Table of Contents


This, the fifty-eighth issue of the Year-Book, has been entirely reset. It is hoped that the new type-face (8 pt. on 9 pt. Times Roman) will prove attractive to readers in regard to both legibility and general appearance.

Opportunity was also taken, on the occasion of resetting, to rearrange the subject matter by improving the grouping of cognate subjects. The order in which material is presented follows from an introductory phase to demographic and social characteristics; to trade and means of facilitating it, such as transportation and communication; to production in all main spheres, consumption, and the financial operations involved in economic activities (general and local government, and private sectors); to the derived monetary incomes and the factors influencing economic rewards; and, finally, to the group containing Island Territories, Miscellaneous, Official, and the Appendices.

Some sections have been extensively rewritten, notably the Education, Justice, and Civil Aviation and Air Transport Sections, while a new section—Production— has been created, drawing on material previously included in several relevant sections. A section entitled Investment and Finance incorporates as subsections several previously independent sections—e.g., Mortgages, State Advances, Building Societies, Joint-stock Companies, &c.

As usual, every effort has been made to include as much recent information in the Year-Book as practicable. The letterpress has, in general, been revised up to early June 1953, while in the Latest Statistical Information following the Preface important statistical series—e.g., migration, building activity, Government revenue and expenditure, banking, wage rates, &c.—are given for the financial year ended on 31 March 1953.

Some results of the 1951 Census of Population are included, in brief, in Appendix (e), while a new feature, “Sources of Statistical Information,” is also published as an appendix to this Year-Book (Appendix (d)). It is hoped that this latter feature will prove useful as a source of reference to present and past statistical information relating to New Zealand.

Acknowledgment is made to all those who assisted in the preparation of material for the Year-Book. My special thanks are due to the Government Printer and his staff, and to Mr J. Gilchrist, of this Department. As can well be imagined, the complete resetting of the Year-Book caused a great deal of extra work both in printing and in editing.

                                                                  G. E. Wood,
                                                                                Government Statistician.

Census and Statistics Dept.,
                              Wellington, C. 1, 26 June 1953.


TitleLatest No.Date of IssuePrice Per CopyPostage (Extra)

* £2 2s. per annum (post free).

† Out of print.

‡ For summaries of latest available statistics see Appendix (e) of this issue.

Note.—This list is subject to revision from time to time. Publications are obtainable from the Government Printer, Wellington.

New Zealand Official Year-Book .. ..1953September 19531509
Annual Statistical Reports—
     Population and Buildings Statistics ..1951-52June 1953 ..703
     Vital Statistics .. .. .. ..1952In the press ......
     Justice Statistics .. .. ..1951May 1953 ..763
     Trade and Shipping (Part 1a Exports) ..1950 and 1951October 1952 ..1266
     Trade and Shipping (Part 1b Imports) ..1950 and 1951January 1953 ..1507
     Trade and Shipping (Part II) .. ..1947 and 1948In the press ......
     Agricultural and Pastoral Production ..1951-52June 1953 ..503
     Factory Production .. .. ..1950-51July 1952 ..1005
     Insurance Statistics .. .. ..1951June 1953 ..303
     Prices, Wages, and Labour Statistics ..1949-50 and 1950-51June 1953 ..763
     Industrial Accidents .. .. ..1949 and 1950June 1953 ..603
     Income and Income Tax Statistics for the Income Year1949-50May 1953 ..503
Local Authorities Handbook of New Zealand1950-51July 1953 ..1507
External Trade .. .. .. ..1949 and 1950July 1952 ..503
Pocket Digest of New Zealand Statistics ..1952December 1952262
Monthly Abstract of Statistics .. ...... ..40*2
     Special Supplements—
        Balance of Payments (April Abstract) ..1950-51 and 1951-52May 1953 ..262
        National Income and Sector Accounts (July Abstract)1938-39-1952-53August 1953 ..302
        New Zealand Production Statistics (May Abstract)1950-51June 1952 ..162
        Retail Prices in New Zealand (October-November Abstract)..December 1949202
        1951 Census—Life Tables, 1950-52 (July Abstract)..August 1953 ..162
Maps of Urban Areas, 1951 .. ..1951January 1953 ..2003
Census of Public Libraries .. .. ..1949January 1952 ..262
Volumes of 1951 Census Results‡—
     Vol.I. Increase and Location of Population..1951April 1953 ..764
     Appendix A. Census of Poultry .. ..1951February 1953262
     Interim Returns of Population and Dwellings†1951November 1951
Volumes of 1945 Census Results—
     Vol. I. Increase and Location of Population1945December 1947463
     Vol. II. Island Territories .. ..1945June 1948 ..262
     Vol. III. Maori Census .. ..1945August 1951 ..502
     Vol. IV. Ages and Marital Status ..1945July 1949 ..503
     Vol. V. Dependent Children .. ..1945April 1952 ..1262
     Vol. VI. Religious Professions .. ..1945May 1952 ..1002
     Vol. VII. Birthplace and Duration of Residence of Overseas-born1945July 1952 ..1003
     Vol. VIII. Race .. .. ..1945April 1952 ..363
     Vol. IX. Industries and Occupations ..1945January 1951 ..763
     Vol. X. Incomes .. .. ..1945July 1952 ..765
     Vol. XI. Dwellings and Households ..1945July 1952 ..1503
     Appendix A. Census of Poultry .. ..1945May 1948 ..262
     Appendix B. War Service .. ..1945May 1950 ..262
     Appendix C. Usual Place of Residence ..1945May 1952 ..362
     Interim Returns of Ages, Marital Status, Religious Professions, Birthplaces, Duration of Residence of Overseas-born, Race, War Service, Industries, Occupations, Occupational Status, and Travelling Time1945January 1949 ..262


For some of the statistical series included in this issue of the Year-Book later information is available than is included in the body of the book. This later information is given in the following paragraphs, with references to the appropriate portion of the Year-Book containing more detailed information for earlier periods.


Inter-censal Population (pp. 21-22).—Recent population changes are given in the following table.

Populationat Endof Year
Year EndedMalesFemalesTotalMean Population for Year
Total Population (Including Maoris)
30 June 1952 .. .. ..1,003,037991,7571,994,7941,970,491
30 September 1952 .. ..1,009,256998,2772,007,5331,982,906
31 December 1952 .. ..1,017,8741,006,6822,024,5561,996,149
31 March 1953 .. .. ..1,024,4631,013,0902,037,5532,009,506
Maori Population
30 June 1952 .. .. ..61,60758,630120,237118,334
30 September 1952 .. ..62,02759,080121,107119,267
31 December 1952 .. ..62,52059,580122,100120,209
31 March 1953 .. .. ..63,07460,125123,199121,172

The above figures are exclusive of the population of the Cook Islands, 15,079 (at the census of 25 September 1951), Niue Island, 4,588, and Tokelau Islands, 1,600 (both at 31 March 1952), and the population of Western Samoa, 84,909 (at census of 25 September 1951).

Natural Increase.—Owing to the uniformly high levels in births in the last few years and the relative stability in the number of deaths, population gains from natural increase—i.e., excess of births over deaths—have been particularly marked in recent years, the excess of births over deaths in 1952 at 33,032 constituting a record.

Migration (pp. 23-27).—The total number of arrivals in New Zealand during the year ended 31 March 1953 was 127,116, while the total number of departures in the same year was 106,782. Excluding crews and through passengers, arrivals totalled 66,240 and departures 44,208, making the net excess of arrivals 22,032, as compared with 15,664 in 1951-52. A classification of total arrivals and departures gives the following results.

Year Ended 31 March
Migration: Arrivals
Immigrants intending permanent residence ..24,92229,005
New Zealand residents returning .. ..20,42618,570
     Tourists .. .. .. .. ..12,32513,309
     Others .. .. .. .. ..4,8255,356
Through passengers .. .. .. ..2,7445,645
Crews .. .. .. .. ..49,56155,231
               Total arrivals .. .. ..114,803127,116
Year Ended 31 March
Migration: Departures
New Zealand residents departing—
     Permanently .. .. .. ..7,3006,271
     Temporarily .. .. .. ..21,09018,315
Temporary residents departing .. .. ..18,44419,622
Through passengers .. .. .. ..2,7445,645
Crews .. .. .. .. ..49,74656,929
               Total departures .. .. ..99,324106,782

Recent statistics of the number of immigrants intending permanent residence show considerable increases, the arrivals under this heading having increased during the last three years as follows: 1950-51, 18,234; 1951-52, 24,922; and 1952-53, 29,005. The resumption of assisted passages for certain classes of immigrants is reflected in the statistics. In the last three years the number coming under this heading totalled 2,928 in 1950-51, 4,949 in 1951-52, and 7,581 in 1952-53.


Vital statistics for the calendar years 1951 and 1952 are shown, in summary form, in the following table. Statistics in more detail for earlier years are given on pages 45-96.

NumberRate Per 1,000 of Mean PopulationNumberRate Per 1,000 of Mean Population
* Infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births.
     Europeans .. .. ..44,65124·3946,46924·77
     Maoris .. .. .. ..5,23844·975,45945·41
          Total population .. ..49,88925·6251,92826·01
     Europeans .. .. ..17,5129·5617,4139·28
     Maoris .. .. .. ..1,32411·371,48312·34
          Total population .. ..18,8369·6718,8969·47
     Marriages (total) .. .. ..16,9158·6917,0618·55
Infant deaths under one year—
     Europeans .. .. ..1,01722·77*1,01421·82*
     Maoris .. .. .. ..35768·16*46184·45*
          Totals .. .. ..1,37427·54*1,47528·40*

Births.—The total number of births registered in 1952 (51,928) is the highest recorded in the history of New Zealand, exceeding the previous high total in 1950 by 2,039. The birth-rate, although above that of the preceding two years, is yet below the high figure of 27·70 recorded in 1947.


Farm Production

Estimated Areas of Principal Crops, 1952 Season.—Estimates of areas sown under wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes were collected in the spring of 1952 by inquiry from growers of these crops, and from these estimates, together with reports from Field Officers of the Department of Agriculture, at the end of January 1953 total yields of wheat, oats, and barley are estimated. In framing these estimates of yields due allowance is made for areas not threshed (fed off, &c.). Following are the estimates for 1952-53, together with the final figures for the preceding season 1951-52.

1951-52 (Final Figures)1952-53 (Estimated)
* Not available.
Wheat .. .. ..91,8373,890,167130,0004,600,000
Oats .. .. ..125,1042,469,530130,0002,250,000
Barley .. .. ..54,6372,182,17570,0002,300,000
Peas for threshing .. ..24,379730,28830,000*
  (Tons) (Tons)
Potatoes .. .. ..13,27669,84116,000*

These figures relate only to holdings of 1 acre and over situated outside borough boundaries. In addition, in the case of potatoes, a fairly considerable amount in the aggregate is grown on smaller holdings and on holdings within borough boundaries.

Timber Production

Timber Production (pp. 486-489).—Provisional figures issued by the New Zealand Forest Service indicate a continued high level of timber production for the year ended 31 March 1953, the output of rough-sawn timber being given as 573,000,000 board feet, a fall of 2·3 million board feet below the record output of the previous year. The output of the principal species was as follows: rimu and miro, 231,600,000 board feet; matai 35,600,000 board feet; kahikatea, 20,600,000 board feet; beech, 17,900,000 board feet; totara, 14,200,000 board feet; and insignis pine, 222,300,000 board feet. Indigenous species totalled 340,500,000 board feet, and exotics 232,500,000 board feet.

Electric Power

Electric-power Statistics (p. 574).—Principal data covering all stations for the year ended 31 March 1952 are summarized below:—

* Calculated on revenue from retail sales only.
Number of stations .. ..95
Persons engaged .. ..5,107
Salaries and wages paid ..£2,992,533
Number of consumers .. ..599,501
Prime movers (total b.h.p.) ..991,850
Generator capacity (main and standby) (kW.) .. ..699,963
     Revenue (excluding rates) ..£14,846,289
     Rates .. .. ..£1,846
        Total revenue .. ..£14,848,135
     Operating .. .. ..£8,364,244
     Management and general ..£1,521,198
     Capital charges .. ..£4,141,956
       Total expenditure ..£14,027,398
Capital outlay—
     Total expenditure to date ..£107,068,820
     Expenditure during year ..£12,620,511
Units (kWh.)—
     Generated (000) .. ..3,455,759
     Generated per head of mean population .. ..1,764
     Sold (retail) (000) .. ..2,732,840
     Sold retail per head of mean population .. ..1,395
     Revenue per unit of retail sales*0·868d.

Marketing of Primary Produce (pp. 420 and 425)

As a result of negotiations with the United Kingdom Ministry of Food, the following contract prices in sterling for New Zealand butter, cheese, and milk powders have been agreed to for the 1953-54 season, the previous season's prices also being given.

Dairy Produce Contract Prices (Sterling) per Hundredweight
ItemSeason 1952-53Season 1953-54
          Finest grade .. .. .. ..31403260
          First grade .. .. .. ..31293249
          Second grade .. .. .. ..30403160
          First grade .. .. .. ..29403060
          Second grade .. .. .. ..28903010
     Finest and first grade .. .. .. ..17601826
     Second grade .. .. .. ..16601726
Milk Powder—
     Spray dried skim .. .. .. ..910846
     Roller dried skim .. .. .. ..756700
     Roller dried buttermilk .. .. ..650600

These prices allow for a slightly under 4 per cent increase for butter and cheese, and a decrease of approximately 7 1/2; per cent for milk powders, on the prices for the previous season. The United Kingdom will take 90 per cent of the exportable surplus of butter and 92 1/2; per cent of the exportable surplus of cheese, compared with 88 1/2; and 90 per cent respectively in 1952-53.

The contract prices for meat for the 1953-54 season show an increase of 7 1/2; per cent for lamb and lamb offals, and an average increase of approximately 5 1/2; per cent for mutton and mutton offals (varying according to weight and quality).


Urban Districts.—Statistics of building permits issued in cities, boroughs, and town districts (to which are added nine counties and one road district in which the population is predominantly urban) during the year ended 31 March 1953 are given below, together with (for purposes of comparison) statistics for the four preceding years.

Building Permits Issued: Urban Districts
Year Ended 31 MarchDwellingsValue of Other New Buildings and Alterations and AdditionsTotal Value of All Buildings
  £     £     £     
1949 .. ..12,27020,430,6897,823,56028,254,249
1950 .. ..13,13422,711,23910,336,34133,047,580
1951 .. ..13,10225,165,13812,708,80137,873,939
1952 .. ..12,44327,762,90818,516,48346,279,391
1953 .. ..11,70028,045,24119,134,62947,179,870

Note.—Since April 1951 figures for the Waitemata, Manukau, Paparua, Peninsula, and Taieri Counties have been included in urban district totals; the figures quoted in the table for preceding years have been adjusted to be comparable on the revised basis.

Rural Districts.—Building permit statistics for rural districts have been collected from counties (excluding the nine counties and one road district which are included in urban districts) and from the two Road Boards on Waiheke Island. Figures quoted in the rest of this paragraph have been adjusted to be on a comparable basis (refer to note below preceding table). The total value of rural building operations for the year 1952-53 was £13,948,124, an increase of £984,256, or 8 per cent, on the 1951-52 figures. The number of new private dwelling permits in rural districts was 4,517 in 1952-53, compared with 4,668 in 1951-52, and 4,747 in 1950-51.

All Districts (Urban and Rural).—The total value of building operations represented by permits or authorizations issued in the year ended 31 March 1953 in both urban and rural districts was £61,127,994 (£59,243,259 in the March year 1952). Included in this total were 16,217 permits, &c., for private dwellings (17,111 in the March year 1952). The totals include State buildings commenced in the years quoted, as do the statistics under the separate headings, urban and rural.

Dwelling Units Completed.—Local authorities which supply building permit figures were also requested to supply the number of new dwelling units which were completed during the year. Estimates have been made in some cases where it was not possible to supply data. While absolute accuracy for the statistics cannot be claimed, it is believed they will give reasonably approximate results and also reasonably accurate comparisons of year to year changes.

The total figures on this basis for new dwelling units completed during 1952-53 were 16,100, compared with 16,300 in 1951-52, and 16,400 in 1950-51. Those completed in urban districts (on the revised basis) numbered 11,900 in 1952-53, and in the previous years quoted, 11,900 and 12,350 respectively.


Statistics of external trade in the calendar year 1952, in continuation of the statistics included in pp. 246-307 of this Year-Book, are given below.

Total Commodity Trade.—Following are statistics of exports and imports in 1950, 1951, and 1952.

Calendar YearExportsImportsExcess of Exports Over Imports
New Zealand ProduceTotal Exports
* Denotes excess of imports.
1950 .. ..182,332183,752157,94325,809
1951 .. ..246,394248,127206,53441,594
1952 .. ..238,659240,813252,439−11,626*

Commodity trade statistics for the calendar year 1952 show some interesting features. The value of imports during 1952 was the highest on record and, although the value of exports was less than in 1951 (largely owing to the fall in wool prices), it was still higher than in years prior to 1951. The total trade per head of mean population in 1952 was £247 (exports £121 and imports £126), a figure substantially higher than any recorded previously.

Although price changes have contributed materially to the high values of commodity trade— both exports and imports—there has also been a considerable upward movement in the volume of trade. The following table illustrates this fact.

Index Numbersof Valueand Volumeof Trade
Calendar YearExportsImports
Value IndexVolume IndexValue IndexVolume Index
TotalPer HeadTotalPer Head
1936-38 (average)100100100100100100
1949 .. .. ..24312810823011799
1950 .. .. ..303122102304140117
1951 .. .. ..40910989398156128
1952 .. .. ..397142113486175140

Note.—This table includes some revisions of the index numbers given in the table on page 255.

Comparing the 1951 and 1952 figures with the pre-war average (1936-38) it is seen that the total value of exports has increased by 309 and 297 per cent respectively, while the corresponding percentage increases for imports were 298 for 1951 and 386 for 1952. On a volume basis, exports showed an increase of 9 per cent for 1951 and 42 per cent for 1952, while imports increased by 56 per cent in the former year and 75 per cent in the latter year.

Exports.—As indicated earlier, New Zealand's export commodity trade in 1952 was of a value only a little below the record level of 1951, a decrease of 3 per cent in value being recorded between the two years. Decreases in the returns from cheese (£0·9 million), wool (£46·2 million), and hides, pelts, and skins (£2·9 million) were compensated for by increased returns from butter (£14·6 million) and frozen meat (£15·1 million). An indication of the progress of exports in the main groups of commodities is afforded by the following table.

Valueof Exports
Calendar YearButterCheeseFrozen MeatWoolHides, Pelts, and Skins
1950 .. ..35,56714,53628,62974,6539,996
1951 .. ..41,36216,65025,394128,17612,862
1952 .. ..55,92915,76940,47581,9989,951

Apart from the question of values, a special interest attaches to progress in the volume of our export trade in major export commodities. In the following table the fluctuations in the quantities of exports of butter, cheese, meat, and wool since 1942 are shown.

Calendar YearButterCheeseFrozen MeatWool
* Record.
 Tons (000)Tons (000)Tons (000)Tons (000)
1942 .. ..117·2134·4*287·1137·3
1943 .. ..99·3100·5220·692·3
1944 .. ..115·377·7207·884·2
1945 .. ..103·587·4282·774·2
1946 .. ..101·875·7337·7163·1
1947 .. ..127·687·0347·8167·5
1948 .. ..135·675·6343·5188·0
1949 .. ..147·693·9344·1191·8
1950 .. ..137·599·9338·1175·9
1951 .. ..147·1106·6274·8141·5
1952 .. ..183·5*91·3385·5*195·6*

Note.—The figures do not include wartime supplies to Allied Forces under mutual-aid arrangements, a factor of particular importance in 1943 and 1944.

Following record production levels for butterfat, meat, and wool, the quantities of butter, meat, and wool exported all reached new record levels. A change-over by some factories from the manufacture of cheese to butter and skim-milk products, besides resulting in a fall in cheese production and exports, contributed to the record butter exports, which were 23 per cent higher than the previous record figure of 148,800 tons in 1937. The high wool prices, good feed conditions, and the wide-spread industrial dispute of 1951 all contributed to farmers carrying forward unusually high numbers of stock into the 1951-52 production season, so that meat production in that season for the first time topped the 600,000-ton mark, and exports exceeded the previous record level of 348,800 tons established in 1940. Wool shipments had been seriously delayed by the waterfront dispute in 1951, and these delayed shipments, added to the normal 1952 shipments, caused the total wool exports to reach a new high level.

Direction of Export Trade.—The table below shows the destinations of New Zealand exports in 1952.

CountryTotal Exports
United Kingdom156,730
Republic of India1,504
Federation of Malaya429
Hong Kong68
British West Africa142
Rhodesia, Northern132
Rhodesia, Southern340
Union of South Africa558
British Guiana159
British West Indies1,532
Gilbert and Ellice Islands72
Western Samoa395
Other Commonwealth countries153
    Totals, Commonwealth countries172,831
CountryTotal Exports
Republic of Ireland3,367
Saudi Arabia117
Philippine Islands183
Belgian Congo114
Netherlands Antilles322
Panama Republic203
United States of America27,267
Society Islands302
Other countries582
    Totals, other countries66,962
Ships' stores1,019
    Totals, all countries240,813

Exports to Commonwealth countries in 1952 accounted for 72 per cent of the total exports, excluding ships' stores.

Imports.—The table following classifies imports by broad divisions and shows that the total increase between the two years 1951 and 1952 of £45.9 million was not shared proportionally by the different divisions. The apparel, textiles, &c., division actually recorded a fall in 1952 of £9.2 million (19 per cent) from the high level of the previous year. Imports in this division are typically high towards the end of the year, and were very high in the second half of 1951. Owing to the restrictions imposed in 1952, the usual pattern was reversed, the end of the year figures being comparatively low. The highest proportional, as well as absolute, increases were recorded by the metals, &c., division (£27.7 million, or 51 per cent) and the vehicles division (£10.0 million, or 49 per cent).

Calendar YearFood, Drink, and TobaccoApparel, Textiles, Fibres, and YarnsOils, Fats, and WaxesMetals, Metal Manufactures, and MachinesPaper and StationeryDrugs, Chemicals, and ManuresVehicles (Including Parts and Tires)Total*
* Including classes not listed.

Direction of Import Trade.—The next table shows the source (origin) of New Zealand's imports in 1952.

CountryTotal Imports*
* Provisional figures.
United Kingdom .. ..138,373
Bahrein Islands .. ..2,946
British Borneo .. ..1,099
Ceylon .. .. ..1,495
Hong Kong .. .. ..312
India .. .. ..2,570
Malaya and Singapore ..2,175
British West Africa .. ..594
Kenya and Uganda .. ..338
Seychelles .. .. ..61
Tanganyika .. .. ..285
Union of South Africa.. ..1,375
British West Indies .. ..1,103
Canada .. .. ..8,875
Australia .. .. ..26,808
Fiji .. .. ..2,568
Gilbert and Ellice Islands ..109
Nauru Island .. ..685
New Zealand (Re-imports) ..60
Western Samoa .. ..206
Other Commonwealth countries..163
     Totals, Commonwealth countries192,200
Austria .. .. ..750
Belgium .. .. ..5,095
Czechoslovakia .. ..389
Denmark .. .. ..234
Finland .. .. ..554
France .. .. ..3,984
Germany .. .. ..2,677
Italy .. .. ..1,635
Luxembourg .. .. ..179
Netherlands .. .. ..2,498
Norway .. .. ..700
Portugal .. .. ..196
Spain .. .. ..126
Sweden .. .. ..3,417
Switzerland .. .. ..1,132
Saudi Arabia .. ..361
China .. .. ..259
Indonesia .. .. ..5,358
Iran .. .. ..229
Iraq .. .. ..128
Japan .. .. ..4,134
Siam .. .. ..100
Tunisia .. .. ..208
Mexico .. .. ..171
Netherlands Antilles .. ..1,384
United States of America ..23,366
Venezuela .. .. ..274
Other countries .. ..632
     Totals, other countries ..60,170
     Totals, all countries .. ..252,370

Imports from Commonwealth countries in 1952 comprised 76 per cent of the total.


Banking and Currency

Reserve Bank (p. 672).—Data showing the liabilities and assets of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand at the last balance day in May 1953 are shown below, together with the corresponding figures for the last balance day in March 1953.

As at Last Balance Day in
March 1953May 1953
* Included in this item are sterling investments of £(N.Z.)22,090,080 at end of March and £(N.Z.)21,840,080 at end of May.
    Total liabilities (including other)157,571,467172,975,752
    Bank notes62,469,18262,655,781
    Demand liabilities—  
    Total assets (including other)157,571,467172,975,752
    Sterling exchange reserve (in New Zealand currency)53,282,82165,820,467
        Marketing organizations8,066,7186,952,086
        Other purposes56,026,11356,852,579

Trading Banks (pp. 674-681).—The principal statistics of trading banks for the months of March and May are given below. Debits and clearings cover the monthly periods ended on the last Wednesday of the respective months, while the remaining figures are as at those dates.

As at Last Balance Day in
March 1953May 1953
Bank debits—££
Bank clearings55,846,01352,873,971
Advances, including notes and bills discounted140,449,122134,589,769
Unexercised overdrafts84,581,92491,192,419
    Not bearing interest216,800,514235,726,608
    Bearing interest38,956,11139,146,619
Reserve Bank notes—  
    Notes held by trading banks10,930,5889,734,790
    Net note circulation51,538,59452,920,991
Ratio of advances to deposits54.2248.43

An analysis of advances of the trading banks at quarterly intervals is published by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, and the classification as at the last Wednesday in March of 1952 and 1953 is contained in the following table. Figures for earlier years will be found on page 677.

Advances toAs at Last Wednesday in March
Farmers .. .. .. .. ..21,53820,621
Industries allied to primary production .. ..33,45220,316
Other manufacturing and productive industries ..32,49226,599
     Wholesalers .. .. .. ..27,18916,846
     Retailers .. .. .. .. ..20,65813,961
Transport .. .. .. .. ..3,6033,700
Other .. .. .. .. ..40,98036,358
          Total advances .. .. ..179,912138,401

Overseas Assets of Banks (p. 683).—In the following table the revised series of overseas assets of banks (on account of New Zealand business only) are shown.

Overseas Assets
As at End of March 1952As at End of March 1953
Trading banks' overseas assets—£(000)£(000)
     In London.. .. .. .. ..26,28526,495
     Elsewhere .. .. .. ..8,1584,074
Reserve Bank's overseas assets—
     Sterling exchange .. .. .. ..21,75653,283
     Other overseas assets .. .. ..34,93722,961
Total gross overseas assets .. .. ..91,136106,813
Overseas liabilities of trading banks .. ..12,3424,827
Overseas liabilities of Reserve Bank .. ..3152
Net overseas assets .. .. .. ..78,764101,934

Savings Banks (pp. 686-690).—A summary of statistics of savings banks at 31 March 1953 is given below.

Post Office Savings BankTrustee Savings BanksNational Savings Accounts

* Excess of withdrawals.

† On deposits held during year ended 30 June 1952.

Number of depositors .. .. ..1,485,852371,404..
Total amount of deposits during year ..99,125,77522,645,06310,419,343
Total amount of withdrawals during year96,699,56023,011,8388,426,550
Excess of deposits over withdrawals ..2,426,215−366,775*1,992,793
Interest credited to depositors .. ..4,208,308886,3911,719,576†
Total amount to credit of depositors at end of March 1953191,273,73638,853,66562,930,440

Overseas Receipts and Payments.—The following statement gives statistics of exchange-control transactions for the years ended 31 March 1952 and 1953. Comparable items for the calendar years 1951 and 1952 are, however, given on pages 684-685. All figures quoted are taken from Reserve Bank sources.

Year Ended 31 March 1952Year Ended 31 March 1953
     Butter .. .. .. .. ..50,721..48,424..
     Cheese .. .. .. .. ..16,989..17,406..
     Meat .. .. .. .. ..30,700..48,272..
     Wool .. .. .. .. ..115,860..73,914..
               Total (including other) .. ..251,638..227,078..
     Licensed .. .. .. ....75,745..48,007
     Decontrolled .. .. .. ....152,520..119,804
     Government .. .. .. ....21,722..29,153
               Total (including other) .. ....252,585..201,085
Transport: Freights, fares, ships' charters ..1,6593,8431,8513,000
Travel: Private and business (exclusive of fares) ..1,4715,9541,6864,862
     Insurance .. .. .. ..1,168729530793
     Reinsurance .. .. .. ....651..614
               Totals, insurance .. .. ..1,1681,3805301,407
International investment income—
     Interest, dividends, and other private investment income2,7965,7546,3936,132
     Interest on Government and local authority loans..2,723..2,719
               Totals, international investment income..2,7968,4766,3938,851
Government transactions—
     Current expenditure by New Zealand Government overseas..5,213..7,845
     Current receipts by New Zealand Government and expenditure by other Governments in New Zealand1,900..1,543..
               Totals, Government transactions ..1,9005,2131,5437,845
Miscellaneous current transactions—
     Commissions, royalties, rebates, &c. .. ..1,5461,9078451,719
     Films and entertainments .. .. ....628..768
     Unilateral transfers (immigrants' transfers, personal remittances, charitable, legacies, &c.)7,4525,2476,8655,038
     Expenses of business firms .. .. ..5071,7217352,334
     Other current transactions .. .. ..6144281,341408
               Totals, miscellaneous current transactions10,1189,9319,78710,267
Capital transfers—
     Private .. .. .. .. ..6,3142,3484,2113,858
     Government .. .. .. ....4,020..759
     Local authority .. .. .. ....104..76
               Totals, capital transfers .. ..6,3146,4724,2114,692
Cook Islands .. .. .. ..28446209105
Unidentified.. .. .. .. ..183..−72..
               Grand totals .. .. ..277,528293,901253,216242,114


Consolidated Fund (pp. 610-614).—The following table contains a summary of the receipts of the Consolidated Fund for the financial years ended 31 March 1952 and 1953.

 £      £      
Taxation .. .. .. .. ..156,936,939154,262,345
Interest on capital liability—
     Post and Telegraph .. .. ..947,8861,016,266
     Electric supply .. .. .. ..1,946,0532,350,453
     Housing and Housing Construction .. ..980,5931,051,927
     Land settlement .. .. .. ..1,333,8711,535,737
     Other accounts .. .. .. ..239,070193,053
Interest on other public moneys .. ..1,889,562746,157
Profits on trading undertakings .. ..1,740,5321,480,946
Departmental receipts .. .. ..14,773,89615,185,214
               Totals .. .. .. ..180,788,402177,822,098

The next table contains a summary of payments from the Consolidated Fund for the financial years 1951-52 and 1952-53.

Permanent appropriations—£     £     
     Civil list .. .. .. .. ..119,326159,125
     Debt services .. .. .. ..23,775,25424,159,155
     Superannuation (subsidy and contribution) ..2,915,0002,998,000
     Miscellaneous .. .. .. ..866,843514,918
               Totals, permanent appropriations ..27,676,42327,831,198
Annual appropriations—
     Legislative .. .. .. ..183,061198,257
     Prime Minister's Office .. .. ..14,43818,336
     External Affairs .. .. .. ..1,604,3631,800,164
     Finance .. .. .. .. ..17,243,56916,657,511
     General Administration .. .. ..14,258,03411,793,382
     Law and Order .. .. .. ..2,636,3452,670,794
     Defence .. .. .. .. ..22,634,17224,217,152
     Defence Construction and Maintenance ..2,005,4852,263,954
     Maintenance of Public Works and Services ..7,739,9799,425,527
     Maintenance of Highways .. .. ..4,785,0955,178,687
     Development of Primary and Secondary Industries11,611,68312,883,097
     Social Services—
               Health .. .. .. .. ..12,775,83414,424,555
               Education .. .. .. ..15,904,42418,123,697
               War and other Pensions .. .. ..6,443,2386,639,726
               Transfer to Social Security Fund .. ..14,000,00014,000,000
                    Totals, annual appropriations ..133,839,720140,294,839
Transfer to War Emergency Account .. ..6,600,000..
Transfer to Public Works Account .. ....6,000,000
Other services not provided for .. ..36,538389,018
                    Grand totals .. .. ..168,152,681174,515,055
                    Balance in Fund at end of year ..19,776,42310,447,745

The surplus for 1950-51, £8,253,217, was expended during the year 1951-52 as follows: payment of family bonus, £3,078,910; transfer to War Emergency Account, £5,174,307. The corresponding surplus for the year 1951-52 of £12,635,721 was expended during the 1952-53 year as follows: transfer to National Development Loans Account, £4,000,000; transfer to Public Works Account, £8,635,721.

Taxation (pp. 620-638).—Particulars of revenue from taxation for the financial years 1950-51, 1951-52, and 1952-53 are contained in the following table.

Item of Revenue1950-511951-521952-53
Consolidated Fund—£     £     £     
     Customs .. .. .. ..23,600,06232,599,59627,273,206
     Beer duty .. .. .. ..5,036,1455,273,8045,466,701
     Sales tax .. .. .. ..16,827,10621,811,37521,991,703
     Film-hire tax .. .. ..106,702112,541135,348
     Highways .. .. .. ..3,996,6294,575,3474,908,492
     Stamp duties .. .. ..4,874,8395,207,5775,702,526
     Death (including gift) duties ..7,254,0138,117,2598,767,857
     Land tax .. .. .. ..1,043,2031,137,9371,315,136
     Income tax .. .. ..59,441,83978,101,50378,701,376
               Totals .. .. ..122,180,538156,936,939154,262,345
Social security taxation—
     Social security charge .. ..35,766,23643,612,86845,507,938
     Registration fee, &c. .. ..20174792
               Totals .. .. ..35,766,43743,612,94245,508,730
               Grand totals .. .. ..157,946,975200,549,881199,771,075

A summary showing the amounts received from direct taxes on income and from all sources during the last eleven years is now given.

YearDirect Taxes on Income (Including War and Social Security Charges on Income)Total Taxation
AmountPer Head of Mean PopulationPercentage of Total TaxationAmountPer Head of Mean Population
 £     £s.d. £     £s.d.
1942-43 .. ..53,977,4413218261·487,940,84453124
1943-44 .. ..63,311,9653813362·8100,839,48461117
1944-45 .. ..68,438,477412363·0108,681,81465510
1945-46 .. ..71,582,87041161162·3114,954,8736740
1946-47 .. ..63,873,162361756·5113,119,04663180
1947-48 .. ..63,581,244353652·0122,275,911671211
1948-49 .. ..78,386,0574210360·1130,440,249701411
1949-50 .. ..80,186,0204212559·2135,556,3197211
1950-51 .. ..95,208,07549121060·3157,946,9758271
1951-52 .. ..121,714,371622960·7200,549,88110279
1952-53 .. ..124,209,3146116362·3199,771,0759983

State Indebtedness (p. 640).—The public debt as at 31 March 1953 amounted to £669,779,443, an increase of £14,026,110 as compared with a year earlier. Of the 1953 debt figure, £79,881,093 was held in the United Kingdom.


Revenue of the Social Security Fund for the year ended 31 March 1953, together with the 1951-52 figures in parentheses, was as follows: charge on salaries and wages, £26,650,922 (£24,318,138); charge on company and other income £18,857,016 (£19,294,730); grant from Consolidated Fund, £14,000,000 (£14,000,000); fees and fines, £792 (£74); maintenance recoveries, interest, and other receipts, £119,506 (£168,724); total receipts, £59,628,236 (£57,781,666).

Payments from the Fund in 1952-53, with 1951-52 payments in parentheses, were: Monetary benefits, £46,306,272 (£43,490,634); emergency benefits £340,625 (£365,181); medical, &c., benefits £10,428,597 (£9,368,027); administration expenses, £978,845 (£952,597), other payments, £4,990 (£3,804). In addition, in 1952-53 an amount of £767,115 was paid to certain social security beneficiaries from the Social Security Fund by the way of a Christmas bonus as follows: age benefits, £630,870; invalids' benefits, £46,435; widows' benefits, £57,610; miners' benefits, £4,000; sickness benefits, £14,625; and emergency benefits, £13,575. Total payments from the Fund were therefore £58,826,444 (£54,180,243).

Particulars of the various social security benefits (monetary and health) and war pensions in force at the end of March 1953, together with total payments during the financial year 1952-53, are shown in the following table.

Class of Benefit or PensionAs at 31 March 1953Payments During Year Ended 31 March 1953
Number in ForceAnnual Value
Social security benefits—
     Monetary— £     £     
          Universal superannuation .. ..71,9615,756,8805,564,629
          Age .. .. .. ..123,10418,918,37719,091,303
          Widows' .. .. ..12,0262,093,2312,157,115
          Orphans' .. .. ..31431,53235,404
          Family .. .. .. ..280,74716,387,65116,854,261
          Invalids' .. .. ..8,2571,383,8861,416,561
          Miners' .. .. ..528115,157121,636
          Sickness .. .. ..4,376..1,062,176
          Unemployment .. .. ..15..3,187
          Emergency .. .. ..2,248..340,625
               Totals .. .. ..503,576..46,646,897
          Medical .. .. ......3,047,202
          Hospital .. .. ......2,135,218
          Maternity .. .. ......919,422
          Pharmaceutical .. .. ......3,015,833
          Supplementary .. .. ......1,310,922
               Totals .. .. ......10,428,597
War pensions—
     First World War .. .. ..17,7862,668,3702,747,298
     Second World War .. ..25,1412,007,5192,072,429
     War veteran's allowance .. ..5,9641,569,1611,471,405
     South African War .. ..324,4574,315
     Mercantile Marine pensions .. ..242,3272,957
     Emergency Reserve Corps .. ..91,5771,764
     Kayforce .. .. .. ..856,7124,478
               Totals .. .. ..49,0416,260,1236,304,646
Sundry pensions and annuities ..29546,98446,913
               Grand totals .. .. ..552,912..63,427,053


Retail Prices (pp. 787-790).—Details of the consumers' price index for the calendar year 1952, and for each of the quarters ended 31 March 1953, and 30 June 1953, are given below.

Consumers' Price Index
Base: Weighted average twenty-one towns, first quarter, 1949 (= 1000)
Calendar Year 1952Quarter Ended 31 March 1953Quarter Ended 30 June 1953
     Meat and fish .. .. ..159017011720
     Fruit, vegetables, and eggs .. ..147014321530
     Other foods .. .. ..132813551356
          All foods .. .. ..142314551482
     Rent .. .. .. ..112011601160
     Other housing .. .. ..116512431243
          All housing .. .. ..114712101210
Fuel and lighting .. .. ..127112911351
Clothing and footwear—
     Clothing .. .. .. ..127012831295
     Footwear .. .. .. ..136914011424
          Clothing and footwear ..128513001314
     Household durable goods .. ..116311621167
     Other commodities .. ..112611461146
     Services .. .. .. ..117812251224
          All miscellaneous .. ..115211771177
All groups .. .. .. ..127513071322

Share Prices (pp. 797-800).—Index numbers of share prices in 1952, together with the average for the three months ended March 1953, are given below.

GroupIndex Numbers Base Average for Each Group, 1938 (= 1000)
Average for 1952Average for 3 Months Ended March 1953
Frozen meat .. .. .. .. ..17261750
Woollens .. .. .. .. ..16651538
Gas.. .. .. .. .. ..666642
Timber .. .. .. .. ..16941405
Minerals .. .. .. .. ..12541052
Miscellaneous (including breweries) .. ..12481149
          All industrial groups .. .. ..12731168
Banks .. .. .. .. ..10291019
Insurance .. .. .. .. ..19721917
Loan-agency companies .. .. ..20581986
Miscellaneous .. .. .. ..19671871
          All finance, &c., groups .. ..16971645
          All groups combined .. .. ..14851406

Monthly statistics for 1952 and the first five months of 1953 are given below.

Share Prices Monthly Index Numbers, Year 1938 (=1000)
Industrial GroupsFinance GroupsAll GroupsIndustrial GroupsFinance GroupsAll Groups
* Month of December interpolated.
January .. ..137818381608117816391408
February .. ..129616931495116216461404
March .. ..129417371515116316511407
April .. .. ..129516971496116516751421
May .. .. ..130016941497118516961441
June .. .. ..128316741478......
July .. .. ..129516861491......
August .. ..128417061495......
September .. ..125016751462......
October .. ..123916681453......
November .. ..118116481415......
December .. ..1179*1644*1411*......


Wage-rates (pp. 802-810).—Index numbers of average nominal wage-rates of wage-earners in 1951 and 1952, and of adult male wage-earners as at 31 March 1953, are as follows.

Industrial GroupBase: All Groups 1926-30 (= 1000)
Adult MalesAdult Females
Average for YearAs at 31 March 1953Average for Year
Provision of—
     Food, drink, &c. .. .. .. ..21252266234021642235
     Clothing, footwear, and textiles .. ..20602143223622972392
     Building and construction .. .. ..200320662149....
     Power, heat, and light .. .. ..206221402223....
     Transport by water .. .. ..223623672436....
     Transport by land .. .. .. ..201320802165....
     Accommodation, meals and personal service ..18391917201824132525
Working in or on—
     Wood, wicker, seagrass, and fibre .. ..210921772256....
     Metal .. .. .. .. ..214922342345....
     Stone, clay, glass, and chemicals .. ..192820102104....
     Paper, printing, &c. .. .. ..21862283236120772207
     Skins, leather, &c. .. .. ..189419752060....
     Mines and quarries .. .. ..209721312193....
     The land (farming pursuits) .. ..191920872074....
          All groups combined .. ..20392143220523092408

Effective Weekly Wage Rates (p. 809).—The following table shows nominal and effective weekly wage rates of adult workers for the year 1952 and of males only for the first quarter of 1953. The base of the index numbers is in each case the average of the five years 1926-30 (=1000).

YearRetail Prices (All Groups)Nominal Weekly Wage RatesEffective Weekly Wage Rates
* Not available.
1952 .. .. ..12752143240812701427
     March quarter .. ..13072205*1275*

Average Rates of Wages (pp. 811-814).—The following table gives the prescribed minimum average weekly wage rates as at 31 March 1953, the series being confined to adult males.

OccupationAverage Wage (Four Principal Districts) at 31 March 1953
               Adult Maless.d.
     Journeymen .. ..2054
     Labourers .. .. ..1736
     First shopmen .. ..2192
     Second shopmen .. ..2040
Butter-factory employees—Churning and butter making: General hands .. .. ..1754
     Kilnmen .. .. ..1926
     Assistant smuttermen .. ..1834
     Rollermen .. .. ..2076
Meat freezing—
     Slaughtermen, per 100 sheep ..903
     General hands .. ..2100
Meat preserving—
     Boners .. .. ..2500
     General hands .. ..2100
Sausage-casing making: General hands2168
Aerated water and cordial making—
     Cordial makers .. ..1821
     Bottle washers .. ..1736
Brewing labourers .. ..1891
     Journeymen .. ..2000
     Factory hands .. ..2000
Boot operatives .. ..2000
Woollen mills—
     Spinners .. .. ..2034
     General hands .. ..1818
     Bricklayers .. .. ..2126
     Carpenters and joiners ..2068
     Plasterers .. .. ..2097
     Plumbers (competent) ..21010
     Builders' labourers .. ..1889
     General labourers .. ..1713
     Engine drivers .. ..2100
     Sawyers .. .. ..2147
     Tailers-out .. .. ..1956
     Yardmen, head .. ..2100
     General hands .. ..1918
Boatbuilding: Shipwrights ..2126
Metal works, &c.—
     Blacksmiths, floormen ..2026
     Boilermakers, journeymen ..2042
     Iron and brass moulders ..2026
     Tinsmiths, journeymen ..2042
     Engineering fitters, &c. ..2068
     Electrical workers .. ..2089
     Motor mechanics .. ..2126
     Linotype operators (day) ..2126
     Letterpress machinist (day) ..2042
Skin and leather workers—s.d.
     Curriers .. .. ..1942
     General hands .. ..1718
Mineral and stone workers—
     Brickmakers .. ..1940
     General hands .. ..1753
Mining (coal)—
          Tippers .. .. ..19711
          Labourers .. ..19711
     Miners (on day wages, per shift)423
     Truckers .. .. ..1921
Mining (gold): Miners in rises or winzes with machines ..1813
Quarrymen .. .. ..1775
Agricultural and pastoral workers—
     General farm hands .. ..1400
     Threshing-mill hands, per hour ..49 1/4
     Ploughmen .. .. ..1400
     Shearers (per 100 sheep shorn) ..616
     Shepherds .. .. ..1400
     Wool pressers .. ..22110
     Dairy-farm hands .. ..1700
     Engine drivers, average third and sixth years .. ..2221
     Firemen, average second and ninth years .. ..2018
     Guards, average first and third years .. .. ..21211
     Motormen .. .. ..1926
     Conductors .. .. ..1850
Shipping and cargo working—
     Assistant stewards, first grade ..1858
     Assistant stewards, second grade1824
     Chief cooks .. ..2293
     Second cooks .. ..2066
     A.B. seamen .. ..19911
     Ordinary seamen, first class ..1547
     Waterside workers: Ordinary cargo .. .. ..2000
Hotel workers—
     Chefs .. .. ..1921
     Waiters .. .. ..1341
     Soft-goods assistants (male) ..1954
     Grocers' assistants .. ..1871
     Warehouse storemen .. ..1868

Note.—The following perquisites (as assessed for statistical purposes), as at 31 March 1953, should be added to the listed occupations: General farm hands, ploughmen, shepherds, and dairy-farm hands, 30s. per week for board and lodging; shearers and wool pressers, 7s. per day for rations; assistant stewards (first and second grade), chief and second cooks, able and ordinary seamen, 41s. 10d. per week as value of board and lodging; and hotel chefs and waiters, 38s. per week as value of board and lodging.

Aggregate Weekly Wage Payment in Industry.—The following data, showing the average weekly wage pay-out in industry and relating to October 1952, have largely been extracted from the half-yearly survey conducted by the Department of Labour and Employment.

Industrial GroupPay-roll Strength, Males and Females Combined (Including Juveniles and Salaried Executives)Weekly Wage Payout (Including Overtime, Bonus Earnings, &c.)
AggregateAverage Per Person
Forestry, logging, mining, and quarrying— £     £     s.d.
     Forestry .. .. .. ..2,51024,95091810
     Logging .. .. .. ..2,27429,8171323
     Coalmining .. .. ..5,09571,6411413
     Other mining .. .. ..4575,6431270
     Quarrying (n.e.i.) .. .. ..85510,5171260
          Totals .. .. ..11,191142,56812149
Threshing and chaffcutting .. ..201577170
Seasonal manufacturing—
     Meat processing, &c. .. ..10,573127,5331213
     Fruit and vegetable preserving ..1,19511,246983
     Dairy factories .. .. ..4,93962,38312127
          Totals .. .. ..16,707201,16212010
Food, drink, and tobacco (other than seasonal)— £     £     s.d.
     Grain milling .. .. ..7908,9811174
     Bread bakeries .. .. ..2,35026,3501143
     Biscuit making .. .. ..1,10010,5739123
     Cake and pastry making .. ..1,68814,2578811
     Sugar and confectionery .. ..2,19621,3029140
     Other food .. .. ..1,45513,756991
     Beverages .. .. .. ..2,76932,97711182
     Tobacco manufacture .. ..1,33812,645990
          Totals .. .. ..13,686140,84110510
Textiles, clothing, and leather—
     Tanneries .. .. .. ..1,23414,9351221
     Fur dressing and manufacture ..4323,7508137
     Leather goods .. .. ..8437,4008157
     Knitted wear and hosiery .. ..3,13528,0778191
     Flax, rope, and twine .. ..5105,6881131
     Woollen mills .. .. ..2,78926,7959122
     Other textile production .. ..1,17712,40210109
     Clothing manufacture .. ..17,333126,991766
     Footwear manufacture .. ..4,78243,763930
     Footwear repair .. .. ..2342,171957
     Other textile articles .. ..1,13710,3939210
          Totals .. .. ..33,606282,365881
Building materials and furnishings—
     Sawmilling, plywoods, &c. .. ..8,11495,02611143
     Builders' woodwork .. ..4,02844,6421118
     Furniture and cabinets .. ..3,98939,1709165
     Other wood manufacture .. ..1,41614,3481028
     Brick, tile, and stoneware .. ..1,56920,37112198
     Pottery and glass .. .. ..1,46917,103111210
     Lime, cement, &c. .. .. ..4,22152,6631296
          Totals .. .. ..24,806283,3231186
Engineering and metal working—
     Engineering and machinery .. ..18,216214,66911158
     Electrical manufacture .. ..4,82648,3931007
     Ships, locomotives, &c. .. ..7,42484,4101175
     Vehicle and cycle manufacture ..4,32952,0181204
     Vehicle and aircraft repair .. ..15,181156,5051062
          Totals .. .. ..49,976555,9951126
Miscellaneous manufacturing—
     Chemicals and by-products .. ..5,27458,77511211
     Rubber manufacture .. .. .. ..1,88021,3901177
     Paper and paper products .. ..2,44825,2411063
     Printing, publishing, and allied services8,83496,74210190
     Instruments, clocks, jewellery ..9979,4689911
     Other manufacturing (n.e.i.) .. ..1,68215,570952
          Totals .. .. ..21,115227,18610152
          Totals, manufacturing industries159,8961,690,87210116
Power, water, and sanitary services ..10,906127,59611140
Building and construction .. ..40,135475,09911169
Transport and communication—
     Rail transport .. .. ..19,636255,6211304
     Road transport .. .. ..13,964159,3591183
     Water transport (not waterfront) ..4,31455,29112164
     Air transport .. .. ..88411,98413112
     Post and telegraph .. ..18,373177,11991210
          Totals .. .. ..57,171659,37411108
Distribution and finance—
     Wholesale and retail trade .. ..74,952731,7319153
     Storage .. .. .. ..5376,0061138
     Finance .. .. .. ..9,204102,59311211
     Insurance .. .. ..4,67151,4141102
     Real estate .. .. ..1,47914,5819172
          Totals .. .. ..90,843906,3259196
     Wool and grain stores (seasonal) ..1,65515,475970
          Totals (including wool and grain stores) .. .. ..92,498921,8009194
Domestic and personal services—
     Provision of lodging, food, &c. ..13,674119,60681411
     Portrait and photo studios .. ..7776,2538011
     Laundries, cleaning, &c. .. ..3,25030,026949
     Barbers, beauty shops, &c. .. ..1,49210,0736150
     Recreation, sports, &c. .. ..4,30247,6831118
          Totals .. .. ..23,495213,6419110
Administration and professional—
     Hospitals .. .. ..20,427182,5738189
     Medical and allied services .. ..1,77715,1648108
     Undertaking, &c. .. .. ..5856,41210193
     Education and instruction .. ..22,359254,5891179
     Arts, sciences, and religion .. ..4414,0979510
     Government services, (n.e.i.) ..17,858202,9231173
     Local Authorities (n.e.i.) .. ..8,25790,10210183
     Miscellaneous services and agencies ..7,30063,7228147
          Totals .. .. ..79,004819,5821076
          Grand totals, all industries surveyed .. .. ..474,3165,050,68910130

Estimated Distribution of the Labour Force (p. 868).—The following table supplies an estimated distribution of the total labour force at 15 October 1952 and 15 April 1953.

Industrial GroupMalesFemalesTotals
October 1952April 1953October 1952April 1953October 1952April 1953
Primary industry .. .. ..155·4150·513·213·2168·6163·7
Manufacturing industry .. ..135·3142·542·642·2177·9184·7
Power, water, and sanitary services ..10·210·80·70·710·911·5
Building and construction .. ..52·454·21·01·053·455·2
Transport and communication ..66·367·58·28·374·575·8
Distribution and finance .. ..75·476·937·238·0112·6114·9
Domestic and personal services ..17·118·026·927·444·045·4
Administration and professional ..53·353·651·553·0104·8106·6
               Totals, in industry .. ..565·4574·0181·3183·8746·7757·8
Armed forces .. .. ..10·611·11·01·011·612·1
Unemployed .. .. ..............
               Totals, labour force ..576·0585·1182·3184·8758·3769·9

Half-yearly Surveys of Employment (pp. 871-872). Following is a summary of the employment statistics as returned for 15 April 1953.

Primary Industry (Other than Farming, Fishing, and Hunting)Manufacturing IndustryPower, Water, and Sanitary ServicesBuilding and ConstructionTransport and CommunicationDistribution and FinanceDomestic and Personal ServicesAdministration and ProfessionalTotals, all Industries Covered
Male employees .. ..10,652127,83410,81240,60650,11761,76211,05441,368354,205
Male working proprietors ..3557,26943,9711,4196,6762,53536722,596
Female employees .. ..21538,7057369347,67432,83713,42639,181133,708
Female working proprietors ..11,058..1341,7441,5771594,574
Number of establishments60811,7402443,8962,35912,4684,0643,40938,788

The figures shown in the manufacturing industry column are further subdivided as follows.

Food, Drink, and TobaccoTextiles, Clothing, and LeatherBuilding Materials and FurnishingsEngineering and Metal WorkingMiscellaneous Manufacturing
Male employees .. ..30,29612,06323,42146,25415,800
Male working proprietors ..1,0108701,5473,116726
Female employees .. ..6,62820,8391,2274,3625,649
Female working proprietors ..441498203960
Number of establishments ..1,9161,9632,4704,1031,288

Limitations in the coverage of the figures shown above are noted on page 871.

Summary of Vacancies, Placements, and Disengaged Persons.—This table gives additional figures to those presented on page 878.

Vacancies at End of MonthPlacements During MonthDisengaged Persons at End of Month
Monthly average over calendar year—
     1952 .. .. ..11,7335,91417,6471,4705352,005331447
Monthly total—
          January .. .. ..8,9883,64612,6341,8341,0672,901402161
          February .. ..9,2093,86413,0731,8371,2353,072282452
          March .. .. ..8,8923,59212,4841,4237312,154371249
          April .. .. ..8,6793,53212,2111,3715871,958371956



Shipping and Cargo Handled (pp. 308-316).—Statistics of entrances and clearances of vessels in the foreign trade in 1951 and 1952, and the total calls made in the foreign and coastal trade for the same years, are shown in the following table. The tonnage of cargo handled is also given, the 1951 figures containing some amended entries from those given in the pages quoted.

Calendar Year
          Number of vessels .. ..546714
          Net tonnage .. .. ..2,552,8093,058,247
Clearances —
          Number of vessels .. ..550722
          Net tonnage .. .. ..2,548,0403,114,597
Total calls made—
          Number of vessels .. ..1,3971,820
          Net tonnage .. .. ..6,131,3677,640,410
          Number of vessels .. ..11,41513,622
          Net tonnage .. .. ..3,805,6904,621,963
          Number of vessels .. ..12,81215,442
          Net tonnage .. .. ..9,937,05712,262,373
Tonnage of cargo handled—
     Inwards .. .. .. ..5,459,8646,783,072
     Outwards .. .. .. ..2,762,5223,174,834
     Transhipped .. .. ..152,839207,218
Total manifest tonnage .. ..8,528,06410,372,342

Statistics of shipping movement and cargo handled at New Zealand ports in 1951 and 1952 are given below.

Total Shipping MovementTotal Cargo Handled
1951: Net Tonnage1952: Net Tonnage1951: Tons1952: Tons
Auckland .. .. ..3,9774,6982,8353,351
Wellington .. .. ..6,2857,5862,1172,647
Lyttelton .. .. ..3,6354,5629451,169
Dunedin .. .. ..1,5222,007519649
Other ports .. .. ..4,3895,7142,1122,557
               Totals .. ..19,80824,5678,52810,372

Railway Transport (pp. 320-328).—Summarized statistics of railway transport in the years ended 31 March 1951, 1952, and 1953 follow.

UnitYear Ended 31 March
* Including road motor and other subsidiary services
Passenger journeys—
     Railways .. .. .. ..(000)24,82421,29321,455
     Railway road motor services ..(000)24,09124,66424,120
Tonnage of goods carried—
     Timber .. .. .. ..Tons (000)808744819
     Livestock .. .. ..Tons (000)645639647
     Coal .. .. .. ..Tons (000)8,1638,4468,560
     Lime and manures .. ..Tons (000)
     Other goods .. .. ..Tons (000)
     Totals .. .. .. ..Tons (000)9,6169,82910,026
Net ton miles run .. .. ..Millions1,0271,0691,060
     Railway operation .. .. ..£ (000)18,50020,09722,589
     Total* .. .. .. ..£ (000)22,08523,99326,608
     Railway operation .. .. ..£ (000)18,72521,51522,755
     Total* .. .. .. ..£ (000)22,08025,19626,525

Road Transport (p. 341).—Statistics of motor-vehicles licensed at 31 March 1952 and 1953 are as follows.

ClassAs at 31 March
* Not required to register in this and earlier years.
Cars .. .. ..280,458305,672
     Light .. ..53,16756,582
     Heavy .. ..42,01444,459
Contract vehicles ..2,1032,106 
Omnibuses .. ..1,6781,762
Taxis .. .. ..2,2222,233
Rental cars .. ..1,5571,638
Private-hire cars ..306352
Service cars .. ..703727
Trailers .. ..40,93744,137
Local authority, &c., vehicles42,97145,564
Government vehicles ..12,01813,900
Motor cycles .. ..26,70325,546
Power cycles .. ..*3,651
               Totals .. ..506,837548,329
Dealers' cars .. ..2,1822,312
Dealers' motor cycles ..140121
               Grand totals ..509,159550,762

REHABILITATION (pp. 236-245)

The following table gives particulars of rehabilitation-loan authorizations for the years ended 31 March 1952 and 1953, and the totals to 31 March 1953.

Class of LoanNumberAmount
1951-521952-53Total to 31 March 19531951-521952-53Total to 31 March 1953
 £ (000)£ (000)£ (000)
Purchase of farm, &c. ..9238539,4495,6185,96446,362
     Erection .. ..1,9581,34919,1303,5682,53229,734
     Purchase .. ..1,9982,51124,1582,8133,88826,489
Tools of trade .. ..22141,4591148
Furniture .. ..4,1463,29857,1033993165,315
Business .. ..60442810,6994073116,842
Miscellaneous .. ..412963344129
               Totals .. ..9,6928,482122,63112,81013,016114,918

Included in the foregoing total figures are 21,557 supplementary housing loans for £2,842,688. These loans, which are not repayable so long as the ex-serviceman or his dependants continue in occupation of the property, are granted to assist in bridging the gap between present-day costs and normal values, and each case is considered on its merits.

The figures shown in the table are exclusive of 6,070 suspensory loans (4,664 residential and 1,406 farm), amounting to £2,267,465 (£792,795 residential, £1,474,670 farm), made up to 31 March 1953.

EDUCATION (p. 138)

The following table shows the number of scholars and students receiving instruction in the educational institutions of New Zealand during the years 1951 and 1952. Registered private schools are included.


* Exclusive of students taking part-time courses with the Correspondence School, 1,269 in 1951 and 1,227 in 1952.

† Includes 735 students taking short courses at the agricultural colleges in 1951 and 614 in 1952.

Primary schools .. .. ..321,189341,156
Post-primary schools .. .. ..57,097*61,529*
Technical classes (part-time) .. ..22,85026,349
Universities .. .. .. ..11,691†11,305†
               Totals .. .. ..413,027440,339


Radio Licences (p. 372).—The number of radio licences for receiving stations in force on 31 March 1953 was 491,856, and for all classes of radio licences 496,355, compared with 479,533 and 483,883 respectively at 31 March 1952.

Horse Racing (p. 635).—The number of racing days in the calendar year 1952 was 359. Totalizator investments totalled £33,739,000 in 1952 (£28,277,000 in 1951), while Government taxation totalled £3,128,000 in 1952 (£2,659,000 in 1951).

Land Transfers (pp. 377-380).—Transactions under the Land Transfer Act have been on a very heavy scale during the last three financial years, although there was a substantial decrease in the number of transfers in 1952-53. The heavy increases during recent years were, no doubt, contributed to by the exemption of town and suburban properties from control as from 23 February 1950, and the relaxation of controls on farm lands as from 1 November 1950, and to the increases in prices generally over the period. The average amount per transaction (town and suburban properties) in 1952-53 was £2,082, as compared with £1,586 in 1951-52 and £1,234 in 1950-51. The number of transfers of town and country properties noticeably declined in 1952-53 as compared with 1951-52.

Year Ended 31 March
Town and suburban properties—
     Number .. .. ..49,88046,14539,325
     Consideration .. .. £61,537,00073,165,00065,461,000
Country properties—
     Number .. .. ..8,05810,4649,053
     Area .. .. .. Acres1,457,7061,848,6011,616,781
     Consideration .. .. £17,823,00035,965,00035,241,000
All properties—
     Number .. .. ..57,93856,60948,378
     Consideration .. .. £79,360,000109,129,000100,702,000

Mortgages (pp. 700-709).—Particulars of gross totals of mortgages registered and discharged during the last three financial years are shown below. In sympathy with the movement in land transfer registrations, mortgage registrations have been particularly heavy during recent years, the rise in the amount of consideration from £36,049,000 in 1949-50 to £73,179,000 in 1951-52 being particularly outstanding. The 1952-53 figure of £74,732,000 showed only a slight increase on the total for the previous year.

Year Ended 31 MarchRegistered*Discharged*
* Inclusive of duplicate registrations and discharges.
  £      £     
1951 .. ..43,89046,056,00035,51032,270,000
1952 .. ..49,88673,179,00037,93537,595,000
1953 .. ..50,65974,732,00034,16031,401,000

Justice.—Prisoners in gaols at end of calendar year (pp. 212-218): 1951, 1,076, or 5·46 per 10,000 of population; 1952, 1,113, or 5·58 per 10,000 of population.

Registration of Aliens (pp. 30-31).—The number of aliens on the register at 1 April 1953 totalled 21,726 (14,732 males, 6,994 females), compared with 1 April 1952 figures of 16,229 (11,050 males, 5,179 females).

Naturalizations (p. 29).—The number of certificates of naturalization issued to former aliens during the year ended 31 March 1953 was 118, compared with a total of 127 in the previous year. Certificates of registration as a New Zealand citizen were granted to 228 citizens of other countries of the Commonwealth or of former aliens (239 in 1951-52), and 34 certificates of registration (40 in 1951-52) to minor children (either citizens of other countries of the Commonwealth or former aliens).


Page 63, last line of page: Insert “or is” before word “removed”.

Page 67, last line of table: For entry 16·25, read 16·52.

Page 415, last line of page: For 1963, read 1953.


AREA AND BOUNDARIES.—The administrative responsibilities of New Zealand devolve over a large area, the land territories of which consist principally of a number of islands of varying size in the South Pacific Ocean, together with a large uninhabited tract in the Antarctic Ocean. While the two largest and most important islands, the North and South Islands of New Zealand, are separated only by a relatively narrow strait, the remaining islands or island groups are very much smaller and in general are widely dispersed over a considerable expanse of ocean.

The boundaries of New Zealand inclusive of its most outlying islands and dependencies range from the northern limit of the 8th degree of south latitude to south of the 60th degree of south latitude, the complementary extremes of longitude with origin Greenwich being from the 160th degree of east longitude to the 150th degree of west longitude.

The precise boundaries as they now exist were originally defined in the relevant proclamations, letters patent, and legislation mentioned in the pages immediately following; general statements are contained in the description next presented relating to those areas over which New Zealand exercises jurisdiction or administrative responsibility. In all instances the measurement of longitude refers to the number of meridians cast or west of Greenwich.

In proceeding from north to south, the first area, including the Tokelau Islands some 300 miles north of Western Samoa or 2,300 miles approximately north by east of Wellington (the capital of New Zealand), extends from the 8th to the 10th degrees of south latitude and from the 171st to the 173rd degrees of west longitude. The second area encloses the Cook and associated islands distant from Wellington in a north-easterly direction approximately 2,100 miles (Cook (Lower) Group) to 2,800 miles (Northern Group and Niue). The Cook (Lower) and Northern Groups are bounded on the east and west by the 156th and 167th degrees of west longitude respectively, and on the north and south by the 8th and 23rd degrees of south latitude. Nine Island is situated in latitude 19° 10' south and longitude 169° 46' west.

Then follows a third zone covering the trust territory of Western Samoa, which is some 2,000 miles distant to the north-north-east and contained within the 13th to the 15th degrees of south latitude and the 171st to 173rd degrees of west longitude.

Farther south, and slightly north by east from New Zealand, a matter of roughly 1,000 miles from Wellington, is situated the Kermadec Islands group. These islands lie between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude.

New Zealand as defined after the extension of boundaries in 1863 constitutes the fifth and principal area. Its boundaries extend from the 33rd to the 53rd degrees of south latitude and from the 162nd degree of east longitude to the 173rd degree of west longitude.

The sixth area relates to the Ross Dependency which is administered by New Zealand and consists of the coasts of the Ross Sea with adjacent islands and territories between the 160th degree of east longitude and the 150th degree of west longitude, and south of the 60th degree of south latitude.

Jointly with the United Kingdom Government and the Government of Australia, New Zealand is responsible for the administration of the Trust Territory of the Island of Nauru. The administrative appointments for Nauru are made by the Australian Government, but New Zealand appoints a representative to the British Phosphates Commission, which controls the working of the phosphate deposits.

For statistical purposes, the following classification of the administrative area of New Zealand is the most convenient, the actual areas being also given. It should be noted also that statistics for "New Zealand" refer to the group of islands shown in (a) only, unless it is expressly stated that the other islands as a whole or in part are included.

New Zealand:—Area in Square Miles
(a) Exclusive of Island Territories— 
        North Island44,281
        South Island58,093
        Stewart Island670
        Chatham Islands372
        Minor islands— 
                    Kermadec Islands13
                    Campbell Island44
            Uninhabited (areas in parentheses)—263
                    Three Kings (3). Snares (1). 
                    Solander (1/2). Antipodes (24). 
                    Bounty (1/2). Auckland (234). 
                        Total New Zealand, exclusive of Island Territories103,736
(b) Island Territories— 
        Tokelau Islands, comprised of4
            Fakaofo Island, Nukunono Island, Atafu Island Cook and associated islands, comprised of— 
Cook (Lower) Group84
                    Rarotonga. Aitutaki. 
                    Mangaia. Mauke. 
                    Atiu. Takutea. 
                    Mitiaro. Manuae and Te-au-o-tu. 
        Northern Group15
                    Palmerston. Pukapuka. 
                    Penrhyn. Suwarrow. 
                    Manihiki. Nassau. 
        Niue Island100
                        Total New Zealand, inclusive of Island Territories103,939
Ross Dependency (Estimated)175,000
Trust Territory of Western Samoa1,133

The total area of the foregoing groups exclusive of the Ross Dependency and the Trust Territory of Western Samoa is 103,939 square miles. Elsewhere in this issue—viz., in the section of land tenure, settlement, &c.—the aggregate area of New Zealand appears as 66,390,700 acres—i.e., 103,736 square miles. The latter area does not include the Cook and associated islands or the Tokelau Islands.

The relevant Proclamations, defining from time to time the administrative area of New Zealand, are briefly referred to in the following paragraphs.

The Proclamation of British sovereignty over New Zealand, dated 30 January 1840, gave as the boundaries of what was then the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30'S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10'; on the east, 179° 0'E. long.; on the west, 166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island, and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In 1842, by Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. The minor islands mentioned earlier were thus brought within the extended boundaries of New Zealand, being assigned to the appropriate province on the occasion of the 1847 Proclamation dividing the country into two provinces. The number of provinces was increased in later years, though all were finally abolished in 1875. By Proclamation bearing date 21 July 1887 the Kermadec Islands were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the then colony of New Zealand.

By Proclamation of 10 June 1901 the Cook Islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary lines mentioned earlier, were included as from 11 June 1901.

The territory of Western Samoa was formerly administered pursuant to a mandate conferred upon His Britannic Majesty, to be administered on his behalf by the Government of New Zealand, and confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations on 17 December 1920. Following the replacement of the League of Nations by the United Nations, a draft Trusteeship Agreement for Western Samoa was prepared by the New Zealand Government and submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations late in 1946. This draft agreement replaced the original mandate and thus brought the Territory within the framework of the international trusteeship system established under the United Nations Charter. Under the new agreement the New Zealand Government assumed direct responsibility for the administration of Western Samoa. The agreement was approved by the General Assembly on 13 December 1946. Western Samoa is comprised of two large islands, Upolu and Savai'i, and the small islands of Manono, Apolima, Fanuatapu, Namu'a, Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, and Nu'usafe'e.

By Imperial Order in Council of 30 July 1923 the coasts of the Ross Sea (in the Antarctic regions), with the adjacent islands and territories between the limits specified earlier, were declared a British settlement within the meaning of the British Settlements Act 1887. This region was named the Ross Dependency, and placed under the administration of the Governor-General of New Zealand. The dependency is uninhabited.

By Imperial Orders in Council of 4 November 1925 the Tokelau Islands (consisting of the islands of Fakaofo, Nukunono, and Atafu, and the small islands, islets, rocks, and reefs depending on them, a total area of only four square miles) were excluded from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, and placed under the administration of the Governor-General of New Zealand. In accordance with a provision of the second of these Orders in Council, the Governor-General's authority and power in connection with the administration of the islands were, by New Zealand Order in Council of 8 March 1926, delegated to the Administrator of Western Samoa.

By the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, which came into operation on 1 January 1949, the Tokelau Islands were declared to form part of New Zealand. This Act emerged as the result of an agreement between the United Kingdom and New Zealand Governments.

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES.Coast Line.—Since the combined length of the North and South Islands extends just over a thousand miles, and since the width of neither Island exceeds 280 miles at its broadest point, New Zealand possesses a very lengthy coast line in proportion to its area. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland peninsula, the New Zealand landmass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis, parallel to the direction of its mountain chains.

By reason of the latter fact the coast line is, on the whole, not greatly indented; and, as a consequence, New Zealand is not well endowed with natural harbours. In the North Island, Auckland and Wellington are the only two safe natural harbours of which the fullest commercial use can be made. On the east coast of the North Auckland peninsula several deep and sheltered harbours exist, but as the surrounding country is comparatively undeveloped they are of little economic consequence at present. In the South Island the Marlborough Sounds and the West Coast Sounds form perfect land-locked harbours, but owing to their situations and to the rugged nature of the terrain they have—with the exception of Queen Charlotte Sound—little or no commercial utility. Where vital localities have not been endowed with ideal harbours it has been necessary to improve existing facilities by dredging and by breakwater construction, &c. In this manner efficient ports, capable of accommodating overseas vessels, have been formed in Lyttelton, Otago, and Bluff harbours. On the west coast of both Islands the strong ocean drifts and high seas cause shoaling at river mouths and harbour entrances, while on the east coast of the South Island similar circumstances prevail, due to the large quantities of shingle brought down by the rivers being spread along the coast by ocean currents. The mountainous nature of the country makes the haulage of goods to and from the better equipped natural harbours both costly and difficult, and the construction and maintenance of further ports at various points along the coasts of both Islands has been necessary, either by dredging river mouths or by harbour-construction work.

Mountains.—The mountainous nature of New Zealand is one of its most striking physical characteristics, less than one-quarter of the land surface lying below the 650 ft. contour. In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont (8,260 ft.), Ruapehu (9,175 ft.), Ngauruhoe (7,515 ft.), and Tongariro (6,458 ft.), they do not exceed an altitude of 6,000 ft. Of these four volcanoes only the first named can be classed as dormant. Ruapehu was particularly active from March 1945 to the end of that year, being responsible for considerable deposits of volcanic ash over a very wide area, while spectacular activity was exhibited by Ngauruhoe in 1949 and again early in 1953. In both cases violent eruptions alternated with quieter periods. Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers.

The mountain system of the North Island runs generally in a south-west direction, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Cape Turakarae, and includes the following ranges from the north: Raukumara, Huiarau, Ruahine, Tararua, and Rimutaka. This chain is flanked on the west between the Huiarau and Ruahine by the Ahimanawa, Kaweka, and Kaimanawa ranges, while west of the Kaimanawa is the National Park volcanic group comprising Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro. The Hauhangaroa and Rangitoto ranges run in a northerly direction from the National Park group. In the east the Colville and Moehau ranges parallel the length of the Coromandel Peninsula. Mount Egmont forms the only country above 4,000 ft. on the west coast of this island.

The South Island is much more mountainous than the North, but shows fewer manifestations of recent volcanic activity. Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook (12,349 ft.), while no fewer than seventeen peaks exceed 10,000 ft. West and north-west of the main portion of the Southern Alps are the Victoria, Brunner, and Lyell ranges and the Tasman Mountains, the Victoria Range being flanked by the Paparoa range. To the north run the St. Arnaud and Raglan ranges, while to the north-east are the Spenser Mountains and the Kaikoura and Seaward Kaikoura ranges, the two latter ranges running parallel to the east coast. The south portion of the Southern Alps breaks up into a miscellany of ranges dominating the mountainous Fiord and north-western Southland regions.

As might be expected, the higher mountains of the South Island have exerted a greater influence on the economic development of the country than those of the North Island. For many years the Southern Alps were an effective barrier to communication by land between the east and west coasts, while their climatic effects on the Canterbury plains and Otago plateaux determined the types of cultivation undertaken. Moreover, the existence of much elevated open country led to the development of pastoral holdings on a large scale. While the mountains in the North Island are not as high nor as extensive as those of the South Island, in the early days they effectively isolated various portions of the coastal plains and valleys. Their effect on climatic conditions, however, is considerably less, the rainfall being more evenly distributed. Owing to this more even distribution of the rainfall, and to the existence of considerable areas of lower relief, the foothills of the mountain systems were heavily wooded, and so proved a hindrance to agrarian development.

In the 1931 issue of the Year-Book a list was given, not claimed as exhaustive, of 223 named peaks of 7,500 ft. or more in altitude. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the four largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 9,000 ft. in the South Island. The list has been compiled from various sources, and does not purport to be free from omissions.

Mountain or PeakHeight (Feet)
North Island 
South Island 
Kaikoura Ranges 
Southern Alps 
    David's Dome10,443
    Malte Brun10,421
    Elie de Beaumont10,200
    Douglas Peak10,107
    La Perouse10,101
    De la Beche10,058
    The Minarets10,058
    Glacier Peak9,865
    Arguilles Rouges9,731
    Le Receveur9,562
    Big Mac9,511
    Conway Peak9,510
    Bristol Top9,508
    Hochstetter Dome9,258
    The Footstool9,073
    The Dwarf9,025
Darran Range 

Glaciers.—In keeping with the dimensions of the mountain system, New Zealand possesses, in the South Island, a glacial system of some magnitude. Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. Flowing down the eastern slope of the range, the Tasman glacier has a length of 18 miles and a width of 1 1/4 miles. In common with other glaciers on the eastern slope, of which the more important are the Murchison (11 miles), the Mueller (8 miles), the Godley (8 miles), and the Hooker (7 1/4 miles), its rate of flow is slow, while its terminal face is at an altitude of somewhat over 2,000 ft. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. The two largest of these are the Fox and the Franz Josef, with lengths of 9 1/4 miles and 8 1/2 miles respectively, and terminal faces at altitudes of 670 ft. and 690 ft.

As will be realized, these glaciers are an important tourist attraction, and as such have definite economic significance. Moreover, those glaciers on the eastern slopes which feed rivers utilized for irrigation and hydro-electric purposes are valuable in that they help to ensure a steady volume of water throughout the year.

Rivers.—Of the numerous New Zealand rivers few are of sufficient length or volume to be navigable. Moreover, owing to the high relief of the country, they are mostly swift-flowing, while, as mentioned previously, nearly all are obstructed at their mouths by bars. For the purpose of internal communication, therefore, they are of little economic utility, and only in two or three isolated instances have they been thus consistently used. With improved roading conditions, however, their traffic has become negligible even in these cases.

As sources of hydro-electric power New Zealand rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of ice-free water make them eminently suitable for this purpose. At the present time the Waikato and the Mangahao in the North Island and the Waitaki, Cobb, and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes, and a further major development is now being undertaken on the Clutha. The characteristics just mentioned are also important for purposes of irrigation, but, owing to the country's reliable rainfall, there are few areas other than in Canterbury and Otago where the rivers are so utilized.

In the 1932 Year-Book appears an account of the rivers of New Zealand, but space in this issue is, however, available only for a list of the more important ones. The lengths of rivers shown have been recently revised and differ in many instances from those previously given. For purposes of uniformity, the length of a river is taken to be the distance from the mouth to the farthest point in the system whether this should happen to bear the same name or that of an affluent, and is inclusive of the estimated course of a river flowing into and emerging from any lake in the system.

North Island
Flowing into the Pacific OceanMiles
    Waihou (or Thames)95
    Waiapu (from source Mata River)75
    Waipaoa (from source Waipapa Stream)70
    Wairoa (from source Hangaroa River)85
    Mohaka (from source Taharua River)95
Flowing into Cook Strait 
Flowing into the Tasman Sea 
    Waikato (from source Upper Waikato River)270
    Wairoa (from source Waiotu Stream)115
    Hokianga (from source Waihou River)45
South Island
Flowing into Cook StraitMiles
    Aorere (from source Spee River)45
    Takaka (from source Cobb River)45
    Waimea (from source Wai-iti River)30
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean 
    Waiau-uha (or Waiau)105
    Rangitata (from source Clyde River)75
    Waitaki (from source Hopkins River)135
    Clutha (from source Makarora River)210
Flowing into Foveaux Strait 
    Aparima (Jacobs River)70
    Waiau (from source Clinton River)135
Flowing into the Tasman Sea 
    Waiho (from source Callery River)20
    Buller (from source Travers River)110

The discovery in 1861 that the beds of numerous rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the economic development of the country. Not only did it lead to an increase in population and in wealth, but, through the following of the numerous streams to their sources, it also led to the rapid exploration of large tracts of remote country. The exploitation of these deposits has been carried on with varying degrees of success up to the present time by both manual and mechanical means.

A further factor in connection with the rivers is that, owing to the very successful acclimatization of fresh-water fish, notably trout, many of them now provide exceptionally fine fishing.

Lakes.—In considering New Zealand's numerous lakes a distinction can be made, especially from the scenic viewpoint, between the lakes of the two Islands. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while those of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, are of interest by reason of the neighbouring thermal activity. Owing to the excellence of their fishing, the North Island lakes possess an added tourist attraction. In both Islands the larger lakes are situated at high altitudes, and their consequent remoteness renders them unsuitable as a means of communication. In their functions as reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the streams draining them and as a means of flood prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involved, Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, Tekapo, Wanaka, Hawea, and Wakatipu in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect.

An article on the lakes of New Zealand will be found in the 1932 Year-Book. Some particulars of the more important are given in the following table.

LakeLength, in MilesGreatest Breadth, in MilesArea, in Square MilesDrainage Area, in Square MilesApproximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Feet Per SecondHeight above See Level, in FeetGreatest Depth, in Feet
North Island       
Rotoiti10 3/42 1/41426500913230
Tarawera6 1/26 1/21575 1,032285
Waikaremoana126 1/4211287722,015846
Wairarapa104271,250  64
South Island       
Rotoiti522 3/486 1,997228
Rotoroa72 1/28146 1,470 
Brunner5416145 280357
Kaniere51 3/4811 422646
Coleridge1131870 1,667680
Wanaka30475960 922 
Te Anau3361321,32012,660694906
Manapouri12656416 5961,458
Poteriteri17217162 96 
Waihola4 1/21 1/93 1/32,200 (Tidal)52
Ellesmere1610107 1/2745 (Tidal)45

GEOLOGY.—An article on the geology of New Zealand prepared by Dr. J. Henderson, M.A., F.R.S.N.Z., former Director of the Geological Survey, is contained in the 1940 and earlier editions of the Year-Book. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the treatises of Professors Park and Marshall, the bulletins of the Geological Survey, and the many papers that have appeared in the "Transactions of the New Zealand Institute" (now the Royal Society of New Zealand).

EARTHQUAKES.—An article on earthquakes in New Zealand appeared in the 1942 and earlier issues of the Year-Book. The information given below has been supplied by Mr. R. C. Hayes, Director of the Seismological Observatory.

Seismicity and Earthquake Distribution.—A comparison between the records of destructive earthquakes in New Zealand and those in other seismic countries shows that the seismicity of New Zealand, on the whole, is surprisingly high. However, this is due to the occurrence of a large number of earthquakes of the semi-destructive type (M.-M. 7) with comparatively few major destructive shocks (M.-M. 8-12).

During the period 1835-1951, 78 destructive earthquakes are known to have occurred in New Zealand, 58 of which were of the semi-destructive type (not exceeding intensity M.-M. 7). Of the remainder, 14 were of intensity M.-M. 8-9 and 6 of intensity M.-M. 10-12.

The total number of earthquakes of all intensities, and the maximum intensity, reported felt in New Zealand in each of the years 1922 to 1951 were as follows.

YearNumber of Earthquakes Reported FeltMaximum Intensity of Heaviest Shock
R.-F. ScaleM.-M.* Scale
* Modified Mercalli Scale of 1931, which is now used for recording earthquake effects in New Zealand.

The abnormally large number of earthquakes reported in the year 1922 was due to the swarm of local shocks in the Taupo region in the latter half of that year. Abnormally large numbers of shocks also occurred in 1929-30, due to aftershocks of the Buller earthquake of 17 June 1929.

Summary of Seismic Activity in New Zealand in 1951.—The outstanding seismic event in 1951 was the severe disturbance in the Cheviot region, which commenced on 11 January. The initial shock reached intensity M.-M. 7-8 in the epicentral area, causing considerable damage. It was felt from Cook Strait to Hokitika and South Canterbury. The instrumental magnitude was 5-6. Several strong aftershocks occurred, in addition to a large number of minor ones. One aftershock on 18 January reached intensity M.-M. 6-7 at Cheviot. This activity began to decline towards the end of January, and during the remainder of the year seismic activity in general was more normal.

On 10 February there was an outbreak of activity off the coast of southern Hawke's Bay. The initial shock of magnitude 6 1/4-6 1/2 was felt widely in the North Island, the maximum intensity reported being M.-M. 6.

A shock of magnitude of near 7 intensity and depth 370 km. occurred on 28 March beneath the White Island region. It was felt extensively in the central and eastern parts of the North Island and south to the Cook Strait region.

On 23 April a shock of magnitude 6 3/4 occurred in the East Cape Peninsula and one on 24 June of magnitude 6 1/4 in the region between Hawke's Bay and Ohakune. Both these shocks were widely felt, with maximum intensity near 7, causing some damage in the epicentral regions.

During the period April-May there was some concentrated local activity of moderate intensity in the region west and north-west of Lake Taupo and in the Cape Campbell area.

During July and August there was some seismic activity in the far south. The principal shock occurred on 7 July with epicentre in the Milford Sound region. It was felt throughout Otago and Southland and in southern Westland, with maximum intensity M.-M. 5.

A considerable number of shocks were reported felt during October, the main activity being centred in the Takaka region. These shocks were perceptible at various places from Taranaki to Hokitika, the maximum reported intensity being M.-M. 5-6.

In December there was an outbreak of activity north of Taranaki, with two shocks reaching intensity M.-M. 5 on the 12th and 14th days of the month. There was also a considerable number of minor ones.

In all, 226 earthquakes were reported felt in New Zealand during the year; 71 in the North Island and 165 in the South Island. 10 of these shocks were felt in some part of both Islands.

Regional Distribution.—New Zealand earthquake statistics over the past hundred years or so show that certain parts of the country are subject to almost continuous seismic activity with occasional destructive shocks, while other parts are more or less free from seismic disturbances. By combining early earthquake records with the more precise data of later years it is possible to divide the country roughly into four seismic regions. These regions are classified below, in order of seismicity.

  1. All areas of the North Island east and south of an approximate line from the vicinity of Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty to the vicinity of Hawera in South Taranaki, and all areas of the South Island north of an approximate line from the vicinity of Hokitika on the West Coast, through the region of Lake Coleridge, to Banks Peninsula:

  2. South Auckland, western Bay of Plenty, Waikato, and Taranaki (except the southern portion):

  3. Areas of the South Island, south of the boundary of region I:

  4. Areas north of Auckland.

The following table shows the average frequency of earthquakes in each of the four regions defined above.

RegionAverage Number of Earthquakes Per Year (1921-1940)Average Number of Destructive Shocks Per Decade (1835-1940)Relative Seismicity Based on Destructive Shocks
Minor Shocks (R.-F. 8)Major Shocks (R.-F. 9, 10)
II23.01.1 1.1
III12.10.1 0.1
IV1.1  0.0

The boundaries between the seismic regions are not well defined, since one region generally merges more or less imperceptibly into another. Further, seismic frequency is not uniform. This leads to the number of shocks being considerably above the average in some years and below it in others. The normal irregularity is increased by the occasional occurrence of earthquake swarms in certain regions. Probably the most notable swarm in New Zealand was that which occurred in the Taupo region in the latter half of 1922. The number of minor local shocks in this swarm was so great that only the stronger ones, or those affecting the adjacent region, were used in determining the average frequency of region I. Major earthquakes occur chiefly in the eastern and southern parts of region I.

Deaths due to Earthquakes.—During the period 1848-1951 the number of deaths recorded in New Zealand as due directly or indirectly to earthquakes was 284. Of these, 255 were due to the Hawke's Bay earthquake of 3 February 1931.

CLIMATE.—The collection of climatic data for the use of Government Departments and the general public is a function of the New Zealand Meteorological Service. It maintains approximately 110 stations within New Zealand and 35 on islands of the South West Pacific for the recording of full climatic data, supplemented by approximately 900 stations in New Zealand and 130 in the Pacific Islands recording rainfall. Most of these stations are operated by public bodies, Government Departments, or voluntary observers. Additional records are provided by over a hundred stations which report by telegraph or radio for forecasting purposes.

A general description of the climate of New Zealand is contained in an article supplied by Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, O.B.E., M.Sc., Ph.D., F.Inst.P., Director of the New Zealand Meteorological Service, which was included in the 1942 and earlier editions of the Year-Book.

Detailed climatological statistics are published annually in the Meteorological Observations. Work on this publication ceased during the war years, and this has delayed the appearance of recent issues, the latest available being that for 1946. Current statistics appear monthly in a climatological table included in the New Zealand Gazette.

The following table provides a brief summary of the main climatological elements for selected locations.

Climatological Averages (Over a Period of Years)
StationAltitudeAverage Annual Rainfall*Average Number of Rain DaysAverage Bright SunshineTemperature in Shade, Degrees Fahrenheit
Mean Daily MaximumMean Daily Minimum

* Rainfall averages refer to standard period 1921-1950.

† Normals relate to present site.

 Ft.In. Hrs.      
Te Paki, Te Hapua20056.711692,16972.859.265.957.045.952.0
Hamilton East13145.951612,05674.6†55.9†65.5†51.7†37.1†44.7†
Onepoto, Lake Waikare-moana2,10076.90183 68.147.658.052.037.745.0
New Plymouth16061.161862,21169.154.862.255.242.949.3
Plant Research Bureau, Palmerston North11039.051701,83970.553.162.254.339.146.9
Waingawa, Masterton34038.011422,09174.353.363.750.535.843.4
Lake Coleridge1,19531.54114 70.748.661.149.130.340.7
Milford Sound20253.50194 64.448.357.

Brief Review of 1951.—Rainfall was much above average in eastern districts from Canterbury to Gisborne, also about Nelson, Marlborough, and in the far north. Canterbury established a new record for wetness, many parts of the province having received more than the average annual rainfall in the first half of the year. In and near Christchurch the year's rainfall had not been exceeded in over ninety years of recordings. For the remainder of the country rainfall was close to the average, except in south Westland and in parts of Southland and Taranaki where there was a small but appreciable deficiency.

Mainly resulting from the wet cold weather of late autumn and winter, both the duration of sunshine and the mean temperature for the year were appreciably below average east of the main ranges. Temperatures elsewhere were about normal, but sunshine was deficient over the whole of the North Island. From Masterton to Gisborne the deficiency was at least 200 hours, while Napier's total of 2075 hours was 330 hours below the average, and the lowest since records commenced in 1907.

Seasonal Notes.—The year started with a period of mild, settled weather, but conditions deteriorated towards the end of January, when gales caused the loss of some crops of small seeds. Temperatures on the whole were above normal throughout the summer and early autumn, but conditions generally were rather unsettled, especially in eastern districts, where the rainfall was persistently high. In Canterbury it was a particularly wet period, and much trouble was experienced in harvesting cereal crops and preparing the ground for autumn sowings. Sheepfarmers also had their troubles, but it was an excellent season for the dairying industry.

Rain fell profusely in April and extensive flooding occurred about the middle of the month in Canterbury, where the weather remained unsettled through the succeeding month. May was also wet in the Gisborne district, but elsewhere it was mainly sunny though rather cold.

In June the weather was more settled, but temperatures were very cold, with many severe frosts. In Canterbury it was the coldest June for over forty years, but, fortunately, snowfalls were light and were confined to the high country. Unsettled weather predominated for the remainder of the winter season, with August temperatures below even those of July. A heavy fall of snow down to low levels towards the middle of August caused many deaths among new-born lambs in the North Island.

September was remarkable for its record low rainfall. By contrast, the remainder of the spring season was characterized by a persistence of dull stormy weather. Although spring growth got away to an excellent start the season became progressively more backward. Conditions were not at all favourable for early vegetables, the North Island potato crop being particularly poor. However, in spite of frequent and often heavy rain, there was no major flooding. It was not a good season for stock, especially for sheep, and shearing operations were considerably delayed.

December brought little improvement, cold, changeable conditions prevailing throughout. Farmers wishing to turn their large surplus of grass into hay found few opportunities of doing so before the end of the year. Vegetable and fruit crops matured several weeks later than usual.

Summary of Meteorological Observations

The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year 1951 were taken at 0900 hrs. New Zealand Standard Time—i.e., 2100 hrs. Greenwich Mean Time.

StationMean Daily MaximumTemperatures in Shade, Degrees FahrenheitExtremes*Hours of Bright SunshineRainfall
Mean Daily MinimumApproximate Mean Temp.Extremes for 1951
Maximum and MonthMinimum and MonthAbsolute MaximumAbsolute MinimumTotal Fall (Inches)No. of Rain Days
* Highest and lowest temperatures for duration of records.
Te Paki, Te Hapua66.352.259.379.6 Jan.27.1 July80.227.02,127.064.18199
Auckland66.052.659.379.8 Jan.31.9 June90.431.91,968.248.03190
Tauranga65.448.056.778.9 Jan.29.7 June91.922.52,314.958.25148
Hamilton East64.544.154.382.7 Jan.23.1 June94.414.22,000.442.63181
Rotorua63.744.654.181.2 Feb.27.1 July98.021.32,014.150.83148
Gisborne65.147.756.483.1 Mar.28.9 July95.826.02,055.841.43177
Onepoto, Lake Waikaremoana57.444.150.882.0 Mar.22.2 July88.022.2..82.51195
New Plymouth.61.949.555.776.2 Feb.32.2 July86.029.12,086.855.59193
Napier64.548.856.784.4 Mar.29.2 June96.527.52,074.731.36138
Wanganui62.948.155.583.0 Jan.29.3 June88.028.82,051.437.14164
Plant Research Bureau, Palmerston North62.746.654.682.5 Mar.27.3 June87.021.21,802.443.86184
Waingawa, Masterton62.843.753.284.4 Jan.25.0 July95.419.51,897.640.63202
Wellington59.448.253.877.7 Jan.33.1 Aug.88.028.61,927.045.64168
Nelson62.846.254.577.9 Jan.27.6 July92.025.02,471.546.36129
Blenheim63.443.553.584.0 Jan. & Feb.24.9 June94.616.12,526.932.59118
Hanmer59.137.348.288.0 Jan.12.5 July97.08.21,801.256.29155
Hokitika59.643.651.677.1 Jan.25.9 June84.525.01,973.6104.28199
Lake Coleridge58.939.649.385.5 Feb.18.7 June92.010.0..43.79145
Christchurch59.843.651.785.4 Jan.24.6 July95.719.31,872.839.76138
Timaru60.941.050.983.5 Jan.23.8 July99.019.81,776.424.46101
Milford Sound57.342.349.879.8 Mar.25.9 June79.823.1..192.95190
Alexandra60.839.250.089.4 Jan.17.1 July94.411.01,965.116.58114
Dunedin57.644.150.981.6 Mar.27.8 Aug.94.023.01,633.533.31185
Invercargill58.840.749.885.5 Mar.23.0 July90.019.01,640.637.11195

For 1951 the mean sea-level pressure values in millibars at 0900 hrs. New Zealand Standard Time were: Auckland, 1014.5; Wellington, 1012.7; Nelson, 1012.7; Hokitika, 1012.8; Christchurch, 1011.5; and Dunedin, 1010.8.

PLANTS OF NEW ZEALAND.—Those desiring information on the flora and plant covering of New Zealand are referred to the article by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, D.Sc., F.R.S.N.Z., which appeared in the 1940 and previous issues of the Year-Book, while a brief reference to the geographical distribution of the forest trees is made in the section of this Year-Book dealing with Forestry (Section 21). For more detailed information the following works may also be consulted: "Plants of New Zealand," by R. M. Laing and E. W. Blackwell, ed. 4, 1940; "Manual of the New Zealand Flora," by T. F. Cheeseman, ed. 2, 1925; "The Trees of New Zealand," by L. Cockayne and E. Phillips-Turner, 1950 (reprint); "The Forest Flora of New Zealand," by T. Kirk, 1889; " New Zealand Trees and Shrubs and How to Identify Them," by H. H. Allan, 1928; " New Zealand Ferns," by H. B. Dobbie, ed. 4,1952; " New Zealand Plants and Their Story," by L. Cockayne, ed. 3,1927; " The Vegetation of New Zealand," by L. Cockayne, ed. 2, 1928; "The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants," by L.Cockayne, 1923; " The Flora of New Zealand," by W. Martin, ed. 3,1947; "The Botanical Names of the Flora of New Zealand," by A. Wall and H. H. Allan, ed. 2, 1950; " Grasses of New Zealand," by H. H. Allan, 1936; " A Handbook of the Naturalized Flora of New Zealand," by H. H. Allan, 1940; "Poisonous Plants in New Zealand," by H. E. Connor, 1951; and numerous articles published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

FAUNA.—A brief article on the fauna of New Zealand, originally prepared by the late Mr. James Drummond, F.L.S., F.Z.S., and revised by him in 1935, is contained in the 1940 and earlier editions of the Year-Book. Later publications dealing with this topic include " Native Animals of New Zealand," by A. W. B. Powell, 1947, and " Introduced Mammals of New Zealand," by Dr. K. A. Wodzicki, 1950.


Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL.—The powers, duties, and responsibilities of the Governor-General and the Executive Council under the present system of responsible government are set out in Royal Letters Patent and Instructions thereunder of 11 May 1917, published in the New Zealand Gazette of 24 April 1919. In the execution of the powers and authorities vested in him the Governors-General must be guided by the advice of the Executive Council; but, if in any case he sees sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the Council, he may act in the exercise of his powers and authorities in opposition to the opinion of the Council, reporting the matter to Her Majesty without delay, with the reasons for his so acting.

In any such case any member of the Executive Council may require that there be recorded in the minutes of the Council the grounds of any advice or opinion that he may give upon the question.

At present (January 1953) the Executive Council consists of fifteen members in addition to the Governor-General. Two members, exclusive of His Excellency or the presiding member, constitute a quorum.

Under the Civil List Act 1950, which consolidated and amended the Civil List Act 1920 and its amendments, His Excellency the Governor-General receives an honorarium of £5,000 per annum, an allowance of £5,000 per annum for the salaries and expenses of his establishment (exclusive of the Official Secretary), plus all expenditure incurred in respect of the transport to and from New Zealand and the travelling within or outside New Zealand of the Governor-General and his family and staff.

In accordance with the recommendations contained in the report (issued in 1951) of the Royal Commission upon parliamentary salaries and allowances, the Prime Minister's salary as from 1 September 1951 was increased to £3,000 with a tax-free allowance of £1,000 for the expenses of his office and the Ministerial residence. In addition, while travelling on official business he receives £3 3s. per day to meet expenses, and by virtue of his office is entitled to free cars, secretarial assistance, and free postage. The salary of each Minister holding a portfolio is £2,000 with a tax-free expense allowance of £450, and that of each Minister without portfolio £1,650, with £400 tax-free expense allowance. Where the office of Minister of External Affairs is held by a Minister other than the Prime Minister the expense allowance is increased to £600. Any Minister not occupying a Ministerial residence receives an allowance in lieu at the rate of £300 per annum. This allowance or the assessed value of the residence where one is provided is subject to income tax. Previously Ministers did not receive an expense allowance as such, but the Commissioner of Inland Revenue allowed a deduction from salary of £250 as an expense allowance. Ministers also receive an allowance of £3 3s. per day when travelling on official business.

The Civil List Amendment Act 1936 made provision for the appointment of Parliamentary Under-Secretaries, an innovation in executive control in New Zealand. The rate of salary attachable to such position is now £1,250, with the same house provision or allowances, and travel allowance while on official business, as for Ministers. An expense allowance of £350 is also payable. At the present time (January 1953) three such appointments are current.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.—The General Assembly now consists of the House of Representatives, the former Legislative Council (in existence 1854 to 31 December 1950) having been abolished by the Legislative Council Abolition Act 1950.

Duration of Parliaments.—Quinquennial Parliaments, instituted under the Constitution Act, were abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act 1879, which fixed the term at three years. General elections have been held at three-yearly intervals since 1881, with a few exceptions. The term of the nineteenth Parliament was during the First World War extended to five years by special legislation, and that of the twenty-fourth (1931-35) and subsequent Parliaments to four years under the Electoral Amendment Act 1934. By the Electoral Amendment Act 1937 the three-year term was restored, but on account of war conditions the term of the twenty-sixth Parliament was extended to four years by the Prolongation of Parliament Act 1941. The Prolongation of Parliament Act 1942 extended the term still further to one year from the termination of the war, but with a proviso for a motion to be moved in the House of Representatives each year after the year 1942 either approving the continuation of the House or fixing an earlier date for its expiry. During the 1943 session a motion n favour of dissolution was carried, and Parliament was dissolved on 30 August 1943. Since then the duration of Parliaments has been of three years, with the exception that the twenty-ninth Parliament was dissolved after the expiration of approximately twenty months.

Number of Representatives.—The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are designated "Members of Parliament." The number was originally fixed by the Constitution Act as not more than forty-two and not less than twenty-four, and the first Parliament called together in 1854 consisted of forty members. Legislation passed in 1858 fixed the number of European members at forty-one; in 1860, at fifty-three; in 1862, at fifty-seven; in 1865, at seventy; in 1867, at seventy-two; in 1870, at seventy-four; in 1875, at eighty-four; in 1881, at ninety-one; in 1887, at seventy; and in 1900, at seventy-six. By the Maori Representation Act 1867, which is still in force, as embodied in the Electoral Act 1927, four Maori members were added, three for the North Island and one for the South.

Qualifications of Members.—Under the Electoral Act 1927 every registered elector of either sex, but no other person, is qualified to be a parliamentary candidate. It is provided, however, that a person shall not be so elected who is disqualified as an elector under any of the provisions of the Act (see under "Franchise" post); or is an undischarged bankrupt; or is a contractor to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly (but not as a member of a registered company or incorporated body), in any one financial year. Though women's suffrage has been operative since 1893, women were not eligible as parliamentary candidates until the passing of the Women's Parliamentary Rights Act 1919, the provisions of which are now embodied in the Electoral Act 1927. Under the Electoral Act public servants were prohibited from being elected, but this prohibition was removed by the Political Disabilities Removal Act 1936, which provided that if elected they immediately cease to be public servants.

Salaries, &c.—The Civil List Act 1950 provided that, on a recommendation of a Royal Commission, the salaries and allowances of Ministers and Members of Parliament may be fixed by Order in Council, in which event the salaries and allowances so fixed will be payable instead of those specified in the Civil List Act 1950. In conformity with the recommendations of the Royal Commission issued in 1951 the honorarium paid to members of the House of Representatives has been increased to £900 per annum. They are also paid a basic allowance at the rate of £250 per annum for expenses incurred in connection with parliamentary duties and a sessional allowance of £150 per annum to all members except those representing the nine electorates in or around Wellington. To meet the higher travelling and other expenses for partly rural and predominantly rural electorates additional increments of £75 and £150 respectively are to be paid to members representing such electorates, subject to the classification of electorates by the Representation Commission into the four classes of (a) urban electorates in or near Wellington or Lower Hutt, (b) urban electorates other than Wellington electorates, (c) partly urban and partly rural electorates, and (d) predominantly rural electorates (refer Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances Order 1951). Payment to members is subject to certain deductions for absence not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. In addition to the honorarium, members are entitled to certain privileges in respect of railway and other forms of travel, a stamp allowance of £4 a month, &c.

Part V of the Superannuation Act 1947 introduced a contributory superannuation scheme for members of the House of Representatives, which provided a minimum retiring allowance of £250 per annum for a member with nine years' service, the allowance increasing by £25 per annum for every year's service in excess of that period until a maximum allowance of £400 per annum is reached after fifteen years' service.

A member must be fifty years of age before he qualifies, on ceasing to be a member, to receive the allowance. The annual contribution, which is compulsory, is £50 per annum, but a member may if he so desires receive a refund of his contributions upon ceasing to be a member.

In the case of a male member dying and leaving a widow surviving she becomes entitled during her widowhood to receive an annuity of two-thirds of the retiring allowance to which her husband was entitled at the time of his death.

The election of a Speaker is the first business of a new House after the members have been sworn. A Chairman of Committees is elected as soon afterwards as is convenient. Both Speaker and Chairman of Committees hold office until a dissolution and receive payment until the first meeting of a new Parliament. The Speaker's remuneration is £1,600 per annum, in addition to which he receives an expense allowance of £500 and residential quarters in Parliament House. The honorarium of the Chairman of Committees is £1,300, and an allowance of £350 per annum to cover expenses incurred in connection with his parliamentary and official duties is also paid.

The Leader of the Opposition is paid a salary of £1,600 with an expense allowance of £400. In addition, a secretary and typist are provided by the State and an allowance of £150 is payable for travel outside his electorate. His official stamp allowance is £10 per month.

Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum.

ELECTORAL PROVISIONS.—Following each population census, which is normally taken every five years, New Zealand is divided anew into seventy-six European electorates. In addition, there are four Maori electoral districts, three in the North Island and one covering the whole of the South Island, where the Maori population is comparatively small. The Governor-General may at any time, by Proclamation, alter the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts.

The population used as the basis in obtaining the quota for each European electoral district is the total population as disclosed by the census, with the following exceptions:—

  1. Maoris:

  2. Persons detained in mental institutions:

  3. Persons detained in prisons:

  4. Persons on board ship:

  5. Temporary guests in licensed hotels:

  6. Persons residing temporarily in military, &c., camps:

  7. Patients in public hospitals.

Provision exists for an allowance by way of addition or subtraction of 71/2 per cent of the total population where districts containing the exact quota could not be formed consistently with consideration of topography, community of interest, communications, and existing electoral boundaries.

These provisions, which differ considerably from those previously in force, are contained in the Electoral Amendment Act 1950. This Act also provided that all general elections and by-elections shall be held on a Saturday and for both European and Maori elections to be held on the same day. Previously the Maori elections were held on the day preceding the European elections. An amendment in 1951 provides for the polling hours in Maori electorates to be extended to 7 p.m., as in the case of European electorates.

The Electoral Amendment Act 1951 provided that, if at any time Parliament is dissolved before it has been two years in existence, the general and supplementary rolls used in the previous general election, together with a further supplementary roll, may be used if in the opinion of the Chief Electoral Officer it is impracticable to print new general rolls. The same rolls, together with a further supplementary roll, are to be used for any by-election occurring before the next following general election.

The latter amending Act also provides for the voting at elections and licensing polls by servicemen serving overseas who are or will be of, or over the age of, twenty-one years before the date of the election or poll, whether or not registered as electors of any electoral district. Each such serviceman shall be qualified to vote as an elector of the electoral district in which is situated his usual place of residence before he last left New Zealand.

FRANCHISE.—Since the abolition of plural voting in 1889 and the introduction of women's suffrage in 1893 every person twenty-one years of age or over has had the right to exercise a vote in the election of members for the House of Representatives. To be registered as an elector a person must have resided for one year in New Zealand, and for three months in the electoral district for which he claims to vote. A system of compulsory registration of electors was introduced at the end of 1924, but for Maori electors a Proclamation was necessary before registration became operative. The Electoral Amendment Act 1948, however, provided for the preparation of rolls for Maori electoral districts, which, subject to and after notification in the Gazette that these rolls have been formed, shall be for all purposes the electoral rolls of the districts concerned.

There are, of course, slight exceptions to the foregoing, for, if a person is classified as one of the following, he or she is not entitled to register as an elector or to vote:—

An alien:

A mentally defective person:

A person convicted of an offence punishable by death or by imprisonment for one year or upwards within any part of Her Majesty's dominions, or convicted in New Zealand as a public defaulter, or under the Police Offences Act 1927 as an idle and disorderly person or as a rogue and vagabond, unless such offender has received a free pardon, or has undergone the sentence or punishment to which he was adjudged for such offence.

The Electoral Emergency Regulations 1943 prescribed the following additional classes of persons who were not entitled to be registered as electors or to vote:—

A person who was committed to military defaulters' detention and had not been discharged therefrom:

A person who was taken into custody under the Aliens Emergency Regulations 1940 and had not been released therefrom.

Maoris are qualified to vote only at elections of the four members representing the Maori race. A Maori half-caste is entitled to be registered either as an elector of a Maori or a European electoral district, while special provisions govern any changeover of registration.

By the Electoral Amendment Act 1937, which made provision for a secret ballot in Maori elections, Maori electors were granted the same privileges, in the exercise of their vote, as European electors.

For the system of local-government administration a modified form of franchise exists, a ratepaying qualification being necessary for the exercising of votes on financial issues. Further reference to this aspect of franchise will be found in Section 30 of this Year-Book.


Table of Contents

GENERAL REVIEW.—A population census was taken as for the night of Tuesday, 17 April 1951, in New Zealand while censuses of its island territories were conducted by the Department of Island Territories for the night of Tuesday, 25 September 1951.

The minor islands (see page 2) other than the Kermadec Islands and Campbell Island were uninhabited at the date of the census, as was also the Ross Dependency, situated in Antarctic regions.

The 1951 census population of geographic New Zealand (i.e., excluding Island Territories) was 1,939,472, inclusive of 115,676 Maoris.

For the Island Territories 1951 census figures were: Cook Islands and Niue Island, 19,632; Tokelau Islands, 1,580; Trust Territory of Western Samoa, 83,096. The total census population of New Zealand and Island Territories was 2,043,780. Armed Forces personnel overseas at the time of the census and not included in the population numbered 1,894 (Europeans 1,830, Maoris 64).

The figures contained in the following summary are the latest available.

* Includes population of the inhabited minor islands—i.e., Kermadec Islands, 14 (males); and Campbell Island, 5 (males).
New Zealand—    
    (a) Exclusive of Island Territories—    
            Europeans30 Sept. 1952947,207939,1961,886,403
            Maoris30 Sept. 195262,02659,079121,105
                Totals, New Zealand (excluding Island territories)30 Sept. 19521,009,233998,2752,007,508*
    (b) Island Territories—    
            Tokelau Islands1 April 19527448561,600
            Cook Islands25 Sept. 1951 (census)7,8257,25415,079
            Niue Island1 April 19522,2342,3544,588
                Totals, New Zealand (including Island territories)..1,020,0361,008,7392,028,775
Trust Territory of Western Samoa31 Dec. 195143,12340,44283,565

INCREASE OF POPULATION.—Since the commencement of European settlement in New Zealand the European population has in every year shown an increase, though the rate of increase has fluctuated considerably. As will be seen later in this section, the movement of Maori population has followed a different course. Census records for the last half-century are quoted in the succeeding table and include Maoris.

Date of CensusNumbersIntercensal Numerical IncreaseIntercensal Percentage IncreaseAverage Annual Percentage Increase

* Excludes New Zealand Armed Forces personnel overseas.

† Includes New Zealand Armed Forces personnel overseas.

March 1901*815,85372,6469.771.89
April 1906936,304120,45114.762.75
April 19111,058,308122,00413.032.52
October 1916*1,149,22590,9178.591.50
April 19211,271,664122,43910.652.27
April 19261,408,139136,47510.732.06
March 19361,573,810165,67111.771.13
September 1945*1,702,298128,4888.160.83
September 1945†1,747,679173,86911.051.11
April 1951*1,939,472237,17413.932.37
April 1951†1,941,366193,68711.081.91

In no fewer than four of the nine censuses covered by the above table the figures are disturbed by the absence overseas of Armed Forces in time of war. Increase during the intercensal period preceding the census is thus diminished and in the period following is augmented by the return of such personnel or, more accurately and regrettably, the survivors. Numbers of Armed Forces personnel overseas at the respective dates were: 1901, 2,500 (approx.); 1916, 44,000 (approx.); 1945, 45,381; and 1951, 1,894.

It will be noted that the growth of population has been substantial in each period. The lowest rates are those of 1926-36, a result of the great economic depression, and of 1936–45, which included six years of war.

While statistics of record are regularly prepared at quarterly intervals, interest in the approaching milestone of a population of two millions caused a special estimate to be prepared for 31 August 1952. This showed a population of 2,000,270. (Parenthetically it may be observed that if Island Territories were included this level had been reached more than two years previously.) The first million of population was reached in December 1908, and the population has therefore doubled in about 433/4 years. The period 1908-52 was, however, by no means wholly favourable to population growth. Apart from two World Wars resulting directly and indirectly in heavy losses, the Korean War; and the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19, there was the severe depression of the "thirties," when the normal migration inflow ceased and even turned to an exodus.

Omitting movements of Armed Forces, post-war increases in population have been—

 NumbersPer Cent
*2.49 for a full year.
1952 (9 months)36,9101.87*

The current rate of growth is about 2.5 per cent per annum. Since the significance of this high level may not be appreciated universally, it may be observed that if an annual increase of 2.5 per cent were maintained continuously the present population of just over two millions would become over four millions by the end of 1980. This is mentioned solely as an illustration and is not a forecast of probable trends in the future.

The numerical increase in 1951 was the highest since 1874; if the numbers of the first three quarters of 1952 are maintained in the fourth quarter, the year's gain will be the highest in the history of New Zealand.

Sources of population increase are threefold—viz., enlargement of territory, excess of arrivals over departures, and excess of births over deaths or natural increase. The first is inapplicable to New Zealand, the second is dealt with later in this section, and the third is discussed in the section relating to vital statistics. One aspect of the latter may, however, be given here. This is the reproduction index which, though not free from error, is a convenient indication of the growth or decline of a population. It is based on female children born (gross rate) and probably surviving to maturity (net rate). A net rate of 1.0 indicates a stationary population; above unity a rising population and below unity a falling population. Figures relate only to European population.

YearGross RateNet Rate

A cautionary observation may be appended here. Though the total increase of population is the sum of natural increase and migration increase, certain discrepancies may be noted. The reason is that, following the census, revisions have been made to statistics of total population, but it has not been possible to make corresponding adjustments to migration or natural increase figures.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES.—In the following summary of certain selected countries the two most recent census years are quoted together with the annual average percentage increase of population during the respective intercensal periods.

CountryCensus PeriodAverage Annual Percentage Increase

* Excluding Newfoundland.

† European population.

‡ Including Hyderabad, but excluding Kashmir, Jammu, and the tribal areas of Assam.

§ Excluding full-blooded aborigines.

New Zealand1945.512.37
England and Wales1931-510.46
Northern Ireland1937-510.48
Republic of Ireland1946-510.03
Union of South Africa†1941-461.60
United States of America1940-501.36

Note.—Minus sign (−) denotes a decrease.

The outstanding feature of the above table is the position occupied by New Zealand, with an annual rate of increase of 2.37 per cent. This would, however, be reduced to 1.91 per cent if members of the Armed Forces who were overseas in 1945 and 1951 were added to the New Zealand totals at the census dates and not regarded as population gains in the intercensal period.

The Commonwealth countries, Canada (1.72 per cent), Union of South Africa (1.60 per cent), and Ceylon (1.51 per cent), show the next highest rates of increase. On the other hand, European countries show the lowest rates of increase—France and Hungary actually show decreases—with the United Kingdom countries recording very low figures. The significance of the census dates, particularly in the cases of Australia and the Union of South Africa, must not be overlooked. In Australia, for instance, the great bulk of its huge post-war immigration took place after the 1947 census.

SEX PROPORTIONS.—Latest (September 1952) available figures show that males outnumber females by 8,011 in the European population, 2,947 in the Maori population, and 10,958 in the total population. Females per 1,000 males were: European, 992; Maori, 952; total population, 989. Net increase of population from migration adds to the male preponderance, but the major source of population increase is the excess of births over deaths, and this results in a female preponderance. In the relatively near future it seems probable that females will outnumber males. Females per 1,000 males at the last four censuses have been—

1945 (including Armed Forces abroad)991
1951 (including Armed Forces abroad)989

There are marked differences in the sex proportions of the population of different parts of New Zealand. The following observations relate to the census of 1951 and give the number of females per 1,000 males.

In aggregate of cities and boroughs the ratio was 1,071; in town districts, 1,010; and in counties, 885. For the provincial districts ratios were—

Otago (Otago portion)1016
Hawke's Bay1003
Otago (Southland portion)951

Female preponderance in towns does not appear to have a direct relation to the size of the towns. Of the fifteen urban areas which comprise the largest centres of population eight had ratios higher than the average for all cities and boroughs, but seven were below the average, and of these Hutt, fifth largest urban area, even had an excess of males.

New Plymouth1119
Palmerston North1070

METHOD OF COMPILATION.—In common with almost all countries, the chief instrument in compiling population data in New Zealand is the census, which in this country in normal times is taken quinquennially. The minutiae of the distribution of population, together with analyses of various population characteristics compiled from census data, will be found in the official publications compiled after each census.

The basis adopted for the census, and virtually throughout population statistics in New Zealand, is that of the population present, which may be defined as the population present at the place of enumeration at the time of the enumeration.

Intercensal population statistics for New Zealand are statistics of record; those for lesser divisions such as provincial districts, counties, or boroughs are estimates.

All references to New Zealand relate solely to geographic New Zealand—i.e., Island Territories are omitted except in the first table where their inclusion is specifically stated. Though Cook Islands, Niue Island, and Tokelau Islands are constitutionally part of New Zealand, for geographical reasons they are administered separately.

Maoris are included in all population data unless the contrary is stated. Maori-Europeans who are in half or greater degree of Maori origin are included with Maoris. For some purposes the population dichotomy of European and Maori is necessary or desirable and "European" is used, conveniently if not altogether accurately, as referring to all population other than Maori, a usage long established in New Zealand.

INTERCENSAL RECORDS.—The intercensal statements of total population, prepared from the records of vital statistics and of external migration, have been by virtue of the favourable position of New Zealand in this respect relatively accurate. Moderate discrepancies, however, are inevitable and, in the tables following, revisions have been made for figures subsequent to the 1945 census to conform with the 1951 census figures.

The following population figures exclude members of New Zealand Armed Forces who were overseas, and also members of the Armed Forces of other countries who were in New Zealand.

Population (Including Maoris) at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
MalesFemalesTotalsNumericalPer Cent
* Minus sign (−) signifies a decrease.
Years Ended 31 March
Years Ended 31 December

The figures given in the preceding table show the population inclusive of Maoris. The following table shows the population exclusive of Maoris.

Population (Excluding Maoris) at End of YearIncrease During YearMean Population for Year
MalesFemalesTotalsNumericalPer Cent
* Minus sign (−) signifies a decrease.
Years Ended 31 March
Years Ended 31 December

EXTERNAL MIGRATION.—Statistics of external migration have been recorded in New Zealand since 1860. Since 1 April 1921 they have been compiled from individual statements obtained from each person entering or leaving New Zealand.

Including crews of vessels, 112,059 persons from overseas arrived in New Zealand during the year ended 31 March 1952, which, compared with 1950-51, shows an increase of 10,152. During the same period 96,580 persons departed. This figure, compared with the corresponding one for 1950-51, shows an increase of 3,047.

In addition to the figures just quoted there were also 2,744 "through" passengers who called at a port of New Zealand en route to their destination.

The excess of total arrivals over total departures for 1951-52 was 15,479, compared with a similar excess of 8,374 during 1950-51. This is the highest figure for net immigration since 1879.

The numbers of arrivals and departures during the last eleven years are given in the table following. Crews of vessels, "through" passengers, tourists on cruising liners, and members of the Armed Forces, &c., have not been taken into account in this table.

Year Ended 31 MarchArrivalsDeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures

The number of arrivals in 1951-52 is the highest in the history of New Zealand migration statistics, while the departure total is only a little below the record figure established in 1950-51.

During the war years normal civilian movements overseas were largely restricted, but in postwar years immigration on an enhanced scale has been experienced. Had it not been for shipping difficulties and for the serious housing shortage there is little doubt that larger numbers would have been recorded. In the seven-year period ending 31 March 1952 the net gain from migration was 45,493.

Classes of Arrivals and Departures.—The following table gives an analysis of all classes of arrivals during the last five years, including "through" passengers, and crews. In classifying arrivals or departures as "permanent" the commonly used international rule is applied—i.e., residence or absence of one year or more.

Immigrants intending permanent residence9,64811,38717,70118,23424,922
New Zealand residents returning11,98812,84018,46319,97620,426
    On business1,7321,7691,9362,4062,846
    Theatrical, entertaining, &c.3877001,117634582
    Educational purposes77697597111133
    Others, officials, &c.313469613
    In transit890447485631651
Not stated31........
Through passengers5,1363,0732,4892,9232,744

The succeeding table gives a similar analysis of departures.

New Zealand residents departing—     
Temporary residents departing10,89411,52016,00717,96318,444
Through passengers5,1363,0732,4892,9232,744

Ages.—The following table gives the age-distribution of immigrants and emigrants for the twelve months ended 31 March 1952.

Age, in YearsPermanent ArrivalsPermanent DeparturesExcess of Arrivals Over Departures
60 and over4768481,324222328550774

Of the permanent arrivals during the year 1951-52, 18 per cent were under fifteen years of age, 40 per cent under twenty-five years, 69 per cent under thirty-five years, and 84 per cent under forty-five years. Permanent departures represented a closely similar age distribution with percentages of 14, 41, 70, and 82 respectively.

Origin.—The great majority of immigrants to New Zealand have always come from the British Isles. During the immigration boom of the "seventies" several shiploads of immigrants from Baltic countries arrived under Government auspices. With this exception, systems of Government-assisted passages to immigrants have been until recently confined to immigrants from the United Kingdom. Conditions arising out of the recent war have brought changes, and systems of Government aid have been devised for immigrants from other countries. These conditions have also stimulated independent migration, apart from that governmentally aided. It is therefore of some interest to survey briefly the net gain of population in the post-war years.

The next table gives the excess of overseas arrivals over departures for the seven years 1945-46 to 1951-52. The basis of "permanent" arrivals and "permanent" departures has not been used; this is founded on intention, and intentions, particularly in existing times, are subject to change. Instead the table covers total arrivals and total departures less (a) persons of New Zealand birth and (b) New Zealand residents of overseas origin returning after an absence of less than a year or departing for a period of less than a year. Included, it will be noted, are crews of vessels. Annually the surplus of crew arrivals over crew departures provides a moderate increment to the population of New Zealand. For the seven years the net gain from this source was 4,831. Information as to the country of origin is not available in this case.

The total surplus of arrivals on this basis was 63,672. Of these, 42,849 came from Commonwealth countries (including 34,817 from the United Kingdom) and 15,801 from other countries. The remaining 5,022 came from unspecified countries or were born at sea. It may be noted that the migration position has been considerably affected by shipping, housing, and other difficulties. The period under review ends at 31 March 1952.

Country of BirthExcess of Arrivals
* Including condominia, protected states, and trust territories.
United Kingdom16,92817,889
Union of South Africa115180
India and Pakistan1,1081,059
Cook Islands and Niue Island471510
Western Samoa636525
Others (Pacific)6037
All others243232
Other Countries  
Republic of Ireland and Ireland, n.o.d.645605
Others (Europe)117120
United States of America451277
Others (Pacific)3130
All others11385
Born at sea13
Not specified87100
Crews of vessels4,688143
            Grand totals34,45229,220

Assisted Immigration.—Various systems of assisted immigration have been in force since 1871, with the exception of the period 1892 to 1903 (inclusive). The scheme that was operating prior to 1947 had been largely suspended since 1927, and only 50 immigrants received financial assistance during the ten years ended 31 March 1946.

To alleviate the shortage of staffs in mental hospitals the Government decided in 1946 to recruit labour in the United Kingdom, and the number of arrivals under this system totalled 240 (all females).

In July 1947 a comprehensive assisted passage scheme was introduced by the Government. Under this scheme financial aid was granted to certain categories of immigrants. Eligibility was confined to single residents of the United Kingdom (with no dependants) between the ages of twenty and thirty-five years who were suitable for, and willing to accept employment in, a wide variety of productive and servicing occupations. Free passages were provided for those successful applicants who served in the United Kingdom Armed Forces (including Merchant Navy) during the Second World War; all others selected were required to contribute £10 towards the cost of their fares. All assisted immigrants were required to enter into a contract with the New Zealand Government that they would engage in approved employment for two years after their arrival in New Zealand.

A scheme of child migration from the United Kingdom also came into operation during the year, the first draft arriving in June 1949. This scheme was devised to bring to New Zealand, on a guardianship basis, British children between the ages of five and seventeen years, whose parents were prepared to agree to their placement with foster-parents approved by the Superintendent of Child Welfare. Arrivals under this scheme totalled 169 in 1949-50, 107 in 1950-51, and 99 in 1951-52.

In May 1950 a new immigration policy was announced by the Government, the main changes being as follows :—

  1. The existing scheme in regard to unmarried British immigrants, including nominations, to continue, but with an extension of the age limit from thirty-five to forty-five years of age.

  2. The contribution of £10 previously required to be paid by other than ex-service personnel towards the cost of their fares to New Zealand to be abolished. In future free passages to be provided for all British immigrants, both single and married (including wives and families), selected under the scheme.

  3. Extension of the free passage scheme to certain categories of married British immigrants with up to two children.

  4. The acceptance, after negotiation and conclusion of agreements with the countries concerned, of a number of single non-British men and women between the ages of twenty and thirty-five years. Such an agreement has now been entered into with the Netherlands Government.

Arrivals of "assisted" Dutch immigrants were 55 males in 1950-51 and 937 males and 163 females in 1951-52.

The number of assisted immigrants (exclusive of displaced persons) arriving in New Zealand since the reintroduction of the scheme in 1947 was as follows:—

Year ending 31 March 1947158
Year ending 31 March 19481,140
Year ending 31 March 19491,527
Year ending 31 March 19502,532
Year ending 31 March 19512,928
Year ending 31 March 19524,949

In the preceding migration tables assisted immigrants are included in the totals of "Immigrants intending permanent residence."

Displaced Persons.—Commencing with the year 1949-50 the Government agreed to accept drafts of displaced persons from Europe, who were brought to New Zealand in shipping provided by the International Refugee Organization. These settlers were chosen by a New Zealand Selection Mission, and arrivals totalled 941 in 1949-50, 978 in 1950-51, and 2,663 in 1951-52, made up of young single men and women, widows with one child, family groups, orphans, and a number of elderly people.

PASSPORTS.—Authority for the issue of passports in New Zealand and by New Zealand representatives overseas is contained in the Passports Act 1946 and the Passport Regulations 1946.

New Zealand passports are issued by the Department of Internal Affairs at Wellington and Auckland. United Kingdom, Canadian, and Australian passports are issued by the respective High Commissioners for those countries. The representatives of New Zealand at London, Washington, New York, San Francisco, Ottawa, Canberra, Paris, The Hague, Bombay, and Tokyo are authorized to issue and renew New Zealand passports.

Entry into New Zealand.—Apart from British subjects arriving from Australia, no person sixteen years of age or over may land in New Zealand unless in possession of a valid passport or other travel documents satisfactorily establishing nationality and identity. Exemption (which is additional to the requirements of the Immigration Restriction and Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Acts) may be granted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. With the exception of nationals of those countries with which New Zealand has concluded agreements for the mutual abolition of visas, all aliens require a British visa.

For persons from the Cook Islands, Niue Island, or Western Samoa the only requirement is a permit to visit New Zealand granted by the Resident Commissioner of the Cook Islands or Niue Island or the High Commissioner for Western Samoa, as the case may be.

The regulations, further, do not apply to a British subject who is the master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives.

Departure from New Zealand.—British subjects leaving New Zealand, with the exception of those travelling to Australia or making the round trip to New Zealand's island territories, should be in possession of a valid passport or other travel document.

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION.—The legislation respecting the restriction of immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Restriction Act 1908 and its amendments, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act 1919. It is administered by the Labour and Employment Department.

Subject to certain exemptions, the following classes of persons are prohibited from landing in New Zealand:—

  1. Persons not of British birth and parentage, unless in possession of permits issued by the Labour and Employment Department. (Note.—A person is not deemed to be of British birth and parentage by reason that he or his parents or either of them is a naturalized British subject or by reason that he is an aboriginal Native or the descendant of an aboriginal Native of any dominion (other than New Zealand), colony, possession, or protectorate of Her Majesty.)

  2. Idiots or insane persons.

  3. Persons suffering from contagious diseases which are loathsome or dangerous.

  4. Persons arriving in New Zealand within two years after the termination of a period of imprisonment for a serious offence.

  5. Persons who are considered by the Attorney-General to be disaffected or disloyal, or of such a character that their presence in New Zealand would be injurious to the peace, order, and good government of the country.

  6. Aliens of the age of fifteen years or over who refuse or neglect to take an oath (or make an affirmation) of obedience to the laws of New Zealand.

To obtain permits to enter New Zealand as permanent residents, application must be made by the intending immigrants themselves to the Minister of Immigration, Wellington. The application must be made in the prescribed form and must be supported by documents duly attested in the country of origin, in which country the applicant must have resided for at least twelve months prior to the date of application. Each application is considered individually on its own merits.

Provision is made in the law to permit persons covered by clause (1) above to pay temporary visits to New Zealand for the purposes of business, pleasure, or health. Temporary permits are normally restricted to some period not exceeding six months, but may be extended if the proper authorities consider that the circumstances warrant such action. A deposit may be required in respect of such temporary permit, and is returned on the departure of the visitor if the conditions of the temporary permit have been complied with. A deed to be entered into by some approved person or persons resident in New Zealand guaranteeing to pay all expenses that may be incurred by the Crown or any public body for the visitor's maintenance, relief, arrest, or detention in New Zealand or his deportation therefrom may also be required.

Provision is also made whereby, under certain conditions, students may be allowed to enter New Zealand temporarily.

Restricted Immigrants.—When persons who are lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, or infirm arrive in New Zealand and are likely to become a charge upon the public or upon any public or charitable institution, the master, owner, or charterer of the ship by which such persons came to New Zealand may be called on to enter into a bond of £100 for each such person, guaranteeing payment of any expenses which may be incurred for his support and maintenance by or in any such institution within a period of five years.

Declaration by Persons Arriving in New Zealand.—Every person of and over the age of fifteen years who lands in New Zealand must, unless exempted by the Minister of Immigration, make and deliver to an officer of Customs a declaration giving the following particulars: Name, age, marital status, occupation, birthplace, nationality, race, particulars of children under fifteen years of age arriving with him, residence, &c.

NATIONALITY AND NATURALIZATION.—The British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948, which came into force on 1 January 1949, was enacted following a conference of nationality experts of Commonwealth countries in February 1947, when it was agreed that each Commonwealth country should establish its own citizenship status. Citizens of the various Commonwealth countries also possess a common status as members of the wider association of peoples comprising the Commonwealth. (Note.—The Act states that "British subject" and "Commonwealth citizen" have the same meaning, and any person of that status may use either term.)

Upon the commencement of the Act, New Zealand citizenship was automatically conferred on the following classes of British subjects:—

  1. Those born in New Zealand.

  2. Those naturalized in New Zealand.

  3. Those ordinarily resident in New Zealand throughout the whole of the year 1948.

  4. Those whose fathers were British subjects born or naturalized in New Zealand.

  5. Women (being British subjects) married before the commencement of the Act to men who become citizens under the various provisions of the Act.

After the commencement of the Act, New Zealand citizenship may be acquired in the following ways:—

  1. By birth in New Zealand.

  2. By descent.

  3. By registration.

  4. By naturalization.

The principal conditions governing the grant of naturalization to aliens under the 1948 Act are that the applicant shall satisfy the Minister of Internal Affairs (a) that he has resided in New Zealand for a period of five years, (b) that he is of good character and has a sufficient knowledge of the English language, (c) that if his application is granted he intends to reside permanently in New Zealand, (d) that the applicant gives a year's notice of his intention to apply, and (e) that the applicant possesses a sufficient knowledge of the responsibilities and privileges of New Zealand citizenship. There is discretionary provision for the Minister to allow residence in other Commonwealth countries and service in the Armed Forces during the Second World War to be reckoned for the purposes of the first condition, but in such cases a minimum of one year's residence in New Zealand is essential.

Under the provisions of the British Nationality and Status of Aliens (in New Zealand) Amendment Act 1946 alien women marrying British subjects did not automatically become British by marriage according to New Zealand law, but could acquire British nationality only by the grant of a certificate of naturalization. This Act was in force from 9 October 1946 until 31 December 1948, and was repealed by the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948.

From the date of the commencement of the last-mentioned Act (1 January 1949) alien women who marry New Zealand citizens now acquire citizenship by the more simple process of registration. The acquisition of New Zealand citizenship automatically confers the status of British nationality. Certificates of registration as New Zealand citizens are issued, and these are for all intents and purposes equivalent to the former certificates of naturalization.

Alien minor children may acquire New Zealand citizenship by registration following the naturalization of their parents or in special cases in their own right. Before 1 January 1949 minor children were included (on application) in the naturalization certificate issued to their father or mother.

Citizens of other Commonwealth countries acquire New Zealand citizenship by registration under the Act.

The complete numbers of naturalizations, registrations, &c., during the year ended 31 March 1952 were as follows.

Country of BirthCertificates of Naturalization (Aliens)Certificates of Registration as a New Zealand Citizen (British Subjects and Aliens)Certificates of Registration as a New Zealand Citizen—Minor Children (British Subjects and Aliens)
United Kingdom....863711
Channel Islands....1......
Union of South Africa....1......
Republic of India....81332
British West Indies....1......
Norfolk Island....1......
Western Samoa1....1..1
Russia (U.S.S.R.)2....1....
Republic of Ireland....61....
United States of America3..........
Not known1..........

Note.—There was one case of deprivation of New Zealand citizenship during the year.

Of the certificates of registration granted to adult males 109 were to British subjects from other Commonwealth countries who acquired New Zealand citizenship by virtue of one year's residence in the country immediately preceding the date of application, and 9 to British subjects, generally resident outside New Zealand who were registered as New Zealand citizens by virtue of their close associations by way of descent, residence, or otherwise, with New Zealand.

The certificates of registration granted to adult females were 45 to British subjects from other Commonwealth countries who acquired New Zealand citizenship by virtue of one year's residence in the country immediately preceding the date of application, 18 to British wives of British subjects from other Commonwealth countries, 5 to British subjects generally resident outside New Zealand, and 53 to alien women married to New Zealand citizens by birth or naturalization who desired to acquire New Zealand citizenship.

Since 1 January 1948 only 292 persons of other Commonwealth countries have acquired New Zealand citizenship by registration, although during the period 1 January 1948 to 31 March 1951 approximately 26,000 British-born adult immigrants arrived in New Zealand with the intention of taking up permanent residence in this country. Some of these no doubt changed their intentions and have since left New Zealand and a few have died. It is apparent, however, that over 20,000 new immigrants have the necessary residence in New Zealand to acquire citizenship by registration under the provisions of the Act, but very few have taken the necessary steps.

Certificates of registration granted to minor children were 39 (15 males, 24 females) to children of New Zealand citizens by naturalization or registration, and 1 to an alien female child whose parents were not eligible for naturalization.

REGISTRATION OF ALIENS.—The registration of aliens in New Zealand is provided for by the Aliens Act 1948, the administration being carried out by the Police Department. This Act repealed earlier enactments relating to aliens.

The number of aliens on the New Zealand register at 1 April 1952 was 16,229, comprising 11,050 males and 5,179 females. This does not purport to be the complete number in New Zealand, as certain classes are not required to register, including the following : (a) children under sixteen years of age; (b) persons holding diplomatic status, Consuls, or employees of Embassies, Legations, and Consulates who are resident in New Zealand solely for the purpose of performing official duties; (c) certain temporary visitors to New Zealand; (d) Western Samoans, except in special circumstances. Under the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 a citizen of the Republic of Ireland, though not possessing the status of British subject (or, in alternative phraseology, Commonwealth citizen) is nevertheless not classed as an alien and is not required to register.

The following table shows the numbers on the register at 1 April 1951 and 1 April 1952.

Country of Nationality1 April 19511 April 1952
Russia (U.S.S.R.)633910213587222
United States of America597207804608249857
Other countries492675623395

The number of aliens on the register as at 1 April 1952 shows an increase of 5,804 as compared with twelve months earlier, the countries contributing the major portion of this increase being Netherlands (2,967), Greece (831), Yugoslavia (270), Poland (243), Czechoslovakia (186), China (172), Bulgaria (151), Latvia (148), Hungary (143), and Russia (120).

In the following table aliens on the New Zealand register as at 1 April 1952 are classified according to occupational groups.

Occupational GroupMalesFemalesTotal
Fishermen and trappers55..55
Agricultural and pastoral occupations2,030332,063
Forest occupations119..119
Miners and quarrymen46..46
Workers in stone, clay, earthenware, lime, cement, glass, &c.50353
Workers in processes relating to chemicals, animal and vegetable products, n.e.i.451459
Workers in non-precious metals, electric fittings, &c.1,143361,179
Workers in precious metals, jewellery, scientific instruments, &c.38139
Workers on ships, boats and conveyances79..79
Workers in fibrous materials, textiles, &c., other than clothing or dress8741128
Workers in clothing and dress, &c.209370579
Workers in harness, saddlery, and leatherware (excluding boots and shoes)9211
Workers in food, drink, and tobacco62146667
Workers in wood, n.e.i.1752177
Workers in paper, printers, photographers771794
Workers in other materials69978
Workers in building construction and in maintenance of roads, &c.7202722
Workers in production or supply of gas, water, electricity or power (including stationary engine drivers)85..85
Workers in transport and communication65729686
Financial and commercial occupations9721151,087
Persons engaged in public administration20222
Clerical and professional occupations8927151,607
Occupations connected with entertainment, sport, and recreation38644
Personal and domestic occupations, hotelkeeping, &c.446280726
Other or ill-defined occupations2,1367992,935
Persons not actively engaged in gainful occupations2322,6572,889

In the following summary information is given as to the ages of aliens on the register as at 1 April 1952.

Age Group, in YearsMalesFemalesTotals
16 and under 21576320896
21 and under 303,8151,5635,378
30 and under 402,3111,3163,627
40 and under 501,5781,0002,578
50 and under 601,5936132,206
60 and under 707592431,002
70 and over379115494
Not specified39948

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION.—Detailed population statistics are compiled for each census and these are published in Vol. I—Increase and Location of Population. In the 1951 issue will be found figures for provincial districts, land districts, urban areas, counties, cities, boroughs, town districts, extra-county islands, and shipping. In addition, county figures are subdivided further into (a) ridings, and (b) townships, localities, &c.

North and South Islands.—In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, but this position was reversed at the succeeding enumeration and the South Island had the larger population (exclusive of Maoris) at each census from 1861 to 1896. In 1901 the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total and since then has steadily increased its lead.

The following table gives the population of the North and South Islands as disclosed by each census since 1901.

Census YearPopulation (Excluding Maoris)Proportions Per Cent
North IslandSouth IslandTotalsNorth IslandSouth Island
* Includes Maori half-castes (total, 4,236), living as Europeans.

The natural increase of European population (i.e., excess of births over deaths) for the North Island during the 1945-51 intercensal period was 103,954, and the total net increase 151,373. For the South Island the natural increase was 48,806, and the total net increase 68,869. It is clear that in the strict sense of the term there was no "northward drift" of population in this period. Inclusive of Maoris, the North Island increase was 167,577, or 14.62 per cent, and the South Island increase 69,597, or 12.52 per cent. In contrast to preceding periods the South Island rate of increase approaches fairly closely that of the North Island.

At the 1951 census the North Island population was 1,313,869, inclusive of 111,512 Maoris; and the South Island population 625,603, inclusive of 4,164 Maoris.

At 31 March 1952 the North Island population was estimated as 1,347,217, inclusive of 115,073 Maoris; and the South Island population as 637,513, inclusive of 4,215 Maoris.

Provincial Districts.—The approximate areas and the estimated populations, inclusive of Maoris, of the various provincial districts are given in the next table.

For the guidance of overseas readers it is necessary to explain that there have been no provinces in New Zealand since 1875. Provincial districts are simply the former provinces, but they have no functions and are now merely historic divisions serving as useful units for a primary geographical break-down. There is no Southland Provincial District and the "Southland portion of Otago" has little resemblance in area to the former Southland Province.

Provincial DistrictArea (Square Miles)Estimated Population 1 April 1952
Hawke's Bay4,26093,000
    Otago portion14,050161,800
    Southland portion11,48078,600
New Zealand103,7401,984,730

The foregoing table illustrates the wide disparities in the size of the provincial districts, whether measured by area or by population.

The area shown for New Zealand now includes certain islands which formerly were excluded. These are Kermadec Islands (13 square miles), Campbell Island (44 square miles), and the uninhabited islands—Three Kings, Solander, Bounty, Snares, Antipodes, and Auckland—with a total area of 263 square miles.

Urban and Rural Population.—On 17 April 1951 somewhat over two-fifths (43.7 per cent) of the population of New Zealand (excluding Maoris) were included in the five principal urban areas—Auckland, Hutt, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—and over one-half (54.4 per cent) in these or in the ten secondary urban areas. In the following table urban population means the population in cities and boroughs, while rural population covers counties, all town districts, and extra-county islands. It will be observed that there was a marked slackening in the rate of the urban drift between 1926 and 1936, but the 1945 figures, due, no doubt, to wartime influences, disclosed a substantial increase in the urban population, whereas the rural population, for the first time, recorded a decrease. In the 1945-51 period a substantial gain was recorded in the rural population, but it was insufficient to prevent further deterioration of its ratio to total population.

CensusPopulationPercentage of Total

* Figures exclude military and internment camps.

† Figures include Armed Services in New Zealand at census date and internment camps, but exclude members of the United States Forces present in New Zealand and also enemy prisoners of war.

‡ Inclusive of Maori half-castes (3,221 in 1916 and 4,236 in 1921) living as Europeans.

Excluding Maoris—      
Including Maoris—      

Another conception of urban and rural population is presented in the next table. For this purpose urban population has been taken as that enumerated in cities, boroughs, or town districts with a minimum population of 1,000. Migratory population is excluded.

Including MaorisExcluding Maoris
Urban : towns of—    
    25,000 or over338,213625,666337,221617,921
            Totals, urban798,1881,196,857792,5761,171,834
            Totals, New Zealand1,401,0011,933,5941,337,3841,818,011
Urban : towns of—    
    25,000 or over24.1432.3625.2133.99
            Totals, urban56.9761.9059.2664.45
            Totals, New Zealand100.00100.00100.00100.00

Some apparent anomalies where the numbers exclusive of Maoris exceed those inclusive of Maoris arise from the transfer of towns to other categories as a result of the different basis of population.

An important characteristic of the distribution of urban population in New Zealand is what may be termed its decentralization. In place of one great metropolis containing a huge proportion of the population, the more highly urbanized portion of the community is localized in four widely separated centres. These four centres (counting Wellington and Hutt as a single conurbation) have always existed more or less on the same plane, a fact which has played no small part in the development of the country. An interesting feature is the wide gap which has long existed between the four major centres and the next largest towns.

Urban and rural communities are not evenly distributed. The South Island, for example contains proportionately more rural population than does the North Island.

RECENT MOVEMENTS IN TOWNS AND COUNTIES: Urban Areas.—These are statistical conceptions and not administrative units. Their purpose is to provide definite, stable, and comparable boundaries for the larger centres of population. In addition to the central city or borough, they include neighbouring boroughs, town districts, and parts of counties which are regarded as suburban to the centre of population.

Urban areas were formed in 1917 and, except for two additions and one deletion, remained unaltered until 1951, when a revision of boundaries was made and the new areas used in the 1951 census. From census records and maps revised population figures were prepared on the basis of the new boundaries. In the case of European population the figures were revised for each census back to 1911, and on the basis of population including Maoris the revision was possible back to the 1926 census. The most significant change resulting from this revision was the division of the former Wellington Urban Area, plus additional areas to the north, into the two adjacent urban areas of Hutt and Wellington. The two areas in a sense form a single conurbation, and for some purposes it may still be convenient to use a combined figure. However, the extent and pattern of development in the Hutt Valley have been such as to establish it as a centre complementary to Wellington but no longer suburban to it. In Auckland the boundaries were extended considerably, but in most other cases it was found that little change was necessary.

Urban AreaPopulation (Including Maoris)Population Increase 1945-51
New Plymouth16,34418,59721,05724,9233,86618.36
Palmerston North20,10724,37227,82032,9085,08818.29

In the quarter-century covered by the table all urban areas, with two exceptions, have consistently recorded increases in population. Of these exceptions, one comprised a slight recession at Wanganui, 1926-36. The other was Dunedin, 1926-36, but there the recession arose from the inflation of the 1926 population by visitors to the exhibition then being held at Dunedin. In numbers, growth during the twenty-five years is led by Auckland; in rate, Hutt and Hamilton are outstanding.

The Wellington figure is partly explained by the substantial growth in the adjacent Hutt Urban Area. However, the increase for the two urban areas combined is 10.74 per cent, a rate exceeded by all urban areas except Dunedin.

Of particular interest is the marked increase in the Maori population in urban areas during the last twenty-five years. In Auckland the number of Maoris increased from 1,209 in 1926 to 7,621 in 1951. In the fifteen urban areas there were 2,457 Maoris in 1926, as compared with 16,010 in 1951.

The next table contains the population (Maoris included) of the fifteen urban areas as estimated for 1 April 1952. The component parts of the five largest centres of population are given in detail, while for the remaining ten areas totals only are quoted. In most of the ten cases the urban area comprises the central city or borough plus the urban portion of the adjoining county. At 1 April 1952 the five largest urban areas had a total population of 824,600, this being equivalent to 41.55 per cent of the New Zealand total. The total for urban areas at the same date was 1,095,300, or 55.19 per cent of the total population of New Zealand.

Urban AreaPopulation (Including Maoris)
Auckland City128,100
    Birkenhead Borough4,860
    Northcote Borough3,230
    Takapuna Borough14,050
    Devonport Borough12,050
    Henderson Borough2,170
    New Lynn Borough6,390
    Mt. Albert Borough26,200
    Mt. Eden Borough19,350
    Newmarket Borough2,630
    Ellerslie Borough3,760
    One Tree Hill Borough12,600
    Mt. Roskill Borough20,100
    Howick Borough2,350
    Onehunga Borough17,250
    Otahuhu Borough8,190
    Papatoetoe Borough8,440
    Manurewa Borough3,300
    Papakura Borough3,450
    Glen Eden Town District2,740
    Mount Wellington Road District7,470
    Panmure Township Road District630
    Remainder of urban area27,790
Lower Hutt City45,300
    Upper Hutt Borough8,350
    Petone Borough10,950
    Eastbourne Borough2,760
    Remainder of urban area9,940
Wellington City120,500
    Tawa Flat Town District2,700
    Johnsonville Town District3,740
    Remainder of urban area8,360
Christchurch City125,000
    Riccarton Borough8,170
    Lyttelton Borough3,580
    Heathcote County7,360
    Remainder of urban area34,390
Dunedin City70,300
    Port Chalmers Borough2,690
    West Harbour Borough2,330
    St. Kilda Borough7,410
    Green Island Borough3,590
    Mosgiel Borough3,230
    Remainder of urban area6,850
New Plymouth25,600
Palmerston North33,900

Counties.—The following table gives the estimated population (including Maoris) of individual counties at 1 April 1952, together with the approximate area of each. It should be noted that "Administrative Counties" do not include boroughs or town districts independent of county control, but include town districts which form parts of counties.

During the period 17 April 1951 to 1 April 1952 fourteen counties are estimated to have gained in population to the extent of 500 or more. Taupo, Waitaki, and Tuapeka increased as a result of the expansion of hydro-electric works at Mangakino, Lake Waitaki, and Roxburgh respectively. The growth of population in such counties as Waitemata, Eden, Manukau, Hutt, Makara, and Waimairi is largely attributable to urban development in the areas bordering on the three largest centres of population—Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch.

The Counties of Waitemata, Waimarino, Manawatu, Kairanga, Marlborough, Malvern, and Paparua gained population as a result of increased numbers of servicemen in military establishments within these areas. Some of the increase was due to the return to camp of those servicemen who had been employed on waterfront work at census date. Matamata County gained considerably in numbers from the development of timber resources at Tokoroa and Kinleith, while in Featherston County a camp established for the Rimutaka Tunnel project was the main cause of population increase.

Decreases in population are considered to have been few during the period; in fact, only two counties lost in excess of 100 persons—Mackenzie County population was reduced by approximately 400 persons owing to a transfer of Ministry of Works staff to the Lake Waitaki Hydro Works camp, and Inangahua County lost approximately 300 as a result of the closing of the Waiuta Gold Mine.

Administrative CountyPopulation (Including Maoris)Approximate Area, in Square Miles
North Island—  
    Bay of Islands12,000824
    Great Barrier Island280110
    Hauraki Plains5,240233
    Hawke's Bay17,1001,671
    Waimate West2,81083
    Wairarapa South3,040440
South Island—  
    Mount Herbert59066
    Chatham Islands470372
    Stewart Island560670
            Grand totals732,410102,627

Boroughs.—Similar information as in the case of counties is now given for boroughs.

BoroughPopulation (Including Maoris)Approximate Area, in Acres
North Island—  
    New Lynn6,3901,393
    Auckland (City)128,10018,253
    Mount Albert26,2002,430
    Mount Eden19,3501,476
    One Tree Hill12,6002,430
    Mount Roskill20,1004,605
    Hamilton (City)30,8005,705
    Te Awamutu3,9901,162
    Te Kuiti3,4001,668
    Te Aroha2,7102,783
    Mount Maunganui1,970935
    Te Puke1,5101,047
    Napier (City)20,1002,477
    Havelock North2,2101,165
    New Plymouth (City)22,4004,132
    Wanganui (City)27,9005,726
    Palmerston N. (City)31,5006,839
    Upper Hutt8,3502,165
    Lower Hutt (City)45,3007,688
    Wellington (City)120,50016,289
South Island—  
    Nelson (City)17,3505,550
    Christchurch (City)125,00016,788
    Timaru (City)22,0003,524
    Port Chalmers2,690490
    West Harbour2,3302,382
    Dunedin (City)70,30013,536
    St. Kilda7,410462
    Green Island3,590878
    Invercargill (City)27,2006,399
    South Invercargill1,3102,257
            Grand totals1,213,080300,642

During the period 17 April 1951 to 1 April 1952 the estimates gave Christchurch City the highest numerical increase in population of all cities and boroughs—1,450, equivalent to a percentage increase of 1.18. Five other cities and boroughs each gained more than 800 persons. These, quoted in order of extent of population increase, were Mount Roskill, Palmerston North, Hamilton, Upper Hutt, and Lower Hutt. The highest rate of growth was credited to Upper Hutt (12.10 per cent), while Mount Roskill, with a percentage increase of 6.05, was in second position.

Only four boroughs are credited with a loss of population during the period, and two of these (Kaitangata and Newmarket) showed a decrease of less than 50 persons. Waihi Borough population was reduced by 200 as a result of the closing of the Martha Gold Mine, and Lyttelton Borough was reduced in numbers owing to the departure of 150 naval personnel.

Town Districts.—As stated earlier, the population of independent town districts—i.e., those contained in section (a) of the following table—is not included with that of the county in which the town district is located, but the population of dependent town districts—section (b)—is included in that of the respective parent county.

Town DistrictPopulation (Including Maoris)Approximate Area, in Acres
* Parent county shown in parentheses.
(a) Town Districts Not Forming Parts of Counties
North Island—  
    Glen Eden2,7401,267
    Tawa Flat2,700755
South Island—  
    Pleasant Point570730
            Grand totals30,25026,182
(b) Town Districts Forming Parts of Counties*
North Island—  
    Kohukohu (Hokianga)2201,020
    Rawene (Hokianga)460280
    Russell (Bay of Islands)6001,066
    Kawakawa (Bay of Islands)650280
    Onerahi (Whangarei)920990
    Mercer (Franklin)3101,000
    Te Kauwhata (Waikato)6501,290
    Ohaupo (Waipa)3001,283
    Kihikihi (Waipa)460523
    Kawhia (Kawhia)300470
    Te Karaka (Waikohu)390700
    Patutahi (Cook)2201,275
    Kaponga (Eltham)440558
    Normanby (Hawera)400260
South Island—  
    Havelock (Marlborough)280210
    Southbridge (Ellesmere)390531
    Outram (Taieri)360886
    Edendale (Southland)500696
            Grand totals7,85013,318

Extra-county Islands and Migratory Population.—In addition to the populations quoted for administrative counties, cities and boroughs, and independent town districts, the New Zealand totals include migratory population and persons located on islands not within the boundaries of any county. The two latter categories comprised an estimated total of 8,990 people at 1 April 1952.

Of the islands concerned, Waiheke, estimated at 1,990 for 1 April 1952, was the only one with a population of any size.

DENSITY OF POPULATION.—The relation of population to area, which is commonly referred to as "density of population," is a subject of much interest and a source of serious misconceptions. Generally speaking, a dense population must depend upon land-utilization or industrialization. In New Zealand there is a great area of high mountainous country, particularly in the South Island, while there are also large areas of water or of broken, swampy, or hilly country which is either incapable of effective use or which can be used profitably only for pastoral purposes, afforestation, or the like. No exact figures for the whole country are available, but it is known that only a moderate fraction of the total area of New Zealand is potentially arable.

There are no large areas of good land still to be brought into occupation and use, and most of the land remaining will require special methods or heavier capital expenditure to bring into use. Ultimately many such areas will be developed, and, in addition, improved methods and facilities will no doubt increase production from the land, but it seems unlikely that exceptional development may be expected in the near future.

While industrial development has made very marked growth in New Zealand over the years, and extensive further development appears certain, there are factors unfavourable to the growth of industry to a point where dense populations could be supported—not the least of which are weakness in mineral resources, relative smallness of the home market (even with an expanded population), and distance from export markets.

Within New Zealand there are wide variations in density of population. The North Island, with an area of 44,294 square miles, had a population density of 29.66 persons per square mile at the 1951 census date, and the South Island, with an area of 59,442 square miles, had a population density of 10.52 persons per square mile at the same date.

The following table provides comparative density figures on a provincial district basis.

Provincial DistrictArea, in Square MilesPersons Per Square Mile
Hawke's Bay4,2609.3012.4614.9418.0721.41
Otago portion14,0508.959.469.7610.7611.33
Southland portion11,4804.185.175.446.356.76

MAORI POPULATION.—The first official general census of Maoris was taken in 1857-58, and others occurred in regular sequence from 1874 onwards. Owing to inherent difficulties the earlier census records make no pretence towards complete accuracy.

According to census records the Maori population suffered a period of almost unbroken decline from 1858 to 1896. The following causes no doubt contributed to this decline—internecine warfare of the tribes and the heavier casualties which resulted from the introduction of firearms; the susceptibility of the Maori to epidemic and other diseases introduced with the white race; and the mental outlook of the Maori under the new conditions.

During the last fifty years, however, the Maori population has increased continuously, at first steadily and of later years at a fairly rapid rate. In fact, the vitality exhibited by the Maori race in recent years is a most outstanding feature. The rate of natural increase of the Maori population is now about double that of the European.

A statement of Maori population is now given for each census from 1901 to 1951.

YearMaori PopulationIntercensal IncreaseIntercensal IncreaseAverage Annual Increase
* Includes members of Armed Forces overseas at census date.
  NumberPer CentPer Cent

The average annual percentage increase from 1945 to 1951 was 2.89, which is considerably higher than the corresponding figure for the European population—viz., 2.34 per cent. Movements of troops have tended to invalidate this comparison; the natural increase ratios for the year 1951 shown below afford a better illustration.

Birth rate24.3944.97
Death rate9.5611.37
Natural-increase rate14.8333.60

Of the 115,676 Maoris at the 1951 census, 111,512 were in the North Island. Auckland Provincial District contains the bulk of the Maoris, particularly in the Auckland peninsula and Poverty Bay regions. In the South Island Maoris do not attain any numerical significance. Maoris have always been residents in rural communities and this is still substantially true. A marked change is, however, taking place which probably acquired impetus during the war as a result of employment conditions. As late as the 1936 census only 8,249 Maoris (10.02 per cent) dwelt in cities, boroughs, or independent town districts. By the 1951 census the comparative figure was 22,726 (19.65 per cent). The largest concentration is in Auckland Urban Area, where 7,621 Maoris were enumerated.

The records of the 1936 and 1945 censuses (1951 figures are not yet available) permit of a statement of the total numbers wholly or partly of Maori blood.

Counted in the Maori population—

Full Maori55,91561,440
    Three-quarter caste11,39718,956
    Degree not specified123..

Counted in the population other than Maori—

Maori-European quarter-caste11,50816,902
Maori-American Indian328
Maori-West Indian11 

In 1945 there were recorded in New Zealand some 116,394 persons wholly or partly of Maori origin, compared with 94,053 in 1936.

STATISTICS OF 1951 CENSUS.—In addition to the 1951 census figures of population given in the preceding pages, a summary of dwelling statistics for this census is shown in Section 25 (Building, Construction, and Housing). Appendix (e), towards the end of this volume, also gives 1951 census statistics on a number of population characteristics, these figures having become available since the present section was prepared. The detailed results of the census will be published in a number of separate volumes, the following of which are at present available:—

Volume I—Increase and Location of Population.

Appendix A—Census of Poultry.

Interim Returns of Population and Dwellings.



REGISTRATION.—The law as to registration of births is embodied in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, a consolidation of the then existing legislation. The provisions generally as to registration are that a birth may be registered within two months without fee. After two months and within six months a birth is registrable only after a statutory declaration of the particulars required to be registered has been made before the Registrar by the parent or some person present at birth, and on payment of the prescribed fee. A birth may be registered after six months only upon the direction of the Registrar-General, who may authorize registration in any case within two years after the date of birth. An information for neglect to register must be laid within two years of date of birth. In cases of neglect or refusal to give the Registrar information in respect of any birth the Registrar-General may at any time within two years after the birth of the child authorize some person to give the Registrar the information required to enable him to register the birth, and to sign as informant the entry in the register, upon which the Registrar shall register the birth.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, power is given by the Act for the Registrar-General to register an unregistered birth which occurred in New Zealand, irrespective of the time that may have elapsed. Satisfactory evidence on oath, and such other proof as the Registrar-General may deem necessary, are required. This provision does not, however, relieve any person from liability to prosecution for failure to register in the proper manner.

Although two months are allowed for the registration of a birth, it is compulsory to notify the birth to the Registrar within a much shorter interval—viz., forty-eight hours if in a city or borough and seven days in every other case. Births are to be registered by the Registrar whose office is nearest to the place of birth.

Particulars required to be registered are: date and place of birth; name and sex of child; names, ages, and birthplaces of parents; occupation of father; maiden name of mother; date and place of parents' marriage; and ages and sex of previous issue (distinguishing living and dead) of the marriage. The father of an ex-nuptial child is not required to give information, nor is his name entered in the register unless at the joint request of the mother and himself, or unless he subsequently marries the mother. A child born out of New Zealand but arriving before attaining the age of eighteen months may be registered within six months of arrival. The Registrar-General may authorize registration of such a child who is over eighteen months but under three years of age.

Birth statistics are compiled from the records of the Registrar-General. The births covered by a year's statistics are those registered during the year irrespective of the year of birth. The figures do not include still-births, except in the special classification on page 68 and in a table on page 49.

NUMBERS AND RATES.—The general long-term history of the birth rate in New Zealand has been downward. A reference to the diagram on page 47 and to the table on page 45, showing quinquennial average birth rates, indicates this trend very clearly. After the pioneering days of the nineteenth century, when the population consisted very largely of young immigrants faced with the raising of a family, the birth rate began to decline appreciably. A further migration wave at the turn of the century reversed the trend temporarily, but in 1909 the downward movement was again resumed. With minor fluctuations in the earlier stages and in the years influenced by the First World War this decline continued until 1936. In that year a slight upward movement began, and by 1940 some of the deficit had been made up by the gradual rise. This was accelerated during the Second World War (with minor fluctuations) until successive record high totals (as regards the numbers of births) were established in 1945-47. In 1948 a decline in births was shown with a further recession in 1949. The decreases were not large, and in 1950 and 1951 increases were again recorded. The numbers and rates of births (children born alive) for each of the last twenty years are given in the following table.

YearNumberRate Per 1,000 of Mean PopulationYearNumberRate Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1932 .. ..24,88417·121942 .. ..33,57421·73
1933 .. ..24,33416·631943 .. ..30,31119·70
1934 .. ..24,32216·511944 .. ..33,59921·59
1935 .. ..23,96516·171945 .. ..37,00723·22
1936 .. ..24,83716·641946 .. ..41,87125·26
1937 .. ..26,01417·291947 .. ..44,81626·47
1938 .. ..27,24917·931948 .. ..44,19325·59
1939 .. ..28,83318·731949 .. ..43,98824·98
1940 .. ..32,77121·191950 .. ..44,30924·67
1941 .. ..35,10022·811951 .. ..44,65124·39

Much of the movement in the birth rate during recent years has been allied to movement in the marriage rate.

As may be expected, the movement in the birth rate reflects the tendency for couples to marry and have children in prosperous years rather than in years of depression. An analysis of birth rates by order of births shows that up to the fourth child birth rates fluctuate in accordance with this general trend; from the fifth to the seventh child some sympathetic movement is noticeable, but in such cases the extent of recovery has usually been less than the downward range evident in adverse years, indicative of an overall decline in the larger-sized families; the birth rate for the eighth (or more) child has exhibited a definitely continuous decline over a long period, being apparently unaffected by economic cyclical changes.

Comparisons of birth rates over a series of years or between different countries are usually made on the basis of the “crude” rates—i.e., the number of births per 1,000 of the mean population, irrespective of sex or age.

The “crude” rates do not permit of allowance being made for variations in the proportion of women of the child-bearing ages, and it is advisable and of interest to supplement the table of “crude” rates with a computation of the legitimate birth rate per 1,000 married women of 15 and under 45 years of age, or the total birth rate per 1,000 of all women of these ages. The following table gives both rates for New Zealand for each census from 1881 to 1945 together with the “crude” rate for the year.

YearBirth Rate Per 1,000 Women 15 and Under 45 YearsCrude Birth Rate
* Per 1,000 married women.
1881 .. .. ..315·0194·837·95
1886 .. .. ..298·2163·733·15
1891 .. .. ..279·2139·229·01
1896 .. .. ..254·6117·626·33
1901 .. .. ..246·2111·726·34
1906 .. .. ..235·3114·127·08
1911 .. .. ..211·7109·525·97
1916 .. .. ..193·6106·725·94
1921 .. .. ..181·699·023·38
1926 .. .. ..166·990·921·06
1936 .. .. ..136·672·216·64
1945 .. .. ..166·599·823·22

The legitimate rate per 1,000 married women between the ages of 15 and 45 fell steadily at each census date from 1881 to 1936, the figure registered in the latter year being equal to a decline of 57 per cent. Considerable improvement was, however, effected in 1945, the rate then being almost identical with that registered in 1926, which showed a fall of 47 per cent on the 1881 figure. The rate on the basis of all women between the ages of 15 and 45 exhibited a greater fall, the 1936 figure being 63 per cent lower, but again substantial improvement was shown in 1945, the rate being equivalent to a decrease of 49 per cent. The greater fall in the rate for all women is due to the fact that the proportion of married women in the child-bearing ages is now smaller than in former years. When the results of the age distribution at the 1951 census become available it is expected that fairly substantial rises in these rates will be noted.

Although the “crude” birth rates have fluctuated more so than the refined rates, the decline has not been so great, the 1945 figure being equal to a fall of 39 per cent on the 1881 rate.

A study of the figures for successive censuses reveals considerable changes in the age constitution of married women within the child-bearing ages. As the birth rate varies with age, the change in age constitution over the period is a factor which should be taken into account.

NATURAL INCREASE.—The decline of the birth rate in New Zealand has been accompanied until recent years by a decrease in the death rate. Nevertheless, the nominal rate of natural increase of population has fallen from 29·32 per 1,000 of mean population in 1880 to 14·83 in 1951. Acceptance of this figure without consideration of the effect of the changing age constitution will give an erroneous view of the present margin of increase and of the probable trend of population growth in the future.

The last eleven years have seen considerable movement in the rate of natural increase, the exceptionally low figure in 1943 being the result of a low birth rate due to war conditions. The increase in births coupled with a decrease in deaths resulted in increases each year to 1947 when the natural increase rate rose to 17·08. Since then the rate has declined each year on account of decreases in the birth rate, and for the last three years owing to increases in the death rate. The average annual rate of natural increase for the quinquennium 1946-50 was 16·06, and it is necessary to go back to 1911-15 to find a higher average annual rate, the figure for that period being 16·76.

YearNumbersRate Per 1,000 Mean Population
BirthsDeathsNatural IncreaseBirthsDeathsNatural Increase
1941 .. ..35,10015,14619,95422·819·8412·97
1942 .. ..33,57416,38517,18921·7310·6011·13
1943 .. ..30,31115,44714,86419·7010·049·66
1944 .. ..33,59915,36318,23621·599·8711·72
1945 .. ..37,00716,05120,95623·2210·0713·15
1946 .. ..41,87116,09325,77825·269·7115·55
1947 .. ..44,81615,90428,91226·479·3917·08
1948 .. ..44,19315,81228,38125·599·1616·43
1949 .. ..43,98816,01227,97624·989·0915·89
1950 .. ..44,30916,71527,59424·679·3115·36
1951 .. ..44,65117,51227,13924·399·5614·83

The natural increase rate provides a useful guide to population increase and a further method is that of the net reproduction index, which is based on female children born and probably surviving. Details of gross and net reproduction rates for recent years will be found in Section 3 of this issue.

The movements that have taken place since 1880 are well illustrated in the accompanying diagram, which shows the rates at annual intervals, although only every tenth year is labelled.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES.—An international comparison of birth and natural increase rates is made in the following table. New Zealand's position is much higher on the basis of natural increase than it is on that of the birth rate. The rates, which are the average of the five years 1947-51, are taken from the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics issued by the United Nations.

CountryRates Per 1,000 of Population
BirthsNatural Increase
Costa Rica .. ..46·934·2
Mexico .. ..45·328·3
Venezuela .. ..41·829·5
Puerto Rico .. ..39·628·7
Chile .. ..33·116·4
Japan .. ..30·919·1
Israel .. ..30·423·9
Canada .. ..27·518·3
India .. ..26·19·2
Union of South Africa ..26·017·2
Finland .. ..25·714·8
New Zealand .. ..25·215·9
Netherlands .. ..24·416·7
United States of America24·314·5
Australia .. ..23·313·6
Republic of Ireland ..21·98·5
Spain .. ..21·39·9
France .. ..20·67·6
Italy .. ..20·49·9
Norway .. ..19·89·0
Denmark .. ..19·510·5
Switzerland .. ..18·57·8
United Kingdom ..17·65·7
Sweden .. ..17·37·2
Belgium .. ..17·14·3
Austria .. ..16·64·0

SEXES OF CHILDREN BORN.—With the exception of one year (1860), there has always been a preponderance of males in the number of children born in New Zealand. The proportions are usually shown by stating the number of births of male children to every 1,000 female births. This number has been as high as 1,113 (in 1859), and as low as 991 (in 1860), but little significance can be attached to any figures prior to 1870, on account of the comparatively small number of births. It is a popular idea that the proportion of male births tends to increase considerably in war years, but the experience in this country does little to bear out this theory, the average over the six years 1940-45 being 1,057, as against that of 1,050 for the preceding ten years. Figures taken out some years ago prove that the masculinity rate for first births is distinctly higher than for subsequent births. As the first-birth rate tends to rise during war years, and actually reached a very high peak during the early part of Second World War, the total masculinity rate would also be affected and would give rise to the popular idea that wars result in an increase in the proportion of male children born. The extreme range since 1870 has been from 1,016 male per 1,000 female births in 1878 to 1,081 in 1923. Rates for the last five years are given below.

YearNumber of Births ofMale Births Per 1,000 Female Births
1947 .. .. ..22,89821,9181,045
1948 .. .. ..22,61721,5761,048
1949 .. .. ..22,73321,2551,070
1950 .. .. ..22,67721,6321,048
1951 .. .. ..23,06821,5831,069

MULTIPLE BIRTHS.—The number of cases of multiple births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total (living births only) during the last five years are shown in the following table.

YearTotal BirthsTotal CasesCases of TwinsCases of TripletsMultiple Cases Per 1,000 of Total Cases

* Includes one case of quadruplets.

† Includes one case where triplets would have been recorded had not one child been still-born.

1947 .. .. ..44,81644,279529412·04
1948 .. .. ..44,19343,667522212·00
1949 .. .. ..43,98843,450532312·31
1950 .. .. ..44,30943,7565406*12·48
1951 .. .. ..44,65144,125510†811·74

Counting only cases where both children were born alive, there were 509 cases of twin births registered in 1951. There were also eight cases of triplets and one case where one of triplets was still-born.

The total number of confinements resulting in living births was 44,125, and on the average one mother in every 85 gave birth to twins (or triplets).

When still-births are taken into account, the total number of confinements for the year 1951 is increased to 44,878, and the number of cases of multiple births to 568. On this basis the proportion of mothers giving birth to twins or triplets is increased to one in 79.

The incidence of multiple births has not varied greatly in recent years, as may be seen from the following summary.

YearCases of TwinsCases of TripletsTotal Multiple CasesRate Per 1,000 Confinements
Both Born AliveOne Born Alive, One Still-bornBoth Still-bornTotalAll Born AliveOne Born Alive, Two Still-bornTwo Born Alive, One Still-bornAll Still-bornTotal
* Includes one case of quadruplets.           
1947           ..52938115784..     ..     ..     458212·9
1948           ..5223075592..     ..     ..     256112·6
1949           ..5324395843..     1..     458813·3
1950           ..54046125986*..     ..     1760513·6
1951           ..50940105598..     1..     956812·7
Average of
five years
52639105755..     ..     ..     558013·0

The proportion of multiple births has been consistently high during recent years, the rate of 14·2 experienced in 1944 being a record figure. The number of cases of triplets recorded in 1951 was exceptional.

The likelihood of still-births occurring is much greater in cases of multiple births than in single cases. This is exemplified in the following table. The figures in respect of multiple cases include all cases where one or more of the children were still-born.

YearStill-birth Cases Per 100 of Total Cases (Including Still-births)
Single CasesMultiple Cases
1947 ..          ..1·918·42
1948 ..          ..1·806·60
1949 ..          ..1·688·86
1950 ..          ..1·819·75
1951 ..          ..1·688·98
Average of five years1·788·52

During the five years 1947-51 there were 2,632 cases of live twin births (including ex-nuptial), and of these in 890 instances, or 33·8 per cent, both children were males; in 822, or 31·2 per cent, both were females; and in the remaining 920, or 35·0 per cent, the children were of opposite sexes.

The eight cases of triplets in 1951 comprised three of three males, one of three females, three of one male and two females, and one of two males and one female.

AGES OF PARENTS.—Information as to the relative ages of parents of legitimate living children whose births were registered in 1951 is shown in the following tables.

Age of Mother, in YearsAge of Father, in Years
Under 2121 and Under 2525 and Under 3030 and Under 3535 and Under 4040 and Under 4545 and Under 5050 and Under 5555 and Under 6565 and OverTotal Cases

* Including 36 legitimate cases where twins would have been registered had not one child been still-born.

† Including 8 cases of triplets and 1 case where one of triplets was still-born.

Single Births
Under 21 ..3081,3088111673914313..2,654
21 and under 25912,8065,0061,47836693266619,879
25 ″ 3076666,2484,9991,6784201064217114,184
30 ″ 352739513,6602,945951269673378,958
35 ″ 4018745991,9291,3514951337164,667
40 ″ 45..134421746835012651151,275
45 and over ..........4846278295
               Totals ..4094,86213,09310,9477,1783,3051,2954021893241,712*
Multiple Births
Under 21 ..1741............13
21 and under 25..3052134..........99
25 ″ 30..98356187..1....174
30 ″ 35..113513518811..128
35 ″ 40..1..623288..1..67
40 ″ 45........485......17
45 and over ........................
               Totals ..14815212784612122..498†
               Grand totals4104,91013,24511,0747,2623,3661,3164041913242,210

PREVIOUS ISSUE OF PARENTS.—Information as to the previous issue of the existing marriage, required in connection with the registration of births in New Zealand, is useful not only for record purposes, but also as providing valuable data for statistical purposes. Tables are given in the annual Report on Vital Statistics containing detailed information as to number of previous issue in conjunction with (1) age of mother and (2) duration of marriage. The table under the first heading for the year 1951 is here summarized.

Age of Mother, in YearsNumber of Previous IssueTotal Legitimate Cases
0123456 and Under 1010 and Under 1515 and Over
* This number represents 41,712 single cases and 498 multiple cases.
Under 21 .. ..2,02852910271........2,667
21 and under 25 ..5,2953,1611,1493045973....9,978
25 ″ 30 ..3,8995,2323,3631,22040215884....14,358
30 ″ 35 ..1,4642,5292,4061,38363833032115..9,086
35 ″ 40 ..6019141,0058905683453614914,734
40 ″ 45 ..1521732132061611332034651,292
45 and over .. ..8181515122411195
          Totals .. ..13,44712,5398,2464,0251,844985996121742,210*

In computing previous issue, multiple births have been given their full significance, the numbers at the head of the columns relating to children born alive. In the following table this procedure has been followed not only for the previous issue, but also for children covered by the 1951 registrations, who are also taken into account in the computation of the averages.

Age of Mother, in YearsTotal MothersTotal IssueAverage Issue
Under 21 ..2,6673,4251·28
21-24 ..9,97816,6391·67
25-29 ..14,35832,9132·29
30-34 ..9,08627,1042·98
35-39 ..4,73417,3603·67
40-44 ..1,2925,8484·53
45 and over..955916·22
          Totals ..42,210103,8802·46

It should be stressed that the averages are no more than they purport to be—viz., the average number of children (including those registered in 1951) born up to the present time to those mothers of legitimate children whose births were registered during the year. They do not purport to represent, nor do they represent, the average issue of all women of the ages shown. Furthermore, they include issue born to the existing marriages only. The averages for recent years were as follows: 1947, 2·34; 1948, 2·40; 1949, 2·42; and 1950, 2·45. In 1915, the earliest year for which reliable comparative figures are available, the average issue was 3·11. This falling trend in the average issue of women giving birth to children is some indication of the tendency towards smaller families. The 1943 average, for the first time since these figures were compiled, reversed the trend, and a further increase was recorded in 1944, but with the increase in the proportion of first births in the three following years the average declined. A slight improvement has been noted for the years 1948-51, this being accounted for by decreases in the proportion of first births.

FIRST BIRTHS.—Of a total of 210,583 confinements resulting in legitimate births during the five years 1947-51, the issue of no fewer than 73,366, or 39 per cent, were first-born children. In 30,039, or 41 per cent, of these cases the birth occurred within twelve months, and in 54,388, or 74 per cent, within two years after the marriage of the parents. In the remaining 26 per cent of cases where there was any issue to the marriage two years or more had elapsed before the birth of the first child.

The annual number of first births registered naturally follows closely the movement in the marriage rate. With the return of men from service overseas there came a heavy increase in the number of marriages, and correspondingly the proportion of first births rose steeply to 40·03 per cent in 1947, a rate very little below the record figure of 41·69 per cent established in 1940. Since 1947, however, a downward tendency has been evident. An interesting feature of the birth statistics for 1947 and 1948 was the high proportion of first births occurring within two years after marriage—75·62 per cent of all legitimate first cases recorded in 1947 and 75·44 per cent in 1948 falling in this class. These are the highest figures recorded since 1929. The steady decline in the marriage rate since the post-war peak figure of 1946 has been accompanied by a marked downward movement in the actual proportion of first births to total births.

YearTotal Legitimate CasesTotal Legitimate First CasesProportion of First Cases to Total CasesFirst Cases Within One Year After MarriageFirst Cases Within Two Years After Marriage
NumberProportion to Total First CasesNumberProportion to Total First Cases
   Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent
1947 .. ..42,56617,03940·037,29342·8012,88575·62
1948 .. ..42,00515,16436·106,24441·1811,44075·44
1949 .. ..41,79614,08733·705,65940·1710,26972·90
1950 .. ..42,00613,62932·455,41939·769,96473·12
1951 .. ..42,21013,44731·865,42440·349,83073·10
          Totals for five years..210,58373,36638·8430,03940·9454,38874·13

The period of time elapsing before the birth of the first child has varied considerably during recent years mainly as a result of war and post-war influences. The following table compares the 1951 figures with those for earlier years, and illustrates the movement in the duration-of-marriage factor in first births.

Duration of Marriage, in YearsProportion Per Cent of Total First Births
Under 1 year .. ..52·9550·0646·2538·4740·34
  1 and under 2 years ..28·6226·6426·7926·3032·76
  2 ″ 3 ″ ..9·0210·4310·2411·2811·95
  3 ″ 4 ″ ..3·435·516·167·886·17
  4 ″ 5 ″ ..1·883·033·967·183·27
  5 ″ 10 ″ ..3·263·365·497·364·30
10 years and over ..0·840·971·111·531·21
               Totals .. ..100·00100·00100·00100·00100·00

For the years covered by the foregoing table the average duration of marriage before the birth of the first child was—1914, 1·63 years; 1924, 1·76 years; 1934, 1·85 years; 1944, 2·22 years; and 1951, 1·87 years.

An item of interest extracted from the birth statistics is a table of first births occurring to mothers in different age groups, expressed as a proportion per cent of the total first births. A comparison has also been computed on this basis for the years 1914, 1924, 1934, 1944, and 1951.

First Births, by Age of Mother
Age of Mother, in YearsFirst Births, Proportion Per Cent at Each Age Group to Total First Births
Under 20 .. ..6·737·558·907·338·17
20 and under 25 ..35·8938·1640·3941·7946·28
25 ″ 30 ..35·0132·5932·7929·5429·00
30 ″ 35 ..15·6114·6813·1014·6110·89
35 ″ 40 ..5·525·333·795·364·47
40 ″ 45 ..1·161·590·991·341·13
45 and over .. ..0·080·100·040·030·06
               Totals .. ..100·00100·00100·00100·00100·00

The figures of average ages of mothers at the birth of their first child are as follows for the above years: 1914, 26·55; 1924, 26·39; 1934, 25·90; 1944, 25·18; and 1951, 25·54.

EX-NUPTIAL BIRTHS.—The numbers of ex-nuptial births registered during each of the years 1941-51, with the percentages they bear to total births registered, were as follows.

YearNumberPercentage of Total BirthsYearNumberPercentage of Total Births
1941 .. ..1,2813·651947 .. ..1,7273·85
1942 .. ..1,3393·991948 .. ..1,6863·82
1943 .. ..1,4674·841949 .. ..1,6713·80
1944 .. ..2,0206·011950 .. ..1,7683·99
1945 .. ..1,8244·931951 .. ..1,9354·33
1946 .. ..1,8244·36 

War influences, resulting in unusual movements of the population and the influx of servicemen to the more heavily populated centres, no doubt are responsible for the high percentages recorded during 1943-46.

The long-term trend in the rate of ex-nuptial births is indicated by the movement in the proportion of ex-nuptial births per 1,000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters, widows, and divorced women—at the reproductive ages. The figures for each census year from 1911 to 1945 are as follows.

Census YearUnmarried Women 15 and Under 45 Years of AgeEx-nuptial BirthsEx-nuptial Birth Rate Per 1,000 Unmarried Women
1911 .. .. ..120,7781,0788·93
1916 .. .. ..125,4611,1599·24
1921 .. .. ..136,5391,2589·21
1926 .. .. ..148,5511,4739·92
1936 .. .. ..167,7811,1266·71
1945 .. .. ..156,3261,82411·67

Included in the total of 1,935 ex-nuptial births in 1951 were twenty cases of twins, and four cases where one of twins was still-born, the number of confinements being thus 1,915. From the following table it will be seen that of the 1,915 mothers 567, or 30 per cent, were under twenty-one years of age.

14 .. .. ..423 .. ..127
15 .. .. ..1324 .. ..115
16 .. .. ..4225-29 .. ..415
17 .. .. ..8930-34 .. ..227
18 .. .. ..11635-39 .. ..127
19 .. .. ..15240-44 .. ..48
20 .. .. ..15145 and over ..1
21 .. .. ..157 
22 .. .. ..131               Total ..1,915

The Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act 1930 directed the omission of the word “illegitimate” from the register when the birth of an ex-nuptial child is registered. The word “illegitimate” appearing in any entry made prior to the passing of the Act is deemed to be expunged and deleted, and must also be omitted from any certified copy of an entry.

The Legitimation Act.—Important changes were made by the Legitimation Act of 1939, which repealed previous legislation on the subject. This Act stipulates that every ex-nuptial person whose parents have intermarried, whether before or after the passing of the Act, shall be deemed to have been legitimated from birth by reason of such marriage. The Act requires the parents or surviving parent of any person legitimated under the Act to register with the Registrar-General the particulars of the birth of that person, showing that person as the lawful issue of the parents. Application for registration was required to be made within six months after the date of the passing of the Act in cases where the marriage took place prior to that date. In cases where the marriage has taken place subsequent to the passing of the Act, application for registration must be made within three months after the date of the marriage.

Where the Registrar-General has reason to believe that any person has been legitimated under the terms of the Act, and no application for registration has been made within the prescribed time, he may require the responsible parents or parent to make an application within a specified period of not less than seven days after receiving notice to do so. Any failure to comply with the notice requiring application for registration within the time specified renders the person or persons responsible liable on summary conviction to a fine of £5. If no application for registration is made within the appropriate time specified in the Act or in the notice received from the Registrar-General, application for registration of the particulars of the birth of any legitimated person may be made by that person, or by one of his parents, or by any other person.

The number of legitimations registered in each of the last five years, and the total since the Act of 1894 came into force, are shown in the following table.

YearNumber of Children Legitimized
Previously RegisteredNot Previously RegisteredTotal
1947 .. .. ..4964500
1948 .. .. ..5183521
1949 .. .. ..4112413
1950 .. .. ..401..     401
1951 .. .. ..394..     394
          Totals from 1894 to 195111,3113,29414,605

ADOPTIONS.—The Births and Deaths Registration Act contains provision for the registration of adopted children. The Registrar of the Court by which any adoption order is made is required to furnish to the Registrar-General particulars of the order, including the full name and place of birth of the child, as well as the full names and addresses of both the natural and the adopting parents. An entry is made in the prescribed form in the register of births, particulars of the adopting parents being given in lieu of those of the natural parents. If the child's birth has previously been registered in New Zealand a note of the adoption order is made on the original entry. An amendment to the Infants Act in 1939 extended the age at which a child might be legally adopted from under fifteen years to under twenty-one years.

The adoption of a Maori child is required to be registered in the same manner as that of a European child unless the adoption order is made under the Maori Land Act 1931.

The following table shows the number of adoptions (exclusive of Maori children) which have been registered during the last five years.

1947 .. .. ..6806591,339
1948 .. .. ..6986641,362
1949 .. .. ..6545951,249
1950 .. .. ..6296261,255
1951 .. .. ..6967091,405

Of the 1,405 adoptions registered in 1951, 767 were children under the age of one year, 253 were between one and five years, 195 were between five and ten years, and 190 were aged ten years or over. In addition, 147 Maori children (70 males and 77 females) were adopted in 1951.

Statistics of adoptions registered have been available in New Zealand since 1919, and these indicate that the numbers are considerably influenced by the economic condition of the country, the lowest total, 329, being recorded in 1931. The highest total prior to 1940 occurred in 1921, when 584 adoptions were registered, this, no doubt, being the result of influences operating after the First World War. Possibly various factors arising out of the Second World War have had a bearing on the high totals for recent years, but the extension of age at which a child might legally be adopted is also of importance in this connection. It should also be noted that the unprecedented totals since 1944 are associated with the high number of ex-nuptial births occurring in these years.

STILL-BIRTHS.—The registration of still-births was made compulsory in New Zealand as from 1 March 1913. Although it is necessary to effect a birth-registration entry for a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. Section 15 of the Statutes Amendment Act 1946, amending the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1924, stipulated, however, that a medical practitioner or a midwife in attendance at a confinement where a still-birth occurs must furnish a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the still-birth. Particulars of causes of still-births will be found in Section 4c relating to deaths. A still-born child is defined as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue.” Still-births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths.

The registrations of European still-births during each of the years 1947-1951 were as follows.

YearMalesFemalesTotalsMale Still-births Per 1,000 Female Still-birthsPercentage of Still-births to—
Living BirthsAll Births
1947 .. ..5014109111,2222·031·99
1948 .. ..4833518341,3761·891·85
1949 .. ..4493477961,2941·811·78
1950 .. ..4893768651,3011·951·92
1951 .. ..4493558041,2651·801·77

Masculinity is in general much higher among still-births than among living births, the rate for still-births in 1951 being 1,265 males per 1,000 females as compared with 1,069 for living births.

The percentage of ex-nuptials among still-born infants was in 1951, 5·60, and among infants born alive, 2·33.

Of the living legitimate births registered in 1951, 32 per cent were first births, while of legitimate still-births 41 per cent were first births. Statistics over many years indicate that there is a considerably greater probability of still-births occurring to mothers having their first confinement than to those having subsequent confinements. In addition to the 804 European still-births in 1951, there were 110 Maori still-births registered, comprising 66 males and 44 females.

FOETAL DEATHS.—Section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 stipulates that in the case of a foetal death where the child has issued from its mother after the twentieth week of pregnancy a medical practitioner or a midwife who was in attendance at the confinement shall sign and supply a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the foetal death, and such other particulars as may be required by the Registrar-General. This requirement came into force as from 1 April 1952. A foetal death is not required to be registered as in the case of a still-born child.


Marriage may be celebrated in New Zealand only on the authority of a Registrar's certificate, either by a person whose name is on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act, or before a duly appointed Registrar or Deputy Registrar of Marriages. Marriage by an officiating minister may be celebrated only between 8 o'clock in the morning and 8 o'clock in the evening. Marriage before a Registrar can be celebrated at any time during the hours the office of the Registrar is open for the transaction of public business.

Notice of intended marriage must be given to a Registrar of Marriages by one of the parties to the proposed marriage, and one of the parties must have resided for three full days in the district within which the marriage is to be celebrated. In the case of a person under twenty-one years of age, not being a widow or widower, the consent of parent or guardian is necessary before the Registrar's certificate can be issued. A schedule to the Guardianship of Infants Act 1926 sets out the person or persons whose consent is required in various circumstances. In cases where double consent is required, section 8 provides for dispensing with the consent of one party if this cannot be obtained by reason of absence, inaccessibility, or disability. In similar cases where the consent of only one person is necessary, consent may be given by a Judge of the Supreme Court. Consent of the Court may also be given in cases of refusal by any person whose consent is required.

If in any particular case a declaration is made that there is no parent or lawful guardian resident in New Zealand, then a certificate may be issued by the Registrar (without the necessity of Court proceedings) fourteen days after the date on which the notice of intended marriage was given.

The system of notice and certificate has operated in New Zealand since 1855. Officiating ministers and Registrars are required to send to the Registrar-General returns of all marriages celebrated, and as the returns come in they are checked off with the entries in the Registrars' lists of notices received and certificates issued. In case of the non-arrival of a marriage return corresponding to any entry in the list of notices, inquiries are made as to whether the marriage has taken place.

Marriage is forbidden between persons within certain degrees of relationship, any such marriage being declared void. The prohibition applies whether the relationship is by the whole blood or by the half-blood, and whether the relationship is legitimate or illegitimate. The present law on this matter is contained in the Marriage Amendment Act 1946.

An amendment to the Marriage Act in 1939, which repealed a similar provision passed in 1933, stipulates that a Registrar may not issue a certificate of marriage where either of the intending parties is under sixteen years of age. No marriage shall be deemed to have been unduly solemnized, however, by reason only of this provision. The 1933 amendment made provision enabling women to become officiating ministers for the purposes of the Marriage Act. The 1946 amending Act provides for the validity of Service—i.e., Armed Forces overseas—marriages.

Particulars regarding divorce will be found at the close of this subsection.

NUMBERS AND RATES.—The movement of the marriage rate over a lengthy period of time may be observed from the statistical summary appearing towards the end of this Year-Book. The numbers and rates of marriages during each of the last twenty years are here given.

YearNumberRate Per 1,000 of Population
1932 .. ..9,8966·81
1933 .. ..10,5107·18
1934 .. ..11,2567·64
1935 .. ..12,1878·23
1936 .. ..13,8089·25
1937 .. ..14,3649·55
1938 .. ..15,32810·09
1939 .. ..17,11511·12
1940 .. ..17,44811·28
1941 .. ..13,3138·65
1942 .. ..12,2197·91
1943 .. ..11,5797·53
1944 .. ..13,1258·43
1945 .. ..16,16010·14
1946 .. ..20,53512·39
1947 .. ..18,52510·94
1948 .. ..17,1929·96
1949 .. ..16,7859·53
1950 .. ..16,5049·19
1951 .. ..16,3598·93

Both the marriage rate and the number of marriages in 1946 were the highest on record. The main reason for this was the return from overseas of many thousands of men in the most prolific marriage age groups. An appreciable decline, however, in both the number of marriages and in the marriage rate took place in 1947 and 1948 and has continued since, although less pronounced in the later years.

Comparison with Other Countries.—Marriage rates for certain countries for 1951 are given below (these particulars have been taken from the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics issued by the Statistical Office of the United Nations).

CountryRates Per 1,000 Mean Population
Israel .. .. ..11·4
United States of America ..10·5
Australia .. .. ..9·2
Canada .. .. ..9·2
Austria .. .. ..9·1
New Zealand .. ..8·9
Netherlands .. ..8·8
Norway .. .. ..8·3
United Kingdom .. ..8·2
Denmark .. .. ..8·1
Puerto Rico .. ..8·1
Belgium .. .. ..7·9
Switzerland .. ..7·9
Chile .. .. ..7·8
Portugal .. .. ..7·7
Sweden .. .. ..7·6
France .. .. ..7·5
Spain .. .. ..7·5
Italy .. .. ..6·9
Republic of Ireland ..5·4
Venezuela .. ..5·0

MARITAL STATUS.—The total number of persons married during the year 1951 was 32,718, of whom 28,615 were single, 1,585 widowed, and 2,518 divorced. The figures for the five years 1947 to 1951, showing the sexes separately, are given in the table following.

YearSingleWidowedDivorcedTotal Persons Married
1947 ..16,15416,1868998861,4721,45337,050
1948 ..14,79914,9208978321,4961,44034,384
1949 ..14,48014,5848707811,4351,42033,570
1950 ..14,28014,4528947761,3301,27633,008
1951 ..14,24414,3718547311,2611,25732,718

The position is more easily seen by studying the percentages given in the next table.

 Per CentPer CentPer CentPer CentPer CentPer Cent
1947 .. ..87·204·857·9587·384·787·84
1948 .. ..86·085·228·7086·784·848·38
1949 .. ..86·275·188·5586·894·658·46
1950 .. ..86·525·428·0687·574·707·73
1951 .. ..87·075·227·7187·854·477·68

Reference to the divorce statistics at the end of this subsection will show that the number of divorces since and including the later war-years has been at a high level, although there has been a steady decline since 1946. The number of decrees absolute in the period 1947-51 was 9,077, as compared with 4,907 in the five years 1936-40, an increase of 85 per cent. The increase in the number of divorced people remarrying is therefore not surprising. The number of widowed persons remarrying, which was 39 per 1,000 in 1940, rose to 51 per 1,000 in 1950, but there was a slight decline to 48 per 1,000 in 1951.

The relative marital status of bridegrooms and brides for each of the five years 1947 to 1951 is next given.

YearMarriages Between Bachelors andMarriages Between Widowers andMarriages Between Divorced Men and
SpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced WomenSpinstersWidowsDivorced Women
1947 ..14,856430869428302169902154415
1948 ..13,582390827434279184904163429
1949 ..13,336327817385302183863152420
1950 ..13,271285724378330186803161366
1951 ..13,260288696364306184747137377

The relative proportions of divorced men and divorced women remarrying during the last three years has changed but little compared with ten years earlier. During the three years 1938-40 the number of male divorcees remarrying was 2,066, as compared with 2,169 females, which gives a rate of 95 males for every 100 females. In 1949-51 the respective numbers were 4,026 males and 3,953 females and the corresponding rate 102 males for every 100 females. In the case of widowed persons remarrying, however, there has been a marked change in the figures. In the three-year period 1938-40, 2,420 widowers remarried but only 1,619 widows, whereas in 1949-51, there were 2,618 widowers and 2,288 widows who remarried, the number of widowers per 100 widows being 149 in the former period and 114 in the latter period. It is probable that the increase in the proportion of widows remarrying is due in some measure to the numbers of young women who were widowed as a result of the war.

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED.—Of the 32,718 persons married in 1951, 4,798, or 15 per cent, were under twenty-one years of age; 12,276, or 38 per cent, were returned as twenty-one and under twenty-five; 7,859, or 24 per cent, as twenty-five and under thirty; 4,654, or 14 per cent, as thirty and under forty; and 3,131, or 9 per cent, as forty years of age or over. The following table relates to the year 1951.

Age of Bridegroom, in YearsAge of Bride, in YearsTotal Bridegrooms
Under 2121 and Under 2525 and Under 3030 and Under 3535 and Under 4040 and Under 4545 and Over  
Under 21 .. ..5372001721..1758
21 and under 25 ..2,2612,9675146411245,823
25 ″ 30 ..1,0152,5111,24523854625,071
30 ″ 35 ..17253957133312633101,784
35 ″ 40 ..3816628325617268191,002
40 ″ 45 ..12549614216610754631
45 and over ..516621241792236811,290
               Total brides ..4,0406,4532,7881,15970943977116,359

There have been some considerable changes in the proportions of persons marrying at the various age periods. To illustrate the extent to which these figures have varied a table is given showing since 1920 the proportions of men and women married at each age period to every 100 marriages.

PeriodUnder 2121 and Under 2525 and Under 3030 and Under 3535 and Under 4040 and Under 4545 and OverTotals
1920-24 .. ..3·1324·6632·2117·7310·245·436·60100·00
1925-29 .. ..3·4928·0434·4914·337·704·487·47100·00
1930-34 .. ..3·4627·2837·0215·146·103·617·39100·00
1935-39 .. ..2·6825·9138·2616·466·753·226·72100·00
1947-51 .. ..4·1233·2431·2112·916·953·897·68100·00
1920-24 .. ..15·9935·4726·2110·665·532·983·16100·00
1925-29 .. ..18·6137·8823·678·934·652·823·44100·00
1930-34 .. ..18·6738·5124·798·223·852·403·56100·00
1935-39 .. ..17·1038·2626·308·863·912·023·55100·00
1947-51 .. ..22·6239·2518·777·724·482·614·55100·00

A perusal of the above table reveals the fact that greater proportions of marriages are now being celebrated at the younger and, to a lesser extent, at the older age groups. This has become very marked in the 1947-51 period, and is mainly due to the fact that the outbreak of war induced a number of earlier marriages which has resulted in fewer unmarried people entering this age group.

For many years the average age (arithmetic mean) at marriage for both males and females, more particularly the latter, showed a tendency to increase. However, in recent years there has been very little change, the figures for 1941 and 1951 being almost identical, with small fluctuations in the intervening period. The figures for each of the years 1940 and 1945-51 are as follows.

YearBridegrooms (Years)Brides (Years)
1940 .. ..29·4125·97
1945 .. ..30·5226·75
1946 .. ..29·7326·18
1947 .. ..29·7126·11
1948 .. ..29·9626·32
1949 .. ..29·8926·30
1950 .. ..29·6726·14
1951 .. ..29·4225·96

The average ages of bachelors and spinsters at marriage are considerably lower than those shown in the preceding table, which covers all parties and is naturally affected by the inclusion of remarriages of widowed and divorced persons. The average ages of grooms and brides for each of the last five years according to marital status were as shown below.

1947 .. ..27·5439·3952·7624·4434·5742·83
1948 .. ..27·5539·6053·6324·4235·4144·63
1949 .. ..27·4239·8952·8224·3135·4245·46
1950 .. ..27·1540·0654·4624·1935·5946·90
1951 .. ..26·9540·7753·9323·9736·1947·05

The foregoing figures give the average ages at marriage, but these do not correspond with the modal or popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed. The modal age for brides (21) has remained unchanged for very many years, but in the case of bridegrooms the most popular age has varied, and for recent years it has been 23.

Marriages of Minors.—Of every 1,000 men married in 1951, 46 were under twenty-one years of age, while 247 in every 1,000 brides were under twenty-one.

In 537 marriages in 1951 both parties were given as under twenty-one years of age, in 3,503 marriages the bride was returned as a minor and the bridegroom as an adult, and in 221 marriages the bridegroom was a minor and the bride an adult.

The proportion of minors among persons marrying has been increasing over a fairly long period, and in the table below figures are given for the last five years. In the latest year (1951) almost one bride in every four was under twenty-one years of age, the proportion for grooms being approximately one in twenty.

YearAge, in YearsTotals
1617181920NumberRate Per 100 Marriages
1947 .. ..211782183876963·81
1948 .. ..214572054126904·01
1949 .. ....26681684126744·02
1950 .. ..29741954217014·25
1951 .. ..313632224577584·63
1947 .. ..923037041,1551,5183,77220·67
1948 .. ..1023266991,1631,4853,77521·95
1949 .. ..1113037441,1411,4563,75522·37
1950 .. ..1003017771,2741,5133,96524·02
1951 .. ..1153167271,2361,6464,04024·70

MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS CHURCHES.—Of the 16,359 marriages registered in 1951, Church of England clergymen officiated at 4,226, Presbyterians at 4,565, Roman Catholics at 2,072, and Methodists at 1,395, while 3,199 marriages were celebrated before Registrars.

The following table shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the largest churches and before Registrars in each of the years 1945-51.

ChurchPercentage of Marriages
Presbyterian ..27·8828·3528·2628·8628·0728·3127·91
Church of England ..27·9427·6826·5326·5525·8025·9525·83
Roman Catholic ..11·5811·8512·2511·8112·1711·9312·67
Methodist .. ..10·359·789·589·259·199·328·53
Others .. ..5·885·745·185·505·785·655·51
Before Registrars ..16·3716·6018·2018·0318·9918·8419·55
          Totals .. ..100·00100·00100·00100·00100·00100·00100·00

The foregoing figures must not be taken as an exact indication of the religious professions of the parties married, as it does not necessarily follow that both (or even one) of the parties are adherents of the Church whose officiating minister performed the ceremony, and persons married before Registrars may belong, in greater or lesser proportion, to any or none of the churches. Of the total population (exclusive of Maoris) at the general census of 1945, 37·53 per cent were recorded as adherents of the Church of England, 23·38 per cent Presbyterian, 13·45 per cent Roman Catholic, 8·12 per cent Methodist, and 17·52 of other religions or of no religion, or who objected to state their religious profession.

The proportion of civil marriages in 1951 was slightly higher than in 1950, the actual number showing an increase of 89.

NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS.—The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act was (January 1952) 2,707, and the churches to which they belong are shown hereunder.

Roman Catholic Church .. ..568
Church of England .. ..510
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand..444
Methodist Church of New Zealand ..324
Salvation Army .. .. ..171
Ratana Church of New Zealand ..143
Baptist .. .. .. ..110
Seventh Day Adventist .. ..47
Ringatu Church .. .. ..45
Brethren .. .. .. ..40
Latter Day Saints .. .. ..40
Associated Churches of Christ ..31
Commonwealth Covenant Church ..26
Congregational Independent ..30
Apostolic Church .. .. ..14
Assemblies of God .. .. ..14
Jehovah's Witness .. .. ..13
Liberal Catholic Church .. ..13
Evangelistic Church of Christ ..10
United Maori Mission .. ..10
Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Conference .. .. .. ..8
Spiritualist Church of New Zealand ..7
Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi ..7
Churches of Christ .. .. ..6
Pentecostal Church of New Zealand ..6
Absolute Maori Established Church ..5
Hebrew Congregations .. ..5
Others .. .. .. ..60
               Total .. .. ..2,707

The Ratana Church of New Zealand, the Ringatu Church, the Absolute Maori Established Church, the United Maori Mission, and the Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi are Maori organizations.

DIVORCE.—The provisions as to dissolution of marriage are contained in the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act 1928 which consolidated and amended the then existing legislation on the subject.

A brief historical account of divorce legislation is given in the 1931 issue of the Year-Book; the present position is outlined in the following résumé.

Any married person domiciled in New Zealand for two or more years at the time of filing the petition may obtain a divorce on one or more of the following grounds:—

  1. Adultery since the celebration of the marriage.

  2. Wilful and continuous desertion for three years or more.

  3. Habitual drunkenness for four years, coupled with (wife's petition) failure to support or habitual cruelty, or with (husband's petition) neglect of, or self-caused inability to discharge, domestic duties.

  4. Sentence to imprisonment for seven years or more for attempting to murder, or for wounding or doing actual bodily harm to, petitioner or child.

  5. Murder of child of petitioner or respondent.

  6. Insanity and confinement as a lunatic for seven out of ten years preceding the petition.

  7. Insanity for seven years, and confinement for three years immediately preceding the petition.

  8. Failure to comply with a decree of Court for restitution of conjugal rights.

  9. Parties have separated under an agreement, written or verbal, which has been in full force for not less than three years.

  10. Parties have been separated by a decree of judicial separation or a separation order which has been in force for three years. (An amendment in 1930 removed the restriction imposed by the principal Act—which permitted only New Zealand decrees or orders —and extended the provision to cover similar decrees or orders made in any country.)

  11. Husband guilty of rape, sodomy, or bestiality since marriage.

A deserted wife whose husband was domiciled in New Zealand at the time of desertion is considered, for the purpose of the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act 1928, as retaining her New Zealand domicile. Where a wife petitions on grounds (i) and (j) her New Zealand domicile is retained if her husband was domiciled in New Zealand at the date of the agreement, decree, or order.

The amending Act of 1930 establishes a New Zealand domicile for a wife petitioning for divorce where she has been living apart from her husband for three years if she has been living in New Zealand for three years preceding the petition and has the intention of residing in New Zealand permanently.

The Matrimonial Causes (War Marriages) Act 1947 made special provisions in respect of war marriages (i.e., a marriage celebrated on or after 3 September 1939 but before 1 June 1950) where one of the parties was domiciled outside New Zealand by: (1) extension of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to certain marriages irrespective of domicile; (2) recognition of decrees and orders (in relation to such marriages) made in the United States of America; and (3) shortening the period of desertion or separation as ground for divorce in such cases from three years to twelve months.

By authority of the Act, previous legislation on the subject embodied in the Matrimonial Causes (War Marriages) Emergency Regulations 1946 was revoked, accrued rights being protected.

Figures showing the operations of the Supreme Court in its divorce jurisdiction during recent years are as follows. About 50 per cent of the decrees granted in any year relate to petitions filed in prior years.

YearDissolution or Nullity of MarriageJudicial SeparationRestitution of Conjugal Rights
Petitions FiledDecrees NisiDecrees AbsolutePetitions FiledDecrees for SeparationPetitions FiledDecrees for Restitution
1941 .. ..1,11599695661114100
1942 .. ..1,1779889625314294
1943 .. ..1,6411,3981,10041302227
1944 .. ..1,9921,8211,63072499421
1945 .. ..2,2111,9151,725112550461
1946 .. ..2,3632,1372,133106562463
1947 .. ..2,1912,0512,11771430371
1948 .. ..2,1601,9741,853207355300
1949 .. ..2,0011,8241,892151331262
1950 .. ..1,9121,7071,633114304217
1951 .. ..1,8821,6661,582117263210

The later years of the war witnessed a marked increase in divorce. The high level of decrees absolute granted in 1945 was exceeded by approximately 400 in each of the two succeeding years. However, a slight falling off, for the first time in six years, was recorded in 1947, then a further small decrease in 1948. This was followed by a small increase in 1949, after which the decrease, substantial in 1950, continued.

It is worth noting that there was one divorce for every eleven marriages solemnized in 1951, while the ratio in 1950 was one divorce to every ten marriages.

The next table gives the grounds (dissolution or nullity cases) of petitions and decrees during 1950 and 1951.

GroundsPetitions FiledDecrees Absolute Granted
Husbands' PetitionsWives' PetitionsHusbands' PetitionsWives' Petitions
Adultery .. .. .. ..234218144138178163104112
Bigamy .. .. .. ..51554243
Desertion .. .. .. ..161153167166137125134131
Drunkenness with cruelty, failure to maintain, &c.12158..184
Insanity .. .. .. ..1294412616
Consanguinity .. .. ................1
Sodomy .. .. .. ......1......1..
Non-compliance with order for restitution of conjugal rights16315847511721475459
Separation for not less than three years441411510548347344474472
Non-consummation .. ....613..124
Affinity .. .. .. ......1......1..
Murder of children .. ........1......1
               Totals .. .. ..1,017958895924850789783793

The figures shown for decrees absolute cover all such granted during the year, whether the antecedent decree nisi was granted in the same or in a previous year. It should be mentioned here, and a glance at the line “non-compliance, &c.” in the table above will show, that the number of decrees absolute granted can, and often do, number more than the petitions filed. The reason for this is that all decrees granted are not necessarily from petitions filed in a particular year. The petition may have been filed in one year but the case not heard until the succeeding year.

Mention should be made here of the fact that over a period of five years, 1947-51 inclusive, the average percentage of decrees absolute granted on wives petitions was greater than those granted to husbands. The figures are—wives 92·2 per cent, husbands 87·5 per cent.

The principal grounds on which petitions were filed during 1951 showed the following increases compared with 1938, a normal pre-war year: adultery, 153 (75·4 per cent.); desertion, 107 (50·5 per cent.); non-compliance with restitution order, 100 (91·7 per cent.); and separation, 324 (51·0 per cent.).

In 593 of the 1,882 cases where petitions for dissolution were filed during 1951 there was no living issue of the marriage. The number of living issue was 1 in 525 cases, 2 in 382 cases, 3 in 203 cases, 4 or more in 175 cases, while the number of issue was not stated in four cases.

The table which follows shows the duration of marriage in all cases for which petitions for dissolution were filed in the five years 1947 to 1951.

Duration of Marriage, in YearsHusbands' PetitionsWives' Petitions
Under 5 .. ..213197204191192158169137141147
5 and under 10 ..404308334296263334340282255279
10 ″ 15 ..218243198212203191243217202203
15 ″ 20 ..140126128121104122133114128112
20 ″ 30 ..141162148139142152141127121134
30 and over .. ..61565555485634364347
Not stated .. ....71136111052
               Totals ..1,1771,0991,0781,0179581,0141,061923895924

The number of children affected by the divorce petitions of their parents during each of the last five years was as follows: 1947, 2,978; 1948, 3,108; 1949, 2,885; 1950, 2,682; and 1951, 2,784.


REGISTRATION.—The law as to registration of deaths is now embodied in the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951, a consolidation of the then existing legislation. Particulars required in the registration of a death include date, place of residence and domicile, name, occupation, sex, age, cause of death, birthplace, duration of residence in New Zealand, whether cremated or not, marital status, living issue of married persons, race (European or Maori), medical attendant by whom certified, particulars as to burial, and, in the case of married males, age of widow.

Every death occurring in New Zealand is required to be registered within three days after the day of the burial. There is a penalty up to £10 for neglect, the funeral director in charge of the burial being solely responsible for registration. When an inquest is held the Coroner becomes responsible for registration, the time allowed being three days after the conclusion of the inquest. The Coroner may, in writing, authorize an agent to attend to registration on his behalf. Registrations must not be effected before the conclusion of the inquest.

Where the Coroner decides not to hold an inquest the funeral director is responsible for registration of the death.

The law does not impose any limit of time after which a death may not be registered as it does in the case of a birth. Although it is necessary to effect a birth-registration entry in the case of a still-born child, no entry is made in the register of deaths. The principal Act stipulates, however, that a medical practitioner or a midwife in attendance at a confinement where a still-birth occurs must furnish a certificate stating to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the cause of the still-birth.

New provisions in the 1951 Act include prohibition of burial at sea of a person dying in New Zealand except upon the authority of a Coroner, and provide for the registration of the death of a person whose body is removed for anatomical examination under Part II of the Medical Act 1908 in is removed for burial outside New Zealand.

Any person burying, or permitting or taking part in the burial of the body of any deceased person without a certificate of cause of death signed by a duly registered medical practitioner, or a Coroner's order to bury the body, renders himself liable to a fine of £50.

From 1 April 1952 (reverting to the system followed prior to 1937) it is incumbent upon a medical practitioner to give the certificate of cause of death to the person required to supply information for the purpose of registering the death (the funeral director in charge of the burial). During the intervening period the medical practitioner was required to deliver the certificate direct to the Registrar. The practitioner is required to report forthwith to the Coroner any case where, in his opinion, the death has occurred in any circumstances of suspicion.

The Act provides for the correction of errors (clerical, of fact, of substance, or of omission) in the register in the manner authorized by the Registrar-General.

Deaths of Members of the Forces while Overseas.—The Registration of Deaths Emergency Regulations 1941, which superseded 1940 regulations of similar title, required the Registrar-General to compile a War Deaths Register of persons of New Zealand domicile who died while out of New Zealand on service in some capacity in connection with the Second World War. Members of the New Zealand Naval Forces were excluded from the regulations, special provision having previously been made in their case. These regulations were revoked by the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act 1947, which made statutory provision in this connection. The amendment required the Registrar-General to compile a register of all persons who have died while out of New Zealand on service with any of the Armed Forces of Her Majesty and who at the time of their deaths were domiciled in New Zealand. Deaths registered in the War Deaths Register were not taken into account in arriving at the number and rate of deaths in New Zealand, nor were deaths of visiting overseas servicemen or prisoners of war in New Zealand. Deaths of New Zealand servicemen which occurred in New Zealand were, however, included. The Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951 requires the Registrar-General to compile a register containing particulars of all persons who have died while out of New Zealand on service with any Commonwealth force within the meaning of the Army Act 1950 and who at the time of their deaths were domiciled in New Zealand.

Registration of Maori Deaths.—Registration of the deaths of Maoris are effected with the Maori Registrars in the various districts set up for this purpose. Statistics relating to the deaths of Maoris are not included in this subsection, but are fully covered in Section 4d.

NUMBERS AND RATES.—The following table shows the number of deaths and the death rate per 1,000 of the mean population during each of the last twenty years.

YearNumberRate Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1932 .. ..11,6838·04
1933 .. ..11,7017·99
1934 .. ..12,5278·50
1935 .. ..12,2178·25
1936 .. ..13,0568·75
1937 .. ..13,6589·08
1938 .. ..14,7549·71
1939 .. ..14,1589·20
1940 .. ..14,2829·24
1941 .. ..15,1469·84
1942 .. ..16,38510·60
1943 .. ..15,44710·04
1944 .. ..15,3639·87
1945 .. ..16,05110·07
1946 .. ..16,0939·71
1947 .. ..15,9049·39
1948 .. ..15,8129·16
1949 .. ..16,0129·09
1950 .. ..16,7159·31
1951 .. ..17,5129·56

New Zealand has been noted for many years for its favourable death rate. The fact that the death rate is still comparatively very low, despite the older age constitution of the population, is probably due, inter alia, to improvements in medical techniques, expansion of health services, &c. This progress has been reflected, for example, in a relatively low incidence of serious outbreaks of the more important epidemic diseases (which were much more prevalent in the early years of colonization) and in a remarkably low infant-mortality rate.

The general trend of the death rate in New Zealand was for many years downwards, reaching its lowest level during the depression years of the early “thirties.” Since then an upward trend has been in evidence, and the figures recorded during the war years were the highest for a long time. It is possible that the absence overseas of considerable numbers of men of early adult age, at which mortality experience is the most favourable, would have some effect on the rates established. The strains of wartime would also have some effect on deaths in the older age groups; in fact, the high rate of 1942 disclosed a sharp rise in deaths resulting from diseases of the heart and nervous system. For four years following 1945 a downward trend was again in evidence—the 1949 figure being the lowest since 1937—but small increases have been recorded in the two following years.

The death rates of males and females for the last eleven years are shown separately in the next table.

YearDeaths Per 1,000 of Mean PopulationMale Deaths to Every 100 Female DeathsMale Rate Expressed as Index Number of Female Rate (= 100)
1941 .. .. ..11·038·699·84123127
1942 .. .. ..11·809·4710·60119125
1943 .. .. ..11·368·8110·04119129
1944 .. .. ..11·328·539·87123133
1945 .. .. ..11·378·8410·07122129
1946 .. .. ..10·558·869·71118119
1947 .. .. ..10·508·289·39127127
1948 .. .. ..10·178·149·16125125
1949 .. .. ..9·948·249·09121120
1950 .. .. ..10·238·389·31123122
1951 .. .. ..10·508·629·56122121

COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES.—An international comparison of death rates is made in the following table. They are the average of the five years 1947-51 and are taken from the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics issued by the United Nations.

CountryRates Per 1,000 of Population
* European population only.
Israel .. .. ..6·5
Netherlands .. ..7·7
Union of South Africa* ..8·8
Denmark .. .. ..9·0
Canada .. .. ..9·2
New Zealand .. ..9·3
Australia .. .. ..9·7
United States of America ..9·8
Sweden .. .. ..10·1
Italy .. .. ..10·5
Switzerland .. ..10·7
Norway .. .. ..10·8
Finland .. .. ..10·9
Puerto Rico .. ..10·9
Spain .. .. ..11·4
Japan .. .. ..11·8
United Kingdom .. ..11·9
Venezuela .. ..12·3
Austria .. .. ..12·6
Costa Rica .. ..12·7
Belgium .. .. ..12·8
Portugal .. .. ..12·9
France .. .. ..13·0
Republic of Ireland ..13·4
Chile .. .. ..16·7
India .. .. ..16·9
Mexico .. .. ..17·0

DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS OVER THE YEAR.—An examination of the total number of deaths registered in each quarter of the period 1941-51 gives the following averages: March quarter, 3,442; June quarter, 3,953; September quarter, 4,636; and December quarter, 4,008.

A classification according to month of death shows that in 1951 the months during which the greatest number of deaths occurred were July, August, and September, with totals of 1,725, 1,718, and 1,553 respectively. Excluding December, a proportion of deaths occurring in that month not being registered till January, February had the least number of deaths, 1,090, followed by January and April, with 1,241 and 1,267 respectively.

The lowest number of deaths on any one day, again excluding December, was 27, this number occurring on 26 January, 19 February, and 3 October. The greatest number (77) occurred on 18 July and 24 August.

AGE AT DEATH.—The deaths registered during the year 1951 are tabulated below according to age.

Under 1 month448276724
  1-2 months ..543286
  3-5      ″      ..5151102
  6-11      ″     5847105
  1 year ..4754101
  2 years ..361248
  3      ″      ..232245
  4      ″      ..171229
  5-9      ″      ..603595
10-14      ″      ..402060
15-19      ″      ..7837115
20-24      ″      ..11852170
25-29      ″      ..12373196
30-34      ″      ..11984203
35-39      ″      ..159109268
40-44      ″      ..221151372
45-49 years ..325217542
50-54      ″      ..417316733
55-59      ″      ..5984441,042
60-64      ″      ..9216471,568
65-69      ″      ..1,2818722,153
70-74      ″      ..1,4911,1822,673
75-79      ″      ..1,2921,2032,495
80-84      ″      ..9859971,982
85-89      ″      ..4946241,118
90-94      ″      ..150242392
95-99      ″      ..315687
    100      ″      ....44
    101      ″      ..123
    111      ″      ..1..1
               Totals ..9,6397,87317,512

The following table indicates the changes that have occurred over a period of thirty years in the age distribution of persons dying. The movement in the proportions of deaths occurring at the different age groups is very striking. The results of three main factors are illustrated—viz., health measures, which have achieved an immense saving of young life; the fluctuations in the birth rate over the period; and the great increase in the proportion of old people in the community.

Age, in YearsNumber of DeathsPercentage of Total
Under 1 .. ..1,5499249901,01712·797·576·935·81
  1 and under 5 ..5803272052234·792·681·441·27
  5      ″      10 ..27116798952·241·370·690·54
10      ″      15 ..155105108601·280·860·760·34
15      ″      20 ..2372221511151·961·821·060·66
20      ″      25 ..3133152471702·582·581·730·97
25      ″      30 ..3983372701963·292·761·891·12
30      ″      35 ..4523372902033·732·762·031·16
35      ″      40 ..5363743202684·433·072·241·53
40      ″      45 ..6014783623724·963·922·532·13
45      ″      50 ..5736404725424·745·253·303·10
50      ″      55 ..6107947987335·046·515·594·19
55      ″      60 ..6128811,1451,0425·057·228·025·95
60      ″      65 ..7621,0031,4611,5686·298·2210·238·95
65      ″      70 ..8741,0771,6972,1537·228·8311·8812·29
70      ″      75 ..9221,1711,7722,6737·619·6012·4115·26
75      ″      80 ..1,0961,2421,5562,4959·0510·1810·8914·25
80 and over ..1,5681,8052,3403,58712·9514·8016·3820·48
               Totals ..12,10912,19914,28217,512100·00100·00100·00100·00

During the earlier period covered by the next table the fall in the death rate was common to all ages and to both sexes. In more recent years, however, there have been some fluctuations in the rates for the higher age groups, but the 1951 figures again reflect a declining tendency. Of special significance are the low rates recorded in the childhood and early adult life age groups in 1951 and the high percentage reduction effected during the longer period. The female rate for the various age groups is almost invariably lower than the male rate. The rapid increase in the death rate (per 1,000 of population) at successive age groups is well exemplified.

YearUnder 1*1 and Under 55 and Under 1515 and Under 2525 and Under 3535 and Under 4545 and Under 5555 and Under 6565 and Under 7575 and Over
* Per 1,000 live births in this case.
1901 ..78·606·811·893·523·976·1611·9423·1250·59141·67
1911 ..63·485·361·912·423·876·2711·0220·8353·22130·58
1921 ..53·104·781·852·443·565·559·6119·9646·17128·60
1931 ..38·212·831·352·282·774·648·6918·2544·18130·57
1941 ..32·552·140·991·982·623·768·7920·6746·31137·85
1951 ..26·491·400·641·541·822·937·2020·0446·90127·33
1901 ..63·875·501·643·584·726·7010·6219·4443·32127·98
1911 ..48·745·371·482·764·344·928·3817·8940·44119·60
1921 ..42·314·491·312·343·384·468·0014·8836·81120·23
1931 ..25·672·470·971·853·203·816·8415·3636·83122·87
1941 ..26·852·040·711·352·053·146·5814·5538·06116·57
1951 ..18·811·190·360·731·172·045·2913·2732·35113·75
Both Sexes
1901 ..71·406·171·773·554·336·4011·3721·6347·87135·71
1911 ..56·315·361·702·584·095·649·8219·5547·74126·13
1921 ..47·824·641·582·393·475·108·8517·5941·90124·84
1931 ..32·152·651·172·072·984·227·8016·8840·56126·87
1941 ..29·772·090·851·652·323·447·6517·6842·20126·76
1951 ..22·771·300·501·151·492·496·2616·2539·36119·96

The average (arithmetic mean) age at death of persons of either sex at ten-yearly intervals since 1901 and during each of the last five years was as follows.

YearMales (Years)Females (Years)
1901 ..41·6437·68
1911 ..46·1742·37
1921 ..48·4546·97
1931 ..54·1455·48
1941 ..58·6559·60
1947 ..59·3161·82
1948 ..61·6262·33
1949 ..60·4362·94
1950 ..62·1564·37
1951 ..61·5865·25

There has been a striking upward movement in the average age at death since 1901. A noticeable feature is that in the earlier years the age for females was considerably lower than that for males, the margin gradually narrowing until virtual equality was reached in 1927-28, since when the female average age at death has been higher than the male.

EXPECTATION OF LIFE.—Life tables based on the mortality experience of New Zealand, ranging from 1880 to 1938, have been published at various times in previous issues of the Year-Book. The latest investigation was based on the 1936 census combined with the deaths for the five years 1934-38, and the (complete) expectation of life at various ages is given below.

0 ..65·4668·45
1 ..66·9269·46
2 ..66·2368·76
3 ..65·4467·91
4 ..64·5967·01
5 ..63·7066·10
10 ..59·1161·45
20 ..49·8952·02
30 ..40·9442·98
40 ..32·0334·05
50 ..23·6425·47
60 ..16·0617·49
70 ..9·8210·73
80 ..5·355·85

The expectation of life at age 0 has risen by 10·17 years in the case of males and by 10·36 years in the case of females over the period since the first New Zealand life table of 1891-95. The effect of the lowered infant-mortality rate and the efficacy of the health services generally is clearly demonstrated, however, by the fact that at age 5 the expectation of life of males has increased by only 5·41 years and females by 6·07 years over the same period.

The New Zealand life tables do not take into consideration the Maori population.

A comparison of the expectation of life at age 0 for various countries is now given. In selecting comparable tables from the experience of other countries due regard was had to securing the most recent figures available. The countries selected are for the most part those of similar racial stock.

* White population.
New Zealand (1934-38)65·4668·45
Australia (1946-48) .. ..66·0770·63
Union of South Africa (1945-47)* ..63·7868·31
England and Wales (1950) .. ..66·4971·22
United States of America (1949)* ..65·8871·51
Norway (1945-48) .. .. ..67·7671·68
Netherlands (1947-49) .. ..69·471·5
Denmark (1941-45) .. ..65·6267·70
Sweden (1941-45) .. .. ..67·0669·71
Finland (1941-45) .. .. ..54·6261·14
France (1946-48) .. .. ..62·568·0
Switzerland (1939-44) .. ..62·6866·96
Canada (1947) .. .. ..65·1869·05

STANDARDIZED DEATH RATES.—Except where specifically stated, all death rates quoted throughout this section are crude rates—i.e., those ascertained by applying the mean population for the year to the total deaths registered during the year.

In New Zealand the age and sex constitutions of the people have changed very materially over the years, so that death rates for recent years relate to a differently constituted population than do death rates for earlier years. This factor has had a marked influence on the risks—and causes— of dying. In order to eliminate the effect of a changing age constitution from other causes influencing the death rate, the device of standardization is resorted to. The principle of this method is to compute death rates on the assumption that the sex and age composition of the population has not varied. A “standard” population is selected, and the mortality experience of any particular year is weighted according to the age distribution of that standard population.

The standardized death rates thus calculated for each of a number of countries, or for a number of years for the same country, may then be regarded as indices of the relative mortalities free from the distortion which might arise through differences in their respective sex or age constitutions. A comparison of the relative proportions of population in various age groups between New Zealand and the United Kingdom, for instance, shows this country to have higher proportions in the age groups under 30, while the United Kingdom has higher proportions in the age groups over 30 years.

A system of standardization of death rates was introduced some years ago in New Zealand, the age and sex constitution of the population as disclosed at the census of 1911 being taken as the basis. The following table gives both recorded and standardized death rates per 1,000 of population (on the 1911 standard population) for each fifth year from 1920 to 1950 and for the year 1951.

YearRecorded RatesStandardized Rates
1920 .. .. ..11·119·1510·1510·838·849·89
1925 .. .. ..9·107·488·308·686·787·78
1930 .. .. ..9·427·698·578·666·487·63
1935 .. .. ..8·957·528·257·685·786·78
1940 .. .. ..10·188·289·247·955·676·87
1945 .. .. ..11·378·8410·077·965·406·75
1950 .. .. ..10·238·389·316·944·555·81
1951 .. .. ..10·508·629·567·224·585·97

INFANT MORTALITY.—Over a long period of years New Zealand has been renowned for its low rate of infant mortality, a fact attributable partly to such matters as climate, virility of the race, comparative absence of densely settled areas, &c., and partly to legislative and educative measures—the latter conducted by the State as well as by various organizations (one of the most important of these is the Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children which was founded in 1907).

Particulars of deaths of infants under one year of age for each of the years 1941-51 are shown in the following table.

YearNumberRate Per 1,000 Live Births
1941 .. .. ..5864591,04532·526·829·8
1942 .. .. ..58737796434·023·128·7
1943 .. .. ..55140095135·027·431·4
1944 .. .. ..5784341,01233·626·530·1
1945 .. .. ..6074291,03632·023·828·0
1946 .. .. ..6314621,09329·322·726·1
1947 .. .. ..6244981,12227·322·725·0
1948 .. .. ..56940197025·218·622·0
1949 .. .. ..6004461,04626·421·023·8
1950 .. .. ..5694391,00825·120·322·8
1951 .. .. ..6114061,01726·518·822·8

In the following table New Zealand's infant-mortality rate is shown in comparison with that of other countries. The figures are taken from the United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. It is interesting to observe that the distinction of having the lowest infant-mortality rate in the world now belongs to Sweden, which achieved the phenomenally low ratio of 20 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1950, as compared with New Zealand's 23 for the same year. The relative positions of the two countries was maintained in 1951. In the case of the Union of South Africa and New Zealand the European population only has been taken into account.

CountryQuinquenniumDeaths Under 1 Year Per 1,000 Births
Sweden .. ..1947-5122
New Zealand .. ..1947-5123
Australia .. ..1947-5126
Netherlands .. ..1947-5128
United States of America1947-5131
Norway .. ..1949-5031
Switzerland .. ..1947-5134
Denmark .. ..1947-5134
United Kingdom ..1947-5135
Union of South Africa ..1947-5136
Israel .. ..1947-5140
Canada .. ..1946-5044
Finland .. ..1947-5147
Republic of Ireland ..1947-5152
Belgium .. ..1947-5161
France .. ..1946-5062
Japan .. ..1947-5164
Germany (Western) ..1947-5164
Cyprus .. ..1947-5166
Austria .. ..1947-5172
Spain .. ..1947-5172
Italy .. ..1947-5172
Czechoslovakia .. ..1946-5088
Ceylon .. ..1947-5190
Portugal .. ..1947-51101
Mexico .. ..1946-50102
India .. ..1946-50134
Eygpt .. ..1945-49139
Chile .. ..1947-51158
Rumania .. ..1943-47179

The male rate of infant mortality is considerably above the female rate, the average over the five-year period 1947-51 being 26·1 male deaths per 1,000 male births and 20·3 female deaths per 1,000 female births. This excess in the male rate over the female holds in each of the four divisions of the first year of life, the average ratio over the period being—under 1 month, male 18·9, female 14·4; one and under three months, male 2·1, female 1·6; three and under six months, male 2·6, female 2·1; six and under twelve months, male 2·5, female 2·2.

The rates per 1,000 births for the two sexes combined at different ages during the first year of life are now given for each of the last eleven years.

Infant-mortality Rates, 1941-51 (Per 1,000 Live Births)
YearUnder One DayOne Day and Under Two DaysTwo Days and Under One WeekTotal Under One WeekOne Week and Under Two WeeksTwo Weeks and Under Three WeeksThree Weeks and Under One MonthTotal Under One MonthOne Months and Under Twelve MonthsTotal Under One Year
1951 ..6·92·84·914·61·00·20·316·26·622·8

Infants who die in the first year of life may be grouped roughly into two main classes—viz., those dying within one month of birth and those surviving the first month of life but dying before the first anniversary of their birth. Deaths amongst the first class, called neo-natal deaths, are due principally to pre-natal and natal influences. The second group covers those infants who have succumbed in the main to causes arising from post-natal influences such as the various epidemic diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, faulty feeding, and other environmental factors.

The next table shows that, whereas in the quinquennium 1946-50 the death rate for children under one month of age was 42 per cent lower than in the quinquennium 1881-85, the rate for children who had survived the first month of life was only approximately one-ninth as high as in the “eighties.”

In other words, whereas formerly over sixty children out of every 1,000 who survived the first month of life died before reaching one year of age, now only seven such deaths occur. While the decline in the under-one-month group has been progressive for some years, it was among infants who had survived the first month of life that the most marked reductions were achieved. In the “thirties,” however, the reduction of this rate was arrested, and in the quinquennium 1941-45 an increase was recorded for the first time. For some years it had been considered that any further substantial decrease in the total infant-mortality rate would have to be achieved in the under-one-month group. The figures for 1946-50, however, indicate that whereas this group recorded a decrease of 13 per cent from 1941-45, the one-month-and-over group declined by 31 per cent.

PeriodDeaths Per 1,000 Births
Under 1 YearUnder 1 MonthBetween 1 and 12 Months
1881-1885 .. ..90·6029·7760·83
1886-1890 .. ..84·0927·5756·52
1891-1895 .. ..87·6030·3457·26
1896-1900 .. ..80·0630·3849·68
1901-1905 .. ..74·7730·6444·13
1906-1910 .. ..69·6230·2839·34
1911-1915 .. ..53·6329·2824·35
1916-1920 .. ..48·6228·1620·46
1921-1925 .. ..42·7527·4815·27
1926-1930 .. ..36·7024·8211·88
1931-1935 .. ..31·8822·349·54
1936-1940 .. ..31·8322·519·32
1941-1945 .. ..29·5320·019·52
1946-1950 .. ..23·9217·316·61
1951 .. .. ..22·7816·226·56

The accompanying diagram further illustrates the reduction in the infant-mortality rate that has taken place during the last seventy years.

Causes of Infant Mortality.—The principal causes of infant mortality over the last ten years, showing both numbers and rates per 1,000 live births, are shown in the following table. The classification is according to the Sixth (1948) Revision of the International List.

Causes of DeathNumber of Deaths
Tuberculosis, all forms .. .. ..1..53658642
Congenital syphilis .. .. ......41..22572
Enteric fever and other Salmonella infections..3................
Dysentery, all forms .. .. ......1....1......2
Diptheria .. .. .. ....2....5108522
Whooping-cough .. .. ..412124201532103
Meningococcal infections .. ..52..429851019
Tetanus .. .. .. ..1..1....42....1
Poliomyelitis .. .. .. ..................2..
Measles .. .. .. ....13..113....1
Influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis after the first four weeks of life955385748072617390105
Pneumonia of the new-born .. ..30222631252732191923
Gastro-enteritis after the first four weeks of life26151721212918282620
Diarrhoea of the newborn .. ....332565645
Congenital malformations .. .. ..151198163159190181182165147138
Birth injury .. .. .. ..14614215816715413011510383112
Asphyxia and atelectasis .. .. ..1641281111021009377646161
Haemolytic disease of newborn (erythroblastosis)38503035373429342920
Immaturity unqualified .. .. ..191225238193276311274284249241
Accidents .. .. .. ..33305244383533333426
Other and undefined causes .. ..132122137130162142174150174181
          Totals .. .. ..1,0171,0081,0469701,1221,0931,0361,012951964
Causes of DeathRates Per 1,000 Live Births
* Less than 0·1
Tuberculosis, all forms .. .. ..*..0·10·10·10·10·20·20·10·1
Congenital syphilis .. .. ......0·1*..0·10·10·20·20·1
Enteric fever and other Salmonella infections..0·1................
Dysentery, all forms .. .. .. ......*....*......0·1
Diphtheria .. .. .. ....0·1....0·10·20·20·20·10·1
Whooping-cough .. .. ..0·10·30·30·10·5*0·11·00·30·1
Meningococcal infections .. .. ..0·10·1..0·1*0·20·20·20·30·6
Tetanus .. .. .. ..*..*....0·10·1....*
Poliomyelitis .. .. .. ..................0·1..
Measles .. .. .. ....*0·1..**0·1....*
Influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis after the first four weeks of life2·21·21·91·71·81·71·72·23·03·1
Pneumonia of the newborn .. ..0·60·50·60·70·60·60·90·60·60·7
Gastro-enteritis after the first four weeks of life0·60·30·40·50·50·70·50·80·90·6
Diarrhoea of the newborn .. ....0·10·10·10·10·10·10·20·10·2
Congenital malformations .. ..3·44·53·73·64·24·34·94·94·94·1
Birth injury .. .. .. ..3·33·23·63·83·43·13·13·12·73·3
Asphyxia and atelectasis .. .. ..3·72·92·52·32·22·22·11·92·01·8
Haemolytic disease of newborn (erythroblastosis)0·91·10·70·80·80·80·81·01·00·6
Immaturity unqualified .. .. ..4·35·15·44·46·27·47·48·58·27·2
Accidents .. .. .. ..0·70·71·21·00·90·80·91·01·10·8
Other and undefined causes .. ..2·92·83·12·93·63·44·74·55·75·4
          Totals .. .. ..22·822·823·822·025·026·128·030·131·428·7

Some remarkable changes are disclosed by the next table, which gives the infant-mortality rates for various groups of causes in quinquennial periods commencing with the years 1872-76. It would appear that diseases which can be combated openly, such as epidemic diseases, respiratory diseases, and diseases due to faulty nourishment, &c. (i.e., diseases of the digestive system), have shown a definite response to the strenuous campaigns launched against them. If a comparison be made between the averages of the first and last five-yearly periods given—i.e., 1872-76 and 1947-51—it is found that the general infant-mortality rate shows a decline of 74 per cent, while even greater decreases are recorded for tuberculosis (98 per cent), convulsions (99 per cent), gastric and intestinal diseases (95 per cent), epidemic diseases (92 per cent), and respiratory diseases (78 per cent). The rate for epidemic diseases still continues to decline, and it is interesting to note that over 40 per cent of the total under this heading in the years 1947-51 were due to whooping-cough, while an additional 27 per cent were assigned to influenza. During the four-year period 1948-51 there were only two deaths of infants from diphtheria and two deaths due to scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat.

The increase shown for malformations and the decrease for tuberculosis are probably somewhat less than is indicated by the figures. In the earlier years covered by the table the latter heading included all deaths from hydrocephalus, many of which were no doubt due to congenital hydrocephalus, which is now included among the malformations. A proportion of the deaths from hydrocephalus in the earlier years would also probably be due to meningitis. The following table shows quinquennial average death rates of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births. To enable the comparison with past years to be maintained, the infant deaths for 1950 and 1951 have been re-assembled to conform to the former classifications for the purposes of this table—i.e., influenza deaths have been included under epidemic diseases, while both pneumonia and diarrhoea of the newborn have been included under respiratory and gastric and intestinal diseases respectively, and not as diseases of early infancy.

PeriodEpidemic DiseasesTuberculosisInfantile ConvulsionsRespiratory DiseasesGastric and Intestinal DiseasesMalformationsEarly InfancyOther CausesTotals

It is convenient to consider still-births and neo-natal deaths together, as they are largely the result of common causes. The combined group may be termed perinatal mortality. The term is particularly appropriate when we consider how deaths in the newborn crowd closely towards the day of birth. This effect is clearly shown in the table on page 75. Still-births and neo-natal deaths are considered together in the next table and are computed as rates per 1,000 total births.

YearStill-birthsNeo-natal DeathsNeo-natal Deaths Plus Still-births
1947 .. ..91119·9281017·711,72137·63
1948 .. ..83418·5269815·501,53234·02
1949 .. ..79617·7774816·701,54434·48
1950 .. ..86519·1573416·251,59935·40
1951 .. ..80417·6972415·931,52833·61

Recent years have shown a definite trend towards improvement in the combined rate.

CAUSES OF STILL-BIRTH.—A still-born child is defined in New Zealand as one “which has issued from its mother after the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and which was not alive at the time of such issue.”

The registration of still-births has been effected in New Zealand since 1913, but no information regarding the causes of still-births was required for registration purposes until 1947. As from 1 July 1952 a certificate of the cause of death in cases of intermediate foetal deaths—i.e., deaths after the end of the twentieth but before the end of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy—was also required to be furnished. The certificates of causes of still-birth and foetal death provide for both maternal and foetal causes to be entered.

Of the 804 still-births registered during 1951, in 53 cases (6 per cent) the cause was not known or not stated. Foetal causes only were specified in 416 cases (52 per cent); maternal causes only in 192 (24 per cent); while for 143 still-births (18 per cent of the total), there were both foetal and maternal causes present.

The following table shows the 804 still-births registered during 1951 classified (a) according to maternal causes and (b) according to foetal causes.

Causes of Still-birthNumber of Cases
               (a) Maternal Causes   
Chronic disease in mother .. .. ..151025
Acute disease in mother .. .. ..4610
Diseases and conditions of pregnancy and child-birth9873171
Difficulties in labour .. .. ..7545120
Other causes in mother .. .. ..369
No maternal cause .. .. .. ..259210469
          Totals .. .. .. ..454350804
               (b) Foetal Causes   
Placental and cord conditions .. ..139107246
Birth injury .. .. .. ..221133
Congenital malformation of foetus .. ..405494
Diseases of foetus and ill-defined causes ..11274186
No foetal cause .. .. .. ..141104245
          Totals .. .. .. ..454350804

PERINATAL MORTALITY AND PREMATURITY.—Three out of every four infants who die in the first year of life do so in the first month, and of those dying in the first month 44 per cent die in the first day of life and 88 per cent in the first week.

A principal factor in the loss of this new life is prematurity. This is seen in the following table, where causes of neo-natal deaths for 1951 are set out in accordance with the International List of 1948.

Causes of DeathUnder One DayOne Day and Under One WeekOne Week and Under Two WeeksTwo Weeks and Under Three WeeksThree Weeks and Under One MonthTotal Under One Month
Congenital malformations .. .. ..244085683
Injury at birth .. .. .. ..374381..89
Injury at birth with prematurity .. ..25253....53
Post-natal asphyxia and atelectasis .. ..273712168
Post-natal asphyxia and atelectasis, with prematurity50382..191
Pneumonia of newborn .. .. ..11552124
Pneumonia of newborn, with prematurity ..15......6
Disorders arising from maternal toxaemia ....2......2
Disorders arising from maternal toxaemia, with prematurity913......22
Haemolytic disease of newborn (erythroblastosis)10152....27
Haemolytic disease of newborn (erythroblastosis), with prematurity342....9
Haemorrhagic disease of newborn .. ..111......12
Haemorrhagic disease of newborn, with prematurity..3......3
Nutritional maladjustment .. .. ......1....1
Nutritional maladjustment, with prematurity ..........11
Ill-defined diseases peculiar to early infancy ..411118
Ill-defined diseases peculiar to early infancy, with prematurity96......15
Immaturity with mention of any other subsidiary condition..2......2
Immaturity, unqualified .. .. ..102797..1189
Hernia, intestinal obstruction .. ..21....14
External causes .. .. .. ..212..16
Other causes .. .. .. ..151..29
               Totals .. .. .. ..308346431116724

A total of 191, or 26 per cent, of all neo-natal deaths are directly attributed to prematurity (immaturity) and a further 200 deaths are given as associated with it. The principal conditions of early infancy with which prematurity was associated were (i) asphyxia in 91 cases (12·6 per cent of all neo-natal deaths), (ii) birth injury in 53 cases (7·3 per cent of all neo-natal deaths), and (iii) all other causes peculiar to early infancy, 56 cases (7·7 per cent of all neo-natal deaths).

In the case of still-births, out of 804 there were 329 cases, or 41 per cent, where gestation fell short of full term.

It is not possible to assess what the reduction in perinatal mortality would be if every pregnancy were to go to full term, but there is no doubt that it would be considerable.

As a first step in the campaign to reduce this grave loss of new life, details of the birth weight and gestation period of all infants born alive or dead after 1 July 1952 were required to be furnished to the Registrars of Births and Deaths. These will provide essential basic data for further studies on prematurity. It will give a measure of the extent of the problem in different localities according to the age and parity of the mother and the occupation of the father, and it will enable cohorts of infants to be followed through their first year of life so that their mortality and morbidity experience may be shown according to their degree of maturity at birth.

CAUSES OF DEATH.—Since 1908 the classification of causes of death in New Zealand has been on the basis of the international classification initiated by Dr. Jacques Bertillon. Almost all countries are member States of the World Health Assembly, and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death has world-wide application.

The sixth (1948) revision of the classification was applied in New Zealand to the deaths for 1950. At the same time a departure was made from the previous arbitrary rules of selection, when more than one cause of death was entered on a certificate, to an assignment according to what is termed the underlying cause of death. This may be defined as (a) the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury. The responsibility for indicating the train of events is placed on the physician or surgeon signing the medical certificate of death.

The following table shows the numbers of deaths and death rates per 10,000 of mean population according to the Abbreviated List of 50 Causes (Sixth Revision, 1948). In order to provide a comparison with the years 1950 and 1951 the individual causes for each of the years 1947 to 1949 were, wherever possible, reassembled under the headings of the 1948 revision of the classification. It should be observed that no allowance was possible for the alteration in method of primary cause selection.

The statistics for tuberculosis, cancer, puerperal causes, and violent causes, which are of special interest and significance, are discussed later on in this subsection. Certain diseases (cholera, plague, smallpox, typhus, and malaria) are not listed in the table below, as there were no deaths occurring from these causes in the years shown.

Causes of DeathNumbersRates Per Million of Mean Population

* Comparative figures not obtainable.

† Less than one.

‡ These figures and rates are not comparable with those given for later years (see letterpress).

Tuberculosis of respiratory system ..319351365408441174195207236260
Tuberculosis, other forms .. ..64617061823534403548
Syphilis and its sequelae .. ..679171821103751404765
Typhoid fever .. .. ....2339..1225
Dysentery, all forms .. .. ..3533223221
Scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat11..31..2
Diphtheria .. .. .. ..345320223212
Whooping-cough .. .. ..716216344912320
Meningococcal infections .. ..14979885455
Acute poliomyelitis .. .. ..121352917305
Measles .. .. .. ..23244112142
All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic75855556614147313236
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues2,8362,6522,5882,5632,4311,5491,4771,4691,4841,436
Benign and unspecified neoplasms ..36554623642031261338
Diabetes mellitus .. .. ..244228355347328133127202201194
Anaemias .. .. .. ..80572940264432162315
Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system2,0631,824***1,1271,016***
Non-meningococcal meningitis .. ..15181520148109128
Rheumatic fever .. .. ..1714961398538
Chronic rheumatic heart-disease ..204233258251210111130146145124
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart-disease4,9604,7755,7445,4305,5672,7092,6593,2613,1443,288
Other diseases of the heart .. ..591595323331
Hypertension with heart-disease ..676653369364
Hypertension without mention of heart ..154162***8490***
Influenza .. .. .. ..78774551334343263019
Pneumonia .. .. .. ..406414554578523222231315335309
Bronchitis .. .. .. ..250150128131170136847376100
Ulcer of stomach and duodenum ..1501461471491498281838688
Appendicitis .. .. .. ..28344037511519232130
Intestinal obstruction and hernia ..1181271151231066471657163
Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of newborn115868565686348483840
Cirrhosis of liver .. .. ..64545642403530322424
Nephritis and nephrosis .. ..199212***109118***
Hyperplasia of prostate .. ..1541491061081278483606275
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium31404556481722263228
Congenital malformations .. ..202299217206260110166123119154
Birth injuries, post-natal asphyxia, and atelectasis310270640585688169150363339406
Infections of the newborn .. ..30251614
Other diseases peculiar to early infancy, and immaturity unqualified296318162177
Senility without mention of psychosis, ill-defined and unknown causes209186206212303114104117123179
All other diseases .. .. ..1,4261,334‡3,014‡3,100‡3,058779743‡1,711‡1,795‡1,806
Motor-vehicle accidents .. ..269212195181204147118111105120
All other accidents .. .. ..549501547618500300278311358295
Suicide and self-inflicted injury .. ..18216517118113599929710580
Homicide and operations of war ..142020191081211116
               Totals .. .. ..17,51216,71516,01215,81215,9049,5649,3089,0929,1579,393

TUBERCULOSIS.—The death rate from tuberculosis of the respiratory system has shown a declining tendency for many years, but the reduction by one-third in the space of the five years 1947-51 is a noteworthy achievement. The rate for 1951, 174 per million of population, is a record low rate for this country.

In addition to the 319 deaths from tuberculosis of the respiratory system during 1951 there were 64 deaths from other forms of tuberculosis, comprising—

Tuberculosis of meninges and nervous system . .. ..22
Tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum, and mesentery .. ..5
Tuberculosis of bones and joints .. .. .. ..14
Tuberculosis of lymphatic system .. .. .. ..3
Tuberculosis of genito-urinary system .. .. ..10
Tuberculosis of adrenal glands .. .. .. ..1
Disseminated tuberculosis .. .. .. .. ..9

The following table shows the number of deaths from tuberculosis in 1951, classified according to sex and age groups. Of those dying from this cause in 1951, persons under the age of 45 years formed 49 per cent.

Age, in YearsMalesFemalesTotals
Under 5 ..10919
  5 and under 10 ..134
10      ″      15 ..145
15      ″      20 ..167
20      ″      25 ..61218
25      ″      30 ..132033
30      ″      35 ..162036
35      ″      40 ..201030
40      ″      45 ..201434
45 and under 5021728
50      ″      55151429
55      ″      6025530
60      ″      6527734
65      ″      7025631
70      ″      75191130
75      ″      806511
80 and over ..314
               Totals ..229154383

CANCER.—A special report on cancer is issued annually by the Medical Statistics Branch of the Department of Health. Besides a section dealing with cancer as a cause of death there are analyses of returns received from the various cancer clinics established in New Zealand under the auspices of the British Empire Cancer Campaign Society. These returns, together with those of patients treated in the public hospitals of New Zealand, provide for reasonably wide coverage. A system of registration enables a follow-up of each patient to be maintained which will eventually enable survival rates by site and method of treatment to be compiled. Special articles and statistical tables on the subject of cancer are contained in the 1917 and 1926 issues of the Year-Book, while the 1949 report of the Department of Health contains data covering the twenty-six years from 1924 to 1949.

Attention is drawn to the transference, under the 1948 Revision of the International Classification, of Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, &c., into the category of malignant diseases. This classification was introduced in 1950, and all cancer figures quoted for that and subsequent years include these conditions.

Cancer is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than can be assigned to any cause other than diseases of the heart. While it is most prevalent in middle and old age, it exacts a heavy toll throughout the life-span. With the inclusion of Hodgkin's disease and leukaemia under the cancer heading the disease assumes a very high position as a cause of death among children and adolescents. It is interesting to compare the decline in the death rate from tuberculosis with the rise in the cancer death rate. These rates are set out in the following table and diagram. The fall in the tuberculosis rate may be said to reflect the achievements of the public-health service, whilst the rise in the cancer rate portrays the increasing age of the population.

This is illustrated by the following figures.

PeriodAverage Death Rates Per 10,000 of Population
1880-89 .. .. .. ..12·353·42
1890-99 .. .. .. ..10·625·44
1900-09 .. .. .. ..9·106·79
1910-19 .. .. .. ..6·998·22
1920-29 .. .. .. ..5·699·30
1930-39 .. .. .. ..4·1711·17
1940-49 .. .. .. ..3·4613·56
1950-51 .. .. .. ..2·1915·13

The relative movements in the death rates from cancer and tuberculosis are further illustrated in the following diagram, which shows the rates at five-yearly intervals since 1880.

In 1951 there were 2,836 deaths from cancer in New Zealand, a proportion of 15·49 per 10,000 of mean population. A summary for the last eleven years is given below.

YearNumber of Deaths From CancerRecorded Death RateStandardized Death Rate*

* Standard population used for standardized rates—England and Wales 1901.

† Includes Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, &c., from 1950 onwards.

1941 .. .. ..2,02813·188·56
1942 .. .. ..2,02913·138·31
1943 .. .. ..2,13113·858·67
1944 .. .. ..2,18214·028·58
1945 .. .. ..2,21313·888·42
1946 .. .. ..2,26813·688·48
1947 .. .. ..2,31513·678·30
1948 .. .. ..2,45314·218·65
1949 .. .. ..2,47214·048·59
1950† .. .. ..2,65214·778·99
1951 .. .. ..2,83615·499·49

A summary showing the location of the disease in deaths from cancer during 1951 is given in the following table.

Site of DiseaseNumbersRates Per Million of Mean Population
Buccal cavity and pharynx .. ..422163462334
Oesophagus .. .. ..483179523443
Stomach .. .. .. ..298174472325191258
Intestine, except rectum .. ..147190337160208184
Rectum .. .. .. ..8867155967385
Larynx .. .. .. ..22931241017
Trachea, and of bronchus and lung not specified as secondary1652318818025103
Breast .. .. .. ..12612621286143
Cervix uteri .. .. .. ....7878..8543
Other and unspecified parts of uterus ....6565..7135
Prostate .. .. .. ..148..148161..81
Skin .. .. .. ..321648351826
Bone and connective tissue .. ..181735201919
All other and unspecified sites ..340323663370354362
Leukaemia and aleukaemia .. ..5744101624855
Lymphosarcoma and other neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic system6447111705161
               Totals .. .. ..1,4701,3662,8361,6021,4961,549

The standardized figures for recent years suggest that cancer, while undoubtedly increasing in numerical incidence, is not doing so out of proportion to the population exposed to the cancer risk. Improvement in diagnosis has been responsible for some of the numerical increase in the recorded deaths from cancer, though this factor has now become more stabilized. A classification according to sex and age groups for 1951 is now given.

Age, in YearsMalesFemalesTotals
Under 5 ..61319
  5 and under 10 ..8412
10      ″      15 ..5510
15      ″      20 ..8311
20      ″      25 ..5712
25      ″      30 ..15722
30      ″      35 ..141933
35      ″      40 ..162541
40      ″      45 ..274269
45      ″      50 ..6179140
50 and under 5576119195
55      ″      60131158289
60      ″      65173151324
65      ″      70260187447
70      ″      75287204491
75      ″      80216172388
80 and over ..162171333
               Totals ..1,4701,3662,836

Ninety-two per cent of the deaths from cancer during 1951 were at ages 45 years and upwards, and 58 per cent at ages 65 years and upwards. Approximately one death in every six of persons who die after the age of 50 years is due to cancer.

PUERPERAL CAUSES.—In point of numbers of deaths, puerperal accidents and diseases do not rank high among causes of death. Nevertheless, deaths from puerperal causes are of special importance and significance. The rate per 1,000 live births in each of the last twenty years is shown in the following table.

YearProportion Per 1,000 Live Births
1932 .. .. ..4·06
1933 .. .. ..4·44
1934 .. .. ..4·85
1935 .. .. ..4·21
1936 .. .. ..3·70
1937 .. .. ..3·61
1938 .. .. ..4·07
1939 .. .. ..3·64
1940 .. .. ..2·93
1941 .. .. ..3·36
1942 .. .. ..2·53
1943 .. .. ..2·21
1944 .. .. ..2·71
1945 .. .. ..2·24
1946 .. .. ..2·05
1947 .. .. ..1·07
1948 .. .. ..1·26
1949 .. .. ..1·02
1950 .. .. ..0·90
1951 .. .. ..0·69

A survey of the death rate from puerperal causes since 1872 shows that for a period in the early part of the twentieth century there was a tendency for the rate to decline. Then followed a definite upward movement, culminating in a rate of 6·48 per 1,000 live births in 1920, the third highest on record, this figure having been exceeded only in 1884 and 1885. Comparatively high rates persisted until 1931, since when the decline has been more or less steady. The efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment is reflected in the extremely low rates recorded in recent years, the figure for 1951 of 0·69 being a new record. This low rate has been achieved mainly by a reduction in the number of deaths from septic abortion and puerperal toxaemia, the latter being a cause which had hitherto been particularly resistant to preventive measures. Deaths from complications of childbirth were also unusually few during 1949, 1950, and 1951.

It is generally conceded that in years of high birth rates the maternal-mortality rate tends to rise, probably due to the abnormally high proportion of first births in the total of births, upon which the death rate for these causes is based. In common with most countries for which recent figures are available, the reverse has been the experience in New Zealand during the last four years. Possibly a contributory factor In this reversal has been the rise in the proportion of births taking place in institutions, more particularly in special annexes attached to the larger hospitals, where every facility for the care of the patient is more readily available.

Details of deaths from deliveries and complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium for the three years 1949 to 1951 are shown in the following summary. The disease headings conform to the 1948 Revision of the Classification introduced in 1950 and the 1949 maternal deaths have been regrouped to enable a comparison to be made with the later years.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per 10,000 Live Births
Toxaemias of pregnancy .. .. .. ..121372·732·931·57
Placenta praevia .. .. .. .. ..2..30·45..0·67
Other haemorrhage of pregnancy .. .. .. ..1110·230·230·22
Ectopic pregnancy .. .. .. .. ..51..1·140·23..
Other complications arising from pregnancy .. ..2..10·45..0·22
Abortion without mention of sepsis or toxaemia .. ..1130·230·230·67
Abortion with sepsis .. .. .. .. ..3820·681·810·45
Delivery complicated by placenta praevia or antepartum haemorrhage3110·680·230·22
Delivery complicated by retained placenta .. .. ..12..0·230·45..
Delivery complicated by other post-partum haemorrhage ..2540·451·130·90
Delivery complicated by disproportion or malposition of foetus1....0·23....
Delivery with other trauma .. .. .. ....13..0·230·67
Delivery with other complications of childbirth .. ..3....0·68....
Sepsis of childbirth and the puerperium .. .. ....21..0·460·22
Puerperal phlebitis and thrombosis .. .. ..31..0·680·23..
Puerperal pulmonary embolism .. .. .. ..5131·140·230·67
Puerperal eclampsia .. .. .. .. ....31..0·630·22
Other and unspecified complications of the puerperium ..1..10·23..0·22
          Totals, including septic abortion .. .. ..45403110·239·036·94
          Totals, excluding septic abortion .. .. ..4232299·557·226·49

A summary of maternal mortality from all puerperal causes, in triennial periods since 1927 and for the year 1951, is now given.

Causes of Death1927-291930-321933-351936-381939-411942-441945-471948-501951
Puerperal sepsis .. ..12858394446301261
Eclampsia and other toxaemias101979394805862428
Septic abortion .. ..47859168586133202
Accidents, haemorrhage, and other mortality12412410491135941107318
               Total maternal mortality40036432729731924321714129
               Maternal mortality excluding septic abortion35327923622926118218412127

DEATHS FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES.—Deaths from external causes, apart from suicide, claim approximately 4 per cent of the total deaths. The following table shows deaths from external causes for the three years 1949, 1950, and 1951 according to the Intermediate List of the 1948 Revision of the International Classification. It is necessary to refer to the detailed list of circumstances of accident or means of injury if a comparison with years prior to 1949 is required, as the inclusions under the headings below differ considerably from past practice—e.g., drowning from boats and ships or from horseback whilst crossing rivers are included below as transport fatalities, as also are falls on board ship and from horseback.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per Million of Mean Population
Motor-vehicle accidents .. .. .. ..195212269111118147
Other transport accidents .. .. ..10985115624763
Accidental poisoning .. .. .. ..1617299916
Accidental falls .. .. .. .. ..148149139848376
Accident caused by machinery .. .. ..193119111710
Accident caused by fire and explosion of combustible material20111911610
Accident caused by hot substance, corrosive liquid, steam, and radiation1814171089
Accident caused by firearm .. .. ..13192271112
Accidental drowning and submersion .. ..786490443649
All other accidental causes .. .. ..12611199726254
Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons (not in war)2017141198
Injury resulting from operations of war .. ....3....2..
               Totals .. .. .. .. ..762733832432408454

The number of deaths recorded from all accidental causes in 1951 was 818, corresponding to a rate of 4·47 per 10,000 of population. By comparison with 1936, there was an increase of 120 in the number of deaths, but the death rate has decreased by 0·21 per 10,000 of population.

Transport Accidents.—In classifying deaths attributable to transport accidents under the various sub-headings shown in the following table the rule of assignment is that in fatalities due to collisions of railway trains and electric tram cars with motor vehicles the death is assigned to the railway train or electric tram car as being the heavier and more powerful vehicle. In the case of collisions between motor vehicles and horse-drawn vehicles, the death is assigned to the motor vehicle.

The number and rate of deaths resulting from railway, tramway, motor vehicle, and aircraft accidents during each of the last eleven years are as follows.

YearDeaths Due to AccidentRate Per 10,000 of Mean Population
RailwayTramwayMotor VehicleAircraftRailwayTramwayMotor VehicleAircraft
1941 .. ..405159500·260·031·030·32
1942 .. ..5116125580·330·100·810·38
1943 .. ..749113970·480·060·730·63
1944 .. ..3611129410·230·070·830·26
1945 .. ..3611104270·230·070·650·17
1946 .. ..402215730·240·130·950·02
1947 .. ..39918780·230·051·100·05
1948 .. ..347175240·200·041·010·14
1949 .. ..287190250·160·041·080·14
1950 .. ..30719860·170·041·100·03
1951 .. ..39925490·210·051·390·05

Deaths arising out of aircraft accidents fell off steeply after 1945. This was to be expected, since the figures include Air Force accidents in New Zealand as well as civilian casualties. In 1948 the crashing on Mount Ruapehu of a National Airways Corporation plane with the loss of 13 lives was the principal cause of the high figure for civil air transport accidents in that year. New Zealand's worst air disaster occurred in 1949, when fifteen lives were lost in a crash at Waikanae. The figure of 25 deaths is the highest total recorded in a non-war year. The sharp increase in 1943 in deaths due to railway accidents is accounted for by one serious accident near Hyde in Central Otago, which resulted in twenty-one deaths. In 1948 a derailment near Blenheim resulting in the loss of six lives was a substantial contribution to the total in that year.

Deaths from motor-vehicle accidents recorded an appreciable increase up to 1930, but this trend was reversed during the depression years, largely due to a great reduction in the number of motor vehicles on the roads during that period. With the advent of more prosperous times, the toll of the motor vehicle again mounted, although, fortunately, not in proportion to the tremendous increase in motor vehicular traffic on the highways. An appreciable drop, however, was experienced during the war years on account of there being less traffic on the roads owing to restrictions in the use of motor spirits and rubber tires. With the gradual resumption of normal traffic since the war the number of fatalities from motor-vehicle accidents is again increasing. The 1951 total of 254 deaths was an increase of 56, or 28 per cent, over the figure for 1950 and was the highest ever recorded in New Zealand. The previous highest total was 230 deaths in 1938.

The figures given in the above table for deaths from motor-vehicle accidents (which do not include deaths of Maoris) are exclusive of accidents where persons have been killed in collisions between motor vehicles and trains or trams, these being assigned to the heavier vehicle. For 1951 there were 15 deaths from such accidents, bringing the total number of deaths in cases where a motor vehicle was involved up to 269. The corresponding figure for 1950 was 212.

Non-transport Accidents.—Over the three-year period 1949 to 1951, 43 per cent of deaths from accidental causes involved transport vehicles or devices, with the remaining 57 per cent spread over a wide range of circumstances.

The 1948 Revision of the International List makes provision for these non-transport accidents (excluding therapeutic misadventure in treatment, complications following vaccination or inoculation, and late effects of injury and poisoning) to be grouped according to the place where the accident or poisoning occurred. The following table shows the deaths, both numbers and rates, for each of the three years 1949, 1950, and 1951 according to this classification.

Place of OccurrenceNumberRate Per Million of Mean Population
Home (including home premises and vicinity and any non-institutional place of residence)210203221120113121
Farm (including buildings and land under cultivation, but excluding farm and home premises)284429152515
Mine and quarry.. .. .. ..747424
Industrial place and premises .. .. ..262719151510
Place for recreation and sport .. .. ..777444
Street and highway .. .. .. ..61210375
Public building (building used by the general public or a particular group of the public)4613237
Resident institution (homes, hospitals, &c.) ..26132315713
Other specified places .. .. .. ..797283454045
Place not specified .. .. .. ..3614162089
               Totals .. .. .. .. ..429402428244224234

One in every two fatal non-traffic accidents occurs in or about the home. The age distribution by certain causes of those dying from such accidents during the three years 1949 to 1951 is shown in the following table. The equivalent annual rate per million of population in the particular age group is also given.

CauseUnder 1 Year1 and Under 5 Years5 and Under 15 Years15 and Under 45 Years45 and Under 65 Years65 Years and OverAll Ages
No.Annual RateNo.Annual RateNo.Annual RateNo.Annual RateNo.Annual RateNo.Annual RateNo.Annual Rate
* Rate less than 1.
Poisoning by solid and liquid substances....1321....837736316
Poisoning by gases and vapours............2*551836255
Falls .. .. ..215582273131225349928252
Fire and explosion of combustible material3236105663661326397
Hot substance, corrosive liquid, and steam430193033....111326407
Inhalation of food and other objects causing obstruction or suffocation53398610224255247213
Suffocation in bed or cradle ..3224035....1*11....377
Drowning and Submersion ..185384....1*11245811
Other causes .. ..6459148913677714509
               Totals .. ..101759114182202342184643311614634118

The chief killer in the home is falls, which exacts a heavy toll of the aged and infirm. Second comes asphyxia from regurgitation of foodstuffs and inhalation of other objects, or mechanically from pillows and bedclothes: this is the principal hazard of the first six months of life, though a proportion of these deaths is probably due to some undisclosed underlying respiratory infection. Almost all the home drowning fatalities were amongst toddlers between one and two years of age who fell into rivers, creeks, and ponds in the immediate home vicinity.

There were 101 deaths from non-transport accidents on farms in the period covered. Farm machinery was involved in 48 fatalities (tractors and bulldozers 38), firearms in 14, and animals in 9. In addition to these 101 non-transport accidents, a further 16 transport fatalities occurred on farms, of which 9 were falls from horses, bringing the total of farm fatalities to 117 over the three years covered.

Fatal non-transport accidents in industrial plants, factories, and workplaces totalled 72, the highest individual totals being for machinery with 17, electric current with 15, and falls with 14.

OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS.—The majority of occupational accidents are included in accidents occurring in industrial places or premises, on railways, farms, and mines and quarries, but a certain number occur in such places as places of recreation and sport, street and highway, and public buildings. For example, 8 occupational accidents causing the deaths of 7 jockeys and 1 trotting driver are included under “place of recreation and sport.”

The following table shows details of deaths from accidental causes arising out of and in the course of the deceased's employment. So far as transport accidents are concerned, where these occurred to farmers engaged in transporting produce and to persons whose occupation was driving, these were included as occupational.

Description of Accident194919501951Totals, 1949-51
Railway accident involving railway employee .. ..1031124
Railway accident involving other person .. ..2114
Motor-vehicle traffic accidents .. .. ..5111127
Motor-vehicle non-traffic accidents .. .. ..11..2
Other road-vehicle accidents .. .. .. ..156324
Submersion of occupant of small boat .. .. ..1135
Other water transport injury by submersion .. ..54110
Falls on ships .. .. .. .. ..1315
Crushing while loading or unloading ship .. ..1225
Aircraft accidents .. .. .. .. ..73515
Poisoning by liquid substance .. .. .. ....1..1 
Poisoning by gases and vapours .. .. ..21..3
Falls .. .. .. .. .. ..95620
Blow from falling object .. .. .. ..12131338
Accident caused by mine vehicle .. .. ......11
Machinery accidents .. .. .. .. ..17301865
Accident caused by cutting or piercing instrument ....1..1
Accident caused by electric current .. .. ..117826
Accident caused by fire and explosion of combustible material23..5
Accident caused by hot substance, corrosive liquid, and steam1113
Accident caused by firearm .. .. .. ......44
Mechanical suffocation .. .. .. ..1..34
Sting of venomous insect .. .. .. ..1....1
Accident caused by animals .. .. .. ..3317
Drowning and submersion .. .. .. ....134
Excessive cold .. .. .. .. ......11
Crushing .. .. .. .. .. ......11
               Totals .. .. .. .. ..10710198306

Farming and agricultural employment, which contributed an average of 31 occupational deaths in each year, were responsible for the highest total in any one occupational group. The annual average number of deaths in other occupational groups were (i) railway employees 8, (ii) transport drivers 5, (iii) fishermen and seamen 5, (iv) miners and quarrymen 5.

Further data regarding accidents will be found elsewhere in this volume (see Index). A later section is devoted wholly to statistics of industrial accidents.

SUICIDES.—Suicidal deaths in 1951 numbered 182—males 136, females 46—the death rate per 10,000 of mean population being 0·99.

YearNumber of Suicidal DeathsRate Per 10,000 of Mean Population
1947 .. .. ..99361351·170·420·80
1948 .. .. ..131501811·520·581·05
1949 .. .. ..114571711·290·650·97
1950 .. .. ..121441651·340·490·92
1951 .. .. ..136461821·480·500·99

The following table presents, for annual averages of various quinquennia, the suicide rate per 10,000 of mean population.

Annual Average DuringMalesFemalesBoth Sexes
1895-99 .. .. ..1·480·310·93
1900-04 .. .. ..1·660·311·02
1905-09 .. .. ..1·620·341·02
1910-14 .. .. ..1·830·411·16
1915-19 .. .. ..1·790·401·10
1920-24 .. .. ..1·920·461·20
1925-29 .. .. ..2·170·561·38
1930-34 .. .. ..2·290·551·44
1935-39 .. .. ..1·630·571·10
1940-44 .. .. ..1·440·560·99
1945-49 .. .. ..1·380·570·97
1950-51 (2 years) .. ..1·410·500·96


In each of the preceding subsections Maoris have been excluded from the statistical tables presented. The standard of registration of Maoris is still below that of the European section of the population of New Zealand. This is due partly to difficulties of language, educational status, &c., and partly to problems of access. This latter difficulty arises from the fact that the greater portion of the Maori population is resident in country districts not so well served with modern facilities as regards transport, medical, and nursing services, &c. Consequently registration of vital facts regarding the Maori race as a whole is not at the same high level of accuracy as obtains for the European population, but considerable improvement has been effected in recent years.

MAORI BIRTHS.—In the successive Registration Acts special provision was made for exemption from the necessity of registration in the case of births and deaths of Maoris, though registration could be effected if desired. Section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act 1912 (now section 52 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1951) empowered the making of regulations to provide for the registration of births and deaths of Maoris. Regulations were made accordingly, and Maori births and deaths became registrable as from 1 March 1913. The number of Registrars of Maori Births and Deaths in New Zealand is over 250, most of these being in the North Island, where the great majority of the Maori population is located. Every Maori settlement of any size is within reach of one of these Registrars. Maori registrations are entered in a separate register, which does not, however, make provision for as many particulars as is the case with registrations of Europeans.

The number of births of Maoris registered during 1951 was 5,238 (2,746 males, 2,492 females). The Maori birth rate in 1951 was almost twice the European birth rate (24·67 per 1,000). Registrations of Maori births in each of the last eleven years were as follows.

YearNumber of Maori BirthsRate Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1941 .. ..2,1561,9784,13444·77
1942 .. ..2,2222,1084,33045·84
1943 .. ..2,2672,1734,44045·78
1944 .. ..2,3282,1804,50845·32
1945 .. ..2,3892,2554,64446·09
1946 .. ..3,0072,7695,77656·81
1947 .. ..2,5412,4474,98847·46
1948 .. ..2,5892,3674,95645·97
1949 .. ..2,5102,4074,91744·48
1950 .. ..2,6062,4995,10545·07
1951 .. ..2,7462,4925,23844·97

Prior to 1946 there was reason to believe that the number of Maori births was somewhat understated, and this view was confirmed by the registration figures for 1946, the year in which the provision of family benefits under the Social Security scheme was extended to cover all children under sixteen years of age irrespective of the income of the parents. Of the 5,776 Maori births registered during 1946, no fewer than 1,447, or 25 per cent, had actually occurred before 1945— i.e., over a year before registration.

For population purposes, half-castes and persons between half and full blood rank as Maoris; but it is not always possible to ensure that this practice is followed in the registration of births (and of deaths).

MAORI MARRIAGES.—In cases where both parties to a marriage were of the Maori race there was no necessity under the Marriage Act to comply with the provisions of that Act, though the parties were at liberty to take advantage thereof. Considerable inconvenience, however, was found to exist on account of the non-registration of Maori marriages, and a section was inserted in the Maori Land Act 1909, and re-enacted in 1931, whereby it was laid down that Maori marriages must be celebrated either under the provisions of the Marriage Act or in the presence of a registered officiating minister, but without complying with the other requirements of the Marriage Act. Ministers solemnizing either class of marriage must send returns to the Registrar-General. A marriage between a Maori and a European was required to be celebrated under the provisions of the Marriage Act, and did not rank as a Maori marriage.

A complete change has been brought about by the Maori Purposes Act 1951. The view was taken that the Maori race had now reached a stage where such special dispensations were no longer justifiable. From 1 April 1952 all Maori marriages are subject to the ordinary laws affecting European marriages and no marriage according to Maori custom subsequent to that date will be held valid. As a result it will not be possible in future to distinguish marriages of Maoris from those of Europeans, and Maori marriage statistics as a separate feature will lapse.

Returns of 556 marriages in which both parties were of the Maori race were received during the year 1951. The figures for each of the last eleven years were as follows.

YearUnder Maori Land ActUnder Marriage ActTotals
1941 .. .. ..410107517
1942 .. .. ..46393556
1943 .. .. ..36379442
1944 .. .. ..42893521
1945 .. .. ..45776533
1946 .. .. ..51150561
1947 .. .. ..46854522
1948 .. .. ..51840558
1949 .. .. ..55019569
1950 .. .. ..56926595
1951 .. .. ..52234556

The number of Maori marriages declined considerably during the earlier war years, reaching a low point in 1943, and although there has been some increase since, it is still below pre-war proportions.

MAORI DEATHS.—Registrations of Maori deaths during each of the last eleven years have been as follows.

YearNumberRate Per 1,000 of Maori Population
1941 .. .. ..1,0208811,90121·6619·4820·59
1942 .. .. ..9337991,73219·4317·2018·34
1943 .. .. ..8628131,67517·5117·1117·27
1944 .. .. ..8618251,68617·1216·7716·95
1945 .. .. ..8657701,63516·9315·5016·23
1946 .. .. ..8377901,62716·0315·9716·00
1947 .. .. ..7967421,53814·7414·5214·63
1948 .. .. ..7896841,47314·2513·0413·66
1949 .. .. ..7977691,56614·0314·3114·17
1950 .. .. ..7346351,36912·6211·5212·09
1951 .. .. ..7395851,32412·3810·3111·37

The rates for the two sexes are much more nearly equal for Maoris than for the rest of the population, the female rate being indeed higher than the male in some years. The total Maori death rate has shown considerable improvement during recent years, with a decline from 20·59 in 1941 to 11·37 in 1951.

Apart from mere numbers by sex, statistics of Maori deaths are not available prior to 1920, but annual tabulations are now made on the bases of age and cause of death. The ages of Maoris whose deaths were registered during the year 1951 were as shown in the following table.

Age, in YearsMalesFemalesTotals
Under 1 ..207150357
    1 and under 55647103
    5      ″      10 ..191938
  10      ″      15 ..101626
  15      ″      20 ..281543
  20      ″      25 ..301545
  25      ″      30 ..161430
  30      ″      35 ..191433
  35      ″      40 ..251540
  40      ″      45 ..192544
  45      ″      50 ..222951
  50      ″      55 ..383270
  55 and under 60403272
  60      ″      65414182
  65      ″      70512071
  70      ″      75332255
  75      ″      80373067
  80      ″      85171835
  85      ″      90191130
  90      ″      955611
  95      ″      1005510
100 and over ..2911
               Totals ..7395851,324

Causes of Maori Deaths.—With the exception of diphtheria and scarlet fever, epidemic and infectious diseases generally exact a much heavier toll proportionately among Maoris than among the European population, the most noteworthy examples being tuberculosis, particularly of the respiratory system, and typhoid fever. Other diseases of the respiratory system also show much higher rates for Maoris than for Europeans, and the same state of affairs is disclosed for diarrhoeal diseases and stomach complaints.

On the other hand, there is a much lower mortality rate among Maoris from certain diseases which rank high as causes of death among the European population. Principal among these are cancer, heart-disease and other diseases of the circulatory system, nephritis, the group of general diseases which includes diabetes and exophthalmic goitre, and the group of diseases of the nervous system which includes apoplexy and cerebral haemorrhage. Malformations show lower rates for Maoris than for Europeans, but the indefinite nature of the data in the registration entries covering the deaths of many Maori infants may be partly responsible, as the figures of deaths from malformations and the group “early infancy” taken in conjunction indicate a much higher rate for Maoris from these causes as a whole than for the European population.

A summary is here given showing Maori deaths for the five years 1945 to 1949 from the principal causes and groups of causes on the basis of the Fifth (1938) Revision of the International Classification of Causes of Death.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per 10,000 of Mean Maori Population
Typhoid fever .. .. ..7712440·690·691·140·370·36
Measles .. .. ..42712290·402·660·100·192·62
Whooping-cough .. ..8..1528310·79..1·432·602·80
Diphtheria .. .. ..21108352·080·980·760·280·45
Influenza .. .. ..21371522122·083·641·432·041·09
Dysentery .. .. ..1275751·190·690·480·650·45
Pulmonary tuberculosis .. ..29229327620820428·9828·8226·2619·2918·45
Other forms of tuberculosis ..851027469658·4410·037·046·405·88
Cancer .. .. ..55587369755·465·706·956·406·78
Cerebral haemorrhage .. ..33143621323·281·383·431·952·89
Convulsions (under five years) ..1134341·090·300·380·280·36
Heart-diseases .. .. ..26923225527128126·7022·8224·2625·1425·42
Bronchitis .. .. ..27243131232·682·362·952·882·08
Broncho-pneumonia .. ..13017712413117812·9017·4111·8012·1516·10
Pneumonia .. .. ..851028177778·4410·037·717·146·97
Diarrhoea and enteritis .. ..1148671547111·328·466·765·016·42
Nephritis .. .. ..25241415242·482·361·331·392·17
Senility .. .. ..50464032234·964·523·812·972·08
     Suicide .. .. ..775650·690·690·480·560·45
     Accident .. .. ..65839389946·458·168·858·258·50
     Homicide .. .. ..233180·200·300·290·090·72
Ill-defined or not specified ..1141612181·090·391·521·111·63
Other causes .. .. ..30128128631829829·8827·6427·2129·4926·96
               Totals .. ..1,6351,6271,5381,4731,566162·29160·02146·35136·62141·66

The Introduction of the Sixth (1948) Revision of the International Classification of Causes of Death in 1950, together with the change to assignment according to the underlying cause of death, prevent accurate comparisons being made between the 1950 and 1951 mortality tabulations and those for antecedent years in the above table. The following table shows the Maori deaths for 1950 and 1951 classified according to the Abbreviated List of the 1948 Revision.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per 10,000 of Mean Maori Population
Tuberculosis of respiratory system .. ..19412917·1311·08
Tuberculosis, other forms .. .. ..60395·303·35
Syphilis and its sequelae .. .. ..940·790·34
Typhoid fever .. .. .. ..510·440·09
Dysentery, all forms .. .. .. ..720·620·17
Scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat ..1..0·09..
Whooping-cough .. .. .. ..740·620·34
Meningococcal infections .. .. ....8..0·69
Acute poliomyelitis .. .. .. ....1..0·09
All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic10110·880·94
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues65775·746·61
Benign and unspecified neoplasms .. ..420·350·17
Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per 10,000 of Mean Maori Population
Diabetes mellitus .. .. .. ..450·350·43
Anaemias .. .. .. .. ..110·090·09
Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system ..31512·744·38
Non-meningococcal meningitis .. .. ..18121·591·03
Rheumatic fever .. .. .. ..960·790·52
Chronic rheumatic heart-disease .. ..38403·363·43
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart-disease ..14119112·4516·40
Other diseases of the heart .. .. ..46834·067·13
Hypertension with heart-disease .. ..9190·791·63
Hypertension without mention of hear .. ..210·180·09
Influenza .. .. .. .. ..20141·771·20
Pneumonia .. .. .. .. ..16514914·5712·80
Bronchitis .. .. .. .. ..27302·382·58
Ulcer of stomach and duodenum .. ..210·180·09
Appendicitis .. .. .. ..540·440·34
Intestinal obstruction and hernia .. ..10130·881·12
Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of the newborn50504·414·29
Cirrhosis of liver .. .. .. ..510·440·09
Nephritis and nephrosis .. .. ..1991·680·77
Hyperplasia of prostate .. .. ..120·090·17
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium1251·060·43
Congenital malformations .. .. ..21231·851·97
Birth injuries, postnatal asphyxia, and atelectasis ..55484·864·12
Infections of the newborn .. .. ..8120·711·03
Other diseases peculiar to early infancy, and immaturity unqualified75656·625·58
Senility without mention of psychosis, ill-defined and unknown causes27322·382·75
All other diseases .. .. .. ..96748·486·35
Motor-vehicle accidents .. .. ..26292·302·49
All other accidents .. .. .. ..74616·535·24
Suicide and self-inflicted injury .. ..760·620·52
Homicide and operations of war .. ..390·260·77
               Totals .. .. .. ..1,3691,324120·87113·68

From 1925 onwards information has been obtained as to whether the cause of death has been certified by a medical practitioner or a Coroner's inquest. As an indication of the improvements achieved in the specifying of the causes of deaths of Maoris, it may be said that in 1925, out of a total of 867 deaths, 446, or 51 per cent, were definitely shown to have been certified, while in 1951 the number so certified was 1,227 out of 1,324 registrations, equivalent to 93 per cent.

MAORI INFANT MORTALITY.—As regards infant mortality, the Maori rate is much higher and more variable than the European, principally owing to the ravages of epidemic diseases, tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, and diarrhoeal diseases. The infant mortality rate for the first year of life was 75 per 1,000 births in the case of Maoris for the five years 1947-51, as compared with 23 per 1,000 among European infants. The decrease in the Maori infant-mortality rate during the years 1946 and 1947 is more apparent than real, as the birth figures on which they are based include a considerable number of late registrations of hitherto unregistered births (see p. 86).

The numbers and rates per 1,000 live births for the last eleven years are given in the next table.

Number of Deaths Under One YearRate Per 1,000 Live BirthsNumber of Deaths Under One YearRate Per 1,000 Live Births
1941 .. ..517125·061,04529·77
1942 .. ..42497·9296428·71
1943 .. ..39989·8695131·37
1944 .. ..461102·261,01230·12
1945 .. ..41388·931,03627·99
1946 .. ..43174·621,09326·10
1947 .. ..36573·181,12225·04
1948 .. ..38076·6797021·95
1949 .. ..42285·821,04623·78
1950 .. ..35669·741,00822·75
1951 .. ..35768·161,01722·78

The next table shows for the year 1951 the principal causes of death of Maori infants in the various subdivisions of the first year of life. The classification is according to the Sixth (1948) Revision of the International Classification of Causes of Death.

Causes of DeathUnder 1 Day1 Day and Under 2 Days2 Days and Under 1 Week1 Week and Under 2 Weeks2 Weeks and Under 3 Weeks3 Weeks and Under 1 Month1 Months and Under 2 Months2 Months and Under 3 Months3 Months and Under 6 Months6 Months and Under 9 Months9 Months and Under 12 MonthsTotals
Tuberculosis .. .. ..................1124
Syphilis .. .. .. ..............1........1
Dysentery, all forms .. ....................1..1
Whooping-cough .. .. ..................2..13
All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic......1........22..5
Non-meningococcal meningitis ..............1..2..25
Influenza .. .. ................13239
Pneumonia, except of newborn ..............58313323100
Bronchitis .. .. ..............21..7414
Intestinal obstruction and hernia ......11....31..1..7
Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of newborn............3..1019638
Congenital malformations .. ..225..1..3112118
Birth injuries .. .. ..765..1............19
Post-natal asphyxia and atelectasis ..172531..1........29
Infections of the newborn .. ......1244......1..12
Immaturity unqualified .. ..221341..1....1....42
Other diseases peculiar to early infancy4334123..11123
Ill-defined conditions .. ..................1113
Accidents .. .. ....1......12134..12
Other diseases .. .. ..............1133412
               Totals .. .. ..52272412882514617848357

Of the total of 12 deaths in the above table due to infections of the newborn, 3 were defined as diarrhoea and 7 as pneumonia. Immaturity unqualified accounted for 42 infant deaths, but in a further 24 deaths due to diseases peculiar to early infancy, prematurity was an associated condition.

The great achievement in reducing the infant-mortality rate for the European population has been accomplished during the period after the first month of life up to the end of the first year. Conversely, the causes of the extremely high Maori mortality rates are to be found in the same period of life. This is indicated in the next table, which contrasts the mortality rates per 1,000 live births for European and Maori infants respectively for the last twenty years.

Under One MonthOne and Under Twelve MonthsTotal Under One YearUnder One MonthOne and Under Twelve MonthsTotal Under One Year
1932 .. ..21·309·9231·2222·2273·2295·45
1933 .. ..22·818·8331·6423·0769·5492·61
1934 .. ..22·869·2532·1117·1176·4893·59
1935 .. ..22·0310·2332·2624·3084·90109·20
1936 .. ..22·318·6530·9622·3287·60109·92
1937 .. ..22·219·0031·2121·6670·5192·17
1938 .. ..24·1511·4835·6330·32122·94153·26
1939 .. ..21·859·2931·1432·0782·85114·92
1940 .. ..22·038·1830·2123·9263·3087·22
1941 .. ..20·009·7729·7726·8598·21125·06
1942 .. ..18·739·9828·7119·4078·5297·92
1943 .. ..21·2710·1031·3718·9270·9489·86
1944 .. ..20·609·5230·1219·3082·96102·26
1945 .. ..19·598·4027·9926·0562·8888·93
1946 .. ..19·087·0226·1018·3556·2774·62
1947 .. ..18·086·9625·0425·4647·7273·18
1948 .. ..15·806·1521·9528·8547·8276·67
1949 .. ..17·016·7723·7822·7863·0485·82
1950 .. ..16·576·1822·7528·4141·3369·74
1951 .. ..16·226·5622·7825·0143·1568·16

The principal causes of death of Maori infants responsible for the high mortality rates after the first month of life are diarrhoea and enteritis, broncho-pneumonia, pneumonia, and other diseases of the respiratory system.


It is desirable that a complete coverage of the vital statistics of a country as a whole should be available, and the statistical data presented in this subsection cover the entire population of New Zealand.

For many years the standard of registration of vital events for Maoris was subject to elements of inaccuracy and incompleteness due to sever tors. However, with the introduction of the medical and related benefits under the social legislation, which covers Maori and European alike, certain information was essential for the claiming of benefits, and a gradual improvement in recent years has been in evidence. It is now probable that the standard of registration of Maori vital statistics is very little inferior to that of Europeans.

TOTAL BIRTHS.—As mentioned previously, registration of Maori births are somewhat less accurate (although improvement has been manifest in recent years) than those of the European population. In the table following, which shows the numbers and rates of European, Maori, and total births for each of the last eleven years, allowance should be made for the element of inaccuracy and incompleteness affecting a proportion of the figures, particularly for the earlier years covered.

For instance, owing to the extensive time lag in the receipt by the Registrar-General of a considerable number of registrations, the statistics of Maori births relate to the number of registrations received during the year, whereas the European figures cover actual registrations effected during the year.

YearNumbersRates Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1941 .. ..35,1004,13439,23422·8144·7724·06
1942 .. ..33,5744,33037,90421·7345·8423·12
1943 .. ..30,3114,44034,75119·7045·7821·25
1944 .. ..33,5994,50838,10721·5945·3223·01
1945 .. ..37,0074,64441,65123·2246·0924·58
1946 .. ..41,8715,77647,64725·2656·8127·08
1947 .. ..44,8164,98849,80426·4747·4627·70
1948 .. ..44,1934,95649,14925·5945·9726·79
1949 .. ..43,9884,91748,90524·9844·4826·13
1950 .. ..44,3095,10549,41424·6745·0725·88
1951 .. ..44,6515,23849,88924·3944·9725·62

The abnormal increase in the number of Maori births shown for the year 1946 is mainly accounted for by the late registration of births which occurred prior to 1946 (see p. 86).

The inclusion of Maoris raises the level of the birth rate all through the period covered, but in no case does it reverse the trend of the rate on the normal published basis—i.e., the birth rate of New Zealand, exclusive of Maoris. In an international comparison for the quinquennium 1947-51 the inclusion of Maoris raises New Zealand's position from twelfth to ninth in a total of twenty-seven countries covered.

TOTAL NATURAL INCREASE.—The birth and death rates of the European population are not subject to violent fluctuation, and consequently the natural-increase rate—i.e., excess of births over deaths—for this section of the population follows an even trend in the period covered by the next table, with a decline to 1943, followed by a steady rise to 1947, and a regular decline each year since that date. The Maori population, on the other hand, evinces sudden changes in both birth and death rates, with a resultant considerable fluctuation in the natural-increase rate. The effect of combining the two sections of the populations is to smooth out the variations in the Maori rate of natural increase, but the general trend is the same as the European rate. The following table shows the numbers gained by natural increase, together with the rate per 1,000 of mean population for the last eleven years.

YearNumbersRates Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1941 .. ..19,9542,23322,18712·9724·1913·61
1942 .. ..17,1892,59819,78711·1327·5012·07
1943 .. ..14,8642,76517,6299·6628·5110·78
1944 .. ..18,2362,82221,05811·7228·3712·71
1945 .. ..20,9563,00923,96513·1529·8714·14
1946 .. ..25,7784,14929,92715·5540·8117·01
1947 .. ..28,9123,45032,36217·0832·8318·00
1948 .. ..28,3713,48331,85416·4332·3117·37
1949 .. ..27,9763,35131,32715·8930·3116·74
1950 .. ..27,5943,73631,33015·3632·9816·41
1951 .. ..27,1393,91431,05314·8233·6015·94

In the ten years 1942-51 New Zealand has gained by natural increase of the population a total of 270,292, comprising 237,015 Europeans and 33,277 Maoris.

TOTAL MARRIAGES.—The following table shows the numbers of European, Maori, and total marriages celebrated during each of the last eleven years.

YearNumbersRates Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1941 .. ..13,31351713,8308·655·608·48
1942 .. ..12,21955612,7757·915·897·79
1943 .. ..11,57944212,0217·534·567·35
1944 .. ..13,12552113,6468·435·248·24
1945 .. ..16,16053316,69310·145·299·85
1946 .. ..20,53556121,09612·395·5211·99
1947 .. ..18,52552219,04710·944·9710·59
1948 .. ..17,19255817,7509·965·189·67
1949 .. ..16,78556917,3549·535·159·27
1950 .. ..16,50459517,0999·195·258·96
1951 .. ..16,35955616,9158·934·778·78

The fluctuations in the Maori marriage rate, and hence, to a lesser extent, in the total marriage rate, cannot be taken at their face value, as elements of Maori psychology play no small part on occasions in influencing the number of Maori marriages registered, as distinct from the number actually celebrated. Apart from these factors, the differences observed in the movements of the respective rates are, of course, considerably affected by variations in the application of social and other legislation to the Maori race and the European population respectively. As a result of legislation introduced in 1951 it will not be possible after 1 April 1952 to distinguish marriages of Maoris from those of Europeans.

TOTAL DEATHS.—The effect of including Maoris is to increase slightly the total death rate for New Zealand, as is seen in the following table.

YearNumbersRates Per 1,000 of Mean Population
1941 .. ..15,1461,90117,0479·8420·5910·45
1942 .. ..16,3851,73218,11710·6018·3411·05
1943 .. ..15,4471,67517,12210·0417·2710·47
1944 .. ..15,3631,68617,0499·8716·9510·30
1945 .. ..16,0511,63517,68610·0716·2310·44
1946 .. ..16,0931,62717,7209·7116·0010·07
1947 .. ..15,9041,53817,4429·3914·639·70
1948 .. ..15,8121,47317,2859·1613·669·42
1949 .. ..16,0121,56617,5789·0914·179·39
1950 .. ..16,7151,36918,0849·3112·099·47
1951 .. ..17,5121,32418,8369·5611·379·67

The Maori death rate was for many years consistently and appreciably higher than the European rate, but a continuance of the downward trend which has been recorded for some years now may see an equalization of the rates in the near future. At present the inclusion of Maoris does not raise the general death rate much above the European rate. Countries with lower death rates (in 1951) than New Zealand included Netherlands, 7·5; Denmark, 8·8; Norway, 8·3; Canada, 9·0; and Union of South Africa (European population only), 9·2.

Total Deaths by Causes.—Numbers and rates for principal causes of death over the five years 1945-49 are given in the following table. This table follows the Abridged International List of Causes of Death (Fifth Revision, 1938) and includes Maoris. Similarly based figures covering the same five years will be found for the Maori population separately on page 88 of Section 4d and for the European population by reference to page 87 of Section 4c of the 1950 edition of the Year-Book.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRates Per Million of Mean Population
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever ..10142177681244
Scarlet fever .. .. ..141..4..81..2..
Whooping-cough .. ..16149345291271828
Diphtheria .. .. ..63592861037341535
Tuberculosis of the respiratory system789753717616569466428399336304
Other forms of tuberculosis ..191200156130135113115877172
Syphilis .. .. ..10013512595835977695244
Influenza .. .. ..741484873574484274031
Measles .. .. ..144326538241328
Other infective and parasitic diseases1321311311621237874738866
Cancer and other malignant tumours2,2682,3262,3882,5222,5471,3381,3221,3281,3751,361
Non-malignant tumours ..55726925513241381427
Chronic rheumatism and gout ..30302329271817131614
Diabetes mellitus .. ..324347332355363191197184193194
Alcoholism .. .. ..7436642233
Avitaminoses, other general diseases, diseases of the blood, and chronic poisoning270260250236252159148139129135
Meningitis, and diseases of the spinal cord80817796844746435245
Intracranial lesions of vascular origin1,6711,6131,6951,6981,655986917942925884
Other diseases of the nervous system and organs of special sense212180156173169124102879490
Diseases of the heart .. ..5,9246,0156,0085,9396,2833,4963,4193,3403,2373,357
Other diseases of the circulatory system300263262314280177149146171150
Bronchitis .. .. ..2081772011621511231001128881
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia720840750812828425477417443442
Other diseases of the respiratory system234204228207197138116127113105
Diarrhoea and enteritis .. ..23915912711014214190716076
Appendicitis .. .. ..64585746453833322524
Diseases of the liver and biliary passages130121981281407769557075
Other diseases of the digestive system376306334339343222174186185183
Nephritis .. .. ..442475414385399261270230210213
Other diseases of the genito-urinary system258215245227194152122136124104
Puerperal infection .. ..2935181813172010107
Other diseases of the puerperal state63744147493742232626
Diseases of the skin and cellular tissue, and of the bones and organs of locomotion42373122322521171217
Congenital debility, malformations, premature birth, and other diseases of early infancy9459991,049905950558568583493508
Senility .. .. ..513369343241229303210191131122
Suicide .. .. ..182173140187176107987810294
Homicide .. .. ..2718132028161071115
Automobile accidents .. ..13218723119521678107128106115
Other accidental deaths .. ..520586566693620307333315378331
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined1891615201159811
               Totals .. ..17,68617,72017,44217,28517,57810,43610,0719,6999,4219,391

Although the incidence of different diseases as causes of death varies considerably as between the Maori and European sections of New Zealand's population, the only important disease to show a marked influence on the general death rate by the inclusion of Maoris is tuberculosis. The average death rate for the total population from tuberculosis (all forms) for the five years 1947-51 was 380 per million of mean population, as against 253 for the European death rate. New Zealand has for many years had a comparatively low tuberculosis death rate for the European section of its population, but when Maoris are included the latest triennial international figures available (1947-49) show New Zealand to be sixth out of total of thirty-one countries. With Maoris excluded, New Zealand's position would be second for the same period.

Total deaths for the years 1950 and 1951 according to the Abbreviated List of the Sixth (1948) Revision of the International Classification of Causes of Death are contained in the following table. Comparative tables for the European and Maori population separately may be found by reference to page 76 of Section 4c and pages 88-89 of Section 4d respectively.

Causes of DeathNumber of DeathsRate Per Million of Mean Population
Tuberculosis of respiratory system .. ..545448285230
Tuberculosis, other forms .. .. ..1211036353
Syphilis and its sequelae .. .. .. ..100715236
Typhoid fever .. .. .. .. ..7141
Dysentery, all forms .. .. .. ..12563
Scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat .. ..2111
Diphtheria .. .. .. .. ..4322
Whooping-cough .. .. .. ..2311126
Meningococcal infections .. .. .. ..922511
Acute poliomyelitis .. .. .. ..2211
Measles .. .. .. .. ..3221
All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic ..95865044
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues2,7172,9131,4231,496
Benign and unspecified neoplasms .. .. ..59383119
Diabetes mellitus .. .. .. ..232249121128
Anaemias .. .. .. .. ..58813042
Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system ..1,8552,1149721,085
Non-meningococcal meningitis .. .. ..36271914
Rheumatic fever .. .. .. ..23231212
Chronic rheumatic heart-disease .. .. ..271244142125
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart-disease ..4,9165,1512,5752,645
Other diseases of the heart .. .. ..641674336346
Hypertension with heart-disease .. .. ..662695347357
Hypertension without mention of heart .. ..1641558680
Influenza .. .. .. .. ..97925147
Pneumonia .. .. .. .. ..579555303285
Bronchitis .. .. .. .. ..17728093144
Ulcer of stomach and duodenum .. .. ..1481517777
Appendicitis .. .. .. .. ..39322016
Intestinal obstruction and hernia .. .. ..1371317267
Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis, except diarrhoea of the newborn1361657185
Cirrhosis of liver .. .. .. .. ..59653133
Nephritis and nephrosis .. .. .. ..231208121107
Hyperplasia of prostate .. .. .. ..1501567980
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium52362718
Congenital malformations .. .. .. ..320225168116
Birth injuries, post-natal asphyxia, and atelectasis ..325358170184
Infections of the newborn .. .. ..33421722
Other diseases peculiar to early infancy, and immaturity unqualified393361206185
Senility without mention of psychosis, ill-defined, and unknown causes213241112124
All other diseases .. .. .. ..1,4301,500749770
Motor-vehicle accidents238298125153
All other accidents .. .. .. ..574610301313
Suicide and self-inflicted injury .. .. ..1721889096
Homicide and operations of war .. .. ..24231312
               Totals .. .. .. .. ..18,08418,8369,4739,672

TOTAL INFANT MORTALITY.—The establishing of the vital statistics of New Zealand on a total basis by the inclusion of Maoris has the greatest influence upon the infant-mortality rate. The infant-mortality rate of the European population of New Zealand held pride of place in the world for many years, and recently has declined to a particularly low level. The Maori rate, on the other hand, always a high one, has not shown any noticeable improvement in recent years. It is also subject to violent fluctuations owing to the ravages of certain epidemic diseases, which have relatively very little effect on the European rate. The European, Maori, and total infant-mortality figures for the last twenty years are given in the next table.

YearNumbersRates Per 1,000 Live Births
1932 .. ..7772621,03931·2295·4537·61
1933 .. ..7702731,04331·6492·6138·23
1934 .. ..7812791,06032·1193·5938·82
1935 .. ..7733551,12832·26109·2041·45
1936 .. ..7693991,16830·96109·9241·03
1937 .. ..8123661,17831·2192·1739·29
1938 .. ..9715661,53735·63153·2649·67
1939 .. ..8984731,37131·14114·9241·61
1940 .. ..9903721,36230·2187·2236·78
1941 .. ..1,0455171,56229·77125·0639·81
1942 .. ..9644241,38828·7197·9236·62
1943 .. ..9513991,35031·3789·8638·85
1944 .. ..1,0124611,47330·12102·2638·65
1945 .. ..1,0364131,44927·9988·9334·79
1946 .. ..1,0934311,52426·1074·6231·99
1947 .. ..1,1223651,48725·0473·1829·86
1948 .. ..9703801,35021·9576·6727·47
1949 .. ..1,0464221,46823·7885·8230·02
1950 .. ..1,0083561,36422·7569·7427·60
1951 .. ..1,0173571,37422·7868·1627·54

The inclusion of Maoris not only places the infant-mortality rate for New Zealand on a considerably higher level, but also replaces the general downward movement by a much more fluctuating trend

It also has a considerable effect on the position occupied by New Zealand among the countries of the world. In the quinquennium 1947-51 New Zealand's infant-mortality rate (exclusive of Maoris), with an average of 23, was the second lowest of thirty countries for which reliable figures were available, whereas the inclusion of the Maori population relegated it to third place equal with the Netherlands, with Sweden clearly in the lead, and Australia in second place.


Comparisons of healthiness of a community over a period of years which are based on death rates do not fully take into account the effect of the advance of medical science in recent years. It is common knowledge that many diseases regarded a few decades ago as incurable now show a fair percentage of recoveries. Similarly, the death rates in epidemics are in general much lower now than formerly, owing partly to the steps taken to prevent the spread of the disease, partly to the necessity of early notification in most countries, and partly to increased medical knowledge. Again, many diseases seldom or never result fatally. Death-rate statistics are therefore supplemented by data relating to illness.

The principal source of statistics of illness in New Zealand, apart from that resulting in death, comes from the public hospitals, to which some 85 per cent of all hospital inpatients are admitted. Information concerning every person discharged from a public hospital is collected and tabulated (from 1 January 1950) in accordance with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, and published annually in the Health Department's publication Medical Statistics. Similar information was formerly published in the Annual Report on Vital Statistics issued by the Census and Statistics Department. At present no attempt is being made to bridge the gap between illness where there was admission to a public hospital and illness where there was no such admission. Other morbidity statistics in New Zealand are those concerning certain notifiable diseases, shown in the next paragraph, those about industrial accidents reported in Section 41, those concerning benefits granted under the Social Security Act reported in Section 7a, and those to sick members of Friendly Societies mentioned in Section 7e.

NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES.—The numbers of all notifiable diseases reported during the calendar year 1951 are shown in the following table; the European figures are given month by month, with the totals for Maoris being shown in the last column.

JanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberTotalsTotals Only
Scarlet fever: streptococcal sore throat47476590859171727048433176010
Diphtheria .. ..349456761736616
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever....313..1323712449
Pulmonary tuberculosis ..957470991101101131168810793931,168389
Other tuberculosis .. ..18191214142719191521151420777
Meningococcus meningitis ..33235681477416311
Acute poliomyelitis ..41153....11433261
Pneumonic influenza ........21..1..2....171
Erysipelas .. .. ..661013121481214147121287
Puerperal fever—
     Following childbirth ..131..1......5111143
     Following abortion ..55632323421..362
Eclampsia .. .. ..3567616983413711
Tetanus .. .. ..21..2..532....34224
Hydatids .. .. ....2144145121624216
Trachoma .. .. ......1..1..............29
Ophthalmia neonatorum ..................1......11
Lethargic encephalitis ..............1..1......2..
Food poisoning .. ..2062112346920044335543125
Bacillary dysentery .. ..10518145145122758828
Amoebic dysentery .. ..3..54983812102551
Undulant fever .. ..1054541475532553
Lead poisoning .. ..2..11211....1..312..
Malaria .. .. ..2....3..1....1..1..8..
Leprosy .. .. ........................2  
Actinomycosis .. ......11............1..3..
               Totals .. ..2341862372872752933264782442322452493,286646

Total notifications for each of the last five years for Europeans and for Maoris for some of the notifiable diseases are shown in the following table.

Scarlet fever: streptococcal sore throat ..European8661,1061,0381,031760
Diphtheria .. .. .. ..European506154835161
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever .. ..European10640243424
Pulmonary tuberculosis .. .. ..European1,3961,3561,2171,2941,168
Meningococcus meningitis .. ..European4239384863
Acute poliomyelitis .. .. ..European1309143467026
Puerperal fever and septic abortion ..European159138817450
Tetanus .. .. .. ..European1823173322
Hydatids ..European5247273042
Food poisoning .. .. ..European22159104508431
Bacillary dysentery .. .. ..European539611613188
Undulant fever .. .. ..European3237314355

Scarlet Fever: Streptococcal Sore Throat.—Notifications from this cause continue to remain at a low level.

Diphtheria.—Notifications were again very low, being 67 (Europeans 61, Maoris 6). Three health districts had no cases at all.

Dr. C. N. D. Taylor, Medical Officer of Health, Gisborne, carried out an interesting survey among a small group of infants to determine the extent to which they had been immunized. It is the custom for a District Nurse to follow up every birth, and when the child is six months old, offer immunization. Owing to staff shortages this work fell into arrears, and the survey covered 188 children of ages between six months and eighteen months who had not previously been visited by a nurse. Of the total number, 114 (60 per cent) were found to have been immunized, 97 by their own doctors and 17 by a departmental officer at the parents' request. The parents of a further 44 children agreed to have their child immunized either by their own doctor or by a departmental officer. The parents of only 8 children refused immunization, while 22 children had died or could not be traced. This survey provides satisfactory proof of the effect of the Department of Health's educational activities in sponsoring the immunization of young children against diphtheria.

Another interesting effect of the routine immunization of infants is a marked shift in the age incidence of the disease, as pointed out by the Medical Officer of Health, Christchurch, in whose district 5 of the 6 cases notified were fifteen years of age or older, while four of them were over thirty years of age. Of the 67 cases notified in New Zealand, 30, or nearly half, were aged fifteen years or over. This is in marked contrast to the figures for 1930, when only 316 (or 22 per cent) of 1,440 cases notified were over fifteen years of age. Incidentally, the figures for 1930, which were not exceptional at the time, will indicate how much the incidence has fallen in recent years.

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever.—Only sporadic cases occurred in 1951, and all but one were in the North Island.

Meningococcus Meningitis.—In 1951 the incidence was slightly higher than for recent years—74 cases (Europeans 63, Maoris 11)—as compared with 51 (Europeans 48, Maoris 3) in 1950. The cases occurred mainly in the Auckland and Wellington districts.

Acute Poliomyelitis.—Between November 1947 and July 1949 New Zealand experienced its fourth major epidemic of poliomyelitis in a space of thirty-four years. Prior to 1916 nothing more than sporadic cases had been recorded in this country. Each of these four outbreaks began in the early summer, and the first three (1916, 1924-25, and 1936-37) began to die away with the approach of winter, although the 1936-37 epidemic was rather more drawn out than the two earlier ones. The latest outbreak, however, first appeared in November 1947 and continued with undiminished intensity throughout 1948, and only died down in the middle of 1949, although it was less intense than the previous epidemics.

In the period November 1947 to July 1949 the number of cases and suspected cases notified was 1,720, of which 1,406 proved positive. Of these, 805 showed evidence of paralysis or paresis, and there were 77 deaths from the disease.

The attack rate varied considerably in different parts of the country and the incidence in the New Plymouth Health District (22·43 per 10,000 of population) was markedly higher than elsewhere. The epidemic took approximately one year to travel from Auckland to Dunedin, although air transport covers the distance in a few hours. The outbreak in Wellington was unusual in that it was almost entirely a winter outbreak, whereas elsewhere the incidence showed a lessened intensity in the winter months.

As indicated earlier, there were differences between the four major epidemics of poliomyelitis in respect of their duration, and this applies also to their intensity, severity, and distribution by age groups.

Taking the duration of the epidemics as the periods during which the number of cases continuously reached double figures in any month, the duration and monthly incidence of the four epidemics is compared in the following table.

EpidemicMonth of Epidemic
1916 .. ..1193193201674419..........
1924-25 ..59224340366120542210......
1936-37 ..8570531072441639530141410
1947-49 ..1710955437696117648585117
EpidemicMonth of Epidemic
1916 .. ......................988
1924-25 ......................1,195
1936-37 ..11..................896
1947-49 ..778069946684331810111,406

The next table shows the attack rates for the different age groups for the 1947-49 epidemic.

Age Group, in YearsAll CasesParalysed Cases
CasesRates Per 10,000 in Age GroupCasesRates Per 10,000 in Age Group
  0-4 .. .. ..29813·81858·5
  5-9 .. .. ..41624·521212·3
10-14 .. .. ..24818·41178·7
15-19 .. .. ..1329·7835·9
20 and over .. .. ..3122·62081·7
               Totals .. ..1,4067·78054·4

The youngest age group (0-4 years) which in 1916 and 1924-25 suffered the highest attack rate dropped to third place in 1947-49. The incidence in the higher age groups was greater than in previous epidemics.

The number of deaths in the 1947-49 epidemic was 77, of whom 42 were males and 35 females. These numbers included 5 Maori males and 1 Maori female. The case mortality for all cases was 5·1 per cent for males, 5·9 per cent for females, with a combined rate of 5·5 per cent. For paralysed cases the mortality rates were: males, 9·3 per cent; females, 9·9 per cent; combined, 9·6 per cent. The highest mortality rates were in the higher age groups, particularly in females over thirty years of age.

In 1950 there was a total of 72 cases (Europeans 70, Maoris 2). Of these, 17 were cases of paralysis with 2 deaths, while 55 suffered no paralysis. The previous year's figure was 355 cases.

Just as the last major epidemic was unusually drawn out, and extended over twenty-one months, likewise it has taken longer than usual for the customary low incidence of the inter-epidemic period to establish itself. In fact, there were 33 cases in the first quarter of 1950, compared with 27 cases in the last quarter of 1949. The great majority of the cases (60 out of 72) were confined to the Auckland district.

During 1951 there were 27 cases, of which 18 were paralysed and 9 non-paralysed. There were 3 deaths. The only Maori case (a boy aged thirteen) ended fatally. The other two fatal cases were European females aged thirty-five and six years respectively.

The cases were well distributed, no health district being entirely free from the disease.

Hydatid Disease.—The figures for 1951 (Europeans 42, Maoris 16) show an increase over those of previous years. This increase, probably, is the result of better notification and is not due to any increased incidence. As a result of the educational activities of the Department of Health, carried out in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, farmers' organizations in several parts of the country have become very conscious of the existence of the disease, and are giving valuable assistance in encouraging their members to dose their dogs and to avoid re-infecting them.

All the Maori cases except two occurred in Gisborne and Hamilton districts.

Food Poisoning.—The reported cases were Europeans 431, Maoris 25, and probably reflect better notification. It is certain, however, that while outbreaks involving numbers of people are generally reported there must be many sporadic cases and family outbreaks which are dismissed as “summer sickness” or “gastric flu'.”

Undulant fever.—The notified cases of this disease show a rising tendency, although probably only a small proportion of the total infections are notified. All cases are due to Br. abortus, the infectivity of which, for humans, is relatively low.

Venereal Disease.—In the early war years the incidence of venereal disease increased considerably, but after 1941 there was an appreciable decrease. This trend was not sustained, however, and a new peak for gonorrhoea was reached in 1946, while the incidence of syphilis also increased substantially. The 1947 and 1948 figures for gonorrhoea showed some improvement, but an increase of nearly 11 per cent over the previous year was recorded in 1949. New cases of syphilis rose very steeply in 1948, but there was a considerable reduction in 1949, and a further substantial reduction in 1950. Gonorrhoea slightly increased in 1951. The following table shows the number of persons seen for the first time at the venereal-disease clinics in the four main centres of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, during each of the years 1947-51, and found to be suffering from gonorrhoea or syphilis.

1947 .. .. ..1,1063901,49610789196
1948 .. .. ..9933601,353161111272
1949 .. .. ..1,1043961,500107107214
1950 .. .. ..8183131,1316487151
1951 .. .. ..9612831,2445572127

There has been a general reduction in new cases of syphilis, while the figures for gonorrhoea show a slight increase, especially in Auckland and Wellington. A large proportion of these recorded male cases refer to first attendances of infected seamen visiting our main ports. So far as the local population is concerned, as indicated by the figures for females, these diseases are relatively uncommon except in the Auckland district, where the number of new female infections remains high.

Tuberculosis.—With an intensification of case-finding by all tuberculosis workers in recent years the position regarding notification of tuberculosis has improved to a degree that enables a reasonable picture of the disease to be presented as it affects this country. From a study of the returns over the last few years there is reason to believe that the annual increase in notifications of the disease has reached stability, and that an addition of approximately 250 cases (including Maoris) per year in the national total of notified cases can be expected. The Department of Health is continuing its efforts to reduce both incidence and mortality. The corps of District Health Nurses available for tuberculosis case-finding work has been increased, and hospital clinics in the charge of chest specialists have now been provided to give a wider coverage. The responsibilities of the Department of Health in case-finding and domiciliary care are being co-ordinated with that of the Hospital Boards, which are responsible for diagnosis and treatment.

The medical officers of the Department of Health assist the District Nurses in the examination of contacts and arrange tuberculin tests and X-ray examinations. One mass miniature X-ray unit has been in operation for over three years in Taranaki, a unit is established in Christchurch, and other units are available for Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin. Special investigation by these methods are directed towards those groups of the population which are likely to show a high incidence of the disease, and this type of work is being extended. Cases that are found to be tuberculosis, or suspected of having the disease, are referred to hospital chest clinics, which assess the diagnosis and prescribe treatment. The supervision of “after care” on discharge from a hospital or sanatorium then becomes the joint responsibility of the District Nurse and the hospital clinic staff.

As a contribution to prophylaxis, health education is being stimulated, and B.C.G. vaccination against tuberculosis has been commenced in hospital staffs and contacts and in certain post-primary school pupils, and is about to be extended to other suitable age groups of the population on a voluntary basis.

The following figures reflect the work performed by the district nursing service and school medical officers in this connection during the five years 1947-51.

Total number of homes under control.. ..9,0709,2839,6879,88010,282
Number of new contacts brought under supervision during year .. .. ..2,2752,7485,4235,1214,728
Total number of contacts under surveillance during year—
     Found to be tuberculosis .. .. .. ..272476223
     Removed from list .. .. .. .. ..3,2382,5822,858
     Remaining under supervision .. .. .. ..23,10324,19423,834
          Totals .. .. .. .. ..26,61327,25226,915

The Department of Health maintains a Tuberculosis Register, which attempts to classify all known cases, and a clearer conception of the type, form, and extent of the disease is being obtained as workers become more accustomed to provide the necessary information. The number of cases on the Register (inclusive of Maoris) at 31 December 1951 was 10,698, of which 9,353 were pulmonary and 1,345 non-pulmonary. The number of new cases notified in 1951 was 1,841, of which 1,375 were European and 466 Maori. Of the European cases 1,168 were pulmonary and 207 non-pulmonary, and in the Maori cases the figures were 389 and 77 for pulmonary and non-pulmonary respectively. Some of these cases have since proved non-tuberculosis and have been deregistered.

The total number of persons on the register at the end of 1951 amounted to 4·26 per 1,000 of the European population, and 24·89 per 1,000 of the Maori population. The combined figure was 5·49 per 1,000.

PUBLIC HOSPITALS: Patients Treated.—The hospitals to which the following statistics relate include all except private hospitals.

The following table shows the numbers of patients treated annually since 1946, the rate per 10,000 of the population, the average length of stay of patients in hospital, and the average number of occupied beds per head of the population.

Year Ended 31 MarchTotal Patients TreatedRate Per 10,000 of Mean PopulationAverage Stay (Days)Average Number of Occupied Beds Per Head of Mean Population
1946.. ..176,8641,03424·22·50
1947.. ..179,6581,01321·12·14
1948.. ..174,81496421·02·02
1949.. ..181,34898020·31·99
1950.. ..187,25999020·22·00
1951.. ..190,68199419·71·96

The total number of patients treated has risen by about 14,000, though the rate per 10,000 of the population has not increased, but has, in fact, shown a slight decline. Accommodation for the extra number hospitalized has to some extent been found by a reduction by almost 20 per cent in the average length of stay of patients. The use made of hospital accommodation by the general population considered on a per capita basis has similarly declined by 20 per cent.

Age and Sex of Patients.—The next table shows the number of patients discharged from or dying in hospital during 1950 according to their age and sex, with the rate per 10,000 of the population of the same ages and sex, and the average length of time spent in hospital. The figures for women exclude admissions for pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperal conditions.

Age Group, in YearsMalesFemales
Number of PatientsRate Per 10,000 Mean PopulationAverage Stay (Days)Number of PatientsRate Per 10,000 Mean PopulationAverage Stay (Days)
0-7 ..14,46584615·010,77965915·6
8-14.. ..7,22763316·65,59650717·3
15-44.. ..25,93262521·125,05361721·3
45-64.. ..13,28772726·011,74163226·2
65 and over.. ..11,1011,34536·38,16190941·0

It will be seen that there are proportionately more admissions for men than for women at all ages, especially at the extremes of life. The length of time spent on the average in hospital shows an increase with age, at first gradual then rising more steeply in the evening of life, so that the average number of days spent in hospital by persons aged sixty-five and over is four times greater per head than that for persons under sixty-five. The numbers in this former age group are steadily rising, but the demand for hospital beds for them enlarges fourfold and this must become a factor of increasing importance in the provision of hospital beds.

Principal Diseases.—A summary is now given of the principal diseases treated in public hospitals during the year 1950, based on a modification of the “C” list of the International Classification. Cases of normal delivery in childbirth are excluded. All figures given are inclusive of Maoris.

It should be noted that the disease or condition for the treatment of which a patient is admitted to hospital is not necessarily that which would rank as the cause of death in the death statistics. Cystitis, for instance, ranks comparatively high in hospital cases as the condition immediately affecting the patient, but is frequently only the consequence of some more important disease, which would take precedence over cystitis in the statistics of causes of death. As indicated earlier, the hospital returns now show each disease for which the patient was treated during his stay in hospital, but the classification for statistical purposes has been made on the basis of the principal disease for which he was admitted, regardless of what other diseases may have been present or developed during the stay of the patient in hospital. In the death statistics, on the other hand, the primary cause of decease is of paramount importance. In the hospital statistics a case admitted on account of the fracture of any bone is treated and classified as “fracture.” Should the patient die, however, the death would be classified in the mortality statistics according to the cause of the fracture—e.g., motor-car accident, accidental fall, &c. The morbidity code, with a few exceptions and a considerable extension of the accident group, follows the mortality code fairly closely, and a comparison of the morbidity and mortality statistics can be obtained without difficulty.

Summary of Principal Diseases Treated in Public Hospitals During 1950
DiseaseTotal Cases in Public HospitalsDeaths in Public HospitalsFatality Rate, Per Cent
Tuberculosis of respiratory system .. .. ..3,1743029·5
Tuberculosis, other forms .. .. .. ..1,133928·1
Syphilis and its sequelae .. .. .. .. ..3353410·1
Gonococcal infection .. .. .. .. ..139....
Dysentery, all forms .. .. .. .. ..42030·7
Other infective diseases commonly arising in intestinal tract..251124·8
Scarlet fever .. .. .. .. .. ..595....
Diphtheria .. .. .. .. .. ..4636·5
Whooping-cough .. .. .. .. .. ..225104·4
Measles .. .. .. .. .. ..4312·3
Mumps .. .. .. .. .. ..10....
Hydatids .. .. .. .. .. ..13764·4
All other diseases classified as infective and parasitic..2,159562·6
Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues4,6201,37429·7
Benign neoplasms, and neoplasms of unspecified nature..2,599331·3
Allergic disorders .. .. .. .. ..1,271292·3
Diseases of thyroid gland .. .. .. ..764162·1
Diabetes mellitus .. .. .. .. ..1,224645·2
Avitaminosis, and other deficiency states .. .. ..77....
Anaemias .. .. .. .. .. ..364359·6
Psychoneuroses and psychoses .. .. .. ..2,509492·0
Vascular lesions affecting central nervous system .. ..1,85592750·0
Diseases of eye .. .. .. .. .. ..2,20940·2
Diseases of ear and mastoid process2,573110·4
Rheumatic fever .. .. .. .. ..487296·0
Chronic rheumatic heart disease .. .. .. ..1743922·4
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease .. ..2,29294541·2
Hypertensive disease .. .. .. .. ..1,33132824·6
Diseases of veins .. .. .. .. ..2,599401·5
Acute nasopharingitis (common cold) .. .. ..211....
Acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis, and hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids8,81340·1
Influenza .. .. .. .. .. ..1,03190·9
Pneumonia .. .. .. .. .. ..4,7714258·9
Bronchitis .. .. .. .. .. ..1,7221025·9
Silicosis and occupational pulmonary fibrosis .. ..9444·4
All other respiratory diseases .. ..2,7831033·7
Diseases of stomach and duodenum except cancer .. ..2,2501094·8
Appendicitis .. .. .. .. .. ..5,667290·5
Hernia of abdominal cavity .. .. .. ..3,01270·9
Diarrhoea and enteritis .. .. .. .. ..1,289372·9
Diseases of gall-bladder and bile ducts .. .. ..2,439692·8
Other diseases of digestive system .. .. ..3,9641584·0
Nephritis and nephrosis3698422·8
Other diseases of urinary system .. .. .. ..2,225502·2
Diseases of male genital organs .. .. .. ..1,962773·9
Diseases of female genital organs .. .. .. ..5,529110·2
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium ..8,459260·3
Boil, abscess, cellulitis, and other skin infections .. ..3,64670·2
Other diseases of skin .. .. .. .. ..1,66480·5
Arthritis and rheumatism, except rheumatic fever .. ..1,871170·9
Diseases of bones and other organs of movement .. ..4,1209