THE NEW ZEALAND OFFICIAL YEAR-BOOK, 1914


Table of Contents

PREFACE.

THIS, the twenty-third issue of the “New Zealand Official Yearbook,” contains the latest statistics available on all matters dealt with, the figures for the calendar year 1913 or the financial year 1913–14 being given in all cases except for local governing bodies, valuation of land, life insurance, and those matters for which statistics are not obtained annually.

Besides the thorough revision of the whole book a considerable amount of new matter has been added, and several articles have been rewritten either wholly or in part.

Among the new matter included may be mentioned a special article on “The Rivers of New Zealand” by Mr. R. Speight, M.Sc., F.G.S., and official tables showing mortality rates in New Zealand. Several new graphs have also been added, as well as a geological map of New Zealand.

My thanks are due to those responsible Government officers who have supplied information, and to the statistical staff for their co-operation and valuable assistance.

Owing to the mass of material dealt with, it would be too much to hope that no errors have crept in notwithstanding the care taken in revising and checking. I shall be pleased if readers detecting any will supply particulars as to their nature and position.

MALCOLM FRASER,

Government Statistician.

Wellington, 2nd November, 1914.

Chapter 1. SECTION I.—HISTORIC AND OFFICIAL.

Table of Contents

BOUNDARIES AND AREA.

THE Dominion of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Snares, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The Cook Group of islands and certain neighbouring islands were included in the Dominion by proclamation of the 10th June, 1901.

The total area of the Dominion proper (i.e. excluding the islands annexed in 1901) is 66,292,232 acres or 103,581 square miles. The land area of the Cook Group is about 150 square miles, and of the other islands annexed in 1901 about 130 square miles. Full information as to boundaries and area, together with descriptive matter relating to the physical features of the various portions of the Dominion, will be found in the 1913 issue of this hook.

DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT.

The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskercq,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staten Land received the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (since termed Massacre or Golden) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the South and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the South Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

Captain George Vancouver in the “Discovery,” accompanied by Captain Broughton in the “Chatham,” anchored in Dusky Bay, on the west coast of the South Island, on the 2nd November, 1791, and remained there until the 21st. After leaving Dusky Bay the two vessels parted company during a gale, not meeting again until their arrival at Otaheite. During the passage of the “Chatham” to this place, Captain Broughton discovered and named the Chatham Islands (on the 29th November, 1791).

On the 5th November, 1792, the “Britannia” (Captain Raven) anchored in Facile Harbour, on the west coast of the South Island. She had come from Sydney for the purpose of procuring seal-skins. A party of men was landed and accommodation for them built, and, on the 1st December the “Britannia” sailed for the Cape of Good Hope. On her return on the 27th December, 1793, the men were found to be in good health. So far as is known, this was the first instance of Europeans being left in New Zealand to their own resources.

The Spanish expedition in the vessels “Descubrierta” and “Atrevida,” the former commanded by Alejandro Malaspina and the latter by José de Bustamente y Guerra, sighted the west coast of the South Island on the 25th February, 1793. A boat's crew went into Doubtful Bay, whilst the vessels remained off the entrance. Next morning they unsuccessfully attempted to enter Dusky Bay, but the weather becoming stormy they left for Sydney, after giving Spanish names to several places in and around Dusky and Doubtful Bays.

In 1793 also the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

On the 23rd May, 1820, Thaddeus Bellingshausen, in command of the two Russian ships “Wostok” and “Mirny,” sailed into Cook Strait, in the course of his voyage round the world. The vessels anchored in Queen Charlotte Sound on the 28th May, and remained there till the 3rd June.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall, Kendall, and King, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.

COLONIZATION.

Almost immediately after Cook returned to England on the completion of his first voyage round the world there was published in London, on the 29th August, 1771, a pamphlet by Alexander Dalrymple, entitled “Scheme of a Voyage to convey the Conveniences of Life, Domestic Animals, Corn, Iron, &c., to New Zeland [sic], with Dr. Benjamin Franklin's Sentiments upon the Subject.” The idea Dalrymple had in mind was to civilize the Maoris by furnishing them with useful commodities, taking in exchange whatever goods the Natives could supply by way of trade. Dalrymple being unsuccessful in raising money to carry out his plan the matter dropped, but he was the first to suggest the idea of opening up commerce with New Zealand, thus paving the way for its colonization.

The first attempt at colonization was made in 1825 by a company formed in London, and called the New Zealand Company. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who acquired tracts of land at Hokianga, at Manakau, and on the borders of the Thames. The company was prevented by adverse circumstances from forming a settlement.

In the same year two other persons, namely, Baron Charles de Thierry and Mr. William Stewart, were trying to form colonization companies in London. The former chose for his sphere the North Island and the latter Stewart Island, but neither scheme was successful.

In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1837 the New Zealand Association was formed, to apply to New Zealand the Wakefield system of colonization. A Royal Charter was applied for, but the terms offered by the British Government not being acceptable, the association dissolved. Some of the members of this association formed a plan for the prosecution of its leading objects by means of a joint-stock company. On the 29th August, 1838, a private copartnership was established under the name of “The New Zealand Colonization Company.” By the spring of 1839 it had raised sufficient funds to purchase an extensive territory (principally surrounding Hokianga and Kaipara Harbours), and to fit out a preliminary expedition for surveying the coasts, making further purchases, and preparing for the early arrival of settlers. On the 2nd May, 1839, the New Zealand Colonization Company ceased to exist, and the New Zealand Company (the second of that name) was formed with a capital of £100,000 in 4,000 shares of £25 each, to establish settlement in New Zealand on systematic principles.

On the 22nd January, 1810, the first body of immigrants arrived in Port Nicholson, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called the Treaty of Waitangi, to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. The seat of Government was established at Waitemata (Auckland), and a settlement formed there.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonizing society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonization was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.

EARLY PROGRESS.

The rich tussock plains of Canterbury yielded at once to the efforts of the settlers, and the province soon became the great pastoral and agricultural centre of the colony. Grain and wool were exported, and the volume of trade increased rapidly. The district grew prosperous, and many of the settlers became wealthy men. The foresight of the founders of the settlement provided for endowments for schools and churches, and for the construction of roads and bridges, and when the provinces were abolished in 1875 Canterbury not only handed over a well-equipped district but a large credit balance at its bankers.

Up to the early sixties Otago had made a slow but steady advance much of the province being adapted to agriculture, to which the energies of the majority of the early settlers were devoted. In 1861, however, gold was discovered in the Lindis Valley, and this, together with further rich finds in Gabriel's Gully and various other parts of Otago, attracted people from all parts of Australasia. The province rapidly increased in wealth and prosperity, and Dunedin soon became a thriving and populous commercial centre.

Southland advanced steadily, mainly on account of its rich agricultural and pastoral lands; and in the northern and western parts of the South Island good progress was also made. Marlborough and the eastern portion of Nelson, with their good soil and attractive climate, became the homes of farming communities, while Westland and the west coast of Nelson owed their progress to rich finds of gold and coal.

For many years the North Island lagged behind the South Island. Its progress was retarded by troubles with the Maoris, and in the early days many settlers, terrified by the warlike attitude of the aboriginals, abandoned their farms and left New Zealand. The unrest caused by the wars put a stop to settlement, and for years left the interior of the Island a terra incognita. After the initial conflicts with the Natives when the British flag was hoisted at the Bay of Islands, colonization proceeded quietly at Auckland, New Plymouth, Wanganui, Wellington, and Hawke's Bay.

In 1861, however, a serious misunderstanding arose at Waitara over the question of land, and almost without warning active hostilities were commenced by the Natives. The Taranaki settlers were driven from their homes, and the labour of years was destroyed in a few weeks. Blood was shed, and many men were killed on both sides. Soon the whole country from Auckland to Wellington was in arms. The settlers around Wanganui, Napier, and Wellington were forged to leave their farms and take refuge in the towns, and for a time all progress was stayed. Over ten thousand troops were brought from England to quell the disturbance, and after several years of fighting the Maoris at last sued for peace. The Waikato Natives lost their land, which was confiscated and handed over to military settlers, who soon converted the district into a thriving farming centre. Slowly the settlers restored their homes and farms, and gradually the North Island became settled by an ever-growing industrious community.

The discovery of rich gold at the Thames in 1867 attracted a large number of people from Australia and other parts of New Zealand, and since the termination of the Maori wars the North Island has made immense progress, overtaking and, in later years, rapidly outstripping the South Island.

BRITISH SOVEREIGNTY.

The record of formal Government of New Zealand under the British Crown begins with the following Proclamation issued by Captain William Hobson, R.N., on the 21st May, 1840:—

PROCLAMATION.

In the name of Her Majesty VICTORIA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. By WILLIAM HOBSON, Esquire, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand.

WHEREAS by a treaty bearing date the sixth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty, made and executed by me, William Hobson, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor in New Zealand, vested for this purpose with full powers by Her Britannic Majesty of the one part, and the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and independent Chiefs of New Zealand not members of the Confederation, of the other, and further ratified and confirmed by the adherence of the principal Chiefs of this Island of New Zealand (commonly called the “Northern Island”), all rights and powers of sovereignty over the said Northern Island were ceded to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland absolutely and without reservation:

Now, therefore, I, William Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, in the name and on behalf of Her Majesty do hereby proclaim and declare to all men that from and after the date of the above-mentioned treaty the full sovereignty of the Northern Island of New Zealand vests in Her Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs and successors for ever.

Given under my hand, at Government House, Russell, Bay of Islands, this twenty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty.

WILLIAM HOBSON,

Lieutenant-Governor.

By His Excellency's command.

WILLOUGHBY SHORTLAND,

Colonial Secretary.

From the date of the Proclamation until the 3rd May, 1841, New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales, and on the latter date it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter, dated the 16th November, 1840.

CONSTITUTION.

The Government of the colony was first vested in a Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; there was an Executive Council and a Legislative Council with advisory powers only. On the 23rd December, 1847, a Charter was signed dividing the colony into two provinces—New Ulster and New Minister—and this was proclaimed in New Zealand on the 10th March, 1848. The Province of New Ulster consisted of the whole of the North Island with the exception of that portion adjacent to Cook Strait and lying to the south of a line commencing at the centre of the mouth of the Patea River and running thence due east until it reaches the sea on the east coast. The Province of New Minister consisted of the portion of the North Island excluded from New Ulster and the whole of the South and Stewart Islands. Each province had a Lieutenant-Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council, while the Governor-in-Chief for the whole colony was also Governor of each province. Provision had also been made for a House of Representatives in each province, but this portion of the Charter was suspended for five years, and before it came into operation a new Constitution was obtained.

On the 30th June, 1852, the Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and published in New Zealand by Proclamation on the 17th January, 1853. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives.

By the same Act the Provinces of New Ulster and New Munster were abolished and the colony was divided into six new provinces—Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago.

Each province was to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of the electors of the province, and each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The boundaries of the new provinces were gazetted on the 2nd April, 1853, and the boundaries of the electoral districts on the 14th May following, the first general elections for the House of representatives and the Provincial Councils being held during 1853 and the beginning of 1854. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties and established a system of local government.

The first Executive for the colony included the Governor and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer—namely, Messrs. Willoughby Shortland, Francis Fisher, and George Cooper—all appointed on the 3rd May, 1841. The successors of those gentlemen (Andrew Sinclair, appointed 6th January, 1844; William Swainson, appointed 10th August, 1841; and Alexander Shepherd, appointed 9th May, 1842) continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them, the Hon. Mr. Swainson, without ceasing to be Attorney-General, sat as a member of the first General Assembly, being Speaker of the Legislative Council. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the House of Representatives. These latter held no portfolios. The first Ministers under a system of responsible government were appointed in the year 1856.

On addresses from both Houses of the General Assembly, His Majesty the King, by Order in Council dated 9th September, 1907, and by Proclamation issued 10th September, 1907, was graciously pleased to change the style and designation of the Colony of New Zealand to “The Dominion of New Zealand”; the change taking effect from Thursday, the 26th September, 1907.

SEAT OF GOVERNMENT.

Until the year 1865 the seat of the Government of New Zealand was at Auckland, which was proclaimed the capital of the colony in 1842, but for at least two years during that time (1851 and 1852) the General Legislative Council for New Zealand sat in Wellington with the Legislative Council of New Munster. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have the seat of Government removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (an ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.

PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS.

Prior to the granting of Representative Institutions in 1853 there was no Parliament Building used exclusively for the meetings of the early Legislative Councils. In Auckland the later meetings of the Legislative Councils of New Zealand and New Ulster were held in the Courthouse, Official Bay, while in Wellington the Legislative Council of New Munster and also of New Zealand in 1851 and 1852, met in Barrett's Hotel (which then stood on a site in Lambton Quay, opposite the present Government Printing Office) in a room formerly used as a ball-room.

The first Parliament Building was erected in Auckland and completed in time for the meeting of the first General Assembly in May, 1854. On the transfer of the seat of Government to Wellington, the General Government purchased from the Wellington Provincial Council in January, 1865, the Provincial Council Buildings in Molesworth Street. This building was erected for the Provincial Council some six or seven years previously on a more comprehensive plan than the actual requirements of the province demanded, with a view to affording the requisite accommodation for the General Assembly on the anticipated transfer of the seat of Government to Wellington. The price paid for the building was £8,200, being one-third less than the original cost. These buildings, to which considerable additions and alterations were made later, were used for meetings of the General Assembly until 11th December, 1907, on which date they were, with the exception of the library wing, destroyed by fire. Since then Old Government House, occupying an adjoining site, has been utilized as temporary quarters for Parliament, a new residence for the Governor being erected at the southern end of the city.

The foundation stone of new Parliament Buildings to replace those destroyed by fire was laid on the 23rd March, 1912. The foundations were prepared by the Public Works Department, and the contractors are now proceeding with the construction of the first portion of the buildings. A sketch of these, as they will appear when completed, was published as a frontispiece to the 1913 issue of this book, a description of the buildings being also given.

SUCCESSIVE GOVERNORS.

The following are the names of successive Governors of New Zealand, with dates on which they assumed and retired from office:—

1840–1853.

Captain William Hobson, R.N. (Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842), Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, from Jan., 1840, to 3 May, 1841, and Governor of New Zealand from 3 May, 1841, until date of death, 10 Sept. 1842.

Lieutenant Willoughby Shortland, Administrator from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., Governor from 20 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain George Grey who became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848 (18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853), Governor from 18 Nov., 1845, to 1 Jan., 1848; Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster, from 1 Jan., 1848, to 7 Mar., 1853; Governor of New Zealand from 7 Mar., 1853, to 31 Dec., 1853.

Lieutenant-Governors of Provinces.

Edward John Eyre, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster, appointed Aug., 1847, and sworn in on 28 Jan., 1848, until duties of Lieutenant-Governor ceased on 7 Mar., 1853.

Major-General George Dean Pitt, Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster, appointed 3 Jan., 1848, sworn in on 14 Feb., 1848, died 8 Jan., 1851.

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster, appointed 14 April, 1851, sworn in 26 April, 1851, until duties of Lieutenant-Governor ceased on 7 Mar., 1853.

1854–1914.

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey. K.C.B., Administrator from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 23 Mar, to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9 Aug., 1897.

The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10 Aug., 1897, to 19 June, 194.

The Right Honourable William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., from 20 June, 1904, to 8 June, 1910.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator from 8 June to 22 June, 1910.

The Right Honourable John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, K.C.M.G., Baron Islington, D.S.O., from 22 June, 1910, to 2 Dec, 1912.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator from 3 Dec. to 19 Dec., 1912.

The Earl of Liverpool, G.C.M.G., M.V.O., from 19 Dec., 1912.

EXECUTIVE COUNCILS PRIOR TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT, 1841–1856.

For New Zealand.

Prior to the establishment of responsible government there was an Executive Council for New Zealand consisting, in addition to the Governor, of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, and the Colonial Treasurer, or the persons acting in that capacity, seniority being in the order named. The Governor, or in his absence the senior member present, was to preside, and two members exclusive of the Governor or member presiding were to form a quorum. The Governor was commanded to in all things consult and advise with the Executive Council, and not to exercise the powers and authorities vested in him except by and with the concurrence and advice of the Executive Council, except in cases of an urgent and pressing nature which would not admit of the delay incident to the deliberation of the Council. In such cases he was, with all convenient speed, to bring the measures so adopted by him before the Executive Council for their revision and sanction. Nothing in these instructions, however, was to prevent the Governor exercising any or all of the powers and authorities vested in him, without the advice and concurrence of the Executive Council in cases not considered of sufficient importance to require their assistance or advice, or in cases which were of such a nature that in his judgment material prejudice might be sustained by consulting the Executive Council thereupon. No questions were to be brought before the Council except those proposed by the Governor, who in any case in which he saw sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the major part or the whole of the Council was further empowered to exercise the powers vested in him in opposition to such opinion.

During the year 1854 there were associated with the permanent official members of the Executive Council above referred to certain members of the House of Representatives, but without portfolios. The following are the names of the various gentlemen who were members of the Executive Council of New Zealand prior to the establishment of responsible government on the 7th May, 1856:—

Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843: succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Copper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

For the Provinces of New Ulster and New Minister.

An Executive Council was established in each of the provinces of New Ulster and New Munster, for aiding with their advice the Officer Administering the Government thereof. The Executive Council consisted in each province of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer, and the principal officer in command of the military forces within the province, being a field officer, and of such other persons not holding any public office therein as the Governor-in-Chief might see fit to summon, the number of such unofficial members, however, not to exceed the number of official members. In the execution of the powers vested in the Governors or Lieutenant-Governors of the respective provinces it was not obligatory on them to consult with or to adopt the advice of the Executive Council in any case in which they should deem it inexpedient so to do. The names of those gentlemen who were members of the Executive Councils of New Ulster and New Munster are given below:—

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL FOR PROVINCE OF NEW ULSTER.

Major-General George Dean Pitt,

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary,

William Swainson, Attorney-General, All appointed 1 Jan., 1848.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer,

Lieutenant-Colonel R. D. Bolton, appointed 21 June, 1851.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL FOR PROVINCE OF NEW MUNSTER.

Alfred Domett, Colonial Secretary, appointed 2 Feb., 1848.

Daniel Wakefield, Attorney-General, appointed 21 Dec, 1848.

Henry William Petre, Colonial Treasurer, appointed 28 Jan., 1848.

Lieutenant-Colonel William Anson McCleverty, appointed 28 Jan., 1848.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS PRIOR TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT.

For New Zealand.

Prior to the establishment of responsible government the Legislative Council of New Zealand consisted of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer, and the three senior Justices of the Peace, The Governor was to preside at all meetings of the Council, and, in his absence, the senior member present; four members in addition to the Governor or the member presiding to form a quorum. No law or Ordinance was to be enacted by the Legislative Council which was not first proposed by the Governor, and no question was to be debated unless submitted by him for that purpose. The laws and Ordinances of the Council were to be designated “Ordinances enacted by the Governor of New Zealand with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof.” No laws whatsoever were to be made to continue for less than two years except only in cases of unforeseen emergency requiring provision for temporary service, and the Governor was specially enjoined not to propose or assent to Ordinances or laws dealing with certain matters, some of which were:—

Restricting public worship, although not conducted according to the Church of England.

Reducing revenue or infringing prerogative or affecting the salaries or allowances of public officers without special leave.

Issuing bills of credit, or other negotiable securities in lieu of money on the credit of the colony, or paper currency, or any coin save the legal coin of the realm.

By which persons not of European birth or descent might be subjected or liable to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent would not also be subjected.

Raising money for public or private lotteries.

Naturalizing aliens without leave.

Divorcing persons joined together in holy matrimony.

Granting money, land, or other donation or gratuity to the Governor.

The following is a list of gentlemen who were members of the Legislative Council, with dates of their appointment and the office (if any) held. The dates on which they ceased to be members are known only in the cases shown—the others probably continued until the introduction of the new Constitution:—

NameOffice held.Date of Appointment.Date when ceased to be a Member.
Captain William Hobson, R.N.Governor3 May, 184110 Sept., 1842.
Lieutenant Willoughby ShortlandColonial Secretary and Administrator from 10 Sep., 1842, to 26 Dec., 18433 May, 18418 Jan., 1844.
Francis FisherAttorney-General3 May, 184128 Sept., 1841.
George CooperColonial Treasurer3 May, 18419 May, 1842.
William Wakefield..3 May. 1841Sept., 1841.
William Cornwallis Symonds..3 May, 1841Oct., 1841.
James Reddie Clendon..3 May, 18416 June, 1844.
George Butler Earp..9 Sept., 18416 June, 1844.
William SwainsonAttorney-General28 Sept., 1841..
William Field Porter 27 Oct., 18416 June, 1844.
Alexander ShepherdColonial Treasurer9 May, 1842 
Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N.Governor26 Dec, 184317 Nov., 1845.
Andrew Sinclair, M.D., R.N.Colonial Secretary8 Jan., 1844..
Charles Clifford..6 June, 18443 Mar., 1845.
William Brown..6 June, 18443 Mar., 1845.
William Brown..16 July, 184716 Nov., 1848.
Samuel M. D. Martin, M.D...6 June. 18443 Mar., 1845.
Frederick Whitaker..3 Mar., 18451 Feb., 1846.
William Donnelly..3 Mar., 18451 Feb., 1846.
William Donnelly..30 Sept., 18469 Aug., 1847.
Theophilus Heale..3 Mar., 18451 Feb., 1846.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.Governor, Governor-in-Chief, Governor of New Ulster and Governor of New Munster18 Nov., 184531 Dec., 1853.
Alfred DomettColonial Secretary of New Munster30 Sept., 1846..
Alexander Kennedy..30 Sept., 184616 July, 1847.
Alexander Kennedy..16 Nov., 1848..
Frederick Ward Merriman..9 Aug., 1847 
Edward John EyreLieut.-Governor of New Munster28 Jan., 18487 Mar., 1853.
Lieut. - Colonel William Anson McClevertyCommander of the Forces28 Jan., 1848..
Hon. Henry William PetreColonial Treasurer of New Munster28 Jan., 1848..
Charles Waybrow LigarSurveyor-General16 Nov., 1848..
Robert Clapham Barstow..16 Nov., 1848..
Hon. Francis Dillon Bell..20 Dec., 1848..
Hon. William Hickson..20 Dec., 1848..
Hon. Daniel WakefieldAttorney - General of New Munster21 Dec., 1848..
Lieut. - Colonel William Hulme..24 July, 1849..
Major Henry Matson..24 July, 1849..
Sampson Kempthorne..24 July, 1849..
Major - General George Dean PittLieut.-Govern or of New Ulster1 Aug., 18498 Jan., 1851.
Hon. Stephen CarkeekCollector of Customs19 May, 1851..
Hon. William Mein Smith..19 May, 1851..
Hon. Constantine Augustus Dillon..3 June, 1851..
Hon. William Oldfield Cautley..3 June, 1851..
Hon. George Cutfield..3 June, 1851..

For the Provinces of New Ulster and New Munster.

Under the Charter constituting the Provinces of New Ulster and New Munster, a Legislative Council was also established in each province, consisting of such persons as were for hat purpose appointed.

The following are the names, offices held, and dates of appointment of the members of the Provincial Legislative Councils:—

Name.Office held.Date of Appointment.
(a.) NEW ULSTER.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.Governor1 Jan., 1848.
Andrew SinclairColonial Secretary1 Jan., 1848.
William Swain sonAttorney-General1 Jan., 1848.
Alexander ShepherdColonial Treasurer1 Jan., 1848.
Major-General George Dean PittLieutenant-Governor3 Jan., 1848.
Charles Waybrow LigarSurveyor-General16 Nov., 1848.
Alexander Kennedy..16 Nov., 1848.
Frederick Ward Merriman..16 Nov., 1848.
Robert Clapham Barstow..16 Nov., 1848.
Lieut.-Colonel William Hulme..24 July, 1849.
Major Henry Matson..24 July, 1849.
Sampson Kempthorne..24 July, 1849.
(b.) NEW MUNSTER.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.Governor1 Jan., 1848.
Edward John EyreLieutenant-Governor28 Jan., 1848.
Henry William PetreColonial Treasurer28 Jan., 1848.
Lieut.-Colonel William Anson McClevertyCommander of the Forces28 Jan., 1848.
Alfred DomettColonial Secretary2 Feb., 1848.
William McLood Bannatyne..20 Dec., 1848.
Francis Dillon Bell..20 Dec., 1848.
William Hickson..20 Dec., 1848.
George Hunter..20 Dec., 1848.
Alfred Ludlam..20 Dec., 1848.
George Moore..20 Dec., 1848.
Daniel WakefieldAttorney-General21 Dec., 1848.
David Monro..18 Jan., 1849.
John Damforth Greenwood..18 Jan., 1849.
Henry Seymour..18 Jan., 1849.
William Oldfield Cautley..5 May, 1849.

Elected Members.

In 1852 Proclamations were made altering the constitution of the Legislative Councils so as to include a certain number of elected members. New Ulster was to have eighteen members, of whom six were to be appointed and twelve elected, while New Munster was to have thirty-three members, of whom eleven were to be appointed and twenty-two elected. The elections for the Province of New Ulster were actually held, and the members, whose names are given below, were declared elected. The preliminary Proclamations were made for New Munster, but before the elections were held tidings of a new constitution were received, and the proceedings stayed.

Name.Date gazetted.District.
William Brown21 September, 1852City of Auckland.
John Salmon21 September, 1852City of Auckland.
Frederick Whitaker21 September, 1852City of Auckland.
John Logan Campbell21 September, 1852Suburbs of Auckland.
Patrick Dignan21 September, 1852Pensioner Settlements.
Thomas Spencer Forsaith21 September, 1852Northern Division.
Allan O'Neill21 September, 1852Northern Division.
James Macky21 September, 1852Southern Division.
William Field Porter21 September, 1852Southern Division.
George Clarke21 September, 1852Bay of Islands.
Charles Brown2 October, 1852New Plymouth.
John Tylson Wicksteed2 October, 1852Taranaki.

SUCCESSIVE PARLIAMENTS.

SINCE THE PASSING OF THE CONSTITUTION ACT CONFERRING REPRESENTATIVE INSTITUTIONS UPON NEW ZEALAND, WITH THE DATES OF OPENING AND CLOSING OF SESSIONS AND DATES OF DISSOLUTION.
Parliament.Dates of Opening of Sessions.Dates of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)27 May, 18549 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 185616 August, 1856.
(No session in 1857)10 April, 185821 August, 1858.
(No session in 1859)30 July, 18605 November, 1860.
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 18668 October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 167225 October, 1872.
15 July, 18733 October, 1873.
3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)15 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187911 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18801 September, 1880.
9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188710 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 189018 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 189125 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 18937 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)21 June, 189424 October, 1894.
20 June, 18952 November, 1895.
11 June, 189619 October. 1896.
Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)7 April, 189712 April, 1897.
23 September, 189722 December, 1897.
24 June, 18985 November, 1898.
23 June, 189924 October, 1899.
Fourteenth (dissolved 5th November, 1902)22 June, 190022 October, 1900.
1 July, 19018 November, 1901.
1 July, 19024 October, 1902.
Fifteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1905)29 June, 190325 November, 1903.
28 June, 19048 November, 1904.
27 June, 190531 October, 1905.
Sixteenth (dissolved 29th October, 1908)27 June, 19063 July, 1906.
21 August, 190629 October, 1906.
27 June, 190725 November, 1907.
29 June, 190812 October, 1908.
Seventeenth (dissolved 20th November, 1912)10 June, 190917 June, 1909.
7 October, 190929 December, 1909.
28 June, 19105 December, 1910.
27 July, 191130 October, 1911.
Eighteenth15 February, 19121 March, 1912.
27 June, 19128 November, 1912.
26 June, 191315 December, 1913.
25 June, 1914..

SUPREME COURT JUDGES, PAST AND PRESENT, WITH DATES OF APPOINTMENT, AND OF RESIGNATION OR DEATH.

Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Held office until Mar., 1852. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec., 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir George A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily. 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporally, 21 Sept., 1880. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.

Hon. Sir James Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1899.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

Hon. Sir Joshua S. Williams, P.C., Kt., appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Resigned, 31 January, 1914, on being called to the Privy Council.

Hon. J. E, Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889. Resigned, 9 Sept., 1903.

Hon. Sir Patrick A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.

Hon. W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April. 1899.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.

J. C. Martin, Acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900. Resigned, 4 Dec., 1900. Hon. Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21 Feb., 1901.

Hon. F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11 Sept., 1903.

C. E. Button, appointed temporarily, 12 Mar., 1907. Resigned, 29 Feb., 1908.

Hon. William Alexander Sim, appointed, 16 Jan., 1911.

Hon. John Henry Hosking, K.C., appointed 11 Feb., 1914.

Hon. Thomas Walter Stringer, K.C., appointed 19 Feb., 1914.

GOVERNOR OF NEW ZEALAND.

1ST JUNE, 1914.

LIVERPOOL, His Excellency the Right Honourable Arthur William de Brito Savile, Fifth Earl of Liverpool. Born 27th May, 1870; succeeded 1907. Educated at Eton and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Formerly Major in the Rifle Brigade (the Prince Consort's Own) and subsequently Major of its 6th Battalion. Sometime an A.D.C. to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (Earl Cadogan, K.G.), and Staff Captain, Dublin District. Is a J.P. for Kesteven and Lindsey Divisions of Lincolnshire, and Lieut.-Colonel 8th Battalion London Regiment (the Post Office Rifles). Served in South Africa 1901–2 (Queen's Medal with three clasps). Was State Steward and Chamberlain to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (the Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., G.C.M.G., 1906–8. Comptroller of His Majesty's Household, 1909–12. Appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of New Zealand 1912. M.V.O., 4th Class, 1900; K.C.M.G., 1912. G.C.M.G., 1914.

Seat: Hartsholme Hall, Lincoln.

Town residence: 41 Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.

Residences: Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary: Gavin M. Hamilton, Esq.

Assistant Private Secretary: A. Cecil Day, Esq.

Military Secretary: Captain Charles Shawe (Rifle Brigade).

Aides-de-Camp: Captain T. R. Eastwood (Rifle Brigade) and Captain G. F. Hutton (Royal Welsh Fusiliers).

Extra Aide-de-Camp: Colonel J. H. Boscawen.

Honorary Aides-de-Camp: Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O., V.D.; Colonel A. H. Russell; Colonel G. F. C. Campbell, V.D.; Colonel R. Logan.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 1914.

The Executive Council now consists of:—

His Excellency the GOVERNOR.

Right Hon. W. F. Massey, B.C., Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Labour, Minister of Industries and Commerce, Commissioner of State Forests, Minister in Charge of Land for Settlements, Valuation, and Scenery Preservation Departments.

Hon. J. Allen, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence, Minister of Education, Minister in Charge of Land and Income Tax Department and State-guaranteed Advances Office.

Hon. W. H. Herries, Minister of Railways and Native Minister.

Hon. W. Fraser, Minister of Public Works, Roads, and Bridges, Minister of Mines, and Minister in Charge of Public Buildings and Domains.

Hon. A. L. Herdman, Attorney-General, Minister of Justice, Minister of Stamp Duties, Minister in Charge of Police, Prisons, Crown Law (including Drafting), and Public Trust Departments.

Hon. F. H. D. Bell, K.C., Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Immigration, and Minister in Charge of Audit Office, Registrar-General's, High Commissioner's, Museum, Friendly Societies, and Laboratory Departments.

Hon. R. H. Rhodes, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid, Mental Hospitals, and Tourist and Health Resorts Departments.

SUCCESSIVE MINISTRIES.

SINCE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT IN NEW ZEALAND IN 1856.
Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.

* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.

† Owing to the death of the Premier, Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.O., on 10th June, 1906.

1. Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4. Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1802.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186321 November. 1864.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June. 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox3 March. 18738 April, 1873.
13. Vogel8 April. 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October. 187921 April. 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon1 May, 189321 June, 1906.
28. Hall-Jonesi 21 June, 19066 August, 1906.
29. Ward6 August, 190628 March, 1912.
30. Mackenzie28 March, 191210 July, 1912.
31. Massey10 July, 1912 

PREMIERS OF SUCCESSIVE MINISTRIES.

Name of Premier.

Henry Sewell.

William Fox.

Edward William Stafford.

William Fox.

Alfred Domett.

Frederick Whitaker.

Frederick Aloysius Weld.

Edward William Stafford.

William Fox.

Hon. Edward William Stafford.

George Marsden Waterhouse.

Hon. William Fox.

Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.

Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.

Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.

Harry Albert Atkinson.

Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).

Sir George Grey, K.C.B.

Hon. John Hall.

Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.

Harry Albert Atkinson.

Robert Stout.

Harry Albert Atkinson.

Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.

Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.

John Ballance.

Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.

William Hall-Jones.

Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, Bart., P.O., K.C.M.G.

Thomas Mackenzie.

Right Hon. William Ferguson Massey, P.C.

SPEAKERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, WITH DATES OF APPOINTMENT AND DATES OF RETIREMENT OR DEATH.
Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thoma Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187922 April, 1887.
Hon. George Marsden Waterhouse22 April, 188721 September, 1887.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.21 September, 188723 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Sir Henry John Miller8 July, 1892.9 July, 1903.
Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.9 July, 19035 January, 1904.
Hon. John Rigg (Acting)5 January, 19047 July, 1904.
Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G.7 July, 190423 March, 1905
Hon. R. H. J. Reeves (Acting)23 March, 19054 July, 1905.
Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, K.C.M.G.4 July, 1905...
SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, WITH DATES OF ELECTION AND DATES OF RETIREMENT OR DEATH.
Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement or Death.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart26 May, 1854...
15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.3 June, 1861...
30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 1879...
24 September, 1879...
18 May, 1882...
7 August, 1884...
6 October, 18873 October, 1890.
Hon. Major Sir William Jukes Steward, Kt. Bach.23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 1894...
6 April, 1897...
22 June, 19005 November, 1902.
Hon. Sir Arthur Robert Guinness, Kt. Bach.29 June, 1903...
27 June, 1906...
10 June, 1909...
15 February, 1912.10 June, 1913.
Hon. Frederic William Lang26 June, 1913...

Hon. F. M. B. Fisher, Minister of Customs, Minister of Marine, Minister in Charge of Inspection of Machinery, Advertising, Printing and Stationery, Legislative, State Fire Insurance, Life and Accident Insurance, Electoral, National Provident Fund, and Pensions Departments.

Hon. Dr. Pomare, Member of the Executive Council representing the Native Race, and in Charge of Maori Councils, Cook and other Islands Administration.

Clerk of the Executive Council—James Frank Andrews, I.S.O.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.

The Legislative Council assembled for its first session at Auckland on the 24th May, 1854, and comprised fourteen members.

The Councillors had been designated a year earlier by the Governor, and their names submitted to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for the Royal approval; and they were gazetted in New Zealand in December, 1853. Until 1868 the rule was that the appointment of members should be made by an instrument under the Royal sign manual, but the rule was not strictly observed after 1861. An Act of the Imperial Parliament in 1868 validated any appointments of Councillors that might have been made irregularly in the past, and provided that future appointments should be made by the Governor (not by the Sovereign).

Until 1891 members were appointed for life, and the Speaker was appointed by the Governor; but since that year members are appointed for seven years only, though they are eligible for reappointment; and the Council elects its own Speaker, who holds office for five years. A Chairman of Committees is elected every session, and holds office till the election of his successor. Speaker and Chairman are both eligible for re-election. The number of members is not limited. The Imperial Act under which the earliest appointments were made did not fix a minimum, though it provided that the first hatch to be appointed should be not less than ten in number. The number actually summoned was sixteen, of whom only fourteen attended and were enrolled. The number increased irregularly for thirty years. In 1885 and 1886 it stood at fifty-three, but has not since reached that limit. The number on the roll at present (1st June, 1914) is thirty.

A Councillor must be a male person, of the full age of twenty-one years, and a British subject, either natural-born or naturalized; and he must not be in the receipt of pay out of the public purse, whether as a public servant or under a Government contract. The seat of a duly-appointed member is voided if he enters the service or places himself under the protection of any foreign Power; or if he becomes bankrupt or compounds with his creditors; or if he is a public defaulter; or if he is convicted of any crime punishable by death or by imprisonment with hard labour for three years or more; or if he resigns his seat; or if he absents himself without the leave of the Governor for more than one whole session.

Before the year 1892 the honorarium of Councillors was understood to be for the session not for the year, and formed the subject of a special vote every session, the amount varying in different sessions. By the Payment of Members Act. 1892, the honorarium was made animal, not sessional, and was fixed at £150 a year. The amount was raised in 1901 to £200 a year. Besides the honorarium, members are allowed travelling-expenses actually incurred in going to and from Parliament.

Subject to certain exemptions, members not attending the Council are liable to be fined.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF THE HONOURABLE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF NEW ZEALAND (1ST JUNE, 1914).
Speaker—Hon. Sir C. C. BOWEN, K.C.M.G.
Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. F. CARNCROSS
Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.
* Life members.
Baillie, Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.*
Baldey, Hon. AlfredOtago18 March, 1910.
Barr, Hon. JohnCanterbury22 January, 1914.
Beeban, Hon. WilliamAuckland22 June, 1910.
Bell, Hon. Francis Henry Dillon, K.C.Wellington10 July, 1912.
Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, K.C.M.G.Canterbury20 January, 1891.*
Carncross, Hon. Walter Charles FrederickTaranaki18 March, 1910.
Duncan, Hon. Tomas YoungOtago13 June, 1912.
Dutbie, Hon. JohnWellington26 June, 1913.
Earnshaw, Hon. WilliamWellington26 June, 1913.
George, Hon. Seymour ThorneAuckland22 June, 1910.
Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, K.C.M.G.Wellington7 October, 1913.
Hardy, Hon. Charles Albert CreeryCanterbury26 June, 1913.
Harris, Hon. BenjaminAuckland3 February, 1911.
Jenkinson, Hon. John EdwardCanterbury1 July, 1907.
Johnston, Hon. Charles JohnWellington23 January, 1891.*
Jones, Hon. GeorgeOtago13 December, 1909.
Louisson, Hon. CharlesCanterbury14 January, 1908.
McLean, Hon. Sir George, Kt. Bach.Otago19 December, 1881.*
Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt. BachOtago8 July, 1865.*
Mills, Hon. Charles HoughtonWellington2 March, 1909.
Nikora, Hon. Wiremu KereiAuckland26 June, 1913.
Ormond, Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay20 January, 1891.*
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Kt.Auckland25 June, 1911.
Parata, Hon. ThomasOtago13 June, 1912.
Paul, Hon, John ThomasOtago22 January, 1914.
Rigg, Hon. JohnWellington1 July, 1907.
Stevens, Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury7 March, 1882.*
Thompson, Hon. ThomasAuckland18 March, 1910.
Wigram, Hon. Henry FrancisCanterbury22 June, 1910.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are now designated Members of Parliament. The number was originally fixed by the Constitution Act as not more than forty-two nor less than twenty-four, and the first Parliament called together in 1854 consisted of forty members. Legislation passed in 1858 fixed the number of European members at forty-one; in 1860, at fifty-three; in 1862, at fifty-seven; in 1865, at seventy; in 1867, at seventy-two; in 1870, at seventy-four; in 1875, at eighty-four; in 1881, at ninety-one; in 1887, at seventy; and in 1900, at seventy-six. By the Maori Representation Act, 1867, which is still in force, as embodied in the Legislature Act, 1908, four Maori members were added, three for the North Island and one for the South.

The North Island at present returns forty-two European members, and the South Island thirty-four. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Quinquennial Parliaments, instituted under the Constitution Act, were abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act, 1879.

Every registered elector, being of the male sex and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in the Legislature Act, 1908, is eligible for membership.

All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the public servants of the Dominion, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as members.

The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November, 1901, under the provisions of an Act passed in that year.

The election of a Speaker is the first business of a new House after the members have been sworn. A Chairman of Committees is elected as soon after as is convenient. Both Speaker and Chairman of Committees hold office until a dissolution, but receive payment until the first meeting of a new Parliament.

Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT (1ST JUNE, 1914) IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

Speaker—Hon. FERIC WILLIAM LANG.

Chairman of Committees—ALEXANDER SCOTT MALCOLM.

Name.Electoral District.Date when Writs made returnable.
For European Electorates.
Allen, Hon. JamesBruce19 December, 1911.
Anderson, George JamesMataura19 December, 1911.
Atmore, HarryNelson19 December, 1911.
Bell, William Henry DillonWellington Suburbs and Country Districts19 December, 1911.
Bollard, JohnEden19 December, 1911.
Bollard, Richard FrancisRaglan19 December, 1911.
Bradney, James HenryAuckland West19 December, 1911.
Brown, John VictorNapier19 December, 1911.
Buchanan, Sir Walter Clarke, Kt.Wairarapa19 December, 1911.
Buddo, Hon. DavidKaiapoi19 December, 1911.
Buick, DavidPalmerston19 December, 1911.
Buxton, ThomasTemuka19 December, 1911.
Campbell, Hugh McLeanHawke's Bay19 December, 1911.
Carroll, Hon. Sir James, K.C.M.G.Gisborne19 December, 1911.
Clark, Edward HenryChalmers19 December, 1911.
Coates, Joseph GordonKaipara19 December, 1911.
Colvin, JamesBuller19 December, 1911.
Craigie, JamesTimaru19 December, 1911.
Davey, Thomas HenryChristchurch East19 December, 1911.
Dickie, William JamesSelwyn19 December, 1911.
Dickson, James SamuelParnell19 December, 1911.
Ell, Henry GeorgeChristchurch South19 December, 1911.
Escott, James HenryPahiatua19 December, 1911.
Fisher, Hon. Francis Marion BatesWellington Central19 December, 1911.
Forbes, George WilliamHurunui19 December, 1911.
Fraser, Hon. WilliamWakatipu19 December, 1911.
Glover, Albert EdwardAuckland Central19 December, 1911.
Guthrie, David HenryOroua19 December, 1911.
Hanan, Josiah AlfredInvercargill19 December, 1911.
Harris, AlexanderWaitemata19 December, 1911.
Herdman, Hon Alexander LawrenceWellington North19 December, 1911.
Herries, Hon. William HerbertTauranga19 December, 1911.
Hindmarsh, Alfred HumphreyWellington South19 December, 1911.
Hine, John BirdStratford19 December, 1911.
Hunter, GeorgeWaipawa19 December, 1911.
Isitt, Leonard MonkChristchurch North19 December, 1911.
Lang, Hon. Frederic WilliamManukau19 December, 1911.
Lee, Ernest PageOamaru19 December, 1911.
McCallum, RichardWairau19 December, 1911.
McCombs, JamesLyttelton26 December, 1913.
MacDonald, William Donald StuartBay of Plenty19 December, 1911.
McKenzie, Hon. RoderickMotueka19 December, 1911.
Malcolm, Alexander ScottClutha19 December, 1911.
Mander, FrancisMarsden19 December, 1911.
Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, P.C.Franklin19 December, 1911.
Millar, Hon. John AndrewDunedin West19 December, 1911.
Myers, Arthur MielzinerAuckland East19 December, 1911.
Newman, Alfred KingcomeWellington East19 December, 1911.
Newman, EdwardRangitikei19 December, 1911.
Nosworthy, WilliamAshburton19 December, 1911.
Okey, Henry James HobbsTaranaki19 December, 1911.
Payne, JohnGrey Lynn19 December, 1911.
Pearce, George VaterPatea19 December, 1911.
Poland, HughOhinemuri19 December, 1911.
Reed, Vernon HerbertBay of Islands19 December, 1911.
Rhodes, Hon. Robert HeatonEllesmere19 December, 1911.
Rhodes, Thomas WilliamThames19 December, 1911.
Robertson, JohnOtaki19 December, 1911.
Russell, George WarrenAvon19 December, 1911.
Scott, RobertOtago Central19 December, 1911.
Seddon, Thomas Edward YoudWestland19 December, 1911.
Sidey, Thomas KayDunedin South19 December, 1911.
Smith, Francis HenryWaitaki19 December, 1911.
Smith, Robert WilliamWaimarino19 December, 1911.
Statham, Charles ErnestDunedin Central19 December, 1911.
Sykes, George RobertMasterton19 December, 1911.
Thomson, George MalcolmDunedin North19 December, 1911.
Thomson, John CharlesWallace19 December, 1911.
Veitch, William AndrewWanganui19 December, 1911.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.Awarua19 December, 1911.
Webb, Patrick CharlesGrey2 August, 1913.
Wilford, Thomas MasonHutt19 December, 1911.
Wilkinson, Charles AndersonEgmont23 September, 1912.
Wilson, Charles KendallTaumarunui19 December, 1911.
Witty, GeorgeRiccarton19 December, 1911.
Young, James AlexanderWaikato19 December, 1911.
For Maori Electorates.
Te RangihiroaNorthern Maori10 January, 1912.
Pomare, Hon. MauiWestern Maori10 January, 1912.
Ngata, Hon. Apirana TurupaEastern Maori10 January, 1912.
Parata, TaareSouthern Maori10 January, 1912.

AGENTS-GENERAL AND HIGH COMMISSIONERS FOR NEW ZEALAND.

Isaac Earl Featherston, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 5th April, 1871. Appointment to date from 25th March, 1871. (Gazette, 1871, page 155.)

(Note —Sir W. Tyrone Power was appointed on 20th June, 1876, by the Crown Agents as temporary Agent-General on the death o Dr. Featherston.)

Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 19th September, 1876. Appointment to date from 9th September, 1876, vice I. E. Featherston, deceased. (Gazette, 1876, page 721.)

Sir Francis Dillon Bell appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1878, by Warrant dated 7th December, 1880, vice Sir Julius Vogel, resigned. (Gazette, 1881, page 311.)

Westby Brook Perceval, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 25th September, 1891, vice Sir F. D. Bell. (Gazette, 1891, page 1071.)

The Hon. William Pember Reeves appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 23rd December, 1895, vice Sir W. B. Perceval. (Gazette, 1896, page 50.) Appointed High Commissioner under the High Commissioner Act, 1904, by Warrant dated 14th June, 1905. (Gazette, 1905, page 1509.) Reappointed High Commissioner as from 14th June, 1908. (Gazette, 1908, page 1921.)

The Hon. Sir William Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., appointed High Commissioner from 1st December, 1908, vice Hon. W. P. Reeves. Assumed office 18th January, 1909. (Gazette, 1909, page 27.) Appointment extended to 31st December, 1911. (Gazette, 1911, page 2720.) Appointment further extended to 31st March, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 45.) Appointment further extended to 31st May, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 1227.)

Charles Frederick Wray Palliser appointed High Commissioner from 1st June, 1912, for one month. Reappointed from 1st July, 1912, and again reappointed from 1st August, 1912.

The Hon. Thomas Mackenzie appointed High Commissioner from 23rd August, 1912, for a term of three years. (Gazette, 1912, page 2612.) Assumed office 9th October, 1912.

THE COLONIAL OFFICE.

(DOWNING STREET, S.W., LONDON.)

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. Lewis Harcourt, M.P., 7th November, 1910.

Parliamentary Under-Secretary—Lord Emmott, P.C.

Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir John Anderson, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

Assistant Under-Secretaries: Sir H. W. Just, K.C.M.G., C.B.; and Sir G. V. Fiddes, K.C.M.G., C.B.

CROWN AGENTS FOR THE COLONIES.

WHITEHALL GARDENS, S.W. CITY OFFICE (STOCK TRANSFER OFFICE, 1 TOKENHOUSE BUILDINGS, E.C., LONDON).

Crown Agents–Sir Reginald L. Antrobus, K.C.M.G., C.B.; Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, C.M.G., late R.E.; and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.

TRADE COMMISSIONERS.

H.M. TRADE COMMISSIONERS.

New Zealand—W. G. Wickham, 11 Grey Street, Wellington. Australia—G. T. Milne, Equitable Buildings, Melbourne. (Telegraphic address: “Combrit.”) Canada—C. Hamilton Wickes, 3 Beaver Hall Square, Montreal. (Telegraphic address: “Britcom.”) South Africa—Sir R. Sothern Holland, Cape Town. Telegraphic address: “Austere.”)

IMPERIAL TRADE CORRESPONDENTS.

A. J. Denniston, Auckland; W. T. Monkman, Dunedin.

TRADE COMMISSIONER FOR THE DOMINION OF CANADA.

W. A. Beddoe, Auckland.

FOREIGN CONSULS.

CONSULS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES RESIDING IN, OR WITH JURISDICTION OVER, NEW ZEALAND, 1ST JUNE, 1914.

Argentine Republic.—Vice-Consuls: Hon. T. Fergus, Dunedin, and Henry Hampton Rayward, Wellington.

Austria-Hungary.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and South Sea Islands: Dr. Ferdinand Freyesleben, Sydney. Consul: E. Langguth, Auckland.

Belgium.—Consul-General for Australasia and Fiji: F. Huylebroeck, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): M. Matteeuw, Sydney. Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Provincial Districts of Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consul: G. F. Johnston, Wellington. Consul (with jurisdiction over the Districts of Canterbury, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland): Joseph James Kinsey, Christchurch. Consuls; Alexander Manual Ferguson, Auckland; George Lyon Denniston, Dunedin.

Brazil.—Vice-Consul: A. H. Miles, Wellington.

Chile.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: William Brown, Sydney. Consuls: Joseph James Craig, Auckland; J. Montgomery, Christchurch. Honorary Consuls: Albert Martin, M.D., Wellington; J. A. Roberts, Dunedin.

China.—Consul: Kwei Chih, Wellington.

Denmark.—Consul (for North Island): Hon. Francis Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington (Principal Consulate). Consul (for South Island): Henry Bylove Sorensen, Christchurch. Vice Consuls: Paul Maximilian Hansen, Auckland; William Edward Perry, Hokitika; Odin Henry Moller, Dunedin; Michael Myers, Wellington.

France.—Consul (for New Zealand): J. Rigoreau, Auckland. Vice-Consul: Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin. Consular Agents: George Humphreys, Christchurch; James Macintosh, Wellington.

German Empire.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, British New Guinea, and British Islands in the southern seas situated between Tonga and the French Possessions: Richard Kiliani, Sydney. Vice-Consul-General: Johannes Klewitz, Sydney. Consuls: Carl Seegner, Auckland; Willi Fels, Dunedin; Karl Joosten, Christchurch; Eberhard Focke, Wellington.

Greece.—Vice-Consul (for New Zealand): Joseph Frank Dyer, Wellington.

Honduras.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: Frederic Walsh, Sydney.

Italy.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: Cavaliere Emilio Eles, Melbourne. Vice-Consul: Cavaliere G. Forrando, Melbourne. Consular Agents: Thomas Wallace, Christchurch; Leonard Owen Howard Tripp, Wellington; John Roberts, C.M.G. (acting), Dunedin; Geraldo Perotti, Greymouth; Charles Rhodes, Auckland.

Japan.—Consul-General: S. Shimizu, Sydney. Consul: Thomas Young Wellington.

Liberia.—Consul: Hon. Charles Louisson, Christchurch. Acting-Consul: Trevor Noel Holmden, Wellington.

Mexico.—Consul: John William Hall, Auckland.

Netherlands.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: W. L. Bosschart, Melbourne. Vice-Consul de Carriere, attached to Consulate-General, P. E. Teppema, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand and the Islands belonging thereto): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: George Ritchie, Dunedin; Ambrose Millar, Auckland; Walter Goring Johnston, Wellington; G. Van der Velden, Christchurch.

Norway.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent Islands: O. RÖmcke, Melbourne. Consul: Alex. W. Newton, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sigurd Bentzon, Melbourne; Leslie Robert Wilson, Dunedin; Robert Millar, Auckland; Albert Peter Gundersen, Christchurch; Mathias Ericksen Wiig, Invercargill; John Hayes Enright, Westport.

Paraguay.—Consul: A. E. Kernot, Wellington.

Peru.—Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand): J. Maitland Paxton, Sydney. Consul: Ambrose Millar, Auckland.

Portugal.—Consul: John Duncan, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: David L. Nathan, Auckland; Arthur Donald Stuart Duncan, Wellington; Charles William Rattray, Dunedin.

Russia.—Consul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Dominion of New Zealand: A. N. d'Abaza, Melbourne. Vice-Consuls: Ultn Francis McCabe, Wellington; James Paterson, Auckland.

Spain.—Consul-in-Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand): Senor Don Mario Pines y Bayona, Melbourne. Vice-Consul (with jurisdiction throughout New Zealand): William Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington.

Sweden.—Consul: Arthur Edward Pearce, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sidney Jacob Nathan, Auckland; Albert Kave, Christchurch.

Switzerland.—Consul: Georges A. Streiff, Auckland.

United States of America.—Consul-General (for New Zealand and its dependencies): William A. Prickitt, Auckland. Vice-Consul-General: Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland. Consular Agents: Frank Graham, Christchurch; Arthur Edward Whyte, Wellington; Frederick Orlando Bridgeman, Dunedin.

Uruguay.—Consul: Don Cesar Montero Bustamente, Wellington. Vice-Consul: William John Prouse, Wellington.

ECCLESIASTICAL.

There is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.

The principal churches, with the names, &c., of the present heads or officers, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follows:—

Church of the Province, of New Zealand, commonly called the Church of England.

For church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in each diocese in rotation. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Primate (Bishop of Dunedin). The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese.

The names, &c., of the Bishops of the Church of England are as follows:—

The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 Primate).

The Right Rev. Alfred Walter Averill, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1910; translated 1914.

The Right Rev. William Walmsley Sedgwick, B.A., Waiapu; consecrated 1914.

The Right Rev. Thomas Henry Sprott, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1911.

The Right Rev. William Charles Sadlier, B.D., Nelson; consecrated 1912

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Cecil John Wood, D.D., Melanesia; consecrated 1912.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.

The General Assembly will meet on the third Wednesday of November, 1914. in First Church, Dunedin. Moderator, the Rev. William McAra, Kaikoura; Emeritus Clerk, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier; Clerk, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie-Nelson: Treasurer, Rev. W. J. Comrie, Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington; Theological Professors, Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D., Dunedin, Rev. W. Hewitson, B.A., Dunedin, and Rev. John Dickie, M.A., Dunedin.

Roman Catholic Church.

The Diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held, presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend

In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion. The decrees of this Council were approved by Home in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the Dominion.

The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., consecrated in 1874, is Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in New Zealand, and the Most Rev. Thomas O'Shea has recently been appointed Coadjutor Archbishop. The following are the bishops:—

The Right Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1910.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes. S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.

Methodist Church of New Zealand.

The New Zealand branches of the Methodist Church of Australasia and the Primitive Methodist Connexion are now united under the designation of the Methodist Church of Now Zealand.

The Officers of the Church for 1914 are as follows:—President of the Conference, Rev. S. J. Serpell, Masterton; Vice-President, Mr. E. Rosevear, Dunedin; Secretary, Rev. C. H. Laws, B.A., Auckland; Connexional Secretary, Rev. Samuel Lawry, Christchurch; Secretary for Foreign Missions, Rev. L. Hudson, New Brighton; Secretary for Home Missions, Rev. T. G. Brooke, Mount Eden.

The affairs of the Church are administered by ten District Synods, which meet annually. The Chairmen arc appointed by the Conference.

The next Conference will be held in Christchurch, opening during the last week in February, 1915.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.

President, Rev. E. A. Kirwood, Grange Road, Mount Eden; Vice-President, Mr. C. Cathie, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. R. S. Gray, Dunedin; Treasurer. Mr. W. E. Lambourne, Ponsonby; Missionary Secretary, Rev. J. K. Archer, Invercargill; Missionary Treasurer, Mr. A. Hoby, Wellington. The Union comprises 53 churches, 46 preaching-stations, 5,763 members, and a constituency of 25,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist; Editor, Mr. H. H. Driver, Dunedin. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an income last year of £2,800. has a thoroughly equipped hospital, employs a doctor, 2 missionaries, 4 zenana ladies, and 46 Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.

The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for the current year, Hon. Geo. Fowlds. Auckland; Chairman-elect, Rev. William Saunders, Dunedin; Secretary, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Onehunga; Assistant Secretary, Rev. E. A. Bridger, Green Lane; Treasurer, Mr. T. W. White, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. G. B. Gregory, Marton; Head Office, Auckland. In 1915 the meeting of the Council will be held at Dunedin. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.

Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein and Rev. S. Katz, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowski, Wellington Rev. I. Bernstein, Christchurch; Rev. A. Diamond, Dunedin. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).

Church of Christ.

The next Triennial Session of the Associated Churches of Christ will be held at Dunedin New Year. 1915. President, Mr. C. Fleming McDonald, Dunedin; Vice-president, Mr. Ralfe Gebbie, Christchurch; Secretary, Mr. J. L. Stewart Wright, Dunedin. District conferences are held annually in each of the three districts—Auckland. Middle, and Southern.

Salvation Army.

The Annual Congress of the Salvation Army is held in the month of June each year.

The principal officers of the Salvation Army in New Zealand are: Territorial Commander, Commissioner W. J. Richards; Chief Secretary. Lieut.-Col. A. E. Powley; Secretary for Field Affairs. Major H. B. Colledge; Property Secretary, Brigadier J, H. Bray; National Young People's Secretary, Brigadier W. J. Hoare; Divisional Commanders, Brigadier T. E. Vince, Auckland, Brigadier A. B. Carmichael, Wellington, Staff-Captain E. Newby, Christchurch, Major J. J. Toomer, Dunedin; Principal of Training College, Wellington, Brigadier W. Gist. Among the social institutions maintained by the Salvation Army are: Rescue Homes at St. Albans, Caversham, Parnell, and South Wellington; Maternity Homos at each of the four chief centres; Boys' Homes at Island Bay and Eltham; Girls' Homes at Middlemarch and South Wellington; Prison Gate Brigade Homes at Epsom and Addington; and inebriates' Homes at Pakatoa and Roto Roa.

HONOURS HELD IN CONNECTION WITH THE DOMINION.

BARONET.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1911.

PRIVY COUNCILLORS (P.C.).

Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, 1913.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1907.

Williams, Right Hon. Sir Joshua Strange, 1913.

KNIGHTS COMMANDERS OF THE MOST DISTINGUISHED ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEORGE (K.C.M.G.).

Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1913.

Carroll, Hon. Sir James, 1911.

Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., 1911

Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, 1910.

Mills, Sir James, 1909.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, 1894.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.

KNIGHTS BACHELOR (KT. BACH.).

Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1910.

Buchanan, Sir Walter, 1912.

Kennaway, Sir Walter, 1909.

Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901.

McLean, Hon. Sir George, 1909.

O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.

Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.

Williams, Right Hon. Sir Joshua Strange, 1911.

COMPANIONS OF THE MOST HONOURABLE ORDER OF THE BATH (C.B.).

Cradock, Major Montagu, 1900.

Davies, Colonel R. H., 1900.

Newall, Colonel Stuart, 1900.

Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.

Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1900.

COMPANIONS OF THE MOST DISTINGUISHED ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEORGE (C.M.G.).

Bauchop, Lieut.-Colonel A., 1902.

Collins, Colonel Robert Joseph, V.D., I.S.O., 1911.

Fitchett, Frederick, M.A., L.L.D., 1911.

Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.

Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900.

Otterson, Henry, 1913.

Parr, C.J., 1914.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, 1879.

Roberts, John, 1891.

Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1912.

Shand, John, M.A., LL.D., 1913.

Stowe, Leonard, 1912.

COMPANION, DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER (D.S.O.).

Bartlett, Major E., 1902.

Hickey, Captain D. A., 1902.

Hughes, Major J. G., 1900.

Major, Colonel C. T., 1900.

Poison, Major D., 1900.

Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.

Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.

Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.

COMPANION, IMPERIAL SERVICE ORDER (I.S.O.).

Andrews, James Frank, 1913.

Blow, Horatio John Hooper, 1911.

Collins, Colonel R. J., V.D., 1909.

Heywood, James B., 1905.

Kensington, W. C., 1909.

Robertson, Donald, 1912.

Ronayne, Thomas, 1914.

Strauchon, John, 1912.

Tregear, Edward, 1911.

ROYAL RED CROSS.

Williamson, Miss J. M. N., 1900.

VICTORIA CROSS.

Hardham, Lieut. W. J., 1901.

NEW ZEALAND CROSS.

Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.

Hill, George, 1869.

Lingard, William, 1869.

Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.

Mair, Gilbert, 1870.

Maling, Christopher, 1869.

Northcroft, Henry William, 1910.*

Preece, George Augustus, 1869.

Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.

Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.

* For service rendered in 1860.

For service rendered in 1867.

DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT MEDALS AWARDED TO MEMBERS OF NEW ZEALAND CONTINGENTS IN SOUTH AFRICA (1899–1902).

Baigent, Private Ivanhoe.

Black, Sergeant-major G. C.

Burr, Sergeant-major W. T.

Cassidy, Sergeant W.

Fletcher, Sergeant-major W. H.

Free, Private A.

Kent, Sergeant W.

Langham, Sergeant-major J.

Lockett, Sergeant-major E. B.

Pickett, Sergeant-major M.

Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.

Wade, Private H. B.

White, Sergeant-major H.

QUEEN'S SCARF.

(One of four knitted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for presentation to selected members of Colonial Contingents in South Africa.)

Coutts, Captain Henry Donald, 1900.

PERSONS ALLOWED TO RETAIN THE TITLE OF “HONOURABLEWITHIN HIS MAJESTY'S DOMINIONS.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 30th October, 1856, the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on Members of the Legislative Council and on the Speaker of the House of Representatives of New Zealand.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 15th June, 1893, it was announced that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case might be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke.

Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Buddo, David, 1912; Carroll, Sir James, K.C.M.G., 1912; Duncan, Thomas Y., 1906; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Findlay, Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., K.C.M.G., 1911; Fowlds, G., 1911; Hall-Jones, Sir William, K.C.M.G., 1908; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McKenzie, Roderick, 1912; Mackenzie, Thomas, 1912; Millar, John Andrew, 1912; Mills, Charles H., 1906; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Ngata, Apirana Turupa, 1912; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, Edward, C.M.G., 1887; Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1887; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.

By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of “Honourable.” Mr. William Montgomery has been allowed to retain the title as from 14th December, 1906, accordingly, on such retirement.

JUDGES OF SUPREME COURT.

By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.

By despatch of 22nd December, 1911, it was announced that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE.

By an Act passed during the year 1912 and intituled the Public Service Act, 1912, the Public Service of New Zealand has been placed under the direct and sole control of a Commissioner and two Assistant Commissioners, who are appointed in the first place for a term of seven years, are responsible only to Parliament, and can be dismissed from office only for misbehaviour or incompetence.

The Act applies to all members of the Public Service with the exception of the Controller and Auditor-General, officers of the Railway Department, members of the Police and Defence Forces, Judges and Magistrates, officers of the House, certain officers of the Legislative Departments, and persons paid only by fees or commission, as well as any officer to whom the Governor in Council declares the Act shall not apply.

The powers vested in the Commissioner arc very wide. They include the inspection of offices, the appointment, promotion, transfer, and dismissal of officers, and the framing of regulations. An entrance examination and efficiency and educational tests for promotion are to be imposed by the Commissioner.

APPEAL BOARD.

An officer dissatisfied with any decision of the Commissioner with regard to (1) grade, (2) classification of the work performed by or assigned to him, or (3) salary or promotion, has the right of appeal, notice of which must be lodged with the Commissioner within thirty days. All appeals are dealt with by a Board consisting of three members, two of these appointed by the Governor, and the third elected by the officers of that branch of the service to which the appellant belongs. The decision of the Appeal Board on all matters brought before it is final, and must be given effect to.

CLASSIFICATION.

The Public Service Act came into operation on 1st April, 1913, and on that date the Commissioner assumed control of the Public Service. In accordance with the provisions of Section 17 of the Act, a classification of all officers to whom the Act applies was immediately proceeded with. The provisional classified list for Departments other than the Post and Telegraph Department was gazetted on 20th August, 1913, and included 4,895 officers.

The Post and Telegraph Department had been working under a classification system for some years, and the list for this Department for 1913–14 was published separately on 14th October, 1913.

CIVIL SERVICE GUARANTEE.

Officers of the Public Service (with certain exceptions specified by Statute or Regulations) are required to guarantee the fidelity of one another.

In case of defalcation by an assurer the amount of such defalcation must be made good from the salaries of insurers by a deduction in proportion to the total yearly salary to the extent of thirty-nine-fortieths of the ascertained liability, the balance being a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

A Board of five members, of whom at least three must be assurers, is appointed by the Governor for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act regarding the system.

OFFICIAL LIST.

1ST JUNE, 1914.

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE.

Public Service Commissioner—D. Robertson, I.S.O.

Assistant Commissioners—R. Triggs, A. D. Thomson.

Secretary—A. J. H. Benge, B.A.

Chief Clerk—G. F. Dixon.

PUBLIC SERVICE APPEAL BOARD.

Appointed Members — Peter Barr (Chairman), J. H. Richardson.

Elected Members — F. M. Scully (Postal), A. Mill, (Telegraph), A. Marryatt, and F. J. Mouat (other Departments under Public Service Act).

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENTS.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.

Speaker—Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, K.C.M.G.

Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. F. Carncross.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—L. Stowe, C.M.G.

Clerk-Assistant and Acting Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod—A. T. Bothamley

Second Clerk - Assistant — B. E. S. Stocker, M.A.

Interpreter—F. H. Phillips.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

Speaker—Hon. F. W. Lang, M.P.

Chairman of Committees—A. S. Malcolm, M.P.

Clerk of the House—H. Otterson, C.M.G.

Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.

Second Clerk-Assistant—E. W. Kane.

Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—W. E. Dasent.

Record Clerk—W. Collings.

Chief Hansard Reporter—S. Spragg.

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks.

Clerk of Writs—J. Hislop.

Deputy Clerk of Writs—G. P. Newton.

Interpreter—D. F. G. Barclay.

PARLIAMENTARY LIBRARY.

Chief Librarian—C. Wilson.

Assistant Librarian—H. L. James.

PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE.

Prime Minister—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.

Secretary to Cabinet and Clerk of the Executive Council—J. F. Andrews, I.S.O.

Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.

Assistant Private Secretary — F. W. Furby.

DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE.

Minister of Finance—Hon. J. Allen.

Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

THE TREASURY.

Secretory, Receiver - General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar New Zealand Consols—G. F. C. Campbell.

Accountant, and Deputy Registrar New Zealand Consols—A. O. Gibbes.

Assistant Accountant and Inspector of Departmental Accounts—J. J. Esson.

Cashier—C. E. Chittey.

Head Ledger-keeper—A. J. Morgan.

Clerk in Charge Pay and Revenue Branches—H. J. Hawthorn.

Sectional Clerk—W. Wilson.

Correspondence and Record Clerk—M. S. Seddon.

Sectional Clerk—G. C. Rodda.

Ledger-keeper—R. Witheford.

Assistant Inspector Departmental Accounts—T. H. Jones.

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES OFFICE.

Registrar—R. E. Hayes.

Revising Barrister—E. Y. Redward.

Actuary and Deputy Registrar—A. T. Traversi.

NATIONAL PROVIDENT FUND BOARD.

Members—Hon. the Minister of Finance (Chairman, ex officio), Dr. Hay, Messrs. W. R. Morris, G. F. C. Campbell, and R. E. Hayes.

Superintendent of Fund—R. E. Hayes.

Secretary to Board—A. T. Traversi.

Board meets third Thursday in February, May, August, and November, or as business requires.

LAND AND INCOME TAX DEPARTMENT.

Commissioner of Taxes — D. G. Clark.

Deputy Commissioner of Taxes and Clerk in Charge, Income-tax—A. E. Fowler.

First Clerk, Land-tax—E. W. Watson.

Receiver of Land and Income Tax—C. V. Kreeft.

VALUATION DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C. Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Valuer-General—F. W. Flanagan.

Officers in Charge—A. J. McGowan, Auckland; H. L. Wiggins, Christchurch; A. Clothier, Dunedin; T. L. Oswin, Invercargill.

Chief Clerk—C. J. Lovatt.

Accountant—F. W. Barnett.

STAMP DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Stamp Duties—Hon. A. L. Herdman.

Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Commissioner of Stamps and Registrar of Companies—P. C. Corliss.

Chief Clerk and Accountant—J. Murray.

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore.

Inspecting Valuator—G. W. Jänisch.

DEPUTY COMMISSIONERS OF STAMPS.

Auckland—W. G. Fletcher.*

Gisborne—R. S. Florance.*

Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.*

Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.*

Wanganui—G. Sampson.

Wellington—C. H. W. Dixon.*

Marlborough—F. Broughton.*

Nelson—W. Johnston.*

Westland—W. P. Morgan.*

Canterbury—P. G. Withers.*

Timaru—H. Kissel.

Otago—J. Murphy.*

Southland—W. W. de Castro.*

POST AND TELEGRAPH DEPARTMENT.

Postmaster - General and Minister of Telegraphs—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.

Private Secretary—W. Crow.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

GENERAL POST OFFICE.

Secretary—W. R. Morris.

Assistant Secretaries—F. V. Waters and G. B. Dall.

Chief Clerk—J. C. Williamson.

Chief Telegraph Engineer—J. Orchiston, M.I.E.E.

Chief Electrician—T. Buckley.

Controller of Money-orders and Savings banks—J. L. H. Ledger.

Chief Accountant—H. A. R. Huggins.

Chief Inspector—D. Miller.

Inspector of Telegraph Offices—H. W. Harrington.

Inspector of Savings-banks—W. Gee.

Controller of Stores—C. B. Mann.

CHIEF POSTMASTERS.

Auckland—F. D. Holdsworth.

Thames—P. P. White.

Gisborne—J. J. Pickett.

Napier—E. Northcroft.

New Plymouth—C. H. Burton.

* Also Registrars of Building Societies, Industrial and Provident Societies, and Assistant Registrars of Companies.

† Combined post and telegraph offices.

* Wanganui—G. W. Sampson.

Wellington—A. P. Dryden.

* Blenheim—C. Whelan.

* Nelson—W. T. Ward.

* Westport—A. W. Mann.

* Greymouth—D. St. George.

* Hokitika—G. A. Empson.

Christ-church—R. B. Morris.

* Timaru—H. Kissel.

* Oamaru—C. Hill.

Dunedin—W. McHutcheson.

* Invercargill—T. T. King.

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS.

Auckland—R. M. Baird.

Wellington—E. A. Shrimpton, M.I.E.E.

Nelson—G. T. Kemp.

Christchurch and Dunedin—W. E. Chisholm.

ASSISTANT INSPECTORS OF POST-OFFICES.

P. Curtis (Northern District), A. T. Cavell (Central District), S. Inder (Wellington District), F. H. Dodd (West Coast District), G. F. Furby (Midland District), S. F. Haszard (Southern District).

SUPERINTENDENTS OF TELEGRAPH OFFICES.

Auckland—F. G. Gannaway.

Wellington—C. H. M. Hawk.

Christchurch—A. J. C. Talbot.

Dunedin—B. H. Keys.

PENSIONS DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Commissioner—G. C. Fache.

Chief Clerk—L. Crow.

Registrar at Auckland—J. H. Boyes.

Registrar at Napier—C. J. Steevens.

Registrar at Wellington—B. E. Murphy.

Registrar at Christchurch—P. A. Keddell.

Registrar at Dunedin—R. S. Stokes.

Registrar at Invercargill — A. H. Parfitt.

RAILWAYS DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Railways — Hon. W. H. Herries.

Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

General Manager—E. H. Hiley.

Chief Clerk—R. W. McVilly.

Chief Accountant—H. Davidson.

STORES BRANCH.

Comptroller of Stores—H. Baxter.

TRAFFIC BRANCH.

Chief Traffic Manager—H. Buxton.

Traffic Superintendents—North Island—C. A. Piper; South Island—S. F. Whitcombe.

District Managers — Whangarei, W. Sword; Auckland, W. Bowles; Ohakune, G. Brownlee; Wanganui, J. E. Armstrong; Wellington, A. Duncan; Westport, P. L. Payne; Westland,

J. Bevin; Christchurch, W. J. Stringleman: Dunedin, T. W. Waite; Invercargill, T. W. Brebner.

Stationmasters in Charge—Kaihu, R. H. Nicolson; Gisborne, L. P. Pepperell; Nelson, T. S. Edwards; Picton, A. M. Arthur.

MAINTENANCE BRANCH.

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Burnett, M. Inst. C.E.

Inspecting Engineer—F. W. MacLean.

Signal Engineer—H. J. Wynne, A.M. Inst. C.E.

Office Engineer—G. A. Troup.

Railway Land Officer—J. Young.

District Engineers—Auckland, D. T. McIntosh; Ohakune, J. K. Lowe; Wanganui, F. J. Jones; Wellington, F. C. Widdop; Westport and Westland, C. M. Benzoni; Christchurch, C. H. Biss; Dunedin, H. Macandrew; Invercargill, A. J. McCredie.

LOCOMOTIVE BRANCH.

Chief Mechanical Engineer — H. H. Jackson.

Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, F. T. Murison; Wellington – Napier–New Plymouth, G. E. Richardson; Hurunui – Bluff, G. A. Pearson; Westport and Westland, E. L. W. Haskins; Relieving, S. P. Evans.

* Combined post and telegraph office.

BOARDS OF APPEAL.

North Island.

Members—Chairman, W. R. Haselden, S.M., appointed by the Governor; A. W. Hutchings, Assistant Station-master, Wellington, elected; D. Dwyer, Guard, Wanganui, elected; J. L. Churchouse, Ganger, Cross Creek, elected; D. McKenzie, Machinist, Potone, elected; A. Whisker, Engine-driver, Taumarunui, elected.

Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.

South Island.

Members — Chairman, W. R. Haselden, S.M., appointed by the Governor; W. O. Ennis, Clerk, Dunedin, elected; P. Gaines, Guard, Christchurch, elected; G. F. Martin, Engine-driver, Invercargill, elected; J. H. Jones, Turner, Addington, elected; E. J. Dash, Ganger, Waikari, elected.

Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.

GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS SUPERANNUATION BOARD.

Members—Chairman, Hon. the Minister of Railways; J. L. Salmond, LL.B., Solicitor-General; F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D., Public Trustee; E. H. Hiley, General Manager, Railways: elected—R. M. Isaacs, E. P. Moir, M. Lee, W. T. Wilson, and P. Gaines.

Board meets quarterly at Wellington.

NATIVE DEPARTMENT.

Native Minister—Hon. W. H. Herries.

Private Secretary—H. R. H. Balneavis.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Under-Secretary—T. W. Fisher.

Senior Clerk—J. B. Hackworth.

Clerk to Land Purchase Board—F. O. V. Acheson.

Translator.—L. M. Grace.

NATIVE LAND COURT.

Chief Judge—Jackson Palmer.

Judges—R. N. Jones, W. E. Rawson, C. E. MacCormick, M. Gilfedder, T. W. Fisher, J. W. Browne, A. G. Holland, T. H. Wilson, J. B. Jack.

Commissioners—H. W. Bishop, W. H. Bowler, H. Carr, C. T. H. Brown.

NATIVE LAND COURT AND MAORI LAND BOARD DISTRICTS.

For places and dates of meetings of Boards see New Zealand Gazette of 30th April, 1914.

Tokerau District.

Headquarters—Auckland.

President—T. H. Wilson.

Registrar—

Waikato-Maniapoto District.

Headquarters—Auckland.

President—A. G. Holland.

Registrar—E. P. Earle.

Waiarihi District.

Headquarters—Rotorua.

Presidont—J. W. Browne.

Registrar—H. S. King.

Tairawhiti District.

Headquarters—Gisborne.

President—R. N. Jones.

Registrar—H. H. Carr.

Aotea District.

Headquarters—Wanganui.

President—J. B. Jack.

Registrar—A. H. Mackay.

Ikaroa District.

Headquarters—Wellington.

President—M. Gilfedder.

Registrar—L. A. Teutenberg.

South Island District.

President—M. Gilfedder.

Registrar—E. A. Welch.

MAORI COUNCILS.

Minister in Charge—Hon. Dr. Pomare.

Superintendent—J. B. Hackworth.

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.

Minister of Justice and Attorney-General—Hon. A. L. Herdman.

Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE

Under-Secretary—G. C. B. Jordan.

JUDICIAL.

Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice — Hon. Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G., Wellington.

Judges—

Wellington—Hon. F. R. Chapman, Hon. J. H. Hosking.

Auckland—Hon. W. B. Edwards, Hon. T. Cooper.

Christchurch—Hon. J. E. Denniston, Hon. T. W. Stringer.

Dunedin—Hon. W. A. Sim.

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.

Hamilton—E. Rawson.

Gisborne—W. A. Barton.

New Plymouth—A. Crooke.

Napier—S. E. McCarthy.

Wanganui—W. Kerr.

Palmerston North—J. W. Poynton.

Masterton—L. G. Reid.

Wellington—W. A. Hawkins.

Nelson—J. S. Evans.

Blenheim—F. O'B. Loughnan.

Westport—W. Wilson.

Greymouth and Hokitika—J. G. L. Hewitt.

Christchurch—A. H. Holmes.

Timaru—V. G. Day.

Dunedin—A. Stubbs.

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer

Sheriffs

Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton.

Taranaki—J. Terry.

Hawke's Bay—S. E. McCarthy.

Wanganui and Rangitikei—F. W. Hart.

Manawatu—C. J. Hewlett.

Wairarapa—M. Foley.

Wellington—W. A. Hawkins.

Marlborough—A. P. Bent.

Nelson—W. Heaps.

Westland—J. G. L. Hewitt.

Westland North—J. McIndoe.

Westland Central—

Canterbury—A. H. Holmes

Timaru—V. G. Day.

Otago—A. Stubbs.

Southland—J. R. Colyer.

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole.

Hamilton—H. T. Gillies.

Gisborne—F. W. Nolan.

Napier—H. A. Cornford.

New Plymouth—C. H. Weston.

Wanganui—G. Marshall.

Palmerston North—C. A. Loughnan.

Masterton—A. R. Bunny.

Wellington—H. H. Ostler.

Blenheim—C. H. Mills.

Nelson—C. Y. Fell.

Westport—A. A. Wilson.

Greymouth—M. Hannan.

Hokitika—J. Park.

Christchurch—S. G. Raymond.

Timaru—J. W. White.

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh.

Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser.

Invercargill—W. Macalister.

Stipendiary Magistrates.

Auckland—C. C. Kettle and E. C. Cutten.

Whangarei, &c.—F. V. Frazer.

Hamilton, &c.—E. Rawson.

Russell, &c.—R. J. Acheson.

Rotorua, &c.—R. W. Dyer.

Thames, &c.—F. J. Burgess.

Gisborne, &c.—W. A. Barton and R. S. Florance.

New Plymouth, &c.—A. Crooke.

Hawera, &c.—W. G. K. Kenrick.

Napier, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.

Wanganui, &c.—W. Kerr.

Palmerston North, &c.—J. W. Poynton.

Wairarapa, &c.—L. G. Reid.

Wellington, &c.—W. G. Riddell and D. G. A. Cooper.

Blenheim, &c.—F. O'B. Loughnan.

Nelson &c.—J. S. Evans.

Westport, &c.—W. Wilson.*

Greymouth and Hokitika, &c.—J. G. L. Hewitt.*

Christchurch, &c.—H. W. Bishop.

Kaiapoi, &c.—T. A. B. Bailey.

Timaru, & —V. G. Day.

Oamaru, &c.—J. B. Bartholomew.*

Dunedin, &c.—H. Y. Widdowson.

Queenstown, &c.—H. A. Young.*

Naseby, &c.—E. W. Burton.*

Invercargill, &c.—T. Hutchison.*

Chatham Islands—Dr. G. H. Gibson.

* Also are Wardens of Goldfields.

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—W. S. Fisher.

Wellington—A. Simpson, J.P.

Christchurch—G. A. Smyth.

Dunedin—T. D. Kendall.

Clerks of Magistrates' Courts.

Auckland—C. A. Barton.

Hamilton—H. J. Dixon.

Te Kuiti—F. W. Schramm.

Rotorua—C. V. Roberts.

Taumarunui—A. H. Cutler.

Gisborne—G. J. A. Johnstone.

Wairoa—J. L. Crowther.

Napier—J. Jordan.

Hastings—T. M. Lawlor.

Waipawa, &c.—W. Baker.

Dannevirke—H. Smith.

New Plymouth—J. Terry.

Hawera—D. W. Mason.

Stratford—W. J. Reeve.

Wanganui—F. W. Hart.

Taihape—F. Mitchell.

Marton, &c.—H. Morgan.

Feilding—C. E. Taylor.

Palmerston North—C. J Hewlett.

Otaki—T. O'Rourke.

Wellington—R. P. Ward.

Masterton—M. Foley.

Pahiatua—D. O'Rourke.

Christchurch—W. A. D. Banks.

Lyttelton—G. N. Morris.

Kaiapoi and Rangiora—A. G. Ashby.

Timaru—T. W. Tayler.

Temuka—W. S. Jones.

Waimate—W. Y. Purchase.

Oamaru—A. A. Mair.

Port Chalmers—S. R. McDonald.

Balclutha—W. Harte.

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.

Clerks of Magistrates' and Wardens' Courts, and Receivers of Gold Revenue and Mining Registrars.

Whangarei—F. Bird, jun.

Thames—J. C. Malfroy.

Coromandel—G. H. Sherwood.

Paeroa and Te Aroha—H. R. Bush.

Waihi—D. P. Phillips.

Tauranga—T. R. W. Philpotts.

Nelson—J. Fitzgerald.

Blenheim—A. F. Bent.

Westport—J. McIndoe.

Reefton—(Vacant).

Greymouth—E. W. Cave.

Kumara—G. H. Harris.

Hokitika—J. N. Nalder.

Ashburton—G. G. Chisholm.

Dunedin (Hindon)—B. Harper.

Naseby, &c.—J. A. Norrie.

Cromwell, &c.—J. Reid.

Queenstown and Arrow town — A. J. Thompson.

Lawrence—J. M. Adam.

Gore—G. H. Lang.

Riverton and Orepuki—A. E. Dobbie.

Coroners.

Arrowtown, H. Graham; Carterton, J. T. M. Hornsby; Dannevirke, J. Drummond; Dunedin, C. C. Graham; Foilding, J. J. Bagnall, E. Goodbehere; Foxton, A. Fraser; Kawhia, T. D. Hamilton; Kinohaku, W. J. Shaw; Levin, W. C. Nation; Marton, J. J. McDonald; Now Plymouth, J. Mackay; Ohakune, E. G. Allsworth; One-hunga, D. A. Sutherland; Opotiki, P. A. Crawford; Otahuhu, A. R. Harris; Paeroa, J Nathan; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Taihape, J. P. Aldridge; Takaka, A. Sinclair; Tapanui, W. Quin; Taumarunui, A. S. Laird; Te Awamutu, J. B. Teasdale; To Kopuru, T. Webb; Te Kuiti, J. Boddie; Te Puke, C. Lally; Thamos, W. H. Lucas; Waihi, W. M. Wallnutt; Waipawa, J. C. Taylor; Waiuku, W. J. King; Westport, G. B. Sinclair; Whangarei, J. M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard. All Stipendiary Magistrates are ex officio Coroners.

CROWN LAW OFFICE.

Solicitor - General — J. W. Salmond K.C., LL.B.

Assistant Law Officers—H. H. Ostler, LL.B., E. Y. Rodward, P. S. K. Macassey.

Law Draftsman—W. Joliffe.

Assistant Law Draftsman—J. Christie, LL.B.

PATENT OFFICE.

Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks, Fine Arts, and Dramatic Works Copyrights—J. C. Lewis.

PRISONS.

Inspector—C. E. Matthews.

Gaolers — Auckland, A. W. Ironside; Invercargill, M. Hawkins; Lyttelton, (vacant); Napier, A. Gideon; New Plymouth, H. McMurray; Wellington, J. C. Scanlon; Kaingaroa, W. Ayling; Waipa Valley, G. Anderson; Waikeria, Rev. J. L. A. Kayll.

PRISONS BOARD.

Members—Hon. Sir R. Stout. K.C.M.G., Dr. Hay, J. R. Blair, P. Waldegrave, G. Fenwick, W. Reece, and G. C. B. Jordan.

Board meets once a quarter at different gaols.

POLICE DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Hon. A. L. Herdman.

Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Commissioner of Police—J. Cullen.

Superintendents—J. W. Ellison, Wellington; N. Kiely, Auckland; A. J. Mitchell, Dunedin; J. Dwyer, Christchurch.

Inspectors—E. Wilson, Wanganui; J. O'Donovan, Napier; A. H. Wright, Hamilton; S. P. Norwood, Invercargill; W. J. Phair, Grevmouth; J. A. McGrath, Auckland; C. W. Hendrey, Wellington.

Sub - Inspectors — A. Cruickshank, Tiraaru; B. Sheehan, Wellington; R. Marsack, Palmerston North; W. Fouhy, Dunedin; J. Johnston, Auckland; W. H. Mackinnon, Christchurch.

COOK ISLANDS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Hon. Dr. Pomare.

Private Secretary—A. N. Polson.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Clerk in Charge—F. G. Twiss.

Resident Commissioner, Rarotonga—H. W. Northcroft, N.Z.C.

Resident Commissioner, Niue—H. G. Cornwall.

Resident Agents—Mangaia, J. C. Cameron; Aitutaki, T. Duncan; Atiu, J. T. Large; Mauke, W. S. Cooper; Penrhyn, E. F. Hawk; Manihiki and Rakahanga, H. Williams.

Chief Medical and Health Officer—Dr. G. P. Baldwin.

Assistant Medical Officer—Dr. A. R. Maclurkin.

Registrar of Courts—H. H. G. Ralfe.

Collector of Customs—W. J. Stevenson.

Clerk to Federal Council and Government Printer—S. Savage.

Fruit Inspector—G. Esam.

MINES DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Mines—Hon. W. Fraser.

Private Secretary—J. H. McAlister.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O.

Chief Clerk—H. E. Radcliffe.

INSPECTION OF MINES.

Inspecting Engineer and Inspector of Mines—F. Reed, M.I.M.E.

District Inspectors: — Thames and Auckland Districts—B. Bennie and M. Paul; Canterbury, Otago, and Southland Districts—E. R. Green and A. Whitley: West Coast Districts—J. Newton (Westport), T. O. Bishop (Reefton).

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BRANCH.

Director—P. G. Morgan, M.A.

Mining Geologist—J. Henderson. M.A. D.Sc.

SCHOOLS OF MINES.

Lecturers and Instructors:—Thames—W. H. Baker, B.Sc.; Coromandel—W. B. Inglis: Waihi—A. H. V. Morgan, M.A.: Karangahake—R. B. MacDuff: Reefton—J. McPadden: Westport—H. Lovell.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS UNDER THE COAL-MINES ACT, 1908.

Members — The Director, Geological Survey; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery; J. Bishop; J. C. Brown; and H. A. Gordon, F.G.S.

BOARD OF EXAMINEES UNDER THE MINING ACT, 1908.

Same official members as preceding Board, excepting the Chief Inspector of Machinery, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Auckland; T. Gilmour, Waihi; H. S. Molineaux, Barewood; and H. P. Hornibrook, Coromandel.

The Director of Geological Survey is Chairman of both Boards, and H. E. Radcliffe is the Secretary.

Board meets once a year in Wellington.

STATE COAL-MINES.

General Manager—W. C. Gasquoine.

Accountant—L. H. Eilers.

Mine - manager, Point Elizabeth Colliery, Greymouth—J. Bishop.

Mine - manager, Seddonville Colliery, Westport—I. A. James.

Agent, Westport—A. W. Wilson.

Depot Agent, Wellington—F. J. Gunn.

Depot Agent, Christchurch — J. O. Butler.

Depot Agent, Wanganui—F. A. Nalder.

Depot Agent, Dunedin—T. Quinlivan.

DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS.

Minister of Internal Affairs — Hon. F. H. D. Bell, K.C.

Private Secretary—J. W. Black.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Under-Secretary—J. Hislop.

Assistant Under-Secretary—G. P. Newton.

Chief Clerk—P. J. Kelleher.

Accountant—A. R. Kennedy.

Officer in Charge of Government Buildings—W. H. Hennah.

ADVERTISING OFFICE.

Clerk in Charge—J. E. Hull.

ELECTORAL.

Minister in Charge—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

Departmental Officers.

Chief Electoral Officer—J. Hislop.

Clerk in Charge and Deputy Electoral Officer—G. G. Hodgkins.

DOMINION MUSEUM.

Director—J. A. Thomson, M.A., D.Sc.

BOARD OF SCIENCE AND ART.

Members—The Minister of Internal Affairs (Chairman), the Director of the Dominion Museum, tho President of the New Zealand Institute, Professor A. P. W. Thomas, and Messrs H. F. Von Haast, G. M. Thomson, M.P., C. A. Ewen, and P. G. Morgan.

DOMINION OBSERVATORY.

Director and Government Astronomer—C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.

NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE.

President—C. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc., M.B.C.M., F.L.S.

Hon. Treasurer—C. A. Ewen.

Secretary—B. C. Aston, F.I.C.

DOMINION LABORATORY.

Dominion Analyst and Chief Inspector of Explosives — J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc., F.C.S.

Agricultural Chemist — B. C. Aston, F.I.C., F.C.S.

Mining Chemist—W. Donovan, M.Sc.

Explosives Chemist and Inspector of Explosives—R. Girling-Butcher.

HIGH COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE.

High Commissioner—Hon. T. Mackenzie.

Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.

Trade and Immigration Representative—T. E. Donne.

Accountant—G. F. Copus.

Produce Commissioner—H. C. Cameron.

Veterinarian—A. Crabb, M.R.C.V.S.

Chief Clerk—A. S. Row.

PUBLIC SERVICE SUPERANNUATION OFFICE.

Secretary—W. M. Wright.

Public Service Superannuation Board.

Nominated by the Government—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O., G. F. C. Campbell, F. W. Flanagan, J. H. Richardson.

Elected by Contributors in the Post and Telegraph Department—H. E. Combs, H. A. R. Huggins.

Elected by Contributors in the Police Department—Superintendent J. W. Ellison.

Elected by Contributors in other Departments—G. Allport, H. W. Bishop, J. W. Macdonald.

The Board holds its meetings in the Public Trust Building, Wellington, on the second Thursday in February, May, August, and November.

CIVIL SERVICE GUARANTEE BOARD.

Members—W. R. Morris, G. F. C. Campbell, W. B. Montgomery, G. C. B. Jordan. (One seat vacant.) Secretary, W. M. Wright.

AUDIT OFFICE.

Controller and Auditor - General—Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.

Deputy Controller and Auditor and Chief Clerk—P. Purvis Webb.

Audit Officer, London—T. H. Hamer.

Audit Inspectors—

Auckland—B. A. Meek, H. Wylie, C. G. Collins.

Napier—O. R. Younghusband.

New Plymouth—J. H. Fowler.

Wanganui—J. P. Rutherford.

Wellington—H. A. Lamb, J. Ward.

Nelson—J. C. A. Dudley.

Christchurch—A. W. Eames, A. L. B. Jordan.

Dunedin — C. P. Johnson, C. A. Ralston.

Invercargill—H. T. Thompson.

The Commissioners of the Public Debt Sinking Funds.

(Under New Zealand Loans Act, 1908.)

Minister of Finance—Hon. J. Allen.

Controller and Auditor - General—Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.

Public Trustee—Dr. Fitchett, LL.D., C.M.G.

Speaker, House of Representatives—Hon. F. W. Lang.

Secretary to Commissioners—P. Purvis Webb.

REGISTRAR-GENERAL'S OFFICE.

Registrar-General—F. W. Mansfield.

Government Statistician—M. Fraser.

Deputy Registrar-General and Chief Clerk—W. W. Cook.

Chief Compiler, Statistical Branch—F. H. Machattie.

Year-book Clerk—J. W. Butcher.

Registrars of Births, Deaths, and Marriages—Auckland, T. Culpan: Wellington, W. W. Cook; Christchurch, F. Evans; Dunedin, H. Maxwell.

IMMIGRATION.

Under-Secretary—J. Eman Smith.

Chief Clerk—H. D. Thomson

PRINTING AND STATIONERY.

Minister in Charge—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

Departmental Officers.

Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—J. Mackay.

Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen.

Superintendent—W. A. G. Skinner.

MENTAL HOSPITALS.

Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.

Private Secretary—W. Crow.

Departmental Officers.

Inspector-General—F. Hay, M.B., C.M.

Deputy Inspector-General—St. L. H. Gribben, M.D.

Assistant Inspector—Miss H. Maclean.

Chief Clerk—D. Souter.

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Mental Hospital—R. M. Beattie, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Mental Hospital—W. B. Gow, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Porirua Mental Hospital—G. Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Mental Hospital—F. T. King, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Tokanui Mental Hospital, Kihikihi—A. Crosby, M.R.C.S.

Medical Superintendent, Nelson Mental Hospital — H. E. Jeffreys, M.R.C.S.

Superintendent, Hokitika Mental Hospital—J. Downey; Medical Officer—H. Macandrew, M.B.

HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE AID AND PUBLIC HEALTH.

Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.

Private Secretary—W. Crow.

Departmental Officers

Inspector-General of Hospitals, Chief Health Officer, and Registrar of Nurses and Midwives —T. H. A. Valintine, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H.

Deputy Chief Health Officer—J. P. Frengley, M.D., F.R.C.S., D.P.H.

Assistant Inspector of Hospitals and Deputy Registrar of Nurses and Midwives—Miss H. Maclean.

Chief Clerk—E. A. S. Killick.

District Health Officers—Auckland, Dr. R. H. Makgill; Napier, Dr. F. I. De Lisle; Wellington, Dr. H. E. Finch; Christchurch, Dr. H. Chesson; Dunedin (vacant).

Plumbers Board.

Chairman—Dr. J. P. Frengley.

Member— G. Hogben, M.A.; W. H. Morton, M. Inst. C.E., M.R. San. Inst.; A. Burt, jun.; and J. Clark.

Secretary—P. C. Pirani.

Board meets at irregular intervals, usually at Wellington.

BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Government Pathologist—R. H. Makgill, M.D., Edin., D.P.H., Camb.

Bacteriologist—J. A. Hurley.

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE.

Minister of Defence—Hon. J. Allen.

Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEADQUARTERS NEW ZEALAND MILITARY FORCES.

General Officer Commanding N.Z. Forces — Major-General Sir A. J. Godley, K.C.M.G., C.B., p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.

Assistant Military Secretary — Lieutenant J. M. Richmond.

Chief Clerk—W. E. Butler.

Inspector of Rifle Clubs, Rifle Ranges, and Drill Halls—Colonel G. C. B. Wolfe, Reserve of Officers.

Judge Advocate-General—Colonel J. R. Reed, Reserve of Officers.

DOMINION SECTION OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF.

Chief of General Staff and Director of Staff Duties and Military Training—Colonel E. S. Heard, Imperial General Staff.

Attached to General Staff — Major J. G. Hughes, D.S.O., N.Z. Staff Corps; Captain F. Hudson, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Director of Military Operations—Major C. M. Gibbon.

Representative at Headquarters, Imperial General Staff, War Office—Major G. S. Richardson, N.Z. Staff Corps.

DEPARTMENT OF THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL.

Adjutant-General—Colonel Hon. R. H. Collins, D.S.O., Imperial General Staff.

Assistant Adjutant - General — Major H. E. Pilkington, R.N.Z.A.

DEPARTMENT OF THE QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL.

Quartermaster-General—Colonel A. W. Robin, C.B., C.M.G. T.D., N.Z Staff Corps.

Assistant Quartermaster - General — Major H. H. Browne, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Director of Equipment and Stores—Hony. Major J. O'Sullivan.

DEPARTMENT OF THE DIRECTOR OF ORDNANCE.

Director of Ordnance and Artillery—Colonel G. N. Johnston, R.G.A.

Assistant Director and Instructor in Engineer Duties—Lieutenant (temp. Captain) H. M. Edwards, Royal Engineers.

FINANCE BRANCH.

Director of Accounts—F. B. Mabin.

Accountant—H. M. Griffen.

DISTRICT COMMANDS.

Auckland.

Officer Commanding District—Colonel R. Logan. A.D.C., N.Z. Staff Corps.

General Staff Officer — Lieut.-Colonel W. C. Braithwaite, D.S.O., Imperial General Staff.

Attached to General Staff — Captain H. C. Nutsford, N.Z. Staff Corps; Lieutenant (temp. Captain) W. W. Alderman, Commonwealth Military Forces; Lieutenant (temp. Captain) T. A. Wallingford, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General — Captain R. S. Matthews, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Wellington.

Officer Commanding District—Colonel E. W. C. Chaytor, p.s.c., N.Z. Staff Corps.

General Staff Officer — Major A. C. Temperley, Norfolk Regiment.

Attached to General Staff—Major H. R. Potter, Captain J. H. Whyte, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain J. T. Bosworth, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Canterbury.

Officer Commanding District—Colonel V. S. Smyth, N.Z. Staff Corps.

General Staff Officer —Major W. R. Pinwill, Imperial General Staff.

Attached to General Staff — Captain A. W. M. Onslow, 16th Lancers, and Captain A. C. B. Critchley-Salmonson, Royal Munster Fusiliers.

Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain W. H. Meddings, N.Z. Staff Corps.

Otago.

Officer Commanding District—Colonel A. Bauchop, C.M.G., N.Z. Staff Corps.

General Staff Officer—Major J. D. Grant, V.C., Imperial General Staff.

Attached to General Staff — Captain S. A. Grant, N.Z. Staff Corps, and Captain A. Moore, D.S.O., Royal Dublin Fusiliors.

Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General — Captain W. L. Robinson, N.Z. Staff Corps.

THE REGIMENT OF ROYAL NEW ZEALAND ARTILLERY.

Officer Commanding — Major J. E. Hume, R.N.Z.A.

NOTE.—For full particulars of rank and names of Officers of Permanent Staff and Territorial Force vide Army List of the New Zealand Forces, published quarterly.

DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND CUSTOMS.

Minister of Customs—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Comptroller of Customs—W. B. Montgomery.

Assistant Comptroller—G. Craig, LL.B.

Chief Clerk—T. R. Herd.

DISTRICT OFFICES.

Mangonui — Officer in Charge, J. T. Williams.

Russell—Coastwaiter, H. Stephenson.

Whangaroa—Coastwaiter, A. G. Ratcliffe.

Whangarei—Coastwaiter, J. Munro.

Hokianga—Coastwaiter, F. A. Hardy.

Kaipara—Collector, D. Savident.

Auckland—Collector, J. P. Ridings; Sub-Collector, A. V. Penn; First Clerk, B. Anderson.

Thames—Coastwaiter, T. C. Bayldon.

Tauranga—Collector, F. J. Robertshaw.

Poverty Bay—Collector, J. Howie.

New Plymouth—Collector, J. H. Hempton.

Waitara—Coastwaiter, L. H. Sampson.

Patea—Collector, H. W. Williams.

Napier—Collector, W. F. Dickey.

Wanganui—Collector, F. J. Walker.

Wellington—Collector, E. R. Brabazon; Sub-Collector, E. T. W. Maclaurin; First Clerk, H. A. Jackman.

Wairau—Collector, C. O. Trownson.

Picton—Officer in Charge, J. W. Burgess.

Nelson—Collector, W. Devenish.

Westport—Collector, R. B. D. Eyre.

Greymouth—Collector, F. Davies.

Hokitika—Collector, G. A. Empson.

Christchurch and Lyttelton—Collector, W. J. Wratt; Sub-Collector, W. Howarth; First Clerk, S. E. Harrop.

Timaru—Collector, W. Rose.

Oamaru—Collector, C. Hill.

Dunedin and Port Chalmers—Collector. T. M. Cullen; Sub-Collector, P. Doull; First Clerk, H. W. S. Ruffell.

Invercargill and Bluff—Collector, W. J. Hawley.

Chatham Islands — Officer in Charge, H. Scott.

MARINE AND INSPECTION OF MACHINERY DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Marine — Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Secretary—G. Allport.

Chief Clerk—A. P. Stone.

Marine Engineer for the Dominion—R. W. Holmes.

Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Blackburne.

Director, Meteorological Branch—D. C. Bates.

Chief Inspector of Sea Fisheries—L. F. Ayson.

Superintendents of Mercantile Marine and Examiners of Masters and Mates—

Auckland—C. E. W. Fleming.

Wellington—G. G. Smith.

Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel.

Dunedin—N. Beaumont.

Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons.

Commander Training-ship “Amokura”—G. S. Hooper (R.N.R.).

Chief Inspector of Machinery, Chief Surveyor of Ships, and Chief Examiner of Marine Engineers and Stationary-engine Drivers—R. Duncan.

Inspectors of Machinery Surveyors of Ships, and Examiners of Marine and Land Engineers and Stationary-engine Drivers,—

Auckland—S. Dalrymple, W. G. Bell, H. G. L. Noy, A. C. Reid, W. J. White.

Hamilton—J. Kydd.

Napier—W. R. Douglas.

Wanganui—C. W. R. Suisted.

Palmerston North—W. Cullen.

Wellington—A. Calvert, A. E. Macindoe, J. W. Townsend, P. J. Healy.

Nelson—N. D. Hood.

Greymouth—P. Mackenzie.

Christchurch — A. W. Bethune, J. H. Knowles.

Timaru—A. McKenzie.

Dunedin—J. Williamson, W. J. Crawford, T. A. Cooper.

Invercargill—P. Grant.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF STATIONARY, TRACTION, LOCOMOTIVE AND WINDING ENGINE, AND ELECTRIC-TRAM DRIVERS.

Members — R. Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, M. Inst., Nav. A., Chairman; F. Reed, M.I.M.E., Inspecting Engineer of Mines; R. W. Holmes, M. Inst. C.E., Engineer-in-Chief, P.W.D.; E. Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., Electrical Engineer, P.W.D.: J. G. Macpherson, Secretary.

Board meets once a quarter, or when required, at Wellington.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.

Minister of Labour—Rt. Hon. W. F.

Massey, P.C.

Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS

HEAD OFFICE.

Secretary for Labour, Registrar of Industrial Unions, Chief Inspector of Factories, and Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings—F. W. Rowley.

Chief Clerk, and Deputy Registrar of Industrial Unions—J. W. Collins.

Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories—W. H. Hagger.

INSPECTORS OF FACTORIES AND AWARDS.

Auckland—W. Newton (in charge), J. Hollows.

Wellington—H. E. Moston, W. Slaughter, and W. Rapley.

Christchurch—H. B. Bower (in charge), R. T. Bailey, W. Wakelin.

Dunedin—L. D. Browett (in charge), J. Georgeson.

Whangarei—P. J. Norwood.

Hamilton—M. McCormack.

Rotorua—S. H. Sergeant.

Thames—R. Lloyd.

Waihi—T. H. Erwin.

Gisborne—W. H. Westbrooke.

Napier—A. Donald.

Hastings—R. Watters.

Dannevirke—F. R. Pearson.

New Plymouth—J. F. Arnold.

Hawera—F. W. Pettett.

Wanganui—E. W. F. GÖhns.

Feilding—T. Watson.

Palmerston North—W. J. Culver.

Masterton—J. C. Yorke.

Blenheim—J. H. Morrison.

Nelson—S. Tyson.

Westport—T. Fairhall.

Greymouth—H. J. Torbit.

Ashburton—R. Frizzelle.

Timaru—J. Jackson.

Oamaru—A. E. Waite.

Gore—R. Ross.

Invercargill—G. H. Lightfoot.

And 151 Inspectors and Agents (police officers) in small towns.

INSPECTORS OF SCAFFOLDING.

Auckland—H. Gresham.

Hawke's Bay—A. Donald.

Wellington—R. A. Bolland.

Nelson and Marlborough—S. Tyson.

Westland—H. J. Torbit.

North Canterbury—E. J. G. Stringer.

South Canterbury—J. Jackson.

Otago—F. Barton.

Southland—J. Brown.

OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT BRANCHES.

Auckland—Miss H. R. Morrison.

Wellington—Miss E. R. Bremner.

Christchurch—Mrs. A. Way.

Dunedin—Miss M. S. Hale.

COURT OF ARBITRATION.

Judge — His Honour Mr. Justice Stringer.

Employers' Member—W. Scott.

Workers' Member—J. A. McCullough.

CONCILIATION COMMISSIONERS.

Auckland and Taranaki Industrial Districts—T. H. Giles (Auckland).

Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland Industrial Districts — P. Hally (Wellington).

Canterbury and Otago and Southland Industrial Districts — J. R. Triggs (Christchurch).

WORKERS' DWELLINGS ACT.

Superintendent—F. W. Rowley.

Architect—W. Temple.

Workers' Dwellings Board.

Members — The Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings and the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and the Inspectors of Factories in each of the following cities and towns: Auckland, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Wellington,* Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill.

Meetings irregular; sits when business is required to be transacted.

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND SURVEY.

Minister of Lands—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.

Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—J. Mackenzie.

Assistant Under - Secretary — F. T. O'Neill.

Surveyor-General—E. H. Wilmot.

Inspectors of Surveys—J. Langmuir, J. D. Climie.

Land Drainage Engineer — J. B. Thompson.

Chief Clerk—W. R. Jourdain.

Chief Accountant—A. C. Turnbull.

Chief Draughtsman—M. C. Smith.

Chief Computer—C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S. (also Government Astronomer).

Director of Magnetic Observatory (Christchurch)—H. F. Skey, B.Sc.

AUCKLAND DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. M. Skeet.

Inspecting Surveyors—W. J. Wheeler and R. P. Greville.

Chief Draughtsman—H. D. McKellar.

Chief Clerk—J. G. Bendely.

Receiver of Land Revenue—J. H. O'Donnell.

HAWKE'S BAY DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—W. H. Skinner.

Inspecting Surveyor and Local Land Officer, Gisborne—T. Brook.

Chief Draughtsman—H. Mackay.

* Deputy Chief Inspector.

Chief Clerk—J. Thomson.

Receivers of Land Revenue—Napier, H. R. Robinson; Gisborne, R. Sinel.

TARANAKI DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. Bullard.

Chief Draughtsman—H. J. Lowe.

Chief Clerk—

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. J. Rossiter.

WELLINGTON DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—T. N. Brodrick.

Chief Draughtsman—W. F. Marsh.

Chief Clerk—H. M. Bannister.

Receiver of Land Revenue — T. G. Waitt.

MARLBOROUGH DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. G. Price.

Chief Draughtsman—

Receiver of Land Revenue — H. L. Welch.

NELSON DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—F. A. Thompson.

Chief Draughtsman—A. D. Burns.

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. W. Duncan

WESTLAND DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. D. M. Haszard.

Chief Draughtsman—A. N. Harrop.

Chief Clerk—F. T. Sandford.

Receiver of Land Revenue — F. E. Duncan.

CANTERBURY DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. R. Pollen.

Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Greenfield.

Chief Clerk—R. Leckie.

Receiver of Land Revenue — G. W. Palmer.

OTAGO DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—R. T. Sadd.

Chief Draughtsman—D. M. Calder.

Chief Clerk—C. E. Archibald.

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. A. Cullen.

SOUTHLAND DISTRICT.

Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. M. McClure.

Chief Draughtsman—R. S. Galbraith.

Chief Clerk—A. D. McGavock.

Receiver of Land Revenue and Accountant—A. D. A. Macfarlane.

MEMBERS OF LAND BOARDS.

The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and—

Auckland — A. R. Harris, W. Johns, J. Trounson, J. Rountree.

Hawke's Bay — R. B. Ross, A. J. Cameron, T. Hyde, G. Wright.

Taranaki—J. Heslop, J. Rattenbury, C. J. Ryan.

Wellington—J. Dawson, H. T. Ellingham, J. Georgetti, W. McLennan.

Marlborough — J. S. Storey, A. McCallum, J. Fulton, J. Boyd.

Nelson—A. Sinclair, G. Walker, E. S. Hoult, R. Patterson.

Westland—J. S. Lang, A. Cumming, B. Ward, G. Mallinson.

Canterbury — J. Sealy, J. Stevenson, R. Macaulay, T. G. Gee.

Otago — G. Livingstone, J. A. Macpherson, C. Anderson, P. Kinney.

Southland—C. Robertson, J. McLean, J. King, J. Thomson.

SCENERY PRESERVATION.

Inspector of Scenic Reserves — E. P. Turner.

Scenery Preservation Board.

Members — The Surveyor - General (Chairman), the General Manager of Tourist and Health Resorts, the Under-Secretary Native Department, the Commissioner of Crown Lands for each Land District in which are lands dealt with under the Act.

Secretary—W. R. Jourdain.

Meets when directed by Minister, at Wellington, or elsewhere.

AFFORESTATION BRANCH.

Superintending Nurseryman, North Island (Rotorua)—H. A. Goudie.

Superintending Nurseryman, South Island (Tapanui)—R. G. Robinson.

SURVEYORS BOARD.

Members — E. H. Wilmot, Surveyor-General; T. N. Brodrick, Chief Surveyor at Wellington; H. Sladden, Hutt; and J. W. Harrison, Auckland.

Secretary — C. E. Adams, M. Sc., F.R.A.S.

Board meets March and September for examinations, and at other times as business requires, at Wellington.

BOARD OF LAND PURCHASE COMMISSIONERS UNDER THE LAND FOR SETTLEMENTS ACT, 1908.

J. D. Ritchie, Chairman and Land Purchase Inspector.

J. Mackenzie, Under - Secretary for Lands.

E. H. Wilmot; Surveyor-General.

Chief Clerk—O. Mewhinney.

Also for the various Land Districts:

The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and—

Auckland—A. R. Harris.

Taranaki—J. Heslop.

Hawke's Bay—T. Hyde.

Wellington—(Vacant).

Marlborough—(Vacant).

Nelson—P. Best.

Westland—J. S. Lang.

Canterbury—A. C. Pringle.

Otago—A. McKerrow.

Southland—J. McLean.

LAND TRANSFER AND DEEDS REGISTRY.

Minister—Hon. A. L. Herdman.

Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. G. Bridges.

Secretary for Land and Deeds—P. C. Corliss.

Accountant—J. Murray.

DISTRICT OFFICERS.

Auckland—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles and Registrar of Deeds—T. Hall.

Assistant Land Registrars—R. H. Bourke and A. H. Fletcher.

Deputy Registrar of Deeds—C. R. Keeble.

Draughtsman—T. K. Thompson.

Poverty Bay—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles and Registrar of Deeds—-R. S. Florance.

Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. A. Fraser.

Hawke's Bay—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles and Registrar of Deeds—F. Aspinall.

Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—W. Hislop.

Draughtsman—E. H. Cane.

Taranaki—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles and Registrar of Deeds—A. V. Sturtevant.

Draughtsman—J. R. Vaile.

Wellington—District Land Registrar and Registrar of Deeds—G. G. Bridges.

Examiner of Titles and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. J. L. Burke.

Assistant Land Registrars—J. J. L. Burke and A. P. Gorman.

Draughtsman—J. Cook.

Marlborough—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—F. W. Broughton.

Nelson—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. Johnston.

Draughtsman—W. S. Curtis.

Westland — District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. P. Morgan.

Canterbury—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. Wyinks.

Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. A. Ambrose.

Draughtsman—W. C. Leversedge.

Otago—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—C. E. Nalder.

Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—P. Dalrymple.

Draughtsman—W. T. Morpeth.

Southland—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. W. de Castro.

Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—R. Sinclair.

Draughtsman—J. L. Dickie.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIES, AND COMMERCE.

Minister in Charge—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.

Private Secretary.—F. D. Thomson, B.A.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Secretary—F. S. Pope.

Chief Clerk—W. C. Robinson.

Accountant—J. W. Bell.

Editor—C. E. Cuming.

Biologist—A. H. Cockayne.

DISTRICT AGENTS.

Auckland—J. E. D. Spicer.

Napier—G. H. Absolum (Acting).

Wauganui—A. C. Philpott (Acting).

Wellington—W. T. Wynyard.

Christchurch—A. E. Rowden.

Dunedin—W. Miller.

Invercargill—J. R. F. Cameron (Acting).

LIVE-STOCK AND MEAT DIVISION.

Director — C. J. Reakes, D.V.Sc. M.R.C.V.S.

Assistant Director—J. L. Bruce.

Senior Veterinarian — J. G. Clayton, M.R.C.V.S.

Veterinary Officer in Charge of Laboratory, Wallacoville — H. A. Reid, F.R.C.V.S., D.V.S., F.R.S.E.

FIELDS AND EXPERIMENTAL FARMS DIVISION.

Acting-Director—J. Duncan.

ORCHARDS, GARDENS, AND APIARIES DIVISION.

Director—T. W. Kirk.

Assistant Director—W. A. Boucher.

DAIRY-PRODUCE DIVISION.

Director—D. Cuddie.

Assistant Director—W. M. Singleton.

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.

President—T. G. Wilson.

Vice-President—J. C. N. Grigg.

Members—A. P. Allport, E. Averill, W.F. M. Buckley, R, Dingle, E. Hall, W. D. Hunt. A. S. Orbell, W. Perry, and R. Reynolds.

DEPARTMENT OF TOURIST AND HEALTH RESORTS.

Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.

Private Secretary—W. Crow.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

General Manager—B. M. Wilson.

Chief Clerk—W. H. Frethey.

Accountant—J. H. Barr.

Tourist Agents—Auckland, C. Wallnutt; Te Aroha, G. F. McGirr; Rotorua. Wm. Hill; Wellington, J. W. Hill; Christchurch, G. W. C. Moon; Dunedin, S. J. Collett; Invercargill, T. F. McLaughlin.

New Zealand Trade Commissioner for Australia, and New Zealand Government Agent, Melbourne—H. J. Manson.

New Zealand Government Agent—Sydney, N.S.W., W. R. Blew.

Rotorua Sanatorium and Baths — Balneologist, A. S. Wohlmann, M.D., M.R.C.S.; House Surgeon, W. G. Robertson, M.B., Ch.B.

Hanmer Springs — Resident Medical Officer, J. D. C. Duncan, M.B., Ch.B.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Education—Hon. J. Allen.

Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Inspector - General of Schools — G. Hogben, M.A., F.G.S.

Secretary for Education—Sir Edward O. Gibbes, Bart.

Assistant Inspector - General — W. J. Anderson, M.A., LL.D.

Chief Clerk and Accountant (also Secretary, Teachers' Superannuation Board)—F. K. de Castro.

Inspectors—W. E. Spencer, M.A., M.Sc. (also Editor School Journal), and T. H. Gill, M.A., LL.B.

NATIVE SCHOOLS BRANCH.

Inspector—W. W. Bird, M.A.

Assistant Inspector—J. Porteous, M.A.

Clork in Charge—F. L. Severne.

MANUAL AND TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION BRANCH.

Inspectors—M. H. Browne (in charge of Branch), E. C. Isaac.

MEDICAL INSPECTION BRANCH.

Inspectors—Elizabeth Gunn, M.B., Ch.B., L.M.; Ada G. Paterson, M.B., Ch.B.; Elizabeth S. Baker, M.B., Ch.B.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION BRANCH.

Director—T. B. Garlick.

Inspectors and Instructors — F. R. Just, S. Moore, W. A. Johnson, A. P. Roydhouse, H. E. Longworth, and Misses D. K. Heritage, K. I. Larsen, E. M. Blackburne, B. Greenwood.

SPECIAL SCHOOLS BRANCH.

Inspector—R. H. Pope (in charge of Branch).

Assistant Inspector—T. A. Walker.

EDUCATION BOARDS, WITH NAMES OF SECRETARIES.

Auckland—R. Crowe.

Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe.

Wanganui—W. H. Swanger.

Wellington—G. L. Stewart.

Hawke's Bay—G. Crawshaw.

Marlborough—E. S. Hylton.

Nelson—N. R. Williams.

Grey—P. F. Daniels.

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.

Canterbury North—H. C. Lane.

Canterbury South—J. A. Valentine.

Otago—S. M. Park.

Southland—A. Bell, M.A.

INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS.

Auckland—E. K. Mulgan, M.A.; C. W. Garrard, B.A.; W. A. Burnside, M.A.; J. T. G. Cox; G. H. Plummer, LL.B.; M. Priestley; N. T. Lambourne, M.A.; J. W. McIlraith, M.A., LL B., Litt, D.; Norman R. McKenzie.

Taranaki—W. A. Ballantyne, B.A.; R. G. Whetter, M.A.

Wanganui — G. D. Braik, M.A.; J. Milne, M.A.; T. B. Strong, M.A., B.Sc.; D. Stewart.

Wellington — T. R. Fleming, M.A., LL.B.; F. H. Bakowell, M.A.; F. G. A. Stuckey, M.A.; A. B. Charters, M.A.

Hawke's Bay—A. Stradian, M.A.; H. T. Hill, B.A.

Marlborough—D. A. Sturrock.

Nelson—G. A. Harknoss, M.A.; A. Crawford, B.A.

Grey—W. S. Austin.

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.

North Canterbury—W. Brock, M.A.; C. D. Hardie, B.A.; S. G. Owen, M.A.; J. B. Mayne, B.A.

South Canterbury—J. G. Gow, M.A., J. A. Valentine, B.A.

Otago—C. R. D. Richardson, B.A.; C. R. Bossence; J. R. Don, M.A., D.Sc.; J. Robertson, B.A., B.Sc.

Southland—J. Hendry, B.A.,; A. L. Wyllie, M.A.

PUBLIC TRUST OFFICE.

Minister—Hon. A. L. Herdman.

Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE

Public Trustee—F. Fitchett, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D.

Deputy Public Trustee—T. S. Ronaldson.

Inspector—M. C. Barnett.

Solicitor—J. W. Macdonald.

Secretary—A. Purdie.

Accountant—W. McL. Barr.

Chief Examiner—H. Turner.

DISTRICT MANAGERS.

Auckland—E. F. Warren.

Napier—E. B. Burdekin.

Hawera—E. Barns. (Also West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent).

Wanganui—T. R. Saywell.

Masterton—T. R. Allen.

Wellington—C. Zachariah.

Nelson—J. E. Allen.

Greymouth—C. W. Cooke.

Christchurch—G. A. Smyth.

Dunedin—T. D. Kendall.

Invercargill—S. W. Smith.

PUBLIC TRUST OFFICE BOARD.

Members — The Minister of Finance, the Public Trustee, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Valuer-General, the Superintendent of the State-guaranteed Advances Office, G. E. Tolhurst, Esq., W. G. Foster, Esq.

Moots every Thursday, at Wellington.

NATIVE RESERVES BOARD.

Members—The members of the Board constituted under the Public Trust Office Act, together with Mr. Hoani Tainui and Mr. Teo Tipene.

Meets irregularly at the Public Trust Office, Wellington.

GOVERNMENT INSURANCE DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher, Private Secretary—A. Hall.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

Commissioner — J. H. Richardson. F.F.A., F.A.S., F.I.A.V., F.I.A.N.Z.

Actuary—M. Fox.

Deputy Commissioner and Secretary—W. B. Hudson.

Supervisor of New Business—G. E. Robertson.

Accountant—G. W. Barltrop.

Assistant Actuary—P. Muter, F.I.A.

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven.

DISTRICT MANAGERS.

Auckland—J. Findlay.

Wellington—G. E. Robertson.

Christchurch—J. C. Prudhoe.

Dunedin—F. B. Bolt.

Invercargill—H. S. Manning.

RESIDENT AGENTS.

Napier—G. A. Noble-Campbell.

Wanganui—A. E. Allison.

Nelson—G. J. Robertson.

Greymouth—R. S. Latta.

Timaru—T. P. Laurenson.

BOARD OF INVESTMENT.

Members—The Minister of Finance, the Solicitor-General, the Surveyor-General, the Public Trustee, the New-Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Office Superintendent, and the Government Insurance Commissioner.

Meets weekly on Wednesdays at the Government Insurance Buildings, Wellington.

STATE FIRE INSURANCE OFFICE.

Minister—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.

Private Secretary—A. Hall.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

HEAD OFFICE.

General Manager—C. R. C. Robieson.

Deputy General Manager — J. H. Jerram.

Accountant—C. B. Redward.

BRANCH MANAGERS.

Auckland—F. H. Pope.

New Plymouth—K. B. Bain.

Palmerston North—R. H. Pavitt.

Christchurch—H. C. Rogers.

Dunedin—L. H. Osborn.

STATE FIRE BOARD.

Members—The Minister in Charge, the General Manager, the Government Insurance Commissioner, and Messrs. J. W. A. Marchant and G. R. N. Wright.

Meets on third Monday of each month, at the State Fire Office, Wellington.

STATE ADVANCES DEPARTMENT.

Minister—Hon. J. Allen.

Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS.

Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell.

Deputy-Superintendent—W. Waddel.

Solicitor—J. B. Christie.

Accountant—W. N. Hinchliffe.

Inspecting Valuer—A. C. Mason.

ADVANCES BOARD.

Members — The Superintendent, the Under-Secretary of Crown Lands, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Valuer-General, and the Public Trustee.

Board meets at the State Advances Office, Government Buildings, each Monday.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.

Minister of Public Works—Hon. W. Fraser.

Private Secretary—J. H. McAlister.

DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS. HEAD OFFICE.

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O.

Assistant Under - Secretary — W. S. Short (solicitor)

Engineer-in-Chief — R. W. Holmes, M.I.C.E.

Chief Electrical Engineer—E. Parry, B.Sc. A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E.

Inspecting Engineer—F. W. Furkert, A.M.I.C.E.

Staff Engineer — H. Vickerman, A.M.I.C.E., B.Sc.

Architect—J. Campbell, F.R.I.B.A.

Chief Clerk—G. C. Schmidt.

Accountant—C. E. Bennett.

Land-purchase Officers—E. Bold and A. H. Kimbell.

Inspecting Officer—P. S. Waldie.

Head Storekeeper—J. C. Fulton.

Fire Inspector—W. H. Hennah.

DISTRICT OFFICES.

District Engineers—Auckland, F. Bigg-Wither; Gisborne, C. E. Armstrong; Wellington, J. D. Louch, A.M.I.C.E.; Dunedin, J. E. W. McEnnis.

Electrical Engineer—Christchurch, L. Birks, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E. A.M.I.E.E.

Resident Engineers — Whangarei, J. Wood, A.M.I.C.E.; Tauranga, J. Hannah; Napier, S. J. Harding; Taumarunui, A. J. Baker; Stratford, G. T. Murray; Wanganui, R. H. Reany; Nelson, W. Widdowson; Blenheim, A. B. Wright; Greymouth, H. H. Sharp, A.M.I.C.E.; Otira, A. Dinnie; Christchurch, H. Dickson; Invercargill, J. H. Treseder; Winton, J. H. Lewis.

Resident Road Engineer—T. Burd, Tauranga.

PUBLIC WORKS TENDERS BOARD.

Members — Minister of Public Works (President), Under-Secretary for Public Works, Engineer-in-Chief of Public Works. General Manager of Railways, Chief Electrical Engineer of Public Works, and Government Architect.

Secretary to Board, W. McNamara.

SHORT SUMMARY OF LEGISLATION

PASSED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NEW ZEALAND DURING THE YEAR 1913.

1918, No. 3.—The Old-age Pensions Reciprocity Act, 1913.

This Act ratifies an agreement entered into, on behalf of the Governments of Australia and New Zealand respectively, with reference to the payment of old-age pensions in either of the said countries to applicants who have been resident in the other.

Clauses 2 and 3 of the said agreement are in the following terms:—

“2. Residence for any period in the Dominion by an applicant for a Commonwealth pension who has been resident in the Commonwealth for a period of twelve months immediately preceding the date of his application shall for the purpose of qualifying him for a pension be taken as equivalent to residence in the Commonwealth.

“3. Residence for any period in the Commonwealth by an applicant for a Dominion pension who has been resident in the Dominion for the period of twelve months immediately preceding the date of his application shall for the purpose of qualifying him for a pension be taken as equivalent to residence in the Dominion.”

The agreement becomes operative in New Zealand on a date to be fixed by the Governor by notice in the Gazette, such date being not earlier than the date of the coming into operation of the agreement in the Commonwealth of Australia.

1913, No. 4.—The Copyright Act, 1913.

This Act enacts, with the necessary modifications, the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1911 (Imperial), and thus brings the law of copyright into line with that of the United Kingdom and also with that of most of the other countries of the world. The Act also makes provision for securing reciprocity with other countries.

Instead of being for variable periods, according to the class of work (as was formerly the case), the term of copyright (except in a few cases) is now for the life of the author and fifty years after his death, subject to the right of any one to reproduce the work during the last twenty-five years of the term on payment to the owner of the copyright of a royalty calculated at the rate of 10 per centum of the price at which the work is published on such reproduction.

Hitherto registration has been required before action could be taken for infringement of copyright, but this is not now necessary, though registration may still be effected and certain remedies thus rendered more readily obtainable.

In accordance with the Act copyright subsists not merely in literary musical, dramatic, and artistic works, as hitherto, but also in works of architecture, and in lectures, mechanical-instrument records and rolls, and cinematograph films. It secures to an author the sole right to reproduce the work in any form, whether by translation, conversion of a dramatic work into a novel or novel into a dramatic work, or, in the case of a literary, dramatic, or musical work, to make any record, roll, cinematograph film, or other contrivance by means of which the work may be mechanically performed.

Copyright under the present Act exists in unpublished as well as in published works.

1913, No. 6.—The Magistrates' Courts Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act improves materially the position of Magistrates by providing—

  1. That every Magistrate hereafter appointed shall be a barrister or solicitor of the Supreme Court of not less than five years' standing, or a person who has been employed as Clerk of a Magistrate's Court for not less than ten years and is a barrister or solicitor; and

  2. That the principal Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in each of the four centres shall receive an annual salary of £800, and that each of the other Magistrates shall receive an annual salary of £700.

The Act also abolishes the distinction between the ordinary, special, and extended jurisdictions of Magistrates, and every Magistrate may now exercise civil jurisdiction in respect of matters referred to in section 6.

1913, No. 8.—The Irrigation, and Water-supply Act, 1913.

This Act authorizes the raising of a loan, not exceeding £100,000, to be expended in the opening-up and development of land for settlement in arid country, and in constructing and maintaining irrigation and water-supply works in aid of the mining and agricultural industries.

1913, No. 9.—The Amendments Incorporation Act, 1913.

This Act provides for the incorporation of amendments in official reprints of amended Acts, and further provides that judicial notice of such reprint shall be taken by all Courts and persons acting judicially.

1913, No. 10.—The Pensions; Act, 1913.

This Act repeals and re-enacts with modifications the several Acts relating to the grant of pensions in New Zealand, viz.: (1) The Old-age Pensions Act and its amendments; (2) the Widows' Pensions Act and its amendments; (3) the Military Pensions Act.

Several amendments have been made with a view to removing certain hardships and anomalies that had been disclosed in the course of administration, particularly with reference to old-age pensions. For example, the definition of “income” is limited so as to exclude the following classes of payments:—

  1. Any pension payable under the Act;

  2. Any payment by way of sick-allowance or funeral benefit from any registered friendly society;

  3. Any money received by way of charitable relief not exceeding £52 in any year;

  4. Any money received from the Gold-miners' Relief Fund pursuant to section 16 of the Mining Amendment Act, 1910, or from the Coal-miners' Relief Fund or the Sick and Accident Fund pursuant to section 80 of the Coal-mines Act, 1908;

  5. Any money received on the sale or exchange of land or property;

  6. Any money received under an insurance policy on the destruction or damage by fire or otherwise of a building or other property;

  7. Any capital moneys expended for the benefit of the applicant or for the benefit of his or her wife or husband or dependent children;

  8. Any money or money's worth received by an applicant on the intestacy or under the will of the deceased husband or wife of the applicant; and

  9. Any payment by way of gift or allowance (not exceeding £52 in any year) from any relative of the applicant.

The exemptions provided for in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (g), (h), and (i) above are new. The amended definition has the effect of increasing the number and amount of pensions that may be granted.

An important amendment (relating to pensions to elderly women) is made by section 7, which reduces the age at which a woman qualifies for a pension from sixty-five to sixty years, with a qualification that the amount of pension otherwise payable is diminished by £1 for each year by which the applicant's age is less than sixty-five years.

The conditions relating to continuous residence in New Zealand of applicants for old-age pensions have been somewhat relaxed by the inclusion of a provision in section 8 which, in certain cases, allows an applicant to have been absent from New Zealand for more than two years of the preceding twenty-five years if the total period of his actual residence in New Zealand is not less than twenty-five years.

A further amendment (section 10 (3) reads as follows:—

“(3.) The capital value of property on which an applicant for a pension or for the renewal of a pension permanently resides shall not be deemed to exceed the capital value of that property as appearing on the district valuation roll under the Valuation of Land Act, 1908, at the date of the establishment of the applicant's original claim.”

This amendment is designed to relieve those applicants for the renewal of a pension who, by an increase in the capital value of the site of their home, have formerly been debarred from obtaining such renewal although no change may have taken place in their actual income.

Section 13 confers a benefit on married applicants by providing that the separate yearly income of husband and wife respectively shall be half of the total yearly income of both of them, and also extends from £90 to £100 the possible joint total income (including pension) of husband and wife. The effect of the division of the income as aforesaid is to reduce the deductions made from the amount of pension payable, and consequently to increase the amount of pension.

Part II (relating to widows' pensions) extends the benefits to widows in respect of step-children and of children legally adopted during the lifetime of the deceased husband of the applicant. The other amendments are immaterial.

Part III provides for the grant of a pension of £36 per annum to any person who “served under the Crown in any of the Maori wars, and has been awarded a medal for active service in any such war. The only conditions to which the grant of such pension is subject are that the applicant shall have resided continuously in New Zealand for not less than ten years immediately preceding the date of his application, and that he has been of good behaviour during that period.

1913, No. 12.—The Land-tax and Income-tax Act, 1913.

This Act introduces a system of graduated income-tax by which the rate is increased for each additional pound of rateable income over £400. In former years the rate was increased only in respect of an increase of not less than £100 in the rateable income, and in some cases an increase of £200 or £250 was required before any increase was made in the rate of tax.

The new system results in a much more equitable distribution of the tax.

1913, No. 13.—The Land and Income Assessment Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 authorizes a deduction (by way of special exemption) from the yearly taxable income of a taxpayer of £25 in respect of each of his children who is under the age of sixteen years and is dependent upon him. A deduction cannot, however, be made from the income of both the father and mother of a child, nor in any case where the total income of the parents exceeds £425 per annum.

1913, No. 14.—The Aid to Public Works and Land Settlement Act, 1913.

This Act authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise the sum of £1,750,000, to be applied as follows:—

     £
(1.) For the construction of railways600,000
(2.) For additional rolling-stock, &c.500,000
(3.) For the construction of roads, bridges, &c. with a view to promoting land settlement and the development of goldfields500,000
(4.) In respect of other public works150,000

1913, No. 15.—The New Zealand Institute of Architects Act, 1913.

This Act establishes and constitutes a body corporate to be called “the New Zealand Institute of Architects”; it also provides for the registration of persons qualified to practise as architects, and fixes a fine not exceeding £50 for any person who, not being a registered architect or a member of the Institute, describes himself as such. The Act provides for the examination of persons desirous or being registered under the Act, and also provides for the recognition (without further examination) of persons holding certificates or diplomas in architecture granted by any university, college, or other public institution in Great Britain or Ireland, or in any British possession or foreign country. The Act also permits the registration of persons who, not being the holders of such certificates or diplomas, have, in the opinion of the Registration Board, “attained great eminence in the profession of architecture.”

1913, No. 16.—The Local Elections and Polls Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act makes various amendments of the Local Elections and Polls Act, 1908, principally with a view to bringing the provisions of the last-mentioned Act relating to the conduct of elections and polls into line with the corresponding provisions in the Legislature Act, 1908. In particular provision is now made for a scrutiny by the Returning Officer after the close of the poll of the several rolls used in the conduct of the poll and for an official declaration of the result of the poll. Any candidate at an election who has reason to believe that the official declaration is incorrect may apply to a Magistrate for a recount of the votes recorded.

Sections 16 to 22 (relating to offences at ballots) correspond with the provisions as to offences contained in the Legislature Act.

1913, No. 17.—The Land Transfer Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act makes various amendments of a technical nature in the Land Transfer Act, 1908.

1913, No. 19.—The Public Trust Office Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act amends in various particulars the provisions of the Public Trust Office Act, 1908.

Section 3 alters the constitution of the Public Trust Office Board, and provides for the appointment of two additional members (not being persons holding office in the Public Service), who shall hold office for two years and receive a salary of not more than £250 per annum.

Section 4 authorizes the Public Trustee, in the administration of any trust estate, to act in conjunction with “advisory trustees” or “an advisory trustee,” who may be appointed by the testator or settlor, or by the Court, or by any person having power to appoint a new trustee. Where the Public Trustee acts in conjunction with an advisory trustee the trust property remains vested solely in the Public Trustee, who may, however, consult the advisory trustee in matters relating to the administration of the estate, and the advisory trustee may advise the Public Trustee on any such matter. In the event of a difference of opinion the matter may be referred to a Judge of the Supreme Court, whose decision shall be final.

Sections 5 to 9 refer to the appointment of the Public Trustee as “custodian trustee” in certain cases. In such cases the trust property is vested in and administered by a managing trustee or managing trustees, and the sole function of the custodian trustee is “to get in and hold the trust property and invest its funds, and dispose of the assets as the managing trustees in writing direct.”

Section 11 provides for the investigation and audit of the accounts of estates administered by any person other than the Public Trustee. Such investigation may be made on the application of the trustee or of a beneficiary, and shall be conducted by a solicitor of the Supreme Court or by a registered accountant.

Section 13 provides for the payment to the Public Trustee (unless otherwise ordered by the Court) of all moneys or damages received or awarded in any cause or matter on behalf of an infant or person of unsound mind. When moneys are so paid to the Public Trustee they form part of the common fund of the Public Trust Office, and bear interest accordingly, and the proceeds are applied by the Public Trustee towards the maintenance and education or otherwise for the benefit of the persons entitled thereto.

Sections 14 and 15 protect the interests of the Public Trustee as mortgagee in certain classes of mortgages of leasehold interests in Crown lands.

The remaining sections make various amendments of the principal Act, and extend the powers of the Public Trustee in the administration of trust estates.

1913, No. 20.—The Rangitaiki Land Drainage Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise, on the security of the public revenues of New Zealand, a sum not exceeding £50,000 for the purpose of carrying out drainage operations in the Whakatane County. Similar provisions were formerly contained in the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, and those provisions are accordingly repealed by the present Act.

1913, No: 22.—The Science and Art Act, 1913.

The Act provides for the establishment of a Dominion Museum, Dominion Art Gallery, and a Dominion Scientific, Art, and Historical Library, and for the constitution of a Board of Science and Art, to be charged with the management and direction of the said institution.

1913, No. 24.—The Land Laws Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act makes several important amendments of and additions to the law relating to the administration of ordinary Crown lands and of settlement lands.

Part I deals principally with amendments of a general nature in the existing law.

Sections 28 to 31 relate to the acquisition of the fee-simple by the lessees of certain Crown lands. The fee-simple so acquired does not confer on the owner any right to any metals, minerals, precious stones, coal, or oil that may be on or under the land.

Section 39 extends from ten to twenty years the time during which lessees of certain Crown and settlement lands may pay off the unpaid purchase-money to respect of the purchase (pursuant to the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1912) of the fee-simple of the lands comprised in their leases.

Part II relates to the constitution of special districts for reading purposes. The Minister of Lands is empowered to constitute such special districts, comprising Crown lands held under lease or license, and on the constitution of any such district the moneys derived from the sale, letting, or other disposal of any of the lands comprised therein (for a period not exceeding fifteen years) are to he utilized (under the supervision and direction of a committee appointed by the settlers within the district) for the purpose of affording access to lands situated within the district.

Part III relates exclusively to Crown lands held under pastoral licenses. Inter alia it provides for a right of renewal of pastoral runs, at a rent to be fixed by arbitration, in cases where the whole of the run is to be again let for pastoral purposes, and where a run is to be subdivided the original licensee is given the right to acquire one subdivision without competition.

Part IV confers on the owners of leases in perpetuity of settlement land the right to acquire the fee-simple of the lands comprised in their leases at any time within five years after the date of the passing of the Act. The provisions as to the computation of price and the payment of the purchase-money are similar to the corresponding provisions in the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1912 (relating to the purchase of the fee-simple by lessees under renewable leases of settlement land).

Part V repeals and re-enacts the provisions of Part VI of the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909 (relating to the raising of money for the purpose of providing funds for opening up lands for settlement).

Part VI relates to the acquisition of private lands required for purposes of closer settlement. On the service on the owner of a notice that the said land is so required he must either—

  1. Himself subdivide and offer the land for sale in suitable allotments: or

  2. Agree with the Minister for the subdivision and disposal of the land pursuant to the provisions of Part III of the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1912.

In the event of the failure of the owner either to subdivide or to agree to the subdivision and disposal of the land referred to in the notice as aforesaid, the land may be taken compulsorily under the provisions of the Land for Settlements Act, 1908.

Part VII relates to the aggregation of land in the hands of private owners, and provides that where such aggregation is deemed to be contrary to the public interest the Governor may by Proclamation take the land so acquired, as for the purposes of a public work, compensation being assessed in manner provided by the Public Works Act. All land acquired by the Governor under these provisions is to be disposed of under the Land for Settlements Act.

1913, No. 25.—The Public Revenues Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act makes various amendments of an administrative nature in the principal Act.

Section 27 applies to Borough Councils the provisions of the principal Act relating to the audit of the accounts of local authorities.

Section 28 extends the authority of Borough Councils with respect to unauthorized expenditure by permitting such expenditure not exceeding 1 per centum of the general rate in any year, or not exceeding £50 (in the case of boroughs having a population not exceeding 5,000); £100 (if the population exceeds 5,000 but does not exceed 10,000); or £250 (if the population exceeds 10,000).

Section 34 authorizes the issue of Treasury bills by the High Commissioner in London in anticipation of and repayable out of loan-moneys authorized to be raised.

Section 35 provides that the annual increments to the salaries of officers of the Public Service, payable pursuant to the scheme of classification, shall be paid immediately after the commencement of the year in which they become payable (i.e., after the 1st April in each year). Hitherto (except in the case of classified departments) increments have not been paid until after the passing of the Appropriation Act.

The other amendments are purely technical.

1913, No. 28.—The Hauraki Plains Amendment Act, 1973.

This Act authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise £145,000 for drainage-works in the Hauraki Plains. The corresponding provisions in the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, are repealed.

1913, No. 30.—The Local Bodies' Loans Act, 1913.

This Act repeals and re-enacts with amendments the Local Bodies' Loans Act, 1908, and such of the provisions of the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, as relate to loans granted by the Superintendent to local authorities.

Parts II and IV are new, and provide respectively for—

  1. Joint special loans by two or more uniting local authorities; and

  2. Loans to be raised by local authorities and guaranteed by the State.

Part III (relating to loans to local bodies from the State Advances Office) empowers the Superintendent to grant loans for any of the following classes of public works, viz.:—

  1. The construction of a road or street, including the channelling thereof;

  2. The construction of a bridge;

  3. The construction of waterworks for the supply of water;

  4. The construction of drainage-works or irrigation-works; or

  5. The construction of sanitary works.

Under these provisions no local authority is to receive from the Superintendent more than a total of £60,000 within any period of three years. In dealing with applications for advances preference is to be given to applications for the renewal of public works that have been destroyed by flood, tempest, or accident.

The rate of interest payable on loans granted by the Superintendent is fixed by section 68 at 4½ per centum per annum, or at ⅛ per centum more than the rate at which the money was originally raised, whichever is the greater.

Section 70 (which re-enacts the provisions of section 9 of the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Amendment Act, 1912) makes special provision with respect to loans raised for the purpose of constructing roads and bridges in outlying districts, and for metalling such roads for the first time. It provides for the setting-aside in each of the ten years after the passing of the Act (out of the moneys available for advances to local authorities) the sum of £250,000, to be applied for the purposes mentioned. It further provides that for the first ten years of the term of any loan granted out of the moneys so set aside the Minister of Finance shall, towards the repayment of the loan, pay to the Superintendent an amount equal to 1 per cent. of the loan, and in each of the next five years shall pay an amount equal to ½ per cent. thereof.

1913, No. 31.—The Land Drainage Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 3 of this Act provides that, unless otherwise authorized by the Minister of Internal Affairs, every rate and special rate hereafter made under the principal Act (i.e., the Land Drainage Act, 1908) shall be levied on a graduated scale according to a classification to be made by the Board of the rateable property within the drainage district. The basis of classification is the benefit likely to be derived by the lands from the drainage operations in respect of which the rate is made.

1913, No. 32.—The Board of Agriculture Act, 1913.

This Act provides for the establishment of a Board of Agriculture, consisting of not more than twelve members appointed by the Governor, of whom not more than four may be appointed on the recommendation of the agricultural and pastoral societies of the North Island, and an equal number on the recommendation of such societies in the South Island. The functions of the Board are to advise the Minister of Agriculture on matters relating to the development of agricultural and other rural industries in New Zealand. In particular, but without limiting the application of the term “agricultural and rural industries,” the functions of the Board extend to the following matters:—

  1. The aiding, improving, and developing of agriculture and all rural industries, including fruit-culture, horticulture, forestry, dairying, the breeding of stock and poultry, beekeeping, and the flax industry;

  2. The prevention and control of disease in stock and poultry, the control of rabbits and noxious weeds, and the dipping of sheep;

  3. The establishment of agricultural colleges and agricultural education generally; and

  4. The aiding or facilitating of the carriage and distribution of produce.

1913, No. 34.—The State Advances Act, 1913.

This Act repeals the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, and its amendments, and re-enacts (with amendments) so much of the same as relates to the administration of the Advances Office and its business of making advances to settlers and workers. Those provisions of the Act of 1909 that have not been re-enacted in this Act have been incorporated in other Acts to which they more properly belong. For example, some of the provisions have been incorporated in the Local Bodies' Loans Act, 1913; financial provisions relating to opening up lands for settlement have been included in the Land Laws Amendment Act, 1913; provisions relating to the raising of loans for the acquisition and settlement of Native freehold land are re-enacted in the Native Land Amendment Act, 1913; and other provisions are re-enacted in the Mining Amendment Act, the Rangitaiki Land Drainage Amendment Act, and the Hauraki Plains Amendment Act respectively.

1913, No. 35.—The River Boards Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act amends in various particulars the provisions of the River Boards Act, 1908.

Section 4 provides for the inclusion within a river district of lands which have derived or may derive benefit from river-protection and other works. Section 9 provides for the compulsory classification for rating purposes of lands situated within a river district.

Section 12 authorizes the Governor to confer on River Boards such of the powers of a Drainage Board as he may think fit.

1913, No. 36.—The Legislature Amendment Act, 1913.

The main provision of general interest in this Act is the repeal of the Second Ballot Act, 1908.

1913, No. 37.—The Government Railways Amendment Act, 1913.

In addition to various amendments of an administrative nature this Act provides for increases in the scale of salaries and wages payable to the officers of the First Division and to certain of the officers of the Second Division.

Provision is also made in section 11 for the holding of inquiries with respect to accidents on trains resulting in injury to passengers.

1913, No. 39.—The Mutual Fire Insurance Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act extends the powers of mutual fire-insurance associations by authorizing them to indemnify their members against liability to pay compensation or damages in respect of accidents to their employees.

1913, No. 40.—The Fruit-preserving Industry Act, 1913.

This Act authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise not more than £25,000 in any year. The moneys so raised are to be available for the purpose of making advances (not exceeding in any case the sum of £3,000) for the establishment of cold stores for fruit and of fruit-canning works, and otherwise for the assistance of the fruitgrowing industry.

1913, No. 41.—The Judicature Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 provides for the appointment of one additional Judge of the Supreme Court at a salary of £1,800 per annum.

Section 4 makes better provision in respect of the superannuation allowances payable to Judges on their retirement.

Sections 5 to 10 relate to the constitution of the Court of Appeal. The said Court is to consist of two Divisions (each of five members), the members of each Division being Judges of the Supreme Court. A Judge may be a member of both Division at one and the same time. The Divisions are to sit separately, but the Governor in Council may authorize the two Divisions to sit together for the purpose of determining any appeal deemed to be of special difficulty or importance.

1913, No. 42.—The Stamp Duties Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 of this Act provides for payment of stamp duty on instruments of exchange at the same rate and in the same manner as if those instruments were conveyances on sale of the exchanged properties.

1913, No. 43—The Footwear Regulation Act, 1913.

This Act prohibits the manufacture or sale within New Zealand of boots or shoes unless the soles are made wholly of leather, or unless they are legibly stamped with a description of the materials of which the soles are made.

1913, No. 44.—The Post and Telegraph Amendment Act, 1913.

By section 2 of this Act the limit of interest-bearing deposits in the Post Office Savings-bank is increased from £600 to £1,000.

Section 8 prohibits the erection or maintenance for hire or profit by private persons of any electric line of communication by telephone except with the precedent consent of the Governor in Council.

Section 9 provides for the regulation of the use within New Zealand waters of wireless-telegraph apparatus on merchant ships not registered in New Zealand.

The remaining sections make merely administrative amendments of the principal Act.

1913, No. 45.—The Naval Defence Act, 1913.

This Act provides for the establishment in New Zealand of a Naval Force, and for that purpose authorizes the Governor to appoint officers and issue commissions. The Naval Force is to be raised and maintained by voluntary enlistment only, enlistment being for a prescribed period not less than two years. The Naval Force so raised is to be subject to the Imperial Naval Discipline Acts and the King's Regulations and Admiralty instructions for the time being in force.

In time of war the Naval Force (including the ships, vessels, or boats acquired for naval defence purposes) is to be at the disposal of the Government of Great Britain.

Section 15 provides that members of the Naval Force may be required to serve for training or on any naval service either within or beyond the limits of New Zealand.

Section 17 provides for the training of members of the New Zealand Naval Force on board any ship of the King's navy, or of the navy of any part of the British dominions, or any naval establishment or school connected with any such navy.

Section 20 provides for the transfer of ships, officers, and men from the New Zealand Naval Force to the Naval Forces of any other part of the British dominions

Section 21 provides for the establishment of a New Zealand Royal Naval Reserve.

The Naval Defence Act, 1908, and the Naval Subsidy Act, 1908, are repealed.

1913, No. 46.—The Distress and Replevin Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act increases from £25 to £50 the value of goods that cannot lawfully be distrained for rent, and includes the furniture of a tenant within the list of exempted articles.

1913, No. 47.—The Railways Construction and Land Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act extends to local authorities the provisions of the principal Act relating to the construction of railways by companies, and increases from £5,000 to £10,000 a mile the maximum expenditure permissible in respect of such construction

1913, No. 48.—The Education Reserves Amendment Act, 1913.

The main provision in this Act authorizes the Governor in Council to determine certain leases of education reserves or endowments in cases where the land comprised therein is required for subdivision. In any such case the lessee is entitled to compensation in the same manner as if the land had been taken for a public work under the Public Works Act, 1908.

1913, No. 49.—The Patents, Designs, and Trade-marks Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act provides for the sealing of patents after the prescribed time where, in consequence of the neglect or failure of the applicant to pay any fee, the patent has not been duly sealed. The machinery provisions are similar to those of the principal Act relating to applications for the restoration of lapsed patents.

1913, No. 50.—The Temporary Employees Act, 1913.

This Act provides for the continuance of the employment in the Public Service of certain officers who have hitherto been temporarily employed therein or in the service of either branch of the Legislature.

1913, No. 52.—The Police Offences Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 of this Act is designed to prevent unlawful intimidation. Section 3 makes punishable on summary conviction by a fine not exceeding £20, or by imprisonment for not more than three months, the offence of inciting others to the commission of offences.

1913, No. 53.—The Counties Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act amends in several particulars the provisions of the principal Act.

Section 3 provides for the alteration of the boundaries of contiguous counties.

Sections 6 to 11 provides for the preparation of the county electors' roll.

Section 23 provides that all drainage rates or special rates for drainage purposes are to be levied on a graduated scale according to a classification of the lands deriving benefit from the drainage operations.

Sections 31 and 32 authorize County Councils to erect workers' dwellings on land acquired or appropriated for the purpose, and to let or otherwise dispose of the same in manner provided in the said section.

1913, No. 54.—The Rating Amendment Act, 1913.

Sections 9 to 19 make better provision for the collection of rates payable in respect of Native lands. The other sections are amendments of the principal Act.

1913, No. 56.—The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act amends in various particulars the provisions of the Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1909.

Section 12 empowers Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards to establish building funds for the purpose of providing moneys for the erection of new buildings, or for the repair, enlargement, or reinstatement of existing buildings, and to set aside in each year out of revenue such sums as the Minister approves for the purposes of such funds.

Section 16 abolishes the Marsden-Kaipara Hospital District and the Board thereof, and in lieu thereof constitutes the Whangarei Hospital District and the Kaipara Hospital District, and provides for the apportionment of the property and liabilities of the Marsden-Kaipara Hospital and Charitable Aid Board between the Whangarei and the Kaipara Boards.

Section 18 provides for the imposition of a fine not exceeding £50 on the secretary, treasurer, or other officer of a Board who fails or neglects to perform any duties required of him by the principal Act.

Section 19 extends the powers of Boards with respect to the reception and detention in hospitals of persons found to be suffering from contagious or infectious diseases.

1913, No. 57.—The Water-supply Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 provides for the compulsory classification of land for the purposes of special rates levied pursuant to the principal Act, and further provides that the said rate shall be levied according to such classification.

Section 6 provides for the sale of certain Crown land situated in the County of Vincent (Otago) to any company having for its objects the irrigation of such land and its subsequent subdivision and sale for the purposes of closer settlement.

1913, No. 58.—The Native Land Amendment Act, 1913.

Sections 3 to 13 provide for the constitution of Native Land Court districts, and for the appointment of Judges, Registrars, and Commissioners of the Native Land Court to exercise jurisdiction within the districts for which they are respectively appointed.

Section 13 provides for the compilation of a register of the owners of all Native freehold land and of their respective interests.

Sections 15 to 52 relate to the constitution and functions of Maori Land Boards.

By section 23 it is provided that the Judge and the Registrar of each Native Land Court district are to constitute the Maori Land Board of the district. The Judge is the President of the Board, and may appoint any Native or European assessor or assessors to act in respect of any matter before the Board for its determination.

Sections 44 to 62 deal with the partition among the Native owners of their several interests in land held by them in common. By section 44 the Judge of the Native Land Court is required from time to time to report to the Native Minister as to the Native lands within his district that are suitable for settlement and are not used by their Native owners, and thereupon the Minister may apply to the Native Land Court to investigate the title and to partition the said land among the several owners. In making such partition the Court is required, so far as possible, having regard to the interests of the owners, to subdivide the said land into such allotments as may be conveniently disposed of by the Native owners to an individual purchaser or an individual lease. Sections 48 to 53 make provision for the adequate roading of lands heretofore or hereafter partitioned. Section 55 permits of two or more adjoining blocks being treated as one for the purpose of partition of interests and subsequent subdivision for settlement.

Sections 64 to 68 provide for succession to the interests of a deceased owner of Native land. If application for a succession order is not made within six months after the death of a Native owner, the Judge of the Native Land Court in the district in which the land is situated may proceed to inquire as to the successors of the deceased owner, and may thereupon make such orders as he thinks fit. Section 67 provides for the disposal by sale or lease (with the consent of a majority of the owners affected) of land held by Native owners in common in cases where the relative interests are so small that, in the opinion of the Court, partition is not justifiable.

Sections 70 to 80 make provision for the limitation of the area of Native land to be beneficially held by one person.

Sections 82 to 93 relate to the alienation of Native freehold land by the owners thereof and to the confirmation by the Maori Land Board or Native Land Court of instruments of alienation. Section 90 provides for the removal into the Supreme Court of applications for confirmation in cases involving questions of difficulty. Section 92 authorizes the payment to the Public Trustee or a Maori Land Board in trust for the Natives entitled thereto of any unpaid purchase-money payable in respect of the alienation of any Native land. By section 93 provision is made, in the case of land held under lease, for the protection of the tenant's interest in improvements where application is made for the confirmation of an instrument of alienation.

Section 94 authorizes Maori Land Boards to delegate to Land Boards under the Land Act, 1908, the powers conferred on the first-mentioned Boards by Part XIV of the Native Land Act, 1909 (relating to the administration of Native land vested in Maori Land Boards for the purposes of settlement by Europeans).

Section 96 authorizes the Governor in Council to revest in the Native owners any land held in trust for those owners by a Maori Land Board, on application in that behalf being made by a majority of the Native owners beneficially entitled thereto.

Section 97 protects the lessee's interest in Native land leased pursuant to the provisions of the Maori Land Settlement Act, 1905, or of the Native Land Act, 1909.

Section 99 empowers the Court, on the application of any person interested, to order an investigation and audit of the accounts kept by the committee of management appointed by the incorporated owners of any Native land under Part XVII of the Native Land Act, 1909.

Sections 100 to 106 deal with the powers of the assembled Native owners of Native land.

Sections 107 to 119 extend the powers of the Crown with respect to the acquisition by purchase or lease of Native land. When any Native land subject to a valid lease is so acquired by the Crown by way of purchase, the lessee is entitled to receive a renewable lease under Part III of the Land Act, 1908, in lieu of the existing lease, or to acquire the fee-simple of the land comprised in his lease subject to the terms and conditions specified in section 110 of the present Act.

Section 113 authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise £500,000 in any year for the acquisition by the Crown of Native lands. Similar provisions were formerly contained in Part VII of the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, and those provisions are accordingly repealed by the present Act.

Section 115 provides for the lease of Native lands to the Crown, with an option to purchase the freehold on terms to be specified in the lease. Lands so leased may, subject to the conditions expressed in section 116, be subleased in the same manner as if they were Crown lands under the Land Apt.

The remaining provisions of the Act relate principally to matters of administration.

1913, No. 60.—The Education Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 14 of this Act provides for an increased rate of salary to be paid to teachers in public schools. The other amendments relate wholly to matters of administration.

1913, No. 61.—The Police Force Act, 1913.

This Act repeals the Police Force Act, 1908 (which was a re-enactment of the Act of 1886), and makes better provision for the establishment, maintenance, and discipline of the Police Force.

1913, No. 62.—The Municipal Corporations Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act amends in several important respects the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act, 1908.

Section 6 provides for a biennial election of Mayors in lieu of an annual election, as at present. In the case of a casual vacancy within twelve months a fresh election is held; if at any other time the Council appoints a Mayor to hold office until the next general election.

Sections 13 and 14 make better provision for the constitution of new boroughs and the alteration of existing boroughs.

Section 27 authorizes Borough Councils to establish services for the conveyance of passengers and goods (otherwise than by railway or tramway).

Section 34 authorizes Borough Councils to supply electricity to persons residing beyond the limits of the borough.

Section 52 authorizes the erection and the sale or lease of workers' dwellings on land to be acquired or appropriated by a Borough Council for the purpose.

The other amendments relate principally to matters of administration.

1913, No. 63.—The Customs Act, 1913.

This Act repeals the Customs Law Act, 1908 (which was a consolidation of the Customs Act, 1882, and its amendments), and makes more adequate provision for the collection of duties of Customs. Few material alterations of the law are made except in matters pertaining to administration. In the provisions relating to ad valorem duties it is provided that such duties are to be based on the fair market cash value of the goods in respect of which the duty is payable instead of on the credit value as hitherto.

1913, No. 64.—The Tramways Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 of this Act provides for the construction or reconstruction of electric tramway-cars with a central passage-way in order to minimize the risk of accidents to conductors and others using the cars.

Section 6 provides for the suspension by the Governor in Council in certain circumstances of certain of the provisions of the Tramways Act, 1908, relating to the qualifications of motormen on electric tramways.

The other sections relate wholly to matters of administration.

1913, No. 65.—The Stock Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act increases the amount of compensation payable to the owners of diseased stock, and also provides for the registration of brands, indicating a standard of merit, to be used by Stock-breeders' Associations.

1913, No. 66.—The Mining Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 3 authorizes the making of advances by the Government for the purpose of promoting irrigation-works in arid localities.

Section 4 authorizes the Minister of Finance to raise £20,000 in each financial year for the purposes of Part X of the principal Act. The corresponding provisions contained in Part V of the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Act, 1909, are repealed.

Sections 9 and 10 relate to claims by the owners of land for compensation in respect of its auriferous or argentiferous value, or in respect of minerals or precious stones on or under such land. In no such case is compensation payable unless the claim is first established by a judgment of the Supreme Court. The other sections relate to matters affecting administration.

1913, No. 69.—The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 3 empowers the respondent in divorce proceedings to apply for an order making absolute a decree nisi for the dissolution of a marriage, and jurisdiction is conferred on the Court to deal with such application as if the application had been made by the petitioner.

Section 4 provides that the evidence of parties in matrimonial proceedings may be taken by affidavit only with the leave of the Court.

Section 5 repeals the provisions of the principal Act allowing appeals to the Privy Council (in lieu of to the Court of Appeal of New Zealand) from decisions on petitions for dissolution or nullity of marriage.

Section 6 provides that a husband who (while separated from his wife by mutual consent or judicial decree) habitually and without cause leaves her without reasonable maintenance shall, for the purposes of the principal Act (relating to the grounds for divorce), be deemed to have deserted her wilfully and without just cause or reasonable excuse, and to have left her so deserted.

1913, No. 70.—The Workers' Compensation Amendment Act, 1913.

Sections 7 and 8 permit of compensation cases being heard and determined in a Magistrates' Court instead of in the Court of Arbitration where the parties so agree.

Section 9 provides for the payment of compensation-moneys to the Public Trustee in trust for the persons entitled thereto.

Section 10 provides that the right to recover compensation or damages in respect of an accident to a worker shall survive notwithstanding the death of either party.

Section 13 gives to the employees of the Crown the same right to recover compensation or damages in respect of accidents as is possessed by the employees of private persons.

The other sections relate principally to matters of administration.

1913, No. 72.—The Law Practitioners Amendment Act, 1913.

Section 2 extends the powers and functions of the New Zealand Law Society.

Section 3 imposes an additional annual fee of 10s. on practitioners to be paid to the New Zealand Law Society.

Section 11 incorporates the several District Law Societies, and empowers them to hold real and personal property.

Section 14 empowers the Governor by Order in Council to make regulations for the audit and inspection of the trust accounts of solicitors, and directs that such regulations shall be submitted to the Governor for approval before the 31st March, 1914.

1913, No. 73.—The Monopoly Prevention Amendment Act, 1913.

This Act extends the provisions of Part I of the Monopoly Prevention Act, 1908 (relating to the price of agricultural implements), until the 31st December, 1915.

1913, No. 74.—The Shops and Offices Amendment Act, 1913.

The most important amendment of the law effected by this Act is contained in section 8, which reads as follows:—

“Notwithstanding anything in the Shops and Offices Amendment Act, 1910, provision may be made in any award or industrial agreement under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, 1908, relating to assistants employed in hotels or restaurants for a whole holiday of twenty-four hours on any day in each week in lieu of the half-holiday or whole holiday provided for in the said Act:

“Provided that in the case of any such award such provision shall, on application in that behalf, be made unless the Court, in the case of any specified hotel or restaurant, or in the case of all hotels or restaurants in any specified locality, is satisfied that such provision would not be reasonably practicable, in which case the said provision may be modified in respect of such hotels or restaurants.”

The other amendments are principally of an administrative nature.

1913, No. 75.—The Labour Disputes Investigation Act, 1913.

This Act relates to disputes between employers and workers who are not for the time being bound by an award or industrial agreement.

It provides for conferences of parties with a view to securing an amicable settlement, or in the alternative for the investigation of disputes by Labour Dispute Committees consisting of representatives of both parties to the dispute. Before a strike may lawfully take place a secret ballot of the workers affected is taken by the Registrar of Industrial Unions, and the result of the ballot is publicly notified. On the lapse of seven days after the publication of such result the workers are free to strike whatever the result of the ballot may have been.

Similar provisions are made to apply in the case of lockouts.

Agreements entered into by employers and workers to whom the Act applies may be filed in the Court of Arbitration and enforced as if they were industrial agreements under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act.

Chapter 2. SECTION II.—CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY.

[By D. C. BATES, Dominion Meteorologist.]

The climate of New Zealand is to be considered in relation to four main features—(1) Its position, stretching for nearly a thousand miles southward of latitude ¾ S.; (2) its insular condition, situated as it is in the widest ocean of the world, from which no part of the country is distant more than seventy-five miles; (3) its physical features, mountain-chains running mostly north and south and affording different aspects; and (4) the weather-changes to which these parts of the earth are subject.

SUNSHINE.

The latitudes in which the chief cities of New Zealand lie in the Southern Hemisphere correspond with the cities in the North from which the possible amount of sunshine may be gauged. Auckland's latitude corresponds to that of Cape Passaro in the south of Sicily; Wellington to Naples; and Dunedin to Venice. The following table gives the period during which the sun is above the true horizon on the days of midsummer and midwinter:—

Possible Sunshine on theAt Auckland.At Wellington.At Dunedin.
Hr.min.Hr.min.Hr.min.
Longest day144015101546
Shortest day938913839

The actual hours of bright sunshine recorded in Wellington average nearly six hours per day throughout the year, and few indeed are the days when a brilliant sun does not at some time or other score a definite trace upon the recording-chart. Other districts much more protected from cloud-formation, as Nelson, in Tasman Bay; Napier, on the east coast of the North Island; and Lincoln, near Christchurch, on the east coast of the South Island, have higher records. Some of the west coast districts, on the other hand, record less bright sunshine; but Wellington, the capital city, is in the middle position, and affords a good mean both for the sunshine and the rainfall of the whole Dominion. Wellington is also in a critical position with regard to atmospheric disturbances, Cook Strait being usually the dividing-line between the cyclonic storms and westerly lows, generally partaking of the changes due to both. The actual results are as follows:—

Hours of Sunshine.
Year.Auckland.Gisborne.Napier.Moumahaki.Wellington.Lincoln.Nelson.
 Hr.min.Hr.min.Hr.min.Hr.nun.Hr.min.Hr.min.Hr.min.

* For four years.

† For seven years.

‡ For five years.

‡ Incomplete, 13 days no record kept.

|| Incomplete, 15 days no record kept.

1907....1,939202,610351,897341,853532,13353....
1908....2,259202,806422,001402,00932,18511....
1909....1,965402,203201,856172,223312,11292,56258
19101775452,29342,530471,869152,15732,083422,57134
19111,975302,147202,406561,692252,276372,32602,50656
19121,834211,75092,451251,906551,953171,7827222715
19131,945202,091352,62652,214201,973391,95025||210710
Average*188244206347251924191946206352208155;239510

These results bear comparison with some of the most favoured regions of the world, where, in order to produce the best results, sunshine and shower hold sway in turn. For instance, over the northern parts of the British Isles the annual average of bright sunshine is 1,200 hours, or 27 per cent. of the possible; and in the south it is 1,600 hours, or 36 per cent.; while Italy has averages from 2,000 to 2,400 hours, or from 45 to 54 per cent. of the possible.

TEMPERATURE.

Latitude, insolation, proximity of the ocean, and the height of a locality are the determining factors with regard to temperature. The oceanic influences are recognized as the dominant feature with regard to both summer heat and winter cold, upon both of which they exercise a moderating effect. The west coast of the South Island especially is open to the prevailing westerly winds, and is more humid and equable than the eastern coastal districts, which at times present an almost continental type with considerable range of temperature. In the cities of Auckland and Wellington frosts on the grass are of rare occurrence, though further south and inland they are often experienced. As showing the influence of the ocean in moderating temperature, we may contrast the records of a continental city with the capital city of Wellington.

Temperatures (Degrees Fahrenheit).
Mean.Wellington. Lat. 41° 16′ S.
January, maximum69.4
July, minimum42.1
Mean annual range27.3
August, maximum91.2
January, minimum10.2
Mean annual range81.0

The meteorological seasons are regarded as later than the solar or astronomical seasons. Thus, in the Southern Hemisphere July is usually the coldest and wettest month of the year, while January is the driest and warmest. The seasons are thus roughly divided:—

Winter—June, July, August.

Spring—September, October, November.

Summer—December, January, February.

Autumn—March, April, May.

The following table gives seasonal and annual means computed from several stations in the various provinces into which the Dominion was once politically as well as naturally divided:—

Mean Temperatures in Shade (Degrees Fahrenheit).
Auckland—Spring.Summer.Autumn.Winter.Annual.
     Mean56.965.759.851.058.4
     Maximum65.275.268.358.566.8
     Minimum48.656.351.343.649.9
Hawke's Bay—
     Mean57.365.659.050.058.0
     Maximum66.574.867.358.166.7
     Minimum48.356.550.742.049.4
Taranaki—
     Mean55.062.458.049.956.3
     Maximum63.071.066.057.364.3
     Minimum47.153.750.042.448.3
Wellington—
     Mean54.162.156.447.955.1
     Maximum61.771.064.855.463.3
     Minimum46.253.348.240.547.0
Nelson and Marlborough—
     Mean55.663.557.648.756.3
     Maximum63.772.265.655.964.3
     Minimum47.555.049.841.548.4
Westland—
     Mean49.758.151.441.250.1
     Maximum57.566.259.148.657.8
     Minimum42.049.943.733.742.3
Canterbury—
     Mean52.560.853.243.152.4
     Maximum61.970.962.351.261.6
     Minimum43.150.944.335.143.3
Otago—
     Mean50.457.951.041.550.2
     Maximum59.567.559.148.158.5
     Minimum41.548.243.035.041.9

Mean temperatures of definite places are usually employed in climatic comparisons, and the following annual means, as well as the means of the extreme months of the summer and winter, afford the reader useful data. The Australian temperatures are from the Official Year-book of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the others are chiefly from Hofraths, Dr. J. von Hann's great work upon the climatology of the world.

Mean Temperatures.
NEW ZEALAND.
 Auckland.Gisborne.Wellington.Christchurch.Hokitika. 
January66.767.162.461.760.9 
July51.849.547.542.444.8 
Annual59.358.355.252.653.4 
BRITISH ISLES.
 Greenwich.Liverpool.York.Dublin.Edinburgh. 
January38.539.437.841.739.0 
July62.659.759.759.758.5 
Annual49.648.747.749.647.7 
EUROPE.
 Vienna.Berlin.Paris.Home.Naples. 
January28.932.736.544.146.8 
July67.364.665.576.575.6 
Annual48.647.350.559.760.4 
CANADA.
  Halifax.Montreal.Toronto.Vancouver. 
January..42.012.322.437.9 
July 64.268.967.659.9 
Annual..43.242.044.248.7 
UNITED STATES.
  New York City.Washington, D.C.St. Louis.Los Angelos. 
January..30.231.130.953.0 
July 73.576.879.167.4 
Annual..51.654.655.760.2 
SOUTH AMERICA.
    Santiago.Buenos Ayres.Monte Video.
January..  67.473.571.7
July .. 45.850.150.7
Annual..  56.361.861.3
INDIA.
   Calcutta.Bombay.Madras.Colombo.
January.. 65.174.575.479.0
May ..85.684.488782.0
Annual.. 77.979.381.980.2
SOUTH AFRICA.
   Simonstown.Grahamstown.Kimberley.Durban.
January.. 70.768.075.075.7
July ..56.853.248.764.0
Annual.. 63.661.363.370.3
AUSTRALIA.
 SydneyMelbourne.Brisbane.Perth.Adelaide.Hobart.
January71.667.577.273.574.262.0
July52.348.558.054.951.545.8
Annual63.058.368.864.062.954.4

RAINFALL.

The rainfall map of New Zealand presents striking conformation to its physical configuration, and records gathered throughout the country during a period of more than sixty years present a certain regularity which brings out the dominating influence of the mountain ranges over the rainfall. The lofty Southern Alps, rising to heights of from ten to twelve thousand feet on the western side of the South Island, lie broadside to the prevailing westerly winds, and on their windward slopes are condensed the vapours which have been swept by the breezes over vast stretches of ocean-wave. On the plains at the margin near the foot of the ranges and on their rugged and precipitous slopes the rainfall averages from one to two hundred inches per annum, while on the lee side of this formidable chain the climate is comparatively very dry, and in parts the rainfall is only about one-tenth of what is recorded on the other side. The manner in which the sea-breezes are robbed of their moisture is occasionally manifested when a strong and steady westerly wind blows along parallel with the southern latitudes. Heavy and continuous then is the rain on the west coast, and the clouds and mist may rise to the summit, but no further. There the winds are forced onwards and rush downwards to the greatest plains in New Zealand which have been built up of the detritus of the mountains. Here, however, the characteristics of this westerly wind have been entirely changed, for it is now hot by compression, and dry because it gave off its moisture when it rose above sea-level away back among the hills. Instead of parting with superfluous humidity, it is now capable of sustaining the vapour of water, and nature seeks to restore the balance of its relative humidity by evaporating what moisture it can from stream and lake, vegetation or animal life in its path. These hot and dry “nor' westers” of the Canterbury Plains are similar in character to the well-known Foehn winds such as are experienced in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, but they illustrate and account for much of the comparative shortage of rainfall on the eastern side of the South Island which is manifest in the map.

While the South Island isohyets or rain-bands of equal rainfall stretch north and south, the North Island tracings are more irregular in form, but show that the rainfall itself is more regular over the country and less extreme in comparison between different districts. Here, again, however, the control of the mountains and plains over precipitation is apparent. The contours of the rainfall areas are found to coincide more or less with the configuration of the country—dark-tinted spots showing heavier rainfalls are found in proximity to Mount Egmont, the Tongariro, Tararua, Raukumara, and other ranges.

The mean annual rainfall of New Zealand, derived from means of representative stations in various parts of the whole country, is about 50 in., but the seasonal falls are different in various districts. The season of greatest fall in the North Island, which is mostly under the influence of subtropical conditions, is winter, and the month of July shows not only the lowest mean temperature but the mean maximum rainfall, and is regarded as the midwinter month in the Southern Hemisphere. In the South Island late autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently dry, while the summer sometimes suffers from too frequent showers. This is the case on the east coast and southernmost portions of the South Island, but at this time the west coast occasionally is even in want of rain; in fact, the west and east coasts of the South Island are so different that if the east coast has more than the average rainfall the west coast has less, and vice versa. The average monthly rainfall of the year is remarkably even in the South Island, but the midwinter month's mean in the North Island is nearly double the mean of the mid summer month (February).

The averages from the climatological tables are—

Rainfall (in Inches).
 Winter.Spring.Summer.Autumn.Annual.
North Island14.7312.179.9313.7150.54
South Island12.2811.9410.2710.7945.28
(Rainy Days (0.005 in. or more).
 Winter.Spring.Summer.Autumn.Annual.
North Island47463040163
South Island41443436155
Annual Rainfalls (in Inches).
 Auckland (60 Years).New Plymouth (36 Years).Wellington (55 Years).Gisborne (35 Years).
Average43.3159.6049.7347.43
Maximum63.7282.9367.6864.33
Minimum26.3243.8330.0226.09
 Christchurch (36 Years).Hokitika (31 Years).Dunedin (54 Years).Invercargill (18 Years).
Average25.50116.2337.5345.98
Maximum35.30154.4454.5169.00
Minimum13.5488.2122.1533.24
Mean Number of Days with Rain (0.01 in. or more).
Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
Auckland10.39.411.013.218.119.120.719.317.616.211.411.4
New Plymouth12.510.512.214.018.017.219.519.217.518.515.714.2
Gisborne9.09.712.312.415.616.416.815.713.411.611.69.3
Wellington10.59.211.712.816.417.318.317.315.513.912.712.0
Christchurch9.07.49.39.110.812.113.011.09.98.99.89.1
Hokitika14.810.313.514.115.515.016.416.015.319.013.016.3
Dunedin14.711.513.213.214.113.013.613.013.014.514.114.8
Invercargill15.010.014.016.017.015.015.014.014.017.018.015.0

Annual mean totals.—Auckland, 180.4; New Plymouth, 189.7; Gisborne, 153.8; Wellington, 167.7; Christchurch, 119.4; Hokitika, 179.2; Dunedin, 163.3; Invercargill, 180.

The seasons usually differ considerably in several characteristics from year to year, and the annual rainfalls are found to range considerably above and below the means in all parts of the Dominion. From month to month also, and by comparing the records of months of the same name in different years are seen surprising contrasts and periodic changes which evade general laws, and the approximately true mean rainfalls are only ascertained through averages derived from returns extending over many years.

The abundance and frequency of the rainfall are, however, the leading features in the climate of New Zealand as a whole. The positions of the Islands, with vast oceans on every side, and the proximity of every part of the country to the sea, combined with frequent atmospheric changes, usually cause all parts of the Dominion to be favoured with beneficent rains, and very rarely indeed does the rainfall report from any station in the Dominion make the return of “nil.” Nine out of ten of the stations throughout the country have never recorded months of such absolute drought, and on the other hand very few are the records showing rainfall every day during any month of their registrations. Sunshine and rain alternate fairly well throughout the year, with much greater predominance of the former. The rain fall is usually more intense and frequent at night than in the hours when the sun exercises its influence over air and earth and sea, for then “Maui is drawing water”

Days with Rain (0.005 in. or over).

Averages derived from the Monthly Climatological Tables from August, 1904, to December, 1913 (inclusive). Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall in points: 100 = 1 in.

Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
North Island—
     Mean temp63.563.462.257.552.549.348.249.952.054.958.061.1
     Rainfall338294472393472433567423414434367362
     Days with rain10.08.311.713.014.415.517.214.416.015.613.912.0
South Island—
     Mean temp59.760.058.252.847.944.142.544.648.952.255.218.3
     Rainfall384253400341338439424345424421338408
     Days with rain12.78.112.512.211.913.913.913.115.215.114.113.9

Annual averages.—North Island—Mean temp., 56.0° F.; rainfall, 49.69 in.; days with rain, 162. South Island—Mean temp., 52.0° F.; rainfall, 45.15 in.; days with rain, 157.

SNOW.

Snow falls in the winter-time on the higher levels in the South Island and occasionally on the central plateau of the North Island, but, except on the mountain-tops, usually does not lie for long. Snow is seldom seen on the lowlands even in the southernmost districts of the South Island, and in many parts of New Zealand snow has never been known to fall; but, on the other hand, cyclonic areas in summer will bring some snow on the higher levels of the South Island.

THUNDERSTORMS.

Thunderstorms are also comparatively rare in the coastal districts, but are more frequent and prolonged in the mountainous parts. In summer the thunderstorms usually occur in the afternoon, and in the winter, with low-pressure systems, at night.

HAIL.

Hail occasionally accompanies coastal thunderstorms, but rarely causes much damage to property, fruit, or crops in New Zealand, and is more frequently experienced in winter.

WINDS.

The winds of the temperate zone are usually fairly constant and fresh, and the Dominion of New Zealand—set as it is in the widest ocean in the world—is open to all its influence. The sea-breezes sweep uninterruptedly over thousands of miles of ocean-wave, not only bringing freshness, ozone, and moisture, but at times, it must be confessed, causing annoyance on account of their force and persistency. This may be regarded as a defect of their qualities, for in those parts of the earth that experience little wind the people usually lack energy, and the same regions are mostly subject to occasional storms that are terribly destructive to life and property. No country in the world, however, presents greater diversity in respect to wind than New Zealand, chiefly on account of its length and mountain-chains. The uneven surface of the land, the proximity of the straits, &c., are seen to exercise the most marked influence not only upon the force, but also upon the direction of the winds—reducing or increasing their velocity, diverting, and even entirely changing their course. For example, westerly winds blowing across the ocean towards the west coast are partially inverted—while the upper part will cross the mountains to become occasionally a hot, dry westerly wind on the Canterbury Plains, the lower part curls round and is actually experienced as an easterly wind in the towns on the coast at the foot of the mountains.

The average velocity as given herewith is from records of the Robinson anemometer, in miles per day:—

Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
Auckland.
213181178145162159173174181197209188
Wellington.
306273285281259242232242283337331322
Hokitika.
144135132134124116109120143170152143
Lincoln.
197183175160133120116134168193197188
—-Auckland (11 Years).Wellington (16 Years).Hokitika (16 Years).Lincoln (13 Years).
Average per day180282135164
Max. velocity in one day9741,200693967
 (15/10/1897)(5/6/1911)(6/12/1911)(4/11/1904)

The velocity of the winds, it may be noted, is higher on the average in summer than in winter, and the winds are usually also stronger by day than by night.

The following “wind-roses” show the percentage of wind-directions from annual means for forty-eight years' unbroken records for each place.

The prevailing winds are thus seen to be planetary anti-trade winds—westerlies which go round the world and are used by mariners to take them eastward towards England as far as Cape Horn, and on their return they pick them up again off the Cape of Good Hope. In summer, however, to the north of Auckland the easterly trade winds often blow with much regularity for weeks together.

GENERAL EFFECTS OF THE CLIMATE.

The development of the Maori race is a striking testimony to the suitability of the climate to humanity, and European families under New Zealand skies have generally developed in physique. Imported stock has in most cases thriven marvellously in the fields, where throughout summer and winter they usually find all the nourishment needed, and hardly ever require more than natural protection.

The fertility of the soil gives remarkable testimony to the genial climate of New Zealand, for, though labour is not nearly plentiful enough to obtain the best results from agriculture, yet, as shown in the returns published annually, the actual average yields in bushels per acre for the Dominion compare more than favourably with the yields for other countries.

Lastly, the vital statistics show that for a long period New Zealand has had the lowest death-rate in the world, and this is undoubtedly owing very much to the salubrity of its climate. The vital statistics show to advantage not only in the earlier years of life, but it is after the age of thirty-two that the extraordinary longevity of New Zealand is apparent. The judgment of travellers and those best qualified to give an opinion is that the country is one of the healthiest in the world. The abundant vitality of the people is apparent not only in the homes and thoroughfares throughout the Dominion, but is manifested in thriving industries and the high place attained by New-Zealanders in the world of sport. New Zealand, in a word, is a country where from youth to old age man can keep in vigorous health and enjoy life to its fullest extent.

WEATHER.

The weather is full of vagaries in the temperate zones of both hemispheres, and New Zealand is not the only country which occasionally experiences a touch of winter in summer, but there is also very much summer-like weather in the winter-time. Occasionally winter storms account for temporary high winds and heavy rainfalls, but the monthly averages show that less wind is experienced in the season of winter, particularly in the south.

The chief atmospheric changes are associated with barometric pressures, above the normal being known as “high” pressure, and below it as “low.” For weather charts and forecast purposes the isobar, or line of equal pressure of 30 in., is regarded as normal in New Zealand, though the true normal lies between 29.90 in. and 30.00 in. The winds flow nearly parallel to the isobars in both high and low pressure systems, and all atmospheric systems in New Zealand move from west to east.

High-pressure systems or anti-cyclones are usually associated with fair weather by day and cold nights, when the earth radiates the heat of its surface into space. The central isobar will occasionally enclose an area in which all the barometers reduced to sea-level and to 32° Fahr. will read as high as 30.60. Around this centre the winds revolve or back contrary to the direction of the hands of a watch in the Southern Hemisphere; thus, if the barometer is 30.40 in. at Wellington, and the readings are 30.00 in. or thereabouts at both Russell and the Bluff, the winds will be easterly over the North Island and westerly over the South, southerly off the east coast and northerly off the west coast. The winds thus form vast circles hundreds of miles in diameter. These anticyclones often last for eight or nine days.

Low-pressure systems are mostly of two kinds, and around their centres of lowest pressure the winds are seen to revolve clockwise on the weather-chart; thus, if the centre of a cyclone should be in Cook Strait the winds will be westerly at Auckland, easterly at Christchurch, northerly off the east coast, and southerly off the west coast. If the lowest pressure on the chart were in Foveaux Strait the prevailing winds northward would be generally westerly, at least as far north as New Plymouth and Napier, and sometimes extend even to the North Cape, changing from north by the west to southwest.

Cyclones are circular or oval-shaped disturbances with closed isobars; they come from the tropics, and chiefly affect the North Island, bringing first warmth and humidity, then high winds and heavy rain. They usually last from two to five days, and are more frequent in winter than in summer, though they are often intense at the latter period.

The term “cyclone” does not always mean a storm of great intensity such as is experienced in tropical regions, for when the disturbance leaves the tropics it usually expands and covers a wider area, over which its forces are distributed. The frequency of cyclones during the past nine years shows the following average: Spring, 2; summer, 1.8; autumn, 3.3; winter, 5.3. These figures will be surprising to some who believe that ex-tropical cyclones are found only in spring or early in summer, while others assert that they come only in midwinter.

Westerly or antarctic lows of A-shaped isobars, with lowest pressure southward of New Zealand, chiefly affect the South Island, but, like the cyclones, frequently extend their influences over the whole Dominion. These lows usually move along the parallels of latitude known to sailors as the “roaring forties.” Their duration is from twelve hours to as many days, and in some seasons they are much more frequent and persistent than in others They come at all times of the year, but with greater frequency in springtime: Spring, 6.3; summer, 4.3; autumn, 5.2; winter, 4.7

NEW ZEALAND RAINFALL FOR THE YEAR 1913.

For the year 1913 the whole of the North Island, with the exception of the Wanganui district and along the west coast of the Wellington Province, had considerably less than the average rainfall. In the South Island that part of the country northward of Hokitika and Kaikoura had less, but in the remainder the aggregate was in excess of the average.

The following table shows the difference, above or below the mean, for each month in the year:—

North Island Rainfall, 1913.

Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Eight Previous Years.

Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
+ 3.75......5.22....4.79..4.405.635.07
Av. 3.333.144.914.144.664.655.914.174.394.333.453.46
1.383.202.27..1.713.76..1.87......

Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Eight Years.

Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.

+ Above the average.

Below the average.

+......15.9....19.2....18.835.6
Av. 10.08.411.913.714.216.117.313.916.715.713.411.6
−9.98.19.77.6..10.916.8..9.614.7....

South Island Rainfall, 1913.

Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Eight Previous Years.

Jan.Feb.Mar.April.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
+ 4.173.30....4.25....4.18....4.454.58
Av. 3.802.444.033.493.274.644.273.374.404.283.264.03
..3.662.78..2.393.98..2.883.55....

Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Eight Years.

Jan.Feb.Mar.AprilMay.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.

+ Above the average.

Below the average.

+ 14.011.315.3..15.6..14.013.5....18.016.0
Av. 12.57.712.112.411.414.013.913.115.515.313.713.7
....10.1..12.9....12.213.6....

Following is given a brief summary for each month of the weather and the types of such of the chief atmospheric pressures in evidence:—

January.—As a rule warm and fair weather was in the ascendant over the Dominion between the 6th and 21st, except in the west coast districts of the South Island, where showery and changeable conditions were experienced throughout the month. The rainfall was below the average in the Auckland and Hawke's Bay districts, but elsewhere, owing to several days of good soaking rain, principally on the 6th, 21st, and 27th, the total for the month exceeded the average. On the night of the 6th the centre of a cyclonic system passed through Cook Strait, and a disturbance of a similar nature but of greater intensity passed in the same vicinity on the 27th. Both of these atmospheric disturbances brought beneficial and general rains. Several westerly areas of low pressure passed in the south during the month, and one, on the 14th, was of unusual intensity; but although heavy northwest gales were experienced at this time, little rain accompanied it.

February.—The most remarkable feature of this month was the number of westerly disturbances which passed southward of New Zealand, and though the weather was in consequence very unsettled in the southern province, yet only one disturbance of this nature, between the 10th and 14th, enveloped the whole Dominion. Snow fell on the 13th and 14th on high levels in the south. A cyclonic movement which passed through Cook Strait on the 21st brought heavy rain in and southwards of Cook Strait, as well as snow in the Mackenzie country, and some beneficial rain also fell in the north. During the month conditions were unusually warm and sultry in the north, but also misty and foggy at times in all parts of the Dominion.

March.—Except for a depression which existed off East Cape between the 23rd and 26th, the atmospheric disturbances were of the westerly low-pressure type, passing to the southward of New Zealand. Of these the most notable one was that which influenced weather-conditions between the 26th and 30th. During this period extremely heavy rains occurred in the high levels of the South Island and in Otago generally, causing floods in many of the large rivers. Of the rainfall at this time it may be interesting to specially note that experienced at the Hermitage. On four days 21.93 in. fell, and of this amount 1910 in. fell on two days—viz., on the 27th and 28th. It may be easily understood what a marked effect on the rivel-level such an abnormal fall over a wide area would have. While Otago and the central portion of the South Island had an excessive rainfall, in some cases double the average, the east and west coasts of the South Island had less than the average. In the North Island the Taranaki and Wanganui districts experienced more than the average, but in the northern and east coast districts nothing more than a few occasional showers were experienced, and the total was considerably below the average for March. In these districts, and also in the east coast of the South Island as far south as Timaru, fair and dry conditions ruled, but elsewhere dull and misty weather prevailed during the month. High northerly winds occurred in and southward of Cook Strait on frequent occasions, particularly on the 17th, 28th, and 29th. The first frosts of the season were reported in the south on the 23rd.

April.—As a general rule there was a predominance of anticyclonic conditions, with fair weather; but three periods of unsettled weather occurred, the first between the 2nd and 8th, during the passage of an antarctic depression; the second between the 12th and 15th, on account of a depression of a similar type but of far greater intensity; and the third from the 26th to the end of the month, when two shallow depressions were in evidence. Of these, one apparently passed eastward of East Cape on the 26th, and the other was a “westerly low” which overspread the Dominion on the 29th. However, none of the above-mentioned disturbances was accountable for particularly heavy rains. The only districts with a total fall in excess of the average were Gisborne, South Canterbury, and Southland. All other parts of the Dominion recorded below the normal.

May.—The barometer was below the average during the greater part of the month, and the exceedingly low reading of 28.48 in. was recorded on the 19th at the Bluff, being only 0.01 in. above the record for New Zealand. The readings from Adelie Land and Macquarie Island were not so low, and the whole disturbance bore the character of a vast cyclone in high latitudes. Anticyclonic conditions with fair weather ruled at the close of the monthly Strong southerly winds were prevalent, with cold and boisterous weather, except in the Bay of Plenty and Nelson districts, which are somewhat sheltered from these winds. The total rainfall during the month was not excessive, except in the southern portion of the North Island and parts of the east coast and southern districts of the South Island.

June.—On the whole June, meteorologically the first month of winter, was favoured with fair, though during the first half somewhat changeable, weather; consequently the rainfall was nearly everywhere less than normal. In the North Island this deficiency averaged 57 per cent., while in the South the difference was about 41 per cent. Southland was the only district that approximated the mean to any extent, and a few stations there exceeded it slightly. During the month New Zealand was affected by four well-defined types of pressure-distribution, each accounting for different weather-conditions. A cyclonic system passed in the south on the night of the 2nd, bringing general rain about that date. Two moderate westerly low-pressure areas ruled, the first between the 4th and 10th, and the second from the 15th to the 19th. Squally and changeable conditions were experienced with passing showers, especially in western districts. The remaining types were anticyclones, two, between the 10th and 14th and the 22nd and 25th respectively, being centred to the southward and bringing cold easterly winds to the east coast districts. From the 25th to the close of the month normal anticyclonic conditions with fine and bright weather prevailed.

July.—Owing to the predominance of moderate westerly winds the east coast districts between East Cape and Oamaru were favoured with exceptionally fair weather, and a rainfall considerably below the average. The vicinity of Cook Strait also returned a remarkably low rainfall, and, beside, experienced very fair and mild conditions which were most favourable to early vegetable growth. The Wanganui district was the only portion of the North Island where an excessive rainfall occurred, but in the South Island the whole of the west coast and southern districts suffered in this respect and were subject to unsettled weather. There were no serious atmospheric disturbances during the month, the westerly low-pressure area ruling between the 19th and 23rd having the most effect on weather-conditions. At this time many parts of the country recorded moderately heavy rains.

August.—This month was notable for three extensive cyclonic systems. Two whole centres passed over the South Island—viz., on the 12th and 24th respectively; the third passed in the North on the night of the 15th. About these dates widespread rains were experienced, the heaviest occurring in the south-eastern portion of the South Island, where the total exceeded the average considerably. There was, however, a predominance of fair and mild weather during the month, except towards the close, when very cold southerly winds prevailed.

September.—Frequent westerly depressions passed in the South between the 1st and 13th of the month, on account of which very unsettled weather prevailed. Most of the rainfall occurred during this period, but except in the western districts of the South Island and in the high country no exceptionally heavy falls were recorded. On the 10th and 11th very boisterous conditions were experienced. Between the 11th and 13th barometric pressure increased, and on the 14th extremely high pressure ruled over the North Island, a condition of affairs which persisted until the close of the month. The passage of three slight disturbances to the southward was responsible for changeable and squally conditions in parts about the 17th, 21st, and 28th, but generally during the latter half of the month fair weather was the prevailing feature, although a considerable amount of haze and cloudiness was experienced. The west coast and portions of the southernmost districts of the South Island had an excessive rainfall, but in all other parts of the Dominion the total for the month was below normal. In the Hawke's Bay and Gisborne districts this deficiency was greatest, most stations here recording a little over half an inch, equal to only one-fifth of the average.

October.—The month was one of seasonable weather, for, although dull skies were frequent, both precipitation and temperature were about the normal. The greatest positive difference in the former was accounted for in the southern extreme of the South Island, this owing to the heavy rains on the 29th and 30th. None of the atmospheric disturbances were of remarkable intensity such as to cause storms of a severe character. Westerly areas of low pressure passed in the South on the 3rd, 8th, and 16th, and immediately following these dates cold southerly winds were experienced. The strongest southerly, however, in the east coast districts occurred on the night of the 18th in connection with a depression centred off East Cape, and between the 15th and the 19th of the month conditions were generally very unsettled.

November.—The weather in November was remarkably similar to that experienced in the same month of 1912. As in the previous November, so in this, there was an almost total absence of well-developed anticyclones, and the numerous depressions, which accounted for the lack of settled conditions, were not unlike those in November, 1912, as regards both type and intensity. Between the 19th and the 23rd fair weather generally prevailed, but during the remainder of the month dull and unsettled conditions were the rule. The most unfavourable conditions were experienced about the 6th, the 18th, and during the last week, the disturbing cause in each case being a westerly area of low pressure, those passing on the 6th and 18th being apparently of a cyclonic: nature. Precipitation was considerably above the average throughout the Dominion.

December.—The weather during the greater part of the month was warm and fine. A small cyclone passed through Cook Strait on the 3rd, and westerly low pressure ruled between the 15th and 21st. On the morning of the 19th a reading of 28.85 in. was recorded at the Bluff. Heavy westerly winds occurred on that date.

The following shows the rainfall-stations that recorded the extreme maximum and minimum falls during the year, in a single month, and the maximum fall during a single day:—

North Island.

Maximum total fall for the year at Upper Mangorei, Taranaki, 121.12 in.

Minimum total fall for the year at Patutahi, Gisborne, 22.83 in.

Maximum total monthly fall at Mount Egmont, 32.33 in.

Minimum total monthly fall at Patunamu. Wairoa, 0.09 in.

Maximum fall in twenty-four hours, on 1st May, 9.93 in., at Wainui-omata Reservoir.

South Island.

Maximum total fall for the year at Otira, Westland, 194.55 in.

Minimum total fall for the year at Galloway, Central Otago, 15.70 in.

Maximum total monthly fall at Hermitage, Mount Cook. 41.95 in.

Minimum total monthly fall at Mary Burn Station, Mackenzie country, 0.13 in.

Maximum fall in twenty-four hours on 13th January, 1325 in., at Hermitage, Mount Cook.

METEOROLOGY.

Temperature, Rainfall, Atmospheric Pressure, and Wind, throughout New Zealand, as observed at Fourteen Stations, for the Year 1913.

The Observations were taken at 9 a.m.

Stations.Months.Temperature in ShadeRainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest.Lowest.Mean Max. Temp.Mean Min. Temp.Mean Temp. for Month.Wet Days.Fall.
 °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Inches. 
Auckland (lat. 36° 50′ S.; long. 174° 50′ 4′ E.; alt. 125 ft.)—January79.549.072.258.865.5122.64..SW, NW.
February79 052.072.158.865.491.38..SW, NW.
March78.049.572.158.165.192.34..SW, NW.
April71.041.565.251.058.191.48..S, S.E, SW.
May61.540.057.946.752.3224.37..W, SW.
June64.536.557.244.450.8141.47..SE, NW, S.
July62.038.556.746.851.7254.37..W, SW.
August62.040.057.748.353.0235.74..NE.
September64.042.060.249.154.6141.76..N, SW.
October72.043.563.052.057.5153.69..SW.
November72.047.066.154.060.0226.16..SW, NW, N.
December74.047.066.354.260.2162.80..NW, W.
Rotorua (lat. 38° 9′ S.; long. 176° 15′ E.; alt. 932 ft.)—January82.038.073.352.763.0115.28..SW.
February81.036.073.151.362.230.31..SW.
March80.035.072.550.561.583.19..SW.
April70.030.063.742.653.130.87..SW.
May62.027.055.535.745.6103.11..SW.
June62.026.054.536.345.451.64..SW.
July61.029.054.141.247.7145.47..SW.
August63.029.055.441.548.5135.85..SW.
September65.030.058.941.550.271.80..NE, SW.
October73.036.064.945.155.0113.85..SW.
November72.039.066.147.556.8216.80..NE, SW, NW.
December82.036.066.548.657.5144.07..W, SW.
Gisborne (lat. 38° 30′ S.; long. 178° 3′ E.; alt. 20 ft.)—January91.043.080.256.168.171.52..W.
February88.040.078.752.365.540.13..W.
March88.042.079.654.867.281.25..W.
April77.032.065.147.356.2166.79..W.
May68.029.057.540.348.9121.94..W.
June68.025.056.738.947.8121.74..W.
July70.026.059.541.950.7101.38..W.
August67.029.059.241.850.5203.35..W.
September70.029.063.340.551.991.01..W.
October79.035.067.546.957.2142.33..N, S, SW.
November80.039.069.749.159.4142.53..W; S.
December80.037.070.350.860.5122.33..W.
Greenmeadows (Napier) (lat. 39° 32′ S.; long. 176° 53′ E.; alt. 14 ft.)—January90.048.079.958.369.150.8929.841W.
February87.542.076.555.465.930.6529.954S, W.
March85.046.576.156.666.331.7329.958W.
April78.540.064.348.956.672.4430.152S, W.
May64.532.557.240.849.060.8729.723S.
June70.029.556.239.848.050.8630.093W.
July71.027.057.440.148.741.0529.972W, S.
August66.035.056.043.249.5142.8929.855S.
September70.034.663.345.754.540.5330.145W.
October78.540.567.249.658.484.0429.940W.
November80.040.068.851.360.583.9629.701W.
December82.042.570.752.361.593.5129.771W, S.
New Plymouth (lat. 39° 3′ 35′ S.; long. 174° 4′ 58′ E.; alt. 63 ft.)—January79.043.072.155.663.8156.68..W, SW.
February76.046.071.653.862.7172.48..W, SW, N.
March77.043.073.254.463.8195.74..SW, W, E.
April77.040.070.147.858.991.32..SE.
May75.034.066.042.854.4204.76..SW, SE, E.
June79.032.067.241.554.3122.56..SE.
July79.032.067.744.756.2234.96..SW, SE, E.
August72.033.065.345.155.2195.32..SE, NE.
September75.040.068.748.258.5113.24..SW, NW, E.
October75.038.069.549.059.2215.90..SW.
November82.043.072.250.861.5215.64..SW, W.
December76.045.070.652.161.4173.65..SW.
Wellington (lat. 41° 16′ S.; long. 174° 46′ E.; alt. 8 ft.)—January79.847.868.757.463.075.0329.830N.
February78.246.868.456.762.581.7129.948N.
March72.443.066.855.761.2162.8329.943N, NW, S.
April68.238.860.249.054.6112.9630.156NW, SE, S.
May61.234.054.642.648.62211.8029.779N, S.
June62.235.054.443.448.9172.0230.083N.
July61.634.455.044.449.7213.1529.945N, NW
August62.436.255.044.549.7254.3029.869S, N.
September68.640.658.749.554.1101.6930.112N.
October71.035.459.350.454.8224.8629.920N, S, NW.
November71.841.663.651.257.4184.1529.670N, S.
December78.844.065.452.759.0197.5129.768N, S.
Nelson (lat. 41° 16′ 17′S.; long. 173° 18′ 46′ E.; alt. 34 ft.)—January85.046.075.755.365.593.30..SW, N.
February81.041.073.954.364.142.42..N, SW.
March81.040.073.453.863.681.72..SW.
April75.036.065.244.754.931.60..SW.
May65.033.057.738.548.181.59..SE, S.
June59.030.054.836.545.7111.94..S.
July59.031.054.939.647.3122.92..SW.
August62.031.056.940.948.9105.27..NE.
September67.036.061.845.653.7112.32..N, S.
October77.041.066.947.557.2153.93..N, SW.
November74.042.067.549.358.4205.70..N, SW, NW.
December80.041.069.951.460.6174.56..N, SW.
Stations.Months.Temperature in ShadeRainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest.Lowest.Mean Max. Temp.Mean Min. Temp.Mean Temp. for Month.Wet Days.Fall.
 °Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.°Fahr.No.Inches.Inches. 
Hokitika (lat. 42° 41′ 30′S.; long. 170° 49′ E.; alt. 12 ft.)—January74.041.063.650.757.2228.8529.872SW, NW.
February75.038.064.149.957.0174.7429.961SW.
March69.041.564.151.857.92510.6829.940SW, E, NW.
April63.033.059.44.852.2154.2930.138E.
May60.032.053.037.045.0177.6429.800E, SE.
June54.528.550.135.943.0179.1330.066E, SE.
July58.530.051.839.545.62612.7329.947E.
August60.031.054.638.646.6157.4929.872E, NE.
September63.532.056.845.451.12811.4930.081NW, E, NE.
October62.535.059.146.953.0199.6229.917SW, NW, E.
November66.040.061.447.554.42110.0429.635SW.
December78.038.563.650.256.9174.2729.758SW, NW.
Christchurch (lat. 43° 31′ 50′S.; long. 172° 38′ 9′ E.; alt. 25 ft.)—January88.639.972.552.162.393.9029.737NE.
February84.036.169.450.359.872.1929.874N.E., S.W.
March82.634.267.749.358.5110.6129.856SW, NE, E.
April75.630.259.641.550.581.1330.100NE, SW.
May68.424.551.335.343.3122.9829.794SW.
June65.123.750.931.241.0121.0630.025SW., NE.
July59.628.151.735.243.5122.5929.886SW, NE.
August63.725.850.736.743.7203.3729.845SW, NE.
September71.126.559.942.551.270.4829.997NE, SW.
October81.928.563.143.753.4121.6229.849NE, SW.
November79.337.463.746.855.2162.0229.618NE, SW.
December86.434.364.948.856.8145.5729.737SW, E, NE.
Hanmer Spa (lat. 42° 31′ S.; long. 172° 50′ E.; alt. 1,220 ft.)—January85.037.072.450.561.4103.10..NW.
February90.032.073.047.860.463.50..SW.
March85.035.071.448.059.791.43..NW.
April69.027.060.137.648.882.33..SW.
May64.025.051.035.443.2137.84..NE.
June60.020.050.529.940.292.00..NE.
July62.021.052.833.543.192.33..NW, SW.
August60.024.051.331.541.482.24..NW.
September67.027.059.741.350.572.30..NW.
October76.033.063.141.852.4153.73..SW, NW.
November75.033.064.542.953.7194.39..NW, SW.
December85.033.064.745.555.1144.61..NW, SW, NE.
Lincoln (lat. 43° 32′ 16′ S.; long. 172° 38′ 39′ E.; alt. 42 ft.)—January90.141.374.351.562.9104.7929.702NE.
February89.738.170.750.460.582.8329.857NE, SW.
March86.932.771.349.760.5100.4729.851NE, SW.
April76.231.962.341.351.871.5630.047NE, SW.
May68.427.853.037.845.4113.1529.764SW, NE.
June66.923.851.833.142.4120.9630.038NE.
July60.630.053.238.045.6122.7429.894NE, SW.
August65.026.552.238.045.1183.2129.875NE, SW.
September73.029.761.445.053.272.5930.000NE, SW.
October83.630.164.744.554.6111.5729.849NE, SW.
November80.138.064.646.655.6172.7029.617NE, SW.
December84.234.566.649.658.1164.9429.744NE, SW.
Dunedin (lat. 45° 52′ S.; long. 170° 31′ E.; alt. 250 ft.)—January89.039.067.349.358.3163.5429.676NE, SW, NW.
February88.539.065.248.456.8121.8029.830SW, NE.
March83.041.061.448.254.8203.8429.807SW, NE.
April67.536.056.342.549.4102.9030.063SW.
May67.033.051.338.845.0203.6329.733SW.
June61.031.050.638.244.480.9129.973SW.
July63.030.050.739.144.9194.4729.826SW, N.
August61.032.050.939.044.9147.7129.816N, NE.
September67.035.057.943.250.5132.5529.913N, NE, SW.
October76.537.060.443.852.1163.6129.804NE, SW.
November71.040.058.345.351.8194.9929.616NE, SW.
December78.040.061.448.755.0184.8229.727NE, SW.
Invercargill (lat. 46° 25′ S.; long. 168° 21′ E.; alt. 18 ft.)—January81.034.066.046.656.3184.50..SW, W, NW.
February81.028.064.043.053.8204.78..W, SW.
March78.530.563.046.354.6257.39..SW, W, E.
April63.028.556.340.448.3185.09..SW, W, NW.
May63.028.049.730.943.3277.86..SW, W.
June58.038.049.336.142.7253.91..NW, SW, W.
July59.026.549.037.043.0235.08..W, SW, NE.
August60.028.052.335.643.9153.36..E, NE.
September68.032.057.440.248.8183.91..NE, SW, E, NW
October73.033.559.042.550.7196.16..SW, W.
November74.033.062.543.352.9183.20..SW.
December78.033.063.246.254.7172.94..SW.
Chatham Islands (lat. 43° 52′ S.; long. 170° 42′ W.; alt. 340 ft.)—January75.045.067.153.560.3132.5429.882NW, SW, W.
February72.040.062.649.456.0183.9229.876SW.
March69.042.060.849.555.1196.6729.881SW.
April65.039.055.746.451.1213.7830.082SW, SE.
May60.034.051.742.547.12810.4929.583SW, SE, NW.
June54.037.048.740.744.7294.2729.953SW.
July54.033.048.440.044.2258.7829.819SW, NW.
August56.035.050.741.946.3305.1929.954SE, NE.
September59.035.052.642.347.1162.1530.186SW, NW.
October64.035.056.445.350.9192.5929.943SW, NW.
November67.036.059.548.554.0222.8129.727SW, NW, SE.
December67.043.061.248.754.9223.4529.794SW, NW, E.
Comparative Table: Year 1913.
Stations.Temperature in Shade.Rainfall.Mean Height of Barometer.Prevailing Winds.
Highest and Date.Lowest and Date.Mean Max. Temp. for Year.Mean Min. Temp. for Year.Mean Temp. for Year.Days on which Rain fell.Total Fall.
 Fahr.Fahr.Fahr.Fahr.Fahr.No.Inches.Inches. 
Auckland79.5 Jan. 2236.5 June 2663.951.957.919038.20..SW, NW, W.
Rotorua82.0 Jan. 16 Dec. 2626.0 June 1663.244.553.812042.24..SW, NE.
Gisborne91.0 Jan. 2125.0 June 167.346.757.013826.30..W, S.
Greenmeadows90.0 Jan. 20, 2127.0 July 1366.148.557.37623.4229.925W, S.
New Plymouth82.0 Nov. 17, 2632.0 June 30 July 1269.548.859.120452.25..SW, SE, W.
Wellington79.8 Jan. 1634.0 May 2260.849.855.318652.0129.918N, S, NW.
Nelson85.0 Jan. 15, 2130.0 June 1664.946.555.712837.27..SW, N.
Hokitika78.0 Dec. 1228.5 June 1558.444.851.6239100.9729.912E, SW.
Christchurch88.6 Jan. 2023.7 June 1460.442.851.614027.5229.860SW, NE.
Hanmer Spa90.0 Feb. 720.0 June 1461.240.550.812739.80..NW, SW.
Lincoln90.1 Jan. 15, 2023.8 June 1462.243.853.013931.5129.853NE, SW.
Dunedin89.0 Jan. 1430.0 July 1157.643.750.618544.7729.815SW, NE.
Invercargill81.0 Jan 5 Feb. 626.5 July 157.641.249.424358.18..SW, W.
Chatham Islands75.0 Jan. 27, 2833.0 July 2556.245.750.926250.6429.890SW, NW.

Chapter 3. SECTION III—POPULATION.

SUBSECTION A. —THE DOMINION.

ESTIMATES - 31ST DECEMBER, 1913.

THE population of New Zealand, as estimated on the 31st December, 1913, with the increase during the year, is shown below:—

     Males.Females.Totals.
Population estimated (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1912.553,212499,4151,052,627
Increase during the year 1913—
     By excess of births over deaths8,5669,25017,816
     By excess of immigration over emigration7,3316,88814,219
          Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1913569,109515,5531,084,662
Maori population, census 191126,47523,36949,844
Population of Cook and other Pacific islands, census 19116,4496,14912,598
Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1913602,033545,0711,147,104

Estimates of population are made from the records of births and deaths and the returns of migration. These estimates, especially of late years, are found to be remarkably near the truth, as will be seen from the following table, showing the estimated population as at 31st March in each of the last seven census years compared with the population as ascertained by the census in the same years:—

Year.Estimated Population, 31st March.Census Population.Difference.
1881488,649489,9331,284
1886585,844578,4827,362
1891631,898626,6585,240
1896701,383703,3601,977
1901775,123772,7192,404
1906889,971888,5781,393
19111,006,7611,008,4681,707

GROWTH OF POPULATION.

The following table shows the growth of the population during the last twenty-eight years:—

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.*Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.Net Increase.

* Corrected where necessary in accordance with census results.

† Loss. The amount of loss by departures in the period 1886–91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.

1886589,38613,16417,19458,88610.24
1887603,36112,998
1888607,38013,194
1889616,05212,685
1890625,50812,284
1891634,05811,755
1892650,43311,4174,95816,3752.58
1893672,26511,42010,41221,8323.36
1894686,12811,6102,25313,8632.06
1895698,70611,68389512,5781.83
1896714,16212,1801,47213,6521.95
1897729,05612,1422,75214,8942.09
1898743,46311,7112,69614,4071.98
1899756,50511,1551,88713,0421.75
1900768,27812,3461,83114,1771.87
1901787,65712,8576,52219,3792.52
1902807,92912,2807,99220,2722.57
1903832,50513,30111,27524,5763.04
1904857,53914,67910,35525,0343.01
1905882,46215,6219,30224,9232.91
1906908,72615,91312,84828,7613.26
1907929,48415,0285,73020,7582.28
1908960,64216,89714,26131,1583.35
1909982,92617,5654,71922,2842.32
19101,004,38616,3453,40819,7532.01
19111,025,40616,8204,20021,0202.09
19121,052,62718,2948,92727,2212.65
19131,084,66217,81614,21932,0353.04

The rate of increase during 1913 was higher than that of any of the four years immediately preceding, and also higher than the average for the decennium 1903–12 (2.69 per cent.). The increase of population (male, female, and total) since 1854 is illustrated by the annexed graphs.

EXPLANATION OF THE GRAPHS.—The base of each square represents an curve shows the increase in the total population, the middle the increase in interval of one year, and the vertical height 10,000 persons. The upper males, and the lower the increase in females.

An examination of the increase for each quarter of the past ten years discloses a considerable amount of irregularity, due to fluctuations in migration.

INCREASE OF POPULATION DURING EACH QUARTER, 1904–13.
Year.First Quarter.Second Quarter.Third Quarter.Fourth Quarter.Total Increase.
19046,4523,2745,6109,69825,034
19057,4342,3955,5189,57624,923
19067,5093,8095,79711,64628,761
19075,1417204,59510,30220,758
19088,1053,2326,96512,85631,158
19097,6901,0344,0259,53522,284
19104,5557924,08410,32219,753
19114,0821,0244,76911,14521,020
19126,0942,9365,84112,35027,221
19139,1183,9697,77911,16932,035

NATURAL INCREASE.

The natural increase of population is shown in the following table:—

NATURAL INCREASE OF POPULATION, 1904–13.
YearExcess of Births over Deaths.Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Males.Females.Persons.
19047,0097,67014,67917.37
19057,4208,20115,62117.95
19067,4628,45115,91317.77
19077,0807,94815,02816.35
19088,0458,85216,89717.88
19098,2569,30917,56518.07
19107,8388,50716,34516.46
19117,9378,88316,82016.58
19128,6229,67218,29417.61
19138,5669,25017,81616.67

The average rate of natural increase for the above period was 17.27 per 1,000.

EXTERNAL MIGRATION.

The number of persons arriving in and departing from New Zealand is compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion by the Union Steamship Company's boats are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted; the necessary additions can be made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes happened prior to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove nearly correct.

Arrangements have now been made to obtain similar returns in respect of passengers carried by the Huddart-Parker line.

The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under or over twelve years of age, is given in the following table:—

ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES, 1904–13.
Year.Over 12 Years of Age.Under 12 Years of Age.Total.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Arrivals.
190420,1189,0081,8621,64432,632
190519,5419,6061,8031,73532,685
190623,37411,6512,2331,97539,233
190721,26611,0801,9621,80036,108
190826,66413,2692,6782,35944,970
190921,76312,4802,3022,10538,650
191020,16111,8321,9741,80235,769
191122,88113,9532,4522,10341,389
191224,02615,4422,7492,44344,660
191322,87215,8013,0192,89644,588
Departures.
190413,7826,92888967822,277
190514,4687,16492282923,383
190616,0238,0821,1881,09226,385
190717,9689,8231,3421,24530,378
190818,3649,7791,3431,22330,709
190920,77210,3731,4721,31433,931
191019,03210,6291,4191,28132,361
191121,73012,1901,8091,46037,189
191220,15112,2781,7631,54135,733
191317,18810,5181,3721,29130,369

In the next table are shown the quarterly increases or decreases during the last ten years. The second quarter of each of the ten years shows an excess of departures over arrivals, due to the fact that visitors to New Zealand usually take their departure just before the winter season. Autumn is, moreover, the favourite season for residents of the Dominion to commence a journey abroad for pleasure, the return being usually made in spring or summer.

QUARTERLY INCREASE OF POPULATION BY MIGRATION, 1904–13.
Year.First Quarter.Second Quarter.Third Quarter.Fourth Quarter.Net Increase.
The minus sign (–) denotes decrease.
19042,8613072,0435,75810,355
19053,448−1,3841,7055,5339,302
19063,4261901,8977,71512,848
19071,513−3,1061,0926,2315,730
19083,548−7153,1178,31114,261
19093,435−3,517−1674,9684,719
1910577−3,4301846,0773,408
1911−157−3,1748506,6814,200
19121,535−1,6031,4237,5728,927
19134,565−3973,4926,55914,219

Nearly two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.

Countries.1909.1910.1911.1912.1913.
Arrivals.
United Kingdom11,1849,36711,37912,91214,707
Commonwealth of Australia25,54824,50226,90928,52226,764
Other British possessions1,1419321,6202,0721,968
Foreign countries7779681,4811,1541,149
 38,65035,76941,38944,66044,588
Departures.
United Kingdom2,6762,5092,7552,6052,649
Commonwealth of Australia28,99527,10030,91830,14124,961
Other British possessions1,3261,3961,5401,4261,496
Foreign countries9341,3561,9761,5611,263
 33,93132,36137,18935,73330,369

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION.

Residents in the Dominion may, by application on the proper form, secure a passage at assisted rates for any person residing in the United Kingdom who is a near relative by blood or marriage to the person making such application.

Applications for assisted passages are also received from residents of the Dominion nominating domestic servants, farmers, or farm labourers, irrespective of the relationship existing between the domestic or agriculturist and the person making such application.

The payments required are—second class, £27; third class (two-berth cabin), £12; third class (four-berth cabin), £10. The passage-money, which must be paid in full before passages are booked, can be paid to the Immigration Department in Wellington or to the High Commissioner for New Zealand in London. The Department will cable any nomination, together with a remittance, if so desired, for the extra charge of £1.

Domestic servants and farm labourers granted assisted passages as such are required to follow in New Zealand their respective occupations of domestic and farm work for a period of one year after their arrival in the Dominion. If it is found that some occupation other than domestic or farm work is entered into by any such assisted immigrant before the expiration of one year after arrival in New Zealand, the nominator will be called upon to pay the Government the difference between the assisted rate and the full fare.

Children between three and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half-rates. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.

Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company.

Unhealthy persons should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other like complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.

Questions as to the suitability of any person nominated for a reduced passage are decided by the High Commissioner.

The foregoing applies to persons of not more than fifty years of age in the case of nominated persons and farmers or farm labourers, and not more than thirty-five years of age in the case of domestic servants.

In the case of immigrants under twenty-one years of age, special arrangements have to be entered into for their protection on the voyage where deemed necessary or advisable.

The High Commissioner is authorized to grant to suitable and healthy farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, who apply to him in London, a passage to New Zealand at the following rates:—

 Farmers and Farm Labourers.Domestic Servants.
£s.d.£s.d.
Third class: 6-berth cabin8002160
Third class: 4-berth cabin10004160
Third class: 2-berth cabin12006160

These sums, together with landing-money, to be fixed at what the High Commissioner considers requisite, can be paid in part or in full before embarkation, or they can be, where the High Commissioner so decides, wholly advanced by him in London, provided the immigrant undertakes to repay out of future earnings the sum so advanced.

The same authority extends for sanction being given to parties of boy emigrants to come to New Zealand, under the conditions that an officer of the Immigration Department be appointed guardian of each boy until his majority, and that each boy undertake to engage in farm work for a fixed number of years. During this time he must be kept by the farmer employing him in proper clothes, food, nourishment, and lodgings, and, in addition, be paid a weekly wage of not less than 7s. 6d., increasing each year, part of such wage to be given him for his pocket-money and part banked to repay the cost of his passage. When the amount of his passage-money has been repaid, then the whole of his wages are paid to him.

The total number of persons embarking from England for New Zealand at assisted rates during each of the last ten years, the total capital possessed by these, and the net expenditure by the Government on immigration, are shown below.

Year ended 31st March.Immigrants Assisted.Capital possessed by Assisted Immigrants.Net Government Expenditure on Immigration.
 ££
19051,75194,7116,482
19062,469110,2048,753
19073,712114,68914,352
19083,10470,0569,131
19094,95396,05515,077
19102,67234,68817,002
19112,62437,7359,441
19123,30024,08811,681
19133,92832,00614,694
19145,06439,70133,914

Under the immigration policy of years prior to the above the following persons were assisted:—

Year.Immigrants.
187431,774
187518,324
18768,242
18775,298
18786,580
187910,311
18802,689
1881103
1882726
18835,902
18843,888
18851,072
1886917
18871,286
1888485
188991
1890144
189144

During the years 1892 to 1903, inclusive, no assisted passages to immigrants were granted.

Reception of and Dealing with Assisted Immigrants.

On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by officers of the Immigration Department, who accompany the Port Health Officer to the ship. Whilst the ship is in the stream it is the special duty of such officers to afford to the assisted immigrants all necessary information as regards transhipment, &c. Arrangements are made for safety and transhipment of luggage.

Each immigrant is seen as he passes towards the doctor for examination, and is handed an official letter containing information as to where his ticket will be arranged for, and the place and time of departure of his connecting train or boat (if any). The immigrant is also requested to see the Immigration Officer on board, or to come to the office, which is near the wharf in Wellington (Union Steamship Company's building), if he requires information or advice beyond what is given in the letter. The addresses of the district agencies of the Labour Department in the large centres of the Dominion are also supplied to male assisted immigrants. It is the practice of the Department to send out advices, by wire if necessary, to friends and relatives of immigrants about to arrive, and to get back information as to where the new-comers will be met. These messages, often together with private letters, &c., are given out on board to those to whom they are addressed. Information of this nature is much appreciated, especially by wives joining their husbands.

Assisted immigrants requiring work are referred to the office of the Immigration Department, and their cases are there dealt with.

As regards the female assisted domestic workers, who are chosen after application at Home to the High Commissioner, and who are sent to New Zealand under the supervision of one or more responsible matrons, the following applies:—

The Government advertises the fact that the books of the Department are open to record the names of those people in the Dominion desirous of securing the services of an assisted girl. Such advertisements bring into the office many applications, especially pending the arrival of a ship.

Each matron in charge on board is instructed by communications awaiting her at Hobart to classify the girls under two heads: (a) those with work already arranged or friends to go to; (b) those without either friends or work. On arrival they are met by the Girls' Superintendent of the Immigration Department. Arrangements are made for sending to their destinations those girls who are going to friends or to definite positions Those requiring accommodation are directed to homes or hostels approved by the Minister of Immigration for this purpose. The Superintendent then separately considers the case of each girl, and arranges to place her with an applicant for a Government assisted girl. In placing these girls at present, considerable reliance has necessarily to be placed on the statements made by them. The Department is, however, taking steps to get full and independent details of the work that the girl was actually engaged in before she left the Mother-country. After a girl has been placed, the Department endeavours to keep in touch with her by correspondence.

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION.

The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign, in any European language, a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons are excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces, and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of 26th November, 1908.

The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act, having a similar purpose, was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.

RACE ALIENS.

Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion. In spite of this fact, there appears to be an increase in alien immigration, as the table following will show. The total for 1913 is, however, considerably lower than in the two preceding years.

Birthplace.Year.
1904.1905.1906.1907.1903.1909.1910.1911.1912.1913.
British Possessions
     India33445202415780190325133
     Pacific Islands113073111229245148
     Other1417..3130431434
Total, British Possessions28651252166209132215380215
Foreign Countries
     China235239260255538171209546348325
     Syria3630332231292019
     Asia Minor65 46124482
     Japan1011033714917
     Pacific Islands142428271018725244
     Other24111..221147
Total, foreign countries292276329293589233235589423374
Total, “Race Aliens”320341454314655442367804803589

Of the race aliens arriving in New Zealand, a large proportion are Chinese, most of whom, however, have been formerly resident in the Dominion. Hindus and other natives of India are also of late years arriving in considerable numbers, the total of these for the past five years being 885 as against 127 during the preceding quinquennium.

NATURALIZATION

When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized, he may present to the Governor a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—

His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation;

The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;

A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.

Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.

Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom, or any British possession, may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.

An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father, or the mother, being a widow, has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.

Every alien resident in New Zealand may inherit or otherwise acquire, hold, and dispose of every description of property in the same manner as if he were a natural-born British subject, but may not become the owner of any ship, or of a share in any ship, registered in New Zealand. Any person born in foreign territory whose mother is a natural-born British subject shall be capable of acquiring property in New Zealand by purchase, or under a will or intestacy.

No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who are charged £1.

During 1913 letters of naturalization wore granted to 392 males and 14 females belonging to the following nationalities:—

Natives of—M.F.
Austria-Hungary2311
Germany306
Denmark261
Russian26..
Sweden221
Switzerland14..
Norway113
United States of America10..
Italy8..
Syria3..
France21
Bulgaria2..
Other countries71
Total39214

The number of natives of each country naturalized during the last twenty years is next shown.

Natives of—Persons.
Austria-Hungary1,442
Germany1,186
Denmark693
Sweden677
Norway463
Russia349
China242
Italy225
Switzerland183
Syria175
France159
United States of America145
Netherlands63
Greece62
Portugal and Possessions60
Belgium40
Spain16
Japan11
Turkey10
Other countries52
          Total6,253

SUBSECTION B.—PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS.

PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Estimates of population of the various provincial districts have been made for many years past, but have not been very reliable, on account of the lack of any record of internal migration. Since March, 1913, however, returns of inter-island migration have been obtained, and the population can now be allocated with a high degree of accuracy as between the two main islands. In addition a close watch is kept on the relative progress of the various divisions of the Dominion, thus enabling a more reliable estimate to be made as regards the populations of provincial districts. Estimates as at 31st December last are given in the following table.

Provincial District.Estimated Population 31st December, 1913.
Males.Females.Totals.
Auckland153,014134,775287,789
Taranaki30,17026,33056,500
Hawke's Bay27,86624,89052,756
Wellington112,169102,024214,193
Marlborough9,3397,89617,235
Nelson28,47723,05251,529
Westland9,1547,60016,754
Canterbury94,06190,411184,472
Otago—
     Otago portion70,66169,226139,887
     Southland portion34,02529,25163,276
     Chatham Islands17196267
     Kermadec Islands 224
          Totals for the Dominion569,109515,5531,084,662

COUNTIES.

The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized, and forming part of counties, have considerable populations. On the other hand the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on. A list of counties and their populations (exclusive of interior boroughs and town districts not forming parts of counties) is given. The populations shown are as estimated to 1st April, 1914.

County.Estimated Population.
Akaroa2,402
Akitio1,524
Amuri1,865
Ashburton10,977
Ashley757
Awakino667
Awatere1,631
Bay of Islands3,384
Bruce5,074
Buller7,354
Castlepoint665
Chatham Islands267
Cheviot1,521
Clifton2,470
Clutha7,624
Collingwood1,326
Cook6,903
Coromandel2,937
Dannevirke5,084
East Taupo582
Eden22,071
Egmont3,668
Eketahuna2,053
Ellesmere4,025
Eltham3,752
Eyre1,998
Featherston2,780
Fiord45
Franklin8,344
Geraldine5,838
Great Barrier441
Grey6,205
Halswell2,025
Hawera4,113
Hawke's Bay8,546
Heathcote4,434
Hobson4,385
Hokianga3,270
Horowhenua6,189
Hutt4,790
Inangahua4,956
Kaikoura2,046
Kairanga4,486
Kaitieke1,598
Kawhia965
Kiwitea3,218
Kowai2,218
Lake2,055
Levels5,150
Mackenzie2,498
Makara3,127
Malvern3,691
Manawatu5,161
Mangonui3,339
Maniototo2,952
Manukau5,067
Marlborough6,928
Masterton4,314
Matamata3,250
Mauriceville1,019
Mount Herbert494
Murchison1,115
Ohinemuri6,499
Ohura1,584
Opotiki1,593
Oroua4,151
Otamatea3,815
Oxford1,993
Pahiatua3,646
Paparua4,366
Patangata2,101
Patea3,304
Peninsula1,988
Piako3,531
Pohangina2,079
Raglan3,207
Rangiora3,082
Rangitikei8,630
Rodney3,828
Rotorua1,272
Selwyn1,352
Sounds1,254
Southland27,794
Springs2,018
Stewart Island349
Stratford5,973
Taieri6,508
Takaka2,002
Taranaki8,152
Tauranga2,582
Tawera1,325
Thames4,717
Tuapeka6,015
Vincent3,919
Waiapu1,863
Waihemo1,728
Waikato5,836
Waikohu3,186
Waikouaiti4,530
Waimairi11,413
Waimarino2,763
Waimate7,182
Waimate West2,046
Waimea9,496
Waipa5,223
Waipara2,098
Waipawa3,300
Waipukurau584
Wairarapa South2,945
Wairewa953
Wairoa2,036
Waitaki10,215
Waitemata6,423
Waitomo3,966
Waitotara2,590
Wallace9,348
Wanganui4,157
Weber571
Westland4,490
West Taupo1.074
Whakatane1,828
Whangamomona1,914
Whangarei7,700
Whangaroa833
Woodville2,040

BOROUGHS.

Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants. The total number of persons resident in boroughs at the last five censuses was as follows:—

Census Year.Population in Boroughs. Persons.
1891270,343
1896307,294
1901350,202
1906424,614
1911505,598

The increase during the twenty years was 235,255 persons, or 87.02 per cent. Boroughs which in 1911 had a population of 1,000 or over contained an aggregate of 491,836 persons in that year, as against an aggregate of 252,722 persons for boroughs of 1,000 and over in 1891, an increase of 239,114 persons, or 9462 per cent. The name of each borough, with the number of inhabitants estimated as at 1st April, 1914, is given in the next table.

ESTIMATED POPULATION OF BOROUGHS ON THE 1ST APRIL, 1914.
Borough.Estimated Population.
Akaroa662
Alexandra809
Arrowtown425
Ashburton2,851
Auckland (City)50,482
Balclutha1,323
Birkenhead2,139
Blenheim4,010
Brunner1,108
Cambridge1,614
Campbelltown1,919
Carterton1,658
Christchurch (City)56,510
Cromwell615
Dannevirke3,656
Dargaville1,388
Devonport7,770
Dunedin (City)49,621
Eastbourne620
Eketahuna865
Eltham1,951
Feilding3,658
Foxton1,894
Frankton1,228
Geraldine1,008
Gisborne9,683
Gore3,510
Green Island2,115
Grey Lynn8,672
Greymouth5,729
Greytown1,117
Hamilton3,908
Hampden362
Hastings6,824
Hawera3,017
Hokitika2,363
Inglewood1,430
Invercargill14,526
Invercargill South1,654
Kaiapoi1,945
Kaitangata1,644
Karori1,626
Kumara820
Lawrence955
Levin1,860
Lower Hutt4,906
Lyttelton4,151
Maori Hill2,313
Marton1,663
Masterton5,781
Mataura1,291
Milton1,413
Miramar1,780
Mornington5,361
Mosgiel1,675
Motueka1,352
Mount Albert8,912
Mount Eden11,140
Napier11,083
Naseby325
Nelson (City)8,522
New Brighton2,106
Newmarket3,201
New Plymouth7,983
Northcote1,737
Oamaru5,499
Ohakune1,333
Onehunga5,002
Onslow2,019
Opotiki1,006
Otahuhu1,986
Pahiatua1,456
Palmerston830
Palmerston North12,042
Patea1,031
Petone7,263
Picton1,445
Port Chalmers2,204
Pukekohe1,324
Queenstown730
Rangiora1,957
Riccarton3,080
Richmond772
Riverton1,007
Ross672
Roxburgh462
Runanga1,722
Spreydon3,819
St. Kilda4,990
Stratford3,015
Sumner2,004
Taihape1,874
Takapuna1,544
Tapanui348
Taumarunui1,244
Tauranga1,448
Te Aroha1,431
Te Kuiti1,397
Temuka1,858
Thames3,732
Timaru12,702
Waihi5,475
Waikouaiti722
Waimate1,880
Waipawa1,174
Waipukurau1,132
Wairoa1,190
Waitara1,631
Wanganui13,751
Wellington (City)67,708
West Harbour2,083
Westport5,205
Whangarei2,865
Winton607
Woodville1,264
Woolston3,804

With the boroughs is also now included for some purposes th town of Rotorua, constituted under the Rotorua Town Act, 1907. The estimated population of Rotorua on 1st April last was 2,636.

CHIEF CITIES AND SUBURBS.

The principal cities of New Zealand are Auckland and Wellington in the North Island, Christchurch and Dunedin in the South Island. The population of each of these cities and their suburbs, as estimated at 1st April, 1914, is given below:—

 Estimated Population
AUCKLAND AND SUBURBS.
Auckland City50,482
Suburban boroughs—
     Birkenhead2,139
     Devonport7,770
     Newmarket3,201
     Grey Lynn8,672
     Mount Eden11,140
     Mount Albert8,912
     Northcote1,737
     Takapuna1,544
Other suburbs18,687
Total, Greater Auckland114,284
WELLINGTON AND SUBURBS.
Wellington City67,708
Suburban boroughs—
     Onslow2,019
     Karori1,626
     Miramar1,780
     Eastbourne620
Other suburbs1,390
Total, Greater Wellington75,143
Christchurch City50,510
Suburban boroughs—
     Woolston3,804
     New Brighton2,106
     Sumner2,004
     Spreydon3,819
     Riccarton3,080
Other suburbs15,087
Total, Greater Christchurch86,410
DUNEDIN AND SUBURBS.
Dunedin City49,621
Suburban boroughs—
     Maori Hill2,313
     Mornington5,361
     St. Kilda4,990
     West Harbour2,083
     Green Island2,115
Other suburbs2,574
Total, Greater Dunedin69,057

The only other city in New Zealand is Nelson. There are, however, six towns possessing, with suburbs, larger populations than Nelson, and information concerning these is shown below. The populations given are as estimated to 1st April last in the case of the boroughs and town districts, and as ascertained at the census of 1911 in the case of other suburbs.

North Island
 Estimated Population
GISBORNE9,683
     Suburbs —
          Mangapapa Town District1,072
          Kaiti, Te Hapara, Tamarau, and Whataupoko820
          Total, Gisborne and Suburbs11,575
NAPIER11,088
     Suburbs—
          Napier South Town District746
          West Shore527
          Awatoto272
          Total, Napier and Suburbs12,628
WANGANUI13,751
     Suburbs—
          Gonville Town District1,801
          Mosstown202
          Putiki172
          Marybank105
          Total, Wanganui and Suburbs16,031
PALMERSTON NORTH12,042
South Island
NELSON8,522
     Suburbs—
          Bishopdale39
          Tahunanui144
          Total, Nelson and Suburbs8,705
TIMARU12,702
INVERCARGILL14,526
     Suburbs—
          Invercargill South Borough1,654
          Otatara211
          Grassmere, Waikiwi, and Prestonville901
          Waverley40
          Lindisfarne, Richmond Grove, Inglewood, Adamsons, and Hawthorne536
          Total, Invercargill and Suburbs17,868

TOWN DISTRICTS.

The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county, and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000, full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor, and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population are as follows:—

(a.) TOWN DISTRICTS NOT FORMING PARTS OF COUNTIES.
Town District.Estimated Population.
Bay1,092
Bull's600
Castlecliff716
Ellerslie1,018
Featherston797
Gonville1,801
Hempstead1,590
Havelock North686
Helensville720
Hikurangi744
Hunterville760
Huntly1,455
Johnsonville1,075
Manaia603
Mangaweka591
Manunui570
Martinborough676
Napier South746
New Lynn636
Ngaruawahia527
Otaki827
Otautau801
Papakura678
Pleasant Point525
Rangataua957
Taradale970
Te Awamutu711
Te Puke570
Tinwald574
Upper Hutt1,216
Warkworth740
Waverley703
Wyndham713
(b.) TOWN DISTRICTS FORMING PARTS OF COUNTIES.
Town District.Estimated Population.
Amberley368
Clinton472
Edendale360
Havelock320
Kamo361
Kaponga431
Kawakawa339
Kawhia173
Kihikihi285
Kohukohu380
Leamington417
Lethbridge304
Mangapapa1,072
Morrinsville624
Normanby496
Norsewood228
Onerahi257
Opunake548
Ormondville391
Otane282
Outram449
Raetihi495
Raglan271
Rongotea362
Southbridge445

SMALL CENTRES.

Populations of small centres as at 2nd April, 1911, were extracted from the census results, and published in the Government Statistician's Report on the census. The list is too long to insert here.

ADJACENT ISLANDS.

Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the inhabited islands as at the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—

Islands.Population.
Mokohinau Lighthouse7
Kawau60
Motuketekete3
Moturekareka7
Little Barrier2
Waiheke227
Pahiki Lighthouse4
Ponui43
Rakino8
Motutapu14
Motuihi5
Brown's4
Rotoroa110
Pakatoa22
Bean Rock Lighthouse1
Tiritiri Lighthouse7
Slipper2
Cuvier Lighthouse14
Motiti3
Somes and Lighthouse8
Kapiti2
The Brothers Lighthouse3
D'Urville77
Stephen Lighthouse7
Ripa2
Dog Island Lighthouse12
Centre Island Lighthouse9
Total663

Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere in this section.

SUBSECTION C.—CENSUS NUMBERS AND CHARACTERISTICS,

The population of the Dominion (exclusive of Maoris and the population of the annexed Pacific islands) according to the census of 2nd April, 1911, was 1,008,468 persons, as shown by the following summaries :—

(a.) SUMMARY BY ISLANDS.
Total Population (exclusive of Maoris and Residents of Annexed Pacific Islands).Half-castes living as Europeans (included previously).Chinese (included previously.)
Persons.Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.

*Including persons on shipboard, but excluding 133 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war, in Auckland Harbour on 2nd April, 1911.

† Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.

‡; These islands are not within the boundaries of the neighbouring counties, but their inhabitants are included in the population of the North and South Islands given in the previous table.

North Island*563,729300,199263,5301,2541,1941,32268
South Island*444,120231,323212,7972172071,12620
Stewart Island35722013741....
Chatham Islands*25816692..2....
Kermadec Islands422........
          Totals for Dominion1,008,468531,910476,5581,4751,4042,54288

(b.) SUMMARY BY COUNTIES AND BOROUGHS.

Total Population (exclusive of Maoris and Residents of Annexed Pacific Islands)Half-castes living as Europeans (included previously).Chinese (included previously).
Persons.Males.Females.Males.Females.MalesFemales.

*Including persons on shipboard, but excluding 133 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war, in Auckland Harbour on 2nd April, 1911.

† Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.

†; These islands are not within the boundaries of the neighbouring counties, but their inhabitants are included in the population of the North and South Islands given in the previous table.

Counties496,779276,495220,2841,1521,1201,09619
Boroughs505,598250,196255,4023132821,38269
Islands adjacent to New Zealand;1,07965242772....
Kermadec Islands422........
On shipboard4,8654,4564093..64..
Main Trunk Railway14310934........
Totals1,008,468531,910476,5581,4751,4042,54288

The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881.

Census Year.Counties.Boroughs.Percentage.
Counties.Boroughs.Shipboard and islands.
1881291,238194,98159.4439.800.76
1886327,328245,61256.5842.460.96
1891352,097270,34356.1843.140.68
1896391,735307,29455.6943.690.62
1901417,596350,20254.0445.320.64
1906458,797424,61451.6347.790.58
1911496,779505,59849.2650.140.60

DENSITY OF POPULATION.

The increase in the density of population and dwellings at successive censuses is illustrated in the table following. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling is also shown.

Census YearNumber of Persons to a Square Mile.Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square MileNumber of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.

*Excluding Maoris.

18610.9440.2144.42
18712.4560.5484.48
18814.6930.9175.12
18916.0241.1915.06
19017.4271.5274.86
19068.5411.7734.82
19119.6902.0704.68

The density of population in various countries is shown in the next table. The figures relate in nearly every case to the year 1911, in which year a census was taken throughout the British Empire, and in several other countries. The Statesman's Year-book for 1913 has been referred to in all cases, but wherever possible the information extracted therefrom has been verified by reference to official publications of the countries concerned. In several cases the figures are only rough estimates, and in some instances various estimates are in existence in respect of the same country. For example, the population of the Chinese Empire ranges in various publications from 250 to 450 millions. In the table now given the usually accepted total, 400 millions, is shown. The figures for the Balkan states relate to the various states as they now stand—i.e., after the recent alterations of boundaries.

DENSITY OF POPULATION IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
Country.Population.
Total.Per Square Mile.

* Inclusive of Maoris, also Cook Islands and their inhabitants.

† Including aboriginals, estimated at 100,000.

Macao63,99115,997.75
Gibraltar25,30713,529.07
Monaco19,1212,390.12
Malta228,5341,953.28
Gambia Colony7,7001,925.00
French India282,3861,440.74
Singapore305,4391,407.55
Channel Islands96,9001,384.29
Hong Kong and Territory463,7151,144.98
Bermudas21,3261,104.97
Barbados171,9821,036.04
Kiau-Chau168,896844.48
England34,045,290669.00
Belgium7,423,784652.76
Java and Madura30,098,008595.36
Aden and Perim46,165577.06
Madeira169,777540.69
Mauritius377,083523.73
Wei-hai-wei147,177516.41
Grenada66,750501.88
Penang278,003480.14
Martinique184,004477.93
Netherlands6,022,452470.16
St. Pierre4,209420.90
St. Kitts26,283404.35
Kwantung488,089388.61
Bahrein Islands90,000360.00
Portuguese India531,798324.66
Italy34,671,377313.63
Germany04,925,993310.98
Porto Rico1,118,012310.04
Guadeloupe and Dependencies212,430308.76
Samos53,424296.80
Japan52,000,000296.23
San Marino10,791283.97
St. Vincent41,877279.18
Wales2,025,202272.42
Azores242,613263.14
Luxemburg259,891260.41
Nevis12,945258.90
Formosa3,443,679255.88
Austria28,571,934240.56
Switzerland3,741,971234.22
Labuan6,546229.68
Isle of Man52,034229.22
Antigua38,899228.82
British India244,267,542222.49
Ellice Islands3,089220.04
Pemba83,437219.57
St. Lucia48,637208.74
Haiti Republic2,029,700198.91
Jamaica831,383197.95
Danish West Indies27,086190.28
France39,001,509191.26
Zanzibar115,477180.43
Réunion173,822179.20
Denmark2,775,076178.09
Trinidad and Tobago330,074176.70
Montserrat5,502173.81
Turkey in Europe1,891,000173.77
Malacca124,081172.33
Balearic Islands325,703168.32
Hungary20,886,487166.57
Seychelles26,000162.50
Portugal5,545,595161.90
Gilbert Islands26,863161.83
Ceylon4,110,367161.31
Salvador1,161,420160.75
Scotland4,759,445156.53
Korea13,461,299156.58
Comoro Islands94,844152.97
Cochin China3,050,785152.54
Liechtenstein9,854151.60
Canary Islands419,809149.56
Sierra Leone Colony75,572146.74
Rumania7,516,418140.52
Ireland4,390,219137.67
Curacao54,469135.16
Servia4,547,992134.19
Tonking6,119,720131.89
Union Islands914130.57
Bali and Lombok523,535128.79
Principé & St. Thomas Islands42,103116.70
Anguilla4,075116.43
Dominica33,863116.37
Wallis Archipelago4,500112.50
Bulgaria4,752,997109.76
Annam5,554,822106.62
Greece4,363,000104.05
Indian Feudatory States70,864,995102.52
Crete342,151101.68
Marshall Islands15,179101.20
Spain, including Ceuta18,843,17099.15
Southern Nigeria7,857,39998.37
Norfolk Island90796.70
Cape Verde Islands142,55296.32
Bosnia & Herzegovina1,898,04496.02
Virgin Islands5,50295.90
Bismarck Archipelago188,87094.43
Caroline & Pelew Is'lds52,67494.06
Chinese Empire400,000,00093.52
Nepal5,000,00092.59
Montenegro516,00092.09
Cyprus274,10876.48
American Samoa7,24976.31
Albania825,00075.00
St. Helena3,52074.89
Pitcairn Island14572.50
Mayotte9,98971.35
Russia in Europe138,274,50069.23
Philippine Islands8,368,42765.45
Tonga23,73760.86
Guam12,51759.60
Portuguese Guinea820,00058.82
Sierra Leone Protectorate1,327,50054.41
Cuba2,220,27850.27
Turkey in Asia21,000,00048.92
Protected Malay States720,00046.15
Liberia1,800,00045.00
Slam8,117,95341.61
Guatemala1,992,00041.25
Portuguese Timor300,00040.93
Tunis1,923,21738.46
Federated Malay States1,036,99937.70
Santo Domingo708,00036.64
Cambodia1,634,25236.32
Northern Nigeria9,269,00036.25
French Somali Coast208,00035.92
Basutoland405,90334.65
German Samoa34,48034.48
Turks & Caicos Islands5,61533.93
Natal1,194,04333.84
Khiva800,00033.33
Sweden5,522,40331.94
United States91,972,26030.93
Gambia Protectorate138,40030.76
Andorra5,23129.89
Hawaii191,90929.76
Togo1,000,00029.67
Fernando Po, &c.23,84429.29
Egypt11,287,35928.22
German East Africa10,000,00026.04
Banca115,18925.91
Nyasaland Protectorate1,000,00025.12
Sumatra4,029,50324.93
Finland3,084,00024.54
Uganda Protectorate2,843,32524.16
Afghanistan5,900,00023.60
Morocco4,580,00020.91
French Oceania31,47720.71
Jarvis Island3020.00
Billiton36,85819.78
Mexico15,063,20719.64
Norway2,391,78219.27
Gold Coast1,504,59918.81
Fiji139,54118.77
Abyssinia8,000,00018.50
Dutch Timor308,60017.44
Costa Rica388,26616.88
Spanish Guinea200,00016.67
Belgian Congo15,000,00016.49
Uruguay1,177,56016.31
Algeria5,563,82816.20
British East Africa Protectorate4,038,00016.15
Swaziland99,95915.29
Transvaal1,686,21215.27
Persia9,500,00015.13
Bokhara1,250,00015.06
French Equatorial Africa10,000,00014.95
Kamerua2,720,00014.23
New Hebrides70,00013.73
Madagascar3,104,88113.62
Panama426,92813.18
Bahama Islands55,94412.71
Bhutan250,00012.50
Nicaragua600,00012.20
Ecuador1,400,00012.07
Honduras Republic553,44611.97
Celebes851,90511.92
Sarawak500,00011.90
Colombia5,475,90111.86
Chile3,415,06011.67
Mozambique3,120,00010.63
German Marianne Isld's2,64610.58
Orange Free State528,17410.48
Isle of Pines60010.34
* New Zealand 1,070,91010.31
British Solomon Islands150,00010.14
Fanning Island15010.00
Eritrea450,0009.83
Molucca Islands407,9069.30
Cape of Good Hope2,564,9659.26
Socotra12,0008.68
Angola4,119,0008.50
Kaiser Wilhelm's Land531,7237.60
Brunei30,0007.50
French West Africa11,100,0007.35
Brazil23,070,9697.01
Venezuela2,743,8416.96
Riau Lingga Archipel'o112,2166.88
British North Borneo208,1836.69
New Caledonia50,6086.62
Laos644,8776.58
Argentine Republic7,201,9106.25
Oman500,0006.10
Dutch Borneo1,233,6555.80
Peru4,000,0005.75
Newfoundland (proper)238,6705.59
Miquelon4435.34
Southern Rhodesia769,4715.18
Maiden Island1684.80
British Honduras40,4584.71
Paraguay800,0004.66
Somaliland Protector'te300,0004.41
Russia in Asia25,664,5004.08
Phoenix Islands593.69
Japanese Sakhalin43,2733.46
Northern Rhodesia1,000,0003.45
Bolivia2,267,9353.38
British Guiana299,0443.31
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan3,000,0003.05
Papua272,0573.00
Italian Somaliland400,0002.87
Iceland85,1882.14
Canada7,204,8382.00
Surinam86,2331.87
French Guiana49,0091.61
Australian Commonwealth4,668,7071.57
Dutch New Guinea200,0001.32
Tripoli and Cyrenaica530,0001.30
Falkland Islands3,2750.50
Bechuanaland Protectorate125,3500.46
German South - west Africa99,7440.31
Greenland (Danish)13,5170.29
Ascension340.18
Rio de Oro and Adrar12,0000.16
Alaska64,3560.11
Labrador3,9490.03

INCREASE OF POPULATION AT SUCCESSIVE CENSUSES.

The increase of population at successive census periods has been,—

Date of Enumeration.Population.Numerical Increase.Centesimal Increase.
December, 185859,41339,60866,367
December, 186199,02173,1377,386
December, 1864172,15846,51027.01
December, 1867218,66837,72517.25
February, 1871256,39343,12116.82
March, 1874299,514114,89838.36
March, 1878414,41275,52118.22
April, 1881489,93388,54918.07
March, 1886578,48248,1768.33
April, 1891626,65876,70212.24
April, 1896703,36069,3599.86
March, 1901772,719115,85914.99
April, 1906888,578119,89013.49
April, 19111,008,468  

The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.

The population of the two main Islands, with that of Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands, the former being included in the South and the latter in the North Island, at each census period, is given in the next table, together with the proportion per cent. that the population of each division bears to the total population of the Dominion.

POPULATION OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ISLANDS, 1858–1911.
Census Year.Population (excluding Maoris).Proportions per Cent.
North Island and Chatham Islands.South and Stewart Islands.Total.North Island and Chatham Islands.South and Stewart Islands.
185834,17925,23459,41357.5342.47
186141,69157,33099,02142.1057.90
186465,349106,809172,15837.9662.04
186780,097138,571218,66836.6363.37
187197,008159,385256,39337.8462.16
1874112,063187,451299,51437.4162.59
1878158,404256,008414,41238.2261.78
1881193,289296,644489,93339.4560.55
1886250,681327,801578,48243.3356.67
1891281,745344,913626,65844.9655.04
1896340,872362,488703,36048.4651.54
1901390,786381,933772,71950.5749.43
1906476,934411,645888,57853.6746.33
1911563,991444,4771,008,46855.9344.07

It will be seen that in 1858 the North Island had the larger population, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901, in which year the North Island was found to have a slightly larger population than the South, a position which it has since considerably improved upon. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while the large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and are quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free from Maori troubles, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and in the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.

In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly ninety thousand Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES.

The following table is interesting as showing the gradual equalization of the sexes, the number of females to 100 males having risen from 6216 in 1861 to 90.33 in 1901. The proportion was slightly lower in 1906 and 1911, but has again risen to 90.59 in 1913.

Census Year. Males.Females.Females to 100 Males.
186161,06237,95962.16
1871150,356106,03770.52
1881269,605220,32881.72
1891332,877293,78188.26
1901405,992366,72790.33
1906471,008417,57088.65
1911531,910476,55889.59

AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

The number of persons at each year of age is ascertained from the census household schedules. In the following tables these numbers have been condensed in customary groups, and the information disclosed at the census of 1911 is compared with that for two previous censuses. Chinese are included, but not Maoris.

Age-groups.Number.
1891.1901.1911.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 5 years42,25940,94544,32442,48259,97557,934
5 years and under 10 years43,49442,58643,31442,42253,84452,163
10 years and under 15 years40,75540,32943,10042,12546,42144,992
15 years and under 20 years32,57932,65842,45642,35844,79843,660
20 years and under 25 years28,33729,80541,19641,96049,69246,124
25 years and under 30 years23,70422,37635,30733,23354,69447,520
30 years and under 35 years22,02117,89029,69427,27249,41042,714
35 years and under 40 years20,51315,10624,30121,21739,45833,437
40 years and under 45 years17,75513,43621,58917,34731,19827,259
45 years and under 50 years17,02811,83219,13413,99724,21420,696
50 years and under 55 years16,7709,92215,41311,99120,29016,573
55 years and under 60 years10,9456,15013,7119,96316,68612,609
60 years and under 65 years7,6854,46812,8038,01712,81610,225
65 years and under 70 years3,9232,56410,1606,02810,9358,707
70 years and under 75 years2,5041,8775,3483,2368,6916,030
75 years and under 80 years1,1919362,2851,6795,2123,260
80 and over7186291,4251,1922,7352,130
Unspecified minors303624155942
Unspecified adults666236408193782483
          All ages332,877293,781405,992366,727531,910476,558

A calculation of the proportion per cent at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birthrate on the ages under 15, the proportion of males at these ages being 30.19 per cent. in 1911 against 38.08 per cent. in 1891, and of females 32.58 per cent. against 42.20 per cent. respectively.

Of the males, those 15–24 years formed 18.35 per cent. of the total in 1891, and 17.79 per cent. in the later year. At the ages 15–64 the proportions were 59.42 per cent. and 64.62 per cent. in 1891 and 1911 respectively. From 65 years upwards the proportions increased from 2.50 per cent. to 5.19 per cent. during the period under review.

Females at ages 15–44 increased in proportion to the total from 44.73 per cent. in 1891 to 50.56 per cent. in 1911. At 45 years and over there was 13.07 per cent. in 1891 and 16.86 per cent. in 1911 of the number of this sex.

Age-groups.Proportion per Cent, of Males.Proportion per Cent. of Females.
1891.1901.19111891.1901.1911.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Under 5 years12.7210.9311.2913.9511.5912.16
5 years and under 10 years13.0910.6810.1514.5111.5710.96
10 years and under 15 years12.2710.628.7513.7411.499.46
15 years and under 20 years9.8210.478.4311.1211.569.18
20 years and under 25 years8.5310.169.3610.1611.459.68
25 years and under 30 years7.148.7110.307.629.079.98
30 years and under 35 years6.637.329.306.107.448.97
35 years and under 40 years6.185.997.435.155.797.02
40 years and under 45 years5.345.325.874.584.735.73
45 years and under 50 years5.134.724.564.033.824.35
50 years and under 55 years5.053.803.823.383.273.48
55 years and under 60 years3.293.383.142.102.722.65
60 years and under 65 years2.313.162.411.522.192.15
65 years and under 70 years1.182.512.060.871.651.83
70 years and under 75 years0.751.321.640.640.881.27
75 years and under 80 years0.360.560.980.320.460.69
80 and over0.210.350.510.210.320.44
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

The declining proportions at the earlier ages 0–19 years may be ascribed to a falling birth-rate, while the increase at the higher ages is due to the advanced age of the then mostly adult immigrants introduced during the early stages of settlement. These form the greater portion of the groups 60 years and over, numbering 70,741 persons in 1911, only 3,862 of these being New-Zealand-born. The latter element in the population is assuming larger proportions each year, while the influence of the numbers recruited from abroad on the age-constitution is gradually waning.

The distribution of population (exclusive of Maoris) between the North and South Islands is shown according to age-groups in the following table:—

Island.Under 55 and under 2020 and under 3535 and under 5050 and under 6565 and over.Unspecified.Totals.
North66,888160,015165,117100,19048,18322,457879563,729
South50,997125,793124,95176,03040,98525,235486444,477
Totals117,885285,808290,068176,22089,16847,6921,3651,008,206

BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

The table following shows the birthplaces of the population, exclusive of Maoris, for five census years. The total number of British-born has increased during the period by 63 per cent., while the number of foreign-born has remained stationary. Persons born in New Zealand have increased 92 per cent. The Commonwealth of Australia is represented by 50,029 persons, a large increase since 1891. Against this there were 31,868 persons, natives of New Zealand, residing in the Commonwealth in 1911 as compared with 25,788 in 1901. Persons born in the United Kingdom numbered 218,834 in 1891, against 228,684 in 1911.

Birthplace.Number in each Census Year.
1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.
 Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.
New Zealand 366,716441,661516,106606,247702,779
Commonwealth of Australia15,94321,63126,99147,25650,029
England117,070116,541111,964116,560133,811
Wales2,2142,1481,7652,1442,206
Scotland51,91650,43547,85847,76751,709
Ireland47,63446,03743,52442,46040,958
Other British possessions3,7033,9014,2734,5605,234
          Total British605,196682,354752,481866,994986,726
Austria-Hungary5648811,8742,2122,131
German Empire4,6634,5954,2174,1744,015
Denmark2,0532,1252,1202,2772,262
Chinese Empire4,4703,7192,9022,6022,611
Other foreign countries7,4007,7607,4808,6028,552
          Total foreign19,15019,08018,59319,86719,571
At sea1,2951,3221,2031,2451,392
Not stated1,017604442472779
          Totals626,658703,360772,719888,5781,008,468

The population of foreign origin shows a small increase since 1891, while the native-born portion becomes rapidly greater. The table given below shows the proportionate strength of the different nationalities represented in the Dominion.

Birthplace.Proportion of each Nationality in—
1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
New Zealand 58.6162.8566.8368.2669.74
Commonwealth of Australia2.553.083.495.324.97
England18.7116.5814.5013.3013.28
Wales0.350.310.220.240.22
Scotland8.307.186.205.385.13
Ireland7.616.555.644.784.06
Other British possessions0.590.550.550.510.52
          Total British96.7297.1097.4397.6297.92
Austria-Hungary0.090.130.240.250.21
German Empire0.750.650.550.470.40
Denmark0.330.300.270.260.22
Chinese Empire0.710.530.380.290.26
Other foreign countries1.191.100.970.970.85
          Total foreign3072.712.412.241.94
At sea0.210.190.160.140.14
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

Both m 1906 and 1911 the number of females returned as married was less than that of males. In many instances married men coming to New Zealand from abroad leave their families behind until steady work has been obtained and a home prepared. This is the usual practice among aliens, the expense of transport in some cases preventing the union of families for a considerable length of time.

The number of married persons in 1911 was slightly more than one-third of the total population, exclusive of Maoris. Widowed and divorced are included among the unmarried over 20 and 15 years of age for males and females respectively, the number of the widowed being 14,222 males and 25,725 females. Those returned as divorced at the last census—575 males and 411 females—are probably less than the actual fact, owing to the reluctance of some persons to state this condition. The following table shows the number of unmarried and married males and females for five successive census years:—

Census.Number of UnmarriedNumber of Married
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 20 Years of Age.Twenty Years of Age and over.Under 15 Years of Age.Fifteen Years of Age and over.
1891159,00077,955123,85278,77690,37190,765
1896169,32594,946126,087102,422102,621103,062
1901173,096110,485127,017121,297118,401117,746
1906186,270137,191137,621136,584143,838142,736
1911204,883150,484155,047149,274171,936170,989

The proportions per cent. exhibit a steady increase in the case of married persons of either sex since 1891. Widowed males increased relatively to the total population, but not to the same extent as widowed females, as the latter do not remarry so often as the former, and the liability to fatal accident among males is far greater than among the opposite sex.

CensusProportion of MalesProportion of Females
Unmarried.Married.Widowed.Unmarried.Married.Widowed.
 Per Cent.Per Cent,Per Cent.Per Cent,Per Cent,Per Cent.
189170.0227.612.3764.9530.944.11
189369.4827.972.5564.3731.104.53
190167.9029.452.6562.9432.174.89
190666.5230.782.7060.5734.245.19
191164.6932.612.7058.5935.995.42

The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is steadily diminishing, while between 35 and 45 years there is a tendency towards an increase. Women in New Zealand are not now marrying at such early ages as they did formerly, as will be seen from the figures given below.

Age-groups.Proportion of Married Women.
1891.1890.1901.1906.1911.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Under 20 years1.191.120.980.940.81
20 and under 35 years6,01259.5759.9460.2959.98
35 and under 45 years38.6939.3139.0838.7739.21
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Excluding the widowed, the number of unmarried males over 20 years of age was found at the census of 1911 to be 136,262, and the number of unmarried females was 123,549—110 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. The relative numbers at the last five census periods were,—

Census.Number of Bachelors to every 100 Spinsters.
1891105
189698
190197
1906108
1911110

Duration of Marriage and Number of Children.

Ac the census of 1911 information was collected for the first time as to duration of marriage, respective ages of husband and wife, and number of children, living and dead, born to the marriage. The first of the following tables shows the duration of marriage, number of married women, proportion per cent. of these without and with children, and the average number of children, counting (a) all married women and (b) married women with children only.

Duration of Marriage (in Years).Total Number of Married Women.Married Women without Children.Married Women with Children.Average Number of Children born to the Marriage, counting—
Number.Proportion per Cent.Number.Proportion per Cent.(a) All Married Women.(b) Married Women with Children.
Under 15,9025,11086.5879213.420.1371.021
1 and under 27,3623,67849.963,68450.040.5211.042
2 and under 38,3052,34928.285,95671.720.8761.250
3 and under 48,1391,81522.306,32477.701.2271.579
4 and under 57,9921,45618.226,53681.781.5441.888
5 and under 67,3681,18416.076,18483.931.8212.169
6 and under 77,0471,03314.666,01485.342.0782.435
7 and under 86,87898514.325,89385.682.3172.704
8 and under 96,42380812.585,61587.422.5562.923
9 and under 105,94070311.835,23788.172.8183.197
10 and under 116,47589313.795,58286.212.8743.334
11 and under 125,35458210.874,77289.133.2273.620
12 and under 135,01454710.914,46789.093.2853.687
13 and under 144,5714509.844,12190.163.5773.967
14 and under 154,52949410.914,03589.093.6354.080
15 and under 164,02044711.123,57388.883.8134.290
16 and under 173,72139610.643,32589.363.9634.435
17 and under 183,6553339.113,32290.894.1214.535
18 and under 193,4993199.123,18090.884.3054.737
19 and under 203,2032608.122,94391.884.4824.893
20 and under 213,69840310.903,20589.104.5895.150
21 and under 222,7322298.382,50391.624.7555.190
22 and under 232,8372237.862,61492.145.0125.439
23 and under 242,7432177.912,52692.095.2345.683
24 and under 252,5992218.502,37891.505.1745.655
25 and under 262,7212469.042,47590.965.2375.757
26 and under 272,4801837.382,29792.625.5936.038
27 and under 282,3192028.712,11791.25.5616.091
28 and under 292,3261717.352,15592.655.8166.277
29 and under 301,9511487.591,80392.416.0186.512
30 and under 312,4172199.062,19890.946.0126.610
31 and under 321,6241157.081,50992.926.4146.903
32 and under 331,9141377.161,77792.846.4846.983
33 and under 341,7421418.091,60191.916.6187.201
34 and under 351,603996.181,50493.826.8327.282
35 and under 361,7361377.891,59992.116.7547.333
36 and under 371,6851207.121,56592.886.9367.467
37 and under 381,4231117.801,31292.207.1557.760
38 and under 391,201886.981,17393.027.1747.712
39 and under 401,026575.5596994.457.3627.794
40 and under 411,4351309.061,30590.946.9317.621
41 and under 42840586.9078293.107.7378.310
42 and under 43823435.2278094.787.7258.151
43 and under 44755577.5569892.457.6738.299
44 and under 45672537.8961992.117.6048.255
45 and under 46816657.9675192.047.5838.239
46 and under 47586406.8354693.177.5688.122
47 and under 48599447.3555592.658.0678.706
48 and under 49496295.8546794.158.2528.764
49 and under 50399256.2737493.738.3218.877
50 and under 51437296.6440893.367.6598.203
51 and under 52221188.1420391.868.0728.788
52 and under 53232219.0521190.957.8668.649
53 and under 5416884.7616095.248.3458.762
54 and under 5514075.0013395.008.8509.315
55 and under 5610632.8310397.178.6518.903
56 and over323268.0529791.958.1118.821
Not stated4,0012,52663.131,47536.871.6834.565
          Totals171,28330,49117.80140,79282.203.4804.233

The next table shows for each year of duration of marriage the number of married women, and the number of children born to the existing marriage. Detailed tables showing similar information for married women at various ages are published in the census volume.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.—SUMMARY SHOWING DURATION OF MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN BORN.

NOTE.—In the column “Not stated” are entered all married women who apparently had had no children, but omitted to state so on the Schedule. In the column “None” are entered those who stated definitely they had had no children born to the marriage.

Married Women.Number of Married Women to whom the Number of Children stated at Head of Column were born.Total Children born.
Years married.Number.Not stated.None.1234567891011 and over.
Under 15,9023,3641,746778113................809
1 and under 27,3622,3711,3073,535146111............3,839
2 and under 38,3051,5228274,5461,3386651............7,445
3 and under 48,1391,1386773,1122,800380275............9,985
4 and under 57,9929065502,2622,9211,192145151..........12,341
5 and under 67,3687424421,6022,5191,55943953921......13,414
6 and under 77,0476553781,2922,0041,7797411563264......14,647
7 and under 86,8786233621,0471,6931,6701,04633682154......15,936
8 and under 96,4235013079001,4581,4551,07551314952922..16,414
9 and under 105,9404262776981,1901,2851,02166428270216....16,741
10 and under 116,4755683257401,2251,2301,08174435813643147418,611
11 and under 125,3543572255538941,009882702433193651913917,278
12 and under 135,01435119652582589080264345919986249516,470
13 and under 144,57128316743962378776258945426812056131016,350
14 and under 154,52931418041067369568157543428818253271716,465
15 and under 164,020269178363477641572523405269146102522315,330
16 and under 173,72124814831145854055247034926719487514614,748
17 and under 183,655217116294463545537417354286177129724815,084
18 and under 193,499203116230415476506458356274204122796015,063
19 and under 203,20316496261333419459384327253191147868314,356
20 and under 2514,6098494448871,3531,7251,8151,7211,4831,2581,01173157375971,982
25 and under 3011,7976043465467981,0991,2721,3321,2971,1439757456021,03866,283
30 and under 359,3004762353244426187759809169508697616261,32859,838
35 and under 407,1313251882302663324715676917307007316121,28850,195
40 and under 454,5252081331461301862263103973974664646199933,706
45 and under 502,8961356867798412018823326230628430476622,868
50 and over1,6276943394753677811512219617417245213,134
Not stated4,0012,137389309223182145121117976777351026,734
     Totals171,28320,02510,46626,44625,80420,90116,22512,5469,7337,5376,0374,7303,7967,037596,046

Members of Christian denominations formed 94.39 per cent. of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census, non-Christian sects were 1.49 per cent., and those who described themselves as of no religion 0.55 per cent. The Census Act provides that those persons who are unwilling to state what denomination, if any, they belong to may enter the word “Object” in the census schedule. In 1911 there were 35,905 persons, or 3.57 per cent. of the total, who took advantage of this permission.

Denomination.Proportion of Adherents.
1891.1896.1901.1901.1911.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Church of England40.5140.2740.8541.514,114
Presbyterian22.6222.7822.8722.9623.32
Methodist10.1410.4410.8610069.43
Roman Catholic13.9614.0714.2314.3213.97
Other Christian denominations.7.797.866.966.606.53
Non-Christian2.282.041.721.611.49
No religion0.250.270.140.190.55
Object to state2.452.272.372.753.57
          Totals100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

INFIRMITIES OF THE PEOPLE.

The tables following show the numbers and the proportions per 10,000 living at quinquennial age-periods of persons, males and females, stated to be deaf and dumb, lunatics, and feeble-minded at the census taken for the 2nd April, 1911. The total infirmities of the people numbered 5,301 or 52.56 in every 10,000 persons living. Of this total the deaf and dumb numbered 301 or 2.98 per 10,000; the blind contributed 482 or 4.78 per 10,000; the lunatics numbered 3,741 or 37.10 per 10,000; and the feebleminded 777 or 7.70 per 10,000.

RELIGION.

There is no State Church in New Zealand, nor is financial assistance given by the State to any religious denomination. Among the first colonists settlements were formed composed entirely of the adherents of certain religious bodies, but, as facilities for communication increased, this exclusiveness rapidly gave place to a spirit of tolerance, and no serious attempt was made to preserve the distinctive religious character of these communities. In Otago, where the Free Church of Scotland founded a settlement, adherents to the Presbyterian Church, mostly descendants of the original stock, form 46 per cent. of the population of that portion of the Dominion; while in Canterbury, which was originally settled by the United Church of England and Ireland, adherents to the Church of England constituted a similar proportion of the population of the Provincial District at the census of 1911.

The Church of England has the largest number of adherents, and, according to returns collected in 1911, had 554 churches, besides using 242 other buildings for Divine worship. The Presbyterian Church, the next in strength, had 426 churches, with the use of 283 buildings as temporary places of worship. Roman Catholics occupy third place in point of numbers, and possessed 296 churches and used 62 other buildings. Methodists had 405 churches, and used 178 other buildings wherein to hold service.

The total number of churches and chapels belonging to all denominations and sects was 1,976, besides which 491 schoolhouses and 392 dwellings or public buildings were made use of as places of worship or for meetings. These churches and buildings were sufficient for the accommodation of 429,059 persons, or 42 per cent. of the total number of adherents and members.

The number belonging to each of the principal denominations is shown, for five census periods, in the next table.

Denomination.Number of Adherents.
1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.
Church of England253,331282,809315,263368,065413,842
Presbyterian141,477159,952176,503203,597234,662
Methodist63,41573,36783,80289,03894,827
Roman Catholic87,27298,804109,822126,995140,523
Other Christian denominations48,63355,13753,73958,61965,735
Non-Christian14,34214,32713,30414,34615,029
No religion1,5581,8751,1091,7095,529
Object to state15,34215,96718,29524,32535,905
Unspecified1,2881,1228821,8842,416
          Totals626,658703,360772,719888,5781,008,468

Members of Christian denominations formed 94.39 per cent. of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census, non-Christian sects were 149 per cent., and those who described themselves as of no religion 0.55 per cent. The Census Act provides that those persons who are unwilling to state what denomination, if any, they belong to may enter the word “Object” in the census schedule. In 1911 there were 35,905 persons, or 3.57 per cent. of the total, who took advantage of this permission.

Denomination.Proportion of Adherents.
1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Church of England40.5140.2740.8541.514,114
Presbyterian22.6222.7822.8722.9623.32
Methodist10.1410.4410.8610.069.43
Roman Catholic13.9614.0714.2314.3213.97
Other Christian denominations7.797.866.966.606.53
Non-Christian2.282.041.721.611.49
No religion0.250.270.140.190.55
Object to state2.452.272.372.753.57
          Totals100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

INFIRMITIES OF THE PEOPLE.

The tables following show the numbers and the proportions per 10,000 living at quinquennial age-periods of persons, males and females, stated to be deaf and dumb, lunatics, and feeble-minded at the census taken for the 2nd April, 1911. The total infirmities of the people numbered 5,301 or 52.56 in every 10,000 persons living. Of this total the deaf and dumb numbered 301 or 2.98 per 10,000; the blind contributed 482 or 4.78 per 10,000; the lunatics numbered 3,741 or 37.10 per 10,000; and the feebleminded 777 or 7.70 per 10,000.

DEAF AND DUMB AND BLIND.
Ages.Total Population.Male Population.Males.Female Population.Females
Deaf and Dumb.Blind.Deaf and Dumb.Blind.
All ages1,008,468531,910154279476,558147203
Specified ages1,007,102531,069154278476,033147202
Under 5 years117,90959,9752257,93443
5 years to 10 years106,00753,84429352,163238
10 years to 15 years91,41346,42132544,992314
15 years to 20 years88,45844,798171543,660238
20 years to 25 years95,81649,69215946,124146
25 years to 30 years102,21454,694131447,520125
30 years to 35 years92,12449,4107942,714610
35 years to 40 years72,89539,45810833,43748
40 years to 45 years58,45731,19861227,25987
45 years to 50 years44,91024,21481320,69676
50 years to 55 years36,86320,29052216,573510
55 years to 60 years29,29516,68641612,609411
60 years to 65 years23,04112,81611110,225211
65 years to 70 years19,64210,9353358,707215
70 years to 75 years14,7218,691..326,030238
75 years to 80 years8,4725,2121423,260..22
80 and upwards4,8652,7351302,13030 
Unspecified1,366841..1525..1
LUNATICS AND FEEBLE-MINDED.
Ages.Total Population.Male Population.Males.Female Population.Females.
Lunatics.Feeble-mind'dLunatics.Feeble mind'd
All ages1,008,468531,9102,195423476,5581,546354
Specified ages1,007,102531,0692,148416476,0331,534352
Under 5 years117,90959,9753157,934..1
5 years to 10 years106,00753,844172152,1631511
10 years to 15 years91,41346,421184644,9921442
15 years to 20 years88,45844,798436143,6602230
20 years to 25 years95,81649,692775546,1247334
25 years to 30 years102,21454,6941493747,52010635
30 years to 35 years92,12449,4102172842,71414229
35 years to 40 years72,89539,4582262033,43715619
40 years to 45 years58,45731,198269927,25916626
45 years to 50 years44,91024,2142111320,69617815
50 years to 55 years36,86320,290209716,57316821
55 years to 60 years29,29516,686174812,6091437
60 years to 65 years23,04112,8161802010,22511014
65 years to 70 years19,64210,935117178,7079215
70 years to 75 years17,7218,691126206,0308115
75 years to 80 years8,4725,21268233,2604216
80 and upwards4,8652,73544302,1302622
Unspecified1,366841477525122
INFIRMITY: PROPORTION PER 10,000 AT QUINQUENNIAL AGE-PERIODS.
Ages, in Years.Totals.Deaf and Dumb.Blind.Lunatics.Feeble, minded.
 Persons.Males.Females.P'sonsMales.Fem'sPersons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
All ages52.5657.3647.212.982.893.084.785.254.2637.1041.2732.447.707.957.43
Under 51.361.331.380.510.330.690.420.330.520.260.50..0.170.170.17
5 and under 1011.9813.0010.924.905.384.411.040.561.533.023.162.873.023.902.11
10 and under 1521.0021.7520.236.896.896.890.981.070.803.503.883.119.639.919.34
15 and under 2024.7630.3619.014.523.805.272.603.351.87.359.605.0410.2913.616.87
20 and under 2529.5431.3927.533.033.023.031.571.811.315.6515.4915.839.2911.077.37
25 and under 3036.3038.9433.252.452.332.521.862.561.0524.9527.2422.317.046.767.37
30 and under 3548.6352.8243.781.411.421.412.061.822.3438.9743.9233.246.195.666.79
35 and under 4061.8766.9155.931.922.531.202.192.032.3952.4157.2846.665.355.075.68
40 and under 4586.0494.8875.942.391.922.933.253.852.5774.4186.2260.905.992.899.54
45 and under 50100.42101.1899.543.343.303.384.235.372.906.6287.1486.016.235.377.25
50 and under 55121.26119.76123.092.712.463.028.6810.846.032.27103.01101.377.603.4512.67
55 and under 60125.27121.06130.862.732.403.179.219.598.7321104.28113.415.124.795.55
60 and under 65151.47165.41133.981.300.781.959.558.5810.76186140.45107.5814.7615.6113.69
65 and under 70150.70157.29142.412.552.742.2925.4632.0117.23140106.99105.6616.2915.5517.23
70 and under 75213.30204.81225.541.36..3.3247.5536.8263.02141144.98134.3323.7823.0124.87
75 and under 80252.59257.09245.391.181.91..75.5480.5867.48124130.47128.8346.0344.1349.08
80 and upwards376.16383.91366.202.063.65..123.33109.69140.841433160.88122.07106.89109.69103.29

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

In the Government Statistician's report on the census of 1911 and in the census volume will be found full details of the occupations of the people. A short reference is all that can he introduced

The population, specified as to occupation, is to two divisions—viz., breadwinners and dependents. The latter consist chiefly of wives, relatives, and others employed in household duties but not receiving wages, children living with their parents, and persons supported by charity.

Breadwinners are divided into seven classes, as below, the numbers and proportions per cent, at the census of 1911 being as shown.

Primary Producers.—Males, 123,099; females, 7,482. This class includes persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits, fishing, and mining.

Males 23.15, females 1.57, per cent. of population of either sex.

Industrial.—Males, 113,684; females, 19,871; persons engaged in manufacture or other processes where materials are employed combined.

Males 21.38, females 4.17, per cent.

Commercial.—Males, 52,994; females, 12,768.

The commercial group forms 9.97 per cent. of the male and 2.68 per cent. of the female population.

Transport and Communication.—Males, 35,212; females, 1,221; persons engaged in the transport of passengers and goods and in effecting communication.

Males 6.62, females 0.26, per cent.

Professional.—Males, 19,796; females, 12,920. These are persons, not otherwise classed, engaged in Government, defence, law and order, or ministering to religion, charity, health, education, art, science, or amusement.

Males 3.72, females 2.71, per cent.

Domestic (but directly earning money).—Males, 10,891; females, 33,376; persons supplying board and lodging, or personal services for which payment is rendered.

Males 2.05, females 7.00, per cent.

Indefinite.—Males, 8,180; females, 2,623: persons living on incomes earned in the past, or indefinitely described.

Males 1.54, females 0.55, per cent.

The population of each class, and the proportion per cent. of the total population, are shown in the table following.

With regard to sub-classes A and B of Class VI, a fact noted in connection with the census is that there is a considerable decrease in the number of persons who returned themselves on the census schedules as engaged in agricultural pursuits (67,557 in 1906 and 54,738 in 1911), while the number returning themselves as engaged in pastoral pursuits has largely increased (55,287 in 1911 as against 27,400 in 1906). This would apparently point to the fact that less attention is now being paid to agricultural and more to pastoral farming, particularly dairying, than formerly. According to the agriculture statistics of the Dominion, the amount of cropping in New Zealand has not varied greatly during recent years, but the industrial statistics (see section of his book dealing with manufactories and works) show a great advance in the output of butter and cheese, particularly of the latter. Taking the two classes together, there appears to have been an increase in the number engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits of over 15,000 during the five years between the two censuses 1906 and 1911.

Occupation.Numbers.Proportion per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total population1,008,468531,910476,558100.00100.00100.00
Section A.—Breadwinners.
Class I. Professional32,71619,79612,9203.253.722.71
Class II. Domestic44,26710,89133,3764.392.057.00
Class III. Commercial—
     Sub-class A. Property and Finance9,9408,6871,2530.991.640.26
     Sub-class B. Trade54,92643,41211,5145.458.162.42
     Sub-class C. Storage89689510.090.170.00
Class IV. Transport and Communication36,43335,2121,2213.616.620.26
Class V. industrial133,555113,68419,87113.2521.384.17
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—
     Sub-class A. Agricultural54,73852,4262,3125.439.860.48
     Sub-class B. Pastoral55,28750,1485,1395.489.431.08
     Sub-class C. Mineral14,77514,76781.172.780.00
     Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers5,7815,758230.571.080.01
Class VII. Indefinite10,8038,1802,6231.071.540.55
Section B.—Non-breadwinners (Dependents).
Class VIII. Dependents—
     Sub - class A. Dependent on natural guardians543,229161,720381,50953.8830.4280.07
     Sub - class B. Dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support10,8226,1034,7191.071.150.99
Occupations not stated30023169......

No less than 31.57 per cent. of the male population and 81.06 per cent. of the females are shown by the above table to be dependent. These consist of 161,720 males and 381,509 females dependent upon natural guardians; and 6,103 males and 4,719 females dependent upon the State or upon public or private support. The greater number of those dependent upon natural guardians are scholars and students. There are also a large number of dependent relatives who were not stated to be performing domestic duties, and, of females, many persons performing domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid.

In the next table the number of breadwinners of either sex in each class of occupation, and the proportions per cent. to the total of breadwinners, is given:—

Occupation.Numbers.Proportion per Cent.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total breadwinners454,117363,85090,261100.00100.00100.00
Class I. Professional32,71619,79612,9207.205.4414.31
Class II. Domestic44,26710,89133,3769.752.9936.98
Class III. Commercial—
     Sub-class A. Property and Finance9,9408,6871,2532.192.391.39
     Sub-class B. Trade54,92643,41211,51412.1011.9312.76
     Sub-class C. Storage89689510.200.250.00
Class IV. Transport and Communication36,43335,2121,2218.029.681.35
Class V. Industrial133,555113,68419,87129.4131.2422.01
Class VI. Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers—
     Sub-class A. Agricultural54,73852,4262,31212.0514.412.56
     Sub-class B. Pastoral55,28750,1485,13912.1813.785.69
     Sub-class C. Mineral14,77514,76783.254.060.01
     Sub-class D. Other Primary Producers5,7815,758231.271.580.03
Class VII. Indefinite10,8038,1802,6232.382.252.91

Employers and Employed.

The breadwinners of the Dominion are also classified according to the grade of their occupations, by which means the entire population can be brought under six heads:—

     Males.Per Cent. of Breadwinners.Females.Per Cent. of Breadwinners.
Employers43,92712.072,7663.07
Independent workers56,70815.589,65910.70
Wage-earners231,65363.6764,26471.20
Unemployed7,1521.971,2031.33
Relatives assisting, and not specified24,4166.7112,36913.70
Breadwinners363,856100.0090,261100.00
Dependents167,823..386,228 
Not stated231..69 
          Totals531,910..476,558 

The proportion of the male breadwinners who are employers (12.07 per cent.) is slightly lower than it was in 1906 (12.81 per cent.). On the female side the proportion of employers was 3.07 per cent., as against 3.10 in 1906. Male wage-earners, employed or unemployed, were 65.64 per cent., against 65.52 per cent. in 1906. Female wage-earners, whether in work or not, were 72.53 per cent. in 1911, against 75.57 per cent. in 1906.

The Unemployed.

The unemployed male population in New Zealand in April, 1911, formed only 1.97 per cent. of the breadwinners, as against 2.53 per cent. returned at the census of 1906.

Of the unemployed (males), which totalled 7,152,—

1,607 are found in Order 24(741 agricultural, 293 pastoral, 473 mining, gold, coal, &c., 76 bushmen, and 24 fishermen and others).

950 in Order 23: Industrial workers imperfectly defined (chiefly general labourers).

869 in Order 21: House building, road and railway works labourers, &c.).

604 in Order 15: Manufacturers of books, tools, implements, furniture, building materials, &c.

535 in Order 14: Road, railway, tram, or sea and river traffic,

379 in Order 3: Engaged in board and lodging and rendering personal services.

298 in Order 2: Ministering to religion, charity, health, education, &c.

297 in Order 7: Dealing in food, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants.

209 in Order 17: Workers in animal food, drinks, narcotics, stimulants, &c.

194 in Order 16: Manufacturing textile fabrics, dress, &c.

152 in Order 19: Manufacturing earthenware, jewellery, and workers in metals.

The balance are fairly evenly distributed over the remaining orders of occupations.

Of the regular agricultural workers for wages, only thirty-five in every thousand were found to be unemployed.

It is a matter for congratulation that the total number of unemployed in 1911 was found to be only 8,355, against 9,561 in 1906, when the population of the Dominion was considerably smaller.

MAORI AND HALF-CASTE POPULATION.

Prior to the colonization of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both Islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox and Sir Donald McLean (then Native Minister) state that at what time the discovery of these Islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the eastern Pacific islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a Native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as it can be ascertained, of each Maori is entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past five enumerations are as follows:—

Census Year.Males.Females.Total.
189122,86119,13241,993
189621,67318,18139,854
190123,11220,03143,143
190625,53822,19347,731
191126,47523,36949,844

The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes, and the number living as and among Europeans, is given in the next table for five census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population. It is a matter of some difficulty to ascertain the number of half-castes living as Maoris. There has been no definite rule to guide collectors in deciding when a half-caste should be classified as living as a Maori—indeed, it might be said that all the half-castes and a large proportion of the Maoris in the South Island live in European fashion. They mostly have separate holdings of land and separate homes, and have adopted the habits of the whites.

HALF-CASTES.
Census Year.Half-castes.Total.
Living as Members of Maori Tribes.Living as and among Europeans.
18912,6812,1844,865
18963,5032,2595,762
19013,1332,4065,539
19063,9382,5786,516
19114,1812,8797,060

The number of Maoris (including half-castes living as Maoris) in each county and on adjacent islands, as ascertained at the census of 1911, was as follows:—

NUMBER OF MAORIS IN EACH COUNTY, CENSUS 1911.
Counties.Persons.
Mangonui2,330
Whangaroa626
Hokianga3,228
Bay of Islands2,623
Hobson818
Otamatea454
Whangarei941
Rodney155
Great Barrier Island72
Eden (including Waiheke and Chamberlin Islands)426
Waitemata186
Manukau776
Waikato603
Baglan1,720
Kawhia588
Awakino86
East Taupo1,046
Matarmata403
West Taupo1,299
Waitomo1,523
Waipa375
Piako231
Ohinemuri661
Thames770
Coromandel498
Ohura61
Tauranga1,718
Whakatane2,228
Opotiki1,427
Rotorua1,461
Waiapu2,952
Cook1,424
Waikohu549
Wairoa2,660
Hawke's Bay1,262
Waipawa324
Patangata134
Akitio56
Castlepoint26
Featherston348
Wairarapa South114
Pahiatua33
Masterton279
Waipukurau7
Dannevirke162
Weber3
Eketahuna9
Mauriceville15
Hutt and Makara311
Waitotara430
Manawatu248
Kairanga171
Rangitikei387
Wanganui656
Horowhenua1,295
Waimarino632
Oroua, Pohangina, Kiwitea221
Patea258
Hawera570
Eltham38
Whangamomona51
Taranaki474
Waimate West153
Clifton388
Egmont659
Sounds218
Marlborough162
Waimea133
Collingwood5
Takaka48
Buller36
Westland82
Kaikoura109
Ashley230
Malvern5
Selwyn83
Heathcote5
Akaroa25
Mount Herbert106
Wairewa107
Geraldine174
Levels41
Mackenzie4
Waimate71
Waitaki96
Waikouaiti138
Peninsula140
Waihemo7
Taieri59
Clutha39
Southland190
Wallace327
Stewart Island63
Chatham Islands219
Ruapuke Island41

POPULATION OF COOK AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDS INCLUDED WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE DOMINION.

During the year 1901, the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the number and birthplaces of the inhabitants was taken. The results for the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—

     Whites and Half-castes living as Whites.Natives and Half-castes living as Natives.Total.

* Not including 513 absentees.

† Labourers temporarily employed on these islands.

(a) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 52; New Zealand, 30; Australia, 4; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 22; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Aitutaki, 1; France, 6; Germany, 3; Sweden, 1; United States of America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Island, 2; Tahiti, 2; not stated, 2.

(b) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 3; New Zealand, 1; Australia, 1.

(c) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 5; New Zealand, 1; Rarotonga, 1; Aitutaki, 4; France, 2; Germany, 1; Norway, 2.

(d) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; Society Islands, 1.

(e) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; Mauke, 6; Germany, 2.

(f) Birthplaces.—Denmark, 1.

(g) Birthplaces not stated.

(h) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; New Zealand, 1.

(i) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; New Zealand, 1; France, 2.

SUMMARY OF BIRTHPLACES.—United Kingdom, 66; New Zealand, 34; Australia, 5; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 23; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Mauke, 6; Aitutaki, 5; France, 10; Germany, 6; Sweden, 1; United States of America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Island, 2; Norway, 2; Tahiti, 2; Society Islands, 1; Denmark, 1; not stated, 54 (52 of these on Niue Island).

Rarotonga139(a)2,6202,759
Mangaia5(b)1,4661,471
Aitutaki16(c)810826
Atiu2(d)1,2211,223
Mauke10(e)447457
Mitiaro1(f)198199
          Total Cook Group1736,7626,935
Niue (or Savage Island)52(g)3,8913,943*
Palmerston..107107
Penrhyn3(h)332335
Manibiki4(i)440444
Rakaanga..315315
Danger (or Pukapuka)..490490
Hervey Islands..2929
          Total other islands595,6045,663
Total population of Pacific islands23212,36612,598

THE CHINESE.

At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1884, and further to 3,711 in 1896. During the period 1881–96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese. During the years 1894 and 1895, however, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns were found to be somewhat greater than the departures, and in 1896 an Act was passed, raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901 the Chinese population was 2,857, and in 1906 it was 2,570, while at the census of 1911 the total was 2,630, of whom 88 were females. The decrease still continues, deaths exceeding births and the departures being more than the arrivals. Since the census of 1911, excess of deaths over births has reduced the Chinese by 48, while excess of departures over arrivals has caused a further reduction of 66. The estimated Chinese population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1913, was 2,516, of whom, however, 112 were females, an increase of 24 of that sex since the census.

Chapter 4. SECTION IV.—VITAL STATISTICS.

SUBSECTION A.—BIRTHS.

INTRODUCTORY

Registration.

REGISTRATION of births in New Zealand dates as far back as 1847, in which year was passed a Registration Ordinance which made provision for a record of births and deaths being kept by the State. Under this ordinance many registrations were effected, some of births as far back as 1840. Compulsory registration did not, however, come into force until 1855.

The earlier Registration Acts and their amendments provided for very little information being given in the case of births, the registers containing merely date and place of birth, name and sex of child, names of father and mother, and occupation of father. In 1875, however, a new Registration Act was passed, under which information was recorded as to ages and birthplaces of parents. A recent amendment to the Act provides for sexes and ages of previous issue of the marriage being given.

The law as to registration of births is now embodied in the Births and Deaths Registration Act, 1908, and the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912. The provisions generally as to registration are that a birth may be registered within sixty-two days without fee. After sixty-two days and within six months a birth is registrable only after solemn declaration made before the Registrar by the parent or some person present at birth, and on payment of a late fee of 5s., which may, however, be remitted at the discretion of the Registrar-General. When six months have elapsed a birth cannot be registered except within a month after conviction of one of the responsible parties for neglect. But an information for such neglect must be laid within two years of date of birth. Registration of still-births was not compulsory until the 1st March, 1913, on which date the Amendment Act referred to above came into force.

Notification.

The Infant Life Protection Act of 1907 provided for notification of births, in addition to registration, the time allowed for notification being seventy-two hours (since reduced to forty-eight hours) if in a city or borough, and twenty-one days in every other case. Further information concerning infant-life protection is given in the subsection dealing with deaths.

Registration of Maori Birth.

In the successive Registration Acts special provision was made for exemption from the necessity of registration in the case of births and deaths of Maoris, though registration could be effected if desired. Section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, however, empowered the Governor in Council to make regulations providing for the registration of births and deaths of Maoris either throughout the whole Dominion or in such districts as might be determined. Regulations were made accordingly, and were published in the New Zealand Gazette of the 27th March, 1913, page 946. Registrars of Maori births and deaths have been appointed in 170 districts, 159 of these being in the North Island, where the great majority of the Maori population is located. Every Native settlement of any size is within easy reach of one of these Registrars. Maori registrations are entered in a separate register, and the numbers of births given below do not include those of Maoris, which are dealt with towards the end of this subsection.

NUMBERS AND RATES

The number of births registered during 1913 was 27,935, or 26.14 in every 1,000 persons living. The number is 427 above that for the year 1912, an increase of 1.55 per cent., but the rate is lower by 0.34 per thousand. The births registered in a year numbered 19,846 in 1884, and, after falling to 17,876 in 1892, have risen to the number first stated above.

The number of male children born during 1913 was 14,433, and of female children 13,502.

The following table shows the number of births registered, the birth-rate calculated on the total population, and comparison with the average rate for 1882–86 taken as 100. It will be noticed that there was a steady decrease from 1886 until 1899 (in which year the lowest rate was recorded), and that since then there has been a slight improvement, the increase in 1913 over 1899 being 4.06 per cent. on the rate per 1,000 in that year, although the rates for the last four years are lower than those of the few previous years.

BIRTHS, NUMBER AND RATE.

Year.Total Number of Births registered.Birth-rate.
Per 1,000 of Population.Compared with Hate in 1882–86. taken as 100

* Average of 5 years.

1882–8619,410*35.40100
188719,13532.0991
188818,90231.2288
188918,45730.0785
189018,27829.4483
1891