The New Zealand Official Year-book 1919.


Table of Contents

PREFACE.

THIS issue of the Year-book contains as a special article (pages 860 to 935) the thesis on wages and working-hours in New Zealand, 1897-1919, presented by Mr. G. W. Clinkard, B.Com., F.R.E.S., for his honours degree in economics. In another special article Mr. Elsdon Best has given useful information concerning the topographical nomenclature of the Maori, a subject on which Mr. Best is well known as a leading authority.

In other respects the book is mainly on the lines of its predecessors, but new matters to which attention might be drawn are the section on repatriation and the reference to Samoa and Nauru Island in Section XXXIII. Some new census figures are given and discussed in Section III, and statistics of the influenza epidemic in Section IV. The results of the special licensing poll of April, 1919, are contained in Section X, and the scale of gratuities to members of the Expeditionary Force in Section XXXII. Two new subsections have been added to the section dealing with mining, one containing an account by Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A., of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, and the other epitomizing the report of the Board of Trade on the coal industry.

A number of new diagrams have been added, as well as a reproduction of the map prepared by the Railway Department showing the position New Zealand would occupy if placed in its corresponding latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, but with east longitude (instead of west), for comparison with Mediterranean countries.

The book is somewhat larger than recent issues, due to the inclusion of the articles referred to above, but it is gratifying to be able to report that the volume is not so late in publication as its immediate predecessors.

J. W. BUTCHER, Acting Government Statistician.

Census and Statistics Office, Wellington, N.Z., 27th January, 1920.

Chapter 1. SECTION I.—DESCRIPTIVE AND OFFICIAL.

BOUNDARIES AND AREA .

THE Dominion of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group, The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Snares, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The Cook Group of islands and certain neighbouring islands were included in the Dominion by Proclamation of the 10th June, 1901.

The total area of the Dominion proper (i.e., excluding the islands annexed in 1901) is 66292,232 acres, or 103,581 square miles. The land area of the Cook Group is about 150 square miles, and of the other islands annexed in 1901 about 130 square miles. Full information as to boundaries and area, together with descriptive matter relating to the physical features of the various portions of the Dominion, will be found in the 1913 issue of this book.

Facing this page is a map, reproduced by permission of the General Manager of the New Zealand Railways, showing the Dominion as it would be situated if placed in corresponding latitude of Northern Hemisphere, but with east instead of west longitude, for comparison with the principal European countries.

GEOLOGY .

The geologic structure of New Zealand, so far as it has yet been determined is, owing to its complexity, difficult to summarize. For a fuller account than can be given here the reader is referred to the article in the 1914 Year-book, pages 943 to 947, and to the various works on geology mentioned therein.

The oldest fossiliferous rocks are the Ordovician argillites ("slates") of north-west Nelson and Preservation Inlet. At Baton River Silurian fossils, at Reefton Devonian fossils, and in the limestone near Nelson Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous fossils, show that these systems are all represented in the Palæozoic sequence. Included' in it are marble, sandstone, shale, greywacke, quartzite, schist, and gneiss. The auriferous lodes of the South Island are almost always found cutting through rocks of Palæozoic age.

Rocks belonging to the Mesozoic periods occur over a large area in both Islands. The Trias-Jura system of greywacke and argillite forms the main mountain-ranges, but contains few workable mineral deposits. It is fossiliferous in only a few localities, and cannot be easily subdivided.

While all these foregoing rocks were being deposited the New Zealand area was probably the foreshore of a great continent, but after the Trias-Jura sediments were deposited far-reaching changes, involving the breaking-up and disappearance of the continental land, took place. The New Zealand area was necessarily involved in these earth-movements, and as the result the existing strata were folded, broken, and raised above sea-level. After extensive denudation of its surface had taken place New Zealand was again, probably several times, depressed and elevated either in whole or in part. During the periods of subsidence Cretaceous and Tertiary strata were laid down. These contain all the workable coal-seams of the Dominion.

Pleistocene and Recent deposits are well represented by fluviatile, glacial, marine, and wind-blown material.

Plutonic rocks of various types, but mainly granitic, occupy a large area in the western parts of the South Island and occur also in North Auckland. Volcanic rocks, chiefly of Tertiary age, are found in scattered areas throughout the eastern part of the South Island, and occur extensively in the North Island, where volcanic activity still continues on a small scale.

RIVERS .

The rivers of New Zealand were discussed in the 1914 issue of this book in an article (pages 948 to 956) supplied by R. Speight, Esq., M.Sc, F.G.S., Curator of the Canterbury Museum. Considerations of space in the present book prevent more than a list of the more important rivers being given. These are as follows, the lengths shown being in most cases only approximate. Very few of these rivers are navigable by vessels of any size.

NORTH ISLAND .

 Miles.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean— 
  Piako60
  Waihou or Thames90
  Rangitaiki95
  Whakatane60
  Waiapu55
  Waipaoa50
  Wairoa50
  Mohaka80
  Ngaururoro85
  Tukituki65
Flowing into Cook Strait— 
  Ruamahanga70
  Hutt35
  Otaki30
  Manawatu (tributaries: Pohangina and Tiraumea)100
  Rangitikei115
  Turakina65
  Wangaehu85
  Wanganui (tributaries: Ohura, Tangarakau, and Maunganui-te-ao)140
  Waitotara50
  Patea65
Flowing into Tasman Sea— 
  Waitara (tributary: Maunganui)65
  Mokau75
  Waikato (tributary: Waipa)220
  Wairoa95
  Hokianga40

SOUTH ISLAND .

Flowing into Cook Strait—Miles.
  Aorere45
  Takaka45
  Motueka75
  Wai-iti30
  Pelorus40
  Wairau (tributary: Waihopai)105
  Awatere70
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean— 
  Clarence (tributary: Acheron)125
  Conway30
  Waiau (tributary; Hope)110
  Hurunui90
  Waipara40
  Ashley55
  Waimakariri (tributaries: Bealey, Poulter, Esk, and Broken River)93
  Selwyn55
  Rakaia (tributaries: Mathias, Wilberforce, Acheron, and Cameron)95
  Ashburton67
  Rangitata75
  Opihi50
  Pareora35
  Waihao45
  Waitaki (tributaries: Tasman, Tekapo, Ohau, Ahuriri, and Hakataramea)135
  Kakanui40
  Shag45
  Taieri125
  Clutha (tributaries: Kawarau, Makarora, Hunter, Manuherikia, and Pomahaka)210
Flowing South into Foveaux Miles. Strait— 
  Mataura120
  Oreti105
  Aparima65
  Waiau (tributaries: Mararoa, Clinton, and Monowai)115
Flowing into the Tasman Sea— 
  Cleddau and Arthur20
  Hollyford50
  Cascade40
  Arawata45
  Haast (tributary: Lands-borough)60
  Karangarua30
  Fox25
  Waiho20
  Wataroa35
  Wanganui35
  Waitaha25
  Hokitika (tributary: Kokatabi)40
  Arahura35
  Taramakau (tributaries: Otira and Taipo)45
  Grey (tributaries: Ahaura, Arnold, and Mawhera-iti)75
  Buller (tributaries: Matakitaki, Maruia, and Inangahua)105
  Mokihinui30
  Karamea45
  Heaphy25

LAKES .

In a further article in the 1915 issue of the Year-book Mr. Speight dealt at length with the lakes of the Dominion. A summary of the statistics of the chief lakes of New Zealand is here given:—

Lake.Length, in Miles.Greatest Breadth, in Miles.Area, in Square Miles.Drainage Area, in Square Miles.Approximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Feet per Second.Height above Sea-level, in Feet.Greatest Depth, in Feet.
North Island.       
Taupo25172389955,0001,211534
Rotorua7 1/263215842091584
Rotoiti10 3/42 1/41426500913230
Tarawera6 1/26 1/21575..1,032285
Waikaremoana126 1/4211287722,015846
Wairarapa104271,250......
Lake.Length, in Miles.Greatest Breadth, in Miles.Area, in Square Miles.Drainage Area, in Square Miles.Approximate Volume of Discharge, in Cubic Feet per Second.Height above Sea-level, in Feet.Greatest Depth, in Feet.
South Island.       
Rotoiti522 3/486..1,997228
Rotoroa72 1/28146..1,470..
Brunner5416145..280357
Kanieri51 3/4811..422646
Coleridge1131870..1,667680
Tekapo124325805,0002,323..
Pukaki105315156,0001,588..
Ohau103234245,0001,720..
Hawea205485185,7001,062..
Wanaka30475960..922..
Wakatipu5231121,16213,0001,0161,242
Te Anau3361321,32012,660694906
Manapouri12656416..5961,458
Monowai1211251700600..
Hauroko203251951,800611..
Poteriteri17217162..96..
Waihola4 1/21 1/83 1/32,200..(Tidal)..
Ellesmere1610107 1/2745..(Tidal)..

FLORA .

In the 1913 issue of the Year-book (pages 32 to 34) appears a short account of the Flora of New Zealand, supplied by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S. The article covers briefly the various points of interest in connection with the flora of the main Islands, and deals also with that of the outlying islands.

FAUNA .

For information re the fauna of New Zealand the reader is referred to the article by James Drummond, Esq., F.L.S., F.Z.S., appearing on pages 957 to 961 of the Year-book for 1914. The article, though brief, contains a fairly comprehensive account of the Dominion's fauna.

HISTORY AND CONSTITUTION .

The 1915 issue of this book contains considerable information concerning the history and Constitution of New Zealand, with lists of successive occupants of important offices. Particulars as to present occupants only (30th June. 1919) are given in the following pages.

GOVERNOR -GENERAL OF NEW ZEALAND .

The designation of "Governor," formerly borne by His Majesty's Representative in New Zealand, was altered in 1917 to "Governor-General." The Earl of Liverpool, who had held office as Governor since 19th December, 1912, was sworn in as the first Governor-General on 28th June, 1917.

Liverpool, His Excellency the Right Honourable Arthur William de Brito Savile, Fifth Earl of Liverpool. Born 27th May, 1870; succeeded 1907. Educated at Eton and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Formerly Major in the Rifle Brigade (the Prince Consort's Own), and subsequently Major of its 6th Battalion. Sometime an A.D.C. to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Earl Cadogan, K.G.), and Staff Captain, Dublin District. Is a J.P. for Kesteven and Lindsey Divisions of Lincolnshire, and Lieut.-Colonel 8th Battalion London Regiment (the Post Office Rifles). Served in South Africa, 1901-2 (Queen's Medal with three clasps). Was State Steward and Chamberlain to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (the Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., G.C.M.G.), 1906-8. Comptroller of His Majesty's Household, 1909-12. Appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of New Zealand, 1912. Appointed Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of New Zealand, 1917. M.V.O., 4th Class, 1900; K.C.M.G., 1912; G.C.M.G., 1914; P.C., 1917; G.B.E., 1918.

Seat: Hartsholme Hall, Lincoln.

London residence: 44 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.

Residences: Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary: Gavin M. Hamilton, Esq.

Official Secretary: A. Cecil Day, Esq., C.B.E.

Aides-de-Camp: Captain A. T. G. Rhodes, Grenadier Guards; Honorary Lieutenant H. G. Helmore, M.B.E.; Lieutenant H. G. de P. Garland, M.C., Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry; Lieutenant E. W. J. Millton, 13th North Canterbury and Westland Regiment.

Extra Aide-de-Camp: Lieut.-Colonel J. H. Boscawen.

Honorary Aides-de-Camp: Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O., V.D.; Major-General Sir A. H. Russell, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.,; Colonel R. Logan, C.B.; Colonel J. C. Nichols, C.B.E., V.D.; Colonel G. P. C. Campbell, C.M.G., V.D.; Colonel R. A. Chaffey, C.B.E., V.D.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL , 1919.

The Executive Council now consists of:—

His Excellency the GOVERNOR -GENERAL .

Right Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C., Prime Minister, Minister of Labour, Minister of Industries and Commerce, Minister in Charge of Imperial Government Supplies, Valuation, and Electoral Departments, and Chairman Repatriation Department.

Right Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G., Minister of Finance, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Minister in Charge of Land and Income Tax, State Advances, Public Trust, and Government Life and Accident Insurance Departments.

Hon. Sir James Allen, K.C.B., Minister of Defence and Minister in Charge of War Pensions.

Hon. W. H. Herries, Minister of Railways and Native Minister.

Hon. Sir W. Fraser, Kt. Bach., Minister of Public Works and Minister in Charge of Roads Department.

Hon. G. W. Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid, Mental Hospitals, Printing and Stationery, High Commissioner's, Audit, Museum, Registrar-General's, Census and Statistics, and Laboratory Departments.

Hon. A. M. Myers, Minister of Customs, and Minister in Charge of Munitions and Supplies, Pensions, Advertising, and National Provident Fund Departments.

Hon. Sir F. H. D. Bell, K.C.M.G., K.C., Attorney-General, Minister of Immigration, Commissioner of State Forests, and Leader of the Legislative Council.

Hon. W. D. S. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Mines, Minister in Charge of Legislative, Public Buildings, State Fire Insurance, and Tourist and Health Resorts Departments.

Hon. J. A. Hanan, Minister of Education and Minister in Charge of Friendly Societies Department.

Hon. T. M. Wilford, Minister of Justice, Minister of Marine, Minister of Stamp Duties, Minister in Charge of Police, and Inspection of Machinery Departments.

Hon. D. H. Guthrie, Minister of Lands, Minister in Charge of Land for Settlements and Scenery Preservation Departments.

Hon. Dr. M. Pomare, Member of the Executive Council representing the Native Race, Minister of the Cook Islands, and in Charge of Maori Councils.

Clerk of the Executive Council—F. D. Thomson (acting).

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF THE HONOURABLE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF NEW ZEALAND (30TH JUNE , 1919).

Speaker—Hon. W. C. F. CARNCROSS .

Chairman of Committees—Hon. O. SAMUEL .

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.

* Life member.

†Since reappointed, July, 1919.

Aitken, Hon. John Guthrie WoodWellington14 July, 1914.
Alison, Hon. Ewen WilliamAuckland7 May, 1918.
Baillie, Hon. Colonel William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.*
Barr, Hon. JohnCanterbury22 January, 1914.
Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Henry Dillon, K.C.M.G., K.C.Wellington10 July, 1912.
Buchanan, Hon. Sir Walter, Kt. Bach.Wellington23 June, 1915.
Carncross, Hon. Walter Charles FrederickTaranaki17 March, 1917.
Carson, Hon. GilbertWellington14 July, 1914.
Collins, Hon. Colonel William Edward, C.M.G.Wellington14 July, 1914.
Earnshaw, Hon. WilliamWellington26 June, 1913.
Fisher, Hon. JohnAuckland14 July, 1914.
Fleming, Hon. David ThomasOtago7 May, 1918.
Garland, Hon. George JosephAuckland7 May, 1918.
Geddis, Hon. William JohnWellington7 May, 1918.
Gow, Hon. James BurmanAuckland7 May, 1918.
Grimmond, Hon. JosephWestland7 May, 1918.
Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, K.C.M.G.Wellington7 October, 1913.
Hardy, Hon. Charles Albert CreeryCanterbury26 June, 1913.
Harris, Hon. Major BenjaminAuckland15 February, 1918.
Hawke, Hon. Archibald FotheringhamOtago7 May, 1918.
Izard, Hon. Charles HaywardWellington7 May, 1918.
Jones, Hon. GeorgeOtago7 May, 1918.
Louisson, Hon. CharlesCanterbury7 May, 1918.
MacGibbon, Hon. ThomasOtago14 July, 1914.
MacGregor, Hon. JohnOtago14 July, 1914.
Michel, Hon. Henry LeslieWestland7 May, 1918.
Moore, Hon. RichardCanterbury14 July, 1914.
Patuki, Hon. John TopiOtago7 May, 1918.
Paul, Hon. John ThomasOtago22 January, 1914.
Samuel, Hon. OliverTaranaki14 July, 1914.
Simpson, Hon. Robert KirkpatrickWellington14 July, 1914.
Sinclair, Hon. Sir John Robert, Kt. Bach.Otago7 May, 1918.
Stewart, Hon. WilliamAuckland7 May, 1918.
Thomson, Hon. George MalcolmOtago7 May, 1918.
Triggs, Hon. William HenryCanterbury7 May, 1918.
Tukino, Hon. Te HeuheuWellington7 May, 1918.
Wigram, Hon. Henry FrancisCanterbury7 May, 1918.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT (30TH JUNE , 1919) IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES .

Speaker—Hon. Sir FREDERIC WILLIAM LANG , Kt. Bach.

Chairman of Committees—ALEXANDER SCOTT MALCOLM .

Name.Electoral District.Date of Election.
For European Electorates.  
Allen, Hon. Sir James, K.C.B.Bruce10 December, 1914.
Anderson, George JamesMataura10 December, 1914.
Anstey, JohnWaitaki10 December, 1914.
Bollard, Richard FrancisRaglan10 December, 1914.
Brown, John VigorNapier10 December, 1914.
Buddo, Hon. DavidKaiapoi10 December, 1914.
Carroll, Hon. Sir James, K.C.M.G.Gisborne10 December, 1914.
Coates, Joseph GordonKaipara10 December, 1914.
Colvin, JamesBuller10 December, 1914.
Craigie, JamesTimaru10 December, 1914.
Dickie, William JamesSelwyn10 December, 1914.
Dickson, James McCollChalmers10 December, 1914.
Dickson, James SamuelParnell10 December, 1914.
Ell, Henry GeorgeChristchurch South10 December, 1914.
Field, Thomas Andrew HemmingNelson10 December, 1914.
Field, William HughesOtaki10 December, 1914.
Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay8 March, 1917.
Forbes, George WilliamHurunui10 December, 1914.
Eraser, PeterWellington Central3 October, 1918.
Fraser, Hon. Sir William, Kt. Bach.Wakatipu10 December, 1914.
Glover, Albert EdwardAuckland Central10 December, 1914.
Guthrie, Hon. David HenryOroua10 December, 1914.
Hanan, Hon. Josiah AlfredInvercargill10 December, 1914.
Harris, AlexanderWaitemata10 December, 1914.
Herries, Hon. William HerbertTauranga10 December, 1914.
Hine, John BirdStratford10 December, 1914.
Holland, Henry EdmundGrey29 May, 1918.
Hornsby, John Thomas MarryatWairarapa10 December, 1914.
Hudson, Richard PhineasMotueka10 December, 1914.
Hunter, GeorgeWaipawa10 December, 1914.
Isitt, Leonard MonkChristchurch North10 December, 1914.
Jennings, William ThomasTaumarunui15 June, 1915.
Lang, Hon. Sir Frederic William, Kt. Bach.Manukau10 December, 1914.
Lee, Ernest PageOamaru10 December, 1914.
Luke, John Pearce, C.M.G.Wellington North28 February, 1918.
McCallum, RichardWairau10 December, 1914.
McCombs, JamesLyttelton10 December, 1914.
MacDonald, Hon. William Donald StuartBay of Plenty10 December, 1914.
Malcolm; Alexander ScottClutha10 December, 1914.
Mander, FrancisMarsden10 December, 1914.
Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, P.C.Franklin10 December, 1914.
Myers, Hon. Arthur MielzinerAuckland East10 December, 1914.
Nash, James AlfredPalmerston19 December, 1918.
Newman, Alfred KingcomeWellington East10 December, 1914.
Newman, EdwardRangitikei10 December, 1914.
Nosworthy, WilliamAshburton10 December, 1914.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT (30TH JUNE , 1919) IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES —continued.

Name.Electoral District.Date of Election.

* Returned unopposed.

Writs returnable 17th April, 1917.

Parr, Christopher James, C.M.G.Eden10 December, 1914.
Payne, JohnGrey Lynn10 December, 1914.
Pearce, George VaterPatea10 December, 1914.
Poland, HughOhinemuri10 December, 1914.
Poole, Charles HenryAuckland West10 December, 1914.
Reed, Vernon HerbertBay of Islands10 December, 1914.
Rhodes, Hon. Robert HeatonEllesmere10 December, 1914.
Rhodes, Thomas WilliamThames10 December, 1914.
Russell, Hon. George WarrenAvon10 December, 1914.
Scott, RobertOtago Central10 December, 1914.
Seddon, Thomas Edward YoudWestland10 December, 1914.
Semple, RobertWellington South19 December, 1918.
Sidey, Thomas KayDunedin South10 December, 1914.
Smith, George HaroldPahiatua17 August, 1916.
Smith, Sydney GeorgeTaranaki10 October, 1918.
Smith, Robert WilliamWaimarino10 December, 1914.
Statham, Charles ErnestDunedin Central3 February, 1915.
Stewart, William DownieDunedin West10 December, 1914.
Sykes, George RobertMasterton10 December, 1914.
Talbot, Charles JohnTemuka10 December, 1914.
Thacker, Henry Thomas JoyntChristchurch East10 December, 1914.
Thomson, John CharlesWallace10 December, 1914.
Veitch, William AndrewWanganui10 December, 1914.
Walker, AndrewDunedin North10 December, 1914.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.Awarua10 December, 1914.
Wilford, Hon. Thomas MasonHutt10 December, 1914.
Wilkinson, Charles AndersonEgmont10 December, 1914.
Witty, GeorgeRiccarton10 December, 1914.
Wright, Robert AlexanderWellington Suburbs and Country District10 December, 1914.
Young, James AlexanderWaikato10 December, 1914.
For Maori Electorates.  
Tau HenareNorthern Maori11 December, 1914.
Ngata, Hon. Apirana TurupaEastern Maori11 December, 1914.
Pomare, Hon. MauiWestern Maori11 December, 1914.
Uru, John Hopere WharewitiSouthern Maori21 February, 1918.

AGENTS -GENERAL AND HIGH COMMISSIONERS FOR NEW ZEALAND .

Isaac Earl Featherston, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 5th April, 1871. Appointment to date from 25th March, 1871. (Gazette , 1871, page 155.)

(Note.—Sir W. Tyrone Power was appointed on 20th June, 1876, by the Crown Agents as temporary Agent-General on the death of Dr. Featherston.)

Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 19th September, 1876. Appointment to date from 9th September, 1876, vice I. E. Featherston, deceased. (Gazette , 1876, page 721.)

Sir Francis Dillon Bell, appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1878, by Warrant dated 7th December, 1880, vice Sir Julius Vogel, resigned. (Gazette , 1881, page 311.)

Westby Brook Perceval, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 25th September, 1891, vice Sir F. D. Bell. (Gazette , 1891, page 1071.)

The Hon. William Pember Reeves, appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 23rd December, 1895, vice Sir W. B. Perceval. (Gazette , 1896, page 50.) Appointed High Commissioner under the High Commissioner Act, 1904, by Warrant dated 14th June, 1905. (Gazette , 1905, page 1509.) Reappointed High Commissioner as from 14th June, 1908. (Gazette , 1908, page 1921.)

The Hon. Sir William Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., appointed High Commissioner from 1st December, 1908, vice Hon. W. P. Reeves. Assumed office 18th, January, 1909. (Gazette , 1909, page 27.) Appointment extended to 31st December, 1911. (Gazette , 1911, page 2720.) Appointment further extended to 31st March, 1912. (Gazette , 1912, page 45.) Appointment further extended to 31st May, 1912. (Gazette , 1912, page 1227.)

Charles Frederick Wray Palliser, appointed High Commissioner from 1st June, 1912, for one month. Reappointed from 1st July, 1912, and again reappointed from 1st August, 1912.

The Hon. Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K.C.M.G., LL.D., appointed High Commissioner from 23rd August, 1912, for a term of three years. (Gazette , 1912, page 2612.) Assumed office 9th October, 1912. Reappointed from 22nd August, 1915. (Gazette , 1915, page 2283.) Further reappointed for several short terms. Offices: Strand, London W.C.

THE COLONIAL OFFICE .

(Downing Street, London S.W.)

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Viscount Milner, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

Parliamentary Under-Secretary—L. C. M. S. Amery, M.P.

Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir George Vandeleur Fiddes, G.C.M.G., C.B.

Assistant Under-Secretaries—Sir H. J. Read, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A.; H. C. M. Lambert, C.B., B.A. (acting); and G. E. A. Grindle, C.M.G., M.A. (acting).

CROWN AGENTS FOR THE COLONIES .

(City Office, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.; Stock Transfer Office, 1 Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C.; Shipping Office, 13 Great St. Helens, E.C.; Packing Store, Cole Abbey Chambers, Lambeth Hill, E.C.; Colonial Stamp Department, 8 Errol Street, Bunhill Row, E.C.)

Crown Agents — Major Sir Maurice Alexander Cameron, K.C.M.G., late R.E.; and Sir William Hepworth Mercer, K.C.M.G.

TRADE COMMISSIONERS .

H.M. Trade Commissioners.

New Zealand—R. W. Dalton, P.O. Box 369, 11 Grey Street, Wellington (telegraphic address, "Advantage"). Australia—S. W. B. McGregor, Commerce House, Flinders Street, Melbourne (telegraphic address, "Combrit"), and Major G. Fetherston, D.S.O., M.C., Royal Exchange, Sydney (telegraphic address, "Combritto"). Canada and Newfoundland—G. T. Milne, O.B.E., 367 Beaver Hall Square, Montreal (telegraphic address, "Britcom"); F. W. Field, 257-260 Confederation Life Buildings, Toronto (telegraphic address, "Toroncom"); L. B. Beale, care of W. J. Healy, Esq., Free Press Building, Winnipeg. South Africa—J. L. Wilson-Goode, P.O. Box 1346, Norwich Union Buildings, St. George's Street, Cape Town (telegraphic address, "Austere").; W. G. Wickham, P.O. Box 839, Johannesburg. India and Ceylon—T. M. Ainscough, O.B.E., McLeod House, 28 Dalhousie Square, Calcutta (telegraphic address, "Ainscough").

Imperial Trade Correspondents.

A. J. Denniston, Auckland; W. T. Monkman, Dunedin.

Trade Commissioner for the Dominion of Canada.

W. A. Beddoe, Auckland.

FOREIGN CONSULS .

CONSULS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES RESIDING IN , OR WITH JURISDICTION OVER , NEW ZEALAND , 30TH JUNE , 1919.

Argentine Republic.—Vice-Consul: H. H. Rayward, Wellington.

Belgium.—Hon. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): M. Balthazar (acting), Sydney. Vice-Consul: G. F. Johnston, Wellington. Consul (with jurisdiction over the Districts of Canterbury, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland): Sir J. J. Kinsey, Kt. Bach., Christchurch. Consuls: A. M. Ferguson, Auckland; G. L. Denniston, Dunedin. Vice-Consul: C. R. J. Ward, Christchurch.

Brazil.—Vice-Consul: A. H. Miles, Wellington.

Chile.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand: William Brown, Sydney. Consuls: E. A. Craig, Auckland; J. Montgomery, Christchurch. Honorary Consul: J. A. Roberts, Dunedin. Acting-Consul: H. L. Nathan, Wellington.

China.—Consul: Lin Shih Yuan, Wellington.

Denmark.—Consul-General for Australia and New Zealand: Otto Wadsted, San Francisco. Consul (for North Island): Hon. Sir F. H. D. Bell, K.C.M.G., Wellington (Principal Consulate). Consul (for South Island): H. B. Sorensen, Christchurch. Vice-Consuls: Robert Millar, Auckland (acting); W. E. Perry, Hokitika; O. H. Möller, Dunedin; Michael Myers, Wellington.

France.—Vice-Consul: Leon Hippeau, Auckland. Consular Agents: George Humphreys, Christchurch; James Macintosh, Wellington; S. E. D. Neill, Dunedin.

Greece.—Vice-Consul (for New Zealand): J. F. Dyer, Wellington.

Honduras.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand: Frederic Walsh, Sydney.

Italy.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: E. Lauwers (acting), Melbourne. Consular Agents: Joseph Wallace, Christchurch; L. O. H. Tripp, Wellington; John Roberts, C.M.G., Dunedin; Geraldo Perotti, Greymouth; Giovanni (J. H.) Pagni, Auckland.

Japan.—Consul-General: S. Shimizu, Sydney. Consuls: H. D. Heather, Auckland; Thomas Young, Wellington.

Liberia.—Consul: Charles Louisson, Christchurch. Acting-Consul: T. N. Holmden, Wellington.

Mexico.—Consul: J. W. Hall, Auckland.

Netherlands.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: W. L. Bosschart, Melbourne. Vice-Consul de Carriere, attached to Consulate-General, P. A. van Buttingha Wichers, Melbourne. Consul with jurisdiction over New Zealand: W. G. Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: George Ritchie, Dunedin; M. Copeland, Auckland; G. Van der Velden, Christchurch.

Norway.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent islands: Finn Koren, Melbourne. Consul: A. W. Newton, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sigurd Bentzon, Melbourne; Robert Millar, Auckland; George Jameson, Christchurch; M. E. Wiig, Invercargill; J. H. Enright, Westport; John Scott, Timaru; W. F. Edmond, Dunedin (honorary).

Paraguay.—Consul: A. E. Kernot, Wellington.

Peru.—Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand): J. M. Paxton, Sydney. Consul: G. H. Baker, Auckland.

Portugal.—Consuls: John Duncan, Wellington; N. A. Nathan, Auckland Vice-Consuls; A. D. S. Duncan, Wellington; C. W. Rattray, Dunedin.

Spain.—Consul-in-Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand): Senor Don Jaime Montero y de Madrazo, Melbourne. Hon. Vice-Consul: A. K. S. Mackenzie, Wellington.

Sweden.—Acting - Consul: W. I. Nathan, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Albert Kaye, Christchurch; C. I. Nathan, Auckland.

Switzerland.—Acting-Consul: N. A. Nathan, Auckland.

United States of America.—Consul-General (for New Zealand and its dependencies): A. A. Winslow, Auckland. Vice-Consul-General: L. A. Bachelder, Auckland. Consular Agents: J. H. Stringer, Christchurch; A. E. Whyte, Wellington; F. O. Bridgeman, Dunedin.

Uruguay.—Acting-Consul: W. J. Prouse, Wellington.

ECCLESIASTICAL .

There is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.

The principal Churches, with the names, &c., of the present heads or officers, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follows:—

Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the Church of England.

For Church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in each diocese in rotation. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Primate (Bishop of Dunedin). The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the bishop of the diocese. There is also a standing committee of General Synod, called the Provincial Standing Committee, which meets in Wellington once a year.

The names, &c., of the bishops of the Church of England are as follows:—

  • The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 (Primate).

  • The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

  • The Right Rev. Alfred Walter Averill, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1910; translated 1914.

  • The Right Rev. Thomas Henry Sprott, D.D., O.B.E., Wellington; consecrated 1911.

  • The Right Rev. William Charles Sadlier, D.D., Nelson; consecrated 1912.

  • The Right Rev. William Walmsley Sedgwick, D.D., Waiapu; consecrated 1914.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.

This Church is composed of eighteen presbyteries, with 255 congregations and 120 home-mission stations. The adult church membership last year was 42,704, and the total revenue £177,774. Foreign mission work is carried on in the New Hebrides, China, and India, while the Maoris and local Chinese are also ministered to. Homes for orphan children are open in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Timaru, Dunedin, and Invercargill. The General Assembly is the supreme court, the Rev. W. Gray Dixon, M.A., Roslyn, being the present Moderator; the Rev. J. A. Asher, B.A., the Moderator-Designate; the Rev. J. H. MacKenzie, Kelburn Parade, Wellington, the Clerk; and the Rev. W. J. Comrie, Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington, the Treasurer. The Theological College is in Dunedin, with the Revs. M. Watt, M.A., D.D., W. Hewitson, B.A., and J. Dickie, M.A., D.D., as professors. The Rev. J. Gibb, D.D., Wellington, is Convener of Home Missions, the Rev. A. B. Todd, B.A., Wellington, Secretary of same, and the Rev. A. Don, Dunedin, Secretary for Foreign Missions. The Church's paper is The Outlook , Mr. A. H. Grinling, Dunedin, being editor. The next meeting of General Assembly is appointed for the 18th November, 1919, in First Church, Invercargill.

Roman Catholic Church.

The Diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held, presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in, the Dominion.

The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., consecrated in 1874, is Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in New Zealand, and the Most Rev. Thomas O'Shea has been appointed Coadjutor Archbishop. The following arc the bishops:—

  • Auckland: The Right Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D., O.B.E.; consecrated 1910.

  • Christchurch: The Right Rev. Matthew Brodie; consecrated, 1910. Dunedin: (Vacant.)

Methodist Church of New Zealand.

The Officers of the Church for 1919 are as follows: President of the Conference, Rev. H. E. Bellhouse, Ponsonby; Vice-President, Mr. J. H. Blackwell, Kaiapoi; Secretary, Rev. E. Drake, Wellington; President-elect for 1920, Rev. E. Drake, Wellington; Connexional Secretary, Rev. Samuel Lawry, Christchurch; Secretary for Foreign Missions, Rev. W. A. Sinclair, Auckland; Secretary for Home Missions, Rev. T. G. Brook, Mount Eden.

The affairs of the Church are administered by ten District Synods, which meet annually. The Chairmen are appointed by Conference.

The next Conference will be held in Auckland, opening during the last, week in February, 1920.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.

President, Pastor M. W. P. Lascelles, Timaru; Vice-President, Rev. H. G. Herens, Hamilton; Secretary, Rev. R. S. Gray, Wellington; Treasurer, Mr. W. Lambourne, Ponsonby; Missionary Secretary, Rev. S. M. Jenkins, Wanganui; Financial Secretary, Rev. A. North, Warrington, Otago; Missionary Treasurer, Mr. C. Cathie, Wellington. The Union comprises fifty-six churches, forty-six preaching-stations, 6,000 members, and a constituency of 25,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist; Editor, Rev. J. J. North, Christchurch. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an annual income of £3,625, has a thoroughly equipped hospital and dispensaries, employs a doctor, two missionaries, six zenana ladies, and forty-six Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal, with a population of 1,200,000.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.

The annual meetings are held during the month of March, at such place as may be determined by vote of Council. Chairman for 1919: Rev. J. Reed Glasson, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. Archibald E. Hunt, Wellington; Treasurer, Mr. Frank Meadowcroft, Wellington; Registrar, Rev. A. H. Wallace, Dunedin; headquarters and seat of executive, Wellington. In 1920 the meeting of the Council will be held in Dunedin. The Committee of the Union meets in Wellington on the last Monday in each month.

Hebrews.

Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein and Rev. S. Katz, Auckland; Rev. H. Van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowsky, Wellington; Rev. A. Diamond, Dunedin. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).

Church of Christ.

The next Conference of the Dominion Associated Churches of Christ will be held in Christchurch, at Easter of 1920. Statistics submitted to last Conference were as follows: Churches, 50; membership, 3,360; Bible-school scholars, 3,311; teachers, 339; ministers, 21.

Dominion Executive: President, Mr. Ralph Gebbie, B.A., 81 Williamson Avenue, Auckland; Vice-President, Mr. Herbert Langford, 19 London Street, Richmond, Christchurch; Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Will J. Mason, 497 Madras Street, Christchurch.

A combined Conference of the Auckland and Middle Districts is held annually in Wellington and Auckland alternately. The Southern District has a separate Conference, meeting in various towns of the South Island. All the District Conferences meet at Easter.

Missionary stations are supported in Southern Rhodesia, where the Church has six missionaries and eight Native evangelists.

Unitarian Association of New Zealand.

President, Mr. G. Stevenson, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. J. Godber, J.P., Wellington; Secretary, Rev. G. E. Hale, B.A., 153 Ghuznee Street, Wellington. Churches are established at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Timaru, and are linked with the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. The next Annual Conference will be held in November, 1919.

Salvation Army.

The annual congress of the Salvation Army is held in the month of April in each year.

The principal officers of the Salvation Army in New Zealand are: Territorial Commander, Commissioner H. C. Hodder; Chief Secretary, Colonel J. McInnes; Secretary for Field Affairs, Major H. B. Colledge; Property Secretary, Lieut.-Colonel J. H. Bray; Trade Secretary, Brigadier A. Kirk; National Young People's Secretary, Brigadier W. J. Hoare; Chief Accountant, Major W. P. Page; Divisional Commanders, Major E. Newby. Auckland, Brigadier J. Toomer, Palmerston North, Brigadier W. Gist, Wellington, Brigadier A. B. Carmichael, Christchurch, Major D. Gunn, Dunedin; Principal of Training College, Wellington, Brigadier W. Gist.

An officer engaged exclusively in repatriation work is stationed at Auckland and Wellington respectively, while in the chief centres of the South Island Salvation Army chaplains meet each returning draft and keep in touch with the needs of the men. A hostel has been opened in Wellington for the accommodation of soldiers, and at Rotorua the Soldiers' Institute caters for the social and moral welfare of the men under medical treatment there.

Among the social institutions maintained by the Salvation Army are: Rescue Homes at St. Albans, Caversham, Parnell, and South Wellington; Young Women's Industrial Home at Anderson's Bay; Maternity Homes at each of the four chief centres; Samaritan Homes at Gisborne and Napier; Boys' Training Farm at Putaruru; Boys' Homes at Island Bay, Eltham, Russell, and Temuka; Girls' Homes at Middlemarch, Auckland, and South Wellington; Prison Gate Brigade Homes at Epsom and Addington; Inebriates' Homes at Pakatoa and Rotoroa; and a Home for Aged Men and Women at Featherston.

LIST OF HONOURS HELD IN CONNECTION WITH THE DOMINION .

A. HONOURS , NOT BEING ORDERS OR DECORATIONS .

Privy Councillors (P.C.).

Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, 1913.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., K.C.M.G., 1907

Baronet.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, P.C., K.C.M.G., 1911.

Knights Bachelor (Kt. Bach.).

Buchanan, Hon. Sir Walter, 1912.

Edwards, Hon. Sir Worley Bassett, 1919.

Fraser, Hon. Sir William, 1918.

Kennaway, Sir Walter, 1909.

Kinsey, Sir Joseph James, 1919.

Lang, Hon. Sir Frederic William, 1916.

Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.

Salmond, Sir John W., 1918.

Sinclair, Hon. Sir John Robert, 1918.

Wilson, Sir James G., 1915.

Persons allowed to retain the Title, of "Honourable" within His Majesty's Dominions.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies dated 30th October, 1856, the Governor was apprised that the title of "Honourable" was conferred on members of the Legislative Council and on the Speaker of the House of Representatives of New Zealand.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies dated 15th June, 1893, it was announced that the title of "Honourable" appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case might be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that ho was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in, their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of "Honourable."

Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers are allowed, as such, to retain the title of "Honourable": Buddo, David, 1912; Carroll, Sir James, K.C.M.G., 1912; Findlay, Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., K.C.M.G., 1911; Fowlds, G., 1911; Hall-Jones, Sir William, K.C.M.G., 1908; Herdman, Alexander Lawrence, 1918; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McKenzie, Roderick, 1912; Mackenzie, Sir Thomas, K.C.M.G., 1912; Mills, Charles H, 1906; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Ngata, Apirana Turupa, 1912; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Rhodes, R. H., 1915; Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1887; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.

By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of "Honourable."

By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of "Honourable" for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.

By despatch of 22nd December, 1911, it was announced that the title of "Honourable" was conferred on the Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand.

B. ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD , ETC .

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath.

KNIGHTS COMMANDERS (K.C.B.).

Allen, Hon. Sir James, 1917.

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir Alexander John, K.C.M.G., 1916.

Russell, Major-General Sir Andrew Hamilton, K.C.M.G., 1917.

COMPANIONS (C.B.).

Chaytor, Major-General Sir E. W. C, K.C.M.G., 1915.

Cradock, Lieut.-Colonel M., C.M.G., 1900.

Findlay, Lieut.-Colonel J., D.S.O., 1917.

Henderson, Surgeon-General R. S. F., 1917.

Logan, Colonel R.

Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.

Richardson, Brigadier-General G. S., C.M.G., C.B.E., 1917.

Robin, Major-General Sir A. W., K.C.M.G., 1900.

The Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George.

KNIGHT GRAND CROSS (G.C.M.G.).

His Excellency the Right Hon. Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of Liverpool, P.C., G.B.E., M.V.O., Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief, 1914.

KNIGHTS COMMANDERS (K.C.M.G.).

Boll, Hon. Sir Francis Henry Dillon, 1915.

Carroll, Hon. Sir James, 1911.

Chaytor, Major-General Sir E. W. C., C.B., 1918.

Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., 1911.

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir Alexander John, K.C.B., 1914.

Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, 1910.

Mackenzie, Hon. Sir Thomas, 1916.

Mills, Sir James, 1909.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, 1894.

Robin, Major-General Sir Alfred William, C.B., 1916.

Russell, Major-General Sir A. H., K.C.B. 1915.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., P.C., 1901.

COMPANIONS (C.M.G.).

Acland, Colonel H. T. D., C.B.E., 1917.

Adams, Colonel N. P., 1917.

Alderman, Lieut.-Colonel W. W., D.S.O., 1916.

Barnett, Lieut.-Colonel L. E., M.B., 1918.

Campbell, Colonel G. F. C., V.D., 1919.

Charters, Lieut.-Colonel A. B., D.S.O., 1916.

Chaytor, Lieut.-Colonel D'A., 1918.

Collins, Colonel R. J., I.S.O., V.D., 1911.

Collins, Colonel the Hon. W. E., M.B., 1917.

Dawson, Major T. H., 1917.

Esson, Lieut.-Colonel J. J., 1916.

Falla, Lieut.-Colonel N. S., D.S.O., 1917.

Fenwick, Lieut.-Colonel P. C., M.B., 1916.

Ferguson, Dr. Henry Lindo, 1918.

Fitchett, Frederick, M.A., LL.D., 1911.

Fitzherbert, Lieut.-Colonel N., 1917.

Francis, Major N., 1917.

Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel W. E., 1890.

Hall, Lieut.-Colonel G. T., 1917.

Hart, Brigadier-General H., D.S.O., 1918.

Hogben, George, M.A., F.G.S., 1915.

Hughes, Colonel J. G., D.S.O., 1916.

Hutchen, Lieut.-Colonel J. W., 1917.

Johnston, Brigadier-General G. N., D.S.O., 1918.

Jowsey, Colonel T., 1900.

King, Dr. F. Truby, 1917.

Luke, J. P., 1917.

Luxford, Rev. J. A., 1916.

Mackenzie, Lieut.-Colonel J. A., 1918.

Mackesy, Lieut.-Colonel C. E. R., D.S.O., 1917.

Meldrum, Brigadier-General W., D.S.O., 1916.

Melvill, Brigadier-General C. W., D.S.O, 1918.

Mill, Lieut.-Colonel T., M.B., 1917.

Morris, Colonel W. R., I.S.O., 1919.

Myers, Lieut.-Colonel B., M.D., 1917.

McGavin, Colonel D. J., D.S.O., M.B., 1918.

O'Neill, Colonel E. J., D.S.O., M.B., 1918.

Otterson, Henry, 1913.

Parkes, Colonel W. H., C.B.E., M.D., 1916.

Parr, C. J., 1914.

Plugge, Lieut.-Colonel A., 1915.

Potter, Colonel H. R., 1917.

Powles, Lieut.-Colonel C. G., D.S.O., 1918.

Richardson, Brigadier-General G. S., C.B., C.B.E., 1915.

Richardson, Josephus H., 1918.

Smith, Colonel G. S., D.S.O., 1917.

Standish, Lieut.-Colonel I. T., D.S.O., 1917.

Stowe, Leonard, 1912.

Symon, Lieut.-Colonel F., D.S.O., 1916.

Tewsley, Lieut.-Colonel C. H., D.S.O., M.D., 1918.

Wylie, Colonel D. S., M.B., 1917.

Young, Lieut.-Colonel R., D.S.O., 1916.

The Most Excellent Order of the. British Empire.

GRAND CROSS (G.B.E.).

Knight: Liverpool, His Excellency the Right Hon. Earl of, P.C., G.C.M.G., M.V.O., Governor-General.

Dame : Liverpool, Her Excellency the Countess of.

COMMANDERS (C.B.E.).

  • Acland, Colonel H. T. D., C.M.G.

  • Burnett, Miss Ethel.

  • Chaffey, Colonel R. A., V.D.

  • Christie, Colonel J. McN.

  • Clark, J. J.

  • Cooke, Colonel P. R.

  • Cooper, Colonel C. J., T.D.

  • Day, A. C.

  • Falconer, Lieut.-Colonel A. R.

  • Fowlds, Hon. George.

  • Gabites, Lieut.-Colonel G. E.

  • Gunson, J. H.

  • Hardwicke, Ellen, Countess of.

  • Hiley, Colonel E. H.

  • Holland, Henry.

  • Hume, Colonel J. E.

  • Hunter, Lieut.-Colonel T. A.

  • Leaky, Lieut.-Colonel J. P. D., M.B.

  • Luke, Mrs. Jacobina.

  • MacDonald, R. M.

  • MacDonald, Major W. M., M.D.

  • Mackenzie, Miss Helen.

  • McLean, Lieut.-Colonel H. J.

  • Major, Colonel C. T., D.S.O.

  • Massey, Mrs. Christina A.

  • Makgill, Lieut.-Colonel R. H.

  • Mill, Colonel Thomas, C.M.G.

  • Montgomery, W. H.

  • Nichols, Colonel J. C., V.D.

  • Nolan, R. H.

  • Parkes, Colonel W. H., C.M.G., M.D.

  • Pringle, Colonel David, T.D.

  • Purdy, Colonel J. R., V.D., M.B.

  • Reakes, Colonel C. J., M.R.C.V.S.

  • Reed, Colonel J. R., K.C.

  • Richardson, Brigadier-General G. S., C.B., C.M.G.

  • Roberts, Lieut.-Colonel A. F.

  • Robertson, Lieut.-Colonel J. H. G.

  • Rolleston, Mrs. Iris B.

  • Sleeman, Lieut.-Colonel J. L.

  • Smith, Colonel E. R., V.D.

  • Smith, Colonel Hon. G. J.

  • Strong, Colonel W. J., T.D.

  • Tate, Colonel R. W.

  • Valintine, Colonel T. H. A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H.

  • Ward, Colonel G. A.

  • Ward, Lady Theresa D.

  • Wilson, Mrs. A. E.

  • Wylie, Colonel D. S., C.M.G.

OFFICERS (O.B.E.).

  • Abraham, Mrs. Constance P.

  • Andrew, Lieut.-Colonel P.O.

  • Andrews, Lieut.-Colonel C. E.

  • Bankart, A. S.

  • Banks, Major G. B.

  • Bean, Mrs. Jane A.

  • Bernau, Lieut.-Colonel H. F., M.R.C.S.

  • Bethell, Mrs. Thyra T.

  • Bidwell, W. E.

  • Boden, Mrs. Annie S.

  • Bollard, Mrs. Louisa.

  • Boyle, Mrs. Fanny.

  • Brandon, Major P. de B.

  • Brewis, Major A. G., M.B.

  • Brodrick, T. N.

  • Brown. Paymaster Lieut.-Commander W. J. A.

  • Bruce, Major W., M.B.

  • Buckleton, Mrs. Alice A. G.

  • Burgess, F. J.

  • Burnett, James.

  • Burton, Rev. Canon H. D.

  • Carroll, Lady Heni M.

  • Chilton, Mrs. Elizabeth C.

  • Clark, D. G.

  • Cleary, Right Rev. H. W., D.D.

  • Closed Miss Etta.

  • Coates, Miss Lavinia.

  • Conn, Robert.

  • Cooper, D. G. A.

  • Corry, Mrs. Alice M.

  • Crooke, Mrs. Jane D.

  • Day, V. G.

  • Donaldson, Mrs. Ada M.

  • Duthie, D. W.

  • Earl, Frederick, K.C.

  • Elliott, George.

  • Empson, Mrs. Agnes D.

  • Evans, J. S.

  • Fache, G. C.

  • Fell, F. C. C.

  • Findlay, Mrs. Ellen K.

  • Findlay, James.

  • Flesher, J. A.

  • Fraser, Malcolm.

  • Galbraith, Mrs. Marion.

  • George, W. H. H.

  • Graham, Miss Helen.

  • Grimmond, Mrs. Margaret I.

  • Gunson, Mrs. Jessie.

  • Harper, George.

  • Herbert, Lieut.-Colonel A. S., M.B.

  • Hill, Mrs. Elizabeth A.

  • Hill, Mrs. Jessie.

  • Hindley, Captain F. L.

  • Hislop, James.

  • Hodder, H. C

  • Hogg, Lieut.-Colonel A. W.

  • Hogg, Captain R. H., M.B.

  • Holland, Mrs. Jane.

  • Home, Major G., M.D.

  • King, Rev. V. G. B.

  • Lawry, Major R. A. R.

  • Lee, Mrs. Jane W.

  • Little, Lieut.-Colonel W.

  • Lock, Mrs. Esther G.

  • Love, Mrs. Ripeka.

  • Lowry, Mrs. Helen.

  • McCristell, Major Thomas.

  • MacDonald, Rev. Angus.

  • Macfarlane, Mrs. Edith M.

  • MacGibbon, Miss Mabel J.

  • Mackay, Mrs. Isobelle M. A.

  • Mackenzie, Miss Jessie.

  • McKibbon, Major T.

  • McPherson, Captain J.

  • Maguire, Mrs. Emily H.

  • Mete, Mrs. Erina.

  • Miles, A. H.

  • Montgomery, W. B.

  • Moorhouse, Mrs. Jessie M.

  • Morris, Miss Cecilia M.

  • Moss, Thomas.

  • Mounsey, Major John.

  • Murphy, Mrs. Hannah.

  • Mutu, Mrs. Rahira M.

  • Myers, Mrs. Vera A.

  • Nathan, Miss Sybil C.

  • Newcombe, Major Neville.

  • Ostler, Major F. E.

  • Parker, Lieut.-Colonel P. W.

  • Peacock, Major H.

  • Petrie, Mrs. Helen Y.

  • Pomare, Mrs. Miria W.

  • Poynton, J. W.

  • Rattray, Miss Prances C.

  • Raymond, Mrs. Mary.

  • Rhodes, A. E. G.

  • Rhodes, Mrs. Ellen L. A.

  • Rhodes, G. E.

  • Reeve, Mrs. Joan L.

  • Richards, Captain H.

  • Robin, Miss Maggie.

  • Ronaldson, T. S.

  • Rutherford, Mrs. Eva L.

  • Scholefield, G. H.

  • Shallcrass, R. W.

  • Shera, Lieut.-Colonel L. M., M.C

  • Shirer, Rev. William.

  • Shirtcliffe, George.

  • Short, Lieut.-Colonel H., M.B.

  • Smith, C. B.

  • Smith, Mrs. Mary E. R.

  • Sprott, Right Rev. T. H., D.D.

  • Stewart, G. V.

  • Stewart, Mrs. Mary D.

  • Thompson, Mrs. Riria.

  • Topia, Kingi.

  • Tripe, W. A.

  • Tripp, L. O. H.

  • Ward, Mrs. Charlotte S.

  • Watson, Lieut.-Colonel J. J.

  • Webster, Miss Violet H.

  • Wigram, Miss Agnes V.

  • Wilkinson, H. K.

  • Williams, Miss Helen L.

  • Williams, Miss Hilda.

  • Wilson, Thomas.

  • Wood, Mrs. Grace A. M.

MEMBERS (M.B.E.).

  • Adams, A. M.

  • Atwell, Captain William.

  • Barton, Mrs. Rachel M.

  • Bell, Miss V. C.

  • Bissland, Mrs. Emma.

  • Blackwell, Mrs. Margaret B.

  • Bloomfield, Mrs. Hilda F.

  • Blundell, Mrs. Annie E.

  • Bosworth, Major J. T.

  • Bowie, Mrs. Janet.

  • Brocks, Captain A. W.

  • Brown, Mrs. Violet McC.

  • Browne, Major H. H.

  • Burgess, Mrs. Ann.

  • Burgess, C. H.

  • Burt, Alexander.

  • Burt, Miss Jean.

  • de Castro, Mrs. Edith.

  • Charles, Miss Esther.

  • Clark, Miss Lydia M.

  • Colclough, Captain W. C. S.

  • Cooper, Miss Ethel M.

  • Coradine, Mrs. Sarah Ann.

  • Corrigan, Major A. A.

  • Courage, Mrs. Zoe F.

  • Crawford, Mrs. Gertrude A.

  • Crawford, Mrs. Harriette S.

  • Crowther, Major Walter.

  • Cuff, Mrs. Ethel

  • Dalston, Captain N. H. M.

  • Dawson, Mrs. Hannah.

  • Dixon, G. F.

  • Dobson, Captain William.

  • Donaldson, G. L.

  • Eastgate, Captain H.

  • Ellis, J. W.

  • Ellison, Mrs. M. M. H.

  • Ewen, Lieutenant D. A.

  • Fenton, Miss Edith.

  • Forrester, Mrs. Elizabeth.

  • Forsythe, Captain G. H.

  • Gentry, Captain F. C.

  • Gerard, Harold.

  • Gibbons, Hope.

  • Goodchild, Mrs. A. V.

  • Greenslade, Mrs. Louisa G. C

  • Guinness, Mrs. Florence.

  • Gunnion, T. E.

  • Guthrie, Miss Agnes B. B.

  • Harcourt, Miss Eveline A. M.

  • Harding, Mrs. Margaret.

  • Harrington, H. W.

  • Harrison, Miss Kate C.

  • Hawke, Mrs. Leah L.

  • Helmore, H. G.

  • Herbert, Miss A. M.

  • Hill, Mrs. E. C.

  • Hislop, Mrs. Margaret M. A.

  • Hitchon, Mrs. Ann M.

  • Holdsworth, Mrs. Elizabeth A.

  • Holdsworth, W. G.

  • Hursthouse, Major W. R.

  • Jack, Douglas W.

  • Jolly, Major H.

  • Kelsey, Miss Lavinia J.

  • King, Miss Emma E. M. E.

  • King, Mrs. Sarah H.

  • Kirkpatrick, Mrs. M. H.

  • Larner, V. J.

  • Leaver, Mrs. Kate R.

  • Levien, Captain N. J.

  • Levinge, Dr. E. G.

  • Lovell, James B.

  • Macassey, Miss E. C. C.

  • McCurdy, Major D. A.

  • Macdonald, Miss Mina.

  • McDonnell, Miss Mysie.

  • McDougall, Mrs. A. M.

  • McGowan, Captain H. E.

  • McGregor, Mrs. Pura.

  • McLean, Miss Isobel.

  • Magnay, Captain C. R. A.

  • Maling, Miss Nesta G.

  • Manning, A. E.

  • Marris, Basil A.

  • Martin, A. A.

  • Matthews, F. G.

  • Matthews, Major R. S.

  • Mellows, Captain Samuel.

  • Millton, J. D.

  • Moeller, Mrs. Winifred.

  • Moller, Major O. H.

  • Moorhouse, Colonel W. H. S.

  • Murray, Miss Janet E.

  • Nash, Mrs. Elizabeth L.

  • Ngata, Mrs. Arihia K.

  • Northcote, Major J. A.

  • Nutsford, Major H. C.

  • O'Neill, L. P.

  • Oram, Captain M. H.

  • Page, Mrs. J. E.

  • Pearce, Miss A. I.

  • Perry, George Albert.

  • Pettit, Major W. H.

  • Philson, Mrs. Lucy.

  • Potter, Mrs. Mary A.

  • Pryor, Captain William.

  • Redmond, Captain H. J.

  • Ringland, Major T. H.

  • Rishworth, Major J. N.

  • Robertson, H. J. D.

  • Rodda, G. C.

  • Russell, W. A.

  • Scales, G. H.

  • Shand, Major D. B.

  • Sherratt, Mrs. Alice G.

  • Simpson, Mrs. Jean.

  • Smart, Mrs. Annie W.

  • Smedley, Captain C. F.

  • Smith, Mrs. Lilly M.

  • Snodgrass, W. W.

  • Spedding, Miss Bella.

  • Spencer, Mrs. Martha T.

  • Staples-Brown, Captain R. C.

  • Stead, William.

  • Stevenson, Mrs. Florence J.

  • Stewart, Mrs. E. W.

  • Stuckey, Miss E. E.

  • Thompson, Maurice.

  • Thomson, Miss Patricia C.

  • Treleaven, C. J.

  • Tripp, B. E. H.

  • Tunks, C. J.

  • Tweedy, Captain W.

  • Varney, Arthur.

  • Walker, Captain George.

  • Wallace. J. A.

  • Ward, Miss E. E. L.

  • Watson, Miss J. C.

  • Webster, Miss Georgina.

  • White, Charles.

  • Wray, Cecil J.

  • Wray, Miss Ellen.

  • Young, Mrs. F. R.

The Distinguished-service Order.

COMPANIONS, WITH BAR (D.S.O.).

  • Allen, Lieut.-Colonel R. C., 1919.

  • Allen, Lieut.-Colonel S. S., 1918.

  • Jardine, Lieut.-Colonel L. H., M.C., 1919.

  • McCarroll, Lieut.-Colonel J. N., 1918.

  • Stewart, Lieut.-Colonel H., M.C., 1917.

  • Whyte, Lieut.-Colonel J. H., D.C.M. 1917.

  • Wilding, Major H. G., 1918.

COMPANIONS (D.S.O.).

  • Acton-Adams, Major P. M., 1917.

  • Alderman, Lieut. - Colonel W. W., C.M.G., 1919.

  • Ardagh, Captain P. A., M.C., M.B., 1918.

  • Austin, Lieut.-Colonel W.S., 1916.

  • Avery, Lieut.-Colonel H. E., 1916.

  • Barrowclough, Captain H. E., M.C., 1918.

  • Bartlett, Major E., 1902.

  • Beck, Captain W. T., 1915.

  • Bell, Lieut.-Colonel P. H., 1918.

  • Bingay, Major H. L., 1919.

  • Blair. Lieut.-Colonel D. B., M.C., 1917.

  • Buck, Major P. H., M.D., 1917.

  • Cameron, Major F., M.B., 1917.

  • Charters, Lieut.-Colonel A. B., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Cockerell, Lieutenant A. R., 1917.

  • Colquhoun, Lieut.-Colonel D., 1917.

  • Craig, Lieut.-Colonel &., M.B., 1917.

  • Cunningham, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., 1916.

  • Daltry, Major H. J., 1917.

  • Duigan, Lieut.-Colonel J. E., 1917.

  • Duthie, Major N. A., 1918.

  • Ennis, Major W. O., 1917.

  • Evans, Lieut.-Colonel C H. D., 1917.

  • Falconer, Captain, A. S., M.C., 1918.

  • Falla, Lieut.-Colonel N. S., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Farr, Major T., M.C., 1918.

  • Findlay, Lieut.-Colonel J., C.B., 1916.

  • Finn, Major B. S., 1915.

  • Gardner, Major D. E., 1918.

  • Gard'ner. Lieut.-Colonel M. M., 1917.

  • Gibbs, Major D. J., 1917.

  • Glendining, Lieut.-Colonel H. C., 1917.

  • Grigor, Lieut.-Colonel R. R., 1916.

  • Hardie, Major R. D., 1917.

  • Hargest. Lieut.-Colonel J., M.C., 1918.

  • Harper, Captain R. P., M.C., D.C.M., 1918.

  • Hart, Brigadier-General H., C.M.G., 1918.

  • Herbert, Lieut.-Colonel A. H., 1917.

  • Hercus, Major C. E., M.B., 1918.

  • Herrold, Major J. H., 1918.

  • Hickey, Major D. A., 1902.

  • Holmes, Captain J. D., 1918.

  • Hughes, Colonel J. G., C.M.G., 1900.

  • Hulbert, Major E. J., 1917.

  • Hurst, Major H. C., 1916.

  • Jennings, Major W. I. K., 1918.

  • Johnston, Brigadier - General G. N., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Kennedy, Captain D., M.C., 1919.

  • Lampen, Major F. H., 1916.

  • Mackesy, Lieut.-Colonel C. E. R., C.M.G., 1916.

  • MacCormick, Major K., M.B., 1917.

  • McClelland, Major C. H., 1918.

  • McCrae, Major J., 1917.

  • McGavin, Brigadier - General D. J., C.M.G., M.D., 1917.

  • McKenzie, Major A. G., 1916.

  • Massey, Major F. G., M.C., 1918.

  • Meldrum, Brigadier-General W., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Melvill, Brigadier - General C. W., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Miles, Major R., M.C., 1918.

  • Milligan, Major R. G., 1918.

  • Mitchell, Lieut.-Colonel G., 1917.

  • Mitchell, Major G. R., 1919.

  • Murchison, Major D. S., 1917.

  • Murray, Colonel D. N. W., C.M.G., M.D., 1917.

  • Neil, Lieut.-Colonel J. H., M.B., 1918.

  • Newman, Major C. N., 1917.

  • Newton, Lieut.-Colonel C. T. H., M.D., 1917.

  • Nicholls, Major S. C. P., 1918.

  • O'Neill, Lieut.-Colonel E. J., C.M.G., M.B., 1915.

  • Orr, Major E. H., 1918.

  • Poison, Major D., 1900.

  • Pow, Lieut.-Colonel J., 1916.

  • Powles, Lieut.-Colonel C. G., C.M.G., 1916.

  • Puttick, Lieut.-Colonel E., 1917.

  • Roache, Lieut.-Colonel J. G., 1917.

  • Row, Lieut.-Colonel R. A., 1917.

  • Richardson, Major H. M. W., M.C., 1918.

  • Saunders, Major J. L., 1917.

  • Shephard, Lieut.-Colonel N. F., 1918.

  • Sinel, Major W. C., 1918.

  • Smith, Major A. D., 1917.

  • Smith, Colonel G. S., C.M.G., 1915.

  • Smythe, Major R. B., 1916.

  • Sommerville, Major C., 1918.

  • Sommerville, Major J. A., 1917.

  • Stafford, Major J., M.R.C.V.S., 1917.

  • Standish, Lieut.-Colonel J. T., C.M.G., 1915.

  • Starnes, Major F., 1916.

  • Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.

  • Stewart, Colonel A. E., 1916.

  • Stitt, Lieut.-Colonel A. D., M.C., 1917.

  • Stout, Major T. D. M., M.B., 1917.

  • Studholme, Major J., 1916.

  • Symon, Lieut.-Colonel F., C.M.G., 1917.

  • Thoms. Major N. W. B. B., M.C., 1917.

  • Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.

  • Turnbull. Lieut.-Colonel F. K., M.C., 1919.

  • Turnbull, Major W. McG., 1915.

  • Vercoe, Captain H. R., 1918.

  • Vickerman, Major H., 1917.

  • Waite, Major F., 1915.

  • Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.

  • Weston, Lieut.-Colonel C. H., 1917.

  • Whyte, Major J. B., 1918.

  • Wickens, Major R. C., 1917.

  • Widdowson, Major E. A., M.B., 1918.

  • Wilder, Major A. S., M.C., 1919

  • Wilson, Major N. R., M.C., 1918.

  • Wilson, Major R. A., 1918.

  • Wyman, Major R., 1910.

  • Young, Brigadier-General R., C.M.G., 1915.

The Imperial Service Order.

COMPANIONS (I.S.O.).

  • Andrews, James Frank, 1913.

  • Blow, Horatio John Hooper, 1911.

  • Collins, Colonel R. J., V.D., 1909.

  • Cullen, John, 1916.

  • Heywood, James B., 1905.

  • Holmes, Robert W., 1918.

  • Kensington, W. C., 1909.

  • Mackenzie, James, 1915.

  • Morris, W. R., C.M.G., 1917.

  • Robertson, Donald, 1912.

  • Ronayne, Thomas, 1914.

  • Short, W. S., 1919.

  • Strauchon, John, 1912.

  • Tregear, Edward, 1911.

Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England.

  • Knight of Justice: Liverpool, His Excellency the Right Hon. Earl of, P.C. G.C.M.G., C.B.E., M.V.O., 1919.

  • Knight of Grace: Parkes, Colonel W. H., C.M.G., C.B.E., 1918.

  • Lady of Grace: Moorhouse, Mrs. Jessie M., O.B.E., 1919.

C. DECORATIONS AND MEDALS .

Victoria Cross (V.C.).

  • Andrew, Sergeant L. W., 1917.

  • Bassett, 2nd Lieutenant C. R. G., 1915.

  • Crichton, 2nd Lieutenant J., 1918.

  • Frickleton, 2nd Lieutenant S., 1917.

  • Grant, 2nd Lieutenant J. G., 1918.

  • Hardham, Captain W. J., 1901.

  • Judson, 2nd Lieutenant R. S., D.C.M., M.M., 1918.

  • Laurent, 2nd Lieutenant H. J., 1918.

New Zealand Cross (N.Z.C.).

  • Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.

  • Hill, George, 1869.

  • Lingard, William, 1869.

  • Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.

  • Mair, Gilbert, 1870.

  • Northcroft, Henry William, 1910.*

  • Preece, George Augustus, 1869.

  • Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.

  • Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.

Royal Red Cross, 1st Class (R.R.C.).

  • Brooke, Matron E., 1917.

  • Cameron, Matron M. M., 1917.

  • Maclean, Matron H., 1917.

  • Maclean, Matron V. M. K., A.R.R.C, 1918.

  • Nurse, Matron B., 1918.

  • Price, Matron F., 1916.

  • Thurston, Matron M., 1917.

  • Tombe, Matron A., 1916.

Bar to Military Cross (M.C.).

  • Ashby, Lieutenant F. E., 1918.

  • Burge, Lieutenant W. R., 1918.

  • Coates, Captain J. C, 1918.

  • Curtis, Lieutenant A. R., 1919.

  • Evans, Captain J., 1918.

  • Finlayson, Major A. C. M., 1919.

  • Gordon, Lieutenant A. W., 1918.

  • Gray, Captain W. P., 1918.

  • Greenish, Captain F. E., 1919.

  • Herbert, Lieutenant A. S., 1919.

  • Hollis, 2nd Lieutenant R. V., 1918.

  • Johnson, Lieutenant M. E., 1918.

  • Johnston, Captain H., 1919.

  • Melles, Captain A. G., 1917.

  • McClure, Lieutenant C. B., 1918.

  • McLeod, Lieutenant J. M. C., 1918.

  • McMinn, 2nd Lieutenant W. E., 1918.

  • Park, Lieutenant G. R., 1917.

  • Roy, 2nd Lieutenant J. A. McL., 1918

  • Saxon, Captain K. R. J., 1918.

  • Scott, Lieutenant K., 1917.

* For services rendered in 1866.

† For services rendered in 1867.

Military Cross (M.C).

  • Abbott, Major W. N., M.B.

  • Abernethy, 2nd Lieutenant R. C.

  • Acland, Major L. G. D.

  • Addison, Captain A. S., M.B.

  • Aitken, Major W.

  • Aitken, Lieutenant W. P.

  • Allen, 2nd Lieutenant J. E., M.M.

  • Anderson, Lieutenant E. J.

  • Anderson, Captain F. H.

  • Andrew, Lieutenant R. E.

  • Annabell, Major N.

  • Ardagh, Captain P. A., D.S.O., M.B.

  • Armstrong, Captain D. C.

  • Ashby, Lieutenant F. E., bar to M.C.

  • Ashby, Lieutenant P. C.

  • Atmore, Lieutenant C. F.

  • Averill, 2nd Lieutenant L. C. L.

  • Avery, Captain G. A.

  • Barrowclough, Captain H. E., D.S.O.

  • Barton, Lieutenant G. A. A.

  • Barton, Lieutenant J. M.

  • Bassett, Lieutenant L. W.

  • Baxter, Lieutenant E.

  • Baxter, Captain R. H., M.B.

  • Beasley, Lieutenant S. C.

  • Beetham, Lieutenant R. F.

  • Benham, Captain P. B., M.B.

  • Bennett, 2nd Lieutenant P. L.

  • Bennett, Lieutenant R. E.

  • Best, Captain C. C.

  • Bibby, Lieutenant R. E.

  • Bishop, Major W. G. A.

  • Black, Lieutenant E. R.

  • Black, Captain R. J.

  • Blackett, Major G. R.

  • Blair, Lieut.-Colonel D. B., D.S.O.

  • Blampied, Lieutenant M.

  • Blomfield, Lieutenant E. F.

  • Bongard, Lieutenant A.

  • Bongard, Lieutenant J. R.

  • Borrie, Captain W. G., M.B.

  • Boswell, Lieutenant C.

  • Bowron, 2nd Lieutenant F. L.

  • Brathwaite, Lieutenant J. L.

  • Bremner, Major D. E.

  • Brewster, Captain R. C., F.R.C.S.

  • Bristol, Lieutenant I. A.

  • Brooker, Captain S. W. B.

  • Brown, 2nd Lieutenant A. W., D.C.M.

  • Brown, 2nd Lieutenant J. L.

  • Brown, 2nd Lieutenant W. S., M.M.

  • Browne, 2nd Lieutenant L. H.

  • Bruce, Captain D.

  • Buchanan, Lieutenant R. H.

  • Burge, Lieutenant W. R., bar to M.C.

  • Burt, 2nd Lieutenant H. D.

  • Byrne, Lieutenant A. E.

  • Cade, Captain J. R.

  • Cameron, 2nd Lieutenant A. C.

  • Cameron, 2nd Lieutenant W. K.

  • Campbell, Captain H.

  • Campbell, Captain L. B.

  • Carmichael, Lieutenant L. S.

  • Carter, Lieutenant J. C.

  • Catchpole, Lieutenant J. H.

  • Caws, Captain R. B.

  • Chapman, Captain A. A.

  • Chapman, Captain W. W.

  • Charters, Lieutenant R. G.

  • Chaytor, Major L. C.

  • Chilcott, Lieutenant C. W.

  • Ciochetto, Lieutenant C. V., M.M.

  • Clark, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. H.

  • Clark, 2nd Lieutenant S. O.

  • Closey, Captain S. J. E.

  • Coates, Captain J. G., bar to M.C.

  • Cobb, Lieutenant W.

  • Cody, Lieutenant D. G.

  • Collins, Lieutenant H.

  • Collyns, Captain G. S.

  • Connor, Captain J.

  • Cooke, Captain P. B.

  • Cooke, 2nd Lieutenant W. B., M.M. and bar to M.M.

  • Cornwall, 2nd Lieutenant F. C.

  • Cory-Wright, Captain S.

  • Courtney, Lieutenant J.

  • Craven, Lieutenant L. A.

  • Crawford, Captain J. G.

  • Crawford, Lieutenant T. H.

  • Crosse, Captain H. E.

  • Curham, Lieutenant D. W.

  • Curtis, Lieutenant A. R., bar to M.C.

  • Dailey, Major G. C.

  • Daldy, Captain R. H.

  • Dallinger, Lieutenant J. T.

  • Dansey, Captain H. D.

  • Davidson, Captain C. J. H.

  • Dean, Captain A. G.

  • Dempster, Captain N. H., M.B.

  • Denniston, Lieutenant L. H.

  • Dittmer, Captain G.

  • Dixon, Lieutenant L. M.

  • Doake, Lieutenant D.

  • Dobson, Major D.

  • Dobson, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. J, H.

  • Doherty, Lieutenant P. G.

  • Domigan, Lieutenant H. R.

  • Douglass, Lieutenant R. D.

  • Dove, Captain W. W.

  • Drummond, 2nd Lieutenant E. C.

  • Duigan, Lieutenant D. F.

  • Duncan, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Dunn, Captain R. W.

  • Earl, Captain F. J. R.

  • Ebbitt, 2nd Lieutenant W. H.

  • Ellen, 2nd Lieutenant H., M.M.

  • Ellingham, Lieutenant H. A.

  • Ellis, 2nd Lieutenant J. W.

  • Ellis, Major P. J.

  • Emery, Captain L. A. J.

  • Esquilant, Lieutenant A. E.

  • Evans, Captain J., bar to M.C.

  • Falconer, Major A. S., D.S.O.

  • Farr, Major T., D.S.O.

  • Fawcett, Captain E. J.

  • Ferguson, Captain D.

  • Finlayson, Major A. C. M., bar to M.C.

  • Foley, Lieutenant W. R.

  • Forbes, Captain A. McR.

  • Foster, 2nd Lieutenant L. B.

  • Fowlds, Captain W. F.

  • Fowler, Lieutenant W. K.

  • Free, Captain C. W.

  • Fryer, Captain H.

  • Fyfe, Lieutenant R. E.

  • Gabites, Captain H. S.

  • Galloway, Lieutenant M. S.

  • Gardner, Captain J. E. L.

  • Garland, Captain H. G. de F.

  • Garroway, Lieutenant R.

  • Geddes, Major W. McK.

  • George, 2nd Lieutenant E. W.

  • Gibbs, Captain L. J.

  • Gillespie, Lieutenant C. T.

  • Gillies, Captain T. S.

  • Glasse, Lieutenant A. O.

  • Goldstein, Captain H. M., M.B.

  • Gordon, Lieutenant A. W., bar to M.C.

  • Gordon, Captain K. F., M.R.C.S.

  • Goulding, Lieutenant A. M.

  • Goulding, Lieutenant F.

  • Gow, Lieutenant G. V.

  • Grant, Captain R. J.

  • Gray, Lieutenant C. A.

  • Gray, Major G. H.

  • Gray, 2nd Lieutenant R. N., M.M.

  • Gray, Captain W. A.

  • Gray, Captain W. P., bar to M.C.

  • Greene, Chaplain, 4th Class, A. (Salvation Army).

  • Greenish, Captain F. E., bar to M.C.

  • Greenwood, Captain J.

  • Greenwood, Captain J. G.

  • Guthrie, Lieut.-Colonel R. N., M.B.

  • Guthrie, Lieutenant S. G.

  • Halliwell, Lieutenant R. S.

  • Harding, Captain E. A.

  • Hargest, Lieut.-Colonel J., D.S.O.

  • Harper, Captain R. P., D.S.O., D.C.M.

  • Harris, 2nd Lieutenant C. J.

  • Harrison, Lieutenant C.

  • Harrison, 2nd Lieutenant W. G.

  • Hartshorne, 2nd Lieutenant G.

  • Hayter, Major C.

  • Henderson, Major P. B.

  • Herbert, Lieutenant A. S., bar to M.C.

  • Herron, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. D. C.

  • Highet, Lieutenant H. A.

  • Hills, Captain H. S.

  • Hind, Lieutenant C. A. S.

  • Hines, Lieutenant J. H.

  • Hiroti, Captain Turu.

  • Holder, 2nd Lieutenant A. G.

  • Holderness, Captain H.

  • Hollis, 2nd Lieutenant R. V., bar to M.C.

  • Holmden, Captain T. N.

  • Holmes, Lieutenant C. H.

  • Hopkirk, Captain J. A. D.

  • Hubbard, Lieutenant F. C.

  • Houchen, Chaplain, 3rd Class, Rev. C.

  • Hume, Major G. H.

  • Hunter, Lieutenant A. C. C.

  • Hutton, Captain L. B.

  • Inglis, Major L. M.

  • Ingram, Captain C.

  • Iverach, 2nd Lieutenant J. A. D.

  • Jack, Lieutenant A. D.

  • Jardine, Lieut.-Colonel L. H., D.S.O. and bar.

  • Jeffrey, Major J. G.

  • Jennings, 2nd Lieutenant A. G.

  • Johnson, 2nd Lieutenant A. W.

  • Johnson, Lieutenant M. E., bar to M.C.

  • Johnson, Major W. H.

  • Johnston, Captain H., bar to M.C.

  • Johnstone, Lieutenant A. B.

  • Jones, 2nd Lieutenant J. A.

  • Jones, Captain L. F.

  • Jones, Major M. H. R.

  • Keesing, Captain H. M.

  • Kellaway, Lieutenant G. T.

  • Kemp, Captain F. W., M.D.

  • Kennedy, Captain D., D.S.O.

  • Kennedy, Captain H. W.

  • Kettle, Major D.

  • King, 2nd Lieutenant A. H.

  • King, 2nd Lieutenant H. L.

  • King, Lieutenant T. L. R.

  • King, Captain W. J.

  • Kirk, Lieutenant B. C.

  • Knight, Captain C. L.

  • Knox, 2nd Lieutenant R. J.

  • Knubley, Lieutenant H. C. J.

  • Lang, 2nd Lieutenant F. W.

  • Lang, Captain W. R.

  • Leaf, Lieutenant H.

  • Leeming, Major C.V.

  • Lepper, 2nd Lieutenant C. B., M.M.

  • Levien, Captain E.

  • Lewer, 2nd Lieutenant E. E.

  • Little, Lieutenant N. F.

  • Lumsden, Captain P. W., M.B.

  • Luxford, Lieutenant M. G.

  • Lyon, Captain G.

  • Macdonald, Lieutenant A.

  • Macdonald, Major A. C.

  • Mackay, Lieutenant J. C.

  • Mackenzie, Major H. C.

  • Mackenzie, Lieutenant R.

  • Macky, Captain N. L.

  • McAdam, 2nd Lieutenant H. M.

  • McAlister, Captain J. L.

  • McAuley, Lieutenant D.

  • McClathie, Lieutenant D. S.

  • McClure, Lieutenant C. B., bar to M.C.

  • McClurg, Captain D. W.

  • McCormick, 2nd Lieutenant A. L., D.C.M.

  • McDonald, 2nd Lieutenant M.

  • McDonald, Captain S. G.

  • McDowell, Captain A. L.

  • McFarland, Captain R. D.

  • McGhie, Captain J., M.B.

  • McGhie, Lieutenant J. G.

  • McGregor, Lieutenant E. J.

  • McHugh, Captain H. D.

  • McIntosh, Lieutenant F.

  • McIsaac, Lieutenant A. R.

  • McKenzie, Lieutenant C. R.

  • McKenzie, 2nd Lieutenant F. E.

  • McLean, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. W.

  • McLean, Major W. H.

  • McLeod, Captain B.

  • McLeod, Lieutenant J. M. C., bar to M.C.

  • McMinn, 2nd Lieutenant W. E., bar to M.C.

  • McPherson, Captain R.

  • McQuarrie, Lieut.-Colonel R. S.

  • McSavney, Lieutenant G.

  • Manson, Lieutenant A. J. M.

  • Marks, Captain J. D., M.B.

  • Marshall, 2nd Lieutenant H. T.

  • Martin. Captain A. L.

  • Massey, Captain F. G., D.S.O.

  • Mathias, Captain G.

  • Mawson, Lieutenant J. B.

  • Mayer, Lieutenant J.

  • Meikle, Captain H. C.

  • Melles, Captain A. G., bar to M.C.

  • Merton, Major J. L. C.

  • Metcalf, Captain L. W.

  • Mewett, Captain J. E. H.

  • Miles, Major R., D.S.O.

  • Miller, 2nd Lieutenant A. H.

  • Miller, Lieutenant J. A.

  • Miller, 2nd Lieutenant H. K.

  • Milne, Lieutenant M. C.

  • Mintrom, 2nd Lieutenant F. H., M.M.

  • Mitchell, Lieutenant F. M.

  • Mitchell, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Mitchell, Captain R. F.

  • Moncrief, Lieutenant E., G.

  • Morison, Captain B. H.

  • Moritzson, Lieutenant L., M.M.

  • Morpeth, Captain R. N.

  • Morrison, Lieutenant D. G. B.

  • Mullineux, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. M.

  • Murchison, Lieutenant D. B.

  • Murphy, Lieutenant W.

  • Murray, Lieutenant F. L.

  • Murray, 2nd Lieutenant T. T., M.M.

  • Napier, Captain W. E. L.

  • Natusch, Captain S.

  • Nelson, Captain A. D., M.B.

  • Nelson, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Newbould, Captain M. G. R.

  • Newman, Captain H. W.

  • Nimmo, Lieutenant A. J.

  • Nolan, 2nd Lieutenant H. C.

  • Norman, Captain E. G.

  • Oakey, Captain A. N.

  • O'Gorman, 2nd Lieutenant F. R

  • Olsen, Lieutenant O. R.

  • Orbell, Captain R. G. S.

  • Organ, Lieutenant W. J.

  • Oxenham, Lieutenant C.

  • Paisley, Lieutenant A. D.

  • Palmer, Squadron Sergeant-major W.

  • Palmes, Lieutenant B.

  • Park, Lieutenant G. R., bar to M.C.

  • Parks, Major L. B.

  • Parkinson, Lieutenant L.

  • Parr, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. S.

  • Pascoe, Lieutenant F. C.

  • Patrick, Lieutenant R. T. G.

  • Pattrick, Lieutenant H. B.

  • Pennefather, 2nd Lieutenant S. S., D.C.M.

  • Pettit, 2nd Lieutenant H.

  • Picot, Lieutenant E. H.

  • Pierce, Captain C. J.

  • Ponder, Lieutenant A. O.

  • Porritt, Lieutenant E. A.

  • Pott, 2nd Lieutenant G. F.

  • Potvine, Captain H. A.

  • Pratt, 2nd Lieutenant C. O.

  • Price, 2nd Lieutenant A. D., M.M.

  • Prior, Captain N. H., M.B.

  • Pulham, 2nd Lieutenant L. R.

  • Rauch, Captain J. N.

  • Rawlings, Captain C. R.

  • Reeves, Lieutenant E. F.

  • Reid, Lieutenant S. G.

  • Rhind Captain S. D., M.E.S.C.

  • Rhodes, Captain A. E. T.

  • Richards, Chaplain, 3rd Class, Rev. F. R.

  • Richardson, Major H. M. W., D.S.O.

  • Rickleton, Lieutenant J. G.

  • Robinson, Lieutenant C. G. H.

  • Robson, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. G. T.

  • Rodger, Lieutenant W. J., D.C.M.

  • Rogers, Captain S. D.

  • Rohloff, Major F. R.

  • Rose, Major J. M.

  • Rowe, Lieutenant L. J.

  • Roy, 2nd Lieutenant J. A. McL., bar to M.C.

  • Russell, Captain G. V.

  • Russell, Captain J.

  • Sandham, Captain G.

  • Saxon, Captain K. R. J., bar to M.C.

  • Scholes, 2nd Lieutenant E. E.

  • Scott, Lieutenant K., bar to M.C.

  • Scott, Major L. M.

  • Seaward, Lieutenant C. F.

  • Seddon, 2nd Lieutenant G. H.

  • Seddon, Lieutenant S. T.

  • Selby, Captain E. F.

  • Senior, Captain C. H. A.

  • Senior, Lieutenant S. E.

  • Sharp, Captain E. H.

  • Shera, Lieut.-Colonel L. M., O.B.E.

  • Sievers, Lieutenant W. N.

  • Sinclair, 2nd Lieutenant F. G.

  • Sim, Lieutenant T. M.

  • Simmonds, Captain H.

  • Slevin, Company Sergeant-major F. R.

  • Smith, Captain S. G.

  • Snelling, 2nd Lieutenant T. A.

  • Southey, 2nd Lieutenant C. C., M.M.

  • Spiers, Captain P. W. G.

  • Stainton, Captain W. H.

  • Stallard, Captain F. J. W.

  • Stedman, Lieutenant M. A.

  • Stewart, Lieutenant C. G.

  • Stewart, 2nd Lieutenant E. G.

  • Stewart, Lieutenant F.

  • Stewart, Captain J. G.

  • Stewart, Lieut.-Colonel H., D.S.O. and bar.

  • Stilwell, Lieutenant W. F.

  • Stitt, Lieut.-Colonel A. D., D.S.O.

  • Stocker, 2nd Lieutenant V.

  • Sutherland, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Swan, Lieutenant G.

  • Taylor, Lieutenant C. H.

  • Taylor, Captain L. J.

  • Thomas, Lieutenant A. W.

  • Thomas, Lieutenant J. T.

  • Thompson, Lieutenant H. J.

  • Thoms, Major N. W. B., D.S.O.

  • Thomson, Major A.

  • Tilsey, Lieutenant R., D.C.M.

  • Tingey, Captain E.

  • Todd, Captain B. A.

  • Tomline, 2nd Lieutenant G. H.

  • Tonkin, Captain J. F.

  • Tracey, Captain J. F.

  • Tremewan, Lieutenant W. B.

  • Tuck, Lieutenant G. A.

  • Turnbull, Lieut.-Colonel F. K., D.S.O.

  • Turner, Major F. M.

  • Tyson, 2nd Lieutenant E. F.

  • Urquhart, Major M.

  • Varnham, Captain F. S.

  • Vause, 2nd Lieutenant H.

  • Vickerman, 2nd Lieutenant K. L.

  • Wainscott, Lieutenant A. G.

  • Wales, Captain J. G. C.

  • Walker, Lieutenant D. J. B.

  • Walker, Captain M. R.

  • Walker, Captain W. H.

  • Wallingford, Major J. A.

  • Walls, Chaplain, 4th Class, C. (Salvation Army).

  • Ward, Captain T. L.

  • Watson, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. R. S.

  • Watson, Captain W.

  • Watt, Captain M. McP.

  • Webster, Company Sergeant - major G. F.

  • Wells, Lieutenant E. R.

  • White, Captain A. T.

  • White, Captain E.

  • Whitefield, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Whitmore, Captain F. N.

  • Whyte, Captain A. D. S., M.B.

  • Whyte, Captain H. H.

  • Widdowson, Captain W. H. S.

  • Wigley, Lieutenant A. J.

  • Wilder, Major A. S.

  • Wilkes, Captain T. M.

  • Williams, Captain E. G.

  • Williams, Major O. W.

  • Wilson, Lieutenant F. W.

  • Wilson, 2nd Lieutenant 'J. H., M.M.

  • Wilson, Major N. R.

  • Winchester, Captain E. A.

  • Winkler, Lieutenant E. R.

  • Wood, Major F. A.

  • Wood, Lieutenant R., M.M.

  • Woodward, 2nd Lieutenant W. J.

  • Worley, Lieutenant R.

  • Wray, Major W. G.

  • Wrightson, Captain R. W.

  • Wyllie, Captain E. M., M.B.

  • Yorke, 2nd Lieutenant W. H.

  • Young, 2nd Lieutenant R. A.

  • Zeisler, Captain E.

Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class (A.R.R.C.).

  • Anderson, Matron C. B., 1917.

  • Atkinson, Sister M. G., 1918.

  • Beswick, Sister M. B., 1917.

  • Bicknell, Matron J., 1917.

  • Bird, Sister L. M., 1917.

  • Brandon, Sister L., 1917.

  • Brooks, Sister B., 1917.

  • Buckley, Sister A., 1917.

  • Chalmers, Sister M., 1917.

  • Christmas, Sister M. L., 1918.

  • Davies, Staff Nurse K., 1917.

  • Dodds, Sub-Matron J. C., 1918.

  • Early, Staff Nurse M. A., 1917.

  • Fanning, Sister R. G., 1918.

  • Fricker, Sister N., 1918.

  • Gilmer, Sister J. M. R., 1917.

  • Grigor, Sister M., 1917.

  • Hodges, Staff Nurse E., 1917.

  • Huddleston, Sister B. M., 1918.

  • Ingles, Sister A. C., 1918.

  • Looney, Sister M. F., 1917.

  • Metherell, Sister G. M., 1917.

  • McBeth, Staff Nurse M., 1917.

  • McGann, Staff Nurse S. J., 1917.

  • McLean, Sister V., R.R.C., 1917

  • McNie, Acting-Matron L. A., 1917.

  • McRae, Acting-Matron I. M., 1917.

  • Nixon, Matron E., 1917.

  • Nutsey, Sister E. N., 1918.

  • Pengelly, Sister E., 1917.

  • Popplewell, Sister E., 1917.

  • Scott, Sister I., 1917.

  • Siddells. Sister F., 1918.

  • Speedy, Sister F. H., 1917.

  • Trumble, Staff Nurse L. M., 1917.

  • White, Sister W., 1917.

  • Wilkie, Sister M. H., 1917.

  • Wilkin, Sister E. L., 1917.

  • Wilson, Matron F., 1917.

  • Willis, Acting-Matron I. G., 1917.

  • Wright, Sister K. E., 1917.

  • Wright, Sister M., 1918.

  • Young, Sister C., 1918.

Bar to the Distinguished-conduct Medal (D.C.M.).

Anderson, Sergeant H.

Foot, Lance-Sergeant S. C.

Riddett, Sergeant-major J. J.

Distinguished-conduct Medal (D.C.M.).

(a.) Members of New Zealand Contingents in South Africa, 1899-02.

  • Baigent, Private I.

  • Black, Staff Sergeant-major G. C.

  • Burr, Sergeant-major W. T.

  • Cassidy, Sergeant W.

  • Fletcher, Major W. H.

  • Free, Private A.

  • Kent, Sergeant W.

  • Langham, Sergeant-major J.

  • Lockett, Sergeant-major E. B.

  • Pickett, Sergeant-major M.

  • Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.

  • Wade, Private H. B.

  • White, Sergeant-major H.

(b.) Members of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, the War of 1914-19.

  • Abbey, Sergeant A. W.

  • Akroyd, Private A. G.

  • Alexander, Corporal S. C. S.

  • Anderson, Staff Sergeant-major A. G.

  • Armstrong, 2nd Lieutenant L. J.

  • Auld, Corporal J. A.

  • Bailey, Regimental Sergeant-major A.

  • Bain, Battery Sergeant-major G. R.

  • Baker, Sergeant F., M.M.

  • Baker, Company Sergeant-major G. B.

  • Barclay, Sergeant F.

  • Barker, Private C. R.

  • Barlow, Private H.

  • Barr, Sergeant J. A.

  • Barr, Private K. D.

  • Bates, Regimental Sergeant-major W.

  • Battersby, 2nd Lieutenant G. H.

  • Batty, Sergeant A. I.

  • Beauchamp, 2nd Lieutenant H. R. H

  • Beck, Private T. J.

  • Bellamy, Sergeant H.

  • Bennett, 2nd Lieutenant P. H. G.

  • Berry, Rifleman M.

  • Birch, Private C.

  • Black, Sergeant T.

  • Blundell, Sergeant E. K.

  • Boate, Sergeant-major P. C.

  • Board, Sergeant S.

  • Boles, 2nd Lieutenant G. H.

  • Boreham, Private H.

  • Bowers, Lance-Corporal W. G.

  • Bowman, Private N. D.

  • Boyd, Company Sergeant-major R. A.

  • Bradley, Corporal A.

  • Bremner, 2nd Lieutenant O. H.

  • Brewer, Sergeant J. H.

  • Brokenshire, Corporal A. T., M.M.

  • Brown. 2nd Lieutenant A. W.

  • Brown, Sergeant C.

  • Brown, Sergeant R. D.

  • Brown, Sergeant W. G.

  • Buckthought, Sergeant N. W.

  • Buckworth, Sergeant C. G.

  • Bunbury, 2nd Lieutenant T. A.

  • Burns, Lance-Corporal K. B.

  • Burrows, Sergeant L.

  • Butler, Sapper M.

  • Cameron, Sergeant-major E.

  • Cardno, Private J. F.

  • Carins, Corporal L. T.

  • Caselberg, Sapper A. L.

  • Cavenett, Private W. G.

  • Chadwick, Sergeant J.

  • Clark, Sergeant H. C. D.

  • Clark, Trooper J. P.

  • Clark, Fitter N.

  • Clifford, Sergeant F. H.

  • Coley, Sergeant A. K.

  • Conlon, Regimental Sergt.-major E. J.

  • Cooksley. Corporal W. E., M.M.

  • Comrie, Private J.

  • Coppell, Lance-Corporal M. H.

  • Corkill, Sergeant R.

  • Crawford-Watson, Private L.

  • Creed, Sergeant W. H. P.

  • Cruickshank, Sergeant V.

  • Cunneen, Sergeant W. C.

  • Cunningham, Sergeant A. J., M.M.

  • Cusack, Sergeant J.

  • Dallard, Private C. J.

  • Daniell, Company Sergeant-major L. T.

  • Davis, Sergeant-major D.

  • Davis, 2nd Lieutenant F. H.

  • Davy, Sergeant V. R.

  • de Latour, Lance-Corporal B. R.

  • de Lautour, Corporal A. G.

  • Deuchrass, Company Sergt-major W.

  • Devery, 2nd Lieutenant C. N.

  • Dibble, Corporal S. T.

  • Dickey, Rifleman A.

  • Dickinson, Sergeant L. R., M.M.

  • Dignan, Lieutenant B. L.

  • Dodds, Corporal F. M.

  • Donaldson, Sergeant T. D. S.

  • Douglas, Private W. T.

  • Draper, Lance-Corporal B.

  • Driver, Gunner A. S.

  • Du Flou, Company Sergt.-major L. L. J.

  • Dunlop, Corporal A.

  • Dunthorne, Private A.

  • Ecclesfield, Sergeant R. C.

  • Eisenhut, Squadron Sergeant-major H.

  • Ellery. Sergeant F.

  • Evans, Sergeant J. H.

  • Evans, Sergeant W. D.

  • Fairhall, Sergeant E. E.

  • Fergusson, Sergeant F. C.

  • Findlay, Private A. J.

  • Fisher, Sergeant G.

  • Fitzgerald, Sergeant R.

  • Fletcher, Sergeant D.

  • Ford, Lance-Corporal G. C.

  • Forde, Lance-Corporal M. J.

  • Fraser, Sergeant H. C.

  • Free, Sergeant W. L.

  • Friend, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Gair, 2nd Lieutenant C.

  • Gapes, Sergeant A.

  • Gilbert, Corporal H. P.

  • Gillam, Corporal A.

  • Goldingham, 2nd Lieutenant K. A.

  • Gordon, 2nd Lieutenant T. J.

  • Graham, Q.M.-Sergeant L. S. L. L.

  • Greenbank, Lance-Corporal L.

  • Greig, Sergeant F.

  • Griffiths, Corporal J. H.

  • Grubb, Company Q.M.-Sergeant J.

  • Gustafson, Regimental Sergeant-major W. A.

  • Guy, 2nd Lieutenant I. D.

  • Haddow, Regimental Sergeant-major R. W.

  • Halligan, Sergeant R. H.

  • Hansen, Private J.

  • Hardy. Corporal F. H.

  • Harper, Captain R. P., D.S.O., M.C.

  • Hatch, Sergeant G.

  • Hartley, Corporal S.

  • Hayton, Sergeant G., M.M.

  • Healey, Rifleman M.

  • Heaton, Sergeant F.

  • Henry, Corporal W. J.

  • Hewitt, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Hibbs, 2nd Lieutenant A. L.

  • Hill, Lance-Corporal C. T.

  • Hill, Sergeant J. F.

  • Hill, 2nd Lieutenant J. L.

  • Hodges, Sapper E. A.

  • Holder, Sergeant F. N.

  • Hooper, Sergeant A. G.

  • Hunter, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Hunter, 2nd Lieutenant V. G.

  • Ibbotson, Sergeant-major W.

  • Inglis, Bombardier D. C.

  • Jacobs, Sergeant E. C. H.

  • Jenkins, 2nd Lieutenant F.

  • Johnson, Private H. A.

  • Jordon, Sergeant E.

  • Joyce, Battery Sergeant-major J. P.

  • Judson. 2nd Lieutenant R. S., V.C., M.M.

  • Karika, Sergeant Pa G.

  • Keatley, Sergeant J.

  • Kelly, Corporal E.

  • Kenna, Company Sergeant-major T.

  • Kennedy, Sergeant-major E. J.

  • Kennerley, Sergeant T. R.

  • Kennet, Sergeant J. P.

  • Keogh, Private J. L.

  • Kerrigan, Rifleman M.

  • Lamb, Sergeant J. McG.

  • Lanauze, Private E.

  • Lang, Lance-Corporal F.

  • Langrish, Rifleman J. G.

  • Latimer, 2nd Lieutenant R. T.

  • Lee, Private J. A.

  • Lepper, Private R.

  • Lewis, Sergeant W. J.

  • Little, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Livingstone, Sergeant B. V., M.M.

  • Lloyd, Corporal D. P.

  • Lloyd, Sergeant L. J.

  • Macaskill, Sergeant M.

  • Macdonald, Private A.

  • Mackay, Company Sergt.-major D. M. G.

  • Macpherson, Lance-Corporal J.

  • McCall, 2nd Lieutenant J. J.

  • McCormick, 2nd Lieutenant A. L., M.C.

  • McFadyen, Company Sergeant-major A.

  • McGregor, Lance-Corporal M. T.

  • McGregor, Sergeant P.

  • McKean, 2nd Lieutenant W., M.M.

  • McKenzie, Corporal K.

  • McLean, Sapper K. B.

  • McLennan, Private A.

  • McLeod, Private R. C.

  • McNamara, Sergeant S. A.

  • McQueen, Bombardier W.

  • Magee, Sergeant L. P.

  • Mahoney, Corporal W. F.

  • Malone, Sergeant M. P.

  • Managh, Lance-Sergeant S. W.

  • Manderson, Rifleman P.

  • Manson, Sergeant R. V., M.M.

  • Marks, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Marshall, Sergeant S.

  • Martin, 2nd Lieutenant A.

  • Melville, Private H.

  • Menzies, 2nd Lieutenant C. E.

  • Mills, Sergeant A. C.

  • Mitchell, Captain F.

  • Moorhouse, Corporal W. C. S.

  • Morris, Sergeant W. P.

  • Morrison, Regimental Sergeant-major L. G.

  • Moss, Company Sergeant-major E. S.

  • Muir, Corporal H.

  • Muir, Sergeant T.

  • Mulligan, Captain A. S., M.M.

  • Mulvaney, Corporal M. J.

  • Munn, 2nd Lieutenant W. G.

  • Murphy, Private D.

  • Murray, Sergeant W.

  • Neilson, Corporal A.

  • Nesbit, Trooper D. D.

  • Nettleingham, Private P. J.

  • Nimmo, Corporal A.

  • Nimmo, Rifleman T.

  • Norrin, Lance-Corporal J. R.

  • Notton, Corporal A.

  • O'Brien, Sergeant J. H.

  • O'Connor, Trooper D. J.

  • O'Connor, Private F. O.

  • O'Connor, Private T. R.

  • Ohlson, 2nd Lieutenant A. W. M.

  • Olds, Private J.

  • O'Neill, Sergeant T.

  • Page, Sergeant H., M.M.

  • Paranihi, Private Tau.

  • Parson, Private T. W.

  • Paterson, 2nd Lieutenant A.

  • Pauling, Company Sergeant-major W. J.

  • Pennefather, 2nd Lieutenant S. S., M.C.

  • Pinkham, Lance-Corporal G. W. F.

  • Potter, 2nd Lieutenant R. C.

  • Price, 2nd Lieutenant H. W.

  • Proctor, Sergeant W. A.

  • Purves, Sergeant L. D.

  • Randall, Lance-Corporal A. J.

  • Randell 2nd Lieutenant W. E.

  • Reid, Lieutenant W. J.

  • Rhind, Corporal H.

  • Richmond, Staff Sergeant-major T. M. E.

  • Ricketts, Lieutenant W.

  • Ritchie, Lance-Corporal L. R.

  • Roberts, Staff Sergeant-major A., M.M.

  • Robertson, 2nd Lieutenant F.

  • Rodger, Lieutenant W. J., M.C.

  • Ryan, Private J. E.

  • Sail, Private H. L.

  • Salmon, 2nd Lieutenant C. W.

  • Saunders, Corporal C. W.

  • Scarfe, 2nd Lieutenant E. R.

  • Scrimshaw, Sapper E. G.

  • Shackleton, Private J. L.

  • Shannon, Private R. C.

  • Sharp, Corporal T. W.

  • Sheppard, .2nd Lieutenant F. W. H.

  • Sheriff, Private W.

  • Short, Lance-Sergeant I. G.

  • Skinner, Lance-Corporal H. D.

  • Smith, Private A.

  • Smith, 2nd Lieutenant W. E.

  • Speakman, Private J.

  • Spencer, Corporal H.

  • Stade, Private F. A.

  • Steedman, Lance-Corporal A. B.

  • Sterritt, Sergeant D.

  • Stichbury, 2nd Lieutenant W. S.

  • Stobie, Sergeant C. W.

  • Stockdill, 2nd Lieutenant F.

  • Stringer, 2nd Lieutenant J. M., M.M.

  • Struthers, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Sturmey, Rifleman A. L.

  • Tannahill, Sergeant J.

  • Taplin, Sergeant J. H.

  • Taylor, Sergeant J. A.

  • Tempany, Private G. A.

  • Thompson, Sergeant N. B.

  • Thomson, Bombardier J. P.

  • Thomson, Private R.

  • Tilsley, Lieutenant R., M.C.

  • Toms, Lance-Corporal S. W.

  • Tribe, Sergeant L.

  • Tucker, Rifleman C. A.

  • Tunley, 2nd Lieutenant F. C.

  • Turner, Corporal B. R.

  • Vesty, Private M.

  • Vial, Private W. G.

  • Vickery, Company Sergeant-major E. M.

  • Vincent, 2nd Lieutenant J., M.M.

  • Voyle, 2nd Lieutenant J. W., M.M.

  • Wade, Driver S.

  • Walker, Sergeant W. R.

  • Ward, Sergeant A.

  • Ward, Sergeant M.

  • Waterson, Sergeant D. C.

  • Watson, Sapper K. W.

  • Weaver, Sergeant J.

  • Weaver, Trooper P.

  • Webster, Sergeant A. S.

  • White, 2nd Lieutenant C. N.

  • White, Private F.

  • White, Corporal W.

  • Williams, Corporal C. J.

  • Williamson, Sergeant W. J.

  • Wilson, Sergeant C.

  • Wilson, 2nd Lieutenant C. M.

  • Wilson, Private J. H.

  • Wimms, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Winter, Trooper J. H.

Bar to Militant Medal (M.M.).

  • Alexander, Gunner J. P.

  • Anderson, Corporal A. D.

  • Baker, Lance-Corporal G. H.

  • Baty, Private J. A.

  • Beck, Lance-Sergeant M.

  • Bennie, Corporal-Fitter A. H.

  • Broughton, Lance-Corporal D. S.

  • Campbell, Private R.

  • Carr, Sergeant H. M.

  • Clark, Sergeant A. H.

  • Cochran, Bombardier J. I. Y.

  • Cole, Corporal A. W. E.

  • Cooke, 2nd Lieutenant W. B., M.C.

  • Dowsing, Sergeant C. E.

  • Foote, Sergeant R. B.

  • Forrester, Lance-Corporal S. C.

  • Fraser, Private J. Mel.

  • Gallagher, Private A.

  • Gilbert, Private G.

  • Gordon, Sapper J.

  • Gordon, Sergeant P. A.

  • Hammond, Corporal S. A.

  • Hopper, 2nd Lieutenant H. M.

  • Howie, Private W. D.

  • Kelsall, Private E.

  • Kennedy, Sergeant F.

  • Kidman, Sergeant C. A. H.

  • Law, Corporal N. H.

  • McLennan, Staff Sergeant A. D.

  • McLeod, 2nd Lieutenant J. D.

  • McManus, 2nd Lieutenant C.

  • Methven, Corporal W.

  • Muir, Sergeant A. H.

  • Nicolas, Lieutenant J. W.

  • Noble, 2nd Corporal L. A.

  • Papworth, Lance-Corporal G. A.

  • Parsons, Private T. W., D.C.M.

  • Pattie, Bombardier R. D.

  • Porter, Private C. W.

  • Quinn, Private C.

  • Rawhiti, Private H.

  • Rowe, Corporal H. C.

  • Sands, Corporal L. R.

  • Simmers, Lieutenant R.

  • Sinclair, Sergeant R. J.

  • Sly, Corporal R. H.

  • Stevenson, Lance-Corporal F. W.

  • Sutherland, Sergeant F. A.

  • Swainson, Corporal A.

  • Thom, Corporal W. N.

  • Thomas, Sergeant L.

  • Timmins, Sergeant W.

  • Ware, Private W. G. C.

  • Whalley, Corporal G.

  • Wilman, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Woods, 2nd Lieutenant W.

Military Medal (M.M.).

  • Abbott, Private R, M. V.

  • Adams, Rifleman J.

  • Adams, Corporal J. Q.

  • Adams, Sapper R. W.

  • Adams, Bombardier T.

  • Adams, Private W. C.

  • Adamson, Private W.

  • Adlam, Corporal V. J.

  • Adsett, Private G.

  • Aitken, Corporal H. D.

  • Alexander, Private J.

  • Alexander, Private R.

  • Allan, Bombardier E. F.

  • Allan, Rifleman J.

  • Allan, Sergeant H.

  • Allan, 2nd Lieutenant L. F.

  • Allason, Rifleman W. J.

  • Allen, Lance-Corporal A. L.

  • Allen, Private F. C.

  • Allen, Sergeant J. E., M.C.

  • Allen, Trooper W.

  • Alley, Private R.

  • Allison, Rifleman A. J.

  • Allom, Private W. H.

  • Allpress, Lance-Corporal A. E.

  • Anderson, Private A.

  • Anderson, Private A. D.

  • Anderson, Sergeant C.

  • Anderson, Private E. A.

  • Anderson, 2nd Lieutenant J. H.

  • Anderson, Corporal V. G.

  • Anderson, Lance-Corporal W. F.

  • Andrew, Private A.

  • Andrew, Sergeant J. J.

  • Andrew, Private W.

  • Andrews, Private B.

  • Andrews, Sergeant E. E.

  • Andrews. 2nd Lieutenant W. T.

  • Angel, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Angell, Private J.

  • Angus, Private J. N.

  • Angus, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Annand, Private D. B.

  • Ansin, Rifleman F. W.

  • Apa, Private J.

  • Apperley, Private H. W.

  • Archer, Private W.

  • Armour, Trooper H.

  • Armstrong, Corporal J. W.

  • Arthur, Private L. C.

  • Arthur-Worsop, Sergeant A. C.

  • Arundel, Corporal G.

  • Ashby, Sergeant A.

  • Ashwin, Private L. F.

  • Ashworth, Bombardier A.

  • Atherfold, Corporal L. J.

  • Atkinson, Private E. W.

  • Atkinson, Sergeant P. H.

  • Atkinson, Corporal T.

  • Atkinson, Lance-Corporal V.

  • Austin, Private A. T. W.

  • Austin, Lance-Corporal J. J.

  • Avis, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Baddeley, Private F. S.

  • Backholm, Rifleman F. J.

  • Bagley, Rifleman E.

  • Baigent, Lance-Corporal J. T.

  • Bailey, Rifleman G.

  • Baillie, Private P. W.

  • Bain, Corporal J. H.

  • Baker, Sergeant G. B., D.C.M.

  • Baker, Corporal F.

  • Baker, Sergeant H.

  • Baker, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Baker, Corporal J. F.

  • Ball, Lance-Corporal C. J.

  • Ball, Lance-Corporal W. E.

  • Ballantyne, Lance-Corporal J. M.

  • Balle, Sergeant J. T.

  • Balneaves, Private A. E.

  • Bannatyne, Private N.

  • Barber, Private F.

  • Barber, Private F. C.

  • Barclay, Sergeant W.

  • Bargh, Private C.

  • Bargh, Corporal W.

  • Barker, Private T. A.

  • Barker, Driver W. W.

  • Barlow, Private F.

  • Barnes, Private S.

  • Barnett, Private P. E.

  • Barnett, Sergeant R. T.

  • Barr, Sergeant J. P.

  • Barr, Corporal S. D.

  • Barrett, Trooper W.

  • Barrow, Sapper J. D.

  • Bartels, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Bartle, Private J. R.

  • Bath, Private A. F. F.

  • Bathurst, Sergeant H. C.

  • Batty, Rifleman C. W.

  • Baxter, 2nd Lieutenant J. N.

  • Beacock, Sergeant J. A.

  • Beaton, Rifleman A.

  • Beaton, Sergeant J.

  • Beaufort, Private F. E.

  • Beck, Bombardier S. L.

  • Beck, Corporal T. J.

  • Beckingham, Lance-Corporal J. E.

  • Beeby, Private C. W.

  • Begg, Private I. W. D.

  • Belbin, Private P. A.

  • Belk, Sapper R. W.

  • Bell, Sergeant A.

  • Bell, 2nd Lieutenant T.

  • Bell, Corporal W. D.

  • Bellamy, Private H.

  • Bellerby, Lance-Corporal M.

  • Belton, Gunner L. D.

  • Bennett, Sapper L. G.

  • Bennett, Sergeant W. R.

  • Bennetto, Sergeant T. J.

  • Berg, Corporal L. A.

  • Bergamini, Driver G.

  • Berghan, Rifleman A. J.

  • Berney, Sergeant R. B. B.

  • Berridge, Private F.

  • Biddick, Private J. H.

  • Biggar, Private T.

  • Bigham, Sergeant H.

  • Billing, Lance-Corporal E. A.

  • Bird, Corporal A. F.

  • Bird, Corporal-Fitter A. W.

  • Bird, Bombardier A. W.

  • Bird, Private J. R.

  • Birkett, Sergeant W. A.

  • Birnie, Sergeant W.

  • Birtles, Sergeant J. A.

  • Bishop, Private J.

  • Bishop, Sergeant T. A.

  • Bishoprick, Private A. E.

  • Black, Corporal C. A.

  • Black, Sergeant D. C.

  • Black, Private E. L.

  • Black, Sergeant M. C.

  • Black, Lance-Corporal H. M.

  • Black, Corporal R. I.

  • Blackburn, Sergeant J. J.

  • Blackburn, Private P.

  • Blackwell, Gunner C. M.

  • Blackwell, 2nd Lieutenant R. M.

  • Blake, Lance-Sergeant H. J.

  • Blake, Corporal J. R.

  • Blakemore, Private H.

  • Blakemore, Sergeant J. F.

  • Blenkinsopp, Rifleman J.

  • Blomkvist, Private H. H. A.

  • Blyth, Sergeant L. M.

  • Boag, Private G. H.

  • Boles, 2nd Lieutenant J. H.

  • Bond, Lance-Sergeant W. T. N.

  • Boniface, Private C. D.

  • Booth, 2nd Lieutenant G. R.

  • Borlase, Lance-Sergeant W.

  • Borrie, Private D.

  • Bourk, Driver A.

  • Bower, Sergeant F.

  • Bower, Private H. R.

  • Bowers, Lance-Corporal W. G.

  • Bowater, Sergeant A. G.

  • Bowie, Sergeant W.

  • Bowles, Sergeant W. B.

  • Boyce, 2nd Lieutenant T.

  • Boyd, Private E. F.

  • Boyle, Corporal J. McK.

  • Bradley, 2nd Lieutenant A.

  • Bradley, Sergeant J. H.

  • Bradshaw, Private J. W.

  • Brady, Sergeant A. T.

  • Brake, Bombardier R. I.

  • Brandt, Sergeant H. J.

  • Brash, Private A. D.

  • Bray, Lance-Corporal C.

  • Bray, Sergeant W.

  • Breslin, Lance-Sergeant J.

  • Brewer, Private J. H.

  • Briarley, Private E. S.

  • Brickell, Private R, R.

  • Brien, Sergeant W. S.

  • Brierley, Corporal W.

  • Bright, Private W. G.

  • Brightwell, Private F.

  • Brister, 2nd Lieutenant S. G.

  • Brokenshire, Sapper A. T., D.C.M.

  • Bromell, Lance-Corporal M. C.

  • Bromley, Rifleman J. H.

  • Brothers, Lieutenant W. F.

  • Brown, Private C.

  • Brown, Corporal C. D.

  • Brown, Sergeant E. B.

  • Brown, Sergeant F. E.

  • Brown, Private G. A.

  • Brown, Sergeant J.

  • Brown, Private J.

  • Brown, Private N. G.

  • Brown, Private T.

  • Brown, Private T.

  • Brown, Gunner W.

  • Brown, Sergeant W. J.

  • Brown, Gunner W. J.

  • Brown, Private W. G.

  • Brown, 2nd Lieutenant W. S.

  • Browne, Sergeant C. T.

  • Browning, Sapper C. A.

  • Bruce, Private F.

  • Brunton, Lance-Sergeant J. S.

  • Brunton, Sergeant N. T.

  • Bryant, Driver L. M.

  • Bryant, Private W. H.

  • Buchanan, Private G. H.

  • Buchanan, Bombardier L. H.

  • Buchanan, Corporal T.

  • Buckland, Private A. F.

  • Buckeridge, Private E.

  • Bullen. Private R. H.

  • Buller, Private R. C.

  • Bullick, Private T.

  • Bullock, Sapper L. E.

  • Burgess, Rifleman G.

  • Burgess, Corporal J. W.

  • Burke, Private A. F.

  • Burke, Private J. A.

  • Burnley, Corporal L. A. G.

  • Burnett, Private W. H. J.

  • Burns, Corporal H. A. K.

  • Burns, Private R. J.

  • Bums, Private S. B.

  • Burnside, Private R. J.

  • Burrowes, Private J. K. H.

  • Burt, Private J. M.

  • Burt, Sergeant O. C. H.

  • Burton, Lance-Corporal L. A.

  • Burton, Lance-Corporal O. E.

  • Bushill, Sapper A.

  • Butler, Lance-Corporal A. J.

  • Butler, Rifleman W. H.

  • Butler, Private W. J.

  • Butt, Private T. H.

  • Butterworth, Private J. S.

  • Butterworth, Trooper S.

  • Byrne, Lance-Corporal H. J.

  • Byrne, Private N.

  • Byron, Private A. J. W.

  • Cadman, Bombardier A.

  • Cain, Sergeant R. H.

  • Cairns, 2nd Corporal J. E.

  • Calame, Sergeant P. E.

  • Calder, Private E. H.

  • Calderwood, Corporal J. H.

  • Caldwell, Sergeant R. T.

  • Cameron. Sapper A.

  • Cameron, Private G.

  • Cameron, Private K.

  • Cameron, Lance-Sergeant J.

  • Cameron, Sergeant K. E.

  • Cameron, Corporal R. B.

  • Cameron, Private R.

  • Campbell, Lance-Corporal A. K.

  • Campbell, Rifleman E. H.

  • Campbell, Sergeant F.

  • Campbell, 2nd Corporal G.

  • Campbell, Private K.

  • Campbell, Corporal T. M.

  • Campbell, Rifleman W. C.

  • Canton, Private W.

  • Capper, Bombardier H.

  • Carr, Lance-Corporal C. H.

  • Carrington, Corporal A. H.

  • Carroll, Driver J. W.

  • Carson, Private J.

  • Carter, Sergeant F. D.

  • Carter, Sergeant F. J.

  • Carver, Private S. F.

  • Cashmore, Corporal F. R.

  • Castles, Gunner J. V.

  • Caulfield, Private J. P.

  • Cauty, Sergeant J. V.

  • Chalmers, Lance-Corporal C.

  • Chambers, Rifleman W. V.

  • Chandler, Private G.

  • Chapman, Lance-Corporal W. C.

  • Chappell, Private F. E.

  • Charteris, Sergeant R.

  • Cheeseman, Rifleman J. H.

  • Childs, Lance-Corporal R. A.

  • Chirnside, 2nd Lieutenant T.

  • Chisholm, Private J.

  • Chitty, Private T. W.

  • Chong, Private G. M.

  • Church, Private D. M.

  • Church, Private R. A.

  • Churchill, Private J. L.

  • Ciochetto, 2nd Lieutenant C. V. M.C.

  • Clague, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Clancy, 2nd Lieutenant W. S.

  • Clark, Corporal A. C.

  • Clark, Sergeant A. S.

  • Clark, Sapper H. G.

  • Clark, Private J. W.

  • Clarke, Rifleman P. A.

  • Clarke, 2nd Lieutenant M.

  • Clarke, Private N.

  • Clarke, Sergeant S. B.

  • Clearwater, 2nd Lieutenant J. T.

  • Cleland, Private T. B.

  • Clemance, Lance-Corporal C. W.

  • Clement, Corporal D. H.

  • Clifford, Sergeant W. J.

  • Clinker, Rifleman H. S.

  • Close, Private A. A.

  • Closey, Private F. W.

  • Clothier, Private W. A.

  • Coats, Sergeant H. E.

  • Cochran, Private H. R.

  • Cody, 2nd Lieutenant J. F.

  • Coe, 2nd Lieutenant A. H.

  • Cole, Lance-Corporal F. C.

  • Cole, Sergeant K. M.

  • Cole-Baker, Private D. P. G.

  • Coleman, Lance-Corporal E. J.

  • Coles, Private T.

  • Coley, Driver J. B.

  • Collin, Private B. A.

  • Collins, Lance-Corporal A. E.

  • Collins, 2nd Lieutenant W. J.

  • Collis, Sergeant F.

  • Columbus, Private L. H.

  • Connell, Private C. W.

  • Conway, Private A.

  • Conway, Private R. V.

  • Cook, Sergeant J. A.

  • Cook, Bombardier A. C.

  • Cooke, Private H.

  • Cooksley, Sergeant B. V.

  • Cooksley, Corporal W. E., D.C.M.

  • Coombes, Private A. N.

  • Coombes, Private J. A.

  • Coop, Rifleman N.

  • Cooper, Lance-Sergeant G. B.

  • Coote, 2nd Lieutenant J. C.

  • Coppell, Private W. R.

  • Corbett, Corporal A.

  • Corbett, Rifleman W. H.

  • Cordell, Corporal T. A.

  • Corrie, Trooper A.

  • Corry, Private W. A.

  • Cosbrook, Sergeant A. J.

  • Costar, Gunner W. R.

  • Coster, Sergeant A. H.

  • Cottingham, Artificer S. H.

  • Couch, Private C. A.

  • Coughey, Private J.

  • Coubrough, Driver D. W.

  • Coulam, Sergeant F.

  • Couling, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Cousins, Driver W. R.

  • Cowie, Lance-Corporal G. M.

  • Cowie, Sergeant R.

  • Cox, Sergeant A. B.

  • Cox, Lance-Corporal W. E. B.

  • Coxhead, Private S. M.

  • Craig, Sergeant P. G.

  • Craven, Rifleman W.

  • Crawford, 2nd Lieutenant E. H.

  • Crawford, Private T. H.

  • Crawley, Sergeant D. J.

  • Crawshay, Private V. G.

  • Cray, Private D.

  • Cree, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Creed, Private S. G.

  • Creighton, Private O.

  • Croker, 2nd Lieutenant B. W.

  • Cross, Bombardier N. E.

  • Cross, Corporal F. L.

  • Crossen, Private W. J.

  • Crowe, Private G. P.

  • Crowther, Private H.

  • Crutchley, Corporal L.

  • Cullen, Lance-Corporal E. L.

  • Cumming, Sergeant W.

  • Cunningham, Sergeant A. J., D.C.M.

  • Cupples, Private E. L.

  • Curran, 2nd Lieutenant T. M. J.

  • Currey, 2nd Lieutenant A. A.

  • Currie, Rifleman J.

  • Curry, Private A. W.

  • Curry, Private C. J. H.

  • Curry, Private D. W.

  • Cusack, Lance-Sergeant J. W.

  • Cuthbertson, Sergeant W. J.

  • Cuthill, Lance-Corporal R. J.

  • Cutts, Corporal T.

  • Dabner, Private H.

  • Dacre, Corporal L. M.

  • Dagnall, Sergeant W.

  • Dalzell, Rifleman A.

  • Danby, Lance-Corporal A. W.

  • Dass, Private C. E. H.

  • Dartnall, 2nd Lieutenant C. A.

  • Davey, Trooper A.

  • Davidson, Sergeant D.

  • Davis, Sergeant C. H.

  • Davis, Private J. S.

  • Davis, Private O. O.

  • Dawbin, Private H. J.

  • Dawson, Private C. R.

  • Dawson, Private J. R.

  • Day, Driver H.

  • Day, Lance-Corporal H. N.

  • Dean, Lance-Corporal E. J.

  • Dean, Private E. M.

  • Dean, Corporal H.

  • Dean, Corporal J.

  • De Luen, Corporal F.

  • Denize, Private H. V.

  • Denne, Corporal A. E.

  • Dent, Sergeant I.

  • Detteret, Sergeant A.

  • Dewar, Sergeant J. L.

  • Dewar, Lance-Corporal O. B.

  • Diack, Private A.

  • Diamanti, Trooper R. J.

  • Dibble, Private S. T.

  • Dickason, Rifleman A. E.

  • Dickinson, Private C. T.

  • Dickinson, Private L. R., D.C.M.

  • Dickson, Private N.

  • Dillon, Private A. H.

  • Dinnie, Sergeant C. H.

  • Dixon, Sergeant B. L.

  • Dixon, 2nd Lieutenant W. B.

  • Dobbyn, Sapper A. J.

  • Dobson, Bombardier T.

  • Dockery, Gunner A. E.

  • Dodds, Corporal J. T. K.

  • Dolman, Private W.

  • Donaldson, Lance-Sergeant G. A. H.

  • Donaldson, Sapper M.

  • Donghi, Private H. A.

  • Donovan, Private C. A.

  • Douglas, Private A. McF.

  • Douglas, Private K. W.

  • Downey, Private S. G.

  • Downie, Private H. C.

  • Downs, Corporal W.

  • Dowsing, Sergeant J.

  • Doyle, Private A. R.

  • Doyne, Private J. D.

  • Dredge, Sergeant G. M. L.

  • Dron, Private T.

  • Drury, Rifleman F. B.

  • Duff, Corporal A.

  • Duggan, Corporal J. W.

  • Duggan, Private L.

  • Duncan, Sergeant C. M.

  • Dunford, Lance-Corporal D. J.

  • Dunstall, Gunner F. A.

  • Durrant, Farrier C. G.

  • Duston, Sergeant H. McK.

  • Duthie, Corporal E. D.

  • Eagle, Sergeant F.

  • Eastgate, Lance-Corporal H. S.

  • Easton, Lance-Corporal M. G.

  • Easton, Sergeant W. B.

  • Ebert, Private G.

  • Edgecombe, Corporal F. C.

  • Edmonds, Driver A. E.

  • Edwards, Private E. E.

  • Edwards, Private C.

  • Edwards, Private S. H.

  • Edwards, Rifleman W. H.

  • Ellen, 2nd Lieutenant H., M.C.

  • Elliott, Sergeant A. C.

  • Elliott, Sergeant W. C. D.

  • Ellis, Private H. A.

  • Ellis, Lieutenant R. F.

  • Elsom, Sergeant C. H.

  • Emery, Private O.

  • Empson, Private O. C.

  • Entwhistle, Driver C.

  • Erikson, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Evans, Sergeant R. C.

  • Evans, Lance-Corporal O.

  • Everett, Private P.

  • Everett, Gunner R. E.

  • Eyles, Corporal H. P.

  • Fairbrother, Private R. E.

  • Fairweather, Private S.

  • Faithful, Private W. H.

  • Fake, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Falla, Private H. T.

  • Falls, Lance-Corporal D.

  • Fargie, Trooper W. G.

  • Farr, Sapper R. C.

  • Farrell, 2nd Lieutenant E.

  • Farrington, Driver M. C.

  • Fatt, Rifleman S.

  • Feather, Lance-Corporal T. E.

  • Fenemor, Sergeant R. C.

  • Ferguson, Rifleman C.

  • Ferguson, Trooper H.

  • Ferguson, Sergeant R. L.

  • Fernandez, Corporal J.

  • Ferrand, Sapper H. C.

  • Few, Corporal F.

  • Findlay, Lance-Corporal J. M.

  • Finlay, Lance-Corporal C. P.

  • Finlayson, Private W. J.

  • Finn, Private H. McL.

  • Finnerty, Private J.

  • Finucane, Sergeant E. M.

  • Fitzgerald, Sergeant N. E.

  • Fitzgerald, Lance-Sergeant W. M.

  • Fitzsimmons, Private A. J.

  • Fix, Sergeant W. J.

  • Flavell, Lance-Corporal R. H.

  • Fleming, Gunner R. I.

  • Fletcher, Corporal E. C.

  • Fletcher, Lance-Corporal F. N.

  • Flood, Private J.

  • Flowerday, Private H. N.

  • Flutey, Corporal R. H.

  • Fly, Lance-Corporal M. H.

  • Flynn, Private E. J.

  • Flynn, Sergeant M.

  • Fogarty, Lance-Sergeant R.

  • Fogelberg, Sapper C. E.

  • Foley, Private J.

  • Foley, Private P.

  • Foote, Private E.

  • Foote, 2nd Lieutenant H. A.

  • Ford, Private M.

  • Forrest, Private T. F.

  • Forsyth, Rifleman A. E.

  • Foster, Private G. A. W.

  • Foster, Private J.

  • Foster, Private R.

  • Fotheringham, Lance-Corporal G. B.

  • Fowler, Private S. J. E.

  • Fox, Sergeant E. V.

  • Fox, Corporal H.

  • Fraser, Company Sergeant-major A. H.

  • Fraser, Sergeant D.

  • Fraser, Private H. S.

  • Fraser, Corporal J. D.

  • Fraser, Private J. McI., bar to M.M.

  • Fraser, Sergeant J. R.

  • Fraser, Rifleman J. S.

  • Freshney, Corporal J. B.

  • Frew, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Fricker, Sergeant H. E.

  • Frost, Private E. W. J.

  • Frost, Lance-Corporal R. W. A.

  • Fruin, Rifleman J. L.

  • Fullarton, Lance-Corporal D. McT.

  • Fuller, Lance-Corporal E. G.

  • Gaffney, Lance-Corporal P. J.

  • Galbraith, Private J. A.

  • Gallagher, 2nd Lieutenant A. W.

  • Gallagher, Private M. C.

  • Galvin, Corporal F. G.

  • Galvin, Private M.

  • Gardner, Lance-Corporal G. W.

  • Garlick, Private R. T.

  • Garnett, Sapper J. W.

  • Garrett, Sergeant W. E.

  • Gates, Private F. G.

  • Gawler, Private S. R.

  • Geange, Private T.

  • George, Private B.

  • Gerken, Private G. L.

  • Gerrand, Private J. F.

  • Gibb, Corporal A. E.

  • Gibbs, Private L. L.

  • Gibbs, Sapper W. H.

  • Gibson, Gunner C.

  • Gibson, Private L. V.

  • Giffney, Sapper J. A.

  • Gilbert, Private G., bar to M.M.

  • Gilbert, Lance-Corporal J. R.

  • Gilbert, Corporal M.

  • Giles, Lance-Corporal S.

  • Gill, Lance-Sergeant A. M.

  • Gillespie, Private L. W.

  • Gillespie, 2nd Lieutenant A. O.

  • Gillon, Private J.

  • Gilmore, Sergeant W. B.

  • Gilmore, 2nd Lieutenant A. F.

  • Gilshman, 2nd Lieutenant S. E.

  • Girdlestone, Gunner G. S.

  • Girven, Lance-Corporal E.

  • Girven, Bombardier W. D.

  • Glassey, Private J.

  • Gledhill, Corporal G. L.

  • Gleeson, 2nd Corporal F. C.

  • Glentworth, Sergeant J. P.

  • Glogoski, Lance-Corporal E. W.

  • Going, Corporal L. R.

  • Golder, Sergeant A. G.

  • Goldfinch, Sergeant S.

  • Golding, Private S.

  • Goldsmith, Private F.

  • Goldstone, Lance-Corporal C.

  • Goodfellow, Sergeant T. A.

  • Goodhue, Sergeant A. C.

  • Goodin, Trooper S. L.

  • Gordon, Private A. W.

  • Gordon, Lance-Corporal C. J.

  • Gordon, 2nd Lieutenant J. McK.

  • Gordon, 2nd Lieutenant L. G.

  • Gorton, 2nd Lieutenant A. E.

  • Gould, Lance-Corporal J. R.

  • Goulden, Corporal H. H.

  • Gowers, Rifleman H.

  • Gradwell, Rifleman G. H.

  • Graham, Private A. C.

  • Graham, Corporal W. R.

  • Grainger, Bombardier A. R.

  • Grant, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Grant, Lance-Corporal C. O.

  • Grant, Lance-Corporal T. M.

  • Grant, Bombardier R. McP.

  • Gray, Rifleman C. A.

  • Gray, 2nd Lieutenant R. N., M.C.

  • Green, Corporal F. V.

  • Green, Private G. T. W.

  • Green, Corporal H. V.

  • Green, Corporal W. J.

  • Greenwood, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Gregson, Staff Sergeant J.

  • Gribble, Corporal W.

  • Grieve, Private E.

  • Griffin, Private A.

  • Griffiths, Corporal C. C.

  • Grundy, Private H. R.

  • Guise, Private H.

  • Gunn, Corporal A.

  • Gunn, Lance-Corporal D.

  • Gunn, 2nd Lieutenant F.

  • Gunn, Private W. G.

  • Guthrie, Bombardier A. H.

  • Guthrie, Private R. A.

  • Guthrie, Sergeant R. G.

  • Guthrie, Private W.

  • Guy, Private T. F.

  • Gwilliam, Gunner G. W. A.

  • Hadfield, Private R. H.

  • Hadley, Gunner P. R.

  • Hailes, Lance-Corporal W. J.

  • Haldane, Lance-Corporal W. J.

  • Hall, Private A.

  • Hall, Sergeant A. C.

  • Hall, Private A. M.

  • Hall, Corporal C. J.

  • Hall, Sergeant G.

  • Hallam, Rifleman W. E.

  • Hallett, Rifleman E. W.

  • Halligan, Lance-Corporal R. H.

  • Halpin, Lance-Corporal L. J.

  • Halvorsen, Private G.

  • Hamill, Lance-Corporal F. W.

  • Hamilton, Lance-Corporal L. R.

  • Hamlin, Private K. W.

  • Hammersley, Lance-Corporal J. M.

  • Hammond, Gunner I. E.

  • Hampton, Corporal H. R.

  • Hanger, Sergeant J. M.

  • Hannan, Lance-Corporal W. C.

  • Hansen, Private I. T.

  • Hansen, Driver G. H.

  • Hanson, Lance-Corporal F. M. H.

  • Hanson, Lance-Corporal S. F.

  • Haraki, Private W.

  • Harding, Corporal R. W.

  • Hardy, Corporal J. H.

  • Hardy, Sapper T. G.

  • Harper, Lance-Corporal L. A.

  • Harper, Private T. S.

  • Harrington, Lance-Corporal T. W.

  • Harris, Private C. A. J.

  • Harris, Private H.

  • Harris, Private J.

  • Hart, Private G. H.

  • Hart, Corporal J. G.

  • Hart, Sergeant R. G.

  • Hartigan, Rifleman H. H.

  • Hartman, 2nd Lieutenant B.

  • Hartman, Bombardier L.

  • Harty, Lieutenant L. P.

  • Harvey, Gunner C.

  • Harwood, Rifleman J. R. B.

  • Hastie, Sergeant G.

  • Hatfull, Lance-Corporal T.

  • Hatton, Sergeant R.

  • Havill, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Hawke, Corporal A. R.

  • Hawkes, Private C. J.

  • Hay, Private A. C.

  • Hayter, Rifleman R.

  • Hayton, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Hearn, Lance-Corporal F. W.

  • Heath, Rifleman H.

  • Heekin, Private T.

  • Heese, Lance-Sergeant B.

  • Helm, Private A. M.

  • Henderson, Gunner A. L. H.

  • Henderson, Private A. R.

  • Henderson, Sergeant C. L.

  • Henderson, Private E.

  • Henderson, Private R. A.

  • Henley, 2nd Lieutenant N. G.

  • Hennessy, Private W. G.

  • Henry, Company Sergeant-major C. C.

  • Henry, Driver G. E.

  • Henry, Corporal P.

  • Henson, Lance-Corporal J. H. H.

  • Hermiston, Private W.

  • Heron, Staff Sergeant D. H. H.

  • Heslop, Private J. W.

  • Hewitt, Private G.

  • Hewitt, Lance-Corporal J. E.

  • Hickey, Lance-Corporal M.

  • Hickey, Private W. J.

  • Hicks, Sergeant F. T.

  • Hicks, Lieutenant W. J.

  • Higginson, Corporal N. L.

  • Hill, Corporal E.

  • Hill, Lance-Corporal J

  • Hill, Corporal R. S.

  • Hilliard, Private J.

  • Hinchco, Private A.

  • Hinds, Private C.

  • Hine, Sergeant C. P.

  • Hine, Sergeant H. S.

  • Hinton, Corporal C. P. V.

  • Hodgson, Corporal F. J.

  • Hodgson, 2nd Lieutenant F. J

  • Hodgson, Sapper J. H.

  • Holder, Sergeant W. R.

  • Holgate, Private H. C.

  • Hollywood, Sapper J. E.

  • Holman, Private E.

  • Holmes, 2nd Lieutenant A. L.

  • Holmes, Private O. S.

  • Holmes, Sergeant P. D.

  • Holyoake, Rifleman F. T.

  • Hooker, Private A. C.

  • Hopkins, Private C.

  • Hopkins, Lance-Sergeant E.

  • Hopkins, Private L. G.

  • Hori, Private K.

  • Horn, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Horn, Corporal R. H.

  • Hornblow, Corporal J. A.

  • Hornell, Trooper W. J.

  • Hornwell, 2nd Lieutenant W. W.

  • Hough, Private R.

  • Hounsell, Private G. E.

  • Houston, Sapper J.

  • Howard, 2nd Corporal A. A.

  • Howatson, Private A. S.

  • Howden, Corporal J. A.

  • Howe, Private A.

  • Howe, Sergeant O. W.

  • Howie, Private W. D., bar to M.M.

  • Howie, Private W. J.

  • Howlett, Sergeant D.

  • Hudson, Private A.

  • Hudson, Private R.

  • Hughes, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Hughes, Lance-Corporal E. A.

  • Hughes, Trumpeter O.

  • Huggins, Private E. M.

  • Hull, Trooper J. K.

  • Hulton, Sergeant T. H.

  • Humphries, Corporal C. W.

  • Hunter, Corporal J.

  • Hunter, Private J. R.

  • Hunter, Private E. J.

  • Hunter, Private W. G.

  • Hurley, Corporal D.

  • Hutchings, Sergeant W.

  • Hutchins, Rifleman F. G.

  • Hutchins, Private G. T.

  • Hyde, Sapper M. C.

  • Hynes, Corporal H. W.

  • Idle, Private S.

  • Ilton. Private W. E.

  • Inch, Sergeant V. W.

  • Ingram, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Ingram, Private S.

  • Ingpen, Rifleman N. L.

  • Irvine, Sergeant G. W. McL.

  • Irvine, Rifleman J.

  • Irvine, Private R. F. B.

  • Irving, Rifleman W. C.

  • Jackson, Private A. D.

  • Jackson, Corporal C. W.

  • Jackson, Private F.

  • Jackson, Private H.

  • Jackson, 2nd Lieutenant J.

  • Jackson, Private R. M.

  • Jacques, Private W. H.

  • James, Private J. E.

  • Jamieson, Private R.

  • Jaques, Private P.

  • Jefferson, Corporal W. B.

  • Jeffs, Sergeant A. H.

  • Jeffrey, Private R.

  • Jeffreys, Sergeant H. D.

  • Jenkins, 2nd Lieutenant D. A.

  • Jenkins, Rifleman F.

  • Jenkins, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Jennens, Sergeant C. K.

  • Jensen, Lance-Sergeant A. R.

  • Jepson, Sergeant O.

  • Jesse, Rifleman P. W.

  • Jeune, Gunner D. J. F.

  • Joblin, Trooper P.

  • Johnsen, Company Sergeant-major F. W.

  • Johnson, Private A. R.

  • Johnson, Gunner F. W.

  • Johnson, Private H. A.

  • Johnson, Corporal H. R.

  • Johnson, Private J.

  • Johnson, Private J. A. W. B.

  • Johnson, Lance-Corporal H. H.

  • Johnson, Corporal T. O.

  • Johnston, Rifleman A.

  • Johnston, Gunner A. H.

  • Johnston, Sergeant W. A.

  • Johnstone, Staff Sergeant A. M.

  • Johnstone, Driver R.

  • Johnstone, Private R.

  • Joll, Private H. L.

  • Jonas, Sapper C. T.

  • Jones, Private D.

  • Jones, Private D. G.

  • Jones, Private E. J.

  • Jones, Rifleman J. A.

  • Jones, Corporal M. R.

  • Jones, Lance-Corporal S. W.

  • Jones, Gunner W. A.

  • Jowers, Rifleman W. H

  • Judd, Rifleman P. K.

  • Judson, 2nd Lieutenant R. S., V.C., D.C.M.

  • Juggins, Trooper J. F.

  • Jury, Corporal C. R.

  • Kasper, Sergeant A. C.

  • Kearney, Private J. J.

  • Keen, Private T. A.

  • Keesing, Sergeant H. W.

  • Keisenberg, Lance-Corporal O. A. von

  • Kelk, Company Sergeant-major G.

  • Kelland, Trooper C. R.

  • Kelliher, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Kelly, Lance-Sergeant J. J.

  • Kelly, Private W. R.

  • Kelsall, Private E., bar to M.M.

  • Kennedy, Corporal D. A.

  • Kennedy, Sergeant F., bar to M.M.

  • Kennedy, Driver F. W.

  • Kennedy, Corporal H.

  • Kennedy, Private T. O.

  • Kernick, Private J.

  • Keys, Rifleman J.

  • Keys, 2nd Lieutenant P. L.

  • Kidd, Gunner R.

  • Killoh, Sergeant L. W.

  • Kilroy, Sergeant R. J.

  • Kindberg, Private A.

  • King, Lance-Corporal E.

  • Kingham, Sapper W. J.

  • Kirkland, Corporal J. A.

  • Kirkwood, Private J.

  • Kirton, Corporal T.

  • Knight, 2nd Corporal R. A.

  • Knight, Private T. W.

  • Kuhtz, Bombardier J. R. H.

  • Kyle, Private L. A.

  • Lacey, Private W. T.

  • Lainchbury, Private T.

  • Laing, Private J. F.

  • Lamb, Private J. B.

  • Lamb, Private S. A.

  • Lambert, Private W. A.

  • Land, Private I. G.

  • Lane, Corporal T.

  • Lane, Private W. G.

  • Langford, Sapper E. H.

  • Lang, Private H. L.

  • Langvad, Private W.

  • Langwell, Sergeant H. J.

  • Lark, Private A.

  • Larkins, Private H.

  • Larsen, Private D. H.

  • Larsen, Corporal H.

  • Lauder, 2nd Lieutenant A.

  • Laurie, Trooper W. R. D.

  • Lauriston, Private D.

  • Law, Private A.

  • Lay, Corporal J. G.

  • Leary, Corporal L.

  • Le Comte, Lance-Corporal H E.

  • Lee, Lance-Sergeant A.

  • Lee, Private G. J.

  • Leef, Private H. T.

  • Lees, Private T. F.

  • Leigh, Lance-Corporal T. J.

  • Leighton, Corporal H. S.

  • Lepper, 2nd Lieutenant C. B.

  • Lepper, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Leshke, Private A.

  • Lessels, Sergeant D.

  • Lester, 2nd Lieutenant C. L.

  • Lewin, Private C

  • Lewis, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Lewis, Trooper E. D.

  • Lewis, Lance-Corporal T.

  • Lewis, Lance-Corporal W. J., D.C.M.

  • Lineham, Trooper C. A.

  • Linklater, Sapper H.

  • Linn, Corporal E. J.

  • Linton, Lance-Sergeant W.

  • Little, Signal Sergeant J. A.

  • Livesy, Private R.

  • Livingston, Sergeant B. V., D.C.M.

  • Lloyd, Gunner J. C. H.

  • Loader, Lance-Corporal C.

  • Lock, Sergeant S. G. S.

  • Lockwood, Driver T.

  • Lonergan, Corporal T.

  • London, Sergeant R. P.

  • Long, Sergeant W. E.

  • Longmuir, Private J.

  • Looker, Lance-Corporal W. L.

  • Lord, Private C. C.

  • Lorgelly, Driver W. J.

  • Loudon, Private R. H.

  • Loveday, Private L. G. V.

  • Lovelock, Private E.

  • Low, Rifleman J.

  • Low, Private J. C.

  • Lowe, Sergeant P. T.

  • Lowe, Rifleman W. E.

  • Luff, Private E. L.

  • Luff, Sergeant T. R.

  • Lund, Sergeant W.

  • Lyall, Private J. R.

  • Lyford, Rifleman L.

  • Lylian, Trooper H. D.

  • Lymer, Private E.

  • Lynch, Corporal F. G.

  • McAlinden, Private C. R. M.

  • McAndrew, Private J.

  • Macauley, Corporal G.

  • McAusland, Lance-Corporal J.

  • McBeath, Private A. D.

  • McBeath, Private C.

  • McBreen, Private E.

  • McBride, Sergeant M. D.

  • McCarthy, Private J.

  • McCarthy, Private J. P.

  • McCaw, 2nd Lieutenant W. T.

  • McClatchie, Corporal P. J.

  • McClenaghan, Private W. T.

  • McClintock, 2nd Lieutenant W. G.

  • McClure, Rifleman D. J.

  • McClure, Sergeant W.

  • McClymont, Lance-Corporal F. G.

  • McColgan, Private W.

  • McConnell, Gunner G.

  • McConnell, Corporal T. D.

  • McCorquodale, Corporal D. A.

  • McCoskie, Private C. O.

  • McCracken, Private J.

  • McCrostie, Lance-Corporal D. C.

  • McCullagh, Private A.

  • McCullagh, Private J. W.

  • McCully, Corporal A.

  • McDevitt, Driver F. J.

  • McDivitt, Private R.

  • McDonald, Corporal A.

  • McDonald, Private A. J.

  • McDonald, Private C. G.

  • McDonald, Gunner H.

  • McDonald, Gunner M.

  • McDonald, Gunner R. H.

  • McDougall, Corporal A. S.

  • McDougall, Lance-Corporal C. N.

  • McDowell, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • McFarlane, Corporal H. M.

  • McGahan, Sergeant J.

  • MacGibbon, Corporal A. W.

  • McGibbon, 2nd Lieutenant D. A.

  • McGonagle, Private D. L.

  • McGowan, Private D. L.

  • McGowan, Sergeant E. A.

  • McGrath, Rifleman E.

  • McGregor, Private G.

  • McGuckin, Trooper H.

  • McGuire, Lance-Corporal T. F.

  • McIntyre, Lance-Sergeant C. E.

  • McIntyre, Private D. R.

  • McIntyre, Private H. P.

  • McIntyre, Lance-Corporal W.

  • McKane, Sergeant A. H.

  • McKay, Private B.

  • MacKay, Lance-Sergeant D.

  • McKay, Private G. A.

  • McKay, Sapper J. W.

  • McKay, Private R.

  • Mackay, Private W. J.

  • McKean, 2nd Lieutenant W. J.

  • McKechnie, Sergeant J.

  • McKeegan, Sergeant C.

  • McKendry, Private J.

  • McKenzie, Sergeant A. T.

  • McKenzie, Private D.

  • McKenzie, Private E. G.

  • McKenzie, Lance-Corporal J. W.

  • MacKenzie, Sergeant K.

  • McKenzie, Sergeant N. A.

  • McKenzie, Lance-Corporal N. H.

  • Mackie, Lance-Corporal A. P.

  • McKie, Rifleman D. A.

  • Mackinder, Rifleman W. A.

  • Macklam, Private A.

  • McKinley, Sergeant R. W.

  • Mackrell, 2nd Lieutenant H. H.

  • McLachlan, Private L. D.

  • McLaren, Sergeant D.

  • Maclean, Lance-Sergeant A.

  • McLean, Rifleman A.

  • McLean, Driver A. J.

  • McLean, Private C.

  • Maclean, Gunner J. R.

  • McLean, Private J. H.

  • McLean, Fitter L. D.

  • McLean, Corporal L. G.

  • McLean, Private T. A.

  • McLeely, Private J. W. J.

  • McLellan, Private A.

  • McLelland, Lance-Corporal J. F.

  • McLelland, Corporal W. H.

  • MacLennan, Lance-Corporal T.

  • McLeod, Sergeant D. S.

  • McLeod, 2nd Lieutenant J. D.

  • McMahon, Sergeant A. E.

  • McMahon, Corporal P. R.

  • McMaster, Sergeant A. A.

  • McMeeking, Private D. T.

  • McMillan, Sapper H.

  • McMillan, Lance-Corporal G. R.

  • McMillan, Corporal N.

  • MacMillan, Lance-Corporal W. H.

  • McMillan, Gunner W.

  • MacMurray, Bombardier K.

  • McNamara, Corporal G. P.

  • McOnie, Private G.

  • McPherson, Lance-Corporal B. D.

  • McQueen, Sergeant A. A.

  • McQuillan, Corporal J.

  • McQuillan, Sapper P.

  • McRae, Sergeant D.

  • Maindonald, Gunner F. W.

  • Mains, Bombardier C. E.

  • Mains, Corporal-Fitter J. H.

  • Mair, Sergeant A. D.

  • Malloch, Private R. T.

  • Malone, Gunner D.

  • Mander, Gunner L. J.

  • Manning, Lance-Corporal C. J.

  • Mano, Private H.

  • Manson, 2nd Corporal R. V., D.C.M.

  • Manson, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Marshall, Corporal G. L.

  • Marshall, Lance-Sergeant R. A.

  • Martelli, Rifleman C.

  • Martin, Private A.

  • Martin, Lance-Sergeant F. R.

  • Martin, Sergeant J.

  • Martindale, Sergeant J.

  • Mason, Sergeant A. J.

  • Mason, Corporal F. C.

  • Mason, Lance-Corporal J. R.

  • Mason, Driver S.

  • Masters, Sergeant F. H.

  • Mateer, Private F. E.

  • Matheson, Lance-Corporal H. A

  • Mathias, Lance-Corporal J. S.

  • Matthews, Private C.

  • Matthews, Private C. D.

  • Matthews, Sergeant F. C.

  • Maubon, Rifleman C. J.

  • Mawdsley, Bombardier W.

  • Maxwell, Private G.

  • May, Private W. H.

  • Mayall, Sergeant D.

  • Maynard, Corporal L.

  • Mead, Private A. D.

  • Meaney, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Melgren, Private R. F.

  • Mellor, Lance-Corporal E. E.

  • Melville, Private H., D.C.M.

  • Menzies, Private A. B.

  • Metcalfe, Private M.

  • Metge, Private D. D.

  • Meurant, Rifleman F. A.

  • Mexted, Lance-Corporal G. W.

  • Michael, Corporal H. W.

  • Michaels, Lieutenant L. G.

  • Michau, Lance-Corporal L. J.

  • Michell, 2nd Lieutenant H. J.

  • Middlemiss, Private W. P.

  • Midgley, Sergeant H. L.

  • Millar, Sergeant J.

  • Millar, Private O. McL.

  • Miller, Private D.

  • Miller. Lance-Corporal H. C.

  • Miller, Corporal J.

  • Miller, Private. L. P.

  • Miller, Private S. A.

  • Milligan, Sergeant P. G.

  • Millington, Private W.

  • Millis. Private E. A.

  • Mills, Gunner J. McA.

  • Mills, Sergeant M. F.

  • Mills. Lance-Sergeant S. R.

  • Millward, Corporal L. W. G.

  • Milne, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Milne, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Mintrom, 2nd Lieutenant P. H.

  • Mitchell, Private C. C. A.

  • Mitchell, 2nd Lieutenant G.

  • Mitchell, Corporal G. G.

  • Mitchell, Corporal T. G.

  • Moar, Lance-Corporal H.

  • Moffatt, Lance-Corporal L. P.

  • Moffet, Private G. A.

  • Moffit, Lance-Corporal P.

  • Moffitt, Corporal J. E.

  • Moffitt. Lance-Corporal W.

  • Moir, Corporal P. T., D.C.M.

  • Mole, Bombardier H. P.

  • Molesworth, Lance-Corporal C. E.

  • Molloy, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Moody, Lance-Corporal P. H.

  • Moon, Corporal W. H.

  • Mooney, Private T. A.

  • Moore, Bombardier E. W.

  • Moore, Private P. D.

  • Moore, Sergeant G. V. T.

  • Moore, Lieutenant J. J.

  • Moore, Corporal N. R.

  • Moore, 2nd Lieutenant W. A.

  • Moreland, Private R.

  • Morgan, Private C. M.

  • Morgan, Sergeant-Trumpeter J. W.

  • Morgan, Corporal L. O.

  • Morgan, Private T. T.

  • Moritzson, Lieutenant L., M.C.

  • Morrin, Sergeant W. P., D.C.M.

  • Morris, Private C. S.

  • Morris, Sergeant H. M.

  • Morris, Private J. H.

  • Morris, Private P.

  • Morris, Private S. W. E.

  • Morrison, Private K.

  • Morrow, Sergeant W. J. T.

  • Mortenson, Private L. G.

  • Moscroft, Lance-Sergeant H.

  • Moss, Sergeant J. C.

  • Motion, Sergeant W.

  • Mowbray, Bombardier E.

  • Moves, Lance-Corporal D.

  • Movie, Sergeant H. L.

  • Mulholland, Corporal G. R. O.

  • Mullen, Fitter E.

  • Mulligan, Captain A.S., D.C.M.

  • Mulligan, Private E. A.

  • Mulvaney, Corporal M. J.

  • Munro, Private C. T.

  • Munro, Rifleman J. M.

  • Munt, 2nd Lieutenant R. A.

  • Murray, Sergeant A. W.

  • Murray, Private A. W.

  • Murray, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Murray, Corporal J. W.

  • Murray, Rifleman R. N.

  • Murray, 2nd Lieutenant T. T., M.C.

  • Murray, Sergeant W. J.

  • Murrell, Corporal N. S.

  • Myers, Private G.

  • Naden, Private F.

  • Nainsmith, Rifleman R. C.

  • Nankivell, Sergeant L.

  • Napier, Lance-Sergeant G. S.

  • Neal, Private H. R.

  • Needham, Private D. G.

  • Needs, Private R. A.

  • Negus, Rifleman F.

  • Neilson, Private M.

  • Neilson, Private N. C.

  • Nelsen, Private M. L.

  • Neville, Rifleman P.

  • Newberry, Rifleman J.

  • Newcombe. Sergeant. A. C.

  • Newell, Private D. W.

  • Newman, Bombardier E. F.

  • Newrick, Private F.

  • Newton, Private A. W. H.

  • Ngapo, Private R.

  • Nichol, Private A. B.

  • Nicholas, Sergeant L. R.

  • Nicholls, Private J. C.

  • Nicholls, Corporal T. H.

  • Nicholson, Private M.

  • Nicholson, Rifleman N. A.

  • Nicol, Private R. S.

  • Nield, Corporal A. H.

  • Nielson, Private R. W. E.

  • Nilsson, Sergeant E. J.

  • Nimmo, Private T.

  • Nisbet, Sapper A. W.

  • Noble, Private S. A.

  • Noonan, Private D. P.

  • Noonan, Corporal W. S.

  • Norman. Bombardier W. C.

  • North, Corporal L. G.

  • Northe. Corporal R. P.

  • Nunn, Private J.

  • Oakley, Lance-Corporal W. G.

  • O'Brien, Private J.

  • O'Brien, Private J. W.

  • O'Brien, Corporal W. S.

  • O'Callaghan, Corporal J. W.

  • O'Connell, Private T.

  • O'Connor, Private R. J.

  • O'Connor. Corporal W. J.

  • Odell, Corporal L. M.

  • O'Donnell, Corporal H. D.

  • O'Donnell, Corporal J.

  • O'Halloran, Lance-Sergeant M. J.

  • Oldham, Lance-Corporal W. A.

  • Oliver, Lance-Corporal E. E.

  • Olliver, Private P.

  • Olliver, Gunner W. W.

  • O'Neill, Driver K.

  • O'Neill, Rifleman P.

  • O'Regan, Private P. J.

  • Orpwood, Rifleman H. F.

  • Orr, Private N.

  • Osborne, Corporal D.

  • Osborne, Lance-Corporal D. S.

  • Osborne, Lance-Corporal S.

  • Osmers, 2nd Lieutenant H. H.

  • Otene, Corporal Rangi.

  • Otto, Sapper A.

  • Otto, Private W. E.

  • Overden, Corporal W. B.

  • Overend, Corporal W.

  • Owen, Private J.

  • Oxenburg, Private E.

  • Oxley, Trooper O. V.

  • Paddy, Sergeant W. C.

  • Page, Private H., D.C.M.

  • Pain, 2nd Lieutenant J. C.

  • Paine, Private E. I.

  • Paine, Sergeant W.

  • Palmer, Private J.

  • Palmer, 2nd Corporal L. J.

  • Palmer, Lance-Corporal P. J. L

  • Panoho, Private J.

  • Park, Private A.

  • Park, Private J. W.

  • Parker, Lance-Corporal E. B.

  • Parker, 2nd Lieutenant H. R.

  • Parker, Private J. H.

  • Parker, Private L. J. K.

  • Parker, Private T. J.

  • Parmenter, Sapper H. E.

  • Parsons, Private J.

  • Parton, 2nd Lieutenant R.

  • Patching, Corporal W. J.

  • Paterson, Gunner A. J.

  • Paterson, Corporal D. T.

  • Patrick, Private V.

  • Patten, 2nd Lieutenant H. L

  • Pattison, Corporal H.J.

  • Patton, Lance-Corporal G. H.

  • Paulson, Corporal B.

  • Pavelka, Private M.

  • Payne, Private G. D.

  • Paynter, Lance-Corporal L. H.

  • Paynter, Private W. H.

  • Pearce, Sergeant E.

  • Pearce, Corporal P. G.

  • Pearcy, Private G. H.

  • Pearson, Private R. M.

  • Peart, Private P. W.

  • Peat, Rifleman A. G.

  • Pegg, Lance-Corporal H. A.

  • Pegler, Lance-Corporal S. P.

  • Penberthy, Sergeant P. J.

  • Penman, Corporal A. P.

  • Pepper, Sapper W. M.

  • Perkins, Lieutenant H. A.

  • Perry, Rifleman A. H.

  • Perry, Corporal W. C.

  • Perry, Sergeant W. J.

  • Peter, Corporal A. L.

  • Peters, Sergeant F. J. F.

  • Petersen, Lance-Corporal E. P.

  • Petherick, Private B. L.

  • Pethybridge, Corporal W. T.

  • Phaup, Lance-Corporal T. W.

  • Phillips, Private D. R.

  • Phillips, Lance-Corporal F. H.

  • Phillips, Sapper N.

  • Phillips, Corporal R.

  • Philpott, Gunner E. W.

  • Philson, Lance-Corporal G. H.

  • Pickford, Fitter J. L.

  • Pierce, Sergeant A. J. B.

  • Pilcher, Trooper D.

  • Pilkington, Sergeant U.

  • Pinching, Private E. L.

  • Pinkham, Sapper W. G. F.

  • Pirritt, Private D. A.

  • Pitcher, Private G. J.

  • Pledger, Lance-Corporal E. R. W.

  • Poff, 2nd Lieutenant L. J.

  • Pointon, Lance-Corporal A. E.

  • Pomana, Private H.

  • Poole, Lance-Corporal S. H.

  • Poots, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Pope, Corporal E. E.

  • Postlewaight, Private L. H.

  • Potter, Fitter-Sergeant J.

  • Potter, Private J.

  • Poultney, Lance-Corporal S.

  • Powers, Private A. T.

  • Pratt, Sapper R. J.

  • Pratt, Sergeant W.

  • Preston, Lance-Corporal W. E.

  • Price, 2nd Lieutenant A. D., M.C.

  • Price, Corporal H. G.

  • Price, Lance-Corporal W. V.

  • Priest, Private J. W.

  • Prime, 2nd Lieutenant E. J.

  • Prince, Private A. T.

  • Prince, Rifleman P.

  • Pringle, Driver A.

  • Pringle, Sapper D.

  • Pritchard, Trooper A.

  • Proctor, Private C.

  • Proud, Private G. O. D.

  • Purcell, Private A.

  • Purdie, Staff Sergeant C. L.

  • Pycroft, Driver E. J.

  • Pye-Smith, Private P. R.

  • Queenin, Lance-Corporal B. G.

  • Quin, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Quin, Private R. V.

  • Quinlan, Gunner A. J.

  • Quinn, Rifleman J. M.

  • Quinn, Rifleman J. P.

  • Quinn, Private P.

  • Radcliffe, Rifleman B.

  • Radcliffe, Private D. S.

  • Rae, Private E. R.

  • Raines, Private H. S.

  • Ralston. Private W.

  • Ramsay, Rifleman R. C.

  • Ramsay, Sergeant W. J.

  • Ramsey, Private W. E.

  • Randell, Private P. L.

  • Ratcliffe, Private F.

  • Ratcliffe, Sergeant J. T.

  • Ray, Private C. H.

  • Ray, Rifleman R.

  • Raynor, Private C. W.

  • Rees, 2nd Lieutenant E. T.

  • Rees, Private W. B.

  • Reeve, Private W. P.

  • Reid, Private A. E.

  • Renall, Trooper R. P.

  • Rendall, Private W. S.

  • Renner, Corporal C.

  • Rennie, Lance-Corporal D. D.

  • Rennie, Sapper C. H.

  • Rennie, Lance-Corporal J. W.

  • Rennie, Sergeant L.

  • Reston, Private R. A.

  • Revell, Lance-Corporal E. J.

  • Reynard, Private J.

  • Rice, 2nd Lieutenant S.

  • Richards, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Richardson, Private E. A.

  • Richardson, Private J. F.

  • Richardson, Private T.

  • Richter, Private O. G. C.

  • Richards, Private E.

  • Ricketts, Private J. E.

  • Riddell, Sergeant R.

  • Riddell, Lance-Corporal W. J.

  • Riddell, Corporal W.

  • Rigby, Sergeant J. H.

  • Rigby, 2nd Lieutenant K. R.

  • Ringham, Private H. J.

  • Riordan, Sapper E. B.

  • Riposio, Lance-Corporal P.

  • Risk, Trooper G. M.

  • Ritchie, Lance-Corporal L. R.

  • Roach, 2nd Lieutenant G. H.

  • Roache, Private M. V.

  • Roberts, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant A., D.C.M.

  • Roberts, Private C. P.

  • Roberts, Rifleman R. P.

  • Robertson, Sapper J. R.

  • Robertson, Sergeant L.

  • Robertson, Private J. F.

  • Robertson, Private W.

  • Robbins, Lance-Corporal J. I.

  • Robinson, Private F. M.

  • Robinson, Gunner F. V. H.

  • Robinson, Private G.

  • Robinson, Bombardier K. J.

  • Robinson, Lance-Corporal L.

  • Robinson, 2nd Lieutenant N. M.

  • Robson, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Robson, Private R.

  • Rodgerson, Private R.

  • Rogers, Sergeant A.

  • Rogers, Private H. F.

  • Rogers, Sergeant J. H.

  • Roper, Sergeant G. J.

  • Rosanowski, Corporal H.

  • Ross, Company Sergeant-major D.

  • Ross, Sergeant H. L.

  • Ross, Private J. D.

  • Ross, Private M.

  • Roselli, Bombardier P. J. T.

  • Rossiter, Sergeant C.

  • Rotoatara, 2nd Lieutenant T.

  • Rowe, Sergeant A. N.

  • Rowe, Corporal C. A.

  • Rowe, Private G. L.

  • Rowley, Lance-Corporal F. B.

  • Ruane, Private A. T.

  • Rudkin, Sergeant A. R.

  • Ruff, Sergeant J. A. P.

  • Rufford, Private A.

  • Rusbrudge, Private H. W.

  • Rusden, Sergeant G. C.

  • Russell, Private H. F.

  • Russell, Corporal R. D.

  • Rusterholz, Lance-Corporal P.

  • Rutherford, Private K. McK.

  • Rutherford, Private S. E.

  • Ryan, Private D.

  • Ryan, Private F. L.

  • Ryan, Private J. A.

  • Ryan, Lance-Sergeant R.

  • Ryder, Corporal C. A.

  • Ryland, Private H.

  • Sage, 2nd Lieutenant A. H.

  • Salter, Private M.

  • Samson, Corporal C. O.

  • Sandison, Gunner W.

  • Sapsford, Corporal S. J.

  • Saunders, Sergeant W.

  • Saunders-Loder, Private W.

  • Savingy, Gunner P.

  • Scothern, Private G. J.

  • Scott, Quartermaster-Sergeant D. C.

  • Scott, Corporal J.

  • Scott, Private J. D.

  • Scott, 2nd Lieutenant S.

  • Scott, Private T. C.

  • Scott, Private W. E.

  • Scrimgeour, Trooper A. R.

  • Scrimshaw, Driver J. R. A.

  • Sharp, Corporal S. R.

  • Sharpe, Private F. J.

  • Shaw, Private H.

  • Shaw, Lance-Corporal W. R.

  • Sheahan, Private J.

  • Sheat, Rifleman C. M.

  • Sheen, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Sheerin, Driver H.

  • Shelley, Lance-Corporal C. H.

  • Shelton, Sapper R. F.

  • Shewry, Private J. E.

  • Shirley, Lance-Corporal C. V.

  • Shirley, Corporal V. W.

  • Shove, 2nd Lieutenant S.

  • Sidney, Corporal T. P.

  • Sim, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Simon, Corporal J. H.

  • Simons, Private L. W.

  • Simpson, Lance-Corporal C. E.

  • Simpson, Sergeant F. W. P.

  • Sims, Private A. F.

  • Sims, Private C.

  • Sims, Private F. E.

  • Sinclair, Private F. S.

  • Sinton, Corporal W. A.

  • Skatt, Rifleman G.

  • Slade, Private H. R.

  • Slater, Corporal G.

  • Smaill, Sergeant W. D.

  • Smillie, Trooper J.

  • Smillie, Corporal J.

  • Smith, Rifleman A. G.

  • Smith, Private A. G. T.

  • Smith, Private A. J.

  • Smith, Private A. R.

  • Smith, Lance-Corporal B. T.

  • Smith, Sergeant E.

  • Smith, Private E. H.

  • Smith, Lance-Corporal E. M.

  • Smith, Rifleman F.

  • Smith, Corporal F.

  • Smith, Rifleman F.

  • Smith, Private G. T.

  • Smith, Corporal H. B.

  • Smith, Bombardier H. P.

  • Smith, Private J.

  • Smith, Private K. B.

  • Smith, Corporal R.

  • Smith, Private R. R.

  • Smith, Rifleman S.

  • Smith, Private S. H.

  • Smith, Private W.

  • Smith, Lance-Corporal W. A.

  • Smith, Private W. H.

  • Smith, Lance-Corporal W. A.

  • Smith, Rifleman W. K.

  • Smylie, Corporal A.

  • Smyth, Private J. F.

  • Smyth, Lance-Corporal T. J.

  • Snowden, Private A. S. C.

  • Soffe, Private G.

  • Southern, Trooper W.

  • Southey, 2nd Lieutenant C. C, M.C.

  • Sparks, Corporal A.

  • Sperry, Driver R. P.

  • Spittle, Private C.

  • Springall, Sapper A.

  • Squire, 2nd Lieutenant B. C.

  • Stacey, Private E. E.

  • Stainton, Private T.

  • Stainton, 2nd Lieutenant W. G.

  • Staite, Lance-Corporal O.

  • Stanley, Private G.

  • Stapley, Lance-Corporal R. H.

  • Stark, Sergeant G. H.

  • Stedman, Private A. J.

  • Steel, Corporal R. W.

  • Stevens, Corporal A. M.

  • Stevens, Rifleman C. T.

  • Stevenson, Rifleman D.

  • Steward, Sergeant A. de B. P.

  • Stewart, Sergeant A.

  • Stewart, Private A.

  • Stewart, Private A. D.

  • Stewart, Corporal A. T.

  • Stewart, Private N.

  • Stiles, Lance-Corporal R. W.

  • Still, Private A. E.

  • Stirling, Rifleman S. G.

  • Stirling, Private N. D.

  • Stockdale, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Stokes, Private A.

  • Stone, Corporal N. G.

  • Storry, Rifleman W.

  • Stow, Private J. C.

  • Strachan, Corporal D. H.

  • Strahan, Lance-Corporal T. A.

  • Stringer, 2nd Lieutenant J. M., D.C.M.

  • Strode, Private A.

  • Stronach, 2nd Lieutenant D. W.

  • Strong, Rifleman E. A.

  • Stuart, Private A.

  • Stuart, Corporal D. M.

  • Stuart, Sergeant J.

  • Stuart, Corporal J. B.

  • Stuart, Corporal R.

  • Stubbington, Private F. C.

  • Stunell, Corporal C. E.

  • Sullivan, Private J.

  • Sullivan, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Summerhayes, Lance-Corporal K. A.

  • Sutherland, Private A. J.

  • Sutherland, Private H.

  • Sutherland, Lance-Corporal H. J.

  • Sutherland, Private J. S.

  • Sutton, Gunner F. J.

  • Swan, Lance-Corporal V.

  • Sweetman, Private E. P. S.

  • Switalla, Lance-Corporal P.

  • Taaffe, Lance-Corporal J. T. B.

  • Taiapa, Private T.

  • Tait, Private G. A. G.

  • Tait, Trooper W. J.

  • Tallke, Lance-Corporal L. L.

  • Tangatake, Private W.

  • Tarbutt, Sergeant L. O. S.

  • Tatham, Private J.

  • Taua, Private M.

  • Tavendale, Private D.

  • Taylor, Corporal A.

  • Taylor, Private E.

  • Taylor, 2nd Corporal F. G.

  • Taylor, Corporal G. S.

  • Taylor, 2nd Lieutenant W. G.

  • Taylor, Private W. J.

  • Tchernegovski, Private J. I. L.

  • Templeton, Private T.

  • Tennant, Private W. J.

  • Tennent, Sergeant K. B.

  • Te Amo, Private P.

  • Te Patu, Private T.

  • Tepene, Sergeant C. W.

  • Tetley, Private C. A.

  • Thomas, Lance-Corporal H. A.

  • Thomas, Gunner H. J.

  • Thomas, Sergeant N. H.

  • Thomas, Corporal S. A.

  • Thomas, Private W. A.

  • Thomason, Sergeant H. H.

  • Thompson, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant A. C.

  • Thompson, Gunner H.

  • Thompson, Private H. C.

  • Thompson, Sergeant P. A.

  • Thompson, 2nd Lieutenant S. G.

  • Thomson, Private A. F.

  • Thomson, Sergeant D. M.

  • Thomson, Trooper D. W.

  • Thomson, Company Sergeant-major G. W. G.

  • Thomson, Corporal J.

  • Thomson, Rifleman M. A.

  • Thomson, Private N.

  • Thorpe, 2nd Corporal G. H.

  • Tilby, Private W. H.

  • Tillman, 2nd Lieutenant A. N.

  • Tindall, Sapper J.

  • Tod, 2nd Lieutenant A. N.

  • Tod, Private C.

  • Tod, Lance-Corporal G. D.

  • Todd, Lance-Corporal G. D.

  • Tomkins, Private W. E.

  • Tomes, Sergeant J.

  • Tomlinson, Sergeant C. G.

  • Tomlinson, Bombardier C. W.

  • Tomsett, Private H.

  • Torrance, Private J.

  • Torrens, Private W. J.

  • Tott, Corporal F. G.

  • Toy, Private W.

  • Trebes, Corporal W.

  • Treleaven, Lance-Corporal D. N.

  • Trembath, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Trembath, Bombardier W.

  • Tribe, Private L. R.

  • Tripp, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Tritt, Corporal L. F.

  • Trotter, Trooper J. R.

  • Trotter, 2nd Lieutenant W. J. R.

  • Troughear, Private A.

  • Trueman, Private F. L.

  • Tuck, Corporal H. J.

  • Tucker, Corporal L. E.

  • Tuke, 2nd Lieutenant E. A.

  • Turkington, Private J.

  • Turnbull, Private A.

  • Turnbull, Sergeant J. H.

  • Turnbull, Private L.

  • Turley, Sergeant C. E.

  • Turley, Private J. T., bar to M.M.

  • Turner, Private B.

  • Turner, Sergeant H.

  • Turner, Rifleman W. C.

  • Turner, Lance-Corporal W. F.

  • Turner, Bombardier W. H.

  • Tutty, Private S. R.

  • Tyne, Gunner P. W.

  • Tyson, Private J. H.

  • Underwood, Trooper H.

  • Underwood, Private H.

  • Ure, Private R. J.

  • Veitch, Private C. G. C.

  • Venning, Private S. J.

  • Verran, Private J. S.

  • Verity, Private S. N.

  • Vial, 2nd Lieutenant J. H.

  • Vickers, Lance-Corporal C. E.

  • Vincent, Sergeant G. A.

  • Vincent, 2nd Lieutenant J., D.C.M.

  • Vincent, Corporal R. W.

  • Vine, Sergeant S. J.

  • Voller, Private R. E.

  • Voss, Private H.

  • Voss, Private R. J.

  • Voss, Rifleman T. W.

  • Voyle, 2nd Lieutenant J. W., D.C.M.

  • Waddel, Sergeant G. R.

  • Wade, Private E.

  • Wade, Private W. M.

  • Wagg, Sergeant W. J. K.

  • Wake, Rifleman A. A.

  • Wakeling, Lance-Sergeant W.

  • Walders, Corporal W. H. T.

  • Walker, Sapper J.

  • Walker, Rifleman W. R.

  • Wallace, Private E. E.

  • Wallace, Private J.

  • Waller, Rifleman H. T.

  • Walles, Rifleman C. W.

  • Warburton, Bombardier A. E.

  • Ward, Private G. A.

  • Ward, Private R. J.

  • Ward, Lieutenant W.

  • Warder, Trooper H.

  • Warren, Rifleman N.

  • Wasley, Sergeant W. A.

  • Watkins, Private A.

  • Watkins, Lance-Corporal H. T.

  • Watkins, Private L.

  • Watson, Corporal E. G.

  • Watson, Private J. A.

  • Watson, 2nd Lieutenant J. W.

  • Watson, Sergeant S. V.

  • Watson, Private W. L.

  • Watt, Signal-Corporal G. S.

  • Wattie, Sapper A. J.

  • Watts, Lance-Corporal G. R.

  • Webb, Private M.

  • Webb, Private S. H.

  • Webley, Private K. G.

  • Weir, Private G. H.

  • Weir, Private R.

  • Welch, Sergeant J.

  • Wells, Private K. C.

  • Welsh, Lance-Corporal E. E.

  • West, Private I. G.

  • Westhead, Driver L.

  • Weston, Corporal I. W.

  • Wharton, Lance-Corporal J.

  • White, Rifleman A. E.

  • White, Lance-Corporal C. J.

  • White, Gunner E. A. T.

  • White, Rifleman E. J.

  • White, Gunner H. H.

  • White, Sergeant J. A.

  • White, Bombardier W. C.

  • Whitelaw, Private L. A.

  • Whitelaw, Sapper L. C.

  • Whiting, Private W. H.

  • Whittington, Sergeant W. C.

  • Whyte, Sergeant A. W.

  • Wildsmith, Private C. T.

  • Wiley, Private H. P.

  • Wilkie, Sergeant P.

  • Wilkie, Private R. A.

  • Wilkinson, Gunner A. E. B.

  • Wilkinson, 2nd Corporal P. S.

  • Wilkinson, Trooper J.

  • Wilkinson, Private S.

  • Willets, Lance-Corporal M. W.

  • Williams, Rifleman A. O.

  • Williams, Private E.

  • Williams, Private P. J.

  • Williams, Sergeant H.

  • Williams, Private L. T.

  • Williams, Private R. S.

  • Williams, Sergeant S. A.

  • Williams, Gunner T.

  • Williams, Sergeant W. E.

  • Williamson, Private A. G.

  • Williamson, Corporal D. G.

  • Williamson, Corporal G.

  • Williamson, Sapper J.

  • Willis, Sergeant A. L. M.

  • Willis, Private H. J.

  • Wilsher, Corporal J. F.

  • Wilson, Private A.

  • Wilson, Corporal A. G. K.

  • Wilson, Lance-Sergeant A. M. de L.

  • Wilson, Lance-Corporal C.

  • Wilson, Sergeant C. G.

  • Wilson, Sapper C. G.

  • Wilson, Corporal C. R.

  • Wilson, Sergeant H. F.

  • Wilson, 2nd Corporal H. G.

  • Wilson, 2nd Lieutenant J. H., M.C.

  • Wilson, Lance-Corporal J. H.

  • Wilson, Private J. J.

  • Wilson, Rifleman J. J. H.

  • Wilson, Private J. T.

  • Wilson, Sapper N. E.

  • Wilson, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Wilson, Private S.

  • Wilson, Corporal T.

  • Wilson, Rifleman W. A.

  • Wilson, Corporal W. A.

  • Wilton, Corporal W. K.

  • Winkley, Corporal J. R.

  • Winter, Private G. E.

  • Withell, Gunner R, P.

  • Witters, Private R.

  • Wood, Corporal E. W.

  • Wood, Lieutenant R., M.C.

  • Woodhall, Sergeant J.

  • Worth, Sergeant W. V.

  • Worthington, Private L. E. J.

  • Wotherspoon, Private P.

  • Wright, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Wright, Private F.

  • Wright, Private J. D.

  • Wright, Private L.

  • Wright, Lance-Corporal N.

  • Wright, Private R. F.

  • Yeoman, Lance-Corporal W. B.

  • Yorke, Private C. D.

  • Youle, 2nd Lieutenant H.

  • Young, Private A.

  • Young, Sapper J. H.

  • Young, Private J. W.

  • Young, Lance-Corporal O. F. T.

  • Young, Private W.

  • Zeinert, Lance-Corporal A.

Meritorious-service Medal (M.S.M.).

  • Adamson, Corporal A.

  • Aitken, Corporal A.

  • Alabaster, Corporal D. J.

  • Albiston, Staff Sergeant C.

  • Asher, Regimental Sergeant-major C.

  • Askenback, Corporal A.

  • Black, Sergeant T., D.C.M.

  • Boundy, Staff Sergeant H. H.

  • Brabant, Sergeant L. L. P.

  • Bray, Staff Sergeant B. R.

  • Briscoe, Lance-Corporal A.

  • Brundsden, Staff Sergeant C.

  • Burdekin, Staff Sergeant C. B.

  • Cameron, Sergeant D.

  • Cameron, Staff Sergeant J. C.

  • Carr, Sergeant J. T.

  • Carrig, Sergeant T.

  • Castle, Quartermaster-Sergeant S. J.

  • Child, Regimental Quartermaster-Sergeant C. H.

  • Choate, Sergeant S. S.

  • Clark, Staff Sergeant-major T. G.

  • Cochran, Gunner R. B

  • Colebrook, Regimental Quartermaster-Sergeant E. S.

  • Commons, Sergeant T. F.

  • Cooper, Staff Sergeant-major F. S.

  • Croft, Warrant Officer F.

  • Crook, Sergeant T. W.

  • Davis, Sergeant-major D., D.C.M.

  • Davies, Corporal H. M.

  • Dawson, Corporal A.

  • Dent, Gunner C.

  • Dewar, Private W.

  • Dewsnap, Corporal H. J.

  • Dumper, Sergeant A. J.

  • Dunstan, Sergeant E.

  • Eather, Corporal V. M.

  • Eaton, Sergeant H. F.

  • Eden, Quartermaster-Sergeant E. G. D.

  • Egley, Staff Quartermaster-Sergeant B.

  • Emerson, Sergeant-major A. L.

  • Evans, Sergeant-major G. R.

  • Fairbairn, Rifleman F.

  • Ferguson, Staff Sergeant R. A.

  • Findlay, Lance-Corporal E. A.

  • Flint, Private A.

  • Forrest, Lance-Corporal S. V.

  • Foster, Warrant Officer W. A.

  • Galbraith, Staff Sergeant D.

  • Glentworth, Sergeant J. P.

  • Godfrey, Sergeant J. D.

  • Goulding, Staff Sergeant R. T.

  • Goulding, Company Sergeant - major H. L.

  • Graham, Corporal J. A.

  • Grant, Company Sergeant-major G.

  • Gray, Staff Sergeant G. F.

  • Green, Staff Sergeant J. F.

  • Griffen, Sergeant G. H.

  • Guy, Company Sergeant-major A. H.

  • Hall, Sergeant A.

  • Hallett, Lance-Corporal F. J. P.

  • Hancock, Farrier-Sergeant R. J.

  • Harding; Corporal E. S.

  • Hart, Staff Sergeant C. D.

  • Harvey, Private L. J.

  • Hawthorne, Sergeant V. H.

  • Henty, Sergeant C. J.

  • Hickey, Private M.

  • Holland, Staff Sergeant-major J.

  • Holmes, Sergeant J.

  • Holz, Sergeant H. A.

  • Hooker, Corporal R. E.

  • Horne, Sergeant C. L.

  • Housden, Staff Sergeant V. G.

  • Hume, Private C. J.

  • Hunt, Sergeant R. E.

  • Iles, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant H. S. H.

  • Jeffries, Private H. T.

  • Jeffs, Sergeant E. C.

  • Jones, Sergeant T.

  • Keenan, Sergeant C.

  • Kenna, Company Sergeant-major T.

  • Kerei, Sergeant H.

  • Kingdom, Sergeant B.

  • Kivell, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant C. L.

  • Lakeman, Sergeant A.

  • Langrish, Private J. G.

  • Law, Private W. H. F.

  • Lemon, Bombardier J.

  • Lister, Armourer-Sergeant P. J.

  • Little, Sergeant G. C.

  • Logan, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant D. M.

  • Lovell, Staff Sergeant-major G. E.

  • Lynn, Lance-Corporal W.

  • Macdougall, Staff Sergeant A. H. B.

  • McCardell, Staff Sergeant J. R.

  • McDonald, Sergeant E. J.

  • McKenzie, Private D.

  • McKenzie, 2nd Lieutenant J. H.

  • McKibbin, Squadron Sergeant - major V. J.

  • McLaren, Quartermaster-Sergeant P. C.

  • McLean, Fitter L. D.

  • McNamara, Private V.

  • Manning, 2nd Lieutenant H. J.

  • Maynard, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant F. C.

  • Menzies, 2nd Lieutenant G. B.

  • Mercer, Lance-Corporal W. J.

  • Mailer, Company Quartermaster - Sergeant W.

  • Miller, Staff Sergeant W. E.

  • Mitchell, Drummer A.

  • Mitchell, Regimental Sergeant-major C.

  • Moles, Staff Sergeant W. T.

  • Morgan, Wheeler Staff Sergeant M.

  • Morison, Staff Sergeant H. B.

  • Morris, Sergeant B. J.

  • Morris, Lance-Corporal R.

  • Morton, Sergeant G. B.

  • Muir, Corporal T.

  • Muller, Private H. McQ.

  • Narborough, Private R. B.

  • Newman, Sergeant A. H.

  • Norman, Sergeant C.

  • O'Connor, Sergeant J. J.

  • O'Dowd, Warrant Officer T. E.

  • Oliver, Sergeant A. M.

  • Pahina, Private W.

  • Palmer, Private J., M.M.

  • Parsons, Staff Sergeant R. W. G.

  • Parsons, Sergeant T. C.

  • Pearse, 2nd Corporal W.

  • Pegler, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant J. A.

  • Perry, Private T. F.

  • Porteous, Regimental Sergeant-major J.

  • Porter, Sergeant W. L. F.

  • Power, Quartermaster-Sergeant S. A.

  • Prentice, Staff Sergeant A.

  • Pulsford, Staff Sergeant G. F.

  • Purdie, Quartermaster-Sergeant C. L., M.M.

  • Quintrell, Sergeant. S. B.

  • Quirk, Sergeant W. J.

  • Rafter, Sergeant M. E.

  • Rennie, Sergeant J.

  • Richards, Lance-Corporal W. H.

  • Rice, Private P. J.

  • Ricketts, Sergeant R. A.

  • Riley, Company Quartermaster - Sergeant W. H.

  • Ritchie, Gunner W. T.

  • Robb, Staff Sergeant C. C.

  • Robertson, Sergeant C. C.

  • Robinson, Staff Sergeant G. R.

  • Rowley. Staff Sergeant L. E.

  • Sammons, Private W. A.

  • Scott, Sergeant H.

  • Scott, Staff Sergeant W. A.

  • Seatter, Corporal J. I.

  • Selbie, Sergeant D. W.

  • Self, Regimental Quartermaster - Sergeant J. C.

  • Seymour, Sapper G.

  • Shaw, Corporal L.

  • Simmons, 2nd Lieutenant W. H.

  • Sleight, Sergeant G. H. B.

  • Slight, Gunner J.

  • Slingsby, Company Sergeant - major T. W.

  • Smith, Staff Sergeant J.

  • Smith, Staff Sergeant-major S. H.

  • Smith, Lance-Corporal T.

  • Smithers, Corporal H.

  • Spencer, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant N. B.

  • Spicer, Private A. T.

  • Spraggs, Sergeant E. O.

  • Steele, Sergeant J.

  • Stevenson, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant H. C.

  • Stewart, Sergeant-major C. B.

  • St. George, Sergeant G. L.

  • Taylor, Company Quartermaster W. P.

  • Te Au, Private G. D.

  • Thompson, Sergeant-major A. S.

  • Tonks, Lance-Corporal A. B.

  • Touhy, Sergeant J.

  • Tressider, Sergeant A. L.

  • Wagg, Armourer-Sergeant G. C. G.

  • Walden, Staff Sergeant H. L.

  • Watchman, Sergeant R.

  • Watkins, Sergeant W.

  • Ward, Sergeant A.

  • Waugh, Gunner H.

  • Weaver, Sergeant J.

  • Weir, Company Quartermaster - Sergeant A. J.

  • West, Regimental Sergeant-major T. S.

  • Wheeler, Sergeant E. A.

  • Wills, Staff Sergeant A. J.

  • Wilson, Bombardier J. A.

  • Wood, Quartermaster-Sergeant S.

  • Woodrow, Sergeant T. M.

  • Woods, Sergeant G. V.

  • Worgan, Private J. R.

  • Wylie, Sergeant L. T.

  • Youngman, Regimental Sergeant-major A. H.

Queen's Scarf.

(One of four knitted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for presentation to selected members of Colonial Contingents in South Africa.)

Coutts, Captain Henry Donald, 1900.

D. FOREIGN DECORATIONS AND MEDALS .

Legion d'Honneur (French).

CROIX DE COMMANDEUR.

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir A. J., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

CROIX D'OFFICIER.

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir A. J., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Johnston, Brigadier-General G. N., C.M.G., D.S.O.

Russell, Major-General Sir A. H., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

CROIX DE CHEVALIER.

  • Evans, Lieut.-Colonel C. H. D., D.S.O. Hargest, Lieut.-Colonel J., D.S.O., M.C.

  • Richardson, Brigadier-General G. S., C.B., C.M.G., C.B.E.

  • Young, Brigadier-General R., C.M.G., D.S.O.

Croix de Guerre (French).

  • Austin, Lieut.-Colonel W. S., D.S.O.

  • Barrowclough, Captain H. E., D.S.O., M.C.

  • Bell, Lieut.-Colonel P. H., D.S.O.

  • Chalmers, Sergeant C., M.M.

  • Cooper, Staff Sergeant-major F. S.

  • Cosbrook, Sergeant A. J.

  • Frost, Company Sergeant-major W. E.

  • Furby, Rifleman S. R.

  • Jamieson, Corporal W.

  • Jones, Sergeant T.

  • Karini, Private Toi.

  • Kettle, Major D.

  • Lamb, Sergeant J. McG.

  • Loughlin, Rifleman A.

  • Lylian, Trooper H. D., M.M.

  • McDonald, Rifleman T. C.

  • McLaren, Private C. D.

  • McNaught, Rifleman G.

  • Moore, Rifleman J.

  • Narbey, Major W. F.

  • Newman, Major C. N., D.S.O.

  • Powell, Sergeant J.

  • Richards, Private C. T.

  • Rillstone, Sergeant M. J.

  • Roache, Lieut.-Colonel J. G., D.S.O.

  • Rose, Major J. M., M.C.

  • Shearer, Sergeant A.

  • Shellam, Rifleman H.

  • Stanley, Lance-Corporal G.

  • Stewart, Colonel A. E., D.S.O.

  • Stewart, Lieut.-Colonel H., D.S.O. and Clasp, M.C.

  • Sturgess, Rifleman S. C.

  • Tamahana, Private Puia.

  • Teahan, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Tombs, 2nd Lieutenant H. G.

  • Warren, Rifleman C. H.

  • Wotten, Rifleman P. C.

In the following cases no definite information has yet been received whether the Croix de Guerre awards are French or Belgian.

  • Affleck, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant E.

  • Armitage, Driver H.

  • Blackburn, Sergeant J. J., M.M.

  • Boscawen, Captain S.

  • Bullick, Lance-Corporal T., M.M.

  • Carrington, Major A. H.

  • Cox, Lance-Sergeant A. R.

  • Dibble, Corporal J. C.

  • Dooley, Lance-Corporal J. J.

  • Farquhar, Private G. R.

  • Fishenden, Private W. T.

  • Floyd, Corporal P.

  • Gambirazzi, Lance-Corporal J.

  • Geary, Sergeant J. H.

  • Gothard, Company Sergeant-major K. B.

  • Gunnell, Sergeant A. J.

  • Hill, Corporal J.

  • Hodges, Sergeant A. J.

  • Hunter, Private E. McG.

  • Hyland, Sergeant F.

  • Karauti, Lieutenant H.

  • Lumley, Lieutenant J.

  • McMeeking, Trooper C.

  • Miller, Sergeant G. L.

  • Moulding, Sergeant J.

  • Nicholls, Lieutenant G. H.

  • Pegler, Lance-Corporal M. D.

  • Petherick, Corporal S. H.

  • Pomana, Sergeant H.

  • Ramsey, Corporal A. N.

  • Reeve, Company Sergeant-major E. J.

  • Robertson, Regimental Sergeant-major H.

  • Rooks, Sapper P. M.

  • Senn, Rifleman T. J.

  • Sinel, Corporal K.

  • Smith, Corporal F. R.

  • Stow, Corporal D.

  • Thackwell, Gunner R. G.

  • Varrell, Battery Sergeant-major G.

  • West, Major F. L. G.

Medaille Militaire (French).

  • Boate, Sergeant-major P. C.

  • Davies, Private J.

  • Dean, Private A. E.

  • Gutzell, Sergeant J.

  • Mascall, Lance-Corporal H. J.

  • McIntosh, Corporal A.

  • Salter, Corporal M.

  • Simkins, Sergeant J.

  • Stewart, Sergeant R.

  • Thompson, Sergeant P. A.

  • Trott, Lance-Corporal W. E.

  • Turner, Warrant Officer A.

Medaille d'Honneur avec Glaives en Vermeil (French).

  • MacKay, Sergeant-major J.

Medaille d'Honneur avec Glaives en Argent (French).

  • Burton, Sergeant O. E., M.M.

  • RUSSIAN.

Order of St. Stanislas, 3rd Class (with Swords).

  • Cunningham, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., D.S.O.

Cross of St. George, 3rd Class.

  • Martin, Lance-Corporal H. A.

Medal of St. George, 2nd Class.

  • Brister, 2nd Lieutenant S. G.

  • Simmers, Lieutenant R., M.M. and Clasp.

Medal of St. George, 3rd Class.

  • Carter, Trooper A.

  • Kennedy, Private A.

Medal of St. George, 4th Class.

Alexander, Trooper F. J.

ITALIAN.

Silver Medal.

Walker, Lieutenant M. R., M.C.

Bronze Medal.

  • Benny, Private H.

  • Martin, Corporal F. R.

  • Patterson, Private S. J.

  • Robinson, Sergeant F. C.

  • St. Leger, Sergeant R. W.

  • Wells, Sergeant C. M.

BELGIAN.

Ordre de la Couronne (Grand Officer).

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir A. J., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Ordre de la Couronne (Officer).

Mclvill, Brigadier-General C. W., C.M.G., D.S.O.

Commander de l'Ordre de Leopold.

Russell, Major-General Sir A. H., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Chevalier de l'Ordre de Leopold II.

Tempero, Corporal F. J.

Decoration Militaire.

O'Brien, Sergeant J. H.

Ordre de Merite Agricole (Chevalier).

McClure, Captain G. L.

Croix de Guerre.*

  • Andreassen, Sergeant T. A.

  • Barker, Sergeant A. C. M.

  • Beattie, Sergeant J. D.

  • Bickford, Company Quartermaster T. E.

  • Blake, Captain T. A.

  • Bolton, Rifleman G. M.

  • Carpell, Corporal J. M.

  • Conlon, Rifleman E. J.

  • Coupland, Company Quartermaster-Sergeant A. J.

  • Cox, Sergeant R. J.

  • Cruickshank, Private V.

  • Foulds, Private G. R.

  • Godley, Lieut.-General Sir A. J., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

  • Grant, Sergeant P. L.

  • Greves, Bombardier A. K.

  • Harris, Private W. J.

  • Hoare, Sergeant V. H.

  • Hooper, Rifleman S. N.

  • Jackson, Sergeant J. G.

  • Kanari, Private H.

  • King, Corporal O.

  • Law, Sergeant A. E.

  • Loftus, Sergeant J.

  • McChesney, Lance-Corporal H. J.

  • McElligott, Private J.

  • McGregor, Lance-Sergeant J. L.

  • McLeod, Gunner A. W.

  • Mason, Quartermaster-Sergeant A.

  • Melvill, Brigadier-General C. W., D.S.O.

  • Moynihan, Private D.

  • Muir, Sergeant H.

  • Neil, Lieut.-Colonel J. H., D.S.O., M.B.

  • Rennie, Sergeant J.

  • Ross, Private J.

  • Russell, Brigadier-General Sir A. H., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

  • Sloan, Company Sergeant-major G. C.

  • Sproat, Farrier Staff Sergeant J.

  • Thomas, Lance-Sergeant N. H.

  • Tott, Sergeant F. J.

  • Vincent, Sergeant J.

  • Ward, Sergeant A.

  • Watkins, Sergeant W.

  • Wheeler, Sergeant E. A.

  • Wixen, Sergeant A. E.

  • Woodrow, Sergeant T. M.

  • Woods, Sergeant G. V.

  • Wylie, Sergeant L. T.

* Vide also list and note at end of Croix de Guerre (French).

SERBIAN.

Order of the White Eagle, 2nd Class (with Swords).

Godley, Lieut.-General Sir A. J., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Order of the White Eagle, 5th Class (with Swords).

  • Mabin, Major F. B.

  • Wilder, Major A. S., D.S.O., M.C.

  • Wepiha, Chaplain, 4th Class, Rev. H. W.

Order of Karageorge, 4th Class (with Swords).

Mitchell, Lieut.-Colonel G., D.S.O.

Cross of Karageorge, 1st Class (with Swords).

  • Birkett, Lance-Corporal W. A.

  • Gardner, Private G.

Cross of Karageorge, 2nd Class (with Swords).

  • Conlan, Sergeant F. J.

  • Moore, Lieutenant J. J.

Gold Medal.

  • Duffill, Private G.

  • East, Private A.

  • Lovell-Smith, Sapper C.

  • Pederson, Private E.

  • Scrimgeour, Trooper A. R., M.M.

  • Soutar, Private W. J.

Silver Medal.

  • Boocock, Private J. M.

  • Champnay, Private N. D.

  • Edmonds, Trooper L. W.

  • Holmes, Private P. D.

  • Leese, Lance-Corporal A. E.

  • Noakes, Private E. L.

  • Reynolds, Sergeant P.

  • White, Private W. C.

MONTENEGRIN.

Order of Danilo, 2nd Class.

Russell, Major-General Sir A. H., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Order of Danilo, 4th Class.

Barclay, Major G.

Order of Danilo, 5th Class.

Urquhart, Captain M., M.C.

EGYPTIAN.

Order of the Nile, 2nd Glass.

Chaytor, Major-General Sir E. W. C., K.C.M.G., C.B.

Order of the Nile, 3rd Class.

Chaytor, Lieut.-Colonel D'A., C.M.G.

Findlay, Lieut.-Colonel J., C.B., D.S.O.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE .

By an Act passed during the year 1912, and intituled the Public Service Act, 1912, the Public Service of New Zealand was placed under the direct and sole control of a Commissioner and two Assistant Commissioners, who were appointed in the first place for a term of seven years, are responsible only to Parliament, and can be dismissed from office only for misbehaviour or incompetence.

The Act became operative on the 1st April, 1913, and applies to all members of the Public Service with the exception of the Controller and Auditor-General, officers of the Railway Department, members of the Police and Defence Forces, Judges and Magistrates, officers of the House, certain officers of the Legislative Departments, and persons paid only by fees or commission, as well as any officer to whom the Governor in Council declares the Act shall not apply.

In accordance with the provisions of the Education Act, 1914, Inspectors appointed by Education Boards, and in office on the 1st January, 1915, are deemed Inspectors of the Education Department and are now under the jurisdiction of the Commissioner. Under the same Act the Commissioner is empowered to appoint to the Clerical Division of the Public Service any person who on the 1st January, 1915, was permanently employed by any Education Board for more than twenty hours a week in clerical work.

By the Post and Telegraph Act of 1918 the Post and Telegraph Department was exempted from the control of the Commissioner, with the exception that the Commissioner makes all appointments.

The powers vested in the Commissioner are very wide. They include the inspection of offices, the appointment, promotion, transfer, and dismissal of officers, and the framing of regulations.

An entrance examination is provided for youths desirous of entering the Service, and efficiency and educational tests for promotion have been established.

CLASSIFICATION .

In accordance with the provisions of section 17 of the Act, a classification of all officers to whom the Act applied was immediately proceeded with by the Commissioner on his assuming control. The provisional list for Departments other than the Post and Telegraph Department was gazetted on the 20th August, 1913.

The Post and Telegraph Department had been working under a classification system for some years, and the list for this Department for 1913-14 was published separately on the 14th October, 1913.

Under the authority of section 22 of the Appropriation Act, 1918, a general regrading of the Service was made as from the 1st April, 1919. A new and increased salary schedule was adopted, and the system of war bonuses granted to assist in meeting the increase in the cost of living is now cancelled.

The classified staff on the following dates was,—

Departments other than Post and Telegraph.

As at 1st April,Number.Salaries. £
19134,641874,437
19145,095953,343
19155,6131,098,960
19165,9851,158,949
19176,2171,208,979
19186,2821,231,433

Post and Telegraph Department.

As at 1st April,Number.Salaries. £
19135,372708,165
19145,633761,365
19155,958824,242
19166,441885,927
19176,956970,641
19186,9651,008,186

The total increase in the number of officers in the Public Service (including the Post and Telegraph Department) between the 1st April, 1917, and the 1st April, 1918, was 74.

It was estimated that at the 1st April, 1918, the classified salaries would be underspent by approximately £385,000 for all Departments, including the Post and Telegraph, owing to the absence of officers at the war; it is necessary, however, to set against this an expenditure estimated at £235,000 for permanent and temporary assistance other than that supplied to the Defence Department for its special work.

APPEAL BOARD .

An officer dissatisfied with any decision of the Commissioner with regard to (1) grade, (2) classification of the work performed by or assigned to him, or (3) salary or promotion, has the right of appeal, notice of which must be lodged with the Commissioner within thirty days. All appeals are dealt with by a Board consisting of three members, two of these appointed by the Governor, and the third elected by the officers of that branch of the Service, to which the appellant belongs. The decision of the Appeal Board on all matters brought before it is final. During the year ended 31st March, 1918, the Board dealt with a total of 121 appeals, 9 of these being allowed, 6 being by consent, while the remainder were either withdrawn or disallowed.

SUMMARY OF LEGISLATION PASSED IN NEW ZEALAND IN THE YEAR 1918.

During the year 1918 there were two sessions of Parliament, one commencing on the 9th April and ending on the 15th of the same month, the second commencing on the 24th October and ending on the 12th December. The legislation passed was largely of an emergency nature, having reference principally to the war or to conditions arising out of the war.

The following is a brief summary of the most important provisions:—

1918, No. 1.—The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1918.—This Act continues in operation until the 31st August, 1919, the enactments mentioned in the schedule. Of these the most important are the Mortgages Extension Acts and the Regulation of Trade and Commerce Acts. By a subsequent enactment (section 20 of the War Legislation and Statute Law Amendment Act) the duration of the Regulation of Trade and Commerce Acts was extended until the expiration of two years after the termination of the war. Section 3 of the Expiring Laws Continuance Act revives Part I of the Monopoly Prevention Act, 1908 (relative to the price of agricultural implements), and continues that enactment in force until the 31st August, 1919.

1918, No. 2.—The Finance Act, 1918.—By Part. I of this Act the appropriations for the financial year ending on the 31st March, 1918, were extended until the 31st December of that year. By a later enactment (section 39 of the Appropriation Act, 1918) a further extension was made until 31st December,1919.

Part II fixes the rates of land-tax and income-tax (including the special war-tax) to be levied for the year commencing 10th April, 1918. The rates are the same in all respects as those levied for the immediately preceding year. Certain amendments of minor importance are made with reference to the incidence of the amusements-tax charged pursuant to Part III of the Finance Act, 1917.

Part III authorizes the raising of a "War Purposes Loan" of an amount not exceeding £20,000,000. Provision is made on the lines of the War Purposes Loans Act, 1917, for the issue of war-loan certificates, Post Office war-bonds (carrying interest at 5 per cent., free from income-tax), and securities available for payment of death duties. Provision is also made with a view to compelling subscription to the War Purposes Loans by persons who do not voluntarily subscribe in accordance with their means.

Part IV makes miscellaneous provisions, of which the following are the most important:—

  1. By section 19 the duration of the present Parliament is extended until the 19th December, 1919.

  2. By section 20 local authorities are afforded protection in respect of loans falling due during the continuance of the war and for twelve months thereafter.

  3. Section 22 restricts the importation of immature spirits.

  4. Section 24 amends the Mortgages Extension Acts, by—

    1. Repealing the provisions allowing mortgagors to contract themselves out of the protection afforded by the principal Act; and

    2. Excluding "trade mortgages," as defined, from the protection afforded by that Act.

  5. Section 25 extends the authority of the Governor-General in Council to make War Regulations, and authorizes the making of such regulations to ensure the performance of national service.

1918, No. 3.—The Military Decorations and Distinctive Badges Act, 1918.—This Act prohibits the sale, pledging, or other disposal (except by way of testamentary disposition) of military decorations without the written permission of the Minister of Defence. It also makes provision for the recognition and protection of societies or organizations such as the Returned Soldiers' Association and the Boy Scouts' Association.

1918, No. 4.—The Finance Act, 1918 (No. 2).—This Act is divided into Parts as follows:—

  • Part I—Public Revenues Amendment.

  • Part II—Stamp Duties Amendment.

  • Part III—Land and Income Tax.

  • Part IV—War Purposes Loan.

  • Part V—Loans for Public Works and other Purposes.

  • Part VI—Miscellaneous.

Part I (Public Revenues Amendment).—This Part relates principally to the War Expenses Account established by section 8 of the Public Revenues Amendment Act, 1914. It repeals the former provisions and re-enacts them with substantial alteration. In particular it makes provision for payment out of the War Expenses Account of expenses incidental to the demobilization of the Expeditionary Forces.

Part II (Stamp Duties Amendment).—This Part of the Act makes various amendments of a technical nature in the law relating to the imposition of stamp duties.

Part III (Land and Income Tax).—This Part exempts the Government Life Insurance Department and all companies carrying on in New Zealand the business of life insurance from the payment of the special war-tax imposed by the Finance Act, 1918 (No. 1).

Part IV (War Purposes Loan).—This Part authorizes the raising of a War Purposes Loan of £10,000,000, on conditions similar to those attaching to the War Purposes Loan authorized to be raised by Part III of the Finance Act, 1918 (No. 1).

Part V authorizes the raising of loans for local purposes as follows:—

  1. (l.) £2,500,000 for the erection of buildings for education purposes, for hydro-electrical works, for telegraph extension, and other public works (section 29).

  2. An additional sum of £150,000 for the purpose of making advances for the provision of additional cold-storage accommodation (section 30).

  3. An additional sum of £1,000,000 for the purposes of the Discharged Soldiers Settlement Act (section 31).

  4. An additional sum of £200,000 for afforestation purposes.

Part VI (Miscellaneous).—In this Part provision is made for the following matters:—

  1. (l.) The issue of bank-notes of a denomination of 5s.; and

  2. The establishment of a Post Office Savings-bank Reserve Account.

1918, No. 5.—The Electric-power Boards Act, 1918.—This Act makes provision for the construction or purchase by specially constituted Electric-power Boards of works intended for the generation, transmission, and supply of electric power. The Act provides, inter alia , for the following matters:—

  1. (l.) For the constitution of electric-power districts;

  2. For the establishment of local governing bodies, known as Electric-power Boards, to be elected by the electors of the several local districts comprised in the several electric-power districts;

  3. For the procedure of Electric-power Boards;

  4. For the financial operations of the Boards, including provision for borrowing money to be secured on special rates, which the Boards are expressly authorized to make and levy;

  5. For the construction or purchase by Electric-power Boards of electric works, subject to the controlling authority of the Government, as defined by the Public Works Act, 1908, and its amendments;

  6. For the supply of electric power to consumers within the electric-power district, and also within the limits of a defined "outer area"; and

  7. For the purchase by the Governor-General, on behalf of His Majesty, of the undertaking of any Board, at a price to be determined by arbitration.

1918, No. 6.—The Aviation Act, 1918.—This Act enables the Government to control the practice of aviation in New Zealand. It empowers the Governor-General by Order in Council to make regulations for the following purposes:—

  1. (l.) The licensing of schools of instruction in aviation;

  2. The issue of certificates of competency to aviators, and the recognition of certificates issued elsewhere than in New Zealand;

  3. Prescribing standards of physical fitness for aviators and for candidates for certificates;

  4. The issue of licenses authorising the use of aircraft, and prescribing conditions relative to the carriage of passengers and goods; and

  5. Prescribing penalties, not exceeding £100 in any case, for the breach of any such regulation.

1918, No. 7.—The Post and Telegraph Department Act, 1918—This Act is an amendment of the Post and Telegraph Act, 1908, and relates exclusively to the internal administration of the Post and Telegraph Department.

The main provision of the Act is the exclusion of the Post and Telegraph Department from the operation of the Public Service Act, 1912. Provision is made for the appointment by the Governor-General of the four principal administrative and professional officers. The power of appointment of the remainder of the staff is, as heretofore, with the Public Service Commissioner, subject, however, to the provisions of the Act relative to the functions of the Post and Telegraph Promotion Board. Extensive powers are conferred on the Governor-General to make regulations with respect to the Department. Inter alia , regulations may be made for the following purposes:—

  1. For the classification of the officers of the Department:

  2. Determining the rates of salaries and allowances to be paid to officers of the Department:

  3. Prescribing the duties of officers, and the modes of organization and discipline:

  4. Providing for inquiries as to charges of inefficiency or misconduct against officers of the Department:

  5. Prescribing examinations for candidates for appointment to the Department, and for officers of the Department, with a view to determine their fitness for promotion:

  6. Regulating the conduct of appeals by officers of the Department to the Post and Telegraph Appeal Board.

A special Board to be called the Post and Telegraph Promotion Board is established. This Board considers in the first place all matters relative to the appointment or promotion of officers, and makes its recommendations to the Public Service Commissioner. In the event of a difference of opinion arising between the Commissioner and the Board with respect to any question the matter is to be determined by the Postmaster-General.

There is also established a Post and Telegraph Appeal Board, to which every officer of the Department has a right of appeal against any determination of his superior officers relative to his classification or salary.

1918, No. 8.—The Reformatory Institutions Act, 1918.—This Act provides for the establishment by the State of institutions intended for the care and treatment of drunkards and for the detention of women and girls requiring reformative treatment. The provisions of the Reformatory Institutions Act, 1909 (relative to institutions controlled by private philanthropic bodies), are made applicable to the State institutions proposed to be established pursuant to this Act.

1918, No. 9.—The Expeditionary Forces Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act amends the Expeditionary Forces Act, 1915. Its main provisions are the following:—

  1. Section 2 extends until the expiration of twelve months after the end of the war the period of enlistment of members of the Expeditionary Forces. The object of the amendment is to allow adequate time for demobilization.

  2. Section 5 provides for the establishment of military hospitals, in which all persons undergoing treatment (whether formally discharged from the Forces or not) are liable to military discipline and control.

  3. Section 7 provides for the payment out of the War Expenses Account of a bonus to all officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the Expeditionary Forces who have served beyond the seas in the present war. The amount of bonus payable in any case is to be determined in accordance with a scale to be prescribed by the Governor-General by Order in Council.

  4. Sections 8 to 15 relate to military defaulters, and require the Minister of Defence to prepare a Military Defaulters List. Military defaulters out of New Zealand on the passing of the Act are prohibited from returning to New Zealand at any time within ten years. All military defaulters are deprived of civil rights for a period of ten years from the passing of the Act. Persons so deprived of civil rights are incapable—

    1. Of being appointed to or of continuing to hold any office or employment in the service of the Crown, or of any local or other public authority;

    2. Of being elected or appointed or of continuing to hold office as a member of either House of Parliament or as a member of any local or other public authority;

    3. Of being enrolled as an elector or voting at any election of a member of either House of Parliament or of a member of any local or other public authority.

1918, No. 10.—The War Legislation and Statute Law Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act is divided into two Parts as follows:—

  • Part I.—War Legislation (sections 2 to 32).

  • Part II.—Statute Law Amendment (sections 33 to 41).

The most important provisions of the Act are the following:—

Acquisition of Land by Persons of Enemy Origin.—Sections 2 to 12 relate to the acquisition of land in New Zealand by persons of enemy origin (not being alien enemies within the proper meaning of that term). The statute law relative to alien enemies properly so called is contained in Part I of the War Legislation Act, 1917.

By section 5 the Governor-General in Council is empowered to grant licenses authorizing persons of enemy origin to acquire land in New Zealand. By section 6 a person of enemy origin is prohibited from acquiring land (other than a leasehold interest to expire within two years from the date of its acquisition) except pursuant to a license so issued by the Governor-General in Council. Land lawfully acquired by persons of enemy origin since the 4th August, 1914, and before the passing of the present Act may be taken by the Governor-General on payment of compensation assessed in the manner fixed by the Public Works Act, 1908. Land unlawfully acquired by persons of enemy origin after the passing of the Act may, by order of the Supreme Court in that behalf, be forfeited, and in such case shall be vested in the Public Trustee in trust for His Majesty.

By section 11 the operation of the Act is extended so as to apply, after the termination of the war, to persons who at the time of the passing of the Act were subject, as alien enemies, to the provisions of Part I of the War Legislation Act, 1917.

Restriction of Rent.—The object of section 13 is to afford further protection to tenants of dwellinghouses in cases where the tenant is a soldier, a discharged soldier, or the wife, widow, or other dependant of a soldier or discharged soldier.

Regulation of Trade and Commerce. — Sections 14 to 22 extend the provisions of the Regulation of Trade and Commerce Act, 1914.

Section 14 gives the necessary authority to enable the New Zealand Government to secure for the Imperial Government supplies of wool and other produce. Section 15 makes provision for the summary prosecution of offenders against the principal Act.

Section 18 enables the Court of Arbitration to amend any industrial award or industrial agreements in so far as they determine the hours of employment or the rates of remuneration of workers. The grounds on which any such alteration may be made are—

  1. (l.) Any alteration since the date of the award or agreement in the conditions affecting the industry or industries to which it relates; or

  2. Any increase since the date of the award or agreement in the cost of living.

Section 21 makes it an offence for any person to demand an excessive price for any goods "if the opportunity of obtaining such price in New Zealand arises by reason of the existence, present or past, of a war in which His Majesty is engaged, or by reason of a scarcity of such goods in New Zealand caused by war conditions, present or past." It is also made an offence for any person being in possession of goods for mercantile purposes to hoard or refuse to sell the same, or to make the same available for sale, if such hoarding or refusal raises or tends to raise the cost of other similar goods to the public.

Sections 20 and 22 (with the verbal amendments set out in the schedule) determine the duration and operation of the principal Act. Section 20 provides for the Act remaining in force during the war with Germany and for two years thereafter. Section 22 (and the schedule) repeal the words which expressly limit the exercise of the several powers to a period when " His Majesty is at war with any foreign Prince or State."

Soldiers' Wills.—Section 23 relates to the proper construction of section 11 of the Wills Act (Imperial), with respect to the wills of infant soldiers. It declares that the said section "authorizes and always has authorized any soldier being in actual military service, or any mariner or seaman being at sea, to dispose of his personal estate as he might have done before the passing of that Act though under the age of twenty-one years."

Termination of the War.—For the purposes of the various statutes which refer to the war, or to the duration of the war, or the termination of the war, the Governor-General is empowered to proclaim a date which shall be deemed to be the date of the termination of the war.

Protection of Soldiers.—Section 25 empowers the Attorney-General and the Minister of Justice, acting jointly, to cancel any warrant issued for the arrest of a person charged with an offence in cases where the person charged has, since the issue of the warrant, served with his Majesty's Forces beyond the seas.

Section 26 enables the Governor-General to make regulations for the protection of soldiers or discharged soldiers against the execution of civil judgments or process, proceedings in bankruptcy, forfeitures, the exercise of rights of distress or re-entry, the exercise of rights of sale or entry into possession, or the enforcement in any other manner of the civil obligations or liabilities of soldiers or discharged soldiers.

Unauthorized Consular Agents.—Section 28 makes it an offence, punishable by imprisonment for three months or a fine of £100, for any unauthorized person to purport or profess to be a diplomatic, consular, commercial, or other representative, agent, or officer in New Zealand of any foreign State or political community.

War Regulations.—Section 30 validates all regulations heretofore made or purporting to be made under the War Regulations Act. It is in the same terms as similar legislation passed in each session since the enactment of the War Regulations Act, 1914.

Public Service.—Section 32 repeals section 29 of the War Legislation Act, 1917 (which restricted the rights of retirement on superannuation of officers who had reached retiring age).

Harbour Regulations.—Section 33 repeals, and re-enacts with modifications and enlargement, section 205 of the Harbours Act, and enables the Governor-General to make General Harbour Regulations, to be in force in all harbours in New Zealand and overriding (in case of conflict) the by-laws of any Harbour Board.

State Forests.—Section 34 extends the authority of the Commissioner of State Forests; and authorizes—

  1. The purchase or hire of sawmills and machinery and the sale of timber from State forests;

  2. The purchase of private lands in addition to or in protection of State forests;

  3. The setting-apart of any area of Crow land as a provisional State forest, which may subsequently be declared by the Governor-General to be available for settlement if so required, but which, pending such declaration, is regarded for all purposes as a State forest; and

  4. The making of regulations for controlling the export of timber from New Zealand, and also the sale or cutting of timber either on public or private lands.

Education.—Sections 36 to 38 amend the Education Act, 1914. Provision is made for—

  1. (l.) The appointment of organizing teachers;

  2. The establishment of compulsory continuation classes (to be attended by young persons who have completed the primary school course of instruction); and

  3. The admission of certain classes of children to Probationary Homes.

Apprentices.—Sections 39 and 40 relate to apprentices. Section 39 defines the status of Government apprentices; section 40 protects the interests of apprentices whose apprenticeship has been interrupted by reason of service with the Expeditionary Forces. It is in substitution for section 28 of the War Legislation Amendment Act, 1916.

1918, No. 11.—The Licensing Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act is divided into three Parts as follows:—

  • Part I.—Special Licensing Poll.

  • Part II.—Result if National Continuance is carried at the Special Licensing Poll.

  • Part III.—Result if the Determination at next General Licensing Poll is in favour of National Continuance.

Part I provided for the taking of a special licensing poll on the proposal of national prohibition with compensation. This poll was held on the 10th April, 1919, and the result in favour of national continuance was published in the New Zealand Gazette of 26th June, 1919, at page 1949.

By Part II provision is made for the submission to the electors of three proposals at the next general licensing poll, namely,—

  1. (l.) The proposal of national continuance;

  2. A proposal of national prohibition without compensation; and

  3. A proposal of State purchase and control.

The proposals for national prohibition without compensation or of State purchase and control may be carried by a bare majority of all the votes recorded.

By Part III it is provided that in the event of national continuance being carried both at the special licensing poll and at the next ordinary licensing poll, then at any licensing poll thereafter the only proposals to be submitted are—

  1. (l.) A proposal of national continuance; and

  2. A proposal of national prohibition without compensation.

At any such poll the result is to be determined by a majority of the valid votes recorded.

1918, No. 12.—The Distillation Amendment. Act, 1918.—By this Act special provision is made enabling the Governor-General by regulation to authorize and control the distillation or manufacture of spirits for industrial or scientific purposes.

1918, No. 14.—The Repatriation Act, 1918.—This Act makes provision for the repatriation of soldiers. It provides for the establishment of a Department of State called the Repatriation Department, to be administered by the Repatriation Board, consisting of members of the Executive Council appointed in that behalf by the Governor-General. The chief administrative officer of the Department is to be known as the Director of Repatriation. For the purpose of decentralizing the work of the Department the Repatriation Board is empowered to establish local Boards or committees with such advisory or consultative functions as the Board may confer on them.

The function of the Repatriation Board is to make provision for the restoration of discharged soldiers to civil life, and for the establishment of discharged soldiers or soldiers' widows in civil employment or occupation. For these purposes the Board is empowered to establish schemes for educational, industrial, and vocational training, and is also empowered to grant financial assistance by way of loan to discharged soldiers and soldiers' widows.

1918, No. 15.—The Legislative Council Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act postpones the commencement of the Legislative Council Act, 1914 (providing for an elective Legislative Council). The date of commencement is to be fixed by the Governor-General by Proclamation.

1918, No. 16, The Orari and Waihi Rivers Act, 1918; 1918, No. 17, The Rangitata River Act, 1918.—These Acts make provision for the construction of certain river-protection works by the Public Works Department, at the cost of the controlling River Boards, such works to be handed over to these Boards on completion.

1918, No. 18.—The Slaughtering and Inspection Amendment Act, 1918.—The object of this Act is to enable the Government to control the business of the export of meat from New Zealand so as to prevent the development of any "combine" in the industry to the detriment of the public. Every person proposing to carry on such business is required before commencing business to obtain a license from the Minister of Agriculture, who is empowered in his absolute discretion to refuse or grant the same.

1918, No. 19.—The War Funds Act, 1918.—This Act is an amendment of the War Funds Act, 1915. The object of the Act is to protect war funds from improper administration. The Supreme Court is empowered to establish schemes for the administration of any fund where it is made to appear that the fund is being improperly administered or is no longer required for the purposes for which it was originally established. In the case of small funds (amounting to not more than £300), the Minister charged with the administration of the principal Act is empowered, subject to a right of appeal to a Stipendiary Magistrate, to direct the transfer of any such fund to the National War Funds Council, on the ground of improper administration.

1918, No. 20.—The Rabbit Nuisance Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act amends the Rabbit Nuisance Act, 1908, and requires the owners of private land to take such steps for the destruction of the rabbits thereon as may be considered necessary by Inspectors appointed under the principal Act.

1918, No. 21.—The Land Laws Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act remedies a defect of the law disclosed by a recent judgment of the Privy Council with respect to the renewal of leases of small grazing-runs. It also extends the provisions of section 28 of the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1912 (relative to the subdivision for the purposes of closer settlement of small grazing-runs under the Land Act, 1908), to such leases granted under the corresponding provisions of former Land Acts.

Section 8 amends the provisions of the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1913, relative to the assessment of compensation in respect of lands acquired by the Crown from owners who had acquired the same by way of aggregation. In any such case the maximum compensation payable is the capital value at the time of its acquisition by way of aggregation plus 10 per centum thereof. The Act makes other amendments of minor importance.

1918, No. 22.—The Public Health Amendment Act, 1918.—This Act establishes a Board of Public Health consisting of ten members, whose function is to advise the Minister of Public Health as to matters affecting the health of the community.

Section 6 empowers local authorities to establish and maintain lodging-houses in centres of population.

Section 7 empowers District Health Officers to order that insanitary buildings be either taken down or altered so as to make them fit for habitation. An appeal lies to a Stipendiary Magistrate from an order of a District Health Officer under this section.

By section 10, local authorities are required to appoint Inspectors of Buildings whose duty is to inspect buildings and to report thereon with special reference to the following matters:—

  1. Area of land occupied and air-space;

  2. Water-supply;

  3. Baths;

  4. Lavatories;

  5. Sanitary and hygienic conditions;

  6. The name of the owner;

  7. The name and occupation of the occupier

  8. The number and description of the rooms;

  9. The number of persons living in the building

  10. If rented, the rental payable; and

  11. Such other information as may be ordered by the local authority.

Section 12 provides for the licensing of lodginghouses, and makes it an offence to conduct a lodginghouse (with more than five lodgers at a time) without a license.

Section 13 authorizes the appointment by local authorities of Sanitation Committees, with power to enter and inspect premises.

Section, 14 provides for the appointment by the Minister of Public Health, on application by a local authority, of resident medical practitioners. The remuneration of such practitioners is to be determined by the Minister and paid by the local authority concerned. Fees payable in respect of medical services rendered are to be paid to the district fund of the local authority.

Various other amendments of the law are made with a view to the preservation of the public health.

The Act is imperfect in many respects and requires further consideration with respect both to its form and substance at the earliest possible opportunity.

1918, No. 24.—The Appropriation Act, 1918.—This Act appropriates for the use of His Majesty the moneys required for the purposes of the current financial year. In addition the Act contains certain miscellaneous provisions, of which the most important are the following:—

Section 16 provides for the payment of a war bonus to persons employed in the service of the Government (including teachers in public schools, technical schools, and certain other educational institutions).

Section 18 empowers the Minister of Finance to advance moneys by way of loan for the purpose of developing the oil industry.

Section 22 provides for the regrading of officers employed in the Public Service, such regrading to be operative as from 1st April, 1919.

By section 25 the annual Government subsidy to the Teachers' Superannuation Fund is increased from £17,000 to £43,000. By section 26 the similar subsidy payable to the Public Service Superannuation Fund is increased from £48,000 to £86,000.

By section 37 provision is made for increased salaries to be paid to teachers. An annual sum of £118,000 is provided, which is to be distributed in accordance with regulations to be made in that behalf by the Governor-General in Council.

Section 48 contains an amendment of the Stamp Duties Act, relative to the assessment of stamp duty on transfers of property intended to be used for the purposes of the oil-mining industry.

Chapter 2. SECTION II.—CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY.

THE information given in this section deals only with the year 1918. For a fuller account of the climate and meteorology of New Zealand, giving records of past years, the reader is referred to the article in the 1915 issue of the Year-book, contributed by D. C. Bates, Esq., Dominion Meteorologist, by whom the matter here published has also been supplied.

NEW ZEALAND RAINFALL FOR THE YEAR 1918.

The total year's rainfall was above the means of previous years in all districts with a westerly aspect and slightly below in the east coast districts.

Following arc brief monthly summaries of the weather and the principal atmospheric systems which were in evidence:—

January.—The aggregate month's rainfall was below the average in most parts of the South Island and in the extreme south and central regions of the North, while in the northern and east coast districts of the North Island it was considerably above normal. The cause of the excess in the two latter districts was the presence of an atmospheric depression northwards of the Dominion, which persisted between the 9th and the 16th. During this period frequent electrical disturbances were reported in the north, particularly about the 12th, 15th, and 19th, On New Year's Day boisterous and wet conditions were experienced generally, owing to the passage of the centre of a disturbance in the vicinity of Cook Strait. Several small westerly areas of low pressure were in evidence, passing in the south on the 17th, 24th, 28th, and 30th respectively. About these dates conditions were unsettled, with rainfall in many parts. The weather for the month as a whole was dull, warm, and humid.

February.—During the first week of February, and between the 11th and 13th and the 19th and 25th, anticyclonic conditions ruled, with fair, though at times dull and hazy, weather. Rainfall was experienced generally from the 14th to the 16th, while the centre of a cyclone passed down the western coast. On the 15th some very heavy downpours were recorded, particularly in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait, as the following totals will show:—

Name of Station.Rainfall on 15th (in Inches).
Wellington4.11
Lower Hutt5.00
Motueka4.50
Cape Campbell4.40
Picton4.30
Endeavour Inlet8.93 (on 16th).
Seddon5.76 (on 16th).

Stormy and wet conditions prevailed in the west coast and southernmost districts on the 25th and 26th, while a westerly low-pressure area passed in the south. A disturbance of a similar type to the latter, but of slighter gradient, brought rain in many parts on the 9th. Except in the Wanganui and Southland districts the total precipitation was everywhere well above the average.

March.—The outstanding meteorological feature of March was the intense cyclone which was responsible for very stormy conditions between the 18th and 20th. Of tropical origin, the centre apparently passed down from westward of Norfolk Island, and on the morning of the 19th was located off Farewell Spit. On the 20th it had passed to the south-east of the Dominion. The worst effects were experienced generally on the 19th, but stormy conditions also prevailed in the northern districts on the 18th and in the southern districts on the 20th. During the height of the storm on the 19th the heavy northerly gales caused bush fires to sweep over the district about Raetihi, resulting in most serious losses to the settlers. The rainfall accompanying the storm was generally not as much as might have been expected, but the southernmost districts on the 20th experienced some heavy precipitation, which caused floods in many of the rivers. Our observer at New Plymouth, Mr. W. W. Smith, referring to the storm, says: "After inquiries among the oldest settlers in New Plymouth there can be no doubt that the cyclonic storm on the 19th and 20th was the severest known, alike to Europeans and Maoris, in their lifetime." Many observers in different parts of New Zealand, also Mr. L. H. Steel, the observer at Chatham Islands, expressed a similar opinion. Two other disturbances were in evidence during the month, both passing in the north—one which ruled between the 3rd and 9th, and the other from the 29th to the end of the month. Some heavy rains were reported about these two periods, especially in the east coast districts of the North Island, and the former disturbance accounted for persistent south-east gales and very heavy seas between Capo Campbell and East Cape. Between the 8th and 16th, and the 21st and 27th, anticyclonic conditions ruled, and fair weather was experienced generally. Except in Westland, and at a few scattered places elsewhere, the total rainfall for the month was well above the average.

April.—In the east coast districts southwards of Napier the total rainfall for April was rather below the average, and in Canterbury it was considerably so. The remaining portion of the Dominion recorded an excessive rainfall, the greatest departure above the mean being in that portion of the North Island northwards of Wanganui and Gisborne. Both Hawke's Bay and Canterbury experienced fair and mild though somewhat dull weather, while generally elsewhere, as the records show, showery conditions were the rule. The most unsettled periods were between the 5th and 10th, and the 28th and 30th, both being due to intense areas of westerly low pressure. About the 9th and 10th some extremely heavy rains were experienced in the Bay of Plenty district, apparently the result of a secondary "low" which also accounted for severe thunderstorms. The Town of Opotiki reported a serious flood on the 9th, the rainfall on that date at Opotiki being 9.5 inches for the twenty-four hours.

May.—During the first half of May anticyclonic pressure ruled, with fair weather generally. From the 16th until the 29th an intense and extensive westerly area of low pressure held sway. The latter accounted for unsettled conditions and between the 20th and 26th high and boisterous north-west winds were experienced, with rain in most parts of the Dominion. On the 23rd and 24th thunderstorms occurred in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait, and at this time heavy rain fell in the Wairarapa district, causing floods in some of the low-lying country, especially about Masterton. During the 28th and 29th a depression passing off East Cape accounted for strong south-east winds and heavy showers along the east coast of the North Island. In nearly all parts of the Dominion the total rainfall for the month was considerably less than the average.

June.—Anticyclonic pressure prevailed from the 1st to the 10th, and accounted for fair and mild weather generally during this period. From the latter date until the end of the month westerly depressions were extremely persistent, and the weather proved very unsettled, with considerable rainfall. A notable meteorological feature was a remarkable tendency for the development of secondary "lows," and in consequence electrical disturbances frequently occurred in different parts of the country, more especially over the North Island. On the last day of the month a shallow depression was centred westward of Cook Strait, and was responsible for a serious snowstorm in the North Canterbury district. Except in the east coast districts of the North Island and the west coast of the South, the total rainfall for the month was everywhere above the average.

July.—The month of July proved one of the coldest and stormiest winter months experienced for many years. Rainfall, however, was not excessive, totals above the average only being recorded north of Auckland, and in the Wanganui, North Canterbury, and Otago districts. Atmospheric disturbances were so numerous that hardly a day passed without one either enveloping or being within effective distance of the Dominion. On the 1st of the month the shallow depression, mentioned in the June summary, was still in evidence, and further heavy snowfall occurred in North Canterbury. The most severe storm was one which ruled between the 15th and 24th, and which caused a widespread snowfall between the 19th and 22nd. Very stormy weather, with south-west gales, was experienced generally about this time, and snow was recorded at many places in the North Island where it had not occurred since August, 1904. A comparison of these two storms brings out some interesting facts. The one on the 1st was a shallow cyclone accounting for a heavy local snowstorm in North Canterbury, with south-east winds. The latter was an intense westerly area of low pressure which apparently remained stationary for several days, with its central area in the vicinity Of Chatham Islands. The winds were distinctly south-west, and the snowfall was more general. The stormiest weather is experienced with an intense and extensive depression, but, as in this instance, a small, shallow disturbance invariably proves the more dangerous when its effects are confined to a comparatively small area.

August.—During the first half of August cold, unsettled, and at times stormy weather prevailed, but afterwards conditions improved, and fair, mild, and spring-like weather was generally experienced. From the 1st until the 7th an extensive westerly area of low pressure held sway, and strong and squally westerly winds predominated. This was followed by a cyclone, the centre of which passed in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait on the night of the 8th. Heavy rain fell about this time, especially in and southward of Cook Strait, and many of the high-level stations reported considerable snowfall. On the 13th an intense westerly disturbance enveloped the Dominion, accounting for stormy weather on the 13th and 14th. By the 15th it had passed eastward of the Chatham Islands, and was followed by an anticyclone which brought a change to more settled conditions. From the latter date until the close of the month high atmospheric pressure ruled except on the 19th and 27th, when minor depressions passed in the south and north respectively.

September.—The changeable weather of September was typical of Spring, but, unfortunately, cold winds and sharp frosts were somewhat frequent, and, in consequence, the growth in vegetation was generally not as forward as is desired or expected at this time of the year. Rainfall was below the average in all except the Wanganui and Otago districts and in parts of Westland. Unsettled and boisterous conditions were experienced between the 5th and 8th and the 16th and 19th, when intense westerly areas of low pressure held sway. During the former period electrical disturbances were experienced in the northern districts, and on the 18th a severe thunderstorm, accompanied with heavy hail showers, occurred about Cook Strait. Small depressions passed in the south on the 22nd, 25th, and 31st, and these were responsible for frequent showers.

October.—October proved an extremely wet month over the North Island and in the north-west portion of the South. Elsewhere the total rainfall was below the average. High winds and stormy weather were frequently experienced, and, on account of the low temperatures, especially during the nights, the growth in vegetation was deficient in most parts of the Dominion. Atmospheric disturbances were numerous during the latter half of the month. The most intense were two westerly areas of low pressure, one ruling between the 13th and 20th, and the other between the 25th and 30th. On the 23rd and 24th a cyclone passed in the North, and on the latter date a cold south-east gale was responsible for some serious losses of shorn sheep in the east coast districts of the North Island. Although changeable, some fine days and mild conditions were experienced during the first fortnight.

November.—Anticyclonic conditions ruled between the 11th and 15th, and during this period fine weather was experienced generally. On various other days the weather was fair in different parts of the Dominion, but as a whole the remainder of the month was characterized by unsettled conditions, the result of numerous atmospheric depressions which passed over or within effective range of New Zealand. The worst storm was an intense westerly low-pressure area which was in evidence between the 5th and 9th. On the 7th the barometer at the Bluff fell as low as 28.77 in., and at this time heavy north-west gales were experienced in and southward of Cook Strait. The total month's rainfall was generally considerably above the average over the South Island, and also in the middle portion of the North. The northern and southernmost districts of the North Island recorded less than the average.

December.—The weather during December proved very changeable owing to the unusual number of westerly low-pressure areas which passed in the south. The only settled weather was experienced generally between the 14th and 20th, when anticyclonic conditions ruled. Some heavy rainfall accompanied electrical conditions in different parts of the North Island on the 8th and 28th, and on this account the middle districts of the North Island had a total rainfall above the average. Generally, however, the rainfall was of a showery nature, and the aggregate fall for the month was less than the mean.

The following table shows the difference, above or below the mean, for each month in the year:—

NORTH ISLAND RAINFALL , 1918.

Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Thirteen Previous Years.

 Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
+4.814.324.644.78 6.22......7.56..3.76
Av.3.082.874.473.984.944.345.424.343.864.253.753.32
-........3.26..5.003.243.40..3.20..

Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Thirteen Previous Years.

 Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.

+ Above the average.

- Below the average.

+14.711.211.616.0..19.320.1....19.615.511.8
Av.9.58.511.312.914.915.316.914.814.815.213.611.2
-........12.7....14.013.2......

Continuous line showing the mean monthly rainfall.

Dotted line showing the total monthly rainfall from January, 1918, to January, 1919 (inclusive).

Continuous line showing the mean monthly rainfall.

Dotted line showing the total monthly rainfall from January, 1918, to January, 1919 (inclusive).

TEMPERATURE CURVES .

Continuous line showing the mean monthly temperature in shade for past years.

Dotted line showing the mean monthly temperature from January, 1918, to January, 1919 (inclusive).

SOUTH ISLAND RAINFALL , 1918.

Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Thirteen Previous Years .

 Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
+..3.33..3.34..4.903.953.91....4.49..
Av.3.622.783.623.313.703.863.873.113.943.893.343.89
-3.19..3.56..2.75......3.023.87..2.86

Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Average for Thirteen Previous Years.

 Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.

+ Above the average.

- Below the average.

+..11.6......13.513.5......15.8..
Av.12.19.211.912.112.413.513.512.513.814.413.713.1
-11.9..9.311.811.6....11.310.413.5..11.4

METEOROLOGY .

TEMPERATURE , RAINFALL , ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE , AND WIND THROUGHOUT NEW ZEALAND , AS OBSERVED AT TWELVE STATIONS , FOR THE YEAR 1918.

The observations were taken at 9 a.m.

Stations.Months.Temperature in Shade.Rainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest.Lowest.Mean Max. Temp.Mean Min. Temp.Mean Temp. for Month.Wet Day.Fall.

* No records taken.

Auckland (lat. 36° 50' S.; long. 174° 50' E.; alt. 125 ft.)— °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Inches. 
 January78.053.072.561.366.9154.1729.99NE, SW.
 February77.058.073.462.668.0184.4129.98NE, E.
 March78.054.072.059.465.7175.3829.99S, E.
 April73.552.568.357.462.8184.9030.00E.
 May67.044.062.951.056.9202.5730.02w, sw.
 June66.043.059.848.654.2277.9629.86w.
 July62.035.055.643.249.4235.9429.79w.
 August63.039.057.645.951.7243.5230.05w.
 September63.041.058.947.153.0152.5630.13w, sw.
 October67.042.562.651.457.0238.0829.92w.
 November71.047.064.753.158.9182.5629.94w.
 December73.048.066.554.060.3112.2529.90w, sw.
Greenmeadows (Napier), (lat. 39° 32' S,; long. 176° 53' E.; alt. 70ft.)—          
 January******** 
 February******** 
 March******** 
 April76.541.567.751.959.891.8630.008NW, W, N.
 May70.538.062.246.354.270.6229.964N, S.
 June68.033.059.242.150.650.8629.790N, NW.
 July65.530.554.439.046.773.3229.686W.
 August66.528.059.041.350.292.3629.951w.
 September70.034.061.344.052.671.1730.079W NW.
 October74.536.064.848.456.6115.3029.865N, NW.
 November78.041.068.149.058.661.6529.824N, W.
 December79.042.067.551.559.578.7229.819W, S.
Stations.Months.Temperature in Shade.Rainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest.Lowest.Mean Max. Temp.Mean Min. Temp.Mean Temp. for Month.Wet Day.Fall.
Palmerston North (last. 40° 21' S.; long. 175° 37' E.; alt. 103 ft.)— °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Indies. 
 January82.043.073.557.265.373.77..E, W.
 February82.049.073.957.665.7102.01..W, E.
 March80.037.070.551.561.073.17..E. W.
 April72.538.065.248.456.8133.58..W, E.
 May65.032.059.643.951.7124.20..W, E.
 June62.032.055.742.849.2213.58..W. E.
 July58.025.050.735.343.0164.37..W, SW.
 August64.027.055.540.147.8132.76..W, S.
 September63.032.557.142.649.8113.47..W.
 October69.033.061.947.054.4194.38..W, E.
 November72.037.061.447.354.3193.84..W.
 December75.035.064.848.356.5163.74..W, E.
New Plymouth (lat 39° 3' 35" S.; long. 174° 4' 58" E.; alt. 160 ft.)—January81.048.074.754.464.594.34..sw, s.
 February85.053.077.357.267.2124.80..NE, SW.
 March85.047.072.952.862.8106.01..SE, S.
 April76.048.068.952.360.6219.05..W, S.
 May71.043.064.450.857.6194.95..S, SW.
 June65.034.059.745.252.4207.57..S, SW.
 July59.031.054.841.848.3247.28..SE, SW.
 August65.032.057.743.650.6234.46..SW. S.
 September64.038.058.542.150.3175.24..SW, SE.
 October68.040.061.445.353.3269.65..SW. SE.
 November69.045.063.848.155.9215.56..SW, S.
 December71.043.065.651.558.5127.10..SW, S, W.
Wellington (lat. 41° 16' S.; long. 174° 46' E.; alt. 8 ft.)—          
 January78.546.770.258.064.1111.7330.009N, S
 February79.351.071.859.565.685.0430.024N, NW, S.
 March76.343.766.755.160.9113.5030.031S.N.
 April68.941.263.552.958.2163.5329.979N, NE, SE.
 May64.038.759.448.153.7114.1429.947NW, N.
 June61.932.956.144.850.4167.0829.758S, NW.
 July59.030.151.639.445.5204.9929.703S, NW.
 August62.730.554.943.349.1133.5129.929N, S, NW.
 September62.836.256.446.051.2143.5130.066NW, N, S.
 October69.638.260.349.454.8176.4829.804NW, N.
 November69.740.261.549.955.7113.3429.793NW, N.
 December74.642.963.951.457.6112.7329.801S, NW, N.
Nelson (lat. 41° 16' 17" S.; long. 173° 18' 46" E.; alt. 34 ft.)—          
 January86.047.074.757.466.072.83..E, NE.
 February82.050.074.557.966.2105.56..E, NE.
 March82.248.072.456.164.265.67..SE.
 April76.042.066.451.258.894.47..SE, SW.
 May69.032.059.642.050.8101.44..E.
 June59.035.055.541.348.4147.21..SE, NE.
 July58.029.051.137.344.2101.99..NE, SW, SE.
 August61.030.056.039.747.884.03..NE, SE, SW.
 September65.530.059.440.049.7102.89..SW.
 October69.034.562.645.053.8166.33..NE.
 November76.034.066.247.356.7122.23..NE. SW.
 December76.039.068.449.158.7121.66..SW, NE.
Hokitika (lat. 42° 41' 30" S.; long. 170° 49' E.; alt. 12ft.)—          
 January74.544.068.054.261.1139.3729.984SW.
 February73.046.569.256.963.0156.9529.986NE, SW.
 March77.043.567.851.959.898.8630.010SW, SE.
 April69.542.061.749.355.52110.2629.983SE, E.
 May62.032.555.940.648.2189.6929.950SE, SW.
 June57.031.051.338.144.7187.7429.776E, SW.
 July54.526.049.933.041.4187.9929.766E, SE.
 August57.530.552.637.645.11613.5229.947SE, E.
 September59.029.555.641.948.72010.3330.078NE, E.
 October66.534.058.545.051.72115.5129.841SW, SE.
 November65.530.558.946.152.52414.0029.844N, SW.
 December65.536.061.847.154.41610.2829.843SW.
Christchurch (lat. 43° 31' 50" S.; long. 172° 38' 50" E.; alt. 25 ft.)— °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Inches. 
 January83.942.067.454.560.9122.3729.970NE, SW.
 February83.743.269.956.163.0134.0329.970NE, SW.
 March81.339.265.151.558.3112.1230.016NE, SW.
 April74.532.061.745.053.4100.8729.922SW, NE.
 May62.129.056.240.048.1171.5929.876NE, SW.
 June64.928.052.636.444.5133.2629.733SW.
 July61.927.246.932.439.6206.8629.699SW.
 August65.327.253.535.844.6111.4329.855SW, NE.
 September73.231.559.338.949.190.9329.994SW, NE.
 October74.335.063.144.353.7121.3129.752SW, NE.
 November80.030.863.745.054.4162.3029.722SW, NE.
 December81.238.066.447.857.1111.0929.724SW, NE.
Lincoln (lat. 43° 32' 16" S.; long. 172° 38' 39" E.; alt. 42 ft.)—          
 January84.034.070.843.957.381.2329.960NE, SW.
 February91.046.272.754.663.6113.3029.871NE, SW.
 March84.838.067.448.858.1111.6330.028NE.
 April71.032.064.343.553.970.7929.897SW, NE.
 May64.526.658.240.749.5121.4929.893N.E.
 June66.026.053.534.944.2122.1729.761SW.
 July61.025.047.932.440.1186.1629.769SW.
 August64.827.454.835.645.2101.6329.857NE, SW.
 September71.630.057.337.947.691.3129.992NE.
 October80.033.464.143.153.6110.9729.741SW, NE.
 November86.029.064.744.854.7152.7729.727NE, SW.
 December79.437.869.015.257.190.7629.718NE, NW.
Waimate (lat. 44° 44' S.; long. 171° E.; alt. 200 ft.)—          
 January81.043.067.251.559.3132.91..NE.
 February80.042.067.753.060.3111.98..NE.
 March81.039.064.749.357.093.17..NE.
 April70.033.060.443.752.0100.55..NE, SW.
 May64.029.056.238.647.470.65..NE.
 June65.029.052.836.344.5101.78..SW.
 July58.026.047.832.740.270.65..SW.
 August67.024.053.335.244.2102.94..SW, NW.
 September70.031.057.237.547.371.97..NE, SW.
 October76.032.060.842.351.5110.80..NE, SW.
 November81.036.060.243.651.9173.87..NE, SE, SW.
 December80.036.064.244.854.582.05..NE, SE, SW.
Dunedin (lat. 45° 52' S.; long. 170° 31' E.; alt. 300 ft.)—          
 January78.042.066.651.158.8112.0229.932NE, SW.
 February81.046.069.253.461.3121.8729.984NE, SW.
 March77.046.063.951.657.783.9630.022NE, SW.
 April66.035.058.545.251.872.0529.922SW, NE.
 May63.036.055.241.048.1110.8629.858SW, N.
 June57.031.049.139.844.4216.4829.759SW.
 July54.030.045.735.040.3153.0729.710SW.
 August62.028.050.838.444.6133.1229.858SW, N.
 September68.032.054.340.847.5132.7529.973SW.
 October72.034.059.543.051.2151.8829.741NE, SW.
 November78.034.059.243.751.4164.6929.754NE, SW.
 December72.0.39.061.345.653.4174.1529.710SW, NE.
Invercargill (lat. 46° 25' S.; long. 168° 21' E.; alt. 18 ft.)—          
 January78.041.065.149.557.3223.64..SW, SE.
 February82.035.071.549.160.3151.58..SE, E.
 March79.038.065.647.456.5112.94..SW, SE.
 April69.030.058.743.351.0224.86..SE, SW, E.
 May61.028.553.437.945.6205.77..E.
 June54.025.048.736.942.8225.30..SE, E.
 July52.023.044.532.138.3224.85..E, SW.
 August61.023.551.436.944.1194.33..SE, E.
 September67.030.055.839.247.5194.08..E, SW.
 October68.032.059.140.950.0172.48..SW, E.
 November75.030.059.341.850.5224.91..SW, E.
 December78.032.062.545.153.8154.34..E, SW

COMPARATIVE TABLE , YEAR 1918.

Stations.Temperature in Shade.Rainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest, and Date.Lowest, and Date.Mean Max. Temp. for Year.Mean Min. Temp. for Year.Mean Temp. for Year.Day on which Rain fell.Total Fall.
 °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Inches.  
Auckland78.035.064.653.058.722954.3629.960W, SW. 
Jan. 13, Mar. 8July 26        
Palmerston N82.025.062.546.854.616442.87..W, E. 
Jan. 28, Feb. 15July 28        
New Plymouth85.031.065.048.856.822076.07..SW, S. 
Feb. 12,Mar. 7July 22        
Wellington79.330.161.349.855.515949.5829.904N, NW,S
Feb. 6July 27        
Nelson86.029.063.947.055.412446.33..NE, SE,SW.
Jan. 26July 23, 24, 25        
Hokitika77.026.059.245.152.2209124.5029.917SW,SE.
Mar. 7July 25        
Christchurch83.927.260.544.052.215528.1629.853SW, NE.
Jan. 18July 17, Aug. 16        
Lincoln91.025.062.142.152.113324.2129.851NE, SW.
Feb. 14July 27        
Waimate81.024.059.342.350.812023.32..NE, SW.
 Jan. 24, Mar. 27, Nov. 11Aug. 10        
Dunedin81.028.057.844.150.915936.9029.852SW, NE.
Feb. 13Aug. 9        
Invercargill82.023.057.941.749.822649.08..E, SW. 
Feb. 23July 4        

Chapter 3. SECTION III.—POPULATION.

POPULATION OF THE DOMINION .

THE estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1918, was . 1,108,373 persons. This total does not include Maoris nor residents of the Cook and other Pacific islands annexed in 1901. The Maori population. at the census of 1916 was 49,776, while the annexed islands had at the same date a population of 12,797.

The details of the population as estimated on 31st December, 1918, are as follows:—

Males.Females.Total.

* Decrease; excess of emigration.

Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific islands) at 31st December, 1917537,360560,3121,097,672
Increase during 1918—   
By excess of births over deaths3,3916,1059,496
By excess of immigration over emigration (including members of Expeditionary Forces)1,295-90*1,205
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1918542,046566,3271,108,373
Maori population, census 191625,93323,84349,776
Population of Cook and other Pacific islands, census 19166,5526,24512,797
Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1918574,531596,4151,170,946

The population, exclusive of Maoris and residents of the annexed islands, at each census since 1858 is given in the following statement, together with the numerical and centesimal increase between the successive enumerations:—

Date of Enumeration.PopulationNumerical Increase.Centesimal Increase.
December, 185859,41339,60866.67
December, 186199,02173,13773.86
December, 1864172,15846,51027.01
December, 1867218,66837,72517.25
February, 1871256,39343,12116.82
March, 1874299,514114,89838.36
March, 1878414,41275,52118.22
April, 1881489,93388,54918.07
March, 1886578,48248,1768.33
April, 1891626,65876,70212.24
April, 1896703,36069,3599.86
March, 1901772,719115,85914.99
April, 1906888,578119,89013.49
April, 19111,008,46890,9819.02
October, 19161,099,449  

Intercensal estimates of population are made from the records of births and deaths and the returns of migration. These estimates, especially of late years, are found to be remarkably near the truth, as will be seen from the following table showing the estimated population as at 30th September, 1916, and at 31st March in each of the preceding seven census years compared with the population as ascertained by the census in the same years. The comparatively large difference in 1916 is due in part to the difficulty experienced in keeping a reliable record of arrivals and departures since the outbreak of the war.

Year.Estimated Population, 31st March.Census Population.Difference.
1881488,649489,9331,284
1886585,844578,4827,362
1891631,898626,6585,240
1896701,383703,3601,977
1901775,123772,7192,404
1906889,971888,5781,393
19111,006,7611,008,4681,707
19161,092,5021,099,4496,947

The Cook Islands are not included in any of the statistics of New Zealand quoted throughout this book. Figures re Maoris are included in the general details in a few cases—i.e., imports and exports, savings-bank deposits, &c.—but in other cases are either not taken into account or are shown separately. In cases where Maoris are included they swell totals to a much less extent per head than does the European population. The figures given below, therefore, do not include Maoris and residents of Cook Islands, information concerning whom is given at the end of this section.

Year.Estimated Population at End of Year.Increase during Year.Mean Population for Year.
Males.Females.Totals.Numerical.Per Cent.

* Decrease.

† Census population.

1909520,406462,520982,92622,2842.32971,784
1910529,998474,3881,004,38621,4602.18992,802
1911539,729485,6771,025,40621,0202.091,014,896
1912553,212499,4151,052,62727,2212.651,039,016
1913569,109515,5531,084,66232,0353.041,068,644
1914568,161527,8331,095,99411,3321.041,090,328
1915563,963538,8311,102,7946,8000.621,099,394
1916549,895550,6681,100,563-2,231*-0.19*l,099,449
1917537,360560,3121,097,672-2,891*-0.27*1,099,117
1918542,046566,3271,108,37310,7010.971,103,022

The smallness of the increases in 1914 and 1915, and the actual decreases in 1916 and 1917, are due in great part to the war, immigration being considerably restricted, while the emigration figures were swelled by the departure of troops for the front. In 1918 returning troops slightly exceeded those departing. The balance of civilian migration was also slightly in favour of immigration, thus allowing the effect of the natural increase—an abnormally low one—to record a small rise. Figures of emigration quoted later on in this section do not. include members of Expeditionary Forces.

With the exception of 1916 and 1917, the population of New Zealand has shown a continuous though not a regular increase in each year since 1855, the first year in which accurate records of births and deaths were obtained and used in conjunction with the returns of immigration and emigration. The greatest increase in any year was in 1874, when 32,118 assisted immigrants were brought into the country in accordance with the immigration and public-works policy of the Government. The next greatest increase of population was in 1863, following the discovery of gold in Otago. Latterly, however, direct gain from migration has been relegated to a place second to gain by natural increase. The accompanying logarithmic diagram gives a good indication of the progress of population in the Dominion, and is further interesting as showing the gradual tendency towards an equalization of the sexes. The loss of men, due to the departure of troops, actually brought the female population slightly ahead of the male at 31st December, 1916, a position which was maintained during the next two years. By the end of July, 1919, the male preponderance was again established.

Logarithmic Graphs of Population, 1855-1918.

The increase of female population has been greater than that of males in each year since and including 1909. During the war period the departure of the Expeditionary Force caused each year to show decreases in male population. Apart from this, there has never been an actual decrease recorded, although in 1864 and again in 1888 the increase of males was less than 1,000, due in each case to an excess of emigration over immigration. The annual increase of female population has never fallen below 3,000 in any year since 1860.

NATURAL INCREASE .

The natural increase of population is shown in the following table:—

Natural Increase of Population, 1909-18.

Year.Excess of Births over Deaths.Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Males.Females.Total.
19098,2569,30917,56518.07
19107,8388,50716,34516.46
19117,9378,88316,82016.58
19128,6229,67218,29417.61
19138,5669,25017,81616.67
19148,5499,64118,19016.68
19158,6499,23617,88516.27
19168,5239,39017,91316.29
19178,2989,41317,71116.11
19183,3916,1059,4968.61

The average rate of natural increase for the ten years preceding 1918 was 16.86 per 1,000.

Fuller discussion of natural increase will be found in the Vital Statistics section of this book.

EXTERNAL MIGRATION .

The number of persons arriving in and departing from New Zealand is compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion are checked by special returns furnished by the pursers of passenger-steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted the necessary additions can be made. The parsers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes happened prior to the introduction of this check.

The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under and over twelve years of age, is given in the table following. The figures for the last five years do not include members of Expeditionary Forces.

Arrivals and Departures, 1909-18.

Year.Over 12 Years of Age.Under 12 Years of Age.Total.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
ARRIVALS.
190921,76312,4802,3022,10538,650
191020,16111,8321,9741,80235,769
191122,88113,9532,4522,10341,389
191224,02615,4422,7492,44344,660
191322,87215,8013,0192,89644,588
191420,36013,0202,1662,10037,646
191512,9939,5891,4941,47525,551
191610,6578,4061,3021,43421,799
19178,3345,58382590715,649
19185,6854,84267170811,906
DEPARTURES.
190920,77210,3731,4721,31433,931
191019,03210,6291,4191,28132,361
191121,73012,1901,8091,46037,189
191220,15112,2781,7631,54135,733
191317,18810,5161,3721,29130,369
191418,46011,2271,5651,25432,506
191512,2288,2511,09090722,476
191610,7178,2731,21595821,163
19176,8965,67270160013,869
19185,4775,02962053411,660

The monthly figures for 1918 are as follows:—

Month.Arrivals.Departures.Excess of Arrivals.Excess of Departures.
January1,670959711..
February1,1451,181..36
March1,1911,347..156
April1,2081,379..171
May9301,133..203
June9601,069..109
July90985455..
August844931..87
September95794215..
October1,2571,094163..
November41535164..
December420420....
Totals11,90611,660246..

Some two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.

ARRIVALS FROM AND DEPARTURES TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES , 1909-18.

Year.Arrivals.
FromTotal Arrivals.
United Kingdom.Australian Commonwealth.Fiji.Other British Possessions.Foreign Countries.
190911,18425,54858455777738,650
19109,36724,50258135196835,769
191111,37926,9096249961,48141,389
191212,91228,5227671,3051,15444,660
191314,70726,7645481,4201,14944,588
19148,57925,9676481,2671,18537,646
19153,53119,4996558621,00425,551
19163,39415,3216976261,76121,799
19172,93110,1466179351,02015,649
19181,1768,2825741,13074411,906
Year.Departures.
ToTotal Departures.
United Kingdom.Australian Commonwealth.Fiji.Other British Possessions.Foreign Countries.
19092,67628,99566366393433,931
19102,50927,1007026941,35632,361
19112,75530,9186968441,97637,189
19122,60530,1415808461,56135,733
19132,64924,9614791,0171,26330,369
19142,57426,6939398711,42932,506
19152,06317,7936598211,14022,476
19162,60816,3904207121,03321,163
19171,50110,49950358877813,869
19184459,47743461568911,660

PERMITS AND PASSPORTS .

PERMITS TO LEAVE NEW ZEALAND .

The War Regulations of the 15th November, 1915, as amended from time to time, prescribe that no person over the age of fifteen years shall leave New Zealand for any place beyond the seas save in pursuance of a written permit issued to him by the Minister or Under-Secretary of Internal Affairs, or some other authorized person.

The only persons exempted from the necessity for obtaining permits are those who—

  1. Leave New Zealand on the King's Service:

  2. Leave New Zealand as bona fide members of the crew of any ship:

  3. Arrive in and leave New Zealand in the course of the same voyage of any ship other than a ship arriving from a port in the Commonwealth of Australia.

With regard to crews of ships, the regulations of the 24th July, 1916, as amended, provide that "No male person over the age of fifteen years shall be shipped as a member of the crew of an oversea vessel unless he produces to the Superintendent of Mercantile Marine—

  1. "(a .) A certificate of discharge in New Zealand from an oversea vessel within the immediately preceding twelve months, or discharge for at least twelve months' service in vessels in the coasting trade of New Zealand, or such other discharges as the Superintendent of Mercantile Marine may deem satisfactory; or

  2. "(b.) A permit to leave New Zealand issued under the War Regulations of the 15th day of November, 1915, and still in force."

Alien enemies desiring to leave New Zealand must, in addition to a permit under these regulations, obtain the consent of the Minister of Defence under clause 8 of the War Regulations of the 19th July, 1915.

The owner, charterer, or master of every ship is bound to take all reasonable care not to carry out of New Zealand any person whose departure from New Zealand would be a breach of the regulations.

There are permit agents of the Department of Internal Affairs (which administers the regulations) at various ports in New Zealand: At Auckland and Dunedin, Registrar of Births; Christchurch, Government Tourist Agent; Oamaru and Hokitika, Chief Postmaster; Dargaville, Postmaster; Bluff, Customs officer; Whangarei, Thames, Gisborne, Napier, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Blenheim, Timaru, Invercargill, Greymouth, Westport, and Nelson, the Collector of Customs. These officers are authorized to issue permits, but any doubtful cases are referred to the Head Office, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.

PASSPORTS .

The amendments made in November, 1915, to the Defence of the Realm Regulations of the Imperial Government, providing that no person shall enter or leave the United Kingdom without a passport, have led to a greatly increased number being issued in New Zealand.

As far back as the 1st February, 1915, it was provided that no person should leave the United Kingdom for France or Belgium without a passport, and under the Aliens Restriction Amendment Orders aliens entering or leaving the United Kingdom were required to be in possession of passports granted by their own Governments.

Thus in the United Kingdom the passport fulfils a double function: In the first place it is practically a permit to enter the United Kingdom, and in the second place, as regards all aliens and British subjects going to France and Belgium, it is a permit to leave the United Kingdom. In this latter aspect it corresponds to the New Zealand permit issued under the War Regulations.

New Zealand is primarily concerned, however, with the first phase, and it is because passports are necessary to enable passengers to enter the United Kingdom that there has been such an overwhelming increase in the number issued in New Zealand during the past two years.

A person leaving New Zealand for the United Kingdom or other country (with the exception of British possessions in the Pacific, for which permits suffice) must therefore have in his possession (1) a permit under the War Regulations to enable him to depart from the Dominion. (2) a passport to enable him to land at the end of his journey. If foreign countries are being visited the passport must be víséd by the Consular representative of such country in New Zealand.

Applications for passports must be on the prescribed form, and accompanied by a fee of 10s. and two photographs, 3 in. by 2 in., of the applicant, certified to on the back thereof by some person of standing who recommends the issue of the passport.

Where separate passports are required for children under the age of sixteen years, application must be made on a special form. Forms of application are obtainable from the Department of Internal Affairs.

As inquiry is necessary in every case before His Excellency can be advised to sign a passport, applications must be received by the Department of Internal Affairs at least fourteen days before the passport is required.

Between the 1st November, 1915, and the 31st March, 1918, passports were issued to the number of 3,112, and for the year ended 31st March, 1919, 1,346.

PERMISSION TO ENTER NEW ZEALAND .

Under the War Regulations of the 21st August, 1916, no person over the age of fifteen years may land in New Zealand unless in possession of a passport or some other document satisfactorily establishing his or her nationality or identity.

In the case of a person coming from a foreign country the passport must have been issued or viséd by the British Ambassador or a British Consul in that country, and in the case of a person coming from any part of the British dominions the issue or visé must have been by some public official duly authorized in that behalf.

Certain exceptions are made with respect to persons coming to New Zealand from Australia, the Cook Islands, and Samoa. In their case the only requirement is the possession of a permit to visit New Zealand granted by the Home and Territories Department of the Commonwealth, a Resident Commissioner of the Cook Islands, or the Administrator of Samoa, as the case may be. A person resident in New Zealand returning to the Dominion in possession of a New Zealand permit to visit Australia is also exempted. The regulations further do not apply to a British subject arriving in New Zealand as the master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives.

The Minister of Internal Affairs or any person authorized by him is given power to grant exemptions from the requirements of the regulation.

Special provision is made with regard to aliens being the masters or members of crows of ships arriving in New Zealand. They are prohibited from landing unless in the possession of passports or other documents establishing their nationality or identity, but the Collector of Customs may grant temporary permission to land for such purposes and subject to such conditions as the Collector thinks fit. The presence among the crew of an alien not possessing a passport, &c., must be notified to the Collector of Customs, and that alien must leave the Dominion with the vessel. Nothing in this particular regulation applies to any master or member of the crew whose home is in New Zealand.

The War Regulations of the 26th February, 1917, provide that no male over the age of fifteen years shall land in the Dominion without making a declaration in the specified form, setting forth particulars as to name, age, birthplace, nationality, occupation, &c. The following persons are exempted from making this declaration:—

  1. Persons returning to New Zealand from Australia on permits issued in New Zealand;

  2. Members of the naval or military forces of any of His Majesty's Allies or any part of the British dominions entering New Zealand on duty;

  3. Any person arriving in New Zealand as the master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives.

A person who in his declaration states his intention of not becoming permanently resident in New Zealand cannot be granted a permit to leave the Dominion except within three months after the date of his arrival, or within such extended time as the Minister of Internal Affairs, on application in writing made before the expiry of the said period of three months, may allow.

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION .

In the 1915 issue of the Year-book particulars were given as to State assistance to desirable immigrants. Space is not available for the publication of this information in the present issue.

The restrictions caused by war conditions are responsible for the small number of assisted immigrants in the last three years.

The following table illustrates the proceedings of the last decade:—

Year ended 31st March.Immigrants assisted.Capital possessed by Assisted Immigrants. £Net Government Expenditure on Immigration. £

* Not available.

19102,67234,68817,002
19112,62437,7359,441
19123,30024,08811,681
19133,92832,00614,694
19145,06439,70133,914
19152,98616,31333,220
19161,1032,56410,010
19176381,4076,533
1918171*3,877
1919906*8,000

Under the immigration policy in force between 1871 and 1891 the following numbers were assisted:—

Year.Immigrants.

No immigrants were assisted between 1892 and 1903 (inclusive).

1871303
18724,736
18738,754
187432,118
187520,370
18769,677
18775,344
18786,618
187910,311
18802,689
1881103
1882726
18835,902
18843,888
18851,072
1886917
18871,286
1888485
188991
1890144
189144

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION .

The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign in any European language a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons are excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces, and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government; and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of the 26th November, 1908.

The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act having a similar purpose was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.

RACE ALIENS .

Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as "race aliens." Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion.

Birthplace.Year.
1909.1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.
British Possessions           
  India15780190325133257139292138
  Pacific islands2292451488102844278
  Other3043143478....1
  Total, British possessions20913221538021527231120136417
Foreign Countries           
  China171209546348325511265327272256
  Syria23129201993121
  Asia Minor124482....2..2
  Japan7149171313261130
  Pacific islands1872524466537295211
  Other221147124..8..
  Total, foreign countries233235589423374551291893588500
  Total, "race aliens"4423678048035898233221,013724917

Of the race aliens arriving in New Zealand a large proportion are Chinese, many of whom, however, have been formerly- resident in the Dominion. Hindus and other natives of India are also of late years arriving in considerable numbers. A number of soldiers from the French Pacific islands are included in the figures for the last three years.

Since July, 1914, records of departures of race aliens have been kept, and these show that a total of 414 race aliens left the Dominion during 1918, comprising natives of the following countries: China, 214; India, 19; Japan, 5; British Pacific islands, 24; foreign Pacific islands, 151; Syria, 1. There are indications that a large proportion of the Hindus arriving in the Dominion are coolies in transit to the Pacific islands.

The census returns of 1916 showed that there were 3,204 race aliens resident in the Dominion. They were as follows:—

Race.Full-blood.Half-blood.Totals.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.Total.

* Maori half-castes living as Europeans.

Chinese1,9337984512,0171302,147
Japanese52..3455459
Hindus16057916714181
Cingalese6..4210212
Siamese1......1..1
Afghans2......2..2
Persians2......2..2
Asiatic Turks1......11 
Asiatic Jews32....325
Syrians26218656267192459
Arabs10......10..10
Egyptians2......2..2
Abyssinians1..21314
Negroes4923014791695
American Indians1..1..1  
Australian Aborigines1..31415
Melanesians16....216218
Polynesians—       
Maoris1,5131,7081,5131,708*3,221  
Fijians1581412292049
Other and undefined461343498962151
Totals2,5612961,7091,8594,2702,1556,425

More than 45 per cent. of the race aliens reside in Auckland Province. Wellington, however, claims the largest share (over one-third) of the Chinese.

THE CHINESE .

At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1884, and further to 3,711 in 1896. During the period 1881-96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese. During the years 1894 and 1895, however, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns were found to be somewhat greater than the departures, and in 1896 an Act was passed raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head, and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901, the Chinese population was 2,857, in 1906 it was 2,570, in 1911, 2,630, and in 1916 2,147, of whom 135 were half-castes. The decrease still continues, deaths exceeding births, and the departures usually being more than the arrivals.

NATURALIZATION .

When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized he may present to the Governor-General a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—

  • His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation;

  • The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;

A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.

Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.

Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom or any British possession may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor-General, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.

An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father (or the mother, being a widow) has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.

No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who arc charged £1.

Letters of naturalization were not granted during the war.

The Revocation of Naturalization Act of 1917 provided that the Governor-General may, by Order in Council, revoke the naturalization of any person when such revocation is considered desirable on grounds of public policy.

The number of natives of each country naturalized during the twenty years 1895-1914 is shown in the next table.

Natives of—Persons.
Austria-Hungary1,529
Germany1,159
Denmark676
Sweden671
Norway455
Russia346
Italy231
Switzerland186
France159
Syria147
China146
United States of America144
Netherlands61
Greece61
Portugal and possessions60
Belgium40
Spain16
Japan11
Turkey11
Other countries52
Total6,161

REGISTRATION OF ALIENS .

The Registration of Aliens Act passed in 1917 provided for the registration of all persons of the age of fifteen or over who are not British subjects either by birth or by naturalization in New Zealand. The Government Statistician is charged with the duty of compiling and keeping the register, but the actual registration is effected by Registration Officers (mostly police officers) throughout the Dominion. Every alien not less than fifteen years of age is required to make application for registration to a Registration Officer, and is required to supply the following particulars concerning himself or herself:—

  1. Name in full:

  2. (b .) Nationality (and if nationality is not the nationality of origin, nationality of origin):

  3. (c .) Place of birth:

  4. (d .) Age, and date of birth:

  5. (e .) Whether married, single, widower, widow, or divorced:

  6. (f .) If married, the name, age, nationality of origin, and place of abode of wife or husband:

  7. (g .) If married, a widower, a widow, or divorced, number, names, and ages of children (if any):

  8. (h .) Occupation:

  9. (i .) Date of arrival in New Zealand:

  10. (j .) Place of abode and postal address:

  11. (k .) Whether permanently resident in New Zealand:

  12. (l .) If not permanently resident in New Zealand, place of permanent residence, and date of projected departure from New Zealand:

  13. (m .) Such other particulars as may from time to time be prescribed by regulations under the Act.

Upon receipt of an application for registration the Registration Officer issues a certificate of registration, and forwards the application in duplicate to the Superintendent of Police for the district, who files one copy and sends the other on to the Commissioner of Police for transmission to the Government Statistician. Registered aliens are required to notify change of address on pain of a penalty not exceeding £20. Failure to register involves a fine on conviction not exceeding £50.

The number of aliens on the Dominion register at the 1st July, 1919, was 8,335. The birthplaces of these are as follows:—

Birthplace.Males.Females.Total.
France8744131
Spain19423
Portugal14115
Italy19025215
Sardinia1..1
Sicily8..8
Switzerland20872280
Holland63366
Belgium481866
Luxemburg3..3
Germany722174896
Alsace..11
Heligoland2..2
Denmark487102589
Iceland1..1
Norway38326409
Sweden45328481
Russia26464328
Finland1728180
Siberia1..1
Poland722597
Austria2369245
Hungary17219
Bohemia12214
Galicia516
Croatia63..63
Slavonia2..2
Dalmatia78218800
Istria112
Bosnia6..6
Herzegovina3..3
Serbia15..15
Roumania12113
Bulgaria4..4
Montenegro3..3
Greece78..83
Macedonia2..2
Turkey12113
Palestine4..4
Syria8949138
Mesopotamia1..1
China1,913171,930
Japan9..9
Egypt415
United States38181462
South Sea islands471663
Other countries26329
At sea8311
British - born, but aliens by naturalization, marriage, &c.25572597
Totals6,9581,3778,335

A table published in Volume iv of "Statistics of New Zealand," 1918, gives fairly detailed information as to birthplaces in conjunction with ages. A summary giving information as to ages follows:—

Age-group.Males.FemalesTotal.
15 and under 209327120
20 and under 25590104694
25 and under 309011531,054
30 and under 351,0001851,185
35 and under 408971571,054
40 and under 45721186907
45 and under 50632134766
50 and under 55552122674
55 and under 60467107574
60 and over1,1052021,307
Totals6,9581,3778,335

BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE .

The table following shows the birthplaces of the population, exclusive of Maoris, for 1916 and four preceding census years. The total number of British-born has increased during the period by 58 per cent., while the number of foreign-born has slightly decreased. Persons born in New Zealand have increased by 80 per cent. The Commonwealth of Australia is represented by 45,585 persons, a large increase since 1896. Against this there were 31,868 persons, natives of New Zealand, residing in the Commonwealth in 1911, as compared with 25,788 in 1901. Persons born in the United Kingdom numbered 218,834 in 1891 and 232,525 in 1916.

Birthplace.Number in each Census Year.
18961901190619111916
 Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.
New Zealand441,661516,106606,247702,779794,139
Commonwealth of Australia21,63126,99147,25650,02945,585
England116,541111,964116,560133,811140,997
Wales2,1481,7652,1442,2062,197
Scotland50,43547,85847,76751,70951,951
Ireland46,03743,52442,46040,95837,380
Other British possessions3,9014,2734,5605,2345,559
Total British682,354752,481866,994986,7261,077,808
Austria-Hungary8811,8742,2122,1312,365
German Empire4,5954,2174,1744,0152,999
Denmark2,1252,1202,2772,2622,244
China3,7192,9022,6022,6112,041
Other foreign countries7,7607,4808,6028,5529,007
Total foreign19,08018,59319,86719,57118,656
At sea41,3221,2031,2451,3921,377
Not stated6044424727791,608
Totals703,360772,719888,5781,008,4681,099,449

The next table shows the proportionate strength of the different nationalities represented in the Dominion:—

Birthplace.Proportion of each Nationality in—
18961901190619111916
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
New Zealand62.8566.8368.2669.7472.34
Commonwealth of Australia3.083.495.324.974.15
England16.5814.5013.3013.2812.84
Wales0.310.220.240.220.20
Scotland7.186.205.385.134.73
Ireland6.555.644.784.063.40
Other British possessions0.550.550.510.520.51
Total British97.1097.4397.6297.9298.17
Austria-Hungary0.130.240.250.210.22
German Empire0.650.550.470.400.27
Denmark0.300.270.260.220.20
China0.530.380.290.260.19
Other foreign countries1.100.970.970.850.82
Total foreign2.712.412.241.941.70
At sea0.190.160.140.140.13
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

AGES OF THE PEOPLE .

The number of persons at each year of age is ascertained from the census household schedules. In the following tables these numbers have been condensed in customary groups, and the information disclosed at the census of 1916 is compared with that for two previous censuses. Maoris are not included.

Age-groups.Number.
189619061916
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 5 years42,44841,21152,49950,24667,32064,735
5 years and under 10 years43,56142,46445,82644,46262,34060,478
10 years and under 15 years43,04442,42343,83442,92455,53253,693
15 years and under 20 years40,36440,37044,24242,87545,01246,392
20 years and under 25 years34,26434,45249,37045,23830,41946,759
25 years and under 30 years30,60528,99049,30843,14040,01848,557
30 years and under 35 years23,74721,46637,79832,62146,16647,415
35 years and under 40 years22,50618,08132,32927,79446,13844,311
40 years and under 45 years19,99914,85524,45120,93036,75833,866
45 years and under 50 years16,83012,72521,42417,00332,99327,745
50 years and under 55 years16,20311,52318,33613,56324,02721,083
65 years and under 60 years14,2528,59713,98410,95818,70715,632
60 years and under 65 years10,5046,27812,4529,44216,11512,576
65 years and under 70 years6,4593,78111,5247,59911,2049,592
70 years and under 75 years3,2192,2057,5674,6168,3196,855
75 years and under 80 years1,8431,3883,6982,3736,0374,510
80 and over9828791,8651,5463,9792,900
Unspecified minors261835285460
Unspecified adults559239466212637515
All ages371,415331,945471,008417,570551,775547,674

A calculation of the proportion per cent. at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birth-rate on the ages under 15, the proportion of males at these ages being 30.19 per cent. in 1911 against 34.81 per cent. in 1896, and of females 32.58 per cent. against 38.02 per cent. respectively.

When the proportions for 1916 are considered, however, it will be seen that the figures in all age-groups for the male portion of the population have been materially affected by the withdrawal of men between the ages of 20 and 45 for service overseas.

The proportion of males under 15 to the total male population in 1916 was 33.61, an increase of 3.42 over the 1911 figures. The similar figures for females for 1913 were 32.70 per cent., an increase of only 0.12 over the percentage in 1911.

It must accordingly be pointed out that the following percentages for males in 1916 can be compared with figures in previous census years only after allowance has been made for the abnormal age-distribution resulting from the departure of troops.

Of the males, those 15-24 years formed 20.13 per cent. of the total in 1896, and only 13.69 per cent. in 1916. At the ages 15-64 the proportions were 61.82 per cent. and 61.03 per cent. in 1896 and 1916 respectively.

From 65 years upwards the proportions increased from 3.37 per cent. to 5.36 per cent. during the period under review.

Females at ages 15-44 increased in proportion to the total from 47.69 per cent. in 1896 to 48.87 per cent. in 1916. At 45 years and over there was 14.29 per cent. in 1896 and 18.43 per cent. in 1916 of the number of this sex.

Age-groups:Proportion per Cent. of Males.Proportion per Cent. of Females.
189619061916189619061916
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Under 5 years11.4511.1612.2212.4212.0311.83
5 years and under 10 years11.759.7411.3112.8010.6511.06
10 years and under 15 years11.619.3010.0812.8010.289.81
15 years and under 20 years10.889.418.1712.1710.288.48
20 years and under 25 years9.2510.505.5210.3810.848.55
25 years and under 30 years8.2510.487.268.7410.348.88
30 years and under 35 years6.408.038.386.477.828.67
35 years and under 40 years6.076.878.375.456.668.10
40 years and under 45 years5.395.206.674.485.026.19
45 years and under 50 years4.544.555.993.844.075.07
50 years and under 55 years4.373.904.363.473.253.85
55 years and under 60 years3.842.973.392.592.632.30
60 years and under 65 years2.832.652.921.892.262.86
65 years and under 70 years1.742.452.031.141.821.75
70 years and under 75 years0.871.611.510.671.111.25
75 years and under 80 years0.500.791.100.420.570.82
80 and over0.260.390.720.270.370.53
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

The declining proportions at the earlier ages 0-19 years may be ascribed to a falling birth-rate, while the increase at the higher ages is due to the advanced age of the then mostly adult immigrants introduced during the early stages of settlement. These form the greater portion of the groups 60 years and over, numbering 82,087 persons in 1916, only 7,583 of these being New-Zealand-born. The latter element in the population is assuming larger proportions each year, while the influence of the numbers recruited from abroad on the age-constitution is gradually waning.

The distribution of population at the census of 1916 (exclusive of Maoris) between the North and South Islands is shown according to age-groups in the following table:—

Island.Under 55 and under 2020 and under 3535 and under 5050 and under 6565 and over.Unspecified.Totals.
North79,218189,781159,614132,42462,11027,143782651,072
South52,837133,66699,72099,38746,03026,253484448,377
Totals132,055323,447259,334221,811108,14053,3961,2661,099,449

It must be pointed out, however, that the figures for the North Island include 8,724 persons who on the night of the census were in military camps and internment camps, which are all situated in that Island.

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES .

The following table is interesting as showing the gradual equalization of the sexes, the number of females to 1,000 males having risen from 622 in 1861 to 903 in 1901. The proportion was slightly lower in 1906 and 1911, but has risen to 993 in 1916, mainly on account of the absence of so many men at the war.

Census Year.Males.Females.Females to 1,000 Males.
186161,06237,959622
1871150,356106,037705
1881269,605220,328817
1891332,877293,781883
1901405,992366,727903
1906471,008417,570887
1911531,910476,558896
1916551,775547,674993

While the male sex predominates in the country as a whole, that position does not obtain in every locality. Generally speaking, the females, following the natural course of events, prevail in the older-settled districts. In the wilder or newer-developed regions men regain their numerical superiority. Ten counties in which the distinction in each case is well marked are—

FEMALE PREPONDERANCE .

County.Females to 1,000 Males.
Halswell1,222
Taieri1,198
Heathcote1,197
Eden1,158
Levels1,138
Makara1,187
Waipukurau1,096
Waimairi1,091
Horowhenua1,086
Oroua1,086

MALE PREPONDERANCE .

County.Females to 1,000 Males.
Awakino513
Fiord545
Waiapu566
Chatham Islands598
East Taupo604
Castlepoint609
Amuri620
Murchison644
Patangata677
Ohura679

All the towns of any size were the fortunate possessors of more female inhabitants than male. Although in many cases this is an artificial state of affairs, due to the war; still, even in peace-times the majority of the larger centres—Nelson forming a classic example—are in this position.

CONJUGAL CONDITION .

At the census of 1906 and again in 1911 the number of females returned as married was less than that of males. In many instances married men coming to New Zealand from abroad leave their families behind until steady work has been obtained and a home prepared. This is the usual practice among aliens, the expense of transport in some cases preventing the union of families for a considerable length of time. At the 1916 census, however, the number of married females exceeded the number of married males by approximately 4,000. This, of course, is doubtless due to the departure with the Forces of a considerable number of married men.

The number of married persons in 1911 was slightly more than one-third of the total population, exclusive of Maoris. In 1916, however, the proportion of married people to the total population had increased to approximately 37 per cent., this again being partly due to the disturbance of the normal proportions through the enlistment and departure of large numbers of single men. Widowed and divorced are included among the unmarried over 20 and 15 years of age for males and females respectively, the number of the widowed in 1916 being 15,454 males and 30,423 females. Those returned as divorced at the last census—760 males and 613 females—are probably less than the actual fact, owing to the reluctance of some persons to state this condition. The following table shows the number of unmarried and married males and females for six successive census years:—

Census.Number of Unmarried.Number of Married.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under Twenty Years of Age.Twenty Years of Age and over.Under Fifteen Years of Age.Fifteen Years of Age and over.
1891159,00077,955123,85278,77690,37190,765
1896169,32594,946126,087102,422102,621103,062
1901173,096110,485127,017121,297118,401117,746
1906186,270137,191137,621136,584143,838142,736
1911204,883150,484155,047149,274171,936170,989
1916230,144118,429178,906162,209201,967205,896

The proportions per cent. exhibit a steady increase in the case of married persons of either sex since 1891. Widowed males increased relatively to the total population, but not to the same extent as widowed females.

Census.Proportion of Males.Proportion of Females.
Unmarried.Married.Widowed.Unmarried.Married.Widowed.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
189170.0227.612.3764.9530.944.11
189669.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53
190167.9029.452.6562.9432.174.89
190666.5230.782.7060.5734.245.19
191164.6932.612.7058.5935.995.42
191660.5136.692.8056.8037.645.56

The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is steadily diminishing, while between 35 and 45 years there is a tendency towards an increase.

Women in New Zealand are not now marrying at such early ages as they did formerly, as will be seen from the figures given below:—

Age-groups.Proportion of Married Women (under 45 Years of Age).
1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Under 20 years1.191.120.980.940.810.75
20 and under 35 years60.1259.5759.9460.2959.9856.00
35 and under 45 years38.6939.3139.0838.7739.2143.25
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Excluding the widowed, but including persons divorced, the number of unmarried males 20 years of age and over was found at the census of 1916 to be 102,975, and the number of unmarried females 15 years of age and over was 131,786-78 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. The relative numbers in the last six census years were—

Census.Number of Bachelors to every 100 Spinsters.
1891105
189698
190197
1906108
1911110
191678

The substantial variation between the figures for 1911 and those for 1916 is, of course, another result of war conditions.

Reference to particulars of duration of marriage and number of children as disclosed by the census of 1916 will be found in the Marriage subsection of this issue.

RELIGION .

There is no State Church in New Zealand, nor is financial assistance given by the State to any religious denomination. Among the first colonists settlements were formed composed entirely of the adherents of certain religious bodies, but as facilities for communication increased, this exclusiveness rapidly gave place to a spirit of tolerance, and no serious attempt was made to preserve the distinctive religious character of these communities. In Otago, where the Free Church of Scotland founded a settlement, adherents to the Presbyterian Church, mostly descendants of the original stock, form 47 per cent. of the population of that portion of the Dominion; while in Canterbury, which was originally settled by the United Church of England and Ireland, adherents to the Church of England constituted 46 per cent. of the population of the provincial district at the census of 1916.

The Church of England has the largest number of adherents, and, according to returns collected in 1916, had 645 churches, besides using 497 other buildings for Divine worship. The Presbyterian Church, the next in strength, had 519 churches, with the use of 551 buildings as temporary places of worship. Roman Catholics occupy third place in point of numbers, and possessed 336 churches and used 106 other buildings. Methodists had 416 churches, and used 274 other buildings wherein to hold service.

The total number of churches and chapels belonging to all denominations and sects was 2,091, besides which 870 schoolhouses and 886 dwellings or public buildings were made use of as places of worship or for meetings. These churches and buildings were sufficient for the accommodation of 493,260 persons, or 45 per cent. of the total number of adherents and members.

The number belonging to each of the principal denominations is shown, for five census periods, in the next table:—

Denomination.Number of Adherents.
1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
Church of England282,809315,263368,065413,842461,259
Presbyterian 159,952159,952176,503203,597234,662260,659
Methodist 73,36773,36783,80289,03894,827106,024
Roman Catholic98,804109,822126,995140,523151,605
Other Christian denominations55,13753,73958,61965,73568,932
Non-Christian14,32713,30414,34615,0294,813
Indefinite12,345
No religion1,8751,1091,7095,5294,311
Object to state15,96718,29524,32535,90525,577
Unspecified1,1228821,8842,4163,924
Totals703,360772,719888,5781,008,4681,099,449

Members of Christian denominations formed 95.71 per cent. of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census; non-Christian sects were 0.44 per cent., and those who described themselves as of no religion 0.39 per cent., whilst "indefinite" religions constituted 1.12 per cent. The Census Act provides that those persons who are unwilling to state what denomination, if any, they belong to may enter the word "Object" in the census schedule. In 1916 there were 25,577 persons, or 2.34 per cent. of the total, who took advantage of this permission.

Denomination.Proportion of Adherents.
1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Church of England 40.2740.2740.8541.5141.1442.10
Presbyterian 22.7822.7822.8722.9623.3223.79
Methodist10.4410.8610.069.439.68
Roman Catholic 14.0714.0714.2314.3213.9713.84
Other Christian denominations7.866.966.606.536.30
Non-Christian2.041.721.611.490.44
Indefinite1.12
No religion0.270.140.190.550.39
Object to state 2.272.372.753.572.34
Totals 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE .

Information in considerable detail in regard to the occupations of the people will be found in Part IX of the 1916 Census Results, and in the Government Statistician's Report on the census. Some explanation of the terms used post may be necessary:—

  • Professional: All those not otherwise classed engaged in Government, defence, law and order, or ministering to religion, health, education, art, science, or amusement.

  • Domestic: Persons supplying board and lodging or personal services for which payment is given. Commercial: Persons directly connected with the sale, storage, security, &c., of property and material. Transport and communication: Persons engaged in the transport of passengers and goods and in effecting communication.

  • Industrial: Persons employed in manufacture, &c.

  • Agricultural and other primary producers: Persons chiefly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources.

  • Indefinite: Persons living on incomes earned in the past, or indefinitely described.

  • Dependants: All those, including wives and children, dependent on natural guardians, or upon charity, public or private.

CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS , 1916.

Class.Males.Females.Total.
Number.Per Cent. of Total.Number.Per Cent. of Total.Number.Per Cent. of Total.
Breadwinners—      
  Professional 24,7974.5017,3043.1642,1013.83
  Domestic 10,1191.8331,7965.8141,9153.81
  Commercial 49,4908.9716,7143.0566,2046.02
  Transport and communication40,2537.302,2690.4242,5223.87
  Industrial 97,04517.5919,8743.62116,91910.64
  Agricultural, pastoral, mining, and other primary producers122,81422.269,6851.77132,49912.05
  Indefinite 10,5311.912,6130.4813,1441.20
Non-breadwinners—      
  Dependants 196,60035.64447,41581.69644,01558.58
Not stated126..4..130..
Total551,775100.00547,674100.001,099,449100.00

Comparisons with previous census returns would be scarcely just, by reason of the dislocation, largely temporary, effected by the war and circumstances arising directly out of it.

EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED .

The next table needs a little explanation also. The abbreviations used are: E., employer of labour; O., in business on own account but not employing others; A., relative assisting but not receiving wages; W., working for wages or salary; W.N., wage-earner unemployed; N.A., classification not applicable (as in the case of a minister of religion); N.S., unspecified.

CLASSES BY GRADES : PROPORTIONS .

Class.E.O.A.W.W.N.N.A.N.S.Total.
Breadwinners—Males.
Professional5.213.850.348.655.175.117.246.98
Domestic 3.842.401.033.034.85..0.532.86 
Commercial16.5811.223.1814.7212.5715.997.6713.94
Transport and communication2.634.240.6016.2710.520.372.2911.33
Industrial21.9413.202.6134.7644.040.0813.8927.33
Agricultural, pastoral, mining, and other primary producers49.8065.0992.2422.5722.850.0468.3834.59
Indefinite..........78.41..2.97
Total100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Breadwinners—Females.
Professional7.4927.701.1117.4318.0828.7524.1717.26
Domestic 28.1914.4714.0937.6141.441.9623.4231.71 
Commercial14.7216.229.4917.6919.9015.2012.6216.67
Transport and communication0.530.050.412.961.21 0.112.26
Industrial18.0725.102.0522.6219.200.2421.7119.83
Agricultural, pastoral, mining, and other primary producers31.0016.4672.851.690.171.6417.979.66
Indefinite..........52.21..2.61
Total100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

The table next presented has the same facts from a different viewpoint. The grades of occupations as ascertained to exist in 1916 are very similar to those shown in 1911 and in 1906. The two sets of tables are sufficiently explicit and clear to require no comment.

GRADES BY CLASSES : PROPORTIONS .

Class.E.O.A.W.W.N.N.A.N.S.Total.
Breadwinners—Males.
Professional9.078.670.1677.001.242.771.09100.00
Domestic16.4213.191.2466.112.84..0.20100.00
Commercial14.4812.640.7965.671.504.340.58100.00
Transport2.825.870.1889.241.550.130.21100.00
Industrial9.777.580.3379.092.690.010.53100.00
Agricultural, pastoral, mining, and other primary producers17.5529.569.1640.571.10..2.06100.00
Indefinite..........100.00..100.00
Total12.1815.713.4362.181.673.781.05100.00
Breadwinners—Females
Professional1.1412.650.5374.851.218.321.30100.00
Domestic2.333.593.6887.861.560.300.68100.00
Commercial2.317.674.7278.651.384.560.71100.00
Transport0.620.181.4997.050.62..0.04100.00
Industrial2.399.980.8684.571.120.061.02100.00
Agricultural, pastoral, mining, and other primary producers8.4113.4462.6112.940.020.841.74100.00
Indefinite..........100.00..100.00
Total2.627.898.3074.111.164.990.93100.00

UNEMPLOYMENT .

Unemployed males in October, 1916, numbered 5,919, or 1.67 per cent. of the male breadwinners, compared with 1.97 in April, 1911, and 2.53 in April, 1906.

Females out of employment totalled 1,156, or 1.16 per cent. of the female breadwinners.

AGE AND DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT .

Length of Unemployment.Under 20 Years.20 and under 25 Years.25 and under 35 Years.35 and under 45 Years.45 and under 55 Years.55 and under 65 Years.65 Years and over.Not stated.Total.
Under 2 weeks49581191026535132443
2 weeks and under 41481953322822411468731,434
4 weeks and under 8135172299259213128108..1,314
8 weeks and under 1678121229205163160138..1,094
16 weeks and under 2629568282727959..459
26 weeks and under 52225310277891091091562
Over 1 year62759697689114..440
Not stated8918928920415516823321,329
Totals 5568711,5111,2801,07491486187,075

The vocations in which those out of employment were ordinarily engaged wore as under:—

Persons engaged in—No.
Government, defence, law, &c.139
Religion, health, education, &c.377
Supplying board and lodging255
Domestic service and attendance511
Dealing in textile fabrics, &c.160
Dealing in food, drinks, &c.225
General merchants and dealers331
Traffic on seas and rivers408
Art and mechanic productions432
Persons engaged in—No.
Working in food, drinks, &c.404
Working in metals151
Road and building construction741
Agricultural pursuits470
Pastoral pursuits492
Mining and quarrying317
Other occupations1,329
 7,075

INFIRMITIES OF THE PEOPLE .

The tables following show the numbers and the proportions per 10,000 living at quinquennial age-periods of persons, males and females, stated to be deaf-and-dumb, blind, lunatics, and feeble-minded at the census taken on the 15th October, 1916. The total of these cases of infirmities numbered 6,359, or 57.84 in every 10,000 persons living. Of this total the deaf-and-dumb numbered 206, or 1.88 per 10,000; the blind contributed 566, or 5.15 per 10,000; the lunatics numbered 4,275, or 38.88 per 10,000; and the feebleminded 1,312, or 11.93 per 10,000.

DEAF -AND -DUMB AND BLIND .—CENSUS 1916.

Ages, in Years.Total Population.Male Population.Males.Female Population.Females.
Deaf-and-dumb.Blind.Deaf-and-dumb.Blind.
Under 5132,05567,3201464,7356..
5 and under 10122,81862,3407760,47878
10 and under 15109,22555,5329653,693312
15 and under 2091,40445,01281246,39278
20 and under 2577,17830,419121146,759107
25 and under 3088,57540,018181648,557126
30 and under 3593,58146,166131647,41586
35 and under 4090,44946,138141844,311810
40 and under 4570,62436,75881033,86637
45 and under 5060,73832,99381327,74567
50 and under 5545,11024,02771221,08365
55 and under 6034,33918,70742715,632516
60 and under 6528,69116,11531812,576217
65 and under 7020,79611,2041139,592220
70 and under 7515,1748,3191366,855420
75 and under 8010,5476,037..344,510140
80 and over6,8793,9792692,900..52
Totals—Specified ages1,098,183551,084116322547,09990241
Unspecified1,266691..2575..1
Grand totals1,099,449551,775116324547,67490242

INFIRMITY : PROPORTION PER 10,000 AT QUINQUENNIAL AGE -PERIODS .—CENSUS 1916.

Ages, in Years.Totals.Deaf-and-dumb.Blind.Lunatics.Feeble-minded.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Under 53.022.973.090.530.150.930.300.59..0.15..0.312.042.231.85
5 and under 1011.7212.6710.741.141.121.161.221.121.320.730.640.828.639.797.44
10 and under 1518.4920.7116.201.091.620.561.651.082.232.292.342.2313.4615.6711.18
15 and under 2030.7436.8724.781.641.771.512.192.661.725.806.005.6021.1126.4415.95
20 and under 2542.4961.1430.362.853.942.142.333.621.4819.3025.6415.1918.0127.9411.55
25 and under 3048.8864.7235.833.394.502.472.484.001.2328.4536.4821.8314.5619.7410.30
30 and under 3556.6372.5641.122.242.821.692.353.461.2641.0353.5028.8911.0112.789.28
35 and under 4070.9783.6657.772.433.031.803.204.122.2655.0665.6744.0110.2810.849.70
40 and under 4583.5498.4867.321.562.180.892.412.722.0769.3881.6156.1010.1911.978.26
45 and under 5096.80104.2687.942.302.422.163.293.942.5283.3188.8176.777.909.096.49
50 and under 55111.50111.12111.932.882.912.843.775.002.3795.1093.6496.769.759.579.96
55 and under 60142.40147.53136.252.622.143.1912.2313.8910.23120.27124.02115.797.287.487.04
60 and under 65146.38149.55142.331.741.861.5912.2011.1713.52120.59125.35114.5011.8511.1712.72
65 and under 70155.79170.47138.651.440.892.0915.8611.6020.85123.58141.02103.2014.9116.9612.51
70 and under 75175.95187.52161.923.291.205.8436.9043.2729.18112.69126.2296.2723.0716.8330.63
75 and under 80241.77230.24257.200.95 2.2270.1656.3288.69142.22152.39128.6028.4421.5337.69
80 and upwards372.14371.95372.412.915.02 175.89173.41179.31125.02123.15127.5868.3270.3765.52
All specified ages57.2966.5947.921.882.111.655.125.844.4038.4344.8931.9111.8613.759.96
All ages 57.8467.2948.311.882.101.645.155.874.4238.8845.5132.2111.9313.8110.04

LUNATICS AND FEEBLE -MINDED .—CENSUS 1916.

Ages, in Years.Total Population.Male Population.Males.Female Population.Females.
Lunatics.Feeble-minded.Lunatics.Feeble-minded.
Under 5132,05567,320..1564,735212
5 and under 10122,81862,34046160,478545
10 and under 15109,22555,532138753,6931260
15 and under 2091,40445,0122711946,3922674
20 and under 2577,17830,419788546,7597154
25 and under 3088,57540,0181467948,55710650
30 and under 3593,58146,1662475947,41513744
35 and under 4090,44946,1383035044,31119543
40 and under 4570,62436,7583004433,86619028
45 and under 5060,73832,9932933027,74521318
50 and under 5545,11024,0272252321,08320421
55 and under 6034,33918,7072321415,63218111
60 and under 6528,69116,1152021812,57614416
65 and under 7020,79611,204158199,5929912
70 and under 7515,1748,319105146,8556621
75 and under 8010,5476,03792134,5105817
80 and over6,8793,97949282,9003719
Totals—Specified ages098,183551,0842,474758547,0991,746545
Unspecified1,266691374575185
Grand totals1,099,449551,7752,511762547,6741,764550

DWELLINGS .

That essential adjunct of a citizen—his habitation—next comes under review. Sundry statistics in this respect have been compiled from previous census collections, but never in the comprehensive wealth of detail of the 1916 census. These results will be found in Part XI of the Census volumes; further reference also in the Statistician's Report on the census. It should be noted in this connection that dwellings referred to hereunder do not include either those uninhabited or those occupied solely by Maoris. Nearly a quarter of a million habitations are necessary to house the Dominion's population. This means that the average dwelling—a wide term as here used—had in 1916 4.52 occupants, as compared with 4.68 in 1911. Allowing for the absent soldier element, this rate approximates very closely to that of 1911. The last five censuses have shown a successive decline in the average occupants of a dwelling. Dwellings to the square mile attain the sparse average of 2.35 only. The latest available data for Australia (census, 1911) places 4.78 as the average number of inmates of an occupied dwelling. Individual States are as follows: New South Wales, 4.94; Victoria, 4.80; Queensland, 4.76; South Australia, 4.81; Western Australia, 3.96; Tasmania, 4.76; Northern Territory, 2.36; Federal Territory, 3.86, per dwelling.

NATURE OF DWELLING .

Provincial District.Private Dwellings.Tenements in Private Swellings.Hotels.Boardinghouses.Religious, Educational or Charitable Institutions.Hospital, Mental Hospitals.Prisons, Military Establishments.Other.Totals.
Auckland64,7912,5612769589778211468,796
Taranaki11,5203515210315141212,058
Hawke's Bay11,2182946912321101311,739
Wellington44,5152,5791698667359172248,300
Marlborough3,450972935382..3,624
Nelson10,40725013112811223210,954
Westland3,35799993977123,611
Canterbury38,9921,07117134173418940,706
Otago28,408885170324473891229,893
Southland12,765456549213214..13,405
Totals229,4238,6431,2203,0093602986766243,086

While the various grades of dwelling are distributed in fairly even proportion, a few striking instances of the reverse are shown. Wellington, for example, has a larger share of tenements and boardinghouses, due principally to the number of that type of dwelling in Wellington City. Westland again possesses, as compared with other districts, rather an inordinate number of hotels, a state reminiscent of the old mining days.

NATURE OF OCCUPANCY .

Nearly one-half of the inhabited private dwellings and tenements are owned by the heads of the households occupying them.

Nature of Occupancy.Number.Per Cent.
Renting108,91645.75
Buying on time payment 11,9635.03
Owner, but paying interest on mortgage55,06223.13
Owner of freehold unencumbered56,86023.88
Not stated5,2652.21
Total238,066100.00

RENTALS .

Very interesting are the figures in the next table. These set out the mean rental values of the principal sizes of private dwellings in the four metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas, which are of recent constitution, cannot be given for 1911; but the averages for the cities at that date afford reasonable comparison. It should be mentioned that a small number of houses were returned as being occupied either rent-free or at a nominal rental. The suggestion is that in most cases these houses were the property of the State or municipal or other bodies, and given to the tenants in lieu of a monetary allowance which would otherwise be payable.

AVERAGE RENTS IN THE FOUR CENTRES , 1916.

House ofAuckland.Wellington.Christchurch.Dunedin.
1916.*1911.1916.*1911.1916.*1911.1916.*1911.

* Metropolitan areas.

†City.

 s.d.s.d.s.d.s.d.s.d.s.d.sd.s.d.
4 rooms12101010161144125106116106
5 rooms164135192172157133146131
6 rooms1881632292201801551651511
7 rooms22818112812512161810206191
All houses162..197..144..136.

A general and very considerable rise is apparent, more especially in the northern cities. Many reasons are ascribed for this increase, amongst others the decreased purchasing-power of money and the higher (consequently more costly) standard of appearance and fittings required in the more recent house. The more rapid expansion of the North Island and the resulting demand for habitations explain partly the difference between North and South.

MATERIALS .

Naturally the great majority of New Zealand houses are of wooden construction, nor does the wooden house seem to be losing in public favour. Within the more closely settled parts of the larger cities wooden houses are not now permitted to be built on account of fire-risk, just as in older days the popular "raupo" erection was discriminated against.

Material of which built.Number of Houses.Per Cent. of Total.
Wood219,51192.21
Brick7,0572.97
Concrete1,6850.70
Stone1,2840.54
Iron3,4991.47
Canvas2,3911.00
Other2,0510.86
Not stated5880.25
Total238,066100.00

At the previous census the returns were grouped in a slightly dissimilar manner. The proportions were: Wood, iron, or lath and plaster, 90.99 per cent.; brick, stone, or concrete, 4.24 per cent.; canvas dwellings, 2.18 per cent.; huts, 1.54 per cent.; cob or sod, 0.32 per cent.; raupo, 0.01 per cent.; other materials, 0.72 per cent.

SIZE .

The average number of rooms in a private dwelling or tenement was ascertained to be 5.16 in 1916. The five-roomed house is the most favoured size, followed by the four-roomed and six-roomed, which rank almost equally.

A summary for the Dominion is as follows:—

INHABITED PRIVATE DWELLINGS AND TENEMENTS : ROOMS AND OCCUPANTS .

Number of Rooms.Dwellings and Tenements.Total Occupants.Average Number of Occupants.
Number.Per Cent. of Total.
19,7314.0913,9601.43
29,5774.0221,1262.21
311,6954.9136,9873.16
451,39621.59198,7033.87
560,19725.29264,2704.39
651,34921.57245,3364.78
722,2719.36114,2815.13
810,9264.5958,4015.34
94,0661.7122,6365.57
102,7771.1715,5685.61
119990.425,7495.75
127670.324,5545.94
133130.131,9026.08
142670.111,7146.42
151160.058237.09
161260.058987.13
17550.024007.27
18500.023787.56
19170.01995.82
20 and over 1040.048828.48
Not stated1,2670.534,0273.18
Totals238,066100.001,012,6944.25

Information concerning households was also collected at the last census, but compilation of the results is still proceeding.

DENSITY OF POPULATION .

The number of persons (excluding Maoris) to a square mile in each provincial district at the last eight censuses is as follows:—

Provincial District.Area in Square Miles.Persons to a Square Mile.
1881.1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
Auckland25,3643.925.145.256.056.948.3310.4312.17
Taranaki 3,7323.984.825.918.3510.1411.6313.8214.99
Hawke's Bay4,2414.105.796.728.038.359.9611.4512.80
Wellington10,8075.687.179.0411.2813.0816.6418.4221.48
Marlborough4,2252.202.633.022.953.153.403.783.93
Nelson10,8752.402.783.203.293.493.914.463.98
Westland4,8813.083.263.252.962.973.013.223.18
Canterbury13,8588.118.779.289.8210.3411.5012.5213.12
Otago—         
Otago portion13,9577.708.158.328.608.989.169.529.42
Southland portion11,3582.343.123.263.874.214.675.175.25
Totals103,2984.745.606.076.817.488.609.7610.64

NOTE .—Certain uninhabited outlying islands (area, 283 square miles) are not included in this table.

The density of population in various countries is shown in a table in the 1915 issue of this hook. The figures relate in nearly every case to the year 1911, in which year a census was taken throughout the British Empire and in several other countries. Considerations of space prevent the table being repeated in this issue.

POPULATION IN PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS .

NORTH AND SOUTH ISLANDS .

The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.

In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901, in which year the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total, a position which it has since considerably improved upon. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while a large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and are quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free from Maori troubles, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and on the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.

In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly ninety thousand Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.

The population of the two Islands at successive censuses is given in the table following, together with the percentage that each Island bears to the total:—

Population of the North and South Islands. 1858-1916.

Census Year.Population (excluding Maoris).Proportions per Cent.
North Island.South Island.*Total.North Island.South Island.*

* Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.

185834,09425,31959,41357.3842.62
186141,64157,38099,02142.0557.95
186465,263106,895172,15837.9162.09
186779,913138,755218,66836.5563.45
187196,875159,518256,39337.7862.22
1874111,934187,580299,51437.3762.63
1878158,208256,204414,41238.1861.82
1881193,047296,886489,93339.4060.60
1886250,482328,000578,48243.3056.70
1891281,474345,184626,65844.9255.08
1896340,638362,722703,36048.4351.57
1901390,579382,140772,71950.5449.45
1906476,737411,841888,57853.6546.35
1911563,733444,7351,008,46855.9044.10
1916651,072448,3771,099,44959.2240.78

The figures for 1916 are not quite fair to the South Island. All the military and internment camps are in the North Island, and many of the soldiers, &c., in these on census night belonged to the South Island. The presence of the camps in the North Island has had the further effect of temporarily attracting people from the other Island for business purposes, or to be near soldier friends and relatives. The troops abroad on census night (42,666 in number) may be regarded as having come from the two Islands in proportions approximately relative to population.

PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS .

The populations of the various provincial districts as disclosed by the census of 15th October, 1916, are as follows:—

Provincial District.Males.Females.Totals.
Auckland155,298153,468308,766
Taranaki28,77527,15055,925
Hawke's Bay27,19427,07354,267
Wellington119,57211,542232,114
Marlborough8,5068,10216,608
Nelson22,41520,83643,251
Westland8,0887,41415,502
Canterbury88,08593,784181,869
Otago—   
Otago portion63,54667,972131,518
Southland portion30,29629,33359,629
Totals for the Dominion551,775547,6741,099,449

COUNTIES .

The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized and forming part of counties have considerable populations. On the other hand, the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on. A list is given below showing counties and their population (exclusive of interior boroughs) as at the census of 1916, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent-alterations of boundaries.

Population of Counties.

County.Population.
Akaroa1,982
Akitio1,416
Amuri1,836
Ashburton13,136
Ashley728
Awakino702
Awatere1,542
Bay of Islands3,589
Bruce4,763
Buller5,773
Castlepoint621
Chatham Islands219
Cheviot1,224
Clifton2,156
Clutha6,901
Collingwood1,253
Cook6,846
Coromandel2,256
Dannevirke4,538
East Taupo515
Eden14,267
Egmont3,264
Eketahuna2,312
Ellesmere3,441
Eltham3,393
Eyre1,806
Featherston3,960
Fiord17
Franklin9,397
Geraldine5,194
Great Barrier245
Grey5,510
Halswell1,628
Hawera4,599
Hawke's Bay11,467
Heathcote3,277
Hobson4,728
Hokianga2,792
Horowhenua5,895
Hutt6,397
Inangahua4,130
Kaikoura1,906
Kairanga4,124
Kaitieke3,597
Kawhia991
Kiwitea2,585
Kowai1,914
Lake1,749
Levels5,100
Mackenzie2,868
Makara3,862
Malvern2,757
Manawatu4,521
Maniototo2,527
Manukau6,799
Marlborough6,915
Masterton3,746
Matamata3,903
Mauriceville771
Mongonui3,739
Mount Herbert405
Murchison1,251
Ohinemuri4,661
Ohura2,382
Opotiki1,881
Oroua3,304
Otamatea3,647
Oxford1,756
Pahiatua3,110
Paparua4,716
Patangata2,080
Patea3,759
Peninsula1,793
Piako4,663
Pohangina1,581
Raglan4,027
Rangiora2,747
Rangitikei10,013
Rodney4,043
Rotorua4,245
Selwyn1,423
Sounds1,201
Southland25,661
Springs1,785
Stewart Island349
Stratford5,152
Taieri5,599
Takaka1,858
Taranaki7,100
Tauranga3,947
Tawera847
Thames2,665
Tuapeka5,123
Uawa819
Vincent3,930
Waiapu2,055
Waihemo1,446
Waikato8,099
Waikohu3,033
Waikouaiti4,094
Waimairi11,914
Waimarino3,502
Waimate6,984
Waimate West2,635
Waimea9,284
Waipa6,864
Waipara2,058
Waipawa3,084
Waipukurau667
Wairarapa South2,744
Wairewa1,036
Wairoa2,332
Waitaki9,694
Waitemata9,354
Waitomo5,181
Waitotara5,842
Wallace9,432
Wanganui2,337
Weber420
Westland4,087
West Taupo2,351
Whakatane2,054
Whangamomona1,387
Whangarei8,976
Whangaroa797
Woodville1,819

The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881:—

Census Year.Counties.Boroughs.Percentage.
Counties.Boroughs.Shipboard, &c.
1881291,238194,98159.4439.800.76
1886327,328245,61256.5842.460.96
1891352,097270,34356.1843.140.68
1896391,735307,29455.6943.690.62
1901417,596350,20254.0445.320.64
1906458,797424,61451.6347.790.58
1911496,779505,59849.2650.140.60
1916501,259585,30645.5953.241.17

BOROUGHS .

Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants.

The following table shows the population of boroughs (excluding Maoris) as at the census of 1916, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent alteration of boundaries:—

Population of Boroughs.

Borough.Population.

* Town constituted under special Act.

Akaroa540
Alexandra679
Arrowtown307
Ashburton3,109
Auckland (City)68,888
Balclutha1,409
Birkenhead2,116
Blenheim3,822
Bluff1,823
Brunner598
Cambridge1,507
Carterton1,614
Christchurch (City)55,860
Cromwell549
Dannevirke3,336
Dargaville1,776
Devonport7,613
Dunedin (City)55,256
Eastbourne952
Eketahuna754
Eltham1,711
Featherston1,159
Feilding3,438
Foxton1,772
Geraldine869
Gisborne9,654
Gore3,551
Green Island1,904
Greymouth4,863
Greytown1,186
Hamilton7,538
Hampden364
Hastings7,918
Hawera3,375
Hokitika2,091
Inglewood1,199
Invercargill14,154
Invercargill South1,712
Kaiapoi1,560
Kaitangata1,681
Karori1,647
Kumara623
Lawrence837
Levin1,630
Lower Hutt4,893
Lyttelton3,766
Marton1,650.
Masterton5,894
Mataura1,129
Milton1,317
Miramar2,158
Mosgiel1,719
Motueka1,475
Mount Albert9,654
Mount Eden12,555
Napier12,704
Naseby276
Nelson (City)8,774
New Brighton2,310
Newmarket2,863
New Plymouth8,704
Northcote1,651
Oamaru5,140
Ohakune1,371
Onehunga5,913
Opotiki1,073
Otahuhu2,328
Paeroa1,376
Pahiatua1,300
Palmerston752
Palmerston North12,829
Patea1,010
Petone7,115
Picton1,121
Port Chalmers2,615
Pukekohe1,533
Queenstown657
Rangiora1,808
Riccarton2,890
Richmond922
Riverton837
Ross491
Rotorua*2,845
Roxburgh449
Runanga1,411
Shannon1,031
Spreydon4,289
St. Kilda5,520
Stratford2,713
Sumner2,287
Taihape1,927
Takapuna2,756
Tapanui322
Taumarunui1,875
Tauranga1,685
Te Aroha1,802
Te Awamutu1,064
Te Kuiti1,982
Temuka1,633
Thames5,298
Timaru12,238
Waihi4,774
Waikouaiti611
Waimate1,867
Waipawa1,100
Waipukurau1,167
Wairoa1,530
Waitara1,422
Wanganui14,380
Wellington (City)75,496
West Harbour1,631
Westport4,067
Whakatane900
Whangarei3,294
Win ton586
Woodville1,078
Woolston3,990

METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS .

For various purposes (vital statistics, &c.) metropolitan areas have been created at each of the four chief centres, and suburban areas at nine of the more important secondary centres. Each area includes, in addition to the central borough and suburban boroughs, a considerable non-municipalized area adjacent to and contingent on the centre.

An objection to the old system of publishing statistics for the municipal areas only was that these were constantly being extended or otherwise altered, and no proper comparison could be made between one period and another, and no satisfactory record kept of the social condition and progress of the community. The creation of fairly extensive areas fixed for a long period will remove these disabilities.

Population figures as at the census of 1916, with necessary subsequent internal amendments due to alteration of boundaries, are as follows:—

POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS , CENSUS 1916.

Metropolitan Areas.

Auckland.Population.
Auckland City68,888
Birkenhead Borough2,116
Northcote Borough1,651
Takapuna Borough2,756
Devonport Borough7,613
Newmarket Borough2,863
Mount Eden Borough12,555
Mount Albert Borough9,654
Onehunga Borough5,913
Otahuhu Borough2,328
New Lynn Town District1,041
Ellerslie Town District1,363
Remainder of metropolitan area14,971
Total133,712
Wellington.Population
Wellington City75,496
Miramar Borough2,158
Karori Borough1,647
Petone Borough7,115
Lower Hutt Borough4,893
Eastbourne Borough952
Johnsonville Town District886
Remainder of metropolitan area2,088
Total95,235
Christchurch.Population.
Christchurch City55,860
Riccarton Borough2,890
Spreydon Borough4,289
Woolston Borough3,990
New Brighton Borough2,310
Sumner Borough2,287
Lyttelton Borough3,766
Remainder of metropolitan area17,341
Total92,733
Dunedin.Population
Dunedin City55,256
St. Kilda Borough5,520
Green Island Borough1,904
West Harbour Borough1,631
Port Chalmers Borough2,615
Remainder of metropolitan area1,790
Total68,716

Suburban Areas.

Gisborne.Population.
Gisborne Borough9,654
Mangapapa Town District1,140
Remainder of suburban area1,866
Total12,660
Napier.Population
Napier Borough12,704
Taradale Town District1,012
Remainder of suburban area1,415
Total15,131
New Plymouth.Population.
New Plymouth Borough8,704
Remainder of suburban area1,091
Total9,795
Wanganui.Population
Wanganui Borough14,380
Gonville Town District2,693
Castlecliff Town District734
Remainder of suburban area1,710
Total19,517
Palmerston North .Population.
Palmerston North Borough..12,829
Remainder of suburban area1,177
Total14,006
Nelson.Population
Nelson City8,774
Remainder of suburban area1,188
Total9,962
Grey Valley Boroughs.Population
Greymouth Borough4,863
Runanga Borough1,411
Brunner Borough598
Remainder of suburban area1,501
Total8,373
Timaru.Population.
Timaru Borough12,238
Remainder of suburban area1,478
Total13,716
Invercargill.Population
Invercargill Borough14,154
South Invercargill Borough1,712
Remainder of suburban area1,996
Total17,862

TOWN DISTRICTS

The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000 full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor; and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of "city" may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population at the census of 1916, as subsequently altered by variation of boundaries, are as fellows:—

(a.) Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties .

Town District.Population.
Bull's483
Castlecliff760
Ellerslie1,363
Gonville2,693
Hampstead1,278
Havelock North870
Helensville837
Hikurangi775
Hunterville555
Huntly1,535
Johnsonville886
Lumsden530
Manaia606
Mangapapa1,140
Mangaweka390
Manunui813
Martinborough725
Matamata505
Morrinsville934
New Lynn1,041
Ngaruawahia755
Nightcaps600
Otaki806
Otautau696
Papakura821
Pleasant Point482
Raetihi508
Rangataua410
Taradale1,012
Te Puke565
Tinwald1,075
Tuakau390
Upper Hutt1,399
Waiuku641
Warkworth624
Waverley623
Wyndham647

(b.) Town Districts forming Parts of Counties .

Town District.Population.
Amberley325
Clinton413
Edendale363
Havelock290
Kamo363
Kaponga397
Kawakawa327
Kawhia169
Kihikihi277
Kohukohu403
Leamington438
Lethbridge234
Manurewa430
Mercer329
Normanby368
Norsewood213
Ohaupo259
Ohura205
Onerahi325
Opunake459
Ormondville317
Otane333
Otorohanga367
Outram348
Papatoetoe750
Patutahi292
Raglan217
Rongotea267
Southbridge369
Takaka370
Te Karaka333

No fewer than nine of the "independent" town districts have sufficient population to enable them to be constituted boroughs, while on the other hand the census disclosed four as having fallen below the 500 mark. In addition, the town district of Tuakau, recently made independent, had a population, exclusive of Maoris, of only 390 at the census date. None of the town districts still under county jurisdiction have a population of over 500.

ADJACENT ISLANDS .

Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the other inhabited islands as at the census of 1916 are shown in the following table:—

Islands.Population.

* Excluding internment camp.

Mokohinau8
Kawau23
Motuketekete2
Moturekareka1
Little Barrier3
Motuhora5
Waiheke193
Pakihi2
Ponui21
Rakino6
Motutapu20
Motuihi*6
Rangitoto6
Brown's5
Rotoroa125
Pakatoa43
Tiritiri13
Slipper2
Cuvier7
Mercury4
Matakana7
Motiti6
Somes*7
Mana1
Kapiti3
The Brothers3
D'Urville87
Stephen11
Quarantine56
Dog12
Centre9
Total697

Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere in this section.

MAORI AND HALF -CASTE POPULATION .

A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as can be ascertained, of each Maori are entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past six enumerations are as follows:—

Census Year.Males.Females.Total.
189122,86119,13241,993
189621,67318,18149,854
190123,11220,03143,143
190625,53822,19347,731
191126,47523,36949,844
191625,93323,84349,776

The slight decrease in 1916 as compared with 1911 is more than compensated for by the number of Maoris at the front.

The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes is given in the next table for six census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population. It is a matter of some difficulty to ascertain the number of half-castes living as Maoris. There has been no definite rule to guide collectors in deciding when a half-caste should be classified as living as a Maori—indeed, it might be said that all the half-castes and a large proportion of the Maoris in the South Island live in European fashion. They mostly have separate holdings of land and separate homes, and have adopted the habits of the Europeans. At the census of 1916 the old method of enumerating the South Island Maoris was discarded, the same methods and forms being utilized as for the European population.

HALF -CASTES .

Census Year.Half-castesTotal.
Living as Members of Maori Tribes.Living as and among Europeans.
18912,6812,1844,865
18963,5032,2595,762
19013,1332,4065,539
19063,9382,5786,516
19114,1812,8797,060
19163,5293,2216,750

POPULATION OF COOK AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDS INCLUDED WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE DOMINION .

Daring the year 1901 the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the number and birthplaces of the inhabitants was taken. The figures for the censuses of 1906, 1911, and 1916 are as follows:—

Census Year.Males.Females.Total.
19066,2246,11612,340
19116,4496,14912,598
19166,5536,24412,797

The Cook Islands have contributed a small native contingent for the front, and the increase in the population shown above is therefore all the more gratifying.

Chapter 4. SECTION IV.-VITAL STATISTICS.

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