Table of Contents
THIS is the twenty-first issue of the New Zealand Official Yearbook. The general arrangement mainly follows that adopted in former years, but a considerable quantity of new matter has been added, while some articles have been condensed. A copy of the Armorial Bearings of the Dominion as authorized by Royal warrant appears in this issue.
The introductory portion of the book—Part I—has been rearranged and partly rewritten. The “Flora of New Zealand” is by J. Drummond, Esq., Christchurch, and the “Fauna of New Zealand” by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S., Christchurch, while Climate and Meteorology” is by Rev. D. C. Bates, Director of the Dominion Meteorological Office.
In the statistical portion of the book—Part II—the latest figures have been inserted, while several sections have been remodelled and additional information given.
Part III contains special articles on various subjects connected with the Dominion, and also a summary of the legislation passed during last session. An index of special articles appearing in previous Year-books is given at the beginning of the book.
I take this opportunity of expressing my cordial thanks to the responsible Government officers who have supplied information and in other ways assisted in the compilation of the book; and to my staff for their co-operation and valuable assistance.
The material included in the book has been carefully compiled and checked, but it would be too much to hope that no errors have crept in. I shall be pleased if readers detecting any will supply information as to their nature and position.
Registrar-General's Office, Wellington, 30th November, 1912.
|LIST OF ARTICLES ON SPECIAL SUBJECTS APPEARING IN PREVIOUS ISSUES OF THE YEAR-BOOK.|
|Article on||Appeared for the Last or Only Time in Year-book of|
|Chatham Islands, the||1900||531|
|Cheviot Estate, the||1895||264|
|Christchurch to West Coast, journey from||1899||548|
|Coal-deposits of New Zealand, the||1900||479|
|Cook Islands, the laws of||1902||573|
|Co-operative system of constructing public works||1894||234|
|Exotic trees in Canterbury||1904||569|
|Forest trees and the timber industry||1899||470|
|Frozen-meat trade, the||1894||311|
|Gold-dredging industry, the||1899||509|
|Hanmer Thermal Springs||1905||631|
|Hemp industry, the||1900||477|
|Labour in New Zealand||1894||362|
|Laws of England and New Zealand, difference between||1896||281|
|Maori, ancient, his amusements, games, &c.||1907||707|
|Maori, ancient, his clothing||1908||734|
|Maori, chant (tangi)||1907||711|
|Maori, colour-sense of the||1905||637|
|Maori, marriage customs||1906||638|
|Maori, neolithic, the||1902||578|
|Marlborough Sounds, the||1901||517|
|Midland Railway, the||1894||386|
|Moa, heir of the||1899||517|
|Mount Cook, a night on||1900||525|
|Mount Cook, district, the||1899||554|
|Mount Cook, its glaciers, and the Hermitage||1898||552|
|Mount Sefton, ascent of||1900||519|
|New Zealand, Contingents for South Africa||1900||449|
|New Zealand, International Exhibition||1907||701|
|Otago lakes, the||1901||523|
|Patents, designs, and trade marks||1893||350|
|Pumice-stone deposits of New Zealand||1900||486|
|Railways in New Zealand, their history and progress||1894||377|
|Scenic wonderland, a||1898||565|
|Sheep, crossbreeding of||1894||308|
|New Zealand Shipping Company||1895||392|
|Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company||1895||393|
|Union Company of New Zealand||1895||389|
|Southern Alps, the||1894||474|
|Sydney Pageant, the||1901||527|
|Thermal Springs District||1905||614|
|Timber trees of the world||1903||605|
|Tokaanu to Raetihi||1899||539|
|Varieties of soil||1892||193|
|Waihi Gold-mining Company||1897||432|
|Waikato district and through to Wanganui||1899||520|
|Waiouru to Mangaonoho||1899||543|
|Wanganui River, up the, to Tokaanu||1900||509|
|Wattle-growing in the Auckland Provincial District||1897||430|
|Wellington-Manawatu Railway, the||1895||381|
|West Coast Sounds, the||1894||472|
|White Island, a day on||1906||637|
THE changes recorded hereunder have in some cases occurred since the pages referred to were printed and published in the form of advance sheets.
Part I.—Official. The Mackenzie Ministry resigned on 10th July, 1912, after defeat on no-confidence motion. The new Ministers and their Private Secretaries are as follows:—
Hon. W. F. Massey, Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Labour, Minister of Industries and Commerce, Commissioner of State Forests, Minister in Charge of Land for Settlements, Valuation, and Scenery Preservation Departments; Private Secretaries, F. D. Thomson and F. W. Furby.
Hon. J. Allen, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence, Minister of Education, Minister in Charge of Land and Income Tax Department and State-guaranteed Advances Office; Private Secretary, F. G. Matthews.
Hon. W. H. Herries, Minister of Railways and Native Minister; Private Secretaries, L. E. Johnson and H. B. H. Balneavis.
Hon. W. Fraser, Minister of Public Works, Roads, and Bridges, Minister of Mines, and Minister in Charge of Public Buildings and Domains; Private Secretary, J. H. McAlister.
Hon. A. L. Herdman, Attorney-General, Minister of Justice, Minister of Stamp Duties, Minister in Charge of Police, Prisons, Crown Law (including Drafting), and Public Trust Departments; Private Secretary, E. N. G. Poulton.
Hon. F. M. B. Fisher, Minister of Customs, Minister of Marine, Minister in Charge of Pensions Department, Electoral Department, Government Printing and Stationery Department, Machinery Department, Legislative Departments, Government Life and Accident Insurance, State Fire Insurance, Friendly Societies, National Provident Fund, and Advertising Department; Private Secretary, A. Hall.
Hon. F. H. D. Bell, K.C., Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Immigration, and Minister in Charge of Audit Office, Registrar-General, High Commissioner, Museum, and Laboratory Departments; Private Secretary, J. W. Black.
Hon. B. H. Rhodes, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid, Mental Hospitals, and Tourist and Health Resorts Departments; Private Secretary, W. Crow.
Hon. Dr. Pomare, Member of the Executive Council representing the Native Race, and in Charge of Maori Councils, Cook and other Islands Administration; Private Secretary, A. N. Poison.
Page 56.—Agents-General and High Commissioners. Hon. T. Mackenzie appointed High Commissioner from 23rd August, 1912, for a term of three years. (Gazette, 1912, page 2612.)
Page 57.—Foreign Consuls: Consul for France at Auckland, J. Rigoreau.
Page 95.—Persons allowed to retain the title of “Honourable” within His Majesty's Dominions: Hon. T. Mackenzie (1912).
Page 261.—Criminal Cases: In heading of third and fifth columns of first table, for “District” read “Distinct.”
Page 614.—Rateable Capital Value of Land and Improvements in Castlepoint County, £586,029.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
THE first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”
Tasman, under the belief that the laud he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (since termed Massacre or Golden) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the
west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.
There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the South and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the South Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.
M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.
In 1793 the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.
In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall — who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.
The first attempt at colonization was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants.
In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka — now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Bushy was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.
In 1838 a colonization company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time — namely, on the 29th January, 1840 — Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called the Treaty of Waitangi, to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.
The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonizing society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.
The next important event in the progress of colonization was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.
In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.
Prior to the colonization of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both Islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox and Sir Donald McLean (then Native Minister) state that at what time the discovery of these Islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the eastern Pacific islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a Native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.
For results of recent researches as to probable origin of the Maoris, see Year-book for 1901.
British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales
until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.
The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.
The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed in the year 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.
By resolutions passed by the House of Representatives on the 12th July, 1907, and by the Legislative Council on the 16th July, 1907, addresses were forwarded to His Majesty the King respectfully requesting that the necessary steps might be taken to change the designation of New Zealand from the Colony of New Zealand to the Dominion of New Zealand; and His Majesty the King, by Order in Council dated 9th September, 1907, and by Proclamation
issued 10th September, 1907, was graciously pleased to change the style and designation of the Colony of New Zealand to “The Dominion of New Zealand”; such change taking effect from Thursday, the 26th day of September, 1907.
The Governor is appointed by the King. His salary is £5,000 a year, with an annual allowance of £1,500 on account of his establishment, and of £500 for travelling-expenses, provided by the Dominion.
Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal Native chiefs.
The members of the House of Representatives (now designated M.P.) are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. For the purposes of European representation the Dominion is divided into seventy-six electoral districts, each returning one member. The full number of members composing the House of Representatives is thus eighty. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the electors in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.
In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. In 1893 women of both races were granted by law the right to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the Dominion. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. Every man registered as an elector, and not specially excepted by the Legislature Act now in force, is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the Dominion and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not previously registered under the residential qualification; but in 1896 the property qualification was abolished (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman
to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the Dominion) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. [The above provisions are now incorporated in the Legislature Act, 1908, which consolidates the electoral laws.] The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work.
Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government. The resolutions adopted were: “ (1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.
These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”
The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.
Table of Contents
New Zealand, formerly a colony, has, since September, 1907, by Royal Proclamation, been granted the designation of “Dominion,” and is referred to accordingly in this book. It consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands, have a coastline 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Three Kings, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The annexation of the Cook and sundry other islands has necessitated an enlargement of the boundaries of the Dominion, which will be specially treated of further on.
New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and South Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The South Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.
New Zealand is firstly a pastoral and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being more than thirteen millions and a half of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the South Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the Dominion a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce country; while its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.
New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the South Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both Islands, the yield having been over seventy-nine millions in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.
The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of what was then the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0' E. long.; on the west,
166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.
In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the then Colony of New Zealand.
By Proclamation bearing date the 10th June, 1901, the Cook Group of islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary-lines mentioned in the following Schedule, were included:—
A line commencing at a point at the intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich, and proceeding due north to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; and thence due east to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich.
The following now constitutes the Dominion of New Zealand:—
The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,673 square miles, or 28,590,720 acres.
The island known as the South Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 57,923 square miles, or 37,070,720 acres.
Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.
The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the South Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.
The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.
Campbell Island, in latitude 52° 33' 26” south, and longitude 169° 8' 41” west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.
The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the South Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.
The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.
The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul, or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.
Islands forming the Cook Group:—
Rarotonga.—Distance from Auckland, 1,638 miles; circumference, 20 miles; height, 2,920 ft.
Mangaia. — Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles; circumference, 30 miles; height, 656 ft.
Atiu.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles: circumference, 20 miles; height, 374 ft.
Aitutaki. — Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 12 miles; height, 366 ft.
Mauke.—Distance from Rarotonga, 150 miles; circumference, 6 miles; height, about 60 ft.
Mitiaro.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 5 miles; height, about 50 ft.
Takutea.—Distant from Rarotonga, 125 miles.
The Herveys (Manuae and Aoutu).—Distant from Rarotonga, 120 miles.
Total area of above Group, 150 square miles.
Islands outside the Cook Group:—
Savage or Niue.—Distance from Rarotonga, 580 miles; circumference, 40 miles; height, 200 ft.; area, about 100 square miles.
Palmerston.—Distance from Rarotonga, 273 miles; an atoll, 4 miles by 2 miles.
Penrhyn, or Tongareva.—Distance 735 miles from Rarotonga; an atoll, 12 miles by 7 miles.
Humphrey, or Manahiki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 650 miles; an atoll, 6 miles by 5 miles.
Rierson, or Rakaanga.—Distance from Rarotonga, 670 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.
Danger, or Pukapuka.—Distance from Rarotonga, 700 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.
Suwarrow.—Distance from Rarotonga, 530 miles; an atoll.
Total area of islands outside the Cook Group, 130 square miles.
The total area of the Dominion is thus about 104,354 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 498 square miles.
The areas of the several Australian States, as stated by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from latest official records:—
|New South Wales||310,372|
|Total, Continent of Australia||2,948,366|
|Total, Commonwealth of Australia||2,974,581|
The size of these States (with New Zealand) may be better realized by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australian States, with New Zealand.
The area of the Dominion of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the South Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.
|United Kingdom.||Area in Square Miles.|
|England and Wales||58,311|
|New Zealand.||Area in Square Miles.|
The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude, a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the Dominion, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.
This island is, as a whole, hilly, and in parts mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plains or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing can be made, available for farming purposes. Of these the principal are the plains in the Hawke's Bay District, on the east coast; the Wairarapa Plain, in the Wellington District; a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth; and the Waikato Plains, extending from the Firth of the Thames to within about fifty miles of Lake Taupo. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends in a north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty. There are also the pumiceous Waimarino and Murimotu Plains, at the base of the volcanoes, and in other localities several smaller but fertile plains. Though the greater portion of the central plateau is covered with a volcanic ash or sand, now principally bearing a plant growth of tea-tree scrub (manuka), bracken, and tussock, and is now to a large extent waste land, it must not be supposed that these lands are valueless. In many places there are swampy areas even now carrying good crops of flax which, when prices are good, are cut and milled. Between Taupo and Rotorua and the Rangitaiki River there are several sheep-runs. In many places where old Maori kaingas have been, European fruit-trees, such as apples, cherries, peaches, raspberries, &c., are still to be found in healthy condition (though quite unattended to), thus proving that these lands are in many places suitable, as far as soil and climate are concerned, for fruitgrowing; and it is probable that these cheap and neglected lands will before many years have elapsed be utilized for fruit-production. The existence in many places of fine forests proves the suitability of the district for tree-growth, and on this evidence the Government have made very extensive plantations of exotic trees of commercial value, which are all thriving most satisfactorily. The greater part of these plains has in comparatively recent times been covered with valuable forest, but repeated burnings by Maoris have caused its disappearance. The frequent burnings of the scrub and tussock by Maoris and Europeans during the last sixty years has so impoverished the soil of its humus-content that the present state of comparative barrenness is the result. This repeated burning-off of the scrub is also responsible for the lessened fertility of the gum lands. The level or undulating country in this Island fit, or capable of being made fit, for farming has roughly been estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest and swamps that can be drained, also large areas of clay gum-lands and pumice-covered lands. The clay gum-lands are in their natural state cold and uninviting to the farmer, but by proper drainage and cultivation they can be brought into a high state of productiveness. Although the area of bush land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the demands of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass sown on the ground fertilized by their ashes.
Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass there is very little land too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. It is estimated that the area of mountain tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore
worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.
The area of land in the North Island still remaining in forest is about 8,500,000 acres of a total area of 29,149,252 acres, but every year the forested area is fast diminishing as settlement advances. In the Auckland District are found the celebrated kauri forests, which produce perhaps the most valuable of the pine timbers.
The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000 ft. in height, excepting a few volcanic cones and the highest peaks of the Kaimanawa, Ruahine, and Tararua Ranges. Of the volcanoes the following are the most important:—
Ruapehu. This mountain lies about twenty-seven miles south-southeast from Lake Taupo. Its highest peak is 9,175 ft., so it rises far above the line of perpetual snow. It is in the solfatara stage, and has on its summit a remarkable crater-lake which is surrounded by walls of ice several hundred feet in height. The waters of this crater-lake are highly charged with sulphuric acid. The water is always warm enough to remain liquid, but there are times when it boils, and is heaved into the air to fall and besmirch the snowy mantle of the surrounding heights. The Wangaehu River has its source in this crater, and its waters are so poisonous to plants that they will not grow on its banks even for miles after the river has reached the plains and received numerous tributaries.
To the north-north-east of Ruapehu lie Ngauruhoe (7,515 ft.) and the several coalesced cones of Tongariro (6,140 ft.). There was a considerable discharge of ashes from Ngauruhoe in 1909, but no loss of life occurred. Molten lava has been seen in the crater, but it has not overflowed since the European occupation of the country. From the crater of Te Mari there was a flow of lava in 1868.
The country around these volcanoes has been created a National Park, and by reason of its varied interests—active craters, blowholes, glaciers, hot medicinal springs, crateral lakes, varied alpine flora, and exhilarating climate—it will be certain later on to attract great numbers of visitors.
Mount Egmont. This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260 ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. The mountain if from many directions a nearly perfect cone, and rising as it does from a plain only a few hundred feet above sea-level, it forms a view of imposing beauty. It is called the “sentinel of Taranaki.” Close to its base on the north lies the thriving town of New Plymouth, and the surrounding country is some of the most fertile in New Zealand.
Ruapehu, Tongariro, Taupo, and the thermal vents in the Rotorua district are all on a line of weakness in the earth's crust which reaches its visible terminal at White Island, which is an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, about thirty-five miles from the main land.
Hot Springs.—Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces at Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The vast importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognized by the Government, and it is dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.
Lakes.—The principal lakes in the North Island are Taupo, with an area of 238 square miles, Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotoiti, Waikaremoana, and several smaller ones. The effluent waters from some of these lakes will in the near future be utilized for the generation of electrical power.
Rivers.—The chief rivers of the North Island are the Waikato (which has its source in the Kaimanawa Range), and is slightly under two hundred miles in length, the Northern Wairoa, the Waihou, the Southern Wairoa, the Manawatu, Rangitikei, Wanganui, and Mokau. All these rivers except the Rangitikei are navigable for small vessels. There are numerous smaller rivers in this well-watered Island, and many of these will shortly be used for the production of electrical power.
Harbours.—For its great length of irregular coast-line the North Island has few harbours that will admit the largest modern liners. There are however, two (Auckland and Wellington) that will, and these are so situated that they form the most convenient receiving and distributing centres. There are several on the west coast—Hokianga, Kaipara, Manukau, and Kawhia—and on the east coast—the Bay of Islands, Whangarei, Thames, Mercury Bay, and Tauranga—that are already or can be made available for vessels of 2,000 tons. There are also the artificial harbours of Gisborne, Napier, and New Plymouth, which can accommodate liners in their bays or coastal vessels behind their moles. There is a magnificent harbour at the Great Barrier Island, which, though of little commercial value, would give certain shelter to the largest modern fleet.
Capes.—The chief capes are Cape Maria van Diemen, North Cape, Cape Brett, Cape Colville, East Cape, Table Cape, Gape Palliser, Cape Terawhiti, and Cape Egmont.
Peninsulas.—The chief peninsulas are Cape Colville Peninsula (where the celebrated Waihi Gold-mine is situated) and the Mahia Peninsula.
Islands.—There are numerous islands scattered along the coast, and the chief of these are the Three Kings, a cluster of islets lying thirty-eight miles west-north-west of Cape Maria van Diemen. They were discovered in 1643 by Tasman, and named in honour of the day of discovery, it being the feast of the Ephiphany. Owing to these islets being incorrectly charted, the steamer “Elingamite” was wrecked here some years ago, and many valuable lives lost. Since this, however, their correct position has been found. The Great Barrier Island, the Little Barrier Island, Great Mercury Island, Mayor Island, and Kapiti Island. The last-named was the home and stronghold of the famous Maori warrior Rauparaha; it is now mostly a public reserve and sanctuary for native flora and fauna.
Cook Strait separates the North from the South Island. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest point, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between the east and west coasts of the Dominion.
The extreme length of the South Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost), District, about 180 miles.
The South Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000 ft. to 12,000 ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349 ft.
In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other grand peaks.
For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually
to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the South Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.
There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700 ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.
The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—
|Name.||Area of Glacier.||Length of Glacier.||Greatest Width.||Average Width.|
The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.
Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270 ft., although at the entrance only 130 ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000 ft. and 6,000 ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904 ft. high.
The general surface of the northern portion of the South Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.
The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the Island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the Dominion, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.
The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district.
The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070 ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170 ft. to 1,296 ft. To Anau Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.
The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.
The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the South Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.
The rivers in the South Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the Dominion as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the west coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Nelson South-west and Westland Districts, in their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth up to 26 ft. of water on the bars.
The area of level or undulating land in the South Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.
Foveaux Strait separates the South from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres.
Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.
The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft. above sea-level. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild, frost being seldom experienced; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.
The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where over two hundred people live. Horseshoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a Native settlement of Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.
The outlying group of the CHATHAM ISLANDS, lying between the parallels of 43° 30' and 44° 30' south latitude, and the meridians of 175° 40' and 177° 15' west longitude, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and
several unimportant islets. They were discovered by Lieutenant Broughton and named by him in honour of the Earl of Chatham. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size: the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.
The KERMADEC GROUP of islands, four in number, is situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named the Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Islands, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland, and lies a little more than half-way to Tonga, but 100 miles to the eastward of the direct steam route to that place. It is 300 miles eastward of the steam route to Fiji, and 150 miles westward of the steam route from Auckland to Rarotonga. Macaulay Island (named after the father of Lord Macaulay) and Custic Island were discovered in May, 1788, by Lieutenant Watts, in the “Penrhyn,” a transport ship. The remainder of the group was discovered in 1793, by Admiral Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. The Admiral gave the name of “Kermadec” to the whole group of islands, after the captain of his consort ship “L'Espérance,” and the name of the Admiral's ship “La Recherche” was given to the largest island. The name so given was not continued, but that of “Raoul” has taken its place, which would appear to have been given after the sailing-master of the “La Recherche,” whose name was Joseph Raoul. The name of “Sunday” may also have become attached to the island from the fact that it was discovered on a Sunday. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723 ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.
The AUCKLAND ISLANDS were discovered during a whaling voyage on 18th August, 1806, by Captain Abraham Bristow, in the ship “Ocean.” The discoverer named the group after Lord Auckland, again visited the islands in 1807 and then took formal possession of them. They lie about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their accepted position being given as latitude 50° 32' S., and longitude 166° 13' E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander D'Urville as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000 ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, hut the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.
The ANTIPODES, an isolated group, consisting of several detached rocky islands lying nearly north and south over a space of four to five miles; accepted position. 19° 41' 15” south, and longitude 178° 43' east.
The BOUNTY ISLANDS, a little cluster of islets, thirteen in number and without verdure, discovered in 1788 by Captain Blight, R.N., of H.M.S. “Bounty.” Position verified by observation, 47° 13' south, longitude 170° 0½' east.
CAMPBELL ISLAND was discovered in 1810 by Frederick Hazelburgh, master of the brig “Perseverance,” owned by Mr. Robert Campbell, of Sydney. It is mountainous, and of a circumference of about thirty miles. There are several good harbours.
The COOK ISLANDS, with others now included within the extended boundaries of the Dominion, are as under:*—
RAROTONGA (Cook Group): A magnificent island, rising to a height of 3,000 ft., clothed to the tops of the mountains with splendid vegetation. It has abundant streams, considerable tracts of sloping land, and rich alluvial valleys. The two harbours are poor.
MANGAIA, the south-easternmost of the Cook Group, is of volcanic origin, and about thirty miles in circumference. The productions, which are numerous and cheap, are obtained by assiduous labour.
ATIU (Cook Group) resembles Mangaia in appearance and extent. It is a mere bank of coral, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, steep and rugged, except where there are small sandy beaches and some clefts, when the ascent is gradual.
AITUTAKI (Cook Group) presents a most fruitful appearance, its shores being bordered by flat land, on which are innumerable cocoanut and other trees, the higher ground being beautifully interspersed with lawns. It is eighteen miles in circuit.
MAUKE or Parry Island (Cook Group) is a low-lying island; it is about two miles in diameter; well wooded, and inhabited.
MITIARO (Cook Group) is a low-lying island, from three to four miles long and one mile wide.
HERVEY ISLANDS (Cook Group): This group consists of two islands, surrounded by a reef, which may be 10½ miles in circumference.
NIUE, or Savage Island, lying east of the Friendly Islands, is a coral island, thirty-six miles in circumference, rising to a height of 200 ft. It has the usual tropical productions.
PALMERSTON ISLAND, lying about 500 miles east of Niue and about 220 from the nearest island of the Cook Group (Aitutaki), is remarkable as the “San Pablo” of Magellan, the first island discovered in the South Sea. It has no harbour. The soil is fairly fertile, and there is some good hardwood timber.
PENRHYN ISLAND (Tongareva) lies about 300 miles north-east of Manahiki. It is one of the most famous pearl islands in the Pacific, and there is a splendid harbour, a lagoon with two entrances, fit for ships of any size.
MANAHIKI, lying about 400 miles eastward of Danger Island, is an atoll, about thirty miles in circumference, valuable from the extent of the cocoanut groves. The interior lagoon contains a vast deposit of pearl-shell.
RAKAANGA is an atoll, three miles in length and of equal breadth.
DANGER ISLAND (Pukapuka): Next to the 10th parallel, but rather north of the latitude of the Navigators, and east of them are a number of small atolls. Of these, the nearest to the Samoan Group—about 500 miles—is Danger Island, bearing north-west of Suwarrow about 250 miles.
SUWARROW ISLAND has one of the best harbours in the Pacific. It lies about 500 miles east of Apia, the capital of the Samoan Group. It is a coral atoll, of a triangular form, fifty miles in circumference, the reef having an average width of half a mile across, enclosing a land-locked lagoon twelve miles by eight, which forms an excellent harbour. The entrance is half a mile wide, and the accommodation permits of ships riding in safety in
* See article “Notes on Cook and other Islands” in a later portion of this book.
all weathers, with depths of from three to thirty fathoms. It is out of the track of hurricanes, uninhabited, but capable by its fertility of supporting a small population. As a depot for the collection of trade from the various islands it ought to be very valuable.
The geological history of New Zealand is long and complicated, and is as yet by no means clearly deciphered. Many times the land has risen and fallen. Now it has been part, of some great continent: again the major portion or the whole has disappeared beneath the waves of the ocean. Now the land consists mainly of huge mountain-chains: later it exhibits a nearly flat surface over which meander sluggish streams: still later it is once more mountainous, and from the highlands great streams of ice deploy on the lowlands. Now the climate is more genial than it is to-day: anon more rigorous than that of Central Russia. At times volcanic action proceeds on a vast scale: at others the subterranean forces are dormant. If the student of geology would rightly interpret the story of the rocks he must ever bear in mind that New Zealand in the past has never been quite or even nearly the same as we see it now. With the scanty materials at hand he must endeavour to reconstruct the land as it existed during past ages. A rich field for original research is open to the geologist. There are many important problems, some of high economic value, some of world-wide interest, awaiting solution by the patient worker in science.
The oldest rocks in New Zealand appear to be those of western Otago, where over a large area is exposed a complex of gneisses and schists, intruded by granite and other igneous rocks. The gneisses in the main are altered granites and diorites, but some of the schists, at any rate, are of sedimentary origin. A pre-Cambrian age was assigned to these rocks by Professor F. W. Hutton, but Professor James Park considers them to be probably of Cambrian age, and includes them in his Maniototo Series.
Perhaps next in age to the western Otago gneisses and schists are the mica, chlorite, and quartz schists of Central Otago. In the absence of fossils, however, the age of these rocks is uncertain. Professor Hutton regarded them as pre-Cambrian, Professor Park assigns a Cambrian age, whilst Dr. P. Marshall considers them to be little, if at all, older than the Triassic. Some schistose rocks in north, central, and western Nelson may be as old as, or even older than, the Otago mica-schists. The gneisses and schists on the western side of the Southern Alps may for the present be classed with the Nelson schists.
The oldest known fossiliferous rocks in New Zealand are the Ordovician argillites (“slates”), greywackes, and quartzites occurring near Collingwood (Nelson), and Preservation Inlet in south-west Otago. Ultimately these rocks may be found to have a considerable development in various parts of Nelson and Westland.
Rocks containing Silurian fossils occur in the Mount Arthur district, Nelson. They are principally altered limestone (practically marble), calcareous shale or argillite, sandstone, and quartzite.
At Reefton a small area exhibits quartzite, limestone, and slaty shale containing fossils believed to be of Devonian age. Elsewhere considerable areas have been assigned to the same period by Mr. Alexander McKay, but owing to the non-discovery of recognizable fossils definite proof of age is wanting. For a similar reason the age of most of the rocks placed in the Carboniferous period (“Maitai Series”) by McKay is uncertain. At Reefton the supposed Carboniferous rocks, which here contain many auriferous quartz-veins, may quite possibly be of Ordovician age. In the typical locality near Nelson the fossils found in the Maitai rocks indicate a Trias-Jura age, though possibly older rocks may be present also.
So far Permian rocks have not been satisfactorily identified in New-Zealand. Park, however, considers his Aorangi and Kaihiku Series to be of Permian age.
During some of the Palæozoic periods it is conjectured that New Zealand formed part of or was the foreland of a large land-mass that extended far to the west. This land-mass possibly persisted to late Palæozoic times, and may have been the now-dismembered and all-but-lost continent known to geologists as Gondwana-land.
As yet the early and middle Mesozoic rocks of New Zealand have not been clearly separated by means of unconformities or fossil evidence. What may be called a Trias-Jura system is extensively developed in both the North and South Islands. The most fossiliferous localities are Hokonui Hills (Southland), near Nugget Point (Otago), Wairoa Valley near the Town of Nelson, Kawhia Harbour, and Waikato Heads, the two latter localities both on the west coast of Auckland. A broad belt of Trias-Jura or, according to Park, of Permo-Jurassic rocks extends through western Canterbury and Marlborough, and is continued as a somewhat narrower belt on the north side of Cook Strait from Wellington to near East Cape. Rocks of much the same age occur in the Mokau River watershed, in the Lower Waikato Valley, in the Coromandel Peninsula, and in North Auckland.
The supposed Jurassic rocks of Kawhia Harbour and Waikato Heads, mentioned above, may possibly be of Lower Cretaceous age. Admittedly Cretaceous rocks extend in a not-quite-continuous belt from Cape Campbell in Marlborough to the neighbourhood of Waipara in North Canterbury. At Amuri Bluff they are richly fossiliferous. Here and in several other localities the fossils include saurian remains. To the Cretaceous may also be assigned a somewhat extensive belt of rocks near the east coast of Wellington and southern Hawke's Ray. A continuation of this belt extends from somewhere to the north-west of Gisborne to the East Cape district.
The oldest known workable coal-seams in New Zealand probably occur in Cretaceous rocks. Much controversy, however, concerning the age of our coalfields has arisen. Sir James Hector, and with him Mr. Alexander McKay, considered that the coal-measures belonged to a Cretaceo-Tertiary system that extended from the Upper Cretaceous to the Middle Tertiary. For many years Mr. McKay was practically the sole exponent of this theory, but quite recently Dr. Marshall has advocated a very similar if not identical view. The truth, however, seems to be that the coal-measures concerning which there is dispute are of two different ages. The Shag Point, Malvern Hills, and North Auckland coalfields are probably of Upper Cretaceous age. To these Park would add the Milton-Kaitangata coalfield and a small portion of the Green Island coalfield. The other coalfields, as mentioned below, are Tertiary.
Although there is certainly a palæontological break between the Upper Cretaceous (Waipara Series) and the Early Tertiary, the existence of an unconformity, as may be inferred from the previous paragraph, is a matter of doubt. The subdivision of the Tertiary strata, which are well represented in New Zealand, is still more or less tentative. To the Eocene may be assigned the bituminous coal-measures of the Grey, Buller, and Collingwood districts, and probably also some of the coal-bearing patches of central Nelson. Elsewhere Eocene rocks are not recognized.
During the Early Eocene it is believed that New Zealand was again part of a continental area that extended far to the north, and was joined, or all but joined, to New Guinea and northern Australia. This continent may have included much of the area in the Pacific now studded with coral islands. Its former existence is inferred mainly from various features in our plant and animal life. According to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman no less than 366 New Zealand plants are found also in Australia. More significant, perhaps, is the occurrence of many closely related species and genera in the two regions, for comparatively few of the 366 species are likely to have persisted since the Eocene. Many of our birds show marked affinities to Australian and
Malayan species. In this connection an interesting line of support for a Tertiary extension of New Zealand to the north is afforded by the annual migrations of the New Zealand cuckoos and of the godwit.
During the Miocene period New Zealand subsided until little of the present land-surface was above water. Consequently, notwithstanding extensive denudation in later periods, Miocene strata are well represented in almost all parts of the country. They are typically developed in the Oamaru district (north-east Otago), and hence Hutton's name of “Oamaru Series” is generally applied to the Miocene strata of New Zealand. Miocene rocks are well represented in North Westland, an area in which a decided unconformity separates them from the Eocene coal-measures. They form much of the surface of the North Island, where the name “papa” is commonly applied to the calcareous claystones and argillaceous sandstones which there form a great proportion of the Miocene rocks. In many places the Oamaru Series is characterized by the development of a fairly thick, soft, fossiliferous limestone about the middle horizon. This marks the time of greatest subsidence, or rather the time when the Miocene sea was deepest. Owing to their calcareous nature, the Miocene rocks give rise to some of the richest agricultural districts in New Zealand. In places they contain, in their lowest horizon, seams of good brown coal. There are also brown coals of late Miocene age.
In many localities the Miocene rocks pass without unconformity into strata considered to be of Pliocene age. In the Hawke's Bay and Wanganui districts these are marine and highly fossiliferous. They give rise to much good agricultural and more especially pastoral land adapted to sheep-farming or dairying. In Nelson and North Westland the Pliocene strata are largely composed of river-transported material, and are known as the Moutere Gravels. These in places are of a poorly auriferous character. In Nelson the Moutere Gravels form a poor pastoral soil, but one well adapted for apple-culture.
Towards the close of the Miocene and during the whole of the Pliocene period many parts of New Zealand, more particularly in the South Island, were undergoing elevation. As a result the North and South Islands (then quite different in outline from their present configuration), together with most of the outlying islands now in existence, such as the Chathams, Auckland Islands, &c., must have formed one large land-mass, which probably was united to an Antarctic continent. Since many New Zealand plants* are identical with, or closely allied to, South American forms, and there are also some striking resemblances in bird and other forms of animal life, it is thought that this Antarctic continent formed a bridge, probably at no time quite complete, between New Zealand and South America. By this route, in all likelihood, came the now extinct moas or their ancestral forms. At the time of this continental extension the Southern Alps rose far above their present heights, and were covered with one vast snowfield, that fed immense glaciers spreading far and wide over the lowlands to the east and the west. According to Park, during the Pleistocene there was one great sheet of ice over the whole of the present South Island, and over part of the North Island. Moreover, this ice-sheet was joined to the Antarctic ice. The extreme views of Professor Park are not shared by other New Zealand geologists, who, however, unanimously agree that a large area in the South Island was glaciated. The great ice-streams of Pleistocene times gave rise to rivers that carried enormous quantities of gravel and finer material derived from the mountains beyond the ice-front, and in great measure built up the lowlands of Canterbury and Westland. In the latter district the gravels sorted by these streams are in many places richly auriferous, but a greater and more permanent source of wealth is furnished by the fertile soil of the Canterbury Plains.
* According to T. F. Cheeseman's “Manual of the New Zealand Flora” (preface, p. ix), 108 New Zealand plants extend to South America.
In many parts of Otago, Canterbury, Westland, and Nelson evidences of past glacial action are afforded by huge moraines, perched blocks, ice-worn surfaces (roches moutonnées), rock-benches, rock-basins, and other tokens of glaciation. To ice-action, it may here be mentioned, we owe some of the most magnificent features of the western Otago sounds.
At or before the end of the Pleistocene period the mountains lessened in height, both through denudation and a well-marked subsidence of the land. The climate grew milder, and the lowland ice melted away. The mighty glaciers rapidly retreated, geologically speaking, and are to-day represented only by the comparatively modest valley and mountain glaciers of north-west Otago, Canterbury, and Westland, with which may be included the small but permanent snowfield and glacier on Mount Ruapehu. While the glaciers were retreating the rivers of Canterbury and Westland, swollen by the melting ice, were unusually active in transporting débris to the lowlands and the sea-coast. At this time, too, as well as at somewhat earlier periods, the volcanoes of the North Island furnished an abundant supply of fragmentary material, much of which was transported by the streams, and used in building plains and river-flats. Many of these are fertile, but in those districts where pumice abounded, a more or less barren soil, difficult of utilization, has resulted. Thus the land gradually became much as we see it now. In Recent times geological changes, such as the lowering of heights by denudation, the filling of lakes by sediment, the outward growth of coastal plains in some places, and the wearing away of the shores in other places, have slowly proceeded, and are to-day, of course, still going on. Slow movements of the land are probably in progress, but these have not been certainly detected. In 1855, however, as the result of a violent earthquake, the northern shore of Cook Strait, near Wellington Harbour, was raised on the average at least 5 ft., whilst the southern shore near Tory Channel and towards the mouth of the Wairau River was almost correspondingly depressed.
In the preceding paragraphs little notice has been given to igneous rocks or to volcanic action. The oldest igneous rocks of New Zealand are probably represented by the gneisses of western Otago, which, as previously stated, are mainly metamorphosed granites and diorites. Plutonic rocks intrude many of the Palæozoic and Mesozoic strata, and some of the formations also show evidence of contemporaneous volcanic action. Of the more ancient plutonic rocks granite is the most prominent. It occurs in many localities in Stewart Island, western Otago, Westland, and Nelson. It has, however, not been found in situ in the North Island, though in at least four localities boulders of granite, probably derived in all cases from ancient conglomerates, have been discovered. Ultra-basic igneous rocks, now largely altered to serpentine, occur in north-west Otago, Westland, and Nelson.
Throughout the greater part of the Tertiary periods volcanic action in New Zealand has probably been more intense than in any former age. During the Late Eocene or Early Miocene period eruptions, at first principally of andesitic rocks and later of rhyolite, began in the Coromandel Peninsula, and with little intermission continued throughout Miocene and Pliocene times. These volcanic rocks contain the gold-silver veins which have yielded rich bonanzas at Thames and Coromandel, and are now being worked at the Waihi, Talisman, and other mines.
There are many areas of Miocene volcanic rocks in North Auckland, and near the Town of Auckland numerous small volcanoes were in action during the Pleistocene. Some of these—for example, Mount Rangitoto—have probably been active within the last two or three thousand years. In Taranaki the beautiful cone of Mount Egmont was built up during Pliocene and Pleistocene times It is in the central part of the North Island, however, that the most intense volcanic activity has been displayed. Volcanic rocks, and more especially the pumice ejected during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, cover large areas. Vulcanism has not yet ceased, for minor eruptions
of fragmentary material still take place from Ngauruhoe, a typical volcanic cone near Ruapehu. The most striking evidence of volcanic action, however, is afforded by the numerous steam-vents, hot springs, and geysers found in a belt extending from Ruapehu to White Island (in the Bay of Plenty), itself a volcano in the solfataric stage. It is more than a coincidence that this belt is in line with the Southern Alps. Solfataric action is generally regarded as a sign of dying vulcanism, but that the subterranean forces are still capable of mischief was shown by the eruption of Tarawera, an apparently extinct volcano, on the 10th June, 1886. On this occasion over a hundred lives were lost.
In the South Island vulcanism is apparently quite dead, for the hot springs of Hanmer Plains and the western side of the Alps are due to other causes. During the Miocene, however, volcanic outbursts took place in many localities, in some on a grand scale. Banks Peninsula is formed mainly of hasaltic and andesitic rocks. Lyttelton and Akaroa harbours are believed to represent ancient craters or centres of eruption. In the neighbourhood of Dunedin occurs a very interesting series of alkaline volcanic rocks. These were first described by the late Professor G. H. F. Ulrich, and in later years Dr. Marshall has given them exhaustive study.
In the course of a short article it is impossible to give any adequate idea of what has been accomplished by geological workers in New Zealand, or what remains yet to be done before even the foundation for future work shall be securely laid. The important branches of geology in its application to agriculture and mining have hardly been mentioned, but elsewhere in this volume will be found references to the agricultural and mineral resources. For detailed information the reader is referred to the bulletins of the New Zealand Geological Survey, which are now appearing at the rate of two or three every year; to Professor Park's “Geology of New Zealand,” which contains an excellent bibliography; and to the forthcoming treatise on “New Zealand Geology,” by Dr. Marshall, as well as to many other publications too numerous to he here named. Finally, it may be mentioned that in each of the University Colleges excellent instruction in geology is being given by capable and enthusiastic teachers, so that in the near future we may expect increased progress in solving the many knolty problems of New Zealand geology.
New Zealand's native fauna has attracted the attention of investigators in nearly all parts of the world. Its special interest lies in its manifold peculiarities, and in the incongruous characteristics possessed by some of its members.
Beginning with the mammalia, the Dominion is surprisingly inadequately represented. Its only land mammals are two bats. One of these, the long-tailed bat, belongs to a genus (Chalinolobus), which is found in the Australian and Ethiopian zoological regions, and to a species, morio, found in the southeast of Australia, as well as in New Zealand; but the other, the short-tailed bat (Mystacops tuberculatus), belongs to a genus peculiar to this Dominion. The sea-lion, the sea-elephant, the sea-leopard, and the fur-seal exist in parts of the New Zealand zoo-geographical area, which includes the Kermadec, Chatham, Auckland, Cook, Snares, Bounty, Antipodes, Campbell, and Macquarie Islands; and whales and porpoises abound in some of the waters. With the exception of those animals, the two species of bat are the only indigenous mammals. When Europeans came to the country, the Maoris had a dog (Canis familiaris, variety maorium) and a rat (Mus exulans), but both of them, it is believed, were brought to the country at the time of the Maori migrations from Pacific islands, and they are not included in the list of native mammals.
In contrast with the mammalia, the members of the next class, Aves, were remarkably plentiful when settlement began. Bush and grass fires, cats, stoats and weasels, and the ruthless use of the gun, have reduced their numbers, but they still stand as, probably, the most interesting avifauna in the world. They include a comparatively large number of absolutely flightless birds. No living birds in New Zealand are wingless, but the kiwi* (Apteryx), the weka (Ocydromus), the kakapo parrot (Stringops), and the takahe (Notornis hochstetteri)* cannot use their wings for flight, while a duck belonging to the Auckland Islands (Nesonetta) is practically in the same plight There are also several species of birds whose wings are so weak that they can make only short flights. Other notable birds are the kea (Nestor notabilis), which is accused of killing sheep on stations in the South Island; the tui (Prosthemadera novæ-zcalandiæ), which affords one of the most beautiful sights in the New Zealand forests, and charms visitors with its silvery notes; the huia (Heteralocha acutirostris), the only species known in which there is a wide divergence in the shape of the bills in the two sexes, the male's being short and straight, while the female's is curved, pliant, and long; and the wry-billed plover (Anarhynchus frontalis), the only bird known to possess a bill turned to one side. Cormorants or shags (Phalacrocorax) and penguins (Impennes) are exceptionally well represented in the avifauna. Several species of birds make notable migrations to New Zealand. The godwit (Limosa novæzealandiæ), it is believed, breeds on the tundras of eastern Siberia, and it spends the summer months in New Zealand, arriving about October and leaving in March or April. The knot (Tringa canutus) is believed to make almost the same journey, and two cuckoos, the shining-cuckoo (Chalcococcyx lucidus) and the long-tailed cuckoo (Urodynamis taitensis), come from Pacific islands in the spring and leave for their northern homes about April. Both, like most members of the Cuculidæ family, are parasitical, and impose upon small native birds the duty of hatching and rearing young cuckoos. The kiwi, already mentioned, belongs to the same subclass as the ostrich, the emu, and the cassowary, all struthious birds, and has several peculiarities besides its flightlessness. The takahe (Notornis) is one of the world's very rare birds. Only four specimens have been found. Two of the skins are in the British Museum, one is in the Dresden Museum, and one in the Otago Museum, in Dunedin. The interest of the living avifauna is surpassed by the interest of the extinct birds. These include the great flightless moa (Dinornis), a goose (Cnemiornis minor), a gigantic rail (Aptornis otidiformis), and an eagle (Harpagornis moorei).
Reptilian life is restricted to about fifteen species of lizards, and to the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). This is a lizard-like creature, the only surviving representative of the order Rhynchocephalia, otherwise extinct. The tuatara is found in no other country. Its nearest ally is Homœosaurus, whose remains have been found in Jurassic rocks in Germany. It has been destroyed to a large extent by wild pigs, cats, and dogs, and is now seldom found except on a few islands off the coast of the mainland.
The amphibians are represented by a small frog (Liopelma hochstetteri), which is very rare, and has been recorded from only a few districts in the Auckland Province. Its nearest ally is in China.
About 250 species of fish have been found in New Zealand waters. A large number of these are used for food. Several species, notably the mudfish (Neochanna apoda), which is sometimes discovered buried 4 ft. deep in clay in places where rivers have overflowed in flood, and in swampy
* This bird is better known as Notornis mantelli. That name was first given by Sir Richard Owen to an extinct bird, represented by a fossil found at Waingongoro, in the North Island, by Mr. W. Mantell in 1847. When the first living specimen of the Notornis was found, in 1849. scientists concluded that it was identical with the fossil, and it bore the same name; but when Dr. Meyer, of Dresden, examined the skeleton of the third specimen, he found that it was different from the fossil, and he changed the specific name from mantelli to hochstetteri, thus honouring Dr. Hochstetter, a naturalist, who visited New Zealand in the early days.
places, are interesting. Some of the genera are peculiar to New Zealand, but some also occur in Australian and South American waters.
Amongst the invertebrates, one of the peculiarities is the fact that the Dominion has few butterflies, although it is well supplied with moths. It has a red admiral butterfly (Vanessa), named after the European species, which it resembles, and a copper butterfly (Chrysophanus), which is very plentiful. In the forests there is that strange growth, the “vegetable caterpillar.” The Dominion has native bees and ants, dragon-flies, sober-coloured beetles, and representatives of other orders of insects. The katipo spider (Latrodectes katipo), which lives mostly on or near the sea-beach, is well known locally. Amongst the mollusca, there is a large and handsome land-snail (Paryphania) and Amphibola, an air-breathing snail, peculiar to the country, which lives in brackish water, mainly in estuaries. There are about twenty species of univalves and twelve of bivalves in the fresh-water shells, and about four hundred species in the marine shells, including the paper nautilus (Argonauta). Perhaps the most interesting of all the invertebrates is the Ooperipatus, an ancient type of creature which survives in New Zealand, and in parts of Australia, Africa, South America, the West Indies, New Britain, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Zoologically, it belongs to the air-breathing division of the phylum Arthropoda, and has been placed in a special class, Prototracheata or Onychophora. It is about 3 in. long, has many feet, loves moisture, shuns light, and moves slowly. Two genera have been found in New Zealand. One genus, Peripatoides, contains two species, novæ-zealandiæ and suteri, and the other, Ooperipatus, contains only one species, viridimaculatus. The Ooeripatus is viviparous. It is claimed that one New Zealand genus, Ooperipatus, is oviparous, but that has not been fully proved.* Professor A. Dendy, F.R.S., has made special investigations in regard to the New Zealand species.
With the arrival of Europeans, the whole face of the fauna was changed. Sheep, cattle, horses, and other domestic animals were introduced, some for utility, some for pleasure, such as song birds, and some for sport, such as deer, trout, pheasants, and quail. In the work of acclimatization several great and irretrievable blunders were made. The worst of these was the introduction of rabbits, stoats, and weasels.
Owing to its long isolation and diverse elements (Malayan, Australian Subantarctic, and endemic), the flora of New Zealand is of special interest Ferns, fern-allies, and seed-plants number, so far as at present known, about 1,700 species, of which about three-fourths are endemic. Many hundreds of algae, fungi, mosses, and liverworts have been described, but these certainly do not represent the total number of such. With regard to the seed-plants, one family (the daisy) contains more than 230 species, three (sedge, figwort, and grass) each more than a hundred, and ten (carrot, orchid, buttercup, madder, epacrid, willowherb, pea, rush, and forgetmenot) between thirty and seventy. The ferns and ferns-allies, though not of the overwhelming importance in the flora that many think, still number 157 species. The genera. Veronica, Carex, Celmisia, Coprosma, Ranunculus, Olearia, Senecio, Epilobium, and Myosotis contain many species, no few of which, owing to their extreme variability, are difficult to exactly define. This is especially the case with Veronica, which embraces more than a hundred species.
Variability is not concerned merely with adult plants, but quite often there are species with juvenile forms quite distinct from the adults and which may persist for many years. This strange procedure is seen, more or less, in a hundred species. Familiar examples amongst trees are the lace-bark, lowland-ribbonwood, lancewood, kowhai, and kaikomako.
* Professor Adam Sedgwick F.R.S., Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology. London, in the new Encyclopædia Britannica.
Many of the growth-forms of New Zealand plants are characteristic of the life-conditions. There are, for example—climbing-plants with long, woody ropelike stems; shrubs with stiff, wiry, interlaced branches forming close masses; cushion-plants sometimes of immense proportions, as in the vegetable sheep (species of Haastia and Psychrophyton); leafless shrubs with round or flattened stems; species of Veronica looking exactly like cypresses; trees with leaves bunched on long trunks; grasses and sedges forming tussocks. The ligneous plants are almost all evergreen, only some twenty being deciduous or semi-deciduous. Herbs that die to the ground in winter and bulbous plants are very rare.
The plant-associations are of quite as great interest as the species; indeed, to find an equal variety a continent extending to the tropics would have to be visited. The northern rivers and estuaries contain a true mangrove association, an unexpected occurrence outside the tropics. Lowland and montane forests are of the tropical rain-forest type. They are distinguished by their wealth of tree-ferns, filmy ferns, woody climbing-plants, massive perching-plants, deep carpets of mosses and liverworts, and trees provided at times with plank-like buttresses. The kauri forest in the north, the swamp kahikatea forest and the assemblages of taxads (rimu, miro, totara, and matai), are different rain-forest associations. Another forest is that where species of the southern-beech (Nothofagus); incorrectly termed “birch,” are dominant. Such are subantarctic, and constitute the greater part of the high-mountain forests, though in Wellington, Marlborough, and Nelson they are common in the lowlands. Shrub heath in which the manuka is dominant is common in the North, South, and Stewart Islands, but is especially abundant on the Auckland gumfields, where it is an obstacle to agriculture. Fern heath of tall bracken is also widespread. Swamp characterized by Phormium, raupo, toetoe, and niggerhead was once common, but draining has greatly reduced its area. Bogs and moorland support a peculiar vegetation. Hummocks of bog-moss are abundant, and a small wiry umbrella-fern may cover wide areas. Grass land with brownish-leaved tussock-grasses is a great feature of parts of the volcanic plateau of the North Island, and of the east of the South Island. Species of Poa and Festuca form the principal tussocks of the lowlands and lower hills, but at higher altitudes and at Southland low levels species of Danthonia dominate. This name is not to be confused with the turf-making species of the same genus used in artificial pastures.
The alpine vegetation is of great scientific importance. It contains, exclusive of lowland plants which ascend to the mountains, about 550 species, most of which never descend below 1,500ft. altitude, while some are confined altogether to the highest elevations. The most beautiful of the New Zealand flowers, with but few exceptions, belong to this mountain-flora. Here are the great buttercups, white and yellow: the charming ourisias; the marguerite-flowered celmisias; the dainty eyebrights; forgetmenots, yellow, bronze, and white; and many other delightful plants. The growth-forms, too, are often striking or quaint. Cushion-plants, rosette-plants, stiff-branched shrubs, and mat-forming plants are much in evidence. Hairiness, leathery texture, and great rigidity, perhaps accompanied by needle-like points, as in the Spaniard (Aciphylla Colensoi), are common characters of leaves.
The floras of the following groups of islands, far distant from the mainland, are distinctly part of that of New Zealand. The Kermadecs contain 114 species of ferns, fern-allies, and seed-plants, only 12 of which are endemic, while 71 belong also to New Zealand proper. The largest island (Sunday Island) is covered with forest in which Metrosideros villosa, a near relation of the pohutakawa, is the principal tree. The Chatham Islands possess 235 species, 29 of which are endemic, though several of the latter are trivial varieties merely, while the remainder of the flora is, with one exception, found on the mainland. Forest, moor, and heath are the principal plant-associations. The leading tree is the karaka, but by the Moriori called kopi. On the moors are great thickets of a lovely purple-flowered shrub, Olearia semidentata. There are two remarkable endemic genera. Coxiella and
Myosotidium, the former belonging to the carrot family and the latter a huge forgetmenot, but now alas nearly extinct. The Subantarctic Islands (Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Macquarie) have a dense vegetation made up of 194 species, no less than 52 of which are endemic, the remainder being found in New Zealand, but chiefly in the mountains. Forest is found only on the Snares and the Aucklands, with a species of Olearia and the southern rata as the dominant trees respectively. Extremely dense scrubs occur on the Auckland and Campbell Islands, and moors, sometimes with huge tussocks, are a characteristic feature of all the islands, thanks to the enormous peat-deposit and the frequent rain. Several herbaceous plants of stately form and with beautiful flowers occur in great profusion.
The Cook Islands, though a part of the Dominion, possess a Polynesian flora quite distinct from that of New Zealand, and are excluded in this notice, while, on the contrary, the flora of the Macquarie Islands, though belonging to Tasmania, is a portion of that of New Zealand.
Besides the indigenous, an important introduced element, consisting of about 540 species, mostly European, has followed in the wake of settlement. These aliens are in active competition with the true natives. There is a widespread but quite erroneous opinion that the latter are being eradicated in the struggle. This is not the case. Where the vegetation has never been disturbed by man there are no foreign plants. But where man, with his farming operations, stock, and burning has brought about European conditions, then certainly the indigenous plants have given way before artificial meadows with their economic plants and accompanying weeds. On the tussock-grass land, however, invader and aboriginal have met, and though the original vegetation is changed, there is no reason to consider the one class or the other as the conqueror. On the contrary, both may be expected to persist, and in course of time a new flora and vegetation will be evolved.
The climate of New Zealand is to be considered in relation to four main features—(1) Its position, stretching for nearly a thousand miles southward of latitude 34° S.; (2) its insular condition, situated as it is in the widest ocean of the world, from which no part of the country is distant more than seventy-five miles; (3) its physical features, mountain-chains running mostly north and south and affording different aspects; and (4) the weather-changes to which these parts of the earth are subject.
The latitudes in which (he chief cities of New Zealand lie in the Southern Hemisphere correspond with the cities in the North from which the possible amount of sunshine may be gauged. Auckland's latitude corresponds to that of Cape Passaro in the south of Sicily: Wellington to Naples; and Dunedin to Venice. The following table gives the period during which the sun is above the true horizon on the days of midsummer and midwinter:—
|Possible Sunshine on the||At Auckland.||At Wellington.||At Dunedin.|
The actual hours of bright sunshine recorded in Wellington average nearly six hours per day throughout the year, and few indeed are the days when a brilliant sun does not at some time or other score a definite trace upon the recording-chart. Other districts much more protected from cloud-formation, as Nelson, in the Tasman Gulf; Napier, on the east coast of the North Island; and Lincoln, near Christchurch, on the east coast of the South Island, have higher records. Some of the west coast districts, on the other hand, record less bright sunshine; but Wellington, the capital city, is in the middle position, and affords a good mean both for the sunshine and the rainfall of the whole Dominion. Wellington is also in a critical position with
regard to atmospheric disturbances, Cook Strait being usually the dividing line between the cyclonic storms and westerly lows, generally partaking of the changes due to both. The actual results are as follows:—
|Hours of Sunshine.|
* For five years.
† For three years.
These results bear comparison with some of the most favoured regions of the world, where, in order to produce the best results, sunshine and shower hold sway in turn. For instance, over the northern parts of the British Isles the annual average of bright sunshine is 1,200 hours, or 27 per cent. of the possible; and in the south it is 1,600 hours, or 36 per cent.; while Italy has averages from 2,000 to 2,400 hours, or from 45 to 54 per cent. of the possible.
Latitude, insolation, proximity of the ocean, and the height of a locality are the determining factors with regard to temperature. The oceanic influences are recognized as the dominant feature with regard to both summer heat and winter cold, upon both of which they exercise a moderating effect. The west coast of the South Island especially is open to the prevailing westerly winds, and is more humid and equable than the eastern coastal districts, which at times present an almost continental type with considerable range of temperature. In the cities of Auckland and Wellington frosts on the grass are of rare occurrence, though further south and inland they are often experienced. Showing the influence of the ocean in moderating temperature, we may contrast the records of a continental city with the capital city of Wellington.
|Temperatures (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
|Mean||Wellington. Lat. 41° 16' S.|
|Mean annual range||27.3|
|Mean annual range||81.0|
The meteorological seasons are regarded as later than the solar or astronomical seasons. Thus, in the Southern Hemisphere July is usually the coldest and wettest month of the year, while January is the driest and warmest. The seasons are thus roughly divided:—
Winter—June, July, August.
Spring—September, October, November.
Summer—December, January, February.
Autumn—March, April, May.
The following table gives seasonal and annual means computed from several stations in the various “provinces” into which the Dominion was once politically as well as naturally divided:—
|Mean Temperatures in Shade (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
|Nelson and Marlborough—|
Mean temperatures of definite places are usually employed in climatic comparisons, and the following annual means, as well as the means of the extreme months of the summer and winter, afford the reader useful data The Australian temperatures are from the Official Year-book of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the others are chiefly from Hofrath, Dr. J. Hann's great work upon the climatology of the world.
|New York City.||Washington, D.C.||St. Louis.||Los Angeles.|
|Santiago.||Buenos Ayres.||Monte Video.|
The rainfall map of New Zealand which appeared in the Yearbook for 1911 presents striking conformation to its physical configuration, and records gathered throughout the country during a period of sixty years present a certain regularity which brings out the dominating influence of the mountain ranges over the rainfall. The lofty Southern Alps, rising to heights of from ten to twelve thousand feet on the western side of the South Island, lie broadside to the prevailing westerly winds, and on their windward slopes are condensed the vapours which have been swept by the breezes over vast stretches of ocean-wave. On the plains at the margin near the foot of the ranges and on their rugged and precipitous slopes the rainfall averages from one to two hundred inches per annum, while on the lee side of this formidable chain the climate is comparatively very dry, and in parts the rainfall is only about one-tenth of what is recorded on the other side. The manner in which the sea-breezes are robbed of their moisture is occasionally manifested when a strong and steady westerly wind blows along parallel with the southern latitudes. Heavy and continuous then
is the rain on the west coast, and the clouds and mist may rise to the summit, bub no further. There the winds are forced onwards and rush downwards to the greatest plains in New Zealand which have been built up of the detritus of the mountains. Here, however, the characteristics of this westerly wind have been entirely changed, for it is now hot by compression, and dry because it gave off its moisture when it rose above sea-level away back among the hills. Instead of parting with superfluous humidity, it is now capable of sustaining the vapour of water, and nature seeks to restore the balance of its relative humidity by evaporating what moisture it can from stream and lake, vegetation or animal life in its path. These hot and dry “nor'-westers” of the Canterbury Plains are similar in character to the well-known Foehn winds such as are experienced in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, but they illustrate and account for much of the comparative shortage of rainfall on the eastern side of the South Island which is manifest in the map.
While the South Island isohyets or rain-bands of equal rainfall stretch north and south, the North Island tracings are more irregular in form, but show that the rainfall itself is more regular over the country and less extreme in comparison between different districts. Here, again, however, the control of the mountains and plains over precipitation is apparent. The contours of the rainfall areas are found to coincide more or less with the configuration of the country—dark-tinted spots showing heavier rainfalls are found in proximity to Mount Egmont, the Tongariro, Tararua, Raukumara, and other ranges.
The mean annual rainfall of New Zealand, derived from means of representative stations in various parts of the whole country, is about 50 in., but the seasonal falls are different in various districts. The season of greatest fall in the North Island, which is mostly under the influence of subtropical conditions, is winter, and the, month of July shows not only the lowest mean temperature but the mean maximum rainfall, and is regarded as the mid-winter month in the Southern Hemisphere. In the South Island late autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently dry, while the summer sometimes suffers from too frequent showers. This is the case on the east coast and southernmost portions of the South Island, but at this time the west coast occasionally is even in want of rain; in fact, the west and east coasts of the South Island are so different that if the east coast has more than the average rainfall the west coast has less, and vice versa. The average monthly rainfall of the year is remarkably even in the South Island, but the midwinter month's mean in the North Island is nearly double the mean of the midsummer month (February).
The averages from the climatological tables are—
|Rainfall (in Inches.).|
|(Rainy Days (0.005 in. or more).|
|Annual Rainfalls (in Inches).|
|Auckland (58 Years).||New Plymouth (31 Years).||Wellington (53 Years).||Gisborne (33 Years).|
|Christchurch (34 Years).||Hokitika (31 Years).||Dunedin (54 Years).|
|Mean Number of Days with Rain (0.01 in. or more).|
Annual mean totals.—Auckland, 180.4; New Plymouth, 1897; Gisborne, 1538; Wellington, 167.7; Christchurch, 119.4; Hokitika, 179.2; Dunedin, 163.3.
The seasons usually differ considerably in several characteristics from year to year, and the annual rainfalls are found to range considerably above and below the means in all parts of the Dominion. From month to month also, and by comparing the records of months of the same name in different years are seen surprising contrasts and periodic changes which evade general laws, and the approximately true mean rainfalls are only ascertained through averages derived from returns extending over many years.
The abundance and frequency of the rainfall are, however, the leading features in the climate of New Zealand as a whole. The positions of the Islands, with vast oceans on every side, and the proximity of every part of the country to the sea, combined with frequent atmospheric changes, usually causes all parts of the Dominion to be favoured with beneficent rains, and very rarely indeed does the rainfall report from any station in the Dominion make the return of “nil.” Nine out of ten of the stations throughout the country have never recorded months of such absolute drought, and on the other hand very few are the records showing rainfall every day during any month of their registrations. Sunshine and rain alternate fairly well throughout the year, with much greater predominance of the former. The rainfall is usually more intense and frequent at night than in the hours when the sun exercises its influence over air and earth and sea, for then “Maui is drawing water.”
Averages derived from the Monthly Climatological Tables from August, 1904, to December, 1911 (inclusive). Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, Rainfall in points: 100 = 1 in.
|Days with rain||10.0||8.1||11.5||13.3||14.5||15.7||17.4||14.2||16.0||15.6||13.2||12.6|
|Days with rain||12.3||7.2||11.9||12.5||11.5||13.7||13.7||13.4||15.3||15.4||13.3||14.3|
Annual averages.—North Island—Mean temp., 56.2° F.; rainfall, 51.04 in.; days with rain, 162. South Island—Mean temp., 52.3° F.; rainfall, 45.41 in.; days with rain, 155.
Snow falls in the winter-time on the higher levels in the South Island and occasionally on the central plateau of the North Island, but, except on the mountain-tops, usually does not lie for long. Snow is seldom seen on the lowlands even in the southernmost districts of the South Island, and in many parts of New Zealand snow has never been known to fall; but, on the other hand, cyclonic areas in summer will bring some snow on the higher levels of the South Island.
Thunderstorms are also comparatively rare in the coastal districts, but are more frequent and prolonged in the mountainous parts. In summer the thunderstorms usually occur in the afternoon, and in the winter, with low-pressure systems, at night.
Hail occasionally accompanies coastal thunderstorms, but rarely causes much damage to property, fruit, or crops in New Zealand.
The winds of the temperate zone are usually fairly constant and fresh, and the Dominion of New Zealand—set as it is in the widest ocean in the world—is open to all its influence. The sea-breezes sweep uninterruptedly over thousands of miles of ocean-wave, bringing not only freshness, ozone, and moisture, but at times, it must be confessed, causing annoyance on account of their force and persistency. This may be regarded as a defect of their qualities, for in those parts of the earth that experience little wind the people usually lack energy, and the same regions are mostly subject to occasional storms that are terribly destructive to life and property. No country in the world, however, presents greater diversity in respect to wind than New Zealand, chiefly on account of its length and mountain-chains. The uneven surface of the land, the proximity of the straits, &c., are seen to exercise the most marked influence not only upon the force, but also upon the direction of the winds—reducing or increasing their velocity, diverting, and even entirely changing their course. For example, westerly winds blowing across the ocean towards the west coast are partially inverted—while the upper part will cross the mountains to become occasionally a hot, dry westerly wind on the Canterbury Plains, the lower part curls round and is actually experienced as an easterly wind in the towns on the coast at the foot of the mountains.
The average velocity as given herewith is from records of the Robinson anemometer, in miles per day:—
|—||Auckland (11 Years).||Wellington (16 Years).||Hokitika (16 Years).||Lincoln. (13 Years)|
|Average per day||180||282||135||164|
|Max. velocity in one day||974||1,200||693||967|
The velocity of the winds, it may be noted, is higher on the average in summer than in winter, and the winds are usually also stronger by day than by night.
The following “wind-roses” show the percentage of wind-directions from annual means for forty-eight years' unbroken records for each place.
The development of the Maori race is a striking testimony to the suitability of the climate to humanity, and European families under New Zealand skies have generally developed in physique. Imported stock has in most cases thriven marvellously in the fields, where throughout summer and winter they usually find all the nourishment needed, and hardly ever require more than natural protection.
The fertility of the soil gives remarkable testimony to the genial climate of New Zealand, for, though labour is not nearly plentiful enough to obtain the best results from agriculture, yet, as shown in the returns published annually by the Agricultural Department, the actual average yields in bushels per acre for the whole Dominion for the past sixteen seasons here given compare more than favourably with the yields from other countries.
|Average Yield per Acre in Bushels.|
|Sixteen Years.||Maximum.||Minimum.||Season 1910-11.|
|Wheat||29.56||38.37 (1902-3)||23.00 (1897-8)||25.73|
|Oats||37.56||46.46 (1908-9)||27.44 (1897-8)||33.41|
|Barley||32.71||40.69 (1902-3)||23.72 (1897-8)||27.68|
These results are typical of the harvests of other cereals, vegetables, and fruits, which grow in abundance.
Lastly, the vital statistics show that for a long period New Zealand has had the lowest death-rate in the world, and this is undoubtedly owing very much to the salubrity of its climate. The vital statistics show to advantage not only in the earlier years of life, but it is after the age of thirty-two that the extraordinary longevity of New Zealand is apparent. The judgment of travellers and those best qualified to give an opinion is that the country is one of the healthiest in the world. The abundant vitality of the people is apparent not only in the homes and thoroughfares throughout the Dominion, but is manifested in thriving industries and the high place attained by New-Zealanders in the world of sport. New Zealand, in a word, is a country where from youth to old age man can keep in vigorous health and enjoy life to its fullest extent.
The prevailing winds are thus seen to be planetary anti-trade winds—westerlies which go round the world and are used by mariners to take them eastward towards England as far as Cape Horn, and on their return they pick them up again off the Cape of Good Hope. In summer, however, to the north of Auckland the easterly trade winds often blow with much regularity for weeks together.
The weather is full of vagaries in the temperate zones of both hemispheres, and New Zealand is not the only country which occasionally experiences a touch of winter in summer, but there is also very much summer-like weather in the winter-time. Occasionally winter storms account for temporary high winds and heavy rainfalls, but the monthly averages show that less wind is experienced in the season of winter, particularly in the south.
The chief atmospheric changes are associated with barometric pressures, above the normal being known as “high” pressure, and below it as “low.” For weather charts and forecast purposes the isobar, or line of equal pressure of 30 in., is regarded as normal in New Zealand, though the true normal lies between 29.90 in. and 30.00 in. The winds flow nearly parallel to the isobars in both high and low pressure systems, and all atmospheric systems in New Zealand move from west to east.
High-pressure systems or anti-cyclones are usually associated with fair weather by day and cold nights, when the earth radiates the heat of its surface into space. The central isobar will occasionally enclose an area in which all the barometers reduced to sea-level and to 32° Fahr. will read as high as 30.60. Around this centre the winds revolve or veer contrary to the direction of the hands of a watch in the Southern Hemisphere; thus, if the
barometer is 30.40 in. at Wellington, and the readings are 30.00 in. or thereabouts at both Russell and the Bluff, the winds will he easterly over the North Island and westerly over the South, southerly off the east coast and northerly off the west coast. The winds thus form vast circles hundreds of miles in diameter. These anticyclones often last for eight or nine days.
Low-pressure systems are mostly of two kinds, and around their centres of lowest pressure the winds are seen to revolve clockwise on the weather-chart; thus, if the centre of a cyclone should be in Cook Strait the winds will be westerly at Auckland, easterly at Christchurch, northerly off the east coast, and southerly off the west coast. If the lowest pressure on the chart were in Foveaux Strait the prevailing winds northward would be generally westerly, at least as far north as New Plymouth and Napier, and sometimes extend even to the North Cape, changing from north by the west to southwest.
Cyclones are circular or oval-shaped disturbances with closed isobars; they come from the tropics, and chiefly affect the North Island, bringing first warmth and humidity, then high winds and heavy rain. They usually last from two to five days, and are more frequent in winter than in summer, though they are often intense at the latter period.
The term “cyclone” does not always mean a storm of great intensity such as is experienced in tropical regions, for when the disturbance leaves the tropics it usually expands and covers a wider area, over which its forces are distributed. The frequency of cyclones during the past nine years shows the following average: Spring, 2; summer, 1.8; autumn, 3.3; winter, 5.3. These figures will be surprising to some who believe that ex-tropical cyclones are only found in spring or early in summer, while others assert that they only come in midwinter.
Westerly or antarctic lows of A-shaped isobars, with lowest pressure southward of New Zealand, chiefly affect the South Island, but, like the cyclones, frequently extend their influences over the whole Dominion. These lows usually move along the parallels of latitude known to sailors as the “roaring forties.” Their duration is from twelve hours to as many days, and in some seasons are much more frequent and persistent than at others. They come at all times of the year, but with greater frequency in spring-time: Spring, 6.3; summer, 4.3; autumn, 5.2; winter, 4.7.
As in 1910, so again in the year 1911 the rainfall was less than the average over the greater portion of New Zealand; but the difference was not to such an extent as to cause any great inconvenience to the farmer. Except in South Taranaki and in small scattered districts along the east coast, nearly the whole of the North Island shows a slight deficit. In the South Island the western and southern districts had below, but the whole of Canterbury, Nelson, and Marlborough, on the other hand, had considerably above, the average, portions of Canterbury along the coast having from 20 to as much as 99 per cent.
The following table shows the difference, above or below the mean, for each month in the year:—
Means for 1911, compared with the Averages for Six Previous Years.
+ Above the average.
- Below the average.
Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Six Years.
Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Six Previous Years.
Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Six Years.
+ Above the average.
- Below the average.
Following on a somewhat dry December, the beginning of January, when precipitation was also lacking, caused some anxiety to the agriculturist, especially in the east coast districts of the South Island. After the 8th, however, this anxiety was relieved, for between this date and the 13th some copious downpours occurred on this coast, with the passage of a westerly low pressure across the country. Generally, the month of January was not visited by storms of any great intensity, cyclonic disturbances from northern latitudes not having developed for a longer period than usual and westerly low pressures also showing a tendency to diminish.
February also showed a generally low rainfall, but the east coast and about Cook Strait had more rainfall than is usual in February, this being accounted for by the storms experienced being mostly confined to these districts, while the west coast of the South Island was only one seventh the usual for this month, as there was an absence of westerly low pressure. Three disturbances of an extropical nature were in evidence, the centre of which passed through Cook Strait on two occasions, and once off East Cape. The most remarkable disturbance was a cyclone whose centre passed down the west coast of the North Island and through Cook Strait on the night of the 25th. This storm caused heavy rains and high winds over the North Island, the rainfall at Wellington for twenty-four hours—viz., 6.32 in.—being the greatest day's fall recorded for the fifty-four years since records had been taken.
March was a dry and fine month, the barometer being above the normal for the month in all parts of the Dominion, owing both to the absence of low-pressure systems of any extent, and to anti-cyclonic conditions holding sway over the greater part of the month.
April, on the other hand, was subject to frequent changes of atmospheric conditions. Extensive low-pressure areas from northern latitudes three times
overspread the northern districts, bringing heavy rains in many parts of the North Island. No less than four westerly low-pressure areas passed southward of New Plymouth and Castlepoint, so that the rainfall was nearly everywhere above the average, but more especially over the North Island. Cloudy and foggy weather was much in evidence, but, on the other hand, owing to the prevailing winds being from warmer northern regions, the temperature was considerably above the average for this season of the year.
Owing to a monsoonal depression between the 1st and 4th of May, and an extropical disturbance whose centre passed to the eastward of East Cape on the 19th, the rainfall in this month was slightly in excess of the average in the northern and east coast districts of the North Island, but elsewhere it was less than the average. Three anti-cyclones of short duration passed over the Dominion, the highest barometer readings being recorded in the vicinity of Cook Strait on the 8th, 16th, and 23rd.
June was remarkable for two intense and extensive storm areas, one holding sway between the 7th and 13th, whose centre appeared to pass through Cook Strait on the 11th. Gales were frequent and widespread during this period, and most parts of the country reported one or more days of heavy rain. The second, a westerly “low,” which passed in the south on the night of the 21st, brought northerly and westerly gales in its front and southerly gales in its rear. Snow fell at this time in the back country. The rainfall was in excess of the average in the northern districts and on the east coast districts of both Islands, but below the average on the west coast of the South Island.
July proved a fair mid-winter month, but with an unusual number of hard frosts both in the North and South Islands. Some heavy rain fell on the 10th, due to a cyclone from the west, and unsettled and boisterous conditions were experienced between the 20th and 26th during the passage of an extropical cyclone down the east coasts. The heaviest falls of rain occurred on the 24th, in Marlborough and Canterbury, many rivers in these districts flooding the low-lying country through which they flowed.
In August very little rain fell, and Canterbury especially experienced one of the driest Augusts on record. A small portion of Hawke's Bay appeared to be the only district in the Dominion where a slight excess of the average took place. Except between the 4th and 9th, when abnormally high atmospheric pressure ruled, the barometer, though very unsteady, was nearly everywhere about the normal until the 30th, when a small westerly “low” passed to the southward.
The beginning of September was ushered in with somewhat squally weather, especially on the west coast and southern district of the South Island, but anti-cyclonic conditions followed on the 5th, lasting until the 9th, when a westerly disturbance brought more unsettled weather, with rain on the west coast and in the southern districts. While the barometer rose rapidly in the South, it continued to fall in the North Island, with a cyclone of moderate intensity developing to the westward of this Island, and between the 14th and 15th considerable and general rain fell. On the 18th a cyclonic disturbance of remarkable intensity overspread the country, and its centre passed through Cook Strait on the evening of this date. During its passage across the Dominion stormy weather prevailed, with considerable rain, and some heavy snow-falls occurred inland in the South Island. The total fall for the month was below the mean throughout most of the North Island, and generally about the average in the South.
Anti-cyclonic conditions, with the usual accompanying fair weather, prevailed from the 1st to the 9th of October, but thereon to the end of December there was an almost total absence of well-developed atmospheric phenomena of this description.
On the other hand, westerly disturbances of the A-shaped depression and cylonic types were frequent, and some of long duration. The result was a predominance of strong westerly winds generally, and an excess of rainfall in those districts having a westerly aspect. The most remarkable
feature was the intense westerly “low” that enveloped the country on the 6th December with a barometric pressure of 28.47 in. at the Bluff, which is the lowest reading ever recorded in New Zealand.
The following list shows the rainfall-stations that recorded the extreme maximum and minimum falls during the year and in a single month, and also stations showing the largest departure above or below the normal for the year in both the North and South Islands.
Maximum fall for the year at Wekaweka, 108.79 in.
Minimum fall for the year at Martinborough, 28.53 in.
Maximum monthly fall for the year at Upper Mangorei in December, 19.48 in.
Minimum monthly fall for the year at Waitomo Caves, Levin, and Pahiatua, in March, nil.
Largest percentage above normal for the year at Eltham, 21.8 per cent.
Largest percentage below normal for the year at Martinborough, 34.4 per cent.
Maximum fall for the year at Otira, 181.75 in.
Minimum fall for the year at Galloway, Alexandra South, 10.41 in.
Maximum monthly fall for the year at Puysegur Point in November, 36.62 in.
Minimum monthly fall for the year at Nelson, Meadowbank, Blenheim, Renwicktown, Avondale Station, Langridge Station, in March, nil.
And Mount Pisa Station, Cromwell, in February, nil.
Largest percentage above normal for the year at Winchmore, 99 per cent.
Largest percentage below normal for the year at Dipton, 28.7 per cent.
Temperature, Rainfall, Atmospheric Pressure, and Wind throughout New Zealand, as observed at Twelve Stations, for the Year 1911.
The Observations were taken at 9 a.m.
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Max.||Mean Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Auckland (lat. 30° 50' S.; long. 178° 5°' E.; alt. 125 ft.)—||January||80.0||52.0||73.8||58.7||66.2||8||1.25||..||NE, S.|
|October||67.0||42.5||62.3||50.1||56.2||20||4.67||..||SW, W, NE.|
|November||70.0||47.5||64.6||52.4||58.5||21||4.14||..||W, SW, NW.|
|Gisborne (lat. 38° 30' S.; long. 178° 3' E.; alt. 20 ft.)—||January||87.0||42.0||73.3||53.9||64.7||6||1.04||..||S, W.|
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Max.||Mean Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Greenmeadows, Napier (lat. 39° 32' 38” S.; long. 176° 53' 20” E.; alt. 14 ft.)—||January||84.0||44.5||73.7||53.0||63.3||6||1.21||29.991||SW, NW.|
|December||82.0||47.5||70.4||51.6||61.0||3||1.20||29.584||W, E, N.|
|New Plymouth (lat. 39° 3' 35” S.; long. 174° 4' 58” E.; alt. 63 ft.)—||January||78.0||47.0||75.3||54.3||64.8||9||2.04||..||W, SW, K.|
|October||73.0||37.0||09.3||48.3||58.8||15||3.70||..||W, SW, NE.|
|November||73.0||40.0||69.3||50.5||59.9||25||3.96||..||SW, N, W.|
|Levin (lat. 40° 37' 30” S,; long. 175° 17' 13” E.; alt. 119 ft.)—||January||82.0||42.0||74.6||51.4||63.0||10||1.92||..||W, NW.|
|June||64.4||28.1||58.7||39.0||48.8||13||3.14||..||NE, S, W.|
|Wellington (lat. 41° 16' 25” S.; long. 174° 46' 20” E.; alt. 110 ft.)—||January||76.0||47.2||68.3||56.0||62.1||8||2.99||29.981||N, S.|
|Nelson (lat. 41° 16' S.; long. 173° 18' 46” E.; alt. 34 ft.)—||January||84.0||44.0||74.8||53.8||64.3||7||0.94||..||N, SW, NW.|
|December||74.0||41.0||68.0||49.2||58.6||17||5.88||..||SW, N, NE.|
|Stations.||Months.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Wind.|
|Highest.||Lowest.||Max.||Mean Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Hokitika (lat. 42° 41' 30” S.; long. 170° 49' E.; alt. 12 ft.)—||January||77.5||41.5||69.7||51.6||60.6||7||14.08||29.992||SW, NW|
|April||78.0||41.5||67.7||51.2||59.4||15||7.94||29.908||SW, NW, E.|
|September||63.5||31.0||58.4||40.8||49.6||17||10.00||29.980||SW, NW, E.|
|Christchurch (lat. 43° 31' 50” S.; long. 172° 38' 9” E.; alt. 25 ft.)—||January||85.1||36.4||70.7||50.9||60.8||12||1.72||29.896||NE, SW.|
|November||78.4||35.3||66.0||44.1||55.1||12||2.48||29.548||NE, SW, NW.|
|December||77.4||37.3||64.9||46.5||55.7||17||..||29.497||NE, SW, NW.|
|Hanmer Spa (lat. 42° 31' S.; long. 172° 50' E.; alt. 1,218 ft.)—||January||82.0||35.0||71.1||48.9||60.0||8||3.46||..||NW.|
|September||66.0||27.0||56.3||37.2||46.8||14||4.05||..||NW, E., SE.|
|Lincoln (lat. 43° 32' 16” S.; long. 172° 38' 39” E.; alt. 42 ft.)—||January||85.3||37.3||71.9||51.2||61.5||12||2.49||29.925||NE, SW.|
|October||73.8||30.5||62.8||41.8||52.3||8||1.72||29.857||NE, SW, NW.|
|November||76.4||36.6||66.9||44.6||55.7||14||2.52||29.601||NE, SW, NW.|
|Dunedin (lat. 45° 52' 11” S.; long. 170° 31' 7” E.; alt. 300 ft.)—||January||75.0||41.0||66.0||48.2||57.1||9||3.10||29.890||SW, W, NW.|
|July||53.0||30.0||47.0||35.8||41.7||12||1.84||30.000||SW, NW, NE.|
|Comparative Table: Year 1911.|
|Stations.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Winds.|
|Higher and Date.||Lowest, and Date.||Mean Max. Temp. for Year.||Mean Min. Temp, for Year.||Mean Temp. for Year.||Days on which Rain fell.||Greatest Fall, and Date.|
|Auckland||80.0 22 Jan.||37.5 3 July||65.2||52.6||58.9||205||2.17 20 April||SW, NE, S.|
|Gisborne||87.0 21 Jan.||28.0 19 June||66.9||48.2||57.5||142||6.10 17 May||W, S.|
|Greenmeadows (Napier)||84.0 20 Jan.||28.8 19 June||64.8||47.9||56.3||113||4.52 18 May||29.946||S, W, W.|
|New Plymouth||81.0 3 Mar.||33.0 13 June||69.8||50.1||60.0||169||2.48 14 April, 26 May||SE, SW, E.|
|Levin||82.0, 30 Jan., 17 Feb.||27.5, 7 July||65.4||45.9||55.7||158||2.70, 9 July||W, NE, E.|
|Wellington||76.0, 24 Jan.||35.4, 16 June||61.0||50.2||55.6||180||6.32, 25 Feb.||29.944||N, S, NW.|
|Nelson||84.0, 21 Jan.||31.0, 29 June||64.8||47.4||56.1||115||1.87, 20 June||SW, N, SE.|
|Hokitika||79.0, 3 Mar.||26.0, 27 June||63.1||44.8||53.9||156||3.80, 20 June||29.937||SW, E, NW|
|Christchurch||85.9, 21 Mar.||24.6, 17 July||61.3||43.1||52.2||127||2.94, 12 June||29.907||NE, SW.|
|Hanmer||83.0, 17 Feb.||12.0, 12 July||60.7||40.7||30.7||120||6.40, 24 July||NW, SW.|
|Lincoln||85.4, 21 Mar.||27.3, 18 & 19 May||62.8||44.2||53.5||122||4.16, 11 June||29.922||NE, SW.|
|Dunedin||82.0, 22 & 23 Mar.||29.0, 26 & 27 June||58.1||43.0||50.5||140||1.75, 22 Nov.||29.879||SW, NE.|
Table of Contents
Captain William Hobson, E.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.
[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]
Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 184-3.
Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.
Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.
[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster; he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster; he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn n, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, G.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.
Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B, Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.
Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar, 1873.
Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.
Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.
The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan, 1875, to 21 Feb, 1879.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar, 1879.
Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar, 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept, 1880.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov, 1880.
The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.
Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan, 1883, to 22 Mar, 1889.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.
The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb, 1892.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.
The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb, 1897.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9 Aug., 1897.
The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10 Aug, 1897, to 19 June, 1904.
The Right Honourable William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., from 20 June, 1904, to 8 June, 1910.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 June, 1910, to 22 June, 1910.
The Right Honourable John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, K.C.M.G., Baron Islington, D.S.O, from 22 June, 1910.
SUPREME COURT JUDGES.
SUPREME COURT JUDGES, PASTANDPRESENT, WITH DATES OF APPOINTMENT , AND OF RESIGNATION OR DEATH.
Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.
H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Held office until March, 1852. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.
Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.
Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec., 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.
A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.
C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.
J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.
C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.
Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1099.
T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.
Hon. Sir J. S. Williams, Kt., appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.
Hon. J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.
B. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889. Resigned, 9 Sept., 1903.
Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.
Hon. W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.
F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April, 1899.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.
J. C. Martin, Acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900. Resigned. 4 Dec., 1900.
Hon. Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21 Feb., 1901.
Hon. F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11 Sept., 1903.
C. E. Button, appointed temporarily, 12 March, 1907. Resigned. 29th Feb., 1908.
Hon. William Alexander Sim, appointed, 16 January 1911.
MEMBERSOFTHE EXECUTIVE COUNCILOFTHE DOMINIONOF NEW ZEALANDPREVIOUSTOTHE ESTABLISHMENTOF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT (NOTINCLUDINGTHE OFFICERS COMMANDINGTHE FORCES).
Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.
Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.
George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.
William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.
Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May,] 842, to 7 May, 1856.
Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.
[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her late Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]
James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.
Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.
Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.
Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.
|NUMBEROF PARLIAMENTSSINCETHE CONSTITUTION ACTPASSEDFORCONFERRINGREPRESENTATIVEINSTITUTIONSUPONTHE DOMINIONOF NEW ZEALAND, WITHTHE DATES OF OPENING AND CLOSING OF SESSIONS AND DATES OF DISSOLUTION.|
|Parliament.||Date of Opening of Sessions.||Date of Prorogation.|
|First (dissolved 15tb September, 1855)||27 May, 1854||9 August, 1854.|
|31 August, 1854||16 September, 1854.|
|8 August, 1855||15 September, 1855.|
|Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)||15 April, 1856 (No session in 1857)||16 August, 1856.|
|10 April, 1858 (No session in 1859)||21 August, 1858.|
|30 July, 1860||5 November, 1860.|
|Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)||3 June, 1861||7 September, 1861.|
|7 July, 1862||15 September, 1862.|
|19 October, 1863||14 December, 1863.|
|24 November, 1864||13 December, 1864.|
|26 July, 1865||30 October, 1865.|
|Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)||30 June, 1866||8 October, 1866.|
|9 July, 1867||10 October, 1867.|
|9 July, 1868||20 October, 1868.|
|1 June, 1869||3 September, 1869.|
|14 June, 1870||13 September, 1870.|
|Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)||14 August, 1871||16 November, 1871.|
|16 July, 1872||25 October, 1872.|
|15 July, 1873||3 October, 1873.|
|3 July, 1874||31 August, 1874.|
|20 July, 1875||21 October, 1875.|
|Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)||15 June, 1876||31 October, 1876.|
|19 July, 1877||10 December, 1877.|
|26 July, 1878||2 November, 1878.|
|11 July, 1879||11 August, 1879.|
|Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)||24 September, 1879||19 December, 1879.|
|28 May, 1880||1 September, 1880.|
|9 June, 1881||24 September, 1881.|
|Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)||18 May, 1882||15 September, 1882.|
|14 June, 1883||8 September, 1883.|
|5 June, 1884||24 June, 1884.|
|Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)||7 August, 1884||10 November, 1884.|
|11 June, 1885||22 September, 1885.|
|13 May, 1886||18 August, 1886.|
|26 April, 1887||10 July, 1887.|
|Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)||6 October, 1887||23 December, 1887.|
|10 May, 1888||31 August, 1888.|
|20 June, 1889||19 September, 1889.|
|19 June, 1890||18 September, 1890.|
|Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)||23 January, 1891||31 January, 1891.|
|11 June, 1891||25 September, 1891.|
|23 June, 1892||12 October, 1892.|
|22 June, 1893||7 October, 1893.|
|Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)||21 June, 1894||24 October, 1894.|
|20 June, 1895||2 November, 1895.|
|11 June, 1896||19 October, 1896.|
|Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)||7 April, 1897||12 April, 1897.|
|23 September, 1897||22 December, 1897.|
|24 June, 1898||5 November, 1898.|
|23 June, 1899||24 October, 1899.|
|Fourteenth (dissolved 5th November, 1902)||22 June, 1900||22 October, 1900.|
|1 July, 1901||8 November, 1901.|
|1 July, 1902||4 October, 1902.|
|Fifteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1905)||29 June, 1903||25 November, 1903.|
|28 June, 1904||8 November, 1904.|
|27 June, 1905||31 October, 1905.|
|Sixteenth (dissolved 29th October, 1908)||27 June, 1906||3 July, 1906.|
|21 August. 1906||29 October, 1906.|
|27 June, 1907||25 November, 1907.|
|29 June, 1908||12 October, 1908.|
|Seventeenth (dissolved 20th November, 1912)||10 June, 1909||17 June, 1909.|
|7 October, 1909||29 December, 1909.|
|28 June, 1910||5 December, 1910.|
|27 July, 1911||30 October, 1911.|
|Eighteenth||15 February, 1912||1st March, 1912.|
|SINCETHE ESTABLISHMENTOF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENTIN NEW ZEALANDIN 1856.|
|Name of Ministry.||Assumed Office.||Retired.|
* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April. 1893.
† Owing to the death of the Premier, Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.O., on 10th June, 1906.
|1. Bell-Sewell||7 May, 1856||20 May, 1856.|
|2. Fox||20 May, 1856||2 June, 1856.|
|3. Stafford||2 June, 1856||12 July, 1861.|
|4. Fox||12 July, 1861||6 August, 1862.|
|5. Domett||6 August, 1862||30 October, 1863.|
|6. Whitaker-Fox||30 October, 1863||24 November, 1864.|
|7. Weld||24 November, 1864||16 October, 1865.|
|8. Stafford||16 October, 1865||28 June, 1869.|
|9. Fox||28 June, 1869||10 September, 1872.|
|10. Stafford||10 September, 1872||11 October, 1872.|
|11. Waterhouse||11 October, 1872||3 March, 1873.|
|12. Pox||3 March, 1873||8 April, 1873.|
|13. Vogel||8 April, 1873||6 July, 1875.|
|14. Pollen||6 July, 1875||15 February, 1876.|
|15. Vogel||15 February, 1876||1 September, 1876.|
|16. Atkinson||1 September, 1876||13 September, 1876.|
|17. Atkinson (reconstituted)||13 September, 1876||13 October, 1877.|
|18. Grey||15 October, 1877||8 October, 1879.|
|19. Hall||8 October, 1879||21 April, 1882.|
|20. Whitaker||21 April, 1882||25 September, 1883.|
|21. Atkinson||25 September, 1883||16 August, 1884.|
|22. Stout-Vogel||16 August, 1884||28 August, 1884.|
|23. Atkinson||28 August, 1884||3 September, 1884.|
|24. Stout-Vogel||3 September, 1884||8 October, 1887.|
|25. Atkinson||8 October, 1887||24 January, 1891.|
|26. Ballance||24 January 1891||1 May, 1893.*|
|27. Seddon||1 May, 1893.||21 June, 1906.†|
|28. Hall-Jones||21 June, 1906||6 August, 1906.|
|29. Ward||6 August, 1906||28 March, 1912.|
|30. Mackenzie||28 March, 1912|
Name of Premier.
Edward William Stafford.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.
Edward William Stafford.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.
George Marsden Waterhouse.
Hon. William Fox.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.
Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.
Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Appointment.||Date of Retirement or Death.|
|Hon. William Swainson||16 May, 1854||8 August, 1855.|
|Hon. Frederick Whitaker||8 August, 1855||12 May, 1856.|
|Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley||12 May, 1856||1 July, 1868.|
|Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.||1 July, 1868||14 June, 1879.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||14 June, 1879||22 April, 1887|
|Hon. George Marsden Waterhouse||22 April, 1887||21 September, 1887.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||21 September, 1887||23 January, 1891.|
|Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.||23 January, 1891||28 June, 1892.|
|Hon. Sir Henry John Miller||8 July, 1892.||9 July 1903.|
|6 October, 1897|
|Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.||9 July, 1903||5 January, 1904.|
|Hon. John Rigg (Acting)||5 January, 1904||7 July, 1904.|
|Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G.||7 July, 1904||23 March, 1905.|
|Hon. R. H. J. Reeves (Acting)||23 March, 1905||4 July, 1905.|
|Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, Kt.||4 July, 1905.|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Election.||Date of Retirement.|
|Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.||26 May, 1854||3 June, 1861.|
|15 April, 1856|
|Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.||3 June, 1861.||13 Sept., 1870.|
|30 June, 1866|
|Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.||14 August, 1871||21 October, 1875.|
|Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||15 June, 1876||13 June 1879.|
|Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||11 July, 1879.||3 October, 1890.|
|24 September, 1879.|
|18 May, 1882.|
|7 August, 1884.|
|6 October, 1887|
|Hon. Major William Jukes Steward||23 January, 1891||8 November, 1893.|
|Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||21 June, 1894.||5 November, 1902.|
|6 April, 1897.|
|22 June, 1900|
|Hon. Sir Arthur Robert Guinness, Kt. Bach.||29 June, 1903.|
|27 June, 1906.|
|10 June, 1909.|
|15 February, 1912.|
31ST MAY, 1911.
ISLINGTON, His Excellency the Right Honourable John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, Baron (United Kingdom, 1910). P.C., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. Educated at Harrow and at Christchurch, Oxford. A Chairman of the Board of Trade Arbitration Court, Hon. Lieutenant in the army, and a Knight of Grace of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, in England. Formerly Lieutenant, 3rd Battalion Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) and Major and Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Royal Wilts Yeomanry. Served in South Africa, 1900, with 1st Battalion Imperial Yeomanry (Despatches, D.S.O.). Appointed a member of the Royal Commissions on London Traffic, 1904, and Trade Relations between Canada and the West Indies, 1908. M.P. for Wiltshire, 1892-1908. Member of the London County Council, 1898-1904.
Residences: 8 Chesterfield Gardens, Mayfair, London; Hartham Park, Corsham, Wilts, England; Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.
Private Secretary: Arthur Guise, Esq.
Assistant Secretary: A. C. Day, Esq.
Aides-de-Camp: Captain William John Shannon, 16th Lancers; Captain T. MacDougall, Grenadier Guards; Captain T. Estcourt, Scots Greys.
Honorary Aides-de-Camp: Colonel J. H. Boscowen; Colonel R.J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.; Colonel W. A. Day; Colonel A. H. Russell; Lieut.-Colonel R. Logan.
Honorary Physician: Colonel J. R. Purdy.
Honorary Surgeon: Surgeon-General S. Skerman.
The Executive Council now consists of:—
His Excellency the GOVERNOR.
Hon. Thomas Mackenzie, Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, and Minister of Industries and Commerce.
Hon. Arthur Mielziner Myers, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Railways.
Hon. William Donald Stuart MacDonald, Native Minister and Minister of Public Works.
Hon. Te Rangihiroa (Member of the Executive Council representing the Native race).
Hon. Josiah Alfred Hanan, Minister of Education, Minister of Stamp Duties, and Minister of Justice.
Hon. George Laurenson, Minister of Customs, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Marine.
Hon. George Warren Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Public Health, and Minister of Immigration.
Hon. Henry George Ell, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs.
Hon. James Colvin, Minister of Mines.
Hon. Thomas Buxton (Member of the Executive Council without portfolio).
Clerk of the Executive Council—James Frank Andrews.
THE number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is thirty-nine, and is not limited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be a male of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of His Majesty, either natural-born or naturalized by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the Dominion are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £200 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting-day is made in case of an absence exceeding fourteen sitting-days in any one session, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. Leave of absence may also be granted by His Excellency the Governor, and when so granted for a session the payment ceases from the date of the Proclamation calling Parliament to meet until the next Proclamation calling Parliament together is issued. Under the Legislature Act, a seat is vacated by any member of the Council (1) if he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2) if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3) if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4) if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5) if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6) if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By
the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council.
The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 p.m. when necessary.
ROLLOF MEMBERSOFTHE HONOURABLETHE LEGISLATIVE COUNCILOF NEW ZEALAND (MAY, 1912).
Speaker—Hon. Sir C. C. BOWEN, Kt. Bach.
Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. P. CARNCROSS
|Name.||Provincial District.||Date of Appointment.|
* Life members.
|Anstey, the Hon. John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas Hall||Marlborough||8 March, 1861.*|
|Baldey, the Hon. Alfred||Otago||18 March, 1910.|
|Barr, the Hon. John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Beehan, the Hon. William||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Bowen, the Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, Kt. Bach.||Canterbury||20 January, 1891.*|
|Callan, the Hon. John Bartholomew||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Carncross, the Hon. Walter Charles Frederick||Taranaki||18 March, 1910.|
|Collins, the Hon. William Edward||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|George, the Hon. Seymour Thorne||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Gilmer, the Hon. Hamilton||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|Harris, the Hon. Benjamin||Auckland||3 February, 1911.|
|Jenkinson, the Hon. John Edward||Canterbury||1 July, 1907.|
|Johnston, the Hon. Charles John||Wellington||23 January, 1891.*|
|Jones, the Hon. George||Otago||13 December, 1909.|
|Kelly, the Hon. Thomas||Taranaki||16 October, 1906.|
|Loughnan, the Hon. Robert Andrew||Wellington||6 May, 1907.|
|Louisson, the Hon. Charles||Canterbury||14 January, 1908.|
|Luke, the Hon. Charles Manley||Wellington||22 January, 1907.|
|McCardle, the Hon. William Wilson||Auckland||22 January, 1907.|
|McLean, the Hon. Sir George, Kt. Bach.||Otago||19 December, 1881.*|
|Marshall, the Hon. James||Westland||17 April, 1909.|
|Miller, the Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt. Bach.||Otago||8 July, 1865.*|
|Mills, the Hon. Charles Houghton||Wellington||2 March, 1909.|
|Ormond, the Hon. John Davies||Hawke's Bay||20 January, 1891.*|
|O'Rorke, the Hon. Sir George Maurice, Kt.||Auckland||25 June, 1904.|
|Paul, the Hon. John Thomas||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Pore, the Hon. Wiremu||Hawke's Bay||22 January, 1907.|
|Rigg, the Hon. John||Wellington||1 July, 1907.|
|Samuel, the Hon. Oliver||Taranaki||22 January, 1907.|
|Sinclair, the Hon. John Robert||Otago||22 January, 1907.|
|Smith, the Hon. George John||Canterbury||22 January, 1907.|
|Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas John||Canterbury||7 March, 1882.*|
|Thompson, the Hon. Thomas||Auckland||18 March, 1910.|
|Tucker, the Hon. William Henry||Auckland||22 January, 1907.|
|Wigram, the Hon. Henry Francis||Canterbury||22 June, 1910.|
The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are now designated Members of Parliament. The number was fixed by the Act of 1900, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1902. Previously (from 1890) the House consisted of seventy-four members, seventy Europeans and four Maoris; and previously to that (from 1881) of ninety-five members, ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island at present returns forty-two European members, and the South Island thirty-four. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in the Legislature Act, 1908, is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the Dominion, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November, 1901, under the provisions of an Act passed in that year. Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.
ROLLOF MEMBERSOF PARLIAMENT (APRIL, 1912) IN HOUSEOF REPRESENTATIVES.
Speaker—Hon. Sir ARTHUR ROBERT GUINNESS, Kt.
Chairman of Committees—JAMES CELVIN.
|Name.||Electoral District.||Date when Write made returnable.|
|For European Electorates.|
|Allen, James||Bruce||19 December, 1911.|
|Anderson, George James||Mataura||19 December, 1911.|
|Atmore, Harry||Nelson||19 December, 1911.|
|Boll, William Henry Dillon||Wellington Suburbs and Country Districts||19 December, 1911.|
|Bollard, John||Eden||19 December, 1911.|
|Bollard, Richard Francis||Raglan||19 December, 1911.|
|Bradney, James Henry||Auckland West||19 December, 1911.|
|Brown, John Vigor||Napier||19 December, 1911.|
|Buchanan, Walter Clarke||Wairarapa||19 December, 1911.|
|Buddo, Hon. David||Kaiapoi||19 December, 1911.|
|Buick, David||Palmerston||19 December, 1911.|
|Buxton, Thomas||Temuka||19 December, 1911.|
|Campbell, Hugh McLean||Hawke's Bay||19 December, 1911.|
|Carroll, Hon. Sir James, K.C.M.G.||Gisborne||19 December, 1911.|
|Clark, Edward Henry||Chalmers||19 December, 1911.|
|Coates, Joseph Gordon||Kaipara||19 December, 1911.|
|Colvin, James||Buller||19 December, 1911.|
|Craigie, James||Timaru||19 December, 1911.|
|Davey, Thomas Henry||Christchurch East||19 December, 1911.|
|Dickie, William James||Selwyn||19 December, 1911.|
|Dickson, James Samuel||Parnell||19 December, 1911.|
|Ell, Henry George||Christchurch South||19 December, 1911.|
|Escott, James Henry||Pahiatua||19 December, 1911.|
|Fisher, Francis Marion Bates||Wellington Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Forbes, George William||Hurunui||19 December, 1911.|
|Fraser, William||Wakatipu||19 December, 1911.|
|Glover, Albert Edward||Auckland Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Guinness, Hon. Sir Arthur Robert, Kt.||Grey||19 December, 1911.|
|Guthrie, David Henry||Oroua||19 December, 1911.|
|Hanan, Josiah Alfred||Invercargill||19 December, 1911.|
|Harris, Alexander||Waitemata||19 December, 1911.|
|Herdman, Alexander Lawrence||Wellington North||19 December, 1911.|
|Herries, William Herbert||Tauranga||19 December, 1911.|
|Hindmarsh, Alfred Humphrey||Wellington South||19 December, 1911.|
|Hine, John Bird||Stratford||19 December, 1911.|
|Hunter, George||Waipawa||19 December, 1911.|
|Isitt, Leonard Monk||Christchurch North||19 December, 1911.|
|Lang, Frederic William||Manukau||19 December, 1911.|
|Laurenson, George||Lyttelton||19 December, 1911.|
|Lee, Ernest Page||Oamaru||19 December, 1911.|
|McCallum, Richard||Wairau||19 December, 1911.|
|MacDonald, William Donald Stuart||Bay of Plenty||19 December, 1911.|
|McKenzie, Hon. Roderick||Motueka||19 December, 1911.|
|Mackenzie, Hon. Thomas||Egmont||19 December, 1911.|
|Malcolm, Alexander Scott||Clutha||19 December, 1911.|
|Mander, Francis||Marsden||19 December, 1911.|
|Massey, William Ferguson||Franklin||19 December, 1911.|
|Millar, Hon. John Andrew||Dunedin West||19 December, 1911.|
|Myers, Arthur Mielziner||Auckland East||19 December, 1911.|
|Newman, Dr. Alfred Kingcome||Wellington East||19 December, 1911.|
|Newman, Edward||Rangitikei||19 December, 1911.|
|Nosworthy, William||Ashburton||19 December, 1911.|
|Okey, Henry James Hobbs||Taranaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Payne, John||Grey Lynn||19 December, 1911.|
|Pearce, George Vater||Patea||19 December, 1911.|
|Poland, Hugh||Ohinemuri||19 December, 1911.|
|Reed, Vernon Herbert||Bay of Islands||19 December, 1911.|
|Rhodes, Robert Heaton||Ellesmere||19 December, 1911.|
|Rhodes, Thomas William||Thames||19 December, 1911.|
|Robertson, John||Otaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Russell, George Warren||Avon||19 December, 1911.|
|Scott, Robert||Otago Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Seddon, Thomas Edward Youd||Westland||19 December, 1911.|
|Sidey, Thomas Kay||Dunedin South||19 December, 1911.|
|Smith, Francis Henry||Waitaki||19 December, 1911.|
|Smith, Robert William||Waimarino||19 December, 1911.|
|Statham, Charles Ernest||Dunedin Central||19 December, 1911.|
|Sykes, George Robert||Masterton||19 December, 1911.|
|Thomson, George Malcolm||Dunedin North||19 December, 1911.|
|Thomson, John Charles||Wallace||19 December, 1911.|
|Veitch, William Andrew||Wanganui||19 December, 1911.|
|Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Bart., P.O., K.C.M.G.||Awarua||19 December, 1911.|
|Wilford, Thomas Mason||Hutt||19 December, 1911.|
|Wilson, Charles Kendall||Taumarunui||19 December, 1911.|
|Witty, George||Riccarton||19 December, 1911.|
|Young, James Alexander||Waikato||19 December, 1911.|
|For Maori Electorates.|
|Te Rangihiroa||Northern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Pomare, Maui||Western Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Ngata, Apirana Turupa||Eastern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
|Parata, Taare||Southern Maori||10 January, 1912.|
The Hon. Sir W. Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 13 Victoria Street, S.W.
Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.
(DOWNING STREET, S.W., LONDON).
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. Lewis Harurt M.P., 7th November, 1910.
Parliamentary Under-Secretary—Lord Emmott.
Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir John Anderson, G.C.M.G.
Assistant Under-Secretaries: Sir H. W. Just, K.C.M.G., C.B.; and G. V. Fiddes, C.B., C.M.G.
WHITEHALL GARDENS, S.W. CITY OFFICE (STOCK TRANSFER OFFICE, 1 TOWNHOUSE BUILDINGS, E.C., LONDON).
Crown Agents—Sir Reginald L. Antrobus, K.C.M.G., C.B.; Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, C.M.G., late R.E.; and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.
Isaac Earl Featherston, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 5th April, 1871. Appointment to date from 25th March, 1871. (Gazette, 1871, page 155.)
(Note —Sir W. Tyrone Power was appointed on 20th June, 1876, by the Crown Agents as temporary Agent-General on the death of Dr. Featherston.)
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 19th September, 1876. Appointment to date from 9th September, 1876, vice I. E. Featherston, deceased. (Gazette, 1876, page 721.)
Sir Francis Dillon Bell appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1878, by Warrant dated 7th December, 1880, vice Sir Julius Vogel, resigned. (Gazette, 1881, page 311.)
Westby Brook Perceval, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 25th September, 1891, vice Sir F. D. Bell. (Gazette, 1891, page 1071.)
The Hon. William Pember Reeves appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 23rd December, 1895, vice Sir W. B. Perceval. (Gazette, 1896, page 50.) Appointed High Commissioner under the High Commissioner Act, 1904, by Warrant dated 14th June, 1905. (Gazette, 1905, page 1509.) Reappointed High Commissioner as from 14th June, 1908. (Gazette, 1908, page 1921.)
The Hon. Sir William Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., appointed from 1st December, 1908, vice Hon. W. P. Reeves. Assumed office 18th January. 1909. (Gazette, 1909, page 27.) Appointment extended to 31st December, 1911. (Gazette, 1911, page 2720.) Appointment further extended to 31st March, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 45.) Appointment further extended to 31st May, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 1227.)
H.M. TRADE COMMISSIONERS.
New Zealand—W. G. Wickham, 9 Grey Street, Wellington. Australia—C. Hamilton Wicks. (Telegraphic address: “Combrit.”) Canada—Richard Grigg, Montreal. (Telegraphic address: “Britcoin.”) South Africa—R. Sothern Holland, Cape Town. (Telegraphic address: “Austere.”)
IMPERIAL TRADE CORRESPONDENTS.
A. J. Denuiston, Auckland; W. T. Monkman, Dunedin.
TRADE COMMISSIONERFORTHE DOMINIONOF CANADA.
W. A. Beddoe, Auckland.
CONSULSOF FOREIGN COUNTRIESRESIDINGIN, ORWITH JURISDICTIONOVER NEW ZEALAND, 31ST MAY, 1912.
Argentine Republic.—Vice-Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): Hon. T. Fergus, Dunedin.
Austria-Hungary.—Consul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the South Sea Islands: Heinrich Jehlitschka, Sydney. Consul: E. Langguth, Auckland.
Belgium.—Consul-General for Australasia and Fiji: F. Huylebroeck, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): A. Dauge, Sydney. Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Provincial Districts of Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consul: G. F. Johnston, Wellington. Consul (with jurisdiction over the Districts of Canterbury, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland): Joseph James Kinsey, Christchurch. Consuls: Alexander Manual Ferguson, Auckland; George Lyon Denniston, Dunedin.
Brazil.—Vice-Consul: A. H. Miles, Wellington.
China.—Consul: Chow Si Lanchu, Wellington.
Chili.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: William Brown, Sydney. Honorary Consuls: Georgo Dunnet, Auckland; Albert Martin, M.D., Wellington; J. G. F. Palmer, Christchurch; J. A. Roberts., Dunedin.
Denmark.—Consul (for North Island): Fancis Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington (Principal Consulate). Vice-Consul: William Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington. Consul (for South Island): Henry Bylove Sorensen, Christchurch. Vice Consuls: Paul Maximilian Hansen, Auckland; William Edward Perry, Hokitika; Odin Henry MÖller, Dunedin.
France.—Consul (for New Zealand): Auckland. Vice-Consul: Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin. Consular Agents: George Humphreys, Christchurch; James Macintosh, Wellington.
German Empire.—Consul General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, British New Guinea, and British Islands in the southern seas situated between Tonga and the French Possessions: Richard Kiliani, Sydney. Vice-Consul-General; Count Deym Von Stritez, Sydney. Consuls: Carl Seegner, Auckland; Willi Fels, Dunedin; Karl Joosten, Christchurch; Friedrich August Krull, Wanganui; Eberhard Focke, Wellington.
Greece.—Vice-Consul for the Dominion of New Zealand: Joseph Frank Dyer, Wellington.
Honduras.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: Frederic Walsh, Sydney.
Italy.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: Commendatore Luigi Mercatelli, Melbourne. Vice-Consul: G. Ferrando, Melbourne. Consular Agents: Thomas Wallace, Christchurch; Poland Thomas Robertson, Wellington; Sir James Mills, K.C.M.G., Dunedin: Geraldo Giuseppe Perotti, Greymouth; Charles Rhodes, Auckland.
Japan.—Consul: Thomas Young, Wellington. Consul-General: M Saito, Sydney.
Liberia.—Consul: Hon. Charles Louisson, Christchurch. Honorary Consul: Arnold Woodford Izard, Wellington.
Mexico.—Consul: John William Hall, Auckland.
Netherlands.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: W. L. Bosschart, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand and the Islands belonging thereto): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: George Ritchie, Dunedin; Ambrose Millar, Auckland; Harold Featherston Johnston, Wellington; G. de Vries, Christchurch.
Norway.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent Islands: O. RÖmcke, Melbourne. Consul: Alex, W. Newton, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sigurd Bentzon, Melbourne; Leslie Robert Wilson, Dunedin; Robert Millar, Auckland; Albert Peter Gundersen, Christchurch; Mathias Ericksen Wüg, Invercargill; Richard Rowland Whyte, Westport.
Paraguay.—Consul: A. E. Kernot, Wellington.
Peru.—Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand): J. Maitland Paxton, Sydney. Consul: Ambrose Millar, Auckland.
Portugal—Consul: John Duncan, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Henry Rees George, Auckland; Arthur Donald Stuart Duncan, Wellington: Charles William Rattray, Dunedin.
Russia.—Consul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Dominion of New Zealand: A. N. d'Abaza, Melbourne.
Spain.—Consul-in-Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand): Senor Don Mario, Pinies y Bayona, Melbourne. Honorary Vice-Consul: Alexander H. Turnbull, Wellington.
Sweden.—Consul: Arthur Edward Pearce, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sidney Jacob Nathan, Auckland; Albert Kaye, Christchurch.
United Slates of America.—Consul-General (for New Zealand and its dependencies): William A. Prickitt, Auckland. Vice-Consul-General: Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland. Consular Agents: Frank Graham, Christchurch; Charles Harcourt Turner, Wellington; Frederick Orlando Bridgeman, Dunedin.
Uruguay.—Consul: Don Cesar Montero Bustamente Wellington.
|Cook Islands Administration||68|
|Grown Law Office||65|
|High Commissioner's Office||71|
|Hospitals and Charitable Aid||73|
|House of Representatives||60|
|Land Transfer and Deeds Registry||68|
|Land and Income Tax||81|
|Land for Settlements||86|
|Lands and Survey||78|
|Machinery Inspection and Survey of Ships||76|
|Marine and Harbours||75|
|Native Land Court||65|
|New Zealand Institute||72|
|Post and Telegraph Department||62|
|Prime Minister's Office||60|
|Printing and Stationery||72|
|Public Service Superannuation Office||69|
|State Fire Insurance||89|
|Appeal, Board of. Post and Telegraph Department||63|
|Appeal, Boards of Railway Department||65|
|Civil Service Guarantee Board||92|
|Examiners under the Coal-mines Act, Board of||69|
|Examiners under the Mining Act, 1908, Board of||69|
|Examiners of Stationary, Traction, Locomotive, Winding Engine Drivers, and Electric - tram Drivers, Board of||77|
|Investment, Board of, Government Insurance Department||89|
|Land Purchase Board||86|
|Maori Land Boards||65|
|National Provident Fund Board||61|
|Native Reserves Board||88|
|Public Service Classification Board||92|
|Public Service Superannuation Board||92|
|Public Trust Office Board||88|
|Public Works Tenders Board||91|
|Railways Superannuation Board||65|
|Scenery Preservation Board||81|
|State Fire Board||89|
|Surveyors Board of New Zealand||81|
|Workers' Dwellings Board||78|
1ST APRIL, 1912.
Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.
Clerk-Assistant and Acting Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod—A. T. Bothamley.
Second Clerk - Assistant — B. E. S. Stocker, M.A.
Interpreter—F. H. Phillips.
Clerk of House—H. Otterson.
Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.
Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.
Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. W. Kane.
Record Clerk—W. E. Dasent.
Chief Hansard Reporter—Silas Spragg.
Hansard Reporters—W. Berry, W. Leslie, J. M. Geddes, W. H. Russell, H. M. Gore, J. Gray, D. H. Cameron, R. G. Thomson, F. W. Weston, J. W. Stevenson.
Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks.
Clerk of Writs—J. Hislop.
Deputy Clerk of Writs—G. P. Newton.
Interpreter—D. F. G. Barclay.
Prime Minister—Hon. T. Mackenzie.
Secretary to Cabinet and Clerk of the Executive Council (also Secretary to the Prime Minister)—J. F. Andrews.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of New Zealand Consols—J. W. Poynton.
Accountant to the Treasury and Deputy Registrar of New Zealand Consols—E. L. Mowbray.
Chief Clerk—A. O. Gibbes.
Cashier-C. E. Chittey.
Clerks—J. J. Esson, A. J. Morgan, M. S. Seddon, T. J. Davis, J. A. Martin, J. H. Stock, H. Hawthorn, R. J. S. Hickson, W. Wilson, F. H. Tuckey, G. C. Rodda, W. M. Townshend, F. J. Chittey, G. Scott, R. Witheford, S. Eraser, C. B. Carpenter, A. J. Trezise, A. C. McIntrye, T. M. Highet, J. D. Naughton, A. H. Duff, C. Boyd, J. G. Spotswood, L. McIntosh, W. L. Clapson, P. Dunstan, M. Ralston, D. M. Schramm, E. Toms, E. M. Taylor, T. H. Jones, E. M. Bodmin, G. E. Miller, G. D. Hamilton, H. Stafford, C. J. Fisher, F. J. McComisky, E. C. Clarke, W. H. Welsh, D. E. Mackay, F. Prideaux, H. Vivian, J. B. Waton, D. R. Dinnie, D. T. Moroney, A. P. Lewis, G. King.
Cadets—E. Pearce, H. T. Hartley, H. N. Scrimshaw, H. S. Clarke, A. G. Hickson, J. T. O'Shea, K. E. Shaw.
Registrar—R. E. Hayes.
Revising Barrister—E. Y. Rodward.
Actuary—A. T. Traversi.
Clerks—J. G. Roache, R. D. Spraggon, L. R. Hamilton, M. A. Bridson, L. P. Minifie.
Cadets—G. E. Bradley, P. H. Jones.
Members—Hon. the Minister of Finance (Chairman, ex officio). Dr. Hay, Messrs. J. W. Poynton, G. F. C. Campbell, and R. E. Hayes.
Superintendent of Fund—R. E. Hayes.
Secretary to Board—A. T. Traversi.
Boards meets third Thursday in February, May, August, and November, or as business requires.
Commissioner of Taxes—G. F. C. Campbell.
Clerk in Charge. Income-tax—J. M. King.
Clerk in Charge, Land-tax—H. Nancarrow.
Receiver of Land and Income Tax—C. V. Kreeft.
Inspectors—W. M. Tyers, D. G. Clark.
Clerk in Charge, Graduated Tax—E. W. Watson.
Clerks—D. R. Purdie, E. J. R. Cumming, J. M. Glasgow, H. S. Barron, J. M. Park, R. Hirschberg, L. F. Men, L. Powell, P. Hodgkins, E. M. Pytt-Jackson, N. Kennedy, E. Hyde, H. H. A. Young.
Typistes—E. C. Graves, M. A. Rogers.
Cadets—B. Black, E. L. Enting, R. H. Martin, H. C. Grout, C. W. Thorn.
Clerks—E. Randell, J. M. Smythe, R. R. Leys, A. S. Williamson, C. T. Rout, C. E. Dowland, P. H. Wood, W. H. Doyle, S. C. Lambert, M. G. Fisher, T. Hoggard, J. B. Hobart, W. B. Rhodes, J. A. Horne, St. G. A. Dowsing, J. H. Clark, F. F. Laurenson, F. Houldsworth, J. Monahan, C. Headland, E. W. Arnold, W. H. Phillips, C. Mundy, R. Grant, W. Penney, G. Walsh, H. F. Wood, J. T. D'Emden, B. Hibbard, H. L. Rosenberg, F. Bray, S. J. A. Hill, C. Sparrow, J. Coogan, W. V. Fantham, R. S. Wakelin.
Cadets—A. C. Watson, L. F. Cooper, W. G. Clinkard, A. E. Reed, F. B. Auburn, O. S. Harvey.
Valuer-General—F. W. Flanagan.
Officers in Charge—A. J. McGowan, Auckland; H. L. Wiggins. Christchurch; A. Clothier, Dunedin: T. L. Oswin, Invercargill.
Clerks — Wellington: C. J. Lovatt (Chief), F. W. Barnett (Accountant), W. A. Clachan, C. H. Biss, E. H. Fisher, T. J. Rowse, H. A. Anderson, H. J. Valentine, J. H. Shine, E. H. Eton, H. Christie, J. Guthrie, M. V. Card, G. F. Cooke, W. Lovell, A. T. McCaw, F. K. Tucker, C. J. Hurley, J. Long.
Draughtsmen—Wellington, H. H. Seed, F. W. Clayton, J. Wells; Christchurch, J. D. Hutchin.
District Valuers—W. F. Thompson, Whangarei; E. Morgan, Onehunga; B. J. Esam, Auckland; G. W. Hyde, Hamilton; W. F. Wallis, Morrinsville; J. H. Burch, Rotorua; F. F. McKenzie (Acting), Auckland; H. A. Ellison, Te Kuiti; J. B. Wallis (Assisting), Auckland; W. E. Akroyd, Gisborne; G. H. Llovd, Hastings; H. F. Russell, New Plymouth; D. Craig, Wanganui; E. P. Fowler, Masterton; H. J. C. Coutts, Palmerston North; J. Ames, F. N. Martin, G. Halliday (Acting), A. E. S. Gill (Assisting), N. H. Mackie (Assisting), Wellington; E. Kenny Picton: H. Murray, D. H. Pullar (Acting). Christchurch; J. M. Kelly, Rangiora; G. Mason, O'Kain's Bay; D. Stowell, Timaru; E. A. Atkinson, Oamaru; J. F. H. McCarthy, Dunedin; R. Milne, Milton; J. George, Lumsden; J. Smaill, Gore; D. P. Varcoe (Assisting), Invercargill.
Clerks—Auckland, T. C. Somers, W. Gulliver, T. P. Gilfedder, P. G. Pearce, C. W. Chilcott; Christchurch, A. Millar, J. E. Johnston, G. J. Russell, N. Smythe, B. Nixon; Dunedin, C. de R. Andrews, M. J. Drysdale; Invercargill, A. Wylie, W. W. King.
Cadets — Auckland, H. C. Fletcher, V. E. Lough, M. T. John; Wellington, W. G. McClintock, G. S. Rowe, B. Carter, R. A. Armstrong, L. W. Simpson; Christchurch, P. J. P. Dwyer, E. J. Bridgeman, P. W. Miller; Dunedin, F. G. Glastonbury, A. W. Clulee; Invercargill, W. A. McCaw.
Minister of Stamp Duties—Hon. J. A. Hanan.
Private Secretary—H. D. Grocott.
Commissioner of Stamps—P. C. Corliss.
Chief Clerk—C. H. W. Dixon.
Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore.
Accountant—J. P. Murphy.
Inspecting Valuator; G. W. Jänisch.
Clerks—V. Willeston, C. McIntosh, G. Tinney, R. Smythe, B. L. Dallard, J. H. McKay.
Chief Stamper—A. A. Somerville.
Cadets—R. Chapman, F. O'Connor.
Auckland—W. G. Fletcher.
Gisborne—R. N. Jones.
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.
Wellington—C. H. W. Dixon.
Nelson—W. W. de Castro.
Canterbury—P. G. Withers.
Timaru—H. W. Capper.
Westland—W. P. Morgan.
Auckland—W. G. Fletcher.
Poverty Bay—R. N. Jones.
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.
Wellington—C. H. W. Dixon.
Nelson—W. W. de Castro.
Canterbury—P. G. Withers.
Westland—W. P. Morgan.
Postmaster - General and Minister of Telegraphs—Hon. H. G. Ell.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Secretary, Post and Telegraph Department, and Commissioner of Old-age Pensions—D. Robertson.
Assistant Secretary—W. R. Morris.
Chief Clerk—F. V. Waters.
Staff—J. C. Williamson (Second Clerk), W. Crow, H. D. Grocott, J. C. Redmond, A. T. Markmann, W. J. Gow, R. C. O'Connor, J. E. Broadfoot.
F. W. Furby, G. G. Rose, M.A., G. McNamara, S. Macalister, C. A. Mathieson, J. P. P. Clouston, A. Donovan, W. I. Dawson, W. J. Wilkie, W. H. Barnett, J. F. Brown, W. G. Cooper, J. F. Wilson, K. G. Chamberlain, T. E. A. Duffy, S. J. Smith, T. Mark, G. L. Popple, J. E. Hunt, D. E. Fouhy, D. G. Cody, J. A. Smyth, E. J. Spooner, E. R. Fallwell, G. B. Farmer, A. D. Troup, E. J. R. Downard, N. T. Polley, A. C. Affleck, A. McGill, A. J. Ryan, E. T. Poison.
Chief Telegraph Engineer—J. Orchiston.
Chief Electrician—T. Buckley.
Staff—R. Heinitz, F. Palmer, A. Gibbs, C. S. Plank, H. L. Cummings, E. C. Gage, L. L. Macey, J. C. Fairbairn, J. Webster.
Controller of Money-orders and Savings-banks—J. L. H. Ledger.
Chief Accountant—H. A. R. Huggins.
Staff—W. Chegwidden (First Clerk) F. T. R. Johnston, W. E. Keefe, H. G. Cornwall, A. J. A. Roberts, G. Levy, D. A. Jenkins, C. B. Harton, H. D. Edwards, F. E. Beamish, P. D. Hoskins, H. C. Milne, J. Snell, M.A., S. J. Bolton, W. H. Carter, F. W. Faber, F. S. Robins, F. Stewart, W. R. Wakelin, A. Marshall, H. E. Combs, F. G. A. Eagles, E. White, F. Wilton, J. Madden, P. Cutforth, G. Foote, W. Gilbert, R. M. Porteous, D. Rutherford, A. Leeden, R. H. Twose, C. Gamble, L. C. Forgie, P. Williams, J. A. Humphrey, W. A. Smith, C. B. Burdekin, H. A. Lamb, T. A. Churches, C. H. Clinkard, H. J. Copping, N. V. Ross, D. A. McCurdy, G. B. Williamson, O. L. T. Harrison, T. Blown, A. M. Rosie, F. D. Andrews, E. E. Mortimer, C. A. Jeffery, J. Macmorran, J. T. Schulenburg, J. C. Arthur, J. A. Goodwin
W. Findlay, F. G. Furniss, J. K, Brooks, H. Toner, E. J. G. Loader, S. McDowall, J. C. Paul, W. T. Bird, C. J. H. Davidson, L. F. Bruce, R. T. McElligott, J. F. J. Hanratty, T. A. Jackson, V. J. Brogan, F. S. Hodson, R. G. Pullar, C. E. C. Milner, C. W. Robinson, R. S. James, J. H. Mitchell, G. B. Brown, G. T. Kellaway, T. P. M. Grace, E. C. B. Wilkinson, W. G. Sage, R. McKenzie, C. H. Gannaway, E. A. Wiggins, T. L. Darby, P. H. Cross, C. J. Boveridge, A. Waterman, S. L. White, W. H. Coop, J. H. Z. Geddes, A. E. Bate, J. R. McKee, A. W. Godsell, E. B. Kay, L. D. Bourke, A. J. V. Johnston, E. Harris, B. M. Kenny, M. A. M. Macleod, M. A. Asquith, E. E. Warren, R. E. E. Alexander, C. M. Jordan, P. E. Mackay, C. A. Coady, A. R. Payne, E. H. Dudley, M. Meacham, M. T. Gray, J. A. Scully, C. M. Godsell, A. J. Reid, J. L. Robertson.
Deputy Commissioner of Old-age Pensions—G. C. Fache.
Staff—J. A. Thomson, I. E. Wiren, F. M. Leckie, J. R. Williams, H. C. Hickson, J. H. Reynolds, J. S. Lambert, W. M. Moore, H. D. Smith, A. W. Robertson, M. McCartney, G. O. Morgan, R. P. Smyth, P. S. N. Council, H. Harris, J. H. Buohan.
Inspector of Post-offices—G. B. Dall.
Staff—G. V. Hudson, J. Brennan, W. A. Tanner, S. M. Harrison, H. McGill, G. A. Maskew, T. O. Lambie, L. Sleightholme, E. M. Phillips, H. G. Shakes, C. O. Coad, W. A. Evans, T. H. Langford, G. R. Edwards.
Inspector of Savings-banks—
Assistant Inspector of Savings-banks—W. Gee.
Inspector of Telegraph Offices—H. W. Harrington.
Staff—W. A. Andrews, J. Robertson, D. A. Herbert, W. C. Purdie.
Controller of Stores—C. B. Mann.
Assistant Controller of Stores—C. H. W. Nicholls.
Staff—J. B. Jordan, T. Palmer, M. McGilvray, C. H. N. Clarkson, J. G. Howard, J. L. Murphy, H. W. Cockerill, P. Cunningham, J. O'Sullivan, W. M. Krebs, F. Sutherland, R. S. Wogan, M. A. White, G. E. St. George, F. L. Chapman, H. A. Johnston, J. A. Salmond, W. Gazley, J. S. Hunter, L. C. B. Loveridge, D. O. Miller, C. Cates, E. J. Edwards.
Auckland—P. D. Holdsworth.
*Thames—J. J. Pickett.
*Gisborne—W. H. Renner.
*New Plymouth—A. P. Drydon.
*Wanganui—G. W. Sampson.
*Nelson—W. T. Ward.
*Westport—F. H. Dodd.
*Greymouth—D. St. George.
*Hokitika—G. A. Empson.
Christchurch— R. B. Morris.
*Timaru—H. W. Capper.
*Invercargill—T. T. King.
Auckland—R. M. Baird.
Dunedin—W. E. Chisholm.
Nelson—G. T. Kemp (Assistant).
Wellington-E. A. Shrimpton.
P. Curtis (Northern District); J. H. Stevens (Central District): G. F. Furby (Acting) (Midland District); W. Isbister (Acting) (Southern District).
Auckland—F. G. Gannaway.
Wellington-C. H. M. Hawk.
Christchurch—A. J. Talbot.
Dunedin—B. H. Keys.
General Manager—T. Ronayne.
Chief Clerk—R. W. McVilly.
Clerks — G. Brownlee, W. S. Ridler, J. L. Day, J. O. Duff, J. E. Widdop, D. MacKellar, W. A. Wellings, P. J. McGovern, W. P. Miller, F. M. Sherwood, A. J. Levick, T. H. McLean, R. S. Allwright, A. M. Pratt, R. J. Walker, J. A. Mitchell, A. Benton, W. M. Duncan, R. A. Pepperill, F. Nash, C. W. M. Cameron, T. H. Forster.
Audit Inspectors—D. Munro, I. Karis, H. Williams, J. B. Mitchell.
Chief Accountant—H. Davidson.
Clerks — J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, A. W. J. Cook, C. Batten, J. Firth, W. B. Fisher, E. J. Fleming, E. Davy, H. H. Leopard, R. J. Loe, W. Bourke, T. Pattle, A. H. Hunt, H. D. Smith, P. H. Smith, W. E. Ahem, F. K, Porteous, A. D. C. Gosman, T. A. O'Connor, A. J. McCaul, A. E. Wilson, J. W. Dayman, W. H. Simmons, J. A. F. Gundy, J. B. Gauntlett, P.J. Wright, E. D. H. Heaton, J. P. Treahy, R. A. Fahy, J. Jessen, A. R. Charlton, J. A. McQueen, E. G. Edwards, D. McCallum, R. E. B. Hopkirk, O. M. Ross, F. Davies, R. J. S. Weeher.
Stores Manager—H. Baxter.
Stores Audit Inspector—W. Williams.
Sawmill Manager (Kakahi)—G. Weir.
Clerks—M. C. Rowo, W. H. Chittey, A. E. Boyes, R. H. Stephens, E. J. Guinness, W. E. Curtis, J. Lundon, W. P. Bond, P. M. Muir, F. O. Austin, C. Bearsley, J. P. Harris, T. Fitzgerald, L. W. F. Wiren, A. P. Dwan, H. M. Williamson, C. Cotter, E. J. Dingle, F. B. Knutson, J. M. Power.
Chief Trailic Manager—H. Buxton.
Clerks—G. A. C. Robieson, J. D. Nash, F. G. Craig.
District Managers — Whangarei, W. Sword; Auckland, W. Bowles; Wanganui, J. E. Armstrong; Wellington, S. F. Whitcombe; Westport, ; Westland, A. Duncan Christchurch, W. J. Stringleman; Dunedin, C. A. Piper; Invercargill, T. W. Brehner.
Stationmasters in Charge—Kaihu, R. B. Peat.; Gisborne, H. J. Day; Nelson, T. S. Edwards; Picton, A. M. Arthur.
Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Burnett, M.Inst.C.E.
Inspecting Engineer—F. W. MacLean.
Signal Engineer—H. J. Wynne, A.M. Inst.C.E.
Railway Land Officer—G. McCartney.
Inspector of Bridge-construction—A. H. Alabaster.
Signal Inspector—J. Cheeseman.
Electrician—J. T. Fahy, A.M.I.E.E.
Electrical Mechanician—T. Hendry.
Electric Lines Inspector—E. A. Tomkies.
Office Engineer—G. A. Troup.
Draughtsmen—J. Besant, Ad. Howitt, E. Meek, D. Thomson, W. W. Fry, A. S. Henderson, H. H. Christophers.
Civil Engineering Cadets—H. C. Lusty, H. K. Edie, R. R. Gow, A. A. W. Dromgool, E. W. Lee.
Clerks—W. P. Hicks, W. A. Mirams, E. S. Kelly, F. W. Phillips, J. M. Robb, F. J. Rowden, W. B. Lee, H. McAlister, W. T. Doig, L. H. Campbell, R. Greig, S. Perry, F. P. Adamson, J. A. Simpson, H. L. Andrews, G. McGrath, R. G. McKay, V. R. Bond, J. O'Toole, R. H. C. Mardon.
District Engineers—Auckland, D. T. Mcintosh; Ohakune, J. K. Lowe; Wanganui, F. J. Jones; Wellington, F. C. Widdop; Westport and Westland, C. M. Benzoni; Christchurch, C. H. Biss; Dunedin, H. Macandrew; Invercargill, A. J. McCrcdie.
Chief Mechanical Engineer — A. L. Beattie.
Clerks—J. P. Kelly, R. Aekins, D. D. Weir, B. A. Marris, H. McKeowen, N. P. G. Ewart, L. C. Fama, J. H. Leopard, J. P. McKeowen, J. M. Porteous, E. S. Stringleman, J. Lineham, A. Goodley, R. B. Scott, C. G. Hedge, T. C. McGrath, J. O. Wilson Chief Draughtsman—R. Pye-Smith.
Draughtsmen—S. H. Jenkinson, C. G. G. Berry, G. V. R. Fraser.
Boiler Inspector—J. W. Nichols.
Locomotive Inspector—G. Bowles.
Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, G. E. Richardson; Wellington-Napier - New Plymouth, G. A. Pearson; Hurunui-Bluff, H. H. Jackson; Westport and Westland E. E. Gillon. Relieving, F. T. Murison.
Loco. Inspector (Thames)—C. T. Bargh.
Tech. Clerks—G. Wilson, A. L. Piper.
BOARDS of APPEAL.
Members — Chairman, Alexander Me-Arthur, appointed by the Governor; C. P. Ryan, Clerk, Wanganui, elected; M. Lee, Guard, Wellington, elected; J. L. Churchouse, Ganger, Cross Creek, elected; D. McKenzie, Machinist, Petone, elected; C. G. Lee, Engine-driver, Wanganui.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members — Chairman, William Reeve Haselden, appointed by the Governor; J. Gray, Traffic Inspector, Christchurch, elected; P. Gaines, Guard, Balclutha, elected; J. McNeely, Engineman, Christchurch, elected; J. H. Jones, Turner, Addington, elected; E. J. Dash, Surfaceman, Timaru.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members—Chairman, Hon. A. M. Myers, Minister of Railways; J. L. Salmond, Esq., LL.B., Solicitor-General; F. Fitchett, Esq., M.A., LL.D., Public Trustee; T. Ronayne, Esq., General Manager, Railways: elected — J. Young; R. M. Isaacs; M. Lee; W. T. Wilson; and J. P. Puttick.
Board meets quarterly at Wellington.
Under-Secretary—Thomas W. Fisher.
Chief Clerk.—W. T. Gordon.
Clerks—W. T. Pitt, J. B. Hackworth, L. A. Teutenberg, C. V. Fordham, A. L. Warren.
Private Secretary to Hon. Native Minister—H. R. H. Balneavis.
Private Secretary to Hon. Dr. Rangi-hiroa—J. Harvey.
Translator.—L. M. Grace.
Chief Judge.—Jackson Palmer.
Judges—R. N. Jones, W. E. Rawson. C. E. MacCormick, M. Gilfedder, T. W. Fisher, J. W. Browne, A. G. Holland, T. H. Wilson, J. B. Jack.
Commissioners—H. W. Bishop, W. H. Bowler, H. Carr, C. T. H. Brown.
Registrars—Auckland, E. P. Earle; Wellington, E. A. Welch; Wanganui, A. H. Mackay; Gisborne, H. Carr.
Clerks and Interpreters—A. F. Puckey, C. W. P. Seon, W. E. Goffe, H. M. Stowell, W. T. Pitt, H. R. H. Balneavis, C. P. Newton, W. P. Waitai, Tiweka Anaru, Tukere te Anga, H. P. Parata, J. M. Durie, J. Sheridan.
Meetings gazetted annually.
Tokerau District—W. Dinnie, President, Auckland.
Waikato-Maniapoto District—W. H. Bowler, President, Auckland.
Waiariki District—J. W. Browne, President, Rotorua.
Tairawhiti District — R. N. Jones. President, Gisborne.
Aotea District—J. B. Jack, President. Wanganui.
Ikaroa District—C. T. H. Brown, President, Wellington.
Minister of Justice and Attorney-General—Hon. J. A. Hanan.
Private Secretary—H. D. Grocott.
Under-Secretary—G. C. B. Jordan Chief Clerk—
Clerks—G. F. Dixon, W. Gollan, H. W. Kirkwood, S. C. Hunt.
Cadets—E. Grant, V. R. Crowhurst.
Solicitor - General — J. W. Salmond, LL.B.
Assistant Law Officers — E. Y. Redward, H. H. Ostler.
Law Draftsman—W. Jolliffe.
Assistant Law Draftsman—J. Christie.
Clerks—E. N. G. Poulton (also Private Secretary to Attorney-General), J. M. Tudhope, M. L. Richardson, D. L. Nancarrow.
Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks, Fine Arts and Dramatic Works Copyrights—J. C. Lewis.
Clerks—Mary Eyre, J. A. Hardie.
Wellington — Hon. Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G.
Wellington—Theo. Cooper, F. R. Chapman, W. A. Sim.
Auckland—W. B. Edwards.
Christchurch—J. E. Denniston.
Dunedin—Sir J. S. Williams, Kt.
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Hamilton—F. O'B. Loughnan.
New Plymouth—A. Crooke.
Gisborne—W. A. Barton.
Palmerston North—A. D. Thomson.
Napier—S. E. McCarthy.
Masterton—L. G. Reid.
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper.
Nelson—J. S. Evans.
Blenheim—R. S. Florance.
Christchurch—W. A. Hawkins.
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Greymouth—I. G. L. Hewitt.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Hawke's Bay—S. E. McCarthy.
Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton.
Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper.
Wanganui and Rangitikei—C. A. Barton.
Manawatu—C. J. Hewlett.
Westland North—O. E. Bowling.
Central Westland—H. Smith.
Marlborough—F. W. Hart.
Canterbury—W. A. Hawkins.
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Southland—J. R. Colyer
Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole.
Hamilton—H. T. Gillies.
New Plymouth—T. S. Weston, sen.
Gisborne—J. W. Nolan.
Napier—H. A. Cornford.
Masterton—A. R. Bunny.
Wellington—H. H. Ostler.
Palmerston North—C. A. Loughnan.
Nelson—C. Y. Fell.
Blenheim—C. H. Mills.
Westport—A. A. Wilson.
Christchurch—T. W. Stringer.
Timaru—J. W. White.
Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser.
Oamaru—A. G. Creagh.
Auckland—C. C. Kettle and E. C. Cutten.
Whangarei, &c.—F. V. Frazer.
Hamilton, &c.—F. O'B. Loughnan.
Russell, &c.—R. J. Acheson.
Rotorua, &c.—R. W. Dyer.
Thames, &c.—F. J. Burgess.
Gisborne, &c.—W. A. Barton.
New Plymouth, &c.—A. Crooke.
Hawera, &c.—W. G. K. Kenrick.
Wanganui, &c.—W. Kerr.
Palmerston North, &c.—A. D. Thomson.
Wellington, &c.—A. McArthur, M.A.. LL.D., and W. G. Riddell.
Wairarapa, &c.—L. G. Reid.
Napier, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.
Nelson, &c.—J. S. Evans.
Blenheim, &c.—R. S. Florance.
Christchurch, &c.—H. W. Bishop
Kaiapoi, &c.—T. A. B. Bailey.
Timaru, &c.—V. G. Day.
Greymouth, &c.—J. G. L. Hewitt.*
Westport, &c.—E. Rawson.*
Hokitika, &c.—W. Wilson.*
Dunedin, &c.—H. Y. Widdowson.
Oamaru, &c.—T. Hutchison.*
Milton, &c.—J. R. Bartholomew.*
Queenstown, &c.—H. A. Young.*
Naseby, &c.—W. R. Haselden.*
Invercargill, &c.—G. Cruickshank.*
Chatham Islands—Dr. G. H. Gibson.
Auckland—W. S. Fisher.
Wellington—A. Simpson, J.P.
Dunedin—F. H. Morice.
Hamilton—H. J. Dixon.
New Plymouth—J. Terry.
Hawera—D. W. Mason.
Stratford—F. Bird, jun.
Wanganui—C. A. Barton.
Palmerston North—C. J. Hewlett.
Timaru—T. W. Tayler.
Oamaru—A. A. Mair.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.
Auckland—H. H. G. Ralfe.
Rotorua—A. F. Bent.
Gisborne—G. J. Johnstone.
Wairoa—J. L. Crowther.
Hastings—T. M. Lawlor.
Marton, &c.—H. Morgan.
Feilding—C. V. Roberts.
Wellington—A. H. Holmes.
Christchurch—W. A. D. Banks
Lyttelton—W. D. Wallace.
Kaiapoi and Rangiora—A. G. Ashby.
Waimate—W. Y. Purchase.
Port Chalmers—G. G. Chisholm.
Balclutha—G. H. Sherwood.
Coromandel—F. G. Hutton.
Paeroa and Te Aroha—H. R. Bush.
Tauranga—T. R. W. Philpotts.
Whangarei—W. J. Reeve.
Nelson—E. C. Kelling.
Blenheim—F. W. Hart.
Collingwood—C. E. Taylor.
Westport—O. E. Bowling (on leave). D. P. Phillips.
Ahaura—G. P. Shepherd.
Kumara—G. H. Harris.
Hokitika—J. N. Nalder.
Naseby, &c.—J. C. Malfroy.
Clyde, Black's, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey.
Cromwell—G. N. Morris.
Queenstown and Arrowtown—A. J. Thompson.
Lawrence—J. M. Adam.
Gore—G. H. Lang.
Riverton and Orepuki—H. G. Macfarlane.
Dunedin (Hindon)—R. P. Ward.
Auckland, T. Gresham; Arrowtown. H. Graham; Carterton, J. T. M. Hornsby; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Collingwood, Dannevirke, T. L. Buick; Dunedin, C. C. Graham; Feilding, J. J. Bagnall; Foxton, A. Fraser; Hamilton, J. S. Bond; Kawhia, T. D. Hamilton; Levin, W. C. Nation; Marton, J. J. McDonald; New Plymouth, J. Mackay; Ohakune, E. G. Allsworth; Onehunga, D. A. Sutherland; Opotiki, P. A. Crawford; Otahuhu, A. R. Harris; Paeroa, J. Nathan; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis, Taihape, J. P. Aldridge; Takaka, A. Sinclair; Tapanui, W. Quin; Taumarunui, A. S. Laird; Te Awamutu, J. B. Teasdale; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Te Puke, C. Lally; Thames, W. H. Lucas; Waihi, W. M. Wallnutt; Waipawa, J. C. Taylor; Waiuku, W. J. King; Westport, G. B. Sinclair; Whangarei, J. M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard. All Stipendiary Magistrates are ex officio Coroners.
* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.
Inspector—Dr. J. F. S. Hay, M.B., C.M.
Visiting Adviser—Rev. J. L. A. Kayll.
Gaolers — Auckland, A. W. Ironside; Dunedin, T. R. Pointon; Invercargill, Michael Hawkins; Lyttelton, H. McMurray; Napier, A. Gideon; New Plymouth, J. Coyle; Wellington, J. C. Scanlon; Waiotapu, W. T. Leggett; Hanmer Springs, W. Ayling; Waipa Valley, J. Down.
Clerk—F. G. Twiss.
Resident Commissioner — J. Eman Smith,
Chief Medical and Health Officer—G. Pearce Baldwin. Assistant Medical Officer—A. R. Maclurkin. Collector of Customs—W. J. Stevenson. Registrar. High Court — E. Blaine. Clerk to Federal Council and Government Printer — S. Savage. Fruit Inspector—G. Esam. Resident Agents—Mangaia, J. C. Cameron; Aitutaki, E. F. Hawk; Atiu, J. T. Large; Mauke, J. McCulloch; Penrhyn, R. C. Morgan; Manihiki and Rakahanga, H. Williams.
Chief Clerk—C. E. Matthews.
Clerks—R. F. Madden, J. Evans. A. Hall. J. W. Coard, J. Smyth.
Cadet—J. C. Robinson.
Chief Detective—W. B. McIlveney.
Finger-print Expert—E. W. Dinnie.
Editor Police Gazette—W. McGill.
Police Storekeeper—A. Muggeridge.
Inspectors—John Wybrant Ellison, Nicholas Kiely, Edward Wilson Alfred James Mitchell, John Dwyer, John O'Donovan, Arthur Hobbins Wright, Samuel Percival Norwood.
Sub-Inspectors—William John Phair, Joseph Albert McGrath, Charles William Hendrey, Alexander Cruick shank, Bartholomew Sheehan.
Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. G. Bridges.
Secretary, Land and Deeds—P. C. Corliss.
Accountant—J. C. Murphy.
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.
Wellington—G. G. Bridges.
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.
Poverty Bay—R. N. Jones.
Nelson—J. S. Evans.
Marlborough—R. Stone Florance.
Otago—C. E. Nalder.
Westland—J. G. L. Hewitt.
Minister of Mines—Hon. James Colvin.
Private Secretary—J. H. McAlister.
Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Blow.
Chief Clerk—H. E. Radcliffe.
Clerks—G. Girling-Butcher, J. T. Watkins, T. H. Sherwood, A. N. Polson.
Inspecting Engineer and Inspector of Mines—Frank Reed, M.I.M.E.
District Inspectors: — Thames and Auckland Districts — Boyd Bennie and Matthew Paul; Clerk, G. S. W. R. Hanson: Canterbury, Otago, and Southland Districts — E. R. Green and Thomas Thomson; Clerk, ; West Coast Districts—J. Newton (Westport), A. H. Richards (Hokitika), Otto Bishop (Reefton).
Director—P. G. Morgan, M.A.
Mining Geologist—J. Henderson, M.A., D.Sc.
Palæontologist—J. Allan Thomson, D.Sc.
Lecturers and Instructors:—Thames—W. H. Baker, B.Sc.; Assistant, W. A. Given, M.A.: Coromandel—
: Waihi—A. H. V. Morgan, M.A.: Karangahake—R. B. McDuff: Reefton—J. McPadden: Westport—
Same official members as preceding Board, excepting the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Auckland; T. Gilmour, Waihi; Benjamin Sutherland, Reefton; and H. P. Hornibrooke. Coromandel
The Director of Geological Survey is Chairman of both Boards, and H. E. Radcliffe is the Secretary.
Board meets once a year in Wellington.
General Manager—W. C. Gasquoine.
Mine-manager, Point Elizabeth Colliery Greymouth—James Bishop.
Mine - manager, Seddonville Colliery Westport—I. A. James.
Agent, Westport—A. W. Wilson.
Depot Agent, Wellington — T. Quinlivan.
Depot Agent, Christchurch — W. H. Crothers.
Depot Agent, Wanganui—F. A. Nalder
Depot Agent, Dunedin—F. J. Gunn
Accountant—L. H. Eilers.
Minister of Internal Affairs—Hon. G. W Russell.
Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Chief Clerk—G. P. Newton.
Accountant—A. R Kennedy.
Clerks—J. E. Read, J. H. Ross, J. D. Ferguson, H. Dibley, W. B. Cahill, J. W. A. Heenan, J. E. Hunt.
Typist—Miss R. Rees.
Officer in Charge of Government Buildings—W. H. Hennah.
Secretary—Amelius M. Smith.
Accountant—W. M. Wright.
Clerks—G. C. Smith, J. Fisher, M. P. Finnigan.
Controller and Auditor - General — Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
Deputy Controller and Auditor and Chief Clerk—P. Purvis Webb.
Audit Inspectors—A. A. Bethune, C. G. Collins, A. W. Eames, J. H. Fowler R. A. Gray, C. P. Johnson, A. L. B. Jordan, H. A. Lamb, B. A. Meek, C. A. Ralston, J. Ward, H. Wylie, O. R. Younghusband.
Audit Officer, London—T. H. Hamer.
Examiners—A. M. Adams, T. Auton, W. J. Brooke, A. A. Cairns, E. A. Casey, G. C. Cooke, J. C. A. Dudley, J. T. Dumbell, H. Eastgate, C. E. Easton, L. H. Edwards, J. D. Eves, A. E. Fowler, G. S. Gapper, R. Garriock, T. S. Hamer, J. Mc. Hamilton, F. M. Hay, A. Hore, D. C. Innes, E. S. Innes, K. D. MacLeod, H. L. Marbrook, R. J. Miller, H. M. Nalder, G. H. Richardson, A. G. Robinson, J. P. Rutherford, W. C. Ryan, G. G. Smith, E. E. Smyth, E. Stewart, R. M. Sunley, F. J. Taylor, H. T. Thompson, C. D. Thompson, T. Treahy, A. Watters, A. W. Whyte.
Cadet—C. V. Chamberlain.
Registrar-General—F. W. Mansfield.
Government Statistician—M. Fraser.
Deputy Registrar-General and Chief Clerk—W. W. Cook.
Clerks—F. H. Machattie, S. Coffey, M. A. Ashenden, R. G. Poulton, R. Kirker, J. W. Butcher, H. Alley, H. E. Dowdy, R. C. Barkle.
Shorthand-writers and Typistes—E. M. Swift, L. H. Dixon.
Cadets—R. A. Younger, J. P. Mc-Mahon-Box, K. J. Strack.
Auckland—Registrar, T. Culpan. Clerk, E. Livermore. Cadets, C. C. F. Heywood, E. L. Hale.
Wellington—Registrar, G. G. Hodgkins. Clerks, J. L. Palethorpe, Te Koroneho.
Christchurch — Registrar, F. Evans. Clerk, H. B. McGrath. Cadet, S. G. McIntosh.
Dunedin—Registrar, H. Maxwell. Clerk, W. E. Gladstone. Cadet, W. J. McMillan.
Ashburton, W. W. White; Blenheim, S. E. Harrop; Dannevirke, H, Tilsley; Feilding, C. C. Halliday; Gisborne, H. E. Hill; Gore, C. Whelan; Greymouth, B. Harper; Hamilton, J. S. Bond; Hastings, R. Braithwaite; Hokitika, D. St. George; Invercargill, J. G. Petrie; Lyttelton, W. D. Wallace; Masterton, W. M. Easthope; Napier, W. Buchanan; Nelson, S. Blomfield; New Plymouth, J. S. S. Medley; Oamaru, A. A. Mair; Palmerston North, C. E. Shortt; Petone, F. Ward; Stratford, S. H. James; Thames, W. H. Potts; Timaru, A. Montgomery; Waihi, A. W. Mann; Wanganui, C. E. Hylton; Westport, F. H. Dodd; Whangarei, W. J. Reeve.
(There are also 202 other District Registrars located throughout the Dominion.)
Minister in Charge—Hon. G. W. Russell.
Chief Electoral Officer—F. W. Mansfield.
Clerk in Charge and Deputy Chief Electoral Officer—G. A. Cormack.
Clerks—A. G. Wiffin, W. A. von Keisenberg.
Bay of Islands—M. H. Kirkpatrick, R.E.; H. C. Blundell, R.O.
Marsden—W. J. Reeve, R.E. and R.O.
Kaipara—S. Ure Macaulay, R.E. and R.O.
Waitemata—J. Hay, R.E. and R.O.
Eden—J. G. Culpan, R.E. and R.O.
Auckland East—T. Culpan, R.E. and R.O.
Auckland Central—E. P. Earle, R.E. and R.O.
Auckland West—H. H. G. Ralfe, R.E. and R.O. (also R.O. for Auckland Licensing District).
Grey Lynn—W. R. Holmes, R.E. and R.O.
Parnell—H. B. Massey, R.E. and R.O.
Manukau—S. J. Brookfield, R.E. and R.O.
Franklin—E. D. McLennan, R.E.; W. J. King, R.O.
Raglan—H. Marsland, R.E. and R.O.
Thames—J. Jordan, R.E. and R.O.
Ohinemuri—H. R. Bush, R.E.; J. Nathan, R.O.
Tauranga—T. R. W. Philpotts, R.E and R.O.
Waikato—J. S. Bond, R.E.; H. J. Dixon, R.O.
Bay of Plenty—A. P. Day, R.E. and R.O.
Taumarunui—T. Buchanan, R.E. and R.O.
Gisborne—H. E. Hill, R.E. and R.O.
Hawke's Bay—T. M. Lawlor, R.E.; R. Brathwaite, R.O.
Napier—J. Parker, R.E. and R.O.
Waipawa—H. Tilsley, R.E. and R.O.
Pahiatua—D. O'Rourke, R.E.; A. R. Crawford, R.O.
Masterton—M. Foley, R.E.; W. Gillespie, R.O.
Wairarapa—R. R. Armstrong, R.E. and R.O.
Stratford—F. Bird, jun., R.E. and R.O.
Taranaki—J. Terry, R.E. and R.O.
Egmont—T. C. Stanners, R.E.; W. J. Tristram, R.O.
Patea—D. W. Mason, R.E. and R.O.
Wanganui—T. D. Cummins, R.E. and R.O.
Waimarino—H. J. Doherty, R.E.; J. P. Aldridge, R.O.
Oroua—T. Watson, R.E. and R.O.
Rangitikei—H. Morgan, R.E.; F. C. Wilson, R.O.
Palmerston—C. E. Shortt, R.E. and R.O.
Otaki—J. Hurley, R.E. and R.O.
Hutt—R. Mothes, R.E.; F. W. London, R.O.
Wellington North—J. D. Avery, R.E. and R.O. (also R.O. for Wellington Licensing District).
Wellington Central—G. G. Hodgkins, R.E. and R.O.
Wellington East—J. W. Hill, R.E.; P. Cording, R.O.
Wellington South—J. E. F. Perry, R.E. and R.O.
Wellington Suburbs and Country District—J. W. Salmon, R.E. and R.O.
Nelson—J. Glen, R.E.; W. W. de Castro, R.O.
Motueka—W. Baird, R.E.; G. J. W. Boundy, R.O.
Buller—D. P. Phillips, R.E. and R.O.
Grey—B. Harper, R.E. and R.O.
Westland—J. N. Nalder, R.E. and R.O.
Wairau — F. W. Hart, R.E.; R. Wanden, R.O.
Hurunui—W. H. Rhodes, R.E. and R.O.
Kaiapoi—A. G. Ashby, R.E.; C. H. Wright, R.O.
Christchurch North—J. H. Newlyn, R.E. and R.O.
Christchurch East—C. J. Marshall, R.E. and R.O. (also R.O. for Christchurch Licensing District).
Christchurch South—T. W. Reese, R.E. and R.O.
Riccarton—S. A. Staples, R.E.; A. Freeman, R.O.
Avon—G. W. Hulme, R.E. and R.O.
Lyttelton—W. D. Wallace, R.E.; C. Ferrier, R.O.
Ellesmere—G. W. Thomas, R.E. and R.O.
Selwyn—A. E. Colthart, R.E.; W. T. Popple, R.O.
Ashburton—W. W. White, R.E.; J. Fitz-Gerald, R.O.
Timaru—T. W. Tayler, R.E. and R.O.
Temuka—E. Booth, R.E. and R.O.
Waitaki—W. Y. Purchase, R.E. and R.O.
Oamaru—A. W. Woodward, R.E. and R.O.
Otago Central—J. C. Malfroy, R.E. and R.O.
Dunedin North—D. Larnach, R.E. and R.O.
Dunedin West—R. P. Ward, R.E. and R.O.
Dunedin Central—H. Maxwell, R.E. and R.O. (also R.O. for Dunedin Licensing District).
Dunedin South—R. Mercer, R.E. and R.O.
Chalmers—G. G. Chisholm, R.E. and R.O.
Bruce—W. Walker, R.E. and R.O.
Clutha—R. Grigor, R.E. and R.O.
Wakatipu—A. J. Thompson, R.E. and R.O.
Mataura—G. H. Lang, R.E.; J. Boyne. R.O.
Wallace—H. M. G. Macfarlane, R.E.; W. Saunders, R.O.
Invercargill—W. A. Saunders, R.E.; W. B. Scandrett, R.O.
Awarua—I. G. Russell, R.E.; J. A. Broom, R.O.
High Commissioner—Hon. Sir. W. Hall - Jones.
Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.
Trade and Immigration Representative—T. E. Donne.
Accountant—G. F. Copus.
Produce Commissioner—H. C. Cameron.
Veterinarian—A. Crabb, M.R.C.V.S.
Chief Clerk—A. S. Row.
Government Astronomer—C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.
Museum Assistant—Miss A. Castle.
Clerk—Miss J. A. Wilson.
President—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.
Hon. Treasurer—C. A. Ewen.
Secretary—B. C. Aston.
Clerk in Charge—P. J. Kelleher.
Clerks—J. E. Hull, R. Jenkins, R. S. Cunliffe, T. Lynch.
Dominion Analyst and Chief Inspector of Explosives—James S. Maclaurin, D.Sc., F.C.S.
Agricultural Chemist—B. C. Aston, F.I.C.
Mining Chemist—W. Donovan, M.Sc.
Inspector of Explosives—R. Girling-Butcher.
Laboratory Assistants—R. L. Andrew, F. T. Leighton, C. M. Wright, T. Rigg, M.Sc.
Cadets—C. A. McCombie, L. D. Foster, N. L. Wright.
Clerk—W. A. Thomas.
Government Pathologist—R. H. Makgill, M.D., Edin., D.P.H., Camb.
Bacteriologist—J. A. Hurley.
Government Laboratory Assistant—P. L. Hickes.
Minister in Charge—Hon. G. W. Russell. Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Government Printer, Sationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—John Mackay.
Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen.
Clerks—J. W. Hall, P. C. Jordan, R. Watts, A. Stace, W. Hutchings, A. Williams, G. Garnham, C. T. Williams, C. P. Cosgrove, H. V. Wilson, A. Besant.
Clerk and Typiste—A. Anderson.
Computer—R. G. Dagger.
Copy Supervisor—M. F. Marks.
Superintending Overseer—W. A. G. Skinner.
Overseers—W. P. McGirr, G. H. Loney, F. H. Mountier, H. C. Jones, W. L. Gibson.
Chief Reader—H. S. Mountier.
Stereotyper and Electrotyper—R. Usmar.
Railway-ticket Printer—H. B. D. Swain.
Monotype Expert—E. J. Hampton.
Sub-overseers—W. Weaver, J. R. Donald.
Overseer—G. H. Broad.
Lithographic and Photographic Br'ch—
Chief Draughtsman—G. N. Sturte vant.
Engineer—T. E. King.
Inspector-General—Frank Hay, M.B., C.M.
Deputy Inspector-General—St. Leger H. Gribben, M.D.
Assistant Inspector—Miss Hester Maclean.
Chief Clerk—D. Souter.
Clerks—A. Wells, J. P. Lindsay.
Shorthand - writer and Typiste—S. Fisher.
Medical Superintendent, Auckland Mental Hospital—R. M. Beattie, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Mental Hospital—W. Baxter Gow, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Porirua Mental Hospital—Gray Hassell, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Mental Hospital—F. Truby King, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Nelson Mental Hospital—William James Mackay, M.D.
Superintendent, Hokitika Mental Hospital— John Downey; Medical Officer—H. Macandrew, M.B.
Ashburn Hall, Wakari (licensed institution)—Proprietors, Executor of James Hume, Dr. W. Brown, and Dr. E. H. Alexander; Medical Superintendent, Henry John Tizard. M.R.C.S.
Home for Defectives, Richmond—Steward, Henry Buttle; Matron, Matilda C. Buttle.
Inspector-General of Hospitals and Chief Health Officer—T. H. A. Valintine, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H.
Medical Secretary—J. P. Frengley, M.D., F.R.C.S., D.P.H.
Assistant Inspectors—Miss Hester Maclean, Miss J. Bicknell, Miss A. Bagley.
Chief Clerk—E. A. S. Killick.
Clerks—H. Magrath, C. W. Steward, L. J. Ell.
Shorthand-writers and Typistes — G. Craig, G. Martelli.
Cadet—A. O. von Keisenberg.
District Health Officers—Auckland, Dr. R. H. Makgill; Napier, Dr. F. I. De Lisle; Wellington, Dr. J. P. Frengley, Dr. Chesson; Christchurch, Dr. H. E. Finch (also Assistant Inspector of Hospitals); Dunedin, Dr. S. Chamtaloup.
Port Health Officers—Hokianga, (vacant); Whangarei, Dr. W. W. Baxter; Kaipara, Dr. W. H. Horton; Helensville, Dr. Max Meinhold; Whitianga, Dr. K. F. Gordon; Auckland, Dr. E. W. Sharman; Onehunga, Dr. W. G. Scott; Thames, Dr. Walshe; Gisborne, Dr. J. W. Williams; New Plymouth, Dr. H. A. McCleland; Napier, Dr. T. C. Moore; Wanganui, Dr. A. Wilson; Wellington, Dr. H. Pollen; Picton, Dr. W. E. Redman; Nelson, Dr. F. A. Bett; Westport, Dr. G. Hallwright; Greymouth, Dr. C. G. F. Morice; Lyttelton, Dr. C. H. Upham; Timaru, Dr. C. E. Thomas; Oamaru, Dr. A. Douglas; Bluff, Dr. J. Torrance; Chatham Islands, Dr. G. H. Gibson.
Chief Sanitary Inspector — C. A. Schauer, Wellington.
Minister of Defence—Hon. Arthur M. Myers.
Private Secretary—Frank D. Thomson, B.A.
Judge Advocate-General—Colonel J. R. Reed, Reserve of Officers.
General Officer Commanding N.Z. Forces— S Major - General Alexander John Godley, C.B., p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Assistant Military Secretary—Captain D. C. Spencer-Smith, R.A.
Chief Clerk—W. E. Butler.
Director of Staff Duties and Military Training— S Colonel E. S. Heard, p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Officers Attached to General Staff—S Major J. G. Hughes, D.S.O., N.Z. Staff Corps; Captain J. E. Duigan, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Military Operations—S Lieut.-Colonel J. T. Burnett - Stuart, D.S.O., p.s.c., Imperial General Staff.
Representative at Headquarters, Imperial General Staff, War Office, London—Colonel A. W Robin, C.B., C.M.G., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Adjutant-General—S Colonel G. C. B. Wolfe, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Adjutant-General—S Captain R. O. Chesney, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Medical Services—Colonel J. R. Purdy, N.Z. Medical Corps.
Quartermaster-General—Lieut. - Colonel H. O. Knox, Army Service Corps.
Assistant Quartermaster - General — S Major H. H. Browne, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Veterinary Services and Remounts — Lieut. - Colonel C. J. Reakes, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Director of Equipment and Stores—Hony. Major J. O'Sullivan.
Assistant Director—Hony. Lieutenant E. P. Coady.
Director of Ordnance and Artillery—Lieut.-Colonel G. N. Johnston, R.G.A.
Assistant Director and Instructor in Artillery Duties—Major J. S. Maidlow, R.A.
Artillery Store Accountant—Hon. Lieutenant F. Silver.
Testing Officer, S.A. Ammunition—Hony. Lieutenant A. Duvall.
Clerks—J. F. Rockstrow, W. R. Collett, G. F. Rudkin, D. S. Lyons, A. W. Jackson, R. Fordyce, L. F. O'Neill, T. J. Collerton, E. Fennessy, F. Bond, J. B. Ryan, J. Swift.
Clerical Cadets—E. J. Scott, H. G. Wilson, M. Patoka.
Typistes and Shorthand-writers—Miss M. I. Davidson, Miss A. Tyerman.
Officer Commanding District — S Colonel Edward Walter Clervaux Chaytor, p.s.c., N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Major J. K. Cochrane, Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff — Captain J. H. Whyte, N.Z. Staff Corps, and Captain G. C. Hamilton, Crenadier Guards.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General — S Captain John Thomas Bosworth, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel V. S. Smyth, N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—Major W. R. Pinwill, Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Captain A. W. Macarthur Onslow, 16th Lancers, and Captain A. C. B. Critchley - Salmonson, the Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain W. H. Meddings, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel A. Bauchop, C.M.G., N.Z. Staff Corps.
General Staff Officer—V.C. Major J. D. Grant, Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff — Captain S. A. Grant, N.Z. Staff Corps, and Captain A. Moore, D.S.O., the Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain W. L. Robinson, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Majors—John Edward Hume, Murray Menzies Gardner, Frank Symon.
Captain—Ivon Tatham Standish.
Lieutenants—H. A. Davies, C. E. Daniell, J. M. Richmond, J. L. H. Turner.
Captain—Sydney George Sandle.
NOTE.—For full particulars of rank and names of Officers of Permanent Staff and Territorial Force, and of Officers of the N.Z. Permanent Staff and Permanent Force on interchange and undergoing training in England and India, vide Army List of the New Zealand Forces, published quarterly.
Minister of Customs—Hon. G. Lauren son.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Secretary—W. B. Montgomery.
Inspector and Collector—C. S. Nixon.
Chief Clerk—G. Craig, LL.B.
Clerks, Customs—J. H. Chapman, R. J. Gray, W. C. Thomas, D. R. Wallace.
Cadet—H. F. Cotter.
Typiste—E. E. Westrup.
Auckland—Collector, J. P. Ridings. Landing Surveyor — A. H. Penn. First Clerk—J. McIntosh. Landing Waiters—T. R. Herd, E. W. Carter, W. A. Cameron, A. Collie, G. H. Cornes, L. J. Thompson, J. J. Furlong, W. H. Graham, W. R. B. Oliver, G. Uren, C. O. Eyre, W. Stewart, O. M. G. Richardson. Tide Surveyor —W. G. D. Grant.
Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter.
Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter.
Tauranga—J. J. Pickett, Officer in Charge.
Whangaroa—A. G. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter.
Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter.
Mangonui—J. T. Williams, Officer in Charge.
Hokianga—F. A. Hardy, Coastwaiter.
Kaipara—D. Savident, Officer in Charge.
Poverty Bay—Collector, J. Howie.
New Plymouth—Collector, J. H. Hempton; Landing Waiter, W. Omeara.
Waitara—Coastwaiter, L. H. Sampson.
Patea—Officer in Charge, J. C. Patrick.
Napier—Collector, W. F. Dickey; Landing Waiters, W. McIntosh, R. A. Olsen.
Wellington—Collector, C. S. Nixon; Landing Surveyor, W. Rose; First Clerk, H. A. Jackman; Landing Waiters, A. Duncan, C. H. Manson, A. Paul, J. M. O'Reilly, F. W. Aitchison, D. Butler, F. W. Lawrence, H. W. Williams, F. N. Abererombie, J. H. Forrester, R. H. Smythe, E. D. Good; Tide Surveyor, R. Martin.
Wanganui—Collector, F. J. Walker; Landing Waiter, F. Davies.
Wairau—Collector, L. E. Harrop.
Picton—Officer in Charge, J. W. Burgess.
Nelson—Collector, T. M. Cullen; Landing Waiter, R. R. Walter.
Westport—Collector, R. B. D. Eyre.
Greymouth—Collector, W. Devenish.
Hokitika—Collector, R. G. Ecclesfield.
Christchurch and Lyttelton—Collector, A. Elliott; Landing Surveyor, E. T. W. Maclaurin; First Clerk, F. Oxford; Landing Waiters, W. Howarth, F. C. Fantham, J. Campbell, H. L. Cordery, G. P. Prichard, D. W. P. Dunn, J. E. Rundle; Tide Surveyor, J. Hill.
Timaru—Collector, W. J. Hawley; Landing Waiter, P. D. Jones.
Oamaru—Collector, H. W. P. Ruffell.
Dunedin and Port Chalmers—Collector. E. R. Brabazon; Landing Surveyor, W. J. Wratt; First Clerk, G. Prain; Landing Waiters, P. Doull, T. C. Rowe, G. F. McKellar, C. O. Trownson, A. Barron, C. E. Brocket, E. McGregor. Tide Surveyors — Dunedin, J. Scott; Port Chalmers, G. R. Baudinet.
Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—Collector, H. R. Spence; Landing Waiters, B. Anderson, H. A. Wild; Tide Surveyor, R. C. Hunter.
Chatham Islands—Officer in Charge, H. Scott.
Custodian, Customhouse, Wellington—J. J. McGahey.
Chief Clerk—B. W. Millier.
Clerks—G. H. A. Tanner, W. Alves, J. A. Munro, T. J. King, L. E. Judd.
Cadet—P. A. Burke.
Shorthand - writers and Typistes—A. Reed, H. M. C. Berntsen, I. M. Richardson, V. S. Nathan.
Marine Engineer for the Dominion—R. W. Holmes.
Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Black burne.
Director, Meteorological Branch—Rev. D. C. Bates.
Assistant—B. V. Pemberton.
Clerks—F. W. Simms, W. Goudie.
Shorthand-writer and Typiste—E. McAlister.
Superintendents of Mercantile Marine and Examiners of Masters and Mates—
Auckland—C. E. W. Fleming.
Assistant—T. A. G. Atwood.
Examiner of Masters and Mates and Surveyor of Ships—T. A. Dykes.
Surveyor of Ships, &c.— C. M. Renaut.
Cadet—W. S. Long.
Wellington—G. G. Smith.
Assistant—S. G. Stringer.
Surveyor of Ships, &c.—C. Angus.
Clerk—H. D. Thomson.
Cadet—W. J. Forsyth.
Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel.
Assistant—H. T. W. Wilcox.
Clerk—C. B. Jarman.
Cadet—N. M. Smith.
Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons.
Master of s.s. “Tutanekai”—C. F. Post.
Commander Training-ship “Amokura”—G. S. Hooper (R.N.R.).
Lighthouse Expert—W. A. Fraser.
Storeman and Carpenter — J. W. Mitchell.
Wellington—L. F. Ayson (Chief Inspector), J. Bollons, C. F. Post, W. J. Simpson.
Mangonui—J. M. O'Connor.
Russell—H. Stephenson and W. J. Williams.
Whangarei—T. M. Condon, J. Munro.
Kaipara—D. Savident, E. Driscoll.
Manukau—R. H. Gibbons.
Hokianga—F. A. Hardy.
New Plymouth—A. Hooker.
Waihi—W. G. Wohlmann.
Kapiti Island—R. Henry.
Wanganui—W. J. Connor.
Auckland—J. P. Bennett, D. Rowles, W. Sefton, T. E. Creeks, T. Donovan, W. J. Baskiville.
Waitara—T. H. Price.
Picton—C. J. King.
New Brighton—E. J. Rowe.
Dunedin—J. T. Sullivan, J. McIntyre, F. W. Beck.
Port Chalmers—J. Dougan.
Palmerston North—J. C. S. Willis.
Bluff—W. A. Brookes.
Napier—C. S. Le Fevre.
Puponga—J. V. Gilmer.
Hokianga—F. A. Hardy.
Manukau—R. H. Gibbons.
Picton—J. W. Burgess.
Tauranga—A. F. Tunks.
Akaroa—W. A. Harding.
Waitapu—E. J. Winter.
Karamea—A. L. Kemp.
Okarito—J. W. Thomson.
Okura—J. A. Cuttance.
Mangonui—J. T. Williams.
Minister in Charge—Hon. G. Laurenson.
Chief Inspector of Machinery, Chief Surveyor of Ships, and Chief Examiner of Marine Engineers and Stationary-engine Drivers—R. Dun can, Head Office, Wellington.
Chief Clerk—A. R. Stone.
Draughtsman—G. E. Breeze.
Clerks—R. P. Milne, Auckland; W. D. Andrews, J. G. Maepherson, H. M. Mullins, J. C. O'Leary, Wellington; W. J. Craig, Dunedin.
Shorthand - writer and Typiste — A. Duncan.
Cadets—Head Office: D. McKay, G. H. Weir, A. R. McNeilly, R. C. Trembath, E. N. Tarrant, J. Butler.
Inspectors of Machinery, Surveyors of Ships, and Examiners of Marine Engineers and Stationary - engine Drivers,—
Auckland—H. Wetherilt, S. Dalrymple, W. G. Bell, J. McAlpine.
Napier—W. R. Douglas.
Wanganui—C. W. R. Suisted.
Palmerston North—W. Cullen.
Wellington—A. Calvert, A. E. Macindoe, T. A. Cooper.
Nelson—N. D. Hood.
Christchurch—P. J. Carman, A. McKenzie.
Dunedin — A. W. Bethune, W. J. Crawford, H. G. L. Noy.
The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department.
Board of Examiners of Stationary, Traction, Locomotive, and Winding Engine and Electric-tram Drivers,—
Members — Robert Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, M.Inst., Nav. A., Chairman; Frank Reed, M.I.M.E., Inspecting Engineer of Mines; R. W. Holmes, M.Inst. C.E., Engineer-in-Chief, P.W.D.; C. R. Vickerman, Superintending Engineer, P.W.D.; Evan Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., Electrical Engineer, P.W.D.: J. G. Macpherson, Secretary.
Board meets once a quarter, or when required, at Wellington.
Secretary for Labour, Registrar of Industrial Unions, Chief Inspector of Factories, and Superintendent Workers' Dwellings Board — J. Lomas.
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories, Deputy Registrar of Industrial Unions, and Chief Clerk—F. W. Rowley.
Accountant and Inspector of Factories —J. W. Collins.
Clerks—W. J. KcKeown, T. McIntosh, J. R. Fraser, W. E. Shanahan, E. M. Casey, V. Saxon, A. Way, T. G. Trowern, A. B. Rigg.
Shorthand-writers and Typistes—R. Ritson, C. Fama, B. E. Cowie, E. Hill, J. Salmon, I. Henderson.
Cadets—H. S. Hurle, V. Bernard, K. J. Tait, R. W. Wills, J. Mulcahey.
Wellington—E. LeCren, P. Carmody, A. Donald.
Auckland—J. Shanaghan (in charge), W. Hood, E. W. F. GÖhns. Clerk—W. Hunter, Cadet — V. Sutton. Shorthand-writer and Typiste—M. Atkinson.
Christchurch — W. H. Hagger (in charge), L. D. Browett G. E. A. Hood. Clerks—A. E. Waite, P. H. Kinsman. Shorthand - writer and Typiste—B. A. Dewar.
Dunedin—W. Newton (in charge), J. Hollows, W. Rapley. Clerks—J. Maxwell. Cadets—A. H. Latta, E. E. Fisher.
Gisborne—W. H. Westbrooke. Clerk—M. Brooking.
Napier — R. T. Bailey. Clerk — M. Ranzi.
New Plymouth—H. Willis. Clerk—E. C. Putt.
Wanganui—H. E. Mosten. Clerk—P. Sarten.
Palmerston North — W. J. Culver. Clerk—O. Martin.
Masterton—J. Georgeson. Clerk—E. Rayner.
Nelson—S. Tyson. Clerk—M. Emerson.
Greymouth — J. Jackson. Clerk — J. Burke.
Timaru—H. G. Lightfoot. Clerk — E. Patton.
Invercargill—H. B. Bower, J. Brown. Clerk—M. Kempton.
Oamaru—J. C. Yorke.
And 160 Inspectors and Agents (police officers) in small towns.
Auckland and Taranaki—H. Gresham (Auckland).
Wellington and Hawke's Bay—R. A. Bolland (Wellington).
North Canterbury—E. J. G. Stringer (Christchurch).
Otago—F. Barton (Dunedin).
Nelson and Marlborough — S. Tyson (also Inspector of Factories at Nelson).
South Canterbury—G. H. Lightfoot (also Inspector of Factories at Timaru).
Westland—J. Jackson (also Inspector of Factories at Greymouth).
Southland—J. Brown (Invercargill).
Auckland—H. R. Morrison, Miss.
Wellington—E. R. Bremner, Miss.
Christchurch—J. Mitchell, Mrs
Dunedin—M. S. Hale, Miss.
Judge—His Honour Mr. Justice Sim.
Employers' Member—W. Scott.
Workers' Member—J. A. McCullough.
Auckland and Taranaki Industrial Districts—T. Harle Giles (Auckland).
Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland Industrial Districts—P. Hally (Wellington).
Canterbury and Otago and Southland Industrial Districts—J. R. Triggs (Christchurch).
Members — The Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings and the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and the Inspectors of Factories in each of the following cities and towns: Auckland, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Wellington,* Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill.
Meetings irregular; sits when business is required to be transacted.
Minister of Lands—Hon. Thomas Mackenzie.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
Under-Secretary for Crown Lands and Immigration—John Strauchon.
Assistant Under - Secretary — F. T. O'Neill.
Inspecting Surveyors—J. Langmuir, J. D. Climie.
District Surveyor—C. A. Mountfort, H. M. Kensington.
Assistant Surveyor—H. E. Girdlestone.
Land Drainage Engineer — J. B. Thompson.
Assistant Land Drainage Engineers—O. N. Campbell, R. G. McMorran.
Chief Clerk—W. R. Jourdain.
Chief Accountant—R. A. Paterson.
Chief Draughtsman—H. T. McCardell.
Draughtsmen — H. R. A. Farquhar, A. L. Haylock, H. E. Taylor, F. W. S. Bronte, A. G. Watt G. C. Warren.
Chief Computer—C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S. (also Government Astronomer).
Assistant Computers—T. G. Gillespie. J. J. Hay.
Clerks—E. F. Hawthorne, A. A. S. Danby, W. S. Hardy, J. Stalker, P. J. Herlihy, R. A. Keenan, A. C. Turnbull, P. D. N. Verschaffelt, T. J. Lang, S. Gambrill, A. Quinney, W. E. Shaw, J. Bennett, F. P. Hagan, F. A. Ruck, G. T. Findlay.
Cadets—P. C. Gannaway, R. J. Cornwell, R. W. Cooper, T. S. Roe, T. S. McMillan.
Commissioner of Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. M. Skeet.
Inspecting Surveyor—W. J. Wheeler.
District Surveyors—A. H. Vickermann, R. S. Galbraith, T. Carroll, A. Wilson, H. F. Edgecumbe, T. W. Hughes, A. A. Seaton, V. I. Blake, H. T. Mitchell.
Assistant Surveyors—C. B. Turner, F. E. Byrne, H. R. Atkinson, P. S. Sherratt, E. C. Clarke, W. B. Willis. E. V. Blake.
Chief Draughtsman—H. D. McKellar.
Draughtsmen—T. K. Thompson, A. Nicholson, W. T. Morpeth, G. F. Townshend, J. Y. Dixon, H. A. Warner R. C. Airey, R. Covil, H. Townshend, P. Mitchell, F. Martin, A. B. Harding, C. E. O. Smith, R. J. Knight, H. J. Kallendar, R. J. Crawford, W. Scanlen, E. C. O'Brien, J. H. W. Parsons, A. Streton, R. P. Dykes, O. A. Darby, M. M. Davies.
Chief Clerk—J. G. Bendeley.
Receiver of Land Revenue—J. H. O'Donnell.
Clerks—C. E. Archibald, W. J. Munro. W. H. Stebbing, R. W. Cumming, A. G. Stebbing, J. A. Attridge, J. A. Redman, J. S. McLean, J. Smith. A. L. Menzies, F. S. Downard, G. Anderson, N. C. S. Porch, G. A. Potter, A. Kennedy, J. P. Lane, H. A. Vollemaere, W. L. Mellsop, R. K. M. McLeod, G. I. Beeson, R. E. L. Mitchell, R. F. Ward, J. C. Nilson.
* Deputy Chief Inspector.
Cadets—G. M. R. Jackson, A. W. Craig, A. A. Otterson, F. W. Watson, G. Pirrit, L. J. Poff, C. H. Wright, J. J. Carroll, J. H. Robertson, T. G. Phillips, O. D. Pearce.
Messenger—W. H. Hawkesby.
Crown Lands Rangers—F. C. Ewen, C. S. Kensington, J. W. Shannon, A. B. Jordan, J. D. Steedman.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—R. T. Sadd.
Inspecting Surveyor and Local Land Officer, Gisborne—T. Brook.
District Surveyors—E. H. Farnie, J. Roddick.
Assistant Surveyors—H. E. Walshe, T. Cagney.
Chief Draughtsman—F. A. Thompson.
Draughtsmen—J. G. Clare, E. H. Cane, G. Duncan, W. T. Nelson, H. J. Lewis, A. F. Browne, F. J. Harrop, W. G. Harding, W. Paltridge, C. G. Maher.
Receiver of Land Revenue—H. R. Robinson.
Receiver of Land Revenue—Gisborne, R. Sinel.
Chief Clerk—J. Thomson.
Clerks—N. Wright, A. Kennedy.
Cadets—F. R. Burnley, A. R. Barker, E. G. Robinson, M. H. B. Burreil, W. J. Gallen, T. R. Jamieson.
Crown Lands Rangers—H. M. Smith, D. G. Robertson.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. Bullard.
District Surveyors—W. Laing, N. C. Kensington, D. M. Wilson,
Assistant Surveyor—A. F. Waters.
Chief Draughtsman—H. J. Lowe.
Draughtsmen—F. Carrington, J. Cook, W. Gordon, H. W. Saxton, H. J. Moverley, T. V. Mackay, P. S. Lawson, H. W. Broadmore, T. G. Sole, J. A. Montgomerie.
Chief Clerk—H. M. Bannister.
Receiver of Land Revenue—A. J. Rossiter.
Accountant—E. W. F. Cooke.
Clerks—A. C. Clarke, J. W. Harvey, L. L. Smith, E. C. Gideon, J. E. Warren, W. E. White, M. St. G. Hammond.
Cadets—T. R. Hancock, T. H. Hudson, W. Paora.
Crown Lands Rangers—H. T. Twiss, E. Tolme.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—T. N. Brodrick.
District Surveyors—J. R. Strachan, J. Stevenson, A. M. Roberts.
Assistant Surveyors—H. Dyett, W. Stewart, V. Blake, W. M. Gray.
Chief Computer and Inspecting Surveyor—R. P. Greville.
Chief Draughtsman—M. C. Smith.
Assistant Draughtsmen—R. Ballantyne, H. Mackay, R. Caldwell, F. J. Halse, H. J. W. Mason, E. C. Cachemaile, R. R. Percival, H. A. Armstrong, J. D. Watt, R. W. Collins, M. E. Richardson, H. C. Luff, G. H. M. Moir, D. F. Mason, M. Orr, H. B. Randrup, C. A. Gordon, J. L. Climie, H. Snow, H. G. Vickers, E. H. Kelly, C. Purdie.
Chief Clerk—G. R. N. Wright.
Receiver of Land Revenue — T. G. Waitt.
Clerks—J. R. McCormick, C. Gore, A. Duncan, W. Burch, J. Urquhart, N. Fleming, G. Letham, R. McDonald, F. T. Venning, E. K. Davern, W. A. Nicholson, W. H. Ellis.
Cadets—V. Blake, E. H. Whiting, N. Middlemas, L. W. B. Hall, R. F. Mackenzie, M. Walshe, P. Burke, W. N. Sievers.
Crown Lands Rangers—H. Lundius, J. B. F. Sutherland, J. Ammunson, N. Craig.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—F. A Thompson.
District Surveyors—J. D. Thomson, H. Maitland.
Assistant Surveyors—J. L. D'A. Irvine, J. H. Buttress, S. L. Fairhall, D. Nelson, W. D. Armit.
Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Greenfield.
Assistant Draughtsmen—J. Pollock, W. Curtis, W. A. Styche, J. F. Frith, P. A. Dalziell, E. O. Weir, L. E. Ward, D. S. Thomson, S. M. Montgomerie.
Receiver of Land Revenue—J. R. Macdonald.
Clerks—G. Anderson, P. Keenan.
Clerk—H. M. Crawford.
Cadets—F. H. Waters, E. A. Ingram, B. C. A. McCabe, A. W. Bell.
Crown Lands Ranger—R. E. Harris.
Land Officer, Westport—D. S. Thomson.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—W. H. Skinner.
Chief Draughtsman—A. D. Burns.
Assistant Draughtsmen—A. J. Wicks, W. J. Elvy.
Receiver of Land Revenue — H. L. Welch.
Accountant—W. H. Marple.
Clerks—A. Mackintosh, C. M. Watterson.
Cadet—T. S. Couch, H. P. Fougere.
Crown Lands Rangers—E. E. Townshend, H. F. Hursthouse.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. D. M. Haszard.
District Surveyors—A. N. Harrop, W. Wilson, C. H. Morison.
Chief Draughtsman and Inspecting Surveyor—D. MeB. Calder.
Assistant Draughtsman—A. D. Folley.
Chief Clerk—F. T. Sandford.
Receivers of Land Revenue — A. D. Macfarlane, B. Harper (Greymouth).
Clerks—J. A. Chesney, I. Aitken, R. King.
Cadets—K. J. Hogan, T. A. Armstrong, L. D. Woolf.
Crown Lands Rangers—C. Macfarlane, G. Anderson.
Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. R. Pollen.
Chief Draughtsman.—H. G. Price.
District Surveyors—A. G. Allom, A. J. Mountfort.
Assistant Draughtsmen—H. R. Schmidt, F. W. Hunt, W. C. Leversedge, H. Kensington, C. B. M. Straubel, W. F. Newman, J. G. Wilson, P. E. Webb, R. Gillanders.
Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab.
Accountant—S. H. Sapsford.
Chief Clerk—R. Leckie.
Clerks—J. C. Anderson, A. Costelloe, M. Cooper, A. H. Eaton, A. E. Rosanowski.
Cadets—F. Rochfort, R. F. Burgess. H. W. Harris, S. P. Day.
Crown Lands Rangers—W. B. Buckhurst, J. Forrester.
Messenger—D. N. Scott.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—E. H. Wilmot.
District Surveyors—W. T. Neill, D. I. Barron.
Assistant Surveyor—S. T. Burton.
Chief Draughtsman—W. F. Marsh.
Assistant Draughtsmen—C. Fynmore, J. R. Vaile, A. J. Morrison, R. V. Parker, S. B. Smith, A. H. Saunders, C. E. Pfeifer, M. E. Drumm.
Receiver of Land Revenue—F. A. Cullen.
Accountant—F. E. Duncan.
Chief Clerk—R. A. Johnston.
Clerks—A. Marshall, J. McDonald, F. J. Mouat, J. D. Hay, J. Torrance, F. E. Woodhouse, H. C. Hulme, J. F. Quinn.
Cadets—J. A. McIver, P. J. Schluter, V. S. Pickett, C. J. Dunn.
Crown Lands Rangers—E. Atkinson. E. O'Neill, F. B. Leonard, A. McDougall.
Lands Officer at Lawrence—J. B. Barclay.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. M. McClure.
District Surveyors—C. Otway, D. Macpherson.
Assistant Surveyor—H. M. Thompson.
Chief Draughtsman—G. Robinson.
Assistant Draughtsmen—W. Deverell, J. L. Dickie, J. B. Greig, O. G. Goldsmith, J. C. Potter.
Chief Clerk—A. D. McGavock.
Receiver of Land Revenue and Accountant—G. W. Palmer.
Clerks—W. Robertson, T. Pound, H. S. Jamieson, D. E. Goldsmith.
Cadets—A. N. West, W. Traill, S. T. Seddon, A. L. H. Hay, A. C. R. Anderson, E. D. Thompson, J. C. Thomson.
Crown Lands Rangers—J. Collins, J. C. Mackley, A. Cameron, W. Traill.
Auckland—H. M. Skeet, A. R. Harris, William Johns, J. Trounson, J. Rountree.
Hawke's Bay—C. R. Pollen, E. Lane, G. Wright, R. M. Birreil, T. Hyde.
Taranaki—G. H. Bullard, J. Heslop, James Rattenbury, J. MeCluggage, W. M. Kennedy.
Wellington—J. Dawson, H. T. Ellingham, J. Georgetti, W. McLennan.
Nelson—R. T. Sadd, J. S. Wratt, G. Walker, E. S. Hoult, R. Paterson.
Marlborough—W. H. Skinner, H. M. Reader, A. McCallum, James Fulton, James Boyd.
Westland—H. D. M. Haszard, J. S. Lang, A. Cumming, M. Pollock, G. Mallinson.
Canterbury—T. N. Brodrick, J. Sealy, J. Stevenson, R. Macaulay, J. Gibson.
Otago—E. H. Wilmot, G. Livingstone, J. A. Macpherson, C. Anderson, P. Kinney.
Southland—G. H. M. McClure, D. King, J. McLean, J. King, J. Thomson.
Minister in Charge—Hon. T. Mackenzie.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
Inspector of Scenic Reserves—E. Phillips Turner.
Members—The Surveyor-General (Chairman), the General Manager of Tourist and Health Resorts, the Under-Secretary Native Department, the Commissioner of Crown Lands for each Land District in which are lands dealt with under the Act.
Secretary—W. R. Jourdain.
Meets when directed by Minister, at Wellington or elsewhere.
Superintending Nurseryman, North Island (Rotorua)—H. A. Goudie.
Superintending Nurseryman, South Island (Tapanui)—R. G. Robinson.
Nurserymen in Charge — Eweburn A. W. Roberts; Hanmer Springs, W. G. Morrison; Ruatangata, A. Gordon.
Assistant Foresters — H. Howe, R. Braudigam, R. Macrae, D. Buchanan, F. Benfell, A. J. Boydell, A. McVicar, Robert Glass.
Minister for Immigration—Hon. G. W. Russell. Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Assistant Under - Secretary — F. T. O'Neill.
Chief Accountant—R. A. Paterson.
Immigration Officer—A. A. S. Danby.
Members—James Mackenzie, Surveyor General; Thomas N. Brodrick, Chief Surveyor at Wellington; Hubert Sladden, Hutt; and John W. Harrison, Auckland.
Secretary—Charles E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.
Board meets March and September for examinations, and at other times as business requires, at Wellington.
Minister in Charge—Hon. T. Mackenzie.
Private Secretary—L. F. Johnson.
Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Tourists—F. S. Pope.
Chief Clerk—W. C. Robinson.
Trade Representative—J. B. Gow.
Inspector of Offices—R. Evatt.
Accountant—J. W. Bell.
Editor—C. E. Cuming.
Draughtsman and Artist—J. McDonald.
Biologist—A. H. Cockayne.
Laboratory Assistants — R. Waters, E. H. Atkinson, P. N. Cubitt.
Clerks—L. E. Johnson, J. Andrews, T. D. H. Hall, E. A. Farrington, M. Keogh, W. R. B. Aekins, J. P. Hyland, V. A. Mills, T. W. Brown, C. Mackie, G. H. Butler, J. R. F. Cameron, D. Patterson, L. G. Bruce, A. M. Gill, C. H. Schwass.
Shorthand-writers and Typistes—L. E. Larchin, E. S. Boyd, K. Fitzgerald.
Cadets—C. J. M. Gair, H. Manuera, H. J. Craig, F. E. Cameron, E. B. Levy.
Auckland—J. E. D. Spicer.
Napier—A. C. Philpott.
Wanganui—R. H. Hooper.
Wellington—W. T. Wynyard.
Christchurch—A. E. Rowden.
Clerks—W. M. Miller, T. L. Gedye, Cadets—B. P. Climo, J. W. Holm.
Clerk—H. G. Absolum. Cadet—Pekama Kaa.
Cadets—G.G.M. Mitchell, J. D. Roche, Clerk at Palmerston North—W. Nettlefold.
Clerk—W. A. Pye. Clerk at Masterton—G. Evatt. Clerk at Blenheim—H. T. Payne.
Clerk—J. W. Butters. Cadets—J. Walker, E. W. Lewington. Clerk at Hokitika—H. H. Halliday. Clerk at Lyttelton—E. Weastell.
Clerk—W. H. McLew, A. Gillies. Cadets—J. Hunter, A. H. Fraer.
Cadet—W. N. Crawford. Clerk at Bluff—R. Hutton.
Caretaker of the Auckland Office—H. T. Norton.
Director — C. J. Reakes, D.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S.
Assistant Director—J. L. Bruce.
Senior Veterinarian — J. G. Clayton, M.R.C.V.S.
Clerical Staff—Divisional Clerk, H. W. Rowden; Clerks, A. Ironside, J. F. C. Harrison, L. C. Mitchell, F. S. Dayman, A. T. Stone. Cadets, R. R. Tyrer, A. McKinnon, C. L. Grange.
Veterinary Supervisors (Ms.R.C.V.S.) —Auckland, J. Lyons; Rotorua, J. Kerrigan; Gisborne, S. Burton; Hastings, A. W. Barnes; Hawera, A. R. Young; Christchurch, A. A. Johnson, F.R.C.V.S.
Veterinary Officer in Charge of Laboratory, Wallaceville, H. A. Reid, F.R.C.V.S.; Laboratory Cadets, Wallaceville, F. Smith, C. S. M. Hopkirk; Laboratory Farm Overseer, Wallaceville, A. McKerrow; Laboratory Attendant, Wallaceville, C. R. Matthews, H. J. Creely.
Veterinarians and Meat - Inspectors (Ms.R.C.V.S.) — Auckland, A. J. Hickman, W. D. Blair, H. L. Marsack (Ont.); Hamilton, W. T. Collins; Tokomaru Bay, G. N. Waugh; Hastings, T. A. Blake; Waitara, G. Broom; Wanganui, P. M. Edgar; Petone, D. Spilman; Ngahauranga, W. G. Taylor; Wellington, E. C. Howard; Christchurch, J. R. Charlton, H. S. S. Kyle (Melb.), J. Stafford; Timaru, A. M. Paterson; Oamaru, T. Cunningham; Dunedin, W. D. Snowball, William W. H. Edwards; Invercargill, R. Finch, D.V.S.M.
Inspectors of Manure - sterilizing — Sydney (N.S.W.), F. G. Laurie; Calcutta (India), R. L. Ward.
Inspectors of Stock—Ohaeawai, J. W. Otway*; Whangarei, J. T. Stone*; Auckland, W. R. Brown*, A. H. Burkill; Te Kuiti, V. A. Huddleston; Tauranga, D. Elliot*; Hamilton, R. Alexander*; Gisborne, W. B. Hingston*; New Plymouth, H. Munro*; Stratford, P. Beere*; Opunake, R. Crockett; Hawera, G. Ford*; Hastings, D. A. Graham*; Wanganui, D. Munro*; Feilding, J. C. Miller; Woodville, F. W. Sutton*; Palmerston North, D. Fleming*; Masterton, A. T. P. Hubbard*; Wellington, J. Halligan*; Nelson, C. C. Empson*; Amberley, J. Munro*; Hokitika, *; Christchurch, F. Mackenzie*; Sockburn, S. H. Ussher; Timaru, C. S. Neville*; Oamaru, F. W. Blair*; Dunedin, R. G. F. Fountain*; Mosgiel, R. I. Gossage; Gore, H. Hill; Balclutha, T. Gilmour*: Invercargill, R. Wright*.
* The Inspectors of Stock marked * are also Registrars of Brands.
Assistant Inspectors of Stock—Auckland, H. Whyte; Eltham, F. Murray; Hastings, A. Cook; Longburn, J. P. Findlay; Lower Hutt, H. A. W. Ward; Christchurch, R. T. Souness, E. A. McKinlay; Dunedin, J. W. Smith; Invercargill, D. M. McKay.
Meat - inspectors — Auckland, T. P. Burke; Thames, F. G. Wayne; Paeroa, F. Beattie; Waihi, A. C. Scandress; Gisborne, C. R. Spragg; Napier, G. Thomson; Hastings, T. P. Short; Dannevirke, C. J. Stone; New Plymouth, T. J. Reakes; Waitara, P. J. Sheridan; Stratford, A. M. Spilman; Hawera, G. H. Barker; Feilding, F. Stewart; Wanganui, P. T. Emerson; Masterton, A. D. Gillies; Ngahauranga, J. C. Mackley, John Steven, J. Tomlinson; Blenheim, A. M. R. Mills; Picton, S. T. Evatt; Nelson, G. W. Mitchell; Westport, G. B. Williams; Greymouth, H. G. Wilton; Belfast, T. J. Buckton; Lyttelton, J. Preston; Ashburton, G. H. Jarrett; Dunedin, M. W. Watt; Gore, W. C. Moore.
Assistant Meat-inspectors—Auckland, F. Godfrey, A. McDonald, J. Vette; Hamilton, G. A. Beere; Gisborne, J. E. Tomlinson, E. Dawson; Patea, P. Dow; Napier, G. Blair; Tomoana, H. F. Brittain; Hastings, E. S. Jenkins; Wanganui, ; Palmerston North, K. Ross; Woodville, O. O. Mackley; Waingawa, J. D. S. Heaton; Petone, W. J Walter; Ngahauranga, G. W. Rait, W. G. Marshall; Wellington, G. B. Carter; Islington, J. Fowler Ross; Timaru, H. Rountree, M. Hannan; Sockburn, A. T. Rutherford; Christchurch, B. Thomson, J. F. Ross; Dunedin, D. D. Wilson; Burnside, R. Fleming; Mataura, J. G. Johnston; Invercargill, F. Witty, F. Godfrey; Wallacetown, W. Falconer; Woodlands, J. Milne.
Poultry Instructor—Wellington, F. C. Brown.
Overseers, Poultry Stations—Burnham, A. Rose (acting); Milton, A. Carr.
Caretakers of Live-stock Quarantine Stations—Auckland, T. Hill; Lyttelton, W. J. Thomas; Wellington, J. Christie.
Assistant Director—J. Duncan.
Divisional Clerk—M. O'Brien (acting).
Clerks—J. Fitzgibbon, W. R. King, S. H. Huntington.
Cadets—F. R. Webster, J. H. Dennehy, W. Smith, A. J. Robinson.
Fields Supervisors—Auckland, D. Ross; Wanganui, J. W. Dean; Christchurch, H. T. G. Turner; Dunedin, A. K. Blundell.
Fields Instructors—Palmerston North. G. T. de S. Baylis; Christchurch. A. Macpherson.
Experimental-farm Managers — Waerenga, J. F. Shepherd; Ruakura, P. McConnell; Weraroa, J. Drysdale; Arataki, T. F. Ellis; Moumahaki, T. W. Lonsdale.
Experimental-farm Overseers—Bicker-staffe, W. C. King; Tauranga, W. C. Berridge.
Experimental-farm Managers' Assistants—Ruakura, E. P. Brogan; Arataki, T. E. West; Weraroa, F. J. Alexander; Clerk, Moumahaki, D. Winton.
Orchard and Garden Overseers—Ruakura, A. W. Green; Waerenga, G. Mills; Moumahaki, ; Weraroa, W. H. Taylor.
Vineyard Overseer—Waerenga, J. B. Andrews.
Beekeepers—Ruakura, Miss D. R. Hart.
Overseer, Poultry - station — Ruakura. C. J. C. Cussen.
Chief Hemp-grader, Wellington, W. H. Ferris.
Hemp-graders—Auckland, W. H. O. Johnston; Wellington, J. Stewart, W. L. Rutherford; Foxton, W. Petrie; Invercargill, W. H. Middle miss. Clerk, Wellington—H. Wynn Williams.
Inspectors of Rabbits and Noxious Weeds—Ohaeawai, W. J. Dunlop; Whangarei, A. P. Speed; Auckland, R. Rowan; Te Aroha, J. L. Morris; Hamilton, J. Kerr; Ohakune, P. Barry; Cambridge, ; Kihikihi, C. E. McPhee; Opotiki, J. Case; Lichfield, T. Parker; Te Kuiti, B. W. Bayly; Gisborne, W. Ross; Taumarunui, E. T. Hughes; Wairoa, T. Mullaly; Taihape, A. P.
Smith; New Plymouth, R. E. Fairfax-Cholmeley; Stratford, A. F. Wilson; Hawera, A. J. Glasson; Mangaweka; J. A. Melrose; Wanganui, C. Watson; Hastings, J. G. Parker; Waipukurau, H. O. M. Christie; Feilding, W. Dibble; Palmerston North, W. Dalgliesh; Pahiatua, T. Bacon; Masterton, T. C. Webb, J. S. Rankin; Carterton, S. C. Ivens; Wellington, G. H. Jenkinson; Nelson, G. J. Ward; Blenheim, F. H. Brittain; Seddon, E. T. Sinclair; Kaikoura, W. S. Goodall; Hokitika, H. J. Walton; Rotherham, W. M. Munro; Rangiora, J. A. B. Hughes; Lincoln, J. G. Scott; Ashburton, C. Branigan; Fairlie, W. B. Manning; Timaru, J. C. Huddleston; Waimate, F. A. Macdonald; Kurow, G. Reid; Oamaru, S. M. Taylor; Naseby, A. T. N. Simpson; Queenstown, A. Clarke; Pembroke, J. A. Griffith; Clyde, T. N. Baxter, R. McGillivray; Palmerston, C. S. Dalgliesh; Sutton, W. Scott; Dunedin, E. Fowler; J. R. Renton; Taieri, H. McLeod; Lawrence, R. Barron; Tapanui, W. J. McCulloch; Gore, B. Grant; Clinton, A. A. Clapeott; Balclutha, H. A. Munro; Owaka, T. D. Urquhart; Otautau, H. F. Dencker; Lumsden, W. S. S. Cantrell; Invercargill, W. Wills, J. R. Whyborn.
Director—T. W. Kirk.
Assistant Director—W. A. Boucher.
Divisional Clerk—R. W. Atkinson.
Cadets—L. J. Meredith, W. K. Dallas, W. H. Udy.
Vine and Wine Instructor, Wellington —S. F. Anderson.
Orchard Instructors—Auckland, W. C. Thompson, G. Esam,* W. R. L. Williams, N. R. Pierce; Hamilton, T. E. Rodda; Whangarei, J. W. Collard; Hastings, J. A. Campbell; Wanganui, W. C. Hyde; Palmerston North, G. Stratford; Wellington; G. Harnett; Blenheim, E. Rabbits; Nelson, J. H. Thorp; Christchurch, W. J. Courtier, E. A. Reid; Dunedin, W. T. Goodwin, E. T. Taylor.
Fruit-inspectors—Auckland, W. R. L. Williams, C. E. C. Dyke; Wellington, H. Palethorpe, G. E. Harnett; Christchurch, E. A. Reid; Dunedin, E. T. Taylor; Bluff, R. Hutton.
Apiary Instructors—Auckland, G. V. Westbrooke; Wellington, F. A. Jacobsen; Christchurch, E. G. B. Kenny; Dunedin, E. A. Earp.
Assistant Director—W. M. Singleton.
Divisional Clerk—J. S. Fleming.
Clerk—C. J. Drake.
Cadets—J. A. Scott, N. Forbes, A. E. Morrison, J. Kinghan, H. G. Philpott.
Dairy Instructors—Auckland, ; Stratford, N. Fulton; Hawera, W. Grant; Hamilton, W. Dempster; Patea, E. E. C. Wood; Manaia, C. Stevenson; Wanganui, J. Pedersen; Palmerston North, J. O'Dea; Carterton, W. Graham; Dunedin, A. C. Ross: Invercargill, J. Sawers.
Cheese Instructress—Miss G. N. Davies.
Dairy-produce Graders—Auckland, A. A. Thornton, L. Hansen; New Plymouth, J. Johnston, F. Thomson; Gisborne, ; Patea, E. E. C. Wood; Wellington, W. E. Gwillim, E. A. Dowden; Christchurch, S. Clayton; Dunedin, A. C. Ross; Bluff, J. Sawers.
Clerical Staff to Graders—F. W. Grey, Auckland; W. F. Shield, Clerk, New Plymouth; C. J. Cornwall, Cadet, Patea; A. Paisley, Cadet, Wellington.
Director—B. M. Wilson.
Divisional Clerk—W. H. Frethey.
Clerks—J. H. Barr, A. G. Millington, L. C. Redwood, A. B. Saunders, C. Freyberg, J. B. Saxon.
Cadets—S. R. Edwards, W. O'Connell, John Houston.
Shorthand-writers and Typistes — L. Turton, E. Cunningham.
Photographic Assistants—A. I. Murphy, G. Armstrong.
Clerk in Charge of Inquiry Office, Wellington—J. W. Hill.
* At present in Cook Islands.
Tourist Agents—Auckland, C. Wallnutt; Te Aroha, G. F. McGirr; Rotorua, W. R. Blow; Christchurch, G. W. C. Moon; Dunedin, S. J. Collett; Invercargill, T. F. McLaughlin.
New Zealand Government Agents—Sydney, N.S.W., E. H. Montgomery; Melbourne, Vic., H. J. Manson; Adelaide, D. T. Lawes; Cadet, Sydney, G. Gregg; Cadet, Melbourne, J. W. Clarke.
Rotorua Sanatorium and Baths — Balneologist, A. S. Wohlmann, M.D., M.R.C.S.; House Surgeon, (vacant); Matron, I. Pownall; Clerk, J. F. Robieson; Cadet, L. J. D. Bayfield; Engineer in Charge (vacant); Clerk, W. Hill.
Rotorua—Resident Officer, Town of Rotorua (vacant): Deputy Resident Officer, Town of Rotorua, W. Hill; Ranger and Inspector, Rotorua, F. Moorhouse.
Hanmer Springs — Resident Medical Officer, J. D. C. Duncan, M.B., Ch.B.; Matron, E. Rennell; Cadet, U. K. Harty.
Managers of Government Hostels—Waitomo Caves, Mr. and Mrs. Parmenter; Mount Cook “Hermitage.” Mr. and Mrs. Cook.
Chief Guide, Mount Cook—P. Graham.
Inspector-General of Schools—George Hogben, M.A., F.G.S.
Secretary for Education—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.
Assistant Inspector - General — W. J. Anderson, M.A., LL.D.
Chief Clerk and Accountant (also Secretary, Teachers' Superannuation Board)—F. K. de Castro.
Inspectors—W. E. Spencer, M.A., M.Sc. (also Editor School Journal), and T. H. Gill, M.A., LL.B.
Clerks—F. D. Thomson, B.A., T. G. Gilbert, J. Beck, I. Davey, B.A., A. J. H. Benge, B.A. F. W. Miller, H. L. J. Machu, H. A. Vollheide, V. A. Mills, H. V. Croxton, E Lear, I. Johnstone. J. A. Orr. J. R. McClune, A. M. Palmer, B.A., W. L. Dunn, L. P. Arthur, C. A. Berendsen, B. Egley, C. G. Murray, E. Windsor, W. C. Collier, T. C. Comrie, E. M. Hogg, H. D. Clyde, C. R. Horrell, R. S. Bremner, T. H. Jamieson, A. W. Reynolds, D. N. Johnson, J. C. Hendry, T. P. Cox, I. B. Gow, J. H. Grigg, W. McMahon, L. M. Walsh, N. E. Brown, J. L. McAlister, T. W. M. Ashby, C. S. Slocombe, H. O. Wiseley.
Inspector—W. W. Bird, M.A.
Assistant Inspector—J. Porteous, M.A.
Clerk in Charge—F. L. Severne.
Inspector—R. H. Pope (in charge of Branch).
Assistant Inspector—T. A. Walker.
Visiting Officers—E G. Hyde, Mrs. C. F. Scale.
Managers of Industrial Schools—
Auckland (Mount Albert)—Miss S. E. Jackson.
Boys' Training Farm, Weraroa—G. M. Burlinson.
Receiving Home, Wellington—Mrs. E. S. Dick.
Boys' Industrial School, Stoke—M. D. Flaherty.
Receiving Home. Christchurch—Miss A. B. Cox.
Te Oranga Home, Christchurch—Mrs. B. MacMurtrie.
Caversham—Miss M. Kempton.
St. Mary's, Auckland—Rev. H. F. Holbrook.
St. Joseph's, Wellington — Rev. J. Hickson.
St. Mary's, Nelson — Rev. Mother M. St. Euphrasic.
St. Vincent de Paul's Dunedin—Rev. J. Coffey.
District Agents—Auckland, Miss S. E. Jackson; Wellington, Mrs. E. S. Dick; Christchurch, Miss A. B. Cox; Dunedin, Miss M. Kempton.
Matron—Mrs. G. Benstead.
Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe.
Wanganui—W. H. Swanger.
Wellington—G. L. Stewart.
Hawke's Bay—G. Crawshaw.
Nelson—N. R. Williams.
Grey—P. F. Daniels.
Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.
Canterbury North—H. C. Lane.
Canterbury South—A. Bell, M.A.
Otago—S. M. Park.
Auckland—E. K. Mulgan, M.A.; J. Grierson; C. W. Garrard, B.A.; W. A. Burnside, B.A.; J. T. G. Cox; G. H. Plummer, LL.B.; M. Priestley (Organizing).
Taranaki—W. A. Ballantyne, B.A.; R. G. Whetter, M.A.
Wanganui—G. D. Braik, M.A.; J. Milne, M.A.; T. B. Strong, M.A., B.Sc.; D. Stewart.
Wellington — T. R. Fleming, M.A., LL.B.; F. H. Bakewell, M.A.
Hawke's Bay—Henry Hill, B.A.; J. A. Smith, B.A.
Marlborough—D. A. Strachan, M.A.
Nelson—G. A. Harkness, M.A.; A. Crawford, B.A.
Grey—Edward A. Scott.
Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.
North Canterbury—T. S. Foster, M.A.; W. Brock, M.A.; C. D. Hardie, B.A.; S. C. Owen, M.A.
South Canterbury—J. G. Gow, M.A., A. Bell, M.A.
Otago—C. R. D. Richardson, B.A.; C. R. Bossence; J. R. Don, M.A., D.Sc.; J. Robertson.
Southland—J. Hendry, B.A.; A. L. Wyllie, M.A.
Commandant of Junior Cadets—Major T. W. McDonald.
Staff Officer for Junior Cadets (in charge of Department in absence of Commandant)—Captain A. C. C. Stevens.
Clerks—H. B. Jacobs, W. Maginnity.
Armourer, &c.—E. R. C. Brooke.
Auckland — Staff Sergeant - major Barlow.
Wellington — Staff Sergeant - majors Just, Routledge, and Macdonald.
Christchurch—Staff Sergeant-majors Kennedy and Mellows.
Dunedin — Staff Sergeant - majors Bishop and Cummings.
Chairman and Land Purchase Inspector—J. D. Ritchie.
W. C. Kensington, I.S.O., Under-Secretary for Lands.
John Strauchon, Surveyor-General.
Chief Clerk—O. Mewhinney.
H. M. Skeet, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
A. R. Harris.
C. R. Pollen, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
James Mackenzie, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
G. H. Bullard, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
W. H. Skinner, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
R. T. Sadd, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
H. D. M. Haszard, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
J. S. Lang.
T. N. Brodrick, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
A. C. Pringle.
E. H. Wilmot, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
G. H. McClure, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
PUBLIC TRUST OFFICE.
Public Trustee—F. Fitchett, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D.
Deputy Public Trustee and Chief Inspector—T. S. Ronaldson.
Solicitor—J. W. Macdonald.
Accountant—W. McL. Barr.
Chief Examiner and Sub-Inspector—E. O. Hales.
Assistant Solicitors—E. P. Hay, R. L. Macalister.
Officers in charge of branches—G. A. Smyth, W. A. Fordham, K. N. H. Browne, G. P. Purnell, W. S. W. McGowan, C. A. Goldsmith, W. M. Egglestone.
Assistant Examiners—H. Turner, N. M. Chesney.
Clerks—E. C. Reeves, A. Oakey, A. B. Chappell, A. C. Bretherton, V. J. Brogan, A. Marshall, A. Coad, F. Robinson, R. A. V. Oswin. G. H. Chesterman, A. W. Watters, G. H. Elliffe, W. G. Baird, E. R. Myers, W. C. Nicholls, T. F. H. King, T. J. Dwyer, H. W. S. Pearce, R. L. Macalister, K. A. E. Alexander, A. S. Faire, D. L. McKay, P. R. Winchcomb, P. J. Ryan, H. Poananga, E. F. Allen, H. Mulholland, T. Fawcett.
Cadets—C. H. Riddick, H. Stubbs, E. M. C. Burr, C. J. Playne, C. E. Makeham, L. Tattle, F. F. Reid, W. T. Dundon, L. H. Dear, A. Dawson, T. M. O'Donnell, A. Miller, L. A. Rogers, O. W. Bamfield, H. T. Pokiha, S. A. Trezise, T. A. Jones. A. Whitcombe, G. G. Vial, E. T. Layburn, H. Thompson, C. F. Saunders, M. Lynch, R. H. Greville, C. R. Kreeft, J. D. O'Halloran, K. E. Adams, D. A. McDonald, E. F. J. Reeves.
Cadettes—E. A. Smythe, M. E. Nash, G. M. Morris, A. R. O'Sullivan, M. Downes, E. E. McLean, A. Mackay, A. Gurney, N. J. Mulhane, H. Jack, A. M. Webb, E. Fallows, V. Upham, M. Higgie, G. Jennings, G. McInerny, M. W. Watson.
District Manager — T. D. Kendall-Clerks—T. R. Allen, H. A. Mackay, H. A. Cunningham. Cadets—H. W. Cannington, D. L. Kellett. Cadette—V. Clark.
District Manager — E. F. Warren. Clerks—A. J. Cross, S. Hunter. Cadets—J. S. Donovan, F. C. Coombe, J. Kalnan, J. McGovern, W. Smith, D. B. Campbell, S. R. Carden. Cadettes—E. G. You, C. Anderson.
District Manager — M. C. Barnett. Clerks—A. R. Jordan, A. E. Hardy, S. J. Smith, P. C. Dwyer. Cadets—C. A. Suckling, L. J. Stanley, C. E. White, L. H. Sinclair. Cadettes—V. E. Moon, E. M. Hassall. A. Brooke-Taylor.
District Manager — F. H. Morice. Clerks—R. Price, R. Ward. Cadets—F. M. Whyte, F. McIvor, A. H. Foote, F. Muirhead. Cadettes—G. E. Allnut, M. T. Shannon.
West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent and District Manager—C. Zachariah. Clerks—N. M. Macdougall, A. H.
Pearce. Cadet — T. Kururangi. Typist—I. W. Thomson. New Plymouth — A. H. T. Jones, Kouru Ereatara.
District Manager — T. R., Saywell. Clerk—R. D. Newth. Cadet—D. G. McMillan, J. C. McGinley. Cadette— A. H. Reed.
Members — The Solicitor-General, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Government Advances to Settlers Superintendent, the Public Trustee, Mr. Hoani Tainui, and Mr. Teo Tipene.
Meets irregularly at the Public Trust Office, Wellington.
Commissioner — J. H. Richardson, F.F.A., F.A.S., F.I.A.V. F.I.A.N.Z.
Deputy Commissioner and Secretary—W. B. Hudson.
Accountant—G. W. Barltrop.
Assistant Actuary—P. Muter.
Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.
Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven.
Office Examiner—G. A. Kennedy.
Clerks—J. W. Kinniburgh, A. H. Hamerton, H. S. Manning, H. Rose, W. S. Smith, C. E. Galwey, T. L. Barker, G. Webb, F. K. Kelling. G. A. N. Campbell, C. H. E. Stichbury, A. de Castro, J. R. Samson, G. B. Hill, H. L. Levestam, T. Fouhy. S. P. Hawthorne, J. G. Reid, G. S. Nicoll, R. Fullerton, W. Spenoe. A. P. King, G. E. Sadd, W. J. Ewart, A. J. E. Wiggs, A. S. Houston, R. T. Smith, H. H. Dixon, W. H. Woon, S. G. Hamerton, W. McLaughlin, J. M. Emerson, W. E. Arnold, W. Copeland, G. L. Osborne, G. J. Robertson, W. Thompson, C. Bolton, S. Muter, T. Dimant, J. W. Macdonald, E. K. Hay, A. V. Howitt, B. Trevithick, E. B. Wright, I. L. O'Reilly, C. H. White, J. C. Low, S. C. G. Downard, D. Sturrock, N. F. Wright, I. A. Bentley, F. J. Colmer, A. O. Murdock, L. A. Chapman, E. C. Cooper, H. Williams, L. F. Casey, E. R. Matthews, H. K. Johnston, C. B. Ferguson, H. I. Ryan, M. O'Maley, R. C. Barnett, E. W. Coldicutt, H. J. Cameron N. G. Bennett, A. H. Gooch.
District Manager—M. J. Heywood.
Chief Clerk—J. B. Young.
Clerks—C. H. Ralph, E. T. O. Downard.
Resident Agent—J. H. Dean.
Resident Agent—A. E. Allison.
District Manager and Supervisor of New Business—G. Robertson.
Chief Clerk—W. C. Marchant.
Clerks—A. Marryatt, F. J. Mushet.
District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe.
Chief Clerk—J. K. Benkhorn.
Clerks—P. M. West, F. P. Cleary.
Members—The Minister of Finance, the Solicitor-General, the Surveyor-General, the Public Trustee, the New Zealand State-guaranteed Advances Office Superintendent, and the Government Insurance Commissioner.
Meets weekly on Wednesdays at the Government Insurance Buildings, Wellington.
General Manager—C. R. C. Robieson.
Deputy General Manager — J. H. Jerram.
Inspector—H. C. Rogers.
Accountant—C. B. Redward.
Fire Surveyor—A. L. Berry.
Corresponding and Record Clerk—O. S. Jones.
Clerks—E. C. Little, R. H. Newbold, R. J. McLean, S. O. Jones, W. E. Watson, E. MacPherson, J. H. Dick, F. C. Haycroft, T. J. Power.
Cadets—L. W. Probert, A. H. Pollen, J. L. Inkster, J. B. Walter, A. W. Newton, W. V. Chegwidden. D. D. McDonald.
Members—The Minister in Charge, the General Manager, the Government Insurance Commissioner, and two persons (not being members of the Civil Service) appointed by the Governor.
Meets on third Monday of each month, at the State Fire Office. Wellington.
Manager—F. H. Pope.
Chief Clerk—F. R. Gruszning.
Clerk—H. H. S. Rodgers.
Cadets—L. J. Mander, G. H. Kelsall, G. L. P. Brookfield, W. T. Blight, S. G. Bennett, A. S. Belcher.
Typiste—Miss D. Bates.
Manager—F. J. G. Wilkinson.
Chief Clerk—H. J. Thomson.
Clerks—D. Morrison, T. L. Seaton, W. L. Jackman.
Cadets—H. W. Lomas, W. E. Bradbury.
Typiste—Miss E. A. Paton.
Manager—L. H. Osborne.
Chief Clerk—P. H. Smith.
Cadets—A. J. Muirhead, G. G. Slater.
Typiste—Miss A. Arnold.
Minister in Charge — Hon. A. M. Myers.
Private Secretary — F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Superintendent—J. W. Poynton.
Solicitor—J. B. Christie.
Accountant—W. N. Hinchliffe.
Inspecting Valuer—J. M. Wilson.
Clerk in Charge—J. E. Thompson.
Clerk in Charge of Correspondence and Insurance—C. T. Fraser.
Cashier—A. A. Prichard.
Ledger-keeper—A. W. Knowles.
Clerks—T. W. Foote, W. Auld, W. McGoldrick, J. A. Hay, C. D. Wilson, G. Mackley, J. M. Hutchison, S. Piggin, F. North, A. Esam, W. H. Cooper, J. F. O'Leary, A. L. Hackworth, E. H. Wood, J. T. E. Harrap, N. J. Thomas, R. Roberston, A. T. Jones, A. J. R. Isherwood, J. Cattell, A. F. Newbold, T. H. Giles, S. Astin, A. Curtayne, F. J. R. Gledhill, H. F. White, H. K. Douglas, E. V. Paul.
Cadets—G. L. Morrison, N. D. Vallance, C. M. Murray, W. C. Neal, W. H. Pearce, A. J. Kilsby, R. Hall, A. O. Williams, T. Twomey, F. J. Passmore, C. G. Wilson, R. A. Bolland, G. L. Scott, C. L. Crombie, D. Hamilton, E. L. Adams, F. Shaw.
Typistes—M. W. Ahern, E. Hishon, M. M. Lyons, R. Marchant, E. Robinson.
Messenger—M. W. Thew.
Board meets at the State-guaranteed Advances Office, Government Buildings, each Monday.
Advances Board—Ex officio members: The Minister (Chairman of Board), the Superintendent, the Public Trustee, and the Valuer-General. Unofficial members—Messrs. Henry Kember, and J. K. Warburton.
Minister of Public Works—Hon. W. D. S. MacDonald.
Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.
Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O.
Assistant Under - Secretary — W. S. Short (solicitor).
Engineer - in - Chief — R. W. Holmes, M.I.C.E.
Electrical Engineer—E. Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E.
Assistant Electrical Engineer — L. Birks, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E.
Superintending Engineer — C. R. Vickerman.
Inspecting Engineer — F. W. Furkert. A.M.I.C.E.
Assistant Engineer — F. C. Hay, A.M.I.C.E., J. D. Holmes, and H. Watkinson.
Architect—J. Campbell, F.R.I.B.A.
Chief Clerk—W. D. Dumbell.
Assistant Chief Clerk—G. C. Schmidt.
Accountant—G. J. Clapham.
Assistant Accountant—C. E. Bennett.
Land-purchase Officer—E. Bold.
Assistant Land-purchase Officer—A. B. Kimbell.
Inspecting Officer—P. S. Waldie.
Head Storekeeper—J. C. Fulton.
Fire Inspector—W. H. Hennah.
Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais.
Clerks—J. O. Anson, C. E. Crawford. J. Thompson, A. W. Innes, W. McNamara, L. White, H. F. Curtis. J. Connell, J. W. Black, P. J. Fennell. J. G. B. Hannah, F. A. Lewis, J. J. Bennett, J. D. Brosnan, A. O. Leach. G. F. Jackson, S. L. Searell, A. J. Ridler, O. Ellison, E. A. Pettit, A. Belcher, C. A. Carmine, E. Gibson, G. Tyerman.
Draughtsmen—C. H. Picrard, L. L. Richards, J. P. Nicoll, T. J. McCosker. J. B. Robertson, H. M. Millar, A. W. Kemp, W. G. C. Swan, H. C. North. R. Walker, A. Stevenson, H. C. Heays, C. E. Paton, G. H. Murray, H. Matthewman, A. E. Wilson, W. Stewart, J. Stratford, C. McKeegan. A. T. Ford, C. C. Butt, D. C. Hay. H. L. Hickson, B. F. Kelly, M. King.
Engineering Cadets—R. H. P. Ronayne. J. M. Coleman, W. M. Isitt, J. Hurrell, H. E. Standring.
Architectural and Drafting Cadets—R. G. Caigou, R. A. Patterson, F. G. Bradley, G. F. Penlington, R. R. Dawber, C. E. J. Price, C. N. Rabone.
Clerical Cadets—J. Murphy, F. S. Read, W. L. Chapman, J. Brownlee, W. L. Borrows, W. R. Carter, H. R. Neas. L. R. Poutawera.
Clerical Cadette—K. F. Haldane.
Helio Printer—R. V. Rankin.
Messenger—H. T. Foster.
District Engineers—Auckland, J. A. Wilson; Gisborne, C. E. Armstrong; Wellington, J. D. Louch, A.M.I.C.E. Dunedin. J. E. W. McEnnis.
Resident Engineers — Whangarei, J. Wood, A.M.I.C.E.; Tauranga, J. Hannah; Napier, S. J. Harding; Stratford, C. J. McKenzie; Nelson, W. Widdowson; Blenheim, A. B. Wright; Greymouth, J. H. Lewis; Christchurch, H. Vickerman, A.M.I.C.E., B.Sc.; Invercargill, J.H. Treseder.
Resident Road Engineers — F. B. Wither; G. T. Murray, A.M.I.C.E.; R. H. Reaney.
Assistant Engineer in Charge—H. H. Sharp, Westport.
Assistant Engineers—H. Dickson, A. Stewart, J. H. Dobson, J. Thorpe, H. Rix-Trott, H. R. Young, J. V. Haskell, J. Meenan, L. B. Campbell, F. T. M. Kissel, A. Ross, A. J. Baker, A.M.I.C.E., J. J. Wilson, F. S. Dyson, H. S. Curtis, P. Keller, H. Patterson, R. B. Cotton, T. M. Ball, A. J. Wigley, G. H. J. Mellsop, W. Hall-Jones, W. G. Pearce, F. N. Thompson, C. W. Salmon, O. G. Thornton, J. E. Anderson, A. C. Smith, G. S. Bogle, J. R. Marks, R. L. Kaye, T. M. Crawford, R. A. Wilson.
Assistant Road Engineers — T. Burd, C. H. Williams, W. Nathan, D. N. McMillan, E. M. Donaldson.
Chief Draftsman—W. G. Rutherford.
Engineering Cadets—F. K. Wilkie, W. L. Newnham, L. May, G. W. Albertson, K. R. Watson, G. G. Lowe, R. H. Packwood, F. Langbein, A. Tyndall, E. F. Evans, S. G. Paterson, J. Rochford, T. D. McLean, F. W. Lindup, T. D. H. Alderton, F. V. Brown, W. Struthers, H. Newton, B. C. Annand, W. H. Bennett, R. T. Smith, L. L. Meadowcroft, R. Worley, G. L. Laurenson, A. B. Bremner.
Architectural and Drafting Cadets—T. C. V. Rabone, W. H. Milne, A. E. Thompson.
Draughtsmen—E. C. Farr, F. I. Ellis. J. R. Cade, C. H. Lawn, L. H. Keals. W. H. Gilmour, W. N. Anderson, W. J. C. Slane, O. H. Degerman. W. H. Hislop, A. E. Kennedy, G. Brown, J. J. Fraser, G. More, A. B. Child, A. S. Colvin, T. S. Goudie, J. M. Lowry, J. E. Hoy, H. T. W. McLennan, E. Puttick W. S. King.
Clerks—G. A. Kallender, J. H. Denton, W. J. T. Wiggs, F. P. Manson, A. D. Park, P. S. Foley, L. M. Shera, H. Arthur, W. Merson, A. J. Sutcliffe, St. J. A. White, F. H. S. Ibbetson, S. de A. Grut, C. A. Turner, P. W. Willson, H. M. O'Donnell, N. J. Ryan, L. Cooper, W. H. Boys, J. H. Irvine, E. J. Edwards, E. Twohill, A. J. Archer, V. C. Curtis, T. C. Duncan, H. Colvin, A. Ross, W. Sotheran, W. S. Turner, W. S. Ferguson, D. Carman, D. Twohill, J. J. Gibson, E. G. Thomas, H. D. Ellerby, A. C. Fraser, T. Lockhead, W. H. Mardon, W. T. Birchall, H. L. Powell, S. A. Holland, E. J. Colquhoun, J. A. Wilkinson, R. J. Potts, R. J. Mathers, F. C. Stewart.
Clerical Cadets—J. D. Stack, A. B. Robson, I. D. Shearer, H. S. Hills, H. G. M. Priestley, L. O. Chamberlain, J. A. Shannon, C. O. Miller. R. H. McMillan, F. G. Parker, S. D. Beetham, W. L. Corbett, W. B. King, S. McKechnie, H. G. H. Larking, C. Fryer, C. Halliday, F. K. Chipman, E. R. McKillop, T. T. Ropiha.
Storekeepers—S. J. Moncrieff, S. E. Vaile, J. Nutting, C. B. Gollop, W. H. Gibbs, G. R. Drury, C. F. C. White, H. E. Vokes.
Messenger—W. J. Monds.
On 1st January, 1908, a fund was established to provide annual allowances to officers of the public service on their retirement on account of age, infirmity, or length of service. All branches of the service are included, excepting the Railways Department and Teachers, these being provided with separate funds. The fund is supported by contributions from members, regulated according to age at time of joining the fund, and a fixed sum paid annually by the Government. The solvency of the fund is guaranteed by the State. All moneys are invested by the Public Trustee, and the administration of the fund is vested in a Board, of which a Minister of the Crown is Chairman—four permanent members appointed by the Governor and six members elected, two by the Post and Telegraph Department, one by the Police Force, and three by all other Departments, the elected members holding office for three years. The Board at present consists, besides the Chairman, of the following members:—
H. J. H. Blow, Esq., I.S.O.
J. W. Poynton, Esq.
J. H. Richardson, Esq.
John Strauchon, Esq.
H. A. R. Huggins, Esq.,
A. T. Markmann, Esq.,
for Post and Telegraph Department.
J. W. Ellison, Esq., Inspector, for Police Department.
George Allport, Esq.,
H. R. Spence, Esq.,
H. W. Bishop, Esq.,
for other Departments.
A. M. Smith.
The Board holds its meetings in the Government Buildings on the second Thursday in January, April, July, and October.
The Civil Service Act provides for the establishment of a system whereby officers of the Service guarantee the fidelity of each other. There are certain exemptions provided for in the Act, and the Governor in Council has by regulations exempted the following:—
The Governor's Establishment.
The Assistant Law Officer.
The Law Draughtsmen.
The Secretary to Cabinet.
The Public Trustee, and all other officers, clerks, and persons employed by or in the Public Trust Office.
Officers employed in the working, management, control, or supervision of all railways now or hereafter in any manner vested in His Majesty the King.
Lighthouse-keepers and their assistants.
Officers serving outside the limits of the Dominion of New Zealand.
Nor shall these regulations apply to any member of the Executive Council- to the bank appointed under the Public Revenues Act, 1910, or any officer of such bank, nor to any officer of the Civil Service whose salary is less than one hundred pounds per annum.
In case of defalcation by an assurer the amount of such defalcation must be made good from the salaries of insurers by a deduction in proportion to the total
yearly salary to the extent of thirty-nine-fortieths of the ascertained liability, the balance being a charge on the Consolidated Fund.
A Board of five members, of whom at least three must be assurers, is appointed by the Governor for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act regarding the system. The following gentlemen constitute the present Board:—
D. Robertson, Secretary, Post and Telegraphs.
J. W. Poynton, Secretary to the Treasury.
W. B. Montgomery, Secretary for Customs.
Secretary to Board—A. M. Smith.
The Board meets irregularly, as business requires, at Wellington.
Under the Classification Act, 1907, a Board was appointed to classify all positions held by officers in the Public Service. All branches of the Service are included, except the following:—
Any responsible Minister of the Crown:
Any Judge of the Supreme Court or Court of Arbitration:
Any person whose salary is permanently appropriated by any Act:
Any person employed in the naval or military Defence Forces:
Any person employed in the Police Force:
Any officer of either House of Parliament:
Any person temporarily employed in the Public Service:
And also the Post and Telegraph Department and the Railway Department which are already classified under separate schemes.
Owing to various causes a final scheme of classification was not decided upon until the close of 1911, and this was gazetted in accordance with section 7 of the Act to enable officers to apply to the Board should they desire to do so, for a reconsideration of such classification.
The Board has yet to meet and consider the claims of such officers as have applied for a reconsideration, and after these have been heard and determined the Board will forward a statement to the Governor in Council, when further action has to be taken.
The Board at present consists, besides the Chairman (who is a Minister of the Crown), of the following members:—
Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
W. B. Montgomery, Esq.
J. Strauchon, Esq.
G. Allport, Esq.
H. J. H. Blow, Esq., I.S.O.
G. Hogben, Esq.
F. S. Pope, Esq.
J. Mackay, Esq.
J. Lomas, Esq.
Secretary—A. M. Smith.
The Board meets in the Government Buildings when required
Table of Contents
Carroll, Hon. Sir James, 1911
Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., 1911
Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir W., 1910.
Mills, Sir James, 1909.
Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, 1894.
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.
Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1910.
Campbell, Sir John Logan, 1902.
Guinness, Hon Sir Arthur Robert, 1911.
Kennaway, Sir Walter, 1909.
Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901.
McLean, Sir George, 1909.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.
Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.
Russell, Sir William Russell, 1902.
Steward, Hon. Sir William Jukes, 1902.
Williams, Sir Joshua Strange, 1911.
Cradock, Major Montagu, 1900.
Davies, Colonel R. H., 1900.
Newall, Colonel Stuart, 1900.
Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.
Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1900.
Bauchop, Lieut.-Colonel A., 1902.
Collins, Colonel Robert Joseph, V.D., I.S.O., 1911.
Fitchett, Frederick, LL.D., M.A., 1911.
Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.
Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900.
Richardson, Hon. Edward, 1879.
Roberts, John, 1891.
Robin, Colonel Alfred William, 1912.
Abbott, Lieut.-Colonel F. W., 1902.
Bartlett, Major E., 1902.
Hickey, Lieutenant D. A., 1902.
Hughes, Major J. G., 1900.
Major, Major C. T., 1900.
Polson, Major D., 1900.
Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.
Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.
Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.
Blow, Horatio John Hooper, 1911.
Collins, Colonel R. J., V.D., 1909.
Heywood, James B., 1905.
Kensington, W. C., 1909.
Logan, J. K., 1909.
Robertson, Donald, 1912.
Strauchon, John, 1912.
Tregear, Edward, 1911.
Adamson, Thomas, 1869.
Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.
Black, Solomon, 1869.
Hill, George, 1869.
Lingard, William, 1869.
Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.
Maling, Christopher, 1869.
Mair, Gilbert, 1870.
Northcroft, William Henry, 1910.*
Preece, George, 1869.
Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.
Shepherd, Richard, 1869.
Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.†
* For service rendered in 1866.
† For service rendered in 1867.
Baigent, Private Ivanhoe.
Black, Sergeant-Major G. C.
Burr, Sergeant-Major W. T.
Cassidy, Sergeant W.
Fletcher, Sergeant-Major W. H.
Free, Private A.
Kent, Sergeant W.
Langham, Sergeant-Major J.
Lockett, Sergeant-Major E. B.
Pickett, Sergeant-Major M.
Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.
Wade, Private H. B.
White, Sergeant-Major H.
By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.
By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke and Major Sir William Jukes Steward.
Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers, are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Duncan, Thomas Y., 1906; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., K.C.M.G.; Fowlds, G., 1911; Hall-Jones, William, 1908; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McGowan, James, 1909; Mills, Charles H., 1906; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1887; Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1887; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.
By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of “Honourable.”
Mr. William Montgomery has been allowed to retain the title as from 14th December, 1906, accordingly on such retirement.
By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.
By despatch of 22nd December, 1911, it was announced that title of “Honourable” be conferred on Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand.
THERE is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.
The Most Rev Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 (Primate).
The Right Rev. Owen Thomas Lloyd Crossley, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1911.
The Right Rev. Alfred Walter Averill, M.A., Waiapu: consecrated 1910.
The Right Rev. Thomas Henry Sprott, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1911.
The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, D.D., Nelson; consecrated 1892.
The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.
The Right Rev. Cecil John Hood, M.A. (Bishop-elect), Melanesia; 1912.
The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.
The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—
Church of England.—For church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in each diocese in rotation. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Primate (Bishop of Dunedin). The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese.
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The General Assembly will meet on the second Tuesday of November, 1912, in St. John's Church, Wellington. Moderator, the Rev. George Lindsay, Dunedin; Emeritus Clerk, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier; Clerk, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Nelson; Treasurer, Rev. W. J. Comrie, Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington; Theological Professors, Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D., Dunedin, Rev. W. Hewitson, B.A., Dunedin, and Rev. John Dickie, M.A., Dunedin.
Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three, suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held, presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend.
In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the Metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion. The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the Dominion.
Methodist Church of Australasia in New Zealand.—The next Annual New Zealand Conference is to meet during February, 1913, at Wesley Church, Taranaki Street, Wellington. Each Conference determines the time and place of the meeting of the next Conference. President for 1912-13, Rev. William Ready, Hopetoun Street, Auckland; Secretary, Rev. Samuel Lawry, Armagh Street, Christchurch.
It is anticipated that during the current year the Methodist Church in New Zealand will become legally independent of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of Australasia, and that the Conference of 1913 will meet under the name of the “Methodist Church of New Zealand.”
Primitive Methodist Connexion.—A conference takes place every January. The next is to be held at Wellington, date to be fixed later. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. G. Knowles Smith, Dunedin; Vice-President, Mr. W. T. Lill, Ashburton; Secretary, Rev. J. Featherston, Timaru; Hon. District Secretary, Mr. D. Goldie, Pitt Street, Auckland; Treasurer of Connectional Funds, Mr. Joseph Watkinson, Sherwood Road, Auckland.
Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Rev. R. H. Knowles Kempton, Auckland; Vice-President, Mr. J. G. Fraser, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. R. S. Gray, Christchurch; Treasurer, Mr. A. F. Carey, Christchurch; Mission Secretary, Rev. J. K. Archer, Napier; Mission Treasurer, Mr. A. Hoby, Wellington. The Union comprises 52 churches, 34 preaching-stations, 5,415 members, and a constituency of 25,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist; Editor, Mr. H. H. Driver, Dunedin. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an average income of £2,000, has a thoroughly equipped hospital, employs a doctor, 2 missionaries, 3 zenana ladies, and 32 Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal.
Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1913, Rev. R. Mitchell, Te Kuiti; Chairman-elect, Rev. A. M. Aspland, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Onehunga; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. G. B. Gregory, Wellington; Head Office, Auckland. In 1913 the meeting of the Council will be held at Timaru. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.
Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein and Rev. Mr. Katz, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowski, Wellington; Rev. I. Bernstein, Christchurch; Mr. Spiro is in charge of Dunedin though not as minister. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).
THERE are (May, 1912) 238 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, sixty-five are published daily, thirty-four are published three times a week, twenty-six twice a week, seventy-one once a week, four fortnightly, one three-weekly, one four-weekly, and thirty-six monthly.
The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.
M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper.
|Athletic Field, The (E.)||Saturday.|
|Auckland Free Press (M.)||Saturday.|
|Auckland Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M.)||Thursday.|
|Church Gazette (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Farmer, Stock and Station Journal (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Herald (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Home Journal, (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic Review and Licensed Victuallers' Gazette (M.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Motor and Cycle Journal (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Observer (M.)||Saturday.|
|New Zealand Town and Country Life, Farmers' Weekly, and Land Agents' Record (M.)||Wednesday.|
|New Zealand Yachtsman (E.)||Saturday.|
|Saturday Night (E.)||Friday.|
|Sentinel, The, Auckland's Sporting and Dramatic Times (E.)||Friday.|
|Sharland's New Zealand Journal and Photographer (M.)||Monthly.|
|Social Democrat (E.)||Friday.|
|Sport, The Citizens' Weekly (E.)||Saturday.|
|Tawhirimatea Taima (M.)||Friday.|
|Theosophy in New Zealand (M.)||Friday.|
|Voice of Labour, The (M.)||Friday.|
|Weekly Graphic and New Zealand Mail (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Cambridge—Waikato Independent (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Coromandel—Coromandel County News and Kuaotunu and Mercury Bay Mail (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|North Auckland Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri|
|Waitemata Post, Local Bodies' Gazette, and Cook Islands News (E.)||Thursday.|
|Waitemata Times, The (E.)||Daily.|
|Waikato Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Waikato Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Helensville—Kaipara Advertiser and Waitemata Chronicle (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Huntly—Huntly Press and District Gazette (E.)||Friday.|
|Kawakawa—Bay of Islands Luminary, and Hokianga, Mangonui, and Whangaroa Counties Gazette (E.)||Saturday.|
|Kawhia—Kawhia Settler and Raglan Advertiser (E.)||Friday.|
|Kohukohu—Hokianga Times and North-western Representative (E.)||Monday.|
|Mangonui—North Auckland Age (E.)||Friday.|
|Morrinsville—Morrinsville Star and Matamata Gazette (M)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Ngaruawahia—Ngaruawahia Advocate and Counties Gazette, The (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Onehunga—Manukau Gazette (M.)||Saturday.|
|Ohura—Ohura Advocate (E.)||Friday.|
|Pukekohe—Pukekohe and Waiuku Times, The (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Raglan—Raglan County Chronicle (M.)||Thursday.|
|Hot Lakes Chronicle and Rotorua Advertiser (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Rotorua Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Taumarunui—Taumarunui Press and Upper King Country Gazette (E.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Te Awamutu—Waipa Post (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Te Kuiti—King Country Chronicle (E.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Warkworth—Rodney and Otamatea Times, Waitemata and Kaipara Gazette (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Northern Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Northern Advocate Weekly (E.)||Friday.|
|Northern Mail (M.)||Daily.|
|Northern Mail Weekly (M.)||Friday.|
|East Coast Guardian (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Paeroa—Ohinemuri Gazette (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Tauranga—Bay of Plenty Times (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Te Aroha Mail (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Te Puke—Te Puke Times, The (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Thames Advertiser (M.)||Daily.|
|Thames Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Waihi—Waihi Daily Telegraph (E.)||Daily.|
|Whakatane—Whakatane County Press (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Gisborne Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Poverty Bay Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Inglewood—Inglewood Record and Waitara Age (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)||Saturday.|
|Taranaki Daily News (M.)||Daily.|
|Taranaki Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Opunake—Opunake Times (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Stratford—Stratford Evening Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Waitara — Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Dannevirke Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Dannevirke Evening News (E.)||Daily.|
|Hawke's Bay Tribune (E.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Bulletin (M.)||Saturday.|
|Daily Telegraph (E.)||Daily.|
|Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Fire and Ambulance Record (M.)||Monthly.|
|Waiapu Church Gazette (M.)||Monthly.|
|White Ribbon (M.)||Monthly.|
|Waipawa—Waipawa Mail (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Waipukurau—Waipukurau Press (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Wairoa—Wairoa Guardian (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Eltham—Eltham Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Egmont Star (M.)||Friday.|
|Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)||Daily.|
|Hunterville—Hunterville Express and Rangitikei Advertiser (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Manaia—Waimate Witness (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Mangaweka—Mangaweka Settler (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Marton—Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)||Daily.|
|Ohakune—Ohakune Times, Rangataua Advocate, and Waimarino Gazette (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Patea—Patea County Press (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Raetihi—Waimarino County Call (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Taihape—Taihape Daily Times and Waimarino Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Good Cheer (M.)||Last week in m'th.|
|Wanganui Chronicle (M.)||Daily.|
|Wanganui Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Carterton—Wairarapa Daily News (E.)||Daily.|
|Te Puke Ki Hikurangi (E.)||Twice monthly. (15th and last day).|
|Eketahuna—Eketahuna Express and County Gazette (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Feilding—Feilding Star and Kiwitea-Oroua County Gazette (E.)||Daily.|
|Foxton—Manawatu Herald (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Te Mareikura (M.)||Monthly (1st).|
|Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)||Mon., Wed. Fri.|
|Horowhenua Chronicle (E.)||Daily.|
|Horowhenua County Record||Thursday.|
|Martinborough—Martinborough Star (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Wairarapa Age (M.)||Daily.|
|Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)||Daily.|
|Otaki—Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Pahiatua—Pahiatua Herald (E.)||Daily.|
|Manawatu Daily Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Manawatu Evening Standard (E.)||Daily.|
|Petone—Hutt and Petone Chronicle (E.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Upper Hutt—Hutt Valley Independent and Upper Hutt Advertiser (M)||Saturday.|
|Church Chronicle (M.)||Monthly.|
|Evening Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Farmers' Union Advocate (E.)||Saturday.|
|Journal of the New Zealand Department of Agriculture (M.)||Monthly.|
|Maoriland Worker (M.)||Friday.|
|Mercantile Gazette of New Zealand (E.)||Wednesday.|
|New Zealand Craftsman (E.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Dairyman and Farmers' Union Journal (E.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Free Lance (M.)||Saturday.|
|New Zealand Gazette (E.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Primitive Methodist (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Railway Review (E.)||Four-weekly.|
|New Zealand Shipping and Commerce (E.)||Friday.|
|New Zealand Times (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Trade Review and Price Current (M.)||Three-weekly.|
|New Zealand Truth (M.)||Saturday.|
|Triad, The (M.)||Monthly.|
|Weekly Herald (M.)||Saturday.|
|Woodville—Examiner (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Blenheim—Marlborough Express (E.)||Daily.|
|Havelock—Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Picton—Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Collingwood—Golden Bay Argus (E.)||Thursday.|
|Motueka—Motueka Star (E.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Nelson Evening Mail (E.)||Daily.|
|Takaka—Golden Bay Times (E.)||Thursday.|
|Murchison—Buller Post (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Buller Miner (M.)||Friday.|
|Westport News (M.)||Daily.|
|Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)||Daily.|
|Grey River Argus (M.)||Daily.|
|Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)||Daily.|
|Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.)||Daily.|
|Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|West Coast Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Kumara—Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)|
|Akaroa—Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Ashburton Guardian (E.)||Daily.|
|Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat.|
|Cheviot—Cheviot News (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Canterbury Times (incorporating “Sportsman” and “New Zealand Cyclist”) (M.)||Wednesday|
|Christian Herald (E.)||Monthly.|
|Church News (E.)||Daily.|
|Dominion Scout, (M.)||Monthly.|
|Evening News (E.)||Daily.|
|Loco. Record (M)||Monthly.|
|Lyttelton Times (M.)||Daily.|
|New Zealand Baptist (E.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Methodist Times (M.)||Sat., fortnightly.|
|New Zealand Poultry Journal (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Tatler (M.)||Monthly.|
|Spectator (M. and E.)||Saturday.|
|Vanguard (E.)||Sat., fortnightly.|
|War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army of New Zealand (M.)||Saturday.|
|Weekly Press (incorporating “Referee”) (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Kaiapoi—Kaiapoi Record (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Kaikoura—Kaikoura Star and Kaikoura County Gazette and Recorder (E.)||Daily.|
|Rangiora—Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Southbridge—Ellesmere Guardian (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Geraldine Mail (M.)||Mon., Wed., Sat.|
|Geraldine Guardian (M.)||Tues., Thur., Fri.|
|Temuka Leader (M.)||Tues., Thur., Fri.|
|Temuka News (M)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Timaru Herald (M.)||Daily.|
|Timaru Post (E.)||Daily.|
|Waimate Advertiser (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Waimate Times (M.)||Tues., Thur., Sat|
|North Otago Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Oamaru Mail (E.)||Daily.|
|Alexandra South—Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (E.)||Wednesday.|
|Clutha Leader (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Free Press (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Clyde—Dunstan Times, Vincent County Official Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (E.)||Monday.|
|Cromwell—Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (E.)||Monday.|
|Evening Star (E.)||Daily.|
|Farmers' Circular (M.)||Thur., fortn'ly.|
|New Zealand Guardian (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Journal of Education (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Railway Officers' Advocate (M.)||Monthly.|
|New Zealand Tablet (M.)||Thursday.|
|New Zealand Tribune (M.)||Monthly.|
|Otago Daily Times (M.)||Daily.|
|Otago Witness (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Mount Benger Mail (M)||Wednesday.|
|Tuapeka Times (M.)||Wed., Saturday.|
|Milton—Bruce Herald (E.)||Mon., Thursday.|
|Mosgiel—Taieri Advocate (E.)||Mon., Wed., Fri.|
|Naseby—Mount Ida Chronicle (M.)||Friday.|
|Palmerston—Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)||Friday.|
|Tapanui—Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Arrowtown—Lake County Press (E.)||Thursday.|
|Bluff—Bluff Press and Stewart Island Gazette (E.)||Tues., Friday.|
|Gore—Mataura Ensign (E.)||Daily.|
|Southern Cross (M.)||Saturday.|
|Southland Daily News (E.)||Daily.|
|Southland Times (M.)||Daily.|
|St. John's, Monthly (M)||Monthly.|
|Weekly Times (M.)||Monthly.|
|Orepuki—Orepuki Advocate and Western District Advertiser (M.)||Saturday.|
|Otautau Farmer and Wallace County Gazette (M.)||Wednesday.|
|Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Queenstown—Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)||Tuesday.|
|Riverton—Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (E.)||Tues., Friday.|
|Winton—Winton Record, Hokonui Advocate, and Awarua Guardian (M.)||Friday.|
|Wyndham Farmer (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
|Wyndham Herald (M.)||Tuesday, Friday.|
The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
THE population of New Zealand, as estimated on the 31st December, 1911, and the increase during the year, is shown below:—
|Population as enumerated at the Census of 2nd April, 1911 (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook and other Pacific islands)||531,910||476,558||1,008,468|
|Increase from 2nd April to 31st December, 1911—|
|By excess of births over deaths||6,009||6,572||12,581|
|By excess of immigration over emigration||1,810||2,547||4,357|
|Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook and other Pacific islands) on 31st December, 1911||539,729||485,677||1,025,406|
|Maori population, census, April, 1911||26,475||23,369||49,844|
|Population of Cook and other Pacific islands||6,449||6,149||12,598|
|Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1911||572,653||515,195||1,087,848|
Estimates of population are made from the records of births and deaths and the returns of migration. These estimates, when tested in the past by census results, have been found to approach very closely to the facts, and there is no reason to suspect that the present estimate is an exception. The following table shows the growth of the population during the last twenty-six years:—
EXPLANATION OF THE GRAPHS.—The base of each square represents an interval of one year, and the vertical height 10,000 persons. The upper curve shows the increase in the Total Population, the middle the increase in Males, and the lower in Females.
|Year.||Estimated Population on the 31st December.*||Increase during the Year||Centesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.|
|By Excess of Births over Deaths.||By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.||Net Increase.|
* Corrected where necessary in accordance with census results.
† Loss. The amount of loss by departures in the period 1886-91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.
An examination of the increase for each quarter of the past ten years discloses a considerable amount of irregularity, due to fluctuations in migration. The second quarter shows a loss from this cause for each year, excepting 1903, for the reason that visitors to New Zealand take their departure just before the winter season. New-Zealanders travelling abroad for pleasure usually sail during the autumn, returning in the spring and summer.
|INCREASE OF POPULATION DURING EACH QUARTER, 1902-11.|
|Year.||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Total Increase.|
|Year.||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Total Increase.|
The minus sign ( - ) denotes decrease.
|Increase by Migration.|
|1902||- 825||- 1,615||3,758||6,674||7,992|
|1909||3,435||- 3,517||- 167||4,968||4,719|
|1911||- 157||- 3,174||850||6,681||4,200|
The natural increase of population is shown in the following table:—
|NATURAL INCREASE OF POPULATION, 1902-11.|
|Year||Excess of Births over Deaths.||Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
The average rate of natural increase for the above period was 17.00 per 1,000. The average rate in New Zealand, the Commonwealth of Australia, and some of the principal countries of Europe is given hereunder:—
|New Zealand (1907-11)||17.07|
|Commonwealth of Australia (1906-10)||15.93|
|German Empire (1904-8)||14.16|
|England and Wales (1905-9)||11.58|
The number of persons arriving in and departing from New Zealand is compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion by the Union Steamship Company's boats are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions can be made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes has happened previous to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove nearly correct.
The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under or over twelve years of age, is given in the next table.
|ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES, 1902-11.|
|Over 12 Years of Age.||Under 12 Years of Age.||Total.|
|Over 12 Years of Age.||Under 12 Years of Age.||Total.|
The external movement of population is greatest with the Commonwealth of Australia, as will be seen in the next table, but these numbers are inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning is not ascertained in these cases.
|Commonwealth of Australia||26,916||31,769||25,548||24,502||26,909|
|Other British possessions||1,216||1,138||1,141||932||1,620|
|Commonwealth of Australia||25,848||26,468||28,995||27,100||30,918|
|Other British possessions||1,244||1,193||1,326||1,396||1,540|
Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” It will be seen by the following table that the number of arrivals of this class during 1908 was greater than usual, the object being to escape the education test which came into operation during the latter end of that year.
The majority of the 589 race aliens who arrived during 1911 were persons formerly resident in New Zealand, and who were returning to their homes, 546 Chinese being included in this category.
Residents in the Dominion may nominate domestic servants, and near relatives may also nominate agriculturists for passages at reduced rates, and pay the necessary sum to the Under-Secretary for Immigration, Wellington.
|The payments required are as follow:—|
|Third class (two-berth cabin)||£12.|
|Third class (four-berth cabin)||£10.|
Children between three years and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half-price. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.
The full rates are—second class, £38; and third class, £21 or £19: a reduction to the passenger of £11 in the second-class or £9 in the third class.
Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company to persons approved by the High Commissioner in London.
The persons nominated must be within the age-limit (50). A nomination is accepted only upon the understanding that the relative in the Dominion is responsible for the nominee immediately on arrival.
Persons in a delicate state of health should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.
The question of suitability of any applicant for reduced passage will be decided by the High Commissioner.
The High Commissioner in London is authorized to grant passages at reduced rates to bona fide farmers and farm labourers, provided the applicant is possessed of a capital of not less than £25 for married farmers and farm labourers, and £10 for unmarried farm labourers. A farm labourer can obtain a passage in a six-berth enclosed cabin at £8. The rates in the four-berth and two-berth cabins are the same as given above. The rates for single female domestic servants are as follows: In a six-berth enclosed cabin,
£2 16s.; in a four-berth cabin, £4 16s.; in a two-berth cabin, £6 16s.
Agriculturists, whether nominated or not, are only given passages so that they may arrive in the Dominion during the summer months.
The address of the High Commissioner for New Zealand is Westminster Chambers, 13 Victoria Street, London S.W.
The total number of persons assisted during each of the last six years was,—
On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by two officers of the Labour Department, one representing the Men's Employment Office and the other, a lady officer, representing the Women's Branch. It is the special duty of these officials to afford all information and advice on the prospects of employment in New Zealand, and more generally on any topic about which the new arrivals require information. There is generally not sufficient time, however, between the arrival of the steamers in port and disembarkation to give to each passenger all the details necessary as to employment offering, and those persons desiring such information are directed to call at the offices of the Department in Ghuznee Street, Wellington, where expert officers endeavour to deal with each individual case. The newly-arrived applicant for employment is interviewed as to his capabilities, testimonials are produced and read, and, after a personal chat with the agent, a position from one of the employer's application cards is brought under notice, and an engagement is effected, if possible, on the spot. Sometimes, where employment is not immediately offering in any particular line of work followed by an immigrant, a reference to the labour reports received regularly at headquarters from agents throughout New Zealand may show where there is a shortage of such labour, or where he applicant's trade is reported to be busy, and a telegram is at once despatched to inquire if there is a chance for the newcomer. Again, where immediate success is not met with in placing a new arrival, the Department's officers frequently effect an engagement through the medium of the Press. An advertisement is drawn up
on behalf of the applicant, who inserts the notice in some of the leading daily papers as to the position desired, requesting a reply; and it has often been found that by this means alone many difficult cases are successfully dealt with.
The new arrivals are also impressed with the necessity of self-reliance in seeking new positions. For instance, an engineer may be desirous of getting a position in a Wellington workshop, and applies to the Department for assistance. If there is no vacancy the Department's officers supply the applicant with a list of those employers carrying on such business in the city, and armed with this information the new arrival is told to apply in person to the proprietor or manager and state his wants. It would be difficult to estimate how many engagements are effected in this way, but it has proved one of the most successful employed by the Department.
During recent years the work of placing immigrants in employment has been very heavy, especially during the spring and summer seasons—extending from September to April. Over-sea vessels usually arrive in New Zealand fortnightly, and bring from two hundred to five hundred third-class passengers at a time. As a rule, the majority of these passengers have friends or employment to go to, but the applications made to the Department run into many hundreds during the course of twelve months. Those immigrants possessing a knowledge of farm-work are invariably placed with little or no delay, and during recent years there has been little difficulty in finding employment for other skilled workers, such as plumbers, carpenters, engineers, tailors, cabinetmakers, painters, watchmakers, &c., but those trained in light employment, such as all classes of clerks, railway-hands, packers, hotel employees (waiters, &c.) have usually had to wait some time before being placed. The Department of Labour does not encourage the immigration of such workers, and it is advisable for those following such pursuits to seek the advice of the Department as to their prospects before leaving England. Indeed, this last method of inquiry for reliable information is already largely availed of by residents abroad who are desirous of ascertaining their chances of employment in New Zealand. A letter addressed to the Secretary of Labour, at Wellington, by any person residing abroad asking for such information is answered promptly. Whilst employers here in New Zealand are unwilling, as a rule, to engage men before leaving England, many promise that, providing the writers are as competent as their papers show, they (the employers) will probably engage on arrival.
The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign, in any European language, a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons are excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of 26th November, 1908.
The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act, having a similar purpose, was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.
The population of the Dominion (exclusive of Maoris and the population of the annexed Pacific islands) according to the census of 2nd April, 1911, was 1,008,468 persons, as shown by the following summaries:—
|(a.) SUMMARY BY ISLANDS.|
|—||Total Population (exclusive of Maoris and that of Annexed Pacific Islands).||Half-castes living as Europeans (included previously).||Chinese (included previously.)|
* Including persons on shipboard, but excluding 133 persons, officers and crew of British man-of-war, in Auckland Harbour on 2nd April, 1911,
|Totals for Dominion||1,008,468||531,910||476,558||1,475||1,404||2,542||88|
|(b.) SUMMARY BY COUNTIES AND BOROUGHS.|
|—||Total Population (exclusive of Maoris and that of Annexed Pacific Islands).||Half-castes living as Europeans (included previously).||Chinese (included previously).|
* Including persons on shipboard, but excluding 133 persons, officers and crew of British man-of-war, in Auckland Harbour on 2nd April, 1911,
† Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.
‡ These islands are not within the boundaries of the neighbouring counties, but their inhabitants are included in the population of the North and South Islands given in previous table.
|Islands adjacent to New Zealand‡||1,079||652||427||7||2||..||..|
|Main Trunk Railway||143||109||34||..||..||..||..|
The gradual equalization of the numbers of the sexes, the density of population, and the average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling are illustrated in the following table:—
|Date of Enumeration.||Number of Females to 100 Males.||Number of Persons to a Square Mile.||Number of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.||Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.|
The increase of population of European descent at successive census periods has been,—
|Date of Enumeration.||Population. Persons.||Numerical Increase. Persons.||Centesimal Increase.|
The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives. Until 1876 the Dominion was divided into provincial districts, orginally seven and
finally nine in number. On the abolition of these provinces a system of local administration was established by a subdivision of the whole area of the Dominion into counties and boroughs. Subsequently minor subdivisions, interior to counties, were legalized, these subdistricts having more limited powers for administration.
The population of the two main Islands, with that of Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands, the former being included in the South and the latter in the North Island, at each census period, is given in the next table, together with the proportion per cent. that the population of each division bears to the total population of the Dominion.
|POPULATION OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ISLANDS, 1858-1911.|
|Census Year.||Population (excluding Maoris).||Proportions per Cent.|
|North Island and Chatham Islands.||South and Stewart Islands.||Total.||North Island and Chatham Islands.||South and Stewart Islands.|
It will be seen that in the earlier year the North Island had the larger population, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while the large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger
areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free from the Maori trouble, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and in the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.
In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly ninety thousand Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.
Although for political or administrative purposes provinces have now no signification, still the territorial subdivisions have been retained for many reasons. An estimate of the population is made each year, but it is based on the assumption that there has been no movement since the previous census and that new arrivals are distributed in proportion to the total population of each district. The population as ascertained at the census of 1911 was,—
|Provincial District.||Population, Census, 1911.|
|Totals for the Dominion||531,910||476,558||1,008,468|
The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized, and forming part of counties, have considerable populations. On the other hand the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on. The population of counties is ascertained only when a census is taken, no estimate being attempted. Each county, with the number of its inhabitants, is shown below.
|County.||Population, Census, 1911.|
|Bay of Islands||3,147|
Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains not less than 1,000 inhabitants. The total number of persons resident in boroughs at the last five census periods was as follows:—
|Census Period.||Population in Boroughs. Persons.|
The increase during the twenty years was 235,255 persons, or 87.02 per cent. Boroughs which in 1911 had a population of 1,000 or over contained an aggregate of 491,836 persons in that year, as against an aggregate of 252,722 persons for boroughs of 1,000 and over for 1891, an increase of 239,114 persons, or 94.62 per cent. The name of each borough, with the number of inhabitants, is given in the next table.
|POPULATION OF CITIES AND BOROUGHS ON THE 2ND APRIL, 1911.|
|City or Borough.||Population Persons.|
The principal cities of New Zealand are Auckland and Wellington in the North Island, Christchurch and Dunedin in the South Island. The population of each of these centres and their suburbs, as taken at the census on 2nd April, 1911, is given below:—
|AUCKLAND AND SUBURBS.|
|Total Greater Auckland||102,676|
|WELLINGTON AND SUBURBS.|
|Total Greater Wellington||70,729|
|CHRISTCHURCH AND SUBURBS.|
|Total Greater Christchurch||80,193|
|DUNEDIN AND SUBURBS.|
|Total Greater Dunedin||64,237|
The towns of over 8,000 inhabitants, with their suburbs, as at 2nd April, 1911, are:—
|Total, Napier and Suburbs||11,736||5,799||5,937|
|Total, Wanganui and Suburbs||14,702||7,357||7,345|
|Total, Nelson and Suburbs||8,234||3,824||4,410|
|Grassmere, Waikiwi, and Prestonville||901||458||443|
|Lindisfarne, Richmond Grove, Inglewood, Adamsons, and Hawthorne||536||283||253|
|Total, Invercargill and Suburbs||15,858||7,951||7,907|
The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county, and control the whole of its revenues. If the population reaches 1,000, full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor, and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population is as follows:—
|Town Districts.||Population Persons.|
Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands have been constituted a county, but so far no movement has been made towards exercising the functions of a local governing body.
The name and population of each of the inhabited islands is shown in the next table:—
|Bean Rock Lighthouse||1||1||..|
|Somes and Lighthouse||8||4||4|
|The Brothers Lighthouse||3||3||..|
|Dog Island Lighthouse||12||4||8|
|Centre Island Lighthouse||9||7||2|
Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere.
A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as it can be ascertained, of each Maori is entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite
knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past five enumerations are as follows:—
The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes, and the number living as and among Europeans, is given in the next table for five census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population. It is a matter of some difficulty to ascertain the number of half-castes living as Maoris. There has been no definite rule to guide collectors in deciding when a half-caste should be classified as living as a Maori— indeed, it might be said that all the half-castes and a large proportion of the Maoris in the South Island live in European fashion. They mostly have separate holdings of land and separate homes, and have adopted the habits of the whites.
|Living as Members of Maori Tribes.||Living as and among Europeans.|
The number of Maoris (including half-castes living as Maoris) in each county and adjacent islands, as ascertained at the census of 1911, was as follows:—
|NUMBEROF MAORISINEACH COUNTY, 1911.|
|Bay of Islands||2,623|
|Great Barrier Island||72|
|Eden (including Waiheke and Chamberlin Islands)||426|
|Hutt and Makara||311|
|Oroua, Pohangina, Kiwitea||221|
During the year 1901, the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the
number and birthplaces of the inhabitants was taken. The results for the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—
|Whites and Half-castes living as Whites.||Natives and Half-castes living as Natives.||Total.|
* Not including 513 absentees.
† Labourers temporarily employed on these islands.
(a) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 52; New Zealand, 30; Australia, 4; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 22; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Aitutaki, 1; France, 6; Germany, 3; Sweden, 1; United States America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Islands, 2; Tahiti, 2; not stated, 2.
(b) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 3; New Zealand, 1; Australia, 1.
(c) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 5; New Zealand, 1; Rarotonga, 1; Aitutaki, 4; France, 2; Germany, 1; Norway, 2.
(d) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; Society Islands, 1.
(e) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; Mauke, 6; Germany, 2.
(f) Birthplaces.—Denmark, 1.
(g) Birthplaces not stated.
(h) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; New Zealand, 1.
(i) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; New Zealand, 1; France, 2.
SUMMARY OF BIRTHPLACES.—United Kingdom, 66; New Zealand. 34; Australia, 5; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 23; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Mauke, 6; Aitutaki, 5; France, 10; Germany, 6; Sweden, 1; United States America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Islands, 2; Norway, 2; Tahiti, 2; Society Islands, 1; Denmark, 1; not stated, 2.
|Total Cook Group||173||6,762||6,935|
|Niue (or Savage Island)||52(k)||3,891||3,943*|
|Danger (or Pukapuka)||490||490|
|Total other islands||59||5,604||5,663|
|Total population of Pacific islands||232||12,366||12,598|
At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1884, and further to 3,711 in 1896. During the period 1881-96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese. During the years 1894 and 1895, however, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns were found to be somewhat greater than the departures, and in 1896 an Act was passed, raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901 the Chinese population was 2,857, and in 1906 it was 2,570, while the census of 1911 make the total 2,630, of whom 88 were females. The arrivals during
1911 numbered 546, all of whom had previously resided in New Zealand. The census taken for 2nd April, shows that the number of Chinese in New Zealand was 2,630, the arrivals for the balance of the year numbered 492. Births added seven, while thirty died, and 496 took their departure, leaving 2,603, of whom 95 were females resident in the Dominion on 31st December, 1911, a decrease of 27 in the nine months.
The number of persons at each year of age is ascertained from the census household schedule. In the following tables these numbers have been condensed in customary groups, and the information disclosed at the census of 1911 is compared with that for two previous censuses. Chinese are included, but not Maoris.
|Under 5 years||42,448||41,211||52,499||50,246||59,975||57,934|
|5 years and under 10 years||43,561||42,464||45,826||44,462||53,844||52,163|
|10 years and under 15 years||43,044||42,423||43,834||42,924||46,421||44,992|
|15 years and under 20 years||40,364||40,370||44,242||42,875||44,798||43,660|
|20 years and under 25 years||34,264||34,452||49,370||45,238||49,692||46,124|
|25 years and under 30 years||30,605||28,990||49,308||43,140||54,694||47,520|
|30 years and under 35 years||23,747||21,466||37,798||32,621||49,410||42,714|
|35 years and under 40 years||22,506||18,081||32,329||27,794||39,458||33,437|
|40 years and under 45 years||19,999||14,855||24,451||20,930||31,198||27,259|
|45 years and under 50 years||16,830||12,725||21,424||17,003||24,214||20,696|
|50 years and under 55 years||16,203||11,523||18,336||13,563||20,290||16,573|
|55 years and under 60 years||14,252||8,597||13,984||10,958||16,686||12,609|
|60 years and under 65 years||10,504||6,278||12,452||9,442||12,816||10,225|
|65 years and under 70 years||6,459||3,781||11,524||7,599||10,935||8,707|
|70 years and under 75 years||3,219||2,205||7,567||4,616||8,691||6,030|
|75 years and under 80 years||1,843||1,388||3,698||2,373||5,212||3,260|
|80 and over||982||879||1,865||1,546||2,735||2,130|
A calculation of the proportion per cent, at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birthrate on the ages under 15, the proportion of males at these ages having been 38.08 per cent. in 1891 against 30.19 per cent. in 1911, and 42.20 per cent. against 32.58 per cent. respectively of females.
Of the males, those 15-24 years formed 18.35 per cent. of the total in 1891, against 17.79 per cent. in the later year. At the ages 15-64 the proportions were 59.42 p