therapy training, licensing and services, and supervises the provision of rehabilitation services in public hospitals. (See Section 5 A.)

The welfare services involving the department include the medical and social care and general welfare of the aged. The department advises the Minister on subsidies to be paid to religious and welfare organisations which provide homes and hospital beds for the elderly, and administers legislation governing the standards and oversight of old people's homes.

Private Hospitals—Hospital benefits are paid to patients in registered private hospitals according to the nature of the treatment given: For surgical and maternity treatment, $9 per day; for medical (including psychiatric) treatment, $5.50 per day.

The Government assists in the development of private hospitals by the provision of loan moneys. at a low interest rate. New loans amounting to $475,000 were approved in 1972-73.

HOSPITAL BOARDS—General and psychiatric hospitals are controlled by locally elected hospital boards. A hospital board of 8 to 14 members is elected every 3 years for each hospital district. It is the duty of every hospital board to provide, maintain and staff such institutions, hospital accommodation, and medical, nursing, and other services as the Minister of Health considers necessary.

In recent years there has been a pressure of activity, replanning, and development in all medical services for which hospital boards are responsible. This replanning of medical services has been undertaken against a background of sharp population increases in moan areas. More rapid and comfortable transport is encouraging the build-up of specialist diagnostic and therapeutic resources in regional centres. The Management Services Research Unit, headed by a medical practitioner in the Department of Health, has the task of applying techniques such as operational research and work study to problems of management in the health services, particularly in hospitals, and ascertaining in what ways efficiency can be improved.

The Director-General of Health is authorised to visit and inspect hospitals and to appoint assistant inspectors, and is required to report to Parliament through the Minister on the administration of the Hospitals Act.

Hospital boards are required to operate their own ambulance services unless they enter into some arrangement with a subsidised voluntary agency. In this regard the Order of St. John and organisations such as the Wellington Free Ambulance perform valuable services.

HOSPITAL ACCOMMODATION: Public Institutions—The number of beds in public institutions available at 31 March 1974 and the average number occupied during the year are set out in the following table. These statistics relate to patients and inmates in all institutions (general, maternity, special hospitals, and old people's homes) including institutions under the control of the Department of Health.

Type of BedBeds AvailableAverage Number of Occupied Beds per Day