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This, the twenty-second issue of the “New Zealand Official Yearbook,” while mainly following the arrangement of the 1912 book, contains some new features and additions. The whole of the book has been carefully revised. With the exception of the statistics relating to local governing bodies and life insurance and those not obtained annually the figures are up to the end of the calendar year 1912, or the financial year 1912-13, and in all cases the information published is the latest obtainable.
In Part I an article on earthquakes in New Zealand (kindly supplied by G. Hogben, Esq., M.A., F.G.S., Inspector-General of Schools) has been included, and some rainfall and temperature curves have been added to the portion dealing with climate and meteorology, while the historic section has been revised and slightly enlarged. A description of the proposed new Parliament Buildings is given, and a sketch of these as they will appear when completed forms a frontispiece to the book.
In Part II there have been a number of alterations. Section I, dealing with population, has been rearranged, and contains information re occupations of the people as ascertained at the census of 1911. In this section, and also in that dealing with vital statistics, some interesting tables showing the relative ages, duration of marriage, and issue of parents are given. The vital statistics section also contains some more detailed tables re orphanhood and some new figures in regard to the natural increase, while the portion dealing with causes of death has been rewritten; a diagram on page 180 contrasts the death-rates from consumption and cancer, and is worthy of note as showing on the one hand the great decrease in the tuberculosis death-rate and on the other the large increase in the cancer death-rate.
In the trade section some new diagrams have been introduced, dealing with (1) trade per head of population, (2) the proportion per cent. of various articles of export in 1892 and 1912, (3) exports of wool and frozen meat, and (4) exports of butter and cheese.
The special article on agriculture in New Zealand by Mr. Murphy has been omitted, and the sections re agriculture and live-stock are now grouped together with a quantity of new matter. The mining section has been largely rewritten, and an article on water-power added thereto. An estimate of the private wealth of the Dominion computed by a new method is given in the section on accumulation, and the explanatory portion of the valuation section has been revised and enlarged.
In Part III, “Articles on Special Subjects,” is included an account of the visit of H.M.S. “New Zealand” (supplied by W. E. Spencer, Esq., M.A., M.Sc., Editor of the New Zealand School Journal), accompanied by a photograph of the vessel. There is also a short article on the training-ship “Amokura,” and a summary of the findings of the recent Forestry Commission.
A bibliography of some works on New Zealand has been included in the appendix.
I desire to thank those responsible Government officers who have supplied information and in other ways assisted in the compilation of the book, and my staff for their co-operation and valuable assistance.
The material included has been carefully compiled and checked, but it would be too much to hope that no errors have crept in. I shall be pleased if readers detecting any will supply information as to their nature and position.
Malcolm Fraser, Government Statistician.
Wellington, 28th November, 1913.
Page 310.—Total of first column, license districts, for “500,733” read “499,733.” No-license districts, for “89,309” read “90,309.”
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Table of Contents
The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskercq,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country.”
Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staten Land received the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (since termed Massacre or Golden) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.
There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the South and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the South Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.
M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast, of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.
Captain George Vancouver in the “Discovery,” accompanied by Captain Broughton in the “Chatham,” anchored in Dusky Bay, on the west coast of the South Island, on the 2nd November, 1791, and remained there until the 21st. After leaving Dusky Bay the two vessels parted company during a gale, not meeting again until their arrival at Otaheite. During the passage of the “Chatham” to this place, Captain Broughton discovered and named the Chatham Islands (on the 29th November, 1791).
On the 5th November, 1792, the “Britannia” (Captain Raven) anchored in Facile Harbour, on the west coast of the South Island. She had come from Sydney for the purpose of procuring seal-skins. A party of men was landed and accommodation for them built, and, on the 1st December the “Britannia” sailed for the Cape of Good Hope. On her return on the 27th December, 1793, the men were found to be in good health. So far as is known, this was the first instance of Europeans being left in New Zealand to their own resources.
The Spanish expedition in the vessels “Descubrierta” and “Atrevida,” the former commanded by Alejandro Malaspina and the latter by José de Bustamente y Guerra, sighted the west coast of the South Island on the 25th February, 1793. A boat's crew went into Doubtful Bay, whilst the vessels remained off the entrance. Next morning they unsuccessfully attempted to enter Dusky Bay, but the weather becoming stormy they left for Sydney, after giving Spanish names to several places in and around Dusky and Doubtful Bays.
In 1793 also the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.
On the 23rd May, 1820, Thaddeus Bellingshausen, in command of the two Russian ships “Wostok” and “Mirny,” sailed into Cook Strait, in the course of his voyage round the world. The vessels anchored in Queen Charlotte Sound on the 28th May, and remained there till the 3rd June.
In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall, Kendall, and King, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.
Almost immediately after Cook returned to England on the completion of his first voyage round the world there was published in London, on the 29th August, 1771, a pamphlet by Alexander Dalrymple, entitled “Scheme of a Voyage to convey the Conveniences of Life, Domestic Animals, Corn, Iron, &c., to New Zeland [sic], with Dr. Benjamin Franklin's Sentiments upon the Subject.” The idea Dalrymple had in mind was to civilize the Maoris by furnishing them with useful commodities, taking in exchange whatever goods the Natives could supply by way of trade. Dalrymple being unsuccessful in raising money to carry out his plan the matter dropped, but he was the first to suggest the idea of opening up commerce with New Zealand, thus paving the way for its colonization.
The first attempt at colonization was made in 1825 by a company formed in London, and called the New Zealand Company. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who acquired tracks of land at Hokianga, at Manakau, and on the borders of the Thames. The company was prevented by adverse circumstances from forming a settlement.
In the same year two other persons, namely, Baron Charles de Thierry and Mr. William Stewart, were trying to form colonization companies in London. The former chose for his sphere the North Island and the latter Stewart Island, but neither scheme was successful.
In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.
In 1837 the New Zealand Association was formed, to apply to New Zealand the Wakefield system of colonization. A Royal Charter was applied for, but the terms offered by the British Government not being acceptable, the association dissolved. Some of the members of this association formed a plan for the prosecution of its leading objects by means of a joint-stock company. On the 29th August, 1838, a private copartnership was established under the name of “The New Zealand Colonization Company.” By the spring of 1839 it had raised sufficient funds to purchase an extensive territory (principally surrounding Hokianga and Kaipara Harbours), and to fit out a preliminary expedition for surveying the coasts, making further purchases, and preparing for the early arrival of settlers. On the 2nd May, 1839, the New Zealand Colonization Company ceased to exist, and the New Zealand Company (the second of that name) was formed with a capital of £100,000 in 4,000 shares of £25 each, to establish settlement in New Zealand on systematic principles.
On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived in Port Nicholson, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called the Treaty of Waitangi, to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.
The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonizing society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.
The next important event in the progress of colonization was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.
In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.
The rich tussock plains of Canterbury yielded at once to the efforts of the settlers, and the province soon became the great, pastoral and agricultural centre of the colony. Grain and wool were exported, and the volume of trade increased rapidly. The district grew prosperous, and many of the settlers became wealthy men. The foresight of the founders of the settlement provided for endowments for schools and churches, and for the construction of roads and bridges, and when the provinces were abolished in 1875 Canterbury not only handed over a well-equipped district but a large credit balance at its bankers.
Up to the early sixties Otago had made a slow but steady advance, much of the province being adapted to agriculture, to which the energies of the majority of the early settlers were devoted. In 1861, however, gold was discovered in the Lindis Valley, and this, together with further rich finds in Gabriel's Gully and various other parts of Otago, attracted people from all parts of Australasia. The province rapidly increased in wealth and prosperity, and Dunedin soon became a thriving and populous commercial centre.
Southland advanced steadily, mainly on account of its rich agricultural and pastoral lands; and in the northern and western parts of the South Island good progress was also made. Marlborough and the eastern portion of Nelson, with their good soil and attractive climate, became the homes of farming communities, while Westland and the west coast of Nelson owed their progress to rich finds of gold and coal.
For many years the North Island lagged behind the South Island. Its progress was retarded by troubles with the Maoris, and in the early days many settlers, terrified by the warlike attitude of the aboriginals, abandoned their farms and left New Zealand. The unrest caused by the wars put a stop to settlement, and for years left the interior of the Island a terra incognita. After the initial conflicts with the Natives when the British flag was hoisted at the Bay of Islands, colonization proceeded quietly at Auckland, New Plymouth, Wanganui, Wellington, and Hawke's Bay.
In 1861, however, a serious misunderstanding arose at Waitara over the question of land, and almost without warning active hostilities were commenced by the Natives. The Taranaki settlers were driven from their homes, and the labour of years was destroyed in a few weeks. Blood was shed, and many men were killed on both sides. Soon the whole country from Auckland to Wellington was in arms. The settlers around Wanganui, Napier, and Wellington were forced to leave their farms and take refuge in the towns, and for a time all progress was stayed. Over ten thousand troops were brought from England to quell the disturbance, and after several years of fighting the Maoris at last sued for peace. The Waikato Natives lost their land, which was confiscated and handed over to military settlers, who soon converted the district into a thriving farming centre. Slowly the settlers restored their homes and farms, and gradually the North Island became settled by an ever-growing industrious community.
The discovery of rich gold at the Thames in 1867 attracted a large number of people from Australia and other parts of New Zealand, and since the termination of the Maori was the North Island has made immense progress, overtaking and, in later years, rapidly outstripping the South Island.
Prior to the colonization of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both Islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox and Sir Donald McLean (then Native Minister) state that at what time the discovery of these Islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the mother-land. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the eastern Pacific islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a Native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.
For results of recent researches as to probable origin of the Maoris, see Year-book for 1901.
British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Colonial Treasurer, and Attorney-General—namely, the Hon. Andrew Sinclair, the Hon. Alexander Shepherd, and the Hon. William Swainson.
The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—the Hon. Mr. Swainson without ceasing to be Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly (being Speaker of the Legislative Council) which was opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the House of Representatives. These latter held no portfolios.
The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor; who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives.
The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed in the year 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local government, came into force.
On addresses from both Houses of the General Assembly, His Majesty the King, by Order in Council dated 9th September, 1907, and by Proclamation issued 10th September, 1907, was graciously pleased to change the style and designation of the Colony of New Zealand to “The Dominion of New Zealand"; the change taking effect from Thursday, the 26th day of September, 1907.
The Governor is appointed by the King. His salary is £5,000 a year, with an annual allowance of £1,500 on account of his establishment, and of £500 for travelling-expenses, provided by the Dominion.
Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence.
The members of the House of Representatives (now designated M.P.) are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. For the purposes of European representation the Dominion is divided into seventy-six electoral districts, each returning one member. The full number of members composing the House of Representatives is thus eighty. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the electors in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.
In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. In 1893 women of both races were granted by law the right to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the Dominion. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. Every man registered as an elector, and not specially excepted by the Legislature Act now in force, is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the Dominion and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not previously registered under the residential qualification; but in 1896 the property qualification was abolished (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the Dominion) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. [The above provisions are now incorporated in the Legislature Act, 1908, which consolidates the electoral laws.] The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work.
Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.
These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”
The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.
On the 11th December, 1907, the Parliament Buildings, situated in Molesworth Street, Wellington, were, with the exception of the library wing, destroyed by fire. Since then old Government House, occupying an adjoining site, has been utilized as temporary quarters for Parliament, a new residence for the Governor being erected at the southern end of the city.
Plans for new Parliament Buildings have been approved, and the foundations have already been prepared by the Public Works Department, the foundation-stone being laid on the 23rd March, 1912.
A sketch of the new Parliament Buildings, as they will appear when completed, is published as a frontispiece to this book. The building was designed by the Government Architect, by whom the following description is furnished:—
The new building now in course of erection occupies a commanding site facing Charlotte and Molesworth Streets to the front, Bowen Street to the side, and Sydney Street behind.
The completed building will be in the form of a large parallelogram 395 ft. in length and 243 ft. in breadth. The apartments and corridors range round this from and across the centre of it from front to rear, leaving two large courtyards, or quadrangles, which are, however, each occupied in the centre by a block of buildings, the one in the north court being the House of Representatives, and that in the south court the library. The central dividing-block will contain the members' lounge lobby and the Legislative Council chamber. At present 226 ft. of frontage, or rather more than half of the building, is being erected, and the accommodation provided in this portion consists of the two legislative chambers, the members' lounge lobby, nine suites of Ministers' rooms, two Speakers' suites of rooms, rooms for the Clerks of Parliament and other officials, for the Whips, for the Leader of the Opposition, and for Chairman of Committees, three Bill offices, six committee-rooms, press, typists' and reporters' rooms, ladies' and gentlemen's waiting-rooms, messengers' rooms, members' writing and social rooms, members' bath-rooms and lavatories, record and store rooms, &c. The remaining portion of the building to be erected later will contain accommodation for a library of 150,000 volumes in one large hall 83 ft. by 66 ft. and a hall of similar dimensions for newspaper files and books with rooms for the staff, newspaper and map rooms, binding-room, &c. Bellamy's dining and refreshment rooms with numerous rooms for the staffs, members' billiard-room, law draughtsmen's rooms, a large number of committee-rooms, numerous members' private rooms, and three additional suites of rooms for Ministers comprise the accommodation in this portion.
The building will be erected of brick faced with stone, and will be of fireproof construction throughout. The style of architecture is Classic Renaissance. A colonnade on either side of the main entrance block will be a feature of the front. A dome 130 ft. high will ultimately be a dominant central feature. The building is generally of three stories in height, but the central block is of four stories, whilst a basement containing the heating and ventilating chambers and large storage space extends beneath the portion now being erected.
It is anticipated that the cost when completed will be about £250,000.
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New Zealand, formerly a colony, has, since the 26th September, 1907, by Royal Proclamation, been granted the designation of “Dominion,” and is referred to accordingly in this book. It consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands, have a coastline 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Snares, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The annexation of the Cook and sundry other islands has necessitated an enlargement of the boundaries of the Dominion, which will be specially treated of further on.
New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and South Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District. The South Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.
New Zealand is firstly a pastoral and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being more than fourteen millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the South Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the Dominion a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce country; while its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.
New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the South Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both Islands, the yield having been over eighty millions in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.
The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of what was then the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0' E. long.; on the west, 166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.
In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the then Colony of New Zealand.
By Proclamation bearing date the 10th June, 1901, the Cook Group of islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary-lines mentioned in the following Schedule, were included:—
A line commencing at a point at the intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich, and proceeding due north to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; and thence due east to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich.
The following now constitutes the Dominion of New Zealand:—
The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,130 square miles, or 28,243,632 acres.
The island known as the South Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,120 square miles, or 37,197,183 acres.
Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 662 square miles, or 423,735 acres.
The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the South Island, with an area of 372 square miles, or 238,100 acres.
The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 143,422 acres.
Campbell Island, in latitude 52° 33′ 26″ south, and longitude 169° 8′ 41″ east, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 28,000 acres.
The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the South Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 8,600 acres.
The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 752 acres.
The Snares Islands, situate about 56 miles to the south-west of Stewart Island, and comprising six islands of a total area of about 600 acres.
The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul, or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.
The total area of the main group of islands forming the Dominion is thus 66,292,232 acres, or 103,581 square miles.
Islands forming the Cook Group:—
Rarotonga.—Distance from Auckland, 1,638 miles; circumference, 20 miles; height, 2,920 ft.
Mangaia. — Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles; circumference, 30 miles; height, 656 ft.
Atiu.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles: circumference, 20 miles; height, 374 ft.
Aitutaki. — Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 12 miles; height, 366 ft.
Mauke.—Distance from Rarotonga, 150 miles; circumference, 6 miles; height, about 60 ft.
Mitiaro.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 5 miles; height, about 50 ft.
Takutea.—Distance from Rarotonga, 125 miles.
The Herveys (Manuae and Aoutu).—Distance from Rarotonga, 120 miles.
Total area of above Group, 150 square miles.
Islands outside the Cook Group:—
Savage or Niue.—Distance from Rarotonga, 580 miles; circumference, 40 miles; height, 200 ft.; area, about 100 square miles.
Palmerston.—Distance from Rarotonga, 273 miles; an atoll, 4 miles by 2 miles.
Penrhyn, or Tongareva.—Distance 735 miles from Rarotonga; an atoll, 12 miles by 7 miles.
Humphrey, or Manahiki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 650 miles; an atoll, 6 miles by 5 miles.
Rierson, or Rakaanga.—Distance from Rarotonga, 670 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.
Danger, or Pukapuka.—Distance from Rarotonga, 700 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.
Suwarrow.—Distance from Rarotonga, 530 miles; an atoll.
Total area of islands outside the Cook Group, 130 square miles.
The area of the Dominion of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the South Island of New Zealand being a little smaller than the combined areas of England and Wales.
|United Kingdom.||Area in Square Miles.|
|England and Wales||58,311|
|New Zealand.||Area in Square Miles.|
|North Island and adjacent islets||44,130|
The areas of the several Australian States, as stated by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from latest official records:—
|New South Wales||310,372|
|Total, Continent of Australia||2,948,366|
|Total, Commonwealth of Australia||2,974,581|
|Dominion of New Zealand||103,861|
|Grand total, Commonwealth and Dominion||3,078,442|
The size of the Australian States and New Zealand may be better realized by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount, to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australian States, with New Zealand.
The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude, a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the Dominion, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the oblique distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.
This Island is, as a whole, hilly, and in parts mountainous, in character, but there are large areas of plains or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing can be made, available for farming purposes. Of these the principal are the plains in the Hawke's Bay District, on the east coast; the Wairarapa Plain, in the Wellington District; a strip of country along the west coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth; and the Waikato Plains, extending from the Firth of the Thames to within about fifty miles of Lake Taupo. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends in a north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty. There are also the pumiceous Waimarino and Murimotu Plains, at the base of the volcanoes, and in other localities several smaller but fertile plains. Though the greater portion of the central plateau is covered with a volcanic ash or sand, now principally bearing a plant growth of tea-tree scrub (manuka), bracken, and tussock, and is now to a large extent waste land, it must not be supposed that these lands are valueless. In many places there are swampy areas even now carrying good crops of flax which, when prices are good, are cut and milled. Between Taupo and Rotorua and the Rangitaiki River there are several sheep-runs. In many places where old Maori kaingas have been, European fruit-trees, such as apples, cherries, peaches, raspberries, &c., are still to be found in healthy condition (though quite unattended to), thus proving that these lands are in many places suitable, as far as soil and climate are concerned, for fruitgrowing; and it is probable that these cheap and neglected lands will before many years have elapsed be utilized for fruit-production. The existence in many places of fine forests proves the suitability of the district for tree-growth, and on this evidence the Government have made very extensive plantations of exotic trees of commercial value, which are all thriving most satisfactorily. The greater part of these plains has in comparatively recent times been covered with valuable forest, but repeated burnings by Maoris have caused its disappearance. The frequent burnings of the scrub and tussock by Maoris and Europeans during the last sixty years have so impoverished the soil of its humus-content that the present state of comparative barrenness is the result. This repeated burning-off of the scrub is also responsible for the lessened fertility of the gum lands. The level or undulating country in this Island fit, or capable of being made fit, for farming has roughly been estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest and swamps that can be drained, also large areas of clay gum-lands and pumice-covered lands. The clay gum-lands are in their natural state cold and uninviting to the farmer, but by proper drainage and cultivation they can be brought into a high state of productiveness. Although the area of bush land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the demands of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass sown on the ground fertilized by their ashes.
Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass there is very little land too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.
The area of land in the North Island still remaining in forest is about 8,500,000 acres, but every year the forested area is fast diminishing as settlement advances. In the Auckland District are found the celebrated kauri forests, which produce perhaps the most valuable of the pine timbers.
The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000 ft. in height, excepting a few volcanic cones and the highest peaks of the Kaimanawa, Ruahine, and Tararua Ranges. Of the volcanoes the following are the most important:—
Ruapehu: This mountain lies about twenty-seven miles south-southeast from Lake Taupo. Its highest peak is 9,175 ft., so it rises far above the line of perpetual snow. It is in the solfatara stage, and has on its summit a remarkable crater-lake which is surrounded by walls of ice several hundred feet in height. The waters of this crater-lake are highly charged with sulphuric acid. The water is always warm enough to remain liquid, but there are times when it boils, and is heaved into the air to fall and besmirch the snowy mantle of the surrounding heights. The Wangaehu River has its source in this crater, and its waters are so poisonous to plants that they will not grow on its banks even for miles after the river has reached the plains and received numerous tributaries.
To the north-north-east of Ruapehu lie Ngauruhoe (7,515 ft.) and the several coalesced cones of Tongariro (6,140 ft.). There was a considerable discharge of ashes from Ngauruhoe in 1909, but no loss of life occurred. Molten lava has been seen in the crater, but it has not overflowed since the European occupation of the country. From the crater of Te Mari there was a flow of lava in 1868.
The country around these volcanoes has been created a National Park, and by reason of its varied interests—active craters, blowholes, glaciers, hot medicinal springs, crateral lakes, varied alpine flora, and exhilarating climate—it will be certain later on to attract great numbers of visitors.
Mount Egmont: This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260 ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. The mountain is from many directions a nearly perfect cone, and rising as it does from a plain only a few hundred feet above sea-level, it forms a view of imposing beauty. It is called the “sentinel of Taranaki.” Close to its base on the north lies the thriving town of New Plymouth, and the surrounding country is some of the most fertile in New Zealand.
Ruapehu, Tongariro, Taupo, and the thermal vents in the Rotorua district are all on a line of weakness in the earth's crust which reaches its visible terminal at White Island, which is an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, about thirty-five miles from the main-land.
Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north — a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces at Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The vast importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognized by the Government, and it is dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.
The principal lakes in the North Island are Taupo, with an area of 238 square miles, Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotoiti, Waikaremoana, Wairarapa, and several smaller ones. The effluent waters from some of these lakes will in the near future be utilized for the generation of electrical power.
The chief rivers of the North Island are the Waikato (which has its source in the Kaimanawa Range), and is slightly under two hundred miles in length, the Northern Wairoa, the Waihou, the Southern Wairoa, the Manawatu, Rangitikei, Wanganui, and Mokau. All these rivers except the Rangitikei are navigable for small vessels. There are numerous smaller rivers in this well-watered Island, and many of these are capable of being used for the production of electrical power.
For its great length of irregular coast-line the North Island has few harbours that will admit the largest modern liners. There are, however, two (Auckland and Wellington) that will do so, and these are so situated that they form the most convenient receiving and distributing centres. There are several on the west coast—Hokianga. Kaipara, Manukau, and Kawhia—and on the east coast—the Bay of Islands, Whangaroa, Whangarei. Thames, Mercury Bay, and Tauranga—that are already or can be made available for vessels of 2,000 tons. There are also the artificial harbours of Gisborne, Napier, and New Plymouth, which can accommodate liners in their bays or coastal vessels behind their moles. There is a magnificent harbour at the Great Barrier Island, which, though of little commercial value, would give certain shelter to the largest modern fleet.
The chief capes are Cape Maria van Diemen, North Cape, Cape Brett. Cape Colville, East Cape, Table Cape, Cape Palliser, Cape Terawhiti, and Cape Egmont.
The chief peninsulas are Cape Colville Peninsula (where the celebrated Waihi Gold-mine is situated) and the Mahia Peninsula.
There are numerous islands scattered along the coast, and the chief of these are the Three Kings, a cluster of islets lying thirty-eight miles west-north-west of Cape Maria van Diemen. They were discovered in 1643 by Tasman, and named in honour of the day of discovery, is being the feast of the Epiphany. Owing to these islets being incorrectly charted, the steamer “Elingamite” was wrecked here some years ago, and many valuable lives lost. Since this, however, their correct position has been found. Other islands are Great Barrier, Little Barrier, Waiheke, Great Mercury, Mayor, and Kapiti. The last-named was the home and stronghold of the famous Maori warrior Ruaparaha; it is now mostly a public reserve and sanctuary for native flora and fauna.
Cook Strait separates the North from the South Island. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest point, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between the east and west coasts of the Dominion.
The extreme length of the South Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost), District, about 180 miles.
The South Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000 ft. to 12,000 ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349 ft.
In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other grand peaks.
For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. Until recently few of the mountains in New Zealand had been scaled; many of the peaks and glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the South Island, a field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.
There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700 ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.
The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—
|Name.||Area of Glacier.||Length of Glacier.||Greatest Width.||Average Width.|
The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.
Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270 ft., although at the entrance only 130 ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000 ft. and 6,000 ft. above the sea. Near Milford; the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904 ft. high.
There are several small hot springs in Canterbury and Westland, but they fade into insignificance when compared with those in the North Island.
The general surface of the northern portion of the South Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.
The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District and to the eastern side of the Island. Towards the north the land is hilly and undulating; followed by a stretch of plain one hundred miles long by thirty miles broad, rising at the rate of about 30 ft. to the mile from the sea to the hills, after which the coastal land is part flat and part undulating to the boundary of the Otago Provincial District. To the west of the above-mentioned plain the country is, generally speaking, hilly and mountainous.
Large rivers rising in the snow-clad ranges find their way through wide valleys and across the plain to the sea.
Many lakes and high plateaux of considerable size lie within the mountainous area. The most notable of the plateaux is the Mackenzie Plain, with its glacial lakes Tekapo, Pukaki, and Ohau. Many of the lakes may some day be utilized for generating electric power. At the present time an electric plant is being installed at Lake Coleridge, which will supply power for the city of Christchurch. To the east of the main plain the volcanic hills of Banks Peninsula jut out into the sea and form several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, whereon is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district; and the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the Dominion, on the south.
There are no other natural harbours in Canterbury, but a good artificial one has been made at Timaru, in the south of the Province.
The Provincial District of Otago, under which denomination is also included the old Province of Southland, is an extensive one, and its physical features are much diversified.
The Southern Alps Range, which forms a distinct backbone throughout the northern part of the Island, is more divided into separate mountain chains in the north-west and west of Otago, though it still remains the watershed from which short rapid rivers reach the Tasman Sea on the west, and long and more slowly flowing ones empty themselves into the Pacific Ocean on the east and south, after passing through much hilly country and many fertile plains.
On the whole the province may be described as hilly with parts mountainous, though there is much flat alluvial land in the extreme south, and many good plains and cultivable downs throughout it. Originally there were extensive forests in the south, many of which are only partially cut out, and the west coast is still densely forest-clad, but by far the larger area of the province is open tussock and grass land suitable for grazing sheep, &c.
The whole province is auriferous, and there are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior.
The inland lakes are very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070 ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170 ft. to 1,296 ft. Lake Te Anau is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles.
These lakes are bounded on the west by broken mountainous and wooded country, extending to the Tasman Sea, and deeply indented with numerous fiords or sounds.
There are also many other lakes, notably Hawea, Wanaka, Manapouri, and Hauroto, some of these being of considerable size.
The chief harbours in Otago are Otago Harbour, at the head of which the city of Dunedin is situated, and Bluff Harbour at the extreme south, the port of the town of Invercargill, and the old Provincial District of Southland.
The district of Westland, extending along the west coast of the South Island, abreast of Canterbury, embraces all the land lying between the tops of the Southern Alps and the Tasman Sea.
It is a narrow forest-clad strip of steep mountainous country fringed along the sea by alluvial flats or easier slopes. It is auriferous throughout, and has produced much gold. It also contains the chief coal-deposits of the Dominion.
Westland has many interesting lakes and glaciers, the latter of which have been referred to above.
The rivers in the South Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the Dominion as regards volume of water is the Clutha or Molyneux. It is 154 miles in length, but is navigable only for boats or small river-steamers and for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the west coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Nelson south-west and Westland Districts. It their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth up to 26 ft. of water on the bars.
The area of level or undulating land in the South Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.
Foveaux Strait separates the South from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 423,735 acres.
Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.
The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft. above sea-level. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.
The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where over two hundred people live. Horseshoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a settlement of Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.
The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, lying between the parallels of 43° 30' and 44° 30' south latitude, and the meridians of 175° 40' and 177° 15' west longitude, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. They were discovered by Lieutenant Broughton and named by him in honour of the Earl of Chatham. The largest island (Chatham Island) contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.
The Kermadec Croup of islands is situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named the Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Islands, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal Island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland, and lies a little more than half-way to Tonga, but 100 miles to the eastward of the direct steam route to that place. It is 300 miles eastward of the steam route to Fiji, and 150 miles westward of the steam route from Auckland to Rarotonga. Macaulay Island (named after the father of Lord Macaulay) and Curtis Islands were discovered in May, 1788, by Lieutenant Watts, in the “Penrhyn,” a transport ship. The remainder of the group was discovered in 1793, by Admiral Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. The Admiral gave the name of “Kermadec” to the whole group of islands, after the captain of his consort ship “L'Espérance,” and the name of the Admiral's ship “La Recherche” was given to the largest island. The name so given was not continued, but that of “Raoul” has taken its place, which would appear to have been given after the sailing-master of the “La Recherche,” whose name was Joseph Raoul. The name of “Sunday” may also have become attached to the island from the fact that it was discovered on a Sunday. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723 ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.
The Auckland Islands were discovered during a whaling voyage on 18th August, 1806, by Captain Abraham Bristow, in the ship “Ocean.” The discoverer named the group after Lord Auckland, again visited the islands in 1807 and then took formal possession of them. They lie about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their accepted position being given as latitude 50° 32' S., and longitude 166° 13' E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander D'Urville as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000 ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.
The Antipodes, an isolated group, consisting of several detached rocky islands lying nearly north and south over a space of four to five miles; accepted position, 49° 41' 15” south, and longitude 178° 43' east.
The Bounty Islands, a little cluster of islets, thirteen in number and without verdure, discovered in 1788 by Captain Bligh, R.N., of H.M.S. “Bounty.” Position verified by observation, 47° 43' south, longitude 179° 01/2' east.
Campbell Island was discovered in 1810 by Frederick Hazelburgh, master of the brig “Perseverance,” owned by Mr. Robert Campbell, of Sydney. It is mountainous, and of a circumference of about thirty miles. There are several good harbours.
The Cook Islands, with others now included within the extended boundaries of the Dominion, are as under:*—
Rarotonga: A magnificent island, rising to a height of 3,000 ft., clothed to the tops of the mountains with splendid vegetation. It has abundant streams, considerable tracts of sloping land, and rich alluvial valleys. The two harbours are poor.
Mangaia, the south-easternmost of the Cook Group, is of volcanic origin, and about thirty miles in circumference. The productions, which are numerous and cheap, are obtained by assiduous labour.
Atiu resembles Mangaia in appearance and extent. It is a mere bank of coral, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, steep and rugged, except where there are small sandy beaches and some clefts, when the ascent is gradual.
Aitutaki presents a most fruitful appearance, its shores being bordered by flat land, on which are innumerable coconut and other trees, the higher ground being beautifully interspersed with lawns. It is eighteen miles in circuit.
* See article “New Zealand's Extended Boundaries” in a later portion of this book.
Mauke or Parry Island is a low-lying island; it is about two miles in diameter; well wooded, and inhabited.
Mitiaro is a low-lying island, from three to four miles long and one mile wide.
Hervey Islands: This group consists of two islands, surrounded by a reef, which may be 101/2 miles in circumference.
Niue, or Savage Island, lying east of the Friendly Islands, is a coral island, thirty-six miles in circumference, rising to a height of 200 ft. It has the usual tropical productions.
Palmerston Island, lying about 500 miles east of Niue and about 220 from the nearest island of the Cook Group (Aitutaki), is remarkable as the “San Pablo” of Magellan, the first island discovered in the South Sea. It has no harbour. The soil is fairly fertile, and there is some good hardwood timber.
Penrhyn Island (Tongareva) lies about 300 miles north-east of Manahiki. It is one of the most famous pearl islands in the Pacific, and there is a splendid harbour, a lagoon with two entrances, fit for ships of any size.
Manahiki, lying about 400 miles eastward of Danger Island, is an atoll, about thirty miles in circumference, valuable from the extent of the coconut groves. The interior lagoon contains a vast deposit of pearl-shell.
Rakaanga is an atoll, three miles in length and of equal breadth.
Danger Island (Pukapuka): Next to the 10th parallel, but rather north of the latitude of the Navigators, and east of them are a number of small atolls. Of these, the nearest to the Samoan Group—about 500 miles—is Danger Island, bearing north-west of Suwarrow about 250 miles.
Suwarrow Island has one of the best harbours in the Pacific. It lies about 500 miles east of Apia, the capital of the Samoan Group. It is a coral atoll, of a triangular form, fifty miles in circumference, the reef having an average width of half a mile across, enclosing a land-locked lagoon twelve miles by eight, which forms an excellent harbour. The entrance is half a mile wide, and the accommodation permits of ships riding in safety in all weathers, with depths of from three to thirty fathoms. It is out of the track of hurricanes, uninhabited, but capable by its fertility of supporting a small population. As a depot for the collection of trade from the various islands it ought to be very valuable.
The geological history of New Zealand is long and complicated, and is as yet by no means clearly deciphered. Many times the land has risen and fallen. Now it has been part of some great continent: again the major portion or the whole has disappeared beneath the waves of the ocean. Now the land consists mainly of huge mountain-chains: later it exhibits a nearly flat surface over which meander sluggish streams: still later it is once more mountainous, and from the highlands great streams of ice deploy on the lowlands. Now the climate is more genial than it is to-day: anon more rigorous than that of Central Russia. At times volcanic action proceeds on a vast scale: at others the subterranean forces are dormant. If the student of geology would rightly interpret the story of the rocks he must ever bear in mind that New Zealand in the past has never been quite or even nearly the same as we see it now. With the scanty materials at hand he must endeavour to reconstruct the land as it existed during past ages. A rich field for original research is open to the geologist. There are many important problems, some of high economic value, some of world-wide interest, awaiting solution by the patient worker in science.
The oldest rocks in New Zealand appear to be those of western Otago, where over a large area is exposed a complex of gneisses and schists, intruded by granite and other igneous rocks. The gneisses in the main are altered granites and diorites, but some of the schists, at any rate, are of sedimentary origin. A pre-Cambrian age was assigned to these rocks by Professor F. W. Hutton, but Professor James Park considers them to be probably of Cambrian age, and includes them in his Maniototo Series.
Perhaps next in age to the western Otago gneisses and schists are the mica, chlorite, and quartz schists of Central Otago. In the absence of fossils, however, the age of these rocks is uncertain. Professor Hutton regarded them as pre-Cambrian, Professor Park assigns a Cambrian age, whilst Dr. P. Marshall considers them to be little, if at all, older than the Triassic. Some schistose rocks in north, central, and western Nelson may be as old as, or even older than, the Otago mica-schists. The gneisses and schists on the western side of the Southern Alps may for the present be classed with the Nelson schists.
The oldest known fossiliferous rocks in New Zealand are the Ordovician argillites (“slates”), greywackes, and quartzites occurring near Collingwood (Nelson), and Preservation Inlet in south-west Otago. Ultimately these rocks may be found to have a considerable development in various parts of Nelson and Westland.
Rocks containing Silurian fossils occur in the Mount Arthur district, Nelson. They are principally altered limestone (practically marble), calcareous shale or argillite, sandstone, and quartzite.
At Reefton a small area exhibits quartzite, limestone, and slaty shale containing fossils believed to be of Devonian age. Elsewhere considerable areas have been assigned to the same period by Mr. Alexander McKay, but owing to the non-discovery of recognizable fossils definite proof of age is wanting. For a similar reason the age of most of the rocks placed in the Carboniferous period (“Maitai Series”) by McKay is uncertain. At Reefton the supposed Carboniferous rocks, which here contain many auriferous quartz veins, may quite possibly be of Ordovician age. In the typical locality near Nelson the fossils found in the Maitai rocks indicate a Trias-Jura age, though possibly older rocks may be present also.
So far Permian rocks have not been satisfactorily identified in New Zealand. Park, however, considers his Aorangi and Kaihiku Series to be of Permian age.
During some of the Palæozoic periods it is conjectured that New Zealand formed part of or was the foreland of a large land-mass that extended far to the west. This land-mass possibly persisted to late Palæozoic times, and may have been the now-dismembered and all-but-lost continent known to geologists as Gondwana-land.
As yet the early and middle Mesozoic rocks of New Zealand have not been clearly separated by means of unconformities or fossil evidence. What may be called a Trias-Jura system is extensively developed in both the North and South Islands. The most fossiliferous localities are Hokonui Hills (Southland), near Nugget Point (Otago), Wairoa Valley, near the City of Nelson, Kawhia Harbour, and Waikato Heads, the two latter localities both on the west coast of Auckland. A broad belt of Trias-Jura or, according to Park, of Permo-Jurassic rocks extends through western Canterbury and Marlborough, and is continued as a somewhat narrower belt on the north side of Cook Strait from Wellington to near East Cape. Rocks of much the same age occur in the Mokau River watershed, in the Lower Waikato Valley, in the Coromandel Peninsula, and in North Auckland.
The supposed Jurassic rocks of Kawhia Harbour and Waikato Heads, mentioned above, may possibly be of Lower Cretaceous age. Admittedly Cretaceous rocks extend in a not-quite-continuous belt from Cape Campbell in Marlborough to the neighbourhood of Waipara in North Canterbury. At Amuri Bluff they are richly fossiliferous. Here and in several other localities the fossils include saurian remains. To the Cretaceous may also be assigned a somewhat extensive belt of rocks near the east coast of Wellington and southern Hawke's Bay. A continuation of this belt extends from somewhere to the north-west of Gisborne to the East Cape district.
The oldest known workable coal-seams in New Zealand probably occur in Cretaceous rocks. Much controversy, however, concerning the age of our coalfields has arisen. The late Sir James Hector, and with him Mr. Alexander McKay, considered that the coal-measures belonged to a Cretaceo-Tertiary system that extended from the Upper Cretaceous to the Middle Tertiary. For many years Mr. McKay was practically the sole exponent of this theory, but quite recently Dr. Marshall has advocated a very similar if not identical view. The truth, however, seems to be that the coal-measures concerning which there is a dispute are of two different ages. The Shag Point, Malvern Hills, and North Auckland coalfields are probably of Upper Cretaceous age. To these Park would add the Milton-Kaitangata coalfield and a small portion of the Green Island coalfield. The other coalfields, as mentioned below, are Tertiary.
Although there is certainly a palæontological break between the Upper Cretaceous (Waipara Series) and the Early Tertiary, the existence of an unconformity, as may be inferred from the previous paragraph, is a matter of doubt. The subdivision of the Tertiary strata, which are well represented in New Zealand, is still more or less tentative. To the Eocene may be assigned the bituminous coal-measures of the Grey, Buller, and Collingwood districts, and probably also some of the coal-bearing patches of central Nelson. Elsewhere Eocene rocks are not recognized.
During the Early Eocene it is believed that New Zealand was again part of a continental area that extended far to the north, and was joined, or all but joined, to New Guinea and northern Australia. This continent may have included much of the area in the Pacific now studded with coral islands. Its former existence is inferred mainly from various features in our plant and animal life. According to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman no less than 366 New Zealand plants are found also in Australia. More significant, perhaps, is the occurrence of many closely related species and genera in the two regions, for comparatively few of the 366 species are likely to have persisted since the Eocene. Many of our birds show marked affinities to Australian and Malayan species. In this connection an interesting line of support for a Tertiary extension of New Zealand to the north is afforded by the annual migrations of the New Zealand cuckoos and of the godwit.
During the Miocene period New Zealand subsided until little of the present land-surface was above water. Consequently, notwithstanding extensive denudation in later periods, Miocene strata are well represented in almost all parts of the country. They are typically developed in the Oamaru district (north-east Otago), and hence Hutton's name of “Oamaru Series” is generally applied to the Miocene strata of New Zealand. Miocene rocks are well represented in North Westland, an area in which a decided unconformity separates them from the Eocene coal-measures. They form much of the surface of the North Island, where the name “papa” is commonly applied to the calcareous claystones and argillaceous sandstones which there form a great proportion of the Miocene rocks. In many places the Oamaru Series is characterized by the development of a fairly thick, soft, fossiliferous limestone about the middle horizon. This marks the time of greatest subsidence, or rather the time when the Miocene sea was deepest. Owing to their calcareous nature, the Miocene rocks give rise to some of the richest agricultural districts in New Zealand. In places they contain, in their lowest horizon, seams of good brown coal. There are also brown coals of late Miocene age.
In many localities the Miocene rocks pass without unconformity into strata considered to be of Pliocene age. In the Hawke's Bay and Wanganui districts these are marine and highly fossiliferous. They give rise to much good agricultural and more especially pastoral land adapted to sheep-farming or dairying. In Nelson and North Westland the Pliocene strata are largely composed of river-transported material, and are known as the Moutere Gravels. These in places are of a poorly auriferous character. In Nelson the Moutere Gravels form a poor pastoral soil, but one well adapted for apple-culture.
Towards the close of the Miocene and during the whole of the Pliocene period many parts of New Zealand, more particularly in the South Island, were undergoing elevation. As a result the North and South Islands (then quite different in outline from their present configuration), together with most of the outlying islands now in existence, such as the Chathams, Auckland Islands, &c., must have formed one large land-mass, which probably was united to an Antarctic continent. Since many New Zealand plants* are identical with, or closely allied to, South American forms, and there are also some striking resemblances in bird and other forms of animal life, it is thought that this Antarctic continent formed a bridge, probably at no time quite complete, between New Zealand and South America. By this route, in all likelihood, came the now extinct moas or their ancestral forms. At the time of this continental extension the Southern Alps rose far above their present heights, and were covered with one vast snowfield, that fed immense glaciers spreading far and wide over the lowlands to the east and the west. According to Park, during the Pleistocene there was one great sheet of ice over the whole of the present South Island, and over part of the North Island. Moreover, this ice-sheet was joined to the Antarctic ice. The extreme views of Professor Park are not shared by other New Zealand geologists, who, however, unanimously agree that a large area in the South Island was glaciated. The great ice-streams of Pleistocene times gave rise to rivers that carried enormous quantities of gravel and finer material derived from the mountains beyond the ice-front, and in great measure built up the lowlands of Canterbury and Westland. In the latter district the gravels sorted by these streams are in many places richly auriferous, but a greater and more permanent source of wealth is furnished by the fertile soil of the Canterbury Plains.
In many parts of Otago, Canterbury, Westland, and Nelson evidences of past glacial action are afforded by huge moraines, perched blocks, ice-worn surfaces (roches moutonnées), rock-benches, rock-basins, and other tokens of glaciation. To ice-action, it may here be mentioned, we owe some of the most magnificent features of the western Otago sounds.
At or before the end of the Pleistocene period the mountains lessened in height, both through denudation and a well-marked subsidence of the land. The climate grew milder, and the lowland ice melted away. The mighty glaciers rapidly retreated, geologically speaking, and are to-day represented only by the comparatively modest valley and mountain glaciers of north-west Otago, Canterbury, and Westland, with which may be included the small but permanent snowfield and glacier on Mount Ruapehu. While the glaciers were retreating the rivers of Canterbury and Westland, swollen by the melting ice, were unusually active in transporting débris to the lowlands and the sea-coast. At this time, too, as well as at somewhat earlier periods, the volcanoes of the North Island furnished an abundant supply of fragmentary material, much of which was transported by the streams, and used in building plains and river-flats. Many of these are fertile, but in those districts where pumice abounded, a more or less barren soil, difficult of utilization, has resulted. Thus the land gradually became much as we see it now. In Recent times geological changes, such as the lowering of heights by denudation, the filling of lakes by sediment, the outward growth of coastal plains in some places, and the wearing away of the shores in other places, have slowly proceeded, and are to-day, of course, still going on. Slow movements of the land are probably in progress, but these have not been certainly detected. In 1855, however, as the result of a violent earthquake, the northern shore of Cook Strait, near Wellington Harbour, was raised on the average at least 5 ft., whilst the southern shore near Tory Channel and towards the mouth of the Wairau River was almost correspondingly depressed.
* According to T. F. Cheeseman's “Manual of the New Zealand Flora” (preface, p. ix), 108 New Zealand plants extend to South America.
In the preceding paragraphs little notice has been given to igneous rocks or to volcanic action. The oldest igneous rocks of New Zealand are probably represented by the gneisses of western Otago, which, as previously stated, are mainly metamorphosed granites and diorites. Plutonic rocks intrude many of the Palæozoic and Mesozoic strata, and some of the formations also show evidence of contemporaneous volcanic action. Of the more ancient plutonic rocks granite is the most prominent. It occurs in many localities in Stewart Island, western Otago, Westland, and Nelson. It has, however, not been found in situ in the North Island, though in at least four localities boulders of granite, probably derived in all cases from ancient conglomerates, have been discovered. Ultra-basic igneous rocks, now largely altered to serpentine, occur in north-west Otago, Westland, and Nelson.
Throughout the greater part of the Tertiary periods volcanic action in New Zealand has probably been more intense than in any former age. During the Late Eocene or Early Miocene period eruptions, at first principally of andesitic rocks and later of rhyolite, began in the Coromandel Peninsula, and with little intermission continued throughout Miocene and Pliocene times. These volcanic rocks contain the gold-silver veins which have yielded rich bonanzas at Thames and Coromandel, and are now being worked at the Waihi, Talisman, and other mines.
There are many areas of Miocene volcanic rocks in North Auckland, and near the City of Auckland numerous small volcanoes were in action during the Pleistocene. Some of these—for example, Mount Rangitoto—have probably been active within the last two or three thousand years. In Taranaki the beautiful cone of Mount Egmont was built up during Pliocene and Pleistocene times It is in the central part of the North Island, however, that the most intense volcanic activity has been displayed. Volcanic rocks, and more especially the pumice ejected during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, cover large areas. Vulcanism has not yet ceased, for minor eruptions of fragmentary material still take place from Ngauruhoe, a typical volcanic cone near Ruapehu. The most striking evidence of volcanic action, however, is afforded by the numerous steam-vents, hot springs, and geysers found in a belt extending from Ruapehu to White island (in the Bay of Plenty), itself a volcano in the solfataric stage. It is more than a coincidence that this belt is in line with the Southern Alps. Solfataric action is generally regarded as a sign of dying vulcanism, but that the subterranean forces are still capable of mischief was shown by the eruption of Tarawera, an apparently extinct volcano, on the 10th June, 1886. On this occasion over a hundred lives were lost.
In the South Island vulcanism is apparently quite dead, for the hot springs of Hanmer Plains and the western side of the Alps are due to other causes. During the Miocene, however, volcanic outbursts took place in many localities, in some on a grand scale. Banks Peninsula is formed mainly of basaltic and andesitic rocks. Lyttelton and Akaroa harbours are believed to represent ancient craters or centres of eruption. In the neighbourhood of Dunedin occurs a very interesting series of alkaline volcanic rocks. These were first described by the late Professor G. H. F. Ulrich, and in later years Dr. Marshall has given them exhaustive study.
In the course of a short article it is impossible to give any adequate idea of what has been accomplished by geological workers in New Zealand, or what remains yet to be done before even the foundation for future work shall be securely laid. The important branches of geology in its application to agriculture and mining have hardly been mentioned, but elsewhere in this volume will be found references to the agricultural and mineral resources. For detailed information the reader is referred to the bulletins of the New Zealand Geological Survey, which are now appearing at the rate of two or three every year; to Professor Park's “Geology of New Zealand,” which contains an excellent bibliography; and to the treatise on “New Zealand Geology,” by Dr. Marshall, as well as to many other publications too numerous to be here named. Finally, it may be mentioned that in each of the University Colleges excellent instruction in geology is being given by capable and enthusiastic teachers, so that in the near future we may expect increased progress in solving the many knotty problems of New Zealand geology.
The Wellington earthquake of 23rd January, 1855, received a full notice in Sir Charles Lyell's classic work “The Principles of Geology,” and probably largely on that account the attention of the scientific world was attracted to this feature of the natural phenomena of New Zealand. But since that earthquake, during which the level of the land in the neighbourhood of Wellington Harbour was raised about 5 ft., there has been no shock in the New Zealand region proper which has at all approached the destructive phase. Indeed, of about 1,800 earthquakes recorded as having origins in or near New Zealand, that of 1848 is the only other earthquake comparable in intensity to that of 1855; and the average intensity of all the earthquakes thus recorded is between III and IV on the Rossi-Forel scale, or in other words just sufficient to make pictures hung on walls move a little, and to cause doors and windows to creak or rattle slightly. In about twelve or fifteen instances the force has been sufficient near the origin to overturn some chimneys (for the most part badly constructed ones), and in a very few buildings to crack walls or ceilings of faulty design. In about thirty other earthquakes such phenomena have been noted as the stopping of clocks, without any damage. The great majority of shocks have passed unperceived by the ordinary observer, and have been recorded only by means of instruments. In short, earthquakes in New Zealand are rather a matter of scientific interest than a subject for alarm. Their scientific interest is largely due to the light they throw upon questions connected with the movements taking place in the earth's crust. Most people know now that the crust of the earth is not the stable thing that the ancients supposed it to be, but is constantly rising here, and falling there, and wrinkling itself into folds that cause most of our mountains and valleys and other striking surface features. All the great movements that appear at the surface are due to the repacking of the rocks below, especially, as the earthquakes seem to show, at a depth of fifteen to twenty miles.
This repacking is caused by change of pressure, which makes the rocks either “creep” or fold, or, in most cases, both creep and fold. When a movement takes place suddenly an earthquake is experienced. Apparently the change of pressure arises generally in one or other of two ways:—
(1.) The enormous amount of earthy material carried by rivers into the sea lessens the pressure on the rocks below the land surface, and increases the load on the sea-bed; this would tend to cause a side-thrust and creep at a lower depth towards the direction of the rocks underlying the land surface.
(2.) The unequal contraction of different layers of the crust is due to unevenness in their rate of cooling; this gives rise to crumpling or folding of the rocks.
Nearly all the earthquakes in New Zealand seem to be due to the second of these causes. Indeed, the facts of the earthquake of 1855 and several of the instrumental records of recent years give tolerably clear evidence of tilting of the surface that has taken place about lines that are parallel to the general direction of the main mountain ranges and to the chief known geological faults. From this it may not unreasonably be inferred that the folding clearly shown by geological evidence to have taken place since the Miocene age is still going on.
The origins of the New Zealand seismic region will be seen to arrange themselves in groups as follows:—
Group I.—Earthquakes felt most strongly on south-east coast of North Island; epicentra form a strip 180 miles from the coast, parallel to the axis of New Zealand, and to axis of folding of older Cainozoic rocks in Hawke's Bay. Chief shocks: 17th August, 1868; 7th March, 1890; 23rd and 29th July, 1904; 9th August, 1904 (intensity IX on R.-F. scale) 8th September, 1904; prob. 23rd February, 1863 (IX, R.-F.); &c.
According to Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S., the geological evidence shows that New Zealand rose considerably in the older Pliocéne period, and was then probably joined to the Chatham Islands. At a later period subsidence occurred, followed again by elevation in the Pleistocene period, with oscillations of level since. The seismic origins of this group are at the foot of a sloping submarine plateau, about two hundred miles wide, which culminates to the east-south-east in the Chatham Islands. This elevation is separated from the New Zealand coast by a trough from 1,000 to 2,000 fathoms in depth, which is widest and deepest between these origins and the mainland.
Group II.—(a.) South-east of Otago Peninsula. Shocks: 20th November, 1872, &c.
(b.) A strip south-east of Oamaru. Shocks; February, 1876; April, 1876; &c.
(c.) Many short and jerky, but generally harmless, quakes felt in Christchurch, Banks Peninsula, and mid Canterbury. Chief shocks; 31st August, 1870; 27th December, 1888 (VII, R.-F.); &c. Focus of 1888 shock, sixteen miles long, from west-south-west to east-northeast, twenty-four to twenty-five miles below surface, being deepest ascertained origin in New Zealand region.
These origins form a line parallel to the general axis of the land. It is quite possible that the loading of the sea-floor by the detritus brought down by the rivers of Canterbury and Otago is a contributing cause of the earthquakes of this group.
Group III.—Wellington earthquakes of January, 1855, and Cheviot earthquakes of November, 1901.
Evidence points to a probable relation between these origins. The great earthquakes of October, 1848, probably came from the same region as those of January, 1855. The chief shocks of both series did extensive damage to property, and caused the formation of large rifts in the earth's surface; they are the only seismic disturbances since the settlement of the Dominion that can be assigned to degree X on the Rossi-Forel scale.
Group IV.—(a.) Region about twenty-five to thirty miles in length, and, say, ten miles or less in width, running nearly north-north-east from middle of Lake Sumner, about twenty miles below the surface, whence proceed most of the severer shocks felt from Christchurch to the Amuri, and a large number of minor shocks. Chief earthquakes: 1st February, 1868; 27th August to 1st September, 1871; 14th September and 21st October, 1878; 11th April, 1884; 5th December, 1881 (VIII, R.-F.), when Christchurch Cathedral spire was slightly injured; 1st September, 1888 (IX, R.-F.), when upper part of same spire fell, and still more severe damage was done in the Amuri district.
(b.) A small, shallow origin not more than five to ten miles below the surface, a few miles south of Nelson. Earthquake: 12th February, 1893 (VIII to IX, R.-F.); chimneys thrown down and buildings injured.
(c.) Origin in Cook Strait, north-north-east of Stephen Island, about ten miles wide, and apparently traceable with few interruptions nearly to mouth of Wanganui River; depth, fifteen miles or more. More than half the earthquakes recorded in New Zealand belong to this region; earthquake of 8th December, 1897 (VIII to IX, R.-F.), and other severer ones come from south-south-west end. Probably the first recorded New Zealand earthquake, felt by Captain Furneaux on the 11th May, 1773, belonged to this region.
(d.) An origin near Mount Tarawera, with a large number of moderate or slight shocks, most, but not all, volcanic and local in character—e.g., those of September, 1866, and those of June, 1886, which accompanied and followed the well-known eruption of Mount Tarawera.
These origins of Group IV, (a), (b), (c), (d), are nearly in a straight line on the map; on or near the same line are the origins of earthquakes felt in the Southern Lake District (15th December, 1883, &c.), the volcanoes Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, Tongariro, Tarawera, and White Island. It is evident that this line, which, like the rest, is parallel or nearly so to the general axis, is a line of weakness or of unstable equilibrium. Hence the adjusting movements that have caused earthquakes may have, from time to time, relieved the pressure of the rocks that restrained overheated steam and other volcanic agents from bursting out, and so may have led to volcanic eruptions; just as the series of earthquakes in Guatemala and in the Caribbean Sea in April and May, 1902, were the signs of movements in the great folds of that part of the earth's crust, in the course of which, the pressure in the Antillean Ridge being relieved, the volcanic forces below Mount Pelée in Martinique, and Mount Souffrière in St. Vincent, caused the disastrous eruptions of that year.
Group V.—Off the coast near Raglan and Kawhia. Chief shock: 24th June, 1891 (VII to VIII, R.-F.). The line joining this origin to that of the earthquake of 1st February, 1882, is parallel to the other lines of origins (Groups I to IV): but we have no data to establish any connection between them.
Since 1888 there has been established in New Zealand a system of observing local earthquakes as recorded by galvanometers at selected telegraph stations—about eighty in number—distributed throughout the extent of the Dominion.
Whenever a shock occurs and is felt by an officer in charge of one of these stations, he fills up a form giving the New Zealand mean time of the beginning of the shock, its apparent duration and direction, and the principal effects observed by him. Some of the officers exhibit considerable care and skill in making up these returns, and the data have been used to determine principal origins of earthquakes within the New Zealand region.
Two instruments of the Milne horizontal seismograph type are installed in the Dominion; one at the Magnetic Observatory, Christchurch, under the charge of Mr. H. F. Skey, B.Sc., and one at Wellington, under the charge of Mr. G. Hogben, M.A., F.G.S., who is also one of the secretaries to the Seismological Committee of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science.
The records of these stations are sent to the General Secretary of the Seismological Committee of the British Association and to the principal observatories of the world, and thus form part of the general system of earthquake-observation being conducted throughout the world for the last sixteen years.
New Zealand's native fauna has attracted the attention of investigators in nearly all parts of the world. Its special interest lies in its manifold peculiarities, and in the incongruous characteristics possessed by some of its members.
Beginning with the mammalia, the Dominion is surprisingly inadequately represented. Its only land mammals are two bats. One of these, the long-tailed bat, belongs to a genus (Chalinolobus), which is found in the Australian and Ethiopian zoological regions, and to a species, morio, found in the southeast of Australia, as well as in New Zealand; but the other, the short-tailed bat (Mystacops tuberculatus), belongs to a genus peculiar to this Dominion. The sea-lion, the sea-elephant, the sea-leopard, and the fur-seal exist in parts of the New Zealand zoo-geographical area, which includes the Kermadec, Chatham, Auckland, Cook, Snares, Bounty, Antipodes, Campbell, and Macquarie Islands; and whales and porpoises abound in some of the waters. With the exception of those animals, the two species of bat are the only indigenous mammals. When Europeans came to the country, the Maoris had a dog (Canis familiaris, variety maorium) and a rat (Mus exulans), but both of them, it is believed, were brought to the country at the time of the Maori migrations from Pacific islands, and they are not included in the list of native mammals.
* This bird is better known as Notornis mantelli. That name was first given by Sir Richard Owen to an extinct bird represented by a fossil found at Waingongoro, in the North Island, by Mr. W. Mantell in 1817. When the first living specimen of the Notornis was found, in 1849. scientists concluded that it, was identical with the fossil, and it bore the same name; but when Dr. Meyer, of Dresden, examined the skeleton of the third specimen, he found that it was different from the fossil, and he changed the specific name from mantelli to hochstetteri, thus honouring Dr. Hochstetter, a naturalist, who visited New Zealand in the early days.
In contrast with the mammalia, the members of the next class, Aves, were remarkably plentiful when settlement began. Bush and grass fires, cats, stoats and weasels, and the ruthless use of the gun, have reduced their numbers, but they still stand as, probably, the most interesting avifauna in the world. They include a comparatively large number of absolutely flightless birds. No living birds in New Zealand are wingless, but the kiwi (Apteryx), the weka (Ocydromus), the kakapo parrot (Stringops), and the takahe (Notornis hochstetteri)* cannot use their wings for flight, while a duck belonging to the Auckland Islands (Nesonetta) is practically in the same plight. There are also several species of birds whose wings are so weak that they can make only short flights. Other notable birds are the kea (Nestor notabilis), which is accused of killing sheep on stations in the South Island; the tui (Prosthemadera novæzealandiæ), which affords one of the most beautiful sights in the New Zealand forests, and charms visitors with its silvery notes; the huia (Heteralocha acutirostris), the only species known in which there is a wide divergence in the shape of the bills in the two sexes, the male's being short and straight, while the female's is curved, pliant, and long; and the wry-billed plover (Anarhynchus frontalis), the only bird known to possess a bill turned to one side. Cormorants or shags (Phalacrocorax) and penguins (Impennes) are exceptionally well represented in the avifauna. Several species of birds make notable migrations to New Zealand. The godwit (Limosa nova zealandiæ), it is believed, breeds on the tundras of eastern Siberia, and it spends the summer months in New Zealand, arriving about October and leaving in March or April. The knot (Tringa canutus) is believed to make almost the same journey, and two cuckoos, the shining-cuckoo (Chalcococcyx lucidus) and the long-tailed cuckoo (Urodynamis taitensis), come from Pacific islands in the spring and leave for their northern homes about April. Both, like most members of the Cuculidæ family, are parasitical, and impose upon small native birds the duty of hatching and rearing young cuckoos. The kiwi, already mentioned, belongs to the same subclass as the ostrich, the emu, and the cassowary, all struthious birds, and has several peculiarities besides its flightlessness. The takahe (Notornis) is one of the world's very rare birds. Only four specimens have been found. Two of the skins are in the British Museum, one is in the Dresden Museum, and one in the Otago Museum, in Dunedin. The interest of the living avifauna is surpassed by the interest of the extinct birds. These include the great flightless moa (Dinornis), a goose (Cnemiornis minor), a gigantic rail (Aptornis otidiformis), and an eagle (Harpagornis moorei).
Reptilian life is restricted to about fifteen species of lizards, and to the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). This is a lizard-like creature, the only surviving representative of the order Rhynchocephalia, otherwise extinct. The tuatara is found in no other country. Its nearest ally is Homæosaurus, whose remains have been found in Jurassic rocks in Germany. It has been destroyed to a large extent by wild pigs, cats, and dogs, and is now seldom found except on a few islands off the coast of the mainland.
The amphibians are represented by a small frog (Liopelma hochstetteri), which is very rare, and has been recorded from only a few districts in the Auckland Province. Its nearest ally is in China.
About 250 species of fish have been found in New Zealand waters. A large number of these are used for food. Several species, notably the mudfish (Neochanna apoda), which is sometimes discovered buried 4 ft. deep in clay in places where rivers have overflowed in flood, and in swampy places, are interesting. Some of the genera are peculiar to New Zealand, but some also occur in Australian and South American waters.
Amongst the invertebrates, one of the peculiarities is the fact that the Dominion has few butterflies, although it is well supplied with moths. It has a red admiral butterfly (Vanessa), named after the European species, which it resembles, and a copper butterfly (Chrysophanus), which is very plentiful. In the forests there is that strange growth, the “vegetable caterpillar.” The Dominion has native bees and ants, dragon-flies, sober-coloured beetles, and representatives of other orders of insects. The katipo spider (Latrodectes katipo), which lives mostly on or near the sea-beach, is well known locally. Amongst the mollusca, there is a large and handsome landsnail (Paryphanta) and Amphibola, an air-breathing snail, peculiar to the country, which lives in brackish water, mainly in estuaries. There are about twenty species of univalves and twelve of bivalves in the fresh-water shells, and about four hundred species in the marine shells, including the paper nautilus (Argonauta). Perhaps the most interesting of all the invertebrates is the Peripalus, an ancient type of creature which survives in New Zealand, and in parts of Australia, Africa, South America, the West Indies, New Britain, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Zoologically, it belongs to the air-breathing division of the phylum Arthropoda, and has been placed in a special class, Prototracheata or Onychophora. It is about 3 in. long, has many feet, loves moisture, shuns light, and moves slowly. Two genera have been found in New Zealand. One genus, Peripatoides, contains two species, novæ-zealandiæ and suteri, and the other, Oöperipatus, contains only one species, viridimaculatus. The Peripatus is viviparous. It is claimed that one New Zealand genus, Oöperipatus, is oviparous, but that has not been fully proved.* Professor A. Dendy, F.R.S., has made special investigations in regard to the New Zealand species.
With the arrival of Europeans, the whole face of the fauna was changed. Sheep, cattle, horses, and other domestic animals were introduced, some for utility, some for pleasure, such as song birds, and some for sport, such as deer, trout, pheasants, and quail. In the work of acclimatization several great and irretrievable blunders were made. The worst of these was the introduction of rabbits, stoats, and weasels.
Owing to its long isolation and diverse elements (Malayan, Australian, Subantarctic, and endemic), the flora of New Zealand is of special interest. Ferns, fern-allies, and seed-plants number, so far as is at present known, about 1,700 species, of which about three-fourths are endemic. Many hundreds of algae, fungi, mosses, and liverworts have been described, but these certainly do not represent the total number of such. With regard to the seed-plants, one family (the daisy) contains more than 230 species, three (sedge, figwort, and grass) each more than a hundred, and ten (carrot, orchid, buttercup, madder, epacrid, willowherb, pea, rush, and forgetmenot) between thirty and seventy. The ferns and ferns-allies, though not of the overwhelming importance in the flora that many think, still number 157 species. The genera Veronica, Carex, Celmisia, Coprosma, Ranunculus, Olearia, Senecio, Epilobium, and Myosotis contain many species, no few of which, owing to their extreme variability, are difficult to exactly define. This is especially the case with Veronica, which embraces more than a hundred species.
Variability is not concerned merely with adult plants, but quite often there are species with juvenile forms quite distinct from the adults and which may persist for many years. This strange procedure is seen, more or less, in a hundred species. Familiar examples amongst trees are the lacebark, lowland-ribbonwood, lancewood, kowhai, and kaikomako.
Many of the growth-forms of New Zealand plants are characteristic of the life-conditions. There are, for example—climbing-plants with long, woody ropelike stems; shrubs with stiff, wiry, interlaced branches forming close masses; cushion-plants sometimes of immense proportions, as in the vegetable sheep (species of Haastia and Psychrophyton); leafless shrubs with round or flattened stems; species of Veronica looking exactly like cypresses; trees with leaves bunched on long trunks; grasses and sedges forming tussocks. The ligneous plants are almost all evergreen, only some twenty being deciduous or semi-deciduous. Herbs that die to the ground in winter and bulbous plants are very rare.
* Professor Adam Sedgwick F.R.S., Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, in the new Encyclopædia Britannica.
The plant-associations are of quite as great interest as the species; indeed, to find an equal variety a continent extending to the tropics would have to be visited. The northern rivers and estuaries contain a true mangrove association, an unexpected occurrence outside the tropics. Lowland and montane forests are of the tropical rain-forest type. They are distinguished by their wealth of tree-ferns, filmy ferns, woody climbing-plants, massive perching-plants, deep carpets of mosses and liverworts, and trees provided at times with plank-like buttresses. The kauri forest in the north, the swamp kahikatea forest and the assemblages of taxads (rimu, miro, totara, and matai), are different rain-forest associations. Another forest is that where species of the southern-beech (Nothofagus), incorrectly termed “birch,” are dominant. Such are subantarctic, and constitute the greater part of the high-mountain forests, though in Wellington, Marlborough, and Nelson they are common in the lowlands. Shrub heath in which the manuka is dominant is common in the North, South, and Stewart Islands, but is especially abundant on the Auckland gumfields, where it is an obstacle to agriculture. Fern heath of tall bracken is also widespread. Swamp characterized by Phormium, raupo, toetoe, and niggerhead was once common, but draining has greatly reduced its area. Bogs and moorland support a peculiar vegetation. Hummocks of bog-moss are abundant, and a small wiry umbrella-fern may cover wide areas. Grass land with brownish-leaved tussock-grasses is a great feature of parts of the volcanic plateau of the North Island, and of the east of the South Island. Species of Poa and Festuca form the principal tussocks of the lowlands and lower hills, but at higher altitudes and in Southland at low levels species of Danthonia dominate. This name is not to be confused with the turf-making species of the same genus used in artificial pastures.
The alpine vegetation is of great scientific importance. It contains, exclusive of lowland plants which ascend to the mountains, about 550 species, most of which never descend below 1,500ft. altitude, while some are confined altogether to the highest elevations. The most beautiful of the New Zealand flowers, with but few exceptions, belong to this mountain-flora. Here are the great buttercups, white and yellow; the charming ourisias; the marguerite-flowered celmisias; the dainty eyebrights; forgetmenots, yellow, bronze, and white; and many other delightful plants. The growth-forms, too, are often striking or quaint Cushion-plants, rosette-plants, stiff-branched shrubs, and mat-forming plants are much in evidence. Hairiness, leathery texture, and great rigidity, perhaps accompanied by needle-like points, as in the spaniard (Aciphylla Colensoi), are common characters of leaves.
The floras of the following groups of islands, far distant from the mainland, are distinctly part of that of New Zealand. The Kermadecs contain 114 species of ferns, fern-allies, and seed-plants, only 12 of which are endemic, while 71 belong also to New Zealand proper. The largest island (Sunday Island) is covered with forest in which Metrosideros villosa, a near relation of the pohutakawa, is the principal tree. The Chatham Islands possess 235 species, 29 of which are endemic, though several of the latter are trivial varieties merely, while the remainder of the flora is, with one exception, found on the mainland. Forest, moor, and heath are the principal plant-associations. The leading tree is the karaka, but by the Moriori called kopi. On the moors are great thickets of a lovely purple-flowered shrub, Olearin semidentata. There are two remarkable endemic genera, Coxiella and Myosotidium, the former belonging to the carrot family and the latter a huge forgetmenot, now nearly extinct. The Subantarctic Islands (Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Macquarie) have a dense vegetation made up of 194 species, no fewer than 52 of which are endemic, the remainder being found in New Zealand, but chiefly in the mountains. Forest is found only on the Snares and the Aucklands, with a species of Olearia and the southern rata as the dominant trees respectively. Extremely dense scrubs occur on the Auckland and Campbell Islands, and moors, sometimes with huge tussocks, are a characteristic feature of all the islands, thanks to the enormous peat-deposit and the frequent rain. Several herbaceous plants of stately form and with beautiful flowers occur in great profusion.
The Cook Islands, though a part of the Dominion, possess a Polynesian flora quite distinct from that of New Zealand, and are excluded from this notice, while, on the contrary, the flora of the Macquarie Islands (belonging to Tasmania) is a portion of that of New Zealand.
Besides the indigenous, an important introduced element, consisting of about 540 species, mostly European, has followed in the wake of settlement. These aliens are in active competition with the true natives. There is a widespread but quite erroneous opinion that the latter are being eradicated in the struggle. This is not the case. Where the vegetation has never been disturbed by man there are no foreign plants. But where man, with his farming operations, stock, and burning has brought about European conditions, then certainly the indigenous plants have given way before artificial meadows with their economic plants and accompanying weeds. On the tussock-grass land, however, invader and aboriginal have met, and though the original vegetation is changed, there is no reason to consider the one class or the other as the conqueror. On the contrary, both may be expected to persist, and in course of time a new flora and vegetation will be evolved.
The climate of New Zealand is to be considered in relation to four main features—(1) Its position, stretching for nearly a thousand miles southward of latitude 34° S.; (2) its insular condition, situated as it is in the widest ocean of the world, from which no part of the country is distant more than seventy-five miles; (3) its physical features, mountain-chains running mostly north and south and affording different aspects; and (4) the weather-changes to which these parts of the earth are subject.
The latitudes in which the chief cities of New Zealand lie in the Southern Hemisphere correspond with the cities in the North from which the possible amount of sunshine may be gauged. Auckland's latitude corresponds to that of Cape Passaro in the south of Sicily; Wellington to Naples; and Dunedin to Venice. The following table gives the period during which the sun is above the true horizon on the days of midsummer and midwinter:—
|Possible Sunshine on the||At Auckland.||At Wellington.||At Dunedin.|
The actual hours of bright sunshine recorded in Wellington average nearly six hours per day throughout the year, and few indeed are the days when a brilliant sun does not at some time or other score a definite trace upon the recording-chart. Other districts much more protected from cloud-formation, as Nelson, in the Tasman Gulf; Napier, on the east coast of the North Island; and Lincoln, near Christchurch, on the east coast of the South Island, have higher records. Some of the west coast districts, on the other hand, record less bright sunshine; but Wellington, the capital city, is in the middle position, and affords a good mean both for the sunshine and the rainfall of the whole Dominion. Wellington is also in a critical position with regard to atmospheric disturbances, Cook Strait being usually the dividing-line between the cyclonic storms and westerly lows, generally partaking of the changes due to both. The actual results are as follows:—
|Hours of Sunshine.|
* For six years.
† For four years.
‡ Incomplete, 13 days no record kept.
These results bear comparison with some of the most favoured regions of the world, where, in order to produce the best results, sunshine and shower hold sway in turn. For instance, over the northern parts of the British Isles the annual average of bright sunshine is 1,200 hours, or 27 per cent, of the possible; and in the south it is 1,600 hours, or 36 per cent.; while Italy has averages from 2,000 to 2,400 hours, or from 45 to 54 per cent, of the possible.
Latitude, isolation, proximity of the ocean, and the height of a locality are the determining factors with regard to temperature. The oceanic influences are recognized as the dominant feature with regard to both summer heat and winter cold, upon both of which they exercise a moderating effect. The west coast of the South Island especially is open to the prevailing westerly winds, and is more humid and equable than the eastern coastal districts, which at times present an almost continental type with considerable range of temperature. In the cities of Auckland and Wellington frosts on the grass are of rare occurrence, though further south and inland they are often experienced. As showing the influence of the ocean in moderating temperature, we may contrast the records of a continental city with the capital city of Wellington.
|Temperatures (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
Lat. 41° 16' S.
|Mean annual range||27·3|
Lat. 48° 12' N.
|Mean annual range||81·0|
The meteorological seasons are regarded as later than the solar or astronomical seasons. Thus, in the Southern Hemisphere July is usually the coldest and wettest month of the year, while January is the driest and warmest. The seasons are thus roughly divided:—
|Winter—June, July, August.|
|Spring—September, October, November.|
|Summer—December, January, February.|
|Autumn—March, April, May.|
The following table gives seasonal and annual means computed from several stations in the various “provinces” into which the Dominion was once politically as well as naturally divided:—
|Mean Temperatures in Shade (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
|Nelson and Marlborough—|
Mean temperatures of definite places are usually employed in climatic comparisons, and the following annual means, as well as the means of the extreme months of the summer and winter, afford the reader useful data. The Australian temperatures are from the Official Year-book of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the others are chiefly from Hofrath, Dr. J. Hann's great work upon the climatology of the world.
|New York City.||Washington, D.C.||St. Louis.||Los Angeles.|
|Santiago.||Buenos Aires.||Monte Video.|
The rainfall map of New Zealand which appeared in the Yearbook for 1911 presents striking conformation to its physical configuration, and records gathered throughout the country during a period of sixty years present a certain regularity which brings out the dominating influence of the mountain ranges over the rainfall. The lofty Southern Alps, rising to heights of from ten to twelve thousand feet on the western side of the South Island, lie broadside to the prevailing westerly winds, and on their windward slopes are condensed the vapours which have been swept by the breezes over vast stretches of ocean-wave. On the plains at the margin near the foot of the ranges and on their mugged and precipitous slopes the rainfall averages from one to two hundred inches per annum, while on the lee side of this formidable chain the climate is comparatively very dry, and in parts the rainfall is only about one-tenth of what is recorded on the other side. The manner in which the sea-breezes are robbed of their moisture is occasionally manifested when a strong and steady westerly wind blows along parallel with the southern latitudes. Heavy and continuous then is the rain on the west coast, and the clouds and mist may rise to the summit, but no further. There the winds are forced onwards and rush downwards to the greatest plains in New Zealand which have been built up of the detritus of the mountains. Here, however, the characteristics of this westerly wind have been entirely changed, for it is now hot by compression, and dry because it gave off its moisture when it rose above sea-level away back among the hills. Instead of parting with superfluous humidity, it is now capable of sustaining the vapour of water, and nature seeks to restore the balance of its relative humidity by evaporating what moisture it can from stream and lake, vegetation or animal life in its path. These hot and dry “nor'-westers” of the Canterbury Plains are similar in character to the well-known Foehn winds such as are experienced in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, but they illustrate and account for much of the comparative shortage of rainfall on the eastern side of the South Island which is manifest in the map.
While the South Island isohyets or rain-bands of equal rainfall stretch north and south, the North Island tracings are more irregular in form, but show that the rainfall itself is more regular over the country and less extreme in comparison between different districts. Here, again, however, the control of the mountains and plains over precipitation is apparent. The contours of the rainfall areas are found to coincide more or less with the configuration of the country—dark-tinted spots showing heavier rainfalls are found in proximity to Mount Egmont, the Tongariro, Tararua, Raukumara, and other ranges.
The mean annual rainfall of New Zealand, derived from means of representative stations in various parts of the whole country, is about 50 in., but the seasonal falls are different in various districts. The season of greatest fall in the North Island, which is mostly under the influence of subtropical conditions, is winter, and the month of July shows not only the lowest mean temperature but the mean maximum rainfall, and is regarded as the midwinter month in the Southern Hemisphere. In the South Island late autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently dry, while the summer sometimes suffers from too frequent showers. This is the case on the east coast and southernmost portions of the South Island, but at this time the west coast occasionally is even in want of rain; in fact, the west and east coasts of the South Island are so different that if the east coast has more than the average rainfall the west coast has less, and vice versa. The average monthly rainfall of the year is remarkably even in the South Island, but the midwinter month's mean in the North Island is nearly double the mean of the midsummer month (February).
The averages from the climatological tables are—
|Rainfall (in Inches).|
|(Rainy Days (0·005 in. or more).|
|Annual Rainfalls (in Inches).|
|(60 Years).||(36 Years).||(55 Years).||(35 Years).|
|(36 Years).||(34 Years).||(54 Years).|
|Mean Number of Days with Rain (0·01 in, or more).|
Annual mean totals.—Auckland, 180·4; New Plymouth, 189·7; Gisborne, 153·8; Wellington, 167·7; Christchurch, 119·4; Hokitika, 179·2; Dunedin, 163·3
The seasons usually differ considerably in several characteristics from year to year, and the annual rainfalls are found to range considerably above and below the means in all parts of the Dominion. From month to month also, and by comparing the records of months of the same name in different years are seen surprising contrasts and periodic changes which evade general laws, and the approximately true mean rainfalls are only ascertained through averages derived from returns extending over many years.
The abundance and frequency of the rainfall are, however, the leading features in the climate of New Zealand as a whole. The positions of the Islands, with vast oceans on every side, and the proximity of every part of the country to the sea, combined with frequent atmospheric changes, usually cause all parts of the Dominion to be favoured with beneficent rains, and very rarely indeed does the rainfall report from any station in the Dominion make the return of “nil.” Nine out of ten of the stations throughout the country have never recorded months of such absolute drought, and on the other hand very few are the records showing rainfall every day during any month of their registrations. Sunshine and rain alternate fairly well throughout the year, with much greater predominance of the former. The rainfall is usually more intense and frequent at night than in the hours when the sun exercises its influence over air and earth and sea, for then “Maui is drawing water.”
Averages derived from the Monthly Climatological Tables from August, 1904, to December, 1912 (inclusive). Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall in points: 100 = 1 in.
|Days with rain||10·0||8·4||11·9||13·7||14·2||16·1||17·3||13·9||16·7||15·7||13·4||11·6|
|Days with rain||12·5||7·7||12·1||12·4||11·4||14·0||13·9||13·1||15·5||15·3||13·7||13·7|
Annual averages.—North Island—Mean temp., 56·1° F.; rainfall, 50·54 in.; days with rain, 163. South Island—Mean temp., 52·1° F.; rainfall, 45·28in.; days with rain, 155.
Snow falls in the winter-time on the higher levels in the South Island and occasionally on the central plateau of the North Island, but, except on the mountain-tops, usually does not lie for long. Snow is seldom seen on the lowlands even in the southernmost districts of the South Island, and in many parts of New Zealand snow has never been known to fall; but, on the other hand, cyclonic areas in summer will bring some snow on the higher levels of the South Island.
Thunderstorms are also comparatively rare in the coastal districts, but are more frequent and prolonged in the mountainous parts. In summer the thunderstorms usually occur in the afternoon, and in the winter, with low-pressure systems, at night.
Hail occasionally accompanies coastal thunderstorms, but rarely causes much damage to property, fruit, or crops in New Zealand, and is more frequently experienced in winter.
The winds of the temperate zone are usually fairly constant and fresh, and the Dominion of New Zealand—set as it is in the widest ocean in the world—is open to all its influence. The sea-breezes sweep uninterruptedly over thousands of miles of ocean-wave, not only bringing freshness, ozone, and moisture, but at times, it must be confessed, causing annoyance on account of their force and persistency. This may be regarded as a defect of their qualities, for in those parts of the earth that experience little wind the people usually lack energy, and the same regions are mostly subject to occasional storms that are terribly destructive to life and property. No country in the world, however, presents greater diversity in respect to wind than New Zealand, chiefly on account of its length and mountain-chains. The uneven surface of the land, the proximity of the straits, &c., are seen to exercise the most marked influence not only upon the force, but also upon the direction of the winds—reducing or increasing their velocity, diverting, and even entirely changing their course. For example, westerly winds blowing across the ocean towards the west coast are partially inverted—while the upper part will cross the mountains to become occasionally a hot, dry westerly wind on the Canterbury Plains, the lower part curls round and is actually experienced as an easterly wind in the towns on the coast at the foot of the mountains.
The average velocity as given herewith is from records of the Robinson anemometer, in miles per day:—
|—||Auckland (11 Years).||Wellington (16 Years).||Hokitika (16 Years).||Lincoln. (13 Years).|
|Average per day||180||282||135||164|
|Max. velocity in one day||974||1,200||693||967|
The velocity of the winds, it may be noted, is higher on the average in summer than in winter, and the winds are usually also stronger by day than by night.
The following “wind-roses” show the percentage of wind-directions from annual means for forty-eight years' unbroken records for each place.
The prevailing winds are thus seen to be planetary anti-trade winds—westerlies which go round the world and are used by mariners to take them eastward towards England as far as Cape Horn, and on their return they pick them up again off the Cape of Good Hope. In summer, however, to the north of Auckland the easterly trade winds often blow with much regularity for weeks together.
The development of the Maori race is a striking testimony to the suitability of the climate to humanity, and European families under New Zealand skies have generally developed in physique. Imported stock has in most cases thriven marvellously in the fields, where throughout summer and winter they usually find all the nourishment needed, and hardly ever require more than natural protection.
The fertility of the soil gives remarkable testimony to the genial climate of New Zealand, for, though labour is not nearly plentiful enough to obtain the best results from agriculture, yet, as shown in the returns published annually, the actual average yields in bushels per acre for the whole Dominion for the past sixteen seasons here given compare more than favourably with the yields for other countries.
|Average Yield per Acre in Bushels.|
|Sixteen Years.||Maximum.||Minimum.|| Season|
|Wheat||29·85||38·37 (1902-3)||23·00 (1897-8)||25·73||33·69||27·28|
|Oats||39·13||48·71 (1911-12)||27·44 (1897-8)||33·41||48·71||35·12|
|Barley||34·16||40·69 (1902-3)||23·72 (1897-8)||27·68||39·65||36·75|
These results are typical of the harvests of other cereals, vegetables, and fruits, which grow in abundance.
Lastly, the vital statistics show that for a long period New Zealand has had the lowest death-rate in the world, and this is undoubtedly owing very much to the salubrity of its climate. The vital statistics show to advantage not only in the earlier years of life, but it is after the age of thirty-two that the extraordinary longevity of New Zealand is apparent. The judgment of travellers and those best qualified to give an opinion is that the country is one of the healthiest in the world. The abundant vitality of the people is apparent not only in the homes and thoroughfares throughout the Dominion, but is manifested in thriving industries and the high place attained by New Zealanders in the world of sport. New Zealand, in a word, is a country where from youth to old age man can keep in vigorous health and enjoy life to its fullest extent.
The weather is full of vagaries in the temperate zones of both hemispheres, and New Zealand is not the only country which occasionally experiences a touch of winter in summer, but there is also very much summerlike weather in the winter-time. Occasionally winter storms account for temporary high winds and heavy rainfalls, but the monthly averages show that less wind is experienced in the season of winter, particularly in the south.
The chief atmospheric changes are associated with barometric pressures, above the normal being known as “high” pressure, and below it as “low.” For weather charts and forecast purposes the isobar, or line of equal pressure of 30 in., is regarded as normal in New Zealand, though the true normal lies between 29·90 in. and 30·00 in. The winds flow nearly parallel to the isobars in both high and low pressure systems, and all atmospheric systems in New Zealand move from west to east.
High-pressure systems or anti-cyclones are usually associated with fair weather by day and cold nights, when the earth radiates the heat of its surface into space. The central isobar will occasionally enclose an area in which all the barometers reduced to sea-level and to 32° Fahr. will read as high as 30·60. Around this centre the winds revolve or back contrary to the direction of the hands of a watch in the Southern Hemisphere; thus, if the barometer is 30·40 in. at Wellington, and the readings are 30·00 in. or thereabouts at both Russell and the Bluff, the winds will be easterly over the North Island and westerly over the South, southerly off the east coast and northerly off the west coast. The winds thus form vast circles hundreds of miles in diameter. These anticyclones often last for eight or nine days.
Low-pressure systems are mostly of two kinds, and around their centres of lowest pressure the winds are seen to revolve clockwise on the weather-chart; thus, if the centre of a cyclone should be in Cook Strait the winds will be westerly at Auckland, easterly at Christchurch, northerly off the east coast, and southerly off the west coast. If the lowest pressure on the chart were in Foveaux Strait the prevailing winds northward would be generally westerly, at least as far north as New Plymouth and Napier, and sometimes extend even to the North Cape, changing from north by the west to southwest.
Cyclones are circular or oval-shaped disturbances with closed isobars; they come from the tropics, and chiefly affect the North Island, bringing first warmth and humidity, then high winds and heavy rain. They usually last from two to five days, and are more frequent in winter than in summer, though they are often intense at the latter period.
The term “cyclone” does not always mean a storm of great intensity such as is experienced in tropical regions, for when the disturbance leaves the tropics it usually expands and covers a wider area, over which its forces are distributed. The frequency of cyclones during the past nine years shows the following average: Spring, 2; summer, 1·8; autumn, 3·3; winter, 5·3. These figures will be surprising to some who believe that ex-tropical cyclones are found only in spring or early in summer, while others assert that they come only in midwinter.
Westerly or antarctic lows of A-shaped isobars, with lowest pressure southward of New Zealand, chiefly affect the South Island, but, like the cyclones, frequently extend their influences over the whole Dominion. These lows usually move along the parallels of latitude known to sailors as the “roaring forties.” Their duration is from twelve hours to as many days, and in some seasons they are much more frequent and persistent than in others. They come at all times of the year, but with greater frequency in springtime: Spring, 6·3; summer, 4·3; autumn, 5·2; winter, 4·7
The total rainfall for the year 1912 was less than the normal in the Auckland, Gisborne, and Hawke's Bay districts, but in the southern portion of the North Island and over the whole of the South Island, with the exception of the Nelson District, the aggregate was in excess of the average. The coastal stations of Canterbury, as was the case in 1911, again show the greatest difference, the excess ranging from 12 to as much as 70 per cent.
The following table shows the difference, above or below the mean, for each month in the year:—
Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Seven Previous Years.
+ Above the average.
– Below the average.
Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Seven Years.
|Av. 10·0||8·1||11·5||13·3||14·5||15·1||17 4||14·2||16·0||15·6||13·2||12·6|
Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Seven Previous Years.
Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Seven Years.
+ Above the average.
- Below the average.
January was not subject to an excessive range of barometric pressure, but minor fluctuations were somewhat frequent, causing weather of a changeable nature with frequent showers, more especially over the South Island. The whole of the North Island had less rainfall than the normal for this month, but the South nearly everywhere recorded a small excess, chiefly owing to a westerly depression which ruled between the 15th and 21st. During this period the western districts especially recorded some copious downpours, which on the 20th resulted in flooded rivers in this portion of the Dominion. Electrical disturbances were also frequent at this time, and Canterbury experienced a severe thunderstorm on the 18th.
Towards the close of the month an anticyclone overspread the country, and the month of February was ushered in with fair weather-conditions, which prevailed generally during the first week. Two westerly areas of low pressure influenced weather-conditions. The first, between the 13th and 17th, although only of moderate intensity, was the cause of a heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Cook Strait on the 15th. The second one was of longer duration, lasting from the 17th to the 24th, and was apparently triple-centred, its lowest pressure passing in the south on the 19th, 20th, and 22nd respectively. The only other disturbance was a monsoonal depression to the northward of New Zealand, which on the 27th and 28th accounted for much rain in the northern districts, and warm, humid, and misty conditions generally. The aggregate precipitation for the month differed but slightly from the normal.
March generally showed a high rainfall, particularly over the North Island, some of the northernmost districts recording more than double the average. The weather during the greater part of the month was extremely unsettled, and temperatures were much below the average. In the beginning of the month a monsoonal low in the north impinged on an extensive high-pressure system passing further south. There consequently followed a remarkable steepening of the barometric gradient, and the mingling of the warm air-currents of the low-pressure system and the cold currents in front of the anticyclone resulted in considerable rainfall. On the 7th an extensive cyclone passed over the country, in conjunction with which was a westerly low pressure, the trough of which passed on the night of the 8th. Other causes of rainfall in March were three small westerly “lows,” and an ex-tropical cyclone whose centre passed to the northward of New Zealand. The latter was of considerable intensity, but owing to a “high” at this time being centred over the South Island it was not able to exert so unfavourable an influence as it would have done had the distribution of pressure made it possible for its centre to pass within these latitudes. On the last day of the month a well-defined anticyclone invested the country.
In April nearly the whole of the North Island and the east coast districts of the South had an excessive rainfall, a condition which was brought about chiefly by two cyclonic disturbances, one which passed off East Cape on the 15th, and the other an intense and extensive one whose centre crossed in the vicinity of Cook Strait on the 24th. From the latter date to the end of the month continuous westerly low pressure ruled, with very unsettled and at times stormy conditions.
May was remarkably free from disturbances of any extent, the controlling pressures being nearly all anticyclonic. Consequently fair weather was the characteristic feature of the month. Precipitation was everywhere considerably lower than the mean.
In contrast to the previous month, June was unsettled and wintry, and most districts experienced a large rainfall with the number of wet days greatly in excess of the average. Three extensive westerly low-pressure areas prevailed —viz, between the 1st and 10th, the 15th and 23rd, and from the 27th to the 30th; and a cyclone apparently passed eastward of East Cape on the 24th and 25th. The barometric range was excessive during the month, the highest pressure being 30·48 in. at the Bluff on the 10th, and the lowest 29·05 in. at Wellington on the 1 st.
The midwinter month, July, was remarkable for a persistence of easterly winds which accompanied three prolonged disturbances passing in the north, while the southern districts were under the influence of higher pressure. The southern and west coast districts in consequence experienced a considerable amount of fair weather. The only districts having a larger rainfall than the average were portions of the east coast of the North Island and the whole of the east coast of the South Island, and this, as before mentioned, owing to the remarkable prevalence of vapour-laden easterly winds. On several occasions a particularly high barometer reading was recorded, the maximum, 30·70 in., taking place at Oamaru on the 23rd.
Anticyclones chiefly dominated weather-conditions during August, between the 10th and the 27th the country hardly being free from them. Previous to the 10th, however, and again towards the close of the month, low-pressure systems were much in evidence. No particularly heavy rainfalls were recorded, and the total was generally below the average. Cold nights with frosts were numerous, the most severe occurring on the night of the 12th.
During the month of September the weather was dominated by an unusual number of low-pressure systems, anticyclones of a well-developed character being entirely absent, or else centred too far north to cause settled weather for an appreciable period. Westerly areas of low pressure were frequent and of an extensive and intense type, resulting in a predominance of high westerly winds, in consequence of which districts with a westerly aspect suffered a remarkably excessive rainfall, many stations recording more than double their average for the month. The eastern districts, on the other hand, particularly Canterbury and Hawke's Bay, recorded less than the usual amount. Between the 2nd and the 6th an ex-tropical cyclone passing in the north accounted for heavy rain at times in the northern and east coast districts, and misty and wet conditions generally. On the nights of the 14th and 16th, in conjunction with an extensive westerly “low” depressions of a secondary type caused severe thunderstorms in the vicinity of Auckland and Wellington respectively. Electrical disturbances were also experienced on several occasions during the middle of the month in Westland. Generally the month was one of squally and showery weather, most districts having, besides a larger rainfall, a greater number of rainy days than the average.
Again in October the type of pressure - distribution was such as to cause weather of an unsettled character, the longest period of fair weather generally being experienced between the 27th and the 30th, when the centre of an anticyclone passed over the northern half of the North Island. Between the 1st and the 16th the barometer was very unsteady and continually below normal in the South, accounting for a prevalence of northerly and westerly winds and changeable weather, particularly in the western districts. Of the depressions which passed near enough to unfavourably affect the weather-conditions of the Dominion the following were the most notable: (1.) A small but intense westerly “low” which passed over the South Island on the 15th and 16th, and caused heavy rain and floods in Westland and Southland. (2.) In the rear of the above a shallow cyclone made its appearance, the centre of which moved across the northern portion of the South Island on the 19th. Much mist and fog was experienced about this time, and heavy rain fell on the east coast districts as the trough passed to the east. (3.) A depression off East Cape on the 23rd and 24th. Very heavy rain fell in Hawke's Bay, and low-lying country in parts became flooded. (4.) On the 25th and 26th a steep V-shaped depression in its passage caused strong south-westerly gales in many parts of the country, accompanied by hail and heavy showers, with snow on the higher levels. This depression was the most striking one during the month, but its effect was of short duration, and the advance of an anticyclone brought a favourable change in weather-conditions. The total month's rainfall was excessive in all the east coast districts southward of East Cape and in the southern half of the South Island, but elsewhere less than the average amount was recorded. Several thunderstorms were experienced, especially in the Canterbury districts on the 1st, 2nd, and 31st.
The weather in November was a continuation of that experienced in October. On not one occasion was the atmospheric distribution such as to favour settled conditions. The nearest approach to such was between the 19th and 23rd, when a high-pressure system was in evidence, but although fair conditions ruled at this time cloudy skies were frequent and widespread. Precipitation was considerably above the average in the Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Wellington districts in the North Island, and slightly above in the east coast and southern districts of the South. Auckland and Westland generally recorded under the mean monthly fall. Heavy falls of rain were experienced over wide areas on the 4th, 23rd, and 26th. But generally the falls were not excessive, although the total number of wet days was above the average. The country was not for long free from the influence of depressions both of the westerly low and cyclonic type, although they were not at any time of great intensity.
December, the first summer month, was warm and fine, with an extremely small rainfall. A small cyclone passed in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait on the night of the 3rd, and westerly low pressure ruled between the 15th and 21st, the main trough passing in the south on the 19th, when a barometer reading of 28·85 in. was recorded at the Bluff. At this time heavy westerly winds were experienced.
The following shows the rainfall-stations that recorded the extreme maximum and minimum falls during the year, in a single month, and the maximum fall during a single day:—
Maximum total fall for the year at Upper Mangorei, Taranaki, 124·73 in.
Minimum total fall for the year at Greenmeadows, Hawke's Bay, 28·69 in.
Maximum total monthly fall at Wainui-o-mata, Wellington, in July, 30·69 in
Minimum total monthly fall at several stations in Hawke's Bay District in December, nil.
Maximum fall in twenty-four hours, on 27th July, at Whangarei, 5·94 in.
Maximum total fall for the year at Otira, Westland, 175·92 in.
Minimum total fall for the year at Galloway, Alexandra, Central Otago, 14·52 in.
Maximum monthly fall at Otira, in September, 28·32 in.
Minimum monthly fall at Meadowbank, Blenheim, in December, 0·13 in.
Maximum fall in twenty-four hours on 10th July at Hermitage, Mount Cook, 10·37 in.
|Table showing Station with Maximum Fall in Twenty-four Hours for each Month.|
|Month.||North Island.||South Island.|
|May||New Plymouth||15th||2·58||Puysegur Point||21st||4·54|
|The Observations were taken at 9 a.m.|
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Mean Max. Temp.||Mean Min. Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Auckland (lat. 36° 50' S.; long. 174° 50' 4” E.; alt. 125 ft.)—||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||No.||Inches.||Inches.|
|May||65·0||41·5||60·8||48·6||54·7||16||1·56||S, N, SW.|
|July||62·0||38·5||55·7||45·2||50·4||19||4·97||SW, W, S.|
|November||69·0||45·0||63·9||52·2||58·1||17||1·97||W, SW, NW.|
|December||75·5||49·5||69·4||56·3||62·8||7||0·81||NE, S, W.|
|Rotorua (lat. 38° 9' S.; long 176° 15' E.; alt. 932 ft.)—||January||80·0||38·0||72·6||49·7||61·1||7||1·41||SW.|
|December||86·0||36·0||72·2||49·1||60·7||3||0·56||NE, SW, NW|
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Mean Max. Temp.||Mean Min. Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Gisborne (lat. 38° 30' S.; long. 178° 3' E.; alt. 20 ft.)—||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||No.||Inches.||Inches.|
|Greenmeadows (Napier), (lat. 39° 32' S.; long. 176° 53' E.; alt. 14 ft.)—January||86·0||44·0||72·5||55·3||63·9||5||0·98||29·837||N, SW.|
|New Plymouth (lat. 39° 3' 35' S.; long. 174° 4' 58' E.; alt. 63 ft.)—January||78·0||43·0||73·0||53·1||63·0||14||2·09||SW.|
|Wellington (lat. 41° 16' S.; long. 174° 46' E.; alt. 8 ft.)—January||76·0||48·2||66·2||54·4||60·3||11||1·00||29·828||NW, SE.|
|February||72·4||47·2||65·4||53·7||59·5||9||3·53||30·015||SE, NW, N.|
|March||75·2||43·0||63·7||52·7||58·2||14||2·89||29·934||NW, SE, N.|
|June||58·0||36·0||53·7||43·9||48·8||22||6·33||29·900||NW, SE, N.|
|August||62·0||29·2||54·7||41·5||48·1||13||1·57||30·080||N, NE, S.|
|September||62·6||40·4||58·1||48·9||53·5||24||5·78||29·559||N, NW, S.|
|October||66·8||39·6||59·7||49·1||54·4||20||3·49||29·870||N, NW, S.|
|Nelson (lat. 41° 16' 17” S.; long. 173° 18' 46” E.; alt. 34 ft.)—|
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Mean Max. Temp.||Mean Min. Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Hokitika (lat. 42° 41·30 S.; long. 170° 49E.; alt. 12 ft.)—||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||°Fahr.||No.||Inches.||Inches.|
|March||72·0||37·0||64·0||45·7||54·9||13||7·98||29·934||SW, E, NW.|
|June||59·0||27·0||54·3||36·4||45·4||20||14·38||29·909||E, SW, NW.|
|Christchurch (lat. 43° 31·50'S.; long. 172° 38·9 E.; alt. 25 ft.)—||January||82·8||39·7||67·0||50·4||58·7||11||1·43||29·780||N.E., S.W.|
|Hanmer Spa (lat. 42°31 S.; long. 172° 50 E.; alt. 1,220 ft.)—||January||84·0||36·0||69·4||50·4||59·9||12||1·37||SW.|
|Lincoln (lat. 43° 32 16 S.; long. 172° 38 39 E.; alt. 42 ft.)—||January||81·9||41·5||68·6||51·2||59·9||12||2·87||29·679||NE, SW.|
|October||75·3||34·5||63·0||45·0||54·0||13||4·11||29·777||NE, SW, NW.|
|Dunedin (lat. 45° 52 11 S.; long. 170° 31 7 E.; alt. 300 ft.)—||January||83·0||41·0||63·9||47·2||55·5||15||3·23||29·610||SW, NE.|
|December||80·0||35·0||66·2||46·3||56·2||4||3·50||29·810||W, SW, NW.|
|Comparative Table: Year 1912.|
|Stations.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Winds.|
|Highest, and Date.||Lowest, and Date.||Mean Max. Temp. for Year.||Mean Min. Temp. for Year.||Mean Temp. for Year.||Days on which Rain fell.||Total Fall.|
|Auckland||78·0||34·0||63·4||51·6||57·5||206||43·06||SW, W, NW.|
|Mar. 3||Aug. 13|
|Rotorua||86·0||24·0||63·4||44·3||53·8||150||53·40||SW, NE, NW.|
|Dec. 30||Aug. 5|
|Feb. 7||Aug. 5|
|Greenmeadows||86·0||29·5||64·1||47·7||55·7||87||28·69||29·930||W, SW, S.|
|Jan. 17||Aug. 10|
|New Plymouth||80·0||33·0||67·4||48·8||58·1||194||52·36||SW, SE, NE.|
|Mar. 2||June 25|
|Wellington||77·8||29·2||60·0||49·2||54·6||195||48·30||29·921||N, S, NW.|
|Dec. 28||Aug. 14|
|Nelson||82·0||28·0||63·8||46·0||54·9||125||30·56||SW, N, SE.|
|Dec. 15, 16||Aug. 4, 5, 6|
|Hokitika||74·5||26·5||60·0||43·4||51·7||177||115·61||29·927||SW, NW, E.|
|Jan. 10||Aug. 14|
|Dec. 29||Aug. 13|
|Hanmer Spa||97·0||12·0||62·2||40·0||51·1||140||45·28||SW, N, W.|
|Feb. 6||Aug. 2, 13|
|Dec. 29||Aug. 14|
|Dunedin||83·0||28·0||57·3||41·9||49·6||152||47·31||29·836||SW, NW, NE.|
|Jan. 16||July 20|
Table of Contents
Succession of Governors of New Zealand, and the Dates on which they assumed and retired from the Government.
Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.
[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]
Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843. Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.
Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec, 1853.
[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major - General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.
Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.
Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.
Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.
Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.
The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.
Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.
The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.
Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.
The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.
The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9 Aug., 1897.
The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10 Aug., 1897, to 19 June, 1904.
The Right Honourable William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., from 20 June, 1904, to 8 June, 1910.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 June, 1910, to 22 June, 1910.
The Right Honourable John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, K.C.M.G., Baron Islington, D.S.O., from 22 June, 1910, to 2 Dec., 1912.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1912, to 19 Dec., 1912.
The Earl of Liverpool, K.C.M.G., M.V.O., from 19 Dec., 1912.
Supreme Court Judges, past and present, with Dates of Appointment, and of Resignation or Death.
Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857. H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Held office until March, 1852. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.
Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.
Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec., 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
Sir George A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.
C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.
J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.
C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870.
Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.
Hon. Sir James Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1899.
T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.
Hon. Sir Joshua S. Williams, Kt., appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.
Hon. J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.
E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889. Resigned, 9 Sept., 1903.
Hon. Sir Patrick A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.
Hon. W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.
F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April, 1899.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.
J. C. Martin, Acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900. Resigned, 4 Dec., 1900.
Hon. Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21 Feb., 1901.
Hon. F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11 Sept., 1903.
C. E. Button, appointed temporarily, 12 March, 1907. Resigned, 29 Feb., 1908. Hon. William Alexander Sim, appointed, 16 Jan., 1911.
Members of the Executive Council of New Zealand previous to the Establishment of Responsible Government (not including the Officers Commanding the Forces).
Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.
Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.
George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.
William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.
Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.
Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.
[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her late Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]
James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June. to 2 Aug., 1854.
Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.
Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.
Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
Number of Parliaments since the Constitution Act passed for conferring Representative Institutions upon the Dominion of New Zealand, with the Dates of Opening and Closing of Sessions and Dates of Dissolution.
|Parliament.||Dates of Opening of|
|Dates of Prorogation.|
|First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)||27 May, 1854|
31 August, 1854
8 August, 1855
|9 August, 1854.|
16 September, 1854.
15 September, 1855.
|Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)||15 April, 1856|
(No session in 1857)
10 April, 1858
(No session in 1859)
30 July, 1860
|16 August, 1856.|
21 August, 1858.
5 November, 1860.
|Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)||3 June, 1861|
7 July, 1862
19 October, 1863
24 November, 1864
26 July, 1865
|7 September, 1861.|
15 September, 1862.
14 December, 1863.
13 December, 1864.
30 October, 1865.
|Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)||30 June, 1866|
9 July, 1867
9 July, 1868
1 June, 1869
14 June, 1870
|8 October, 1866. |
10 October, 1867.
20 October, 1868.
3 September, 1869.
13 September, 1870.
|Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)||14 August, 1871|
16 July, 1872
15 July, 1873
3 July, 1874
20 July, 1875
|16 November, 1871.|
25 October, 1872.
3 October, 1873.
21 October, 1875.
|Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)||15 June, 1876|
19 July, 1877
26 July, 1878
11 July, 1879
|31 October, 1876.|
10 December, 1877.
2 November, 1878.
11 August, 1879.
|Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)||24 September, 1879|
28 May, 1880
9 June, 1881
|19 December, 1879.|
1 September, 1880.
24 September, 1881.
|Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)||18 May, 1882|
14 June, 1883
5 June, 1884
|15 September, 1882.|
8 September, 1883.
24 June, 1884.
|Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)||7 August, 1884|
11 June, 1885
13 May, 1886
26 April, 1887
|10 November, 1884.|
22 September, 1885.
18 August, 1886.
10 July, 1887.
|Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)||6 October, 1887|
10 May, 1888
20 June, 1889
19 June, 1890
|23 December, 1887.|
31 August, 1888.
19 September, 1889.
18 September, 1890.
|Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)||23 January, 1891|
11 June, 1891
23 June, 1892
22 June, 1893
|31 January, 1891.|
25 September, 1891.
12 October, 1892.
7 October, 1893.
|Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)||21 June, 1894|
20 June, 1895
11 June, 1896
|24 October, 1894.|
2 November, 1895.
19 October, 1896.
|Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)||7 April, 1897|
23 September, 1897
24 June, 1898
23 June, 1899
|12 April, 1897.|
22 December, 1897.
5 November, 1898.
24 October, 1899.
|Fourteenth (dissolved 5th November, 1902)||22 June, 1900|
1 July, 1901
1 July, 1902
|22 October, 1900.|
8 November, 1901.
4 October, 1902
|Fifteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1905)||29 June, 1903|
28 June, 1904
27 June, 1905
|25 November, 1903.|
8 November, 1904.
31 October, 1905.
|Sixteenth (dissolved 29th October, 1908)||27 June, 1906|
21 August, 1906
27 June, 1907
29 June, 1908
|3 July, 1906.|
29 October, 1906.
25 November, 1907.
12 October, 1908.
|Seventeenth (dissolved 20th November, 1912)||10 June, 1909|
7 October, 1909
28 June, 1910
27 July, 1911
|17 June, 1909.|
29 December, 1909.
5 December, 1910.
30 October, 1911.
|Eighteenth||15 February, 1912|
27 June, 1912
26 June, 1913
|1 March, 1912.|
8 November, 1912.
Since the Establishment of Responsible Government in New Zealand in 1856.
|Name of Ministry.||Assumed Office.||Retired.|
* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.
† O wing to the death of the Premier, Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C., on 10th June, 1906.
|1. Bell-Sewell||7 May, 1856||20 May, 1856.|
|2. Fox||20 May, 1856||2 June, 1856.|
|3. Stafford||2 June, 1856||12 July, 1861.|
|4. Fox||12 July, 1861||6 August, 1862.|
|5. Domett||6 August, 1862||30 October, 1863.|
|6. Whitaker-Fox||30 October, 1863||24 November, 1864.|
|7. Weld||24 November, 1864||16 October, 1865.|
|8. Stafford||16 October, 1865||28 June, 1869.|
|9. Fox||28 June,1869||10 September, 1872.|
|10. Stafford||10 September, 1872||11 October, 1872.|
|11. Waterhouse||11 October, 1872||3 March, 1873.|
|12. Fox||3 March, 1873||8 April, 1873.|
|13. Vogel||8 April, 1873||6 July, 1875.|
|14. Pollen||6 July, 1875||15 February, 1876.|
|15. Vogel||15 February, 1876||1 September, 1876.|
|16. Atkinson||1 September, 1876||13 September, 1876.|
|17. Atkinson (reconstituted)||13 September, 1876||13 October, 1877.|
|18. Grey||15 October, 1877||8 October, 1879.|
|19. Hall||8 October, 1879||21 April, 1882.|
|20. Whitaker||21 April, 1882||25 September, 1883.|
|21. Atkinson||25 September, 1883||16 August, 1884.|
|22. Stout-Vogel||16 August, 1884||28 August, 1884.|
|23. Atkinson||28 August, 1884||3 September, 1884.|
|24. Stout-Vogel||3 September, 1884||8 October, 1887.|
|25. Atkinson||8 October, 1887||24 January, 1891.|
|26. Ballance||24 January, 1891||1 May, 1893.*|
|27. Seddon||1 May, 1893||21 June, 1906.†|
|28. Hall-Jones||21 June, 1906||6 August, 1906.|
|29. Ward.||6 August, 1906||28 March, 1912.|
|30. Mackenzie||28 March, 1912||10 July, 1912.|
|31. Massey||10 July, 1912|
|Name of Premier.||Name of Premier.|
|Henry Sewell.||Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).|
|Edward William Stafford.||Sir George Grey, K.C.B.|
|William Fox.||Hon. John Hall.|
|Alfred Domett.||Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.|
|Frederick Whitaker.||Harry Albert Atkinson.|
|Frederick Aloysius Weld.||Robert Stout.|
|Edward William Stafford.||Harry Albert Atkinson.|
|William Fox.||Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.|
|Hon. Edward William Stafford.||Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.|
|George Marsden Waterhouse.||John Ballance.|
|Hon. William Fox.||Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.|
|Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.||William Hall-Jones.|
|Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.||Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.|
|Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.||Thomas Mackenzie.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson.||William Ferguson Massey.|
|with Dates of their Appointment and Dates of Retirement or Death.|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of|
|Date of Retirement|
|Hon. William Swainson||16 May, 1854||8 August, 1855.|
|Hon. Frederick Whitaker||8 August, 1855||12 May, 1856.|
|Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley||12 May, 1856||1 July, 1868.|
|Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.||1 July, 1868||14 June, 1879.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||14 June,1879||22 April, 1887.|
|Hon. George Marsden Waterhouse||22 April, 1887||21 September, 1887.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||21 September, 1887||23 January, 1891.|
|Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.||23 January, 1891||28 June, 1892.|
|Hon. Sir Henry John Miller||8 July, 1892.|
|6 October, 1897||9 July, 1903.|
|Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.||9 July, 1903||5 January, 1904.|
|Hon. John Rigg (Acting)||5 January, 1904||7 July, 1904.|
|Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G.||7 July, 1904||23 March, 1905.|
|Hon. R. H. J. Reeves (Acting)||23 March, 1905||4 July, 1905.|
|Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, Kt.||4 July, 1905.|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Election.||Date of Retirement.|
|Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.||26 May, 1854.|
|15 April, 1856||3 June, 1861.|
|Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.||3 June, 1861.|
|30 June, 1866||13 Sept., 1870.|
|Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.||14 August, 1871||21 October, 1875.|
|Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||15 June, 1876||13 June, 1879.|
|Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||11 July, 1879.|
|24 September, 1879.|
|18 May, 1882.|
|7 August, 1884.|
|6 October, 1887||3 October, 1890.|
|Hon. Major Sir William Jukes Steward, Kt. Bach.||23 January, 1891||8 November, 1893.|
|Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||21 June, 1894.|
|6 April, 1897.|
|22 June, 1900||5 November, 1902.|
|Hon. Sir Arthur Robert Guinness, Kt. Bach.||29 June, 1903.|
|27 June, 1906.|
|10 June, 1909.|
|15 February, 1912.||10 June, 1913.|
|Hon. Frederic William Lang||26 June, 1913.|
31st May, 1913.
Liverpool, His Excellency the Right Honourable Arthur William de Brito Savile, Fifth Earl of Liverpool. Born 27th May, 1870; succeeded 1907. Educated at Eton and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Formerly Major in the Rifle Brigade (the Prince Consort's Own) and subsequently Major of its 6th Battalion. Sometime an A.D.C. to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (Earl Cadogan, K.G.), and Staff Captain, Dublin District. Is a J.P. for Kesteven and Lindsey Divisions of Lincolnshire, and Lieut.-Colonel Sth Battalion London Regiment (the Post Office Rifles). Served in South Africa 1901-2 (Queen's Medal with three clasps). Was State Steward and Chamberlain to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (the Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., G.C.M.G., 1906-8. Comptroller of His Majesty's Household, 1909-12. Appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of New Zealand 1912. M.V.O., 4th Class, 1900; K.C.M.G., 1912.
Seat: Hartsholme Hall, Lincoln.
Town residence: 44 Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.
Residences: Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.
Private Secretary: Gavin M. Hamilton, Esq.
Military Secretary: Captain Charles Shawe (Rifle Brigade).
Aides-de-Camp: Captain T. R. Eastwood (Rifle Brigade) and Captain G. F. Hutton (Royal Welsh Fusiliers).
Extra Aide-de-Camp: Colonel J. H. Boscowen.
Honorary Aides-de-Camp: Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O., V.D.; Colonel W. A. Day, V.D.; Colonel A. H. Russell; Lieut.-Colonel R. Logan.
The Executive Council now consists of:—
His Excellency the Governor.
Hon. W. F. Massey, Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Labour, Minister of Industries and Commerce, Commissioner of State Forests, Minister in Charge of Land for Settlements, Valuation, and Scenery Preservation Departments.
Hon. J. Allen, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence, Minister of Education, Minister in Charge of Land and Income Tax Department and State-guaranteed Advances Office.
Hon. W. H. Herries, Minister of Railways and Native Minister.
Hon. W. Fraser, Minister of Public Works, Roads, and Bridges, Minister of Mines, and Minister in Charge of Public Buildings and Domains.
Hon. A. L. Herdman, Attorney-General, Minister of Justice, Minister of Stamp Duties, Minister in Charge of Police, Prisons, Crown Law (including Drafting), and Public Trust Departments.
Hon. F. H. D. Bell, K.C., Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Immigration, and Minister in Charge of Audit Office, Registrar-General's, High Commissioner's, Museum, Friendly Societies, and Laboratory Departments.
Hon. R. H. Rhodes, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid, Mental Hospitals, and Tourist and Health Resorts Departments.
Hon. F. M. B. Fisher, Minister of Customs, Minister of Marine, Minister in Charge of Inspection of Machinery, Advertising, Printing and Stationery, Legislative, State Fire Insurance, Life and Accident Insurance, Electoral, National Provident Fund, and Pensions Departments.
Hon. Dr. Pomare, Member of the Executive Council representing the Native Race, and in Charge of Maori Councils, Cook and other Islands Administration.
Clerk of the Executive Council—James Frank Andrews.
The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-two, and is not limited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be a male of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of His Majesty, either natural-born or naturalized by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the Dominion are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £200 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting-day is made in case of an absence exceeding fourteen sitting-days in any one session, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. Leave of absence may also be granted by His Excellency the Governor, and when so granted for a session the payment ceases from the date of the Proclamation calling Parliament to meet until the next Proclamation calling Parliament together is issued. Under the Legislature Act, a seat is vacated by any member of the Council (1) if he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2) if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3) if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4) if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of any crime punishable by death or by imprisonment with hard labour for a term of three years or upwards; or (5) if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6) if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council.
The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 p.m. when necessary.
Roll of Members of the Honourable Legislative Council of New Zealand (1st July, 1913).
|Speaker—Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, Kt. Bach. Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. F. Carncross.|
|Date of Appointment.|
|* Life members.|
|Anstey, Hon. John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Baillie, Hon. William Douglas Hall||Marlborough||8 March, 1861.*|
|Baldey, Hon. Alfred||Otago||18 March, 1910.|
|Barr, Hon. John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Beehan, Hon. William||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Bell, Hon. Francis Henry Dillon, K.C.||Wellington||10 July, 1912.|
|Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, Kt. Bach.||Canterbury||20 January, 1891.*|
|Callan, Hon. John Bartholomew||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Carncross, Hon. Walter Charles Frederick||Taranaki||18 March, 1910.|
|Collins, Hon. William Edward||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|Duncan, Hon. Thomas Young||Otago||13 June, 1912.|
|Duthie, Hon. John||Wellington||26 June, 1913.|
|Earnshaw, Hon. William||Wellington||26 June, 1913.|
|George, Hon. Seymour Thorne||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Gilmer, Hon. Hamilton||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|Hardy, Hon. Charles Albert Creery||Canterbury||26 June, 1913.|
|Harris, Hon. Benjamin||Auckland||3 February, 1911.|
|Jenkinson, Hon. John Edward||Canterbury||1 July, 1907.|
|Johnston, Hon. Charles John||Wellington||23 January, 1891.*|
|Jones, Hon. George||Otago||13 December, 1909.|
|Kelly, Hon. Thomas||Taranaki||16 October, 1906.|
|Loughnan, Hon. Robert Andrew||Wellington||6 May, 1907.|
|Louisson, Hon. Charles||Canterbury||14 January, 1908.|
|Luke, Hon. Charles Manley||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|McCardle, Hon. William Wilson||Auckland||22 January, 1907.|
|McLean, Hon. Sir George, Kt. Bach.||Otago||19 December, 1881.*|
|Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt. Bach.||Otago||8 July, 1865.*|
|Mills, Hon. Charles Houghton||Wellington||2 March, 1909.|
|Nikora, Wiremu Kerei||Auckland||26 June, 1913.|
|Ormond, Hon. John Davies||Hawke's Bay||20 January, 1891.*|
|O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Kt.||Auckland||25 June, 1911.|
|Parata, Hon. Thomas||Otago||13 June, 1912.|
|Paul, Hon. John Thomas||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Rigg, Hon. John||Wellington||1 July, 1907.|
|Russell, Hon. Sir William Russell, Kt. Bach.||Hawke's Bay||26 June, 1913.|
|Samuel, Hon. Oliver||Taranaki||22 January, 1907.|
|Sinclair, Hon. John Robert||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Smith, Hon. George John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Stevens, Hon. Edward Cephas John||Canterbury||7 March, 1882.*|
|Thompson, Hon. Thomas||Auckland||18 March, 1910.|
|Tucker, Hon. William Henry||Auckland||22 January, 1907.|
|Wigram, Hon. Henry Francis||Canterbury||22 June, 1910.|
The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are now designated Members of Parliament. The number was fixed by the Act of 1900, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1902. Previously (from 1890) the House consisted of seventy-four members, seventy Europeans and four Maoris; and previously to that (from 1881) of ninety-five members, ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island at present returns forty-two European members, and the South Island thirty-four. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in the Legislature Act, 1908, is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the Dominion, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November, 1901, under the provisions of an Act passed in that year. Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.
|Speaker—Hon. Frederic William Lang.|
|Chairman of Committees—Alexander Scott Malcolm.|
|Name.||Electoral District.||Date when Writs
|* Now deceased, but successor as member for Grey not yet elected,|
|For European Electorates.|
|Allen, Hon. James||Bruce||19 December, 1911.|
|Anderson, George James||Mataura||19 December, 1911.|
|Atmore, Harry||Nelson||19 December, 1911.|
|Bell, William Henry Dillon||Wellington Suburbs and Country Districts||19 December, 1911.|
|Bollard, John||Eden||19 December, 1911.|
|Bollard, Richard Francis||Raglan||19 December, 1911.|
|Bradney, James Henry||Auckland West||19 December, 1911.|
|Brown, John Vigor||Napier||19 December, 1911.|
|Buchanan, Sir Walter Clarke, Kt||Wairarapa||19 December, 1911.|
|Buddo, Hon. David||Kaiapoi||19 December, 1911.|
|Buick, David||Palmerston||19 December, 1911.|
|Buxton, Thomas||Temuka||19 December, 1911.|
|Campbell, Hugh McLean||Hawke's Bay||19 December, 1911.|
|Carroll, Hon. Sir James, K.C.M.G.||Gisborne||19 December, 1911.|
|Clark, Edward Henry||Chalmers||19 December, 1911.|
|Coates, Joseph Gordon||Kaipara||19 December, 1911.|
|Colvin, James||Buller||19 December, 1911.|
|Craigie, James||Timaru||19 December, 1911.|
|Davey, Thomas Henry||Christchurch East||19 December, 1911.|
|Dickie, William James||Selwyn||19 December, 1911.|
|Dickson, James Samuel||Parnell||19 December, 1911.|
|Ell, Henry George||Christchurch South||19 December, 1911.|
|Escott, James Henry||Pahiatua||19 December, 1911.|
|Fisher, Hon. Francis Marion Bates||Wellington Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Forbes, George William||Hurunui||19 December, 1911.|
|Fraser, Hon. William||Wakatipu||19 December, 1911.|
|Glover, Albert Edward||Auckland Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Guinness, Hon. Sir Arthur Robert, Kt.*||Grey||19 December, 1911.|
|Guthrie, David Henry||Oroua||19 December, 1911.|
|Hanan, Josiah Alfred||Invercargill||19 December, 1911.|
|Harris, Alexander||Waitemata||19 December, 1911.|
|Herdman, Hon. Alexander Lawrence||Wellington North||19 December, 1911.|
|Herries, Hon. William Herbert||Tauranga||19 December, 1911.|
|Hindmarsh, Alfred Humphrey||Wellington South||19 December, 1911.|
|Hine, John Bird||Stratford||19 December, 1911.|
|Hunter, George||Waipawa||19 December, 1911.|
|Isitt, Leonard Monk||Christchurch North||19 December, 1911.|
|Lang, Frederic William||Manukau||19 December, 1911.|
|Laurenson, George||Lyttelton||19 December, 1911.|
|Lee, Ernest Page||Oamaru||19 December, 1911.|
|McCallum, Richard||Wairau||19 December, 1911.|
|MacDonald, William Donald Stuart||Bay of Plenty||19 December, 1911.|
|McKenzie, Hon. Roderick||Motueka||19 December, 1911.|
|Malcolm, Alexander Scott||Clutha||19 December, 1911.|
|Mander, Francis||Marsden||19 December, 1911.|
|Massey, Hon. William Ferguson||Franklin||19 December, 1911.|
|Millar, Hon. John Andrew||Dunedin West||19 December, 1911.|
|Myers, Arthur Mielziner||Auckland East||19 December, 1911.|
|Newman, Alfred Kingcome||Wellington East||19 December, 1911.|
|Newman, Edward||Rangitikei||19 December, 1911.|
|Nosworthy, William||Ashburton||19 December, 1911.|
|Okey, Henry James Hobbs||Taranaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Payne, John||Grey Lynn||19 December, 1911.|
|Pearce, George Vater||Patea||19 December, 1911.|
|Poland, Hugh||Ohinemuri||19 December, 1911.|
|Reed, Vernon Herbert||Bay of Islands||19 December, 1911.|
|Rhodes, Hon. Robert Heaton||Ellesmere||19 December, 1911.|
|Rhodes, Thomas William||Thames||19 December, 1911.|
|Robertson, John||Otaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Russell, George Warren||Avon||19 December, 1911.|
|Scott, Robert||Otago Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Seddon, Thomas Edward Youd||Westland||19 December, 1911.|
|Sidey, Thomas Kay||Dunedin South||19 December, 1911.|
|Smith, Francis Henry||Waitaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Smith, Robert William||Waimarino||19 December, 1911.|
|Statham, Charles Ernest||Dunedin Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Sykes, George Robert||Masterton||19 December, 1911.|
|Thomson, George Malcolm||Dunedin North||19 December, 1911.|
|Thomson, John Charles||Wallace||19 December, 1911.|
|Veitch, William Andrew||Wanganui||19 December, 1911.|
|Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.||Awarua||19 December, 1911.|
|Wilford, Thomas Mason||Hutt||19 December, 1911.|
|Wilkinson, Charles Anderson||Egmont||23 September, 1912.|
|Wilson, Charles Kendall||Taumarunui||19 December, 1911.|
|Witty, George||Riccarton||19 December, 1911.|
|Young, James Alexander||Waikato||19 December, 1911.|
|For Maori Electorates.|
|Te Rangihiroa||Northern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Pomare, Hon, Maui||Western Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Ngata, Hon. Apirana Turupa||Eastern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Parata, Taare||Southern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
The Hon. Thomas Mackenzie, Westminster Chambers, 13 Victoria Street, S.W.
Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. Lewis Harcourt, M.P., 7th November, 1910.
Parliamentary Under-Secretary—Lord Emmott.
Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir John Anderson, G.C.M.G.
Assistant Under-Secretaries: Sir H. W. Just, K.C.M.G., C.B.; and Sir G. V. Fiddes, K.C.M.G., C.B.
Whitehall Gardens, S.W. City Office (Stock Transfer Office, 1 Token-house Buildings, E.C., London).
Crown Agents—Sir Reginald L. Antrobus, K.C.M.G., C.B.; Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, C.M.G., late R.E.; and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.
Isaac Earl Featherston, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 5th April, 1871. Appointment to date from 25th March, 1871. (Gazette, 1871, page 155.)
(Note—Sir W. Tyrone Power was appointed on 20th June, 1876, by the Crown Agents as temporary Agent-General on the death of Dr. Featherston.)
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 19th September, 1876. Appointment to date from 9th September, 1876, vice I. E. Featherston, deceased. (Gazette, 1876, page 721.)
Sir Francis Dillon Bell appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1878, by Warrant dated 7th December, 1880, vice Sir Julius Vogel, resigned. (Gazette, 1881, page 311.)
Westby Brook Perceval, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 25th September, 1891, vice Sir F. D. Bell. (Gazette, 1891, page 1071.)
The Hon. William Pember Reeves appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 23rd December, 1895, vice Sir W. B. Perceval. (Gazette, 1896, page 50.) Appointed High Commissioner under the High Commissioner Act, 1904, by Warrant dated 14th June, 1905. (Gazette, 1905, page 1509.) Reappointed High Commissioner as from 14th June, 1908. (Gazette, 1908, page 1921.)
The Hon. Sir William Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., appointed High Commissioner from 1st December, 1908, vice Hon. W. P. Reeves. Assumed office 18th January, 1909. (Gazette, 1909, page 27.) Appointment extended to 31st December, 1911. (Gazette, 1911, page 2720.) Appointment further extended to 31st March, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 45.) Appointment further extended to 31st May, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 1227.)
Charles Frederick Wray Palliser appointed High Commissioner from 1st June, 1912, for one month. Reappointed from 1st July, 1912, and again reappointed from 1st August, 1912.
The Hon. Thomas Mackenzie appointed High Commissioner from 23rd August, 1912, for a term of three years. (Gazette, 1912, page 2612.) Assumed office 9th October, 1912.
New Zealand—W. G. Wickham, 11 Grey Street, Wellington. Australia—G. T. Milne, Equitable Buildings, Melbourne. (Telegraphic address: “Combrit.”) Canada—C. Hamilton Wickes, 3 Beaver Hall Square, Montreal. (Telegraphic address: “Britcom.”) South Africa—Sir R. Sothern Holland, Cape Town, (Telegraphic address: “Austere.”)
Consulsof Foreign Countriesresidingin, orwith Jurisdictionover, New Zealand, 1st July, 1913.
Argentine Republic.—Vice-Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): Hon. T. Fergus, Dunedin.
Austria-Hungary.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and South Sea Islands: Heinrich Jehlitschka, Sydney. Consul: E. Langguth, Auckland.
Belgium.—Consul - General for Australasia and Fiji: F. Huylebroeck, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): A. Dauge, Sydney. Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Provincial Districts of Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consul: G. F. Johnston, Wellington. Consul (with jurisdiction over the Districts of Canterbury, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland): Joseph James Kinsey, Christchurch. Consuls: Alexander Manual Ferguson, Auckland; George Lyon Denniston, Dunedin.
Brazil.—Vice-Consul: A. H. Miles, Wellington.
Chile.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: William Brown, Sydney. Consul: Joseph James Craig, Auckland. Honorary Consuls: Albert Martin, M.D., Wellington; J. G. F. Palmer, Christchurch; J. A. Roberts, Dunedin.
China.—Consul: Kwei Chih, Wellington.
Denmark.—Consul (for North Island): Hon. Francis Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington (Principal Consulate). Consul (for South Island): Henry Bylove Sorensen, Christchurch. Vice-Consuls: Paul Maximilian Hansen, Auckland; William Edward Perry, Hokitika; Odin Henry Möller, Dunedin; William Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington.
France.—Consul (for New Zealand): J. Rigoreau, Auckland. Vice-Consul: Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin. Consular Agents: George Humphreys, Christchurch; James Macintosh, Wellington.
German Empire.—Consul General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, British New Guinea, and British Islands in the southern seas situated between Tonga and the French Possessions: Richard Kiliani, Sydney. Vice-Consul-General: Count Deym Von Stritez, Sydney. Consuls: Carl Seegner, Auckland; Willi Fels, Dunedin; Karl Joosten, Christchurch; Friedrich August Krull, Wanganui; Eberhard Focke, Wellington.
Greece.—Vice-Consul (for New Zealand): Joseph Frank Dyer, Wellington.
Honduras.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: Frederic Walsh, Sydney.
Italy.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: Commendatore Luigi Mercatelli, Melbourne. Vice-Consul: Cavaliere G. Ferrando, Melbourne. Consular Agents: Thomas Wallace, Christchurch; Leonard Owen Howard Tripp, Wellington; Sir James Mills, K.C.M.G., Dunedin; Geraldo Perotti, Greymouth; Charles Rhodes, Auckland.
Japan.—Consul-General: M. Saito, Sydney. Consul: Thomas Young, Wellington.
Liberia.—Consul: Hon. Charles Louisson, Christchurch. Acting-Consul: Trevor Noel Holmden, Wellington.
Mexico.—Consul: John William Hall, Auckland.
Netherlands.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: W. L. Bosschart, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand and the Islands belonging thereto): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: George Ritchie, Dunedin: Ambrose Millar, Auckland; Harold Featherston Johnston, Wellington; G. de Vries, Christchurch.
Norway.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent Islands: O. Römcke, Melbourne. Consul: Alex. W. Newton, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sigurd Bentzon, Melbourne; Leslie Robert Wilson, Dunedin; Robert Millar, Auckland; Albert Peter Gundersen, Christchurch; Mathias Ericksen W, Invercargill; John Hayes Enright, Westport.
Paraguay.—Consul: A. E. Kernot, Wellington.
Peru.—Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand): J. Maitland Paxton, Sydney. Consul: Ambrose Millar, Auckland.
Portugal.—Consul: John Duncan, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Henry Rees George, Auckland; Arthur Donald Stuart Duncan, Wellington; Charles William Rattray, Dunedin.
Russia.—Consul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Dominion of New Zealand: A. N. d'Abaza, Melbourne. Vice-Consuls: Ultan Francis McCabe, Wellington; James Paterson, Auckland.
Spain.—Consul - in - Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand): Senor Don Mario Pimes y Bayona, Melbourne. Honorary Vice-Consul: Alexander H. Turnbull, Wellington.
Sweden.—Consul: Arthur Edward Pearce, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sidney Jacob Nathan, Auckland; Albert Kave, Christchurch.
Switzerland.—Consul: Georges A. Streiff, Auckland.
United States of America.—Consul - General (for New Zealand and its dependencies): William A. Prickitt, Auckland. Vice-Consul-General: Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland. Consular Agents: Frank Graham, Christchurch; Charles Harcourt Turner, Wellington; Frederick Orlando Bridgeman, Dunedin.
Uruguay.—Consul: Don Cesar Montero Bustamente, Wellington. Vice-Consul: William John Prouse, Wellington.
|INDEX TO GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AND BOARDS.|
|Cook Islands Administration||74|
|High Commissioner's Office||76|
|Hospitals and Charitable Aid||76|
|House of Representatives||69|
|Inspection of Machinery||79|
|Land and Income Tax||69|
|Land for Settlements||82|
|Land Transfer and Deeds Registry||82|
|Lands and Survey||80|
|Machinery Inspection and Survey of Ships||79|
|National Provident Fund||69|
|Native Land Court||71|
|New Zealand Institute||77|
|Post and Telegraph||70|
|Prime Minister's Office||68|
|Printing and Stationery||76|
|Public Service Commissioner's Office||68|
|Public Service Superannuation||75|
|State Fire Insurance||84|
|Trade and Customs||78|
|Appeal, Boards of, Railway Department||71|
|Civil Service Guarantee Board||86|
|Examiners under the Coal-mines Act, Board of||75|
|Examiners under the Mining Act, 1908, Board of||75|
|Examiners of Stationary, Traction, Locomotive and Winding Engine Drivers, and Electric - tram Drivers, Board of||79|
|Investment, Board of, Government Insurance Department||84|
|National Provident Fund||69|
|Native Land Court||71|
|New Zealand Institute||77|
|Post and Telegraph||70|
|Prime Minister's Office||68|
|Printing and Stationery||76|
|Public Service Commissioner's|
|Public Service Superannuation||75|
|State Fire Insurance||84|
|Trade and Customs||78|
|Land Purchase Commissioners, Board of||82|
|Maori Land Boards||72|
|National Provident Fund Board||69|
|Native Reserves Board||84|
|Public Debt Sinking Funds Commissioners||76|
|Public Service Appeal Board||86|
|Public Service Superannuation Board||75|
|Public Trust Office Board||84|
|Public Works Tenders Board||85|
|Railways Superannuation Board||71|
|Scenery Preservation Board||81|
|State Fire Board||85|
|Workers' Dwellings Board||80|
By an Act passed during the year 1912 and intituled the Public Service Act, 1912, the Public Service of New Zealand has been placed under the direct and sole control of a Commissioner and two Assistant Commissioners, who are appointed in the first place for a term of seven years, are responsible only to Parliament, and can be dismissed from office only for misbehaviour or incompetence.
The Act applies to all members of the Public Service with the exception of the Controller and Auditor-General, officers of the Railway Department, members of the Police and Defence Forces, Judges and Magistrates, officers of the House, certain officers of the Legislative Departments, and persons paid only by fees or commission, as well as any officer to whom the Governor in Council declares that the Act shall not apply.
The Commissioner is charged with the general administration of the Act, and more particularly with the preparation of a classification of all officers coming under its provisions. The powers vested in the Commissioner are very wide. They include the inspection of offices, the appointment, promotion, transfer, and dismissal of officers, and the framing of regulations. An entrance examination and efficiency and educational tests for promotion are to be imposed by the Commissioner.
Provision has been made for an Appeal Board, so that any officer dissatisfied with a decision of the Commissioner has the right of appeal to the Board. The decision of the Appeal Board in all matters brought before it is final and must be given effect to.
The Public Service Act came into operation on 1st April, 1913, and on that date the Commissioner assumed control of the Public Service. The names of the present Commissioner and Assistant Commissioners and of the principal officers of their staff are given in the Official List which follows, together with the principal officers in the various Government Departments.
Public Service Commissioner—D. Robertson, I.S.O.
Assistant Commissioners—R. Triggs, A. D. Thomson.
Secretary—A. J. H. Benge, B.A.
Chief Clerk—G. F. Dixon.
Speaker—Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, Kt.
Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. F. Carncross.
Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—L. Stowe, C.M.G.
Clerk-Assistant and Acting Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod—A. T. Bothamley.
Second Clerk - Assistant—B. E. S. Stocker, M.A.
Interpreter—F. H. Phillips.
Speaker—Hon. Sir A. R. Guinness, Kt., M.P.
Chairman of Committees—F. W. Lang, M.P.
Clerk of the House—H. Otterson, C.M.G.
Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.
Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.
Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. W. Kane.
Record Clerk—W. E. Dasent.
Chief Hansard Reporter—S. Spragg.
Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks.
Clerk of Writs—J. Hislop.
Deputy Clerk of Writs—G. P. Newton.
Interpreter—D. F. G. Barclay.
Chief Librarian—C. Wilson.
Assistant Librarian—H. L. James.
Prime Minister—Hon. W. F. Massey.
Secretary to Cabinet and Clerk of the Executive Council—J. F. Andrews, I.S.O.
Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of New Zealand Consols—G. F. C. Campbell.
Accountant to the Treasury and Deputy Registrar of New Zealand Consols—A. O. Gibbes.
Chief Clerk—J. J. Esson.
Cashier—C. E. Chittey.
Clerk in Charge, Accountant's Branch—A. J. Morgan.
Clerk in Charge, Pay and Revenue Branch—H. J. Hawthorn.
Clerk in Charge, Imprest Branch—W. Wilson.
Friendly Societies Office.
Registrar—R. E. Hayes.
Revising Barrister—E. Y. Redward.
Actuary and Deputy Registrar—A. T. Traversi.
National Provident Fund Board.
Members—Hon. the Minister of Finance (Chairman, ex officio), Dr. Hay, Messrs. W. R. Morris, G. F. C. Campbell, and R. E. Hayes.
Superintendent of Fund—R. E. Hayes.
Secretary to Board—A. T. Traversi.
Board meets third Thursday in February, May, August, and November, or as business requires.
Landand Income Tax Department.
Commissioner of Taxes—J. M. King.
Deputy Commissioner of Taxes—
Clerk in Charge, Income-tax—D. G. Clark.
Clerk in Charge, Land-tax—H. Nancarrow.
Receiver of Land and Income Tax—C. V. Kreeft.
Minister—Hon. W. F. Massey.
Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Valuer-General—F. W. Flanagan.
Officers in Charge—A. J. McGowan, Auckland; H. L. Wiggins, Christchurch; A. Clothier, Dunedin; T. L. Oswin, Invercargill.
Chief Clerk—C. J. Lovatt.
Accountant—F. W. Barnett.
Commissioner of Stamps and Registrar of Companies—P. C. Corliss.
Chief Clerk—C. H. W. Dixon.
Accountant—J. P. Murphy.
Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore.
Inspecting Valuator—G. W. Jänisch.
Deputy Commissionerof Stamps.
Auckland—W. G. Fletcher.*
Gisborne—R. S. Florance.*
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.*
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.*
Wellington—C. H. W. Dixon.*
Westland—W. P. Morgan.*
Canterbury—P. G. Withers.*
Southland—W. W. de Castro.*
Postmaster - General and Minister of Telegraphs—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Secretary—W. R. Morris.
Assistant Secretaries—F. V. Waters and G. B. Dall.
Chief Clerk—J. C. Williamson.
Chief Telegraph Engineer—J. Orchiston.
Chief Electrician—T. Buckley.
Controller of Money-orders and Savings banks—J. L. H. Ledger.
Chief Accountant—H. A. R. Huggins.
Chief Inspector of Post-offices—D. Miller.
Inspector of Savings-banks—W. Gee.
Inspector of Telegraph Offices—H. W. Harrington.
Controller of Stores—C. B. Mann.
Auckland—F. D. Holdsworth.
†Thames—J. J. Pickett.
†Gisborne—W. H. Renner.
†New Plymouth—C. H. Burton.
†Wanganui—G. W. Sampson.
Wellington—A. P. Dryden.
†Nelson—W. T. Ward.
†Westport—A. W. Mann.
†Greymouth—D. St. George.
†Hokitika—G. A. Empson.
Christchurch—R. B. Morris.
†Invercargill—T. T. King.
Auckland—R. M. Baird.
Wellington—E. A. Shrimpton.
Christchurch—G. T. Kemp (acting).
Dunedin—W. E. Chisholm.
P. Curtis and F. Perrin (Northern District); F. H. Dodd (Central District); G. F. Furby (Midland District); W. Isbister (Southern District).
Minister—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.
Private Secretary—A. Hall.
Minister of Railways—Hon. W. H. Herries.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
* Also Registrars of Building Societies, Industrial and Provident Societies, and Assistant Registrars of Companies.
† Combined post and telegraph offices.
General Manager—T. Ronayne.
Chief Clerk—R. W. McVilly.
Chief Accountant—H. Davidson.
Chief Traffic Manager—H. Buxton.
Traffic Superintendents—North Island—C. A. Piper: South Island—S. F. Whitcombe.
District Managers—Whangarei, W. Sword; Auckland, W. Bowles; Wanganui, J. E. Armstrong; Wellington, A. Duncan; Westport, P. L. Payne; Westland, J. Bevin; Christchurch, W. J. Stringleman; Dunedin. T. W. Waite; Invercargill, T. W. Brebner.
Stationmasters in Charge—Kaihu, R. B. Peat; Gisborne, H. Williams; Nelson, T. S. Edwards; Picton, A. M. Arthur.
Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Burnett, M.Inst.C.E.
Inspecting Engineer—F. W. MacLean.
Signal Engineer—H. J. Wynne, A.M. Inst.C.E.
Office Engineer—G. A. Troup.
Railway Land Officer—G. McCartney.
District Engineers—Auckland, D. T. McIntosh; Ohakune, J. K. Lowe; Wanganui, F. J. Jones; Wellington, F. C. Widdop; Westport and West-land, C. M. Benzoni; Christchurch, C. H. Biss; Dunedin, A. J. Mcandrew; Invercargill, A. J. Mc-Credie.
Chief Mechanical Engineer—A. L. Beattie.
Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, G. E. Richardson; Wellington-Napier - New Plymouth, G. A. Pearson; Hurunui-Bluff. H. H. Jackson; Westport and Westland, E. E. Gillon. Relieving, F. T. Murison.
Members—Chairman, Dr. A. McArthur, S.M., appointed by the Governor; C. P. Ryan, Clerk, Wanganui, elected; P. Dwyer, Guard, Wanganui, elected; J. L. Churchouse, Ganger, Cross Creek, elected; D. McKenzie, Machinist, Petone, elected; C. G. Lee, Engine-driver, Wanganui.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members—Chairman, W. R. Haselden, S.M., appointed by the Governor; J. Gray, Traffic Inspector, Christchurch, elected; P. Gaines, Guard, Christchurch, elected; J. McNeely, Engineman, Christchurch, elected; J. H. Jones. Turner, Addington, elected; E. J. Dash, Surfaceman, Timaru.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members—Chairman, Hon. the Minister of Railways; J. L. Salmond, LL.B., Solicitor-General; F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D., Public Trustee; T. Ronayne, General Manager, Railways: elected—J. Young; R. M. Isaacs; M. Lee; W. T. Wilson; and J. P. Puttick.
Board meets quarterly at Wellington.
Under-Secretary—T. W. Fisher.
Chief Clerk.—W. T. Gordon.
Clerk to Land Purchase Board—W. T. Pitt.
Accountant—L. A. Teutenberg.
Translator.—L. M. Grace.
Chief Judge—Jackson Palmer.
Judges—R. N. Jones, W. E. Rawson, C. E. MacCormick, M. Gilfedder, T. W. Fisher, J. W. Browne, A. G. Holland, T. H. Wilson, J. B. Jack.
Commissioners—H. W. Bishop, W. H. Bowler, H. Carr, C. T. H. Brown.
Registrars—Auckland, E. P. Earle; Wellington, E. A. Welch; Wanganui, A. H. Mackay; Gisborne, H Carr.
For places and dates of meetings see New Zealand Gazette of 23rd January, 1913.
Members—H. S. Wilson and Hori Tane.
President—W. H. Bowler.
Members—J. W. Seymour and Mare Teretiu.
President—J. W. Browne.
Members—H. T. Mitchell and Hemana Pokiha.
President—R. N. Jones.
Members—T. Brook and Otene Pitau.
President—J. B. Jack.
Members—A. Barns and Takarangi Mete Kingi.
President—C. T. H. Brown.
Members—E. Nicholson and Ihaia Hutana.
Minister of Justice and Attorney-General—Hon. A. L. Herdman.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Solicitor - General—J. W. Salmond, LL.B.
Assistant Law Officers—E. Y. Red-ward, H. H. Ostler, P. S. K. Macassey.
Law Draftsman—W. Joliffe.
Assistant Law Draftsman—J. Christie.
Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks, Fine Arts, and Dramatic Works Copyrights—J. C. Lewis.
Supreme Court Judges.
Wellington—Hon. Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G.
Wellington—Hon. F. R. Chapman. Hon. W. A. Sim.
Auckland—Hon. W. B. Edwards. Hon. T. Cooper.
Christchurch—Hon. J. E. Denniston.
Dunedin—Hon. Sir J. S. Williams, Kt.
Registrars of the Supreme Court.
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Gisborne—W. A. Barton.
New Plymouth—A. Crooke.
Napier—S. E. McCarthy.
Palmerston North—J. W. Poynton.
Masterton—L. G. Reid.
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper.
Nelson—J. S. Evans.
Blenheim—F. O'B. Loughnan.
Greymouth and Hokitika—J. G. L. Hewitt.
Christchurch—W. A. Hawkins.
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton.
Hawke's Bay—S. E. McCarthy.
Wanganui and Rangitikei—F. W. Hart.
Manawatu—C. J. Hewlett.
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper.
Marlborough—A. F. Bent.
Westland—J. G. L. Hewitt.
Westland North—D. P. Phillips.
Westland Central—H. Smith.
Canterbury—W. A. Hawkins
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Southland—J. R. Colyer.
Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole.
Hamilton—H. T. Gillies.
Gisborne—F. W. Nolan.
Napier—H. A. Cornford.
New Plymouth—C. H. Weston.
Palmerston North—C. A. Loughnan.
Masterton—A. R. Bunny.
Wellington—H. H. Ostler.
Blenheim—C. H. Mills.
Nelson—C. Y. Fell.
Westport—A. A. Wilson.
Christchurch—T. W. Stringer.
Timaru—J. W. White.
Oamaru—A. C. Creagh.
Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser.
Auckland—C. C. Kettle and E. C. Cutten.
Whangarei, &c.—F. V. Frazer.
Hamilton, &c.—E. Rawson.
Russell, &c.—R. J. Acheson.
Rotorua, &c.—R. W. Dyer.
Thames, &c.—F. J. Burgess.
Gisborne, &c.—W. A. Barton.
Now Plymouth, &c.—A. Crooke.
Hawera, &c.—W. G. K. Kenrick.
Napier, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.
Wanganui, &c.—W. Kerr.
Palmerston North, &c.—J. W. Poynton.
Wairarapa, &c.—L. G. Reid.
Wellington, &c.—A. McArthur, M.A., LL.D., and W. G. Riddell.
Blenheim. &c.—F. O'B. Loughnan.
Nelson &.—J. S. Evans.
Westport, &c.—W. Wilson.*
Greymouth and Hokitika, &c.—J. G. L. Hewitt.*
Christchurch, &c.—H. W. Bishop.
Kaiapoi, &c.—T. A. B. Bailey.
Timaru, &c.—V. G. Day.
Oamaru, &c.—T. Hutchison.*
Dunedin, &c.—H. Y. Widdowson.
Milton, &c.—J. R. Bartholomew.*
Queenstown, &c.—H. A. Young.*
Naseby, &c.—W. R. Haselden.*
Invercargill, &c.—G. Cruickshank.*
Chatham Islands—Dr. G. H. Gibson.
Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.
Auckland—W. S. Fisher.
Wellington—A. Simpson, J.P.
Dunedin—T. D. Kendall.
Clerks of Magistrates' Courts.
Auckland—C. A. Barton.
Hamilton—H. J. Dixon.
Rotorua—C. V. Roberts.
Gisborne—G. J. A. Johnstone.
Wairoa—J. L. Crowther.
Hastings—T. M. Lawlor.
Waipawa, &c.—W. Baker.
New Plymouth—J. Terry.
Hawera—D. W. Mason.
Stratford—W. J. Reeve.
Wanganui—F. W. Hart.
Marton, &c.—H. Morgan.
Feilding—C. E. Taylor.
Palmerston North—C. J. Hewlett.
Wellington—A. H. Holmes.
Christchurch—W. A. D. Banks.
Lyttelton—G. N. Morris.
Kaiapoi and Rangiora—A. G. Ashby.
Timaru—T. W. Tayler.
Waimate—W. Y. Purchase.
Oamaru—A. A. Mair.
Port Chalmers—G. G. Chisholm.
Balclutha—F. G. Hutton.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.
Clerks of Magistrates' and Wardens' Courts, and Receivers of Gold Revenue and Mining Registrars.
Whangarei—F. Bird, jun.
Coromandel—G. H. Sherwood.
Paeroa and Te Aroha—H. R. Bush.
Tauranga—T. R. W. Philpotts.
Nelson—E. C. Kelling.
Blenheim—A. F. Bent.
Westport—O. E. Bowling.
I Greymouth—B. Harper.
* Also are Wardens of Goldfields.
Kumara—G. H. Harris.
Hokitika—J. N. Nalder.
Dunedin (Hindon)—R. P. Ward.
Naseby, &c.—J. C. Malfroy.
Cromwell, &c.—J. Reid.
Queenstown and Arrowtown—A. J.
Lawrence—J. M. Adam.
Gore—G. H. Lang.
Riverton and Orepuki—H. McN. G. Macfarlane.
Arrowtown, H. Graham; Auckland, T. Gresham; Carterton, J. T. M. Hornsby; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Dunedin, C. C. Graham; Feilding, J. J. Bagnall; Foxton, A. Fraser; Hamilton, J. S. Bond; Kawhia, T. D. Hamilton; Kinohaku, W. J. Shaw; Levin, W. C. Nation; Marton, J. J. McDonald; New Plymouth, J. Mackay; Ohakune, E. G. Allsworth; One-hunga, D. A. Sutherland; Opotiki, P. A. Crawford; Otahuhu, A. R. Harris; Paeroa, J. Nathan; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Taihape, J. P. Aldridgo; Takaka, A. Sinclair; Tapanui, W. Quin; Taumarunui, A. S. Laird; Te Awamutu, J. B. Teasdale; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Te Puke, C. Lally; Thames, W. H. Lucas; Waihi, W. M. Wallnutt; Waipawa, J. C. Taylor; Waiuku, W. J. King; Westport, G. B. Sinclair; Whangarei, J. M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard. All Stipendiary Magistrates are ex officio Coroners.
Inspector—Dr. F. Hay.
Deputy Inspector—C. E. Matthews.
Gaolers—Auckland, A. W. Ironside; Dunedin, H. McMurray; Invercargill, M. Hawkins; Lyttelton, T. R. Pointon; Napier, A. Gideon; New Plymouth, J. Coyle; Wellington, J. C. Scanlon; Kaingaroa, W. T. Leggett; Hanmer Springs. W. Ayling; Waipa Valley, J. Down; Waikeria, Rev. J. L. A. Kayll.
Minister—Hon. A. L. Herdman.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Commissioner of Police—J. Cullen.
Superintendents—J. W. Ellison, Wellington; N. Kiely, Christchurch; A. J. Mitchell, Auckland; J. Dwyer, Dunedin.
Inspectors—E. Wilson, Wanganui; J. O'Donovan, Napier; A. H. Wright, Hamilton; S. P. Norwood, Invercargill; W. J. Phair, Greymouth; J. A. McGrath, Auckland; C. W. Hendrey, Wellington.
Sub - Inspectors—A. Cruickshank, Timaru; B. Sheehan, Wellington; R. Marsack, Palmerston North; W. Fouhy, Dunedin: J. Johnston, Auckland; W. H. Mackinnon, Christchurch.
Minister—Hon. Dr. Pomare.
Private Secretary—A. N. Polson.
Clerk in Charge—F. G. Twiss.
Resident Commissioner, Rarotonga—H. W. Northeroft, N.Z.C.
Resident Commissioner, Niue—H. G. Cornwall.
Resident Agents—Mangaia, J. C. Cameron; Aitutaki, J. McCulloch; Atiu. J. T. Large; Mauke, E. F. Hawk; Penrhyn, R. C. Morgan; Manihiki and Rakahanga, H. Williams.
Chief Medical and Health Officer—Dr. G. P. Baldwin.
Assistant Medical Officer—Dr. A. R. Maclurkin.
Registrar of Courts—H. H. G. Ralfe.
Collector of Customs—W. J. Stevenson.
Clerk to Federal Council and Government Printer—S. Savage.
Fruit Inspector—G. Esam.
Inspecting Engineer and Inspector of Mines—F. Reed, M.I.M.E.
District Inspectors:—Thames and Auckland Districts—B. Bennie and M. Paul; Canterbury, Otago, and Southland Districts—E. R. Green and T. Thomson; West Coast Districts—J. Newton (Westport), A. H. Richards (Hokitika), O. Bishop (Reefton).
Director—P. G. Morgan, M.A.
Mining Geologist—J. Henderson, M.A., D.Sc.
Palæontologist—J. A. Thomson. D.Sc.
Lecturers and Instructors:—Thames—W. H. Baker. B.Sc.; Assistant, W. A. Given, M.A.: Coromandel—W. B. Inglis: Waihi—A. H. V. Morgan, M.A.: Karangahake—R. B. MacDuff: Reefton—J. McPadden: Westport—H. Lovell.
Members—The Director, Geological Survey; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery; J. Bishop; J. C. Brown; and H. A. Gordon, F.G.S.
Same official members as preceding Board, excepting the Chief Inspector of Machinery, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Auckland; T. Gilmour, Waihi; and H. P. Hornibrooke, Coromandel.
The Director of Geological Survey is Chairman of both Boards, and H. E. Radcliffe is the Secretary.
Board meets once a year in Wellington.
General Manager—W. C. Gasquoine.
Accountant—L. H. Eilers.
Mine - manager, Point Elizabeth Colliery, Greymouth—J. Bishop.
Mine - manager, Seddonville Colliery, Westport—I. A. James.
Agent, Westport—A. W. Wilson.
Depot Agent, Wellington—F. J. Gunn.
Depot Agent, Christchurch—W. H. Crothers.
Depot Agent, Wanganui—F. A. Nalder.
Depot Agent, Dunedin—T. Quinlivan.
Minister of Internal Affairs—Hon. F. H. D. Bell, K.C.
Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Assistant Under-Secretary—G. P. Newton.
Chief Clerk—P. J. Kelleher.
Accountant—A. R. Kennedy.
Officer in Charge of Government Buildings—W. H. Hennah.
Secretary—A. M. Smith.
Accountant—W. M. Wright.
Public Service Superannuation Board.
Nominated by the Government—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O., G. F. C. Campbell, J. H. Richardson, J. Strauchon, I.S.O.
Elected by Contributors in the Post and Telegraph Department—H. A. R. Huggins, A. T. Markmann.
Elected by Contributors in the Police Department—Superintendent J. W. Ellison.
Elected by Contributors in other Departments—G. Allport, H. W. Bishop, M. Fraser.
The Board holds its meetings in the-Public Trust Building, Wellington, on the second Thursday in January, April, July, and October.
Controller and Auditor - General—Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
Deputy Controller and Auditor and Chief Clerk—P. P. Webb.
Audit Officer, London—T. H. Hamer.
The Commissioners of the Public Debt Sinking Funds.
(Under New Zealand Loans Act, 1908.)
Minister of Finance—Hon. J. Allen.
Controller and Auditor - General—Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
Public Trustee—Dr. Fitchett, LL.D., C.M.G.
Speaker, House of Representatives—Hon. Sir Arthur Guinness, Kt.
Secretary to Commissioners—P. P. Webb.
Registrar-General—F. W. Mansfield.
Government Statistician—M. Fraser. Deputy Registrar-General and Chief Clerk—W. W. Cook.
Chief Compiler, Statistical Branch—F. H. Machattie.
Registrars of Births, Deaths, and Marriages—T. Culpan, Auckland; G. G. Hodgkins, Wellington; F. Evans. Christchurch; H. Maxwell, Dunedin.
Minister in Charge—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.
Private Secretary—A. Hall.
Chief Electoral Officer—F. W. Mansfield.
Clerk in Charge and Deputy Chief Electoral Officer—G. A. Cormack.
High Commissioner—Hon. T. Mackenzie.
Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.
Trade and Immigration Representative—T. E. Donne.
Accountant—G. F. Copus.
Produce Commissioner—H. C. Cameron.
Veterinarian—A. Crabb, M.R.C.V.S.
Chief Clerk—A. S. Row.
Minister in Charge—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.
Private Secretary—A. Hall.
Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—J. Mackay.
Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen.
Superintendent—W. A. G. Skinner.
Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Inspector-General—F. Hay, M.B., C.M.
Deputy Inspector-General—St. L. H. Gribben, M.D.
Assistant Inspector—Miss H. Maclean.
Chief Clerk—D. Souter.
Medical Superintendent, Auckland Mental Hospital—R. M. Beattie, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Mental Hospital—W. B. Gow, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Porirua Mental Hospital—G. Hassell, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Mental Hospital—F. T. King, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Tokanui Mental Hospital, Kihikihi—A. Crosby, M.R.C.S.
Medical Superintendent, Nelson Mental Hospital—W. J. Mackay, M.D.
Superintendent, Hokitika Mental Hospital—J. Downey; Medical Officer—H. Macandrew, M.B.
Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Inspector-General of Hospitals and Chief Health Officer—T. H. A. Valintine, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H.
Medical Secretary—J. P. Frengley, M.D., F.R.C.S., D.P.H.
Assistant Inspectors—Miss H. Maclean, Miss J. Bicknell, Miss A. Bagley.
Chief Clerk—E. A. S. Killick.
District Health Officers—Auckland, Dr. R. H. Makgill; Napier, Dr. F. I. De Lisle; Wellington, Dr. J. P. Frengley, Dr. Chesson; Christchurch, Dr. H. E. Finch (also Assistant Inspector of Hospitals); Dunedin, Dr. S. Champtaloup.
President—C. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc., M.B.C.M., F.L.S.
Hon. Treasurer—C. A. Ewen.
Secretary—B. C. Aston, F.I.C.
Dominion Analyst and Chief Inspector of Explosives—J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc., F.C.S.
Agricultural Chemist—B. C. Aston, F.I.C.
Mining Chemist—W. Donovan, M.Sc.
Inspector of Explosives—R. Girling-Butcher.
General Officer Commanding N.Z. Forces—Major-General A. J. Godley, C.B., p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Assistant Military Secretary—Captain T. E. Estcourt.
Chief Clerk—W. E. Butler.
Inspector of Rifle Clubs, Rifle Ranges, and Drill Halls—Lieut-Colonel (temp Colonel) G. C. B. Wolfe.
Judge Advocate-General—Colonel J. R. Reed, Reserve of Officers.
Chief of General Staff and Director of Staff Duties and Military Training—Colonel E. S. Heard, p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Major J. G. Hughes, D.S.O., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Military Operations—Major (temp. Lieut-Colonel) J. K. Cochrane, p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Representative at Headquarters, Imperial General Staff, War Office—Colonel A. W. Robin, C.B., C.M.G., T.D., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Adjutant-General—Major (temp.Lieut.-Colonel) Hon. R. H. Collins, D.S.O., Imperial General Staff.
Assistant Adjutant - General—Major H. E. Pilkington, R.N.Z.A.
Quartermaster-General—Lieut.-Colonel H. O. Knox, Army Service Corps.
Assistant Quartermaster - General—Major H. H. Browne, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Equipment and Stores—Hon. Major J. O'Sullivan.
Director of Ordnance and Artillery—Major (temp. Lieut.-Colonel) G. N. Johnston, R.G.A.
Assistant Director and Instructor in Artillery Duties—Major J. S. Maidlow, R.A.
Officer Commanding District—Lieut.-Colonel (temp. Colonel) R. Logan, A.D.C., N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Major W. C. Braithwaite, D.S.O., Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Captains J. E. Barton and C. W. Melvill N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain R. S. Matthews, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel E. W. C. Chaytor, p.s.c., N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Captain (temp. Major) A. C. Temperley, Norfolk Regiment.
Attached to General Staff—Major H. R. Potter, Lieut, (temp. Captain), W. J. Foster, Commonwealth Military Forces.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain J. T. Bosworth, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Lieut.-Colonel (temp. Colonel) V. S. Smyth, N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Captain (temp. Major) W. R. Pinwill, Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Captain A. W. M. Onslow, 16th Lancers, and Captain A. C. B. Critchley-Salmonson, Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain W. H. Meddings, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Lieut.-Colonel (temp. Colonel) A. Bauchop, C.M.G., N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Major J. D. Grant, V.C., Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Captain S. A. Grant, N.Z. Staff Corps, and Captain A. Moore, D.S.O., Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain W. L. Robinson, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Mangonui—Officer in Charge, J. T. Williams.
Russell—Coastwaiter, H. Stephenson.
Whangaroa—Coastwaiter, A. G. Ratcliffe.
Whangarei—Coastwaiter, J. Munro.
Hokianga—Coastwaiter, F. A. Hardy.
Kaipara—Officer in Charge, D. Savident.
Auckland—Collector, J. P. Ridings.
Landing Surveyor—A. H. Penn. First Clerk—J. McIntosh.
Thames—Coastwaiter, T. C. Bayldon.
Tauranga—Officer in Charge, T. J. Robertshaw.
Poverty Bay—Collector, J. Howie.
New Plymouth—Collector, J. H. Hempton.
Waitara—Coastwaiter, L. H. Sampson.
Patea—Officer in Charge, J. C. Patrick.
Napier—Collector, W. F. Dickey.
Wanganui—Collector, F. J. Walker.
Wellington—Collector, E. R. Brabazon; Landing Surveyor, E. T. W. Maclaurin; First Clerk, H. A. Jackman.
Wairau—Collector, C. G. R. Gore.
Picton—Officer in Charge, J. W. Burgess.
Nelson—Collector, W. Devenish.
Westport—Collector, R. B. D. Eyre.
Greymouth—Collector, T. R. Herd.
Hokitika—Collector, G. A. Empson.
Christchurch and Lyttelton—Collector, W. J. Wratt; Landing Surveyor, W. Howarth; First Clerk, S. E. Harrop.
Timaru—Collector, W. Rose.
Oamaru—Collector, C. Hill.
Dunedin and Port Chalmers—Collector, T. M. Cullen; Landing Surveyor, P. Doull; First Clerk, G. Prain.
Invercargill and Bluff—Collector, W.J. Hawley.
Chatham Islands—Officer in Charge, H. Scott.
Minister of Marine—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.
Private Secretary—A. Hall.
Chief Clerk—B. W. Millier.
Marine Engineer for the Dominion—R. W. Holmes.
Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Black-burne.
Director, Meteorological Branch—D. C. Bates.
Chief Inspector of Sea Fisheries—L. F. Ayson.
Superintendents of Mercantile Marine and Examiners of Masters and Mates—
Auckland—C. E. W. Fleming.
Wellington—G. G. Smith.
Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel.
Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons.
Commander Training-ship “Amokura”—G. S. Hooper (R.N.R.)
Minister in Charge—Hon. F. M. B. Fisher.
Private Secretary—A. Hall.
Chief Inspector of Machinery, Chief Surveyor of Ships, and Chief Examiner of Marine Engineers and Stationary-engine Drivers—R. Duncan.
Chief Clerk—A. R. Stone.
Inspectors of Machinery, Surveyors of Ships, and Examiners of Marine and Land Engineers and Stationary engine Drivers.—Auckland—S. Dalrymple, W. G. Bell, H. G. L. Noy, J. McAlpine, A. C. Reid.
Napier—W. R. Douglas.
Wanganui—C. W. R. Suisted.
Palmerston North—W. Cullen.
Wellington—A. Calvert, A. E. Macindoe, J. W. Townsend.
Nelson—N. D. Hood.
Christchurch—A. W. Bethune, J. H. Knowles.
Dunedin—J. Williamson, W. J. Crowford, T. A. Cooper.
Members—R. Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, M.Inst., Nav. A., Chairman; F. Reed, M.I.M.E., Inspecting Engineer of Mines: R. W. Holmes. M.Inst. C.E., Engineer-in-Chief. P.W.D.; E. Parry, B.Sc. A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., Electrical Engineer, P.W.D.: J. G. Macpherson, Secretary.
Board meets once a quarter, or when required, at Wellington.
Secretary for Labour, Registrar of Industrial Unions, Chief Inspector of Factories, and Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings Board—J. Lomas.
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories. Deputy Registrar of Industrial Unions, and Chief Clerk—F. W. Rowley.
Accountant and Inspector of Factories—J. W. Collins.
Auckland—W. Newton (in charge), W. Hood, E. W. F. Göhns.
Wellington—D. Carmody, A. Donald, and R. T. Bailey.
Christchurch—W. H. Hagger (in charge), H. Willis, W. Wakelin.
Dunedin—L. D. Browett (in charge), J. Hollows, W. Rapley, J. F. Arnold.
Gisborne—W. H. Westbrooke.
New Plymouth—W. Slaughter.
Wanganui—H. E. Moston.
Palmerston North—W. J. Culver.
Greymouth—H. J. Torbit.
Timaru—G. H. Lightfoot.
Oamaru—J. C. Yorke.
Invercargill—H. B. Bower.
And 172 Inspectors and Agents (police officers) in small towns.
Hawke's Bay—J. Jackson.
Wanganui and Rangitikei—H. E. Moston.
Wellington—R. A. Bolland.
North Canterbury—E. J. G. Stringer.
Nelson and Marlborough—S. Tyson.
South Canterbury—G. H. Lightfoot.
Westland—H. J. Torbit.
Auckland—Miss H. R. Morrison.
Wellington—Miss E. R. Bremner.
Christchurch—Mrs. A. Way.
Dunedin—Miss M. S. Hale.
Judge—His Honour Mr. Justice Sim.
Employers' Member—W. Scott.
Workers' Member—J. A. McCullough.
Auckland and Taranaki Industrial Districts—T. H. Giles (Auckland).
Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland Industrial Districts—P. Hally (Wellington).
Canterbury and Otago and Southland Industrial Districts—J. R. Triggs (Christchurch).
Workers' Dwellings Board.
Members—The Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings and the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and the Inspectors of Factories in each of the following cities and towns: Auckland, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Wellington,* Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill.
Meetings irregular; sits when business is required to be transacted.
Minister of Lands—Hon. W. F. Massey.
Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—J. Strauchon, I.S.O.
Assistant Under - Secretary—F. T. O'Neill.
Inspectors of Surveys—J. Langmuir, J. D. Climie.
Land Drainage Engineer—J. B. Thompson.
Chief Clerk—W. R. Jourdain.
Chief Accountant—A. C. Turnbull.
Chief Draughtsman—H. T. McCardell.
Chief Computer—C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S. (also Government Astronomer).
Magnetic Observer (Christchurch)—H. F. Skey, B.Sc.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. M. Skeet.
Inspecting Surveyor—W. J. Wheeler.
Chief Draughtsman—H. D. McKellar.
Chief Clerk—J. G. Bendely.
Receiver of Land Revenue—J. H. O'Donnell.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—R. T. Sadd.
Inspecting Surveyor and Local Land Officer, Gisborne—T. Brook.
Chief Draughtsman—H. Mackay.
Chief Clerk—J. Thomson.
Receivers of Land Revenue—Napier, H. R. Robinson; Gisborne, R. Sinel.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. Bullard.
Chief Draughtsman—H. J. Lowe.
Chief Clerk—C. E. Archibald.
Receiver of Land Revenue—A. J. Rossiter.
* Deputy Chief Inspector.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and & Chief Surveyor—T. N. Brodrick.
Computer and Inspecting Surveyor—R. P. Greville.
Chief Draughtsman—M. C. Smith.
Chief Clerk—H. M. Bannister.
Receiver of Land Revenue—T. G. Waitt.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—W. H. Skinner.
Chief Draughtsman—A. D. Burns.
Receiver of Land Revenues—H. L. Welch.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—F. A. Thompson.
Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Greenfield.
Receiver of Land Revenue—A. W. Duncan.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. D. M. Haszard.
Chief Draughtsman—D. McB. Calder.
Chief Clerk—F. T. Sandford.
Receivers of Land Revenue—F. E. Duncan (Hokitika), B. Harper (Grey-mouth).
Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. R. Pollen.
Chief Draughtsman—H. G. Price.
Chief Clerk—R. Leckie.
Receiver of Land Revenue—G. W. Palmer.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—E. H. Wilmot.
Chief Draughtsman—W. F. Marsh.
Chief Clerk—R. A. Johnston.
Receiver of Land Revenue—F. A. Cullen.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. M. McClure.
Chief Draughtsman—R. S. Galbraith.
Chief Clerk—A. D. McGavock.
Receiver of Land Revenue and Accountant—A. D. A. Macfarlane.
The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and—
Auckland—A. R. Harris, W. Johns, J. Trounson, J. Rountree.
Hawke's Bay—R. B. Ross, A. J. Cameron, T. Hyde, G. Wright.
Taranaki—J. Heslop, J. Rattenbury, C. J. Ryan.
Wellington—J. Dawson, H. T. Ellingham, J. Georgetti, W. McLennan.
Marlborough—J. S. Storey, A. McCallum, J. Fulton, J. Boyd.
Nelson—A. Sinclair, G. Walker, E. S. Hoult, R. Patterson.
Westland—J. S. Lang, A. Cumming, B. Ward, G. Mallinson.
Canterbury—J. Sealy, J. Stevenson, R. Macaulay, T. G. Gee.
Otago—G. Livingstone, J. A. Macpherson, C. Anderson, P. Kinney.
Southland—C. Robertson, J. McLean, J. King, J. Thomson.
Inspector of Scenic Reserves—E. P. Turner.
Scenery Preservation Board.
Members—The Surveyor - General (Chairman), the General Manager of Tourist and Health Resorts, the Under-Secretary Native Department, the Commissioner of Crown Lands for each Land District in which are lands dealt with under the Act.
Secretary—W. R. Jourdain.
Meets when directed by Minister, at Wellington, or elsewhere.
Superintending Nurseryman, North Island (Rotorua)—H. A. Goudie.
Superintending Nurseryman, South Island (Tapanui)—R. G. Robinson.
Members—J. Mackenzie, Surveyor-General; T. N. Brodrick, Chief Surveyor at Wellington; H. Sladden, Hutt; and J. W. Harrison, Auckland.
Secretary—C. E. Adams, M. Sc. F.R.A.S.
Board meets March and September for examinations, and at other times as business requires, at Wellington.
J. D. Ritchio, Chairman and Land Purchase Inspector.
J. Strauchon, I.S.O., Under-Secretary for Lands.
J. Mackenzie, Surveyor-General.
Chief Clerk—O. Mewhinney.
Also for the various Land Districts:
The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and—
Auckland—A. R. Harris.
Hawke's Bay—T. Hyde.
Westland—J. S. Lang.
Canterbury—A. C. Pringle.
Minister—Hon. A. L. Herdman.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. G. Bridges.
Secretary, Land and Deeds—P. C. Corliss.
Accountant—J. C. Murphy.
Examiner of Titles, Wellington—J. J. L. Burke.
Poverty Bay—R. S. Florance.*
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.*
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.*
Wellington—G. G. Bridges.
Marlborough—F. W. Broughton.*
Westland—W. P. Morgan.*
Otago—C. E. Nalder.*
Southland—W. W. De Castro.*
Minister in Charge—Hon. W. F. Massey.
Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Secretary—F. S. Pope.
Chief Clerk—W. C. Robinson.
Inspector of Offices—R. Evatt.
Accountant—J. W. Bell.
Editor—C. E. Cuming.
Biologist—A. H. Cockayne.
Auckland—J. E. D. Spicer.
Napier—A. C. Philpott.
Wanganui—R. H. Hooper.
Wellington—W. T. Wynyard.
Christchurch—A. E. Rowden.
Director—C. J. Reakes, D.V.Sc. M.R.C.V.S.
Assistant Director—J. L. Bruce.
Senior Veterinarian—J. G. Clayton, M.R.C.V.S.
Veterinary Officer in Charge of Laboratory, Wallaceville—H. A. Reid, F.R.C.V.S.
Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
*Also Examiners of Titles.
General Manager—B. M. Wilson.
Chief Clerk—W. H. Frethey.
Accountant—J. H. Barr.
Tourist Agents—Auckland, C. Wallnutt; Te Aroha, G. F. McGirr; Rotorua, W. R. Blow; Wellington, J. W. Hill; Christchurch, G. W. C. Moon; Dunedin, S. J. Collett; Invercargill, T. F. McLaughlin.
New Zealand Government Agents—Sydney N.S.W., E. H. Montgomery; Melbourne, Victoria, H. J. Manson.
Rotorua Sanatorium and Baths—Balncologist, A. S. Wohlmann, M.D., M.R.C.S.; House Surgeon, J. M. Scott, M.B., Ch.B.; Resident Officer, W. Hill; Conservator of Fish and Game, F. Moorhouse.
Hanmer Springs—Resident Medical Officer, J. D. C. Duncan, M.B., Ch.B.
Inspector - General of Schools—G. Hogben, M.A., F.G.S.
Secretary for Education—Sir Edward O. Gibbes, Bart.
Assistant Inspector - General—W. J. Anderson, M.A., LL.D.
Chief Clerk and Accountant (also Secretary, Teachers' Superannuation Board)—F. K. de Castro.
Inspectors—W. E. Spencer, M.A., M.Sc. (also Editor School Journal), and T. H. Gill, M.A., LL.B.
Inspector—W. W. Bird, M.A.
Assistant Inspector—J. Porteous, M.A.
Clerk in Charge—F. L. Severne.
Inspectors—G. L. Cawkwell, M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H.; Elizabeth Gunn, M.B., Ch.B., L.M.; W. Kerr-Hislop, M.B., Ch.B.; Ada G. Paterson, M.B., Ch.B.
Inspectors and Instructors—A. Davies, F. R. Just, S. Moore, W. A. Johnson.
Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe.
Wanganui—W. H. Swanger.
Wellington—G. L. Stewart.
Hawke's Bay—G. Crawshaw.
Marlborough—E. S. Hylton.
Nelson—N. R. Williams.
Grey—P. F. Daniels.
Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.
Canterbury North—H. C. Lane.
Canterbury South—A. Bell, M.A.
Otago—S. M. Park.
Auckland—E. K. Mulgan, M.A.; C. W. Garrard, B.A.; W. A. Burnside, M.A.; J. T. G. Cox; G. H. Plummer, LL.B.; M. Priestley (Organizing); N. T. Lambourne, M.A.; J. W. Mcllwraith, M.A., LL.B., Litt. D.
Hawke's Bay—H. T. Hill, B.A.; J. A. Smith, B.A.
Taranaki—W. A. Ballantyne, B.A.; R. G. Whetter, M.A.
Wanganui—G. D. Braik, M.A.; J. Milne, M.A.; T. B. Strong, M.A., B.Sc.; D. Stewart.
Wellington—T. R. Fleming, M.A., LL.B.; F. H. Bakewell, M.A.
Marlborough—D. A. Strachan, M.A.
Nelson—G. A. Harkness, M.A.; A. Crawford, B.A.
Grey—W. S. Austin.
Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.
North Canterbury—W. Brock, M.A.; C. D. Hardie, B.A.; S. G. Owen. M.A.; J. B. Mayne.
South Canterbury—J. G. Gow, M.A., A. Bell, M.A.
Otago—C. R. D. Richardson, B.A.; C. R. Bossence; J. R. Don, M.A., D.Sc.; J. Robertson.
Southland—J. Hendry, B.A.,; A. L. Wyllie, M.A.
Public Trustee—F. Fitchett, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D.
Deputy Public Trustee—T. S. Ronaldson.
Inspector—M. C. Barnett.
Solicitor—J. W. Macdonald.
Accountant—W. McL. Barr.
Chief Examiner—H. Turner.
Auckland—E. F. Warren.
Napier—E. B. Burdekin.
Hawera—E. Barns. (Also West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent).
Wanganui—T. R. Saywell.
Nelson—J. E. Allen.
Greymouth—C. W. Cooke.
Christchurch—G. A. Smyth.
Dunedin—T. D. Kendall.
Invercargill—S. W. Smith.
Members—The Solicitor-General, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Government Advances to Settlers Superintendent, the Public Trustee, Mr. Hoani Tainui, and Mr. Teo Tipene.
Meets irregularly at the Public Trust Office, Wellington.
Commissioner—J. H. Richardson, F.F.A., F.A.S., F.I.A.V., F.I.A.N.Z.
Deputy Commissioner and Secretary—W. B. Hudson.
Supervisor of New Business—G. E. Robertson.
Accountant—G. W. Barltrop.
Assistant Actuary—P. Muter, F.I.A.
Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.
Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven.
Auckland—M. J. Heywood.
Wellington—G. E. Robertson.
Christchurch—J. C. Prudhoe.
Oamaru—A. W. G. Burnes.
Dunedin—F. B. Bolt.
Napier—J. H. Dean.
Wanganui—A. E. Allison.
Nelson—A. P. Burnes.
Greymouth—R. S. Latta.
Timaru—S. T. Wickstead.
Members—The Minister of Finance, the Solicitor-General, the Surveyor-General, the Public Trustee, the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Office Superintendent, and the Government Insurance Commissioner.
Meets weekly on Wednesdays at the Government Insurance Buildings, Wellington.
General Manager—C. R. C. Robinson.
Deputy General Manager—J. H. Jerram.
Accountant—C. B. Redward.
Auckland—F. H. Pope.
New Plymouth—K. B. Bain.
Palmerston North—R. H. Pavitt.
Christchurch—H. C. Rogers.
Dunedin—L. H. Osborn.
Minister—Hon. J. Allen.
Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.
Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell.
Solicitor—J. B. Christie.
Accountant—W. N. Hinchliffe.
Inspecting Valuer—A. C. Mason.
Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O. Assistant Under - Secretary—W. S. Short (solicitor)
Engineer-in-Chief—R. W. Holmes, M.I.C.E.
Electrical Engineer—E. Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E.
Assistant Electrical Engineer—L. Birks, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E.
Inspecting Engineer—F. W. Furkert, A.M.I.C.E.
Office Engineer—H. Vickerman, A.M.I.C.E., B.Sc.
Architect—J. Campbell, F.R.I.B.A.
Chief Clerk—W. D. Dumbell.
Assistant Chief Clerk—G. C. Schmidt.
Accountant—C. E. Bennett.
Land-purchase Officer—E. Bold.
Assistant Land-purchase Officer—A. H. Kimbell.
Inspecting Officer—P. S. Waldie.
Head Storekeeper—J. C. Fulton.
Fire Inspector—W. H. Hennah.
District Engineers—Auckland, F. B. Wither; Gisborne, C. E. Armstrong; Wellington, J. D. Louch, A.M.I.C.E.; Dunedin, J. E. W. McEnnis.
Resident Engineers—Whangarei, J. Wood, A.M.I.C.E.; Tauranga, J. Hannah; Napier, S. J. Harding; Stratford, C. J. McKenzie; Nelson, W. Widdowson; Blenheim, A. B. Wright; Greymouth, J. H. Lewis; Otira, W. H. Gavin; Christchurch, H. Dickson; Invercargill, J. H. Treseder.
Resident Road Engineers—G. T. Murray, A.M.I.C.E., New Plymouth; R. H. Reanay, Wanganui; T. Burd, Tauranga.
Assistant Engineer in Charge—H. H. Sharp, Westport.
Assistant Road Engineer in Charge—E. M. Donaldson, Te Kuiti.
Chief Draftsman—W. G. Rutherford.
The Civil Service Act provides for the establishment of a system whereby officers of the Service guarantee the fidelity of each other. There are certain exemptions provided for in the Act, and the Governor in Council has by regulations exempted the following:—
The Governor's Establishment.
The Assistant Law Officer.
The Law Draughtsmen.
The Secretary to Cabinet.
The Public Trustee, and all other officers, clerks, and persons employed by or in the Public Trust Office.
Officers employed in the working, management, control, or supervision of all railways now or hereafter in any manner vested in His Majesty the King.
Lighthouse-keepers and their assistants.
Officers serving outside the limits of the Dominion of New Zealand.
Nor do the regulations under the Act apply to any member of the Executive Council, to the bank appointed under the Public Revenues Act, 1910, or any officer of such bank, or to any officer of the Civil Service whose salary is less than one hundred pounds per annum.
In case of defalcation by an assurer the amount of such defalcation must be made good from the salaries of insurers by a deduction in proportion to the total yearly salary to the extent of thirty-nine-fortieths of the ascertained liability, the balance being a charge on the Consolidated Fund.
A Board of five members, of whom at least three must be assurers, is appointed by the Governor for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act regarding the system. The following gentlemen constitute the present Board:—
W. R. Morris, Secretary, Post and Telegraphs.
G. F. C. Campbell, Secretary to the Treasury.
W. B. Montgomery, Secretary for Customs.
G. C. B. Jordan, Under-Secretary for Justice.
J. Strauchon, I.S.O., Under Secretary Lands and Survey.
Secretary to Board—A. M. Smith.
The Board meets irregularly, as business requires, at Wellington.
Members appointed or elected in May, 1913, under section 32 of the Public Service Act, 1912.
Appointed by Government—Peter Barr, Public Accountant, Dunedin (Chairman), and J. H. Richardson, Commissioner Government Life Insurance Department. (To sit on all Appeals.)
Elected by officers of the Postal Branch of the Post and Telegraph Department—Francis Michael Scully, New Plymouth. (To sit on Postal Appeals.)
Elected by officers of the Telegraph Branch of the Post and Telegraph Department—Alexander Mill, Auckland. (To sit on Telegraph Appeals.)
Elected by the remaining officers of the Public Service—Arthur Marryatt, Government Life Insurance Department, Wellington, and Frederick John Mouat, Lands Department, Dunedin. (One, to be mutually agreed upon, to sit on Appeals from members of the Public Service other than the Post and Telegraph Department.)
Table of Contents
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1911.
Privy Councillor (P.C.)
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1907.
Knights Commanders of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (K.C.M.G.).
Carroll, Hon. Sir James, 1911.
Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., 1911
Hall Jones, Hon. Sir William, 1910.
Mills, Sir James, 1909.
Percevall, Sir Westby Brook, 1894.
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.
Knights Bachelor (Kt. Bach.).
Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1910.
Buchanan, Sir Walter, 1912.
Kennaway, Sir Walter, 1909.
Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901.
McLean, Hon. Sir George, 1909.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.
Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.
Russell, Sir William Russell, 1902.
Williams, Hon. Sir Joshua Strange, 1911.
Companions of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (C.B.).
Cradock, Major Montagu, 1900.
Davies, Colonel R. H., 1900.
Newall, Colonel Stuart, 1900.
Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.
Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1900.
Companions of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (C.M.G.).
Bauchop, Lieut.-Colonel A., 1902.
Collins, Colonel Robert Joseph, V.D., I.S.O., 1911.
Fitchett, Frederick, M.A., LL.D., 1911.
Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.
Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900. Otterson, Henry, 1913
Richardson, Hon. Edward, 1879.
Roberts, John, 1891.
Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1912.
Stowe, Leonard, 1912.
Companion, Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.)
Bartlett, Major E., 1902.
Hickey, Lieutenant D. A., 1902.
Hughes, Major J. G., 1900.
Major, Major C. T., 1900.
Poison, Major D., 1900.
Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.
Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.
Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.
Companion, Imperial Service Order (I.S.O.)
Andrews, James Frank, 1913.
Blow, Horatio John Hooper, 1911.
Collins, Colonel R. J., V.D., 1909.
Heywood, James B., 1905.
Kensington, W. C., 1909.
Robertson, Donald, 1912.
Strauchon, John, 1912.
Tregear, Edward, 1911.
Royal Red Cross.
Williamson, Miss J. M. N., 1900
Hardham, Lieut. W. J., 1901.
New Zealand Cross.
Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.
Hill, George, 1869.
Lingard, William, 1869.
Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.
Maling, Christopher, 1869.
Mair, Gilbert, 1870.
Northcroft, Henry William, 1910.*
Preece, George Augustus, 1869.
Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.
Shepherd, Richard, 1869.
Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.†
*For service rendered in 1866.
† For service rendered in 1867.
Distinguished Conduct Medals awarded to Members of New Zealand Contingents in South Africa (1899-1902).
Baigent, Private Ivanaoe.
Black, Sergeant-major G. C.
Burr, Sergeant-major W. T.
Cassidy, Sergeant W.
Fletcher, Sergeant-major W. H.
Free, Private A.
Kent, Sergeant W.
Langham, Sergeant-major J.
Lockett, Sergeant-major E. B.
Pickett, Sergeant-major M.
Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.
Wade, Private H. B.
White, Sergeant-major H.
(One of four knitted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for presentation to selected members of Colonial Contingents in South Africa.)
Coutts, Captain Henry Donald, 1900.
By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 30th October, 1856, the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on Members of the Legislative Council and on the Speaker of the House of Representatives of New Zealand.
By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 15th June, 1893, it was announced that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case might be.
By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke.
Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Buddo, David, 1912; Carroll, Sir James, 1912; Duncan, Thomas Y., 1906; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Findlay, Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., K.C.M.G. 1911; Fowlds, G., 1911; Hall Jones, Sir William, 1908; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McKenzie, Roderick, 1912; Mackenzie, Thomas, 1912; Millar, John Andrew, 1912; Mills, Charles H., 1906; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Ngata, Apirana Turupa, 1912; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, Edward, C.M.G., 1887; Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1887; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.
By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of “Honourable.” Mr. William Montgomery has been allowed to retain the title as from 14th December, 1906, accordingly, on such retirement.
By despatch of 29th August, 1877, was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.
By despatch of 22nd December, 1911, it was announced that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand.
There is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.
The principal churches, with the names, &c., of the present heads or officers, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follows:—
Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the Church of England.
For church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in each diocese in rotation. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Primate (Bishop of Dunedin). The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese.
The names, &c., of the Bishops of the Church of England are as follows:—
The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 (Primate).
The Right Rev. Owen Thomas Lloyd Crossley, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1911.
The Right Rev. Alfred Walter Averill, D.D., Waiapu; consecrated 1910.
The Right Rev. Thomas Henry Sprott, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1911.
The Right Rev. William Charles Sadlier, B.D., Nelson; consecrated 1912.
The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.
The Right Rev. Cecil John Wood, D.D., Melanesia; consecrated 1912.
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.
The General Assembly will meet on the second Tuesday of November, 1913, in St. Paul's Church, Christchurch. Moderator, the Rev. Andrew Cameron, B.A., Dunedin; Emeritus Clerk, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier; Clerk, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Nelson; Treasurer, Rev. W. J. Comrie, Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington; Theological Professors, Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D., Dunedin, Rev. W. Hewitson, B.A., Dunedin, and Rev. John Dickie, M.A., Dunedin.
Roman Catholic Church.
The Diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each, of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend
In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion. The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the Dominion.
The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., consecrated in 1874, is Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in New Zealand, and the Most Rev. Thomas O'Shea has recently been appointed Coadjutor Archbishop. The following are the bishops:—
The Right Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1910.
The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.
The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.
Methodist Church of New Zealand.
The New Zealand branches of the Methodist Church of Australasia and the Primitive Methodist Connexion are now united under the designation of the Methodist Church of New Zealand. Conferences of each church met at Wellington on 5th February, 1913, and confirmed the arrangements for the union; and the first conference of the united Church met on the following day. Officers for the year 1913-14 were elected as follows: President, Rev. Samuel Lawry; Vice-President, Hon. C. M. Luke, M.L.C.; Secretary, Rev. C. H. Laws, B.A. The affairs of the Church are administered by ten district synods which meet annually, and by a number of connexional committees appointed from year to year by the Conference. The President is the Connexional Secretary; Rev. J. N. Buttle is Secretary of the Foreign Mission Fund; and Rev. T. G. Brooke is Secretary for Home Missions.
The next annual conference is to be held at Dunedin, and will begin during the third week of February, 1914.
Baptist Union of New Zealand.
President, Mr. J. G. Fraser, Christchurch; Vice-President, Rev. E. A. Kirwood, Mount Eden; Secretary, Rey. R. S. Gray, Dunedin; Treasurer, Mr. A. F. Carey, Christchurch; Missionary Secretary, Rev. J. K. Archer, Napier; Missionary Treasurer, Mr. A. Hoby, Wellington. The Union comprises 53 churches, 42 preaching-stations, 5,494 members, and a constituency of 25,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand, Baptist; Editor, Mr. H.H. Driver, Dunedin. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an income last year of £3,102; has a thoroughly equipped hospital, employs a doctor, 2 missionaries, 4 zonana ladies, and 32 Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal
Congregational Union of New Zealand.
The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for the current year, Rev. A. M. Aspland, Wellington; Chairman-elect, the Hon. G. Fowlds, Mount Albert; Secretary, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Onehunga; Treasurer, Mr. T. W. White, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. G. B. Gregory, Marton; Head Office, Auckland. In 1914 the meeting of the Council will be held at Auckland. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.
Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein and Rev., S. Katz, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowski, Wellington; Rev. I. Bernstein, Christchurch; Rev. A. Diamond, Dunedin. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).
Church of Christ.
The next Triennial Session of the Associated Churches of Christ will be held, at Dunedin at Now Year, 1915. President, Mr. C. Fleming McDonald, Dunedin; Vice-president. Mr. Ralfe Cobbie, Christchurch; Secretary, Mr. J. L. Stewart Wright, Dunedin. District conferences are held annually in each of the three districts—Auckland, Middle, and Southern.
The Annual Congress of the Salvation Army is held in the month of June each year.
The principal officers of the Salvation Army in New Zealand are: Territorial Commander, Commissioner W. J. Richards; Chief Secretary, Lieut.-Col. A. E. Powley; Secretary for Field Affairs, Major H. B. Colledge; Property Secretary, Brigadier J.H. Bray; National Young People's Secretary, Brigadier W. J. Hoare; Divisional Commanders, Brigadier T. E. Vince, Auckland, Brigadier A. B. Carmichael, Wellington, Staff-Captain E. Newby, Christchurch, Major J. J. Toomer, Dunedin; Principal of Training College, Wellington, Brigadier W. Gist. Among the social institutions maintained by the Salvation Army are: Rescue Homes at St. Albans, Caversham, Parnell, and South Wellington; Maternity Homes at each of the four chief centres; Boys' Homes at Island Bay and Eltham; Girls' Homes at Middlemarch and South Wellington; Prison Gate Brigade Homes at Epsom and Addington; and Inebriates' Homes at Pakatoa and Roto Roa.
There are (May, 1913) 237 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, sixty-three are published daily, thirty-five three times a week, twenty-four twice a week, seventy once a week, four fortnightly, one three-weekly, one four-weekly, and thirty-nine monthly.
The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.
M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper.
|* Not published in December and January.|
|Auckland Free Press (M.)||Saturday.|
|Auckland Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M.)||Thursday|
|Bowling World (M.)||Thursday|
|Church Gazette (M.)||Monthly (3rd).|
|Druidic Gazette (M.)||Monthly (20th).|
|Industrial Unionist (M.)||Monthly (1st)|
|Liberator (E.)||Monthly (1st)|
|New Zealand Farmer, Stock and Station Journal (M.)||Monthly (1st)|
|New Zealand Herald (M.)||Daily|
|New Zealand Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic Review||Daily|
|and Licensed Victuallers' Gazette (M.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Motor and Cycle Journal (M.)||Monthly (25th).|
|New Zealand Observer (M.)||Saturday.|
|New Zealand Town and Country Life, Farmers' Weekly.||Saturday.|
|and Land Agents' Record (M.)||Wednesday.|
|New Zealand Yachtsman (E.)||Saturday.|
|New Zealand Sun (E.)||Saturday.|
|Saturday Night (E.)||Friday.|
|Stage (M.)||Monthly (20th).|
|Tawhimatea Taima (M.)||Friday.|
|Te Matakokiri Taima (M.)||Monthly (20th).|
|Theosophy in New Zealand (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Voice of Labour (M.)||Friday.|
|Weekly Graphic and New Zealand Mail (M.).||Wednesday.|
|Cambridge—Waikato Independent (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Coromandel—Coromandel County News and Kuaotunu and Mercury Bay Mail (E.)||Friday.|
|North Auckland Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Otahuhu Post (E.)||Thursday.|
|Waitemata Post, Local Bodies' Gazette, and Cook Islands||Thursday.|
|Waikato Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Waikato Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Helensville—Kaipara Advertiser and Waitemata Chronicle (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Huntly—Huntly Press and District Gazette (E.)||Friday.|
|Kawakawa—Bay of Islands Luminary, and Hokianga, Mangonui, and Whangaroa Counties Gazette (E.)||Saturday.|
|Kawhia—Kawhia Settler and Raglan Advertiser (E.)||Friday.|
|Kohukohu—Hokianga Times and North-western Representative (E.)||Monday.|
|Mangonui—North Auckland Age (E.)||Friday.|
|Morrinsville—Morrinsville Star and Matamata Gazette (M)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Ngaruawahia—Ngaruawahia Advocate and Counties Gazette (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Ohura—Ohura Advocate and County Gazette (E.)||Friday.|
|Onehunga—Manukau Gazette (M.)||Saturday.|
|Otorohanga—O'orohanga Times (E.)||Thursday.|
|Pukekohe—Pukekohe and Waiuku Times (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Raglan—Raglan County Chronicle (E.)||Thursday.|
|Rotorua Chronicle (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Rotorua Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Taumarunui—Taumarunui Press and Upper King Country Gazette (E.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Te Awamutu—Waipa Post (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Te Kuiti—King Country Chronicle (E.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Warkworth—Rodney and Otamatea Times, Waitemata and Kaipara Gazette (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Northern Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Northern Advocate Weekly (E.)||Friday.|
|Northern Mail (E.)||Daily.|
|Northern Mail Weekly (M.)||Friday.|
|East Coast Guardian (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Paeroa—Ohinemuri Gazette (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Tauranga—Bay of Plenty Times (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Te Aroha Mail (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Te Puke—Te Puke Times (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Thames Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Waihi—Waihi Daily Telegraph (E.)||Daily.|
|Whakatane—Whakatane County Press (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Gisborne Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Poverty Bay Herald (E.)|
|Inglewood—Inglewood Record and Waitara Age (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)||Saturday.|
|Taranaki Daily News (M.)||Daily.|
|Taranaki Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Opunake—Opunake Times (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Stratford—Stratford Evening Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Waitara—Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)||Mon. Wed., Fri.|
|Dannevirke Evening News (E.)||Daily.|
|Hawke's Bay Tribune (E.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Bulletin (M.)||Saturday.|
|Daily Telegraph (E.)||Daily.|
|Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Fire and Ambulance Record (M.)||Monthly (28th).|
|Waiapu Church Gazette (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Waipawa—Waipawa Mail (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Waipukurau—Waipukurau Press (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Wairoa—Wairoa Guardian (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Eltham—Eltham Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Egmont Star (M.)||Friday.|
|Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)||Daily.|
|Hunterville—Hunterville Express and Rangitikei Advertiser (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Manaia—Waimate Witness (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Mangaweka—Mangaweka Settler (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Marton—Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Ohakune—Ohakune Times, Rangataua Advocate, and Waimarino Gazette (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Patea—Patea County Press (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Raetihi—Waimarino County Call (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Taihape—Taihape Daily Times and Waimarino Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Good Cheer (M.)||Last week in m'th.|
|Wanganui Chronicle (M.)||Daily.|
|Wanganui Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Waverley—Tribune (M.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Carterton—Te Puke Ki Hikurangi (E.)||Twice monthly.|
|15th and last day).|
|Wairarapa Daily News (E.)||Daily.|
|Eketahuna—Eketahuna Express and County Gazette (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Feilding—Feilding Star and Kiwitea-Oroua County Gazette (E.)||Daily.|
|Foxton—Manawatu Herald (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)||Mon., Wed. Fri.|
|Horowhenua Daily Chronicle (E.)||Daily.|
|Martinborough—Martinborough Star (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Wairarapa Age (M.)||Daily.|
|Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Otaki—Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Pahiatua—Pahiatua Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Manawatu Daily Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Manawatu Evening Standard (E.)||Daily.|
|Petone—Hutt and Petone Chronicle (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Upper Hutt -Hutt Valley Independent and Upper Hutt Advertiser (M.)||Saturday.|
|Church Chronicle (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Evening Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Fancier (M.)||Monthly (26th).|
|Farmers' Union Advocate (E.)||Saturday.|
|Journal of Agriculture (M.)||Monthly (15th).|
|Katipo (E.)||Monthly (20th)|
|Maoriland Worker (M.)||Friday.|
|Mercantile Gazette of New Zealand (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Nation (M.)||Monthly (10th).|
|New Zealand Craftsman (M.)||Monthly (10th).|
|New Zealand Dairyman (M.)||Monthly (20th).|
|New Zealand Free Lance (M.)||Saturday.|
|New Zealand Gazette (E.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Primitive Methodist (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|New Zealand Railway Review (E.)||Four-weekly.|
|New Zealand Shipping and Commerce (M.)||Friday.|
|New Zealand Times (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Trade Review and Price Current (M.)||Three-weekly.|
|New Zealand Truth (M.)||Saturday.|
|Progress (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Triad (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army of New Zealand (M.)||Saturday.|
|White Ribben (M.)||Monthly (15th).|
|Woodville—Examiner (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Blenheim—Marlborough Express (E.)||Daily.|
|Havelock—Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Picton—Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Collingwood—Golden Bay Argus (E.)||Thursday.|
|Motueka—Motueka Star (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Nelson Evening Mail (E.)||Daily.|
|Takaka—Golden Bay Times (E.)||Thursday.|
|Murchison—Buller Post (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Buller Miner (M.)||Friday.|
|Westport News (M.)||Daily.|
|Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Grey River Argus (M.)||Daily.|
|Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)||Daily.|
|Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.)||Daily.|
|Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|West Coast Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Kumara—Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)||Daily.|
|Akaroa—Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Ashburton Guardian (E.)||Daily.|
|Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Cheviot—Cheviot News (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Anti Militarist (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Canterbury Times (incorporating “Sportsman” and New Zealand Cyclist”) (M.)||Wednesday|
|Christian Herald (E.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Church News (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Dominion Scout, (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Evening News (E.)||Daily.|
|Examiner (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Loco, Record (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Lyttelton Times (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Baptist (E.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Methodist Times (M.)||Sat., fortnightly.|
|New Zealand Poultry Journal (M.)||Monthly (20th).|
|New Zealand Stock and Station Gazette (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Spectator (M. and E.)||Saturday.|
|Vanguard (E.)||Sat., fortnightly.|
|Weekly Press (incorporating “Referee”) (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Kaiapoi—Kaiapoi Record (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Kaikoura—Kaikoura Star and Kaikoura County Gazette and Recorder (E.)||Daily.|
|Rangiora—Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Southbridge—Ellesmere Guardian (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Geraldine Guardian (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Temuka Leader (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Timaru Herald (M.)||Daily.|
|Timaru Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Waimate Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Waimate Times (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|North Otago Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Oamaru Mail (E.)||Daily.|
|Alexandra South—Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Clutha Leader (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Free Press (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Clyde—Dunstan Times, Vincent County Official Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (E.)||Monday.|
|Cromwell—Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (E.)||Monday.|
|Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Farmers' Circular (M.)||Thur., fortn'ly.|
|New Zealand Guardian (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Journal of Education (M.)||Monthly (15th).|
|New Zealand Railway Officers' Advocate (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|New Zealand Scot (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|New Zealand Tablet (M.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Tribune (M.)||Monthly (16th).|
|Otago Daily Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Otago Witness (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Reformer (M.)||Monthly (16th).|
|Mount Benger Mail (M)||Wednesday|
|Tuapeka Times (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Milton—Bruce Herald (E.)||Mon., Thursday.|
|Mosgiel—Taieri Advocate (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Naseby—Mount Ida Chronicle (M.)||Friday.|
|Palmerston—Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)||Friday.|
|Tapanui—Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)||Friday.|
|Arrowtown—Lake County Press (E.)||Thursday.|
|Bluff—Bluff Press and Stewart Island Gazette (E.)||Tues., Friday.|
|Gore—Mataura Ensign (E.)||Daily.|
|Southern Cross (M.)||Saturday.|
|Southland Daily News (E.)||Daily.|
|Southland Times (M.)||Daily.|
|St. John's Monthly (M)||Monthly (1st).|
|Weekly Times (M.)||Friday.|
|Orepuki—Orepuki Advocate and Western District Advertiser (M.)||Saturday.|
|Otautau Farmer and Wallace County Gazette (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Queenstown—Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Riverton—Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Winton—Winton Record, Hokonui Advocate, and Awarua Guardian (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Wyndham Farmer (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Wyndham Herald (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
The foregoing localities are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
The population of New Zealand, as estimated on the 31st December, 1912, with the increase during the year, is shown below:—
|Population estimated (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1911||539,729||485,677||1,025,406|
|Increase during the year 1912—|
|By excess of births over deaths||8,622||9,672||18,294|
|By excess of immigration over emigration||4,861||4,066||8,927|
|Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1912||553,212||499,415||1,052,627|
|Maori population, census 1911||26,475||23,369||49,844|
|Population of Cook and other Pacific islands, census 1911||6,449||6,149||12,598|
|Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1912||586,136||528,933||1,115,069|
Estimates of population are made from the records of births and deaths and the returns of migration. These estimates, especially of late years, are found to be remarkably near the truth, as will be seen from the following table, showing the estimated population as at 31st March in each of the last seven census years compared with the population as ascertained by the census in the same years:—
|Year.||Estimated Population, 31st March.||Census Population.||Difference.|
The following table shows the growth of the population during the last twenty-seven years:—
|Year.||Estimated Population on the 31st December.*||Increase during the Year||Centesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.|
|By Excess of Births over Deaths.||By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.||Net Increase.|
* Corrected where necessary in accordance with census results.
† Loss. The amount of loss by departures in the period 1886-91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.
The rate of increase during 1912 was higher than that of any of the three years immediately preceding, though slightly lower than the average for the decennium 1902-11 (2.68 per cent.). The increase of population (male, female, and total) since 1854 is illustrated by the annexed graphs.
An examination of the increase for each quarter of the past ten years discloses a considerable amount of irregularity, due to fluctuations in migration.
|Increase of Population during each Quarter, 1903-12.|
|Year.||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Total Increase.|
The natural increase of population is shown in the following table:—
|Natural Increase of Population, 1903-12.|
|Year||Excess of Births over Deaths.||Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
The average rate of natural increase for the above period was 17.22 per 1,000. The average rate in New Zealand, the Commonwealth of Australia, and some of the principal countries of the world is given hereunder:—
|New Zealand (1908.12)||17.32|
|Commonwealth of Australia (1908-12)||16.43|
|German Empire (1906-10)||14.12|
|England and Wales (1906-10)||11.56|
The number of persons arriving in and departing from New Zealand is compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion by the Union Steamship Company's boats are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions can be made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes happened prior to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove nearly correct.
The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under or over twelve years of age, is given in the following table:—
|Arrivals and Departures, 1903-12.|
|Year.||Over 12 Years of Age.||Under 12 Years of Age.||Total.|
In the next table are shown the quarterly increases of population during the last ten years. The second quarter of each year except 1903 shows an excess of departures over arrivals, due to the fact that visitors to New Zealand usually take their departure just before the winter season. Autumn is, moreover, the favourite season for residents of the Dominion to commence a journey abroad for pleasure, the return being usually made in spring or summer.
|Quarterly Increase of Population by Migration, 1903-12.|
|Year||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Net Increase.|
|The minus sign (-) denotes decrease.|
|1909||3,435||- 3,517||- 167||4,968||4,719|
|1911||- 157||- 3,174||850||6,681||4,200|
Nearly two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may net return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.
|Commonwealth of Australia||31,769||25,548||24,502||26,909||28,522|
|Other British possessions||1,138||1,141||932||1,620||2,072|
|Commonwealth of Australia||26,468||28,995||27,100||30,918||30,141|
|Other British possessions||1,193||1,326||1,396||1,540||1,426|
Residents in the Dominion may, by application on the proper form, secure a passage at assisted rates for any person residing in the United Kingdom who is a near relative by blood or marriage to the person making such application.
Applications for assisted passages are also received from residents of the Dominion nominating domestic servants, farmers, or farm labourers, irrespective of the relationship existing between the domestic or agriculturist and the person making such application.
The payments required are—second class, £27; third class (two-berth cabin), £12; third class (four-berth cabin), £10. The passage-money, which must be paid in full before passages are booked, can be paid to the Immigration Department in Wellington or to the High Commissioner for New Zealand in London. The Department will cable any nomination, together with a remittance, if so desired, for the extra charge of £1.
Domestic servants and farm labourers granted assisted passages as such are required to follow in New Zealand their respective occupations of domestic and farm work for a period of one year after their arrival in the Dominion. If it is found that some occupation other than domestic or farm work is entered into by any such assisted immigrant before the expiration of one year after arrival in New Zealand, the nominator will be called upon to pay the Government the difference between the assisted rate and the full fare.
Children between three and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half-rates. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.
Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company.
Unhealthy persons should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other like complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.
Questions as to the suitability of any person nominated for a reduced passage are decided by the High Commissioner.
The foregoing applies to persons of not more than fifty years of age in the case of nominated cases and farmers or farm labourers, and not more than thirty-five years of age in the case of domestic servants.
In the case of immigrants under twenty-one years of age, special arrangements have to be entered into for their protection on the voyage where deemed necessary or advisable.
The High Commissioner is authorized to grant to suitable and healthy farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, who apply to him in London, a passage to New Zealand at the following rates:—
|Farmers and Farm|
|Third class: 6-berth cabin||8||0||0||2||16||0|
|Third class: 4-berth cabin||10||0||0||4||16||0|
|Third class: 2-berth cabin||12||0||0||6||16||0|
These sums, together with landing-money, to be fixed at what the High Commissioner considers requisite, can be paid in part or in full before embarkation, or they can be, where the High Commissioner so decides, wholly advanced by him in London, provided the immigrant undertakes to repay out of future earnings the sum so advanced.
The same authority extends for sanction being given to parties of boy emigrants to come to New Zealand, under the conditions that an officer of the Immigration Department be appointed guardian of each boy until his majority, and that each boy undertake to engage in farm work for a fixed number of years. During this time he must be kept by the farmer employing him in proper clothes, food, nourishment, and lodgings, and, in addition, be paid a weekly wage of not less than 7s. 6d., increasing each year, part of such wage to be given him for his pocket-money and part banked to repay the cost of his passage. When the amount of his passage-money has been repaid, then the whole of his wages are paid to him.
The total number of persons embarking from England for New Zealand at assisted rates during each of the last nine years, the total capital possessed by these, and the net expenditure by the Government on immigration, are shown below.
|Year ended 31st March.||Immigration Assisted||Capital possessed by assisted Immigrants.||Net Government Expenditure on Immigration.|
Under the immigration policy of years prior to the above the following persons were assisted:—
During the years 1892 to 1903, inclusive, no assisted passages to immigrants were granted.
On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by officers of the Immigration Department, who accompany the Port Health Officer to the ship. Whilst the ship is in the stream it is the special duty of such officers to afford to the assisted immigrants all necessary information as regards transhipment, &c. Arrangements are made for safety and transhipment of luggage.
Each immigrant is seen as he passes towards the doctor for examination, and is handed an official letter containing information as to where his ticket will be arranged for, and the place and time of departure of his connecting train or boat (if any). The immigrant is also requested to see the Immigration Officer on board, or to come to the office, which is near the wharf in Wellington (Union Steamship Company's building), if he requires information or advice beyond what is given in the letter. The addresses of the district agencies of the Labour Department in the large centres of the Dominion are also supplied to male assisted immigrants. It is the practice of the Department to send out advices, by wire if necessary, to friends and relatives of immigrants about to arrive, and to get back information as to where the new-comers will be met. These messages, often together with private letters, &c, are given out on board to these to whom they are addressed. Information of this nature is much appreciated, especially by wives joining their husbands.
Assisted immigrants requiring work are referred to the office of the Immigration Department, and their cases are there dealt with.
As regards the female assisted domestic workers, who are chosen after application at Home to the High Commissioner, and who are sent to New Zealand under the supervision of one or more responsible matrons, the following applies:—
The Government advertises the fact that the books of the Department are open to record the names of those people in the Dominion desirous of securing the services of an assisted girl. Such advertisements bring into the office many applications, especially pending the arrival of a ship.
Each matron in charge on board is instructed by communications awaiting her at Hobart to classify the girls under two heads: (a) those with work already arranged or friends to go to; (b) those without either friends or work. On arrival they are met by the Girls' Superintendent of the Immigration Department. Arrangements are made for sending to their destinations those girls who are going to friends or to definite positions Those requiring accommodation are directed to homes or hostels approved by the Minister of Immigration for this purpose. The Superintendent then separately considers the case of each girl, and arranges to place her with an applicant for a Government assisted, girl. In placing these girls at present, considerable reliance has necessarily to be placed on the statements made by them. The Department is, however, taking steps to get full and independent details of the work that the girl was actually engaged in before she left the Mother-country. After a girl has been placed, the Department endeavours to keep in touch with her by correspondence.
The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign, in any European language, a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons are excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces, and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of 26th November, 1908.
The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act, having a similar purpose, was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.
Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion. In spite of this fact, there appears to be an increase in alien immigration, as the following table will show:—
|Total, British Possessions||2||28||65||125||21||66||209||132||215||380|
|Total, foreign countries||104||292||276||329||293||589||233||235||589||423|
|Total, “Race Aliens”||166||320||341||454||314||655||442||367||804||803|
A glance at the table will show that a very large proportion of the race aliens arriving are Chinese, most of whom, however, have been formerly resident, in New Zealand. Only two of the Chinese immigrants during 1912 were first arrivals, while the whole of the 546 who arrived in 1911 had previously been in the Dominion.
When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized, he may present to the Governor a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—
His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation;
The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;
A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.
Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.
Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom, or any British possession, may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.
An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father, or the mother, being a widow, has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.
Every alien resident in New Zealand may inherit or otherwise acquire, hold, and dispose of every description of property in the same manner as if he were a natural-born British subject, but may not become the owner of any ship, or of a share in any ship, registered in New Zealand. Any person born in foreign territory whose mother is a natural-born British subject shall be capable of acquiring property in New Zealand by purchase, or under a will or intestacy.
No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who are charged £1.
During 1912 letters of naturalization were granted to 278 males and 21 females belonging to the following nationalities:—
|United States of America||7||..|
The number of natives of each country naturalized during the last twenty years is next shown.
|United States of America||138|
|Portugal and Possessions||61|
Although for political or administrative purposes provinces have now no signification, still the territorial subdivisions have been retained for many reasons. An estimate of the population is made each year, but is not altogether reliable, as there is at present no record kept of internal migration. The populations of the provincial districts as estimated at 31st December last are given in the following table.
|Provincial District||Estimated Population 31st December, 1912.|
|Totals for the Dominion||553,212||499,415||1,052,627|
The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized, and forming part of counties, have considerable populations. On the other hand the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might, be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on. A list of counties and their populations (exclusive of interior boroughs and town districts not forming parts of counties) is given. The populations shown are those ascertained at the census of 1911. In cases, however, where there have been alterations of boundaries since the census, the necessary adjustments have been made in the populations.
|Bay of Islands||3,147|
Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants. The total number of persons resident in boroughs at the last five censuses was as follows:—
|Census Year.||Population in|
The increase during the twenty years was 235,255 persons, or 87.02 per cent. Boroughs which in 1911 had a population of 1,000 or over contained an aggregate of 491,836 persons in that year, as against an aggregate of 252,722 persons for boroughs of 1,000 and over in 1891, an increase of 239,114 persons, or 94.62 per cent. The name of each borough, with the number of inhabitants estimated as at 31st March, 1913, is given in the next table.
|Estimated Population of Cities and Boroughs on the 31st March, 1913.|
|City or Borough.||Population|
With the boroughs is also now included for some purposes the town of Rotorua. constituted under the Rotorua Town Act, 1907. The estimated population of Rotorua on 31st March last was 2,503.
The principal cities of New Zealand are Auckland and Wellington in the North Island, Christchurch and Dunedin in the South Island. The population of each of these centres and their suburbs, as estimated at 31st March, 1913, is given below:—
|Auckland and Suburbs.|
|Other suburbs (31st December, 1912)||21,514|
|Total, Greater Auckland||109,982|
|Wellington and Suburbs.|
|Other suburbs (31st December, 1912)||969|
|Total, Greater Wellington||73,150|
|Christchurch and Suburbs.|
|Other suburbs (31st December, 1912)||14,650|
|Total, Greater Christchurch||84,011|
|Dunedin and Suburbs.|
|Other suburbs (31st December, 1912)||2,511|
|Total, Greater Dunedin||67,290|
There are seven towns in the Dominion having, with their suburbs, a population of 8,000 or over. These are shown below, the populations given being as estimated to 31st March last in the case of the boroughs and town districts, and as ascertained at the census of 1911 in the case of other suburbs.
|Napier South Town District||720|
|Total, Napier and Suburbs||12,429|
|Gonville Town District||1,630|
|Total, Wanganui and Suburbs||15,489|
|Total, Nelson and Suburbs||8,648|
|Invercargill South Borough||1,549|
|Grassmere, Waikiwi, and Prestonville||901|
|Lindisfarne, Richmond Grove, Inglewood, Adamsons, and Hawthorne||536|
|Total, Invercargill and Suburbs||16,827|
The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county, and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000, full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor, and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population are as follows:—
|(a.) Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties.|
|(b.) Town Districts forming Parts of Counties.|
Populations of small centres have been extracted from the census results, and are published in the Government Statistician's Report on the census. The list is too long to insert here.
Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands have been constituted a county, but so far no movement has been made towards exercising the functions of a local governing body. The name and population of each of the inhabited islands as at the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—
|Bean Rock Lighthouse||1|
|Somes and Lighthouse||3|
|The Brothers Lighthouse||3|
|Dog Island Lighthouse||12|
|Centre Island Lighthouse||9|
Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere in this section.
The population of the Dominion (exclusive of Maoris and the population of the annexed Pacific islands) according to the census of 2nd April, 1911, was 1,008,468 persons, as shown by the following summaries:—
|(a.) Summary by Islands.|
(exclusive of Maoris and Residents of
Annexed Pacific Islands).
as Europeans (included
* Including persons on shipboard, but excluding 133 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war, in Auckland Harbour on 2nd April, 1911,
† Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.
‡ These islands are not within the boundaries of the neighbouring counties, but their inhabitants are included in the population of the North and South Islands given in the previous table.
|Totals for Dominion||1,008,463||531,910||476,558||1,475||1,404||2,542||88|
|(b.) Summary by Counties and Boroughs.|
(exclusive of Maoris and Residents of
Annexed Pacific Islands).
as Europeans (included
|Islands adjacent to New Zealand‡||1,079||652||427||7||2||..||..|
|Main Trunk Railway||143||109||34||..||..||..||..|
The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881.
The gradual equalization of the numbers of the sexes, and the increase in the density of population and dwellings, are illustrated in the table following. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling at successive censuses is also shown.
|Date of Enumeration.||Number of Females to 100 Males.||Number of Persons to a Square Mile.||Number of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.||Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.|
The increase of population at successive census periods has been,—
|Date of Enumeration.||Populations.||Numerical Increase.||Centesimal Increase.|
The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.
The population of the two main Islands, with that of Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands, the former being included in the South and the latter in the North Island, at each census period, is given in the next table, together with the proportion per cent, that the population of each division bears to the total population of the Dominion.
|Population of the North and South Islands, 1858-1911.|
|Census Year.||Population (excluding Maoris).||Proportions per Cent.|
It will be seen that in 1858 the North Island had the larger population, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901, in which year the North Island was found to have a slightly larger population than the South, a position which it has since considerably improved upon. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while the large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and are quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free front Maori troubles, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and in the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.
In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly ninety thousand Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.
The number of persons at each year of age is ascertained from the census household schedules. In the following tables these numbers have been condensed in customary groups, and the information disclosed at the census of 1911 is compared with that for two previous censuses. Chinese are included, but not Maoris.
|Under 5 years||42.259||40.945||44,324||42.482||59,975||57.934|
|5 years and under 10 years.||43,494||42,586||43,314||42.422||53,844||52,163|
|10 years and under 15 years||40,755||40,329||43,100||42,125||46,421||44,992|
|15 years and under 20 years||32,579||32,658||42,456||42,358||44,798||43,660|
|20 years and under 25 years||28,337||29,805||41,196||41,960||49,692||46,124|
|25 years and under 30 years||23,704||22,376||35,307||33,233||54,694||47,520|
|30 years and under 35 years||22,021||17,890||29,694||27,272||49,410||42,714|
|35 years and under 40 years||20,513||15,106||24,301||21,217||39,458||33,437|
|40 years and under 45 years||17,755||13,436||21,589||17,347||31,198||27,259|
|45 years and under 50 years||17,028||11,832||19,134||13,997||24,214||20,696|
|50 years and under 55 years||16,770||9,922||15,413||11,991||20,290||16,573|
|55 years and under 60 years||10,945||6,150||13,711||9,963||16,686||12,609|
|60 years and under 65 years||7,685||4,468||12,803||8,017||12,816||10,225|
|65 years and under 70 years||3,923||2,564||10,160||6,028||10,935||8,707|
|70 years and under 75 years||2,504||1,877||5,348||3,236||8,691||6,030|
|75 years and under 80 years||1,191||936||2,285||1,679||5,212||3,260|
|80 and over||718||629||1,425||1,192||2,735||2,130|
A calculation of the proportion per cent, at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birthrate on the ages under 15, the proportion of males at these ages having been 38.08 per cent in 1891 against 30.19 per cent, in 1911, and 42.20 per cent, against 32.58 per cent, respectively of females.
Of the males, those 15-24 years formed 18.35 per cent, of the total in 1891, against 17.79 per cent, in the later year. At the ages 15-64 the proportions were 59.42 per cent, and 64.62 per cent, in 1891 and 1911 respectively. From 65 years upwards the proportions increased from 2.50 per cent, to 5.19 per cent, during the period under review.
Females at ages 15-44 increased in proportion to the total from 44.73 per cent, in 1891 to 50.56 per cent, in 1911. At 45 years and over there was 13.07 per cent, in 1891 and 16.86 per cent, in 1911 of the number of this sex.
|Age-groups.||Proportion per Cent, of Males.||Proportion per Cent, of Females.|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
|Under 5 years||12.72||10.93||11.29||13.95||11.59||12.16|
|5 years and under 10 years||13.09||10.68||10.15||14.51||11.57||10.96|
|10 years and under 15 years||12.27||10.62||8.75||13.74||11.49||9.46|
|15 years and under 20 years||9.82||10.47||8.43||11.12||11.56||9.18|
|20 years and under 25 years||8.53||10.16||9.36||10.16||11.45||9.68|
|25 years and under 30 years||7.14||8.71||10.30||7.62||9.07||9.98|
|30 years and under 35 years||6.63||7.32||9.30||6.10||7.44||8.97|
|35 years and under 40 years||6.18||5.99||7.43||5.15||5.79||7.02|
|40 years and under 45 years||5.34||5.32||5.87||4.58||4.73||5.73|
|45 years and under 50 years||5.13||4.72||4.56||4.03||3.82||4.35|
|50 years and under 55 years||505||3.80||3.82||3.38||3.27||3.48|
|55 years and under 60 years||3.29||3.38||3.14||2.10||2.72||2.65|
|60 years and under 65 years||2.31||3.16||2.41||1.52||2.19||2.15|
|65 years and under 70 years||1.18||2.51||2.06||0.87||1.65||1.83|
|70 years and under 75 years||0.75||1.32||1.64||0.64||0.88||1.27|
|75 years and under 80 years||0.36||0.56||0.98||0.32||0.46||0.69|
|80 and over||0.21||0.35||0.51||0.21||0.32||0.44|
The declining proportions at the earlier ages 0-19 years may be ascribed to a falling birth-rate, while the increase at the higher ages is due to the advanced age of the then mostly adult immigrants introduced during the early stages of settlement. These form the greater portion of the groups 60 years and over, numbering 70,741 persons in 1911, of whom only 3,862 were New-Zealand-born. The latter element in the population is assuming larger proportions each year, while the influence of the numbers recruited from abroad on the age-constitution is gradually waning.
The distribution of population (exclusive of Maoris) between the North and South Islands is shown according to age-groups in the following table:—
|Island.||Under 5||5 and under 20||20 and under 35||35 and under 50||50 and under 65||65 and over.||Unspecified.||Totals.|
The table following shows the birthplaces of the population, exclusive of Maoris, for five census years. The total number of British born has increased during the period by 63 per cent., while the number of foreign-born has remained stationary. Persons born in New Zealand have increased 92 per cent. The Commonwealth of Australia is represented by 50,029 persons, a large increase since 1891. Against this there were 31,868 persons, natives of New Zealand, residing in the Commonwealth in 1911 as compared with 25,788 in 1901. Persons born in the United Kingdom numbered 218,834 in 1891, against 228,684 in 1911.
|Birthplace.||Number in each Census Year.|
|Commonwealth of Australia||15,943||21,631||26,991||47,256||50,029|
|Other British possessions||3,703||3,901||4,273||4,560||5,234|
|Other foreign countries||7,400||7,760||7,480||8,602||8,552|
The population of foreign origin shows a small increase since 1891, while the native-born portion becomes rapidly greater. The table given below shows the proportionate strength of the different nationalities represented in the Dominion.
|Birthplace.||Proportion of each Nationality in—|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent|
|Commonwealth of Australia||2.55||3.08||3.49||5.32||4.97|
|Other British possessions||0.59||0.55||0.55||0.51||0.52|
|Other foreign countries||1.19||1.10||0.97||0.97||0.85|
Both in 1906 and 1911 the number of females returned as married was less than that of males. In many instances married men coming to New Zealand from abroad leave their families behind until steady work has been obtained and a home prepared. This is the usual practice among aliens, the expense of transport in some cases preventing the union of families for a considerable length of time.
The number of married persons in 1911 was slightly more than one-third of the total population, exclusive of Maoris. Widowed and divorced are included among the unmarried over 20 and 15 years of age for males and females respectively, the number of the widowed being 14,222 males and 25,725 females. Those returned as divorced at the last census—575 males and 411 females—are probably less than the actual fact, owing to the reluctance of some persons to state this condition. The following table shows the number of unmarried and married males and females for live successive census years:—
|Census.||Number of Unmarried||Number of Married|
|Under 20 Years of Age.||Twenty Years of Age and over.||Under 15 Years of Age.||Fifteen Years of Age and over.|
The proportions per cent, exhibit a steady increase in the case of married persons of either sex since 1891. Widowed males increased relatively to the total population, but not to the same extent as widowed females, as the latter do not remarry so often as the former, and the liability to fatal accident among males is far greater than among the opposite sex.
|Census.||Proportion of Males||Proportion of Females|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
The proportion of married women under 20 years of age is steadily diminishing, while between 35 and 45 years there is a tendency towards an increase. Women in New Zealand are not now marrying at such early ages as they did formerly, as will be seen from the figures given below.
|Age-groups.||Proportion of Married Women.|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
|Under 20 years||1.19||1.12||0.98||0.94||0.81|
|20 and under 35 years||60.12||59.57||59.94||60.29||59.98|
|35 and under 45 years||38.69||39.31||39.08||38.77||39.21|
Excluding the widowed, the number of unmarried males over 20 years of age was found at the census of 1911 to be 136,262, and the number of unmarried females was 123,549—110 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. The relative numbers at the last five census periods were,—
|Census||Number of Bachelors
every 100 Spinsters.
Duration of Marriage and Number of Children.
At the census of 1911 information was collected for the first time as to duration of marriage, respective ages of husband and wife, and number of children, living and dead, born to the marriage. The first of the following tables shows the duration of marriage, number of married women, proportion per cent, of these without and with children, and the average number of children, counting (a) all married women and (b) married women with children only.
|Duration of Marriage (in Years).||Total Number of Married Women.||Married Women without Children.||Married Women with Children.||Average Number of Children born to the Marriage, counting—|
|Number||Proportion per Cent.||Number.||Proportion per Cent.||(a) All Married Women.||(b) Married Women with Children.|
|1 and under 2||7,362||3,678||49.90||3,684||50.04||0.521||1.042|
|2 and under 3||8,305||2,349||28.28||5,956||71.72||0.876||1.250|
|3 and under 4||8,139||1,815||22.30||6.324||77.70||1.227||1.579|
|4 and under 5||7.992||1.456||18.22||6.536||81.78||1.544||1.888|
|5 and under 6||7.368||1.184||16.07||6.184||83.93||1.821||2.169|
|6 and under 7||7.047||1.033||14.66||6.014||85.34||2.078||2.435|
|7 and under 8||6.878||985||14.32||5.893||85.68||2.317||2.704|
|8 and under 9||6.423||808||12.58||5.615||87.42||2.556||2.923|
|9 and under 10||5.940||703||11.83||5.237||88.17||2.818||3.197|
|10 and under 11||6.475||893||13.79||5.582||86.21||2.874||3.334|
|11 and under 12||5.354||582||10.87||4.772||89.13||3.227||3.620|
|12 and under 13||5.014||547||10.91||4.467||89.09||3.285||3.687|
|13 and under 14||4.571||450||9.84||4.121||90.16||3.577||3.967|
|14 and under 15||4.529||494||10.91||4.035||89.09||3.635||4.080|
|15 and under 16||4.020||447||11.12||3.573||88.88||3.813||4.290|
|16 and under 17||3.721||396||10.64||3.325||89.36||3.963||4.435|
|17 and under 18||3.655||333||9.11||3.322||90.89||4.121||4.535|
|18 and under 19||3.499||319||9.12||3.180||90.88||4.305||4.737|
|19 and under 20||3.203||200||8.12||2.943||91.88||4.482||4.893|
|20 and under 21||3.698||403||10.90||3.295||89.10||4.589||5.150|
|21 and under 22||2.732||229||8.38||2.503||91.62||4.755||5.190|
|22 and under 23||2.837||223||7.86||2.614||92.14||5.012||5.439|
|23 and under 24||2.743||217||7.91||2.526||92.09||5.234||5.683|
|24 and under 25||2.599||221||8.50||2.378||91.50||5.174||5.655|
|25 and under 26||2.721||246||9.04||2.475||90.96||5.237||5.757|
|26 and under 27||2.480||183||7.38||2.297||92.62||5.593||6.038|
|27 and under 28||2.319||202||8.71||2.117||91.29||5.561||6.091|
|28 and under 29||2.326||171||7.35||2.155||92.65||5.816||6.277|
|29 and under 30||1.951||148||7.59||1.803||92.41||6.018||6.512|
|30 and under 31||2.417||219||9.06||2.198||90.94||6.012||6.610|
|31 and under 32||1.624||115||7.08||1.509||92.92||6.414||6.903|
|32 and under 33||1.914||137||7.16||1.777||92.84||6.484||6.983|
|33 and under 34||1.742||141||8.09||1.601||91.91||6.618||7.201|
|34 and under 35||1.603||99||6.18||1.504||93.82||6.832||7.282|
|35 and under 36||1.736||137||7.89||1.599||92.11||6.754||7.333|
|36 and under 37||1.685||120||7.12||1.565||92.88||6.936||7.407|
|37 and under 38||1.423||111||7.80||1.312||92.20||7.155||7.760|
|38 and under 39||1.261||88||6.98||1.173||93.02||7.174||7.712|
|39 and under 40||1.026||57||5.55||969||94.45||7.362||7.794|
|40 and under 41||1.435||130||9.06||1.305||90.94||6.931||7.621|
|41 and under 42||840||58||6.90||782||93.10||7.737||8.310|
|42 and under 43||823||43||5.22||780||94.78||7.725||8.151|
|43 and under 44||755||57||7.55||698||92.45||7.673||8.299|
|44 and under 45||672||53||7.89||619||92.11||7.604||8.255|
|45 and under 46||816||65||7.96||751||92.04||7.583||8.239|
|46 and under 47||586||40||6.83||546||93.17||7.568||8.122|
|47 and under 48||599||44||7.35||555||92.65||8.067||8.706|
|48 and under 49||496||29||5.85||467||94.15||8.252||8.764|
|49 and under 50||399||25||0.27||374||93.73||8.321||8.877|
|50 and under 51||437||29||6.64||408||93.36||7.659||8.203|
|51 and under 52||221||18||8.14||203||91.86||8.072||8.788|
|52 and under 53||232||21||9.05||211||90.95||7.866||8.649|
|53 and under 54||168||8||4.76||160||95.24||8.345||8.762|
|54 and under 55||140||7||5.00||133||95.00||8.850||9.315|
|55 and under 56||106||3||2.83||103||97.17||8.651||8.903|
|56 and over||323||20||8.05||297||91.95||8.111||8.821|
The next table shows for each year of duration of marriage the number of married women, and the number of children born to the existing marriage. Detailed tables showing similar information for married women at various ages are published in the census volume.
|Note.—In the column “ Not stated” are entered all married women who apparently had had no children, but omitted to state so on the Schedule. In the column “None” are entered those who stated definitely they had had no children born to the marriage.|
|Married Women.||Number of Married Women to whom the Number of Children stated at Head of Column were born.||Total Children born.|
|Years married.||Number.||Not stated.||None.||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10||11 and over.|
|1 and under 2||7,362||2,371||1,307||3,535||146||1||1||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||3,839|
|2 and under 3||3||8,305||1,522||827||4,546||1,338||66||5||1||..||..||..||..||..||7,445|
|3 and under 4||8,139||1,138||677||3,112||2,800||380||27||5||..||..||..||..||..||..||9,985|
|4 and under 5||7,992||906||550||2,262||2,921||1,192||145||15||1||..||..||..||..||..||12,341|
|5 and under 6||7,368||742||442||1,602||2,519||1,559||439||53||9||2||1||..||..||..||13,414|
|6 and under 7||7,047||655||378||1,292||2,004||1,779||741||156||32||6||4||..||..||..||14,647|
|7 and under 8||6,878||623||362||1,047||1,693||1,670||1,046||336||82||15||4||..||..||..||15,936|
|8 and under 9||6,423||501||307||900||1,458||1,455||1,075||513||149||52||9||2||2||..||16,414|
|9 and under 10||5,940||426||277||698||1,190||1,285||1,021||664||282||70||21||6||..||..||16,741|
|10 and under 11||6,475||568||325||740||1,225||1,230||1,081||744||358||136||43||14||7||4||18,611|
|11 and under 12||5,354||357||225||553||894||1,009||882||702||433||193||65||19||13||9||17,278|
|12 and under 13||5,014||351||196||525||825||890||802||643||459||199||86||24||9||5||16,470|
|13 and under 14||4,571||283||167||439||623||787||762||589||454||268||120||56||13||10||16,350|
|14 and under 15||4,529||314||180||410||673||695||681||575||434||288||182||53||27||17||16,465|
|15 and under 16||4,020||269||178||363||477||641||572||523||405||269||146||102||52||23||15,330|
|16 and under 17||3,721||248||148||311||458||540||552||470||349||267||194||87||51||46||14,748|
|17 and under 18||3,655||217||116||294||463||545||537||417||354||286||177||129||72||48||15,064|
|18 and under 19||3,499||203||116||230||415||476||506||458||356||274||204||122||79||60||15,063|
|19 and under 20||3,203||164||96||261||333||419||459||384||327||253||191||147||86||83||14,356|
|20 and under 25||14,609||849||444||887||1,353||1,725||1,815||1,721||1,483||1,258||1,011||731||573||759||71,982|
|25 and under 30||11,797||604||346||546||798||1,099||1,272||1,332||1,297||1,143||975||745||602||1,038||66,283|
|30 and under 35||9,300||476||235||324||442||618||775||980||916||950||869||761||626||1,328||59,838|
|35 and under 40||7,131||325||188||230||266||332||471||567||691||730||700||731||612||1,288||50,195|
|40 and under 45||4,525||208||133||146||130||186||226||310||397||397||466||466||461||999||33,706|
|45 and under 50||2,896||135||68||67||79||84||120||188||233||262||306||284||304||766||22,868|
|50 and over||1,627||69||43||39||47||53||67||78||115||122||196||174||172||452||13,134|
There is no State Church in New Zealand, nor is financial assistance given by the State to any religious denomination. Among the first colonists settlements were formed composed entirely of the adherents of certain religious bodies, but, as facilities for communication increased, this exclusiveness rapidly gave place to a spirit of tolerance, and no serious attempt was made to preserve the distinctive religious character of these communities. In Otago, where the Free Church of Scotland founded a settlement, adherents to the Presbyterian Church, mostly descendants of the original stock, form 46 per cent, of the population of that portion of the Dominion; while in Canterbury, which was originally settled by the United Church of England and Ireland, adherents to the Church of England constituted a similar proportion of the population of the Provincial District at the census of 1911.
The Church of England has the largest number of adherents, and, according to returns collected in 1911, had 554 churches, besides using 242 other buildings for Divine worship. The Presbyterian Church, the next in strength, had 426 churches, with the use of 283 buildings as temporary places of worship. Roman Catholics occupy third place in point of numbers, and possess 296 churches and used 62 other buildings. Methodists had 405 churches, and used 178 other buildings wherein to hold service.
The total number of churches and chapels belonging to all denominations and sects was 1,976, besides which 491 schoolhouses and 392 dwellings or public buildings were made use of as places of worship or for meetings. These churches and buildings were sufficient for the accommodation of 429,059 persons, or 42 per cent, of the total number of adherents and members.
The number belonging to each of the principal denominations is shown, for five census periods, in the next table.
|Denomination.||Number of Adherents.|
|Church of England||253,331||282,809||315,263||368,065||413,842|
|Other Christian denominations||48,633||55,137||53,739||58,619||65,735|
|Object to state||15,342||15,967||18,295||24,325||35,905|
Members of Christian denominations formed 94.39 per cent, of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census, non-Christian sects were 1.49 per cent., and those who described themselves as of no religion 0.55 per cent. The Census Act provides that those persons who are unwilling to state what denomination, if any, they belong to, may enter the word “Object” in the census schedule. In 1911 there were 35,905 persons, or 3.57 per cent, of the total, who took advantage of this permission.
|Denomination.||Proportion of Adherents.|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
|Church of England||40.51||40.27||40.85||41.51||41.14|
|Other Christian denominations||7.79||7.86||6.96||6.60||6.53|
|Object to state||2.45||2.27||2.37||2.75||3.57|
The tables following show the numbers and the proportions per 10,000 living at quinquennial age-periods of persons, males and females, stated to be deaf and dumb, lunatics, and feeble-minded at the census taken for the 2nd April, 1911. The total infirmities of the people numbered 5,301 or 52.56 per cent, in every 10,000 persons living. Of this total the deaf and dumb numbered 301 or 2.98 per cent.; the blind contributed 482 or 4.78 per cent.; the lunatics numbered 3,741 or 37.10 per cent.; and the feeble-minded 777 or 7.70 per cent.
|Deaf and Dumb and Blind.|
|Ages.||Total Population.||Male Population.||Males.||Female Population.||Females|
|Deaf and Dumb.||Blind.||Deaf and Dumb.||Blind.|
|Under 5 years||117,909||59,975||2||2||57,934||4||3|
|5 years to 10 years||106,007||53,844||29||3||52,163||23||8|
|10 years to 15 years||91,413||46,421||32||5||44,992||31||4|
|15 years to 20 years||88,458||44,798||17||15||43,660||23||8|
|20 years to 25 years||95,816||49,692||15||9||46,124||14||6|
|25 years to 30 years||102,214||54,694||13||14||47,520||12||5|
|30 years to 35 years||92,124||49,410||7||9||42,714||6||10|
|35 years to 40 years||72,895||39,458||10||8||33,437||4||8|
|40 years to 45 years||58,457||31,198||6||12||27,259||8||7|
|45 years to 50 years||44,910||24,214||8||13||20,696||7||6|
|50 years to 55 years||36,863||20,290||5||22||16,573||5||10|
|55 years to 60 years||29,295||16,686||4||16||12,609||4||11|
|60 years to 65 years||23,041||12,816||1||11||10,225||2||11|
|65 years to 70 years||19,642||10,935||3||35||8,707||2||15|
|70 years to 75 years||14,721||8,691||..||32||6,030||2||38|
|75 years to 80 years||8,472||5,212||1||42||3,260||..||22|
|80 and upwards||4,865||2,735||1||30||2,130||..||30|
|Lunatics and Feeble-minded.|