Table of Contents
The New Zealand Official Yearbook portrays New Zealand and its people. It describes the physical resources of the country and their use. It enumerates statistics of the population, their health and education, their employment and their production, their trade and their national finances, their wages and their savings, their housing and food consumption, their means of communication, and their international relationships. Supplementary material gives other social, administrative, and legislative information.
There is real value in combining such a breadth of information in one volume. Thus the Official Yearbook is established as a standard reference work both within and beyond New Zealand.
As a series, Official Yearbooks are a rich source of material for research workers and students. The yearly record becomes a survey of both growth and change. Every endeavour is made to give comprehensive accurate information as clearly as possible within the limits of space. Each section is progressively revised and the emphasis varies with economic and social developments.
In this latest issue some sections have been more extensively revised than usual; these include Health and Hospitals; Education; Marketing of Farm Produce; Industrial Relations; and Industrial Safety.
The metric system of weights and measures is in educational use and will be in common use by 1976; in this issue areas have been converted to metric measure.
A special article surveys the development of the meat industry.
Another special article covers New Zealand membership of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
A short article refers to the Tenth British Commonwealth Games.
The photographic section features leisure opportunities in New Zealand.
Additional and more recent detail on many subjects may be obtained from publications of the Department of Statistics. These are listed towards the end of this Yearbook and are available from Government bookshops.
Department of Statistics,
20 June 1973.
|Map of New Zealand|
|Mean Annual Rainfall||15|
|Holdings in Regional Areas by Type of Farming||385|
|Factory Production—North Island||471|
|External Passenger Migration||69|
|Principal Causes of Death||104|
|Infant Death Rate||110|
|Motor Vehicles Licensed and Motor Spirits Consumption||318|
|Gross Farming Income||390|
|Area and Yield of Wheat for Threshing||410|
|Production of Rough-sawn Timber||434|
|Pulp and Paper Industry||437|
|Growth of Demand for Electricity||543|
|Direction of External Trade||595|
|Value of External Trade with Individual Countries||601|
|Value of Exports—New Zealand Produce||607|
|Volume of Exports—New Zealand Produce||608|
|Consumers' Price Index||665|
|Annual Percentage Changes in Gross National Product||688|
|Expenditure on Gross National Product||689|
|Balance of Payments by Areas||707|
|Changes in Overseas Direct Investment in New Zealand||708|
|Revenue from Taxation||732|
|Trading Banks—Deposits and Advances||799|
|Trading Banks—Classification of Advances||799|
|Life Assurance—New Business||844|
|Life Assurance—Total Assets||849|
The interpretation of the symbols used in the tables throughout this publication is as follows:
|– nil or zero||… not applicable|
|.. figures not available||- amount too small to be expressed|
|not yet available — space left blank||x revised|
|1 yard||= 0.914 metre|
|1 inch||= 25.4 millimetres|
|1 mile||= 1.609 kilometres|
|1 square foot||= 929.03 square centimetres|
|1 square yard||= 0.836 square metre|
|1 acre||= 0.405 hectare|
|1 square mile||= 2.59 square kilometres|
|1 pound||= 0.454 kilograms|
|1 hundredweight (cwt)||= 112 lb = 50.8 kilograms|
|°Celsius (centigrade)||= 5/9; (°Fahrenheit − 32)|
|1 cubic foot||= 0.028 cubic metre|
|1 cubic yard||= 0.765 cubic metre|
|1 gallon||= 4.546 litres|
|1 bushel||= 36.37 litres|
|1 long ton||= 1.016 metric tons|
|1 short ton||= 0.907 metric ton|
On occasions figures are rounded off to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. This may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of the individual items as shown in tables.
Figures for fiscal years ended 31 March (the fiscal year) are indicated in the text and headings of tables; otherwise figures are mainly for calendar years.
|bd ft||board feet|
|cu ft||cubic feet|
|n.e.i.||not elsewhere included|
|n.e.c.||not elsewhere classified|
|sq ft||square feet|
|sup ft||super feet|
New Zealand is in the south-west section of the Pacific, that great ocean stretching across one-third of the earth's surface. To the west, beyond the Tasman Sea, is Australia, 1,600 kilometres away. From its position on the rim of the Pacific basin, New Zealand is a little over 10,000 kilometres from San Francisco and Panama and a similar distance from Tokyo and Singapore. In area 26.9 million hectares, it is similar in size to the British Isles and Japan.
One of the chief charms of the New Zealand landscape is its infinite variety. Such level lowlands as exist are small in area; contrasts between coastal plain and bordering hard-rock mountains are abrupt. High mountains make up most of the South Island area—often stark and bare or mantled in permanent snow. By contrast, most of the North Island is weak-rock hill country. From Cook Strait to the Bay of Plenty a hard-rock mountain core dominates the North Island scene, forming an effective barrier between east and west; the only low level gap across it is at the gorge cut by the Manawatu River near Palmerston North.
A peculiar and special feature of the North Island is the volcanic country of the interior. Here are the largest North Island lakes and in a line from Ruapehu to White Island, most of the still active volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers.
The most spectacular mountains are in the South Island; high mountains, deep and narrow valleys, swift rivers, and glacial lakes, large and small, give infinite variety to the scene. It is in this high country that ice has left its special mark in glacial troughs and fiords and, above all, the noble southern lakes. There is little weak-rock hill country in the South Island; the lowlands are mainly bordering plains, basin plains, and valley plains. Of these the most extensive are the plains of Canterbury and Southland.
New Zealand has large areas of luxuriant forests which are the delight of trampers, campers, and hunters. Forests cover nearly a quarter of the total land area, of which national parks and scenic reserves set aside as permanent forest form 2 million hectares.
The indigenous forests may be grouped broadly into two main formations: mixed temperate evergreen forest and southern beech forest. The former is a mixed community of many species of broad-leaved trees and conifers, and the latter a pure community of one or more of the species of southern beech. Generally, the mixed temperate evergreen forests are the forests of the north and of the warm, wet lowlands and lower mountain slopes. The beeches form the forests of the south, of the high mountains, and of the drier lowlands. But there are extensive areas where the types mingle in forests of extremely varied composition.
Mountains, forests, lakes, rivers, and beaches have influenced the characteristics of the people. New Zealand society has been shaped and subtly tempered by a number of factors—geographical, historical, social, and psychological during more than a century of growth as a nation. New Zealand today represents both an extension and a modification of the European tradition. In addition to its Maori population, New Zealand has experienced in recent years a considerable inflow of Polynesians from its associated territories and elsewhere in the Pacific. Auckland has become the major city of Polynesia, and as such a focal point of the South Pacific. The Polynesian (including Maori) population is of greater significance than its relatively small numbers would suggest. Outside the Pacific area New Zealand may present a basically European face to the world, but the preservation of distinctive life-style by the Maori, together with a close compatibility (extending to frequent intermarriage) between the two races, has doubtless been a determining factor in the evolution of New Zealand society.
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION—The islands of New Zealand have been shaped from the projecting crests of earth folds which rise as broad ridges from the floor of the South Pacific Ocean, 1,600 kilometres east of the continent of Australia. There are three main islands—North, South, and Stewart separated only by relatively narrow straits—with adjacent islets and a small group called Chatham Islands, 850 kilometres to the east of Lyttelton. Dating from 1842 the administrative boundaries of New Zealand, including the minor islands, extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from 162 degrees east longitude to 173 degrees west longitude. Inhabited outlying minor islands are Raoul Island in the Kermadec Group, 930 kilometres north-east of the Bay of Islands, and Campbell Island, 590 kilometres south of Stewart Island.
New Zealand is also responsible for the administration of two island groups in the South-west Pacific—Niue and the Tokelau Islands. These are incorporated within the boundaries of New Zealand. Niue is 2,460 kilometres north-east of Auckland, while the Tokelau Islands are 1,130 kilometres further north. The territorial area reaches to within 8 degrees of the Equator.
The Ross Dependency, some 2,300 kilometres to the south, has been under New Zealand's jurisdiction since 1923 and comprises the sector of the Antarctic continent between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60 degrees south.
The administrative area of New Zealand can be classified as follows. In this Yearbook, in general, New Zealand refers to the group of islands shown in (a) only.
|Area in Square Kilometres|
|(a) New Zealand—|
|Uninhabited (Auckland and other offshore islands)||681|
|(b) Overseas territories—|
|Tokelau Islands, comprised of—|
|Fakaofo Island, Nukunonu Island, Atafu Island||10|
|(c) Ross Dependency .. .. .. .. (Estimated)||414,400|
The 16 Cook Islands achieved a status of self-government in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965; more detail is given in Section 38 of this Yearbook.
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Coastline—Since the combined length of the North and South Islands extends just over a thousand miles, and since the width of neither Island exceeds 450 kilometres at its broadest point, New Zealand possesses a very lengthy coastline in proportion to its area. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland Peninsula, the New Zealand land mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis, parallel to the direction of its mountain chains.
In the North Island, Whangarei, Auckland, Tauranga, and Wellington are natural harbours which have been developed into ports for extensive use by overseas ships. At Napier and Gisborne artificial harbours have been made. On the east coast of the North Auckland Peninsula several other deep and sheltered harbours exist, but production from the hinterland is limited. In the South Island the Marlborough Sounds and the West Coast Sounds form perfect land-locked harbours, but owing to their situations and the rugged nature of the terrain they have—with the exception of Queen Charlotte Sound—little or no commercial utility. By dredging and by breakwater construction, ports capable of accommodating overseas vessels have been formed in Lyttelton, Otago, and Bluff Harbours and on the coast at Timaru. On the west coast of both Islands the strong ocean drifts and high seas cause shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances, although an overseas port has been developed at New Plymouth, while on the east coast of the South Island similar circumstances prevail, due to the large quantities of shingle brought down by the rivers being spread along the coast by ocean currents.
Mountains—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 200 m contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (2,518 m), Ruapehu (2,797 m), Ngauruhoe (2,290 m), and Tongariro (1968 m), they do not exceed an altitude of 1,800 m. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe have been particularly active from time to time. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.
The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Turakirae Head, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa Ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto Ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Moehau Range parallels the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only area above 1,200 m on the west coast of this Island.
The South Island is much more mountainous than the North. Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (3,764 m), while no fewer than 16 peaks exceed 3,000 m. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell Ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Paparoa Range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Richmond Ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.
There are at least 223 named peaks of 2,300 m or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 2,740 m in the South Island.
|Mountain or Peak||Height (metres)|
|Mt. Hicks (St. David's Dome)||3,183|
|Elie de Beaumont||3,109|
|De la Beche||2,992|
Glaciers—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman Glacier has a length of 29 km and a width of 9 km. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (17 km), the Mueller (13 km), the Godley (13 km), and the Hooker (11 km), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is an altitude of somewhat over 600 m. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 15 km and 13 km respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 200 m and 210 m.
Rivers—New Zealand rivers, owing to the high relief of the country, are mostly swift-flowing and difficult to navigate. As sources of hydro-electric power the rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. The Waikato and the Rangitaiki in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, Clutha, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes.
Following is a list of the more important rivers. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system, whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.
|* Cook Strait is defined as follows: northern limit is a line between northern point of Stephens Island and Kapiti Island: southern limit is a line between Cape Palliser and Cape Campbell.|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waihou (or Thames)||175|
|Waipaoa (from source, Mata River)||121|
|Waipaoa (from source, Waipapa Stream)||113|
|Wairoa (from source, Hangaroa River)||137|
|Mohaka (from source, Taharua River)||172|
|Flowing into Cook Strait*—|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waikato (from source, Upper Waikato River)||425|
|Wairoa (from source, Waiotu Stream)||132|
|Hokianga (from source, Waihou River)||72|
|Flowing into Cook Strait—|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waiau-uha (or Waiau)||169|
|Rangitata (from source, Clyde River)||121|
|Waitaki (from source, Hopkins River)||209|
|Clutha (from source, Makarora River)||322|
|Flowing into Foveaux Strait—|
|Aparima (Jacobs River)||113|
|Waiau (from source, Clinton River)||217|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waiho (from source, Callery River)||32|
|Buller (from source, Travers River)||177|
|Aorere (from source, Spee River)||72|
|Takaka (from source, Cobb River)||72|
|Waimea (from source, Wai-iti River)||48|
The discovery in 1861 that the beds of rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the early economic development of the country.
With the very successful acclimatisation of freshwater fish, notably trout, many rivers now provide exceptionally fine fishing.
Lakes—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the two Islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while some of the larger ones of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, have their own particular beauty. As reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the rivers and streams draining them and as a means of flood prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involved, Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, and Wakatipu in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect. A series of narrow man-made lakes have been produced in connection with hydro-electric development along some of the rivers. In 1965 Lake Benmore, New Zealand's largest artificial lake, was created. It lies on the Waitaki River in North Otago and covers 79 sq km in area and consists of two arms, the main arm being 30 km in length and the Ahuriri Arm 18 km in length.
Some particulars of the more important lakes are given in the following table.
|Lake||Length, in Kilometres*||Greatest Breadth, in Kilometres*||Area, in Square Kilometres†||Drainage Area, in Square Kilometres†||Approximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Metres per Second||Maximum Height Above Sea Level in Metres (Range in Brackets)‡||Greatest Depth, in Metres|
* 1 kilometre equals 0.621 square miles.
† 1 square kilometre equals 0.386 square miles.
‡ The range in lake levels is not available for all lakes.
|Te Anau||61.2||9.7||344||3,302||276||209 (4.6)||276|
GEOLOGY—The islands of New Zealand are part of the unstable circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. This is a region where volcanoes are active and where the earth's crust has long been buckling and breaking at a geologically rapid rate. The interplay, in the past, of earth movements and erosion has made the sedimentary rocks that cover almost three-quarters of New Zealand. Land areas that the earth movements have raised have been attacked by erosion, and the sand, mud, shingle, and other debris thus formed has been carried away to the sea, where it has accumulated in great thicknesses to form rocks such as sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and conglomerate; the shells and other skeletons of sea creatures have accumulated to form thick layers of limestone. Many of the sedimentary rocks are in distinct layers called strata. Earth movements have later raised them above the sea to form land, and the strata are in many places tilted and folded by pressure. Seas have advanced and retreated over New Zealand many times and these sedimentary rocks represent almost every geological period since the Cambrian (see Time Scale). Their age is revealed by the shells, foraminifera, and other fossils that they contain.
As well as sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks of various ages, New Zealand incorporates in its complex structure schist, gneiss, marble and other metamorphic rocks, and granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, and other intrusive igneous rocks. Most of these metamorphic and intrusive rocks are hundreds of millions of years old. They were formed at depth in the earth's crust early in New Zealand's history, in the “roots” of ancient mountain ranges, long ago destroyed, and are visible at the land surface today only because erosion has removed thousands of feet thickness of other rocks that once covered them. The metamorphic rocks developed when huge, elongated sea basins (geosynclines) were formed, in which tens of thousands of feet thickness of sediments accumulated. When these geosynclines were slowly compressed during major mountain-building episodes the deeper sediments were subjected to great pressure and shearing stress, which caused new minerals and structures to develop, changing the sediments into metamorphic rocks. The granites and other intrusive rocks are coarsely crystalline, and are usually considered to have intruded into the outer crust in a molten state during mountain building; some, however, may be the products of an intense metamorphism of sediments.
|Eras||Periods||Approximate Time Since Period Began (Years)|
|Cenozoic||Holocene (Recent)||Quaternary||10 thousand|
Geological History—Evidence of the earliest-known events in New Zealand's history is given by ancient rocks in Nelson, Westland, and Fiordland that were formed in the early Paleozoic era, perhaps as long as 600 million years ago (some in Westland may be older). They include thick, geosynclinal sedimentary rocks. This suggests that a large land mass existed at that time to yield the great volume of sediments, but little has been deduced about its shape or position.
The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood. For a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period—probably until the early Cretaceous period—an extensive geosyncline occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during much of late Paleozoic time, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic tuff were included in the materials that accumulated in the geosyncline, but in the later Permian and Mesozoic times the sediments were mainly sand and mud, derived probably from some land west of present New Zealand; they were compacted into hard greywacke (a type of sandstone) and argillite (hard, dark mudstone).
In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place. Although geosynclinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand, the geosyncline elsewhere was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled and broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous land mass. Some of the geosynclinal deposits, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by the tremendous deforming pressures to which the geosyncline was subjected.
The time that has elapsed since the intense folding of the strata in the New Zealand geosyncline in the mid-Cretaceous period may be considered as the later geological history of this country, embracing roughly 100 million years.
During the early part of this late history, erosion slowly wore down the mountains that had risen, producing a land of low relief. Over these worn-down stumps of the Mesozoic mountains the sea gradually advanced, beginning its transgression earlier in some areas than in others. In the early Cretaceous period it began to submerge land in the region of present North Auckland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some parts of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and in the very early Tertiary, land became so reduced in size and relief that little sediment was formed, and only comparatively thin deposits of fine bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine, white, foraminiferal limestone accumulated. In some areas New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated in swamps on the surface of the old land. These became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.
By the Oligocene period, most of the land was submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments, thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. (Scattered, remnant patches of this Oligocene limestone furnish most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime.)
After the Oligocene submergence earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and rapidly filled with sediments. New Zealand's late Tertiary environment has been described as follows: “The pattern of folds, welts, and troughs that developed was on a finer scale than in the Mesozoic … the land moved up and down as a series of narrow, short, interfingering or branching folds … we can think of Tertiary New Zealand as an archipelago … a kind of writhing of part of the mobile Pacific margins seems to have gone on …”. The thick deposits of soft, grey mudstone and sandstone that now make up large areas of the North Island, and some parts of South Island, are the deposits that accumulated rapidly in the many sea basins, large and small, that developed in the later Tertiary.
Very late in the Cenozoic era—in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods—one of the greatest episodes of mountain building in New Zealand's history took place. Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and other main mountain chains, and determined the general shape and size of the present islands of New Zealand. Much of the movement during this mountain building period (the Kaikoura Orogeny) took the form of displacement of blocks of the earth's crust along fractures called faults. The total movements of the earth blocks adjacent to major faults amounted to thousands of feet. It must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each of a few inches or feet. The blocks adjacent to “transcurrent” faults moved not only vertically but also laterally along the faults. The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well preserved tilted fault blocks bounded by fault-scarps—steep faces hundreds or even thousands of feet high. Fault movements continue to the present day, and have accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features such as scarplets, fault ponds, and shutter ridges show where movement has been occurring in recent centuries.
Erosion during this time has eaten into the major landscape forms that the earth movements have built, carving detailed landscape pattern of peaks, ridges, valleys, and gorges, and has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans, and other construction forms. At the coast, waves have driven back the headlands and built beaches, splits, and bars. The Pleistocene period was the time of the Ice Age, and in the high mountains of the South Island glaciers carved deep valleys and carried huge loads of rock, dumping them as moraines. The late Pleistocene glaciers carved the fiords of Fiordland and the basins occupied by most South Island lakes; there were small glaciers also on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, and on Mount Egmont and the Tararua Range.
Volcanic activity of the past few million years has played an important part in making the rocks and shaping the landscape of parts of the central and northern North Island. Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, achieved much of its growth then. The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand have been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty Coast: andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later to build the huge volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe. More than 8,000 cu km of molten rhyolitic magma was erupted in the form of ignimbrite, pumice, and rhyolite lava, building up the Volcanic Plateau. This is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world.
Mount Egmont is a huge, conical, andesite volcano, with the remnants of two other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of approximately basic andesite composition. The largest is Pirongia, some 900 m high. Auckland city and the area immediately to the south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in late Pleistocene and Holocene times; and many small scoria cones can be seen in the locality. Late Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young cones.
Geological maps and an accompanying description were included in issues of the Official Yearbook up to 1971, and are also included in An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand.
A Descriptive Atlas of New Zealand contains geological maps of New Zealand and summaries of New Zealand's geology and landscape development. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 66, The Geological Map of New Zealand, 1:2,000,000, is a lengthier summary with a more detailed geological map and cross sections.
EARTHQUAKES: Geophysical Background—Earthquakes are geographically associated with active volcanoes and with major earth movements such as mountain building; these types of disturbance are confined, for the most part, to certain limited regions of the world. Such disturbed regions, of which New Zealand is one, are evidently the site of some kind of development affecting the outer shell of the earth. Little is yet known about the internal processes that give rise to these geophysical disturbances, nor are the relations connecting them fully understood.
Formerly earthquakes were believed to be caused by volcanic activity, but it is now recognised that volcanic earthquakes are restricted to small shocks in the immediate vicinity of the volcanism. In New Zealand, tremors of this kind are experienced in the zone of active volcanism that extends from Mount Ruapehu to White Island.
In some places geological faulting at the surface gives visible evidence that a major earth movement has occurred. Occasionally movement on a fault has been observed to occur simultaneously with an earthquake in the same vicinity. New Zealand provided one of the earliest examples of this to become generally known, when movement took place on the Wairarapa Fault at the time of the great Wellington earthquake of 1855. Such events as this have led to the idea that earthquakes in general are caused by fault movements. It is noteworthy, however, that there seems to be little earthquake activity along much of the Alpine Fault, which has been traced for 500 km from Milford Sound to Lake Rotoiti and is classed by geologists as one of the largest and most active faults in the world. The nature of the connection between earthquakes and faulting is still somewhat obscure.
The great majority of the world's earthquakes occur at depths of less than 60 km, and in many earthquake zones there are no shocks at any greater depth. A moderate number of New Zealand earthquakes are classed as intermediate in depth, i.e., originating at between 60 and 300 km deep. The two deepest New Zealand earthquakes recorded so far occurred four and a half minutes apart on 23 March 1960, with a common focus 600 km deep under North Taranaki, about 120 km shallower than the deepest earthquake known.
It is difficult to compare the degree of earthquake activity in New Zealand with that in other regions because of the many differences that arise in earthquake type and mode of occurrence. New Zealand and California are often regarded as roughly similar, with an activity very much less than, for example, Japan or Chile.
Regional Distribution—There are two separate regions of earthquake activity in New Zealand. The larger northern region may be roughly defined as lying between latitude 36 1/2;°S and 43 1/2;°S. It thus includes the northern half of the South Island, and all the North Island apart from the North Auckland peninsula; but the area from Kaipara Harbour to the lower Waikato River should be excluded. The southern active region lies to the west of longitude 169 1/2;°E, and incorporates Southland, western Otago, and southern Westland. Earthquakes have only occasionally been located in the parts of New Zealand lying outside these two regions.
Within the active regions the occurrence of shallow earthquakes is widely scattered. There has been a tendency, however, for the larger shallow earthquakes to lie towards the Pacific side of the northern active region and towards the Tasman side of the southern active region. Earthquakes with deeper foci are mostly confined to a narrow belt in the northern region, extending from the Bay of Plenty south-westwards to Tasman Bay.
The historical record is too brief to support a quantitative assessment of the frequency with which one might expect earthquakes to be felt at a given intensity in various parts of New Zealand. Considering the distances at which major earthquakes can be effective, in relation to the size of New Zealand, it would be imprudent to regard any part of the country as permanently exempt from the possibility of earthquake damage.
Outside the active regions there are many areas, however, where no damaging intensity has actually been experienced in historical times. Moreover, since the major shallow earthquakes on record have been rather widely distributed within the active regions, there appears to be no particular area of markedly intense seismicity.
The Hawke's Bay earthquake of 3 February 1931 resulted directly or indirectly in 255 deaths. The total of deaths that have been recorded as due to other earthquakes since 1848 is 32, of which three resulted from the Inangahua earthquake of 1968.
Seismological Observatory—Earthquake recorders are operated continuously at the following stations by the Seismological Observatory, Wellington: Apia and Afiamalu (Western Samoa); Nandi (Fiji); Rarotonga (Cook Islands); Raoul Island (Kermadecs); Cape Reinga, Onerahi, Auckland, East Cape, Karapiro, Whakatane, Wairakei, Gisborne, Tuai, Tarata, Chateau, Taradale, Castlepoint, Mangahao, and Wellington (North Island); Cobb, Kaikoura, Kaimata, Christchurch, Gebbies Pass, Mount John, Milford Sound, Oamaru, Roxburgh, Monowai, and Waipapa Point (South Island); Chatham Islands; Campbell Island; and Scott Base (Antarctica). The Naval Research Laboratory, Auckland, operates a station on Great Barrier Island, the records from which are analysed at the Seismological Observatory. The installations at the following stations include instruments for recording distant earthquakes: Afiamalu, Rarotonga, Wellington, Roxburgh, and Scott Base. At the Pacific and Antarctic stations preliminary readings are made locally and notified by radiogram. The analysis of records from all stations is carried out at the Observatory in Wellington. A set of portable recorders is available for detailed studies of earthquakes in particular regions, and for investigations of aftershock sequences and earthquake swarms.
The analysis involves using observations from stations in other countries as well as those from the local network, and the Observatory likewise contributes data to the international seismological agencies about distant earthquakes as well as large local ones. Details of tremors felt in New Zealand are supplied to the public and the press. In the study of felt earthquakes the instrumental results are augmented by “felt reports”; these are supplied by a large number of voluntary observers throughout New Zealand in response to a standard questionnaire issued by the Observatory.
Earthquake data are used by the Observatory for studying the fundamental characteristics of the earth's crust in New Zealand, Antarctica, and the neighbouring oceanic regions, and also for contributing to geophysical knowledge of the earth's interior.
Earthquakes during 1972—Earthquake activity was comparatively quiet in New Zealand during 1972. The largest shock recorded was that of 24 March 1972, which had a magnitude of 5.8 (Richter Scale). This earthquake was centred off the Fiordland coast near Doubtful Sound, and was felt throughout Fiordland and Southland, but no damage was reported.
The earthquake that attracted most attention in the course of the year occurred near Te Aroha on 9 January, and was felt as far afield as Auckland, Mangakino and Whakatane. The magnitude of this shock was only moderate (5.1), but its shallowness and its closeness to Te Aroha resulted in high intensities being recorded there. The earthquake was followed by numerous aftershocks, and by the end of January, 16 had been recorded with magnitudes of 3.5 or greater. Further activity occurred on 20 and 21 June. The largest of these later shocks had a magnitude of 4.5 and was felt strongly throughout the Coromandel Peninsula and western Bay of Plenty.
Several shallow shocks were felt widely in the central parts of the country, and caused minor damage. The first, on 14 March, had a magnitude of 5.2 and was centred at the north of D'Urville Island in Cook Strait; it was felt in Wellington and elsewhere between southern Taranaki and Nelson. A shock of magnitude 5.1 occurred on 31 July about 30 kilometres to the east of Masterton, and was felt in the Wairarapa and Wellington regions. On 21 December a further shock of magnitude 5.1 originated 20 kilometres off Cape Turnagain in southern Hawke's Bay. This shock was felt throughout the southern part of the North Island.
Three deep earthquakes were also felt extensively in the central and southern parts of the North Island. These shocks occurred on 1 May at a depth of 100 kilometres near Palmerston North, on 12 October about 270 kilometres beneath the Ohakune region, and on 10 December at a depth of 200 kilometres beneath northern Taranaki. All these earthquakes had magnitudes of about 5.2.
A shallow earthquake in an area of less common activity occurred near Sheffield, 40 kilometres west of Christchurch, on 29 February. It had a magnitude of 4.4 and was felt at Lake Coleridge and Lyttelton.
A series of shallow earthquakes occurred about 10 kilometres south of Rotorua on 4 and 5 April. The three largest occurred within an interval of 40 minutes and had magnitudes ranging from 4.4 to 4.6. The earthquakes were felt in the Rotorua region, but caused no damage, and were not accompanied by any apparent volcanic or geothermal manifestations.
WEATHER INFORMATION—The collection of weather information and the provision of weather forecasts and climatic data for diverse interests in aviation, shipping, agriculture, Government departments, and the general public are functions of the New Zealand Meteorological Service. By arrangement with the administrations concerned the Service performs similar functions for British territories in the Pacific.
Weather reports for use in forecasting are made at about 140 places within New Zealand and 50 in the Pacific islands and collected by telegraph and radio, along with measurements of winds at upper levels made at 9 radio wind stations, and of temperatures made at 8 radiosonde stations. Daily observations are made for climatological purposes at about 250 places in New Zealand and 80 in the islands. Rainfall measurements are made at a total of about 2,400 places within New Zealand and 270 outside the country.
Detailed climatological statistics are published annually by the New Zealand Meteorological Service in the Meteorological Observations, in Rainfall Observations, and in Fiji Annual Meteorological Summary. Current statistics appear monthly in the New Zealand Gazette and in the Fiji Gazette.
CLIMATE—Situated between 34°S and 47°S the main islands lie within the broad belt of strong westerly winds which encircles the hemisphere south of about latitude 35°S. Just to the north is the high-pressure ridge of the subtropics from which barometric pressure decreases southwards over New Zealand to the deep low-pressure trough located near latitude 70°S.
The weather pattern from day to day is dominated by a succession of anticyclones, separated by troughs of low pressure, which pass more or less regularly from west to east across the Australia-Tasman Sea - New Zealand area and beyond. In this region there is no semi-permanent anticyclone such as those found in similar latitudes over the Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific Ocean respectively. The troughs normally have a north-west to south-east orientation and are associated with deep depressions centred far to the south. A typical weather sequence commences with a low-pressure trough approaching from the west. Freshening north-westerly winds prevail with increasing cloud, followed by rain for a period during which winds may reach gale force. The passage of the trough, with its associated cold front, is accompanied by a change to cold south-westerly or southerly winds and showery weather, occasionally with some hail and thunder. Barometers then rise with the approach of the next anticyclone from the west. Winds moderate and fair weather prevails for a few days as the anticyclone moves across the country.
While the sequence just described is very common the situation is frequently much more complex. The troughs are very unstable systems where depressions readily form, some of which develop into vigorous storms that may pass over New Zealand at any time of the year. Occasionally in summer a cyclonic storm of tropical origin passes over or near New Zealand accompanied by gales and heavy rain affecting mainly northern and eastern districts of the North Island. The anticyclones vary in size, intensity, and rate of movement. Their centres, on the average, follow a track across the North Island but individual centres may pass either north or south of the country, the more northerly tracks being favoured in spring and the southerly tracks in autumn. At times when little development occurs within the troughs the anticyclones follow each other at intervals of about 6–7 days.
The other main factors which influence the climate of New Zealand are first, its position in the midst of a vast ocean, and second, the shape and topography of the country itself.
Hot air masses from the interior of Australia in summer or freezing air masses from the Antarctic, which occasionally reach New Zealand, retain little of their original character after their long ocean passage. Thus, there is an absence of extreme variations of temperature. On the other hand, since abundant supplies of moisture are supplied by evaporation from the ocean, and depressions are frequent and vigorous, the average precipitation is high.
The chain of high mountains, which extends from south-west to north-east through the length of the country, rises as a formidable barrier in the path of the prevailing westerly winds. The effect is to produce much sharper climatic contrasts from west to east than in the north-south direction. In some inland areas of the South Island just east of the mountains the climate is distinctly continental in character, despite the fact that no part of New Zealand is more than 80 miles from the sea.
Winds—Winds from a westerly quarter prevail in all seasons, with a general tendency to increase in strength from north to south. However, considerable local modifications to the general air flow occur during its passage across the mountainous terrain. Approaching the main ranges the flow from the west turns towards the north-east and on descending on the eastern side swings towards the south-east This results in an increased number of south-westerlies in Westland and a predominance of north-westerlies in inland districts of Otago and Canterbury, where strong gales from this quarter occur at times in the late spring and summer. Daytime sea breezes usually extend from the coast inland for 30 km or more during periods of settled weather in summer. On the Canterbury coast the wind comes most frequently from the north-east, partly because there is a persistent sea breeze from this quarter but south of Dunedin south-westerlies predominate. Cook Strait, the only substantial gap in the main mountain chain, acts as a natural funnel for the air flow and is a particularly windy locality afflicted by gales from the south-east as well as the north-west. This “funnel” effect is also in evidence about Foveaux Strait. North of Taranaki the general air flow is more from the south-west, and there is a noticeable reduction of windiness in the summer.
An indication of the variation in the frequency of strong winds from summer to winter, and in different parts of the country, is given in the next table. These were all obtained by the use of anemographs.
|Station||Average Number of Days with Gusts Reaching||Years of Data|
|40 mph or More||60 mph or More|
|Auckland (Mechanics Bay)||20||29||49||0.9||1.6||2.5||24|
|NOTE—These are all aerodromes, with the exception of Auckland (Mechanics Bay) and Wellington (Kelburn).|
Rainfall—The distribution of rainfall is mainly controlled by mountain features, and the highest rainfalls occur where the mountains are exposed to the direct sweep of the westerly and north-westerly winds. The mean annual rainfall (see map) ranges from as little as 300 mm in a small area of Central Otago to over 7000 mm in the Southern Alps. The average for the whole country is high, but for the greater part it lies between 600 and 1500 mm, a range regarded as favourable for plant growth in the temperate zone. The only areas with under 600 mm are found in the South Island to the east of the main ranges. These include most of central and north Otago, and South Canterbury. In the North Island, the driest areas are central and southern Hawke's Bay, Wairarapa, and Manawatu where the average rainfall is 800–1000 mm a year. Of the remainder, much valuable farm land, chiefly in northern Taranaki and Northland, has upwards of 1500 mm. Over a sizable area of both Islands rainfall exceeds 2500 mm a year but, with the exception of Westland, this is mountainous and unoccupied, much of it being forest covered.
For a large part of the country the rainfall is spread evenly through the year. The greatest contrast is found in the north, where winter has almost twice as much rain as summer. This predominance of winter rainfall diminishes southwards. It is still discernible over the northern part of the South Island but, over the southern half, winter is the season with least rainfall, and a definite summer maximum is found inland due to the effect of convectional showers. The rainfall is also influenced by seasonal variations in the strength of the westerly winds. Spring rainfall is increased in and west of the ranges as the westerlies rise to their maximum about October, while a complementary decrease occurs at the same time in the lee of the ranges.
Areas which are exposed to the west and south-west experience much showery weather, and rain falls on roughly half the days of the year. Over most of the North Island there are at least 150 rain days (days with at least 0.2 mm of rain) a year except to the east of the ranges where there are, in places, fewer than 125 rain days. Those areas of the South Island with annual rainfall under 600 mm generally have about 100 rain days a year. In the far south the frequency of rain increases sharply; in Stewart Island and Fiordland rain days exceed 200 a year. Over most of the country between 55 and 65 percent of the rain days also qualify as wet days (2.5 mm or more). The percentage increases to over 70 in Westland, but in the low rainfall area of inland Otago there are only about 40 wet days a year compared with 100 rain days.
On the whole the seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year, the reliability in spring being particularly advantageous for agricultural purposes. It is least reliable in late summer and autumn when very dry conditions may develop east of the ranges, particularly in Hawke's Bay.
The highest daily rainfall on record is 582 mm which occurred at Rapid Creek, Hokitika Catchment, where the mean annual rainfall exceeds 6000 mm. Other areas with considerably lower rainfall are also subject to very heavy daily falls; such areas are to be found in northern Hawke's Bay and in north-eastern districts of the Auckland Province. By contrast, in the Manawatu district and in Otago and Southland daily falls reaching 80 mm are very rare.
|NORMAL MONTHLY AND ANNUAL RAINFALL (MILLIMETRES)* (1921–50)|
|* 25 millimetres equal 1 inch.|
|Auckland (Albert Park)||84||104||71||109||122||140||140||109||97||107||81||79||1243|
|Lake Waikaremoana (Onepoto)||196||193||188||211||272||231||241||221||188||170||163||147||2421|
|Christchurch (Botanic Gardens)||56||46||43||46||76||69||61||58||51||51||51||61||669|
Thunderstorms—Thunderstorms are not numerous. Their frequency is greatest in the north and west where thunder is heard on 15 to 20 days a year; east of the ranges (except in Gisborne) the figure is five or less.
Hail—Hail is most frequent in the south-west where it is reported on about 20 days a year, but for the greater part of the country it occurs on about 5 days a year or less. Most of the hailstones are small, but occasionally large stones cause local damage to glasshouses, and to orchards and market gardens, chiefly in Canterbury and Hawke's Bay.
Temperature—Mean temperatures at sea level decrease steadily southwards from 15°C in the far north to 12°C about Cook Strait, then to 9°C in the south. With increasing altitude, temperatures drop about 2°C per 300 m. January and February, with approximately the same mean temperature, are the warmest months of the year; July is the coldest. Some temperature statistics for selected places are included in the table on climatological averages. Highest temperatures are recorded east of the main ranges, where they exceed 30°C on a few afternoons in most summers, usually in association with a north-westerly Föhn wind. The extremes for New Zealand (measured in a standard thermometer screen) are 38°C, which has been recorded in four places; Ashburton and Darfield (Canterbury), Jordan (Marlborough), and Gisborne; and −19°C at Ophir (Central Otago).
As is to be expected, there is a small annual range of temperature (difference between mean temperature of the warmest and coldest months). In Northland and in western districts of both Islands the annual range is about 8°C. For the remainder of the North Island, and east coast districts of the South Island, it is 9°–10°C. Further inland it exceeds 11°C in places, reaching a maximum of 14°C in Central Otago where there is an approach to a continental type of climate.
Temperatures in the preceding paragraphs are recorded on the Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade), and not the Fahrenheit scale. The degree Celsius (°C) equals 5/9; (°F−32).
Frost—It is well known that local variations in frostiness are considerable, even within quite small areas. On a calm, clear night the cold air in contact with a sloping surface gravitates slowly downhill to collect in valleys and depressions, and it is these “Katabatic” drifts which are mainly responsible for local temperature variations at night. Gently sloping ground with a northerly aspect tends to be least affected by frost. Favourable sites in coastal areas of Northland are free of frost, although further inland light frosts occur frequently in the winter months. At Albert Park, Auckland, the screen minimum thermometer (1 m above the ground) has registered below 0°C only once in nearly 50 years, yet across the harbour at Whenuapai Aerodrome there are eight screen frosts per annum on the average. Excluding the uninhabited mountainous areas, the most severe winter conditions are experienced in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Plains of inland Canterbury, and on the central plateau of the North Island. Even in these areas night temperatures as low as −12°C are rarely recorded. Elsewhere over the North Island the winters are very mild and pastures maintain continuous growth. In both Islands sheep and cattle remain in the open all the year round.
Snow—The majority of New Zealanders rarely see snow except on the mountains. The North Island has a small permanent snow field above 2,500 m on the central plateau, but the snow line rarely descends below 600 m even for brief periods in winter. In the South Island snow falls on a few days a year in eastern coastal districts, and in some years may lie for a day or two even at sea level. In Westland it does not lie at sea level. The snow line on the Southern Alps is around 2,000 m in summer, being slightly lower on the western side where the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers descend through heavy bush to within 300 m of sea level. In inland Canterbury and Otago, where there are considerable areas of grazing lands above 300 m, snowfalls are heavier and more persistent and have caused serious losses of sheep during severe winters in the past. However, only rarely does the winter snow line there remain permanently below 1,000 m.
Relative Humidity—Humidity is commonly between 70 and 80 percent in coastal areas and about 10 percent lower inland. It varies inversely to the temperature, falling to a minimum in the early afternoon when temperature is highest and frequently lying between 90 and 100 percent during clear nights. As the following table shows, the diurnal variation is greater than the difference between summer and winter.
|Station||Mean Relative Humidity|
|3 a.m.||3 p.m.||3 a.m.||3 p.m.|
|Auckland (Mechanics Bay)||85||63||90||74|
Very low humidity—between 20 and 30 percent or lower—occurs at times in the lee of the Southern Alps where the Föhn effect is often very marked. In summer the hot, dry “Canterbury Nor'-wester” is generally a most unpleasant wind. Cool south-westerlies are also at times very dry when they reach eastern districts. In Northland the humid mid-summer conditions are inclined to be rather oppressive though temperatures rarely reach 30°C. Dull, humid spells are generally not prolonged anywhere, but their frequency shows a marked increase in the south.
Sunshine—The sunniest areas are to be found near Blenheim, Nelson, and Whakatane, where the average duration of bright sunshine exceeds 2,400 hours a year. The rest of the Bay of Plenty and Napier are only slightly less sunny. A large portion of the country is favoured with at least 2,000 hours. Even Westland, despite its high rainfall, has 1,800 hours. Southland, where sunshine drops sharply to 1,700 hours a year, lies on the northern fringe of a broad zone of increasing cloudiness. Four hundred miles further to the south at Campbell Island the sunshine has the extremely low value of 650 hours a year. A pleasant feature of the New Zealand climate is the high proportion of sunshine during the winter months. To eliminate the effect of varying day-length the summer and winter sunshine at a few selected stations have been expressed as a percentage of the possible sunshine
As these figures indicate, there is a marked increase in cloudiness in the North Island in winter, but little seasonal change in the South Island, except in Southland.
Climatological Averages—The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.
|Station||Annual Averages||Air Temperatures (Degrees Celsius)|
|Altitude (metres)||Rain Days (0.2 mm or More)||Wet Days (2.5 mm or More)*||Bright Sunshine Hrs||Days of Screen Frost (min. air temp. less than 0°C)||Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||Mean Annual|
|* 2.5 mm equals 0.10 in.|
|Auckland (Albert Park)||49||173||101||2,090||0||15.3||23||14||16||8||27||3|
|Lake Waikaremoana (Onepoto)||643||195||133||..||5||10.9||20||9||11||3||28||−1|
|Christchurch (Botanic Gardens)||7||117||55||1,990||36||11.4||22||10||12||1||32||−4|
NOTES: (1) Averages of rain days and wet days 1950–66; sunshine 1935–60; mean temperature 1931–60; other temperature data and days of screen frost, various periods—all exceeding 10 years.
(2) For normal monthly and annual rainfall for these stations, see table under subsection on Rainfall.
Brief Review of 1972: Year—There was an unusually high frequency of south-westerly winds in 1972 and it was a very windy year.
Rainfall was below normal, mainly by 15 percent, over most of the North Island and in Marlborough and North Canterbury and on the Canterbury Plains. Highest departures above normal (of 40 percent) were recorded on the Southland Plain, but it was also somewhat wetter than normal over the remainder of Southland, in Otago and Fiordland, also in Waikato and southern Northland. On the whole the North Island was 7 percent drier than normal and the South Island 4 percent wetter.
1972 was cooler than 1970 and 1971, and nearly the same temperature as 1969. Over both Islands temperatures were 0.3°C warmer than the 1931–60 normal.
Sunshine showed wide variations. Most eastern districts north of Oamaru together with Nelson were favoured with above normal totals, and the departure amounted to over 200 hours at Gisborne, Wairoa, Blenheim, and Motueka. Blenheim's total of 2,684 hours was the highest ever recorded for a year in any part of New Zealand. On the other hand, sunshine was more than 150 hours below normal in Southland and South Otago. It was also somewhat below normal in most western districts.
Seasonal Notes—January was rather a dry month, especially in the North Island.
February was dry and sunny; in the South Island it was one of the driest months on record.
The next month was the wettest March for at least 50 years over the North Island. It was also generally warm and cloudy. Good growth was reported. In northern districts of the North Island 90 percent of the rain fell in one week, from the 4th to the 10th. The worst flooding reported was on the Rangitaiki Plains, Bay of Plenty.
Although April was marked by an unusually high frequency of south-westerly winds, it was a warm month. Conditions were mainly favourable for farming, especially in the North Island.
May was marked by a greater frequency of south-westerly winds than usual, and it was predominantly a wet month but rather sunny. Excessive cloud and rain in parts of Southland and Otago made the ground too wet for farmers. The heaviest rains were reported from the 13th to the 16th, and gales were widespread over this period, with some damage. Temperatures fell rapidly towards the end of May accompanied by early snowfalls, which persisted for most of June, with some falls to low levels. For the country as a whole, this was the coldest June for many years. Losses of several thousand stock and other damage occurred as a result of flooding in Southland and South Otago on the 12th.
In contrast with the previous month, July was mild, and stock were reported to be wintering fairly well.
August was cold but sunny. Conditions were not particularly favourable for lambing.
September was a warm month marked by exceptionally strong winds from a westerly quarter. In Nelson, Marlborough, and Canterbury conditions were rather too dry. However, in Southland and Otago this was a particularly wet month, and it followed six months of predominantly wet weather, especially in Southland. Besides stock losses due to flooding there were many reports of losses in both lambs and ewes from the wet weather and lack of feed. Many gales were reported, especially in the South Island on the 13th, with some damage, particularly around Dunedin.
October was also marked by a somewhat greater frequency of winds from a westerly quarter than usual. It was a warm month, and particularly warm and sunny in Gisborne and Hawke's Bay.
November was a warm month but unusually cloudy in the North Island. It was also rather dry, especially in Gisborne and Hawke's Bay and in Marlborough, with serious effects on stock and crops.
The spring season of September, October and November was the warmest on record in eastern districts from Gisborne to Canterbury.
Pressures were unusually low over New Zealand in December and the weather was cool and windy. Over the northern half of the North Island good growth was reported, but elsewhere conditions were too dry, with a shortage of feed in some eastern districts.
Summary of Meteorological Observations for 1972—The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1972 were at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time, i.e., 2100 hours Greenwich mean time.
|Station||Rainfall||Rain Days (0.2 mm* or More)||Bright Sunshine||Days of Screen Frost†||Air Temperature (Degrees Celsius)‡|
|Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||Extremes|
* 0.01 in.
† Minimum Air Temperature Less than 0.0°C.
‡ °C = 5/9 (°F -32).
|New Plymouth Aerodrome||1255||141||2026||4||13.2||21.2||13.5||12.6||5.8||24.9||−0.6|
For 1972 the mean sea level pressure values in millibars at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time were: Auckland, 1015.9; Kelburn, Wellington, 1013.1; Nelson Aerodrome, 1013.6; Hokitika Aerodrome, 1013.7; Christchurch, 1012.0; and Dunedin Airport, 1010.9.
EARLY HISTORY: General—When New Zealand was discovered by Europeans in 1642 it was found to be inhabited by a race of Polynesians called Maoris, who had migrated to these islands at least 300 years previously. It is generally accepted that the Maoris came originally from South-east Asia, whence, as proto-Polynesians, they moved eastwards from island to island until they reached the eastern Pacific, where they settled the islands now known collectively as Polynesia. From Polynesia the ancestors of the Maori sailed south-west in ocean-going canoes to reach New Zealand and these voyages were probably spread over several generations, perhaps several centuries. Oral Maori history and genealogy support the view that there was a final wave of migration of considerable magnitude about A.D. 1350. Adapting themselves to a new physical environment, in isolation from the outside world, the Maoris produced forms of social and economic organisation and material culture which were significantly different from their Polynesian prototypes.
Coming from tropical latitudes, the Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island, and when discovered by Europeans were in a high state of neolithic civilisation, with marked superiority in the arts of wood carving and military engineering. Their principal social unit was the family group, and from combinations of the numerous groups were formed the subtribes and tribes. They had highly developed social and ritualistic customs, and their system of land tenure and methods of cultivation were communal within the subtribes. Inter-tribal and intra-tribal warfare was common, and as individuals Maoris displayed exceptional courage and intelligence.
From the early days of European settlement in the first half of the nineteenth century many Maoris believed that their interests were best served by co-operation with the settlers. For the most part the Europeans adopted a humanitarian attitude to the Maori people, who accepted their assurances and found a satisfactory safeguard for their interests in the exercise of their rights and privileges of British subjects. As the Europeans established a self-contained and aggressively growing society, there grew up a rivalry for land and a clash of power. In the 1860s Maori tribes in Taranaki, Waikato, and Bay of Plenty fought the settlers and Government troops in a series of sporadic campaigns based on loss of land rights and rising Maori nationalism. After 1870 there followed the development of a European colony of settlement with Maori people making further economic adjustments to European ways.
The introduction of European diseases and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century. However, the virility of the race gradually asserted itself, and from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing though still forming a minority component.
The overseas territories of Niue Island and the Tokelau Islands had also long been inhabited by Polynesians from various successive migrations extending over considerable periods prior to their discovery by Europeans.
Discovery by Europeans—On 13 December 1642, Abel Janszoon Tasman, a navigator of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the country to which he gave the name of Staten Land, and which later became known as “Nieuw Zeeland”. Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August 1642, and, after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north, he had the misfortune to come into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land.
There is no record of any European visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until Captain James Cook sighted land on 7 October 1769 near Gisborne. Cook and a party of men from the Endeavour landed at Gisborne on 9 October 1769. On his first voyage Cook spent 6 months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. His activities can best be described by saying “he found New Zealand a line on a map, and left it an archipelago”. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the Maoris. He returned to New Zealand again in 1773, 1774, and in 1777. His careful observations made New Zealand known to the western world; the accounts of his voyages were translated into a dozen languages. The bi-centenary of Cook's first visit to New Zealand was celebrated in 1969; an account of his voyages of discovery in the Pacific is given on pages 1116 to 1128 of the 1969 issue of the Official Yearbook.
The European discovery of Niue Island was made by Captain Cook in 1774. The first recorded discovery of the Tokelau Islands was made by Quiros in 1606.
European Settlement and Colonisation—Whaling stations sprang up along the coast from 1792 onwards and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. In 1814 Samuel Marsden, chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, was responsible for the establishment of the first mission station in the Bay of Islands. To promote the translation of the Bible into Maori, Thomas Kendall (one of Marsden's assistants) took two Maori chiefs with him to England in 1820. The printing of the Bible in Maori was made possible through the establishment of a printing press by William Colenso at Paihia in the Bay of Islands in 1835.
The growing white population in the Bay of Islands, and the lawlessness of crews of visiting ships led to the appointment by the British Government of James Busby as British Resident at Waitangi in 1833. The Governor of New South Wales in 1837 sent Captain William Hobson, in command of HMS Rattlesnake, from Sydney to the Bay of Islands to report on New Zealand. Among other things, Hobson suggested a treaty with the Maori chiefs and the placing of British subjects under British law. On 29 January 1840 Hobson arrived at the Bay of Islands as Governor to proclaim British sovereignty (see later).
By 1840 numerous mission stations had spread through the northern half of the North Island. Conversion of Maori tribes to Christianity was accompanied by the introduction of new crops and methods of cultivation and pacification of the warring tribes.
The first body of immigrants to reach New Zealand under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived at Port Nicholson, Wellington, on 22 January 1840 to found the initial settlement of the New Zealand Company. The colonists were in the main sturdy resourceful people seeking a better future than was offering in nineteenth century industrial England.
The guiding genius of the company, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, aware of the intention of the British Government to annex New Zealand, had earlier (in 1839), dispatched his agents in order to purchase large areas of land from the Maoris before the Crown could assume a monopoly of land purchase.
Wakefield's scheme of colonisation was based on the sale of land to investors or men of wealth for development by labouring class immigrants. With the profit from land sales the company could bring out more immigrants. Wakefield aimed at a balance between landowners and labourers; in effect he aimed to transplant a cross-section of English society. But, ignorant of the system of tribal ownership of Maori land, the company had bought land from individual Maoris; then Hobson provided that all European land titles should derive from the Crown which would be the only purchaser of land from the Maoris. Title to land remained a difficulty for some years and was a cause of distress to the colonists and, combined with a considerable degree of absentee ownership and land speculation, made most precarious the existence of the early company settlements of Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson. The company had brought nearly 10,000 persons to New Zealand by 1848. The later settlements of Otago, in 1848, and Canterbury, in 1850, organised under the aegis of the New Zealand Company in co-operation with the Free Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively, achieved a much greater measure of success owing to the absence of any large Maori population and to satisfactory land purchase arrangements.
The non-Maori population in the main settlements in 1842 totalled 3,801 in Wellington, 2,895 in Auckland, 2,500 in Nelson, 895 in New Plymouth, 380 in Russell, 263 in Hokianga, and 198 in Akaroa. By 1862 the non-Maori population had reached 125,000 (as against 55,000 Maoris) and by 1866 it had jumped to 200,000 with men from Australia joining in the gold rush to Otago. Migration then dropped away until 1874 when there was a high inflow for several years from Britain with the Vogel policy of public works development.
After the death of Hobson in 1842, subsequent governors, through lack of funds and weak administration, found themselves unable to protect the small and helpless settlements from threatening Maori aggression engendered by strong feelings on land ownership. The response of the Colonial Office was to appoint Captain George Grey as Governor and to provide him with adequate funds and troops so that he soon restored order and won not only the confidence of the Maoris but also for a time that of the settlers. Grey, through his chief land purchase officer, Donald McLean, endeavoured to buy up land in advance of the settlers' needs in order to prevent conflict between settlers and Maoris. By 1858 the census revealed that the settlers outnumbered the Maoris who, fearful that they were being swamped by the settlers, became increasingly reluctant to sell their land. At the same time the intensified settler pressure for more land led McLean to negotiate only with those Maoris still favourably disposed to land sales. This practice alarmed the other Maoris and finally the war broke out in 1860 over a land dispute at Waitara in Taranaki where settler demand for land was strongest. The return of Grey as Governor did not solve the problem for, as an autocrat, he could not work with elected ministers nor could he regain the confidence of the Maoris and finally he quarrelled with the commander of the Imperial troops. Widespread confiscation of Maori land by the settlers' government in order to pay the cost of the war included land belonging to friendly as well as hostile Maoris and aroused further resentment. Although the war had died down by 1870 it was only during the term of Donald McLean as Native Minister that some measure of reconciliation began with the establishment of four Maori electorates in 1876.
Public Works and Farm Development—The absence of hostilities and the discovery of gold there had allowed the South Island to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally but began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool.
By 1870 the gold boom had ended in the South Island. To remedy the situation of economic stagnation, Sir Julius Vogel began a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction and for immigrant labour. The results of this policy were to double the population to 500,000 by 1880, to immensely improve transport and communications, and to encourage industry in the towns where most of the immigrants had congregated. After Vogel's plans for these loans to be secured against the land were frustrated by the provinces, he decided that the provincial system, begun in 1853, had outlived its usefulness and that parochialism was a hindrance to the development of the colony. The system was abolished in 1875, local administration being provided for by the Counties Act and the Municipal Corporations Act 1876.
When systematic colonisation began, New Zealand's only important trade association was with the east coast of Australia. It was, however, the inflow of British capital which set the New Zealand economy on a path of growth: that determined by the requirements of markets in the United Kingdom. Britain with a vigorously expanding demand from its working population required from the young colony an assured and increasing supply of food and raw materials, and a guaranteed market for its industrial goods. In accordance with this archetypal pattern of colonial development agricultural trade with the United Kingdom assumed over-riding importance as the land was brought into production. By 1868, in spite of the problem of distance, the United Kingdom had already become New Zealand's principal trading partner.
With the introduction of refrigeration in 1882 and steam navigation in the late 19th century, the development of exports of frozen meat and dairy products assured the dominance of the United Kingdom in New Zealand's external trade. These developments, with a continued substantial investment of British capital, particularly in farming and food processing industries, established that degree of specialisation to meet the needs of the British market, which shaped the entire New Zealand economy during its first hundred years.
The depression of the 1880s, a consequence of a fall in world price levels, resulted in unemployment and large emigration but export prices recovered in the nineties. From 1880 onwards the natural increase of births over deaths exceeded the net inflow from migration.
In 1891 John Ballance, as leader of the Liberal Party, became Premier to be followed on his death in 1893 by Richard John Seddon, who remained Premier until his death in June 1906. The Government pursued a vigorous legislative programme in which the main emphasis was that of social justice, the principal manifestations of which were the breaking up of the large estates, the establishment of the Court of Arbitration, and the introduction of old age pensions. The policy of subdivision of large estates to produce closer settlement included the compulsory purchase of large holdings by the State, but more important were the effects of refrigeration, which encouraged the smaller dairy and fat-lamb farms, the accelerated Government purchase of Maori lands and the widespread introduction of systems of Crown leasehold with subsequent loans to small farmers to establish themselves. In inaugurating the Court of Arbitration, the object was to eliminate strikes by giving labour a recognised bargaining status; and the enactment was in accord with the enlightened code of labour legislation passed at that time under the influence of William Pember Reeves.
The 6 years from 1906 with Joseph Ward as Prime Minister were marked by several notable events in imperial affairs, but, on the whole, the Government's domestic policies were singularly uninspiring.
The expansion of the exports in dairy produce and frozen meat during the 1890s produced more intensive settlement and the rise of a new farming class in which the “cow-cockie” was the dominant figure. These farmers, having benefited by the spread of prosperity, were in 1911 mainly responsible together with the city businessmen for the overthrow of the Liberal regime. The new Reform Government under William Massey, in order to strengthen the primary producer, introduced measures of which the extension of rural credit was typical. Industrial conflict on the waterfront and with the Waihi miners ended in a victory for Massey who relied on the use of troops and special constables to repress the strikes.
Three years after the advent of the Reform Party, the First World War, 1914–1918, broke out, leading to a coalition Government and an Imperial commandeer of exports which created the precedent for the establishment after the war of central boards to regulate the exports of pastoral products. War activities were marked by heavy casualties in proportion to the population while the landing at Gallipoli signified the growing awareness of a sense of nationhood.
Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period 1921–24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and on the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydro-electric schemes and highways. Prime Ministers in the 10 years from 1925 were J. Gordon Coates, Sir Joseph Ward, and George Forbes.
Land values rose steeply, accelerated by Government efforts to settle returned servicemen on the land, and between 1915 and 1925 forty percent of the occupied land had changed hands. New Zealand was extremely vulnerable to the overseas price fluctuations of the pastoral products. With the advent of the depression by 1930, farmers, despite greatly increased production, were faced with a serious decline in income (over forty percent) together with heavy mortgage commitments on land bought at high prices so that many were faced with foreclosure. In the towns, tradesmen and shopkeepers faced bankruptcy, and wage earners unemployment or reduction in wages. A coalition Government, formed in 1931 to meet the crisis had, as its leading figure, Coates, who was Minister of Finance from 1933. In order to produce balanced budgets and cope with the effects of the depression, enactments provided for unemployment relief, for the suspension, in effect, of compulsory arbitration, for the establishment of a Reserve Bank, for a mortgage moratorium, for raising the exchange rate, and for reduction in interest rates and wages. Partly as a consequence of these measures and of a rise in overseas price levels a general economic revival was taking place by 1935.
Development as a Nation—The election of a Labour Government in 1935 (with notable politicians including Michael Savage, Peter Fraser, and Walter Nash, who successively became Prime Ministers) reflected the general climate of opinion and led to change in administrative policy, the preoccupation being mainly with social problems. These attitudes were reflected in certain distinctive trends in legislation.
The first major influence was a humanitarian attitude reinforced by a progressive economic policy. Evidence of this is implicit in the provision for a basic wage, and later for a minimum wage, employment-promotion legislation, amendments to workers' compensation, industrial conciliation and arbitration, mining, etc., legislation, the system of basic prices for certain primary produce, the creation of farm industry reserves, and the rationalisation of production and marketing by the establishment of boards for certain items of primary produce.
Another dominant trend was the acceptance of the principle that society should take active steps towards the improvement of the working, living, and social circumstances of its members. Foremost in this category was the Social Security Act and its later extensions providing for monetary benefits such as age, superannuation, family allowances, sickness, and unemployment, and by the provision of a system of medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits. (The evolution of social security in New Zealand was summarised in a special article in the 1972 issue of the Official Yearbook; this was an extract from the Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Social Security in New Zealand published in March 1972.)
Other legislative enactments under this heading include the provision for paid annual holidays, reduction of working hours, extension of workers' compensation insurance, improvement in safety and health and welfare conditions in industry, and extension of educational facilities and opportunities.
The financial needs of the Second World War from 1939 onwards were met with virtually no overseas borrowing. Financing the war by taxation and internal borrowing also assisted in the achievement of a successful stabilisation policy. Full employment in war was followed by full employment in peace. Expansion and diversification of manufacturing and servicing industries provided avenues of employment for the growing labour force.
Shaken by conflict with its industrial left-wing, and faced with increasing public impatience at the continued existence of some wartime controls and concern at inflation, the Labour Government was defeated at the 1949 election after holding office since 1936. The National Party took office under the leadership of Sidney Holland and its first term was marked by a conflict with the Waterside Workers' Union. This dispute in 1951 ended in a complete victory for the Government after it introduced most stringent emergency regulations to deal with the situation. For the first time this century, Holland held an emergency election before parliament had run its full 3-year term. The result was to return the National Government with an increased majority.
In 1952, continued inflation and a balance of payments crisis produced restrictions on exchange allocation to importers in an effort to build up overseas reserves. The 1954 election reduced National's majority and was marked by the appearance of a third party, the Social Credit Party which gained 11 percent of the votes.
During his time as Prime Minister, Holland initiated a constitutional change with the abolition of the Legislative Council on the grounds that it no longer possessed any effective function. Illness caused Holland's retirement in 1957 when he was replaced as leader by Keith Holyoake.
In 1957, the Labour Party gained a narrow victory at the polls under the leadership of Walter Nash. Budgetary policy to meet a recurrence of the balance of payments crisis proved unpopular and at the 1960 election, the National Party under the leadership of Keith Holyoake was returned to power, as it was in subsequent elections in 1963, 1966, and 1969. Early in 1972 John Marshall became leader of the National Party. At the 1972 election the Labour Party swept back into power under Norman Kirk.
International affairs have assumed growing importance in recent decades. It was evident when peace returned to the Pacific area in 1945 that New Zealand found itself in a different world, where its relations with the countries geographically closest to it would grow rapidly in importance. This did not, however, alter the extent to which New Zealand identified itself as a European nation. New Zealand took part in the Paris Peace Conference and it was not until 1955 that it altered the planning commitments of its defence forces from security arrangements in the Middle East to similar arrangements in the South-east Asia and Pacific areas.
The most far-reaching reorientation required of New Zealand in this new situation was the need to obtain a guarantee of its security from the United States rather than the United Kingdom to which it had traditionally turned. With Australia it signed the ANZUS pact with the United States in 1951 and this provides the cornerstone of New Zealand's security arrangements. It also gives New Zealand a common interest with the nations of Western Europe in encouraging the United States to maintain outward-looking policies and a global defence capability.
New Zealand's growing regional awareness has been expressed partly in its defence relationships through SEATO, and through the collective defence arrangements with Malaysia and Singapore; but more widely in its participation in the Colombo Plan and other arrangements for extending development aid to South-east Asia, the South-west Pacific and the Indian subcontinent. The stability and well-being of these areas are vital to New Zealand's interests and relationships with the countries of the region are becoming closer every year.
A feature of the 1960s was a series of national conferences on industrial development (1960), export development (1963), agricultural development (1963–64), and national development (1969).
Relations with Europe—Agricultural development has continued to be based on the principle of the family farm, and the New Zealand farmer remains typically both labourer and manager, as well as landowner. The present level of efficiency has been won by hard effort, skilled management, the application of the results of scientific research, and a heavy personal investment in farm improvement. Dairy producers are now faced with problems of maintaining overseas markets as a result of Britain's move to join the European Economic Community.
Farm production has constantly expanded so that New Zealand has become one of the world's greatest exporters of pastoral produce. The bulk of this produce still goes to the British market.
The advantages of a closely bilateral trading relationship with the United Kingdom were not one-sided. The association was grounded in economic logic, and enabled New Zealand to develop its only major natural asset into a pastoral system of unmatched economic efficiency, which, to the present day would, under free trading conditions, enable its farm products to meet any competition.
The pattern of economic dependence developed in accordance with a series of mutually agreed decisions extending over a long period, and these were formalised by the Ottawa Agreement of 1932 between the British and New Zealand Governments which provided preferential access to each other's markets. The advantages of this economic rationalisation were demonstrated most strikingly in the Second World War, 1939–45 when, apart from the New Zealand military contribution, its continued substantial supply of food to a beleaguered Britain was vital to the continuation of the Allied war effort.
Settlers came originally to New Zealand because of some dissatisfaction with the conditions of life they knew in their country of birth. They sought to build a new society which, while retaining what was good in Britain and Europe, would exclude the pressures which they had found damaging to the quality of their own lives. It is perhaps ironic that, to the extent which a new society has been created, this has been achieved by means of, and is contingent upon, continued strong economic ties with Europe. The decision of Britain to become part of the European Economic Community in 1973 and thus subject to a new pattern of trading arrangements would have been disastrous for New Zealand's exports of dairy produce and lamb, but for the negotiations of special arrangements for continuing trade; in these negotiations Holyoake and Marshall were key personalities.
Pacific Orientation—Increasing interest has been taken in the last decade in welfare and social development generally of both the rapidly growing Maori population and the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific with New Zealand ties.
New Zealand has experienced in recent years a considerable inflow of Polynesians from its associated territories and elsewhere in the Pacific. One-tenth of the New Zealand population is Maori or Polynesian, and there are more Niue Islanders in New Zealand than in Niue. Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islanders are New Zealand citizens who freely move back and forth. These people have undoubtedly had a big influence on the character, attitudes, and behaviour of the rest of the New Zealand population—most have some understanding of the “Polynesian way”. New Zealand has a number of other basic links with the South Pacific, due in part to the common colonial history shared with such nations as Fiji. This British heritage has given a common language and the democratic tradition. Today all the independent states of the South Pacific are associated in the British Commonwealth.
The most recent political development is the establishment of the South Pacific Forum. This group, comprising the leaders of the five independent and self-governing nations of the South Pacific (Cook Islands, Western Samoa, Tonga, Fiji and Nauru), together with Australia and New Zealand, has already had highly successful meetings, in Wellington, in Canberra, and in Suva. The South Pacific Forum is a new concept in international relations—an exciting development. There is no constitution, there is no agenda, and there is no formality. The leaders come together in private sessions for frank and concentrated discussion on practical matters of direct relevance to the people of the Pacific. The island leaders themselves suggested the formula and proposed Australian and New Zealand participation. Clearly they saw the need to exchange views, discuss projects and priorities, and generally to secure on a regional basis effective collaboration and co-ordination at the highest level. A South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation has been established with a broad programme of trade, production, and economic development. It is based in Suva.
Financial and other assistance has been provided from New Zealand to overseas territories for the expansion of educational facilities and opportunities, public works such as roading and airports, communication facilities, etc. Fuller information is given in Section 38 of this Yearbook.
The New Zealand - Australia Free Trade Agreement which has applied since 1966, has been an important factor in accelerated growth in trans-Tasman trade.
Sovereignty—On 29 January 1840 Captain William Hobson, R.N., arrived in the Bay of Islands. His instructions from the British Government required him to take possession of the country with the consent of the Maori chiefs, this policy being designed by the Colonial Office strongly influenced by missionary opinion, to safeguard the well-being of the native people. Hobson read his commission at Kororareka on 30 January and on 6 February 46 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, a compact whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights were secured to the chiefs and their tribes (with the Crown having the sole right of purchase) and in return the Queen extended her protection and all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Other chiefs throughout both Islands later adhered to this Treaty.
On 21 May 1840 Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty in the case of the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and in the case of the South Island and Stewart Island by right of discovery. New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales until 3 May 1841, when it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter dated 16 November 1840. The capital was at first transferred from Russell to Auckland, but in 1865 it was again transferred, on this occasion to Wellington, where the seat of Government has since remained.
During Governor Grey's term, steps were taken to draft a constitution for the colony. An Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament on 30 June 1852, and was published in New Zealand by Proclamation on 17 January 1853. Under it, provision was made for the constitution of a General Assembly consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives. Provision was also made for the division of the country into provinces, each province having an elected Council and Superintendent. (The provincial system was abolished in 1875 and the Legislative Council in 1950.) In the first General Assembly of 27 August 1854 certain members of this body were associated with the permanent members of the executive but they did not hold any portfolios. It was not until 7 May 1856 that responsible government was actually established.
One aspect, that of native affairs, was withheld from the responsible Ministers and the Governor, as representative of the Crown, continued to act independently of his elected advisors in this sphere. In 1861 Grey attempted unsuccessfully to hand over this responsibility but the Ministers were unwilling to assume responsibility for the cost of the war. Finally in 1864 Sir Frederick Weld instituted the “self-reliant policy” whereby the colony accepted responsibility for the settlement of difficulties with the Maoris and consented to the withdrawal of troops by the Imperial Government.
In recognition of a nascent sense of nationality and of an increasing desire for self-reliance in political matters New Zealand was given the title of Dominion in lieu of Colony, the new title taking effect on 26 September 1907.
Of the constitutional events in recent years the passing by the United Kingdom Parliament of the Statute of Westminster in December 1931 was of major importance. The draft of this statute was submitted for the confirmation of the various Commonwealth legislatures before its passage through the United Kingdom Parliament. The statute granted complete autonomy to the various self-governing member countries, but it did not automatically apply to Australia or New Zealand. In other words, its operation in the latter self-governing members of the Commonwealth was declared to require specific adoption by the legislatures of those countries. It was not until 1947 that the New Zealand Government formally adopted the Statute of Westminster.
NEW ZEALAND'S INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS—Few pressures existed prior to the early 1930s to impel New Zealand towards enunciating an independent foreign policy. Successive Governments preferred to make known any views on matters of foreign affairs only to the British Government and through the confidential channels of intra-Commonwealth consultation. The population was mainly British in composition and comparatively few were concerned to distinguish between New Zealand's interests and those of Britain. Nor had they much cause to do so: New Zealand had established a fruitful economic partnership with Britain, upon which country nearly all her material and cultural links were centred; and New Zealand's surest protector against dangers which it was incapable of meeting alone was the Royal Navy. It was, moreover, realised that New Zealand in her own right could make little impact on world affairs, whereas Britain was a great power capable of affecting the pattern of world events. New Zealand “foreign policy” therefore consisted chiefly in seeking to modify British policy in those few cases where New Zealand had a strong interest or a viewpoint rather different from that of Britain.
The emergence of an independent New Zealand foreign policy is usually held to date from 1935. The Labour Government held strong views on the principle of collective security and upon the League of Nations as the embodiment of that principle. In its method of championing the principles of collective security, it pressed for the restoration of the authority of the League of Nations at a time when the United Kingdom Government was pursuing the policy which came to be known as appeasement, urging positive League action over Abyssinia, Spain, and China. In addition to making its views known in confidential communications to the United Kingdom Government, it also stated them with vigour in the international forum of the Council and the Assembly of the League of Nations.
There was nevertheless, no fundamental departure from the traditional policy of association with Britain. Moreover, the course that would be followed in the event of war was never in doubt. As early as 16 May 1938 a leading member of the Government had said, “If the Old Country is attacked, we are too … we will assist her to the fullest extent possible”. When war broke out the Prime Minister the Right Hon. M. J. Savage, expressed New Zealand's position in terms that were as true in 1939 as they would have been in 1914:
“Behind the sure shield of Britain we have enjoyed and cherished freedom and self-government. Both with gratitude for the past, and with confidence in the future, we range ourselves without fear behind Britain. Where she goes, we go. Where she stands, we stand.”
But the Second World War changed the pattern of power in the world and made it necessary for New Zealand gradually to revise its foreign policy and its method of implementing that policy. Also during the war years New Zealand was admitted to the councils of the Allies and was expected to advance informed views. The Government honoured its responsibility and, having established in wartime the habit of participating in the making of international decisions, accepted it as natural that New Zealand should continue to participate in the development of a post-war world order and in subsequent international consultations. To this end New Zealand established (in effect from 1943) a career foreign affairs service, and proceeded slowly to establish diplomatic missions in countries where New Zealand's interests merited protection. In particular, New Zealand sought increasingly to make its individual contribution to fostering good relationships with its neighbours in the Pacific and Asia and to increasing the measure of security and welfare in these areas.
To be woven into any post-war policy was the now traditional New Zealand belief in the principle of collective security and international justice, especially as symbolised by the United Nations. This was by no means an easy task in a world where the divisions of the cold war were reflected in competing regional alliances. There had to be a place, too, for belief in the ability of international co-operation to control armaments and to eliminate poverty, disease, and other economic and social causes of international tension.
The threat to New Zealand's security, posed by the entry of Japan into the war in 1941 at a time when the United Kingdom was fully committed in Europe, brought New Zealand into the closest relations with two of her neighbours on the borders of the Pacific—Australia and the United States. Recognition of the need for a greater measure of collaboration with Australia resulted in the signing in 1944 of the Canberra Pact which provided machinery for continuing consultation between the two Governments. Upon the entry of Japan into the war, both New Zealand and Australia had looked principally to the United States for protection. Relations among the three countries thus entered a new phase. The close association of wartime found expression in peacetime in the ANZUS Treaty, in which, for the first time, New Zealand and Australia entered into a treaty of alliance and mutual defence with a foreign country and achieved the aim of both countries to enter into a close relationship with the major Pacific power. The ANZUS Treaty, which came into force in April 1952, gives an assurance of United States support in the event of an armed attack from any quarter in the Pacific and so constitutes New Zealand's major safeguard from aggression in the area.
The establishment of SEATO, like the formation of the ANZUS alliance, took place against a background of continuing insecurity and of danger in the Far East. In 1950 New Zealand had participated in collective action by the United Nations in Korea. In 1954, following the Indo-China crisis and the Geneva Accords, a broader collective defence treaty covering South-east Asia and the South-west Pacific, known as the Manila Treaty, was signed by New Zealand and Australia, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The parties agreed that in the event of armed attack on the parties or on a “protocol” State (Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam) they would act to meet the common danger. The parties established the South-east Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) in Bangkok.
From 1955 New Zealand contributed forces to a Commonwealth Far East reserve stationed in Malaya. In 1959 New Zealand, with Australia, became associated with the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement, concluded in 1957, which subsequently became the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement with the formation of Malaysia in 1963. When the United Kingdom decided to withdraw its forces east of Suez by the end of 1971, New Zealand, in association with Australia, indicated its intention to maintain a military presence in Malaysia and Singapore after British withdrawal. Subsequently, with a change of government in the United Kingdom in June 1970, the British decided to retain forces in the area although they upheld the earlier decision to revoke AMDA. A new five-power defence arrangement involving Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United Kingdom replaced the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement on 1 November 1971.
The scope of New Zealand's presence in Asia widened considerably in the years following signature of the Manila Treaty—diplomatic relations were established with a growing number of countries in the area, and increased activity in other fields of co-operation besides that of defence followed the extension of this network of diplomatic posts. By the mid 1960s New Zealand had more complete representation in Asia than in Western Europe. Subsequent accession to regional membership of ECAFE, the Asian Development Bank and ASPAC (the Council for Asian and Pacific Co-operation) is further demonstration of this country's acceptance that it has a role to play in the Asian area.
New Zealand's direct interest in political, social, and economic developments in the South Pacific countries is reflected not only in its membership of such regional organisations as the South Pacific Commission, but also in an increased sense of involvement in their problems. The evolution of self-government and nationalism in the South Pacific reached a new stage when Western Samoa became the first independent Polynesian State on 1 January 1962. Three years later the Cook Islands achieved internal self-government. In 1968 Nauru achieved independence as did Fiji and Tonga in 1970. In August 1971, at the request of these five countries New Zealand hosted the first meeting of the South Pacific Forum. New Zealand's liberal tradition of friendship for emergent peoples, and the fact that large numbers of Polynesian people have settled here, means that the islanders tend to look to New Zealand for leadership and encouragement. Inevitably, New Zealand is going to be increasingly involved in the South Pacific region.
New Zealand has continued to place special importance upon its membership of the United Nations. It has been an active participant in the work of the General Assembly, has been a member of all Councils of the Organisation, has provided troops to the United Nations Force in Korea, and military observers and civilian police in various peace-keeping operations, and has endeavoured to assist all efforts to attain the political and social objectives outlined in the Charter.
The historic links with Britain and with Western Europe and North America remain as close as ever; and the economic links with Britain, New Zealand's best customer, remain strong. One of the key problems of external political and economic policy for New Zealand remains the movement towards political and economic integration in Europe since Britain has joined the European Economic Community at the beginning of 1973.
New Zealand intends in the future to pursue a more independent policy in international affairs, putting more emphasis on improving economic and social relations in other countries. Believing in the dignity and equality of all human beings, New Zealand totally rejects all doctrines of racial superiority.
Normal relations have been entered into with the People's Republic of China and plans have been made to open a New Zealand mission in Peking. With the peace settlement in Indo-China it is planned to develop new forms of regional co-operation in Asia.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs—The primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is for the formulation and execution of New Zealand foreign policy. It conducts relations with other countries and communications with their governments and representatives in New Zealand. It operates New Zealand's aid programme and maintains diplomatic and consular representation abroad. Its overseas functions are discharged through a network of 30 diplomatic and consular posts consisting of embassies, high commissions, consulates-general, and other permanent missions. At home, the preparation and co-ordination of foreign policy recommendations is carried out in close association with a number of other Government departments. The ministry is administered jointly with the Prime Minister's Department. Prime Ministers have found it appropriate on occasions to hold the Foreign Affairs portfolio. The Secretary of Foreign Affairs is also Permanent Head of the Prime Minister's Department.
In economic and commercial matters the ministry works closely with the Department of Trade and Industry and with the Treasury. The ministry has a special role too as a clearing house for material provided by New Zealand posts overseas for other departments, and through its posts it performs numerous services on behalf of departments without representatives abroad.
In the Official Section at the end of the Yearbook the diplomatic and other New Zealand representation overseas is listed.
New Zealand in the Commonwealth—Through membership of the Commonwealth New Zealand is able to consult and co-operate with 31 other countries over a wide spectrum of social, economic, and political fields. The value New Zealand places on its Commonwealth links is derived not only from these practical benefits but also from the heterogeneous composition of the Commonwealth. Its 32 members take in the 6 continents and the 5 oceans of the world. In particular membership in the Pacific has grown. Fiji, Tonga, and Western Samoa have secured the same full membership as Australia and New Zealand, and Nauru has special status.
As the Commonwealth has grown and changed, its relationships have taken on a new scope and emphasis. As Commonwealth heads of government affirmed in the Commonwealth Declaration adopted at their last meeting in 1971, the association “provides many channels for continuing exchanges of knowledge and views on professional, cultural, economic, legal and political issues among member states. These relationships we foster and extend for we believe that our multinational association can expand human understanding and understanding among nations, assist in the elimination of discrimination based on differences of race, colour, and creed, maintain and strengthen personal liberty, contribute to the enrichment of life for all, and provide a powerful influence for peace among nations.” New Zealand, itself a country where two races live in harmony, sees in the Commonwealth a special opportunity for multi-racial co-operation and understanding.
The belief of member countries in the potential of the Commonwealth led to the establishment of a permanent Commonwealth Secretariat in London in 1965. Under the leadership of its Secretary-General, Mr Arnold Smith, it has become the main agency for multilateral communication between Commonwealth governments. The Commonwealth Secretariat promotes consultation and disseminates information on matters of common concern, organises meetings and conferences, and coordinates many Commonwealth activities. Prominent among these is the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation. The fund is financed by voluntary contributions from all Commonwealth countries and is designed to provide advice and assistance for development projects, export marketing, education, and training. The primary purpose of the fund is to promote economic development through self-help and mutual assistance.
New Zealand contributes to the budgets of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, and the Commonwealth Foundation. The foundation was established at the same time as the Secretariat to promote close links between the professions throughout the Commonwealth. It has sponsored official and non-official Commonwealth professional organisations and strengthened the links between administrators, engineers, lawyers, accountants, scientists, and private individuals in the different Commonwealth organisations. Like the Secretariat it has provided a focus for Commonwealth activities and a basis for extending international co-operation.
New Zealand and the Pacific—Since the Second World War, and particularly since 1955, there has been a remarkable growth in New Zealand's relations with the countries of the Pacific area, that is, the areas and countries within, or facing on to the Pacific Ocean. In this process, defence policy and concern for national security have undoubtedly played an important part. From the first, and increasingly, the reorientation of defence interests towards the Pacific area has gone in parallel with the development of non-defence activities in that area. Some of the most important landmarks in that process have indeed stemmed from a concern with defence: participation in the United Nations action in Korea in 1950, the ANZUS Treaty, the Manila Treaty, the acceptance of responsibilities within the ANZAM, participation in the confrontation and Vietnam conflicts, and the Five Power defence arrangements. There is no doubt that New Zealand is now accepted as a country with an independent voice and a genuine stake in the area. There is also no doubt that this acceptance has followed from the interweaving of two strands of policy: a readiness to assume a role in the security of the area; and the development of a comprehensive relationship in matters other than defence. Thus, the developing defence policy must be seen within the context of our developing policy and national outlook.
The private and Government sectors have together been able to develop new markets, new products, new selling processes, and new economic relationships. This has been assisted by the development of a pattern of regular economic talks with our main trading partners and in some cases by the conclusion of bilateral economic agreements, such as those with Japan and Australia.
Aid activities have developed. In the early 1950s aid programmes, except for assistance to New Zealand's own Pacific territories, were largely directed towards the Indian subcontinent in the form of capital grants, which called for little direct New Zealand participation. Since the mid 1950s, technical assistance programmes have been expanded to bring students to New Zealand and send New Zealand experts into the area. The scope of aid activities has been widened to involve our industrial and engineering skills as well as the more traditional agricultural and health fields. New Zealand has become a full member of ECAFE, a member of the ADB, and a participant in some at least of the international bodies co-ordinating aid to other countries. Together, these developments have meant that aid programmes are not just reflections of a humanitarian obligation but also part of a broader process of developing a wide range of contacts with countries in the area.
New Zealand's external activities, in the first 10 years after the Second World War, tended to be tied to the framework and timing of Commonwealth Prime Ministers' conferences and United Nations meetings because of the restricted nature of our representation abroad. In 1955, the New Zealand mission in Singapore was established. At that time, New Zealand had full diplomatic representation in only four countries in the Pacific area (the United States, Canada, Japan, and Australia). By 1960, there was full diplomatic representation in seven countries. Today, there are 13 full diplomatic posts in the Pacific area and dual accreditation to another 4 countries.
This diplomatic network gives New Zealand the capacity to observe developments and assess their significance, to formulate and represent a New Zealand position, and to carry through a range of bilateral contacts. Over the same years New Zealand has developed its political contacts with countries of the Pacific area in many other ways. Three are worthy of particular note: exchanges of visits by Ministers, Parliamentarians, and by Heads of State of Government; participation in a number of multilateral bodies, such as SEATO, ASPAC, and the Five Power defence arrangements; and the development of bilateral consultative arrangements.
Cultural contacts with the countries of the Pacific area have expanded greatly over this same period. At one stage, New Zealanders, when they looked abroad for a model or for a broadening of their experience, looked automatically to Britain. Many still do. But many others look elsewhere. New Zealand society in general is much more aware of the Pacific area than 20 years ago. Professional bodies, sporting associations, private bodies, even our universities, have direct contacts with similar organisations in other countries of the Pacific area where 20 years ago they would have had links only with Britain and perhaps Australia. Tourism, the development of civil air links, and the general expansion of cultural interests have also helped bring a wider range of contacts.
New Zealand and the South Pacific—The South Pacific is New Zealand's immediate environment, its Polynesian peoples are close kin to the New Zealand Maori, its islands nearest and most important in the lines of communication which link New Zealand with America and Europe.
Through the South Pacific Commission the Governments administering territories in the South Pacific—Britain, the United States, France, Australia, and New Zealand—have made a concerted effort to promote the economic and social development of the area and its peoples. In the 24 years of its existence the commission has, within its budgetary limits (its budget for 1971, $1,096,954), done much valuable work, particularly in bringing the islanders together and developing a sense of community amongst them. Originally laying much stress on research, the commission has come to concentrate mainly on providing technical assistance and on pooling experience of handling common problems of development. Its membership has grown to include Western Samoa and Nauru. At the same time the importance of the South Pacific Conference has increased. The territorial representatives who attend the conference now have a decisive voice in determining the commission's work programme. Close working links are maintained with United Nations specialised agencies which take an active interest in the region.
But New Zealand has not been content with promoting progress in the economic and social spheres only. At the San Francisco Conference in 1945 it took a leading part in working out the trusteeship system embodied in the United Nations Charter, and subsequently the League of Nations Mandate for New Zealand to administer Western Samoa was replaced by a trusteeship agreement.
In accordance with the wishes of the Samoan people, a programme of political and constitutional development was launched which continued throughout the 1950s and which culminated in the establishment of the independent State of Western Samoa on 1 January 1962. The transfer of sovereignty did not, however, weaken the close and friendly relationship which had grown up between Western Samoa and New Zealand and this was confirmed in a treaty of friendship between the two countries signed in August 1962. In the educational as well as in other fields New Zealand assists Western Samoa.
Whilst Western Samoa was moving towards independence, constitutional development was taking place in New Zealand's other island territories. Following expert surveys a programme of economic and social development for the Cook Islands was formulated in 1955 and legislative assemblies for the Cook Islands and for Niue were set up in 1957. In 1962 the New Zealand Government gave these bodies full responsibility for allocating the large subsidies granted by New Zealand. In the same year possible alternatives concerning constitutional development were submitted to the assemblies. Both chose full internal self-government together with a continued association with New Zealand. Events thereafter moved most rapidly in the Cook Islands. On 4 August 1965 the Cook Islands became a self-governing nation in free association with New Zealand. The Legislative Assembly, assured of New Zealand's financial assistance, is fully responsible for the internal affairs of the Cook Islands.
Progress in the constitutional field has also been made in Niue and the Tokelau Islands, New Zealand's remaining dependent territories. On 1 November 1968, at the request of the Niue Assembly, a full-member system of government was introduced, giving the Executive Committee responsibility for the portfolios controlling all Government departments. Under the Niue Amendment Act 1971 the Executive Committee has general direction and control of the executive government of Niue. There is a Resident Commissioner responsible to the Executive Committee who acts as a liaison officer between the Governments of New Zealand and Niue.
Responsibility for deciding priorities for Government works and expenditure has been given by the Administrator to the Tokelau Islands councils or fonos which have also fully discussed their future development and have expressed the wish (as have the people of Niue) to retain their association with New Zealand. At the request of the fonos, the New Zealand Government has instituted a pilot programme to assist Tokelau Islanders to resettle in New Zealand.
The independence of Western Samoa, self-government in the Cook Islands and Niue are indicative of broader developments in the South Pacific, developments which included in 1970 the attainment of full independence by the Kingdom of Tonga and by Fiji. Economic, social, and educational development has made the peoples of the area more self-reliant. Students from certain English-speaking territories in the South Pacific undertake courses at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji under the New Zealand bursary scheme.
New Zealand in the United Nations—If New Zealand is better known and commands more influence in international affairs than some other small states similarly situated, this is, in some measure at least, due to New Zealand's record of active participation in the United Nations.
New Zealand's share of the United Nations' regular budget is 0.32 percent, in 1971 this meant a New Zealand contribution to the organisation of $433,784.
United Nations Security and Peace-keeping Activities—New Zealand Governments have acted upon the conviction that the United Nations, and it alone, contains the rudiments of a universal collective system, and that it is through the United Nations, and not through its abandonment in favour of some alternative, that an effective and comprehensive collective security system may eventually be developed and agreement on disarmament achieved. At San Francisco in 1945 the Right Hon. Peter Fraser argued forcibly but unsuccessfully to eliminate the veto and to strengthen the collective security provisions of the United Nations Charter. Within the United Nations New Zealand has sought to remove the causes which might produce the need for recourse to collective security action. Its representatives have urged that the Assembly be used as a place for harmonising relations between nations; they have voiced the need for restraint in the pursuit of national objectives; they have consistently sought and supported responsible action in aid of an effective international organisation; and they have reiterated the need for the early adoption of a broad programme of supervised disarmament.
New Zealand was elected to the Security Council, which is charged with the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, for the years 1954 and 1955, and for a second term in 1966 when membership of the Council was increased from 10 to 15.
New Zealand has also advocated adequate and timely preparations in case aggression should occur and has supported the fullest possible development of the United Nations' capacity for peacekeeping. New Zealand has been prepared to play its part; forces were supplied to the United Nations Force in Korea and military observers to the United Nations observer groups in Palestine, Kashmir, and Lebanon; and a civilian police unit has served in Cyprus.
New Zealand has recognised that the objective of developing the United Nations' potential in security and peacekeeping is a long-term one.
Economic and Social Activities—Apart from this substantial and primary concern with international peace and security, other aspects of the work of the United Nations have increased greatly in importance in recent years. Article 55 of the United Nations Charter recognises that peaceful and friendly relations among nations depend largely on conditions of economic and social progress. Advancement in these latter fields absorbs annually more and more of the United Nations' resources, and represents at least one area in which international understanding and co-operation are reaping tangible rewards. First the ′60s and now the ′70s have been designated as “development decades” and an international development strategy—an overall plan setting targets for development during the second decade—was adopted by the Twenty-fifth Anniversary Commemorative Session in 1970.
The United Nations Organisation with primary responsibility in this vast field is the Economic and Social Council (or ECOSOC), an elective body of 27 members, which co-ordinates the activities of the wide variety of bodies with interests in these fields, ranging from the functional commissions and committees of the United Nations itself to the autonomous specialised agencies.
The biggest single task now facing ECOSOC is to promote and direct programmes for economic development in the less-developed countries. New Zealand had always recognised the need for this type of development, and has been concerned to ensure that the international programmes in this field should be effective and realistic. Its interest in social and economic questions is illustrated by its membership of ECOSOC from 1947–49, and 1959–61; and it was again elected by the General Assembly to serve over the period 1971–73. New Zealand in 1963 became a full regional member of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), a body of which it had previously been a non-regional member. New Zealand has also served terms of office from time to time on the Status of Women Commission, the Technical Assistance Committee, and on the Statistical, Social, and Fiscal Commissions. Most recently, it served on the Commission on Human Rights for two consecutive terms covering the period 1966–71, and served on the Population Commission for the period 1969–72.
Specialised Agencies—New Zealand is a member of all specialised agencies, except the International Development Association, and is also a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which, though not strictly a specialised agency, exists under the aegis of the United Nations. New Zealand's contributions to the regular budgets of the agencies, which are based for the most part on a scale of assessment similar to that used in the United Nations itself, range from $2,700 to $216,000 annually and totalled some $767,000 in 1971–72. New Zealand has also subscribed capital to the financial agencies.
Convinced of the value of the form of international co-operation that the agencies represent, New Zealand participates actively in their work. In the case of the technical agencies, there are direct benefits to New Zealand in membership. Membership of the Universal Postal Union, for example, is essential to facilitate the efficient international movement of mails to and from this country; and the International Telecommunication Union works to promote the most rational and efficient operation of world-wide telecommunications services. The World Meteorological Organisation is the medium for establishing a world-wide network for the rapid exchange of meteorological information, which is of particular value to remote areas like New Zealand. In other cases, New Zealand benefits by the free interchange of knowledge and experience, and from the endeavours of the agencies to establish world-wide standards of safety, to promote facilitation of international traffic, and to examine restrictive or discriminatory practices in these fields. The ILO is concerned with protecting the basic dignities and freedoms of the wage earner and brings together representatives of governments, employers, and workers to frame international conventions on working and living conditions.
In addition to its contributions to the regular budgets of the agencies, New Zealand gives voluntary assistance in the form of further monetary grants, the service of experts to developing countries (for example in physiotherapy, police work, forestry, and education) and donations of equipment or commodities.
Two major fields for this sort of additional assistance are the contributions made to the United Nations Development Programme and to the World Food Programme. New Zealand has given annual contributions to UNDP (in 1971–72 $500,000), and in addition has sent experts abroad to work in the field on UNDP assignments. The WFP is a programme approved by the United Nations and FAO in 1961 and administered jointly by them. In 1963–70 New Zealand made total grants of US$1,670,000, of which US$610,000 was in cash and US$1,060,000 in commodities. For 1971–73, New Zealand has pledged a further US$840,000, of which US$280,000 will be in cash and US$560,000 in commodities. New Zealand is a member of the inter-governmental committee which supervises the programme.
New Zealand's accession to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the International Finance Corporation not only allows this country to participate in measures designed to increase the stability of international trade and promote the economic development of the underdeveloped areas of the world, but also serves to strengthen New Zealand's own economic position by providing access to more varied sources of capital for capital projects or for balance of payments purposes.
New Zealand is also a foundation member of the Asian Development Bank, established in 1967 under the auspices of ECAFE “to foster economic growth and co-operation in the ECAFE region”.
New Zealand has supported agency activity which will help the social and economic development of the Pacific Islands and some projects are now listed. WHO has assisted in the past in the eradication of yaws and tuberculosis; FAO is at present the executing agency for a UNDP project designed to control the rhinoceros beetle which ravages much of the islands' coconut crops, and has also established a regional fisheries development agency; UNESCO has set up a curriculum development unit at the University of the South Pacific; a development assistance team, backed by ECAFE and the specialised agencies, is being established in Suva.
New Zealand has in the past served on the governing bodies of WHO, FAO, UNESCO, and UPU, and was a member of the FAO Council for 1970–72. Although, because of its size and limited scale of contributions, New Zealand is not likely to be elected frequently to the boards of at least the larger agencies, it can expect, over the years, to bear its share of administrative responsibility within them.
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)—As a result of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development held in Geneva in 1964, the General Assembly agreed to hold a triennial conference on trade and development with the objective of promoting international trade, particularly between countries at different stages of development, with a view to accelerating the economic growth of developing countries. UNCTAD held its second session in New Delhi early in 1968. UNCTAD is the United Nations body generally responsible for all matters relating to trade development. It is open to all United Nations members and other states who are members of the specialised agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The conference has become a permanent organisation, with a trade and development board which conducts the affairs of the organisation between plenary conferences. New Zealand commenced its second consecutive term on the board in 1968. There are also within the organisation functional committees on commodities, manufacturers, finance invisibles, and shipping. New Zealand held a seat on the Committee on Commodities from 1967 to 1969, and the Committee on Shipping from 1969 to 1971. The second UNCTAD conference was held in Delhi in 1968 and the third conference was convened in Santiago, Chile, in April 1972.
GATT—New Zealand has been a contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade since its inception in 1947. Although not strictly a specialised agency, the GATT has assumed some of the characteristics of one, and its activities have extended into all aspects of international trade including, more recently, measures to liberalise non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade and to provide special export opportunities for the goods of the developing countries.
New Zealand Collective Security—The defence of New Zealand has been judged by successive Governments to call for active support for the concept of collective security. New Zealand alone is unable to defend its considerable but very isolated territory against aggression by any militarily significant power. As a small country with limited resources, New Zealand is in no position to maintain the extensive defence effort needed if all possible contingencies are to be met. It has therefore supported efforts to promote the effective implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Charter designed to establish a universal system of collective security and, until this goal is reached, has accepted that its defence efforts should be made in concert with like-minded countries in order to create a broader framework for security than its individual national effort could provide. This in turn involves the obligation to make credible and effective contributions to collective defence arrangements from New Zealand's own armed services.
Since the Second World War, New Zealand has contributed to collective security action on several occasions both within the United Nations and under other arrangements. From 1955, military units were based in Malaya as part of the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve, where they took part in actions during the emergency. New Zealand forces later supported Malaysia in its successful resistance to Indonesian Confrontation. In 1965 an artillery battery was sent to South Vietnam under the Manila Treaty. It was subsequently joined by two infantry companies and a small Special Air Services troop. Force strengths rose to 560 before the beginning of withdrawals in 1970. All combat forces were withdrawn from South Vietnam at the end of 1971. Some 30 army personnel remained in a training role until 1972.
ANZUS—A basic expression of New Zealand's support for the principles of collective security is provided by the ANZUS Pact. This tripartite security treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States was signed at San Francisco on 1 September 1951 and came into force on 29 April 1952. It assured New Zealand and Australia of American support in the event of aggression in the Pacific.
The main provision of the ANZUS Pact is that each party recognises “that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of the parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it will act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes”. In the context of the agreement, an armed attack on any of the parties is deemed to include “an armed attack on the metropolitan territory of any of the parties or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or on its armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft in the Pacific”.
In keeping with the close ties between the three countries, the machinery for consultation has been kept as simple and flexible as possible. Meetings of a council of ministers are generally held once a year to review situations affecting the treaty area.
SEATO—Eight governments—Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States—signed the South-east Asia Collective Defence Treaty, also known as the Manila Treaty, on 8 September 1954. The treaty came into force on 19 February 1955. Under its terms, each party recognised that aggression by means of armed attack in South-east Asia or the South-west Pacific against any of the parties or against “a protocol state” (Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam) would endanger its own peace and safety, and agreed that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional process. In the event of any other threat, the parties would consult on the measures to be taken for the common defence.
The South-east Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) established under the treaty is headed by a council, made up of the foreign ministers of the signatory governments, which meets annually in members' capitals. Between meetings a body known as the Council Representatives provides continuity with representation generally provided by the heads of member countries' diplomatic missions in Bangkok; New Zealand is thus represented by its Ambassador to Thailand. From time to time various expert committees and study groups are convened to give collective advice to Council Representatives. The council also agreed in February 1955 that the military advisers to the ministers should meet as a group to advise it on measures for common defence. The civil and military secretariat has its headquarters at Bangkok.
The Manila Treaty has special significance because it is the only multilateral defence treaty applying to South-east Asia and the only treaty under which the United States has an obligation towards mainland South-east Asia. It is also the only treaty under which Thailand has any security guarantee. Thus the treaty helps maintain the fabric of collective defence without which the region would become the target of intensified communist pressure. It provides a backing for the efforts of those countries of the area striving, as the Manila Treaty states, “to uphold the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law”. The military planning and exercises carried out under the treaty are valuable in improving the capacity of the members to act together against aggression.
Neither in concept nor in structure is SEATO fitted for a major role in spheres other than defence. Nevertheless, the nature of the challenge in South-east Asia was recognised by making provision in the treaty for the parties, separately and jointly, to increase their capacity to counter subversion and to co-operate in economic measures to promote economic progress and social well-being. While most of this action is taken outside the framework of SEATO, the organisation has a useful aid programme designed to meet particular needs of the members of the treaty area. Thus SEATO has sponsored wide-ranging research efforts in the field of tropical medicine, agriculture, and engineering. A number of special SEATO professorships, post- and under-graduate scholarships, research fellowships and travelling lectureships have been established. The SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, established in Bangkok in September 1959, has now developed into an independent institution known as the Asian Institute of Technology. A programme to provide for a SEATO agricultural survey of the farming problems of the South-east Asian member governments has recently been initiated; New Zealand has contributed one expert to this programme. Seminars and study groups have been organised to consider particular problems. Cultural exchanges have been promoted. The New Zealand Government funded $20,000 a year from which to contribute to SEATO aid programmes.
Commonwealth Arrangements—Throughout the past two decades a defence arrangement known as ANZAM provided a further basis for New Zealand's co-operation in defence matters with Britain and Australia. In November 1971, following changes in Britain's role east of Suez, ANZAM was succeeded by an arrangement known as ANZUK. Unlike SEATO and ANZUS, ANZAM and ANZUK are not organisations established by formal treaty but have gradually evolved from the practice of close defence co-ordination among the three countries. ANZUK provides an important forum for consultation on defence matters of common concern to Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. The three Governments, however, retain full control over their individual defence policies. ANZUK meetings are usually held in Canberra.
In 1955, New Zealand transferred its wartime commitment from the Middle East to South-east Asia and agreed to contribute with Britain and Australia to a Commonwealth Strategic Reserve to be established in Malaya and Singapore.
Upon its accession to independence in 1957, the Federation of Malaya concluded the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement, which was subsequently extended to Malaysia on its formation in September 1963 and renamed the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement (AMDA). Under its provisions, the United Kingdom undertook to assist in the defence of Malaysia and was accorded the right to maintain such forces in Malaysia, including a Commonwealth Strategic Reserve, as were agreed to be necessary for the defence of Malaysia and for the fulfilment of Commonwealth and international obligations. The agreement was accepted as applying generally to Singapore when it acceded to independence in 1965. In 1959 New Zealand, together with Australia, was associated with AMDA by an exchange of letters, placing on record that the provisions of the agreement applicable to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve, in particular the provisions dealing with the status of forces, applied in respect of New Zealand forces in the reserve.
In January 1968 the British Government announced that its forces in South-east Asia would be withdrawn by the end of 1971. In February 1969 the New Zealand Prime Minister announced that the Government had decided to retain, in conjunction with Australia, a military presence in Malaysia and Singapore after the British withdrawal. A series of five-power meetings were held at official and ministerial level to discuss defence questions arising from the British decision to withdraw. During these meetings Malaysia and Singapore declared that the defence of the two countries was indivisible and Britain outlined the form its continuing interest would take, including its capability to assist in the event of a threat to peace and its intention to continue exercises and training in the area.
With the change of government in Britain in June 1970 the decision was taken to retain a British ground presence in Malaysia and Singapore. This presence was, however, to be on a smaller scale than previously and, in view of the nature of the continuing arrangement, the British upheld the earlier decision that AMDA should be revoked in 1971.
In place of AMDA, a new five-power defence arrangement for Malaysia and Singapore came into being on 1 November 1971. The new arrangement is less formal than AMDA and is based on the concept of partnership of the five participating countries. The basis of the five-power defence arrangement is not a formal treaty or agreement but a statement incorporated in the communique of the meeting of ministers of the five-power countries held in London in April 1971. At that meeting the ministers declared, in relation to the external defence of Malaysia and Singapore, “that in the event of any form of armed attack externally organised or supported or the threat of such attack against Malaysia or Singapore, their governments would immediately consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in relation to such attack or threat”. The Ministers agreed to establish an Air Defence Council to provide direction to the Commander of an Integrated Air Defence System for Malaysia and Singapore which was established on 1 September 1971; they also decided to set up a Joint Consultative Council to provide a forum for regular consultation at senior official level on matters relating to the defence arrangement.
New Zealand's military contribution to the five-power defence arrangement includes one battalion, a frigate regularly stationed at Singapore, medium-range transport aircraft and helicopters; and strike aircraft periodically deployed to the area from New Zealand. Underlying New Zealand's participation in the five-power defence arrangement is the belief that defence co-operation of this kind contributes significantly to the maintenance of stability and the continuation of development in the region as a whole. The five-power defence arrangement contributes to the security of Malaysia and Singapore. ANZUK forces are helping Malaysia and Singapore to build up their own defence establishments by supplementing their capabilities in the field of sophisticated equipment and by providing training assistance. It has always been made clear that the New Zealand presence will be maintained only as long as it has the consent and encouragement of the Governments of Malaysia and Singapore. New Zealand forces will not be involved in internal security problems and their deployment on active operations will require the express consent of the New Zealand Government.
New Zealand Aid—New Zealand's aid to developing countries takes many forms—capital aid (cash grants and equipment), technical assistance (the provision of experts and student training), food aid, and loans. It is channelled through a number of diverse programmes; multilateral, bilateral, and non-Governmental.
The Government decided in 1973 progressively to increase its contribution to United Nations aid programmes with the objective of attaining the target of 0.7 percent of the gross national product by the 1975–76 financial year.
Accordingly aid appropriations for 1973–74 are being increased to a total of $27,000,000. This would lift the Government's performance to 0.36 percent of estimated gross national product. For the following year it is planned to reach 0.5 percent.
To achieve the 0.7 percent target requires a substantial lift in aid. Official development assistance would then call for some $62,000,000. It would be subject to suitable growth in gross national product and the availability of resources.
The Government plans to play its part in leading New Zealand to the goal of 1 percent of gross national product in total resource transfers. These transfers include private aid grants, private overseas investments, and some forms of trade and commercial credits.
New Zealand has for many years played an active role in multilateral schemes initiated by the United Nations and its specialised agencies, e.g., the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund and the programmes of aid to refugees.
The largest individual bilateral programme is the Colombo Plan, the main vehicle for the New Zealand Government's civil aid to South and South-east Asia. Other bilateral programmes undertaken by New Zealand include those involving the Cook Islands, Niue Island, the Tokelau Islands, Fiji and Tonga, and Western Samoa. Bilateral aid to Asia under the Colombo Plan amounted to $4,738,355 in the 1971–72 financial year, while aid to the islands of the South-west Pacific totalled $5,971,840.
Contributions to the Asian Development Bank's Technical Assistance Fund amounted to $75,000 in the 1971–72 financial year and together with $866,100 worth of Asian Development Banks Bonds taken up formed an important adjunct to New Zealand's bilateral aid to Asia.
Other programmes in which the New Zealand Government participates include the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Plan under which African students are brought to New Zealand for higher education and special training courses; the Commonwealth Education Scheme under which students and scholars from developing countries study in New Zealand; the Commonwealth Medical Scheme and the Commonwealth Programme for Technical Co-operation.
An amount of $10 million has been promised over 5 years for reconstruction in Indo-China.
New Zealand and the Colombo Plan—New Zealand was a foundation member of the Colombo Plan which had its origin in and takes its name from a meeting of Commonwealth foreign ministers held in January 1950 in Colombo to exchange views on world problems, particularly on the economic needs of the countries of South and South-east Asia. The Colombo Plan is not a single plan but rather an aggregation of a series of separate plans drawn up and administered by each country in the region: the external assistance required and made available to help implement these plans is negotiated on a bilateral basis. What was once a Commonwealth idea has grown into a truly international co-operative effort with 24 member countries.
Up to 31 March 1972, New Zealand has made available under the Colombo Plan capital aid and technical assistance amounting to $47,133,890.
The major capital aid projects with which New Zealand has been associated in 1971–72 include the provision of equipment for trade training schools in Burma and the Philippines, dairy and demonstration farm schemes in India, Korea, and the Philippines, the provision of road and aviation equipment for Thailand, jet barges to the Khmer Republic, aviation equipment to Indonesia, and the Ngam Ngum Dam in Laos and the Indus Waters Scheme in Pakistan.
Up to 31 March 1972 New Zealand has spent a total of $12,069,693 on student training and $8,176,969 on the provision of experts, advisers, and consultants. The number of students and trainees brought to New Zealand under Colombo Plan awards had reached 3,412, of whom 531 were in New Zealand on 31 March 1972. Experts who have served in Asia under the Colombo Plan had reached 531 by the same date. Major technical assistance projects overseas include the provision of a road construction team in north-east Thailand, a civilian surgical team in Vietnam, and teachers for Malaysia. Consultants from the private sector have also been engaged under the Colombo Plan on a wide range of technical assistance projects of a substantial nature. These include forestry, water reticulation, road design, beef cattle development, port surveys, architectural design, prefabricated buildings, abattoir design, irrigation, and geothermal power development.
Volunteer Service Abroad—The Council for Volunteer Service Abroad, although a non-governmental organisation, receives Government assistance in carrying out its programme of dispatching volunteer workers for assignments in many Asian and Pacific countries. At 31 March 1972 there were 120 volunteers in the field. The Government grant to VSA during the 1971–72 year was $90,076.
Distribution of New Zealand Aid—The distribution of New Zealand Government aid to overseas countries during the two latest financial years is set out in the following table. The aid is shown as bilateral where the arrangements were concluded directly between the New Zealand Government and the government of the recipient country or countries and multilateral where the aid was contributed to an international agency or fund. The table lists only Government aid. It does not take into account the substantial aid given in cash and kind through CORSO and other private organisations.
|Cook Islands (including loans)||2,259||2,375||3,242|
|Training Scheme—Cook, Niue, Tokelau Islands||105||134||111|
|University of South Pacific capital assistance||–||–||271|
|South Pacific airports (excluding Rarotonga)||131||167||379|
|South and South-east Asia—|
|Indonesian Trade Credit disbursement||–||500||478|
|Commonwealth Education Scheme||105||147||96|
|Commonwealth Medical Scheme||39||55||84|
|Commonwealth Programme for Technical Co-operation||5||10||20|
|Other including VSA, CORSO, and disaster relief||67||180||460|
|Total bilateral assistance||8,368||10,130||11,062|
|International Development Association||–||–||1,000|
|United Nations Development Programme||450||450||500|
|United Nations Children's Fund||120||130||130|
|World Food Programme||224||191||371|
|South Pacific Commission||142||142||154|
|Asian Development Bank technical fund||–||75||–|
|Convertible currency subscription to Asian Development Bank||1,007||1,007||–|
|Total multilateral assistance||2,029||2,081||2,341|
|Total official development assistance||10,397||12,211||13,340|
|Other Official Flows (ADB Bonds, trade credit to Peru, development of Rarotonga airport)||4,465||5,152||6,759|
|Total resource flows||14,862||17,363||20,099|
Substantial aid is also given in cash and kind through private voluntary agencies, such as CORSO, SCF, Red Cross, religious missions, etc.
General Aims—New Zealand's foreign policy has changed in emphasis and scope. It has been modified and extended to meet the demands of an international situation greatly changed from that of 1939. As a country of predominantly European settlement, New Zealand retains its traditional loyalties to the United Kingdom and a sense of identity with Europe and of involvement in its destiny.
New Zealand has accepted a growing involvement in the problems of the South Pacific region because of its close ties with the island people. New Zealand is in a unique position to encourage the growth of a regional consciousness in the South Pacific which is essential if the problems of the area are to be seen and tackled as a whole. At the same time it has recognised the importance of regional developments in Asia and the future security of that region, and has sought to develop its associations with Asian countries.
As a Pacific power, New Zealand has sought security in friendship and formal defensive arrangements with Australia and the United States. As a country concerned with the preservation of world peace and the organisation of defence against aggression it has placed prime importance upon development of the United Nations as an agency for peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the achievement of collective security. Pending the establishment of a broadly based United Nations security system, however, New Zealand has been prepared, in respect of South-east Asia, to participate in a protective grouping concerned with the defence of a single area. The limits of what it is able to do are those imposed by its size and capacity; its disposition is towards peaceful and friendly relations with all nations and (whatever the modifications which the needs of national security may impose) it is to that ultimate goal that its foreign policy is directed.
CONSTITUTION OF NEW ZEALAND: General—New Zealand is a monarchial State; it is also a constituent member of the Commonwealth, sharing with other members in “their recognition of the Crown as the Symbol of their free association and of the Sovereign as the Head of the Commonwealth …” (Preamble to Royal Titles Act 1953.)
THE MONARCH—The New Zealand Parliament in the Royal Titles Act 1953 gave its assent to the use of the Royal style and titles as follows: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Her Other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
While the seat of the Monarch is normally in the United Kingdom, the Queen is represented in New Zealand by the Governor-General appointed by the Crown on the advice of her New Zealand Ministers.
Many powers held by the Monarch (or her representative) comprise but the means of giving effect to the public will. In New Zealand the Governor-General acts on the advice of the Ministers, which cannot constitutionally be ignored. Despite the long-term trend for powers to be assigned directly to Ministers without any necessity for vice-regal consultation, there are still many phases of Government which require Royal participation.
The Queen (in her stead the Governor-General) gives consent or approval prior to a Minister taking office or the formation of a Ministry; summons, prorogues, and dissolves Parliament; delivers the Speech from the Throne at the opening of a session; gives the Royal Assent to measures which have passed all stages in the House of Representatives, without which they have not the force of laws; makes appointments to most important State offices; confers knighthoods and other honours, etc.; and also provides that background of stability, continuity, and experience in many facets of government which is so desirable whenever there are sweeping changes in the dominance of political parties.
Besides those duties associated with the constitutional role, the Royal personage or representative makes an important contribution to the ceremonial life of the nation. This was particularly well illustrated during the sojourn of the Royal visitors in New Zealand in 1953–54, in 1963 and in 1970. Both as the symbol of the nation and in virtue of her identification with the life and interests of her people, the Queen becomes the focus for all State occasions, as does the Governor-General in her absence.
LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY—The supreme law-making body with power to legislate for the whole country is the General Assembly, which now consists of the Governor-General and the House of Representatives, the former Legislative Council having been abolished since the close of 1950.
The powers of Parliament to make laws are legally untrammelled. This was not always so, for prior to the adoption by New Zealand of the Statute of Westminster in 1947 laws could not be made on certain matters which conflicted with United Kingdom statutes extending to New Zealand. There was also some doubt as to New Zealand's power to make laws possessing extra-territorial effect.
The Electoral Act 1956 provides that certain of its sections may not be repealed except by a 75 percent majority of the House of Representatives or following a referendum. These sections are those relating to:
The constitution and order of reference of the Representation Commission.
The number of European electoral districts and the basing of their boundaries on the total population.
The fixing of the tolerance within which the commission must work at 5 percent.
The age of voting.
The secret ballot.
The duration of Parliament.
These reservations have become a formal convention associated with the fundamental character of the system of government.
While the law-making function is the prerogative of Parliament, it must be remembered that, as in most democracies, laws are passed because of their acceptability to the majority party in Parliament—i.e., the Government party. Furthermore the initial acceptance will have probably been made in the deliberations of Cabinet and caucus.
With the increasing range and complexity of the statutory field, there has been a growth in delegated legislation with detailed procedural steps and other amplifying matter becoming the subject of regulations made by Order in Council under the authority of a particular statute, rather than being incorporated in the statute itself. The power to make such regulations lies with the Executive Council which comprises all the members of Parliament who have been appointed Ministers, together with the Governor-General, who presides over the Council. Regulations, though originating in Cabinet and becoming effective in the formal proceedings of the Executive Council, rest fundamentally on the will of Parliament as a whole and are now subject to its supervisory jurisdiction. A general provision contained in the Regulations Amendment Act 1962 requires all such regulations to be laid before Parliament. The Standing Orders of the House of Representatives, enable the House or any member thereof to refer any regulation to the Statutes Revision Committee, a Select Committee of the House, which is empowered to consider the regulation and to determine whether the special attention of the House should be drawn to it on any of the following grounds: (a) that it trespasses unduly on personal rights and liberties; (b) that it appears to make some unusual or unexpected use of the powers conferred by the statute under which it is made; (c) that for any special reason its form or purport calls for elucidation.
Meeting of Parliament—Parliament is summoned, prorogued, or dissolved by Proclamation issued by the Governor-General. A session is that period between the summoning of Parliament and its prorogation. Its length varies, but it has traditionally covered the months from June to November. When Parliament is prorogued all the business on hand lapses, and if this is to be proceeded with in the next session it must be re-introduced.
The course of a session may be interrupted by adjournments.
In session parliamentary privileges include freedom of speech and freedom from arrest in civil cases, and also the right to engage in secret debate, if required, etc.
The Party System—The two main political parties represented in Parliament are Labour and National. A third party—Social Credit—obtained a seat for the first time at the 1966 General Election but lost it at the 1969 election. At any general election these parties, together with any other political parties and also those candidates standing as independents, state their respective policies before the electors. Each main party normally puts forward one candidate for each of the electorates into which the country is divided. The party which wins the majority of seats, although not necessarily the majority of votes, at the general election forms the Government. The leader of the elected members of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister, who makes ministerial appointments from elected members of his party. The leader of the minority party in Parliament becomes the Leader of the Opposition. The effectiveness of the party system relies largely on the general agreement that the majority party has a mandate to govern and the minority party has a responsibility to challenge Government measures in debate and to demonstrate to the electors that it can provide a viable alternative government.
Parliamentary Procedure—The House of Representatives has its Standing Orders, which govern its procedure and which are administered by Mr Speaker in the exercise of his control of the House. The election of the Speaker is the first business of a new House after the members have been sworn. A Chairman of Committees is elected as soon afterwards as is convenient. Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum.
Parliamentary Functions and Control—The Parliament controls the Government in power in the last resort by the possibility of the Opposition mustering sufficient support to pass a resolution of no-confidence in the Government on a vital issue, thus forcing it to resign. With only two main disciplined political parties contending for office, changes of government are now rare except at the time of general elections. In the representation and formation of public opinion the major general debates are of principal importance. Special inquiries by select committees also provide a useful forum in which interests and opinions can make themselves heard. The major general debates are the address in reply to the speech from the Throne at the opening of Parliament, the debate on the Budget or financial statement, and the various debates on Imprest Supply Bills.
The first two of these give ordinary members an opportunity to air their views freely on any subject they choose from the national interest to the special aspirations of their constituents. Imprest supply debates are more specialised. On such Bills, the British principle of raising grievances before granting supply has been applied by allowing the Opposition to choose the subject for debate.
Financial control is exercised by the fact that expenditure of public money must be authorised by the House of Representatives in the form of an Appropriation Act, which authorises or grants money to the Government for the purposes approved. The authority for the raising of revenue by taxation or borrowing must also be given by Parliament.
Legislation can be initiated by any member of Parliament, but in practice almost all Bills are introduced by the Government in power as a result of policy decisions taken in Cabinet. The process of passing a public Bill is as follows: it receives a formal first reading on introduction, is then printed, and after some time it is given a second reading which is a debate on its general principles, followed by a clause-by-clause consideration of the Bill which may be by the whole House sitting in Committee. The Bill is then reported to the House, and later read a third time. The final stage is to send the Bill to the Governor-General for the Royal Assent and, unless provision is made for commencement on another date, it then becomes law as an Act of Parliament. To facilitate detailed informal discussion, and so that evidence from experts and interested parties may be heard by the House on legislation which is before it, a number of select committees are appointed regularly each year. Their terms of reference indicate areas of legislative interest corresponding to the various ministries. There are normally 7 members on each committee and party strength roughly reflects party strength in the House. In suitable cases Bills may be referred to a select committee for examination either after the first reading or the second reading. Committees have power only to report their opinions to the House. They cannot amend, though they can recommend amendments. The House as a whole thus retains its responsibility for approving legislation or rejecting it.
Apart from legislation, select committees deal with petitions, and, from time to time, ad hoc select committees are set up with some specific matter referred to them.
There are special procedures for dealing with local Bills and private Bills. Local Bills are those affecting a particular locality only, normally introduced at the request of a local authority. All such Bills stand referred to a select committee, the Local Bills Committee, after their first reading. The committee holds hearings at which interested parties appear, and it reports to the House on the merits of the Bill. The committee's report is often the decisive factor in local government legislation and always carries considerable weight with the Government and the House. Private Bills are those which apply specifically to a person or group of persons. They are initiated, after public notice, by a petition presented to the House by a member on behalf of the promoters.
Duration of Parliaments—Quinquennial Parliaments, instituted under the Constitution Act, were abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act 1879, which fixed the term at 3 years. General elections have been held at 3-yearly intervals since 1881, with a few exceptions. The term of the nineteenth Parliament was during the First World War extended to 5 years by special legislation, and that of the twenty-fourth (1931–35) to 4 years under the Electoral Amendment Act 1934. By the Electoral Amendment Act 1937 the 3-year term was restored, but on account of war conditions the term of the twenty-sixth Parliament was extended to nearly 5 years before dissolution on 30 August 1943. Since then the duration of Parliament has been of 3 years, with the exception that the twenty-ninth Parliament was dissolved in 1951 after the expiration of approximately 20 months. The 3-year limit was re-enacted in the Electoral Act 1956, this being one of the reserved provisions referred to earlier. A referendum on 23 September 1967 favoured the continuation of terms of 3 years.
Number of Representatives—In 1972 87 electorates (83 European and four Maori) returned members to the House of Representatives. The number was originally fixed by the Constitution Act as not more than 42 and not less than 24, and the first Parliament called together in 1854 consisted of 37 members. Legislation passed in 1858 fixed the number of European members at 41; in 1860, at 53; in 1862, at 57; in 1865, at 70; in 1867, at 72; in 1870, at 74; in 1875, at 84; in 1881, at 91; in 1887, at 70; in 1900, at 76; in 1969, at 80; and in 1972 at 83. Since 1867 there have been four Maori representatives, and provision for this number was retained in the Electoral Act 1956. In 1954 the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts, which had remained unaltered since 1867, were changed by Proclamation so as to give a greater degree of equality of population among the four districts (in effect the Southern Maori Electoral District now includes a considerable area of the North Island). The Electoral Amendment Act 1965 fixed the number of European electorates in the South Island at 25 (an increase of one) and provided that the number of European electorates in the North Island shall be ascertained by the Representation Commission after each quinquennial census of population on the basis of the quota fixed for the South Island. In 1971 the Commission considered the results of the 1971 census and fixed the number of European electorates in the North Island at 58 (an increase of three). Thus there were 87 electorates for the general election in 1972.
Qualifications of Members—Under the Electoral Act 1956 every registered elector of either sex is qualified to be a parliamentary candidate. If a public servant is elected to Parliament he must vacate his office forthwith and he cannot resume employment in the Public Service within 12 months of ceasing to be a member of Parliament unless he had previously been a public servant for at least 5 years.
Salaries, etc.—Section 27 of the Civil List Act 1950 provides that on the recommendation of a Royal Commission the Governor-General may from time to time, by Order in Council, fix the salaries and allowances to be paid to the Prime Minister and other Ministers of the Crown or members of the Executive Council, to Parliamentary Under-Secretaries, and to the Speaker and Chairman of Committees and other members of the House of Representatives, and that a Royal Commission shall be appointed for this purpose within 3 months after the date of every general election of members of Parliament. At April in the intervening years adjustments are made on a basis matching that for the State Services Remuneration and Conditions of Employment Act 1969; the Government Statistician provides the Prime Minister with a certificate specifying the percentage movements in average weekly ordinary time earnings outside the State Services (as ascertained from the April half-yearly survey of industries in the private sector conducted by the Department of Labour) and adjustments may be made by Order in Council to the salaries of Ministers and members.
The following table sets out the salaries and allowances payable from 1 April 1972 in accordance with the recommendations of the Royal Commission upon Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances 1970, as amended by the 1972 review conducted in accordance with the procedure outlined in the preceding paragraph.
* Where the ministerial office of Minister of
Foreign Affairs is held by a Minister other than the Prime Minister
† Additional to normal allowances as member.
|Deputy Prime Minister||15,336||1,625|
|Minister with Portfolio||13,827||1,500*|
|Minister without Portfolio||11,894||1,275|
|Chairman of Committees||9,598||700†|
|Leader of the Opposition||12,921||1,500|
|Deputy Leader of the Opposition||8,511||575†|
There is an additional allowance depending on classification of electorates: (a) electorates which are wholly urban, $90; (b) electorates which are substantially urban, $230; (c) electorates which are partially urban and partially rural, $520, (d) electorates which are ordinary rural, $920; (e) electorates which are predominantly rural, $1,150. The special additional allowance for Southern Maori electorate is $350 and for each of the other Maori electorates is $175. The daily sessional allowance is $3 and the night allowance for members entitled thereto is $8. In addition to the salary and allowances, members are entitled to certain travel concessions and a stamp allowance.
Former Prime Ministers receive an annual payment of $400 for each full year in office, with a maximum of $2,000 a year, after retirement, defeat at the polls, or when a member only. This is subject to a two-year minimum period having been served as Prime Minister.
Under the Superannuation Act 1956 there is a compulsory contributory superannuation scheme for members of the House of Representatives. The scheme provides that a retiring allowance shall by payable to a member after 9 years' service and the attainment of 50 years of age, and shall be calculated at the rate of one thirty-second of the basic salary for a member as at the date of his ceasing to be a member, for each year of service with a maximum of two-thirds of that basic salary, or alternatively the member may elect to take a variable retiring allowance so as to secure a level income or he may elect to receive a refund of his contributions. The annual contribution is 11 percent of an ordinary member's salary, and the Government subsidises the fund. The rate of contribution was increased by 1 percent from 1 April 1970 to provide for cost-of-living adjustments to be made to retiring allowances. In the case of a male member dying and leaving a widow surviving she becomes entitled during her widowhood to receive an annuity of half of the retiring allowance to which her husband would have been entitled had he retired aged 60 years at the time of his death, or $260 a year, whichever is the greater.
ADMINISTRATION AND EXECUTIVE RESPONSIBILITY—After the election of a new Parliament, it is the responsibility of the leader of the party, which is most likely to secure and retain the support of the majority of members in the House, to form a Government. Although procedures for the selection of new Ministers have varied between the two principal parties, the Prime Minister has the final responsibility for allocating portfolios. A portfolio comprises a specific field of Government activity—for instance all matters relating to education will be allocated to one Minister who is henceforth known as the Minister of Education.
A Minister may have more than one portfolio and in addition responsibility for the supervision of one or more Government departments in which the activities carried out, though important, do not rank as portfolios. Occasionally, a Minister is appointed without portfolio, as, for example, an Associate Minister of Finance.
Executive Council—In the legal sense those members of Parliament who have been appointed Ministers comprise the Executive Council. The Governor-General normally presides over meetings of the Council. The powers, duties, and responsibilities of the Governor-General and the Executive Council under the present system of responsible government are set out in Royal Letters Patent and Instructions thereunder of 11 May 1917, published in the New Zealand Gazette of 24 April 1919. The Royal Powers Act 1953 provides that the statutory powers conferred on the Governor-General may be exercised either by Her Majesty the Queen in person or by the Governor-General. In the execution of the powers and authorities vested in him the Governor-General must be guided by the advice of the Executive Council; but, if in any case he sees sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the Council, he may act in the exercise of his powers and authorities in opposition to the opinion of the Council, reporting the matter to Her Majesty without delay, with the reasons for his so acting.
In any such case any member of the Executive Council may require that there be recorded in the minutes of the Council the grounds of any advice or opinion that he may give upon the question.
The Civil List Act 1950, in section 6, provided that no person shall be appointed a Minister or a member of the Executive Council unless he is a member of Parliament and that a person who ceases to be a member of Parliament cannot continue to be a Minister or a member of the Executive Council for more than 21 days. This gave statutory recognition for the first time to what had long been the convention.
At January 1973 the Executive Council consisted of 20 members. Two members, exclusive of His Excellency or the presiding member, constitute a quorum.
His Excellency the Governor-General receives a salary and an allowance which are determined from time to time by the Civil List Act 1950 for the salaries and expenses of his personal establishment, plus all expenditure incurred in respect of the transport to and from New Zealand and the travel within or outside New Zealand of the Governor-General and his family and staff.
Cabinet—The membership of the Executive Council and Cabinet is identical but Cabinet, unlike the Executive Council, is not a body created by any legal document. The existence of Cabinet was not recognised by statute until a passing reference was made in the Parliamentary Commissioner (Ombudsman) Act 1962.
The fact that the Juridical Acts to give legal force to certain of the decisions of Cabinet are taken by others—the Crown, the Executive Council, a Minister of the Crown or a Statutory Commission—does not diminish the power and authority of Cabinet. Cabinet is the top committee of the administrative system, with responsibility for co-ordinating the work of the various Ministers and taking those decisions which largely determine the nature of the legislation put before Parliament and the regulations which the Executive Council is asked to approve.
Cabinet discussions are informal and confidential, anonymity being maintained as to the individual advocacy or opposition to particular proposals. The Cabinet system enables general agreement to be reached on any line of action proposed by either an individual Minister or by the Government as a whole. In Parliament a Minister can be confident that his legislative or other proposals will have the unqualified support of the Government no matter what divergences of opinion may have been apparent before general agreement was reached in Cabinet. A consistent and agreed course of action on any particular issue can be determined. The work of Cabinet thus exemplifies the concept of the collective responsibility of the Government.
Cabinet is assisted in its work by 10 Cabinet committees, the membership of which includes those Ministers principally concerned with the subject matters handled by the committee. There are committees covering economic and financial affairs, Government works, the environment, defence, foreign affairs, and the State services. Several of the committees are supported by inter-departmental committees of officials. All Cabinet committees have delegated authority from Cabinet to make decisions within certain prescribed limits.
The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the servicing of Cabinet and its committees to ensure their smooth functioning.
Government Departments—The Minister as the political head of a department of State may in fact have several departments under his control. There are, however, some 40 different departments with separate functions in New Zealand. Each of these has a permanent head who is responsible for the work and administration of the department. He is of course responsible to the Minister in charge of the department, while he also acts as adviser to the Minister on all matters within his appointed competence. Besides ensuring that the ministerial policy and directions communicated to him are effectively put into practice, his functions as the adviser include assessing the consequences of any executive action resulting from his departmental activity, evaluating the merits and demerits, whether political, social, or financial, of various modes of action, and making suggestions for improvements and for new policy measures as derived from departmental experience in the day-to-day execution of policy.
Departments can be broadly classified according to the administrative or regulatory, developmental, or social nature of their activities. Within the first group are the servicing subgroup, such as the Legislative, Prime Minister's, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Printing Office, Law Drafting, Valuation, Statistics, and Audit; the finance subgroup—Treasury, Customs, Inland Revenue; the regulatory subgroup—State Services Commission, Internal Affairs, Labour; the defence and law and order subgroup—Ministry of Defence, Justice, Crown Law, and Police; the research subgroup—Scientific and Industrial Research.
In the second group are the transport and communications subgroup, such as Ministry of Transport, Post Office, Railways, and Tourist and Publicity; the developmental—Ministry of Works, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Lands and Survey, Forest Service, Mines, Electricity, Energy Resources, Maori and Island Affairs, Trade and Industry; the commercial—Public Trust, Government Life Insurance, State Advances Corporation, State Insurance.
The third group comprises the Education, Health, and Social Welfare Departments.
This broad division serves merely to indicate the field of the dominant activity or purpose of the particular department. Most departments have servicing, informative, and regulatory functions, and many are equally regulatory and developmental in nature.
In addition to the system of direct administration in the form of Government departments, there are other activities over which the State exercises some ultimate measure of control or ownership, though divorced in varying degrees from immediate supervision. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (the central bank), and one trading bank, are entirely State-owned, although the actual administration is quite independent, subject in the case of the Reserve Bank to the proviso that it must give effect to the monetary policy of the Government, as communicated to the bank by the Minister of Finance, and to any resolution of Parliament in respect of Government monetary policy.
Further instances of this principle are shown by the National Airways Corporation, which, although owned by the State, is administratively self-contained, and by the Tourist Hotel Corporation. In certain other avenues the type of administration is in between the normal departmental form and that evident in the corporation type; of such is the National Roads Board, which, though determining policy to a large degree, yet makes use of departmental administrative structures for implementation of policy.
Some administrative organisations have also quasi-judicial functions. Examples of this class are the Price Tribunal, Transport Charges Authority, Licensing Control Commission, and Local Government Commission.
OMBUDSMAN—The Parliamentary Commissioner (Ombudsman) Act 1962 has become an important addition to the parliamentary checks on departmental administration. The Act created the office of Ombudsman, who is able to investigate, on complaint or on his own initiative, any administrative decision, recommendation, act, or omission of a Government department or related organisation as it affects any individual. Local authorities are outside his jurisdiction. The Ombudsman does not have power to reverse departmental decisions, but he may make his recommendations to the department and to the Minister, and if, in his opinion, no appropriate action is taken he may report to the Prime Minister and then to Parliament. He has very wide powers to call for documents and files. The Government cannot refuse information, except in matters relating to the security of the State or to Cabinet proceedings.
JUDICIARY—The hierarchy of courts in New Zealand comprises the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court, and the Magistrate's Court. Apart from these courts of general jurisdiction there are other courts dealing with specific fields. In the latter category are the Court of Arbitration concerned with awards and orders governing wage determination and conditions of employment in industry; the Compensation Court dealing with workers' compensation. For further details refer to Section 8 (Justice) of this issue.
PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS—The law on elections is contained in the Electoral Act 1956. Following each population census, which is normally taken every 5 years, the boundaries of European electorates are revised. In addition, there are four Maori electoral districts, three in the North Island and one covering a portion of the North Island together with the whole of the South Island, where the Maori population is comparatively small. The Governor-General may at any time by Proclamation alter the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts, and, as in the case of European electoral districts, any alterations are to come into force at the expiry of the Parliament existing when the Proclamation is issued.
The Government Statistician is required to supply population figures to the Surveyor-General as soon as possible after the census. The population used as the basis in obtaining the quota for each European electoral district is defined in section 2 (1) of the Electoral Act 1956.
The term “European population” means total population with the following exceptions:
Persons residing on board ship, whether as passengers or members of the crew or otherwise;
Persons residing temporarily as guests in any licensed hotel;
Persons residing temporarily in any naval, military, or air force camp, station, or establishment;
Persons residing as patients and inmates in any hospital;
Persons in respect of whom reception orders under the Mental Health Act 1969 are in force;
Persons detained pursuant to convictions in any penal institution.
After the population figures are supplied by the Government Statistician it is then the responsibility of the Representation Commission to define new electoral districts for Europeans. The commission is constituted by virtue of section 15 of the Electoral Act 1956 and comprises seven members. Four of these, the Surveyor-General, the Government Statistician, the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Director-General of the Post Office, are official members. Two are unofficial members, being persons nominated by the House of Representatives, one nominated to represent the Government, and one to represent the Opposition. The seventh member is appointed, on the nomination of the official and unofficial members of the commission or a majority of them, to be the chairman of the commission. The chairman and unofficial members cease to be members on the date on which the first periodical census is taken after the date of their appointment.
The European population of the South Island is divided by 25 and the quotient so obtained is the quota for the South Island. Then the European population of the North Island is divided by the quota for the South Island, and the quotient so obtained is the number of European electoral districts in the North Island. In applying the quota the commission may make an allowance by way of addition or subtraction of 5 percent of the quota to enable districts to be adjusted to meet considerations of topography, community of interest, communications, and existing electoral boundaries.
When the boundaries have been provisionally determined, maps are prepared illustrating the proposed electoral districts, and descriptions of each electoral district are published in the New Zealand Gazette. A time limit of 1 month is given during which objections to the proposed boundaries may be lodged. These objections are then considered by the Representation Commission and a final decision reached on boundaries which then define the new electoral districts.
All general elections and by-elections are held on a Saturday. Polling hours in all electorates are from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.
Any serviceman aged 20 years or over serving overseas is qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which he last resided before he left New Zealand.
Franchise—Since 1969, persons 20 years of age and over have had the right to vote in the election of members of the House of Representatives (From 1893 onwards all persons aged 21 years had voting rights.)
Registration of Electors—Registration as an elector is compulsory, although it is not compulsory to vote. To be qualified for registration as a parliamentary elector in New Zealand a person must have attained the age of 20 years and must (a) be a British subject or Irish citizen, (b) be ordinarily resident in New Zealand, (c) at some period have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least a year, and (d) except in special cases have resided continuously for 3 months or more in the electoral district in respect of which application for registration is made, and not have subsequently resided for 3 months or more in any other electoral district. Broadly speaking the qualifications restrict the right to vote to permanent residents. Persons of more than half Maori ancestry register in one of the four Maori electoral districts and persons of half Maori ancestry have the option of registering on either a European or Maori roll.
Voting at parliamentary elections is by secret ballot. In general, only those persons whose names are lawfully on the main and supplementary rolls of electors compiled prior to an election may vote at that election.
A vote is normally cast by the elector at a polling booth within his district. An elector may, however, vote as a “special voter”, either at a polling booth outside his district or by post for reasons of distant travel on polling day, sickness, etc.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT: General Powers—Local authorities in New Zealand derive their powers from the Acts under which they are constituted, and also from special empowering Acts. The Municipal Corporations Act 1954 and the Counties Act 1956 are the main governing Acts for territorial local authorities. There are several statutory measures which are more or less applicable to all local authorities, such as the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966 and the Local Authorities Loans Act 1956. For most harbour boards there is, in addition to the general Harbours Act, a special Act for each board which is subordinate to the general Act. Certain types of local authority—urban drainage boards, transport boards, the Auckland Regional Authority, the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority, the Christchurch-Lyttelton Road Tunnel Authority, and the Waikato Valley Authority—derive their principal powers from special constituting Acts.
A local authority has no legislative powers beyond the authority to make bylaws within limits defined in its constituting Act, but it can promote legislation on matters which affect the government of the area under its jurisdiction and which it is not already empowered to deal with. If the subject is transient and not contentious and is approved by Government it is usually dealt with by the inclusion of an appropriate section in the annual Local Legislation Act passed by Parliament for this purpose. If, on the other hand, the local authority seeks powers of a permanent or major nature additional to those conferred on it by general Acts it must submit to Parliament a special local Bill. The extent to which the foregoing privileges are used may be gauged from the fact that the annual Local Legislation Act usually contains 40 to 45 sections, while about 15 local Acts are passed each year.
Number of Local Authorities—The number of local authorities actively functioning at 1 April 1972 was 625 made up as follows: county councils, 108; borough (including city) councils, 135; town councils (independent), 9; town councils (dependent), 6; regional authority, 1; river boards (2 boards also have the powers of land-drainage boards), 8; catchment boards, 13; catchment commissions, 4; land-drainage boards, 36; electric power boards, 39; water-supply boards, 2; urban drainage boards, 4; transport board, 1; local railway board, 1; power and gas boards, 2; nassella tussock boards, 2; harbour bridge authority, 1; road tunnel authority, 1; valley authority, 1; plantation board, 1; underground water authorities, 3; pest destruction boards (separately elected), 140; independent fire boards, 60; independent harbour boards, 17; and hospital boards, 30. Borough and county councils also function as fire authorities in 213 cases, as harbour boards in 8 cases, as underground water authorities in 2 cases, and as county pest destruction boards in 39 cases. In addition, there were 22 district councils of the National Roads Board constituted under the National Roads Act 1954. Although these district roads councils are not local authorities in the strict sense of the term they are intimately connected with certain aspects of local government, providing an advisory service to the National Roads Board concerning the roading needs and the allocation of national roading funds within their respective districts.
Administratively, boroughs and independent town districts, which are contained within the geographical boundaries of a county, are regarded as separate entities.
Franchise—Under the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966, elections are held on the second Saturday in October every third year. The next triennial general elections are due in 1974. Enrolment of residential electors is compulsory. On any proposal relating to loans or rates, a rate paying or a freehold qualification is necessary.
Apart from a few special-purpose authorities some of whose members are appointed by other local authorities, by Government, or, in the case of fire authorities, by insurance interests, members of local authorities are elected triennially, any qualified elector being eligible to seek election. In general the franchise extends to all persons aged 20 years or over who either possess a rating qualification or who, being British subjects, possess a residential qualification in the district of the local authority concerned. The right to vote for members of land drainage and river boards is, however, restricted to those who possess rating qualifications. Plural voting on the basis of the value of rateable property is permitted in elections for county councils and several types of special-purpose authorities. Where pest destruction boards rate on the basis of livestock or acreage, plural voting is also permitted.
Voting Procedures—Generally speaking, franchise can only be exercised by personal attendance at the polling booth, but the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966 was amended in 1970 to permit county councils to use postal voting. Other local authorities are able to use this method only on approval being granted by Order in Council. At the 1971 elections 59 counties and 6 boroughs used postal voting. In every such case election participation was appreciably higher than the national average. To a lesser extent use was also made of spread voting where voting is possible at polling booths over a period of up to 6 days instead of being confined to the single day.
Boroughs—For the constitution of a borough there must be a population of at least 1,500 with an average density of population of at least one person per acre. A borough containing a population of 20,000 or more may be proclaimed a city, although the corporation remains unaltered.
Counties—Counties are now governed under the Counties Act 1956. With increasing settlement the original 63 counties were gradually subdivided until they reached 129 in 1920, although the number of councils formed and actively functioning never exceeded 126. The number of counties has since been reduced by amalgamations and mergers by the Local Government Commission. At April 1972 there were 109 counties constituted, of which 108 were actively functioning, Fiord being a sparsely populated county in which the Counties Act is not wholly in force.
County Towns and County Boroughs—County councils may, under the provisions of the Counties Act 1956, declare areas within counties to be county towns. To qualify, the areas concerned must have a population of at least 200, with an average density of not less than one person to the acre or not less than 60 houses with an average density of not less than one house to 3 acres. After the constitution of a county town the county council is required to appoint a county town committee of not less than three nor more than seven members, to advise it on the administration of the county town. The county council may conduct a poll in the county town to ascertain the wishes of the electors of the county town in respect of the persons to be appointed to this committee. There was a total of 98 county towns at April 1972. The Counties Amendment Act 1968 contains provisions for the constitution of county boroughs. This unit of local government can only be formed from an existing county town or borough or town district. It remains an integral part of the parent county, but the county borough council, which is a fully elected body, has a statutory right to exercise some, but not all of the powers of the county council within the district of the county borough. The minimum population required for a county borough is 1,500. At April 1972 there were 9 county boroughs.
Town Districts—The town district represents a form of local government intermediate between the county and the borough. It implies a certain concentration of population. Where it remains subject to county control (mainly for roads) it is a dependent town district. Town districts on reaching a population of more than 500 may become independent. The constitution and powers of town districts have been brought into closer relationship to boroughs over the years, and independent town districts are now constituted under the Municipal Corporations Act 1954. The Act requires that the area be not more than 2 square miles, within which no two points are more than 4 miles distant, having a minimum population of 500 and with a density of population of not less than one person to the acre. The number of town districts in April 1972 was 15 (9 independent and 6 dependent). With the more recent legislation providing for the creation of county towns and county boroughs no further town districts are likely to be set up. None has been created since 1954.
Remuneration of Members—The remuneration of members of local authorities is governed by the statutes constituting the various types of local authorities. Most authorities may pay their chairman an annual allowance with a maximum fixed for each type of authority. The maximum payable to mayors and council chairmen varies according to the population of the local authority. Ordinary members of territorial authorities may be paid for each meeting attended. All local authorities may reimburse members for expenses incurred whilst travelling on official business.
Special-purpose Authorities—Special-purpose authorities differ from territorial authorities in that each is charged with only one major function. The need for the most efficient and economic discharge of the major function being the prime consideration, their boundaries may either extend beyond or fall within those of territorial authorities in the same geographical area. Only rarely do the boundaries coincide. Sometimes, as is the case with a number of urban fire authorities, territorial authorities themselves are also constituted as and perform the functions of special-purpose authorities. The more important special-purpose authorities are those administering harbours, hospitals, and the retail distribution of electricity. Others are engaged in fire fighting, water supply, urban drainage and transport, soil conservation and rivers control, pest destruction, nassella tussock control, land drainage, and underground water usage.
Local Government Commission—The Local Government Commission Act 1967, which replaced the Local Government Commission Act 1961, set up a revised Local Government Commission which is a permanent institution deemed to be a Commission of Inquiry under the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908.
The Act provides that the commission shall consist of a chairman with knowledge of local government, one member with a special knowledge of finance and economics, and another member with a special knowledge of administration.
The functions of the commission are to carry out investigations, prepare reorganisation schemes, and make recommendations and reports for the purpose of ensuring that the system of local government in any locality will best provide for the needs and continued development of the locality, that local authorities have such district boundaries and such functions and powers as will enable them to provide most effectively and economically essential or desirable local government services and facilities, that local authorities shall have such resources as will enable them to engage adequate services and to obtain and operate adequate technical facilities, plant, and equipment, and that districts shall be of such size and nature as will promote efficient local government and avoid the necessity of uneconomic expenditure.
The commission has a duty to prepare local government area schemes to cover the whole of New Zealand by 31 December 1972 or as soon as possible thereafter. These schemes are to come into force as final schemes after the hearing of objections to publicly notified provisional schemes. These schemes will have no immediate effect on the local authorities in the local government area, but will set the general pattern to which individual local schemes will be required to conform.
TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING—The Town and Country Planning Act 1953 provides for the making and enforcement of regional and district planning schemes, and the detailed procedure to be followed in each case is amplified by the Town and Country Planning Regulations 1960. The Government administers the Act through the Minister of Works who may delegate his authority to the Commissioner of Works.
Regional Planning—Regional Planning Authorities may be established under provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act 1953. As provided in the Act the authorities consist of representatives of the several councils whose districts are wholly or partly within the region. Every local authority within the region, other than the constituent councils, is entitled to be represented by at least one associate member. The Regional Planning Authority may also appoint any person who may be possessed of special knowledge, or representatives of any department of State, to be associate members. Authorities are now operating in the four main centres and in Northland and Marlborough.
Finance for administration purposes is provided for by way of a maximum rate of one-sixtieth of a cent in the dollar on the rateable capital value of those portions of the councils' territories inside the regional area. The Act also makes provision whereby any of the constituent councils may enter into and carry out agreements for the execution of combined works.
Regional planning schemes must be preceded by a comprehensive survey of the natural resources of the areas concerned, and of the present and potential uses and values of all lands in relation to public utilities or amenities. Regional schemes envisage the conservation and economic development of natural resources by classification of lands according to their best uses and by the co-ordination of all such public improvements, utilities, and amenities as are not limited to the territory of any one local authority. Every regional planning scheme is intended to be a guide to councils engaged in the preparation of district planning schemes and to public authorities and all persons in relation to conservation and development within the region. Regional schemes are required to be reviewed at intervals of not more than 10 years.
District Planning—Every district scheme is required to have for its general purpose the development of the area to which it relates (including where necessary the replanning and reconstruction of an area already built on) in such a way as will most effectively tend to promote and safeguard the health, safety and convenience, the economic and general welfare of its inhabitants, and the amenities of every part of the area. The council of every city, borough, county, and independent town district must provide and maintain a district scheme whether or not a regional planning scheme including its district has been prepared or become operative.
While a district scheme is being prepared a council may refuse its consent to the carrying out of any development that would be in contravention of the scheme and falls within the definition of a “detrimental work”, but the owner or occupier affected may appeal against such a decision to the Town and Country Planning Appeal Board. The Minister can require the council to exercise these powers where the development would or might adversely affect Government works or the public interest, and local authorities have similar rights in respect of their works. Any appeal proceedings lie against the Minister or the local authority concerned.
In the period before a district scheme becomes operative, any change of use of land that detracts or is likely to detract from the amenities of the neighbourhood is required to have the prior consent of the council. Where an application is made to the council for consent, the applicant and every person who claims to be affected by the proposed use has a right to be heard by the council and may appeal to the Appeal Board against the council's decision.
When completed and recommended by the council, copies of a district scheme are submitted to the Minister of Works and to adjoining councils and to local authorities within the area covered by the scheme for consideration, particularly in relation to their public works. When the Minister and each local authority is satisfied that all their respective public works have been properly provided for in the scheme and have certified accordingly, the district scheme is publicly notified for inspection for 3 months. Any owner or occupier of land affected may object to any provision of the scheme, and the Minister, other local authorities, professional, business, sporting or other such organisations, may also object to the scheme on grounds of public interest. In the event of an objection not being sustained by the council the objector may appeal to the Appeal Board whose decision is final.
When a district scheme has been finally approved and made operative the council and all local authorities having jurisdiction in the district are bound to observe, and enforce observance of, the requirements of the scheme. The provisions of an operative regional planning scheme are also obligatory, but a constituent council has a right of appeal to the Town and Country Planning Appeal Board where a provision of a proposed or operative district scheme conflicts with the regional scheme; the Minister has, incidentally, a similar right of appeal so far as the regional scheme conflicts with the public interest.
By 31 March 1972 there were 144 operative schemes with a further 85 schemes at the recommendation stage; although 23 councils had yet to submit schemes, more than 90 percent of the population are living in areas where councils have brought down recommended, proposed, or operative district schemes.
Operative district schemes may be changed at any time, and must be reviewed when any part of the scheme has been operative for a period of 5 years. Before reviewing the scheme the council submits a statement of its objectives and policies to the Minister, Regional Planning Authority, and to the local authorities within the district for consideration in relation to their own policies and public works. The council then prepares the review which is publicly notified for inspection for 3 months and is open to objection and appeal in the same way as the original scheme.
POPULATION GROWTH—New Zealand's first million of population was recorded in 1908, 68 years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1952, 44 years later, the second million was reached, and the third million is expected to be reached in the mid-1970s.
Population has two sources of gain—natural increase (excess of births over deaths) and net migration (excess of arrivals over departures). In the early years in New Zealand, as in every young country, the bulk of the increase was through migration. From the late 1870s natural increase permanently displaced immigration as the chief contributor to population growth. At the census of 1881 the percentages of the total population born in New Zealand and born overseas were approximately equal (50.2 percent New Zealand born to 49.8 percent overseas born), and each succeeding census until 1961 recorded an increased proportion of the population as having been born in New Zealand. In 1966 it dropped from 86 to 85.2 percent, partly as a result of international travel and tourism; more New Zealanders were overseas and more tourists were in New Zealand.
During the present century, natural increase has accounted for over three-quarters of the growth of population.
The natural increase rate has, in the main, closely reflected the changes in the birth rate, with a low point of 8.68 per 1,000 in 1935 and high points of 18 per 1,000 in 1947 and 1961. The 1966 figure of 13.57 was the lowest since 1944. In more recent years it has been 13.74 in 1968, 13.81 in 1969, 13.25 in 1970, 14.10 in 1971, and 13.26 in 1972. Like the low birth rate of the thirties, the fall in the birth rate in the sixties is a feature that New Zealand shared with a number of other developed countries, and notably with Australia, Canada, and the United States. In recent years the birth rates in Australia and New Zealand have stabilised.
Details are given in the following table.
|Period||March Years||Calendar Years|
|Births||Deaths||Natural Increase||Births||Deaths||Natural Increase|
|* Non-Maori population.|
Migration, however, has continued to add to the population quite substantially except during depression and war periods and the recession conditions of 1968–69. Gains from external migration are shown in the following table. Movements of the armed forces are not included.
* March years ended in years listed.
† Excess of departures.
Most of the inward migration has been from the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands. In more recent years increasing numbers have come from the Pacific Islands, notably Western Samoa. A changed economic climate in the country brought a net migration loss to population for 1967, 1968, and 1969 calendar years.
CENSUS STATISTICS—Population statistics are based primarily on the five-yearly population census. Intercensal population estimates are based on the most recent census data available, adjusted in accordance with later figures of births, deaths, and migration. Estimates of the populations of particular localities, e.g., cities and boroughs, also take into account local economic developments, housing schemes, the numbers on school rolls, changes in boundaries, and any other factors leading to, or indicating, changes in population.
The basis adopted for the population census, and virtually throughout population statistics in New Zealand, is that of population physically present in the place of enumeration at the time of enumeration.
All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand, i.e., island territories are omitted except where their inclusion is specifically stated. Though Niue Island and Tokelau Islands are constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons they are administered separately. The Cook Islands are self-governing but the islanders are New Zealand citizens.
PRESENT POPULATION—The following table gives a summary of population. A 50-year time series is given in the statistical summary towards the back of this Yearbook.
* Includes population of Kermadec Islands 9 (males) and Campbell Island 9 (males).
|New Zealand*||31 March 1972||1,453,169||1,456,747||2,909,916|
|Tokelau Islands||21 February 1972†||737||862||1,599|
|Niue Island||27 September 1971†||2,508||2,480||4,988|
|Cook Islands||1 December 1971†||10,840||10,387||21,227|
|Ross Dependency||23 March 1971||190||–||190|
INCREASE OF POPULATION—The growth of population has been substantial in each intercensal period. The lowest rates are those of 1926–36, which included some years of economic depression, and of 1936–45, which included 6 years of international war, and of 1966–71, mainly attributable to a marked change in migration patterns.
|Date of Census||Total|
* Numbers overseas not available.
† Includes members of the New Zealand armed forces overseas at census date.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—The annual average percentage increases of population for the period 1963–70 are given in the following table for certain selected countries. (Source: United Nations Statistical Yearbook.)
INTERCENSAL RECORDS—Intercensal estimates of total population are prepared from the records of vital statistics and of external migration. The figures in the tables following have been revised in line with 1971 Census results.
The figures exclude members of New Zealand armed forces who were overseas, and also members of the armed forces of other countries who were in New Zealand.
|Year||Population at End of Year||Increase During Year||Mean|
|Years Ended 31 March|
|Years Ended 31 December|
The figures given in the preceding table are for total population inclusive of New Zealand Maoris.
The following table shows the New Zealand Maori population.
|Year||New Zealand Maori Population at End of Year||Increase During Year||Mean|
|Years Ended 31 March|
|Years Ended 31 December|
POPULATION PROJECTIONS—An indication of possible future growth of the total New Zealand population (including Maoris) up to 2001 is given by the detailed alternative projections which follow.
Projections of future population involve an element of uncertainty owing to incomplete knowledge of the factors underlying changes in fertility, mortality, and migration levels and difficulties in forecasting the future behaviour of these components of population change.
It should be understood that, as with all demographic projections prepared by the Department of Statistics, these projections are not strict forecasts or targets, but conditional forecasts based on the stated assumptions. Presentation and use of the projections, therefore, cannot be divorced from consideration of the assumptions adopted.
In the absence of up-to-date marital status specific population data (the latest available data specific as to marital status being from the 1966 Census of Population) these projections are based on fertility assumptions relating to age-of-mother-specific birth rates only. In the department's judgment this will not significantly impair the validity and utility of the projections. A full description of the projection assumptions is contained in the footnotes to the table.
|As at 31 March||Projected Total New Zealand Population* Assuming Net Annual Immigration† of|
*The base population for these projections is the estimated population as at 31 March 1971. These projections are based on the following assumptions:
(a) That future fertility experience will be in accordance with the alternative trends in age-of-mother-specific birth rates as described in ‡ and § below;
(b) That 1965–67 Life Table Mortality Rates (Total Population) apply throughout the projection period.
† The assumed net immigration is taken to commence from the projection base point of 31 March 1971.
‡ The projection based on “Constant Fertility” assumes a continuance of the most recent (1971) experience with regard to age-of-mother-specific birth rates.
§ The projection based on “medium” fertility assumes the continuation of recent general trends in age-of-mother-specific birth rates, whether increasing or decreasing, for 5 years, with a subsequent continuation of those general trends, somewhat flattened, until 1986. The “high” and “low” assumptions are relative to the “medium” assumption and are based on trends, above and below the “medium” trend respectively, which are considered to be maxima and minima in the light of the assessed reasonably expected range of values which may eventuate. Because of the uncertainty in projecting recent fertility experience for longer than 15–20 years ahead, birth rates which make up the “high”, “medium” and “low” fertility assumptions have been kept constant from 1987 until 2001 at the levels projected for 1986.
|Constant Fertility Assumption‡|
|High Fertility Assumption§|
|Medium Fertility Assumption§|
|Low Fertility Assumption§|
The following diagram presented on a ratio scale shows the growth of actual population from 1880 to 1968 and projections through to 2000.
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census and are published in Volume 1, Increase and Location of Population, of the Census of Population and Dwellings.
North and South Islands—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration, and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of NZ Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.
The following table gives the population of the North and South Islands as disclosed by each census since 1901.
|Census Year||Total Population||Total||Percentages|
|North Island||South Island||North Island||South Island|
The population of the North Island increased at a greater proportionate rate than that of the South Island between the 1966 and 1971 Censuses. At the 1971 Census the North Island population was 2,051,363, including 213,577 N.Z. Maoris, and the South Island population 811,268, inclusive of 13,837 N.Z. Maoris. The increase since the 1966 Census was 158,037 for the North Island and 27,675 for the South Island.
Between the 1966 and 1971 Censuses, births in the South Island numbered just over 82,000, and deaths almost 38,000, giving a net natural increase of just over 44,000. The fact that the total population increase is under 28,000 indicates a net migration outflow from the South Island during the intercensal period. This is in contrast to the 1961–66 intercensal period when a small net migration inflow of approximately 5,000 was recorded.
Statistical Areas—In the following table are shown the areas and the populations of the statistical areas at the 1971 Census and an estimate at 1 April 1972.
23 March 1971
1 April 1972
|Bay of Plenty||36,744||422,299||431,300|
|Totals, North Island||114,729||2,051,363||2,090,028|
|Totals, South Island||153,946||811,268||819,888|
|Totals, New Zealand||268,675||2,862,631||2,909,916|
Statistical Divisions and Urban Areas—Statistical divisions and urban areas are statistical conceptions and not administrative units. Their purpose is to provide definite, stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population. Statistical divisions are a new concept. The basic criterion for a statistical division is a population of 75,000 or more within the area of economic and social interests of a heavily populated centre. Seven statistical divisions have been established, namely, Auckland, Hamilton, Napier-Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington (including Hutt), Christchurch, and Dunedin. The division, like the urban area, does not have any administrative functions, but embraces areas of unified community, economic, and social interests. In addition to the central city or borough, urban areas include neighbouring boroughs and town districts and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population. Maps of statistical boundaries are available at Government bookshops.
Previously there have been 18 statistically defined urban areas; there are now 24 urban areas. The additional areas result from splitting the Auckland, Wellington, and Hutt urban areas and adding Masterton. Adjustments of urban area boundaries have been made because of the peripheral growth of population in some of the urban centres.
In the following table the populations of statistical divisions and urban areas are given.
and Urban Area (U.A.)
|1966 Census||1971 Census||Percentage Increase||Estimated|
1 April 1972
|Auckland S. Div.—|
|Northern Auckland U.A.||86,297||107,965||34.3||25.1||113,900|
|Western Auckland U.A.||75,792||89,946||37.3||18.7||93,800|
|Central Auckland U.A.||281,192||286,787||4.4||2.0||287,900|
|Southern Auckland U.A.||124,886||165,048||54.7||32.2||174,700|
|Remainder S. Div.||45,504||48,654||1.2||6.9||48,828|
|Hamilton S. Div.—|
|Remainder S. Div.||55,786||55,194||2.0||−1.1||55,100|
|Napier-Hastings S. Div.—|
|Remainder S. Div.||7,874||7,820||4.0||−0.7||7,900|
|Palmerston North S. Div.—|
|Palmerston North U.A.||52,393||57,065||13.9||8.9||58,200|
|Remainder S. Div.||23,551||23,667||3.7||0.3||23,700|
|Wellington S. Div.—|
|Upper Hutt Valley U.A.||27,398||30,986||20.9||13.1||31,700|
|Lower Hutt Valley U.A.||88,337||92,003||14.5||4.2||92,900|
|Porirua Basin U.A.||37,624||47,858||35.7||27.2||49,300|
|Remainder S. Div.||13,561||16,403||18.0||21.0||17,300|
|Christchurch S. Div.—|
|Remainder S. Div.||24,954||26,642||6.9||6.8||27,000|
|Dunedin S. Div.—|
|Remainder S. Div.||7,086||6,681||−2.9||−5.7||6,600|
|Urban Areas Not in Any Statistical Division|
|Urban Area||1966 Census||1971 Census||Percentage Increase||Estimated|
1 April 1972
|Totals, 24 urban areas||1,748,596||1,930,226||15.7||10.4||1,974,100|
|Totals, 7 statistical divisions||1,598,046||1,756,453||14.3||9.9||1,793,828|
Cities and Boroughs—The population of cities and boroughs is now given.
|City or Borough||Estimated|
1 April 1972
Area in Hectares
|East Coast Bays||17,150||1,558|
|One Tree Hill||12,950||983|
|New Plymouth (city)||35,100||2,316|
|Palmerston N. (city)||52,900||4,302|
|Upper Hutt (city)||20,200||876|
|Lower Hutt (city)||58,800||4,927|
cities and boroughs
| Totals, South
totals, all cities|
Town Districts—The population of independent town districts—i.e., those contained in section (a) of the following table—is not included with that of the county in which the town district is located, but the population of dependent town districts—section (b)—is included in that of the respective parent county.
|Town District||Estimated Population 1 April 1972||Approximate Area in Hectares|
|* Parent county shown in parentheses.|
|(a) Town Districts not forming parts of Counties|
|Totals, North Island||7,110||2,253|
|Totals, South Island||1,680||473|
|(b) Town Districts forming parts of Counties*|
|Russell (Bay of Islands)||660||431|
|Totals, North Island||3,040||1,903|
|Totals, South Island||610||282|
County Towns—The following table lists those county towns with populations of 1,000 or more at 1 April 1972. The parent county is shown in parentheses. The populations of county towns are included in the administrative county populations given in a later table.
|County Town||Estimated Population 1 April 1972||Approximate Area in Hectares|
|Moerewa (Bay of Islands)||1,310||49|
|Paihia (Bay of Islands)||1,060||168|
|Kelston West (Waitemata)||9,810||656|
|Green Bay (Waitemata)||3,090||191|
|Pukerua Bay (Hutt)||1,370||834|
|Te Anau (Wallace)||1,780||395|
County Boroughs—The following table lists the population of county boroughs as at 1 April 1972. The parent county is shown in parentheses. The populations of county boroughs are included in the administrative county populations given in the following table.
|County Borough||Estimated Population 1 April 1972||Approximate Area in Hectares|
|Totals, county boroughs||43,480||31,261|
Extra-county Islands and Shipboard Population—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, cities and boroughs, and independent town districts, the New Zealand totals include shipboard population and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any county. The two latter categories comprised an estimated total of 4,786 persons at 1 April 1972.
Counties—The following table gives the estimated population of individual counties at 1 April 1972 together with the approximate area of each. It should be noted that “Administrative counties” do not include boroughs or town districts independent of county control, but include town districts, county boroughs, and county towns which form parts of counties.
|Administrative County||Estimated Population 1 April 1972||Approximate Area, in Square Kilometres|
|Bay of Islands||13,330||2,131|
|Great Barrier Is.||270||285|
|Totals, North Island counties||591,200||112,535|
|Totals, South Island counties||301,300||152,825|
|Grand totals, all counties||892,500||265,360|
Urban Concentration of Population—The bulk of New Zealand's population is located in urban areas, where the most rapid growth rates are occurring. This is due largely to the development of both manufacturing and tertiary industries in urban areas, which provide employment for a growing labour force. Other factors, including better social, cultural, educational, and economic opportunities serve to attract persons to these areas, while the majority of immigrants tend to settle in the larger urban centres. These factors, combined with amalgamation of farms, centralisation of dairy factories, and increasing agricultural mechanisation (resulting in less labour required), combine to produce a noticeable rural-urban drift. Urban concentration features are common to “developed” countries at advanced stages of economic development.
In the circumstances the 1971 Census figures understandably showed a continuing decline in the population of rural areas and in many cases also of small and intermediate-sized towns. Seventy-two counties recorded smaller populations than in 1966. Of 58 small towns (1,000 to 4,999 population) 22 declined in population compared with 7 which showed declines between 1961 and 1966. Six intermediate towns (5,000 to 9,999 population situated outside urban areas) showed decreases on this occasion as against only two in 1966.
The following table indicates the urban movement of the total population—the urban content has been taken as the population in the 24 urban areas, plus that of all boroughs, town districts, county towns, and townships with population of 1,000 or over.
|* Excludes shipping.|
The following table indicates the urban movement of the New Zealand Maori population.
|* Excludes shipping.|
In the process of urbanisation some cities and areas have grown more quickly than others. There is a tendency towards concentration of population in the largest centres and also a drift of population from the south to the north. Where the two tendencies reinforce each other, as they do in the case of Auckland, the rate of growth has been very rapid. Likewise the urban areas of Whangarei, Hamilton, Tauranga, and Rotorua, which had a combined population in 1926 of 40,164, in 1971 comprised 194,942 inhabitants.
The initial reason for the drift to the north lay in the change in emphasis of farming activities in which the development of dairying played an important part. The expansion of dairying in itself called for the development of factory processing facilities and service industries. These farming trends have been reinforced by the growth of forest processing industries in the North Island and compounded further by the general tendency for the large-scale manufacturing units to be located close to the biggest local markets.
In the larger cities a notable feature of the past 35 years has been a movement of population from the central or “inner” areas to the perimeter or “outer” areas as families in decayed areas have moved to State rental houses and as residential units in the city centres have been replaced by shops, offices, places of entertainment, and other commercial or industrial buildings. In recent years there has been an offsetting movement with the building of multi-storey flats in the inner areas.
The distribution of population by size of centres is shown in the following table.
|Sizes of Centre|
or County Town)
|Number of Centres||Percentage of Population in These Centres|
|25,000 and over||4||12||19||22||24.1||32.4||40.9||44.6|
In the South Island a higher proportion of the population is rural, that is, outside urban communities, than in the North Island.
Sex Proportions—The census of 23 March 1971 showed that females outnumbered males by 919 in the total population. Females per 1,000 males at the last six censuses have been:
|Census||Excluding N.Z. Armed Forces Overseas||Including N.Z. Armed Forces Overseas|
There are marked differences in the sex proportions of the population of different parts of New Zealand, depending largely on educational and employment opportunities. The following figures give the number of females per 1,000 males at the Census of 1971.
|South Auckland-Bay of Plenty||974|
|Lower Hutt Valley||1,009|
|Upper Hutt Valley||915|
DENSITY OF POPULATION—Generally speaking, a dense population must depend upon intensive land utilisation or industrialisation. In New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, and large areas of hilly country which cannot be closely settled, while the growth of mechanisation in farming tends to reduce the size of the labour force engaged in farming operations.
Nevertheless, economic development is providing employment for a growing labour force. More extensive mechanisation, further advances in science and technology, and increases in productivity, wealth, and consumption have paved the way for further specialisation of production and more concentrated urbanisation.
Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The following table provides comparative density figures on a statistical area basis from 1926 to 1971 censuses.
|Statistical Area||Area in Square Kilometres||Persons Per Square Kilometre|
|South Auckland - Bay of Plenty||36,744||3.9||5.6||6.7||9.5||10.6||11.5|
|Totals, North Island||114,729||7.8||10.0||11.5||14.7||16.5||17.9|
|Totals, South Island||153,946||3.3||3.6||4.1||4.7||5.1||5.3|
|Totals, New Zealand||268,675||5.2||6.3||7.2||9.0||10.0||10.7|
NEW ZEALAND MAORI POPULATION—All persons of half or more Maori ancestry are defined as Maoris.
The growth rate of Maoris in the population approaches twice that of the population taken as a whole; an average annual increase in 1966–71 of 2.5 percent as compared with 1.4 percent for the total population. (Nevertheless the growth rate showed a slight fall when compared with the previous intercensal periods.)
The population growth rate among the Maoris is predominantly a result of natural increase, whereas in the total population natural increase is normally supplemented by sizeable increments from migration.
When studying growth rates of the Maori population, however, it should be noted that, as a result of intermarriage, there are increasing numbers of Maori children (half or more Maori) who have one parent not counted in the Maori population, i.e., if a full Maori male marries a full European female or vice versa, the resulting progeny are all counted in the Maori population; this undoubtedly contributes to the high Maori percentage increase.
The decline in the number of Maoris during the early years of European settlement and throughout most of the nineteenth century is a matter of history. The present century has witnessed a resurgence of vitality among the Maori people which has been reflected in a strikingly high birth rate.
The increasing urbanisation of the Maori population as younger Maoris seek better job opportunities in the cities and boroughs is a population trend of considerable sociological significance.
A statement of N.Z. Maori population is now given for each census from 1901.
|Year||New Zealand Maori Population||Intercensal Increase||Intercensal Increase||Average Annual Increase|
|* Includes members of New Zealand armed forces overseas at census date.|
Of the 227,414 Maoris at the 1971 Census, 213,472 were in the North Island. Most Maoris used to live in rural communities. A marked change has, however, taken place during and since the war as a result of employment conditions. As late as the 1936 Census only 8,249 Maoris (10 percent) dwelt in cities, boroughs, or independent town districts. By the 1971 Census the comparative figure was 132,970 (58.5 percent); the largest concentration is in Southern Auckland urban area, where 20,675 Maoris were enumerated in 1971.
The Maori population, which until recently was not greatly affected by external migration, is a much younger population than the non-Maori.
The following table for 1966 shows the high proportion (50.3 percent) of Maori children under 15 years compared with the total population (32.6 percent), and the low proportion of people in the older age groups.
|Age Group (Years)||Percentage in Age Groups (1966 Census)|
|New Zealand Maori||Total Population|
|60 and over||3.2||12.0|
EXTERNAL MIGRATION—In recent years there has been a large increase in New Zealanders going overseas on business, on pleasure trips, and on working holidays, so that arrivals and departures have both been greatly swollen. The arrivals include many New Zealanders returning from travel overseas, as well as growing numbers of tourists from overseas countries.
The numbers of arrivals and departures during the last 11 years are given in the table following. Crews of vessels, through passengers, tourists on cruising liners, and members of the armed forces, etc., have not been taken into account in this table.
|Year Ended 31 March||Arrivals||Departures||Excess of|
From 1968 to 1970 there was an alteration in the net migration flow. This is illustrated in the following diagram which covers all passenger migration, excluding through passengers and crews.
Long-term Migration—The following table gives an analysis of long-term arrivals and departures for March years. (Short-term migration is analysed in Section 39: Travel and Tourism.)
|Year||Long-term (Including Permanent) Arrivals||Long-term (Including Permanent) Departures|
|New Permanent Arrivals||Long-term||Permanent and Long-term Arrivals (Immigrants)||Permanent Departures of New Zealand Residents||Long-term||Permanent and Long-term Departures (Emigrants)|
|Assisted Subsidised||Total (includes others)||N.Z. Residents Returning*||Long-term Visitors*||N.Z. Residents Departing*||Long-term Visitors Departing *|
Arrivals: after absence of, or intending to stay,|
12 months or more respectively. Departures: persons intending to stay away for, or after stay in New Zealand of, 12 months or more respectively.
The countries of origin and destination of these long-term migrants are shown in the following table.
|Year||Australia||Canada||India||United Kingdom||Cook Islands and Niue||Fiji||Western Samoa||Netherlands||South Africa||United States||All Other Countries||Total|
|Immigrants by Country of Last Residence|
|Emigrants by Country of Next Residence|
Ages—The following table gives the age-distribution of long-term arrivals and departures for the year ended 31 March 1972.
|Age, in Years||Permanent Arrivals||Permanent Departures||Excess of Arrivals Over Departures|
|65 and over||530||734||1,264||321||510||831||433|
Origin—The following table shows for the latest 3 years the birthplaces of long-term migrants.
|Country of Birth||Immigrants||Emigrants|
|England and Wales||11,732||6,904||7,569||4,482||4,373||4,134|
|Other or undefined||2||41||89||18||30||25|
|Cook Islands and Niue||477||317||664||140||72||86|
|Totals, Commonwealth countries||27,437||20,586||23,681||25,993||27,536||27,561|
|Ireland, Republic of||301||155||181||161||155||134|
|Totals, other countries||3,223||2,639||3,144||2,479||2,266||2,261|
POLICY—British and Australian citizens may migrate freely. Clearly identifiable migration links have existed for many years with India, China, Greece, and Yugoslavia, and New Zealand continues to accept immigrants from these areas principally on a family relationship basis. Since the Second World War there has been built up a strong association with the Netherlands, and many thousands of Dutch immigrants have settled here. With those from Scandinavia and other West European countries they have spread throughout the country and contribute much to the economic and cultural life.
The Pacific is a special situation. The Islands, being our nearest neighbours apart from Australia, must be regarded in some measure as our responsibility. Those born in the Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islands are New Zealand citizens and may migrate at any time. Western Samoa, as a former trust territory, holds a special place in our policy. The Samoans take full advantage of the opportunities offered, the inflow at present being about 1,500 a year.
ASSISTED IMMIGRATION—Two immigration schemes financially assisted by the Government are in operation—the subsidy scheme, which involves a contribution by employers to immigrants' fares and the assisted passage scheme. The contribution made by migrants under each scheme is the equivalent of £10 sterling for single persons and £20 for married persons.
The subsidy scheme operates from Britain, the United States, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The scheme has not been formally approved by the Italian Government but nationals of that country who apply spontaneously to come to New Zealand are permitted to use the scheme. There is no quota on the subsidy scheme. Single people and married men between the ages of 18 and 45 years may be sponsored and there is no limit on the number of dependent children. No specific skill level is required of migrants from Britain but migrants from other countries must be above the unskilled level.
Employers wishing to take advantage of the subsidy scheme are obliged to provide employment, arrange suitable housing in New Zealand, and meet one-quarter of the cost of migrants' fares either by sea or air; the Government meets the remaining three-quarters. The cost is approximately the same for both methods of travel.
A system of matching skills of immigrants with specific vacancies in New Zealand has been developed by the Chief Migration Officer, New Zealand House, London, for British and most Western European migrants, and similar registers have been established by the New Zealand Immigration Attaché in the Hague for Dutch workers, and by the New Zealand Consul-General in Los Angeles for American migrants. Employers interested in recruiting migrants with certain skills may file details of their vacancies through the Department of Labour in Wellington. The department will also arrange for vacancies to be advertised, if required by employers. In addition, the department holds interview reports for a large number of skilled tradesmen in a variety of occupations and these can be made available to interested employers.
The assisted passage scheme, which operates only from Britain, is limited to 500 migrants a year and they must possess minimum skills (usually at tradesman level) in specific occupations approved by the Secretary of Labour. Single persons and married couples (without dependent children) between the ages of 18 and 45 years are eligible. Married couples and single persons in some occupations must have employment and housing guaranteed before acceptable application.
Applications for both schemes must be made to the Department of Labour, Wellington; the Chief Migration Officer, London; or New Zealand overseas posts in North America or Western Europe.
The number of assisted immigrants (excluding displaced persons, and Hungarian and Czech refugees) arriving in the last 11 years are as follows.
|Year Ended 31 March||British||Dutch||Austrian||German||Danish||Swiss||Greek||Other||Total|
* Includes 106 from United States.
† Includes subsidy scheme migrants not shown in previous years; their total was 4,183; see a preceding table on long-term migration.
Refugees—New Zealand has continued to accept refugees including families sponsored by the churches. From November 1968, 100 Czech refugees had arrived by 1969 and these were followed in 1970 by a further 25. In 1970–71, 42 Indonesian refugees arrived. In 1972 the first Asian refugees arrived from Uganda.
IMMIGRATION—The legislation respecting immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Act 1964, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act 1919. This legislation is administered by the Department of Labour.
Under the Immigration Act all persons other than New Zealand citizens must be in possession of an entry permit before they may land in New Zealand.
To obtain permission to settle in New Zealand, intending immigrants should first write to or call on the nearest overseas representative of the New Zealand Government or write direct to the Secretary of Labour, P.O. Box 6310, Wellington, New Zealand. The application must be made in the prescribed form and must be supported by documents duly attested in the country of origin. Each application is considered individually on its own merits.
PASSPORTS—Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1946 and the Passport Regulations 1946.
New Zealand passports are issued and renewed within New Zealand by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington, Auckland, and Christchurch, at Rarotonga by the High Commissioner, at, Niue by the Resident Commissioner, and overseas by the representatives of New Zealand at Apia, Athens, Bangkok, Bonn, Brisbane, Brussels, Canberra, Djakarta, Fiji, Geneva, The Hague, Kuala Lumpur, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Melbourne, New Delhi, New York, Noumea, Ottawa, Paris, Rome, Saigon, San Francisco, Santiago (Chile), Seoul, Singapore, Suva, Sydney, Tokyo, and Washington. United Kingdom, Canadian, Australian, Malaysian, Singaporean, and Indian passports are issued and renewed in New Zealand by the respective High Commissioners for those countries.
Entry into New Zealand—Apart from British subjects and the wives of British subjects arriving from Australia, no person 16 years of age or over may land in New Zealand unless he is in possession of a valid passport or other recognised travel document. Exemption from the passport requirement (which is additional to the requirements of the Immigration Act and Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act) may be granted in exceptional circumstances by the Minister of Internal Affairs. A British subject who is a master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives does not need to produce a passport.
With the exception of nationals of those countries with which New Zealand has concluded agreements for the mutual abolition of visas, every alien landing in New Zealand requires a visa.
Persons born in the Cook Islands and the Tokelau Islands are British subjects and New Zealand citizens. They are required to obtain formal exit permission from the High Commissioner or Administrator respectively if they wish to proceed to New Zealand.
Departure from New Zealand—Every person leaving New Zealand, with the exception of a British subject travelling to Australia or making the round trip to New Zealand's island territories, should be in possession of a valid passport or other travel document.
NATIONALITY AND NATURALISATION—The basic nationality law is the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Citizens of all Commonwealth countries are recognised as British subjects.
New Zealand citizenship may be acquired in the following ways: (a) by birth in New Zealand; (b) by descent; (c) by registration; and (d) by naturalisation. Citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland acquire New Zealand citizenship by registration, as do alien wives and children of New Zealand citizens. Other aliens acquire it by naturalisation. To be eligible for New Zealand citizenship, an alien or a citizen of another Commonwealth country (other than a woman married to a New Zealand citizen, or a minor) must—(a) have resided in New Zealand for the prescribed period; (b) be of full age and capacity; (c) be of good character; (d) have sufficient knowledge of the English language, and of the responsibilities and privileges of New Zealand citizenship; (e) intend to reside in New Zealand, or to enter or continue Crown service under the New Zealand Government. The residential qualification for naturalisation is 5 years, for registration it is generally 3 years but can be reduced to 1 year.
A person who acquires New Zealand citizenship by naturalisation must take the oath of allegiance, a person who acquires it by registration may be required to take the oath. Ceremonies are held at which applicants, in an atmosphere of dignity and solemnity, take the oath of allegiance and are presented with their certificates of naturalisation or registration as New Zealand citizens. During the 1971–72 year there were 80 such ceremonies, at which 984 persons took the oath of allegiance.
New Zealand citizens may be deprived of New Zealand citizenship if they voluntarily acquire a foreign nationality by any formal act other than marriage, or if they voluntarily exercise the privileges or perform any of the duties of a foreign nationality possessed by them. Citizenship obtained by fraud, false representation, or the concealment of any material fact may be withdrawn.
The following table shows the number of persons, by country of birth, who were granted citizenship in the latest 2 years ended 31 March. Of the total of 1,498 in 1970–71, 197 were wives of New Zealand citizens and 139 were children.
|Country of Birth||1970–71||1971–72|
REGISTRATION OF ALIENS—The registration of aliens in New Zealand is provided for by the Aliens Act 1948, which is administered by the Department of Internal Affairs.
The number of aliens on the New Zealand register at any particular date does not constitute the total number in New Zealand, as certain classes are not required to register, including the following: (a) children under 16 years of age; (b) persons holding diplomatic status, consuls, or employees of embassies, legations, and consulates who are resident in New Zealand solely for the purpose of performing official duties; (c) certain temporary visitors to New Zealand. Under the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 a citizen of the Republic of Ireland, though not possessing the status of British subject (or, in alternative phraseology, Commonwealth citizen), is nevertheless not classed as an alien and is not required to register.
The following table shows, by country of nationality, the number of males and females on the register.
|Country of Nationality||1 April 1971||1 April 1972|
Gains in numbers on the register for any nationality occur for several reasons—mainly, (a) immigrants of 16 years of age and over who arrive during the year, (b) registration (on reaching the age of 16) of children whose parents may have arrived in previous years but are still registered aliens.
Reductions in the numbers of registered aliens in the main come from naturalisations, deaths, or departure overseas.
Five years residence in New Zealand is necessary before an alien can qualify for naturalisation.
STATISTICS OF THE POPULATION CENSUS—Publications resulting from the Census of Population and Dwellings are listed towards the back of this Yearbook. Additional figures from the Census of Population of 23 March 1971 may be published in Latest Statistical Information at the end of this Yearbook.
MARITAL STATUS—The marital status of persons aged 16 years and over as returned at the Census of 1966 is summarised in the following tables.
|Age (Years)||Never Married||Married||Legally Separated||Widowed||Divorced||Not Specified||Total|
|90 and over||121||318||5||719||5||2||1,170|
|90 and over||331||140||1||1,747||6||7||2,232|
The percentage distribution of the population aged 16 years or over according to marital status is given in the following summary.
DEPENDENT CHILDREN—Married men, widowers, and widows were asked at the Census in 1966 to state the number of their living children under 16 years (including stepchildren and children adopted by them). Married women, divorced, and legally separated persons were not asked to supply the information as this would have created the risk of duplication of children counted.
The numbers of persons having dependent children are now shown. The category “nil” includes those cases where members of the family were 16 years of age and over, as well as those cases where there were no children in the family.
Under 16 Years
|1961 Census||1966 Census|
|Married Men||Widowers||Widows||Married Men||Widowers||Widows|
|9 and over||1,317||8||15||1,545||14||15|
The numbers of dependent children in each of the three groups in 1966 were: dependent on married men, 883,239; dependent on widowers, 5,058; and dependent on widows, 14,771, a total of 903,068 dependent children out of a 1966 Census total of 922,349 children under 16 years of age. The difference is accounted for mainly by the exclusion of children whose parents were legally separated; those whose parents were divorced and had not remarried; children who had lost both parents; and ex-nuptial children (the last two classes excluding cases of adoption). It should be noted also, that some children listed by married men, widowers, and widows were, in fact, not counted in the 922,349 at 1966 Census, in so far as they were domiciled outside New Zealand. These remarks also apply to earlier censuses.
Comparable numbers of dependent children in the three groups in 1961 were: dependent on married men, 802,711; dependent on widowers, 4,932; and dependent on widows, 13,716; a total of 821,359 out of a total of 840,443 children under 16 years.
Between the 1961 and 1966 Census the total number of dependent children of married men increased from 802,711 to 883,239, a rise of 10 percent. The number of married men increased by 53,718 or 10.2 percent. Those recording “nil” dependent children increased by 14.2 percent, while those with dependent children increased by 7.7 percent.
Married men with two children recorded the largest numerical increase, rising from 99,932 to 106,669, this representing a 6.7 percent increase. The greatest percentage increase, however, was recorded by married men with seven children, this group increasing from 3,166 in 1961 to 3,878 in 1966, a rise of 712 or 22 percent.
The next table shows within each group, the average number of dependent children, firstly for all persons within the group, and then for persons with dependent children in that group.
|Average Number of Dependent Children||1956 Census||1961 Census||1966 Census|
|Per person with dependent children||2.38||2.49||2.54|
|Per person with dependent children||2.09||2.04||2.10|
|Per person with dependent children||2.01||2.00||2.07|
HOUSEHOLDS—There were 716,104 households in permanent private dwellings at the Census in 1966. The following table analyses the type of household by the number of occupants. A one-family-only household consists of a husband and wife with or without unmarried children of any age.
|Type of Household||Total Households||Number of Households with Occupancy of|
|1||2||3||4||5||6||7 or more|
|* While not strictly an “extended family”, other groupings are included, mainly consisting of such relationships as a mother and widowed daughter.|
|Incomplete with child absent||24,700||–||5,039||4,823||5,173||3,932||2,377||3,356|
|Incomplete with one parent absent||37,491||–||18,300||9,523||5,124||2,518||1,059||967|
|Family with related persons only present (e.g., married children, grandchildren, parents)||31,272||1,345*||7,257||6,316||6,226||4,321||5,807|
|Family plus related persons, but with non-related persons present||58,268||–||–||11,565||12,566||12,392||9,418||12,327|
Of the 716,104 households at the 1966 Census of Population and Dwellings, there were 432,338 complete one-family-only households, that is, a husband and wife with or without unmarried children of any age.
In the following table these complete one-family-only households are analysed by distribution of the occupants and the occupational status of the head of the household.
|Occupational Status of Head||Total Households||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with|
|One Child||Two Children||Three Children||Four Children||Five or More Children|
|* Including relative assisting heads and not specified but who are in the labour force.|
|Actively Engaged Head—|
|Wages or salary||302,732||71,383||58,607||74,214||50,929||26,816||20,783|
|Not Actively Engaged Head—|
|Dependent on public or private support||1,680||1,035||260||149||95||61||80|
|Totals, all heads||432,338||125,444||78,936||95,918||67,856||36,693||27,491|
The following table shows the composition of one-complete-family-only households in 1966 by the age group of the head of the household.
|Age Group of Head (in Years)||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with|
|1 Child*||2 Children*||3 or More Children*|
|* Unmarried children of any age living at home.|
|65 and over||40,770||6,383||1,448||727|
|65 and over||82.7||12.9||2.9||1.5|
The following tables show, for one-complete-family-only households, the number of unmarried children of any age living with their parents on Census night 1966. The income given in the first table is the income of the head of the household, while in the second table the total household income is shown. In a considerable proportion of households, the total household income was substantially above the income of the head of the household, usually indicating at least one other income recipient in the family.
|Income of Head||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with|
|One Child||Two Children||Three Children||Four Children||Five or More Children|
|8,000 and over||1,799||1,592||2,338||2,049||1,302||743|
|Totals (including not specified)||125,444||78,936||95,918||67,856||36,693||27,491|
|Total Income of Household||Husband and Wife Only||Husband and Wife with|
|One Child||Two Children||Three Children||Four Children||Five or More Children|
|8,000 and over||2,545||2,895||4,149||3,390||2,099||1,436|
|Totals (including not specified)||125,444||78,936||95,918||67,856||36,693||27,491|
The following table shows persons living alone in 1966 by age and marital status; those not actively engaged in the labour force totalled 52,062.
|Age Group (in Years)||Marital Status||Total*|
|Never Married||Married†||Legally Separated or Divorced||Widowed|
* Includes those who did not specify marital status.
† In some cases the partner was temporarily absent on census night.
|65 and over||2,261||1,704||677||6,188||10,866|
|65 and over||4,842||1,587||958||24,356||31,775|
RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONS—The following summary presents the main religious professions returned at the 1961 and 1966 Censuses.
|Religious Profession||Number of Adherents||Percentage|
|1961 Census||1966 Census||1961||1966|
|Anglican (Church of England)||835,434||901,701||34.6||33.7|
|Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined)||364,098||425,280||15.1||15.9|
|Latter Day Saints||17,978||25,564||0.8||0.9|
|Church of Christ||10,485||10,301||0.4||0.4|
|Seventh Day Adventist||8,220||9,551||0.3||0.3|
|Assemblies of God||1,060||2,028||–||0.1|
|No religion (so returned)||17,486||32,780||0.7||1.2|
|All other religious professions||14,386||23,499||0.6||0.9|
|Object to state||204,056||210,851||8.4||7.9|
The category recorded as “Object to state” represents those persons availing themselves of the special statutory right of objecting to answer a question on this subject. It is probable that the “Not specified” group includes a number of persons objecting to the question.
AGE DISTRIBUTION—Census age-group figures are shown in the following table. Estimates of age distribution for later years are published in the Monthly Abstract of Statistics.
|Age (Years)||1961 Census||1966 Census||Percentage of Total Population|
|90 and over||1,030||1,830||2,860||1,170||2,232||3,402||0.1||0.1|
|Under 15 years||408,251||390,691||798,942||446,268||426,131||872,399||33.1||32.7|
|65 years and over||91,472||117,177||208,649||95,357||127,736||223,093||8.6||8.3|
|Minors (under 21 years)||522,266||499,599||1,021,865||592,886||566,833||1,159,719||42.3||43.5|
|Adults (21 years and over)||691,110||702,009||1,393,119||750,857||766,343||1,517,200||57.7||56.5|
ETHNIC GROUPS—The following table gives broad ethnic origins.
|Cook Island Maori||2,320||4,499||8,663|
|Sub-totals, Pacific Islanders||8,103||14,340||26,271|
|Syrian, Lebanese, and Arab||1,055||1,057||1,049|
COUNTRY OF BIRTH—From 1945 to 1961 the New Zealand-born population remained at about 86 percent of the total population; for 1966 the proportion dropped to 85 percent, partly as a result of the growth of travel and tourism internationally.
The following table classifies persons by country of birth.
|Country of Birth||Census|
|New Zealand (excluding Cook Islands and Niue)||1,863,344||2,074,509||2,279,994|
|Ireland (excluding Northern Ireland)||8,423||8,810||8,448|
|Cook Islands and Niue||2,745||4,788||7,852|
|Other countries, and born at sea||30,522||37,760||48,767|
The next table shows the duration of residence in New Zealand of persons born overseas.
|Years of Residence||1956 Census||1961 Census||1966 Census|
|Number||Percentages Specified Cases||Number||Percentages Specified Cases||Number||Percentages Specified Cases|
|55 and over||18,088||5.9||20,591||6.1||27,360||7.0|
STATISTICS OF WORLD POPULATION—The area and estimated population of the continents and selected countries at 1 July 1970 are shown in the following table. (Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics and Demographic Yearbook.)
|Continents and Countries||Area||Population|
|Continents (1969)||sq km (000)||million|
|Ireland, Republic of||70||2.9|
|United Arab Republic||1,000||33.3|
The rate of natural increase (excess of births over deaths) is important to national planning; along with net migration it is the major component of population growth. In recent years the rate of natural increase in New Zealand has been higher than for most other countries of predominantly European stock. The following table shows the numbers and rates of natural increase for the last 11 years, and emphasises the high rate for the Maori component of the population.
|Year||Total Population||Maoris||Natural Increase|
Rates per 1,000
|Births*||Deaths||Natural Increase||Births*||Deaths||Natural Increase||Total||Maori|
* Excluding late registrations under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951; these totalled 244 in 1971.
† Includes registrations under section 14.
In the 10 years to 31 December 1971 New Zealand has gained by natural increase of population a total of 389,004.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—An international comparison of birth and natural increase rates for certain countries is made in the following table. The rates, which are for 1971 are taken from the United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.
|Country||Rate per 1,000 of Population|
|* Rates for 1970.|
REGISTRATION—The law as to registration of births is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. A birth is normally registered at the office of the Registrar nearest the place of birth.
Births statistics are compiled by the Department of Statistics from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year. The figures do not include still births, except where multiple births are discussed. A special classification of still births is given later in this subsection.
Under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, provision is made for births not registered in the ordinary way to be recorded at a later date in a special register kept by the Registrar-General. Such cases include elderly people requiring evidence of age for social security purposes.
Until 1971 these late registrations were included in published live birth statistics but are now excluded: late registrations totalled 244 in 1971.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table shows the numbers of births and the rates for the last 11 years.
per 1,000 of Mean|
REFINED BIRTH RATE—“Crude” rates of the number of births per 1,000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age, do not take account of variations in the proportion of women of the child-bearing ages. Refined rates are provided by computations of the legitimate birth rate per 1,000 married women of 16–44 years of age, or the total births per 1,000 of all women aged 15–44 years. The following table gives both rates for census years (on the basis of the births registered in that year and the population as at the census) together with the “crude” rate for the year.
|Census Year||Birth Rate per 1,000 Women||“Crude”
per 1,000 Mean Population
The percentage of married women in the child-bearing ages was 68.2 in 1966 compared with 51.6 in 1926. A study of the figures for successive censuses reveals considerable changes in the age constitution of married women within the child-bearing ages; as the birth rate varies with age, the change in age constitution over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.
The following diagram shows birth and death rates and indicates the relatively high rate of natural increase in New Zealand.
The period since the Second World War was marked by a high birth rate until 1961, when the level dropped; this experience was also shared by Australia, Canada, and the United States. In recent years the rates have been more stable at a lower level.
|Country||Birth Rate per 1,000 Mean Population|
|(Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics and Statistical Yearbook.)|
The decline of the birth rates over the period from 1961 was the subject of discussion by demographers, notably at the World Population Conference in 1965. This change in fertility pattern has coincided in time with increasing use of oral contraceptives; their greater effectiveness in birth control appears to have a significant influence on fertility, on at least a short-term basis. Demographers have emphasised the need for further research, stating that it is important to study demographic variables involved in the recent decline in the birth rate, including changes in age distribution, timing of marriage and birth, past success in achieving the desired family size, and changes in the desired number of children. In New Zealand, changes in the proportion of women in the child-bearing groups were not of a nature to have any significant effect on the downward trend in the birth rate.
REPRODUCTION INDEX—The reproduction index is based on the fact that the future size of a population is related to the number of women in the reproductive age groups at any given time. The gross rate is based on the number of female children born, and the average number of girls that will be born to a woman during her reproductive period, while the net rate takes into account fertility rates at different ages and the percentages of female survivors at those ages, obtained from life tables. A net rate of 1.0 indicates zero population growth, and a higher rate a rising population.
Reproduction rates for the non-Maori population during the latest 11 years were as follows.
|Year||Gross Rate||Net Rate|
SEXES OF CHILDREN BORN—Statistics for the latest 6 years are given in the following table.
|Year||Number of Births of||Male Births|
|* Excludes 244 births registered under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.|
MULTIPLE BIRTHS—The number of cases of multiple births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total (live births only) during the latest 6 years are shown in the following table.
|Year||Total Births||Total Cases||Cases of Twins||Cases of Triplets||Multiple Cases|
per 1,000 of
* Includes one case of quadruplets.
† Excludes births registered under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.
There were 63,793 confinements in 1971 resulting in live births; of these, 658 produced multiple living births and in a further 24 cases 1 of the twins was still-born. The ratio of multiple confinements with live births to total live confinements was 1:94. In six additional cases both twins were still-born.
|Year||Cases of Twins||Cases of Triplets, Quads, and Quins||Total|
* Excludes births registered under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.
† The nine cases of triplets in 1971
comprised two cases where there were two females and one male;
four cases where there were two males and
The likelihood of still births occurring is much greater in cases of multiple births than in single cases. This is exemplified in the following table. The figures in respect of multiple cases include all cases where one or more of the children were still-born.
|Year||Still-birth Cases per 100 of Total|
Cases (Including Still Births)
|Single Cases||Multiple Cases|
|* Excludes births registered under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.|
|Average of 5 years||1.06||3.77|
AGES OF PARENTS—Information as to the relative ages of parents of nuptial living children whose births were registered in 1971 is shown in the following table for the total population.
Registrations of births under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 are excluded.
|Age of Father, in Years|
|Under 21||21–24||25–29||30–34||35–39||40–44||45–49||50–54||55–64||65 and Over||Total Cases|
|* Including 9 cases of triplets and 20 cases where 1 of twins was still-born.|
|45 and over||–||–||1||–||–||7||28||17||2||–||55|
|45 and over||–||–||–||–||–||–||3||–||–||–||3|
PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS—The following table gives for 1971 the number of previous issue, i.e., children born alive, in conjunction with the age of mother.
|Number of Previous Issue||Total
|* This number represents 54,262 single cases and 614 multiple cases.|
|45 and over||7||5||3||4||8||6||14||8||3||58|
In the following table the total issue and average issue are shown for mothers by age groups where a birth occurred in 1971.
|Age of Mother|
|Total Mothers||Total Issue||Average Issue|
|45 and over||58||385||6.64|
It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz., the average number of children (including those registered in 1971) born up to the present time to those mothers of nuptial children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue born to the existing marriages only. The averages for recent years have been as follows: 1967, 2.57; 1968, 2.53; 1969, 2.50; 1970, 2.44; and 1971, 2.36.
FIRST BIRTHS—Statistics of nuptial first confinements show that in recent years there have been reduced proportions occurring within 1 year after marriage and within 2 years after marriage.
First Cases to
1 Year After Marriage
2 Years After Marriage
|* Excludes 244 registrations under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.|
The following table gives the duration-of-marriage factor in first confinements over a longer time-series. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern births of non-Maoris only.
|Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|10 and over||1.11||1.53||0.94||0.86||0.70||0.53||0.51|
In the following table first confinements occurring to mothers in different age groups are expressed as a percentage of the total first confinements. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern confinements of non-Maoris only.
|Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|45 and over||0.04||0.03||0.09||0.03||0.05||0.02||0.03|
The average ages of mothers at the birth of their first child were as follows: 1924, 26.39; 1934, 25.90; 1944, 25.18; 1954, 25.32; 1964, 23.65; 1969, 23.42; 1970, 23.46; and 1971, 23.40 years.
EX-NUPTIAL BIRTHS—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the latest 10 years, with the percentages they bear to total births registered, are given in the following table. The percentages in recent years are higher than those for Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States but lower than those for Sweden. Meaningful international comparisons can only be made with caution; some of the difficulties are discussed in a supplement to the January 1967 issue of the Monthly Abstract of Statistics. Unmarried mothers are not infrequently de facto wives with comparatively stable relationships.
|* Excludes registrations under section 14 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951.|
The long-term trend in the rate of ex-nuptial births is indicated by the movement in the proportion of ex-nuptial births per 1,000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters, widows, and divorced women—at the reproductive ages. The figures for census years are as follows. Up to 1961 the statistics relate to non-Maoris only; from 1966 Maoris are included.
|Census Year||Unmarried Women
Years of Age
|Ex-nuptial Birth Rate|
per 1,000 Unmarried Women
In 1971 the total number of ex-nuptial confinements was 8,917. Of these 8,849 cases were single births, 64 were twins, while there were 4 cases of twins in which 1 child was still-born. The total number of ex-nuptial live births was 8,981. From the following table, it will be seen that of the 8,917 mothers, 4,546 or 50.98 percent, were under 21 years of age.
|45 and over||7|
Legitimations—An ex-nuptial child whose parents have later married may be legitimated from birth by reason of such marriage. Applications for registration must be made within 3 months after the date of the marriage.
The numbers of legitimations registered in each of the latest 5 years were as follows: 1967, 1,387; 1968, 1,310; 1969, 1,386; 1970, 1,513; 1971, 1,749.
The Child Welfare Act 1925 requires that all ex-nuptial births be notified to a social worker so that inquiries may be made concerning the circumstances of each mother and child for the purpose of offering advice and assistance.
The following table shows the outcome of the inquiries made in recent years. Inquiries relate to some births from the preceding year and do not cover all births in the year stated.
|Location of Infants||1969||1970||1971|
|Legitimated by marriage of parents||231||3||254||4||336||4|
|Remaining with mother|
|Remaining with mother|
(parents not cohabiting)
|Placed with relatives||247||3||234||3||319||4|
|Placed with strangers|
with view to adoption
|Placed with strangers,|
no expressed wish to adoption
|In children's home or other|
institution on a long-term basis
|Committed to care of Social Welfare||37||-||28||-||34||-|
ADOPTIONS—The following table shows the number of adoptions which have been registered during the latest 5 years.
Of the 3,976 adoptions registered in 1971, 1,866 were children under the age of 1 year, 1,150 were aged 1 to 4 years, 428 were aged 5 to 9 years, and 532 were aged 10 years or over.
Over recent years there has been a small but steady increase in the number of adoption orders made by the court. The statistics for 1971 continued that trend, a total of 3,976 adoptions being finalised, compared with 3,837 in 1970. Social workers of the former Child Welfare Division were concerned with 3,231 or 81 percent of these; Maori welfare officers handled most of the others.
The following table, which relates only to cases handled by the division, shows the number and status of children adopted over the last 3 years.
|Status of Children Adopted||1969||1970||1971|
|* These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.|
In 1971, 83 percent of the children adopted were born out of wedlock. Of these children born out of wedlock, 94 percent were aged less than one year at the time of placement for adoption. Seventy-nine percent were placed with strangers.
The next table shows the age at placement according to the status of the children adopted in 1971.
|* These are cases where, because one of the applicants is the child's natural parent, a social worker's report has not been called for.|
|Under 1 year||343||2,506||23||2,872|
|6 years and over||37||12||1||50|
The following table shows the original relationship between adopted children and their new parents.
|One parent and spouse||652||739||738|
|Relative or close friend||349||337||317|
STILL BIRTHS—Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. Particulars of causes of still births will be found in Section 4c relating to deaths. A still-born child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. Still births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths. The rate was 1.01 per 100 births in 1971.
The registration of still births during each of the latest 5 years were as follows.
per 1,000 Female
|Percentage of Still Births to|
The rate of masculinity for still births in 1971 was 1,050 males per 1,000 females as compared with 1,049 for living births.
The percentage of ex-nuptial births among still-born infants was, in 1970, 14.16 and among infants born alive, 13.93.
Of the total of 660 still births in 1971, 559 were non-Maori and 101 Maori; of the Maori total 60 were males and 41 females.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table sets out the numbers of deaths and the crude death rates per 1,000 of mean population. (Maoris are defined as persons with half or more Maori ancestry and the term non-Maori covers all other persons.)
Rate per 1,000 of|
Crude death rates do not reflect the true levels of mortality which exist in populations which have different age structures. The Maori population has a very much higher proportion of those at younger ages who do not contribute many deaths to the total and conversely relatively few persons at older ages when the rate of dying is high. The effect of this is to produce a very deflated crude rate.
In the following table for 1966 adjustments made to effect a truer comparison show that mortality for Maoris is relatively higher; in addition, a comparison is supplied in age-specific rates for the two races in each sex.
per 10,000 Mean
|Age-specific Rates per 10,000 of Population at Ages|
|Crude Rate||Maori Rate|
For both Maoris and non-Maoris the death rate in males exceeds the death rate in females by a considerable margin. The following table sets out the respective crude rates for each sex separately for the latest 11 years in the total population.
|Year||Deaths per 1,000 of Mean Population||Male Deaths|
to Every 100
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR—An examination of the total number of deaths registered in each quarter of the last 12 years gives the following averages: March quarter, 4,949; June quarter, 5,779; September quarter, 6,730; and December quarter, 5,672.
A classification according to month of death shows that in 1971 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were July, August, and June, with totals of 2,336, 2,330; and 2,108 respectively. Excluding December (a proportion of deaths occurring in that month not being registered till January) February had the least number of deaths, 1,638, followed by November with 1,815.
AGES AT DEATH—Deaths registered during the year 1971 are shown according to age in the following table.
|Age, in Years||Males||Females||Total|
|100 and over||11||29||40|
The Maori population is a very young one compared with the non-Maori and as a result there is a considerable variation in the proportions of deaths of Maoris and non-Maoris which take place at various ages. The following table illustrates the position for the year 1971.
|Age, in Years||Number of Deaths||Percentage of Total|
Maori Deaths in
per Age Group
|65 and over||15,174||367||66.30||25.83||2.36|
In the following table is given a time series for rates of death per 1,000 of mean population by age groups. Health measures have achieved an immense saving of young life and a prolongation of life especially among elderly women.
|Year||Under 1*||1–4||5–14||15–24||25–34||35–44||45–54||55–64||65–74||75 and|
* Per 1,000 live births in this case.
† Non-Maori figures only as Maori deaths at ages not available for these years.
|(Rates per 1,000 of mean population in each age group)|
The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of non-Maori persons of each sex is shown in the following table.
The average age of death of Maoris in 1971 was 43.32 and 44.66 years for males and females respectively. The age composition of the Maori population is quite different as explained previously.
EXPECTATION OF LIFE—Life tables, depicting the pattern of mortality over the age span of life for particular calendar periods for the non-Maori component of New Zealand's population, have been constructed at regular intervals since 1880. The most recent tables prepared by the Department of Statistics are based on the 1966 population census, together with mortality statistics for 1965–67.
Life tables contain a measure of the degree of longevity of the population called the “expectation of life”. The expectation of life at any age is the average remaining lifetime for persons of this age, assuming that mortality rates at each age continue at the level shown by the life table. The life expectancy at selected ages at the present time, for the non-Maori population in New Zealand, is shown in the table below. The overall longer span of life enjoyed by females, compared with males, is evident, as is the improvement in life expectancy once the first year of life is survived. Further details concerning life table methodology and construction and trends in New Zealand life expectancies can be obtained from New Zealand Life Tables 1965–67 and Life Annuity Tables.
|Life Expectancy (Years)|
The long-term trend since 1880 for non-Maoris has been a steady improvement in life expectancy for both sexes. The improvement has been striking for the younger ages but relatively small for the advanced ages. Progress in medical science, coupled with improved social conditions, has resulted in substantial reductions in mortality for all ages up to middle age. However, over the 1960–62 to 1965–67 period, higher rates of mortality have occurred for males for most ages beyond childhood, resulting from a higher prevalence of organic diseases (heart disease, cancer) and accidents. This has resulted in a marginal decrease of life expectancy at most ages, while for females, life expectancy has increased, though at a reduced rate. The next table displays the life expectancy for non-Maoris revealed by each life table compiled since 1880 for the three exact ages of 0, 20, and 60 years.
|Life Table||Life Expectancy (Years)|
|Males Aged Exactly||Females Aged Exactly|
The expectation of life at various ages for the Maori population is shown in the following table. These expectations are taken from New Zealand Life Tables 1965–67 and Life Annuity Tables.
|Life Expectancy (Years)|
Life expectancy at birth for a Maori male increased by 2.39 years in the interval 1960–62 to 1965–67, with that for females increasing by 3.41 years. These increases are larger than those over the period 1955–57 to 1960–62, when they were 1.82 years for males and 2.69 for females. This shows the continuing improvement in Maori life expectancy.
The expectation of life of Maoris is shorter at all except the highest ages than that of the non-Maori population, but the differences are being gradually reduced. A comparison at age 0 shows that life expectancy is 7.23 years greater for non-Maori males and 10.06 years greater for non-Maori females. For the period 1960–62, the differences were 10.12 years and 13.14 years respectively.
The table below compares the life expectancy at birth for the total population of New Zealand with that for selected overseas countries. (Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1967.)
at Birth (Years)
* Excluding full-blooded Aborigines.
† Both sexes.
|England and Wales||1967–69||68.7||74.9|
REGISTRATION OF DEATH, BURIAL AND CREMATION—Deaths are required to be registered by the funeral director within 3 days after the day of burial. The law governing burial and cremation in New Zealand is found in the Burial and Cremation Act 1964. The registration by local authorities of funeral directors and mortuaries operated by them is provided for in the Health (Burial) Regulations 1946. Local authorities are charged with ensuring that adequate provision exists for the disposal of the dead. Cremation may be carried out if the deceased is not known to have left any written direction to the contrary.
In 1950 seven crematoria were in existence in New Zealand; by 1960 eight had been established and were situated at Auckland, Hastings, Wanganui, Palmerston North, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A further seven have been established since and in 1970 there was a second crematorium in Auckland and Christchurch and also crematoria in Hamilton, Tauranga, Rotorua, New Plymouth, and Timaru.
The rate of cremation for every 100 deaths registered has more than doubled since 1950. The following table relates cremations to the number of deaths since 1950. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern deaths of non-Maoris only.
Numbers and rates of cremations for statistical areas in 1971 are shown in the following table
|South Auckland - Bay of Plenty||2,948||513||346||859||29.14|
DEATHS BY CAUSES—The accuracy of death data even in medically certified deaths will be affected by two factors—the proportion of deaths in hospitals where diagnostic equipment is available and the proportion of deaths in which a post-mortem report is available for reference.
In recent years in approximately one-third of all deaths, a post-mortem was conducted. In the cases of deaths certified by doctors, 20 percent of non-Maori and 12 percent of Maori deaths were followed by an autopsy. In the cases certified by coroners almost all deaths are subject to autopsy.
The Eighth (1965) Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death replaced the Seventh (1955) Revision with effect from 1 January 1968.
Total deaths and the rates per million of total population for the latest 3 years, classified according to the Abbreviated List of 50 Causes for Tabulation of Mortality, are contained in the following table. Certain diseases (cholera, plague, smallpox, typhus, and malaria) are not listed in the table as there were no deaths from these causes in the years shown.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate
per Million of|
|Bacillary dysentery and amoebiasis||–||1||1||–||–||–|
|Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases||47||69||50||17||24||18|
|Tuberculosis of respiratory system||73||55||27||26||20||10|
|Other tuberculosis, including late effects||27||48||44||10||17||16|
|Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever||–||–||1||–||–||–|
|Syphilis and its sequelae||8||9||8||3||3||3|
|All other infective and parasitic diseases||101||71||83||37||25||29|
|Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms|
of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue
|Benign neoplasms and neoplasms of|
|A vitaminosis and other nutritional deficiency||12||15||4||4||5||1|
|Active rheumatic fever||8||2||5||3||1||2|
|Chronic rheumatic heart disease||292||294||249||106||104||88|
|Ischaemic heart disease||6,699||6,788||6,932||2,424||2,407||2,459|
|Other forms of heart disease||1,109||905||881||401||321||312|
|Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma||943||1,023||987||341||363||350|
|Intestinal obstruction and hernia||88||90||90||32||32||32|
|Cirrhosis of liver||79||107||104||29||38||37|
|Nephritis and neophrosis||112||96||128||41||34||45|
|Hyperplasia of prostate||64||66||67||23||23||24|
|Other complications of pregnancy,|
childbirth and the puerperium, delivery
without mention of complication
|Birth injury, difficult labour and other|
anoxic and hypoxic conditions
|Other causes of perinatal mortality||316||327||332||114||116||118|
|Symptoms and ill-defined conditions||123||146||104||45||52||37|
|All other diseases||2,019||2,020||1,864||731||716||661|
|Motor vehicle accidents||582||649||674||211||230||239|
|All other accidents||778||937||895||282||332||317|
|Suicide and self-inflicted injuries||278||271||237||101||96||84|
|All other external causes||57||59||51||21||21||18|
In a variety of conditions and in external causes of death the mortality rate for Maoris is very much higher than the non-Maori experience. Much of this disparity is concealed, however, by crude rates which are calculated by dividing the total population into the number of deaths from any particular disease or circumstance. With two populations so very dissimilar in age structure (at ages under 5 years non-Maoris are seven times more numerous than Maoris, but at ages 75 years and upward they are 85 times as numerous), it is necessary to resort to an adjustment of Maori rates so that the figures for any condition become directly comparable in any particular year. This has been done in the following table by firstly calculating age-specific rates for the Maori and then applying these to the non-Maori population, age group to age group. This computation provides an “expected” number of Maori deaths in each age group and these added together and then divided by the non-Maori population give an adjusted rate. In addition to the rates expressed per million of population the absolute numbers of deaths in the two races are furnished for the same 50 causes.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rates
per Million of Population|
(Non-Maori: Crude Rate—Maori:
|Bacillary dysentery and amoebiasis||1||–||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Enteritis and other diarrhoeal diseases||54||15||32||18||21||39||12||49|
|Tuberculosis of respiratory system||42||13||16||11||16||171||6||128|
|Other tuberculosis, including late effects||37||11||33||11||14||153||13||114|
|Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever||–||–||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Syphilis and its sequelae||7||2||6||2||3||23||2||25|
|All other infective and parasitic diseases||63||8||65||18||24||76||25||114|
of lymphatic and
|Benign neoplasms and neoplasms|
of unspecified nature
|Avitaminosis and other|
|Active rheumatic fever||1||1||3||2||–||3||1||6|
|Chronic rheumatic heart disease||242||52||216||33||93||522||83||342|
|Ischaemic heart disease||6,583||205||6,691||241||2,536||3,276||2,577||3,951|
|Other forms of heart disease||842||63||841||40||324||1,236||324||708|
|Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma||962||61||909||78||371||1,001||350||1,341|
|Intestinal obstruction and hernia||83||7||83||7||32||33||32||71|
|Cirrhosis of liver||101||6||99||5||29||38||38||52|
|Nephritis and neophrosis||83||13||112||16||32||117||43||126|
|Hyperplasia of prostate||66||–||64||3||25||–||25||65|
|Other complications of pregnancy,|
childbirth, and the puerperium,
delivery without mention of complication
|Birth injury, difficult labour and|
other anoxic and hypoxic conditions
|Other causes of perinatal mortality||273||54||279||53||105||139||107||139|
|Symptoms and ill-defined conditions||141||5||96||8||54||48||37||106|
|All other diseases||1,907||113||1,744||120||735||1,210||672||1,422|
|Motor vehicle accidents||567||82||569||105||218||452||219||585|
|All other accidents||846||91||803||92||326||502||309||713|
|Suicide and self-inflicted injuries||261||10||232||5||101||63||89||34|
|All other external causes||40||19||42||9||15||104||16||65|
Age-specific rates and Maori age-adjusted rates have been published for a comprehensive list of diseases in Maori-European Standards of Health, one of a series of special reports issued by the Department of Health.
The comparatively poor state of health of the Maori is shown by the excess in the Maori adjusted rates for most diseases. As can be seen in the table, the absolute numbers of Maoris dying from any cause of death is small. This is because the Maori population has a high proportion of young people, and most diseases which cause death develop at the older ages.
The susceptibility of the Maori to epidemic and communicable disease is well known. Again there is a Maori excess mortality in cancer and diabetes. The disparity is also very noticeable in acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease; in certain other forms of degenerative heart disease and hypertension; in both acute and chronic chest conditions, and in gastro-intestinal and kidney infections. Recent health surveys have indicated that an inclination towards overnutrition, combined with a racial predisposition to excess weight, may underlie the early development of degenerative conditions and the high incidence of metabolic disorders.
In addition to the greater susceptibility to disease processes, the Maori shows a much higher accident rate. Especially accident prone is the Maori child and young adult, while proportionately many more Maoris are involved in road fatalities.
Cancer—Cancer is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than any other cause except diseases of the heart. While it is most prevalent in middle and old age, cancer is a leading cause of death at all ages, even among children and adolescents.
A detailed report on cancer mortality and morbidity in New Zealand was issued in 1971 by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health. This report covers mortality from cancer from 1958 to 1969, and also surveys all cases reported to the National Cancer Registry by hospitals and by the various cancer clinics established in New Zealand under the auspices of the Cancer Society of New Zealand.
Attention is drawn to the transference, under the 1948 Revision of the International Classification, of Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, etc., into the category of malignant disease. This classification was introduced in New Zealand in 1950, and all cancer figures quoted for that and subsequent years include these conditions*.
In 1971 there were 4,486 deaths from cancer, of which 202 were Maori. While the 1971 non-Maori crude cancer death rate of 172.8 was twice as high as the Maori crude rate of 90.4 (both per 100,000 of population), these figures are misleading as a measure of the incidence of malignant disease in the two groups. When allowance is made for the comparatively few persons in the Maori population at older ages where cancer is most frequently diagnosed, it is seen that Maori cancer mortality is markedly higher than non-Maori cancer mortality. This fact is no indication at all that in general the Maori is more prone to cancer (in cancers of the intestines in both sexes and in two sites in the Maori female, the cervix and the lung, the incidence appears to be higher), but that there is more delay in reporting the symptoms of cancer by Maoris and that more cancer in Maoris goes untreated.
* The 1965 Revision of the International Classification transferred Polycythaemia Vera and Myelofibrosis into the malignan categories but these are not included in cancer figures.
A summary of numbers, crude rates, and standardised mortality ratios is provided in the following table.
|* Base years 1950–52 = 100.|
The standardised mortality ratio shows the number of deaths registered in the year of experience expressed as a percentage of those which would have been expected in that year had there operated the sex-age mortality of a standard period (the 3 years 1950–52 were chosen). The standardised mortality ratio has been adopted to eliminate the distorting effect of the changes which take place over a period in the age structure of the population. The standardised mortality ratio for males has risen from 96.2 in the 5 years 1944–48, to 103.4 in 1954–58 and 124.0 in 1969–71. This would indicate that there has been a real increase in the death toll in the male sex and this, as discussed later, is mainly attributable to the rise in lung cancer. The mean standardised mortality ratio for females in 1944–48 was 98.0 compared with 95.2 in 1954–58 and 96.0 in 1969–71 (indicating that there has been a slight fall in death rates since 1944).
A classification of cancer deaths according to age subdivisions, ethnic origin, and sex is now given. Ninety-one percent of deaths from cancer during 1971 were at ages 45 and upwards, and 57 percent were at ages 65 years and upwards.
|Race||Deaths of Males||Deaths of Females|
|* All ages crude rate.|
|65 and over||Non-Maori||1,422||1,433.5||18.5||1,071||792.9||14.3|
Cancer contributes substantially to the total of non-Maori deaths at all ages. In the non-Maori female from 25 to 64 years one death in three is a cancer death and for males the proportion is one death in five.
For Maoris the proportions of cancer deaths to total deaths are very much lower than the proportions for non-Maoris, by reason that the competing risks from other diseases are so very much higher. Whereas in the non-Maori easily the highest numbers of cancer deaths occur at ages upwards of 65 years, the highest numbers in the Maori are at ages from 45 to 64 years. This is partly because of the lower life expectancy which results in fewer Maoris coming through to old age.
A summary of all cancer deaths occurring in New Zealand during 1971 by location of the disease is shown in the following table. Figures by site for Maoris have not been separated as the numbers are so small for most sites. Rates for Maoris tend to be higher in cancers involving the digestive tract, the respiratory organs, and the female genital organs.
|Site of Disease||Numbers||Rates
per Million of|
|Buccal cavity and pharynx||59||26||85||42||18||30|
|Intestine, except rectum||262||259||521||186||184||185|
|Lung, bronchus, and trachea||680||135||815||482||96||289|
|Bone and connective tissue||25||13||38||18||9||13|
|Other and unspecified parts of uterus||–||49||49||–||35||17|
|All other and unspecified sites||531||542||1,073||377||384||380|
|Leukaemia and aleukaemia||115||72||187||82||51||66|
|Lymphosarcoma and other|
neoplasms of lymphatic and
There is considerable variation in the numbers and rates for different sites in both males and females. The site principally involved in the male is the lung and bronchus and one male cancer death in every four relates to this site. Cancer of the stomach is very much more common in the male than the female but the position is reversed in cancer involving the intestines. The leading site in the female is the breast, which contributes one-fifth to total female cancer deaths.
The world-wide phenomenal increase over the last 30 years in cancer of the lung and bronchus (excluding trachea and pleura) is accepted as being associated with cigarette smoking and atmospheric pollution. The following table shows the increase in deaths from cancer of this site in each group and in each sex over the latest 11 years.
|Year||Number of Deaths from|
Cancer of Lung and Bronchus
Rate per 100,000|
of Mean Population
The crude rates for the Maori conceal the true relative incidence of lung cancer. Adjusted to the non-Maori population structure, the Maori rates exceed the non-Maori rates, the greatest margin being in the female.
While cancer is undoubtedly increasing in numerical incidence it is not doing so out of proportion to the population exposed to the cancer risk. The following table shows the movement in the standardised mortality ratio, the standard population employed being that of New Zealand 1950–52.
|Buccal cavity and pharynx||64||59||88||85||87||64|
|Large intestine, except rectum||101||111||126||84||88||89|
|Biliary passages and liver||138||125||157||95||78||96|
|Lung, bronchus and trachea||189||211||241||158||177||162|
|Skin (including melanoma)||103||117||141||126||142||128|
|Uterus, all parts||–||–||–||76||71||69|
|Ovary, fallopian tube||–||–||–||107||97||111|
|Bladder, urinary organs||114||113||107||101||93||104|
|Brain, nervous system||126||110||142||91||72||81|
|Lymphosarcoma and reticulo-sarcoma||121||92||113||118||115||104|
|Leukaemia and aleukaemia||124||112||120||134||131||129|
The upward trend in the total male cancer death toll can be ascribed chiefly to the steep rise in lung and bronchus cancer, already commented upon. The total female rate has risen slightly in more recent years possibly attributable to the rise in female lung cancer.
Heart Disease—Diseases of the heart are the leading killer in New Zealand, accounting for 36 percent of all male deaths and 31 percent of all female deaths in 1971. In accordance with the increasing numbers of the population in the older age groups, the total numbers of deaths from heart disease have steadily increased. However, when allowance is made for the general ageing of the population by employing the standardised mortality ratio it is seen that, although a rise to 6 percent above the 1950–52 level occurred in males in 1968, there was a fall to below the 1950–52 level again by 1971. The female rate in 1971 was 30 percent below the 1950–52 level used as the standard for the mortality ratio.
A disease phenomenon of recent years has been the rapid increase in deaths assigned to coronary heart disease, and in 1971 no less than 28 percent of all deaths were due to this single disease entity. During the 10 years from 1960 to 1970 there has been a rise of 26 percent for both males and females in this form of heart disease. It is a matter of conjecture as to whether the real incidence of coronary heart disease in the community has risen to this extent or whether it is due, in part at least, to increased recognition of the condition.
The numbers of deaths and standard mortality ratios for heart disease, excluding acute rheumatic forms and congenital malformations, for the last 11 years are shown in the following table, males and females separately.
|Year||All Forms of Heart Disease||Coronary Heart Disease|
|* Base years 1950–52 = 100.|
Coronary heart disease is predominantly a disease of old age in both sexes, although in the male sex there are appreciable numbers of deaths which occur in middle age. There are marked differences in the mortality from the disease both between the sexes and between the two ethnic groups at various age periods.
The following table averages both the numbers and the age-specific rates for coronary heart disease in both non-Maoris and Maoris over the latest 5 years 1967–1971.
|Race||Ages 35 to 44 Years||Ages 45 to 54 Years||Ages 55 to 64 Years||Ages 65 Years and Over|
For non-Maoris at ages 35 to 44 years male coronary heart disease rates exceed female rates by almost 4 to 1, the ratio decreasing as age advances to a ratio of under 2 to 1 at ages 65 years and upwards.
The absolute numbers of Maori deaths from the disease are small but when related to the population at risk produce fairly similar rates to the non-Maori population in the male sex.
Maori women have a very much greater chance of dying from a coronary condition than non-Maori women, the risk being over twice as great at ages 35 to 44 years, almost four times greater at ages 45 to 54 years and twice as great at ages 55 to 64 years. Hypertensive forms of heart disease are also very much more common in Maori women in middle age while both sexes in the Maori have a higher mortality from rheumatic valvular heart disease.
INFANT MORTALITY—Infant mortality concerns deaths of children under 1 year of age. Statistics for non-Maoris and Maoris are given in the following table.
|Year||Numbers||Rates per 1,000 of Live Births|
Male rates of infant loss are about 41 percent above female rates and this tends to counterbalance the male excess in births.
When international infant death rates are compared it is seen that Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates in the world. The following table sets out the rates for a number of countries in 1970. It is pointed out, however, that definitions and practices are not precisely alike in all countries.
|Country||Deaths Under 1 Year|
per 1,000 Live Births
|England and Wales||18.2|
|(Source: World Health Statistics Report, Vol. 125, No. 6.)|
One out of every four infant deaths is a Maori infant death and the Maori rate of loss is nearly twice that of the non-Maori. The excess in the Maori rate is largely due to infants who die between the end of the fourth week of life and the first birthday. This is illustrated in the following table showing numbers and rates of infant deaths by race and age for the year 1971.
|Race||Under 1 Day||1 Day and|
Under 1 Week
|1 Week and|
Under 28 Days
|28 Days and|
Under 12 Months
|Rates per 1,000 Live Births|
The explanation of the higher rate for Maoris between the twenty-eighth day and the end of the first year is the susceptibility of the Maori baby in its home environment to forms of infection such as gastro-enteritis and pneumonia.
The rates per 1,000 live births for the two sexes combined at different ages during the first year of life are now given for each of the last 11 years.
|Under 1 Day||1 Day and Under 2 Days||2 Days and Under 1 Week||1 Week and Under 28 Days||28 Days and Under 12 Months||Under I Day||1 Day and Under 2 Days||2 Days and Under 1 Week||1 Week and Under 28 Days||28 Days and Under 12 Months|
The following diagram illustrates infant mortality rates.
Causes of Infant Mortality—In the following table are shown the absolute numbers and the rate per 1,000 live births of the principal causes of infant mortality during 1970 and 1971, for non-Maoris, Maoris, and both groups combined.
|Cause of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per 1,000 Live Births|
|Influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis||180||162||2.2||7.7||2.9||1.9||6.2||2.5|
|Birth injury, including asphyxia, anoxia or hypoxia||58||76||0.8||1.9||0.9||1.1||1.5||1.2|
|Complications of pregnancy and childbirth, including conditions of placenta and umbilical cord||243||217||3.9||4.2||3.9||3.3||4.0||3.4|
|Anoxic and hypoxic conditions not elsewhere classified||90||100||1.4||1.8||1.4||1.4||2.7||1.5|
|Other and undefined causes||219||289||3.0||7.1||3.5||3.8||8.9||3.4|
PERINATAL MORTALITY—Perinatal deaths comprise still births and deaths in the first week of life. Numbers and rates are shown in the following table. The still births and the perinatal mortality rate are calculated per 1,000 total births (still births plus live births), while the death rate for the first week of life is calculated per 1,000 live births.
|Deaths under 1 week||559||596||8.5||11.2||8.9||8.9||11.3||9.2|
MATERNAL DEATHS—Improvements in the standard of antenatal care and obstetrical skill, as well as advances in medical science, have reduced the numbers of deaths from septic abortion, puerperal sepsis, and toxaemia, and deaths from complications of childbirth are few. Maternal deaths during the latest 3 years are given in the following table.
|Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and toxaemia unspecified||2||4||–|
DEATHS FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES—Deaths from external causes, apart from suicide, claim approximately 6 percent of the total deaths and again the Maori rate is higher than the non-Maori. The following table shows deaths from external causes for the 3 latest years classified according to the Intermediate List of the 1965 Revision of the International Classification which has made no changes in the categories listed. In this table falls on board ship and from horseback are included as transport fatalities.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|* Includes drowning from water transport.|
|Other transport accidents||35||43||42||13||15||15|
|Accidents caused by machinery||48||38||44||17||13||15|
|Accidents caused by fire and explosion of combustible material||34||33||28||12||12||10|
|Accidents caused by hot substance, corrosive liquid, steam, and radiation||6||4||7||2||1||2|
|Accidents caused by firearms||9||19||17||3||7||6|
|Accidental drowning and submersion*||123||147||135||44||52||47|
|All other accidental causes||133||118||118||48||42||41|
|Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons (not in war)||31||34||25||11||12||9|
Drownings are a leading cause of accidental death in New Zealand. Included in the preceding table for 1971 are 62 deaths from drowning due to accidents in water transport.
Transport Accidents—The number and rate of deaths resulting from railway, motor vehicle, and aircraft accidents during each of the last 11 years are as follows. Road accidents are further analysed in the section on Roads and Road Transport.
|Year||Deaths Due to Accident||Rate per 10,000 of Mean Population|
|Railway||Motor Vehicle||Aircraft||Railway||Motor Vehicle||Aircraft|
Non-transport Accidents—The 1965 Revision of the International List makes provision for non-transport accidents (excluding therapeutic misadventure in treatment, complications following vaccination or inoculation, and late effects of injury and poisoning) to be grouped according to the place where the accident or poisoning occurred. The following table shows the deaths, both numbers and rates, for the latest 3 years, according to this classification.
|Place of Occurrence||Number||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|Home (including home premises and vicinity and any non-institutional place of residence)||262||328||350||94||116||122|
|Farm (including buildings and land under cultivation, but excluding farm and home premises)||51||53||58||18||19||20|
|Mine and quarry||7||12||4||2||4||1|
|Industrial place and premises||27||28||32||10||10||11|
|Place for recreation and sport||26||56||14||9||20||8|
|Street and highway||25||19||22||9||7||7|
|Public building (building used by the general public or a particular group of the public)||12||11||13||4||4||5|
|Resident institution (homes, hospitals, etc.)||116||142||139||42||50||49|
|Other specified places||114||100||93||41||35||32|
|Place not specified||72||57||57||26||20||20|
Approximately 40 percent of fatal non-transport accidents occur in or about the home.
Water Accidents—The following table shows drownings during 1971.
|Location||Age in Years|
|Under 5||5–15||16–30||31–50||Over 50||Totals*|
* Includes victims of unspecified age.
† Public and private.
|Rivers and streams||8||6||5||4||4||27|
|Seas and beaches||1||8||5||3||7||24|
|Pools, ponds, etc.||1||2||–||–||–||3|
|Lakes and lagoons||1||–||2||–||–||3|
|Swimming pools and baths†||2||1||1||–||–||4|
Falls are the chief cause of home fatalities, exacting a heavy toll of the aged and infirm. This is clearly illustrated in a special report on domestic accidents issued by the Department of Health in 1970. Another important cause of death in the home is asphyxia from regurgitation of food and inhalation of other objects, or mechanically from pillows and bedclothes; this is the principal hazard of the first 6 months of life, though a proportion of these deaths is probably due to some undisclosed respiratory infections. Almost all the home drowning fatalities are amongst toddlers between 1 and 2 years of age who fall into rivers, creeks, and ponds in the vicinity of the home.
Accidents with tractors are the main feature of fatalities on farms. Later sections deal with statistics of industrial and farm accidents.
Suicide—There were 232 suicidal deaths of non-Maoris in 1971–147 males and 85 females—the death rate per 100,000 of population being 17.6 for males and 6.4 for females. For Maoris there were 5 suicidal deaths—2 males and 3 females—the death rates per 100,000 of population being 1.7 for males and 2.6 for females.
Rates per 100,000 of population showing the age distributions, averaged over the years 1969 to 1971, are shown next for the total population, by age groups.
These figures show the typical increase in the suicide rates with increasing age and the fall in the rates after the age of 75.
The next table presents the average, over 3-yearly periods, of standardised mortality ratios of suicides, standardised on years 1950–52=100.
|Annual Average During||Males||Females|
GENERAL—Marriage may be solemnised in New Zealand either by a person whose name is on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act 1955, or before a duly appointed Registrar or Deputy Registrar of Marriages. A licence must be obtained from a Registrar of Marriages before a marriage by an officiating minister can be solemnised. Marriage by an officiating minister may be solemnised at any time between 6 o'clock in the morning and 8 o'clock in the evening. Marriage before a Registrar can be solemnised at any time during the hours the office of the Registrar is open for the transaction of public business; notice of intended marriage must be given to a Registrar of Marriages by one of the parties to the proposed marriage.
In the case of a person under 20 years of age, not being a widow or widower, the consent of parents or guardian is necessary. Consent of a Magistrate may also be given in cases of refusal by any person whose consent is required.
Since 1933 the minimum age for marriage has been 16 years of age. No marriage shall be deemed to be void, however, by reason only of an infringement of the minimum age.
Since 1 April 1952 it has been required under the Maori Purposes Act 1951 that every marriage to which a Maori is a party shall be solemnised in the same manner, and its validity shall be determined by the same law, as if each of the parties was a non-Maori.
Particulars regarding divorce will be found later in this subsection.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The numbers of marriages and rates during the last 21 years are now given.
|Year||Number||Rate per 1,000 of Population|
Comparison with Other Countries—Marriage rates for certain countries for 1971 are given below. (Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.)
|Country||Rate per 1,000 Mean Population|
MARITAL STATUS PRIOR TO MARRIAGE—The following table gives marital status prior to marriage for the latest 5 years.
|Year||Single||Widowed||Divorced||Total Persons Married|
The nature of the marriage according to marital status of persons prior to marriage is given next.
|Year||Marriages Between Bachelors and||Marriages Between Widowers and||Marriages Between Divorced Men and|
|Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women||Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women||Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women|
During the years 1938–40 there were 95 male divorcees who remarried for every 100 female divorcees who remarried. In the period 1967–71 more male divorcees than female divorcees remarried.
The number of widows per 100 widowers who remarried was 67 in 1938–40, but with a changed social outlook the position in 1967–71 was that 100 widows remarried for every 100 widowers.
AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED—The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period of years. On 1 January 1971 the age of majority was lowered from 21 to 20 years of age. In 1971 one bride in every three was under 20 years of age, the proportion of grooms being one in eleven.
Of the persons married in 1971, 11,178 or 20.55 percent, were under 20 years of age; 27,920 or 51.33 percent, were returned as 20–24 years; 7,449 or 13.69 percent, as 25–29 years; 3,586 or 6.59 percent, as 30–39 years; and 4,265 or 7.84 percent, as 40 years of age or over.
The following table relates to the 1971 year.
|Age of Bridegroom, in Years||Age of Bride, in Years||Total Bridegrooms|
|Under 20||20–24||25–29||30–34||35–39||40–44||45 and Over|
|45 and over||8||43||71||90||142||238||1,273||1,865|
The following table shows since 1950 the proportions of men and women married at each age group to every 100 marriages.
|Period||Under 21*||21–24*||25–29||30–34||35–39||40–44||45 and Over||Totals|
|* Under 20 and 20–24 respectively from 1971.|
The average ages (arithmetic mean) at marriage for both males and females are shown in the following table.
|Year||Average Age at Marriage|
The average ages of bachelors and spinsters at marriage are considerably lower than those shown in the preceding table, which covers all parties and is naturally affected by the inclusion of remarriages of widowed and divorced persons. The average ages of grooms and brides for each of the latest 5 years according to marital status were as shown in the next table.
|Age in years|
The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the modal or popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed. The modal age for brides in 1971 was 20 years. In the case of bridegrooms the most popular age has varied and for recent years it has been 21 to 24; the modal age for bridegrooms in 1971 was 21 years.
Marriage of Minors—Of every 1,000 men married in 1971, 90 were under 20 years of age, while 320 in every 1,000 brides were under 20. Since 1 January 1971 the age of majority has been 20 years.
In 2,056 marriages in 1971 both parties were given as under 20 years of age, in 6,661 marriages the bride was returned as a minor and the bridegroom as an adult, and in 405 marriages the bridegroom was a minor and the bride an adult.
The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period, and in the table below figures are given for the last 5 years.
|Year||Age in Years||Total Minors|
|16||17||18||19||20||16–20 Years||16–19 Years||Rate per 100 Marriages 16–20 Years||Rate per 100 Marriages 16–19 Years|
MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS CHURCHES—Of the 27,199 marriages performed in 1971, Anglican clergymen officiated at 6,974, Presbyterians at 6,134, Roman Catholics at 4,199, Methodists at 2,010, and clergymen of other churches at 2,023, while 5,859 marriages were solemnised by Registrars.
The following table shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the largest churches and before Registrars in each of the 7 latest years.
|Church||Percentage of Marriages|
The foregoing figures must not be taken as an exact indication of the religious professions of the parties married, as it does not necessarily follow that both (or even one) of the parties are adherents of the church whose officiating minister performed the ceremony, and persons married before Registrars may belong, in greater or lesser proportion, to any or none of the churches. Of the total population at the general census of 1966, 33.7 percent were recorded as adherents of the Anglican Church, 21.8 percent Presbyterian, 15.9 percent Roman Catholic, 7.0 percent Methodist, and 21.6 percent were of other religion or of no religion, or objected to stating their religious profession.
NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS—The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act was 3,926 in February 1972 and the churches to which they belong are shown hereunder.
|Roman Catholic Church||861|
|Anglican (Church of England)||693|
|Presbyterian Church of New Zealand||653|
|Methodist Church of New Zealand||339|
|Ratana Church of New Zealand||131|
|Latter Day Saints||115|
|Assemblies of God||43|
|Associated Churches of Christ||39|
|Seventh Day Adventist||41|
|Liberal Catholic Church||22|
|Christian Revival Crusade||14|
|Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Conference||15|
|Absolute Reformed Maori Church of Aotearoa||11|
|Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi||14|
|Commonwealth Covenant Church||10|
|Reformed Churches of New Zealand||9|
|Evangelistic Church of Christ||10|
The Ratana Church of New Zealand, the Ringatu Church, the United Maori Mission, and the Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi are Maori organisations.
DIVORCE AND OTHER MATRIMONIAL PROCEEDINGS—From 1 January 1969, some important changes have applied in the principal legislation on grounds for divorce; the period of 3 years was reduced to 2 years for separation by agreement and decree of separation or separation order, and in cases living apart and unlikely to be reconciled the period of 7 years was reduced to 4 years. This amendment to the Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1963 has had an accelerating effect on divorce statistics since 1969.
Divorce—A petition for divorce may be presented to the Supreme Court on one or more of several grounds, which include adultery, desertion, separation by agreement for not less than 2 years, separation by decree of separation or separation order for not less than 2 years, and the parties living apart for 4 years and not likely to be reconciled. Where the parties are separated or living apart one of the parties must have been resident in New Zealand for at least 2 years immediately preceding the filing of the petition. The Court is required to give consideration to the possibility of reconciliation of the parties to the marriage.
Petitions filed and decrees granted by the Supreme Court in recent years are shown in the following table.
|Year||Dissolution of Marriage*||Judicial Separation|
|Petitions Filed||Decrees Nisi||Decrees Absolute||Petitions Filed||Decrees for Separation|
|* Includes nullity cases which are usually very few; they totalled only two in 1970 and one in 1971.|
The next table gives the grounds of petitions and decrees during the two latest years.
|Grounds||Petitions Filed||Decrees Absolute Granted|
|Husbands' Petitions||Wives' Petitions||Husbands' Petitions||Wives' Petitions|
|Separation by agreement||914||985||1,033||1,097||744||810||811||890|
|Separation by Court order or decree||20||38||79||113||27||40||102||114|
The figures shown for decrees absolute cover all such granted during the year, whether the antecedent decree nisi was granted in the same or in a previous year. A decree nisi normally applies for at least 3 months before a decree absolute is granted.
In 739 of the 3,347 cases where decrees absolute were granted during 1971 there was no living issue of the marriage. The number of living issue was 1 in 694 cases, 2 in 821 cases, 3 in 536 cases, and 4 or more in 557 cases.
The table which follows shows the duration of marriage in all cases for which decrees absolute were granted in the latest 5 years.
|Duration of Marriage, in Years||Husbands' Decrees Absolute Granted||Wives' Decrees Absolute Granted|
|30 and over||82||98||133||139||128||49||57||98||91||87|
The number of living issue affected by the decrees absolute of their parents during each of the last 5 years were as follows: 1967, 3,388; 1968, 4,099; 1969, 5,604; 1970, 5,927; and 1971, 6,635.
The following table shows the duration of marriage by ages of husbands and wives at the time of marriage, for cases in which decrees absolute were granted in 1971.
|Duration of Marriage (in Years)||Age (in Years) at Marriage|
|Under 20||20–24||25–29||30–34||35–39||40–44||45 and over (Including not Stated)||Total|
|20 and over||48||439||263||79||37||10||13||889|
|20 and over||212||470||138||42||16||2||9||889|
Dissolution of a Voidable Marriage—A decree of dissolution of a voidable marriage puts an end to the marriage from the date of the decree. On average there are only about 40 such decrees in New Zealand each year and the principal ground is non-consummation.
CONCILIATION PROCESSES—Under the Domestic Proceedings Act 1968, the principle was introduced of having specialist magistrates to exercise jurisdiction in domestic matters. The Act aims to encourage by all practicable means the conciliation of married couples who institute court proceedings. Domestic proceedings became a separate division from civil and criminal proceedings in Magistrates' Courts. (See Section 8: Justice.)
There is a Court Conciliation Centre in Auckland providing a full-time conciliation service for cases referred by the Magistrates' Courts. A similar service on a part-time basis is provided in Wellington. In 17 other centres local marriage guidance councils make available to the courts in their areas their more experienced counsellors to provide trained help to those involved in domestic proceedings. Through these agencies it is possible to offer specialist help in over 80 percent of cases in this category.
MARRIAGE GUIDANCE—A National Marriage Guidance Council was established in 1950 as a voluntary agency to assist with social problems arising from unhappy or maladjusted marriages. In 1959 an adviser in marriage guidance was appointed to the staff of the Justice Department. At the same time an advisory committee was set up to keep Government informed and to organise, with the assistance of appropriate professional groups, a programme for the selection, training, and accrediting of voluntary marriage counsellors.
There are now 24 councils affiliated with the National Marriage Guidance Council and these provide counselling centres staffed by over 100 accredited counsellors and some 60 counsellors in training. Accredited counsellors, in many centres, assist the courts by serving as conciliators under the Domestic Proceedings Act. (See also Section 8, Justice.)
The National Marriage Guidance Council employs a full-time director to organise and co-ordinate the work of affiliated councils. There are also seven directors employed by the larger of the local councils. These appointments, made over the last 4 years, were necessary because of the rapid development of the Marriage Guidance Service.
Educational work includes the conducting of courses for young couples in preparation for marriage. Secondary schools have been assisted by local marriage guidance councils with the arranging of courses in personal relationships. In many cases tutors are recruited and trained by local councils.
The marriage guidance service is readily available to those whose marriages are in difficulty. There is a growing acceptance by the public of the importance of this service and a greater readiness of people in trouble to make use of it.
GENERAL—Responsibility for the nation's health is undertaken by a partnership of central and local government, private medical practitioners, para-medical workers, charitable and religious organisations and private citizens, with Central Government providing encouragement, financial assistance and incentives, and assuming final responsibility. This has been a deliberate policy of successive Governments, although emphases have varied from time to time according to political and economic conditions and demands for specific services. Growing urbanisation and industrialisation, with consequent intensification of the problems of pollution of water, air, and land, are imposing a current emphasis nationally and locally on environmental health.
Public health services have to do with environmental health, communicable diseases and quarantine, occupational health and toxicology, food and nutrition, health education, family health, dental services and certain aspects of nursing. In the case of environmental health the concern of the Department of Health and local authorities is with matters such as the provision and protection of public water supplies, sewage treatment and disposal, food hygiene and housing standards. Its objectives are the maintenance of a healthy environment by the application of the principles of preventive medicine.
The functions of local authorities are defined by statute and regulation. Elected local authorities must, under the Health Inspectors Qualifications Regulations 1958, appoint a sufficient number of qualified health inspectors. Where a local authority is too small to need a separate, full-time inspector, the Act permits two or more to combine to share the cost. In some smaller sparsely-populated districts where a local authority does not employ its own inspector, the departmental inspectors of health do the work and the authority pays for it. Only 25 percent of inspectors are employed by the department.
In each of the 18 health districts, the medical officer of health, who is a medical practitioner with special qualifications in public health, is the adviser to all local authorities in his district; in some cases his approval is required before action can be taken by a local authority, and in others he is the first line of appeal against its decisions. He is required to keep the Director-General of Health and the Board of Health informed of local authority deficiencies in their responsibilities under the Health Act.
Scheduled communicable diseases must be notified by doctors and hospitals to the medical officer of health who is responsible for control measures; within this area the local authority health inspector is subject to his direct supervision and control. New programmes of immunisation are undertaken by the department and, when established, vaccines are provided free and the general practitioner encouraged in this work. Quarantine arrangements for both aircraft and ships comply with obligations under the International Health Regulations. Medical officers of health administer this service. The broad objective is the control of communicable and chronic diseases in man and the keeping of New Zealand free of quarantinable diseases.
The health of industrial and agricultural workers is the care of the Department of Health in conjunction with the Department of Labour, including co-operation in accident prevention. The aim is to prevent occupational disease, control toxic hazards, and raise standards of first-aid services. Agricultural health includes attention to the safe use of agricultural chemicals.
Food and drug administration aims to protect the consumer. There is an extensive programme, backed by legislation, to govern packing, labelling, storage, and sale of poisons. Appropriate legislation also ensures satisfactory standards in the composition and description of drugs, proprietary medicines and treatments, restraint on quackery in advertising of proprietary medicines and treatments and restraints on some drugs to prevent drug dependency. Special environmental problems, including radiation protection, occupational health, and atmosphere pollution, are also the responsibility of the Department of Health.
The objectives of health education programmes are to increase understanding of the value of health, to inform people of health services available, and to equip them with knowledge and skills they can use to solve health problems.
Maternal and child health responsibilities include licensing and supervision of maternity hospitals; medical and nursing supervision of infant, pre-school, and school children; inspection of schools and child care centres; immunisation of infants against poliomyelitis, etc.; and the administration of regulations bearing on home safety.
A dental service, directed by dental officers and staffed by dental nurses, provides regular dental treatment for all pre-school, primary, and intermediate school children. Arrangements with private dental practitioners ensure similar treatment for adolescents up to the age of 16 years. Dental health education is also undertaken.
The Department of Health is responsible for the organisation and control of nursing services to the public in general, in hospitals (departmental, public or private); in homes for the aged, incapacitated, or infirm; or in any other places where the Department of Health has statutory responsibility. Considerable delegation has taken place mainly to hospital boards whose chief nursing officer is responsible to the chief medical officer for the day-to-day administration of the services provided. The department reviews nursing services in public and departmental hospitals, district nursing services, and public health nursing services.
Nursing education is provided in 55 schools of nursing in New Zealand. As at 31 March 1971 there were 6,993 students undertaking basic nursing programmes. The Department of Health organises and controls the School of Advanced Nursing Studies.
Within its public health nursing service, the department employs over 300 well-qualified nurses. Infant welfare occupies a high proportion of their time, but other work includes child health programmes in schools.
Scientific support for State health activities comes from the National Health Institute, the Medical Research Council, the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and the research institutes of the Department of Agriculture. Standards of professional education are established by the appropriate professional councils or boards on which the department is represented, while training is conducted by universities (doctors, dentists, engineers, etc.); hospital boards or the department (nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, health educators, laboratory technicians, radiographers, dietitians); and polytechnics (health inspectors, pharmacists).
The Department of Health works closely with and seeks the advice and help of boards, committees, and councils such as the Board of Health Medical, Medical Research, Dental, Hospitals Advisory, Pharmacy, Nursing, and Radiological Advisory Councils, the Hospital Works, Medical Services Advisory Committees, and the Dietitians, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Opticians, and Plumbers and Gasfitters Boards. In all, officers of the department serve on over 100 boards, committees, and other organisations concerned with health.
In addition, there are very close working relationships with professional and other associations, voluntary health and welfare agencies, the universities, and other Government departments.
In addition to the Health Act 1956, the following Acts are administered by the department:
Burial and Cremation Act 1964
Children's Health Camps Act 1953
Clean Air Act 1972
Dental Act 1963
Dietitians Act 1950
Food and Drug Act 1969
Hospitals Act 1957
Human Tissue Act 1964
Maternal Mortality Research Act 1968
Medical and Dental Auxiliaries Act 1966
Medical Practitioners Act 1968
Medical Research Council Act 1950
Mental Health Act 1969
Narcotics Act 1965
Nurses Act 1971
Occupational Therapy Act 1949
Opticians Act 1928
Physiotherapy Act 1949
Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964
Poisons Act 1960
Radioactive Substances Act 1949
Social Security Act 1964 (Part II)
Tuberculosis Act 1948
A detailed report of the activities of the Department of Health is given in the annual report of the Director-General of Health (parliamentary paper H. 31).
A general history of public health services may be found in Challenge for Health, by F. S. Maclean (Government Printer, 1964), while philosophy and policy are discussed in Health Administration in New Zealand (Institute of Public Administration. 1969).
The net expenditure of the Department of Health in the three latest years is given in the following table.
* Mostly grants to hospital boards.
† Mostly grants of Medical Benefits under Social Security Act.
|Family health services||3,830||4,922||5,404|
|Public health services||2,519||3,976||6,089|
|Less departmental receipts||980||1,103||1,099|
|Expenditure as percentage of gross national product||4.2||4.4||4.6|
Information on hospitals, medical care services, and medical benefits is given in Section 5B, Hospitals and Medical Services.
The Government provides a subsidy of $1 for $2 on the total cost of approved works for main water supply facilities, sewerage reticulation, and sewerage disposal. The previous limitation of $100,000 subsidy on approved projects was removed in 1972 and it is expected that about $8.8 million will be required in a full year to meet subsidies on a number of major schemes now being put into effect by local authorities.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH: Local Authority Control—The provisions and proper maintenance of public water supplies and sewerage systems, the disposal of refuse, the condition of dwellinghouses, the control of offensive trades, and the hygiene of premises in which food is manufactured and sold, including eating houses, are primarily the responsibility of the local authorities, but the Department of Health exercises general supervision. In the case of some of the smaller local authorities the necessary inspections are made by departmental inspectors on behalf of and by arrangement with the local authorities. The department undertakes the basic training of health inspectors employed by local authorities and conducts specialist and refresher courses for health inspectors.
Department of Health Control—The objectives of the Department of Health in environmental health control are: (a) to create and maintain a healthy environment for the public at large by the application of principles of preventive medicine and the administration of legislation directly and indirectly related to this end; (b) to prevent the growth of air pollution; (c) to provide physical services and undertake research on all aspects of the use of ionising radiation with special emphasis on the medical applications and public health aspects. To monitor radiation exposure of the population from all sources and to take action to reduce this where necessary. To promote general understanding of the nature of the hazards involved in radiation exposure in their current perspective; and (d) to conserve hearing and detect its early deterioration.
Air Pollution—Air pollution has been a growing health problem with advancing urbanisation and the rising consumption of energy for industrial activity and transport. The Clean Air Act 1972 provides for the control of all sources of air pollution, both existing and potential. Placing considerable emphasis on co-operation among Central Government, local authorities, industry, and the public, the Act in effect imposes on every person an obligation to minimise his interference with the air environment.
It provides for a technical advisory body, the Clean Air Council, which as its first task will advise the Government on the desirability of immediate regulations to control pollution from motor vehicles. The Act also seeks to integrate the work of local authorities in pollution control by making available to them the specialist technical knowledge that only Central Government can provide. General provisions in the Act provide for the control of industrial sources of pollution to a standard as high as that attained in any other country. Special provisions concern the setting up of clean air zones. They are a recognition that in some parts of the country, where ventilation by natural process is poor, the smoke from domestic fires is an important air pollution problem. The clean air zone provisions make it possible for a local authority to tackle this problem where it has the support of local residents. The Act comes into effect in stages from April 1973 to April 1975.
A general duty is imposed by the Act on occupiers of industrial or trade premises to take certain steps designed to reduce air pollution. Certain provisions apply in respect of locomotive engines, aircraft, hovercraft, and motor vehicles, and power is taken to make regulations designed to minimise the emission of air pollutants from these sources. Special provision is also made for ships. Standards may be prescribed in respect of the emission of air pollutants by any trade, industry, process, fuel burning equipment, or industrial plant. Failure to observe these standards will be an offence unless the occupier of the relevant premises is exempted by the Director-General of Health.
There are 26 classes of process requiring registration and they include the control of odours and the supervision of rendering processes. Most registrable processes are governed by the requirement to adopt the best practicable means to control noxious discharges and emissions, but there are limiting standards for lead and acid gases. All new installations or extensions of these registrable processes require approval by the Department of Health.
Some 250 works are registered and regularly inspected by chemical inspectors. Industries not registered are the responsibility of local authorities. New industrial plant being established in New Zealand is required to meet standards as rigorous as any in the world for industrial sources of air pollution. To date over 80 local authorities have been gazetted as smoke control areas.
The Smoke Restriction Regulations 1964 were enacted with a view to giving local authorities stricter control of industrial smoke emissions. These regulations apply until March 1975.
DRUGS—The definitions of “drug” in the Food and Drug Act 1969 establish groups to which differing provisions apply. Therapeutic drugs, that is those substances or mixtures whether used internally or externally for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of any illness or injury of the human body or for modifying any physiological process or desires or emotions, and chemical contraceptives are required, before being introduced commercially, to be “acceptable”, according to a procedure under the Food and Drug Act. No new therapeutic drug may be distributed in New Zealand without the consent of the Minister of Health, under sections 12 and 13 of the Act.
This Act also requires that any drug which has been changed in any way, in use, strength, or labelling must not be distributed until 90 days after notice of the change has been given to the Director-General of Health. He may consent to earlier distribution of a changed drug if he is satisfied of the drug's safety. If the Director-General considers the change to be of such character or degree that the drug ought not to be distributed without the consent of the Minister, the drug is referred to the Minister and may not be distributed until the Minister's specific consent has been obtained. A new therapeutic drug is also restricted to sale from pharmacies only, unless special authority is given for general distribution in a schedule to the Therapeutic Drugs (permitted sales) Regulations 1970. Drugs already on the market prior to 1 April 1970 are exempted from this provision until 31 March 1973.
A cosmetic, dentifrice, detergent, disinfectant, or antiseptic does not have to be “cleared” for marketing unless claims in labelling or advertising bring it within the definition of a “therapeutic drug”.
As in the case of food, the Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis of any drug, which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any drug intended for sale. Measures provide for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where drugs are manufactured or packed. Control over medical advertisements and publicity is also incorporated in this legislation.
Under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964, certain drugs may not be sold to the public except on the prescription of a doctor, a dentist, or a veterinary surgeon. This legislation also requires specific warning statements to be included in the labelling of certain drugs such as the antihistamines, aspirin, phenacetin, and paracetamol.
NARCOTICS—Under the Narcotics Act 1965, and the Narcotics Regulations 1966, the Director-General of Health is the competent authority for the purpose of the international conventions and for the oversight of the legitimate distribution and use of narcotics within the country. Written approval of the Minister of Health is required for the import or export of cannabis, desomorphine, heroin, ketobemidone, etorphine, and acetorphine, including their salts, and preparations containing them. The import, export, cultivation, production, possession, distribution, supply, and administration of narcotics is strictly controlled. Balanced quantitative records of transactions and stock are generally required to be kept. There is an extensive system of notification to medical officers of health of narcotics supplied and a system of control of habituated persons.
To curb illicit drug abuse, a National Drug Intelligence Bureau has been set up jointly by the Departments of Health, Customs, and Police.
FOOD AND NUTRITION—The Food and Drug Act 1969 provides for the analysis, by analysts appointed under the Act, of any articles of food or drink which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food intended for sale. Stringent measures are provided for the prevention of adulteration and for the inspection of places where food is manufactured or packed. Regulations lay down minimum standards for many classes of food, control additives of all kinds, and deal with labelling of food packages. Control is also established over all utensils and appliances coming into contact with food. Regular sampling of foods is undertaken by departmental inspectors and the samples are analysed in the Chemistry Division (DSIR) or its branch laboratories.
An important provision of the Act controls all kinds of publicity concerning any food whereby a purchaser would possibly be deceived in regard to the properties of such food, whether or not it is standardised by regulations.
The nutrition section of the Department of Health provides advisory services on nutrition and dietetics to dietary departments of hospitals, and food service departments of welfare and other institutions. It is responsible for nutrition education programmes and provides a nutrition information service for Government departments, organisations concerned with production and marketing of food, and the public. The section also carries out dietary research projects, generally in liaison with medical research teams concerned with nutrition research.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY—The objective of the occupational health programme is to work with labour, management, the medical profession, and other groups to assist in improving the health of the worker.
The Department of Labour, which is responsible for accident prevention, hours of work, employment of women and children, etc., calls to the attention of the Department of Health any health problems which the factory inspectors may encounter. The Factories Act 1946 gives to medical officers of health or other authorised officers of the Department of Health the same powers and authorities as inspectors of factories with regard to the health and welfare sections of the Act. The suspension of workers on health grounds, approval of respirators and similar protective equipment, and the arrangements for medical examinations are undertaken by the Department of Health. A series of regulations deal with health hazards, many of them being administered by the two departments, each in its own sphere.
A similar understanding has been established with the Waterfront Industry Commission and New Zealand Railways, and illustrates the general pattern of arrangements between the Department of Health and other Government departments or agencies concerned with particular aspects of workers' health. An occupational health laboratory was established at Wellington in 1964.
Occupational Disease—The notifiable occupational diseases are scheduled m the Health Act 1956 and details of diseases notified are published annually in the report of the Director-General of Health.
Commercial, Household, and Agricultural Poisons—The advertising, distribution, use, labelling, and packing of all poisons and toxic substances is controlled under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964. A manufacturer or importer must notify the Registrar of Poisons before importing or putting on the market any new substance which might be toxic, be it a chemical, household preparation, cosmetic, or drug. Special safeguards are provided for certain hazardous chemicals used in agriculture or horticulture. It is an offence to pack poisons in bottles that are ordinarily used for food, drink, or medicine. Labels for “Restricted Poisons” must bear statements of the precautions to be taken in use, the symptoms of poisoning and the remedial treatment, and must be approved by the Registrar of Poisons.
Control of Health Hazards—An increasing number of specific health hazards are coming under formal control, namely, lead processes, electroplating, spray painting, sand blasting (siliceous blasting agents in factories are prohibited), fumigation, aerial application of poisons, where in conjunction with the Civil Aviation Division of the Ministry of Transport a special rating is required by pilots, and agricultural chemicals. The organisation of radiation protection is dealt with by the National Radiation Laboratory, while a number of other specific hazards are currently receiving consideration.
Medical, Nursing, and First-aid Services—Minimal first-aid requirements have been laid down by the Department of Health, which generally endeavours to encourage both the development of medical and nursing services and the raising of first-aid standards throughout industry generally. While there are no statutory obligations on industry to provide medical and nursing services, an increasing number of factories do provide such services. To meet the needs of small plants the department is developing industrial health centres with financial support from the Waterfront Industry Commission in the case of harbour areas, and the Workers' Compensation Board in the case of general industry.
Pre-employment Examinations—Pre-employment medical examinations are required for young workers before entering factory employment.
National Audiology Centre—The National Audiology Centre assists with the early detection of deafness and conservation of hearing. The centre conducts and promotes research into noisy industries, occupational deafness, and other forms of deafness. An advisory service is provided for those working with deaf people and training is given to those responsible for testing groups for hearing loss.
Radiation Protection—The National Radiation Laboratory provides the administrative and technical services required to maintain the primary X-ray standard for New Zealand and also reference standards for the accurate measurement of radioactive substances used in clinical work. Control of radiation sources is effectively obtained by licensing operators at each place where ionising sources are used, and the Electrical (X-ray) Wiring Regulations 1944 provide for the compulsory registration of all X-ray plants in the country. The importation and use of radioactive materials is strictly controlled, and requests for such materials on overseas suppliers must be authorised by the laboratory, which acts as the procurement agency for most of the radioisotopes required.
The laboratory operates a field service whereby trained physicists regularly visit all places where ionising sources are used. During these visits measurements are taken, protection problems discussed, and everything possible is done to ensure that persons associated with the ionising sources adopt safe working habits. Apart from the obvious groups, e.g., medical and dental users, the laboratory is also concerned with specialised equipment, such as mass X-ray units, X-ray apparatus used in schools, radar and television equipment, X-ray diffraction units, electron microscopes, research accelerators, etc.
Air, rainwater, and soil are monitored for radioactive contamination from fall-out.
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH—Medical practitioners give ante-natal, neo-natal, and postnatal attention under the Social Security Act. Free ante-natal clinics are established in connection with the three St. Helens Hospitals, all public maternity hospitals or maternity wards, and a number of clinics conducted by the Plunket Society. Ante-natal classes to prepare mothers for the baby's arrival are also being developed, and doctors can refer patients to these to supplement their own antenatal instructions. In the case of women living far away from the main centres of population, antenatal work is supplemented by the public health nurses employed by the Department of Health, or by district nurses employed by hospital boards.
Approximately 99 percent of confinements take place in maternity hospitals or in maternity units of public hospitals. The medical care of the mother and child is based on co-operation between the Department of Health, hospital boards, the medical and nursing professions, and the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children (Plunket Society). All private maternity hospitals are licensed under the Hospitals Act 1957 and the Department of Health has responsibility for ensuring that regulations regarding buildings, equipment, and staff are observed. Medical officers of health, through their senior nursing staff, exercise general supervision over the work of private hospitals in the local areas.
Child Health—The Department of Health provides a preventive child health service. Infants are examined by doctors at three stages between birth and 3 months of age and another medical examination is undertaken before the end of the first year for those requiring further investigation. Public health nurses undertake supervision of infants and pre-school children although the major proportion of this service is provided by the nurses of the Plunket Society. Where necessary the children are referred to family doctors or medical officers of the Department of Health.
A consultative service is provided for schools, with special emphasis on the health supervision of handicapped children, both in the normal schools and in special education classes. Nursing staff make regular visits to all schools and from pre-school record cards and by consultation with teachers and parents refer children for examination by medical officers. Correspondence School children are kept under health supervision as necessary and any school child requiring treatment is referred to the appropriate family doctor. Vision and hearing testing is carried out by trained staff for pre-school children at school entry and in Form 1.
The Government supports the Children's Health Camps Board which maintains six permanent camps for the short-stay placement of children convalescent after illness, for those whose physical health is unsatisfactory, and for those suffering from minor emotional disorders. Medical officers select children for admission and undertake general health supervision of the camps. Children derive benefit from the ordered routine of camp life which provides a diet designed to improve nutrition and a balance of free activity, rest, and sleep. The Department of Education maintains school classes with emphasis on remedial teaching.
Immunisation Programme—Protection by two doses of the oral vaccine for poliomyelitis is available to all infants. Protection against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus is a routine procedure and a triple vaccine is used. It is preferable that immunisation be done by the family doctor, and the course of injections should be commenced as soon as possible after babies are 3 months old. Arrangements can be made for mothers who are unable to have the immunisation done privately to attend with her child at a departmental clinic. If necessary in country areas the public health nurse will visit the home to immunise the child. Booster doses (against diphtheria and tetanus) are given at 18 months and after the child's fourth birthday or as soon as possible after the child commences school. Further booster doses (against tetanus only) are recommended at 10-yearly intervals and on injury. Measles vaccination is available from family doctors for infants from 10 months of age onwards. Rubella vaccination is available from family doctors for pre-school children.
TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL—The department's programme for control of tuberculosis is based on adequate case-finding and notification procedures, the proper treatment and surveillance of notified cases, investigation and control of contacts. This calls for close co-ordination of the staff and services of hospital boards (which are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis) and officers of the Department of Health who deal with the social and epidemiological aspects of the disease. The latter involves supervision of tuberculosis families, tracing of contacts, and the maintenance of tuberculosis statistics.
Mass miniature radiography is an established feature of the department's case-finding programme. At 31 December 1970 there were 6,043 persons on the tuberculosis registers in the health districts; new cases notified in 1971 totalled less than 600.
B.C.G. vaccination is also undertaken by the department and, in particular, is offered to the contacts of registered cases, secondary school children in the North Island and hospital workers possibly exposed to infection.
Over the past decade, there has been a steady decrease each year in new notifications particularly in the younger age groups together with a marked decrease in mortality.
HEALTH EDUCATION—Medical and dental officers, public health nurses, dental nurses, and inspectors of health all devote some of their time to health education. The health education officer acts as a co-ordinator and stimulates and extends health teaching and health programmes in the district. All the health education officers are women and several hold the diploma in health education issued by the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Daily newspapers and national periodicals carry advertisements of health subjects. Leaflets, pamphlets, and posters are available on many health topics from district health offices.
The Department of Health's official bulletin Health has a circulation of over 78,000 and is issued free to the public 4 times a year. It gives health information and publishes various aspects of the department's work.
Officers are available for lectures and discussions on health with schools and community groups.
DENTAL HEALTH—There are 14 dental districts and 3 schools for the training of school dental nurses at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch.
The School Dental Service, directed by dental officers and staffed by 1,341 trained school dental nurses, provided systematic treatment for 597,134 pre-school and primary school children in the year ended 31 March 1972. A further 154,897 children under 16 years of age received regular treatment from private dentists under the social security (dental benefits) scheme, and from a limited number of salaried dental officers.
School Dental Service—Briefly, the functions of the service are to improve the standard of dental health of school children (and of pre-school children) by regular and systematic treatment at 6-monthly intervals, commencing from the primer classes (or earlier when possible), and continuing through to the highest class of the primary (or intermediate) school. Thereafter they are eligible for enrolment in the adolescent service.
Two years are devoted to the theoretical and practical training of school dental nurses. Approximately 500 student dental nurses can be trained at the one time. The course is carefully graduated and is in the hands of a staff of dental surgeons and dental tutor sisters. During the period of training student dental nurses reside in hostels controlled by the Department of Health.
On completing her training, a school dental nurse is posted to a school dental clinic, where she becomes responsible to the principal dental officer of her district for the dental treatment of a group of approximately 500 patients. She is visited at regular intervals by the principal dental officer and by a dental nurse inspector who assist the dental nurse to maintain a high standard of performance in all aspects of work.
Dental treatment comprises fillings in both temporary teeth and permanent teeth, cleaning and scaling of the teeth, extractions when necessary and sodium fluoride treatment. The aim of the service is to promote dental health by conserving the natural teeth and preventing dental decay. Only a small number of teeth have to be extracted as unsavable, less than 3 for every 100 saved by conservative treatment.
Adolescent Dental Service—Dental care for adolescents up to 16 years of age is provided by private dentists as a dental benefit under the Social Security Act, the dentist being reimbursed on a fee-for-service basis.
Eligibility for dental treatment as an adolescent is contingent upon a person's having undergone regular dental care up to within 3 months of the time of application, either at a school dental clinic or from a private dental practitioner.
Treatment is essentially of a nature designed to conserve the natural teeth. Dental supervision of adolescents is on a basis of examination and treatment at 6-monthly intervals. There is free choice of dentists, and dentists have the right to decline patients.
The treatment (other than treatment requiring special approval) which may be provided as dental benefits, and the fees payable, are indicated in the Schedule to the Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations 1960.
Dental Health Education—The dental health education activities of the department include the production of posters, pamphlets, sound films, filmstrips, radio talks, newspaper advertisements, and all other types of advertising media.
Officers of the service are kept in touch with health education and other matters by means of the School Dental Service Gazette, which is published bi-monthly.
Dental Research—Dental research is directed by the dental research committee of the Medical Research Council. The staff consisting of a director, three professional assistants, and three associated workers are primarily engaged in a long-term programme of research in dental problems.
Dental Bursaries—The Government grants bursaries each year to selected students to assist them to qualify as dentists. The bursaries are the equivalent of the bursary that would be payable under the University Bursary Regulations plus $350 a year. Students who are granted bursaries must enter into an agreement to pursue their studies diligently and, on graduating, to enter the service of the Crown or of a hospital board appointed by the Crown for a specified period not exceeding 3 years.
Fluoridation—Approximately half of all persons living in water-reticulated areas are drinking fluoridated water, which reduces the need for dental treatment.
REHABILITATION OF DISABLED CIVILIANS—The rehabilitation of disabled and handicapped civilians has received increasing emphasis over recent years in New Zealand. Basically, public hospitals are the hub for development of an adequate medical rehabilitation service, with co-operation from Government and voluntary agencies in furthering the medical, social, and vocational welfare of the disabled.
A civilian rehabilitation centre is established at Otara, under the Auckland Hospital Board's administration, for the treatment and overall restoration of those injured in employment or road accidents. For the rehabilitation of persons suffering from spinal injuries and paraplegia, specialist spinal injury centres are in course of development at Auckland and Christchurch. Rehabilitation activities are also being carried out at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Palmerston North Hospital and in many of the psychiatric and psychopaedic hospitals.
The Disabled Re-establishment League is the principal agent of Government in vocational rehabilitation. The main function of the league is to provide facilities for work assessment and work experience for the disabled. Policy is decided by a central board of management and district committees administer the centres which are established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Napier, and Invercargill.
A National Civilian Rehabilitation Committee, comprising representatives from the Departments of Labour, Social Welfare, and Health, advise Government on steps to co-ordinate and promote rehabilitation in New Zealand.
PHYSICAL MEDICINE—Physical medicine is concerned with potentially disabling conditions such as rheumatic diseases, cerebral palsy, and other disorders of the locomotor system.
The centre for the treatment of rheumatism is established at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Rotorua, which has approximately 100 beds set aside for diagnosis, research, and treatment of these diseases. Full physiotherapy and occupational therapy facilities are provided and active steps towards rehabilitation of patients are carried out. A large number of outpatients referred from all parts of New Zealand and a few from overseas are seen every year.
Physiotherapists and occupational therapists work together in preventing and controlling deformity, and teaching people how to live with their disabilities. Social workers assist in bridging the gap between rehabilitation and vocational and social resettlement.
A cerebral palsy unit is also situated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital providing residential accommodation for 20 children. At this unit the activities of a team of physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists are co-ordinated by the supervisor of the unit working under a physician. Patients can be referred by their doctors to the physician in charge of the unit for assessment only, or for admission and treatment. Cerebral palsy visiting therapist services are now operating under hospital boards. Post-graduate courses are given to physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists.
Cerebral palsy day schools have been established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill. Parents of cerebral palsy cases who seek their children's admission first apply to the appropriate medical officer of health or education board. The schools are administered by the education boards, but close liaison exists between the schools, the Rotorua unit, and the visiting cerebral palsy therapists.
MEDICAL STATISTICS—The National Health Statistics Centre is responsible for the compilation of the statistics included in the Annual Report on the Medical Statistics of New Zealand. The centre also prepares special statistics for the various divisions of the department and for research workers in different fields both in New Zealand and overseas. A constant liaison is maintained with the World Health Organisation, which is supplied with statistical material giving a picture of health trends in New Zealand. In addition, from time to time special statistical investigations are made into important aspects of public health and diseases that warrant specific study. The centre publishes Trends in Health and Health Services, an annual statistical survey.
NATIONAL HEALTH INSTITUTE—The National Health Institute is the Department of Health's centre for the study of public health problems. It contains an epidemiology section and public health laboratories.
The epidemiology section conducts field research into matters of public health interest.
The public health laboratories provide diagnostic and reference services in bacteriology and virology for medical officers of health, hospital and private laboratories, and general practitioners, as well as for the other sections of the institute. The institute is the national centre for those reference services which are organised on an international basis, such as salmonellosis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, influenza, and staphylococcal phage typing.
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL—The Medical Research Council of New Zealand has the following functions:
To initiate, foster, and support medical research;
To furnish information, advice, and assistance to persons and organisations concerned with medical research;
To collect and disseminate scientific information, including the publication of reports.
At the end of 1972 research was in progress in many fields, including the following: dentistry; experimental endocrinology and metabolism; human genetics; hydatids; Island Territories research; toxicology; electron microscopy; renal physiology; cardiology; hypertension; environmental physiology; coronary disease; immunology and genetics of tissue transplantation; mechanisms of action of psychotropic drugs; diabetes; molecular biology of bacterial viruses; menrology; biology; pathology; rheumatic diseases; human nutrition; maternal and infant health; tumour virology; vector biology and control.
The council maintains liaison with the research work being carried out by the Cancer Society of New Zealand and medical research foundations established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Palmerston North, Hawke's Bay, Otago, and Southland.
The council administers the Medical Research Endowment Fund, from which an annual expenditure of $1.2 million is incurred in supporting research projects at the University of Otago, the University of Auckland, the Massey University, and the institutions of the Auckland, Wellington, North Canterbury, Palmerston North, Southland, and Otago Hospital Boards.
The council employs a staff of about 80 full-time workers. A further 135 workers are employed by other institutions under project grants from the council.
The council awards scholarships and fellowships to selected graduates and undergraduates who wish to engage in medical research.
The council is empowered to receive bequests and donations to the fund for furthering the objects of the council as set out in the Medical Research Council Act 1950.
MEDICAL COUNCIL—The Medical Council of New Zealand, constituted under the Medical Practitioners Act 1968, consists of the Director-General of Health, the deans of the faculties of medicine in the Universities of Otago and Auckland, and eight registered medical practitioners appointed on a representative basis.
The council deals with all applications for registration under the Act. Until an applicant is able to satisfy the council that he has obtained house officer experience, in a resident medical capacity, of not less than 12 months or has otherwise obtained comparable experience, registration is on a conditional basis. Persons registered conditionally may practise only in an approved hospital. A medical education committee responsible to the council exercises general supervision over the training of persons conditionally registered. The number of medical practitioners on the register at 30 June 1972 was 4,971, but not all are in active practice in New Zealand.
The Medical Council is vested with certain disciplinary powers. Right of appeal to the Supreme Court is provided.
DOCTORS IN ACTIVE PRACTICE—A report made in 1970 by the Joint Committee on Medical Graduate Needs assessed that in 1968 the doctors in active practice in New Zealand totalled 3,182 and that they were engaged as follows:
|Type of Practice||Doctors|
† Non-specialist psychiatrist medical officers.
‡ Includes preventive and social medicine and medically qualified teachers in non-clinical subjects.
§ Hospital boards, armed services,
student health, trainees and
|Obstetrics and gynaecology||82|
|Department of Health||36|
|Medical Officers in Department of Health—|
|Medical education not included elsewhere‡||26|
On the basis the doctor to population ratio in 1968 was 1:866. For Australia in 1966 the ratio was reported by the World Health Organisation as 1:840 and for selected other countries in 1965 as: Sweden 1:910; England and Wales 1:870; Canada 1:820; United States 1:700.
Medical graduates from the University of Otago have totalled 114 annually; from 1973 this total will be supplemented by graduates from the University of Auckland. Medical graduates are expected to reach 200 a year by 1977.
REGISTRATION COUNCILS AND BOARDS: Dentists—Under the Dental Act 1963 there is constituted a Dental Council, the functions of which are to examine and approve of the qualifications of applicants desiring registration as dentists and to exercise disciplinary control over registered dentists.
The number of private dentists holding annual practising certificates at 1 September 1970 was 901 and in addition there were 150 dentists in Government, hospital, research, and university employment.
Under provisions of the Dental Technicians Regulations 1968, a Registration Board for Dental Technicians has been constituted and 310 dental technicians are on the register.
Nurses—Under the Nurses Act 1971 is constituted the nursing council. The council controls nursing education programmes, conducts examinations and effects registrations.
Provision is made in Nurses Registration Regulations 1966 for 3-year programmes for registration as nurse and maternity nurse, male nurse, psychiatric nurse, and psychopaedic nurse. Provision is also made for 18-month programmes for registration as maternity nurse and community nurse, and 6-month programmes for registration as midwife and, where registration has already been obtained as nurse, as maternity nurse.
Physiotherapists—Under the Physiotherapy Act 1949 is constituted the New Zealand Physiotherapy Board. The board's functions are the training, examination, and registration of candidates for physiotherapy practice, the issuing of special licences, the approval of physiotherapy training schools, and the conduct of those registered under the Act.
The training period for physiotherapists is 3 years. Full-time training is conducted at the New Zealand School of Physiotherapy, Dunedin, administered by the Otago Hospital Board, and the final year is spent at one of the subsidiary training schools in various parts of New Zealand. All students are required to pass the State Examination in Physiotherapy to qualify for registration.
Occupational Therapists—Under the Occupational Therapy Act 1949 is constituted the Occupational Therapy Board. The board is concerned with the registration and conduct of persons engaged in the practice of occupational therapy.
The Central Institute of Technology, Wellington, conducts the 3-year course of training and clinical experience is gained at hospitals. Students who successfully complete the course are awarded a diploma in occupational therapy and then registered. There are some 200 occupational therapists in active practice.
Dietitians—Under the Dietitians Act 1950 is constituted the Dietitians Board, which is concerned with the training, examination, and registration of persons engaged in the practice of dietetics.
The training period for a dietitian is, in the case of the holder of a degree of bachelor of home science conferred by the University of Otago or of the holder of a diploma in home science of the University of Otago, 12 months in a hospital training school.
Opticians—The Opticians Act 1928 provides for the constitution of an Opticians Board, consisting of the Director-General of Health (the Registrar), three persons engaged in practice as opticians in New Zealand, and a registered medical practitioner with special knowledge of diseases of the eyes. The board deals with all applications for registration under the Act.
There are approximately 270 opticians registered, but not all are engaged in active practice.
Plumbers—The Plumbers and Gasfitters Board consists of 10 members—the Director-General of Health as chairman, a registrar (deputy chairman), and representatives of the Department of Education, the Municipal and Counties Association, the Gas Association, the Master Plumbers Society (2), the Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Related Trades Industrial Union of Workers (2), and a nominee of a borough council or drainage board.
The Board is concerned with the registration of plumbers and gasfitters. It issues annual licences and limited certificates for plumbers and gasfitters. It has also authority and responsibility for disciplinary action against registered plumbers and gasfitters if it is established they have done unsatisfactory work.
In New Zealand, except in specially exempted areas, all sanitary plumbing as defined in the Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964 can only be performed by registered plumbers and holders of limited certificates working in the employment or under the supervision of registered plumbers.
Specifications and standards of workmanship and materials in plumbing work are prescribed in the provisions of the Drainage and Plumbing Regulations enacted under the Health Act.
Pharmacists—There are now 2,420 names on the Pharmaceutical Register in New Zealand. All registered pharmacists, except those who notify the registrar that they have conscientious objection to membership, automatically become members of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand, the society's affairs being managed by a council constituted by the Pharmacy Act 1970.
The council consists of 12 members, 11 being pharmacists, and 1 a barrister appointed by the Minister of Health. Seven members are elected on a district basis by registered pharmacists who are proprietors of pharmacies and four by members of the Pharmaceutical Society who are not in the previous category. The main function of the council of the Pharmaceutical Society is to administer the Pharmacy Act and generally to protect and promote the interests of the profession of pharmacy and the public interests.
It is a specific requirement of the Pharmacy Act that pharmacies in New Zealand be at all times maintained under the immediate supervision and control of a registered pharmacist.
The present system for pharmacy education requires a minimum of 3 years' attendance at the School of Pharmacy, Central Institute of Technology, Upper Hutt, at which the diploma in pharmacy is obtained. There is also a 4-year degree course in pharmacy at the University of Otago. Graduates from both courses are required to serve 12 months' practical training before becoming eligible for registration as pharmacists.
Any pharmacist or company in which not less than 75 percent of the share capital is owned by a pharmacist or pharmacists may establish one pharmacy. Unqualified persons or companies in which less than 75 percent of the share capital is pharmacist-owned must, however, secure the consent of the Pharmacy Authority, set up under the Act, before commencing business, and in all cases the establishment of more than one pharmacy under the same ownership is subject to the consent of the authority. All pharmacies must be registered with the society. There are about 1,166 pharmacies in New Zealand. A survey in 1971 showed that on average there were 1.46 pharmacists per pharmacy; about 250 pharmacists work outside the retail trade in hospitals, Government departments and the pharmaceutical industry.
MEDICAL, HOSPITAL, AND OTHER RELATED BENEFITS—Part II of the Social Security Act 1964, administered by the Department of Health and dealing with medical and like benefits, is of general application to all persons ordinarily resident in New Zealand, and makes provision for medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits.
Medical Benefits—Medical benefits apply to such medical treatment as is ordinarily given by medical practitioners in the course of a general practice. Certain services are excluded, these being principally:
Medical services in maternity cases. (These services are covered by maternity benefits and are described under a later heading.)
Medical services involved in any medical examination of which the sole or primary purpose is the obtaining of a medical certificate.
Medical services other than anaesthetic services, involved in or incidental to the extraction of teeth by a medical practitioner.
Medical services in respect of which fees are payable under the Social Security (X-ray Diagnostic Services) Regulations 1941, Social Security (Physiotherapy Benefits) Regulations 1951, and Social Security (Laboratory Diagnostic Services) Regulations 1946—see later headings.
Medical services afforded by means of advice given by telephone, telegram, or letter except under circumstances specifically approved by the Director-General of Health and medical services not rendered by a medical practitioner in person.
Every medical practitioner who renders any of the prescribed services is entitled, on behalf of the patient, to receive from the Department of Health a fee of $1.25 for a service provided in normal hours and up to $2.00 for a service rendered at night or on Saturdays, Sundays, or holidays; for age beneficiaries and children up to 9 years the fees may be $2.00 and $2.75 respectively. The department pays a fee of $5 for an initial consultation with a recognised specialist physician, psychiatrist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, or paediatrician, and of $3.50 in the case of other recognised specialists. These rates apply only to the first occasion on which a patient is referred by a general practitioner to a specialist and, in the case of inter-specialist referral, with the prior concurrence of the original doctor. For subsequent visits, the fee paid by the department reduces to $1.25 for each visit, except in the case of social security beneficiaries and pensioners and their dependants for whom the fee is $2. In designated rural areas, an incentive bonus is also payable. In 1972 immunisation benefits were introduced; they apply to children and adolescents up to their sixteenth birthday; the benefit is $1.50 if the vaccine is administered by a doctor, or $1.25 if administered by a registered nurse in his employ.
Most doctors (91 percent) make a claim directly from the Department of Health and ask patients for the balance of their fees. A minority require their patients to pay the whole fee and make personal claims on the Department of Health.
The number of doctors providing general and specialist medical services in March 1971 was 2,075 and the cost per head of population in the year ended 31 March 1971 was $3.99; the average population per active practitioner was 1,354.
Pharmaceutical Benefits—Persons receiving medical attention under the Act are entitled, generally without cost to themselves, to those medicines, drugs, approved appliances, and materials, prescribed for their use by medical practitioners and which are included in the Drug Tariff.
Prescriptions passed for payment in the year ended 31 March 1972 totalled 20,031,566 or 7 per head of population. The average cost per prescription was $1.68, the cost per head of population being $11.76.
Hospital Benefits—Treatment is provided free by public hospitals where a patient is entitled to hospital benefits under the Act. In the case of private hospitals and other approved institutions benefits, paid are in partial satisfaction of claims against the patients. The rates from 1 October 1971 are as follows:
For surgical treatment $9.00 a day, with a minimum of $18.00.
For medical (including psychiatric) treatment $5.50 a day.
Free treatment is accorded outpatients at public hospitals; this also covers the supply of artificial aids, including contact lenses, hearing aids, artificial limbs, surgical footwear, ileostomy and colostomy appliances, and urinals. It does not include dental treatment or services in respect of which fees are payable under specific Social Security Regulations (X-ray diagnostic services, laboratory diagnostic services) referred to under later headings. In respect of surgical footwear, part payment by the patient is required.
Psychiatric Hospitals—Treatment of patients in public psychiatric hospitals is also free. A licensed (private) psychiatric hospital may be recognised and approved by the Minister as a hospital for the purposes of the Act, and hospital benefits in respect of treatment are payable accordingly.
Maternity Benefits—Maternity benefits cover ante-natal and post-natal advice and treatment by medical practitioners, and the services of doctors and nurses at confinements in maternity hospitals or elsewhere. Licensed maternity hospitals are entitled to receive fees of $9.00 in respect of the day of birth of the child and for each of the succeeding 14 days. Approved midwives and maternity nurses who are in attendance in cases where confinement takes place other than in a maternity hospital are entitled to receive fees at the rate of $8 for the day or days of labour and $5.40 per day for each of the 14 days succeeding the birth of the child, or $1.60 per day if a visiting obstetric nurse only.
X-ray Diagnostic Services—Free X-ray diagnostic services comprise the following:
The making of X-ray examinations with the aid of a fluorescent screen.
The taking of X-ray photographs.
The supply and administration of any drugs or other substances for the purposes of any such examination or photograph.
X-ray photographs or X-ray examinations made or taken for dental purposes or for the purposes of life assurance, visas, emigration permits, and examinations for the sole or primary purpose of obtaining medical certificates for production to some other person, are not included in the free services.
Laboratory Diagnostic Services—The benefits concerning laboratory diagnostic services comprise the supply of all materials or substances required for the purpose of providing laboratory diagnostic services, and associated medical services.
The following services are not included:
Examination of specimens for public health.
Laboratory services for dental purposes or for the purposes of life insurance.
The preparation of sera and vaccines.
Physiotherapy Benefits—Physiotherapy treatment by private physiotherapists is covered by the Social Security (Physiotherapy Benefits) Regulations 1951. The general arrangement for these benefits consists of contracts with registered physiotherapists under which they are paid from the Department of Health a fee of 50c.
No physiotherapy treatment is recognised for the purpose of the benefits unless it is given on the recommendation of a medical practitioner, and not more than 6 weeks' treatment may be given on a single recommendation except in the case of certain specified diseases, illness, etc., approved by the Director-General of Health, when the period of treatment on any one recommendation may be extended up to 6 months.
Home-nursing Services—Home-nursing services are provided free of cost under the Social Security (District Nursing Services) Regulations 1944.
Domestic Assistance—Monetary assistance is given to approved incorporated associations formed for the purpose of providing domestic assistance in homes. Assistance in this connection is restricted to the following classes:
Cases where there are one or more children under 12 years of age permanently residing in a home and the mother or other woman in charge of the home is wholly or partially incapacitated from undertaking her ordinary domestic duties by reason of pregnancy or maternity, or by reasons of accident, sickness, etc.
Cases where there are three or more children under 12 years of age permanently residing in the home, and any member of the household requires special care and attention by reason of sickness or infirmity.
Cases where all members of the household of an age or condition to help in the home are wholly or partially incapacitated from work by sickness or otherwise.
Cases where lack of domestic assistance in the home is a cause of undue hardship.
Dental Services—The Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations 1960 provide for free dental treatment. These benefits are confined to persons who are under 16 years of age. Treatment may be provided in a State dental clinic or by a contracting dentist for whom there is a prescribed scale of fees.
Artificial Aids—The Social Security (Hospital Benefits for Outpatients) Regulations 1947 made provision for the supply of artificial aids, such as artificial limbs, hearing aids, and contact lenses.
Contact Lenses—These may be supplied in respect of the following optical disabilities: (a) conical cornea, (b) high myopia, where the degree of myopia present in the greatest axis of the better eye is not less than—10 diopters, (c) monocular aphakia, if the restoration of binocular vision is highly desirable by reason of the patient's occupation or other circumstances and binocular vision cannot be restored without the use of contact lenses. In each case the supply of such lenses must be recommended by an approved ophthalmologist.
Lenses may also be supplied in respect of any other ocular condition which cannot be corrected by ordinary spectacles; in these cases recommendation by two ophthalmologists is necessary.
Hearing Aids—Individual electrical hearing aids may be supplied subject to the following conditions:
The patient possesses a hearing loss of at least 35 decibels in the better ear over the significant frequencies of speech or such other loss of a lesser degree as, in the opinion of an otologist employed or engaged by a hospital board, renders the use of an aid necessary.
The patient's hearing loss is such that in the opinion of the otologist it is capable of correction or marked improvement by the use of the type of hearing aid supplied or approved for the purpose of the benefit.
It is provided that in respect of patients who satisfy these conditions but who do not wish to avail themselves of the hearing aid issued free of charge by hospital boards there may be paid a sum not exceeding $26 towards the purchase of any aid approved for the purposes of these benefits. If a patient has received a benefit for a hearing aid within the preceding 5 years, the hospital board may pay half (or up to a maximum of $13) of the cost of replacement, provided that the replacement aid will assist hearing more than the existing aid and that the patient is otherwise eligible.
Artificial Limbs—The free supply of artificial limbs is subject to the following conditions:
The patient has not obtained or is not entitled to obtain a limb as an ex-serviceman under the provisions of the War Pensions Regulations 1956 or under the provisions of the Accident Compensation Act 1972.
The supply of the limb is recommended by an approved orthopaedic surgeon.
The limb is of an approved type and can, in the opinion of the supplier's orthopaedic adviser, be satisfactorily fitted.
For the purposes of the regulations “artificial limb” includes artificial arms, artificial hands, artificial legs, and artificial feet, and includes limb socks for such limbs and for female amputees, replacement understockings.
The following table gives details of expenditure on the various classes of medical benefits during the last five financial years.
|* Mainly on account of hospital benefits.|
|Private hospital fees||379||331||341||377||394|
|Medical practitioners' fees||1,630||1,697||2,542||2,670||3,317|
|Obstetric nurses' fees||3||4||2||3||4|
|General medical services||8,289||8,210||9,099||9,785||9,692|
|Specialist medical services||–||–||–||1,256||1,286|
|Special arrangements, purchase of sites and erection of residences for medical officers||329||366||406||534||660|
|Private hospital loans||31||300||446||801||390|
|Grants towards operating costs of Karitane hospitals||28||23||28||40||39|
ACCOMMODATION SERVICES—Government assistance is offered to religious and voluntary organisations and local authorities in providing housing, accommodation, and services for elderly people and others whom it is considered are in special need. Under this partnership with Government, the social service agencies of all the major religious bodies, as well as other welfare organisations, have established additional accommodation for the aged, frail, and sick who need residential care in either an old people's home or a geriatric hospital. Where it is not possible to meet the need of elderly people through these agencies, the provision of residential care for the aged becomes a hospital board responsibility. At 31 March 1972 religious and welfare organisations provided 6,315 home and hospital beds for the elderly. Hospital boards maintain 1,037 old people's home beds, while approximately 4,300 of their hospital beds (38 percent) are required for care of the elderly sick, either on a short-stay or long-term basis.
For the elderly who are ambulant and able to care for themselves but have a housing need and whose resources are limited, local authorities are encouraged and assisted by Government to build specially designed flats. These flats enable many elderly people to retain their independence for longer than would otherwise be the case (see Section 19, Building Construction and Housing). Some 770 flats have also been provided by religious and voluntary organisations for this category of elderly persons, generally in conjunction with their residential accommodation.
Other measures which are of importance in assisting elderly people to remain in their homes as long as possible are receiving increased attention. Chief amongst these are the provision of district nursing services, home aid, meals-on-wheels, laundry services, and occupational therapy. In general the services are provided by hospital boards with voluntary organisations and old people's welfare councils assisting in various ways. The importance of old people's clubs and social centres, with an adequate range of services, is also receiving increasing recognition. Government lottery funds are being used to assist in providing suitable premises and assisting welfare councils with administrative costs. At 31 December 1971 the number of meals delivered daily by the meals-on-wheels service was 3,551; the service is operated by 28 hospital boards.
Old People's Homes and Hospitals—Subject to maximum subsidies of $7,200 per bed for old people's homes and $8,600 for a geriatric hospital, capital cost limits per bed of $9,000 and $12,000 respectively, and certain other conditions, religious or welfare organisations may be granted 100 percent of the approved capital cost of providing accommodation for old people. In addition, since April 1966, the policy has been widened to provide a 50 percent subsidy towards the cost of approved improvements and the upgrading of existing accommodation, and 75 percent for fire protection work as required by the local authority. The administration of policy is a Department of Health responsibility.
During the year 1971–72, subsidies amounting to $4,089,101 were approved to assist in the provision of accommodation for 620 old people. From April 1950 to 31 March 1972, subsidies totalling $22,147,969 have been approved, and buildings erected as a result will accommodate 5,429 old people.
In a survey of one group of old people's homes in 1971 it was found that residents fell into the following age groups: 70 years and under, 4 percent; 71–75 years, 7 percent; 76–80 years, 23 percent; 81–85 years, 30 percent; 86 years and over, 36 percent.
Housing of Elderly—Local authorities provide flats for elderly persons under a scheme administered by the Department of Health (see Section 19).
Services for the Intellectually Handicapped—Since 1954 there has been a subsidy of up to 50 percent on the capital cost of approved buildings and furnishings acquired for the purpose of providing short-stay homes for intellectually handicapped children. In 1963 Government also extended the capital subsidy to include hostels built by the Intellectually Handicapped Children's Society for children who are attending occupation groups run by the Department of Education. In 1966 the cost of land and professional fees (architect and quantity surveyor) were included in assessing subsidy on hostels and sheltered workshops with a maximum subsidy on hostels of $2,400 per bed. In addition, a maintenance subsidy of $1.60 per day is paid in respect of these children under 16 years of age. Since 1968 there has been a capital subsidy of $400 per place for day care centres. In 1969 Government approved subsidies of 50 percent of salaries of staff for day care centres, sheltered workshops, and of approved branch administrators. In 1970 the capital subsidy for hostels was increased to $2,880 per bed.
The administration of this policy is the responsibility of the Departments of Health and Social Welfare. The administration of capital subsidies for sheltered workshops and day care centres for the intellectually handicapped was transferred to the Social Welfare Department in 1970. That department also pays the salary subsidy for approved staff employed at day care centres and sheltered workshops.
The total amount expended on special subsidies for short-stay homes, hostels, sheltered workshops, and day care centres during the year ended 31 March 1971 was $308,885. In addition, $111,233 was paid by way of operating costs during the same period.
VOLUNTARY WELFARE ORGANISATIONS—Over the years voluntary welfare organisations have made valuable contributions to certain aspects of the field of public health. In many cases they are encouraged and assisted in their work by grants from the public funds. Among more important of these organisations are the Plunket Society, the Children's Health Camps Board, St. John Ambulance (N.Z.), the New Zealand Red Cross Society, the Crippled Children Society, and the New Zealand Federation of Tuberculosis Associations, the New Zealand Foundation for the Blind, and the New Zealand Epilepsy Association.
The Plunket Society—the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children—is concerned with the welfare of babies. The society trains its own infant-welfare nurses, conducts infant-welfare clinics, and maintains Karitane hospitals throughout the country for premature babies or difficult feeders. In rural areas where there is no Plunket clinic, public health nurses do infant-welfare work.
The Children's Health Camps Board maintains six health camps for children with physical health problems and minor emotional disorders. The federation works in close co-operation with the Department of Health. A portion of the finance for the federation's activities is derived from the proceeds of the annual health-stamp appeal.
The St. John Ambulance (N.Z.) has divisions throughout the country carrying out free ambulance and first-aid work and instruction in first aid and home nursing. It is a branch of the Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem.
The New Zealand Red Cross Society, a part of the International Red Cross Committee, has centres and subcentres throughout the country. It gives training in first aid, home nursing, hygiene and sanitation, and emergency transportation of the injured. Graduates of these classes form voluntary-aid detachments that in peacetime are recruited as aids in hospitals, and in wartime may be recruited for service overseas as well.
The Crippled Children Society keeps a register of all crippled children, helps them to acquire all possible medical treatment, and undertakes vocational training and home education where these are required.
The New Zealand Federation of Tuberculosis Associations looks after the interests of patients suffering from tuberculosis. It assists the Department of Health with health education of the public regarding tuberculosis and concerns itself with after-care and vocational training and guidance of patients.
The New Zealand Epilepsy Association, with a Dominion Council and 11 branches, helps epileptics and their families in every possible way. It issues pamphlets, gives lectures, shows films, and fosters medical research. Social workers are employed by branches who can afford to do so. A residential hostel, Park Lodge, for young men and women who have regular employment or who require short-term accommodation for special reasons, is maintained in Auckland. The association is affiliated to the International Bureau for Epilepsy.
GENERAL—The Hospitals Act 1957 requires the Minister of Health to ensure the provision and maintenance by hospital boards of hospitals and hospital services and to encourage the provision and maintenance of private hospitals. The Department of Health advises the Minister on or determines in respect of boards the extent and standard of hospital and allied services, the building requirements to provide these services, the numbers and levels of the main groups of professional staffs to be employed, the appropriate annual financial grants, the salaries and conditions of employment of about 60 percent of staff and the measure of financial assistance to be given to private hospitals, including loan finance. The department also licenses and supervises private hospitals, inspects the work of all hospitals and compiles financial and statistical data about them. There are 30 hospital boards and over 150 private hospitals.
Since 1 April 1958, the cost of hospital treatment in public hospitals has been borne entirely by the State. Private hospitals which provide about one-sixth of the available beds, receive payment from the Government for hospital treatment of patients; additional fees may be claimed from the patients.
Hospital and home nursing services involve the Department of Health in establishing and assisting to maintain minimum standards of nursing service in general hospitals, in homes for the aged, etc., in advising, inspecting and reporting on such services in hospitals; and generally advising the Minister on nursing.
Experience has been that, generally speaking, boards, committees and councils play a most valuable part in helping to formulate health policies and programmes, and, in certain cases, in administering policies or programmes laid down by Government. The setting-up of such agencies enables the Minister and the Department of Health to draw upon expert advice and wide experience and ensures that non-departmental people with up-to-date knowledge, day-to-day working experience and responsibility in particular areas of health play a worthwhile part in health administration. A partnership of this kind is particularly important in the case of public hospitals, which are run by democratically elected boards. Recognition of this is seen in the requirements of the Hospitals Act that the Minister of Health may not act in certain public hospital matters without a recommendation from the Hospitals Advisory Council.
The department's objectives in the case of physical medicine and rehabilitation are to stimulate interest and co-ordinate treatment of diseases such as chronic arthritis, poliomyelitis, and cerebral palsy; to promote and maintain a unified rehabilitation service and to maintain and develop physiotherapy and occupational therapy services. It supervises physiotherapy and occupational therapy training, licensing and services, and supervises the provision of rehabilitation services in public hospitals. (See Section 5A.)
The welfare services involving the department include the medical and social care and general welfare of the aged. The department advises the Minister on subsidies to be paid to local authorities and religious and welfare organisations which provide special housing, home and hospital beds for the elderly, and administers legislation governing the standards and oversight of old people's homes.
Private Hospitals—Hospital benefits are paid to patients in registered private hospitals according to the nature of the treatment given: For surgical and maternity treatment, $9 per day; for medical (including psychiatric) treatment, $5.50 per day.
Loans are made to private hospitals where the need for such beds is established.
HOSPITAL BOARDS—General and psychiatric hospitals are controlled by locally elected hospital boards. A hospital board of 8 to 14 members is elected every 3 years for each hospital district. It is the duty of every hospital board to provide, maintain and staff such institutions, hospital accommodation, and medical, nursing, and other services as the Minister of Health considers necessary.
In recent years there has been a pressure of activity, replanning, and development in all medical services for which hospital boards are responsible. This replanning of medical services has been undertaken against a background of sharp population increases in most urban areas. More rapid and comfortable transport is encouraging the build-up of specialist diagnostic and therapeutic resources in regional centres. The Health Services Research Unit, headed by a medical practitioner in the Department of Health, has the task of applying techniques such as operational research and work study to problems of management in the health services, particularly in hospitals, and ascertaining in what ways efficiency can be improved.
The Director-General of Health is authorised to visit and inspect hospitals and to appoint assistant inspectors, and is required to report to Parliament through the Minister on the administration of the Hospitals Act.
HOSPITAL ACCOMMODATION: Public Institutions—The number of beds in public institutions available at 31 March 1972 and the average number occupied during the year are set out in the following table. These statistics relate to patients and inmates in all institutions (general, maternity, special hospitals, and old people's homes) including institutions under the control of the Department of Health.
|Type of Bed||Beds Available||Average Number of Occupied Beds per Day|
|Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population|
|Total hospital beds||17,024||5.9||12,960.1||4.5|
In addition to the 17,024 hospital beds in public institutions there were 3,920 (3,683 general and 237 maternity) in the 152 licensed private hospitals. If the beds in licensed private hospitals are included, the ratio of beds per 1,000 of population becomes 6.1 for general beds and 1.1 for maternity beds.
The average number of occupied hospital beds per 1,000 of population in hospital districts varies from 3.3 to 8.5. This variation can be accounted for in the main by the fact that many hospitals to a varying extent draw patients from other districts. Other factors which influence the figures are the availability of medical practitioners and their habits in sending patients to hospital or retaining them for home treatment, the availability of private-hospital beds, housing facilities, domestic assistance, private or district nursing assistance, and the efficiency of the outpatient departments.
The number of institutions coming under the heading of public institutions for the year ended 31 March 1972 was 199, comprising 77 general hospitals (3 of which were also old people's homes), 2 homes for cripples, 16 non-acute hospitals, 4 convalescent hospitals, 78 maternity hospitals, 22 old people's homes, and 1 children's home.
The following statistics for the latest three March years relate to all public institutions including institutions under the control of the Department of Health.
|Beds of all descriptions for patients or inmates||17,874||17,964||18,200|
|Beds per 1,000 of population||6.4||6.3||6.3|
|Average beds occupied per 1,000 of population||5.0||4.9||4.8|
|Persons who were inpatients or inmates||331,460||341,417||348,139|
|Number per 1,000 of population who were inpatients or inmates||118.9||119.6||119.8|
|Attendances by outpatients (including dental treatment)||3,235,890||3,491,910||3,739,624|
|Attendances per 1,000 of population||1,160.4||1,223.1||1,287.3|
The supplement to the annual report of the Director-General of Health on hospital statistics contains further detail on public institutions.
General Hospitals—In the following table the figures relate only to general hospitals under the control of hospital boards.
|Year||Inpatients Treated||Average Number of Occupied Beds per Day||Average Turnover of Patients Treated per Occupied Bed||Available Beds||Outpatient Attendances (Including Dental)|
|Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population|
Private Hospitals—The total number of private hospitals licensed in New Zealand at 31 March 1972 was 152, providing 237 maternity, 33 psychiatric, and 3,650 beds for general cases. There were 5,170 confinements in private hospitals in the year to 31 March 1971.
Census of Public and Private Hospitals—A census of public and private hospitals was held on 23–24 March 1971 at the same time as the national census. The numbers, percentages, and rates per 1,000 population of patients in hospital at that time together with the data obtained from similar censuses, held in 1961 and 1966 are shown in the following table.
The percentage of private patients increased from 17.6 percent in 1961 to 18.9 percent in 1966 and to 21.4 percent in 1971.
The rates for patients in public hospitals at the times of the censuses decreased slightly for ages below 45 years, showed little movement for years between 45 and 79 years, and considerable increase for patients aged 80 years and over.
A somewhat similar picture is shown for private hospitals. The rates for age groups below 65 years showed very little change during the 10 years, those for patients aged between 65 and 79 years increased a little, and those for patients aged 80 years and over increased very sharply indeed, being twice as high in 1971 as they were in 1961.
In terms of numbers, the proportion in 1971 of patients aged 80 years and over was 19 percent or nearly 1 in 5 for public hospitals, and 46.5 percent or nearly 1 in 2 for private hospitals.
Full information of the hospitals census is being compiled for publication in special reports.
* Rate per 1,000 population in age group.
† Based on 1970 mean population.