Table of Contents
Social, economic, administrative, and political organisation is described in the New Zealand Official Yearbook and amplified by a wealth of statistics. Within New Zealand the Official Yearbook is not only a standard reference work for the general public, but is also a source of material for students and research workers. As international relationships grow, the Official Yearbook helps present New Zealand to the world in which this country has expanding interests.
In recent years new introductions have been added to most sections; the aim has been to provide a background guide to which users can relate detailed information.
In this issue all values expressed in New Zealand currency have been converted to decimal currency, which was introduced into New Zealand on 10 July 1967. The pound (£) used in previous issues is equivalent to two dollars ($). At the same time, the opportunity has been taken to round many more figures in the tables to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit; this aids assimilation and facilitates comparisons.
There is a special article on scientific research included in this issue.
The photographic section features natural attractions of New Zealand.
Additional detail on many subjects may be obtained from publications of the Department of Statistics. These are listed towards the end of this Yearbook and are available from the Government Printer.
I desire to express my appreciation to officers of this and other Government Departments for their assistance in preparing material and to the Government Printer and his staff for co-operation in the printing of this volume. My thanks for their comprehensive contribution to the production of the Yearbook are extended to Mr J. B. McKinney, M.A., ADMIN, PROF. Editor of Publications and members of the Editorial Branch and Statistical Draughting Unit of the Department of Statistics.
|Department of Statistics.|
10 July 1967.
The interpretation of the symbols used in the tables throughout this publication is as follows:
- nil or zero
. . figures not available
not yet available — space left blank
. . . not applicable
- - amount too small to be expressed
All values are shown in New Zealand currency, unless another currency is specifically stated. The pound (£) in previous issues has been superseded by the dollar ($) two of which are equivalent to the previous pound. The cent is one-hundredth part of the dollar and is equivalent to 1.2 pence.
Unless otherwise stated, a ton is a long ton (2,240 lb).
On occasions figures are rounded off to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. This may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of the individual items as shown in tables. Where figures are rounded the unit is in general expressed in words below the table headings, but where space does not allow this the unit may be shown as 000 for thousand, etc.
Figures for fiscal years ended 31 March (the fiscal year) are indicated in the text and headings of tables; otherwise figures are mainly for calendar years.
|bd. ft.||board feet||m||mile|
|cu. ft.||cubic feet||N||north|
|cwt||hundredweight||n.e.i.||not elsewhere included|
|d.||pence||n.e.c.||not elsewhere classified|
|h.p.||horsepower||sq. ft.||square feet|
|in.||inch||sup. ft.||super feet|
The boundaries of statistical areas are shown on the map inside the back cover
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION—The islands of New Zealand have been shaped from the projecting crests of earth folds which rise as broad ridges from the floor of the South Pacific Ocean, 1,000 miles east of the continent of Australia. There are three main islands—North, South, and Stewart separated only by relatively narrow straits—with adjacent islets and a small group called Chatham Islands, 530 statute miles to the east of Lyttelton. Dating from 1842 the administrative boundaries of New Zealand, exclusive of island territories, extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from 162 degrees east longitude to 173 degrees west longitude. Inhabited outlying minor islands are Raoul Island in the Kermadec Group, 620 statute miles north-east of the Bay of Islands, and Campbell Island, 370 statute miles south of Stewart Island.
New Zealand is also responsible for the administration of two island groups in the southwest Pacific—Niue Island and the Tokelau Islands. These are incorporated within the boundaries of New Zealand. Niue Island is 1,540 statute miles north-east of Auckland, while the Tokelau Islands are 704 statute miles further north. The territorial area reaches to within 8 degrees of the Equator. The Cook Islands, previously administered by New Zealand, became self-governing from 4 August 1965, although New Zealand continues to be responsible for their external affairs and defence; the principal island, Rarotonga, is 1,870 statute miles north-east of Auckland.
The Ross Dependency, some 1,500 statute miles to the south, has been under New Zealand's jurisdiction since 1923 and comprises the sector of the Antarctic continent between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60 degrees south.
The administrative area of New Zealand can be classified as follows. In this Yearbook, in general, New Zealand refers to the group of islands shown in (a) only, unless it is expressly stated that the other islands as a whole or in part are included.
|(a) Exclusive of island territories—||Area in Square Miles|
* Situated off North Island.
† Situated off South Island.
|Uninhabited (areas in parentheses)||263|
|Three Kings* (3); Snares† (1); Solander† (1/2); Antipodes† (24); Bounty† (1/2); Auckland† (234).|
|Total New Zealand, exclusive of island territories||103,736|
|(b) Island territories—||Area in Square Miles|
|Tokelau Islands, comprised of—|
|Fakaofo Island, Nukunono Island, Atafu Island||4|
|(c) Cook and associated islands, comprised of—||Area in Square Miles|
|Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Mangaia, Mauke, Atiu, Takutea, Mitiaro, Manuae and Te-au-o-tu.|
|Palmerston, Pukapuka, Penrhyn, Suwarrow, Manihiki, Nassau, Rakahanga.|
|(d) Ross Dependency||(Estimated) 160,000|
Western Samoa, which had been administered as a trust territory since 1946, became an independent territory from 1 January 1962.
The relevant Proclamations, defining from time to time the administrative area of New Zealand, are briefly referred to in Section 2.
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Coastline—Since the combined length of the North and South Islands extends just over a thousand miles, and since the width of neither Island exceeds 280 miles at its broadest point, New Zealand possesses a very lengthy coastline in proportion to its area. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland Peninsula, the New Zealand land mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis, parallel to the direction of its mountain chains.
By reason of the latter fact the coastline is, on the whole, not greatly indented; and, as a consequence, New Zealand is not well endowed with natural harbours. In the North Island, Auckland and Wellington are two safe natural harbours of which the fullest commercial use is made and the use of Tauranga harbour is expanding. On the east coast of the North Auckland Peninsula several deep and sheltered harbours exist, but production from the hinterland is limited. In the South Island the Marlborough Sounds and the West Coast Sounds form perfect land-locked harbours, but owing to their situations and to the rugged nature of the terrain they have—with the exception of Queen Charlotte Sound—little or no commercial utility. Where vital localities have not been endowed with ideal harbours it has been necessary to improve existing facilities by dredging and by breakwater construction, etc. In this manner efficient ports, capable of accommodating overseas vessels, have been formed in Lyttelton, Otago, and Bluff Harbours. On the west coast of both Islands the strong ocean drifts and high seas cause shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances, while on the east coast of the South Island similar circumstances prevail, due to the large quantities of shingle brought down by the rivers being spread along the coast by ocean currents. The mountainous nature of the country makes the haulage of goods to and from the better equipped natural harbours both costly and difficult, and the construction and maintenance of further ports at various points along the coasts of both Islands has been necessary, either by dredging river mouths or by harbour-construction work.
Mountains—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 650 ft contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (8,260 ft), Ruapehu (9,175 ft), Ngauruhoe (7,515 ft), and Tongariro (6,458 ft), they do not exceed an altitude of 6,000 ft. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe have been particularly active from time to time. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.
The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Turakirae Head, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa Ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto Ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Moehau Range parallels the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only area above 4,000 ft on the west coast of this Island.
The South Island is much more mountainous than the North, but shows fewer manifestations of recent volcanic activity. Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (12,349 ft), while no fewer than 16 peaks exceed 10,000 ft. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell Ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Paparoa Range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Richmond Ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.
As might be expected, the higher mountains of the South Island have exerted a greater influence on the economic development of the country than those of the North Island. For many years the Southern Alps were an effective barrier to communication by land between the east and west coasts, while their climatic effects on the Canterbury plains and Otago plateaus determined the types of cultivation undertaken. Moreover, the existence of much elevated open country led to the development of pastoral holdings on a large scale. While the mountains in the North Island are not as high nor as extensive as those of the South Island, in the early days they effectively isolated various portions of the coastal plains and valleys. Their effect on climatic conditions, however, is considerably less, the rainfall being more evenly distributed. Owing to this more even distribution of the rainfall, and to the existence of considerable areas of lower relief, the foothills of the mountain systems were heavily wooded, and so proved a hindrance to agrarian development.
There are at least 223 named peaks of 7,500 ft or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 9,000 ft in the South Island.
|Mountain or Peak||Height (Feet)|
|St. David's Dome||10,443|
|Elie de Beaumont||10,200|
|De la Beche||9,817|
Glaciers—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman Glacier has a length of 18 miles and a width of 1 1/4 miles. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (11 miles), the Mueller (8 miles), the Godley (8 miles), and the Hooker (7 1/4 miles), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is at an altitude of somewhat over 2,000 ft. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 9 3/4 miles and 8 1/2 miles respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 670 ft and 690 ft.
As will be realised, these glaciers are an important tourist attraction, and as such have definite economic significance. Moreover, those glaciers on the eastern slopes which feed rivers utilised for irrigation and hydro-electric purposes are valuable in that they help to ensure a steady volume of water throughout the year.
Rivers—Of the numerous New Zealand rivers few are of sufficient length or volume to be navigable. Moreover, owing to the high relief of the country, they are mostly swift-flowing, while, as mentioned previously, nearly all are obstructed at their mourns by bars. For the purpose of internal communication, therefore, they are of little economic utility, and only in two or three isolated instances have they been thus consistently used. With improved roading conditions, however, their traffic has become negligible even in these cases.
As sources of hydro-electric power New Zealand rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of ice-free water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. At the present time the Waikato and the Mangahao in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, Clutha, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydroelectric schemes. The characteristics just mentioned are also important for purposes of irrigation, but, owing to the country's reliable rainfall, there are few areas other than in Canterbury and Otago where the rivers are so utilised.
Following is a list of the more important rivers. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system, whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.
*Cook Strait is defined as
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waihou (or Thames)||95|
|Waiapu (from source, Mata River)||75|
|Waipaoa (from source, Waipapa Stream)||70|
|Wairoa (from source, Hangaroa River)||85|
|Mohaka (from source, Taharua River)||95|
|Flowing into Cook Strait*—|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waikato (from source, Upper Waikato River)||270|
|Wairoa (from source, Waiotu Stream)||115|
|Hokianga (from source, Waihou River)||45|
|Flowing into Cook Strait—|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waiau-uha (or Waiau)||105|
|Rangitata (from source, Clyde River)||75|
|Waitaki (from source, Hopkins River)||135|
|Clutha (from source, Makarora River)||210|
|Flowing into Foveaux Strait—|
|Aparima (Jacobs River)||70|
|Waiau (from source, Clinton River)||135|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Waiho (from source, Callery River)||20|
|Buller (from source, Travers River)||110|
|Aorere (from source, Spee River)||45|
|Takaka (from source, Cobb River)||45|
|Waimea (from source, Wai-iti River)||30|
The discovery in 1861 that the beds of numerous rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the economic development of the country. Not only did it lead to an increase in population and in wealth, but, through the following of the numerous streams to their sources, it also led to the rapid exploration of large tracts of remote country. The exploitation of these deposits has been carried on with varying degrees of success up to the present time by both manual and mechanical means, but the amount of gold now extracted is comparatively small.
A further factor in connection with the rivers is that, owing to the very successful acclimatisation of freshwater fish, notably trout, many of them now provide exceptionally fine fishing.
Lakes—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the two Islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while those of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, are of interest by reason of the neighbouring thermal activity. Owing to the excellence of their fishing, the North Island lakes possess an added tourist attraction. In both Islands the larger lakes are situated at high altitudes, and their consequent remoteness renders them unsuitable as a means of communication. In their functions as reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the streams draining them and as a means of flood prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involved, Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, and Wakatipu in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect. A series of narrow man-made lakes have been produced in connection with hydro-electric development along some of the rivers. Early in 1965 Lake Benmore, New Zealand's largest artificial lake, was created. This lies on the Waitaki River in North Otago and is the first in a series of lakes to be created along this river in connection with the production of hydro electricity. The lake covers 301 square miles in area and consists of two arms, the main arm being 18 1/2 miles in length and the Ahuriri Arm 11 1/2 miles in length.
Some particulars of the more important lakes are given in the following table.
|Lake||Length, in Miles||Greatest Breadth, in Miles||Area, in Square Miles||Drainage Area, in Square Miles||Approximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Feet per Second||Maximum Height Above Sea Level in Feet (Range in Brackets)*||Greatest Depth, in Feet|
* The range in lake levels is not available for all lakes.
|Rotorua||7 ½||6||31||203||..||920 (2)||84|
|Tarawera||7||5 ½||14||72||273||981 (2)||285|
|Rotoaira||3||1 ¾||5||50||240||1,852 (3)||..|
|Rotoma||3 ¼||2 ¼||4 ½||12||..||1,036 (6)||..|
|Okareka||1 ½||1 ¼||1 ¼||8||..||1,160 (4)||..|
|Rotomahana||4||1 ¾||3 ½||27||..||1,116 (22)||..|
|Rerewhakaitu||2 ½||1 ¾||3||..||..||1,441 (4)||..|
|Rotokakahi||2 ½||1||1 ¾||11||40||1,298||..|
|Maraetai||4 ½||½||1 ½||2,390||6,730||618||..|
|Rotoiti||9||1 ½||4||71||440||2,020 (6)||250|
|Rotoroa||5 ½||2||9||145||960||1,462 (5)||499|
|Brunner||5 ½||5 ½||15||160||..||280||357|
|Sumner||6||1 ¼||5 ½||130||..||..||..|
|Tekapo||11||3 ½||37||550||3,060||2,347 (25)||620|
|Pukaki||9 ½||5||32||523||4,520||1,640 (30)||..|
|Te Anau||38||6||133||1,275||9,730||686 (15)||906|
|Hauroko||22||1 ½||27 ½||225||1,100||513 (6)||..|
|Ahuriri Arm||11 ½||2 ¾||304||3,000||12,000||1,181||315|
|Main Arm||18 ½|
GEOLOGY—The islands of New Zealand are part of the unstable circum-Pacific Mobile Belt; this is a region where volcanoes are active and where the earth's crust has long been buckling and breaking at a geologically rapid rate. The interplay, in the past, of earth movements and erosion has made the sedimentary rocks that cover almost three-quarters of New Zealand. Land areas that the earth movements have raised have been attacked by erosion, and the sand, mud, shingle, and other debris thus formed has been carried away to the sea, where it has accumulated in great thicknesses to form rocks such as sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and conglomerate; the shells and other skeletons of sea creatures have accumulated to form thick layers of limestone. Many of the sedimentary rocks are in distinct layers called strata; earth movements have later raised them above the sea to form land, and the strata are in many places tilted and folded by pressure. Seas have advanced and retreated over New Zealand many times, and these sedimentary rocks represent almost every geological period since the Cambrian (see Time Scale); their age is revealed by the shells, foraminifera, and other fossils that they contain.
As well as sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks of various ages, New Zealand incorporates in its complex structure schist, gneiss, marble and other metamorphic rocks, and granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, and other intrusive igneous rocks. Most of these metamorphic and intrusive rocks are hundreds of millions of years old—they were formed at depth in the earth's crust early in New Zealand's history, in the "roots'' of ancient mountain ranges, long ago destroyed, and are visible at the land surface today only because erosion has removed thousands of feet thickness of other rocks that once covered them. The metamorphic rocks developed when huge, elongated sea basins (geosynclines) were formed, in which tens of thousands of feet thickness of sediments accumulated; when these geosynclines were slowly compressed during major mountain-building episodes the deeper sediments were subjected to great pressure and shearing stress, which caused new minerals and structures to develop, changing the sediments into metamorphic rocks. The granites and other instrusive rocks are coarsely crystalline, and are usually considered to have been intruded into the outer crust in molten state during mountain building; some, however, may be the products of intense metamorphism of sediments.
|GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE|
|Eras||Periods||Approximate Time Since|
Period Began (Years)
|Cenozoic||Holocene (Recent)||Quaternary||10 thousand|
Geological History—Evidence of the earliest-known events in New Zealand's history is given by ancient rocks in Nelson, Westland, and Fiordland that were formed in the early Paleozoic era, perhaps as long as 600 million years ago (some in Westland may be older). They include thick, geosynclinal sedimentary rocks; this suggests that a large land mass existed at that time to yield the great volume of sediments, but little has been deduced about its shape or position.
The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood; for a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period—probably until the early cretaceous period—an extensive geosyncline occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during much of late Paleozoic time, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic tuff were included in the materials that accumulated in the geosyncline, but in the later Permian and Mesozoic times the sediments were mainly sand and mud, derived probably from some land west of present New Zealand; they were compacted into hard greywacke (a type of sandstone) and argillite (hard, dark mudstone).
In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place: although geosynclinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand, the geosyncline elsewhere was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled and broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous landmass. Some of the geosynclinal deposits, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by the tremendous deforming pressures to which the geosyncline was subjected.
The time that has elapsed since the intense folding of the strata in the New Zealand Geosyncline in the mid-Cretaceous period may be considered as the later geological history of this country; it embraces roughly 100 million years.
During the early part of this late history, erosion slowly wore down the mountains that had risen, producing a land of low relief. Over these worn-down stumps of the Mesozoic mountains the sea gradually advanced, beginning its transgression earlier in some areas than in others: in the early Cretaceous period it began to submerge land in the region of present North Auckland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some parts of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and in the very early Tertiary, land became so reduced in size and relief that little sediment was formed, and only comparatively thin deposits of fine bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine, white, foraminiferal limestone accumulated. In some areas New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated, in swamps on the surface of the old land; these became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.
By the Oligocene period, most of the land was submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. (Scattered, remnant patches of this Oligocene limestone furnish most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime.)
After the Oligocene submergence earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and rapidly filled with sediments. New Zealand's late Tertiary environment has been described as follows: "The pattern of folds, welts and troughs that developed was on a finer scale than in the Mesozoic . . . the land moved up and down as a series of narrow, short, interfingering or branching folds. . . . we can think of Tertiary New Zealand as an archipelago. . . . a kind of writhing of part of the mobile Pacific margins seems to have gone on . . .*'' The thick deposits of soft, grey mudstone and sandstone that now make up large areas of the North Island, and some parts of South Island, are the deposits that accumulated rapidly in the many sea basins, large and small, that developed in the later Tertiary.
*"New Zealand Biogeography'' by Charles A. Fleming. Tuatara Vol. 10, No. 2, June 1962, pp. 53-108.
Very late in the Cenozoic era—in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods—one of the greatest episodes of mountain building in New Zealand's history took place. Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and other main mountain chains, and determined the general shape and size of the present islands of New Zealand. Much of the movement during this mountain building period (the Kaikoura Orogeny) took the form of displacement of blocks of the earth's crust along fractures called faults. The total movements of the earth blocks adjacent to major faults amounted to thousands of feet; it must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each of a few inches or feet. The blocks adjacent to "transcurrent'' faults moved not only vertically but also laterally along the faults. The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well preserved tilted fault blocks bounded by fault-scarps—steep faces hundreds or even thousands of feet high. Fault movements continue to the present day, and have accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features such as scarplets, fault ponds, and shutter ridges show where movement has been occurring in recent centuries.
Erosion during this time has eaten into the major landscape forms that the earth movements have built, carving the detailed landscape pattern of peaks, ridges, valleys, and gorges, and has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans, and other constructional forms; at the coast, waves have driven back the headlands, and built beaches, spits, and bars. The Pleistocene period was the time of the Ice Age, and in the high mountains of the South Island glaciers carved deep valleys and carried huge loads of rock, dumping them as moraines. The late Pleistocene glaciers carved the fiords of Fiordland and the basins occupied by most South Island lakes; there were small glaciers also on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, and on Mount Egmont and the Tararua Range.
Volcanic activity of the past few million years has played an important part in making the rocks and shaping the landscape of parts of the central and northern North Island; Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, achieved much of its growth then, too. The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand have been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty Coast: andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later to build the huge volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe; more than 2,000 cubic miles of molten rhyolitic magma was erupted in the form of ignimbrite, pumice, and rhyolite lava, building up the Volcanic Plateau.
The Geological Survey, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, has built up this body of geological knowledge.
Geological Maps—The geological maps show the present distribution of major rock groups in New Zealand, brought about by the events and processes that have been summarised in previous paragraphs. (These maps were originally prepared for the New Zealand Encyclopaedia.)
Older Rocks—Much of the late Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rock that once; must have covered a large part of the South Island has been worn off by erosion since the Kaikoura Orogeny, and the "undermass'' of old rocks has been exposed.
The oldest of these rocks lie to the west: Fiordland is made up mainly of metamorphic diorite, granite, and coarse schist, gneiss, and marble, with Ordovician graptolite-bearing slates in its south-west extremity; greywackes and argillites of possibly pre-Cambrian age occur in Westland and south-west Nelson, and further north in Nelson there are large areas of complexly folded Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Large granitic masses, hundreds of square miles in area, occur in Westland, Nelson, and Stewart Island.
These ancient rocks terminate with an abrupt boundary (which shows clearly even on this small-scale map) extending from Milford Sound along the western margin of the Southern Alps. This boundary is the Alpine Fault, a great fracture that divides the South Island into two areas of dissimilar geological structure: to the west of it, and in Fiordland, are the granites and other ancient rocks just described; to the east, the undermass rocks are predominantly the sedimentary and marine volcanic rocks of the New Zealand Geosyncline, and their metamorphosed forms, of later Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. From Marlborough, through Canterbury to North Otago, the map shows an almost continuous expanse of these rocks; here they are mainly sparsely fossiliferous greywackes and argillite strata of Triassic and Jurassic age. On the western flanks of the Southern Alps, and in Otago, these sedimentary rocks merge gradually with schist and gneiss. Those of the Southern Alps show on the map as a very narrow belt, cut off by the Alpine Fault, but the southern schists form a belt some 60 miles wide extending for about 150 miles across Otago. To the south, also, this schist mass merges gradually with sedimentary rocks of the New Zealand Geosyncline, here of Permian age: these strata, mainly tuffs and tuffaceous greywackes forming a belt that stretches across Southland, are the northern limb of a major downfold or syncline; Triassic and Jurassic strata occupy its core, making up much hill country of Southland. The southern limb rocks include much marine volcanic rock, and in the core of the syncline in western Southland a belt of dunite and serpentine is intruded and is well exposed in the Olivine and Red Hill ranges.
A sequence of rocks very like that of Southland is found also in eastern Nelson; here, fossiliferous Triassic rocks and Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks closely resembling those of Southland are found, and a belt of dunite and serpentine (the Nelson "mineral belt'') intrudes them. It has been suggested that the Nelson and Southland rocks, which terminate abruptly at the Alpine Fault and its continuation as the Wairau Fault, were originally joined, and have been displaced some 300 miles by lateral movement at the fault. Younger Rocks—On the eastern side of the South Island, upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata survive only as small patches, the remnants of a once fairly complete cover of younger rocks. Thick geosynclinal Cretaceous strata are found in the Clarence and Awatere Valleys of Marlborough, but elsewhere in the eastern South Island the upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary strata are thin. They include foraminiferal limestone, greensands, sandstones, and other shell deposits formed during slow transgression by the sea. Oligocene limestone remnants mark the period of maximum transgression.
On the western side of the South Island the younger rocks are more widespread, and include some thick sequences that were formed in rapidly sinking basins. The oldest are the coal measures, mainly Eocene in age. They are overlain in some areas by thick lower Tertiary marine strata. In Southland, thick Tertiary strata occupy the Waiau Syncline, between Lake Te Anau and Foveaux Strait.
The map shows some large areas of Pleistocene to Recent terrestrial deposits in the South Island. The largest forms the Canterbury Plains, and consists of old shingle deposits of unknown thickness washed from the Southern Alps during the Pleistocene glaciation. Others occupy the Moutere depression of Nelson, and form Southland Plains, and intermontane basins, such as the McKenzie Plains, in the main mountain chains. Thick Pleistocene moraines form the main surface rocks of South Westland.
Banks Peninsula is the only large mass of young volcanic rocks in the South Island; there are smaller areas at Timaru, Oamaru, and in the Dunedin district.
Older Rocks—Unlike the South Island, the North Island has no large expanses of granite or of metamorphic rocks: the undermass rocks are almost wholly complexly folded and faulted greywackes and argillites of the New Zealand Geosyncline, predominantly Mesozoic in age.
The largest expanse of these hard rocks forms the main mountain backbone of the North Island, extending from Cook Strait to the East Cape area. Smaller areas of them are exposed between north Taranaki and Auckland; they include the richly fossiliferous strata of the Kawhia Syncline, a major downfold of the undermass rocks.
In North Auckland, deeply weathered undermass rocks, in part of Permian age, form low hill country in the east, particularly between Whangaroa and Whangarei harbours.
Younger Rocks—Over most of the North Island the older rocks are hidden by Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks and by young volcanic rocks. In some areas the younger sedimentary rocks are thin and patchy; in others they are many thousands of feet thick over hundreds of square miles. The bulk of them are poorly consolidated sandstones, and grey mudstones to which the colloquial name "papa rock'' is often applied.
The main areas with thick sequences of these young strata are the Taranaki - Wanganui - Rangitikei district, and the region east of the main ranges, including most of the Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, and Wairarapa districts. In both areas intensive oil prospecting of recent years has greatly added to knowledge of the structure.
In the Taranaki - Wanganui - Rangitikei district the strata dip gently south, so that increasingly young rocks are exposed in this direction, the lower Tertiary being seen only in the north. However, recent oil bores drilled to depths of about 13,000 ft at Kapuni in Taranaki, passed through a full sequence of strata from Pleistocene through all Tertiary stages, finally reaching Eocene coal measures.
In the eastern North Island the structure of the younger rocks is much more complex than in the western area. Upper Cretaceous strata are followed by Tertiary in many sedimentary basins large and small, with many unconformities. The southern part of the region is broken by many transcurrent faults, and hard lower Cretaceous greywacke piercement bodies project from the younger rocks.
Younger rocks of South Auckland do not form such large basins as those just described. The oldest of these strata are the Eocene coal measures of the Waikato region. Upper Cretaceous strata, mainly mudstones, are the most widespread of the younger rocks of North Auckland.
Young volcanic rocks are widespread in the North Island. The largest area of them is the Central Volcanic District: north of the three great andesite volcanoes, Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro, lies the "volcanic plateau'', an expanse of some 10,000 square miles made up of several thousand cubic miles of ignimbrite, rhyolite lava, and pumice. This is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world. Most of it has been erupted in late Pliocene and Pleistocene times. The belt of most recent activity in the Central Volcanic District is known as the Taupo Volcanic Zone; it contains all this country's active volcanoes, many inactive ones, and all the geysers and boiling springs.
Mount Egmont is a huge, conical, andesite volcano, with the remnants of two other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of approximately basic andesite composition; the largest is Pirongia, some 3,000 ft high. Auckland city and the area immediately to the south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in late Pleistocene and Holocene times; many small scoria cones are seen at Auckland city. Late Tertiary and Quarternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young scoria cones.
A Descriptive Atlas of New Zealand contains geological maps of New Zealand and summaries of New Zealand's geology and landscape development. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 66, The Geological Map of New Zealand, 1:2,000,000, is a lengthier summary with a more detailed geological map and cross sections. G.S.C..
EARTHQUAKES: Geophysical Background—Earthquakes are geographically associated with active volcanoes and with major earth movements such as mountain building; these three types of disturbance are confined, for the most part, to certain limited regions of the world. Such disturbed regions, of which New Zealand is one, are evidently the site of some kind of development affecting the outer shell of the Earth. Little is yet known about the internal processes that give rise to these geophysical disturbances, nor are the relations connecting them understood in any detail.
Formerly earthquakes were believed to be caused by volcanic activity, but it is now recognised that volcanic earthquakes are restricted to small shocks in the immediate vicinity of the volcanism. In New Zealand, tremors of this kind are experienced in the zone of active volcanism that extends from Mount Ruapehu to White Island.
In some places geological faulting at the surface gives visible evidence that a major earth movement has occurred. Occasionally movement on a fault has been observed to occur simultaneously with an earthquake in the same vicinity. New Zealand provided one of the earliest examples of this to become generally known, when movement took place on the Wairarapa Fault at the time of the great Wellington earthquake of 1855. Such events as this have led to the idea mat earthquakes in general are caused by fault movements, but it has proved difficult to find convincing evidence in support of this theory. It is noteworthy that there seems to be little earthquake activity along much of the Alpine Fault, which has been traced for 300 miles from Milford Sound to Lake Rotoiti and is classed by geologists as one of the largest and most active faults in the world. The nature of the connection between earthquakes and faulting is still somewhat obscure.
The great majority of the world's earthquakes occur at depths of less man 40 miles, and in many earthquake zones there are no shocks at any greater depth. A moderate number of New Zealand earthquakes are classed as intermediate in depth, i.e., originating at between 40 miles and 190 miles deep. The two deepest New Zealand earthquakes recorded so far occurred four and a half minutes apart on 23 March 1960, with a common focus 370 miles deep under north Taranaki; this is about 80 miles shallower than the deepest earthquake known.
It is difficult to compare the degree of earthquake activity in New Zealand with that in other regions because of the many differences that arise in earthquake type and mode of occurrence. New Zealand and California are often regarded as roughly similar, with an activity very much less than, for example, Japan or Chile.
Regional Distribution—There are two separate regions of earthquake activity in New Zealand. The larger, northern region may be roughly defined as lying between latitude 36 ½°S and 43 ½°S. It thus includes the northern half of the South Island, and all the North Island apart from the North Auckland peninsula; but the area from Kaipara Harbour to the lower Waikato River should be excluded. The southern active region lies to the west of longitude 169 ½°E, and incorporates Southland, western Otago, and southern Westland. Earthquakes have only occasionally been located in the parts of New Zealand lying outside these two regions.
Within the active regions the occurrence of shallow earthquakes is widely scattered. There has been a tendency, however, for the larger shallow earthquakes to lie towards the Pacific side of the northern active region and towards the Tasman side of the southern active region. Earthquakes with deeper foci are mostly confined to a narrow belt in the northern region, extending from the Bay of Plenty south-westwards to Tasman Bay.
The historical record is too brief to support a quantitative assessment of the frequency with which one might expect earthquakes to be felt at a given intensity in various parts of New Zealand. Considering the distances to which major earthquakes can be effective, in relation to the size of New Zealand, it would be imprudent to regard any part of the country as permanently exempt from the possibility of earthquake damage.
Outside the active regions there are many areas, however, where no damaging intensity has actually been experienced in historical times. Moreover, since the major shallow earthquakes on record have been rather widely distributed within the active regions, there appears to be no particular area of markedly intense seismicity.
The Hawke's Bay earthquake of 3 February 1931 resulted directly or indirectly in 255 deaths. The total of deaths that have been recorded as due to other earthquakes since 1848 is 29.
Seismological Observatory—Earthquake recorders are operated continuously at the following stations by the Seismological Observatory, Wellington: Apia and Afiamalu (Western Samoa); Suva (Fiji); Rarotonga (Cook Islands); Raoul Island (Kermadecs); Onerahi, Auckland, East Cape, Karapiro, Wairakei, Gisborne, Tuai, Tarata, Chateau, Bunnythorpe, Mangahao, and Wellington (North Island); Cobb, Kaimata, Gebbies Pass, Mount John, Milford Sound, Roxburgh, Monowai, and Waipapa Point (South Island); Chatham Islands; Campbell Island; and Scott Base (Antarctica). The installations at the following stations include instruments for recording distant earthquakes: Afiamalu, Rarotonga, Wellington, Roxburgh, Scott Base. At the Pacific and Antarctic stations preliminary readings are made locally and notified by radiogram. The analysis of records from all stations is carried out at the Observatory in Wellington.
The Observatory publishes regular reports of all significant earthquakes occurring in the New Zealand region; in a normal year there are about 200 such earthquakes, and about 100 of these are reported felt. The analysis involves using observations from stations in other countries as well as those from the local network, and the Observatory likewise contributes data to the international seismological agencies about distant earthquakes as well as large local ones. Details of tremors felt in New Zealand are supplied to the public and the press. In the study of felt earthquakes the instrumental results are augmented by "felt reports''; these are supplied by a large number of voluntary observers throughout New Zealand in response to a standard questionnaire issued by the Observatory.
Earthquake data are used by the Observatory for studying the fundamental characteristics of the Earth's crust in New Zealand, Antarctica, and the neighbouring oceanic regions, and also for contributing to geophysical knowledge of the Earth's deep interior.
Principal Earthquakes During the Year 1966—The largest earthquake of the year in the New Zealand region was that of 28 August 1966, which originated at sea about 100 miles north of East Cape, at a depth of about 60 miles. It had a magnitude of 6 ½ (Richter scale) and was felt in the Bay of Plenty and as far south as Dannevirke, but caused no damage.
Two shallow earthquakes, of not unusually large magnitude, caused significant damage at Gisborne and Seddon, the severity of the felt effects at these places being largely due to the closeness of the earthquakes. The Gisborne earthquake, on 5 March, had a magnitude of 6.2 and originated within 15 miles of Gisborne, where the cost of damage is estimated at $260,000. The earthquake was felt as far afield as Taupo and central Hawke's Bay. The Seddon earthquake, of magnitude 6.1, occurred on 23 April and had its centre in Cook Strait 25 miles south-west of Wellington and 15 miles from Seddon. The earthquake damaged many chimneys at Seddon and caused minor damage at Blenheim and at Wellington, where it was felt more strongly than any earthquake since the Wairarapa shocks of 1942. The felt area extended from Banks Peninsula to the centre of the North Island.
Two large deep earthquakes occurred 11 ½ hours apart on 27 and 28 June. The first originated 140 miles beneath northern Taranaki and was felt throughout the south of the North Island; its magnitude was 5 ¾. The earthquake of 28 June, of magnitude 6, was centred near Opotiki at a depth of 70 miles and was felt in the Bay of Plenty and East Cape Peninsula.
On 1 December an earthquake occurred beneath Lake Te Anau at a depth of 80 miles, the greatest depth that has yet been established for an earthquake in the southern seismic region of New Zealand. This earthquake had a magnitude of 5.5 and was felt extensively in Otago and Southland. Other earthquakes felt widely in this region took place on 27 February (magnitude 5.7) and 21 March (magnitude 5.4), and on 8 July an earthquake of magnitude 4.8, centred near Omarama was felt in North Otago and the McKenzie Country.
Small earthquakes in areas where they less commonly occur took place on 5 July near Waitakaruru in the Hauraki Plains (magnitude 3 ½), and on 11 May near Waipu in Northland (magnitude 3). Both were felt.
During January there was a swarm of small earthquakes in the Coromandel Peninsula. Over 100 were felt, but few were large enough to be recorded instrumentally.
A steam eruption from Mt. Ruapehu occurred on 24 July. The seismograph at Chateau Tongariro recorded tremor from this event but no increase in earthquake activity.
WEATHER INFORMATION—The collection of weather information and the provision of weather forecasts and climatic data for diverse interests in aviation, shipping, agriculture, Government Departments, and the general public are functions of the New Zealand Meteorological Service. By arrangement with the administrations concerned the Service performs similar functions for British territories in the Pacific.
Weather reports for use in forecasting are made at about 130 places within New Zealand and 50 in Pacific islands and collected by telegraph and radio, along with measurements of winds at upper levels made at eight radar wind-measuring stations and of temperatures made at seven radiosonde stations. Daily observations are made for climatological purposes at about 210 places in New Zealand and 60 in the islands. Rainfall measurements are made at a total of about 1,400 places within New Zealand and 110 outside the country.
Detailed climatological statistics are published annually in the Meteorological Observations. Current statistics appear monthly in a climatological table included in the New Zealand Gazette.
CLIMATE—Situated between 34°S and 47°S the main islands lie within the broad belt of strong westerly winds which encircles the hemisphere south of about latitude 35°S. Just to the north is the high-pressure ridge of the subtropics from which borametric pressure decreases southwards over New Zealand to the deep low-pressure trough located near latitude 60°S.
In the Australasian region there is no semipermanent anticyclone, as exists in subtropical latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans. Instead, a continual eastward migration of anticyclones takes place, roughly at weekly intervals. Most of the centres pass over or to the north of the North Island. The low-pressure troughs which separate successive anticyclones are associated with deep depressions centred far to the south. A period of disturbed weather accompanies the trough with a change to cold southerly or south-westerly winds as it advances north-eastwards over New Zealand. Conditions improve again with the approach of the next anticyclone from the west. While this simple progression dominates the day-to-day weather, the situation frequently becomes much more complex. The troughs are unstable systems where depressions commonly form, some of which develop into vigorous storms that travel south-eastwards across New Zealand.
The anticyclones themselves continually vary in size, intensity, and rate of movement. Their tracks are furthest north in the spring, on the average, and reach their southern limit in late summer or early autumn when most of the centres cross central or southern New Zealand. At this time of the year, too, northern and eastern districts of the North Island occasionally come under the influence of deep cyclones of tropical origin.
The other main factors which influence the climate of New Zealand are, first, its position in the midst of a vast ocean, and second, the shape and topography of the country itself.
Australia, the nearest continent, is 1,000 miles to the west; Antarctica is 1,400 miles to the south. Hot air masses from the interior of Australia in summer, or freezing air masses from the Antarctic, which occasionally reach New Zealand, retain little of their original character after their long ocean passage. Thus, there is an absence of extreme variations of temperature. On the other hand, since abundant supplies of moisture are supplied by evaporation from the oceans, and depressions are frequent and vigorous, the average precipitation is high.
The chain of high mountains, which extends from south-west to north-east through the length of the country, rises as a formidable barrier in the path of the prevailing westerly winds. The effect is to produce much sharper climatic contrasts from west to east than in the north-south direction. In some inland areas of the South Island just east of the mountains the climate is distinctly continental in character, despite the fact that no part of New Zealand is more than 80 miles from the sea.
Winds—Winds from a westerly quarter prevail in all seasons, with a general tendency to increase in strength from north to south. However, considerable local modifications to the general air flow occur during its passage across the mountainous terrain. Approaching the main ranges the flow from the west turns towards the north-east and on descending on the eastern side swings towards the south-east. This results in an increased number of south-westerlies in Westland and a predominance of north-westerlies in inland districts of Otago and Canterbury, where strong gales from this quarter occur at times in the late spring and summer. Daytime sea breezes usually extend from the coast inland for 20 miles or more during periods of settled weather in summer. On the Canterbury coast the wind comes most frequently from the north-east, partly because there is a persistent sea breeze from this quarter, but south of Dunedin south-westerlies predominate. Cook Strait, the only substantial gap in the main mountain chain, acts as a natural funnel for the air flow and is a particularly windy locality afflicted by gales from the south-east as well as the north-west. This "funnel'' effect is also in evidence about Foveaux Strait. North of Taranaki the general air flow is more from the south-west, and there is a noticeable reduction in windiness in the summer.
An indication of the variation in the frequency of strong winds from summer to winter, and in different parts of the country, is given in the next table. These were all obtained by the use of Dines pressure-tube anemometers at well exposed sites, mostly aerodromes.
|Station||Average Number of Days With Gusts Reaching||Years of Data|
|40 m.p.h. or More||60 m.p.h. or More|
|Auckland (Mechanics Bay)||22||30||52||0.8||1.6||2.4||19|
NOTE—These are all aerodromes, with the exception of Auckland (Mechanics Bay) and Wellington (Kelburn).
Rainfall—The distribution of rainfall is mainly controlled by mountain features, and the highest rainfalls occur where the mountains are exposed to the direct sweep of the westerly and north-westerly winds. The mean annual rainfall (see map) ranges from as little as 13 in. in a small area of Central Otago to over 300 in. in the Southern Alps. The average for the whole country is high, but for the greater part it lies between 25 and 60 in., a range regarded as favourable for plant growth in the temperate zone. The only areas with under 25 in. are found in the South Island, to the east of the main ranges. These include most of Central and North Otago, and South Canterbury. In the North Island, the driest areas are southern Hawke's Bay, Wairarapa, and Manawatu where the average rainfall is 30-40 in. a year. Of the remainder, much valuable farm land, chiefly in northern Taranaki and Northland, has upwards of 60 in. Over a sizeable area of both Islands rainfall exceeds 100 in. a year but, with the exception of Westland, this is mountainous and unoccupied, much of it being forest covered.
For a large part of the country the rainfall is spread evenly through the year, although its effectiveness in summer is, of course, much reduced. The greatest contrast is found in the north, where winter has almost twice as much rain as summer. This predominance of winter rainfall diminishes southwards. It is still discernible over the northern part of the South Island but, over the southern half, winter is the season with least rainfall, and a definite summer maximum is found inland due to the effect of convectional showers. The rainfall is also influenced by seasonal variations in the strength of the westerly winds. Spring rainfall is increased in and west of the ranges as the westerlies rise to their maximum about October, while a complementary decrease occurs at the same time in the lee of the ranges.
Areas which are exposed to the west and south-west experience much showery weather, and rain falls on roughly half the days of the year. Over most of the North Island rain can be measured on at least 150 days a year except to the east of the ranges where there are, in places, fewer than 125 rain days. Those areas of the South Island with annual rainfall under 25 in. generally have about 100 rain days a year. In the far south the frequency of rain increases sharply; in Stewart Island and Fiordland rain days exceed 200 a year. Over most of the country between 55 and 65 percent of the rain days also qualify as wet days (0.10 in. or more). The percentage increases to over 70 in Westland, but in the low rainfall area of inland Otago there are only about 40 wet days a year compared with 100 rain days.
On the whole the seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year, the reliability in spring being particularly advantageous for agricultural purposes. It is least reliable in late summer and autumn when very dry conditions may develop east of the ranges, particularly in Hawke's Bay.
The highest daily rainfall on record is 22 in., which occurred at Milford Sound where the mean annual rainfall is 250 in. Other areas with considerably lower rainfall are also subject to very heavy daily falls; such areas are to be found in northern Hawke's Bay and in northeastern districts of the Auckland Province. By contrast, in the Manawatu district and in Otago and Southland daily falls reaching 3 in. are very rare.
|Normal Monthly and Annual Rainfall (Inches) (1921-50)|
|Te Paki, Te Hapua||3.3||3.6||3.3||5.6||6.5||7.2||7.3||5.6||4.5||3.8||3.0||3.1||56.8|
Thunderstorms—Thunderstorms are not numerous. Their frequency is greatest in the north and west where thunder is heard on 15 to 20 days a year; east of the ranges (except in Gisborne) the figure is five or less.
Hail—Hail is most frequent in the south-west where it is reported on about 20 days a year, but for the greater part of the country it occurs on about five days a year or less. Most of the hailstones are small, but occasionally large stones cause local damage to glasshouses, and to orchards and market gardens, chiefly in Canterbury and Hawke's Bay.
Temperature—Mean temperatures at sea level decrease steadily southwards from 59°F in the far north to 54° about Cook Strait, then to 49° in the south. With increasing altitude, temperatures drop about 3° per 1,000 ft. January and February, with approximately the same mean temperature, are the warmest months of the year; July is the coldest. Some temperature statistics for selected places are included in the table on climatological averages. Highest temperatures are recorded east of the main ranges, where they rise to the nineties on a few afternoons in most summers, usually in association with a north-westerly Föhn wind. The extremes for New Zealand (measured in a standard thermometer screen) are 101° at Ashburton and -3° at Ophir (Central Otago).
As is to be expected, there is a small annual range of temperature (difference between mean temperature of the warmest and coldest months). In Northland and in western districts of both Islands the annual range is about 15°F. For the remainder of the North Island, and east coast districts of the South Island, it is 17°-19°. Further inland it exceeds 20° in places, reaching a maximum of 25° in Central Otago where there is an approach to a continental type of climate.
Frost—It is well known that local variations in frostiness are considerable, even within quite small areas. On a calm, clear night the cold air in contact with a sloping surface gravitates slowly downhill to collect in valleys and depressions, and it is these "Katabatic'' drifts which are mainly responsible for local temperature variations at night. Gently sloping ground with a northerly aspect tends to be least affected by frost. Favourable sites in coastal areas of Northland are free of frost, although further inland light frosts occur frequently in the winter months. At Albert Park, Auckland, the screen minimum thermometer (4 ft above the ground) has registered below 32°F only once in nearly 50 years, yet across the harbour at Whenuapai Aerodrome there are eight screen frosts per annum on the average. Excluding the uninhabited mountainous areas, the most severe winter conditions are experienced in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Plains of inland Canterbury, and on the central plateau of the North Island. Even in these areas night temperatures as low as 10° are rarely recorded. Elsewhere over the North Island the winters are very mild and pastures maintain continuous growth. In both Islands sheep and cattle remain in the open all the year round.
Snow—The majority of New Zealanders rarely see snow except on the mountains. The North Island has a small permanent snow field above about 8,000 ft on the central plateau, but the snow line rarely descends below 2,000 ft even for brief periods in winter. In the South Island snow falls on a few days a year in eastern coastal districts and in some years may lie for a day or two even at sea level. In Westland it does not lie at sea level. The snow line on the Southern Alps is around 7,000 ft in summer, being slightly lower on the western side where the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers descend through heavy bush to within 1,000 ft of sea level. In inland Canterbury and Otago, where there are considerable areas of grazing lands above 1,000 ft, snowfalls are heavier and more persistent and have caused serious losses of sheep during severe winters in the past. However, only rarely does the winter snow line there remain permanently below 3,000 ft.
Relative Humidity—Humidity is commonly between 70 and 80 percent in coastal areas and about 10 percent lower inland. It varies inversely to the temperature, falling to a minimum in the early afternoon when temperature is highest and frequently lying between 90 and 100 percent during clear nights. As the following table shows, the diurnal variation is greater than the difference between summer and winter.
|Station||Mean Relative Humidity|
|3 a.m.||3 p.m.||3 a.m.||3 p.m.|
|Auckland (Mechanics Bay)||85||63||90||74|
Very low humidities—between 20 and 30 percent or lower—occur at times in the lee of the Southern Alps where the Föhn effect is often very marked. In summer the hot, dry "Canterbury Norwester'' is generally a most unpleasant wind. Cool south-westerlies are also at times very dry when they reach eastern districts. In Northland the humid mid-summer conditions are inclined to be rather oppressive though temperatures rarely reach 85°. Dull, humid spells are generally not prolonged anywhere, but their frequency shows a marked increase in the south.
Sunshine—The sunniest areas are to be found near Blenheim, Nelson, and Whakatane, where the average duration of bright sunshine exceeds 2,400 hours per annum. The rest of the Bay of Plenty and Napier are only slightly less sunny. A large portion of the country is favoured with at least 2,000 hours. Even Westland, despite its high rainfall, has 1,800 hours. Southland, where sunshine drops sharply to 1,700 hours per annum, lies on the northern fringe of a broad zone of increasing cloudiness. Four hundred miles further to the south at Campbell Island the sunshine has the extremely low value of 650 hours per annum. A pleasant feature of the New Zealand climate is the high proportion of sunshine during the winter months. To eliminate the effect of varying day-length the summer and winter sunshine at a few selected stations have been expressed as a percentage of the possible sunshine.
As these figures indicate, there is a marked increase in cloudiness in the North Island in winter, but little seasonal change in the South Island, except in Southland.
Climatological Averages—The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.
|Station||Altitude||Annual Averages||Air Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit)|
|Rain Days (0.01 in. or More)||Wet Days (0.10 in. or More)||Bright Sunshine||Days of Screen Frost (min. air temp. less than 32° F)||Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||Mean Annual|
|Te Paki, Te Hapua||190||187||112||2,140||2||59·3||73||60||57||46||78||30|
Averages of rain days and wet days 1950-59; sunshine 1935-60; mean temperature 1931-60; other temperature data and days of screen frost, various periods—all exceeding 10 years.
For normal monthly and annual rainfall for these stations, see table under subsection on Rainfall.
Normal Seasonal Temperature Pattern—A feature of the seasonal pattern of temperature for New Zealand is the near symmetry about either the hottest summer months or the coldest winter months. In other words the summer-winter decline is an almost identical reversal of the winter-summer rise. This shows up clearly when temperatures for 100 climatological stations are averaged month by month. The first two months of the calendar year, the summer months of January and February, display the same average temperature, that of 61.3°F. This temperature is the highest average for any month, being approached by only the December average of 59.2°F. Once February is past a decline sets in, the estimated average New Zealand temperature falling by 2.5°F from February to March to give a March average of 58.8°F. Thereafter, successive inter-monthly temperature drops of 4.4°, 5.4°, 4.2°, and 1.2°F finally produce a July average of 43.6°F, which makes this month the coldest of the year. Progressing through and past July the temperature steadily rises, the increments being successively, 1.8°, 3.4°, 3.8°, 3.2°, 3.4°, and 2.1°F, finally returning to the January mark of 61.3°F.
|ESTIMATED NORMAL NEW ZEALAND TEMPERATURE (°F)*|
|Calendar Month||Mean Temperature|
* Based on temperature normals for 100 climatological stations.
The following diagram illustrates the seasonal temperature pattern.
Brief Review of 1966: Year—In the North Island rainfall was mainly above average by 25 percent. In some eastern districts of Northland and Auckland the surplus was as high as 40 percent. On the other hand, in Taihape and on the East Coast rainfall was 10 percent below average. In the South Island, except for Nelson and Marlborough and parts of South Canterbury, rainfall was below average. The deficit was mainly about 20 percent but it was as high as 35-40 percent in parts of Central Otago and inland Canterbury. The year 1966 was a little wetter than 1965 in the North Island but considerably drier than 1965 in the South Island.
The mean annual temperature was half a degree above the 1931-60 average value on the West Coast and in parts of Canterbury, Otago, and Southland. Over most of the North Island temperatures were close to average. For the country as a whole 1966 was appreciably warmer than 1965 and about the same temperature as 1964.
In the South Island sunshine was 50 to 150 hours below average except over most of the West Coast together with the Alps and the Canterbury high country, and also the Southland coast; in these areas it was close to average. The North Island fared a little better; in fact Auckland, Waikato, and parts of Waitomo were favoured with 50 to 100 hours above average. However, eastern districts from Wairarapa to Gisborne together with Bay of Plenty and Wanganui received 50 to 150 hours below the average value. For the country as a whole 1966 was a little sunnier than 1965.
Seasonal Notes—January and February were unusually cloudy, especially in western and northern districts of both islands. These months were also wetter than usual; and in February persistent north-easterly winds brought excessive rain to northern districts of the North Island. January was warmer than usual in the north, while February was about 4 degrees above average over the whole country. Growth was exceptional and stock benefited, except lambs. In Northland, Auckland, and Waikato some very heavy daily falls were recorded on 16 and 28 February in thunderstorms.
Frequent northerly to easterly winds persisted in March, with temperatures still warmer than average, while rainfall was 50 percent above average in most northern and eastern districts. April was a sunny month, but with more than double the average rainfall about Cook Strait. However, in the middle fortnight of both March and April the weather was comparatively settled and favourable for harvesting. Farmers reported good growth for the time of the year, as moisture was mainly adequate.
May was marked by an unusually high frequency of southerly to easterly winds. It was a cold month with exceptionally low rainfall on the West Coast. On the other hand, rainfall was again well above average in Wellington, Wairarapa, and Marlborough.
June was unusually dry in Canterbury. Farmers found it a good month since the weather was rather more settled than usual. July was wet over the North Island but exceptionally dry in Fiordland and Central Otago. The passage of a deep depression over the North Island on 18 and 19 July brought very inclement weather; strong gales caused considerable damage in South Auckland, while snow was reported well down on the hills in the southern half of the North Island. Nevertheless this was a good month for stock, and lambing commenced under favourable conditions. However, in August an unusually high frequency of southeasterly winds brought persistent cloud and rain to eastern districts, especially during the last week, making conditions there unsuitable for lambing. In Canterbury both ewes and lambs were lost, many of them during a fall of snow on the 25th and 26th. It was colder than average, but comparatively sunny in northern and western districts of the North Island, with favourable conditions there for lambing.
September and October were marked by a comparative absence of westerly winds. Both months were cooler than usual in the North Island. They were also drier than usual over most of the South Island. In September persistent north-easterlies brought considerable rain to Northland and Bay of Plenty. It was a cloudy month and exceptionally dry in parts of South Canterbury and North and Central Otago, causing a shortage of feed in some of these areas. October was a sunny month with rainfall mainly about half the average value. In some dairying districts farmers found the weather too dry.
November and December were cloudy and cool, and wetter than usual. November was a good farming month apart from delays to shearing caused by the unsettled weather. December was also mainly favourable; however, in the high rainfall areas it was considered too wet, while in Otago and parts of Canterbury it was too dry.
Summary of Meteorological Observations for 1966—The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1966 were taken at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time, i.e., 2100 hours Greenwich mean time.
|Station||Rainfall||Rain Days (.01 in. or More)||Bright Sunshine||Days of Screen Frost*||Air Temperatures (Decrees Fahrenheit)|
|Mean Temp.||Mean Daily Maximum||Mean Daily Minimum||1966 Extremes|
* Minimum air temperature less than 32°F.
For 1966 the mean sea-level pressure values in millibars at 0900 hours New Zealand standard time were: Auckland 1017.0; Kelburn, Wellington 1015.9; Nelson Airport 1016.1; Hokitika 1015.8; Christchurch 1014.8; and Dunedin 1014.0.
EARLY HISTORY: General—When New Zealand was discovered by Europeans in 1642 it was found to be inhabited by a race of Polynesians called Maoris, who had migrated to these islands at least 300 years previously. It is generally accepted that the Maoris came originally from South-East Asia, whence, as proto-Polynesians, they moved eastwards from island to island until they reached the eastern Pacific, where they settled the islands now known collectively as Polynesia. From Polynesia the ancestors of the Maori sailed south-west in ocean-going canoes to reach New Zealand and these voyages were probably spread over several generations, perhaps several centuries. Oral Maori history and genealogy support the view that there was a final wave of migration of considerable magnitude about A.D. 1350. Adapting themselves to a new physical environment, in isolation from the outside world, the Maoris produced forms of social and economic organisation and material culture which were significantly different from their Polynesian prototypes.
Coming from tropical latitudes, the Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island, and when discovered by Europeans were in a high state of neolithic civilisation, with marked superiority in the arts of wood carving and military engineering. Their principal social unit was the family group, and from combinations of the numerous groups were formed the subtribes and tribes. They had highly developed social and ritualistic customs, and their system of land tenure and methods of cultivation were communal within the subtribes. Inter-tribal and intra-tribal warfare was common, and as individuals they displayed exceptional courage and intelligence.
The immediate effect of European contacts on the Maoris was the outburst of a series of tribal wars waged with greater ferocity and a vastly greater loss of life than was customary in pre-European tribal engagements. The high mortality could, of course, be credited to the acquisition of a more lethal weapon, the musket. The advantage lay originally with the coastal tribes as a result of their earlier contact with Europeans, the wars continuing until all tribes were equally well armed. These wars were later followed by wars against the colonists, but after 1870 the story has been one of unbroken peace between Maoris and Europeans.
The introduction of European diseases and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century. However, the virility of the race gradually asserted itself, and from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing.
Other island groups, such as the Cook Islands, Niue Island, and the Tokelau Islands, had also long been inhabited by Polynesians from various successive migrations extending over considerable periods prior to their discovery by Europeans.
Discovery by Europeans—On 13 December 1642, Abel Janszoon Tasman, a navigator of the Dutch East India Company, discovered the country to which he gave the name of Staten Land, and which later became known as "Nieuw Zeeland''. Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August 1642, and, after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north, he had the misfortune to come into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land. His exploration was of necessity very cursory, for having explored only part of one coast he had no knowledge of the country's, extent or shape.
There is no record of any European visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until Captain Cook sighted land on 6 October 1769, at Young Nick's Head, near Gisborne. On his first voyage Cook spent six months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. His activities can be best described by saying "he found New Zealand a line on the map, and left it an archipelago''. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the truculent Maoris. He returned to New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.
Several other explorers also visited New Zealand during the latter portion of the eighteenth century, amongst whom may be mentioned M. de Surville 1769, M. Marion du Fresne 1772, Captains Vancouver and Broughton 1791, Captain Raven 1792-93, Alejandro Malaspina and Jose de Bustamente y Guerra 1793, and Lieutenant Hanson 1793.
The European discovery of many of the islands of the Cook Group was made by Captain Cook in 1773. Rarotonga and Mauke were not officially discovered for another 50 years, although there were records of earlier visits by the Bounty under the control of the mutineers in 1789 and later, in 1814, by the Cumberland. Niue Island was discovered by Cook in 1774. The first recorded discovery of the Tokelau Islands was made by Quiros in 1606. Of the remaining islands of the group, Atafu was discovered in 1765, Nukunono in 1791, and Fakaofa in the 1840s.
European Settlement and Colonisation—So far as is known, the first instance of Europeans being left in New Zealand to their own resources occurred in 1792, when Captain Raven of the Britannia landed a sealing party at Facile Harbour, on the west coast of the South Island, where they remained a little over 12 months before being called for.
In the years that followed, whaling stations sprang up along the coast, and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. Attracted to New Zealand were deserters from whaling vessels and escaped convicts from Australia, who, in the absence of any jurisdiction, soon became notorious for their extreme lawlessness. In 1914 Samuel Marsden, chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, obtained permission to send two of his protégés, Kendall and Hall, to the Bay of Islands to consider the desirability of establishing a mission station. Later they returned to Sydney for Marsden, who arrived in New Zealand to preach his first sermon at the Bay of Islands on Christmas Day, 1814. Of the many admirable activities undertaken by the missionaries, their action in having the Maori language "reduced to a rational orthography'' deserves special mention.
In 1825 three separate, but abortive, attempts were made to found colonies; however for some years the only settlements were those round the principal whaling stations, although a number of Europeans gradually penetrated inland and resided there permanently, many marrying Maori women.
The first body of immigrants under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived in Port Nicholson in January 1840, there to found the town of Wellington, just one week before Captain William Hobson arrived at the Bay of Islands as Governor to proclaim British sovereignty (see later). These settlers were brought out from England by the New Zealand Company, whose moving spirits was Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
It was hoped that, by producing a proper balance of capitalists and artisans, self-contained communities could be successfully established. However, owing to the unsatisfactory nature of the land purchases, considerable difficulty was experienced in these initial settlements, and friction grew up not only between settlers and the Maoris, but also between the Governor and the settlers. Before his death in 1842 Governor Hobson had transferred his capital from Russell to Auckland, but this transfer was of little assistance to the colonists, who had extended their settlements to Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson.
Following the death of Hobson, the existence of the colony became precarious, for, through lack of funds and weak administration, Maori aggression became a real menace. To cope with the situation, the Colonial Office appointed Captain George Grey as Governor. Being well equipped with troops and funds, as well as being a man of vigour and perception, Grey soon restored order and won the confidence of both the settlers and the Maoris. During Grey's term two further organised settlements were made. In co-operation with the New Zealand Company the Free Church of Scotland sponsored the Dunedin Settlement of 1848, and the Church of England the Canterbury Settlement of 1850. These settlements, owing to their more favoured situations, their satisfactory land-purchase agreements, and their freedom from trouble with the Maoris, achieved a greater measure of success in carrying out the company's avowed aims.
After Grey's departure the question of relationship with the Maoris again came to the fore through the land-purchasing activities of the settlers—a situation aggravated by subsequent lack of consideration for the Maori system of land tenure. Following an incident at Waitara in the Taranaki district, where a dispute arose concerning land titles, war broke out in 1860 and lasted spasmodically till 1870. The recall of Grey did not solve the problem, as Grey, an autocrat, could not work with the elected Ministers, nor did his presence prevent the confiscation of land belonging to the Maoris, whether friendly or hostile. It was under the sympathetic administration of Sir Donald McLean as Minister for Maori Affairs that the dispute finally died down.
These hostilities were confined to the North Island; and, in the meantime, in 1861, large alluvial deposits of gold had been discovered in the South Island—leading to a tremendous influx of population and an alteration of the economic structure of the country.
No organised form of European colonisation has at any time taken place in the Cook Islands, Niue Island, or the Tokelau Islands.
SUBSEQUENT HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT (1870 ONWARDS)—The discovery of gold, by increasing the wealth of the South Island, allowed it to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion, especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally, but began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool, which it has maintained to the present day.
These factors, together with freedom from strife with the Maori population, led after 1870 to a quickening in political activities. Under the leadership of Sir Julius Vogel a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction was begun. The provincial system, which really commenced in 1853, had largely outlived its usefulness; in fact, the parochialism of the provincial assemblies had frequently proved obstructive, and in consequence the system was abolished in 1875, local administration being provided for by the Counties Act and the Municipal Corporations Act of 1876.
Of great social significance was the passing in 1877 of the Education Act, making education free, compulsory, and secular, while the laying during that decade of the first cable between Australia and New Zealand was a major advance in communications. At this time party politics began to enter into the parliamentary system, and the slump conditions which prevailed in the eighties (due to a fall in the world price level) intensified the political atmosphere. By the abolition of plural voting in 1889, and the introduction of female suffrage in 1893, the way was opened for a practical expression of political convictions by all adult members of the community.
In 1891 Ballance, as Leader of the Liberal Party, became Premier, to be followed on his death in 1893 by Seddon, and during the next decade the legislative essays of this party evoked world-wide interest. The main aim of the legislation was social justice, and its principal manifestations were in land division, the establishment of the Court of Arbitration, and the introduction of old-age pensions. The policy of land division aimed at closer land settlement, and it was achieved by the compulsory subdivision of large estates, with subsequent loans to small independent farmers wishing to establish themselves. In inaugurating the Court of Arbitration the object was to eliminate strikes by giving labour a recognised bargaining status; and the enactment was in accord with the enlightened code of labour legislation passed at that time.
With the commencement of the refrigerated trade in 1882, the policy of closer settlement progressed rapidly, since the production of frozen meat and dairy produce for export encouraged more intensive farming. There thus arose a new farming class which in 1911, some five years after Seddon's death, was mainly responsible for the overthrow of the Liberal regime.
The policy of the succeeding Reform Party under Massey was one favouring agricultural production. Farming interests were given constant encouragement by a series of enactments of which the extension of rural credit was typical. Three years after the advent of the Reform Party the First World War, 1914-18, broke out, leading to the formation of a Coalition Government and an Imperial commandeer of exports. War activities were marked by heavy casualty lists, in proportion to the population, and by enhanced cordiality in Imperial relations. One noteworthy outcome of the war commandeer was the precedent given for the establishment, after the war, of control boards to regulate the export of pastoral products.
Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period 1921-24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and from the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydro-electric schemes and highways.
Owing to the encouragement given to farming, pastoral production constantly expanded, so that New Zealand became one of the world's greatest exporters of pastoral produce. As a consequence, her national income was extremely sensitive to price fluctuations of these products; so that, with the advent of the depression in 1930, her economic position became extremely vulnerable. In order to produce balanced budgets, both public and private, various legislative remedies were attempted. In particular, enactments were provided for unemployment relief, for the suspension, in effect, of compulsory arbitration, for the establishment of a Reserve Bank, for a mortgage moratorium, for raising the exchange rate, and for reduction in interest rates and wages. With the recovery in price levels and consequent general economic revival, amendments were made to several of these Acts, removing the more stringent measures. The election of a Labour Government in 1935 led to a change in administrative policy, the preoccupation being mainly with social problems. Further amendments were made to the depression legislation, certain restrictive measures were removed, and other temporary adjustments made permanent.
The general climate of opinion and gradual maturity of outlook furnish the background in which certain distinctive trends appear in legislation passed since 1936.
The first major influence was a humanitarian attitude reinforced by a progressive economic policy. Evidence of this is implicit in the provision for a basic wage, and later for a minimum wage, employment-promotion legislation, amendments to workers' compensation, industrial conciliation and arbitration, mining, etc., legislation, the system of basic prices for certain primary produce, the creation of farm industry reserves, and the rationalisation of production and marketing by the establishment of boards for certain items of primary produce.
The second major influence on legislation was conditioned by the outbreak of the Second World War, 1939-45. A vast body of legislation was placed on the statute book during the war period dealing with the control of manpower and materials, stabilisation of prices, wages, and rents, conditions of employment and suspension of certain peacetime features of industrial activity, discouragement of some industries and diversion to or encouragement of other industries, provision for rehabilitation, etc.
A third dominant trend was the acceptance of the principle that society should take active steps towards the improvement of the working, living, and social circumstances of its members. Foremost in this category was the Social Security Act and its later extensions providing for monetary benefits such as age, superannuation, family allowances, sickness, and unemployment, and by the provision of a system of medical, pharmaceutical, hospital, maternity, and other related benefits.
Other legislative enactments under this heading include the provision for paid annual holidays, reduction of working hours, extension of workers' compensation insurance, improvement in safety and health and welfare conditions in industry, and extension of educational facilities and opportunities.
A fourth approach to law making resulting from maturity of outlook has been the increased participation by New Zealand in international affairs consequent on its acceptance of responsibility in the wider issues of the present era. Legislation authorising participation in United Nations activities generally and in particular emergencies, such as military service in Korea, Malaya, and elsewhere; the extension of New Zealand representation in overseas countries and with the United Nations; the greater frequency of Commonwealth consultation; extension of aid to less developed countries, e.g., participation in the Colombo Plan, all bear witness to this change in outlook.
Another influence on legislation presents some parallels to that last mentioned, but is more concerned with the domestic sphere. It is exemplified in the increasing interest taken in welfare and social development generally of both the rapidly growing Maori population and the inhabitants of New Zealand territory in the islands of the Pacific.
Contemporaneously with the expansion of the field of legislative interest, the economic and industrial development of the country has proceeded with marked impetus in recent years. Expansion and diversification of manufacturing and servicing industries have provided avenues of employment for the growing labour force. At the same time the basic industries of the country, those concerned with primary production, have increased output, assisted by the rapid application of technological improvements and research findings.
The history of New Zealand's overseas territories has been largely one of wise paternal oversight, particularly in the earlier periods, by the New Zealand Government and by the various missions established in the islands. More recently, successive Governments have in various ways encouraged the inhabitants to take an increasing share in the administration of their communities, thus paving the way for some form of self-government. Much attention has been paid to combating tropical diseases and to health problems generally; such island industries as citrus fruit and banana growing have been fostered and encouraged in various ways, with outlets being found for produce available for export. Financial and other assistance has been provided from New Zealand Government sources for the expansion of educational facilities and opportunities, public works such as roading, conservation of water supplies by reservoir construction, communication facilities, etc.
For detailed information, reference should be made to the many excellent books dealing with the subject of New Zealand history, of which the more recent ones are listed in the Select Bibliography in this Yearbook. A useful reference is the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, published in 1966.
SOVEREIGNTY—Following representations from Maori chiefs for protection from the prevailing turmoil and lawlessness caused by tribal warfare and the rough element around the whaling stations, the New South Wales Government appointed, in 1832, Mr James Busby as British Resident at Russell. Owing to the failure to supply him with any means of exerting authority, his appointment was largely ineffective. Finally the disorder, and the friction between the two races, became so intolerable that even the missionaries, who were opposed to annexation, made representations for British sovereignty.
On 29 January 1840, Captain William Hobson, RN, arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Maoris, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. Hobson formally read his commissions at Kororareka on 30 January 1840, and on 6 February of the same year a compact called the Treaty of Waitangi was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes.
On 21 May 1840 Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty in the case of the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and in the case of the South Island and Stewart Island by right of discovery. New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales until 3 May 1841, when it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter dated 16 November 1840. The capital was at first transferred from Russell to Auckland, but in 1865 it was again transferred, on this occasion to Wellington, where the seat of Government has since remained.
During Governor Grey's term, steps were taken to draft a constitution for the colony. An Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament on 30 June 1852, and was published in New Zealand by Proclamation on 17 January 1853. Under it provision was made for the constitution of a General Assembly consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives. Provision was also made for the division of the country into provinces, each province having an elected Council and Superintendent. (The provincial system was abolished in 1875 and the Legislative Council in 1950.) In the first General Assembly of 27 August 1854 certain members of this body were associated with the permanent members of the executive but they did not hold any portfolios. It was not until 7 May 1856 that responsible government was actually established.
With the gradual development of the country's economy, the acquisition of political and administrative experience, and the increasing desire for self-reliance in political matters, the degree of self-government became more complete. In recognition of this and of a nascent sense of nationality, New Zealand was given the title of Dominion in lieu of Colony, the new title taking effect on 26 September 1907.
Of the constitutional events in recent years the passing by the United Kingdom Parliament of the Statute of Westminster in December 1931 was of major importance. The draft of this statute was submitted for the confirmation of the various Commonwealth Legislatures before its passage through the United Kingdom Parliament. The statute granted complete autonomy to the various self-governing members countries, but it did not automatically apply to Australia or New Zealand. In other words, its operation in the latter self-governing members of the Commonwealth was declared to require specific adoption by the Legislatures of those countries. It was not until 1947 that the New Zealand Government formally adopted the Statute of Westminster.
As far as the island territories are concerned, the Cook Islands were proclaimed a British protectorate in 1888, and in 1901 were annexed and proclaimed part of New Zealand under the Colonial Boundaries Act 1895. Niue Island is part of the Cook Islands, though separately administered, and became part of New Zealand in 1901 with the extension of boundaries to include the Cook Islands. The Tokelau Islands were placed under the protection of Great Britain in 1877, formally annexed at the inhabitants' request in 1916, and from 1925 were administered by New Zealand at the request of the United Kingdom Government. From 1949 they became part of New Zealand by virtue of the Tokelau Islands Act 1948. Under the Cook Islands Constitution Act 1964, the Cook Islands achieved complete internal self-government on 4 August 1965, but New Zealand remains responsible for external affairs and defence.
NEW ZEALAND'S INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES—Though in the nineteenth century Sir Julius Vogel and the Right Hon. R. J. Seddon had original views about the policy which Britain and New Zealand should pursue in the Pacific area—views which they announced with vigour—New Zealand did not acquire the right to conduct an independent foreign policy until the end of the First World War when the full nationhood of the "Dominions'' was recognised. For some years after this, however, successive New Zealand Governments chose not to exercise this right and (pursuing a passive role in the League of Nations and refraining from establishing diplomatic relations with foreign Governments, or with other members of the Commonwealth apart from Britain) preferred to make known any views on matters of foreign affairs only to the British Government and through the confidential channels of intra-Commonwealth consultation.
Few pressures existed in the 1920s and early 1930s to impel New Zealand towards enunciating an independent foreign policy. The population was mainly British in composition and comparatively few were concerned to distinguish between New Zealand's interests and those of Britain. Nor had they much cause to do so: New Zealand had established a fruitful economic partnership with Britain, upon which country nearly all her material and cultural links were centred; and New Zealand's surest protector against dangers which it was incapable of meeting alone was the Royal Navy. It was, moreover, realised that New Zealand in her own right could make little impact on world affairs, whereas Britain was a great power capable of affecting the pattern of world events. New Zealand "foreign policy'' therefore consisted chiefly in seeking to modify British policy in those few cases where New Zealand had a strong interest or a viewpoint rather different from that of Britain. A standing opportunity was provided by the system of confidential intro-Commonwealth consultation whereby Britain provided full information to the Dominions and sought their comments upon issues of international policy as they arose. In this way New Zealand tended to prefer a share of great power status to "independence'' of foreign policy; this sufficed until the middle of the 1930s.
In practice, during the first 16 years after the First World War the New Zealand Government on only a few occasions thought it necessary to make significant efforts to bring about a modification of British policy. This situation resulted chiefly from the factors earlier outlined which made for an identity of interest and viewpoint between Britain and New Zealand. In part also it arose because few problems directly affecting New Zealand remained to be settled; in part it was because of a considered reluctance to give advice when the main consequences of accepting that advice fell upon Britain, not New Zealand; in part it was because New Zealand Governments tended to approach problems pragmatically rather than on grounds of principle, and were conscious of having no expert New Zealand Department organised to collect and appraise the facts on equal terms with the British Foreign Office; in part it was because New Zealand Governments, supplied by the Foreign Office with very much the same information as that on which the United Kingdom Cabinet based its judgments, viewed problems from a similar standpoint to that of the British Government. In short, most New Zealanders thought of external affairs in terms of Imperial unity and relied on British leadership of the Empire.
The emergence of an independent New Zealand foreign policy is usually held to date from 1935. Some Ministers in the new Government were deeply interested in world affairs in general, and the Government's approach was influenced by theory and principle. In particular, they held strong views on the principle of collective security and upon the League of Nations as the embodiment of that principle. In its method of championing the principles of collective security, pressing for the restoration of the authority of the League of Nations and, at a time when the United Kingdom Government was pursuing the policy which came to be known as appeasement, urging positive League action over Abyssinia, Spain, and China, the Government came to depart from the pattern of the previous 16 years: for, in addition to making its views known in confidential communications to the United Kingdom Government, it also stated them with vigour in the international forum of the Council and the Assembly of the League of Nations.
There was, however, no fundamental departure from the traditional policy of association with Britain. Moreover, the course that would be followed in the event of war was never in doubt. As early as 16 May 1938 a leading member of the Government had said, "If the Old Country is attacked, we are too . . . we will assist her to the fullest extent possible.'' When war broke out the Prime Minister, the Right Hon. M. J. Savage, expressed New Zealand's position in terms that were as true in 1939 as they would have been in 1914:
"Behind the sure shield of Britain we have enjoyed and cherished freedom and self-government. Both with gratitude for the past, and with confidence in the future, we range ourselves without fear behind Britain. Where she goes, we go. Where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we are one and all a band of brothers, and we march forward with a union of hearts and wills to a common destiny''.
But the Second World War changed the pattern of power in the world and made it necessary for New Zealand gradually to revise its foreign policy and its method of implementing that policy. Even though the basic attachment of New Zealanders to Britain was little affected, the fact became manifest that Britain was no longer a power able to determine events on a world scale and that, since New Zealand interests could no longer be protected by British actions alone, it did not suffice to confine New Zealand foreign policy to occasional attempts to persuade the British Government to take note of New Zealand views. Japanese aggression and, later, the rise of Communist China forced New Zealand to face the reality of its geographical location in the Pacific and to develop an additional relationship with the only other friendly power capable of protecting New Zealand—the United States of America—with the least possible prejudice to its association with the United Kingdom. To contribute to Anglo-American harmony is therefore a major preoccupation of New Zealand foreign policy.
To be woven into any post-war policy was the now traditional New Zealand belief in the principle of collective security and international justice, especially as symbolised by, though not yet embodied in, the United Nations. This was by no means an easy task in a world where the divisions of the cold war were reflected in competing regional alliances. There had to be a place, too, for belief in the ability of international co-operation to control armaments and to eliminate poverty, disease, and other economic and social causes of international tension.
During the war years New Zealand was admitted to the councils of the Allies and was expected to advance informed views. The Government honoured its responsibility and, having established in wartime the habit of participating in the making of international decisions, accepted it as natural that New Zealand should continue to participate in the development of a post-war world order and in subsequent international consultations. To this end New Zealand established (in effect from 1943) a professional Department of External Affairs and a career foreign service, and proceeded slowly to establish diplomatic missions in countries where New Zealand's interests merited protection. In particular, New Zealand sought increasingly to make its individual contribution to fostering good relationships with its neighbours in the Pacific and to increasing the measure of security and welfare in this area.
The threat to New Zealand's security, posed by the entry of Japan into the war at a time when the United Kingdom was fully committed in Europe, brought New Zealand into the closest relations with two of her Pacific neighbours, Australia and the United States. Recognition of the need for a greater measure of collaboration with Australia resulted in the signing in 1944 of the Canberra Pact which provided machinery for continuing consultation between the two Governments. Upon the entry of Japan into the war both New Zealand and Australia looked principally to the United States for protection. Relations among the three countries thus entered a new phase. The close association of wartime found expression in peacetime in the Anzus Treaty, in which, for the first time, New Zealand and Australia entered into a treaty of alliance and mutual defence with a foreign country. While neither Australia nor New Zealand was in favour of a vindictive or onerously restrictive peace settlement with Japan, they both made clear during the negotiation of the Japanese Peace Treaty their apprehension at the possibility of future aggression in the Pacific. The Anzus Treaty, which came into force in April 1952, was designed to allay these fears at the same time as it achieved the aim of both countries to enter into a close relationship with the major Pacific power. The treaty gives an assurance of United States support in the event of an armed attack from any quarter in the Pacific and so constitutes New Zealand's major safeguard from aggression in the area.
Since the signature of the Anzus Treaty, New Zealand has become a member of another regional defence system, the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation, SEATO. In joining SEATO, a body made necessary by the failure of the Great Powers to co-operate in carrying out the security functions entrusted to them by the United Nations Charter, New Zealand demonstrated further its new awareness of the international and strategic implications of its position in the South Pacific. In 1955, the Minister of External Affairs, the Hon. T. L. Macdonald, discussing New Zealand's foreign policy, said that the only possible threat to New Zealand's security could come from Asia, and in particular from the spread of Communist power in South-East Asia. "New Zealand's foreign policy grows,'' he said, "from the need to reconcile geography and history, economic fact and strategic fact. In practical terms at present this means that, without weakening the many links which bind us to Britain and the whole Atlantic community, we must increase our concern with South-East Asia.''
This regional approach implied no weakening of the belief in the pre-eminent value of collective security organised on a world basis. New Zealand continued to place special importance upon its membership of the United Nations. It has been an active participant in the work of the General Assembly, has been a member of all Councils of the Organisation, has provided troops to the United Nations Force in Korea and military observers in Palestine, Kashmir, and Lebanon, and has endeavoured to assist all efforts to attain the political and social objectives outlined in the Charter.
At the time of the formation of SEATO, New Zealand's interest in South-East Asia had already been expressed in social and economic terms. In 1950, New Zealand, along with a group of other Commonwealth countries, became a member of the Colombo Plan established to assist the countries of South-East Asia to improve their standards of living. To New Zealand, a pioneer in the field of social legislation and a country where wealth is spread throughout all levels of the population, the Colombo Plan has a special significance and contributions, large by New Zealand standards (if small when measured against the potential need), have been made to it. New Zealand's recent accession to regional membership of ECAFE, the Asian Development Bank, and ASPAC (the Council for Asian and Pacific Co-operation) is further demonstration of this country's acceptance that it has a role to play in the Pacific area. Despite this new concentration, however, New Zealand continued and developed its efforts (as will be seen later) to promote action on a world scale to deal with social and economic problems.
New Zealand's geographical position and that of its island territories, the Cook, Niue, and Tokelau Islands, also gives this country a direct interest in political, social, and economic developments in the South Pacific. This is reflected not only in New Zealand's membership of such regional organisations as the South Pacific Commission, but also in a wide and growing range of contacts with island people and an increased sense of involvement in their problems. The evolution of self-government and nationalism in the South Pacific reached a new stage when Western Samoa became the first independent Polynesian state on 1 January 1962. This was followed three years later by the Cook Islands' achievement of internal self-government. New Zealand's own colonial past and her liberal tradition of friendship for emergent peoples, together with the large number of Polynesian people who have settled in this country, mean that the islanders tend to look to New Zealand for leadership and encouragement. In particular, Western Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji already look to New Zealand as an important export market and as a source of administrative and technical assistance. Inevitably, New Zealand is going to be increasingly affected by what happens in the South Pacific region.
If, since the war, the facts of geography have had an important influence on New Zealand's attitudes towards foreign affairs, history and tradition continue nevertheless to mould its outlook. The historic links with the United Kingdom and with Western Europe and North America remain as strong as ever; and the economic links with the United Kingdom, New Zealand's best customer, remain strong. No situation is, however, constant. One of the key problems of external political and economic policy now presented to New Zealand arises out of the movement towards political and economic integration in Europe and the continuing possibility of Britain's membership of the European Economic Community. New Zealand must expand the volume and value of its exports of primary products if the standard of living of its rapidly increasing population is to be maintained and improved. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent, however, that the United Kingdom market is capable of only a limited expansion. The development of new markets in Asia and other less developed countries is hindered by low income levels as well as by consumption patterns in which the type of foodstuff exported by New Zealand does not figure prominently. New Zealand's foreign policy is likely to continue the endeavour to reconcile geography and history, economic fact and strategic fact.
Department of External Affairs—The External Affairs Act 1943 made provisions for the appointment of a Minister of External Affairs charged generally with the administration of external and foreign affairs, including relations with other countries, communications with other Governments, representation abroad, and representation of other countries in New Zealand. The Act also authorised the appointment of a Secretary of External Affairs and (superseding the High Commissioner Act of 1908) dealt with the appointment of High Commissioners and of overseas representatives.
The functions of the Department were defined at its inception as follows:
To act as a channel of communication between the Government and other Commonwealth and foreign Governments on matters relating to external affairs.
To assist in negotiating treaties and international agreements.
To direct New Zealand's overseas diplomatic posts.
To deal with foreign diplomats, and to issue exequaturs to foreign consuls.
The Act thus established the Ministry of External Affairs as the normal channel of communication with the Governments of other countries. As, however, the new Department was in fact still a part of the Prime Minister's Department, no change in procedure, apart from the use of the changed nomenclature, was necessary.
Dealings with overseas Governments usually involve considerable interdepartmental coordination. Since the Prime Minister's Department has always been regarded primarily as a department of co-ordination, an intimate relationship has existed between the two Departments. The Prime Minister has for three periods found it appropriate to assume the portfolio of External Affairs and the Departments have in any case been run as a unit. The staff is held in common and, though some officers are engaged on work peculiar to one Department, the work of the majority involves both Departments. The Secretary of External Affairs is also Permanent Head of the Prime Minister's Department. For the first 23 years of the existence of the Department of External Affairs, until October 1966, the same person, Mr A. D. McIntosh, held the two posts. In defence matters the two Departments have been closely associated. During the war, the Permanent Head was also Secretary of the War Cabinet. In that period the responsibility of the Prime Minister's Department for defence co-ordination was extended and developed; in discharging this responsibility the Permanent Head was assisted by the Defence Secretariat of the Prime Minister's Department. The functions of the Secretariat have been taken over by the unified Ministry of Defence which was established by Act of Parliament in November 1964. A close relationship is still maintained between the Ministry of Defence and the Defence Division of the Department of External Affairs, and the head of that Division is chairman of the body which co-ordinates military and civilian intelligence.
In the formulation and application of external affairs policy, close association with other Government Departments is necessary. Participation in the Colombo Plan entails close liaison with the Treasury and with the many Departments which supply experts and training facilities, consular questions with the Department of Labour, and legal questions with the Department of Justice. Moreover, the Department is a clearing house for a wide variety of material provided by overseas posts for other Departments. As well as fulfilling its major function of acting as a channel of communication with other Governments, the Department thus acts as a co-ordinating centre for other Government Departments. The Department and its network of posts overseas also perform numerous services on behalf of Departments which are without overseas representatives of their own.
In the Official Section at the end of the Yearbook the diplomatic and other New Zealand representation overseas is listed.
New Zealand in the Commonwealth—Despite the emphasis in New Zealand's approach to international affairs resulting from the realities of its geographical position, membership of the Commonwealth remains a significant feature of its policy. Intimate association with the United Kingdom is the historical basis, and remains an important principle of New Zealand's external relations. The ties between New Zealand and the United Kingdom are embodied in the close association of the Commonwealth, membership of which has helped to give New Zealand an international status that such a small and isolated community could not otherwise claim.
Although one of the oldest members, New Zealand, unlike some of its fellow members, did not seek to hasten the process of constitutional transition within the Commonwealth. At the Imperial Conference in 1930 the Prime Minister, the Right Hon. G. W. Forbes, stated that "We have felt that all times within recent years we have had ample scope for our national aspirations and ample freedom to carry out in their entirety such measures as have seemed to us to be desirable''. There was little interest in the adoption of the relevant provisions of the Statute of Westminster enacted in 1931 to give legal endorsement to the transformation that had taken place in the relationship between Britain and the Dominions. It was not, in fact, until 1947 that the necessary formalities were completed in New Zealand by the passing of the Statute of the Westminster Adoption Act.
Since that time there have been many changes in the Commonwealth association both in constitutional respects and in numbers of members. Whereas at the beginning of the Second World War there were only five members, (of whom one, South Africa, withdrew from the association in 1961), at the end of 1966 there were 26. Besides the older Commonwealth countries of Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, membership now includes India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Malaysia, Ghana, Nigeria, Cyprus, Sierra Leone, Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika and Zanzibar), Jamaica, Kenya, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, and five new members, Malawi, Zambia, Malta, Gambia, and Singapore. The Commonwealth has become an entity embracing several continents and its relationships have taken on a new scope and emphasis. New Zealand, itself a country where two races live side by side, sees in the Commonwealth a special opportunity for multiracial co-operation and understanding.
New Zealand has as yet exchanged representatives with only the following members of the Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, India, Ceylon*, Malaysia, Singapore, and Britain.
*The New Zealand High Commissioner in India is also appointed High Commissioner in Ceylon.
The importance New Zealand attaches to the Commonwealth association has been given practical expression in its membership of a number of Commonwealth organisations, including the Commonwealth Air Transport Council, the Commonwealth Telecommunications Board, the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, the Imperial War Graves Commission, the Commonwealth Institute, the Commonwealth Economic Consultative Council, the Commonwealth Scientific Committee, and the Commonwealth Education Liaison Committee. New Zealand also contributes to the budgets of the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Foundation, which were both established at the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' meeting in 1965.
New Zealand and the South Pacific—It is not without significance that the first area of the world towards which New Zealanders developed a distinct and characteristic attitude should have been the South Pacific. This is New Zealand's immediate environment, its Polynesian peoples close kin to the New Zealand Maori, its islands nearest and most important in the lines of communication which link New Zealand with America and Europe. New Zealand is, moreover, the largest community in the area and cannot escape either a concern or a responsibility for what goes on there.
Within a decade of New Zealand's establishment as a British colony Bishop Selwyn had made it the base for Anglican missions in the South Pacific and Sir George Grey as Governor had begun to advocate a policy of expansion in the area. The increasing involvement of other powers and a desire to develop trade led Sir Julius Vogel in the 1870s to take up idea and to put forward various schemes for political and commercial expansion, which, however, found no favour in London. In the 1880s New Zealand joined the Australian colonies in an effort to preserve "Oceania for the Anglo-Saxons'', and soon after the movement reached its peak in the robust opposition of Richard John Seddon to the bargaining away of Samoa in 1899.
The meagre fruit of half a century's agitation was the annexation in 1901 of the Cook Islands and their inclusion within the boundaries of New Zealand. Thereafter New Zealand's interest in the South Pacific declined as its trade and its thoughts came to centre more and more on Great Britain. But though declining, the tradition was still strong enough to provide support for the Imperial Federation movement in the first decade of the twentieth century and, more practically, to inspire New Zealand on the outbreak of war in 1914 to occupy Germany's colony of Western Samoa.
At the end of the war Western Samoa, like other former German possessions, was retained by the occupying power under a League of Nations Mandate. New Zealand embarked on its new responsibility with greater enthusiasm than it had shown in the Cook Islands and much effort was devoted to solving the problems of the territory. The rate of change thus created, however, proved too rapid for the tradition-loving Samoans. In the late 1920s a series of unfortunate incidents occurred and, for some time afterwards, the pace slackened. The opening up in the late 1930s of air routes across the Pacific led New Zealand, along with other countries, to take an increased interest in some of the more remote islands in the area, but it was the outbreak of the Second World War which forcibly reminded the country of its situation.
Overnight half-forgotten islands became strategic points for the defence of New Zealand and its allies, and New Zealanders again became aware of the need to prevent them from falling into unfriendly hands. Accordingly, New Zealand joined with Australia in seeking ways to guarantee the future security of the area, and there emerged first the Canberra Pact of 1944 and later the 1947 Agreement to establish the South Pacific Commission.
Through the Commission the Governments administering territories in the South Pacific—Britain, the United States, France, Australia, New Zealand, and (until 1962) the Netherlands—have made a concerted effort to promote the economic and social development of the area and its peoples. In the 17 years of its existence the Commission has, within its budgetary limits (it currently spends about $700,000 annually), done much valuable work, particularly in bringing the islanders together and developing a sense of community amongst them. Originally laying much stress on research, the Commission has come to concentrate mainly on providing technical assistance and on pooling experience of handling common problems of development. It maintains close working links with the United Nations Specialised Agencies which are taking an increasing interest in the region.
But New Zealand has not been content with promoting progress in the economic and social spheres only. At the San Francisco Conference in 1945 it took a leading part in working out the trusteeship system embodied in the United Nations Charter, and subsequently the League of Nations Mandate for Western Samoa was replaced by a trusteeship agreement.
In accordance with the wishes of the Samoan people, a programme of political and constitutional development was launched which continued throughout the 1950s and which culminated in the establishment of the independent State of Western Samoa on 1 January 1962. The transfer of sovereignty did not, however, weaken the close and friendly relationship which had grown up between Western Samoa and New Zealand and this was confirmed in a Treaty of Friendship between the two countries signed in August 1962. In the educational as well as in other fields New Zealand assists Western Samoa.
Whilst Western Samoa was moving towards independence, constitutional development was taking place in New Zealand's other island territories. Following expert surveys a programme of economic and social development for the Cook Islands was formulated in 1955 and legislative assemblies for the Cook Islands and for Niue were set up in 1957. In 1952 the New Zealand Government gave these bodies full responsibility for allocating the large subsidies granted by New Zealand. In the same year possible alternatives concerning constitutional development were submitted to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly unanimously chose full internal self-government together with a continued association with New Zealand. In 1963 a "Shadow'' Cabinet was set up and a Leader of Government Business elected. The following year the New Zealand House of Representatives passed the Cook Islands Constitution Act, with provision for the Act itself to come into force after a General Election in the Cook Islands. This election was held on 20 April 1965 and after the New Zealand Parliament had at the request of the Cook Islands Government made certain amendments to the Constitution Act, the new Constitution was brought into force on 4 August 1965 and the Cook Islands became a self-governing nation in free association with New Zealand. The new Legislative Assembly, assured of New Zealand's financial assistance, is fully responsible for the internal affairs of the Cook Islands.
The independence of Western Samoa, self-government in the Cook Islands, and the progress of the remaining New Zealand territories are indicative of broader changes in the South Pacific. Economic, social, and educational development has made the peoples of the area more self-conscious and desirous of managing their own affairs. At the same time developments in New Guinea have attracted international attention, and the intensification of interest in colonial questions in the United Nations is likely to bring the South Pacific into yet greater prominence. In the light of these changes New Zealand has taken the lead in proposing that both the organisation and functions of the South Pacific Commission be revised to bring its work more into line with needs and aspirations of the peoples of the area. At the same time the membership of the Commission itself is changing. In 1964 the original South Pacific Agreement was amended to allow the inclusion of independent countries which formerly lay within the Commission's territorial scope. In accordance with this, Western Samoa took its seat at the Twenty-Sixth Session of the Commission in October 1964.
New Zealand in the United Nations—It has been noted earlier that the first significant expression of an independent New Zealand foreign policy occurred in the League of Nations and was directed to supporting the principle of collective security. Support for this principle later and through the United Nations has remained a cornerstone of New Zealand's foreign policy.
The purposes which motivated the policy in 1935 were strongly held beliefs, rather than principles developed from any careful assessments by a national foreign service. The beliefs were nevertheless a reflection of widely held concern over world events, a concern which the succeeding years were to reinforce. It was, therefore, perhaps understandable that at San Francisco in 1945 New Zealand should argue so forcibly, if unsuccessfully, to eliminate the veto and to strengthen the collective security provisions of the United Nations Charter.
Despite its physical isolation New Zealand has felt unable to regard with unconcern the fate of other small countries helpless to defend themselves against a powerful aggressor and thus liable to be picked off one by one.
The United Nations does not, it is true, offer a complete guarantee of New Zealand's or any other small country's security against aggression. Nor has it yet achieved agreement on disarmament; but New Zealand Governments have acted upon the conviction that the United Nations, and it alone, contains the rudiments of a universal collective security system, and that it is through the United Nations, and not through its abandonment in favour of some alternative, that an effective and comprehensive collective security system may eventually be developed and agreement on disarmament achieved.
New Zealand has recognised that this objective must be a long-term one, and that the United Nations in its present form must be buttressed by regional defensive alliances. It has not taken the view that all multilateral diplomacy must be conducted within the United Nations. In general, however, New Zealand has regarded the United Nations as the natural centre of international diplomacy unless there were, in special cases, goods reasons to work outside it.
Within the United Nations the expression of this policy has taken several forms. New Zealand has sought to remove the causes which might produce the need for recourse to collective security action. Its representatives have urged that the Assembly be used as a place for harmonising relations between nations: they have voiced the need for restraint in the pursuit of national objectives; they have consistently sought and supported responsible action in aid of an effective international organisation; they have reiterated the need for the early adoption of a broad programme of supervised disarmament.
New Zealand has at the same time advocated adequate and timely preparations in case aggression should occur and has supported the fullest possible development of the United Nations' capacity for peacekeeping. When occasion has arisen New Zealand has been prepared to play its part: troops were supplied to the United Nations Force in Korea and military observers to the United Nations Observer Groups in Palestine, Kashmir, and Lebanon; a civilian police unit has served in Cyprus; and the Government has indicated to the Secretary-General its intention in principle to designate a stand-by unit which would be available for properly instituted peacekeeping operations of the Organisation in the future.
To maintain the peace is the primary purpose of the United Nations, and for New Zealand the search for effective guarantees of international peace and security continues to be the first object of membership. New Zealand was elected to the Security Council, which is charged with the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, for the years 1954 and 1955, and for a second term in 1966. This primary purpose is not, however, the only object of the United Nations, nor is a system of collective security (or disarmament) the only means of giving effect to it.
The state of economic, social, and general political relations goes far to determine the urgency of the need for a collective security system. For New Zealand, geographically isolated and with limited direct diplomatic relations, the United Nations is inevitably one of the most important forums available, not only to influence the course of international events, but also to secure the friendship and understanding of the world community. For any country, its international reputation is a valuable asset. If New Zealand is better known and commands more influence in international affairs than some other small States similarly situated, this is in some measure, at least, due to New Zealand's record of active participation in the United Nations.
Economic and Social Council—New Zealand's interest in economic and social questions—as well as the recognition by other countries that New Zealand has special experience to offer—is illustrated by its membership of the Economic and Social Council (an elective body of the United Nations with an initial membership of 18, recently expanded to 27) from 1947 to 1949 and its re-election in 1958 for a further term for the period 1959 to 1961. New Zealand in 1963 became a full regional member of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), a body of which it had previously been a non-regional member. New Zealand has also served terms of office from time to time on the Technical Assistance Committee and on the Statistical, Social, and Fiscal Commissions and the Commission on the Status of Women. It is currently serving on the Commission on Human Rights for the period 1966-69.
In undertaking these responsibilities New Zealand may to some extent be regarded as "taking its turn''. In few cases, however, are the considerations in favour of representation so simple. New Zealand certainly shares with others an interest in ensuring that economic and social conditions are such as to permit ordered political progress. It is concerned to ensure that, where political principles are in issue, the beliefs which New Zealanders hold as essential should be recognised and, if possible, accepted by the world community. Sometimes there are strong reasons of self-interest; it is important that New Zealand's interests and its special problems be taken into account in the work of these bodies. Moreover, some organs which were first designed to meet the emergency of post-war conditions, such as UNICEF, have developed programmes, e.g., the supply of milk powder and fish-liver oil, which are of economic interest to New Zealand.
The biggest single task now facing the Economic and Social Council is to promote and direct programmes for economic development in underdeveloped countries. New Zealand has always recognised the need for economic development and made its contributions to the appropriate funds, e.g., the Expanded Programme for Technical Assistance and the Special Fund, now merged to form the United Nations Development Programme. It has been concerned to ensure that international programmes in this field should be effective and realistic.
At present New Zealand representatives in the United Nations are called upon to deal with questions of economic development in several different fields. One is in the Economic Committee of the General Assembly, where the economic work of the Organisation is subject to general review; another arises out of New Zealand's membership of ECAFE. In this setting, the detailed study of development programmes is closely related to the work of the Colombo Plan, and provides a significant counterpart to New Zealand's growing political interest in Asia.
Conference on Trade and Development—As a result of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development held in Geneva in 1964, the General Assembly has agreed to hold a triennial Conference on Trade and Development open to all United Nations members and other States, members of the Specialised Agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It has also established a Trade and Development Board, of which New Zealand is a member in the current period, and functional committees on commodities, manufactures, financing of trade and shipping. New Zealand has seats on the Committees on Commodities and on Shipping.
Specialised Agencies—It is the responsibility of the Economic and Social Council under the Charter to co-ordinate the activities of the Specialised Agencies through consultations and recommendations. New Zealand is a member of all the Agencies except the International Development Association. As a contributor to their budgets, it is concerned to ensure that activities are not duplicated and that the Secretariats of the United Nations and of the Agencies work closely together on matters of common interest. New Zealand has also been concerned to ensure that on political and administrative matters the policies of the Agencies are adjusted to those of the United Nations. As in the case of the different organs and subsidiary bodies of the United Nations, so with the Specialised Agencies, New Zealand's reasons for membership have ranged from motives of self-interest to its conviction of the value of international co-operation. In some cases non-membership would place New Zealand at a distinct disadvantage. Membership of the Universal Postal Union is essential to facilitate the efficient international movement of mails to and from this country. Similarly, the International Telecommunications Union regulates international radio, telephone, and telegraphic traffic, and the need to belong to this body is universally accepted. The World Meteorological Organisation is the medium for setting standards and encouraging the free interchange of meteorological information. Wartime experience emphasised the fact that few countries have as direct an interest in international civil aviation as New Zealand; New Zealand is closely concerned with the efforts of the International Civil Aviation Organisation to foster the planning and development of international air transport and to ensure proper standards for the development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities.
No clear line can, however, be drawn between the "technical'' Agencies and others, and some degree of technical advantage is to be derived from membership of all the Specialised Agencies. Although its own health standards are high, New Zealand has nevertheless drawn benefits, particularly in its island territories, from its membership of the World Health Organisation. Each in its own field—the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the International Labour Organisation, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency—constitutes an important international medium for the free interchange of knowledge and experience.
On occasion the Specialised Agencies provide the forum for advancement of a New Zealand interest. The FAO has played a prominent part in the formulation of measures to encourage the establishment of a stable international market for agricultural commodities, particularly in the enunciation of principles to govern the disposal of surplus commodities. The FAO's interest in the disposal of surplus foodstuffs was increased in December 1961 when the United Nations approved the establishment of a World Food Programme to be administered jointly by FAO and the United Nations. New Zealand was elected to the inter-Governmental Committee charged with the responsibility of supervising the Programme and for the three-year period of the Programme (1963-65) agreed to contribute $U.S.75,000 in cash and $U.S.425,000 in commodities.
New Zealand has served from time to time on the governing bodies of most of the Specialised Agencies. In 1966, for example, it has been a member of the Executive Board of WHO, the Council of FAO, and the Executive Council of UPU.
New Zealand has been a Contracting Party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) since its inception in 1947. Although not strictly speaking a Specialised Agency, the GATT has assumed the characteristics of one as its activities have extended into all aspects of international trade including, more recently, measures to liberalise non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade and to provide special export opportunities for the goods of the developing countries.
New Zealand's accession to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the International Finance Corporation not only allows this country to participate in measures designed to increase the stability of international trade and promote the economic development of the underdeveloped areas of the world but also serves to strengthen New Zealand's own economic position by providing access to more varied sources of capital.
As well as the Commonwealth organisations mentioned earlier some regional organisations, particularly the South Pacific Commission, are of particular importance to New Zealand. Since the establishment of the Commission in 1947, New Zealand's island territories have derived much benefit from its work on fisheries, co-operatives, control of the rhinoceros beetle, and research upon filariasis.
New Zealand and Collective Defence: South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty—When, in the years following 1945, it became clear that there were serious obstacles to the effective implementation of those provisions of the United Nations Charter which were designed to establish a universal system of collective security, the alternative of regional arrangements was further developed. In South-East Asia, a few years after NATO was established, the South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty (also known as the Manila Treaty or Pact) was negotiated.
The idea of such a treaty had been canvassed during the early 1950s. In the early part of 1954, however, a number of governments became greatly concerned at the progress of the war in Indo-China and the deteriorating situation in South-East Asia, and on 29 March the United States called for "united action'' to resist further Communist expansion. Shortly thereafter the United Kingdom and France agreed that consideration should be given to the establishment as soon as possible of a collective security system in the area. The New Zealand Minister of External Affairs stated on 19 April that his Government welcomed this proposal and was prepared to participate.
The Geneva Agreements for Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia (which were completed on 21 July 1954) were an achievement of considerable importance and value, but they fell short of a fully guaranteed settlement. After a period of consultation eight governments—Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States—agreed to attend a conference to consider a system of collective defence for South-East Asia. On 8 September in Manila they signed the South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty. At the same time they proclaimed the Pacific Charter, in which they set out principles on which they undertook to base their policies for the maintenance of peace and stability. The treaty was ratified by New Zealand on 19 February 1955.
The first meeting of the Council envisaged by the Treaty, comprising the Foreign Ministers of all the allied governments, was held in Bangkok in February 1955. Since then the Council has met at Karachi in 1956, Canberra in 1957, Manila in 1958, Wellington in 1959. Washington in 1960, Bangkok in 1961, Paris in 1963, Manila in 1964, London in 1965, and Canberra in 1966. The Council has overall control of the activities of the alliance. (The name "South-East Asia Treaty Organisation'' was derived by analogy with NATO and CENTO: in practice it refers to the joint activity of the eight allies.)
At that first meeting the Council established a body known as the Council Representatives to carry on its functions between Council meetings. Council Representatives are generally the heads of their countries' diplomatic missions in Bangkok; New Zealand is at present represented by its Ambassador to Thailand. From time to time various expert committees and study groups have been convened to give collective advice to Council Representatives.
The permanent civil Secretariat, consisting at present of an international staff of 40 officers, includes three New Zealanders, one of them the Deputy Secretary-General.
The Council also agreed in February 1955 that the Military Advisers to the Ministers should meet as a group to advise it on measures for common defence. Subsequent in 1957 a Military Planning Office was established in Bangkok and from 1958-60 the position of Chief of this Office was held by a New Zealander. Joint military exercises, in which units of the sea, land, and air forces of all member countries participate, are held regularly.
SEATO is a defensive alliance and neither in concept nor in structure is it fitted for a major role in other spheres. Nevertheless, the true nature of the challenge in South-East Asia was well recognised by the signatory nations and economic, social, and educational objectives were included in the Treaty. Upon these provisions have developed a wide range of activities which reflect the essentially peaceful intent of the allies, and their full awareness that the security and well-being of a nation depend on more than the ability to repel an aggressor.
In the field of education, for example, SEATO sponsors three professorships, post- and under-graduate scholarships, research fellowships, and a number of travelling lectureships. One of the most successful of its educational projects has been the Graduate School of Engineering which was established in Bangkok in September 1959. New Zealand makes an annual contribution to the school's scholarship fund, and provided for a number of years the services of a professor of hydrology. As the result of recommendations made by a commission set up to report on the future development and financing of the school, in February 1967 the school became an independent institution known as the Asian Institute of Technology. The institute is managed by an international Board of Trustees. In 1962 New Zealand contributed a mobile medical unit for a two-year assignment to the first Regional Development Technical Assistance Centre established by SEATO at Ubol, in North-east Thailand. The unit's equipment was subsequently given to the Royal Thai Government. These are only two of a large number of projects sponsored by SEATO and designed to promote economic development and living standards in the Treaty area.
It has become increasingly clear over the years that the principal threat to the Treaty area is from subversion from outside, developing, if unchecked, into insurgency. Action to meet this danger of indirect aggression is primarily a national responsibility, but Council Representatives, in addition to intensifying their economic and social programmes, have helped to identify subversion in its various forms, to assess the nature of the threat which it poses, and to suggest ways in which the threat may be met.
In May 1962, following a serious violation of the cease-fire in Laos by the Communist-directed Pathet Lao and in response to an invitation by the Royal Thai Government, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand dispatched forces to Thailand. Each of them made it clear that this was a precautionary move, taken in accordance with their obligations under the Manila Treaty, to enable them to come more speedily to the defence of Thailand should the need arise.
The New Zealand contribution consisted of a Special Air Service detachment of the New Zealand Army and RNZAF transport aircraft. The detachment and the transport aircraft were withdrawn in September 1962. From 1963 to 1965 two further RNZAF transport aircraft were made available to help develop logistic facilities in Thailand, and from March 1964 to June 1965 a detachment of Army engineers was stationed in North-east Thailand to assist in the construction of an airfield. These moves were all indicative of New Zealand's active concern with the course of events in South-East Asia and of a growing sense of involvement.
In more recent years, SEATO member nations have provided an increasing volume and range of military and civilian assistance to the Republic of Vietnam in its struggle against Communist aggression and subversion. In May 1964, at the invitation of the South Vietnamese Government, New Zealand sent a detachment of field engineers to South Vietnam to help in reconstruction and the building of roads and bridges. The detachment won a reputation for efficiency and adaptability in carrying out these priority tasks. At the 1965 SEATO Council meeting in London, Ministers again expressed their concern at continuing Communist aggression against the Republic of Vietnam, and agreed that members of SEATO should remain prepared, if necessary, to take further concrete steps within their respective capabilities in fulfilment of their obligations under the Treaty. Following this Council meeting, and in response to a request from the South Vietnamese Government, the Prime Minister announced in May 1965 that New Zealand would dispatch an artillery battery to South Vietnam in conformity with New Zealand's obligations under the Manila Treaty, of which the Republic of Vietnam is a protocol member. At the same time the Prime Minister announced that the non-combat detachment of Army Engineers would be withdrawn. New Zealand's decision to contribute combat troops to South Vietnam was welcomed by the SEATO Council meeting at Canberra in June 1966, when it was agreed that members should continue and, consistent with their commitments elsewhere, increase their assistance to the Republic of Vietnam.
ANZUS—This is the name given to the tripartite security treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, which was signed at San Francisco on 1 September 1951 and came into force on 29 April 1952.
The Anzus Treaty was more than a reflection of the close relationship which had developed between the three participants during the Second World War—it was the first formal treaty relationship of New Zealand and Australia with the United States and assured New Zealand and Australia of American support in the event of aggression in the Pacific. The Treaty also provided a basis for periodic discussions of common problems at a ministerial level.
The Treaty is a defensive arrangement of the three parties, and is consistent with United Nations principles and obligations. The keynote of ANZUS is that each party recognised "that an armed attack in the Pacific Area on any of the Parties would be dangerous to its own peace and safety, and declares that it will act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes''. In the context of the agreement an armed attack on any of the Parties is deemed to include "an armed attack on the metropolitan territory of any of the Parties, or on the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or on its armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the Pacific''.
The first meeting of the ANZUS Council was held at Honolulu from 4-6 August 1952, the three signatory countries being represented by their Foreign Ministers. At this meeting the organisation necessary to carry the Treaty into effect was established. The Ministers agreed that the machinery for consultation should be as simple as possible and that the maximum use should be made of existing channels and agencies. It was decided that the Council of Ministers or their deputies should meet annually, one year in the United States and alternate years in Australia or New Zealand. In practice, this rotation of meetings has not been adhered to and by common consent the United States has acted as host to most meetings of the Council of Ministers. Article III of the Treaty states that "the Parties will consult together whenever in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened in the Pacific''. To ensure that effective measures might be taken to implement this Article, the Council of Ministers agreed to have the advice of military officers of the three Governments.
The Council also agreed that special meetings, normally attended by deputies, would be held La Washington "to provide for continuing consultation and to provide a focus where existing channels and agencies may be used in the implementation of the Treaty''.
Recently the Council has met in Canberra in 1962, in Wellington in 1963, in Washington in 1964 and 1965, and in Canberra in 1966.
New Zealand and the Colombo Plan—Under the Colombo Plan, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, have joined with the countries of South and South-East Asia to help them improve their standards of living. The Colombo Plan is not a single plan, but a series of separate plans drawn up and administered by each country in the region; the external assistance required and made available to help implement these plans is negotiated on a bilateral basis. The Plan had its origin in, and took its name from, a meeting of Commonwealth Foreign Ministers held in January 1950 in Colombo to exchange views on world problems, particularly on the economic needs of the countries of South and South-East Asia. The meeting established a Consultative Committee to ". . . survey the needs, to assess the resources available and required, to focus world attention on the development problems of the area, and to provide a framework within which an international co-operative effort could be promoted to assist the countries of the area to raise their living standards''. Since then the Consultative Committee has met consecutively in Sydney, London, Colombo, Karachi, New Delhi, Ottawa, Singapore, Wellington (1956), Saigon, Seattle, Jogjakarta, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Melbourne, Bangkok, and London. The 1966 meeting was held in Karachi.
A foundation member of the Plan and an active participant at every meeting, New Zealand has done its utmost, within the scope of its limited resources, to make significant grants of capital and technical assistance to the countries of the area.
Capital Assistance—By 31 March 1966 the New Zealand Parliament had appropriated a total of $30,292,284 for capital and technical assistance under the Colombo Plan. Of this, $17,968,888 in capital aid had been transferred to the Governments concerned or used at their request to buy equipment. Most of New Zealand's capital aid has been given in the form of direct transfers of overseas funds, but in appropriate cases it has been possible to supply equipment manufactured in New Zealand.
In 1966 an additional grant of $300,000 was approved for road construction in North-east Thailand. Further assistance was also provided in planning the Faculty of Agriculture at the new University of the North East, for which New Zealand has promised capital aid of $250,000. Grants totalling $630,000 were approved for two new milk schemes in India. Projects being implemented include aid to the value of $700,000 for the construction of two educational institutions in Malaysia, $140,000 for the construction of a Faculty of Science at the University of Saigon, and $60,000 to equip schools in the Philippines with trade-training equipment. New Projects are under consideration for Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ceylon, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Thailand.
Technical Assistance—By 31 March 1966 New Zealand had spent a total of $8,763,438 on technical assistance. The number of people from Asian countries brought to New Zealand for training under the Colombo Plan had reached 1,977, of whom 559 were still in the country. New Zealand experts serving abroad numbered 57, bringing the total sent under the Plan to 282. A number of those experts and some of the trainees were associated with projects for which New Zealand was also giving capital aid.
Commonwealth Aid Schemes—New Zealand participates in two co-operative aid programmes for Commonwealth members. Under the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan New Zealand offers each year 15 two-year scholarships for post-graduate or undergraduate study, three administrative fellowships, and three prestige fellowships for scholars of high academic standing. The New Zealand annual contribution of up to $2,000,000 to the Special Commonwealth Aid to Africa Plan, under which Commonwealth countries outside Africa provide bilateral assistance to African members, enables up to 80 Africans to study in New Zealand, and several New Zealand experts to work in Africa, as well as providing for small capital or equipment grants in appropriate cases.
Distribution of New Zealand Aid—The distribution of the total aid given by the New Zealand Government to developing countries during the latest three years is shown in the following table. Aid is shown as bilateral where the arrangements were concluded directly between New Zealand and the country or countries assisted, and multilateral where the aid was contributed to an international agency or fund.
|Item||Year Ended 31 March|
* Approximate amounts of New Zealand contributions used for development purposes.
† Formerly Special Fund and UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance.
|South and South-East Asia—|
|South Pacific and South-East Asia—|
|Volunteer Service Abroad||4||22||37|
|African Assistance Plan||117||131||188|
|Commonwealth Education Scheme||98||121||118|
|Total bilateral development grants||5,108||5,303||6,050|
|United Nations (UN)||90||78||78|
|International Labour Office (ILO)||16||18||21|
|UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)||28||34||35|
|UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)||24||30||29|
|World Health Organisation (WHO)||40||46||52|
|South Pacific Commission (SPC)||76||85||91|
|Voluntary programmes for development—|
|UN Children's Fund||150||150||150|
|UN Development Fund†||300||300||400|
|World Food Programme||18||152||20|
|N.Z. UNESCO Fellowships for African University Staff||-||-||3|
|Total multilateral development grants||742||893||879|
|Total Government grants for development||5,850||6,195||6,929|
|Government Loan Assistance—|
|Government loan to India for purchase of wool||-||500||-|
|Public loan to Western Samoa, guaranteed by New Zealand Government, for harbour development||-||2,000||-|
|Total Government loan facilities||-||2,500||-|
|(b) Refugees and Relief||$(000)|
|Vietnam refugee aid||-||-||20|
|UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)||100||100||100|
|Total Government assistance for relief||174||176||206|
|Total Government contributions for development and relief—|
The table lists only Government aid. It does not take into account the substantial aid given privately in cash and kind through CORSO, religious missions, the Red Cross, organisations assisting lepers, and by other means.
General Aims—It is clear that, as New Zealand has assumed the international responsibilities appropriate to an independent country, its foreign policy has changed in emphasis and scope. The foundations of New Zealand's pre-war position in international affairs—its identification with Britain and its membership of the Commonwealth—have been modified and extended to meet the demands of an international situation greatly changed from that of 1939. As a country of predominantly European settlement, New Zealand retains its traditional loyalties to the United Kingdom and a sense of identity with Europe and of involvement in its destiny. As a Pacific power, it has sought security in friendship and formal defensive arrangements with Australia and the United States of America. New Zealand's growing involvement in the problems of the South Pacific region and its close ties with the island people are giving rise to a new recognition of the importance of the role it will have to play in this area in the future. New Zealand is in a unique position to encourage the growth of a regional consciousness in the South Pacific which is essential if the problems of the area are to be seen and tackled as a whole. At the same time it has developed its association with Asian countries. As a country concerned with the preservation of world peace and the organisation of defence against aggression it has placed prime importance upon development of the United Nations as an agency for peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the achievement of collective security. Pending the establishment of a broadly based United Nations security system, however, New Zealand has been prepared, in respect of South-East Asia, to participate in a protective grouping concerned with the defence of a single area. Moreover, while it sees aggressive Communism as the greatest threat to individual liberty at the present time, it is well aware of the powerful stirrings of other forces—the yearning for political emancipation, the antagonism to systems of racial discrimination, the demand of underprivileged countries for a greater share of the world's prosperity, for social advancement and opportunity. New Zealand's actions in the international field are designed to take account of these forces and, where possible, to assist the people of other countries in their striving for a better life. The limits of what it is able to do are those imposed by its size and capacity; its disposition is towards peaceful and friendly relations with all nations and (whatever the modifications which the needs of national security may impose) it is to that ultimate goal that its foreign policy is directed.
CONSTITUTION OF NEW ZEALAND: General—New Zealand is a monarchical State; it is also a constituent member of the Commonwealth. It is in this context that the preamble to the Royal Titles Act 1953 is significant ". . . whereas it is expedient that the style and titles at present appertaining to the Crown should be altered so as to reflect more clearly the existing relationships of the Members of the Commonwealth to one another and their recognition of the Crown as the Symbol of their free association and of the Sovereign as the Head of the Commonwealth . . .''
Constitutional elements besides that of the titular head, the Monarch, can be reviewed under the categories of legislative authority, the executive and administrative structure, and the judiciary. This division is a convenient one, even though there is no absolute line of demarcation between the three phases (e.g., legislation may and often does arise through the day-to-day experience of those responsible for administration and execution of policy, or through difficulties or anomalies made explicit in the course of dispensing justice or interpreting law). Conversely, in the exercise of the powers and functions of industrial and other tribunals, commissions, authorities, etc., both administrative and judicial elements may be discerned.
THE MONARCH—The New Zealand Parliament in the Royal Titles Act 1953 gave its assent to the use of the Royal style and titles as follows: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Her Other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
While the seat of the Monarch is normally in the United Kingdom, the Queen is represented in New Zealand by the Governor-General appointed by the Crown to the advice of Her New Zealand Ministers. The Governor-General has, however, an official existence, even in the country to which he has been appointed, only in the absence of the Queen from that country. In the island territories the Crown is represented by the Resident Commissioner or Resident Agent. These officials carry out the constitutional functions of the Crown, but they also possess in varying degrees certain executive and legislative powers, being responsible to the New Zealand Government for the administration and good government of the islands concerned.
Many powers held by the Monarch (or her representative) comprise but the means of giving effect to the public will. In New Zealand the Governor-General acts on the advice of the Ministers, which cannot constitutionally be ignored. Despite the long-term trend for powers to be assigned directly to Ministers without any necessity for vice-regal consultation, there are still many phases of Government which require Royal participation.
The Queen (in her absence the Governor-General) gives consent or approval prior to a Minister taking office or the formation of a Ministry; summons, prorogues, and dissolves Parliament; delivers the Speech from the Throne at the opening of a session; gives the Royal Assent to measures which have passed all stages in the House of Representatives, without which they have not the force of laws; makes appointments to most important State offices; confers knighthoods and other honours, etc.; and also provides that background of stability, continuity, and experience in many facets of government which is so desirable whenever there are sweeping changes in the dominance of political parties.
Besides those duties associated with the constitutional role, the Royal personage or representative makes an important contribution to the ceremonial life of the nation. This was particularly well illustrated during the sojourn of the Royal visitors in New Zealand in 1953-54 and in 1963. Both as the symbol of the nation and in virtue of her identification with the life and interests of her people, the Queen becomes the focus for all State occasions, as does the Governor-General in her absence.
LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY—The supreme law-making body with power to legislate for the whole country is the General Assembly, which now consists of the Governor-General and the House of Representatives, the former Legislative Council having been abolished since the close of 1950.
The powers of Parliament to make laws are legally untrammelled. This was not always so, for prior to the adoption by New Zealand to the Statute of Westminster in 1947 there was incapacity to make laws on certain matters which conflicted with United Kingdom statutes extending to New Zealand. There was also some doubt as to New Zealand's power to make laws possessing extra-territorial effect.
Although they do not limit the legal powers of Parliament as stated above, the provisions of the Electoral Act 1956 creating reserved sections in that Act are of great constitutional significance. The Act provides that certain of its sections may not be repealed except by a 75 percent majority of the House of Representatives or following a referendum. These sections are those relating to:
The constitution and order of reference of the Representation Commission.
The number of European electoral districts and the basing of their boundaries on the total population.
The fixing of the tolerance within which the Commission must work at 5 percent.
The age of voting.
The secret ballot.
The duration of Parliament.
This innovation is not legally effective in the sense that it does not prevent a subsequent Parliament from repealing it, since one Parliament cannot bind its successors. It should not be thought, however, that the provision is a mere gesture. It records the unanimous agreement of both parties represented in Parliament that certain provisions have a fundamental character in the system of Government and should not be altered at the whim of a bare majority. Considered in this light the provision creating reserved sections introduces something in the nature of a formal convention which could not constitutionally be ignored.
While the law-making function is the prerogative of Parliament, it must be remembered that, as in most democracies, laws are passed because of their acceptability to the majority party in Parliament—i.e., the Government party. Furthermore the initial acceptance will have probably been made in the deliberations of Cabinet.
With the increasing range and complexity of the statutory field, the multifarious concerns of a modern twentieth century government, and the necessity of conserving time for consideration of more important issues, much of the detailed procedural steps and other amplifying matter must become the subject of regulations made by Order in Council under the authority of some statute, rather than being incorporated in the statute itself. The power to make such regulations lies with the Executive Council which comprises those senior members of the majority party in Parliament who are appointed thereto, together with the Governor-General. Regulations, though originating in Cabinet and becoming effective in the formal proceedings of the Executive Council, rest fundamentally on the will of Parliament as a whole and are now subject to its supervisory jurisdiction. A general provision contained in the Regulations Amendment Act 1962 requires all such regulations to be laid before Parliament, though most empowering Acts contained a similar provision prior to that date. An amendment to the Standing Orders of the House of Representatives, also passed in 1962, enables the House or any member thereof to refer any regulation to the Statutes Revision Committee, a Select Committee of the House, which is empowered to consider the regulation and to determine whether the special attention of the House should be drawn to it on any of the following grounds: (a) That it trespasses unduly on personal rights and liberties: (b) That it appears to make some unusual or unexpected use of the powers conferred by the statute under which it is made: (c) That for any special reason its form or purport calls for elucidation.
Meeting of Parliament—Parliament is summoned, prorogued, or dissolved by Proclamation issued by the Governor-General. A session is that period between the summoning of Parliament and its prorogation. Its length varies, but it usually occupies the months from June to November. When Parliament is prorogued all the business on hand lapses, and if this is to be proceeded with in the next session it must be re-introduced.
The course of a session may be interrupted by an adjournment.
Parliamentary Privileges—While in session these include freedom of speech and freedom from arrest in civil cases, and also the right to engage in secret debate, if required, etc.
The Party System—The two main political parties represented in Parliament are National and Labour. A third party—Social Credit—obtained a seat for the first time at the 1966 General Election. At any general election these parties, together with any other political parties which may be desirous of so doing and also those candidates standing as independents, state their respective policies before the electors. Each party normally puts forward one candidate for each of the 80 electorates into which the country is divided. The party which wins the majority of seats, although not necessarily the majority of votes, at the general election forms the Government. The leader of the elected members of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister, who makes Ministerial appointments from elected members of his party. The leader of the minority party in Parliament becomes the Leader of the Opposition. The effectiveness of the party system relies largely on the general agreement that the majority party is to govern and the minority is to criticise—so that there is ample time allocated for debate on Government measures in Parliament. While party control is exercised by national and local organisations outside Parliament, within the latter it is maintained by the respective party Whips.
Parliamentary Procedure—The House of Representatives has its Standing Orders, which govern its procedure and which are administered by Mr Speaker in the exercise of his control of the House. Mr Speaker's rulings on interpretation of the Standing Orders are followed in a similar manner to judicial decisions in the ordinary Courts of law. The main means by which Parliament does its work is through the system of debate and committees. The election of a Speaker is the first business of a new House after the members have been sworn. A Chairman of Committees is elected as soon afterwards as is convenient. Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum.
Parliamentary Functions and Control—The Parliament controls the Government in power in the last resort by its power to pass a resolution of no confidence in the Government, or to reject a proposal which the Government considers so necessary that it is made a matter of confidence, and thus force the Government to resign.
Financial control is exercised by the fact that expenditure of public money must be authorised by the House of Representatives in the form of an Appropriation Act, which authorises or grants money to the Government for the purposes approved. The authority for the raising of revenue by taxation or borrowing must also be given by Parliament. The functions of Parliament are, of course, the passing of legislation and taking action to make available finances or funds as required for State expenditure, while it also controls the Government. Legislation can be initiated by any member of Parliament, but in practice almost all Bills are introduced by the Government in power as a result of policy taken in Cabinet, sometimes at the instigation of those Government Departments which will be responsible for their administration when the Bills become law. The chief exceptions are private Bills, which are designed for the particular interest or benefit of a person or body of persons, whether incorporated or not, and local Bills which relate largely to matters of local (as distinct from central) government business. The process of passing a public Bill is as follows: it receives a formal first reading on introduction, is then printed, and after some time it is given a second reading as a result of a debate on its general merits or principles. It may then be referred to one of the Select Committees, for consideration in the closest detail, before being considered by the whole House sitting in Committee. During these stages members have opportunities to suggest amendments which may be incorporated in the Bill if the majority so decide. The Bill is then reported to the House, and later read a third time; debate rarely occurs at these stages. The final stage is to send the Bill to the Governor-General for the Royal Assent and, unless provision is made for commencement on another date, it then becomes law. Bills providing for receipt of moneys, such as the Finance Bill, and expenditure of moneys, such as the Appropriation Bill, are introduced only by a Minister of the Crown, normally the Minister of Finance. No Bill involving an appropriation of public moneys or affecting the rights of the Crown can be passed without the recommendation of the Crown, which is given by Message from the Governor-General.
Duration of Parliaments—Quinquennial Parliaments, instituted under the Constitution Act, were abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act 1879, which fixed the term at three years. General elections have been held at three-yearly intervals since 1881, with a few exceptions. The term of the nineteenth Parliament was during the First World War extended to five years by special legislation, and that of the twenty-fourth (1931-35) and subsequent Parliaments to four years under the Electoral Amendment Act 1934. By the Electoral Amendment Act 1937 the three-year term was restored, but on account of war conditions the term of the twenty-sixth Parliament was extended to four years by the Prolongation of Parliament Act 1941. The Prolongation of Parliament Act 1942 extended the term still further to one year from the termination of the war, but with a proviso for a motion to be moved in the House of Representatives each year after the year 1942 either approving the continuation of the House or fixing an earlier date for its expiry. During the 1943 session a motion in favour of dissolution was carried, and Parliament was dissolved on 30 August 1943. Since then the duration of Parliaments has been of three years, with the exception that the twenty-ninth Parliament was dissolved after the expiration of approximately 20 months. The three-year limit was re-enacted in the Electoral Act 1956, this being one of the reserved provisions referred to earlier.
Number of Representatives—The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is 80-76 Europeans and four Maoris. They are designated "members of Parliament''. The number was originally fixed by the Constitution Act as not more than 42 and not less than 24, and the first Parliament called together in 1854 consisted of 40 members. Legislation passed in 1858 fixed the number of European members at 41; in 1860, at 53; in 1862, at 57; in 1865, at 70; in 1867, at 72; in 1870, at 74; in 1875, at 84; in 1881, at 91; in 1887, at 70; and in 1900, at 66. Since 1867 there have been four Maori representatives, and provision for this number was retained in the Electoral Act 1956. In 1954 the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts, which had remained unaltered since 1867, were changed by Proclamation so as to give a greater degree of equality of population among the four districts (in effect the Southern Maori Electoral District now includes a considerable area of the North Island). The Electoral Amendment Act 1965 fixed the number of European electorates in the South Island at 25 (an increase of one) and provided that the number of European electorates in the North Island shall be ascertained by the Representation Commission after each quinquennial census of population on the basis of the quota fixed for the South Island, the changes to follow the redrawing of the electoral boundaries after the 1966 census.
Qualifications of Members—Under the Electoral Act 1956 every registered elector of either sex, but no other person, is qualified to be a parliamentary candidate. It is provided, however, that a person shall not be so elected who is disqualified as an elector under any of the provisions of the Act (see under "Franchise'' later); or is an undischarged bankrupt; or is a contractor to the Public Service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of $400 is payable, directly or indirectly (but not as a member of a registered company or incorporated body), in any one financial year. Although women have had the vote since 1893, they were not eligible as parliamentary candidates until the passing of the Women's Parliamentary Rights Act 1919. Prior to 1936 a public servant was prohibited from being elected, but this prohibition was removed by the Political Disabilities Removal Act 1936. The present law is that if a public servant is elected to Parliament he vacates his office forthwith and he cannot resume employment in the Public Service within 12 months of ceasing to be a member of Parliament unless he had previously been a public servant for at least five years.
Salaries, etc.—Section 27 of the Civil List Act 1950 provides that on the recommendation of a Royal Commission the Governor-General may from time to time, by Order in Council, fix the salaries and allowances to be paid to the Prime Minister and other Ministers of the Crown or members of the Executive Council, to Parliamentary Under-Secretaries, and to the Speaker and Chairman of Committees and other members of the House of Representatives, and that a Royal Commission shall be appointed for this purpose within three months after the date of every general election of members of Parliament.
In accordance with the recommendations contained in the report (issued in 1964) of the Royal Commission upon Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances, the Prime Minister's salary, as from 1 July 1964, was increased to $11,500 with a tax-free allowance of $3,200 for the expenses of his office and a Ministerial residence. In addition, while travelling on official business he receives $10.50 per day to meet expenses, and by virtue of his office is entitled to free cars, secretarial assistance, and free postage. The Deputy Prime Minister's salary is $8,500 with a tax-free expense allowance of $1,200. The salary of each other Minister holding a portfolio is $8,000 with a tax-free expense allowance of $1,100, and that of each Minister without portfolio $6,500, with $900 tax-free allowance. Where the office of Minister of External Affairs is held by a Minister other than the Prime Minister the expense allowance is increased by $360. Any Minister not occupying a Ministerial residence receives an allowance in lieu at the rate of $600 a year. This allowance, or the assessed value of the residence where one is provided, is subject to income tax. Ministers also receive an allowance of $10.50 per day when travelling on official business within New Zealand, and in addition are entitled to free cars, secretarial assistance, and free postage. For Parliamentary Under-Secretaries the rate of salary is $6,000, with the same house provision or allowances, and travel allowance while on official business, as for Ministers. An expense allowance of $900 is also payable. After the general election of November 1954 no appointments were made until 1960, when two Parliamentary Under-Secretaries were appointed.
The basic salary paid to members of the House of Representatives is now $4,300 a year. European members are also paid an allowance to provide for expenses incurred in connection with parliamentary duties ranging from $900 to $1,450 a year subject to the classification of their electorates by the Representation Commission into the five classes of (a) a wholly urban electorate, or (b) a substantially urban electorate, or (c) a partially urban and partially rural electorate, or (d) an ordinarily rural electorate, or (e) a predominantly rural electorate. An expense allowance of $1,700 a year is paid to the member for Southern Maori, and an allowance of $1,550 to the members representing the other three Maori Electorates. A sessional accommodation allowance is paid at the rate of $1.50 for each day and $5 for each night on which a member is in Wellington and attends the sittings of Parliament, or of a Select Committee of Parliament of which he is a member. The sessional accommodation allowance is not payable to any member representing a Wellington urban electorate. (For full details see Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances Order 1964 and section 3 of the Finance Act 1962.) Payment to members is subject to certain deductions for absence not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. In addition to the salary and allowances, member are entitled to certain privileges in respect of air and other forms of travel, a stamp allowance of $14 a month, and certain other concessions regarding telegrams and telephone services. If a member is defeated at an election he continues to receive salary only to the end of the month following the month in which the election took place.
Both the Speaker and Chairman of Committees hold office until a dissolution and receive payment until the first meeting of a new Parliament. The Speaker's remuneration is $6,800 a year in addition to which he receives an expense allowance of $1,550 a year and residential quarters in Parliament House. The salary of the Chairman of Committees is $5,500 a year. In addition, he receives the electoral and sessional allowances appropriate to his electorate, increased by the sum of $400, and is provided with sessional accommodation.
The Leader of the Opposition is paid a salary of $6,800 a year with an expense allowance of $1,100 a year. In addition, a secretary, an assistant secretary, and a typist are provided by the State, and an allowance of $800 is payable for travel outside his electorate. His stamp allowance is $35 per month. In addition, the Leader of the Opposition is entitled to an official residence on the same basis as a Minister, or to an allowance of $600 a year in lieu thereof. The Deputy Leader of the Opposition receives a salary of $4,800 a year in addition to his appropriate electorate allowance and the sessional accommodation allowance where this is payable.
The Chief Whip of each party receives a salary of $4,500 a year, and the Junior Whip of each party receives a salary of $4,430 a year, together with the appropriate expense allowance in each case in accordance with the classification of his electorate and where applicable accommodation allowance.
Former Prime Ministers receive an annual payment of $400 for each full year in office, with a maximum of $2,000 a year, after retirement or when a member only.
Part V of the Superannuation Act 1947, as amended by the Superannuation Amendment Act 1955, consolidated in 1956 and amended in 1961, introduced a compulsory contributory superannuation scheme for members of the House of Representatives. The scheme now provides that a retiring allowance shall be payable to a members after nine years' service and the attainment of 50 years of age, and shall be calculated at the rate of one thirty-second of the basic salary for a member as at the date of his ceasing to be a member, for each year of service with a maximum of two-thirds of that basic salary, or alternatively the member may elect to take a variable retiring allowance so as to secure a level income, or he may elect to receive a refund of his contributions. The annual contribution is 10 percent of an ordinary member's salary, and the Government subsidises the fund by an equal amount. In the case of a male member dying and leaving a widow surviving she becomes entitled during her widowhood to receive an annuity of half of the retiring allowance to which her husband would have been entitled had he retired aged 50 years at the time of his death, or $260 a year, whichever is the greater.
ADMINISTRATION AND EXECUTIVE RESPONSIBILITY—After the election of a new Parliament, the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the majority party in the elected members, is given the task of selecting the members of the Executive Council (i.e., the New Ministry). Each of those members of Parliament to form the Government is normally entrusted by the Prime Minister with responsibility for administration of a specified field or aspect of government. This field is entitled a portfolio, e.g., all relevant matters relating to Customs would be allocated to one member, who is henceforth known as the Minister of Customs. He may also have other portfolios and the supervision of one or more Government Departments in which the activities carried out, though important, either do not rank as portfolios or are subsidiary aspects of the field—in these cases the Minister's responsibility will extend to being in charge of the named Department. One or other of the appointed Ministers in this way is responsible for the direction of activities and executive acts of each of the Government Departments and offices, etc., embracing the entire range of State activities. Thus arises the concept of Ministerial responsibility. Occasionally a Minister is appointed without portfolio.
Executive Council—In the legal sense those members of Parliament who have been appointed Ministers, together with the Governor-General, comprise the Executive Council, The powers, duties, and responsibilities of the Governor-General and the Executive Council under the present system of responsible government are set out in Royal Letters Patent and Instructions thereunder of 11 May 1917, published in the New Zealand Gazette of 24 April 1919. The Royal Powers Act 1953 provides that the statutory powers conferred on the Governor-General may be exercised either by Her Majesty the Queen in person or by the Governor-General. In the Execution of the powers and authorities vested in him the Governor-General must be guided by the advice of the Executive Council; but, if in any case he sees sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the Council, he may act in the exercise of his powers and authorities in opposition to the opinion of the Council, reporting the matter to Her Majesty without delay, with the reasons for his so acting.
In any such case any member of the Executive Council may require that there be recorded in the minutes of the Council the grounds of any advice or opinion that he may give upon the question.
A point of interest is that the Civil List Act 1950, in section 6, provided that no person shall be appointed a Minister or a member of the Executive Council unless he is a member of Parliament and that a person who ceases to be a member of Parliament cannot continue to be a Minister or a member of the Executive Council for more than 21 days. This gave statutory recognition for the first time to what had long been the convention.
At February 1967 the Executive Council consisted of 18 members in addition to the Governor-General. Two members, exclusive of His Excellency or the presiding member, constitute a quorum.
Under the Civil List Act 1950 and its amendments, His Excellency the Governor-General receives a salary of $15,000, and an allowance of $11,000 a year for the salaries and expenses of his personal establishment, plus all expenditure incurred in respect of the transport to and from New Zealand and the travel within or outside New Zealand of the Governor-General and his family and staff.
Cabinet—There is a close relationship between the Executive Council and the Cabinet. There are however, significant differences in membership and functions.
The Council consists of all Ministers and is presided over by the Governor-General. Cabinet may or may not comprise all the Ministers, including a Minister without portfolio; the Governor-General is not a member. The Council is one of the instruments for giving the imprint of legal form to policy determined by Cabinet which had been recognised only by constitutional convention until legislative reference to Cabinet was made in the Parliamentary Commissioner (Ombudsman) Act 1962.
Cabinet has been described as the directing body of national policy whose nature is more easily explained by analogy than by definition. It determines the policy to be submitted to Parliament. In it is vested the supreme control of national policy within the limits of Parliamentary approval. It co-ordinates and delineates the activities of the several Departments of State.
The juridical acts which are necessary to give legal force to certain of the decisions of Cabinet are taken by others—the Crown, the Executive Council, a Minister of the Crown, a Statutory Commission and the like. The preliminary review of proposed policy or of current administrative developments, which takes place in the informal atmosphere of Cabinet meetings, implies both deliberative or selective and administrative procedures on the part of this body.
Cabinet discussions are informal and confidential, anonymity being maintained as to the individual advocacy or opposition to particular proposals. The Cabinet system enables general agreement to be reached on any line of action proposed by either an individual Minister or by the Government as a whole. As a result the Executive Council confirmation can proceed smoothly and expeditiously. In Parliament a Minister can be confident that his legislative or other proposals will have the unqualified support of the Government no matter what divergences of opinion may have been apparent before general agreement was reached in Cabinet. A consistent and agreed course of action on any particular issue can be determined. The work of Cabinet thus exemplifies the concept of the collective responsibility of the Government.
Certain questions are considered by committees of Cabinet composed of those Ministers primarily concerned. Some executive action may be undertaken by these committees within the lines of established Government policy. Their work is subject to periodical report to, and overall supervision by, the entire Cabinet. On occasions, ad hoc committees may be established to review or investigate particular questions and to present their conclusions and recommendations to Cabinet.
The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the servicing of Cabinet and its committees to ensure their smooth functioning. It is its purpose also to assist in the co-ordination and review of the work of the Departments of State.
Government Departments—The Minister as the political head of a Department of State may in fact have several Departments under his control. There are however some 40 different Departments with separate functions in New Zealand. Each of these had a permanent head who is responsible for the work and administration of the Department. He is of course responsible to the Minister in charge of the Department, while he also acts as adviser to the Minister on all matters within his appointed competence. Besides ensuring that the ministerial policy and directions communicated to him are effectively put into practice, his functions as the adviser include assessing the consequences of any executive action resulting from his departmental activity, evaluating the merits and demerits, whether political, social, or financial, of various modes of action, and making suggestions for improvements and for new policy measures as derived from departmental experience in the day-to-day execution of policy.
Departments can be broadly classified according to the administrative or regulatory, developmental, or social nature of their activities. Within the first group are the servicing subgroup, such as the Legislative, Prime Minister's, External Affairs, Printing Office, Law Drafting, Valuation, Statistics, and Audit; the finance subgroup—Treasury, Customs, Inland Revenue; the regulatory subgroup—State Services Commission, Internal Affairs, Labour, Marine; the defence and law and order subgroup—Ministry of Defence, Justice, Crown Law, and Police; the publicity and research subgroup—Tourist and Publicity, Scientific and Industrial Research.
In the second group are the transport and communications subgroup, such as Transport, Civil Aviation, Post Office, and Railways; the developmental—Ministry of Works, Agriculture, Lands and Survey, Forest Service, Mines, Electricity, Maori Affairs, and Industries and Commerce; the commercial—Public Trust, Government Life Insurance, State Advances Corporation, and State Insurance.
The third group comprises the Education, Health, and Social Security Departments.
This broad division serves merely to indicate the field of the dominant activity or purpose of the particular Department. Most Departments have servicing, informative, and regulatory functions, and many are equally regulatory and developmental in nature.
In addition to the system of direct administration in the form of Government Departments, there are other activities over which the State exercises some ultimate measure of control or ownership, though divorced in varying degrees from immediate supervision. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (the central bank), and one trading bank, are entirely State-owned, although the actual administration is quite independent, subject in the case of the Reserve Bank to the proviso that it must give effect to the monetary policy of the Government, as communicated to the bank by the Minister of Finance, and to any resolution of Parliament in respect of Government monetary policy.
Further instances of this principle are shown by the National Airways Corporation, which, although owned by the State, is administratively self-contained, and by the Tourist Hotel Corporation. In certain other avenues the type of administration is in between the normal departmental form and that evident in the corporation type; of such is the National Roads Board, which, though determining policy to a large degree, yet makes use of departmental administrative structures for implementation of policy.
Some administrative organisations have also quasi-judicial functions. Examples of this class are the Price Tribunal, Transport Charges Authority, Licensing Control Commission, and Local Government Commission.
JUDICIARY—The hierarchy of Courts in New Zealand comprises the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court, and the Magistrates' Court. Apart from these Courts of general jurisdiction there are other Courts dealing with specific fields. In the latter category are the Court of Arbitration concerned with awards and general orders governing wage determination and conditions of employment in industry; the Compensation Court dealing with workers' compensation; and the Land Valuation Court, which settles land valuation disputes and compensation claims where land is taken for public works. For further details refer to Section 8 (Justice) of this issue.
ELECTORAL PROVISIONS—The law on these matters is now contained in the Electoral Act 1956. Following each population census, which is normally taken every five years, the boundaries of European electorates are revised. In addition, there are four Maori electoral districts, three in the North Island and one covering a portion of the North Island together with the whole of the South Island, where the Maori population is comparatively small. The Governor-General may at any time by Proclamation alter the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts, and, as in the case of European electoral districts, any alterations are to come into force at the expiry of the Parliament existing when the Proclamation is issued.
The Government Statistician is required to supply population figures to the Surveyor-General as soon as possible after the census. The population used as the basis in obtaining the quota for each European electoral district is defined in section 2 (1) of the Electoral Act 1956.
The term "European population'' means total population with the following exceptions:
Persons residing on board ship, whether as passengers or members of the crew or otherwise:
Persons residing temporarily as guests in any licensed hotel:
Persons residing temporarily in any naval, military, or air force camp, station, or establishment:
Persons residing as patients or inmates in any hospital:
Persons in respect of whom reception orders under the Mental Health Act 1911 are in force:
Persons detained pursuant to convictions in any penal institution.
After the population figures are supplied by the Government Statistician it is then the responsibility of the Representation Commission to define new electoral districts for Europeans. The Commission is constituted by virtue of section 15 of the Electoral Act 1956 and comprises seven members. Four of these, the Surveyor-General, the Government Statistician, the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Director-General of the Post Office, are official members. Two are unofficial members, being persons nominated by the House of Representatives, one nominated to represent the Government, and one to represent the Opposition. The seventh member is appointed, on the nomination of the official and unofficial members of the Commission or a majority of them, to be the Chairman of the Commission. The Chairman and unofficial members cease to be members on the date on which the first periodical census is taken after the date of their appointment.
The European population of the South Island is divided by 25 and the quotient so obtained is the quota for the South Island. Then the European population of the North Island is divided by the quota for the South Island, and the quotient so obtained is the number of European electoral districts in the North Island. The quota for North Island is obtained by dividing the European population of that Island by the number of electoral districts in that Island. In applying the quota the Commission may make an allowance by way of addition or subtraction of 5 percent of the quota to enable districts to be adjusted to meet considerations of topography, community of interest, communications, and existing electoral boundaries.
When the boundaries have been provisionally determined, maps are prepared illustrating the proposed electoral districts, and descriptions of each electoral district are published in the New Zealand Gazette. A time limit of one month is given thereafter in which objections to the proposed boundaries may be lodged. These objections are then considered by the Representation Commission and a final decision reached on boundaries which then become the new electoral districts.
In addition to determining new European electoral districts the Representation Commission is also charged with the responsibility of classifying them for the purpose of allowances as provided by the current Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances Order. Under this order provision is made for an allowance based on the size, topography, and transport facilities of the electorate, the nature of its roads, the distribution of its population, and all other considerations that the Commission deems relevant.
The Act provides that all general elections and by-elections shall be held on a Saturday and for both European and Maori elections to be held on the same day. Polling hours in all electorates are from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.
The Act provides that, if at any time Parliament is dissolved before it has been two years in existence, the main and supplementary rolls used in the previous general election, together with a further supplementary roll, may be used if in the opinion of the Chief Electoral Officer it is impracticable to print new main rolls. The same rolls, together with a further supplementary roll, are to be used for any by-election occurring before the next following general election.
Provision is made for the voting at elections and licensing polls by servicemen serving overseas, who are or will be of, or over the age of, 21 years before the date of the election or poll, whether or not registered as electors of any electoral district. Each such serviceman shall be qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which he last resided before he left New Zealand.
FRANCHISE—Since the abolition of plural voting in 1889 and the introduction of women's suffrage in 1893, every person 21 years of age or over (with certain obvious exceptions) has had the right to exercise one vote and one vote only in the election of members of the House of Representatives. Some of the more important provisions of the Electoral Act 1956 are now given.
Qualification for Registration as Elector—To be qualified for registration as a parliamentary elector in New Zealand a person must have attained the age of 21 years and must (a) be a British subject or Irish citizen, (b) be ordinarily resident in New Zealand, (c) at some period have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least a year, and (d) except in special cases have resided continuously for three months or more in the electoral district in respect of which application for registration is made, and not have subsequently resided for three months or more in any other electoral district.
The Act defines what is meant by the term "ordinarily resident''. To be ordinarily resident in New Zealand, a person must be or have been actually resident in New Zealand with the intention of residing there indefinitely. If he is absent from New Zealand he must have had, even since he left New Zealand, an intention to return to reside there indefinitely, and (except in the case of a public servant or the wife or husband of a public servant) must not have been absent from New Zealand for more than three years. Broadly speaking, the qualifications restrict the right to vote to permanent residents, the test laid down being similar to the legal concept of domicile.
The following persons are disqualified from registration as electors: (a) Those in respect of whom reception orders under the Mental Health Act 1911 are in force, (b) those detained pursuant to a conviction in any penal institution, and (c) those whose names are on the Corrupt Practices List for any district.
These qualifications and disqualifications apply alike to Maoris and Europeans.
Registration of Electors—A system of compulsory registration of electors has been in operation in respect of Europeans since 1924 and was introduced in respect of Maoris in 1948. Every person qualified to be registered as an elector of any district must, if he is in New Zealand, apply for registration within one month after the date on which he first becomes qualified to be registered as an elector. He must also apply for registration within three months after the issue of every Proclamation proclaiming the names and boundaries of electoral districts or within such later period as may be provided by Order in Council. Qualified electors who are outside New Zealand may apply for registration if they wish.
A European is not entitled to be registered as an elector of a Maori district and a Maori (other than a half-caste) is not entitled to be registered as an elector of a European district. A half-caste Maori may choose to be registered either for a Maori or European district, and special rules are laid down to govern a change from one to the other.
Voting at Elections—Voting at parliamentary elections is by secret ballot, a method which was first introduced in New Zealand in 1870. Recognition of the fundamental character which the secret ballot has attained in New Zealand was given in the Electoral Act 1956, which included the section providing for this method of voting among the reserved sections which may be repealed only by a 75 percent majority vote of all the members of the House of Representatives or following a referendum.
In general, only those persons whose names are lawfully on the main and supplementary rolls of electors compiled prior to an election may vote at that election. The following classes of persons whose names are not on the roll are however entitled to vote:
Those who have applied for registration between writ day and polling day and have satisfied the Registrar that they became qualified for registration not earlier than one month before writ day.
Those who are qualified for registration and were at the last preceding election registered in that district or, where boundary changes have intervened, in some other district in which their then residence within the first-mentioned district was then situated.
Those who are qualified for registration and have since the last election and before 6 p.m. on writ day applied for registration in that district, or where boundary changes have intervened, in some other district in which their then residence within the first-mentioned district was then situated.
Servicemen outside New Zealand, if they are or will be 21 years of age or more on polling day and their place of residence before they left New Zealand is within the district.
Special Voters—A vote is normally cast by the elector at a polling booth within his district. An elector may, however, vote as a "special voter'', either at a polling booth outside his district or by post, in the following cases:
If his name does not appear on the main roll, or any supplementary roll for the district, or has been wrongly deleted from the roll.
If he will be outside New Zealand on polling day.
If he is or will be absent from the district on polling day.
If he will not be within 2 miles by the nearest practicable route of any polling place in the district during the hours of polling.
If he will be travelling during the hours of polling under conditions which will preclude him from voting at a polling place in the district.
If he is ill or infirm.
If, in the case of a woman, she is precluded from attending at a polling place by reason of approaching or recent maternity.
If he is a lighthouse keeper or a member of a lighthouse keeper's staff, or if she is the wife of a lighthouse keeper or of one of his staff.
If he has a religious objection to voting on the day of the week on which polling day falls.
If he satisfies the Returning Officer or Deputy Returning Officer that on any other ground he cannot vote at a polling place in the district without hardship or undue inconvenience.
These latter conditions replace the former classes of absentee, postal, and declaration voters, including servicemen outside New Zealand.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT—In 1876, following the abolition of the provinces, local government assumed the form it still basically retains. The Counties Act of 1876 divided the country into 63 counties, with provision for administration by elective councils having powers considerably less than those enjoyed by the Provincial Councils. In the same year the Municipal Corporations Act provided for the incorporation of the 36 boroughs then in existence and for the creation of new boroughs.
A description of the development of counties, boroughs, and town districts follows.
Counties—Counties are now constituted under the Counties Act 1956, which consolidated under legislation relating to counties and road districts. In general, the county organisation makes provision for the primary needs of a scattered population within a large area. With increasing settlement the original 63 counties were gradually subdivided until in 1920 the maximum of 129 was reached, although the number of councils formed and actively functioning never exceeded 126. The number of counties has been reduced by amalgamations and mergers by the Local Government Commission At September 1966 there were 112 counties constituted, of which 111 were actively functioning, Fiord being a sparsely populated county in which the Counties Act, is not wholly in force. The Local Government Commission operates under the Local Government Commission Act 1961.
County councils may, under the provisions of the Counties Act 1956, declare areas within counties to be county towns. To qualify the areas concerned must have a population of at least 200, with an average density of not less than one person to the acre or not less than 60 houses with an average density of not less than one house to three acres. After the constitution of a county town the county council is required to appoint a county town committee of not less than three nor more than seven members, to advise it on the administration of the county town. Membership is restricted to electors having a ratepayer's or residential qualification in respect of property or an address within the county town, or members of the council for the riding in which the county town is sited.
Boroughs—Dealing with the needs of a concentrated population, the borough organisation is concerned with a wide range of functions of a purely local nature. With the growth and centralisation of population the number of boroughs, despite numerous amalgamations of adjacent boroughs, steadily increased until 1955 when the total was 146. In September 1966 the total was 142.
Under the Municipal Corporations Act 1954 for the constitution of a borough there must be a population of at least 1,500 with an average density of population of at least one person per acre. A borough containing a population of 20,000 or more may be proclaimed a city, although the corporation remains unaltered.
Town Districts—The town district represents a form of local government intermediate between the county and the borough. It implies a certain concentration of population and the presence of interests which, from their purely local nature, cannot be satisfactorily met by the county organisation. In its early stages a town district usually remained subject to county control, although such control was practically confined to the main and county roads in the town district; in such circumstances it was known as a dependent town district. The Town Boards Amendment Act 1908 enabled town districts on reaching a population of more than 500 to become independent. On attaining its independence a town district becomes in all respects a separate entity, and, apart from its smaller population, is not essentially different from a borough. The constitution and powers of town districts have been brought into closer relationship to boroughs over the years, and independent town districts are now constituted under the Municipal Corporations Act 1954. The Act required that the area should not be more than 2 square miles, within which no two points are more than 4 miles distant and with a density of population of not less than one person to the acre. No new dependent town districts can be constituted. The number of town districts in September 1966 was 18 (11 independent and 7 dependent).
General Powers—Local authorities in New Zealand derive their powers from the Acts under which they are constituted, and also from special empowering Acts. In addition to legislation providing for particular types of local authority or for individual local authorities, there are several statutory measures which are more or less applicable to all local authorities, such as the Local Elections and Polls Act 1966 and the Local Authorities Loans Act 1956. For most harbour boards, there is in addition to the general Harbours Act a special Act for each board, which is subordinate to the general Act. Certain types of local authority—urban drainage boards, transport boards, the Auckland Regional Authority, the Auckland Harbour Bridge Authority, the Christchurch-Lyttelton Road Tunnel Authority, and the Waikato Valley Authority—derive their principal powers from special constituting Acts.
Local authorities have general powers of entering into contracts for any of the purposes for which they are constituted; of selling and leasing land; and of taking or purchasing any land which may be necessary or convenient for any public work.
Number of Local Authorities—The number of local authorities actively functioning at 1 September 1966 was 703 made up as follows: County councils, 111, borough (including city) councils, 142; town councils (independent), 11; town councils (dependent), 7; road board, 1; regional authority, 1; river boards (2 boards also have the power of land-drainage boards), 10; catchment boards, 13; catchment commissions, 3; land-drainage boards, 37; electric power boards, 39; water-supply board, 1; urban drainage boards, 4; transport boards, 2; local railway board, 1; electric power and gas boards, 2; independent milk boards, 15; nassella tussock board, 2; harbour bridge authority, 1; road tunnel authority, 1; valley authority, 1; plantation board, 1; underground water authorities, 3; rabbit boards, 179; independent fire boards, 60; independent harbour boards, 18; and hospital boards, 37. Borough and county councils also function as milk boards in 38 cases, as fire authorities in 189 cases, and as harbour boards in 11 cases. In addition, there were 21 district councils of the National Roads Board constituted under the National Roads Act 1954. Although these district roads councils are not local authorities in the strict sense of the term they are intimately connected with certain aspects of local government providing an advisory service to the National Roads Board concerning the roading needs and the allocation of national roading funds within their respective districts.
Administratively, boroughs and independent town districts, which are contained within the areas of the several counties, are regarded as separate entities. From an administrative point of view, therefore, the fundamental districts are counties, boroughs, and independent town districts. Upon this foundation a considerable superstructure of districts of other types has been erected. These overlapping districts may be divided into two broad classes, viz: (1) Districts formed from parts of counties, e.g., road districts; and (2) those which are composed of a group of adjacent districts of other types united for a common purpose, e.g., electric power districts.
Local Government Commission—The Local Government Commission Act 1961, which replaced the Local Government Commission Act 1953, set up a Local Government Commission which is a permanent institution deemed to be a Commission of Inquiry under the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908.
The Act provides that the Commission shall consist of a Chairman who is a barrister or solicitor of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and two other members having a special knowledge of local government.
The functions of the Commission are to carry out investigations, prepare reorganisation schemes, and make recommendations and reports for the purpose of ensuring that the system of local government in any locality will best provide for the needs and continued development of the locality, that local authorities have such district boundaries and such functions and powers as will enable them to provide most effectively and economically essential or desirable local government services and facilities, and that the provisions of the Act and of other Acts in relation to local government are effectively implemented. Reorganisation schemes may provide for the union of adjoining districts, the merger, constitution, or abolition of districts, the alteration of boundaries, the conversion of a district into one of a different kind, the transfer of functions of one local authority to another or the dissolution of a local authority.
The Act provides for the appointment of a Local Government Appeal Authority whose function is to sit as a judicial authority to determine appeals made from decisions of the Commission. Any decision finally approving a scheme of reorganisation of districts may be appealed against only by the following parties:
The local authority of any district to which the scheme relates;
Any person or body having statutory authority to make decisions or recommendations in respect of the union, merger, constitution, alteration, or abolition of any district to which the scheme relates; and
The Minister, in any case where the scheme affects only one local authority, or only one local authority and an adjoining area that does not form part of a district, or does not affect any local authority.
Franchise—Under the Local Election and Polls Act 1966, elections are held on the second Saturday in October every third year. Enrolment of residential electors is compulsory. On any proposal relating to loans or rates a rate paying or a freehold qualification is necessary. Details of the franchise as it affects each type of local district are now given.
Counties—Any person of 21 years of age and over who possesses either of the following qualification is entitled to be enrolled on the county electors roll:
Rating qualification, which may be held by any person whose name appears in the valuation roll as the occupier of any rateable property within a riding of the county. One vote is allowed where the rateable value does not exceed $2,000, two votes where the value is greater than $2,000 but not in excess of $4,000 and three votes where the value exceeds $4,000.
Residential qualification, which may be held by a person who is or has the status of a British subject or is an Irish citizen, and who has resided for one year in New Zealand and has had permanent residence of not less than three months in the riding of the county to which the roll relates.
Boroughs—Any person of 21 years of age and over who possesses any of the following qualifications is entitled to enrolment:
Freehold qualification—meaning the beneficial and duly registered ownership of a freehold estate in land of a capital value of not less than $50 situated in the borough, notwithstanding that any other person is the occupier thereof.
Rating qualification, which may be held by any person whose name appears in the valuation roll as the occupier of any rateable property within the borough.
Residential qualification, which may be held by a person who is or has the status of a British subject or is an Irish citizen, and who has resided for one year in New Zealand and who has had permanent residence during the last three months in the borough to which the roll relates.
Town Districts—The franchise is the same as for boroughs, except that for county electoral purposes in dependent town districts the county qualification is necessary.
Rabbit Districts—Where the rates of the district are based on the acreage and rateable value of land occupied by the ratepayer, the franchise is the same as that exercised for county council elections. Where the franchise is based on stock ownership, from one to five votes are allowed according to the number of stock units owned.
Other Districts—Road districts, river districts, land-drainage districts, water-supply districts, and the local railway district all have a franchise similar to that of counties except that the residential qualification applies to road districts only.
Districts composed of a grouping of districts of other types united for a common purpose have a franchise as for the component districts. Such districts are urban drainage districts, electric power districts, harbour districts, hospital districts, urban transport districts, and catchment districts. In some cases—e.g., the Auckland Metropolitan and Hutt Valley Drainage Boards—the members are appointed or elected by the territorial local authorities included in the district.
TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING—The Town and Country Planning Act 1953 provides for the making and enforcement of regional and district planning schemes, and the detailed procedure to be followed in each case is amplified by the Town and Country Planning Regulations 1960. The Government administers the Act through the Minister of Works who may delegate his authority to the Commissioner of Works.
Regional Planning—Regional Planning Authorities may be established under provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act 1953. As provided in the Act the authorities consist of representatives of the several councils whose districts are wholly or partly within the region. Every local authority within the region, other than the constituent councils, is entitled to be represented by at least one associate member. The Regional Planning Authority may also appoint any person who may be possessed of special knowledge, or representatives of any Department of State, to be associate members. Authorities are now operating in the four main centres and in Northland and Marlborough.
Finance for administration purposes is provided for by way of a maximum rate of one-hundredth of a cent in the dollar on the rateable capital value of those portions of the councils' territories inside the regional area. The Act also makes provision whereby any of the constituent councils may enter into and carry out agreements for the execution of combined works.
Regional planning schemes must be preceded by a comprehensive survey of the natural resources of the areas concerned, and of the present and potential uses and values of all lands in relation to public utilities or amenities. Regional schemes envisage the conservation and economic development of natural resources by classification of lands according to their best uses and by the co-ordination of all such public improvements, utilities, and amenities as are not limited to the territory of any one local authority. Every regional planning scheme is intended to be a guide to councils engaged in the preparation of district planning schemes and to public authorities and all persons in relation to conservation and development within the region. Regional schemes are required to be reviewed at intervals of not more than 10 years.
District Planning—Every district scheme is required to have for its general purpose the development of the area to which it relates (including where necessary the replanning and reconstruction of an area already built on) in such a way as will most effectively tend to promote and safeguard the health, safety and convenience, the economic and general welfare of its inhabitants, and the amenities of every part of the area. The council of every city, borough, county, and independent town district must provide and maintain a district scheme whether or not a regional planning scheme including its district has been prepared or become operative.
While a district scheme is being prepared a council may refuse its consent to the carrying out of any development that would be in contravention of the scheme and falls within the definition of a "detrimental work'', but the owner or occupier affected may appeal against such a decision to the Town and Country Planning Appeal Board. The Minister can require the council to exercise these powers where the development would or might adversely affect Government works or the public interest, and local authorities have similar rights in respect of their works. Any appeal proceedings lie against the Minister or the local authority concerned.
In the period before a district scheme becomes operative, any change of use of land that detracts or is likely to detract from the amenities of the neighbourhood is required to have the prior consent of the council. Where an application is made to the council for consent, the applicant and every person who claims to be affected by the proposed use has a right to be heard by the council and may appeal to the Appeal Board against the council's decision.
When completed and recommended by the council, copies of a district scheme are submitted to the Minister of Works and to adjoining councils and to local authorities within the area covered by the scheme for consideration, particularly in relation to their public works. When the Minister and each local authority is satisfied that all their respective public works have been properly provided for in the scheme and have certified accordingly, the district scheme is publicly notified for inspection for three months. Any owner or occupier of land affected may object to any provision of the scheme, and the Minister, other local authorities, professional, business, sporting or other such organisations, may also object to the scheme on grounds of public interest. In the event of an objection not being sustained by the council the objector may appeal to the Appeal Board whose decision is final.
The Minister of Works may prepare and obtain approval for a district scheme in any case where a local authority under an obligation to prepare such a scheme fails to do so after being notified in writing. The costs and expenses incurred by the Minister are recoverable from the local authority, or they may be deducted from any moneys payable to the local authority by the Crown.
When a district scheme has been finally approved and made operative the council and all local authorities having jurisdiction in the district are bound to observe, and enforce observance of, the requirements of the scheme. The provisions of an operative regional planning scheme are also obligatory, but a constituent council has a right of appeal to the Town and Country Planning Appeal Board where a provision of a proposed or operative district scheme conflicts with the regional scheme; the Minister has, incidentally, a similar right of appeal so far as the regional scheme conflicts with the public interest.
Operative district schemes may be altered at any time, and must be reviewed when any part of the scheme has been operative for a period of five years. In preparing, recommending, and approving a change or a review of a district scheme the proposed change or review is publicly notified for inspection by owners and occupiers of property and simultaneously submitted to the Minister, to the Regional Planning Authority, and to the local authorities within the district for their consideration and objection where necessary in the light of their respective public works and other responsibilities.
Once a district scheme has been made operative it cannot be cancelled unless it is replaced at the same time by another operative district scheme. Furthermore, once a proposed change to an operative district scheme has been publicly notified for inspection and objection by owners and occupiers of property, no development work, subdivision, or change of use of land or buildings that would conflict with the proposed change may be carried out without permission by order of the Appeal Board.
Where a district scheme is operative the local authority may take, under the Public Works Act 1928, any land in its district if in accordance with the scheme it considers it is necessary or expedient to do so for the proper development or use of the land, or for the provision or preservation of amenities, or for the improvement of areas that are too closely subdivided or are occupied by decadent buildings.
POPULATION GROWTH—Throughout the main period of European settlement in New Zealand, which lasted from 1850 to 1880, the rate of population growth was very rapid. The 1858 Census recorded 115,462 inhabitants of whom one-half were Maoris. At the 1886 Census the population had reached 620,487, though the Maori population had in the meantime fallen from 56,049 to 43,927.
Thereafter, as the wave of immigration subsided, the rate of growth slowed down. The average annual increase has varied between 0.8 and 2.8 percent, with low rates during the depression periods of 1886-1891 and 1929-1936, and also during the two World Wars. In the last 20 years the annual rate of growth has been over 2 percent a year. The lower birth rate since 1964 could result in a reduction of the rate of growth, but it is still likely to be about 2 percent a year.
During the present century, natural increase has been the principal element in the growth of population; and in the following table the natural increase of non-Maoris is given.
A comparable table for the Maori population is not available but the following table shows the inter-censal increases in the Maori population. Since the Maori birth rate has exceeded that of the population of European origin very considerably, while the death rate has fallen, the natural increase of Maoris has made an increasingly important contribution to the growth of the total population.
The other element in the population growth—the gains from external migration—is shown in the following table. Movements of the armed forces are not included.
|Calendar Years||Migration Gain|
*Excess of departures.
Most of the inward migration has been from the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands.
CENSUS STATISTICS—Population statistics are based primarily on the five-yearly population census. Intercensal population estimates are based on the most recent census data available, adjusted in accordance with later figures of births, deaths, and migration. Estimates of the populations of particular localities, e.g., cities and boroughs, also take into account local economic developments, housing schemes, the numbers on school rolls, changes in boundaries, and any other factors leading to, or indicating, changes in population.
The basis adopted for the population census, and virtually throughout population statistics in New Zealand, is that of population physically present in the place of enumeration at the time of enumeration.
All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand, i.e., island territories are omitted except where their inclusion is specifically stated. Though Niue Island and Tokelau Islands are constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons they are administered separately. The Cook Islands are self-governing but the islanders are New Zealand citizens.
Maoris are included in all population data unless the contrary is stated.
PRESENT POPULATION—At the census of population taken on 18 April 1961, the population of New Zealand, excluding island territories, was 2,414,984; by the latest census on 22 March 1966 the population had risen to 2,676,919.
The following table gives a summary of New Zealand population.
*Includes population of the inhabited
†Includes 250 United States personnel stationed in Antarctic.
|(a) Exclusive of island territories:|
|Total population||22 March 1966||1,343,743||1,333,176||2,676,919|
|Maoris (included above)||22 March 1966||102,107||99,052||201,159|
|(b) Island territories:|
|Tokelau Islands||24 September 1966||892||1,008||1,900|
|Niue Island||31 December 1966||2,537||2,654||5,191|
|(c) Cook Islands||1 September 1966||9,741||9,510||19,251|
|(d) Ross Dependency†||22 March 1966||262||—||262|
INCREASE OF POPULATION—The growth of population has been substantial in each intercensal period. The lowest rates are those of 1926-36, which included some years of economic depression, and of 1936-45, which included six years of international war.
|Date of Census||Total|
*Excludes New Zealand armed forces
personnel overseas; numbers of armed forces
†Includes New Zealand armed forces personnel overseas.
Population estimates for years between Censuses are given in the first table in the Statistical Summary towards the end of this Yearbook.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—The annual average percentage increases of population are given in the following table for certain selected countries.
|England and Wales||1958-64||0.8|
|Republic of Ireland||1956-61||-0.6|
|United States of America||1958-64||1.6|
POPULATION PROJECTIONS—An indication of future population growth, including Maoris, in New Zealand is given by the detailed projections for the period 1967-90.
Projections of future population involve an element of uncertainty owing to incomplete knowledge of the factors underlying changes in fertility, mortality, and migration levels, coupled with the difficulty of accurately forecasting the future course of the factors which are known to affect these components of population change. It should be understood, therefore, that these projections merely show the effect of the assumptions stated below the table on the future growth of the existing population. The assumptions, however, have been adopted only after careful studies of trends in the patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration and, in the light of available current information, are regarded as those most likely to produce realistic projections over the length of the projection period.
|PROJECTED NEW ZEALAND POPULATION|
|As at 31 December||Assuming Net Immigration of|
|10,000 per Year||15,000 per Year|
Assumptions—The two projections are linked to actual population numbers as at 31 December 1966. The assumptions on which the projections depend are as follows:
The estimated average 1965 specific age-of-mother and marital status birth-rates continue.
Future age-specific mortality rates will continue in accordance with the New Zealand Life Tables, 1955-57.
The following diagram presented on a ratio scale shows the growth of actual population from 1880 to 1966 and projections through to 1990.
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census. Final figures for statistical areas, urban areas, counties, cities, boroughs, town districts, county towns, extra-county islands, and shipping are published in Volume 1, Increase and Location of Population, of the Census of Population and Dwellings.
North and South Islands—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration, and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.
The following table gives the population, excluding Maoris, of the North and South Islands as disclosed by each census since 1901.
|Census Year||Population (Excluding Maoris)||Percentages|
|North Island||South Island||Total||North Island||South Island|
The population of the North Island increased at a greater proportionate rate than that of the South Island between the 1961 and 1966 censuses. At the 1966 census the North Island population was 1,893,326, including 190,524 Maoris, and the South Island population 783,593, inclusive of 10,635 Maoris. The increase since the 1961 census was 208,541 for the North Island and 53,394 for the South Island.
The natural increase of population (i.e., excess of births over deaths) for the North Island during the 1961-66 intercensal period was 152,942, and for the South Island the natural increase was 48,312. External migration has also added to the population and there has been population movement between the islands.
Statistical Areas—The boundaries of statistical areas are shown on the map inside the back cover. Northland comprises the northern counties from Mangonui to Otamatea; central Auckland, the counties from Rodney to Franklin (including islands in the Hauraki Gulf); East Coast, the area north of Wairoa; while South Auckland-Bay of Plenty comprises the remainder of the provincial district. Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington statistical areas are the same as the provincial districts of the same names.
In the South Island the statistical areas coincide with the provincial district boundaries, except for the transfer of Amuri and Cheviot counties from Nelson to Canterbury, and the transfer of all that area of Grey county north of Grey River from Nelson to Westland.
In the following table the approximate areas and the populations as at the census of March 1966 of the statistical areas are shown.
|Statistical Area||Area (Square Miles)||Total Population|
Census (18 April 1961)
Census 22 March 1966
|Bay of Plenty||14,187||349,624||389,334|
|Totals North Island||44,297||1,684,785||1,893,326|
|Totals South Island||59,439||730,199||783,593|
|Totals New Zealand||103,736||2,414,984||2,676,919|
Urban Areas—Urban areas are statistical conceptions and not administrative units. Their purpose is to provide definite, stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population. In addition to the central city or borough, they include neighbouring boroughs and town districts and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population. The present boundaries of urban areas have been in use since 1951.
For the 1961 Census, three new urban areas were defined at Whangarei, Tauranga, and Rotorua and comparable figures have been compiled for past years.
In the following table statistics of urban areas are given; 62.5 percent of the population lived in these areas in 1966.
|Urban Area||Total Population||Increase 1961-66|
In the years 1961-66 Auckland urban area had the greatest numerical growth, while Whangarei, Rotorua, Tauranga, and Hamilton had the highest proportionate increases. Dunedin urban area had the lowest percentage increase (3.6 percent).
In the next table the component parts of the five largest centres of population are given in detail.
|Urban Area||1966 Census 22 March|
*Proclaimed a city on 28 May 1966.
|East Coast Bays borough||12,357|
|Glen Eden borough||6,045|
|New Lynn borough||9,957|
|Mt. Albert borough||25,721|
|Mt. Eden borough||18,392|
|Mt. Roskill borough||33,472|
|One Tree Hill borough||12,905|
|Mt. Wellington borough||18,857|
|Remainder of urban area||55,334|
|Lower Hutt city||57,403|
|Upper Hutt borough*||19,084|
|Remainder of urban area||23,453|
|Remainder of urban area||4,162|
|Remainder of urban area||67,817|
|Port Chalmers borough||3,071|
|St. Kilda borough||6,726|
|Green Island borough||5,849|
|Remainder of urban area||8,451|
Cities and Boroughs—The population of cities and boroughs is now given.
Area, in Acres
*Proclaimed a city 28 May 1966.
|East Coast Bays||12,357||3,850|
|One Tree Hill||12,905||2,430|
|New Plymouth (city)||31,843||5,722|
|Palmerston N. (city)||46,832||7,190|
|Upper Hutt (city)*||19,084||2,165|
|Lower Hutt (city)||57,403||11,004|
|Totals, North Island cities and boroughs||1,325,204||261,833|
|Totals, South Island cities and boroughs||490,262||125,070|
|Grand totals, all cities and boroughs||1,815,466||386,903|
Town Districts—The population of independent town districts—i.e., those contained in section (a) of the following table—is not included with that of the county in which the town district is located, but the population of dependent town districts—section (b)—is included in that of the respective parent county.
|Town District||1966 Census|
*Parent county shown in parentheses.
|(a) Town Districts not forming parts of Counties|
|Totals, North Island||7,496||6,533|
|Totals, South Island||2,207||1,455|
|(b) Town Districts forming parts of Counties*|
|Russell (Bay of Islands)||618||1,066|
|Te Kauwhata (Waikato)||738||1,290|
|Totals, North Island||3,754||5,993|
|Totals, South Island||596||696|
County Towns—The following table lists those county towns with populations of 1,000 or more at the time of the 1966 census. The parent county is shown in parentheses. The populations of county towns are included in the administrative county populations given previously.
|County Town||Total Population|
22 March 1966
|Moerewa (Bay of Islands)||1,090||121|
|Kelston West (Waitemata)||4,937||974|
|Green Bay (Waitemata)||2,022||471|
|Pukerua Bay (Hutt)||1,220||2,062|
Extra-county Islands and Shipboard Population—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, cities and boroughs, and independent town districts, the New Zealand totals include shipboard population and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any county. The two latter categories comprised a total of 7,339 people as at 22 March 1966.
Of the islands concerned, Waiheke, with a population of 2,013, was the only one of any size.
Counties—The following table gives the population of individual counties at 22 March 1966, together with the approximate area of each. It should be noted that "Administrative Counties'' do not include boroughs or town districts independent of county control, but include town districts and county towns which form parts of counties.
|Administrative County||1966 Census|
Area, in Square
|Bay of Islands||12,971||823|
|Great Barrier Is.||272||110|
|Totals, North Is. counties||554,876||43,328|
|Totals, South Island counties||289,535||58,455|
|Grand totals, all counties||844,411||101,783|
Most of those counties showing considerable gains of population are adjacent to large cities.
Population Growth and Urbanisation—With the growth in the efficiency of farming, with increased specialisation, and general development of the economy, urban centres have increased rapidly in size and population has tended to concentrate in them; employment opportunities have been provided in secondary and service industries for the expanding labour force. In 1874 two-thirds of the population lived in settlements of less than 500 persons, that is to say on farms or in hamlets. Under a changed classification in 1900, 54 percent were living in counties and the remainder in boroughs. By 1961 only one-quarter of the population lived in rural areas. The following table indicates the urban movement of the total population; the urban population has been defined as urban area population plus that of all boroughs, town districts, townships, and (for 1961 and 1966) county towns with populations of 1,000 or over.
In recent years urbanisation has helped to absorb the increasing Maori population and likewise rapid expansion in the number of Maoris of working age has contributed to economic growth. The following table indicates the urban movement of the Maori population.
|Cities and Boroughs||Extra-county|
Islands and Ships
In the process of urbanisation some cities and areas have grown more quickly than others. Thus the population of 18 principal urban areas rose from 739,243 in 1926 to 1,672,053 in 1966, more than doubling in this period. This tendency towards concentration of population in the largest centres is associated with a drift of population from the south to the north and where the two tendencies reinforce each other, as they do in the case of Auckland, the rate of growth has been very rapid. In the process some towns in the north which were of negligible size in 1926 have now become of major importance. Thus Whangarei, Hamilton, Tauranga, and Rotorua, which had a combined population in 1926 of 37,000, in 1966 comprised 157,641 inhabitants.
The initial reason for the drift to the north lay in the change in emphasis of farming activities in which the development of dairying played an important part, while in the earliest period the major impetus to development had come from the gold rushes and the settlement of open pastoral lands in the South Island. The expansion of dairying in itself called for the development of factory processing facilities at both ends of the productive process, notably fertiliser industries and dairy factories. The more intensive farming of this subsequent period has also resulted in North Island supremacy in sheep raising, with a particular emphasis on the fat lamb market. (In 1886 there were 9.9 million sheep in the South Island and only 5.3 million in the North Island. In 1965 there were 29.6 million sheep in the North and 24.1 million in the South Island.) These farming trends have been reinforced by the growth of forest processing industries in the North Island.
In the larger cities a notable feature of the past 35 years has been a movement of population from the central or "inner'' areas to the perimeter or "outer'' areas as families in decayed areas have moved to State rental houses and as residential units in the city centres have been replaced by shops, offices, places of entertainment, and other commercial or industrial buildings. In recent years there has been an offsetting movement with the building of multi-storey flats in the inner areas.
The distribution of population by size of centres is shown in the following table.
|Size of Centre (City Borough or Town District)||Number of Centres||Percentage of Population in These Centres|
|25,000 or over||4||11||12||19||24.1||32.4||32.5||40.9|
In the South Island a higher proportion of the population is rural, that is, outside urban communities, than in the North Island.
SEX PROPORTIONS—The census of 22 March 1966 shows that males outnumber females by 10,567 in the total population. Females per 1,000 males at the last six censuses have been:
*Including armed forces abroad.
There are marked differences in the sex proportions of the population of different parts of New Zealand, depending largely on educational and employment opportunities. The following figures give the number of females per 1,000 males at the Census of 1966.
|South Auckland - Bay of Plenty||960|
DENSITY OF POPULATION—Generally speaking, a dense population must depend upon intensive land utilisation or industrialisation. In New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, while there are also large areas of water or of broken, swampy, or hilly country which cannot be closely settled, while the growth of mechanisation in farming tends to reduce the size of the labour force engaged in farming operations. There are factors unfavourable to the growth of industry to a point where dense populations could be supported—not the least of which are a lack of mineral resources, and distance from export markets.
Nevertheless, economic development is providing employment for a growing labour force. More extensive mechanisation, further advances in science and technology, and increases in productivity, wealth, and consumption have paved the way for further specialisation of production and more concentrated urbanisation.
Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The following table provides comparative density figures on a statistical area basis from 1926 to 1966 censuses.
|Statistical Area||Area, in|
|Persons per Square Mile|
|South Auckland-Bay of Plenty||14,187||10.2||12.6||14.4||17.4||24.6||27.4|
MAORI POPULATION—The first official general census of Maoris was taken in 1857-58, and others occurred in regular sequence from 1874 onwards. Owing to inherent difficulties the earlier census records make no pretence towards complete accuracy. All persons with half or more of Maori blood are defined as Maoris.
According to census records the Maori population suffered a period of almost unbroken decline from 1858 to 1896. Among the causes of this were the susceptibility of the Maori to tuberculosis, measles, typhoid, and other diseases introduced by immigrants; the abandonment in some areas of healthy hilltop villages for low, often swampy sites; low birthrates coupled with high child-mortality rates; and a feeling of race-despair engendered by loss of land, defeat in war, and the general breakdown in health.
Since 1896, however, the Maori population has increased continuously, at first steadily and of later years at a very rapid rate. In fact, the vitality exhibited by the Maori race in recent years has been an outstanding demographic feature.
A statement of Maori population is now given for each census from 1901.
*Includes members of armed forces overseas at census date.
Of the 201,159 Maoris at the 1966 census, 190,524 were in the North Island. Maoris have always been resident in rural communities and this was true until recent years. A marked change has, however, taken place during and since the war as a result of employment conditions. As late as the 1936 census only 8,249 Maoris (10.0 percent) dwelt in cities, boroughs, or independent town districts. By the 1966 census the comparative figure was 101,680 (50.5 percent); the largest concentration is in Auckland Urban Area, where 33,926 Maoris were enumerated.
EXTERNAL MIGRATION—In recent years there has been a large increase in New Zealanders going overseas on business, on pleasure trips, and on working holidays, so that arrivals and departures have both been greatly swollen. The arrivals include many New Zealanders returning from travel overseas, as well as growing numbers of tourists from overseas countries.
The numbers of arrivals and departures during the last 11 years are given in the table following. Crews of vessels, through passengers, tourists on cruising liners and members of the armed forces, etc., have not been taken into account in this table.
|Year Ended 31 March||Arrivals||Departures||Excess of|
In the 10-year period ended 31 March 1966 the net gain from passenger immigration was 113,692.
New Zealand has a lower rate of net immigration than Australia, but New Zealand's rate of natural increase is higher. In spite of popular assumptions to the contrary, the total population of New Zealand grew faster (38.9 percent) than that of Australia (38.0 percent) between 1950 and 1965. Annual percentage increases are shown in the following table.
|Calendar Years||Natural Increase Rate||Net Immigration Rate||Total Increase Rate*||Natural Increase Rate||Net Immigration Rate||Total Increase Rate|
*Mainly because of movement of armed forces which are allowed for in the "total increase'' but not in "net immigration'' the New Zealand total increase sometimes differs slightly from the sum of the first two columns. This was most marked in 1950 with departures connected with the Korean War.
Classes of Arrivals and Departures—The following table gives an analysis of all classes of arrivals during the last five March years, including through passengers, tourists on cruising liners, and crews. In classifying arrivals or departures as permanent the commonly used international rule is applied—i.e., intended residence or absence of one year or more.
|Immigrants intending permanent residence||32,769||32,589||34,234||35,446||35,299|
|New Zealand residents returning||48,199||52,398||60,708||72,810||86,624|
|Theatrical, entertaining, etc.||838||1,229||1,430||1,083||1,072|
|For educational purposes||338||294||456||348||829|
|On working holidays||3,695||3,562||3,573||5,995||11,905|
|Other, official, etc.||5,402||7,022||7,610||8,118||7,786|
|Through passengers, mainly on cruising liners||38,587||38,732||39,714||40,253||55,265|
The following table gives an analysis of departures.
|New Zealand residents departing—|
|Temporary residents departing||53,352||62,154||72,095||85,605||101,184|
|Through passengers, mainly on cruising liners||38,587||38,732||39,714||40,253||55,265|
Ages—The following table gives the age-distribution of permanent arrivals and departures for the year ended 31 March 1966.
|Age, in Years||Permanent Arrivals||Permanent Departures||Excess of Arrivals Over Departures|
|60 and over||781||1,191||1,972||290||427||717||1,255||7.5|
Origin—The following table shows for the last three years the birthplaces of immigrants intending permanent residence and of New Zealand residents departing permanently. ("Permanent'' is defined as 12 months or more.)
|Country of Birth||Immigrants
|England and Wales||13,478||13,633||13,089||2,832||3,820||2,945|
|Other or undefined||123||93||74||23||24||16|
|Cook Islands and Niue||640||668||621||70||88||80|
|Totals, Commonwealth countries||30,358||31,251||31,115||13,365||16,538||16,890|
|Ireland, Republic of||360||344||310||143||152||123|
|United States of America||763||688||762||382||406||400|
|Totals, other countries||3,876||4,195||4,184||1,538||1,621||1,699|
Assisted Immigration—Various systems of assisted immigration have operated since 1871, with the exception of the period 1892 to 1903 (inclusive). Assistance to immigrants was largely suspended between 1927 and 1947, and only 50 immigrants received financial assistance during the 10 years ended 31 March 1946.
In July 1947 a comprehensive free and assisted-passage scheme was introduced by the Government. Under this scheme certain categories of immigrants were given free passages to New Zealand provided they had served in the United Kingdom armed forces (including the Merchant Navy) during the Second World War, while others selected under the scheme were required to contribute only $20 towards the cost of their fares. Eligibility was confined to single residents of the United Kingdom (with no dependants) between the ages of 20 and 35 years who were willing to accept employment in selected occupations. All assisted immigrants were required to enter into a contract with the New Zealand Government that they would engage in approved employment for two years after their arrival in New Zealand.
In May 1950 a new immigration policy was announced by the Government, the main changes being as follows:
The age limit for unmarried British immigrants was raised to 45 years and no contribution towards cost of travel was required.
The free-passage scheme was extended to certain categories of married British immigrants with up to two children—later extended to up to four dependent children.
The acceptance of a number of single non-British men and women between the ages of 20 and 35 years. Dutch, Danish, Swiss, Austrian, and German nationals were selected.
At the end of 1958, it was decided to cut back assisted immigration by limiting male workers from the United Kingdom to skilled tradesmen, experienced farm workers, and experienced workers required in essential industries. Married workers accepted in these categories were limited to those with not more than two children. At the same time, the recruitment of German, Austrian, Danish, and Swiss migrants was terminated.
In 1960 steps were taken to increase the recruitment of skilled workers required for the expansion of essential industries. These steps included the acceptance of married men in approved categories with up to four dependent children. In March 1961 the Government announced a plan to bring to New Zealand in 1961-62 up to 5,000 assisted immigrants. Changed economic conditions later led to steps being taken to reduce the intake of assisted immigrants.
In August 1963 is was decided, however, to increase assisted immigration from the United Kingdom to 4,500 for the next 12 months and then to reduce it to 3,500 a year. In 1965 the annual target was raised to 4,000.
The numbers of assisted immigrants (excluding displaced persons and Hungarian refugees) arriving in New Zealand in the latest 11 years are as follows.
|Year Ended 31 March||British||Dutch||Austrian||German||Danish||Swiss||Belgian||Spanish||Maltese||Greek||Total|
In the preceding migration tables assisted immigrants are included in the totals of "Immigrants intending permanent residence''.
Monetary and Economic Council Report No. 12 of November 1966, Increased Immigration and the New Zealand Economy is a useful study in regard to proposals for additional assisted immigrants.
Displaced Persons—Commencing with the year 1949-50 the Government agreed to accept drafts of displaced persons from Europe, who were brought to New Zealand in shipping provided by the International Refugee Organisation. These settlers were chosen by a New Zealand Selection Mission, and arrivals totalled 941 in 1949-50, 978 in 1950-51, and 2,663 in 1951-52.
Hungarian Refugees—Following the uprising in Hungary, the Government agreed to accept Hungarian refugees. The first draft arrived by air in December 1956 and a total of 1,117 reached New Zealand in the next two years.
Other Refugees—Apart from displaced persons, New Zealand has accepted and continues to accept refugees from Europe and the mainland of China. In 1958 it was decided to offer resettlement opportunities to 20 "hard core'' refugee families from Europe who, because of handicapped persons in each family unit, were unacceptable elsewhere. These families arrived during 1959. In 1959 it was decided to accept a further 100 "hard core'' families. This figure was subsequently increased to 200. New Zealand has continued to accept a steady flow of refugees including families sponsored by the Churches who also accepted responsibility for 50 orphan children from Hong Kong, Chinese refugee families, and White Russians.
PASSPORTS—Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1946 and the Passport Regulations 1946.
New Zealand passports are issued and renewed within New Zealand by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington, Auckland, and Christchurch, at Rarotonga by the High Commissioner, and overseas by the representatives of New Zealand at Apia, Athens, Bangkok, Boan, Brussels, Canberra, Djakarta, Geneva, The Hague, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, London, Los Angeles, New Delhi, New York, Ottawa, Paris, Rome, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, and Washington. United Kingdom, Canadian, Australian, and Indian passports are issued and renewed in New Zealand by the respective High Commissioners for those countries.
Entry into New Zealand—Apart from British subjects and the wives of British subjects arriving from Australia, no person 16 years of age or over may land in New Zealand unless he is in possession of a valid passport or other recognised travel document. Exemption from the passport requirement (which is additional to the requirements of the Immigration Act and Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act) may be granted in exceptional circumstances by the Minister of Internal Affairs. A British subject who is a master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives does not need to produce a passport.
With the exception of nationals of those countries with which New Zealand has concluded agreements for the mutual abolition of visas, every alien landing in New Zealand requires a visa.
Persons born in the Cook Islands and the Tokelau Islands are British subjects and New Zealand citizens. They are required to obtain formal exit permission from the High Commissioner or Administrator respectively if they wish to proceed to New Zealand.
Departure from New Zealand—Every person leaving New Zealand, with the exception of a British subject travelling to Australia or making the round trip to New Zealand's island territories, should be in possession of a valid passport or other travel document.
IMMIGRATION—The legislation respecting immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Act 1964, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act 1919. The Immigration Act is administered by the Department of Labour, while the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act is administered by the Department of Justice.
Under the Immigration Act all persons other than New Zealand citizens must be in possession of an entry permit before they may land in New Zealand.
To obtain permission to settle in New Zealand, intending immigrants should first write to or call on the nearest overseas representative of the New Zealand Government or write direct to the Secretary of Labour, P.O. Box 6310, Wellington, New Zealand. The application must be made in the prescribed form and must be supported by documents duly attested in the country of origin. Each application is considered individually on its own merits.
NATIONALITY AND NATURALISATION—The basic nationality law is the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Citizens of all Commonwealth countries are recognised as British subjects.
New Zealand citizenship may be acquired in the following ways: (a) by birth in New Zealand; (b) by descent from a New Zealand-born father; (c) by registration; and (d) by naturalisation. Citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland acquire New Zealand citizenship by registration, as do alien wives and children of New Zealand citizens. Other aliens acquire it by naturalisation. To be eligible for New Zealand citizenship, an alien or a citizen of another Commonwealth country (other than a woman married to a New Zealand citizen, or to a minor) must—(a) have resided in New Zealand for the prescribed period, (b) be of full age and capacity, (c) be of good character, (d) have a sufficient knowledge of the English language, and of the responsibilities and privileges of New Zealand citizenship, (e) intend to reside in New Zealand, or to enter or continue Crown service under the New Zealand Government. The residential qualification for naturalisation is five years, for registration it is generally three years but can be reduced to one year.
Alien adults acquiring New Zealand citizenship by naturalisation or registration, and alien minor children over 16 years of age acquiring it by registration, are required to take the oath of allegiance. Ceremonies are held at which applicants, in an atmosphere of dignity and solemnity, take the oath of allegiance and are presented with their certificates of naturalisation or registration as New Zealand citizens. During the 1965-66 year there were 114 such ceremonies, at which 1,280 persons took the oath of allegiance.
New Zealand citizens may be deprived of New Zealand citizenship if they voluntarily acquire a foreign nationality by any formal act other than marriage, or if they voluntarily exercise the privileges or perform any of the duties of a foreign nationality possessed by them. Citizenship obtained by fraud, false representation, or the concealment of any material fact may be withdrawn.
REGISTRATION OF ALIENS—The registration of aliens in New Zealand is provided for by the Aliens Act 1948, which is administered by the Department of Internal Affairs.
The number of aliens on the New Zealand register at 1 April 1966 was 28,247, comprising 16,649 males and 11,598 females. This is not the complete number in New Zealand, as certain classes are not required to register, including the following: (a) children under 16 years of age; (b) persons holding diplomatic status, consuls, or employees of embassies, legations, and consulates who are resident in New Zealand solely for the purpose of performing official duties; (c) certain temporary visitors to New Zealand. Under the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 a citizen of the Republic of Ireland, though not possessing the status of British subject (or, in alternative phraseology, Commonwealth citizen), is nevertheless not classed as an alien and is not required to register.
The numbers of naturalisations, registrations, etc., during the year ended 31 March 1966 were as follows.
|Country of Birth||Certificates of|
Registration as a
New Zealand Citizen
Persons, and Aliens)
Registration as a
Subjects and Aliens)
The certificates of registration granted to adult females included SO to British wives of New Zealand citizens and 350 to alien wives of New Zealand citizens.
The following table shows the numbers on the register of aliens at 1 April 1965 and 1 April 1966.
|Country of Nationality||1 April 1965||1 April 1966|
The number of aliens on the register at 1 April 1966 increased by 373 as compared with 12 months earlier. Countries with the largest net additions to the aliens register during the 1965-66 years were United States (299), Greece (117), and Yugoslavia (110). Decreases in the register related chiefly to China (193), Poland (113), and the Netherlands (50).
STATISTICS OF THE 1961 CENSUS—Publications containing the results of the census of 18 April 1961 are listed towards the back of this Yearbook.
The following pages give details for 1961 census relating to Marital Status, Dependent Children, Religious Professions, Age Distribution, Racial Origins; Birthplaces and Duration of Residence. Information from the 1966 Census will be included in the Latest Statistical Information near the end of this Yearbook.
MARITAL STATUS—The marital status of persons aged 16 years and over as returned at the census of 1961 is summarised in the following tables.
|Age (Years)||Never Married||Married||Legally Separated||Widowed||Divorced||Not Specified||Total|
|90 and over||91||263||3||663||9||1||1,030|
|90 and over||210||130||3||1,479||4||4||1,830|
The percentage distribution of the population aged 16 years or over according to marital status is given in the following summary.
DEPENDENT CHILDREN—Married men, widowers, and widows were asked at the census in 1961 to state the number of their living children under 16 years (including stepchildren and children adopted by them). Married women, divorced and legally separated persons were not asked to supply the information as this would have created the risk of duplication of children counted.
The numbers of persons having dependent children, including Maoris, are now shown. The category "nil'' includes those cases where members of the family were 16 years of age and over, as well as those cases where there were no children in the family.
|1956 Census||1961 Census|
|Married Men||Widowers||Widows||Married Men||Widowers||Widows|
|9 and over||988||12||21||1,317||8||15|
The numbers of dependent children in each of the three groups in 1961 were: dependent on married men, 802,711; dependent on widowers, 4,932; and dependent on widows, 13,716; a total of 821,359 dependent children out of a 1961 census total of 840,443 children under 16 years of age. The difference is accounted for mainly by the exclusion of children whose parents were legally separated; those whose parents were divorced and had not remarried; children who had lost both parents; and ex-nuptial children (the last two classes excluding cases of adoption).
Comparable numbers of dependent children in the three groups in 1956 were: dependent on married men, 684,846; dependent on widowers, 5,131; and dependent on widows, 12,862; a total of 702,839 out of a total of 720,190 children under 16 years.
Between the 1956 and 1961 censuses the total number of dependent children of married men increased from 684,846 to 802,711, a rise of 17.2 percent. The number of married men increased by 44,909 or 9.3 percent. Those recording "nil'' dependent children increased by only 4.8 percent, while those with dependent children increased by 12.2 percent.
Married men with three children recorded the largest numerical increase, rising from 57,937 to 68,166, this representing a 17.7 percent increase. The greatest percentage increase, however, was recorded by married men with eight children, this group increasing from 1,164 in 1956 to 1,606 in 1961 a rise of 442 or 38 percent.
The next table shows within each group, the average number of dependent children, firstly for all persons within the group, and then for persons with dependent children in that group.
|Average Number of Dependent Children||1956 Census||1961 Census|
|Per person with dependent children||2.38||2.49|
|Per person with dependent children||2.09||2.04|
|Per person with dependent children||2.01||2.00|
The most significant point from the table is the marked rise in the average number of dependent children of married men. This is a reflection of the sharp increases recorded, since 1956, in the numbers of married men having two or more dependent children.
RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONS—The following summary presents the main religious professions returned at the 1961 census.
|Religious Profession||Number of Adherents,|
|Church of England (Anglican)||835,434|
|Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined||364,098|
|Latter Day Saints||17,978|
|Church of Christ||10,485|
|Seventh Day Adventist||8,220|
|Assemblies of God||1,060|
|Society of Friends||790|
|No religion (so returned)||17,486|
|All other religious professions||8,473|
|Object to state||204,056|
The four main churches—Church of England, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Methodist—retained the adherence of the great bulk of the population, although their combined percentage fell from 79.9 percent of the total population in 1956 to 79.2 percent in 1961. All four churches increased in numbers, though of these, only the Roman Catholic church increased its ratio to total population—14.3 percent in 1956 to 15.1 percent in 1961.
The category recorded as "Object to state'' represents those persons availing themselves of the special statutory right of objecting to answer a question on this subject. The percentage of the population in this class increased from 8.0 in 1956 to 8.4 in 1961. It is probable that the "not specified'' group includes a number of persons objecting to the question.
The percentage distribution according to number of adherents is as shown below.
|Religious Profession||Percentage of Total Population|
|Church of England (Anglican)||35.9||34.6|
|Roman Catholic (including Catholic undefined)||14.3||15.1|
|Latter Day Saints||0.6||0.8|
|Church of Christ||0.5||0.4|
|No religion (so returned)||0.6||0.7|
|Object to state||8.0||8.4|
|All other (including not specified)||4.1||4.2|
AGE DISTRIBUTION—Census age-group figures are shown in the following table. The low birthrates for the years 1932-36 are reflected in the smaller numbers in the age group of 25-29 years at the 1961 census, and the age group 20-24 years in 1956.
|Age Group (Years)||1956 Census||1961 Census|
|100 and over||14||21||35||12||23||35|
The following table classifies the population in the three broad age groups covering the children (under 15 years) those of working age (15-64 years) and the older age group (65 years and over).
|Age Group (Years)||1956 Census||1961 Census||Increase 1956-61|
|Number||Percent of Total|
|Number||Percent of Total|
|65 and over||197,595||9.1||208,649||8.6||11,054||5.6|
Between 1956 and 1961 the population in the working age group of 15 to 64 years decreased from 59.4 to 58.3 percent of the population, those in the age group of 65 years and over decreased from 9.1 to 8.6 percent, while the children under 15 years in 1961 comprised 33.1 percent of the population compared with 31.5 percent in 1956.
RACIAL ORIGINS—Between the censuses of 1956 and 1961 the Maori population increased by 29,935, or 21.8 percent, while the non-Maori population increased by 200,599, or 9.9 percent The "other races'' portion of the population showed the highest percentage increase between 1956 and 1961, rising from 20,624 to 31,012, or by 50.4 percent.
A noticeable feature is that, within the "other races'' group the Pacific Island Polynesians again showed a substantial increase from 8,103 to 14,340, immigration from Western Samoa and the Cook Islands contributing fairly large numbers during the period.
|Cook Island Maori||2,320||4,499|
|Subtotals, Pacific Islands||8,103||14,340|
|Syrian, Lebanese, and Arab||1,055||1,057|
|Totals, other races||20,624||31,012|
COUNTRY OF BIRTH—Since 1945 the New Zealand-born population has remained constant at about 86 percent of the total population.
The following table classifies persons by country of birth.
|Country of Birth||Census|
|New Zealand (excluding Cook Islands and Niue)||1,863,344||2,074,509|
|Ireland (excluding Northern Ireland)||8,423||8,810|
|Cook Islands and Niue||2,745||4,788|
|Other countries, and born at sea||30,522||37,760|
The next table shows the duration of residence in New Zealand of persons born overseas.
|Years of Residence||1956 Census||1961 Census|
|55 and over||18,088||5.9||20,591||6.1|
STATISTICS OF WORLD POPULATION—The area and estimated population of the continents and some of the principal countries of the world at 1 July 1965 are shown in the following table. (Source: United Nations Population and Vital Statistics Report and Demographic Yearbook.)
|Continents and Countries||Area||Population|
* U.N. Estimate.
|sq. miles (000)||million|
|Republic of Ireland||27||2.9|
|United Arab Republic||457||29.6|
|United States of America||3,615||194.6|
The rate of natural increase (excess of births over deaths) is important to national planning. In recent years the rate of natural increase in New Zealand has been higher than for most other countries of predominantly European stock. The following table shows the numbers and rates of natural increase for the last 11 years, and emphasises the high rate for the Maori component of the population.
|Year||Total Population||Maoris||Natural increase Rates per 1,000 Mean Population|
|Births||Deaths||Natural Increase||Births||Deaths||Natural Increase||Total||Maori|
In the 10 years to 31 December 1966 New Zealand has gained by natural increase of population a total of 402,864.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES—An international comparison of birth and natural-increase rates for certain countries is made in the following table. The rates, which are the average of the five years 1960-64, are taken from the Demographic Yearbook issued by the United Nations.
|Country||Rate per 1,000 of Population|
|England and Wales||17.9||11.8||6.1|
The following diagram shows birth and death rates and indicates the relatively high rate of natural increase in New Zealand.
The period since the Second World War was marked by a high birth rate until 1961, since which time there has been a sharp drop, which is an experience also affecting Australia, Canada, and the United States. The decrease in the birth rate has been sufficiently large to result in a decline in the actual numbers added to the population by natural increase. The highest annual increment was that for 1961.
REGISTRATION—The law as to registration of births is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. A birth may be registered within two months without fee at the office of the Registrar nearest the place of birth. After two months a birth is registrable only after a statutory declaration of the particulars required to be registered has been made before the Registrar by the parent or some person present at birth, and on payment of the prescribed fee. The Registrar-General may, however, register an unregistered birth irrespective of the time that may have elapsed.
Birth statistics are compiled from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year. The figures do not include still births, except where multiple births are discussed. A special classification of still births is given later in this subsection.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The following table shows the numbers of births and the rates for the last 11 years.
|Year||Numbers||Rates per 1,000 of Mean Population|
REFINED BIRTHRATE—“Crude” rates of the number of births per 1,000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age, do not take account of variations in the proportion of women of the child-bearing ages. Refined rates are provided by computations of the legitimate birthrate per 1,000 married women of 15-44 years of age, or the total birthrate per 1,000 of all women of these ages. The following table gives both rates for census years (on the basis of the births registered in that year and the population as at the census) together with the “crude” rate for the year.
|Census Year||Birthrate per 1,000 Women 15-44 Years||“Crude” Birthrate|
|Total Women||Married Women|
The percentage of married women in the child-bearing ages was 70.0 in 1961 compared with 51.6 in 1926. A study of the figures for successive censuses reveals considerable changes in the age constitution of married women within the child-bearing ages; as the birthrate varies with age, the change in age constitution over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.
REPRODUCTION INDEX—The reproduction index is based on the fact that the future size of a population is related to the number of women in the reproductive age groups at any given time. The gross rate is based on the number of female children born, and the average number of girls that will be born to a woman during her reproductive period, while the net rate takes into account fertility rates at different ages and the percentages of female survivors at those ages, obtained from life tables. A net rate of 1.0 indicates a stationary population, and a higher rate a rising population.
Reproduction rates during the latest 11 years were as follows.
|Year||Gross Rate||Net Rate|
It must be remembered that, in New Zealand, population growth has two important components—natural increase and net migration—and that the reproduction index takes into account only natural increase, Statistics of external migration in recent years are included in the section on “Population”.
SEXES OF CHILDREN BORN—The extreme range since 1870 for all births has been from 1,016 male per 1,000 female births in 1878 to 1,081 in 1923. Statistics for the latest six years are given in the following table.
|Year||Number of Births of||Male Births per 1,000 Female Births|
MULTIPLE BIRTHS—The number of cases of multiple births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total (live births only) during the latest six years are shown in the following table.
|Year||Total Births||Total Cases||Cases of Twins||Cases of Triplets||Multiple Cases per 1,000 of Total Cases|
* Includes one case of quadruplets.
† Includes one case of quintuplets.
There were 59,560 confinements in 1965 resulting in live births; of these, 608 produced multiple living births and in a further 27 cases one of twins was still-born. The ratio of multiple confinements with live births to total live confinements is 1:94. In six additional cases both twins were still-born.
|Year||Cases of Twins||Cases of Triplets and Quintuplets||Total Multiple Cases||Rate per 1,000 Confinements|
|Both Born Alive||One Born Alive, One Still Born||Both Still Born||Total||All Born Alive||One Born Alive, Two Still Born||Two Born Alive, One Still Born||All Still Born||Quins, All Alive||Total|
|* The seven cases of triplets in 1965 comprised two of two females and one male and five of three males. The case of quintuplets comprised one male and four females.|
|Average of five years||674||29||10||713||6||-||-||-||-||6||719||11.4|
The likelihood of still births occurring is much greater in cases of multiple births than in single cases. This is exemplified in the following table The figures in respect of multiple cases include all cases where one or more of the children were still born.
|Year||Still-birth Cases per 100 of Total Cases (Including Still Births)|
|Single Cases||Multiple Cases|
|Average of five years||1.24||5.44|
AGES OF PARENTS—Information as to the relative ages of parents of legitimate living children whose births were registered in 1965 is shown in the following table for the total population.
|Age of Mother, in Years||Age of Father, in Years|
|Under 21||21-24||25-29||30-34||35-39||40-44||45-49||50-54||55-64||65 and Over||Not Stated||Total Cases|
* Including 20 cases where one of twins was still-born.
† Including 1 case of quintuplets, 7 cases of triplets.
|45 and over||-||-||-||2||3||26||28||24||9||1||-||93|
|45 and over||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS—The following table gives for 1965 the number of previous issue, i.e., children born alive, in conjunction with the age of mother.
|Age of Mother in Years||Number of Previous Issue||Total Legitimate Cases|
|0||1||2||3||4||5||6-9||10-14||15 and Over|
|* This number represents 52,454 single cases and 590 multiple cases.|
|45 and over||5||9||10||12||5||12||18||18||3||92|
In the following table the total issue and average issue are shown for mothers by age groups where a birth occurred in 1965.
|Age of Mother, in Years||Total Mothers||Total Issue||Average Issue|
|45 and over||92||616||6.70|
It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz, the average number of children (including those registered in 1965) born up to the present time to those mothers of legitimate children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue born to the existing marriages only. The averages for recent years were as follows: 1960, 2.67; 1961, 2.69; 1962, 2.85; 1963, 2.83; 1964, 2.78; and 1965, 2.70. In 1915, the earliest year for which reliable comparative figures are available, the average issue was 3.11.
FIRST BIRTHS—Statistics of legitimate first confinements indicate that approximately half occur within one year after marriage and over three-quarters within two years after marriage.
|Year||Total Legitimate Cases||Total Legitimate First Cases||Proportion of First Cases to Total Cases||First Cases Within One Year After Marriage||First Cases Within Two Years After Marriage|
|Number||Proportion to Total First Cases||Number||Proportion To Total First Cases|
|per cent||per cent||per cent|
The following table gives the duration-of-marriage factor in first confinements over a longer time-series. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern births of non-Maoris only.
|Duration of Marriage in Years||Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|10 and over||1.11||1.53||0.94||1.04||0.95||0.86||0.88|
In the following table first confinements occurring to mothers in different age groups are expressed as a percentage of the total first confinements. Prior to 1962 the statistics concern confinements of non-Maoris only.
|FIRST CONFINEMENTS, BY AGE OF MOTHER|
|Age of Mother, in Years||Percentage of Total First Confinements|
|45 and over||0.04||0.03||0.09||0.07||0.08||0.03||0.03|
The average ages of mothers at the birth of their first child were as follows: 1924, 26.39; 1934, 25.90; 1944, 25.18; 1954, 25.32; 1962, 23.89; 1963, 23.74; 1964, 23.65; and 1965, 23.56 years.
EX-NUPTIAL BIRTHS—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the latest 12 years, with the percentages they bear to total births registered, are given in the following table. Statistics prior to 1962 concern non-Maoris only. The percentages in recent years are higher than those for Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States but lower than those for Sweden.
|Year||Number||Percentage of Total Live Births|
The long-term trend in the rate of ex-nuptial births is indicated by the movement in the proportion of non-Maori ex-nuptial births per 1,000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters, widows, and divorced women—at the reproductive ages. The figures for census years, are as follows.
|Census Year||Unmarried Women 15-44 Years of Age||Ex-nupital Births||Ex-nuptial Birthrate per 1,000 Unmarried Women|
Included in the total of 6,554 live ex-nuptial births in 1965, were 38 cases of twins, 7 cases where one of twins was born alive and one stillborn, the number of confinements thus being 6,516. From the following table it will be seen that of the 6,516 mothers, 3,173, or 48.70 percent, were under 21 years of age.
|Age||Number of Mothers|
|45 and over||13|
The Legitimation Act—The Legitimation Act 1939 stipulates that every ex-nuptial child whose parents have later married shall be deemed to have been legitimated from birth by reason of such marriage. The Act requires the parents or surviving parent of any person legitimated under the Act to register with the Registrar-General the particulars of the birth of that person, showing that person as the lawful issue of the parents. Application for registration must be made within three months after the date of the marriage.
The numbers of legitimations registered in each of the latest four years were as follows: 1963, 1,133; 1964, 1,091; 1965, 1,003; 1966, 1,042.
ADOPTIONS—The Adoption Act 1955 sets out the provisions regarding the adoption of children. The Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, as amended in 1961, contains provision for the registration of adopted children. The adoption of a Maori child is required to be registered in the same manner as that of a non-Maori child. The Adoption Act 1955 requires interim orders to be made in the first instance, and for these to remain in force for six months before adoption orders become effective.
The following table shows the number of adoptions which have been registered during the latest five years.
Of the 3,088 adoptions registered in 1965, 1,589 were children under the age of one year, 1,039 were aged one to four years, 257 were aged five to nine years, and 203 were aged 10 years or over. In 1966 the figures were 1,703, 1,174, 295 and 290 respectively.
STILL BIRTHS—Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. The Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 stipulates, however, that a medical practitioner or a midwife in attendance at the confinement where a still birth occurs must furnish a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the still birth. Particulars of causes of still births will be found in Section 4C relating to deaths. A stillborn child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. Still births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths, The sate of 1.18 per 100 total births in 1965 is the lowest rate yet recorded.
The registrations of still births during each of the latest five years were as follows.
|Year||Male Still Births||Female Still Births||Total||Male Still Births per 1,000 Female Still Births||Percentage of Still Births to—|
|Living Births||All Births|
The rate of masculinity for still births in 1965 was 1,051 males per 1,000 females as compared with 1,070 for living births. This is against the trend in recent years which has shown masculinity in general higher among still births than among living births.
The percentage of ex-nuptial births among still-born infants was, in 1965, 15.60 and among infants born alive 10.89.
Of the living legitimate births registered in 1965, 31 percent were first births, while of legitimate still births 35 percent were first births. Statistics over many years indicate that there is a considerably greater probability of still births at first confinement than subsequent confinements. Of the total of 718 still births in 1965, 609 were non-Maori and 109 Maori; of the Maori total 63 were males and 46 females.
FOETAL DEATHS—The Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 stipulates that in the case of a foetal death where the child has issued from its mother after the twentieth week, and up to and including the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy, a medical practitioner or a midwife who was in attendance at the confinement shall sign and supply a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the foetal death, and such other particulars as may be required by the Registrar-General. A foetal death is not required to be registered as in the case of a still-born child.
REGISTRATION—The law as to registration of deaths is contained in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951. Deaths of Maoris were recorded separately up to the end of 1961, but under the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act 1961 the procedure has been the same as for non-Maoris from 1 January 1962. (Maoris are defined as persons with half or more of Maori blood and the term European or non-Maori covers all other persons.) Particulars required in the registration of a death include date, place of residence and domicile, name, occupation, sex, age, cause of death, birthplace, duration of residence in New Zealand, marital status, living issue of married persons, degree of Maori blood (if any), medical attendant by whom certified, particulars as to burial, and, in the case of the death of a married male, age of widow. Deaths are required to be registered by the funeral director within three days after the day of burial.
Although it is compulsory to effect a birth-registration entry in the case of a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. The principal Act stipulates, however, that a medical practitioner or a midwife in attendance at a confinement where a still birth occurs must furnish a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the still birth.
It is incumbent upon a medical practitioner to give the certificate of cause of death of any deceased person to the person required to supply information for the purpose of registering the death (the funeral director in charge of the burial). The practitioner is required to report forthwith to the Coroner any case where, in his opinion, there are any suspicious circumstances.
Deaths of Members of the Forces While Overseas—The Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 requires the Registrar-General to compile a register containing particulars of all persons who have died while out of New Zealand on service with any Commonwealth force within the meaning of the Army Act 1950 and who at the time of their deaths were domiciled in New Zealand. Deaths registered in the War Deaths Register from 1940 onwards were not taken into account in arriving at the number and rate of deaths in New Zealand, nor were deaths of visiting overseas servicemen or prisoners of war in New Zealand. Deaths of New Zealand servicemen which occurred in New Zealand were, however, included.
NUMBERS AND RATES—New Zealand has had for many years a favourable death rate in its non-Maori population. Despite the ageing of population, the non-Maori crude death rate has remained low and this is undoubtedly due to the introduction of antibiotics and new medical techniques as well as to the expansion of health services. There has, for example, been for some years a low incidence of serious outbreaks of epidemic disease, a reduction in tuberculosis mortality, and a remarkably low non-Maori infant-mortality rate.
The general trend of the crude non-Maori death rate in New Zealand was downward over a long period of years, reaching its lowest level during the early thirties. After that an upward trend was in evidence for some years, the figures recorded during the war years being the highest for a long time. Some of the increase over this period can be attributed to population changes in that numbers of the healthiest of the young male adult population were serving overseas, but on the other hand the strains of wartime did exact a toll on the elderly which was shown in the sharp rise in deaths resulting from diseases of the heart and nervous system.
The following table sets out the numbers of deaths and the crude death rates per 1,000 of mean population over the latest 21 years.
|Year||Numbers||Crude Rate per 1,000 of Mean Population|
Maori crude death rates have dropped steadily over the 21-year period surveyed and have become lower than the non-Maori figures over recent years. Crude death rates do not reflect the true levels of mortality which exist in populations which have different age structures. The Maori population has a very much higher proportion of those at younger ages who do not contribute many deaths to the total and conversely relatively few persons at older ages where the rate of dying is high. The effect of this is to produce a very deflated crude rate.
Simple arithmetic can be employed to produce a figure for the Maori which compares directly with the non-Maori crude rate. By applying the Maori death rates at each age to the non-Maori population of this age it is possible to total these and arrive at the number of deaths which would have occurred in the non-Maori population had the Maori rates of dying applied. This figure divided by the total non-Maori population produces a Maori rate which is adjusted to the age structure of the non-Maori in that particular year and which is directly comparable with the non-Maori crude rate. The adjusted Maori rates computed on this system are entered in the following table for 1964 and show in a true comparison Maori mortality to be approximately twice that of the non-Maori. In addition, a comparison is supplied in age-specific rates for the two races in each sex.
|Race||All Ages Rates per 10,000 Mean Population||Age-specific Rates per 10,000 of Population at Ages|
|Crude Rate||Maori Rate Adjusted to Non-Maori Population||Under 5 Years||5-14 Years||15-24 Years||25-44 Years||45-64 Years||65 Years and Over|
For both Maoris and non-Maoris the death rate in males exceeds the death rate in females by a considerable margin. The following table sets out the respective crude rates for each sex separately for the latest 11 years in the total population.
|Year||Deaths per 1,000 of Mean Population||Male Deaths to Every 100 Female Deaths|
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR—An examination of the total number of deaths registered in each quarter of the last 12 years gives the following averages: March quarter, 4,463; June quarter. 5,266, September quarter, 6,228; and December quarter, 5,135.
A classification according to month of death shows that in 1965 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were July, August, and September, with totals of 2,403, 2,250, and 2,034 respectively. Excluding December (a proportion of deaths occurring in that month not being registered till January) February had the least number of deaths, 1,542, followed by November with 1,714.
AGES AT DEATH—Deaths registered during the year 1965 are shown according to age in the following tables.
|Age, in Years||Males||Females||Total|
|100 and over||8||16||24|
The Maori population is a very young one compared with the non-Maori and as a result there is a considerable variation in the proportions of Maori deaths which take place at various ages to the proportions of non-Maori deaths at various ages. Thus it follows that there is a considerable difference in the proportion of Maori deaths in the total of deaths at various ages, and whereas at preschool, school, adolescent, and early working ages the Maori contributes substantially to the total of all deaths, in old age the Maori percentage is almost insignificant. The following table illustrates these points for the year 1965.
|Age, in Years||Number of Deaths||Percentage of Total Deaths||Percentage of Maori Deaths in Total Deaths per Age Group|
|65 and over||14,311||312||65.77||25.64||2.13|
Considerable changes have taken place over the last 30 years in the age distribution of persons dying. The movement in the proportions of deaths occurring at the different age groups is very striking. The results of three main factors are illustrated, viz, health measures, which have achieved an immense saving of young life; the fluctuations in the birthrate over the period; and the great increase in the proportion of old people in the community.
|Age, in Years||Number of Deaths||Percentage of Total|
|Age, in Years||Number of Deaths||Percentage of Total|
|80 and over||2,085||2,876||4,018||6,253||15.26||16.26||20.90||27.21|
During the earlier period covered by the next table the fall in the death rate was common to all ages and to both sexes. In more recent years, however, there has been a tendency for the male rates at ages over 65 years to be static or show a slight increase. Of special significance are the low rates recorded in infancy and childhood and in the early adult life age groups in recent years despite the inclusion of Maori figures, which are considerably higher than the non-Maori. The female rate for the various age groups is now lower than the male rate in all instances. The increase in the death rate at successive age groups from 15 years onward is well exemplified.
|Year||Under 1*||1-4||5-14||15-24||25-34||35-44||45-54||55-64||65-74||75 and Over|
* Per 1,000 live births in this case.
* Non-Maori figures only as Maori deaths at ages not available for these years.
|(Rates per 1,000 of mean population in each age group)|
The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of non-Maori persons of each sex at 10-yearly intervals, since 1901 and during each of the latest four years is as follows:
There has been a striking upward movement in the average age at death of non-Maoris since 1901. A noticeable feature is that in the earlier years the age for females was considerably lower than that for males, the margin gradually narrowing until virtual equality was reached in 1927-28, since when the female average age at death has been higher than the male.
The average age at death of Maoris in 1965 was 40.32 and 42.16 years for males and females respectively. The great disparity between Maori figures and those for non-Maoris quoted in the above table is of course due in the main to the small numbers of persons at older ages in the Maori population and the comparatively large numbers at younger ages. This factor combined with high death rates in infancy and childhood produces a low average age at death.
EXPECTATION OF LIFE—Life tables depicting the pattern of mortality over the age span of life for the non-Maori component of New Zealand's population have been constructed at various times since 1880. The most recent tables are based on the 1961 population census, together with mortality statistics for 1960-62. As the pattern of mortality among non-Maoris has stabilised in recent years, these latest life tables give an accurate statistical summary of current mortality experience.
Life tables contain a measure of the degree of longevity of the population called the “expectation of life”. The expectation of life at any age is the average remaining lifetime for persons of this age, assuming that mortality rates at each age continue at the level shown by the life table. The life expectancy at selected ages at the present time, for the non-Maori population in New Zealand, is shown in the table below. The overall longer span of life enjoyed by females, compared with males, is evident, as is the improvement in life expectancy once the first year of life is survived.
|LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR NON-MAORI POPULATION, SELECTED AGES|
|Exact Age (Years)||Life Expectancy (Years)|
Improvement in non-Maori life expectancy since 1880, for both sexes, has been most striking for the younger ages, but has been relatively small for the advanced ages. Progress in medical science, coupled with improved social conditions, has resulted in substantial reductions in mortality among infants and children from infectious diseases: on the other hand, diseases of middle and old age are less amenable to control. It is unlikely, therefore, that increases in life expectancy in the future will occur on the scale of the past. The next table displays the life expectancy revealed by each life table compiled since 1880 for the three exact ages of 0, 20, and 60 years.
|IMPROVEMENT IN NON-MAORI LIFE EXPECTANCY SINCE 1880|
|Life Table||Life Expectancy (Years)|
|Males Aged Exactly||Females Aged Exactly|
The table below compares the life expectancy at birth for the total population of New Zealand with that for selected overseas countries. In all cases the expectancies are the most recent available. (Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1965).
|LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, SELECTED COUNTRIES|
|Country||Period||Life Expectancy at Birth (Years)|
|* Excluding full-blooded aborigines.|
|England and Wales||1961-63||68.0||75.1|
|United States of America||1,964||66.9||73.7|
The expectation of life at various ages for the Maori population is shown below. These expectations are taken from Maori Life Tables, 1960-62.
|LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR MAORI POPULATION, SELECTED AGES|
|Exact Age (Years)||Life Expectancy (Years)|
Life expectancy at birth for a Maori male increased by 1.82 years in the interval 1955-57 to 1960-62, with that for females increasing by 2.69 years. These increases are large but not as large as those over the period 1950-52 to 1955-57, when the increases were 3.18 years for males and 2.80 years for females. This is evidence that although Maori life expectancy is relatively low, it is improving at a fast though decreasing rate.
The expectation of life of Maoris is much shorter than that of the non-Maori population. A comparison at age 0 shows that life expectancy is 10.12 years greater for non-Maori males and 13.14 years greater for non-Maori females.
DEATHS BY CAUSES—The accuracy of death data even in medically certified deaths will be affected by two factors—the proportion of deaths in hospitals where diagnostic equipment is available and the proportion of deaths in which a post-mortem report is available for reference. In 1965, 62 percent of deaths of non-Maoris and 55 percent of deaths of Maoris took place in a hospital, and in 31 percent of non-Maori and 28 percent of Maori deaths a post-mortem was held. The Maori figure of post-mortems held is a little misleading as deaths from accident and violence form a much higher proportion of Maori deaths and in these circumstances a post-mortem is ordered to be held in almost every case. The lower proportion of deaths followed by an autopsy in Maoris is due to the traditional resistance to interference with a body after death, as well as to the high proportion of Maoris who live in rural areas where the services of a pathologist are not available to conduct post-mortem examinations.
The Seventh (1955) Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases Injuries, and Causes of Death has been in use in New Zealand since 1958. The assignment of the cause of death is to the underlying cause. This is defined as (a) the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury. Both the terminal or immediate cause of death and the underlying cause are furnished on the death certificate, and the responsibility is on the physician or surgeon signing the medical certificate to indicate the train of events.
Total deaths and the rates per million of total population for the latest three years, classified according to the Abbreviated List of 50 Causes for Tabulation of Mortality, are contained in the following table. Certain diseases (cholera, plague, smallpox, typhus, and malaria) are not listed in the table as there were no deaths from these causes in the years shown. Certain causes of death of special significance and interest are discussed later in this subsection. These are tuberculosis, cancer, heart disease, puerperal causes, and violence, while the causes of infant mortality are surveyed in considerable detail.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|Tuberculosis of respiratory system||115||78||80||75||46||31||31||28|
|Tuberculosis, other forms||20||15||16||11||8||6||6||4|
|Syphilis and its sequelae||10||10||9||10||4||4||4||4|
|Dysentery, all forms||1||-||3||1||-||-||1||-|
|Scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat||-||1||1||-||-||-||-||-|
|All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic||82||80||81||73||33||31||31||28|
|Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues||3,597||3,752||3,674||3,817||1,446||1,475||1,414||1,442|
|Benign and unspecified neoplasms||40||42||30||38||16||17||12||14|
|Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system||2,729||2,776||2,757||2,875||1,097||1,092||1,061||1,086|
|Chronic rheumatic heart disease||243||226||209||207||98||89||80||78|
|Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease||6,119||6,506||6,644||6,646||2,459||2,558||2,557||2,510|
|Other diseases of the heart||845||821||862||886||340||323||332||335|
|Hypertension with heart disease||394||377||344||365||158||148||132||138|
|Hypertension without mention of heart||100||92||94||107||40||36||36||40|
|Ulcer of stomach and duodenum||149||157||145||144||60||62||56||54|
|Intestinal obstruction and hernia||142||163||123||150||57||64||47||57|
|Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of the newborn||129||122||109||119||52||48||42||45|
|Cirrhosis of liver||63||59||74||79||25||23||28||30|
|Nephritis and nephrosis||144||144||148||139||58||57||57||53|
|Hyperplasia of prostate||117||99||88||73||47||39||34||28|
|Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium||19||26||20||13||8||10||8||5|
|Birth injuries, post-natal asphyxia, and atelectasis||270||294||292||244||109||115||112||92|
|Infections of the newborn||41||39||33||47||16||15||13||18|
|Other diseases peculiar to early infancy and immaturity unqualified||359||305||313||291||144||120||121||110|
|Senility without mention of psychosis, ill-defined, and unknown causes||122||122||128||139||49||48||49||53|
|All other diseases||2,061||2,082||2,138||2,170||828||819||823||820|
|All other accidents||738||715||773||804||297||281||298||304|
|Suicide and self-inflicted injury||208||244||207||242||84||96||80||91|
|Homicide and operations of war||22||16||36||32||9||6||14||12|
In a variety of conditions and in external causes of death the mortality rate for Maoris is very much higher than the non-Maori experience. Much of this disparity is concealed, however, by crude rates which are calculated by dividing the total population into the number of deaths from any particular disease or circumstance. With two populations so very dissimilar in age structure as are the two races in New Zealand (at ages under five years non-Maoris are seven times more numerous than Maoris, but at ages 75 years and upward they are 83 times as numerous), it is necessary to resort to an adjustment of Maori rates so that the figures for any condition become directly comparable in any particular year. This has been done in the following table by firstly calculating age-specific rates for the Maori and then applying these to the non-Maori population, age group to age group. This computation provides an “expected” number of Maori deaths in each age group and these added together and then divided by the non-Maori population give an adjusted rate. In addition to the rates expressed per million of population the absolute numbers of deaths in the two races are furnished for the same 50 causes.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rates per Million of Population (Non-Maori: Crude Rate—Maori: Adjusted Rate)|
|Tuberculosis of respiratory system||61||19||62||13||25||312||25||192|
|Tuberculosis, other forms||7||9||7||4||3||69||3||40|
|Syphilis and its sequelae||9||-||7||3||4||-||3||33|
|Dysentery, all forms||3||-||1||-||1||-||-||-|
|Scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat||1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic||64||17||62||11||26||99||25||73|
|Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues||3,538||136||3,671||146||1,468||1,935||1,497||2,081|
|Benign and unspecified neoplasms of unspecified nature||26||4||34||4||11||39||14||42|
|Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system||2,685||72||2,815||60||1,114||1,326||1,148||1,037|
|Chronic rheumatic heart disease||171||38||169||38||71||438||69||422|
|Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease||6,485||159||6,445||201||2,691||3,389||2,628||3,839|
|Other diseases of the heart||800||62||832||54||332||1,364||339||1,068|
|Hypertension with heart disease||324||20||342||23||134||374||139||464|
|Hypertension without mention of heart||89||5||100||7||37||52||41||104|
|Ulcer of stomach and duodenum||139||6||135||9||58||79||55||172|
|Intestinal obstruction and hernia||112||11||143||7||46||112||58||60|
|Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of the newborn||82||27||101||18||34||90||41||54|
|Cirrhosis of liver||67||7||77||2||28||79||31||50|
|Nephritis and nephrosis||135||13||127||12||56||176||52||106|
|Hyperplasia of prostate||86||2||73||-||36||70||30||-|
|Deliveries and complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium||14||6||9||4||6||40||4||22|
|Birth injuries, post-natal asphyxia, and atelectasis||249||43||214||30||103||133||87||90|
|Infections of the newborn||26||7||37||10||11||22||15||30|
|Other diseases peculiar to early infancy and immaturity unqualified||279||34||242||49||116||105||99||146|
|Senility without mention of psychosis, ill defined, and unknown causes||122||6||128||11||51||124||52||247|
|All other diseases||2,031||107||2,060||110||843||1,375||840||1,300|
|All other accidents||711||62||722||82||295||378||294||543|
|Suicide and self-inflicted injury||203||4||238||4||84||44||97||33|
|Homicide and operations of war||28||8||21||11||12||35||9||46|
Age-specific rates and Maori age-adjusted rates have been published for a comprehensive list of diseases in Maori-European Standards of Health, one of a series of special reports issued by the Department of Health.
The comparatively poor state of health of the Maori is shown by the excess in the Maori adjusted rates for most diseases. As can be seen in the table, the absolute numbers of Maoris dying from any cause of death is small. This is because the Maori population has a high proportion of young people, and most diseases which cause death develop at the older ages.
The susceptibility of the Maori to epidemic and communicable disease is well known. Again there is a Maori excess mortality in cancer and diabetes. The disparity is even more marked in acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease; in certain other forms of degenerative heart disease and hypertension; in both acute and chronic chest conditions, and in gastrointestinal and kidney infections. Recent health surveys have indicated that an inclination towards overnutrition, combined with a racial predisposition to excess weight, may underlie the early development of degenerative conditions and the high incidence of metabolic disorders.
In addition to the greater susceptibility to disease processes, the Maori shows a much higher accident rate. Especially accident prone is the Maori child and young adult, while proportionately many more Maoris are involved in road fatalities.
Tuberculosis—While there has been a remarkable reduction in tuberculosis mortality in recent years due to the introduction of modern drug treatment, this disease is far from eradicated and still takes its toll of life.
The following table shows the numbers of deaths from tuberculosis in 1965 by race, sex, and age groups. The disease has almost entirely disappeared as a cause of death in non-Maori children and 75 percent of the deaths occurred at ages upward of 45 years. In the Maori on the other hand there is a high proportion of the total deaths from tuberculosis occurring at young ages and in early adult life.
Of the 69 non-Maori deaths, 62 were due to respiratory tuberculosis and of the 17 Maori deaths, 13 were from a respiratory form.
|Age, in Years||Non-Maori||Maori||Total Population|
|85 and over||1||-||1||-||-||-||1||-||1|
|All ages, rates per 100,000 of mean population||3.8||1.8||2.8||10.1||7.3||8.7||4.3||2.2||3.2|
The fall in tuberculosis mortality became steep from. 1945 onwards. The extent of this decline at various age levels in both numbers and rates is shown in the table which follows. All forms of tuberculosis are included and both sexes have been combined in the periods stated.
|Age Groups, in Years||Annual Average Number of Deaths||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|65 and over||78||61||36||35||33||415||307||181||175||153|
|65 and over||14||16||7||6||4||4,530||5,066||2,185||1,720||1,102|
Over a period both the non-Maori and the Maori rates have dropped dramatically; there has been the greatest reduction at ages under 25 years, with the Maori record the more impressive. The more chronic forms of tuberculosis remain a problem in middle and old age.
Latest international statistics from the United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1965 give the following mortality rates per 100,000 population for tuberculosis of the respiratory system for selected countries: Netherlands, 1.5; New Zealand, 3.1; Denmark, 2.7; Canada, 3.1; Australia, 3.5; United States, 4.0; Norway, 3.8; Sweden, 5.2; England and Wales, 4.7. Many other countries have much higher rates.
Cancer—A detailed report on cancer mortality and morbidity in New Zealand was issued in 1965 by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health. This report covers mortality from cancer from 1941 to 1964, and also surveys all cases reported to the National Cancer Registry by hospitals and by the various cancer clinics established in New Zealand under the auspices of the Cancer Society of New Zealand. In addition to discussion of the total cancer picture in New Zealand, an analysis is made by specific sites broken down under the following subheadings: the age and sex of new cases registered, incidence, survival experience, treatment stage of disease at time of diagnosis, and period elapsing between first symptoms and diagnosis. Under each of these headings a comparison is made of the New Zealand figures with those available from registries in some other countries, while in the principal sites the New Zealand mortality is contrasted with that of some 24 other countries of the world.
Attention is drawn to the transference, under the 1948 Revision of the International Classification, of Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, etc., into the category of malignant disease. This classification was introduced in New Zealand in 1950, and all cancer figures quoted for that and subsequent years include these conditions.
Cancer is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than any other cause other than diseases of the heart. While it is most prevalent in middle and old age, cancer is a leading cause of death at all ages, even among children and adolescents.
In 1965 there were 3,817 deaths from cancer, of which 146 were of Maoris. While the 1965 non-Maori crude cancer death rate of 149.7 was twice as high as the Maori crude rate of 75.1 (both per 100,000 of population), these figures are misleading as a measure of the incidence of malignant disease in the two races. When allowance is made for the comparatively few persons in the Maori population at older ages where cancer is most frequently diagnosed, it is seen that Maori cancer mortality is markedly higher than non-Maori cancer mortality. This fact is no indication at all that in general the Maori is more prone to cancer (in cancers of the intestines in both sexes and in two sites in the Maori female, the cervix and the lung, the incidence appears to be higher), but that there is more delay in reporting the symptoms of cancer by Maoris and that more cancer in Maoris goes untreated.
A summary for the latest 11 years in numbers and in rates, both crude and standardised, is provided in the following table.
|Year||Number of Deaths from Cancer||Crude Death Rate per 100,000||Standardised Death Rate per 100,000*||Number of Deaths from Cancer||Crude Death Rate per 100,000||Standardised Death Rate per 100.000*|
|* Standard population used for standardised rates—England and Wales, 1901.|
Up to 1963 there was a considerable increase in the numbers of persons dying from cancer in both sexes over the period, with an increase in both male and female crude death rates. However, a slight decrease is shown in the number and rates for males during 1964 and 1965.
Standardised rates are adopted to eliminate the distorting effect of the changes which take place over a period in the age constitution of the population. The standardised rate for males has risen from 103.2 in the five years 1955-59 to 107.8 in 1961-65. This would indicate that there has been a real increase in the death toll in the male sex and this, as is discussed later, is attributable to the rise in lung cancer. The average standardised figure for females over 1955-59 was 83.9 and compares with 83.3 in 1961-65, indicating that there has been a slight fall in the death rates during the 10-year period.
A classification of cancer deaths according to age subdivisions, race, and sex is now given. Ninety percent of the deaths from cancer during 1965 were at ages 45 years and upwards, and 55 percent were at ages 65 years and upwards.
|Age Group, in Years||Race||Males||Females|
|Numbers||Rate per 100,000 of Population at Ages||Proportion of Total Deaths at Ages||Numbers||Rate per 100,000 of Population at Ages||Proportion of Total Deaths at Ages|
|65 and over||Non-Maori||1,153||1256.5||16.0||910||735.4||12.8|
|* All ages crude rate.|
Maori rates specific to age are in general higher than the non-Maori equivalent, and especially is this so at ages between 45 and 64 years. These differences are concealed by the all ages or crude rate which is the lower in the Maori.
Cancer contributes substantially to the total of non-Maori deaths at all ages. At school ages of five to 14 years one non-Maori death in every four is due to cancer (mainly leukaemia and tumours of the brain), while in the non-Maori female from 25 to 64 years over one death in three is a cancer death.
For Maoris the proportions of cancer to total deaths are very much lower than the proportions for non-Maoris, by reason that the competing risks from other diseases are so very much higher. Whereas in the non-Maori easily the highest numbers of cancer deaths occur at ages upwards of 65 years, the highest numbers in the Maori are at ages from 45 to 64 years. This is because of the lower expectation of life which results in few Maoris coming through to old age.
A summary of all cancer deaths occurring in New Zealand during 1965 by location of the disease is shown in the table which follows. Figures by site for Maoris have not been separated as the numbers are so small for most sites. Rates for Maoris tend to be higher in cancers involving the digestive tract, the respiratory organs, and the female genital organs.
|CANCER DEATHS 1965|
|Site of Disease||Numbers||Rates per Million of Mean Population|
|Buccal cavity and pharynx||38||17||55||29||13||21|
|Intestine, except rectum||193||242||435||145||184||164|
|Lung, bronchus, and trachea||489||70||559||368||53||211|
|Other and unspecified parts of uterus||-||61||61||-||46||23|
|Bone and connective tissue||24||20||44||18||15||17|
|All other and unspecified sites||424||449||873||319||341||330|
|Leukaemia and aleukaemia||85||89||174||64||68||66|
|Lymphosarcoma and other neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic system||100||82||182||75||62||69|
There is considerable variation in the numbers and rates for different sites in both males and females. The site principally involved in the male is the lung and bronchus and one male cancer death in every four is of this site. Cancer of the stomach is very much more common in the male than the female but the position is reversed in cancer involving the intestines. The leading site in the female is the breast, which also contributes one-fifth to the total female cancer deaths.
The world-wide phenomenal increase over the last 30 years in cancer of the lung and bronchus (excluding trachea and pleura) is accepted as being associated with cigarette smoking and atmospheric pollution. The following table shows the increase in deaths from cancers of this site in each race and in each sex over the latest 11 years.
|Year||Number of Deaths from Cancer of Lung and Bronchus||Crude Rate per 100,000 of Mean Population|
The crude rates for the Maori conceal the true relative incidence of lung cancer. Adjusted to the non-Maori population structure, the Maori rates exceed the non-Maori rates, the greatest margin being in the female.
While cancer is undoubtedly increasing in numerical incidence it is not doing so out of proportion to the population exposed to the cancer risk. The following table shows the movement in the standardised death rates per 100,000 of population in selected sites averaged over four quinquennia from 1946. The standard population employed is that of England and Wales, 1901.
|Buccal cavity and pharynx||3.5||2.5||2.5||2.1||1.1||1.1||1.2||1.0|
|Biliary passages and liver||1.4||2.0||2.1||2.2||1.8||2.3||2.3||2.2|
|Trachea, lung, bronchus||10.8||16.5||20.6||24.9||1.7||2.3||2.8||3.4|
|Uterus, all parts||-||-||-||-||9.7||9.0||8.2||7.1|
|Ovary, Fallopian tube||-||-||-||-||6.0||5.4||6.1||6.0|
|Bladder, urinary organs||2.7||3.0||3.3||3.8||1.1||1.0||1.1||1.1|
|Skin (including melanoma)||2.6||2.4||2.3||2.4||1.6||1.5||1.7||1.9|
|Brain, nervous system||3.2||3.6||4.0||4.4||2.2||2.6||3.0||3.1|
|Lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma||2.1||2.6||3.2||2.9||1.2||1.5||1.7||2.0|
|Leukaemia and aleukaemia||4.9||5.3||5.4||5.8||3.6||3.7||4.5||4.3|
The upward trend in the total male cancer death toll can be ascribed chiefly to the steep rise in lung and bronchus cancer, already commented upon. The total female rate has shown a declining tendency in more recent years although this trend may change as a result of the rise in female lung cancer.
Stomach cancer is clearly on the decline in both sexes and this is in accordance with the experience in several other countries. Some changes in the conditions of living are thought to underlie this drop in incidence.
The large intestine, another leading site, shows declining rates in both sexes. There is also a downward movement in the rates for the uterus. There is a tendency for cancer such as leukaemia and lymphosarcoma to increase slightly and again there has been evidence of this in other parts of the world.
Heart Disease—Diseases of the heart are the leading killer in New Zealand, accounting for 37 percent of all male deaths and 33 percent of all female deaths in 1965. In accordance with the increasing numbers of the population in the older age groups, the total numbers of deaths from heart disease have steadily increased. However, when allowance is made for the general ageing of the population by employing standardised rates, it becomes evident that there has been small increase in the male rate of loss from heart conditions, and in fact in the female sex, there has been a slight fall in the rates for 1961-65 as against those in 1955-59.
A disease phenomenon of recent years has been the rapid increase in deaths assigned to coronary heart disease, and in 1965 no less than 25 percent of all deaths were due to this single disease entity. Comparing standardised rates for 1955-59 with those for the latest quinquennium of 1961-65 (non-Maoris only) the rise in the toll from male deaths assigned to coronary conditions has been 25 percent, with a higher increase still in the female of 27 percent. It is a matter of conjecture as to whether the real incidence of coronary heart disease in the community has risen to this extent or whether it is due in part at least to increased recognition of the condition.
The numbers and death rates for heart disease excluding acute rheumatic forms and congenital malformations for the last 11 years are shown in the following table, males and females separately (non-Maoris only).
|Year||All Forms of Heart Disease||Coronary Heart Disease|
|Number||Standardised Rate per 100,000 of Population||Number||Standardised Rate per 100,000 of Population||Number||Standardised Rate per 100,000 of Population||Number||Standardised Rate per 100,000 of Population|
Coronary heart disease is predominantly a disease of old age in both sexes, although in the male sex there are appreciable numbers of deaths which occur in middle age. There are marked differences in the mortality from the disease both between the sexes and between the two races at various age periods.
The following table averages both the numbers and the age-specific rates for coronary heart disease in both non-Maori and Maori over the latest five years 1961-65.
|Race||Ages 35 to 44 Years||Ages 45 to 54 Years||Ages 55 to 64 Years||Ages 65 Years and Over|
|Average Number of Deaths Each Year||Average Rate per 10,000 of Population at Ages||Average Number of Deaths Each Year||Average Rate per 10,000 of Population at Ages||Average Number of Deaths Each Year||Average Rate per 10,000 of Population at Ages||Average Number of Deaths Each Year||Average Rate per 10,000 of Population at Ages|
For non-Maoris at ages 35 to 44 years male coronary heart disease rates exceed female rates by close to 6 to 1, the ratio decreasing as age advances to a ratio of under 2 to 1 at ages 65 years and upwards.
The absolute numbers of Maori deaths from the disease are small but when related to the population at risk produce rates fairly similar to the non-Maori population in the male sex.
Maori women have a very much greater chance of dying from a coronary condition than non-Maori women, the risk being three times greater at ages 35 to 44 years, four times greater at ages 45 to 54, and twice as great at ages 55 to 64 years. Hypertensive forms of heart disease are also very much more common in Maori women in middle age while both sexes in the Maori have a higher mortality from rheumatic valvular heart disease.
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF DEATH—In the following table the rates per million of mean population are given for principal causes of death for selected countries for the latest available year in each case.
|Country||Year||Rates per 1,000,000 of Population|
|Heart Disease||Vascular Lesions of Central Nervous System||Cancer||Pneumonia||Accidental||Total Including Other|
|United States of America||1,963||3,751||1,067||1,514||338||534||9,619|
|England and Wales||1,963||3,977||1,709||2,178||767||395||12,183|
INFANT MORTALITY—Over a long period of years New Zealand has been renowned for the low rate of infant mortality in its non-Maori population, a fact attributable partly to such matters as climate, virility of the race, comparative absence of densely settled areas, etc., and partly to legislative and educative measures—the latter conducted by the State as well as by various organisations (one of the most important of these is the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children which was founded in 1907).
The trend in infant and peri-natal mortality in New Zealand up to the year 1961 and comparisons in causes with the rates of other countries who show improved figures on New Zealand's are contained in one of the Special Report Series issued by the National Health Statistics Centre of the Department of Health.
The infant-mortality rate of the non-Maori population of New Zealand is among the world's lowest, and recently has declined to a particularly low level. The Maori rate has shown a noticeable improvement in recent years. Infant-mortality figures are given in the next table.
|Year||Numbers||Rates per 1,000 of Live Births|
Male rates of infant loss are about 28 percent above female rates and this tends to counterbalance the male excess in births.
In the following table New Zealand's infant mortality rates, for both races combined, are shown in comparison with the rates for other countries. The figures are averaged over the latest five years for which figures are available and the data has been extracted from the United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1964.
It is interesting to observe that Sweden has the distinction of having the lowest infant death rate in the world. Swedish figures have been based on local definitions of foetal death, livebirth, and infant death which would result in the rates being a slight understatement in a comparison with New Zealand's. Differences in definitions and practices exist also in some other countries.
|Country||Quinquennium||Deaths Under 1 Year per 1,000 Live Births|
|England and Wales||1960-64||21|
|Republic of Ireland||1960-64||28|
|South Africa (white)||1959-63||29|
One out of every five infant deaths is a Maori infant death and the Maori rate of loss is nearly twice that of the non-Maori. The excess in the Maori rate is very largely due to infants who die between the end of the fourth week of life and the first birthday. This is illustrated in the following table showing numbers and rates by race and age for the year 1965.
|Race||Under 1 Day||1 Day and Under 1 Week||1 Week and Under 28 Days||Total Under 28 Days||28 Days and Under 12 Months||Total Under 1 Year|
|Rates per 1,000 Live Births|
The explanation of the higher rate for Maoris between the twenty-eighth day and the end of the first year is the susceptibility of the Maori baby in its generally inferior home environment to forms of infection such as gastro-enteritis and pneumonia.
The rates per 1,000 live births for the two sexes combined at different ages during the first year of life are now given for each of the last 11 years.
|Year||Under 1 Day||1 Day and Under 2 Days||2 Days and Under 1 Week||1 Week and Under 28 Days||28 Days and Under 12 Months||Under 1 Day||1 Day and Under 2 Days||2 Days and Under 1 Week||1 Week and Under 28 Days||28 Days and Under 12 Months|
The following diagram illustrates infant mortality rates.
The next table shows the movement in the rates since 1922 in eight quinquennia and the period 1962 to 1965.
|Period||Neonatal Mortality (Under 28 Days)||Post-neonatal Mortality (28 Days and Under 12 Months)||Infant Mortality (Under 1 Year)|
The sharp drop in rates in the post-war years reflects the general availability of antibiotics. Three conditions, prematurity, birth injury, and post-natal asphyxia, together cause about two-thirds of the total neonatal deaths. Factors which underlie the generally higher rates for Maoris are the higher proportion of Maori confinements outside of hospitals, more frequent child bearing, and a reluctance to seek and heed antenatal advice.
The Maori infant who survives the first month of life is especially susceptible to respiratory infections such as influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis, and to gastro-intestinal disorders. Environmental factors and circumstances associated with the Maori way of life underlie the onset of these diseases, such as unsatisfactory feeding associated with failure to seek and act upon skilled advice from Plunket and district nurses on matters such as feeding, and also poor housing and sanitary conditions.
Causes of Infant Mortality—In the following table are shown the absolute numbers and the rates per 1,000 live births of the principal causes of infant mortality over the last two years in non-Maori and Maori and in both races combined.
|Cause of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per 1,000 Live Births|
|Influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis||146||159||1.7||6.5||2.3||2.0||7.3||2.6|
|Asphyxia and atelectasis||172||149||2.7||3.1||2.8||2.5||2.4||2.5|
|Other and undefined causes||447||413||6.3||12.8||7.2||6.1||11.7||6.9|
There has been a considerable saving of life in Maori babies in almost all the leading causes over the last 10 years.
CAUSES OF STILL BERTH—A still-born child or late foetal death is defined in New Zealand as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue”. A certificate of the cause of death is required to be furnished for each still birth and also for cases of intermediate foetal deaths—i.e., deaths after the end of the twentieth but before the end of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy. The certificates of causes of still birth and foetal death provide for both maternal and foetal causes to be entered.
The following table sets down the causes of the non-Maori still births registered during 1965.
|Causes of Still Birth||Number of Cases|
|Maternal Causes Chronic disease in mother||14||10||24|
|Acute disease in mother||3||9||12|
|Diseases and conditions of pregnancy and childbirth||66||51||117|
|Difficulties in labour||22||13||35|
|Other causes in mother||3||1||4|
|Foetal Causes Placental and cord conditions||91||70||161|
|Congenital malformations of foetus||25||63||88|
|Diseases of foetus and ill defined causes||75||84||159|
|Totals, all causes||305||304||609|
PERINATAL MORTALITY—Perinatal deaths comprise still births and deaths in the first week of life. Numbers and rates are shown in the following table. The still births and the perinatal mortality rate are calculated per 1,000 total births (still births plus live births), while the death rate for the first week of life is calculated per 1,000 live births. The rates have decreased steadily in recent years.
|Deaths under 1 week||686||637||10.99||10.94||10.98||10.44||10.61||10.59|
PUERPERAL CAUSES—Improvements in the standard of antenatal care and obstetrical skill, as well as advances in medical science, have reduced the numbers of deaths from septic abortion, puerperal sepsis, and toxaemia, and deaths from complications of childbirth are few. A summary of maternal mortality from all puerperal causes, in triennial periods, is given in the following table together with figures for the latest year.
|Cause of Death||1941-43||1944-46||1947-49||1950-52||1953-55||1956-58||1959-61||1962-64||1965|
|Eclampsia and other toxaemias||59||75||38||33||28||24||10||13||-|
|Accidents, haemorrhage, and other mortality||106||126||82||53||34||43||40||24||5|
|Total maternal mortality||270||260||149||104||72||77||65||45||9|
|Maternal mortality, excluding septic abortion||204||218||127||90||63||69||53||38||7|
|Eclampsia and other toxaemias||8||6||7||5||3||2||5||2||1|
|Accidents, haemorrhage, and other mortality||24||30||27||20||21||24||15||16||3|
|Total maternal mortality||46||47||37||31||29||29||20||20||4|
|Maternal mortality, excluding septic abortion||38||44||37||28||26||27||20||19||4|
|Eclampsia and other toxaemias||67||81||45||38||31||26||15||15||1|
|Accidents, haemorrhage, and other mortality||130||156||109||73||55||67||55||40||8|
|Total maternal mortality||316||307||186||135||101||106||85||65||13|
|Maternal mortality, excluding septic abortion||242||262||164||118||89||96||73||57||11|
The following table shows the progressive reduction that has been achieved in the rates of deaths due to puerperal causes.
|Year||Rate per 1,000 Live Births|
DEATHS FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES—Deaths from external causes, apart from suicide, claim approximately 5 percent of the total deaths and again the Maori rate is higher than the non-Maori. The following table shows deaths from external causes for the three latest years classified according to the Intermediate List of the 1955 Revision of the International Classification. In this table falls on board ship and from horseback are included as transport fatalities.
|Causes of Death||Number of Deaths||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|Other transport accidents||54||48||54||21||18||20|
|Accidents caused by machinery||35||57||34||14||22||13|
|Accidents caused by fire and explosion of combustible material||31||36||24||12||14||9|
|Accidents caused by hot substance, corrosive liquid, steam, and radiation||9||10||10||4||4||4|
|Accidents caused by firearms||18||15||16||7||6||6|
|Accidental drowning and submersion||118||114||147||46||44||56|
|All other accidental causes||123||126||131||48||48||50|
|Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons (not in war)||15||33||29||6||13||11|
The number of deaths recorded from all accidental causes in 1965 was 1355 corresponding to a rate of 5.12 per 10,000 of population.
Drownings are a leading cause of accidental death in New Zealand. Included in the preceding table for 1965 are 48 deaths from drowning due to accidents with small boats and five deaths involving principally the larger type of boat.
Transport Accidents—In classifying deaths attributable to transport accidents under the various subheadings shown in the following table the rule of assignment is that in fatalities due to collisions of railway trains and electric tram cars with motor vehicles, the death is assigned to the railway train or electric tram car as being the heavier and more powerful vehicle, For 1965 there were 14 deaths from such accidents, bringing the total number of deaths in cases where a motor vehicle was involved up to 565. In the case of collisions between motor vehicles and horse-drawn vehicles, the death is assigned to the motor vehicle.
The number and rate of deaths resulting from railway, tramway, motor vehicle, and aircraft accidents during each of the last 11 years are as follows.
|Year||Deaths Due to Accident||Rate per 10,000 of Mean Population|
|Railway||Tramway||Motor Vehicle||Aircraft||Railway||Tramway||Motor Vehicle||Aircraft|
In recent years the wide use of aircraft in agricultural operations such as aerial topdressing has resulted in a number of deaths from aircraft accidents.
Non-transport Accidents—The 1955 Revision of the International List makes provision for non-transport accidents (excluding therapeutic misadventure in treatment, complications following vaccination or inoculation, and late effects of injury and poisoning) to be grouped according to the place where the accident or poisoning occurred. The following table shows the deaths, both numbers and rates, for the latest three years, according to this classification.
|Place of Occurrence||Number||Rate per Million of Mean Population|
|Home (including home premises and vicinity and any non-institutional place of residence)||312||316||333||123||122||125|
|Farm (including buildings and land under cultivation, but excluding farm and home premises)||46||63||37||18||24||14|
|Mine and quarry||6||10||5||2||4||2|
|Industrial place and premises||17||20||32||7||8||12|
|Place for recreation and sport||4||9||12||1||3||5|
|Street and highway||17||11||12||7||4||5|
|Public building (building used by the general public or a particular group of the public)||12||12||12||5||5||5|
|Resident institution (homes, hospitals, etc.)||74||87||101||29||33||38|
|Other specified places||102||111||105||40||43||39|
|Place not specified||19||40||42||7||15||16|
One in every two fatal non-traffic accidents occurs in or about the home.
Falls are the chief cause of home fatalities, exacting a heavy toll of the aged and infirm. This is clearly illustrated in a special report on domestic accidents issued by the Department of Health in 1960. The second important cause of death in the home is asphyxia from regurgitation of food and inhalation of other objects, or mechanically from pillows and bedclothes; this is the principal hazard of the first six months of life, though a proportion of these deaths is probably due to some undisclosed respiratory infections. Almost all the home drowning fatalities are amongst toddlers between one and two years of age who fall into rivers, creeks, and ponds in the vicinity of the home.
Twenty of the 37 accidental deaths on farms in 1965 were caused by farm machinery (usually tractors). Further data regarding accidents will be found elsewhere in this volume (see Index). Later sections are devoted wholly to statistics of industrial and farm accidents.
Suicide—There were 238 suicidal deaths of non-Maoris in 1965-159 males and 79 females—the death rates per 100,000 of population being 11.4 for males and 5.6 for females. For Maoris there were four suicidal deaths in 1965-2 males and 2 females, the death rate per 100,000 of population being males 2.0, females 2.1.
Rates per 100,000 of population showing the age distributions, averaged over the years 1963, 1964, and 1965 are shown next for the total population.
These figures show the typical increase in the suicide rates with increasing age and the fall in the female rate after the age of 75 years.
The next table presents the average, over three-yearly periods, of standardised non-Maori suicide rates per 100,000 of mean population.
|Annual Average During||Males||Females|
The following table provides an international comparison of suicide rates for various countries. The figures have been calculated from material in the United Nations Demographic Yearbooks.
|Country||Triennium||Rate per 100,000 of Population|
|Republic of Ireland||1961-63||2.5|
|United States of America||1961-63||10.7|
|England and Wales||1961-63||11.8|
GENERAL—Marriage may be solemnised in New Zealand either by a person whose name is on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act 1955, or before a duly appointed Registrar or Deputy Registrar of Marriages. A licence must be obtained from a Registrar of Marriages before a marriage by an officiating minister can be solemnised. Marriage by on officiating minister may be solemnised at any time between 6 o'clock in the morning and 8 o'clock in the evening. Marriage before a Registrar can be solemnised at any time during the hours the office of the Registrar is open for the transaction of public business; notice of intended marriage must be given to a Registrar of Marriages by one of the parties to the proposed marriage.
In the case of a person under 21 years of age, not being a widow or widower, the consent of parents or guardian is necessary. Consent of a Magistrate may also be given in cases of refusal by any person whose consent is required.
Since 1933 the minimum age for marriage has been 16 years of age. No marriage shall be deemed to be void, however, by reason only of an infringement of the minimum age.
Since 1 April 1952 it has been required under the Maori Purposes Act 1951 that every marriage to which a Maori is a party shall be solemnised in the same manner, and its validity shall be determined by the same law, as if each of the parties was a non-Maori.
Particulars regarding divorce will be found later in this subsection.
NUMBERS AND RATES—The numbers and rates of marriages during the last 20 years are now given.
|Year||Number||Rate per 1,000 of Population|
The high marriage rate in 1947 was due to the return of many thousands of men from overseas war service in 1945 and 1946.
Comparison with Other Countries—Marriage rates for certain countries for 1965 are given below. (Source: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.)
|Country||Rate per 1,000 Mean Population|
MARITAL STATUS PRIOR TO MARRIAGE—The following table gives marital status prior to marriage for the latest five years.
|Year||Single||Widowed||Divorced||Total Persons Married|
The position is more easily seen by studying the percentages given in the next table.
Divorce statistics at the end of this subsection show the numbers of decrees granted in recent years, the numbers varying from 1,400 to 1,900 a year. Widowed persons remarrying constituted 37 per 1,000 persons married in 1965.
The marital status of persons prior to marriage for each of the latest five years is next given.
|Year||Marriages Between Bachelors and||Marriages Between Widowers and||Marriages Between Divorced Men and|
|Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women||Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women||Spinsters||Widows||Divorced Women|
During the years 1938-40 there were 95 male divorcees who remarried for every 100 female divorcees who remarried. In the period 1963-65 more male divorcees that female divorcees remarried.
The number of widows per 100 widowers who remarried was 67 in 1938-40, but with a changed social outlook the position in 1963-65 was that 95 widows remarried for every 100 widowers.
AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED—The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period. In the latest year three brides in every seven were under 21 years of age, the proportion for grooms being one in seven.
Of the 43,404 persons married in 1965, 12,309 or 28.4 percent, were under 21 years of age; 17,068, or 39.3 percent, were returned as 21-24 years; 6,882, or 15.8 percent, as 25-29 years; 3,640, or 8.4 percent, as 30-39 years; and 3,505, or 8.1 percent, as 40 years of age or over. The following table relates to the year 1965.
|Age of Bridegroom, in years||Age of Bride, in Years||Total Bridegrooms|
|Under 21||21-24||25-29||30-34||35-39||40-44||45 and over|
|45 and over||5||25||52||75||139||198||952||1,446|
The recent trend is for persons to marry at younger ages. The following table shows since 1925 the proportions of men and women married at each age group to every 100 marriages.
|Period||Under 21||21-24||25-29||30-34||35-39||40-44||45 and Over||Totals|
|* Periods prior to 1950 are for non-Maoris only.|
The average age (arithmetic mean) at marriage for both males and females has decreased fairly steadily in recent years. The figures for each of the latest 11 years are as follows.
|Year||Average Age at Marriage|
The average ages of bachelors and spinsters at marriage are considerably lower than those shown in the preceding table, which covers all parties and is naturally affected by the inclusion of remarriages of widowed and divorced persons. The average ages of grooms and brides for each of the latest five years according to marital status were as shown in the next table.
The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the modal or popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed. The modal age for brides (21) has remained unchanged for very many years, but in the case of bridegrooms the most popular age has varied, and for recent years it has been 21 to 24. The modal age for bridegrooms in 1965 was 23 years.
Marriages of Minors—Of every 1,000 men married in 1965, 135 were under 21 years of age, while 432 in every 1,000 brides were under 21.
In 2,575 marriages in 1965 both parties were given as under 21 years of age, in 6,799 marriages the bride was returned as a minor and the bridegroom as an adult, and in 360 marriages the bridegroom was a minor and the bride an adult.
The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period, and in the table below figures are given for the last five years.
|Totals||Age in Years||Totals|
|16||17||18||19||20||Number||Rate per 100 Marriages|
MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS CHURCHES—Of the 21,702 marriages performed in 1965, Church of England clergymen officiated at 5,579, Presbyterians at 5,126, Roman Catholics at 3,354, Methodists at 1,677, and clergymen of other churches at 1,790, while 4,176 marriages were solemnised by Registrars.
The following table shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the largest churches and before Registrars in each of the seven latest years.
|Church||Percentage of Marriages|
|Church of England||24.37||25.24||25.03||25.36||24.53||25.06||25.71|
The foregoing figures must not be taken as an exact indication of the religious professions of the parties married, as it does not necessarily follow that both (or even one) of the parties are adherents of the Church whose officiating minister performed the ceremony, and persons married before Registrars may belong, in greater or lesser proportion, to any or none of the churches. Of the total population at the general census of 1961, 34.6 percent were recorded as adherents of the Church of England, 22.3 percent Presbyterian, 15.1 percent Roman Catholic, 7.2 percent Methodist, and 20.8 percent of other religions or of no religion, or who objected to state their religious profession.
NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS—The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act was 3,660 in January 1966 and the churches to which they belong are shown hereunder.
|Roman Catholic Church||842|
|Church of England||675|
|Presbyterian Church of New Zealand||577|
|Methodist Church of New Zealand||355|
|Ratana Church of New Zealand||142|
|Latter Day Saints||96|
|Seventh Day Adventist||52|
|Associated Churches of Christ||48|
|Assemblies of God||27|
|Absolute Reformed Maori Church of Aotearoa||24|
|Liberal Catholic Church||19|
|Commonwealth Covenant Church||18|
|Christian Revival Crusade||13|
|Reformed Churches of New Zealand||11|
|Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Conference||11|
|Evangelistic Church of Christ||10|
|Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi||10|
The Ratana Church of New Zealand, the Ringatu Church, the United Maori Mission, and the Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi are Maori organisations.
DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE AND NULLITY—From 1 January 1965 the Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1963 has been the governing legislation.
Divorce—A petition for divorce may be presented to the Supreme Court on one or more of 15 grounds, which include adultery, desertion, separation by agreement for not less than three years, separation by decree of separation or separation order for not less than three years, and the parties living apart for seven years and not likely to be reconciled. Only a very small percentage of divorces each year are concerned with the other 10 grounds not listed, as a subsequent table shows. Where the parties are separated or living apart one of the parties must have been resident in New Zealand for at least two years immediately preceeding the filing of the petition. The Court is required to give consideration to the possibility of reconciliation of the parties to the marriage.
Dissolution of a Voidable Marriage—Proceedings for the dissolution of a voidable marriage may be instituted by a person domiciled in New Zealand or a person whose spouse is domiciled in New Zealand on any of the following grounds, namely, that at the time of the marriage one of the parties was mentally defective, that the respondent was at that time suffering from communicable venereal disease, that the woman was then pregnant by some other man than the petitioner, or that some woman other than the petitioner was then pregnant by the respondent, or that the marriage has not been consummated because of the incapacity of either party or the respondent's wilful refusal. A decree of dissolution of a voidable marriage puts an end to the marriage from the date of the decree.
Nullity—In certain circumstances a marriage is void, that is it is of no effect whether or not proceedings in respect of it are taken in the Courts. A decree of nullity in respect of a void marriage may, however, be obtained if either party is domiciled or resident in New Zealand or the marriage was solemnised here. The grounds on which a marriage governed by New Zealand law is void are that at the time of the ceremony one of the parties was already married or did not give consent, that the parties were within the prohibited degree of relationship or that the marriage was not solemnised in due form. Any children of a void marriage are legitimate unless at the time of the conception of the child or at the time of the marriage (whichever was later) both parties knew the marriage was void.
Petitions filed and decrees granted by the Supreme Court in recent years are shown in the following table.
|Year||Dissolution or Nullity of Marriage||Judicial Separation|
|Petitions Filed||Decrees Nisi||Decrees Absolute||Petitions Filed||Decrees for Separation|
The next table gives the grounds (dissolution or nullity cases) of petitions and decrees during 1964 and 1963.
|Grounds||Petitions Filed||Decrees Absolute Granted|
|Husbands' Petitions||Wives' Petitions||Husbands' Petitions||Wives' Petitions|
|Separation by agreement for not less than three years||517||542||588||623||360||379||446||415|
|Separation by Court order or decree for not less than three years||1||-||-||-||13||13||59||49|
|Living apart for not less than seven years||77||171||80||144||105||114||97||108|
|Drunkenness with cruelty, failure to maintain, etc.||3||2||14||16||-||1||2||4|
|Non-compliance with order for restitution of conjugal rights||4||-||-||-||1||1||1||-|
|Presumption of death||-||1||-||-||1||-||-||-|
|Pregnant to another man||-||2||-||-||-||1||-||-|
The figures shown for decrees absolute cover all such granted during the year, whether the antecedent decree nisi was granted in the same or in a previous year.
Over the five-year period 1961-65 inclusive, the average percentage of decrees absolute granted on wives' petitions (83.3), was greater than the percentage granted on husbands' petitions (79.1). It is of interest to point out that 1965 was only the fifth year since 1952 in which the number of decrees absolute granted on husbands' petitions was greater than the total granted on wives' petitions.
In 450 of the 1,814 cases where decrees absolute were granted during 1965 there was no living issue of the marriage. The number of living issue was one in 380 cases, two in 416 cases, three in 278 cases, and four or more in 290 cases.
The table which follows shows the duration of marriage in all cases for which decrees absolute were granted in the latest five years.
|Duration of Marriage, in Years||Husband's Decrees Absolute Granted||Wives' Decrees Absolute Granted|
|30 and over||68||61||57||62||80||58||47||48||58||60|
The number of living issue affected by the decrees absolute of their parents during each of the last five years was as follows: 1961, 3,052; 1962, 3,041; 1963, 3,356; 1964, 3,503; and 1965, 3,478.
MARRIAGE GUIDANCE—A National Marriage Guidance Council was established in 1950 as a voluntary agency to assist with social problems rising from unhappy and ill-adjusted family units. In 1959 an adviser in marriage guidance was appointed to the staff of the Justice Department, an advisory committee set up, and a training programme for voluntary marriage counsellors commenced with the help of voluntary advisers from professional groups.
By 1966 there were 100 trained counsellors.
There are 20 Councils affiliated with the National Marriage Guidance Council and a full programme of counselling and educational work is followed over the year. Education work has been started in a number of post-primary schools, and courses for engaged couples are regular features of most councils.
GENERAL—Since 1900, when the control and supervision of public health services was centralised in a Department of State, an efficient organisation has been built up throughout New Zealand covering all the traditional areas of environmental health.
In the period following the Second World War services have been extended into newer fields to include radiation protection, occupational health, and health education. Departmental services are provided in all districts, however remote, and free public health information and advice are available to all.
The period 1900 to 1920 saw steady progress in the building up of public health services now that the essential basic structure had been created. Legislation was passed dealing with the sale of food and drugs, the registration of professional groups, and the control of quackery. Sanatoria were established, school medical services developed, and problems of maternal and infant health attacked. The first link between preventive and curative medicine was made in 1909 with the merging of the former Hospital and Charitable Aid Department with the new Department of Public Health.
In this period there was an increasing public interest taken in health matters, and, as a result, a number of voluntary health organisations were established with the objects of promoting better knowledge of infant welfare, first aid, and home nursing.
The influenza epidemic of 1918–19 brought to light a number of defects in the public health organisation, particularly the need for a simplification of legislation and the need for a clear definition of the duties of local authorities, hospitals boards, and the Department of Public Health. The result of this experience was the passing of the Health Act 1920, which established the Department of Health in its present form, returned to local authorities a measure of responsibility for environmental health, and encouraged them to employ appropriate staff. To meet new needs and changing public attitudes, the professional resources of the Department were strengthened. Health education activity was intensified, a Medical Research Council was sponsored, and the number of groups subject to professional registration was extended. New health districts were created, and the existing activities of the Department were expanded. Among the more important of the new activities of the Department was the establishment of a school dental service in 1920 and, in 1937, the institution of the Medical Research Council.
Developments since the Second World War included a more positive attack on tuberculosis marked by the passing of the Tuberculosis Act 1948, the establishment as a Government agency of the National Radiation Laboratory at Christchurch, and the creation of the National Health Institute in Wellington. At the end of 1947 the Mental Hospitals Department ceased to be a separate Government Department, and became the Division of Mental Health of the Department of Health.
The Health Act 1956 consolidated and amended the law relating to public health.
A more detailed outline of the development of public health services in New Zealand up to 1939 will be found in the annual report of the Department of Health for that year, and the best general history may be found in Challenge for Health, by F. S. Maclean; New Zealand, Government Printer, 1964.
ORGANISATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES: Local Authorities—Part II of the Health Act 1956 lays definite obligations on local authorities in regard to public health. Each local authority must either appoint its own health inspectors or contribute to the salary of an inspector of the Department of Health. Each inspector must hold a certificate of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health before he can be appointed. A local authority's responsibility in health matters is wide. It must promote and conserve the public health within its district—a function which includes regular inspections of its district; abatement of nuisances as defined in the Health Act; provision of efficient refuse, nightsoil, and sanitary services; protection and purification of water supplies; closing and demolition of insanitary buildings; registration and regulation of various kinds of premises and the enforcement of certain minimum sanitary requirements for such premises and for residences. It may also make bylaws dealing with public health matters.
Department of Health—The Department is organised into the following Divisions: Public Health, Nursing, Hospitals (described in Section 5B), Clinical Services, Dental Health, and Mental Health (Section 5c).
New Zealand as a whole is divided into 19 health districts, each under the control of a medical officer of health, a medical practitioner with special qualifications in sanitary science.
The Department is required to ensure effective planning, execution, and co-ordination of measures necessary to promote public health. It administers all Acts relating to public health; it advises local authorities on public health; it must do whatever is possible to prevent, limit, or suppress disease; it promotes research into public health fields and the prevention and treatment of disease; it conducts health publicity and organises and controls medical, dental, and nursing services paid for from public funds. With the authority of the Minister, a medical officer of health may exercise very wide powers in the event of an epidemic or serious outbreak of infectious disease, including the requisitioning of land and buildings, prohibition of public gatherings, and controlling the movements of cases and contacts of any infectious disease. Certain diseases, mostly infectious, but including some non-communicable, must be notified by medical practitioners. Provisions relating to quarantine are included in the Health Act; and extensive power is given to make regulations relating to the conservation and promotion of public health.
The Health Act provides for a Board of Health. The Board, in addition to its traditional responsibilities in relation to local authorities and their sanitary works, now has the much wider function of giving the Minister authoritative advice on the broad aspects of public health policy and the relationship between the various health services.
In addition to the Health Act 1956, the following Acts are administered by the Department:
|Burial and Cremation Act 1964||Narcotics Act 1965|
|Dentists Act 1936||Nurses and Midwives Act 1945|
|Dietitians Act 1950||Occupational Therapy Act 1949|
|Food and Drugs Act 1947||Opticians Act 1928|
|Hospitals Act 1957||Physiotherapy Act 1949|
|Human Tissue Act 1964||Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964|
|King George the Fifth Memorial Children's Health Camps Act 1953||Poisons Act 1960|
|Medical Advertisements Act 1942||Radiation Protection Act 1965|
|Medical Practitioners Act 1950||Social Security Act 1964 (Part II)|
|Medical Research Council Act 1950||Tuberculosis Act 1948|
|Mental Health Act 1911|
A detailed report of the activities of the Department of Health is given in the annual report of the Director-General of Health (parliamentary paper H. 31).
The net expenditure of the Department in the two latest years is given in the following table.
|Item||1964–65||1965–66||Increase or Decrease|
|NOTE—Minus sign (-) denotes a decrease.|
|General health services||4,574||4,651||77|
|Medical Research Council||267||323||56|
|Homes for the aged||1,266||940||-326|
|Pensioners' housing: Local authorities||961||883||-78|
|Plunket Societies subsidies||400||412||12|
|Miscellaneous grants and subsidies||276||244||-32|
|Vote: Health Benefits—|
|Maternity, medical, pharmaceutical, etc., benefits||32,858||35,372||2,514|
|Other departmental hospitals and institutions||1,045||1,123||77|
|Public hospitals: Grants to hospital boards||73,267||83,810||10,543|
|Less Departmental receipts||1,136||1,156||19|
Information on hospitals is given in Sections 5B and 5c, while information on medical, hospital, and other related benefits, which are administered by the Department of Health, is given in Section 6A (Social Security).
PUBLIC HEALTH—The Division of Public Health is responsible for activities under the following headings: Communicable disease and health education, food and drugs (including medical advertisements, poisons, narcotics, nutrition), health protection (including maternal health and child health), environmental health (including food hygiene, plumbing, and drainage), burial and cremation, water supply and sewage disposal, air pollution (including clean air and chemical works), and occupational health.
The Director of the Division is assisted by a Deputy, a Principal Medical Officer, and four Assistant Directors (three medical practitioners and one public health engineer), and a chemical inspector.
Notifiable Diseases—The control of disease is based on a system of notification which has long been in force. The present list of notifiable diseases is as follows.
|Notifiable Infectious Diseases:|
|Anthrax||Puerperal infection involving any form of sepsis, either generalised or local, in or arising from the female genital tract within 14 days of childbirth or abortion|
|Dysentery (amoebic and bacillary)||Rabies|
|Encephalitis lethargica||Relapsing fever|
|Enteric fever (typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever)||Salmonella infections|
|Smallpox (variola, including varioloid and alastrim)|
|Leprosy||Staphylococcal pneumonia of the newborn infant|
|Meningococcal meningitis||Staphylococcal septicaemia of the newborn infant|
|Pemphigus neonatorum, impetigo, or pustular lesions of the skin of the newborn infant||Trachoma (granular conjunctivitis, granular ophthalmia, granular eyelids)|
|Plague (bubonic or pneumonic)||Undulant fever|
|Other Notifiable Diseases:|
|Actinomycosis||Impaired hearing arising from occupation|
|Anchylostomiasis (hookworm disease)||Malaria|
|Bilharziasis (endemic haematuria, Egyptian haematuria)||Pneumonic influenza|
|Poisoning from any insecticide, weedicide, fungicide, or animal poison met with at work|
|Chronic lead poisoning|
|Compressed-air illness arising from occupation||Poisoning from any gas, fumigant, or refrigerant met with at work|
|Damage to eyesight arising from occupation||Poisoning from any solvent met with at work|
|Diseases of the respiratory system arising from occupation||Poisoning from any metal or salt of any metal met with at work|
|Food poisoning||Skin diseases arising from occupation|
All forms of tuberculosis are notifiable under the Tuberculosis Act 1948.
Venereal Diseases—Venereal diseases are only notifiable if the patient discontinues treatment before cure is effected. The Venereal Diseases Regulations 1964 give adequate powers for the examination and treatment of persons suspected of suffering from the diseases. Free treatment has been established in the larger cities and treatment is available to seamen at the main ports in accordance with the Brussels Agreement. Restrictions are also placed on the nature of the employment such persons may undertake if they are suffering from the diseases in a communicable form.
In the administration of the regulations, every precaution is taken to ensure the avoidance of publicity.
Tuberculosis Control—The Department's programme for control of tuberculosis is based on adequate case-finding and notification procedures, the proper treatment and surveillance of notified cases, investigation and control of contacts. This calls for close co-ordination of the staff and services of hospital boards (which are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis) and officers of the Department of Health who deal with the social and epidemiological aspects of the disease. The latter involves supervision of tuberculosis families, tracing of contacts, and the maintenance of tuberculosis statistics.
Mass miniature radiography is now an established and important feature of the Department's case-finding programme, and, during the years 1959 to 1965, 1,816,326 persons were X-rayed in the 10 mass X-ray units then operated by the Department. This resulted in the discovery of 1,423 active cases.
B.C.G. vaccination is also undertaken by the Department and, in particular, is offered to the contacts of registered cases, post-primary-school children, and hospital workers partly exposed to infection.
Over the past decade, there has been a steady decrease each year in new notifications together with a marked decrease in mortality.
Hydatids Eradication—The Hydatids Act 1959 provides positive methods of attack in the campaign for the eradication of hydatid disease. The Act is administered by the Department of Agriculture. Under it there has been set up a National Hydatids Council on which the Department of Health has representation.
Environmental Hygiene is concerned with the provision and proper maintenance of public water supplies and sewerage systems, the disposal of refuse, the condition of dwellinghouses, the control of offensive trades, and the hygiene of premises in which food is manufactured and sold, including eating houses. These matters are primarily the responsibility of the local authorities, but the Department of Health acts in a general advisory capacity. In the case of many of the smaller local authorities the necessary inspections are made by departmental inspectors on behalf of and by arrangement with the local authorities.
Air Pollution—The air pollution provisions of Part V of the Health Act have been enforced since 1958. The chief chemical inspector is resident in Wellington and deputies are in Auckland and Christchurch.
There are 26 classes of process requiring registration and they include, for the control of odours, supervision of rendering processes. Most registrable processes are governed by the requirement to adopt the best practicable means to control noxious discharges and emissions, but there are limiting standards for lead and acid gases. All new installations or extensions of these registrable processes require approval by the Department of Health.
Air pollution committees in Auckland and Christchurch have undertaken surveys to determine the extent of air pollution in these cities and the need for further action.
The Smoke Restriction Regulations 1964 were enacted with a view to giving local authorities stricter control of industrial smoke emissions.
Cemeteries—The law governing burial and cremation in New Zealand is found in the Burial and Cremation Act 1964. The registration by local authorities of funeral directors and mortuaries operated by them is provided for in the Health (Burial) Regulations 1946. Local authorities are charged with ensuring that there exists adequate provision for the disposal of the dead.
Cremation may be carried out if the deceased is not known to have left any written direction to the contrary. Crematoria have been established in Auckland (two), Wellington, Christchurch (two), Dunedin, Hastings, Wanganui, Nelson, Palmerston North, Hamilton, New Plymouth, and Rotorua.
Food and Drugs—The Food and Drugs Act 1947 provides for the analysis, by analysts appointed under the Act, of any article of food or drink, or of any drug, which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food or drug intended for sale. If any such article is proved to be unfit for human consumption penalties may be inflicted on the person or persons responsible. Stringent measures are provided for the prevention of adulteration of food, drink, or drugs, and for the inspection of places where such goods are manufactured or packed. Control is also established over all utensils and appliances coming into contact with food and drugs. Regular sampling of foods, particularly milk, is undertaken by departmental inspectors, and the samples are analysed in the Dominion Laboratory or its branch laboratories.
An important provision of the Act controls all kinds of publicity concerning any food or drug whereby a purchaser would possibly be deceived in regard to the properties of such food or drug, whether or not it is standardised by regulation. This matter is also covered by the Medical Advertisements Act 1942, which is referred to later.
The definitions of “drug” establish two groups to which differing provisions apply. Anaesthetics, cosmetics, dentifrices, disinfectants, preservatives, and soaps and detergents are usually required to be notified as toxic substances under the Poisons Act (see later) and can, provided the labelling and other requirements of the Food and Drugs Regulations are complied with, be marketed without delay. Therapeutic drugs, that is those substances or mixtures, whether used internally or externally for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of any illness or injury of the human body, for altering nutrition or structure, or for modifying physiological processes or desires or emotions, and chemical contraceptives are subject to a notification procedure under the Food and Drugs Act, and normally a delay of 90 days between complete notification and any advertising or distribution of trade information or stocks.
Narcotics—Under the Narcotics Act 1965 and the Narcotics Regulations 1966, the Director-General of Health is the competent authority for the purpose of the international conventions and for the oversight of the legitimate distribution and use of narcotics within the country. Written approval of the Minister of Health is required for the import or export of cannabis desomorphine, heroin, and ketobemidone, including their salts and preparations containing them. The import, export, cultivation, production, possession, distribution, supply, and administration of narcotics is strictly controlled. Balanced quantitative records of transactions and stock are generally required to be kept. There is an extensive system of notification to Medical Officers of Health of narcotics supplied and a system of control of habituated persons.
Poisons—The advertising, distribution, use, labelling, and packing of all poisons and toxic substances is controlled under the Poisons Act 1960 and the Poisons Regulations 1964. A manufacturer or importer must notify the Registrar of Poisons before importing or putting on the market any new substance which might be toxic, be it a chemical, household preparation, cosmetic, or drug. Special safeguards are provided for certain hazardous chemicals used in agriculture or horticulture. Certain drugs may not be sold to the public except on the prescription of a doctor, a dentist, or a veterinary surgeon. It is an offence to pack poisons in bottles that are ordinarily used for food, drink, or medicine. Labels for these “Restricted Poisons” must bear statements of the precautions to be taken in use, the symptoms of poisoning, and the remedial treatment, and must be approved by the Registrar of Poisons.
Medical Advertisements—Under the Medical Advertisements Act 1942 the word “advertisement” is defined broadly, but does not include any advertisement or scientific matter distributed only to members of the medical and allied professions.
The Act set up a Medical Advertisements Board, which was given power as a quasi-judicial body to examine statements made in any medical advertisement. The Board may require the claims or statements made or implied to be substantiated to its satisfaction. Subsequent publication of such an advertisement is prohibited until the Board has notified its decision, and the veto on publication becomes permanent if the Board decides the claim or statement has not been proved.
Regulations issued under the Act limit the claims which may be included in any medical advertisement, and include a list of diseases concerning which no advertisement may make a claim to cure.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH—The objective of the occupational health programme is to work with labour, management, the medical profession, and other groups to assist in improving the health of the worker.
The Department of Labour, which is responsible for accident prevention, hours of work, employment of women and children, etc., calls to the attention of the Department of Health any health problems which the factory inspectors may encounter. The Factories Act 1946 gives to medical officers of health or other authorised officers of the Department of Health the same powers and authorities as inspectors of factories with regard to the health and welfare sections of the Act. The suspension of workers on health grounds, approval of respirators and similar protective equipment, and the arrangements for medical examinations are undertaken by the Department of Health. A series of regulations deal with health hazards, many of them being administered by the two Departments, each in its own sphere.
A similar understanding has been established with the Waterfront Industry Commission and New Zealand Railways, and illustrates the general pattern of arrangements between the Department of Health and other Government Departments or agencies concerned with particular aspects of workers' health. An occupational health laboratory was established at Wellington in 1964.
Occupational Disease—The notifiable occupational diseases are scheduled in the Health Act 1956 and details of diseases notified are published annually in the report of the Director-General of Health.
Control of Health Hazards—An increasing number of specific health hazards are coming under formal control, namely lead processes, electroplating, spray painting, sand blasting (siliceous blasting agents in factories are prohibited), fumigation, aerial application of poisons, where in conjunction with the Civil Aviation Department a special rating is required by pilots, and agricultural chemicals. The organisation of radiation protection is dealt with by the National Radiation Laboratory, while a number of other specific hazards are currently receiving consideration.
Medical, Nursing, and First-aid Services—Minimal first-aid requirements have been laid down by the Department, which generally endeavours to encourage both the development of medical and nursing services and the raising of first-aid standards throughout industry generally. While there are no statutory obligations on industry to provide medical and nursing services, an increasing number of factories do provide such services. To meet the needs of small plants the Department has developed and is developing industrial health centres with financial support from the Waterfront Industry Commission in the case of harbour areas, and the Workers' Compensation Board in the case of general industry.
Pre-employment Examinations—Pre-employment medical examinations are required for young workers before entering factory employment.
CHILD HEALTH—The Health Department is responsible for the supervision of all measures for safeguarding the health of preschool and school children, and also for ensuring a satisfactory environment at school. Attention is given to the health of the preschool child.
These services are under the direction of the Assistant Director of the Public Health Division, who is a medical practitioner, with a staff of full-time and part-time medical officers. The medical officer of health in charge of a health district is responsible, within the limits of the policy laid down and the instructions he receives, for the direction and control of all child health work in his district.
An effort is being made to have every child examined in infancy and before school entry. The examination of preschool children is carried out by medical officers of the division in Plunket rooms in conjunction with Plunket nurses, and at kindergartens, day nurseries, and other preschool organisations assisted by public health nurses.
In keeping with modern thought, routine examinations by medical and nursing staff of specific age groups (except the testing of vision and hearing) has been replaced by continuous supervision of all children at school with examination when necessary. This supervision is effected largely by means of consultations between parents, teachers, nurses, and medical staff. These consultations are based on preschool records, questionnaires, and regular visits to the school by medical and nursing staff. The children found to be suffering from defects are kept under observation until the necessary treatment is obtained from the private practitioner or the hospital.
Mentally backward and feeble-minded children are given special attention, arrangements being made in conjunction with the Department of Education for their entry into a special school or other institution as may be necessary. In addition, physically handicapped children enrolled with the Correspondence School are examined. A consultative service is available for post-primary-school children.
Throughout the work in this field officers try to secure the interest and co-operation of parents and family doctors, because only in this way can the work be made effective. With this object in view it is considered of great importance that parents be present at the medical examination of their children, an opportunity of which the majority take advantage.
Prevention of Disease—The activities in this field of child health are not confined to the routine medical examination of school children. In addition, certain positive measures are taken to prevent disease and correct physical defects. The more important of these measures are:
Poliomyelitis Vaccination—Immunisation against poliomyelitis has been carried out by the Division's staff since 1956. The vaccine used initially was an injectable type but in August 1961 an oral vaccine was introduced. A mass vaccination campaign was carried out in 1962. The protection of four doses of the oral vaccine is available to all infants and to all new settlers who have not received it in their countries of origin.
Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, and Tetanus Immunisation—Protection against these diseases is a routine procedure and a triple vaccine is used. It is preferable that immunisation be done by the family doctor, and the course of injections should be commenced as soon as possible after babies are three months old. Arrangements can be made for mothers who are unable to have the immunisation done privately to attend with the infant at a departmental clinic. If necessary in country areas the public health nurse will visit the home to immunise the child. Booster doses (against diphtheria and tetanus) are given at 18 months and after the child's fourth birthday or as soon as possible after the child commences school. Further booster doses (against tetanus only) are recommended at 10-yearly intervals and on injury.
Typhoid Inoculations—Maori children in the North Island are inoculated annually against the typhoid group of diseases.
Health Education—Officers give advice whenever possible and give health education talks. They advocate the use of iodised salt and iodine rich foods to control goitre, and the consumption of milk to maintain nutrition standards.
Health Camps are established to which children are admitted for convalescence or correction of malnutrition and emotional disturbances.
Health camps were originally established to cater for the needs of delicate and undernourished children in the age group of five to 12 years. Now children suffering from minor emotional, psychological, and behaviour problems are also helped by the change in their environment which a camp provides. The service selects the children to attend the camps (which are maintained by an independent organisation—the King George the Fifth Memorial Children's Health Camps Federation) and, as necessary, re-examines them before admission and after discharge. In the camps the children live under an orderly and disciplined routine, they eat plain, well cooked food, and they get plenty of rest, fresh air, and sunshine. In practically all cases a child who attends a health camp benefits both physically and mentally. The opportunity is taken to impart health education by practising healthful living. There are six permanent and two part-time health camps in New Zealand.
For children with emotional or psychological disturbances and behaviour problems, child health clinics have been established in the larger centres and elsewhere. These are staffed by a team consisting of a pediatrician, psychiatrist, psychologist, play therapist, and social worker. Children are referred to these clinics through the family doctor if there is one.
MATERNAL WELFARE—Maternal welfare is the responsibility of an Assistant Director in the Public Health Division. Maternal and infant welfare work in New Zealand is based on co-operation between the Department of Health, hospital boards, the medical and nursing professions, and the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children (Plunket Society).
The Assistant Director is a medical practitioner who, while not concerned with the particulars of day-to-day administration of maternity hospitals, is responsible for maternal welfare generally in its broadest sense. She keeps abreast of overseas and local developments and is regarded as a consultant on matters of national significance. For instance, in the event of an outbreak of infection affecting mothers or infants, she conducts and directs any necessary investigations as to causes and remedial measures required, in consultation with such other divisions as may be necessary.
The Assistant Director has the benefit of the advice of the Maternity Services Committee of the Board of Health, of which she is a member. This committee was formed to advise the Minister on matters relating to obstetric and maternal welfare generally.
The medical officers of health, through their staff of nurse inspectors, exercise a general supervision over the work of midwives and closely control the private hospitals throughout the country. All private hospitals are required to be licensed under the Hospitals Act 1957, and the Department of Health sees that standards regarding buildings, equipment, and staff are observed.
Except in an emergency, no persons other than registered medical practitioners and registered midwives are allowed to conduct confinements, and only registered midwives and registered maternity nurses are permitted to nurse women in childbirth. A large percentage of all confinements (in 1963 approximately 99.3 percent of non-Maori and 98.4 percent of Maori confinements) take place in the various types of maternity hospitals—a maternity annex to a public hospital, a State (St. Helens) hospital, or a private maternity hospital.
Important contributions to maternal welfare are made by the Division of Nursing, which includes in its duties the supervision of the training of midwives and maternity nurses, and by the Hospitals Division, which approves plans for accommodation to be provided by the various types of maternity hospital. The work of these two Divisions is surveyed elsewhere in this section.
HEALTH EDUCATION—The aim is to work with the public and to encourage action that will improve personal, family, and community health. The Health Education Branch is under the control of the Deputy Director, Division of Public Health, who is a medical practitioner with training in health education, a small staff of writers, technicians, and clerks at Head Office, and lay health education officers who are seconded to district offices and are responsible to the Deputy Director through their medical officers of health.
Medical and dental officers, public health nurses, dental nurses, and inspectors of health all devote some of their time to health education. The health education officer acts as a coordinator and stimulates and extends health teaching and health programmes in the district. All the health education officers are women and several hold the diploma in health education issued jointly by Victoria University of Wellington and the Department of Health. All are given special training before taking up their appointments. Various media are used to make the teaching as attractive, as direct, and as acceptable as possible. Daily newspapers and national periodicals carry regular advertisements on health subjects. Radio broadcasts are given at least twice a week and leaflets, pamphlets, and posters are available on many health topics.
The Division also publishes the Department's official bulletin Health which has a circulation of over 65,000 and is issued free to the public four times a year. It gives health information and publishes various aspects of the Department's work.
To assist field officers in their education work, visual aids, displays, and other publicity material is provided and in addition district offices are encouraged to produce their own.
Voluntary organisations, too, are assisted in their work by the supply of teaching aids and other materials and by assistance with their training programmes.
Each district office has a health education committee consisting of senior administrative and professional officers which plans and budgets local health programmes. A central committee at Head Office largely plans and budgets for overall national requirements.
DENTAL HEALTH—The Division of Dental Health, which was instituted in 1921, is concerned with the administration of the various dental activities of the Government, and in particular—(a) The National Dental Service, which comprises (i) the School Dental Service and (ii) the Adolescent Dental Service; (b) the Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations; (c) the Dental Act 1963 and regulations; (d) dental bursaries; (e) dental research; (f) dental health education.
The Division of Dental Health has at its head a Director (a dental surgeon), and there is also a Deputy Director, two Assistant Directors, and a dental research officer. The service is organised in 16 units, each of which is controlled by a senior dental officer, who is directly responsible to the Director. These officers are: the principals of the schools for dental nurses at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, and the principal dental officers in charge of the 13 dental districts into which New Zealand is divided.
The School Dental Service staffed by 1,118 trained school dental nurses provided systematic treatment for 488,411 pre-school and primary school children in the year ended 31 March 1966. A further 172,325 children under 16 years of age received regular treatment from private dentists under the Social Security (Dental Benefits) Scheme, and from a limited number of salaried dental officers.
The School Dental Service—Briefly, the functions of the service are to improve the standard of dental health of school children (and of preschool children) by affording them regular and systematic treatment at six-monthly intervals, commencing from the primer classes (or earlier when possible), and continuing through to the highest class of the primary (or intermediate) school. Thereafter they are eligible for enrolment in the Adolescent Service. There has been a rapid increase in the school population as a result of the high birthrate. Until the number of school dental nurses can be increased proportionately, children are being transferred to the “adolescent” service at an earlier stage, in order to enable the dental nurses to maintain six-monthly treatment for the younger children. This is a temporary phase, pending the training of more dental nurses.
Two years are devoted to the theoretical and practical training of school dental nurses. Approximately 525 student dental nurses are in training at the one time. The course is carefully graduated and is in the hands of a staff of dental surgeons and dental tutor sisters. Private dental practitioners are represented on the examining boards for the final examination. During the period of training, student dental nurses reside in hostels owned and controlled by the Department of Health.
On completing her training, a school dental nurse is posted to a school dental clinic, where she becomes responsible to the principal dental officer of her district for the dental treatment of a group of approximately 500 patients. She is visited at regular intervals by the principal dental officer and by a dental nurse inspector who assist the dental nurse to maintain a high standard of performance in all aspects of work.
Dental treatment comprises fillings in both temporary teeth and permanent teeth, cleaning and scaling of the teeth, extractions when necessary, and sodium fluoride treatment. The aim of the service is to promote dental health by conserving the natural teeth and preventing dental decay. Only a small number of teeth have to be extracted as unsavable, slightly more than three for every 100 saved by conservative treatment.
Orthodontic treatment is carried out principally in Wellington and Christchurch, where orthodontic units are established at the Children's Dental Clinics associated with the Schools for Dental Nurses.
Adolescent Dental Service—Dental care for adolescents is provided by private practitioners as a dental benefit under the Social Security Act, the practitioners being reimbursed on a fee-for-service basis.
Eligibility for dental treatment as an adolescent is contingent upon a person's having undergone regular dental care up to within three months of the time of application, either at a school dental clinic or from a private dental practitioner.
Treatment of adolescents, which has been available since 1946, is in effect a continuation of the treatment provided by the School Dental Service, and is continued until a patient has reached his sixteenth birthday.
Treatment is essentially of a nature designed to conserve the natural teeth. Dental supervision of adolescents is on a basis of examination and treatment at six-monthly intervals. There is free choice of dentists, and dentists have the right to decline patients.
The treatment (other than treatment requiring special approval) which may be provided as dental benefits, and the fees payable, are indicated in the Schedule to the Social Security (Dental Benefits) Regulations 1960. Dentists are free to exercise their professional judgment, and, if in their opinion a case demands a form of treatment that is not provided for in the Schedule, there is provision, with certain limitations, for such treatment to be approved as a charge on social security funds.
Dental Health Education—The dental health education activities of the Department include the production of posters, pamphlets, sound films, filmstrips, radio talks, newspaper advertisements, and all other types of advertising media.
Officers of the service are kept in touch with health education and other matters by means of the School Dental Service Gazette, which is published bi-monthly.
Dental officers and school dental nurses are expected to impress on their patients the necessity of maintaining a high standard of oral health. To further this end every opportunity is taken of distributing health educational literature, displaying posters, and devoting reasonable clinical time to instruction in oral hygiene. Opportunities to address meetings of various kinds are availed of whenever possible.
Dental Research—Dental research is directed by the Dental Research Committee of the Medical Research Council. The staff consisting of a director, three professional assistants, and three associated workers are primarily engaged in a long-term programme of research in dental problems.
In addition, a dental research officer is employed by the Department to undertake investigations of operational methods, materials, and equipment, etc., which have a direct bearing on the efficiency and effectiveness of the Division's programme.
Dental Bursaries—The Government grants bursaries each year to selected students to assist them to qualify as dentists. The bursaries are the equivalent of the bursary that would be payable under the University Bursary Regulations plus $200 a year. Students who are granted bursaries must enter into an agreement to pursue their studies diligently and, on graduating, to enter the service of the Crown or of a hospital board appointed by the Crown for a specified period not exceeding three years.
RADIATION PROTECTION—Under the Radiation Protection Act 1965 the protection of the population from radiation hazards is a responsibility of the Department of Health, and the Department established the National Radiation Laboratory (formerly the Dominion X-ray and Radium Laboratory) to provide the administrative and technical services required, and in addition the educational programme, without which effective co-operation in any safety field is not likely to be achieved. An important feature of the Act was the setting up of the Radiological Advisory Council on whose advice the Minister of Health may take action on radiation problems concerning the welfare of the people. Further legislation by way of regulations followed in 1951 and these include the Radiation Protection Regulations and the Transport of Radioactive Substances Regulations.
The National Radiation Laboratory is required to maintain the primary X-ray standard for New Zealand and also reference standards for the accurate measurement of radioactive substances used in clinical work. Control of radiation sources is effectively obtained by licensing operators at each place where ionising sources are used, and the Electrical (X-ray) Wiring Regulations 1944 provide for the compulsory registration of all X-ray plants in the country. The importation and use of radioactive materials is strictly controlled, and requests for such materials on overseas suppliers must be authorised by the laboratory, which acts as the procurement agency for most of the radio-isotopes required.
The laboratory operates a field service whereby trained physicists regularly visit all places where ionising sources are used. During these visits measurements are taken, protection problems discussed, and everything possible is done to ensure that persons associated with the ionising sources adopt safe working habits. Apart from the obvious groups, e.g., medical and dental users, the laboratory is also concerned with specialised equipment, such as mass X-ray units, X-ray apparatus used in schools, radar and television equipment, X-ray diffraction units, electron microscopes, research accelerators, etc. Good protection, of course, depends not only on careful working habits but also on material protection.
In recent years the Department of Health has undertaken responsibility for the monitoring of air, rainwater, and soil for the incidence of radioactive contamination from fall-out.
PHYSICAL MEDICINE—Physical medicine is concerned with potentially disabling conditions such as rheumatic diseases, cerebral palsy, and other disorders of the locomotor system. Physical medicine is the responsibility of a Deputy Director of the Hospitals Division who is a medical practitioner with special training and experience in the field. He is responsible for the general organisation and development of physiotherapy and occupational therapy services throughout the country.
The centre for the treatment of rheumatism is established at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Rotorua which has approximately 100 beds set aside for diagnosis, research, and treatment of these diseases. Full hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy facilities are provided and active steps towards rehabilitation of patients are carried out. A large number of outpatients referred from all parts of New Zealand and a few from overseas are seen every year.
Admission of patients to the hospital is arranged with the Medical Superintendent, who also arranges for outpatient consultations. Physiotherapy for preventing and controlling deformity, has been developed considerably at Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Occupational therapy has been developed to teach people how to live with their disabilities. Social workers assist in bridging the gap between rehabilitation and vocational and social resettlement.
A cerebral palsy unit is also situated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital providing residential accommodation for 20 children. At this unit the activities of a team of physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists are co-ordinated by the supervisor of the unit working under a physician. In addition to treatment, post-graduate courses are given to physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teachers, and speech therapists. Patients can be referred by their doctors to the physician in charge of the unit for advice only, or for admission and treatment. Cerebral palsy visiting therapist services are now operating in Auckland, Christchurch, Palmerston North, Wellington, Hutt, and Nelson health districts. These have proved so successful that it is hoped to extend the service to other districts as qualified staff become available.
Cerebral palsy day schools have been established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill. Parents of cerebral palsy cases who seek their children's admission first apply to the appropriate medical officer of health or education board. The schools are administered by education boards under the Department of Education, but close liaison exists between the schools, the Rotorua unit, and the visiting cerebral palsy therapists.
The Department offers annually a limited number of bursaries for training at the New Zealand School of Physiotherapy which is governed by the Physiotherapy Board and administered by the Otago Hospital Board. Applicants for bursaries, if accepted for admission to the school by the Physiotherapy Council of Otago Hospital Board, are selected for award by the Physiotherapy Bursaries Selection Committee. A condition of bursary award is that on qualification the bursar will work for a period of two years in a hospital or institution as directed by the Department. The training period for physiotherapists is three years of which about eight months in the third year is salaried service at a subsidiary training school.
The training school for occupational therapists is situated at Oakley Hospital, Auckland, and is administered by the Mental Health Division. The training period for occupational therapists is three years part of which is spent at the Auckland Hospital Board's general hospitals. Trainees are paid a salary while training, and have to agree to work in a departmental or public hospital for two years after qualification.
REHABILITATION OF DISABLED CIVILIANS—The rehabilitation of disabled and handicapped civilians has received increasing emphasis over recent years in New Zealand. Basically, public hospitals are the hub for development of an adequate rehabilitation service, with co-operation from Government and voluntary agencies in furthering the medical, social, and vocational welfare of the disabled.
A Civilian Rehabilitation Centre has been established at Otara, under the Auckland Hospital Board's administration, for the treatment and overall restoration of those injured in employment or road accidents. For the rehabilitation of persons suffering from spinal injuries and paraplegia, specialist spinal injury centres are in course of development at Auckland and Christchurch. Rehabilitation activities are also being carried out at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Palmerston North Hospital, and in many of the psychiatric and psychopaedic hospitals of the Mental Hospitals Division.
The Disabled Servicemen's Re-establishment League provides trade and vocational training for disabled civilians recommended by district and national selection panels. These panels consist of representatives from the Departments of Labour, Social Security, and Health. For the more severely handicapped, whose productive potential is restricted, the Government has recently approved of a sheltered employment scheme. It is also being operated through the Disabled Servicemen's League and incorporates a pilot occupational workshop. For both the vocational training and sheltered employment schemes, a measure of Government assistance is provided.
A National Civilian Rehabilitation Committee has been set up by Government. This Committee is currently advising Government on steps to co-ordinate and promote rehabilitation in New Zealand.
NURSING SERVICE—The Division of Nursing in the Department of Health is responsible for the maintenance of an adequate and efficient nursing service and the supervision of conditions for nursing staff.
The training of all nurses and midwives is governed by the Nurses and Midwives Act 1945, which is administered by the Nurses and Midwives Board. This Board through the Registrar supervises hospitals and nursing schools in all aspects of training, and also the examination and registration of nurses. The nurse inspector who makes a visit to a hospital carries out the dual purpose, therefore, of making reports both to the Director-General of Health through the Nursing Division, and to the Nurses and Midwives Board through the Registrar. This integration of work is a feature which has preserved good relationships in the hospitals, and has enabled the practical and theoretical training of nurses as well as their conditions to be maintained at a uniformly high standard.
The control of the public health nursing services is exercised from the Division, but the specialised infant-welfare and mothercraft work of the Plunket Society is under the control of that organisation; close co-operation with that Society is, however, maintained.
Another part of the work is the selection and placement of nurses in the various groups of Pacific islands for which the New Zealand Government is responsible. These nurses for hospital and public health work are seconded from the New Zealand service for periods of two years, pension rights being continuous. The supervision of this service is exercised by regular visits to the islands.
Close liaison exists between the nursing services organised for the armed services and the Division, while any organisation for emergency nursing is carried out by the Division.
Educational courses for all groups of registered nurses are organised. A post-graduate diploma programme is controlled by a committee of management on which the Department of Health, universities, teachers' colleges, and Hospital Boards Association are represented. Major areas of study include hospital and nursing school administration, public health nursing, and health education.
Each year up to 65 students take the diploma course of one academic year and, with few exceptions, they are specially selected and attend on bursaries from the Department of Health, hospital boards, and voluntary organisations. During recent years there has been an increasing number from overseas countries. The school has its own building and hostel. Shorter courses are arranged for public health nurses, ward and tutor sisters. Periodically refresher programmes are held for various categories of nursing personnel. The full-time instructors at the school also carry out supervision of hospitals, nursing schools, and public health nursing work, thus keeping up to date with the practical needs of the field.
MEDICAL STATISTICS—The National Health Statistics Centre is responsible for the compilation of the statistics included in the Annual Report on the Medical Statistics of New Zealand. The Branch also prepares special statistics for the various Divisions of the Department and for research workers in different fields both in New Zealand and overseas. A constant liaison is maintained with the World Health Organisation, which is supplied with statistical material giving a picture of health trends in New Zealand. In addition, from time to time special statistical investigations are made into important aspects of public health and diseases that warrant specific study.
NATIONAL HEALTH INSTITUTE—Opened in 1954, the National Health Institute is the Department of Health's centre for the study of public health problems. It contains an Epidemiology Section and Public Health Laboratories.
The Epidemiology Section conducts field research into matters of public health interest and also is responsible for conducting the course of training for the diploma of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health and, in addition, refresher courses for health inspectors.
The Public Health Laboratories provide diagnostic and reference services in bacteriology and virology for medical officers of health and hospital laboratories as well as for the other sections of the institute. The institute is the national centre for those reference services which are organised on an international basis.
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL—Under the Medical Research Council Act 1950, as amended, the Medical Research Council of New Zealand was established as a corporate body with the following functions:
To initiate, foster, and support medical research;
To furnish information, advice, and assistance to persons and organisations concerned with medical research;
To collect and disseminate scientific information, including the publication of reports.
This Council took over and developed the work of the departmental committee, bearing the same name, which had been in existence since 1938. At the end of 1965 research in the following fields was in progress: clinical medicine; dentistry; endocrinology; hydatids; virus; Island Territories research; microbiology; physiology; nutrition; obstetrics; surgery; pathology; human genetics; biochemistry; preventive and social medicine.
The Council maintains liaison with the research work being carried out by the Cancer Society of New Zealand and medical research foundations established in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Palmerston North, and Hawke's Bay.
The Council administers the Medical Research Endowment Fund, from which an annual expenditure of $400,000 is incurred in supporting research projects at the University of Otago the University of Auckland, and the institutions of the Auckland, Wellington, and North Canterbury Hospital Boards.
The Council employs a staff of 60 full-time workers, and some 70 associated workers contribute to the activities of the Council. A further 50 workers are employed by the University of Otago and the University of Auckland under project grants from the Council.
The Council is empowered to receive bequests and donations to the fund for furthering the objects of the Council as set out in the Medical Research Council Act 1950.
MEDICAL COUNCIL—The Medical Council of New Zealand, constituted under the Medical Practitioners Act 1950, consists of the Director-General of Health, the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Otago, and five other registered medical practitioners. One of the five members is appointed on the recommendation of the Medical Association of New Zealand.
The Council deals with all applications for registration under the Act. The Council may require the holder of a foreign diploma to attend a course and pass an examination in medicine and surgery. Until an applicant is able to satisfy the Council that he has obtained house officer experience, in a resident medical capacity, of not less than 12 months or has otherwise obtained comparable experience, registration is on a conditional basis. Persons registered conditionally may practise only in an approved hospital. The number of medical practitioners on the register at 30 June 1966 was 4,074, and, of this number, approximately 3,116 were actively engaged in medical practice in New Zealand.
The Medical Council is vested with certain disciplinary powers. Right of appeal to the Supreme Court is provided.
REGISTRATION COUNCILS AND BOARDS: Dentists—Under the Dental Act 1963 there is constituted a Dental Council, the functions of which are to examine and approve of the qualifications of applicants desiring registration as dentists and to exercise disciplinary control over registered dentists.
The number of private dental practitioners holding annual practising certificates at 1 September 1966 was 876, and in addition there were 134 dentists in Government, hospital, and university employment.
Nurses and Midwives—Under the Nurses and Midwives Act 1945 is constituted the Nurses and Midwives Board, consisting of the Director-General of Health (Chairman), the Director, Division of Mental Health, the Director, Division of Nursing (Registrar), two registered medical practitioners, a representative of the Hospital Boards Association of New Zealand, three registered nurses, one registered midwife, and one registered psychiatric nurse. Members other than official members are appointed on the recommendation of the Minister of Health, the nursing personnel being nominated by the New Zealand Registered Nurses Association. The Board controls training courses, conducts examinations, and effects registrations.
Provision is made in the Nurses Registration Regulations 1958 for a three-year course of instruction for nurses classified as general and maternity nurses. A similar training period is specified for male nurses, psychiatric nurses, and psychopaedic nurses.
Registration—The Nurses and Midwives Act 1945 requires that the following registers be kept by the Registrar: (a) Nurses, (b) Midwives and Maternity Nurses, (c) Male Nurses, (d) Psychiatric Nurses, (e) Nursing Aids, and (f) Psychopaedic Nurses.
Physiotherapists—Under the Physiotherapy Act 1949 is constituted the New Zealand Physiotherapy Board. The Board's functions are the training, examination, and registration of candidates for physiotherapy practice, the issuing of special licences, the approval of physiotherapy training schools, and the conduct of those registered under the Act.
The training period for physiotherapists is three years. Full-time training is conducted at the New Zealand School of Physiotherapy, Dunedin, administered by the Otago Hospital Board, and eight months of the final year are spent at one of the subsidiary training schools in various parts of New Zealand. All students are required to pass the State Examination in Physiotherapy to qualify for registration. Every person registered under the Act and engaged in the practice of physiotherapy must hold an annual practising certificate.
Occupational Therapists—Under the Occupational Therapy Act 1949 is constituted the Occupational Therapy Board. The Board is concerned with the training, examination, registration, and conduct of persons engaged in the practice of occupational therapy in New Zealand. The training period is three years, and is undertaken at the School of Occupational Therapy, Auckland, and subsidiary training schools.
Every person registered under the Act who is engaged in the practice of occupational therapy in New Zealand must hold a current annual practising certificate.
Dietitians—Under the Dietitians Act 1950 is constituted the Dietitians Board. The functions of the Board are (a) to advise and make recommendations to the Minister of Health in respect of any matter affecting the profession of dietetics, (b) to determine courses of training and instruction to be undergone by candidates for examinations, (c) to approve hospitals and other institutions as training schools, (d) to conduct examinations, and (e) to effect registration.
The training period for a dietitian is, in the case of the holder of a degree of bachelor of home science conferred by the University of Otago or of the holder of a diploma in home science of the University of Otago, 12 months in a hospital training school. In the case of a registered nurse, the training period is two academic years in the School of Home Science, University of Otago, together with two periods totalling 10 months in a hospital training school.
Every practising dietitian must hold an annual practising certificate.
Opticians—The Opticians Act 1928 provides for the constitution of an Opticians Board, consisting of the Director-General of Health (the Registrar), three persons engaged in practice as opticians in New Zealand, and a registered medical practitioner with special knowledge of diseases of the eyes. The Board deals with all applications for registration under the Act.
There are approximately 246 opticians registered, but not all are engaged in active practice.
Plumbers—The Plumbers and Gasfitters Board consists of 11 members—the Director-General of Health as Chairman, and representatives of the Department of Education, the Municipal and Counties Associations, the Gas Association, the Master Plumbers Society (2), the Plumbers, Gasfitters, and Related Trades Industrial Union of Workers (2), and a nominee of a Borough Council or Drainage Board.
The Board is concerned with the examination and registration of plumbers and gasfitters, and once registered they are required to have annual licences.
In New Zealand, except in specially exempted areas, all sanitary plumbing as defined in the Plumbers and Gasfitters Registration Act 1964 must be performed only by registered plumbers. This restriction on the personal qualifications of plumbers is additional to specifications and standards of workmanship, etc., which have been prescribed for sanitary plumbing. Disciplinary action can be taken against a registered plumber who does unsatisfactory work.
Pharmaceutical Chemists—There are about 2,000 names on the Register of Pharmaceutical Chemists in New Zealand. All registered pharmaceutical chemists, except those who notify the Registrar that they have conscientious objection to membership, automatically become members of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand, the society's affairs being managed by the Pharmacy Board constituted by the Pharmacy Act 1939.
The Board consists of 12 members, 11 being chemists, and one a barrister appointed by the Minister of Health. Nine members are elected on a district basis by registered pharmaceutical chemists who are proprietors or enrolled managers of pharmacies and two by members of the Pharmaceutical Society who are not in the previous category. The main function of the Pharmacy Board is to administer the Pharmacy Act and generally to protect and promote the interests of the profession of pharmacy and the public interests.
It is a specific requirement of the Pharmacy Act that pharmacies in New Zealand be at all times maintained under the immediate supervision and control of a registered pharmaceutical chemist, either in the capacity of proprietor or enrolled manager.
The present system for pharmacy education requires a minimum of two years' attendance at the School of Pharmacy, Central Institute of Technology, Petone, at which the pharmacy professional examination is obtained, followed by two years of apprenticeship before becoming eligible for registration. There is also a four-year degree course in pharmacy at the University of Otago. Such graduates are required to serve one year's apprenticeship before becoming eligible for registration as chemists.
Any chemist or company in which not less than 75 percent of the share capital is owned by a chemist or chemists may establish one pharmacy. Unqualified persons or companies in which less than 75 percent of the share capital is chemist-owned must, however, secure the consent of the Pharmacy Authority, set up under the Act, before commencing business, and in all cases the establishment of more than one pharmacy under the same ownership is subject to the consent of the Authority. All pharmacies must be registered with the Board. There are about 1,100 pharmacies in New Zealand.
VOLUNTARY WELFARE ORGANISATIONS—Over the years voluntary welfare organisations have made valuable contributions to certain aspects of the field of public health. In many cases they are encouraged and assisted in their work by grants from public funds. Among the more important of these organisations are the Plunket Society, the King George the Fifth Memorial Children's Health Camps Federation, St. John Ambulance (N.Z.), the New Zealand Red Cross Society, the Crippled Children Society, and the New Zealand Federation of Tuberculosis Associations.
The Plunket Society—the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children—is concerned with the welfare of all babies. The society trains its own infant-welfare nurses, conducts infant-welfare clinics, and maintains Karitane hospitals throughout the country for premature babies or difficult feeders. In rural areas where there is no Plunket clinic, public health nurses do infant-welfare work.
The King George the Fifth Memorial Children's Health Camps Federation maintains a chain of permanent health camps for delicate and undernourished children. The federation works in close co-operation with the Department of Health. It is the means whereby the voluntary nature of the various organisations is preserved, while ensuring that the available resources are utilised to the best advantage. Much of the finance for the federation's activities is derived from the proceeds of the annual health-stamp appeal.
The St. John Ambulance (N.Z.) has divisions throughout the country carrying out free ambulance and first aid work and instruction in first aid and home nursing. It is a branch of the Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem.
The New Zealand Red Cross Society, a part of the International Red Cross Committee, has centres and subcentres throughout the country. It gives training in first aid, home nursing, hygiene and sanitation, and emergency transportation of the injured. Graduates of these classes form voluntary-aid detachments that in peacetime are recruited as aids in hospitals, and in wartime may be recruited for service overseas as well.
The Crippled Children Society keeps a register of all crippled children, helps them to acquire all possible medical treatment, and undertakes vocational training and home education where these are required.
The New Zealand Federation of Tuberculosis Associations looks after the interests of patients suffering from tuberculosis. It assists the Department of Health with health education of the public regarding tuberculosis and concerns itself with after-care and vocational training and guidance of patients.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR ACCOMMODATION AND WELFARE SERVICES: (Old People's Flats, Homes, Hospitals, Youth Hostels, and Homes for Intellectually Handicapped Children)—The extent to which Government assistance is offered to religious and voluntary organisations and local authorities in providing housing, accommodation, and services for elderly people and others whom it is considered are in special need, has steadily increased over the past 15 years. Under this partnership with Government, the social service agencies of all the major religious bodies, as well as other welfare organisations, have established additional accommodation for the aged, frail, and sick who need residential care in either an old people's home or a geriatric hospital. Where it is not possible to meet the needs of elderly people through these agencies, the provision of residential care for the aged becomes a hospital board responsibility. Religious and welfare organisations at present provide approximately 4,960 home and hospital beds for the elderly. Hospital boards maintain 1,115 old people's home beds, while approximately 4,000 of their hospital beds (38 percent) are required for care of the elderly sick, either on a short-stay or long-term basis.
For the elderly who are ambulant and able to care for themselves but have a housing need and whose resources are limited, local authorities are encouraged and assisted by Government to build specially designed flats. These flats enable many elderly people to retain their independence for longer than would otherwise be the case.
Other measures which are of importance in assisting elderly people to remain in their homes as long as possible are receiving increased attention. Chief amongst these are the provision of district nursing services, home aid, meals-on-wheels, laundry services, and occupational therapy. In general, the services are provided by hospital boards with voluntary organisations and Old People's Welfare Councils assisting in various ways. The importance of old people's clubs and social centres, with an adequate range of services, is also receiving increasing recognition. Government lottery funds are being used to assist in providing suitable premises.
Old People's Homes and Hospitals—Subject to certain conditions, religious or welfare organisations may be granted 100 percent of the approved capital cost of providing accommodation for old people. In addition, since April 1966, the policy has been widened to provide a 50 percent subsidy towards the cost of approved improvements and the upgrading of existing accommodation. The administration of policy is a Department of Health responsibility.
During the year 1965–66, subsidies amounting to $613,496 were approved to assist in the provision of accommodation for 159 old people. From April 1950 to 31 March 1966, subsidies totalling $11,961,000 have been approved and buildings erected as a result will accommodate 3,738 old people.
Local Authority Pensioner Housing—Since 1950 the Government has offered subsidies and low-interest loan finance to local authorities, towards flats for age beneficiaries or elderly people in comparable circumstances. Under present policy, a subsidy of up to 50 percent on eligible capital costs is offered, subject to a maximum of $1,850 per flat. For the balance of the cost, a State Advances loan is provided at 3 1/2 percent interest. In settlements of 50 or more pensioners' fiats, wardens' residential accommodation may also qualify for subsidy and loan. Up to 31 March 1966, a total of $5,942,000 has been made available as subsidy and as a result suitable housing is being provided for 4,700 old people.
Hostels for Young People—In June 1951, the Government decided that, subject to certain conditions, it would assist religious and welfare organisations to establish hostels for young people by granting subsidies of up to 50 percent of establishment costs. As from April 1966, the rate has been increased to 70 percent, with a limit of $2,000 per young person accommodated. The purpose is to assist young men and women who are living away from their homes in order to study or undertake employment and find it difficult to obtain suitable living accommodation. Under a recent extension to the policy, subsidies of up to 50 percent may also be granted for authorised improvements to existing hostels. The Department of Health is responsible for administering this policy.
Since the policy commenced, subsidies totalling $1,209,000 had been approved up to 31 March 1966 to assist in providing hostel accommodation for 1,114 young people.
Government also helps with subsidies for university halls of residence established by religious and welfare agencies. Administration is handled by University Grants Committee.
Short-stay Homes for Intellectually Handicapped Children—In 1954 the Government approved the payment, under certain conditions, of a subsidy of up to 50 percent on the capital cost of approved buildings and furnishings acquired for the purpose of providing short-stay homes' for intellectually handicapped children. In 1963 Government also extended the capital subsidy to include hostels built by the Intellectually Handicapped Children's Society for children who were attending Occupation Groups run by the Education Department. In 1966, the cost of land and professional fees (architect and quantity surveyor) were included in assessing subsidy on hostels and sheltered workshops. In addition a maintenance subsidy of $1 per day is paid in respect of these children under 16 years of age.
The administration of this policy is the responsibility of the Mental Health Division of the Department of Health.
The total amount expended on special subsidies for short-stay homes, hostels, and sheltered workshops during the year ended 31 March 1966 was $88,700. In addition $21,400 was paid by way of maintenance subsidy during the same period.
PHYSICAL WELFARE AND RECREATION—New Zealand is fortunate in having excellent natural facilities for outdoor pursuits and sports. The climate is temperate and equable. The long coastline and the numerous rivers, lakes, and mountain ranges give full opportunity for yachting and boating, swimming and surfing, and mountaineering and tramping. Outdoor activities such as sea fishing, both by rod and by line, and freshwater fishing, and hunting and shooting introduced game birds and mammals are extremely popular and relatively inexpensive.
Most districts, including the larger cities, are well provided with playing fields for outdoor sports, but even so the available facilities are fully taxed and sometimes overtaxed.
Tennis, cricket, lawn bowls, softball, rowing, and athletics are among the most popular summer games and sports.
Rugby football is probably the leading winter sport, but very many people play hockey, association football, league football, outdoor and indoor basketball, indoor bowls, badminton, and table tennis. Golf is popular both winter and summer. Boxing and wrestling have a small following. Dancing in various forms is a popular indoor pastime.
To some extent participation in indoor sports is restricted by inadequate facilities, the position probably being less satisfactory than in respect of outdoor sports. Local authorities substantially assist improvement of facilities by providing or subsidising suitable buildings and amenities, or by directly assisting sports bodies.
While some sports, for instance rugby football, attract many spectators, the high proportion of persons who actually take part in various sports and games compared with those who merely watch them is a striking characteristic of New Zealand life. In many sports there is a close association between school activities and club activities.
The various sports are also generally organised for the purposes of administration, discipline, and player selection. The organisational structure normally ascends from the clubs at the base through district groupings to the national association or union, which is the ultimate controlling body within New Zealand. Promising players or performers have ample and equal opportunity on merit to represent first their clubs, then the district or provincial associations, and ultimately New Zealand, in competitive play.
In major sports, while each administers its own affairs, competitors to represent New Zealand at Olympic and Commonwealth Games are selected by an Olympic Council, made up of representatives of the various sports associations.
All water sports are extremely popular. All popular beaches are patrolled by surf lifesaving clubs in the summer months. The Department of Education each summer conducts “Learn to Swim” campaigns for school children. The New Zealand Swimming Association also conducts “Learn to Swim” classes for children and adults. The Physical Welfare and Recreation Branch of the Department of Internal Affairs, in association with the National Water Safety Council, its member organisations, and swimming and lifesaving organisations, conducts a national water safety campaign, which includes general instruction in resuscitation procedures. Over recent years these campaigns have been successful in reducing deaths by drowning.
Financial Assistance—Grants are made by the Government to national youth organisations. The purpose of the grants is to assist in the extension of sporting and recreational facilities and in promoting leadership training. Grants are not made where projects of these types can be carried out without financial assistance. Sporting and recreational organisations also receive some financial assistance from lottery profits when there has been a substantial degree of self help.
GENERAL—In recent years the provision by the State of free hospital services has come to occupy a prominent place in the welfare services of the country. In 1939 the fees paid by patients in public hospitals were replaced by the payment by the State to the hospital boards of hospital benefits for each patient. The burden of hospital fees was thus taken from the citizen as an individual, and the cost of public hospitals apportioned between the Government and local authorities. Since then local authority contributions through hospital rating have been abolished, and from 1 April 1958 the cost of hospital treatment in public hospitals has been borne entirely by the State. The Minister of Health is responsible for the provision of a comprehensive and integrated hospital service for the whole country. Private hospitals assist in the provision of hospital services and provide about one-sixth of the available beds. Since 1939 private hospitals have received payment from the Government in respect of hospital treatment supplied by them. This payment does not cover the full cost of treatment, and additional fees may be claimed from the patients. Private hospitals are required to be licensed by the Department of Health and are subject to regular inspection by the Department.
HISTORY—The Government in 1846 granted money for the erection of hospitals in each of the four centres—Auckland, Wellington, Wanganui, and New Plymouth—for the treatment of sick and destitute Europeans and free treatment for all Maoris. The foundation stone of the Wellington Hospital was laid in November 1846, whilst the Auckland Hospital was founded the following year. The first Dunedin Hospital was built in 1851, and Christchurch was first served by a hospital at Lyttelton known to have been operating in 1853. In 1854 control of public hospitals was vested in the six Provincial Councils of Auckland, Taranaki, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago, but in 1876, following the abolition of the provinces, control reverted to the General Government.
Hospitals generally remained under Government control until 1885, when the first Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act was passed. By it New Zealand was divided into 38 hospital districts, each under the control of its own board. The number of districts gradually increased until by 1926 there were 47; amalgamations since that date have reduced the number to 37, at which it now stands.
A Consultative Committee on Hospital Reform was appointed in May 1953 to inquire into and report on matters affecting the administrative control of public hospitals and other services provided by hospital boards and, after taking evidence, it made recommendations to the Government for the reform of the hospital system. A new Hospitals Act passed in 1957 broke new ground in the central principle of its operation. The Act came into force on 1 April 1958. It incorporated as a basic principle the main recommendation of the Consultative Committee on Hospital Reform that the Minister of Health on behalf of the Government should have the responsibility of ensuring the provision by hospital boards of hospital and associated services. The Government assumed complete financial responsibility for hospitals. Consonant with the new responsibilities the Minister was given wide powers of direction and regulation to ensure the establishment of a comprehensive and integrated hospital service for the whole country. Elected boards were retained to manage institutions and administer the services provided under the Act, and no reduction was made in the number of boards.
HOSPITAL BOARDS—A hospital board of 8 to 14 members is elected every three years for each hospital district, and has power to establish, control, and manage hospitals, relief institutions, maternity homes, convalescent homes, and institutions for children. In recent years there has been a pressure of activity, replanning, and development in all medical services for which hospital boards are responsible. This replanning of medical services has been undertaken against a background of sharp population increases in most urban areas. More rapid and comfortable transport is encouraging the build up of specialist diagnostic and therapeutic resources in regional centres.
AUTHORITY OF MINISTER OF HEALTH—It is the duty of every hospital board to provide and maintain such institutions, hospital accommodation, and medical, nursing, and other services as the Minister of Health considers necessary in any part of the district for the reception, relief, care, treatment, isolation, and removal to hospital or “other place” of persons who are suffering from infectious or other disease or from injury, and for maternity cases. The Minister is specifically charged with the function of ensuring the provision of these services and of co-ordinating, guiding, and supervising the activities of hospital boards.
A board must appoint such number of medical practitioners, dentists, nurses, dental nurses, midwives, and other officers as the Minister may from time to time deem necessary for the efficient performance of the functions of the board, whether within an institution under the control of the board or elsewhere within the district.
The Director-General is authorised to visit and inspect hospitals and to appoint assistant inspectors, and is required to report to Parliament through the Minister on the administration of the Hospitals Act.
PATIENTS: Public Institutions—The number of beds in public institutions available at 31 March 1966 and the average number occupied during the year are set out in the following table. These statistics relate to patients and inmates in all institutions (general, maternity, special hospitals, and old people's homes) including institutions under the control of the Department of Health.
|Type of Bed||Beds Available||Average Number of Occupied Beds per Day|
|Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population|
|Total hospital beds||15,917||6.0||12,213.4||4.5|
In addition to the 15,917 hospital beds in public institutions there were 3,264 (2,992 general and 272 maternity) in the 151 licensed private hospitals. If the beds in licensed private hospitals are included, the ratios of beds per 1,000 of population become 6.0 for general beds and 1.2 for maternity beds.
The average number of occupied hospital beds per 1,000 of population in hospital districts varies from 3.4 to 13.5. This variation can be accounted for in the main by the fact that many hospitals to a varying extent draw patients from other districts. Other factors which influence the figures are the availability of medical practitioners and their habits in sending patients to hospital or retaining them for home treatment, the availability of private-hospital beds, housing facilities, domestic assistance, private or district nursing assistance, and the efficiency of the outpatient departments.
The number of institutions coming under the heading of public institutions for the year ended 31 March 1966 was 211, comprising 80 general hospitals (6 of which were also old people's homes), 2 homes for cripples, 7 non-acute hospitals, 5 convalescent hospitals, 93 maternity hospitals, a hospital for physical disorders (which is under the control of the Department of Health), 22 old people's homes, and 1 children's home.
The following statistics for the latest two years relate to all institutions:
|Number of beds of all descriptions for patients or inmates in all public institutions, including institutions under the control of the Department of Health||16,630||17,035|
|Number of such beds per 1,000 of population||6.3||6.4|
|Average number occupied per 1,000 of population||4.9||4.9|
|Number of persons who, as inpatients or inmates, availed themselves of institutional services during the year||289,743||296,982|
|Number per 1,000 of population who, as inpatients or inmates, availed themselves of institutional services during the year||111.2||110.9|
|Number of attendances by outpatients (including attendances for dental treatment) during the year||2,770,177||2,807,456|
|Number per 1,000 of population of attendances (including dental) by outpatients||1,063.5||1,048.8|
The Supplement to the Annual Report of the Director-General of Health on Hospital Statistics contains further detail on public institutions.
General Hospitals—In the following table the figures relate only to general hospitals under the control of hospital boards.
|Year||Inpatients Treated||Average Number of Occupied Beds per Day||Average Turnover of Patients Treated per Occupied Bed||Available Beds||Outpatient Attendances (Including Dental)|
|Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population||Number||Proportion per 1,000 of Population|
Private Hospitals—The total number of private hospitals licensed in New Zealand at 31 March 1966 was 151, providing 272 maternity, 32 psychiatric, and 2,960 beds for general cases.
STAFF—The numbers of staff employed in public hospitals and other institutions and activities controlled by hospital boards in the latest three years were as follows.
|Category of Staff||At 31 March|
|* Includes part-time staff and duplication where persons provide medical services at more than one institution. At 31 March 1966 there were 661 medical officers employed whole time and it is estimated that the hours of 715 visiting officers were the equivalent of the services of 263 whole time officers.|
|Other professional and technical||2,072||2,231||2,497|
|Other treatment staff||418||411||444|
|Domestic and other institutional staff||9,429||9,812||10,030|
|Farm and garden||22||24||23|
MATERNITY SERVICES: Beds—At the end of 1966 available hospital-bed accommodation for maternity cases was 3,163, made up as follows:
|State (St. Helens) hospitals||104|
|Alexandra Home (Wellington)||19|
The total number of confinements in maternity hospitals in 1965 was 54,578, of which 45,390 were in public maternity hospitals, 6,561 in private hospitals, 2,243 in St. Helens Hospit