Table of Contents


PAGE 33.—Consular-Agent of France at Wellington: J. Macintosh, Esq., vice H. Beauchamp, Esq. Consul of Denmark at Christchurch: H. B. Sorensen, Esq.

Page 34.—Consul of Japan at Wellington: T Young, Esq.

Page 36.—Honours held: Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George—Sir James Mills. Knights Bachelor—Walter Kennaway, George McLean (1909). Imperial Service Order—Colonel R. J. Collins, V.D.; W. C. Kensington, Esq.; J. M. Logan, Esq. (1909).

Page 36.—Secretary to High Commissioner: C. W. Palliser, Esq., vice Sir W. Kennaway, Kt. Bach., retired.

Page 39.—Executive Council: Commissioner of State Forests, Right Hon. Sir J. G. Ward; Minister of Labour, Hon, J. A. Millar, vice A. W. Hogg, resigned; Minister of Customs, Hon. G. Fowlds, vice A. W. Hogg, resigned; Minister of Agriculture, Hon. T. MacKenzie, vice Right Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, resigned.

Page 40.—Legislative Councillors: Hon. J. Holmes and Hon J. Marshall, reappointed 17th April, 1909.

Page 42.—Chairman of Committees: Thomas Mason Wilford appointed.

Page 43.—Roll of Members of Parliament: R. W. Smith, Esq., elected for Rangitikei in place of A. E. Remington, deceased.


Page 16.—Three King Islands discovered “1043.”

Page 304.—First line, “including” should read “not including.”

Page 362.—Fourth paragraph, third line, “higher” should read “lower”.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND.

NEW ZEALAND, formerly a colony, has, since September, 1907, by Royal Proclamation, been granted the designation of “Dominion,” and is referred to accordingly in this book. It consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands, have a coastline 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Three Kings, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The annexation of the Cook and sundry other islands has necessitated an enlargement of the boundaries of the Dominion, which will be specially treated of further on.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and South Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The South Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being more than thirteen millions and a half of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the South Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the Dominion a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce country; while its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the South Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both Islands, the yield having been over seventy-three millions and a half sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.

Discovery and Early Settlement.

The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen. Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (since termed Massacre or Golden) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the South and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the South Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, treacherously murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

In 1793 the “Dédalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time —namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called the Treaty of Waitangi, to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.

The Maoris.

(See Part IV.)

(See Part IV.)

Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both Islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox and Sir Donald McLean (then Native Minister) state that at what time the discovery of these Islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the eastern Pacific islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a Native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

For results of recent researches as to probable origin of the Maoris, see Year-book for 1901.

Boundaries and Area.

The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of what was then the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34°30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0' E. long.; on the west, 166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the then Colony of New Zealand.

By Proclamation bearing date the 10th June, 1901, the Cook Group of islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary-lines mentioned in the following Schedule, were included:—

A line commencing at a point at the intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich, and proceeding due north to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; and thence due east to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich.

The following now constitutes the Dominion of New Zealand:—

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,520 acres.

  2. The island known as the South Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,000 acres.

  3. Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the South Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. Campbell Island, in latitude 52° 33' 26” south, and longitude 169° 8' 41” west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the South Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul, or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

  10. Islands forming the Cook Group:—

    Rarotonga.—Distance from Auckland, 1,638 miles; circumference, 20 miles; height, 2,920 ft.

    Mangaia.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles: circumference, 30 miles; height, 656 ft.

    Atiu.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles: circumference, 20 miles; height, 374 ft.

    Aitutaki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 12 miles: height, 366 ft.

    Mauke.—Distance from Rarotonga, 150 miles; circumference, 6 miles; height, about 60 ft.

    Mitiaro.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 5 miles; height, about 50 ft.

    Takutea.—Distant from Rarotonga, 125 miles.

    The Herveys (Manuae and Aoutu).—Distant from Rarotonga, 120 miles;

    Total area of above Group, 150 square miles.

  11. Islands outside the Cook Group:—

    Savage or Niue.—Distance from Rarotonga, 580 miles; circumference, 40 miles; height, 200 ft.; area, about 100 square miles.

    Palmerston.—Distance from Rarotonga, 273 miles; an atoll, 4 miles by 2 miles.

    Penrhyn, or Tongareva.—Distance 735 miles from Rarotonga; an atoll, 12 miles by 7 miles.

    Humphrey, or Manahiki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 650 miles; an atoll, 6 miles by 5 miles.

    Rierson, or Rakaanga.—Distance from Rarotonga, 700 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.

    Danger, or Pukapuka.—Distance from Rarotonga, 700 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.

    Suwarrow.—Distance from Rarotonga, 530 miles; an atoll.

Total area of islands outside the Cook Group, 130 square miles.

The total area of the Dominion is thus about 104,751 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 498 square miles.

Area of the Commonwealth States of Australia.

The areas of the several Australian States, as stated by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from latest official records:—

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,372
South Australia903,690
Western Australia975,920
                Total, Continent of Australia2,948,366
                Total, Commonwealth of Australia2,974,581

The size of these States (with New Zealand) may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australian States, with New Zealand.

Area of the Dominion of New Zealand.

The area of the Dominion of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the South Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
New ZealandArea in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
South Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands718

Physical Features of the North Island.

The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude, a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the Dominion, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This Island is, as a whole, hilly, and in parts mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the east coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the west coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; hut a great part of it is covered with pumice-sand, and is unfit for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this Island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest and swamps that can be drained; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of hush land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass very little of the land is too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the Island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is pumice country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of the north-eastern corner of this lake, and runs thence north-westward until it enters the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, partly occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for about fifty miles, but only for small steamers. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wairoa (Kaipara), the Wanganui, and the Manawatu, the two last of which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000 ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515 ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140 ft.), and Te Mari (4,990 ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours, charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips. An unusual disturbance occurred in 1909, a quantity of scoria-ash being discharged, but no lava.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Ngauruhoe and Tongariro. It is a volcanic cone in the solfatara stage, and reaches the height of 9,008 ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater lake on its summit, which is subject to slight and intermittent eruptions, giving rise to vast quantities of steam. In March, 1895, such an eruption took place, forming a few hot springs on the margin of the lake, and increasing the heat in the lake itself. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500 ft. in diameter, some 300 ft. below the enclosing peaks, and is quite inaccessible except by the use of ropes. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260 ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces at Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar harbours, unsuitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

The Cape Colville Peninsula contains gold-bearing quartz, and at the southern end rich gold is being found in the Ohinemuri County got from the famous Waihi Mine.

Cook Strait.

Cook Strait separates the North and South Islands. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the Dominion.

Physical Features of the South Island.

The extreme length of the South Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, about 180 miles.

The South Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000 ft. to 12,000 ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349 ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other magnificent peaks.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the South Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270 ft., although at the entrance only 130 ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000 ft. and 6,000 ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904 ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the South Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the Island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the Dominion, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070 ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170 ft. to 1,296 ft. Te Anau Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the South Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the South Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the Dominion as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the west coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Nelson South-west and Westland Districts. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth up to 26 ft. of water on the bars.

The area of level or undulating land in the South Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.

Stewart Island.

Foveaux Strait separates the South from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres.

Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.

The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft. above sea-level, which has an extinct crater at its summit. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild, frost being seldom experienced; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.

The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where over two hundred people live. Horseshoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a Native settlement of Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.

The Outlying Islands.

The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, lying between the parallels of 43° 30' and 44° 30' south latitude, and the meridians of 175° 40' and 177° 15' west longitude, 480 statute miles east-southeast from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. They were discovered by Lieutenant Broughton and named by him in honour of the Earl of Chatham. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregular-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The Kermadec Group of islands, four in number, is situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Islands, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland, and lies a little more than half-way to Tonga, but 100 miles to the eastward of the direct steam route to that place. It is 300 miles eastward of the steam route to Fiji, and 150 miles westward of the steam route from Auckland to Rarotonga. Macaulay Island (named after the father of Lord Macaulay) and Curtis Island were discovered in May, 1788, by Lieutenant Watts, in the “Penrhyn” a transport ship. The remainder of the group was discovered in 1793, by Admiral Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. The Admiral gave the name of “Kermadec” to the whole group of islands, after the captain of his consort ship “L'Espérance,” and the name of the Admiral's ship “La Recherche” was given to the largest island. The name so given was not continued, but that of “Raoul” has taken its place, which would appear to have been given after the sailing-master of the “La Recherche,” whose name was Joseph Raoul. The name of “Sunday” may also have become attached to the island from the fact that it was discovered on a Sunday. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723 ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands were discovered during a whaling voyage on 18th August, 1806, by Captain Abraham Bristow, in the ship “Ocean.” The discoverer named the group after Lord Auckland, again visited the islands in 1807 and then took formal possession of them. They lie about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their accepted position being given as latitude 50° 32' S., and longitude 166° 13' E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000 ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners

The THREE KINGS, a cluster of islands lying thirty-eight miles west-north-west of Cape Maria van Diemen; accepted position, 34° 6' 20” south, and longitude 172° 9' 45” east. They were discovered in 1863 by Tasman, and named in honour of the day of the discovery, it being the feast of the Epiphany.

The ANTIPODES, an isolated group, consisting of several detached rocky islands lying nearly north and south over a space of four to five miles; accented position, 49° 41' 15” south, and longitude 178° 43' east.

The BOUNTY ISLANDS, a little cluster of islets, thirteen in number, and without verdure, discovered in 1788 by Captain Bligh, R.N., of H.M.S. “Bounty.” Position verified by observation, 47° 43' south, longitude 179° 0 ½' east.

CAMPBELL ISLAND was discovered in 1810 by Frederick Hazel-burgh, master of the brig “Perseverance,” owned by Mr. Robert Campbell, of Sydney. It is mountainous, and of a circumference of about thirty miles. There are several good harbours.

The COOK ISLANDS, with others now included within the extended boundaries of the Dominion, are as under:*—

RAROTONGA (Cook Group): A magnificent island, rising to a height of 3,000 ft., clothed to the tops of the mountains with splendid vegetation. It has abundant streams, considerable tracts of sloping land, and rich alluvial valleys. The two harbours are poor.

MANGAIA, the south-easternmost of the Cook Group, is of volcanic origin, and about thirty miles in circumference. The productions, which are numerous and cheap, are obtained by assiduous labour.

ATIU (Cook Group) resembles Mangaia in appearance and extent. It is a mere bank of coral, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, steep and rugged, except where there are small sandy beaches and some clefts, where the ascent is gradual.

AITUTAKI (Cook Group) presents a most fruitful appearance, its shores being bordered by flat land, on which are innumerable cocoa-nut and other trees, the higher ground being beautifully interspersed with lawns. It is eighteen miles in circuit.

MAUKE or Parry Island (Cook Group) is a low-lying island; it is about two miles in diameter, well wooded, and inhabited.

MITIARO (Cook Group) is a low-lying island, from three to four miles long and one mile wide.

HERVEY ISLANDS (Cook Group): This group consists of two islands, surrounded by a reef, which may be 10 ½ miles in circumference.

* See Part IV, “Notes on Cook and other Islands” following descriptions of land districts.

NIUE, or Savage Island, lying east of the Friendly Islands, is a coral island, thirty-six miles in circumference, rising to a height of 200 ft. It has the usual tropical productions.

PALMERSTON ISLAND, lying about 500 miles east of Niue and about 220 from the nearest island of the Cook Group (Aitutaki), is remarkable as the “San Pablo” of Magellan, the first island discovered in the South Sea. It has no harbour. The soil is fairly fertile, and there is some good hardwood timber.

PENRHYN ISLAND (Tongareva) lies about 300 miles north-east of Manahiki. It is one of the most famous pearl islands in the Pacific, and there is a splendid harbour, a lagoon with two entrances, fit for ships of any size.

MANAHIKI, lying about 400 miles eastward of Danger Island, is an atoll, about thirty miles in circumference, valuable from the extent of the coconut groves. The interior lagoon contains a vast deposit of pearl-shell.

RAKAANGA is an atoll, three miles in length and of equal breadth.

DANGER ISLAND (Pukapuka): Next to the 10th parallel, but rather north of the latitude of the Navigators, and east of them are a number of small atolls. Of these, the nearest to the Samoan Group—about 500 miles—is Danger Island, hearing north-west of Suwarrow about 250 miles.

SUWARROW ISLAND has one of the best harbours in the Pacific. It lies about 500 miles east of Apia, the capital of the Samoan Group. It is a coral atoll, of a triangular form, fifty miles in circumference, the reef having an average width of half a mile across, enclosing a land-locked lagoon twelve miles by eight, which forms an excellent harbour. The entrance is half a mile wide, and the accommodation permits of ships riding in safety in all weathers, with depths of from three to thirty fathoms. It is out of the track of hurricanes, uninhabited, but capable by its fertility of supporting a small population. As a depot for the collection of trade from the various islands it ought to be very valuable.

The Climate of New Zealand.

The climate of New Zealand is determined by the geographical situation of the Islands with respect to the Equator, and their isolated position in the great Pacific Ocean. Its latitude in the Southern Hemisphere corresponds very nearly with that of Italy in the Boreal—Auckland having about the same latitude as Cape Passaro, in the south of Sicily, Wellington the same as Naples, Christchurch the same as Florence, and Dunedin the same as Venice. Although the weather is not always or everywhere comparable with the best in Italy, yet, on the whole, the climate of New Zealand is by no means inferior to the Italian. Its freedom from intense heat in summer and cold in winter are distinct advantages to animal and vegetable life, and one only needs to point out that, while continental lands are exposed by turns to winds that in summer bear radiant heat, and in winter bring piercing cold, yet, as the waters of the ocean are subject to but little change upon their surface, and tend always to modify the atmosphere in their vicinity, so warmth is preserved in winter, and the heat of summer is tempered by their influence. Thus the surrounding ocean gives to New Zealand not only the marvellous salubrity it enjoys, but insures that equability of temperature and abundant rainfall which afford it one of the best climates in the world. It must also be borne in mind that no part of New Zealand is more than seventy-five miles distant from the greatest ocean in the world. On account of its great length, however—stretching as it does from latitude 34° southwards for a thousand miles—it is exposed to different conditions of isolation, and other local variations of climate are accounted for by differences of aspect, exposure to prevailing winds, and, above all, by the influence of the lofty mountain-chains which intersect the country.

The climate of the Dominion can best be studied by reference to standards of the whole compiled from a collection of meteorological statistics of various parts. It is thus possible for any one to arrive at valuable conclusions with regard to the climatic conditions prevailing in different districts by making simple meteorological allowances for aspect, latitude, elevation, &c. For example, temperature decreases 1° Fahr. for every 300 ft. of altitude, and in this country by about the same amount for each degree of latitude southwards.

Means or averages of the various climatic elements are used for the sake of comparison between different seasons and countries, and the climatological means compiled in the Meteorological Office of New Zealand are based upon results obtained from reliable standardised instruments and a carefully selected number of representative stations. By taking a number of these results together, not only are useful monthly, seasonal, and annual means established, but errors of observation, &c., are often altogether eliminated, and the normals thus obtained are less subject to local and temporary changes than records from a single meteorological observatory. It is found convenient to treat the two main Islands of New Zealand as separate climatic regions, and, by taking the means of about ten stations in each Island, to arrive at fair averages which help to describe the climate of the country. The mean annual temperature of the North Island is thus found to be 55.4° Fahr., and that of the South Island 51.8° Fahr., while means of the absolute daily maxima and minima of temperature show a mean diurnal range of 15.9° in the North and 16.5° in the South Island. On account of atmospheric and terrestrial effects following their solar causes, the meteorological seasons are later than the solar or astronomical seasons. Thus, in the Southern Hemisphere July is usually the coldest and wettest month of the year, while January is the driest and warmest. The seasons are thus roughly divided into: Winter—June, July, August; spring—September, October, November; summer—December, January, February; autumn—March, April, May. The mean temperatures (degrees Fahrenheit) of the seasons are,—

North Island49.054.261.856.655.4
South Island44.

Mean temperatures of particular places are usually employed in climatic comparisons, and the following annual means and monthly means of the extreme months of the summer and winter are instructive:—

Annual  67.862.863.1
January  75.671.274.1
July  57.752.251.3
Annual 79.577.781.980.1
July 81.082.985.377.9
   Montreal.Chicago.St. Louis.Washington.
Annual  41.948.455.654.7
January  12.423.430.633.3
July  68.972.078876.8

The absolutely highest and lowest temperatures recorded every day afford most valuable climatic records, and means of these extremes give the best idea of equability of the temperature.

North Island.
Mean maximum56.562.671.263.763.5
Mean minimum42.046.953.947.947.7
Mean diurnal range14.515.717.315.815.8
South Island.
Mean maximum51.860.168.759.460.0
Mean minimum36.943.350.143.943.5
Mean diurnal range14.916.818.615.516.5

The mean maximum of the warmest month of the year and the mean minimum of the coldest show the mean absolute range of temperature during the year. Thus, we obtain—

Mean.North Island.South Island.
January, maximum72.269.9
July, minimum42.630.3
Lat 41° 16' S.
January, maximum69.5
July, maximum42.1
        Mean annual range27.4
Lat. 48° 12 N.
July, maximum90.7
January, minimum10.2
        Mean annual range80.5


New Zealand has an abundant rainfall, which, though well distributed throughout the months of the year, especially in the South Island, is heaviest and most prevalent in the months of winter and spring. The averages from the climatological tables are—

North Island13.8614.0712.0811.3451.35 in.
South Island11.9713.3110.9610.3946.63 in.
Rainy Days (0.005 in, or more).
North Island47493421151 days
South Island40383538151 days
 Auckland, 43 years.Wellington, 43 years.Wanganui, 42 years.Gisborne, 29 years.Christchurch, 43 years.Hokitika, 28 years.Dunedin, 43 years.Invercargill, 30 years.
Gisborne (29 years), Wellington (41 years), Canterbury (39 years), and Hokitika (26 years).
January.February.March.April.May.June.July.August.September.October.November.December.Annual Mean Total.


The climate of New Zealand, like that of all other countries in the Temperate Zones of the earth is a variable one, and all its atmospheric phenomena are subject to the control of passing disturbances, which in these latitudes come from the west and move eastward, seldom lasting more than three days. High pressure of the barometer—i.e., above 30 in.—is usually associated with bright and warm days, but cold and clear nights, with dew in summer and frost in winter. Low pressure with the barometer, below 30 in., usually brings more humid conditions; and while the barometer falls the wind is in the north and the weather is warm and wet. When the wind turns by the west to the south for the rise of the barometer, the weather is colder, and sometimes very wet and snowy on the ranges. The changes, though frequent, are never really sudden, and the storms have not the intensity of those of higher and lower latitudes.

Having a marine climate, the winds are stronger than in continental countries; but many parts of New Zealand are so sheltered by mountain-ranges that their records are very small indeed. Another surprising feature is that as shown by means of the various months, the winds of summer are higher than those of winter. The prevailing winds throughout the year are planetary anti-trade-winds—westerlies—which go round the world, and are used by mariners to take them eastward by Cape Horn, home (to England), and on their return they pick them up off the Cape of Good Hope. In summer, however, to the north of Auckland, the easterly trade-winds often blow with much regularity for weeks together.


Bright sunshine is abundant not only in summer in New Zealand, but a very large percentage is maintained even in winter. This is surprising to those who have taken consideration only of the rainfall, but it is accounted for by the fact that the rain and clouds are usually associated with the fall of night and early morning. Self-registering rain-gauges show comparative few hours with rain, and these mostly at night. Records of sunshine at Nelson. Christchurch, &c., rival those of the finest climates in the world, At Gisborne, in 1906, the Rev. H. Williams, M.A. F.R.Met.Soc., recorded 2,202 hours or 52 per cent. of the possible. At Napier the Very Rev. D. Kennedy, D.D., F.R.Met.Soc., recorded 2,692 hours 29 minutes, being 62 per cent. of the possible, or an average of 7 hours 23 minutes per day throughout the year.

Over the northern part of the British Isles the average is 1,200 hours, or 27 per cent., and in the south it is 1,600 hours, or 36 per cent.; and Italy has averages from 2,000 to 2,400 hours, or from 45 to 54 per cent. of the possible.

In few parts of the world are climatic conditions so favourable to human life and its industries as in New Zealand. The native Maori is one of the finest races in the world, and European families under these skies have generally developed into finer and stronger men and women than their parents. Imported seed and stock have in most cases thriven marvellously in the fields, where throughout winter and summer they usually find all the nourishment they need, and require no other protection than the bush, which, wherever allowed, grows most luxuriantly. From youth to age men can in such a climate keep in vigorous health, and enjoy life to the fullest extent.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed in the year 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.

By resolutions passed by the House of Representatives on the 12th July, 1907, and by the Legislative Council on the 16th July, 1907, addresses were forwarded to His Majesty the King respectfully requesting that the necessary steps might be taken to change the designation of New Zealand from the Colony of New Zealand to the Dominion of New Zealand; and His Majesty the King, by Order in Council dated 9th September, 1907, and by Proclamation issued 10th September, 1907, was graciously pleased to change the style and designation of the Colony of New Zealand to “The Dominion of New Zealand”; such change taking effect from Thursday, the 26th day of September, 1907.


The Governor is appointed by the King. His salary is £5,000 a year, with an annual allowance of £1,500 on account of his establishment, and of £500 for travelling-expenses, provided by the Dominion.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after chat time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal Native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives (now designated M.P.) are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. For the purposes of European representation the Dominion is divided into seventy-six electoral districts, each returning one member. The full number of members composing the House of Representatives is thus eighty. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the electors in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. In 1893 women of both races were granted by law the right to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the Dominion. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not specially excepted by the Legislature Act now in force, is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the Dominion and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not previously registered under the residential qualification; but in 1896 the property qualification was abolished (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the Dominion) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. [The above provisions are now incorporated in “The Legislature Act, 1908,” which consolidates the electoral laws.]

The Seat of Government.

Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should he introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.

Public Works.

Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the Dominion, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and to 960,642 in December, 1908; besides whom there were 47,731 Maoris, and also 12,340 persons residing in the Cook and other Pacific Islands within the extended boundaries of the Dominion.


Succession of Governors of New Zealand, and the Dates on which they assumed and retired from the Government.

Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855 to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb., to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9 Aug., 1897.

The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10 Aug., 1897, to 19 June, 1904.

The Right Honourable William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., from 20 June, 1904.


Supreme Court Judges, past and present, with Dates of Appointment, and of Resignation or Death.

Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Held office until March, 1852. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec, 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.

Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1899.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

J. S. Williams, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.

J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889. Resigned, 9 Sept., 1903.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895, Died, 18 May, 1896.

W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April, 1899.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.

J. C. Martin, Acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900. Resigned, 4 Dec., 1900.

Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21 Feb., 1901.

F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11 Sept., 1903.

C. E. Button, appointed temporarily, 12 March, 1907. Resigned, 29th Feb., 1908.

Chapter 4. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843—56.

Members of the Executive Council of the Dominion of New Zealand previous to the Establishment of Responsible Government (not including the Officers Commanding the Forces).

Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her late Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henrv Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.


Number of Parliaments since the Constitution Act passed for conferring Representative Institutions upon the Dominion of New Zealand, with the Dates of Opening and Closing of Sessions and Dates of Dissolution.

Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)27 May, 18549 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 185616 August, 1856.
(No session in 1857) 
10 April, 185821 August, 1858.
(No session in 1859) 
30 July, 18605 November, 1860.
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 18668 October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 187225 October, 1872.
15 July, 18733 October, 1873.
3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 187915 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187911 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 188124 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18801 September, 1880.
9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188710 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 189018 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 189125 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 18937 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)21 June, 189424 October, 1894.
20 June, 18952 November, 1895.
11 June, 189619 October. 1896.
Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)7 April, 189712 April, 1897.
23 September, 189722 December, 1897.
24 June, 18985 November, 1898.
23 June, 189924 October, 1899.
Fourteenth (dissolved 5th November, 1902)22 June, 190022 October, 1900.
1 July, 19018 November, 1901.
1 July, 19024 October, 1902.
Fifteenth (dissolved 29th November, 1905)29 June, 190325 November, 1903.
28 June, 19048 November, 1904.
27 June, 190531 October, 1905.
Sixteenth (dissolved 29th October, 1908)27 June, 19063 July, 1906.
21 August, 190629 October, 1906.
27 June, 190725 November, 1907.
29 June, 190812 October, 1908.


Since the Establishment of Responsible Government in New Zealand in 1856.

Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.

* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.

† Owing to the death of the Premier, Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C., on 10th June. 1906.

1. Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4. Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1862.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox3 March, 18738 April, 1873.
13. Vogel8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon1 May, 1893.21 June, 1906.
28. Hall-Jones21 June, 19066 August, 1906.
29. Ward6 August, 1906. 


Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.
William Fox.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Alfred Domett.
Frederick Whitaker.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.
George Marsden Waterhouse.
Hon. William Fox.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.
Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Robert Stout.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
John Ballance.
Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.
William Hall-Jones.
Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, P.C., K.C.M.G.


With Dates of their Appointment and Dates of Retirement or Death.

Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker   8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richard-son, Kt.   1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187922 April, 1887.
Hon. George Marsden Waterhouse22 April, 188721 September, 1887.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.21 September, 188723 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189126 June, 1892.
Hon. Sir Henry John Miller   8 July, 1892. 
    6 October, 18979 July 1903.
Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.   9 July, 19035 January, 1904.
Hon. John Rigg (Acting)   5 January, 19047 July, 1904.
Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G.   7 July, 190423 March, 1905.
Hon. R. H. J. Reeves (Acting)23 March, 19054 July, 1905.
Hon. C. C. Bowen   4 July, 1905. 


With Dates of their Election and Dates of Retirement.

Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 
 15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.   3 June, 1861 
 30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 1879 
 24 September, 1879 
 18 May, 1882 
    7 August, 1884 
    6 October, 18873 October, 1890.
Hon. Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt.21 June, 1894 
Bach.   6 April, 1897 
 22 June, 19005 November, 1902.
Arthur Robert Guinnes29 June, 1903. 
 27 June, 1906. 


Consuls of Foreign Countries residing in, or with Jurisdiction over, New Zealand, 31st March, 1909.

Country represented.Office held.Name.Place of Residence.
* Mr. O. H. Möller, of Dunedin, is in charge temporarily.
Argentine RepublicVice-Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand)Hon. T. FergusDunedin.
Austria-HungaryConsul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the South Sea IslandsHeinrich JehlitschkaSydney.
Austria-HungaryConsulE. LangguthAuckland.
BelgiumConsul - General for Australasia and FijiF. HuylebroeckMelbourne.
BelgiumConsul-General (with jurisdiction over the Provincial Districts of Hawke's Bay. Taranaki, and Wellington)Hon. Charles John JohnstonWellington.
BelgiumVice-ConsulG. F. JohnstonWellington.
BelgiumConsulJoseph James KinseyChristchurch.
BelgiumConsulJohn BurnsAuckland.
BelgiumConsulGeorge Lyon DennistonDunedin.
BrazilVice-ConsulA. H. MilesWellington.
ChinaConsulHwang Yung-LiangWellington.
ChiliConsul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and New ZealandWilliam BrownSydney.
ChiliHonorary ConsulGeorge DunnetAuckland.
ChiliHonorary ConsulAlbert Martin, M.D.Wellington.
ChiliHonorary ConsulJ. G. F. PalmerChristchurch.
ChiliHonorary ConsulJ. A. RobertsDunedin.
DenmarkConsul (for North Island)Francis Henry Dillon BellWellington (Principal Consulate).
DenmarkConsul (for South Island)*Christchurch.
DenmarkVice-ConsulFrederick Ehrenfried BaumeAuckland.
DenmarkVice-ConsulWilliam Edward PerryHokitika.
DenmarkVice-ConsulOdin Henry MöllerDunedin.
FranceConsul (for New Zealand)Robert BoeufvéAuckland.
FranceChandelierAuguste A LelièvreAuckland.
FranceVice-ConsulPercival Clay NeillDunedin.
FranceConsular AgentGeorge HumphreysChristchurch.
FranceConsular AgentHarold BeauchampWellington.
German EmpireConsul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiDr. IrmerSydney.
German EmpireVice-Consul GeneralCount Deym Von StritezSydney.
German EmpireConsulCarl SeegnerAuckland.
German EmpireConsulWilli FelsDunedin.
German EmpireConsulKarl JoostenChristchurch.
German EmpireConsulFriedrich August KrullWanganui.
German EmpireVice-ConsulEberhard FockeWellington.
GreeceVice-Consul for the Dominion of New ZealandJoseph Frank Dyer 
HondurasConsul - General for Common wealth of Australia, and New ZealandFrederic WalshSydney.
ItalyConsul - General for Common wealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiCommendatore Luigi MercatelliMelbourne.
ItalyConsular AgentThomas WallaceChristchurch.
ItalyConsular AgentRoland Thomas RobertsonWellington.
ItalyConsular AgentSir James Mills, Kt., BachDunedin.
ItalyConsular AgentGeraldo Giuseppe PerottiGreymouth.
ItalyConsular AgentRichard A. CarrAuckland.
JapanConsul-GeneralK. UyenoSydney.
LiberiaConsulHon. Charles LouissonChristchurch.
LiberiaHonorary ConsulArnold Woodford IzardWellington.
MexicoConsulJohn William HallAuckland.
NetherlandsConsul - General for Common wealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiW. L. Bosschart Melbourne.
NetherlandsConsul, with jurisdiction over New Zealand and the Islands belonging there toHon. Charles John JohnstonWellington.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulGeorge RitchieDunedin.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulAmbrose MillarAuckland.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulHarold Featherston JohnstonWellington.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulG. de VriesChristchurch.
NorwayConsul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent IslandsO. RömckeMelbourne.
NorwayConsulAlex. W. NewtonWellington.
NorwayVice-ConsulLeslie Robert WilsonDunedin.
NorwayVice-ConsulRoland St. ClairAuckland.
NorwayVice-ConsulAlbert Peter GundersenChristchurch
NorwayVice-ConsulWalter Sinclair WaterstonInvercargill.
NorwayVice-ConsulRichard Rowland WhyteWestport.
ParaguayConsulA. E. KernotWellington.
PortugalConsulJohn DuncanWellington.
PortugalVice-ConsulHenry Rees GeorgeAuckland.
PortugalVice-ConsulArthur Donald Stuart DuncanWellington.
PortugalVice-ConsulCharles William RattrayDunedin.
RussiaConsul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia and the Dominion of New ZealandMathieu HedenströmMelbourne.
SpainConsul-in Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand)Henry CaveMelbourne.
SpainHonorary Vice ConsulAlexander H. TurnbullWellington.
SwedenConsulArthur Edward PearceWellington.
SwedenVice-ConsulSidney Jacob NathanAuckland.
SwedenVice-ConsulAlbert KayeChristchurch.
United States of AmericaConsul-General (for New Zealand and its dependencies)William A. PrickittAuckland.
DittoVice-Consul-GeneralLeonard A. BachelderAuckland.
DittoConsular AgentFrank GrahamChristchurch.
DittoConsular AgentJ. G. DuncanWellington.
DittoConsular AgentFrederick Orlando BridgemanDunedin.


J. S. Larke,

Address—Exchange, Bridge Street, Sydney, N.S.W.


The Hon. W. Hall-Jones, Westminster Chambers, 13 Victoria Street, S.W. (Appointed as from 1st December, 1908.) Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


(Downing Street, S.W., London).

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. Earl of Crewe, K.G., 13th April, 1908.

Parliamentary Under-Secretary—Lieut.-Colonel J. E. B. Seely, D.S.O., M.P. Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir Francis J. S. Hopwood, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. Assistant Under-Secretaries: Sir Charles P. Lucas, K.C.M.G., K.C.B.; H. B. Cox, C.B. (Legal); Reginald L. Antrobus, C.B.; and H. W. Just, C.B., C.M.G.


Whitehall Gardens, S.W. City Office: 1, Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C., London.

Crown Agents—Sir Ernest Edward Blake, K.C.M.G.; Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, C.M.G., late R.E.; and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.


Privy Councillor (P.C.).

Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1907.

Knights Commanders of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (K.C.M.G.).

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, 1894. Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886. Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.

Knights Bachelor (Kt. Bach.).

Campbell, Sir John Logan, 1902.
Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901. Mills, Sir James, 1908.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.

Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.
Russell, Sir William Russell, 1902.
Steward, Hon. Sir William Jukes, 1902.

Companions of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (C.B.).

Cradock, Major Montagu, 1900.
Davies, Brevet-Colonel R. H., 1900.
Newall, Colonel Stewart, 1900.

Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.
Robin, Brevet Colonel Alfred William, 1900.

Companions of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (C.M.G.).

Bauchop, Lieut.-Colonel A., 1902.
Gutlgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.

Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900.

Kennaway, Walter, 1891.
Richardson, Hon. Edward, 1879.
Roberts, John. 1891.

Companion, Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.).

Abbott, Lieut.-Colonel F. W., 1902.
Bartlett Major E., 1902.
Hickey, Lieutenant D. A., 1902.
Hughes, Captain J. G., 1900.
Major, Major C. T., 1900.

Polson, Major D., 1900.
Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.
Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.
Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.

Companion, Imperial Service Order (I.S.O.).

Heywood, James B., 1905.

Royal Red Cross.

Williamson, Miss J. M. N., 1900

Victoria Cross.

Hardham, Lieut. W. J., 1901.

New Zealand Cross.

Adamson, Thomas, 1869.
Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.
Black, Solomon, 1869.
Hill, George, 1869.
Lingard, William, 1869.
Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.

Maling, Christopher, 1869.
Mair, Gilbert, 1870.
Preece, George, 1869.
Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.
Shepherd, Richard, 1869.
Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.*

* For service rendered in 1867.

Distinguished Conduct Medals awarded to Members of New Zealand Contingents in South Africa (1899–1902).

Baigent, Private Ivanhoe.
Black, Sergeant-Major G. C.
Burr, Sergeant-Major W. T.
Cassidy, Sergeant W.
Fletcher, Sergeant-Major W. H.
Free, Private A.

Kent, Sergeant W.
Langham, Sergeant-Major J.
Lockett, Sergeant-Major E. B.
Pickett, Sergeant-Major M.
Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.
Wade, Private H. B.
White, Sergeant-Major H.

Persons allowed to retain the Title of “Honourable” within His Majesty's Dominions.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke and Major Sir William Jukes Steward.

Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers, whose names do not appear in the list given above, are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Duncan, Thomas Y., 1906; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Hall-Jones, William, 1908; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McGowan, James, 1909; McNab, Robert, 1908; Mills, Charles H., 1906; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Montgomery, William, 1907; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, George F., 1891; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.

By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government, of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of “Honourable.”

Mr. William Montgomery has been allowed to retain the title as from 14th December, 1906, accordingly on such retirement.

Retired Judges of Supreme Court.

By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.


Table of Contents

1st April, 1909.

PLUNKET, His Excellency The Right Honourable William Lee, fifth Baron (United Kingdom, 1827), formerly an Attaché in the Diplomatic Service, and subsequently Private Secretary to successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland (1900–4); Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George; Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order; son of fourth Baron (Archbishop of Dublin); born 19th December, 1864; succeeded 1897; married, 1894, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, daughter of first Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, K.P., G.C.B., &c. Issue: Three sons (Honourables Terence, Brinsley, and Denis) five daughters (Honourables Helen, Eileen, Moira, Joyce, and Ethne). Appointed 9th March, 1904, and assumed office 20th June, 1904, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Allowance on account of establishment, £1,500, and travelling-expenses, £500 per annum. The allowance is not payable for any period during which the Governor is absent from the Dominion. Residences: Old Connaught, Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland; Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary: Horace Clare Waterfield, Esq.

1st Aide-de-Camp: Captain the Hon. Nigel Charles Gathorne-Hardy, 5th Fusiliers.

2nd Aide-de-Camp: Captain William John Shannon, 16th (the Queen's) Lancers.

Local Aide-de-Camp: Captain John Hugh Boscawen (honorary).

ADMINISTRATOR OF THE GOVERNMENT.—The Chief Justice, appointed under a dormant Commission.


Table of Contents

1st April, 1909.

THE annual appropriation for Ministers' salaries is fixed by statute at the sum of £8,900, of which £1,600 is for the Prime Minister, £1,300 for the Minister for Railways, and £1,000 for each of six other Ministers. All Ministers to whom salaries are appropriated are members of the Executive Council, holding one or more of the offices specified by law. Members of the Executive Council travelling within the Dominion on public service are entitled to allowance not exceeding £1 10s. per day when so engaged, but not during the time a Minister is attending a session of the General Assembly. The members of the Executive Council to whom salaries are payable, and who are not otherwise provided with residences at the seat of Government, are entitled to an allowance in lieu thereof at the rate of £200 a year.

The Executive Council now consists of:—

His Excellency the Governor presiding.

Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, P.C., K.C.M.G., Prime Minister, Minister of Finance, Postmaster-General, Minister of Telegraphs, Minister of Defence, Minister of Lands, and Minister of Agriculture.

Hon. John Andrew Millar, Minister of Railways and Minister of Marine.

Hon. James Carroll, Native Minister and Minister of Stamp Duties.

Hon. John George Findlay, K.C., LL.D., Attorney-General and Minister of Justice.

Hon. George Fowlds, Minister of Education and Minister of Immigration.

Hon. Roderick McKenzie, Minister of Public Works and Minister of Mines.

Hon. Alexander Wilson Hogg, Minister of Customs and Minister of Labour.

Hon. David Buddo, Minister of Internal Affairs and Minister of Public Health.

Hon. Thomas MacKenzie, Minister of Industries and Commerce and Minister in charge of Tourist and Health Resorts.

Hon. Apirana Turupa Ngata.

Clerk of the Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.


Legislative Council.

THE number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-five, and is not limited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be a male of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of His Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the Dominion are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £200 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting-day is made in case of an absence exceeding fourteen sitting-days in any one session, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. Under the Legislature Act, a seat is vacated by any member of the Council (1) if he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2) if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3) if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4) if he is a public defaulter, or is attained of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5) if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6) if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council.

The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 pm. to 5 pm., resuming again at 7.30 pm. when necessary.

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.
* Life members.
Speaker—Hon. C. C. BOWEN.
Chairman of Committees—The Hon. R. H. J. REEVES.
Anstey, the Hon. JohnCanterbury22 January, 1907.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.
Baldey, the Hon. AlfredOtago18 March, 1903.
Barr, the Hon. JohnCanterbury22 January, 1907.
Beehan, the Hon. WilliamAuckland22 June, 1903.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury23 January, 1891.
Callan, the Hon. John BartholomewOtago22 January, 1907.
Carncross, the Hon. Walter Charles FrederickTaranaki18 March, 1903.
Collins, the Hon. William EdwardWellington22 January, 1907.
Findlay, the Hon. John George, K.C., LL.D.Wellington23 November, 1906.
George, the Hon. Seymour ThorneAuckland22 June, 1903.
Gilmer, the Hon. HamiltonWellington22 January, 1907.
Harris, the Hon. BenjaminAuckland3 February, 1904.
Holmes, the Hon. JamesWestland18 April, 1902.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury1 July, 1907.
Johnston, the Hon, Charles JohnWellington23 January, 1891.
Jones, the Hon. GeorgeOtago13 December, 1902.
Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Frank Herbert Phillips.

* Life members.

Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki16 October, 1906.
Loughnan, the Hon. Robert AndrewWellington6 May, 1907.
Louisson, the Hon. CharlesCanterbury14 January, 1908.
Luke, the Hon. Charles ManleyWellington22 January, 1907.
McCardle, the Hon. William WilsonAuckland22 January, 1907.
Macdonald, the Hon. Thomas KennedyWellington22 June, 1903.
McGowan, the Hon. JamesAuckland6 January, 1909.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.*
Marshall, the Hon. JamesWestland18 April, 1902.
Miller, the Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt., Bach.Otago8 July, 1865.*
Mills, the Hon. Charles HoughtonWellington2 March, 1909.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay20 January, 1891.*
O'Rorke, the Hon. Sir George Maurice, Kt.Auckland25 June, 1904.
Paul, the Hon. John ThomasOtago22 January, 1907.
Pere, Hon. WiremuHawke's Bay22 January, 1907.
Reeves, the Hon. Richard Harman JeffaresNelson13 December, 1902.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington1 July, 1907.
Samuel, the Hon. OliverTaranaki22 January, 1907.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.*
Sinclair, the Hon. John RobertOtago22 January, 1907.
Smith, the Hon. William CowperHawke's Bay13 December, 1902.
Smith, the Hon. George JohnCanterbury22 January, 1987.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury7 March, 1882.*
Thompson, the Hon. ThomasAuckland18 March, 1903.
Trask, the Hon. FrancisNelson18 March, 1903.
Tucker, the Hon. William HenryAuckland22 January, 1907.
Wherowhero, the Hon. Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau teAuckland22 May, 1903.
Wigram, the Hon. Henry FrancisCanterbury22 June, 1903.

House of Representatives.

The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are now designated Members of Parliament. The number was fixed by the Act of 1900, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1902. Previously (from 1890) the House consisted of seventy-four members, seventy Europeans and four Maoris; and previously to that (from 1881) of ninety-five members, ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island at present returns forty-one European members, and the South Island thirty-five. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in “The Legislature Act, 1908,” is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the Dominion, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November, 1901, under the provisions of an Act passed in that year. Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.

Chairman of Committees—
Name.Electoral District.Date when Writs made returnable.
        For European Electorates.
Allen, JamesBruce21 November, 1908.
Anderson, George JamesMataura21 November, 1908.
Arnold, James FrederickDunedin Central21 November, 1908.
Baume, Frederick EhrenfreidAuckland East21 November, 1908.
Bollard, JohnEden21 November, 1908.
Brown, John VigorNapier21 November, 1908.
Buchanan, Walter ClarkeWairarapa21 November, 1908.
Buddo, Hon. DavidKaiapoi21 November, 1908.
Buick, DavidPalmerston21 November, 1908.
Buxton, ThomaGeraldine21 November, 1908.
Carroll, Hon. JamesGisborne21 November, 1908.
Clark, Edward HenryChalmers21 November, 1908.
Colvin, JamesBuller21 November, 1908.
Craigie, JamesTimaru21 November, 1908.
Davey, Thomas HenryChristchurch East21 November, 1908.
Dillon, AlfredHawke's Bay21 November, 1908.
Dive, BradshawEgmont21 November, 1908.
Duncan, JohnWairau21 November, 1908.
Duncan, Hon. Thomas YoungOamaru21 November, 1908.
Ell, Henry GeorgeChristchurch South21 November, 1908.
Field, William HughesOtaki21 November, 1908.
Fisher, Francis Marion BatesWellington Central21 November, 1908.
Forbes, George WilliamHurunui21 November, 1908.
Fowlds, Hon. GeorgeGrey Lynn21 November, 1908.
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu21 November, 1908.
Glover, Albert EdwardAuckland Central21 November, 1908.
Graham, JohnNelson21 November, 1908.
Greenslade, Henry JamesWaikato21 November, 1908.
Guinness, Arthur RobertGrey21 November, 1908.
Guthrie, David HenryOroua21 November, 1908.
Hall, CharlesWaipawa21 November, 1908.
Hanan, Josiah AlfredInvercargill21 November, 1908.
Hardy, Charles Albert CreerySelwyn21 November, 1908.
Herdman, Alexander LawrenceWellington North21 November, 1908.
Hemes, William HerbertTauranga21 November, 1908.
Hine, John BirdStratford21 November, 1908.
Hogan, James ThomasWanganui21 November, 1908.
Hogg, Hon. Alexander WilsonMasterton21 November, 1908.
Jennings, William ThomasTaumarunui21 November, 1908.
Lang, Frederic WilliamManukau21 November, 1908.
Laurenson, GeorgeLyttelton21 November, 1908.
Lawry, FrankParnell21 November, 1908.
Luke, John PearceWellington Suburbs21 November, 1908.
Macdonald, William Donald StuartBay of Plenty21 November, 1908.
McKenzie, Hon. RoderickMotueka21 November, 1908.
MacKenzie, Hon. ThomasTaieri21 November, 1908.
McLaren, DavidWellington East21 November, 1908.
Malcolm, Alexander ScottClutha21 November, 1908.
Mander, FrancisMarsden21 November, 1908.
Massey, William FergusonFranklin21 November, 1908.
Millar, Hon. John AndrewDunedin West21 November, 1908.
Newman, EdwardManawatu21 November, 1908.
Nosworthy, WilliamAshburton21 November, 1908.
Okey, Henry James HobbsTaranaki21 November, 1908.
Pearce, George VatorPatea21 November, 1908.
Phillipps, Leonard RichardWaitemata21 November, 1908.
Poland, HughOhinemuri21 November, 1908.
Poole, Charles HenryAuckland West21 November, 1908.
Reed, Vernon HerbertBay of Islands21 November, 1908.
Remington, Arthur EdwardRangitikei21 November, 1908.
Rhodes, Robert HeatonEllesmere21 November, 1908.
Ross, Robert BeatsonPahiatua21 November, 1908.
Russell, George WarrenAvon21 November, 1908.
Scott, RobertTuapeka21 November, 1908.
Seddon, Thomas Edward YoudWestland21 November, 1908.
Sidey, Thomas KayDunedin South21 November, 1908.
Stallworthy, JohnKaipara21 November, 1908.
Steward, Sir William Jukes, Kt. Bach.Waitaki21 November, 1908.
Taylor, Edmund HarveyThames4 February, 1909.
Taylor, Thomas EdwardChristchurch North21 November, 1908.
Thomson, George MalcolmDunedin North21 November, 1908.
Thomson, John CharlesWallace21 November, 1908.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, P.O., K.C.M.G.Awarua21 November, 1908.
Wilford, Thomas MasonHutt21 November, 1908.
Witty, GeorgeRiccarton21 November, 1908.
Wright, Robert AlexanderWellington South21 November, 1908.
        For Maori Electorates.
Te RangihiroaNorthern Maori5 April, 1909.
Kaihau, HenareWestern Maori23 December, 1908.
Ngata, Apirana TurupaEastern Maori23 December, 1908.
Parata, TameSouthern Maori23 December, 1908.

Clerk of House of Representatives—H. Otterson.

Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.

Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.

Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. W. Kane.

Chief Hansard Reporter—Silas Spragg.

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks.

Interpreters—L. M. Grace, D. F. G. Barclay.

Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.

Deputy Clerk of Writs—R. F. Lynch.

Chief Librarian—Charles Wilson.


The list of officers of the various administrative Departments, usually published in this portion of the Year-book, will be inserted as a supplement later on.


THERE is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.

Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the “Church of England.”


The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 (Primate).

The Right Reverend Moore Richard Neligan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1903.

The Right Rev. William Leonard Williams, D.D., Waiapu; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Frederic Wallis, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.

Roman Catholic Church.


The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. George Michael Lenihan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1896.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.

Annual Meetings and Officers.

The principal present heads or officers of the various Churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one or other of the dioceses. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Bishop of Dunedin, Primate. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held, presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the Metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion. The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the Dominion.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The General Assembly will meet on the fourth Tuesday of October, 1909, in St. Andrew's Church, Christchurch. Moderator, the Rev. James Chisholm, Dunedin; Senior Clerk, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier; Junior Clerk, Rev. David Borrie, Dunedin; Treasurer, Rev. W. J. Comrie; Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington; Theological Professors, Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D., Dunedin, and Rev. W. Hewitson, B.A., Dunedin.

Methodist Church of Australasia in New Zealand.—The next annual New Zealand Conference meets on Thursday, 24th February, 1910, in Trinity Church, Dunedin. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1909–10), Rev. Thomas Fee, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. S. Lawry, Papanui, Christchurch.

Primitive Methodist Connexion.—A Conference takes place every January. The next is to be held at Timaru, commencing 13th January, 1910. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. Robert Raine. Auckland; Vice-President, Mr. Henry Holland, Christchurch, Canterbury; Secretary, Rev. J. Southern, Granity, Westport; Hon. District Secretary, Mr. D. Goldie, Pitt Street, Auckland; Treasurer of Connectional Funds, Mr. Joseph Watkinson, Wapiti Avenue, Epsom, Auckland.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Mr. A. F. Carey, Christchurch; Vice-President, Rev. T. A. Williams, Petone; Secretary, Rev. R. S. Gray, Christchurch; Treasurer, Mr. A. Chidgey, Christchurch; Mission Secretary, Rev. E. A. Kirwood, Mount Roskill, Auckland; Mission Treasurer, Mr. A. Hoby, Wellington. The Union comprises 45 churches, 22 preaching-stations, 4,648 members, and a constituency of 18,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist; Editor, Mr. H. H. Driver, Dunedin. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an average income of £1,500, has a thoroughly equipped hospital, employs a doctor, a missionary, three zenana ladies, and 16 Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1909, Rev. W. S. Fernie, Dunedin; Chairman-elect, Mr. A. M. Lewis, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. Wm. Day, Mount Eden; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. G. Hunt, Wellington; Head Office, Auckland. In 1910 the meeting of the Council will be held at Auckland. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowski, Wellington; Rev. I. Bernstein, Christchurch; Rev. A. T. Chodowski, Dunedin. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).


THE permanent defence forces consist of the Royal NZ. Artillery and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers—viz., Field Artillery, Garrison Artillery, Engineers, Mounted Rifles, Rifle, Cycle, Field Ambulance Corps, Reserve Corps, Defence Rifle Clubs, and Defence Cadets. The administration of the defence forces of the Dominion is under the control of the Council of Defence, of which the Hon. the Minister of Defence is President.

Militia and Volunteer Districts.

The two Islands (North and South) are divided into five military districts, each commanded by an officer of field rank, with a paid staff of officers and non-commissioned officers. The staffs of non-commissioned officers are engaged in instruction of Volunteer corps of the different branches of the service in their respective districts. The number of non-commissioned officers employed as instructors to Volunteers is as follows:—

Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsDominion of NZ,Gunnery, 1.
Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsAucklandEngineering and Signalling, 1. Mounted, 3. Infantry, 4.
Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsWellingtonEngineering and Signalling, 2. Mounted, 3. Infantry, 5.
Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsNelsonMounted, 1. Infantry, 2.
Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsCanterburyEngineering and Signalling, 1. Mounted, 2. Infantry, 3.
Staff Sergeant-major InstructorsOtagoEngineering and Signalling, 1. Mounted, 3. Infantry, 3.

Royal NZ. Artillery.

This Force is divided into four detachments, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (headquarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, ordnance stores, ammunition, horses for Field Artillery, and munitions of war at these four centres, and also to carry out the instruction of Artillery Volunteers. The Force has a strength of 270 of all ranks, the authorised establishment being 255. The training of Garrison and Field Artillery Volunteers is carried out by the Permanent Force under the direction of the Chief Instructor of Artillery Services.

Owing to the decision of the Imperial authorities to dispense with submarine mines as means of defence the Royal New Zealand Engineers have been formed into Electric-light Sections, and are included in the strength of the Royal New Zealand Artillery. Sections are stationed at Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, and Port Chalmers.

Volunteers.—Field Artillery.

There are five batteries of Field Artillery. They are armed with 15-pounder B.L., on field carriages, and go into camp annually for sixteen days. Present strength, 383 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Naval and Garrison Artillery.

There are eleven Garrison Artillery Corps. They go into camp annually for sixteen days. Present strength, 1,011 of all ranks.


There are six Engineer Corps and one Pioneer Corps, with a total strength of 373 officers and men. The Engineers go into camp for sixteen days each year. The qualifications for Pioneers for capitation, personal payments, ammunition, orders of dress are the same as for Infantry.

Volunteers.—Mounted Rifles.

There are sixty-eight corps of Mounted Rifles. These corps go into camp for an annual training of seven days. Present strength, 3,754 officers and men.

Volunteers.—Infantry and Cycle Corps.

In this branch of the service there are a hundred and eighteen corps, with a strength of 396 officers, 5,668 other ranks. Infantry company camps are not necessary for capitation, but a certain number of parades (including three daylight parades) must be held. Three Cycle and two Infantry Corps have signalling detachments attached.

Volunteers.—Field Ambulance Corps.

There are Volunteer Field Ambulance Corps at Auckland, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin, with a total strength of 16 officers and 188 other ranks.

Reserve Corps.

Reserve Corps are formed mainly from members of late New Zealand contingents, and also from those Infantry or Mounted Corps who have been unable to keep up to the necessary strength as such, or are too far removed from the lines of communication for mobilisation and frequent practical instruction. Each efficient member is allowed 100 rounds of ammunition free annually. Each member must attend four drills during the year to qualify as efficient. An annual capitation allowance of 5s. is made to each Reservist who qualifies by attendance at drill and completes musketry course. Reserve Corps may, provided there is no active Volunteer Corps within a reasonable distance, enrol men who have had no previous military training, in which case the recruit must go through the same practice as laid down for recruits of active Volunteer Corps.

Volunteers.—Garrison Bands.

There are five Garrison Bands, with a total membership of 146.

Battalion Bands.

There are fourteen battalion bands, with a total membership of 352.

Volunteers.—Defence Cadet Corps.

There is a force of sixty-five Defence Cadet Corps, with a total strength of 3,515 of all ranks.

Defence Rifle Clubs.

There are 147 Rifle Clubs, comprising 3,671 members. Members can purchase rifles at cost-price from Government. An annual grant of ammunition is made to those members who fulfil conditions as to firing annual musketry course, drills, &c.


The whole of the adult portion of the Force have magazine Lee-Enfield carbines or rifles; cadets being armed with magazine Lee-Enfield and Martini-Enfield carbines. Defence Rifle Clubs are armed with magazine Lee-Enfield rifles.


Members of the Permanent Forces are enrolled to serve for a period of eight years from enrolment, the last three years of such being in the Reserve. Every member may, at the expiration of five years' service, if of good character, be allowed to continue in active service for a period of sixteen years. Enrolment in the Volunteer Force is for one year. The Volunteer may continue to serve until he has reached the limit prescribed by the regulations.


Officer Instructors for Artillery and Engineer Corps are provided from the Permanent Force, having undergone instruction in England. Non-commissioned Officer Instructors are trained in the Permanent Force.

One officer for instruction in Mounted duties has been engaged from the Imperial Army. Eleven of the Infantry Instructors have been trained in the Imperial Army, whilst officers and the majority of the N.C.O.s of the Instructional Staff (Mounted and Infantry) have also been trained in the Imperial Army.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient garrison and field artillery and infantry Volunteer, £3 10s. to each efficient mounted Volunteer, 12s. 6d. to each efficient cadet, and 5s. to each efficient Reservist.


The following annual allowances of small-arms ammunition per man are made annually to the various arms: Permanent Force, 100 rounds ball; Engineers, 100 rounds ball; Artillery, 100 rounds ball; Mounted Rifles, 180 rounds ball; Infantry, 180 rounds ball; Defence Cadets, 100 rounds ball; Defence Rifle Clubs, 120 rounds ball; Reserve Corps, 100 rounds ball. Every efficient member of a Volunteer Corps, Defence Cadet Corps, Reserve Corps, or Defence Rifle Club is allowed to purchase 100 rounds of service ball ammunition annually at a reduced rate.


The maximum establishment for the various branches of the service is as under:—

Mounted Rifles—eachOfficers.N.C.O.s and Men.

* For those companies of Garrison Artillery Volunteers having Electric-light Sections the additional maximum establishment is ten N.C.O.s and men.

Divided into a Field Engineering Section of 50, a Signalling Section of 25, a Field Telegraph Section of 25, exclusive of officers.

For companies having signalling detachments included

Field Artillery—
        Fourgun Batterieseach595
        Two-gun Batterieseach350
Garrison Artillery—
        Cycle Corpseach466
        Cycle Corpseach232
        Reserve Corpseach360
        Defence Cadet Corpseach360
Field Ambulance Corpseach547
Garrison Bandseach125
Battalion Bandseach..20
Rifle Clubseachminimum15


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1908,” and the General Regulations of the Defence Forces of New Zealand.

Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.
§ The special expenditure on account of contingents for South Africa is not included.
1897–9883,004                  2,525                  85,529         
1898–99114,789                  10,158                  124,947         
1899–1900184,970                 5,328                 190,298         
1900–1156,218                 3,960                 160,178         
1901–2250,478                 6,678                 257,156         
1902–3292,081                 6,126                 298,207         
1903–4221,959                 2,885                 224,844         
1904–5239,333                 2,515                 241,848         
1905–6195,028                 1,300                 196,328         
1906–7167,818                 1,541                 169,359         
1907–8198,418                 2,579                 200,997         


Outlying Islands of New Zealand.

MARINERS are informed that depots of provisions and clothing for castaways are established on the following islands:—

Kermadec Islands.—There are two depots, each a small iron shed, fitted with spouting and a tank to catch water, and containing a supply of clothing, biscuits, medicines, tools, &c. One is in 30° 15' S., 178° 31' W., at Lava Cascade, about 1 ½ cables south-eastward of the northern point of Macaulay Island; the other is in 30° 35' S., 178° 36' W., on the southern side of Macdonald Cove (crater), on the N.W. side of Curtis Island.

Three Kings.—A provision depot has been established on the largest island. It is situated on the narrow neck at the head of N.W. and S.E. bays. A fire made on the hill to the west of the depot will attract the attention of the light-keepers at Cape Maria Van Dieman.

Snares Islands.—A depot is established in 48° 0 ¾' S., 166° 33 ¾' E., in Boat Harbour, at the eastern end of N.E. Island.

Bounty Islands.—The depot is a hut at an elevation of 120 ft., visible from the northward, and situated in 47° 43 ¼' S., 179° 0 ½' E., southward of the western inlet of the principal island—the north-eastern—of the western group.

Antipodes Islands.—The depot is a hut at an elevation of 100 ft., visible from some distance north-eastward, and situated in 49° 40' S., 178° 50' E., 300 ft. from the landing-place, on the N.E. side of the large island, and half a mile westward of its east point.

Auckland Islands.—There are three depots on the principal island: one, a square wooden house, in 50° 33 ¼' S., 166° 12' E., and a boat near the depot, on the S. side of Erebus Cove, Port Ross; on the E. side and at the northern end of the island; the second is in 50° 44 ½' S., 166° 8' E., at the head of Norman Inlet (wrongly named “Musgrave Inlet” on charts), and not at the inlet named Norman Inlet, two miles and a half northward; the third, and a boat for shipwrecked people, is in 50° 50 ½' S., 166° 1' E., in the western arm of Camp Cove, Carnley Harbour, at the S. end of the island. A lifeboat has been placed on Enderby Island, the northeastern of the group; another at the N.W. end of Adams Island, the southern of the group; and one on Rose Island, immediately S.W. of Enderby Island. The next time the Government steamer visits these islands a boat will be placed on Disappointment Island.

Campbell Island.—The depot, indicated by a white staff and a boat, is in 52° 33' S., 169° 6 ½' E., in Tucker Cove, at the head of S. or Perseverance Harbour, on the east side of the island.

Finger-posts to indicate the positions of the depots are erected on all these islands. The Government steamer visits the Kermadec and Three Kings Islands once a year; and the Snares, Bounty, Antipodes, Auckland, and Campbell Islands twice a year.


Auckland Docks.

The Auckland docks are the property of the Auckland Harbour Board. The dimensions of the docks at Auckland are as follow:—

 Calliope Dock.Auckland Dock.
Length over all525 feet.312 feet.
Length on floor500 feet.300 feet.
Breadth over all110 feet.65 feet.
Breadth on floor40 feet.42 feet.
Breadth at entrance80 feet.43 feet.
Depth of water on sill (at high water, ordinary spring tides)33 feet.13 ½ feet.

Alterations have been made to the lower altars of Calliope Dock which will enable vessels of 63 ft. beam to be docked without any difficulty. A complete equipment of modern machinery (to Admiralty specification) has been provided by the Board, and the erection of 80-ton sheer-legs will be completed about June, 1909.

The following is the scale of charges for the use of the Auckland and Calliope Graving-docks and appliances:—

Entrance fee110
For every vessel of 100 tons (gross register), or under, per day500
For every vessel from 101 to 200 tons (gross register), per day600
For every additional ton (gross register), per day002
Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates will be allowed when two or three vessels dock on the same tide, and remain in dock the same number of hours, but such reduction will not be allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.   
For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel there must be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dock-master.   
For use of steam-kiln, 10s. per day.   
For use of pitch-furnace, 10s. per day.   
Entrance fee550
For all vessels up to 300 tons (gross register), for four days or less2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons22100
For all vessels 401 to 500 tons2500
For all vessels 501 to 600 tons27100
For all vessels 601 to 700 tons3000
For all vessels 701 to 800 tons32100
For all vessels 801 to 900 tons3500
For all vessels 901 to 1,000 tons37100
For all vessels 1,001 to 1,100 tons4000
For all vessels 1,101 to 1,200 tons4500
For all vessels 1,201 tons (gross register) and upwards, for four days or less5000

After the fourth day in dock the following rates will be charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons (gross register)4d. per ton a day.
For all vessels up to 501 to 1,000 tons (gross register)3d. per ton a day.
For all vessels up to 1,001 to 2,000 tons2 ¾d. per ton a day.
For all vessels up to 2,001 to 3,000 tons2 ½d. per ton a day.
For all vessels up to 3,001 to 4,000 tons2 ¼d. per ton a day.
For all vessels up to 4,001 tons (gross register) and upwards2d. per ton a day.

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates will be allowed when two or three vessels dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours, but such reduction will not be allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.

For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there shall be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.

During the year 1908, 108 vessels of various descriptions, with a total of 33,768 tons, made use of the Auckland Graving-dock, occupying it in all 189 days, for repairs or painting.

In Calliope Dock 21 vessels, including 1 warship, were docked with an aggregate tonnage of 75,096, and occupying the dock for 84 days.

Dock dues earned for the year amounted to £2,572.

Under arrangement with the Admiralty, a complete plant of the most efficient and modern machinery has been provided at Calliope Dockyard. The workshops are erected, and all the machinery is placed in position. This plant includes 80-ton shear-legs nearly complete; trolly to carry 80 tons, and rails; 10-ton steam-crane at side of dock, engines, boilers, overhead travellers; planing, shaping, and slotting machines; radial drills, vertical drills, band saws for iron, punching and shearing machines, plate-bending rolls; 24 in. centre gantry lathe, 70 ft. bed; 9 in. and 12 in. gantry lathes, milling-machines, emery grinders, screwing - machines, ditto for pipes, horizontal boring - machines, Root's blower, smiths' forges (six), coppersmith's forge, levelling-slabs, steam-hammers, lead-furnace, wall-cranes, zinc-bath, plate-furnace, jib crane for foundry, circular-saw bench, band saw for wood, lathe for wood, general joiners' and carpenters' benches (four), kiln for steaming boards, Fox's trimmer, cupola to melt 5 tons of metal, countersinking - machine, pipe-bending machine, tools of various descriptions, moulders' bins, force-pumps for testing pipes, vice-benches, electric-light engines, dynamos (two), steam capstans, &c., and all other appliances and machinery required to render the plant adequate to repair any of His Majesty's ships upon the station or any merchant vessel visiting the port. The dock and machinery will be available for use, when not required for His Majesty's vessels, in effecting repairs to any merchant vessel requiring same. Electric lights have been provided for workshops, dock, and dockyard. The dockyard is connected by telephone with the central exchange. An abundant supply of the purest fresh water is available at Calliope Dock and Calliope Wharf

Wellington Patent Slip.

The Port of Wellington has no dock at present, although one is now being constructed; but there is a well-equipped patent slip at Evans Bay, on which vessels of 2,000 tons can be safely hauled up. This slip is the property of a private company, and is in no way connected with the Harbour Board. It is 1,070 ft. long, with a cradle 260 ft. in length. There is a depth of 32 ft. at high water at the outer end of the slip. A dolphin and buoys are laid down for swinging ships in Evans Bay.

The company has convenient workshops, which contain machinery necessary for effecting all ordinary repairs to vessels using the slip.

During the year ended 31st March, 1908, 122 vessels of various sizes, of an aggregate of 59,153 tons, were taken up on the slip for repairs, cleaning, painting, &c. The charges for taking vessels on the slip and launching them are 1s. per ton on the gross tonnage for the first full twenty-four hours, and 6d. per ton per day afterwards, unless by special agreement.

Lyttelton Dock and Patent Slip.

The Graving-dock at Lyttelton, which is the property of the Harbour Board, is capable of docking men-of-war, or almost all of the large ocean steamers now running to the Dominion. Its general dimensions are: Length over all, 503 ft.; length on floor, 450 ft.; length inside caisson at a height of 4 ft. above the floor, 162 ft.; breadth over all, 82 ft.; breadth on floor, 46 ft.; breadth at entrance, 62 ft.; breadth where ship's bilge would be, on 6 ft. blocks, 55 ft.; available docking depth at this breadth, 17 ft.; depth of water on sill at high water, springs, 23 ft.

The scale of charges for the use of the dock and pumping machinery is as follows:—

For all vessels up to 300 tons, for four days or less2000
For all vessels up to 301 to 400 tons, for four days or less22100
For all vessels up to 401 to 500 tons, for four days or less2500
For all vessels up to 501 to 600 tons, for four days or less27100
For all vessels up to 601 to 700 tons, for four days or less3000
For all vessels up to 701 to 800 tons, for four days or less32100
For all vessels up to 801 to 900 tons, for four days or less3500
For all vessels up to 901 to 1,000 tons, for four days or less37100
For all vessels up to 1,001 to 1,100 tons, for four days or less4000
For all vessels up to 1,101 to 1,200 tons, for four days or less4500
For all vessels up to 1,201 tons and upwards, for four days or less5000
After the fourth day in clock, the following rates are charged:—
For all vessels up to 500 tons4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2 ¾d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 2,001 tons up to 3,000 tons2 ½d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 3,001 tons up to 4,000 tons2 ¼d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 4,001 tons up to 5,000 tons2d. per ton per day.

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours. Two vessels of 1,000 tons each can be docked at the same time. The 20-per-cent. rebate is not allowed if any of the Lyttelton Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel. The twenty-four hours constituting the first day of docking commences from the time of the dock being pumped out.

Any vessel belonging to H.M. Navy or any colonial Government, or any commissioned ship belonging to any foreign nation, is admitted into the graving-dock without payment of the usual dock dues, but is charged only such sum as is necessary for the reimbursement of actual expenditure of stores, wages, and materials.

There are electric lights, one on each side of the graving-dock; and there are engineering works within a short distance of it, where repairs and heavy foundry-work can be undertaken.

The graving-dock and machinery cost £105,000. The interest and sinking fund on that sum, at 6 ½ per cent., amounts to £6,825 per annum. Since its construction the dock dues for the twenty - six years ended 31st December, 1908, amounted to £28,130, and the working-expenses to £17,150, leaving a balance for twenty-six years ended 31st December, 1908, of £10,980.

During the year 1908 thirty-six vessels were docked, and the dock dues amounted to £1,302. For the twenty-six years ending 1908, 573 vessels were docked, or an average of about twenty-two a year.

Patent Slip, Lyttelton.

Alongside the graving-dock is a patent slip, with a cradle 150 ft. in length, suitable for vessels of 300 tons. It belongs to the Harbour Board.

The following is the scale of charges:—

Up to 75 tons gross register, £4 for five days, and 10s. per day after the fifth day.

Over 75 tons and up to 150 tons gross register, £6 for five days, and 15s. per day after fifth day.

Over 150 tons and up to 250 tons gross register, £8 for five days, and 20s. per day after fifth day.

Over 250 tons gross register, £10 for five days, and 20s. per day after fifth day.

A “day” to mean between sunrise and sunset.

The above rates cover the cost of all labour connected with hauling up and launching (the crew of the vessel to give their assistance as may be required), and the cost of blocking a vessel and shifting the blocks after hauling up.

Otago Graving-dock.

The dock at Port Chalmers is vested in the Otago Dock Trust, a body entirely distinct from the Otago Harbour Board. Vessels of large size can be taken in the Otago Dock, as the following measurements will show:—

Length over all335 feet.
Length on the floor328 feet.
Breadth over all68 feet.
Breadth on floor41 feet.
Breadth where ship's bilge would be43 feet.
Breadth at dock-gates50 feet.
Depth of water on sill at high water (ordinary spring tides)17 ½ feet.

Connected with the Otago Dock are a large machine-shop, steam-hammer, and forge, with all the appliances necessary for performing any work that may be required by vessels visiting the port. An 80-ton shear-legs has also been erected for heavy lifts.

There is also a patent slip, used for taking up small vessels.

All vessels using the Otago Graving-dock are liable for dock dues according to the following scale (unless under special contract), revised since the beginning of 1896:—

Vessels under 200 tons, for the first three days, or part of three days2500
Vessels of 200 tons, and under 800 tons3500
Vessels of 800 tons and upwards5000

And for every day, or part of a day, after the first three days:—

Vessels under 300 tons8d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 300 tons and under 400 tons7 ¾d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 400 tons and under 500 tons7 ½d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 500 and under 600 tons7 ¼d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 600 and under 700 tons7d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 700 and under 800 tons6 ¾d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 800 and under 900 tons6 ½d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 000 and under 1,000 tons6 ¼d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 1,000 tons and upwards6d. per register ton per day.

The new dock in course of construction is nearing completion, and should be ready shortly for docking vessels. This dock is of sufficient dimensions to accommodate the largest steamers that come to New Zealand.

Chapter 22. HARBOURS.

Pilotage, Port Charges, etc.

PILOTAGE, port charges, berthage charges, &c., at eighteen of the principal harbours in New Zealand, as on the 1st January, 1909 (compiled by Mr. C. Hood Williams, Secretary to the Lyttelton Harbour Board):—


Pilotage (not compulsory): Sailing-vessels, inwards and outwards, 3d. per ton each way.

Steamers, inwards and outwards, 2d. per ton each way when services of pilot are taken.

Pilotage includes the removal fee to or from the berth at 1d. per ton. In the case of any vessel, the registered tonnage of which exceeds 5,000 tons, no pilotage rates shall be payable in respect of such excess.

Port charges: 3d. per con half-yearly (on all vessels over 15 tons) in one payment. Vessels arriving for coal, stores, water, or for receiving or landing mails, which do not come to any wharf or receive or discharge cargo within the port, are exempt from port charges. In the case of any vessel the registered tonnage of which exceeds 5,000 tons, no port charges shall be payable in respect of such excess.

Harbourmaster's fees: 1d. per ton. Vessels paying pilotage are exempt.

Exemption berthage certificates are given to competent masters in the coastal and intercolonial trades, but not to those in foreign trade.

Berthage: Every person who shall use any wharf with any vessel shall pay for the use thereof—Licensed ferry steamers, 10s. to £1 10s. per month; other vessels under 20 tons, 6d. and 1s. per day, not exceeding 10s. per quarter. For every vessel not included in the above, ¼d. per ton per day. Outside berths, ⅛d. per ton per day.

NOTE.—The by-laws of the Auckland Harbour Board are being revised, so there may be some change during 1909.


Pilotage (not compulsory): To roadstead—Sailing-vessels, first 100 tons, 6d. per ton; every ton over 100 tons, 2d. per ton; steamers, first 100 tons, 3d. per ton; every ton over 100 tons, 1d. per ton. Into Turanganui River: Sailing-vessels, 4d. per ton; steamers, 3d. per ton. Outward pilotage, half-rates.

Port charges: Vessels plying within port only, 3d. per ton quarterly in advance. Vessels not plying within the port only, 2d. per ton on arrival, but not to exceed 1s. per ton in any half-year.

Ocean-going vessels (not being “colonial trading” or coasting vessels) returning to port within one month from date of first arrival are exempt from port charges for second or subsequent arrivals within calendar month.

Harbourmaster's fees: 5s. per vessel of less than 60 tons. Vessels licensed as lighters are exempt. 1d. per ton, sailing-vessels 60 tons and upwards; 10s. per vessel, steamers of 60 and under 120 tons.

To roadstead only: 1d. per ton, ocean-going steamers, (not being “colonial trading” vessels or coastal vessels), but not to exceed 6d. per ton in any half-year; all other steamers. 120 tons and upwards, ½d. per ton on arrival, but not to exceed 3d. in any half-year.

Into Turanganui River: 1d. per ton on arrival, steamers of 120 tons and upwards.

Berthage rate: Lighters carrying cargo, 2s. 6d. per trip. Lighters also charged license 1s. per ton register per annum.


Pilotage (compulsory): In and out—Sailing-vessels up to 100 tons, 6d. per ton, and 2d. for each ton over 100 tons; steamers up to 100 tons, 6d. per ton, and 4d. per ton for each additional ton.

Port charges: Regular traders, 2d. per ton per quarter; other vessels, 2d. per ton each trip, not to exceed 1s. 3d. per ton in half-year.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: 20 tons and under, 10s. per ton per quarter; over 20 tons, 6d. per ton per quarter, or 2s. 6d. first 20 tons per day and ¼d. each additional ton.

Warps and fenders: Nil.

New Plymouth.

Pilotage (compulsory), charged both inwards and outwards: Intercolonial or coasting—Sailing-vessels, 3d. per ton; steamers, 1 ½d. per ton: foreign sailing-vessel or steamer, ½d. per ton.

Port charges: Intercolonial, 4d. per ton, payable half-yearly; foreign, ½d. per ton on arrival in roadstead.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage rate: 3 ½d. per ton on all cargo landed, shipped, or transshipped outwards; on registered tonnage also ½d. per ton.

Warps: 1d. per ton register for first 100 tons; ½d. per ton for excess.

Fenders: 1s. per day or part of day.

Water (minimum 3a.): 5s. per 1,000 gallons.


Pilotage: From signal-staff, ½d. per register ton each way, in and out. Oceangoing vessels ¼d. per register ton (one way only).

Port charges: Steamers and sailing-vessels, 3d. per ton quarterly, payable first trip in each quarter; ocean-going vessels, ½d. per register ton, payable each trip.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: Steamers 2d. per ton and sailing-vessels 3d. per ton every trip.

Warps and fenders: Nil.


Pilotage (in and out): 1d. per ton register.

Port charges: 3d. per ton every three months. Light dues, ¼d. per ton.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: 6d. per ton on cargo, as per manifest.

Warps and fenders: Nil.

Water: 2s. 6d. per 1,000 gallons.


Pilotage (compulsory): 6d. per register ton.

Port charges: 3d. per ton per quarter.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage, warps, and fenders: Nil.


Pilotage (not compulsory): Into Inner Harbour—Sailing-vessels, 4d. per ton; steamers, 3d. per ton. Into breakwater, harbour, or roadstead—First 100 tons: Sailing-vessels, 6d. per ton; steamers, 3d. per ton. Every ton over 100 tons: Sailing-vessels, 2d. per ton; steamers, 1d. per ton. Outward pilotage, half-rates.

Port charges: 6d. per ton quarterly in advance, vessels plying within port only; 2d. per ton on arrival of vessels not plying within port, but not to exceed 1s. per ton in any half-year. Ocean-going vessels (not being “colonial trading” or coasting vessels) returning to port within thirty days from date of first arrival are exempt from port charges for second or subsequent arrivals within calendar month.

Harbourmaster's fees: 5s. per vessel of less than 60 tons. 1d. per ton, sailing-vessels 60 tons and upwards; 10s. per vessel, steamers of 60 tons and under 120 tons; 1d. per ton, steamers of 120 tons and upwards. Vessels paying for pilotage service inwards do not pay Harbourmaster's fees.

Harbour-improvement rate: 3d. per ton on cargo landed, shipped, or transhipped (weight or measurement at option of Board); 1s. each horse or large cattle shipped or transhipped; ½d. each sheep or small animal shipped or transhipped.

Hawsers and moorings: Vessels at wharf in Breakwater Harbour, ¼d. per ton per day, or part of a day, on registered tonnage. Vessels moored to buoys within Breakwater Harbour, ⅛d. per ton per day or part of a day.

Fenders: Vessels at wharves in Breakwater Harbour—5s. per day, vessels under 500 tons; 7s. per day, vessels of 500 tons and under 1,000 tons; 10s. per day, vessels of 1,000 tons and under 1,500 tons; 15s. per day, vessels of 1,500 tons and under 2,000 tons; £1 per day, vessels of 2,000 tons, and under 3,000 tons; 5s. for every 1,000 tons over 3,000 tons.


Pilotage: All vessels when piloted by signals from the staff only, 1d. per ton register. River pilotage, to be charged for any assistance rendered by the pilot or any of his crew inside the bar, 2d. per ton. When a pilot boards and conducts a vessel outside the bar, 3d. per ton. Steamers engaged in tendering ocean steamers at anchor in the roadstead charged half pilotage rates.

Port charges: Vessels of 500 tons and up to 8,000 tons register, ½d. per ton. Not to exceed 3d. per ton in any half-year. Vessels paying pilotage exempt. Ocean-going vessels (not being “colonial-trading” or “coastal”) returning to the port within one month of first arrival exempt as regards second or subsequent arrivals.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: For every steamer using any wharf, being berthed alongside, and whether discharging or loading cargo or not, 2d. per ton on gross register for first day of eight working-hours, and 1d. for every succeeding day of eight working-hours. For every sailing-vessel the charge to be 2d. for first day of eight working-hours, and ½d. for every succeeding day of eight working-hours, not exceeding five days. For every vessel occupying a berth outside another vessel, and loading or discharging cargo, ¼d. per ton on gross register per day of eight working-hours whilst loading or discharging, Ships dues on vessels detained in port by stress of weather will not be charged after the third day.


Pilotage (optional): Sailing-vessels inwards, 4d. per ton; sailing-vessels outwards, 3d. per ton; steamers inwards, 3d. per ton; steamers outwards, 2d. per ton. Pilotage includes the removal fee to or from the berth at ¾d. per ton.

Port charges: 2d. per ton on arrival; not exceeding 6d. in any half-year. Half-yearly days, 1st January and 1st July. Steamers arriving for coal, stores, water, or for receiving or landing mails or passengers and their luggage, which do not come to any wharf or receive or discharge cargo within the port, are exempt from port charges.

Harbourmaster's or berthing fee on vessels of 120 tons and upwards, ¾d. per ton; under 120 tons, 10s. Vessels paying pilotage are exempt. Exemption berthage certificates are given to competent masters in the coastal and intercolonial trades, but not to those in foreign trade.

Berthage: ¼d. per ton net register per day or part of a day (day counted from midnight to midnight). Vessels berthing after working-hours, and only landing passengers and luggage, not charged for that day. Vessels leaving wharf after midnight and prior to working-hours, and only on such day taking on board passengers and luggage, not charged for such day. Vessels not working cargo after noon on Saturdays pay half-rates for such Saturday. No charge for Sundays or holidays. Vessels laid up for repairs, fitting-out, &c., half-rates.

Harbour-improvement Rate.—The charge of 4d. per ton shall be made to and payable by ships to the Board, as a harbour-improvement rate, on all goods landed on the wharves or landing-places under the control of the Board, except on coal and on ballast, and except on such goods as are the products of the Dominion of New Zealand and are landed for the purpose of transshipment to vessels to be carried out of the Dominion: Provided that for the purposes of this by-law the following measurements shall be taken: Empties, half tonnage; wool, five bales to the ton; great cattle, each one ton; small cattle, twelve to the ton; timber, 500 ft. superficial measurement to the ton; bricks, slates, and tiles, 500 to the ton; carts and carriages, each two tons; loose hides, twenty-five to the ton.


Pilotage (compulsory): Steamers, inwards and outwards, 1d. per registered ton; sailing-vessels, inwards and outwards, 3d. per ton. Minimum pilotage each way (in all cases), £1.

Port charges: Vessels not paying pilotage, to pay the following, upon first arrival, half-yearly: Vessels over 100 tons register, 1s. per ton; vessels under 100 tons register, 6d. per ton.

Harbour lights: Vessels not paying pilotage, over 100 tons register, 1d. per ton; under 100 tons register, ½d. per ton, on each arrival.

Harbourmaster's fees: 120 tons and upwards, 1d. per ton register; less than 120 tons, 10s. for each removal of any steamer or sailing-vessel within the harbour. Berthage, fenders, and warps: Nil.


Pilotage (compulsory): All vessels up to 100 tons, free. Any vessel, steamer, or sailer above 100 tons register, 1d. per ton each way, in and out. One way only, half-rates.

Port charges: Receiving and discharging ships' ballast, 1s. per ton; minimum charge, 20s.; 1d. per ton for use of shoot.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: Use of wharf, for every vessel up to 1,400 tons lying at wharf, 1d. per ton net register per trip; for every vessel over 1,400 tons lying at a wharf, 2d. per ton net register per trip; minimum charge, 5s. No vessel to be charged for more than one trip in any one week.

Towage (both ways, in and out): Sailing-vessels, minimum charge, £7 10s.; maximum charge, £37 10s. Vessels 200 tons and upwards, 9d. per ton register. Steamers, minimum charge, £12 10s. maximum charge, £40. Vessels 1,000 tons and upwards, 3d. per ton register. Any vessel using the tug one way only, either in or out, half-rates, and vessels arriving for “bunker” coal—i.e., coal to be used in the ship on her voyage and for no other purpose—half-rates. Declaration to be made to this effect.


Pilotage (not compulsory): Signal-station. For sailing-vessels, 6d. per ton; for steamers, 4d. per ton, each way.

Port charges: Discharging ships' ballast, 6d. per ton.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: Use of wharf, 6d. per ton net register per trip. Vessels in ballast for coal or timber, 1d. per ton net register for the first four days: maximum, £5 10s.; minimum, 5s.

Warps: £1 per trip.


Pilotage (compulsory): Inwards and outwards—Sailing-vessels 3 ½d. per ton; steamers 2 ½d. per ton. Foreign-going steamers and sailing-vessels free on second call on same voyage.

Port charges: 2d. per ton quarterly, in advance, for vessels of 100 tons and upwards plying within the port or employed in coasting only, not to exceed 6d. per ton in any half-year; 2d. per ton for vessels of 100 tons and upwards not plying within the port or not solely employed in coasting, not to exceed 6d. per ton in any half-year. For exemption from pilotage and harbour fees, see sections 74, 75, and 76 of “The Harbours Act, 1908.”

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthing charges: On all vessels of 25 tons register and upwards ¼d. per ton each trip.

Warps (21 in. coir hawsers): £1 per warp for use during a vessel's stay in port, not exceeding six months.

Fenders (soft wood): 10s. for first day, and 5s. per day after. 10s. for use of each hardwood fender.


Pilotage (compulsory): Sailing-vessels, 3d. per ton inwards and outwards; when tug used, 2d. per ton: steamers, 2d. per ton inwards and outwards. Foreign and intercolonial steamers under 3,500 cargo tons, working 800 tons cargo or less, only one pilotage fee; 3,500 tons or over, working 1,000 tons cargo or less, one pilotage fee only. Foreign-going steamer or sailing-vessel calling more than once during same voyage before leaving New Zealand, one inward and outward rate only (subject to above exemptions).

Port charges: Coasters, 1 ½d. per ton each trip; sailing-vessels, not coasters, 3d. per ton each trip; steam-vessels, not coasters, 6d. per ton on cargo worked; in all cases not to exceed 1s. 3d. per ton in any half-year, dating from the 1st days of January and July in each year. Intercolonial steamers coming direct or coastwise l ½d. per ton register, or 6d. per ton on cargo landed and shipped, whichever rate may be the lesser.

Harbourmaster's fees: 1d. per ton each service; vessels less than 120 tons, 10s.; steamers of 1,000 tons or over, which have loaded wholly in New Zealand or Australian ports, working 500 tons of cargo or less, only one Harbourmaster's fee. This fee is charged to all vessels or steamers not paying pilotage.

Berthage: 3d. per ton on all cargo landed or shipped. Transhipments, half-rates.

Hawsers and moorings: Vessels at wharves, ½d. per ton register for first three days; subsequent days, ¼d. per ton. Vessels at buoys, under 800 tons register, ⅛d. per ton; over 800 tons, 1⁄16d. per ton.

Fenders: Sailing-vessels under 500 tons register, 2s. per day; under 1,000 tons, 3s. per day; over 1,000 tons, 4s. per day. Steamers under 1,000 tons register, 4s. per day; under 1,500 tons, 10s. per day; under 2,000 tons, 15s. per day; over 2,000 tons, £1 per day, after three days half-charges. Foreign-going vessels detained in the port sixty days, half rates thereafter for hawsers and moorings and fenders. Maximum charge for hawsers and fenders, per visit, £15.


Tonnage rate: On cargo, inwards or outwards—Coal, merchandise, stone, produce, and timber, 8d. per ton; wool, 2s. per too; frozen sheep, 1d. per carcase; frozen lamb, 1d. per carcase; rabbits and hares, 3s. per ton, gross weight; all other frozen goods, 3s. per ton, gross dead-weight; live-stock, 1s. 8d. per ton. These charges are in lieu of the usual port dues, pilotage, and berthage dues. Cargo is computed as follows for tonnage rates and cranage: Timber (native), 480ft., super., to the ton; timber (ironbark), 320 ft., super., to the ton; other hard wood, 380 ft., super., to the ton; posts and rails, 50 to the ton; palings, 320 to the ton; Oamaru stone, 22 cubic feet to the ton, or as per railway weight; wool, 4 bales to the ton; live sheep, 20 to the ton; horses, 2 tons each; cattle, 2 tons each; yearlings, half-rates; pigs, 10 to the ton; light carriages, two-wheeled, 1 ton each; light carriages, four-wheeled, 2 tons each. In computing the tonnage-rate ail goods may be charged upon the dead weight or measurement, at the option of the Board.

Warps: ½d. per ton per day for seven days; ¼d. per ton per day thereafter. In the event of any vessel remaining at any wharf for a period exceeding six weeks, the charge for warps will thereafter be reduced to ⅛d. per ton register of such vessel for each day or part of a day that she may occupy a berth at the wharf.

Otago (Dunedin).

Pilotage (compulsory): Inwards and outwards—Sailing-vesssls without tug, 6d. per ton; with tug, 4d. per ton: steamers, 4d. per ton. Foreign steamers calling twice on one voyage only charged once. All vessels holding exemption certificates, one annual pilotage. For every vessel under steam carrying an exempt pilot and employing a Board's pilot the charge shall be ½d. per ton for the Upper Harbour.

Port charges: 2d. per ton, but not to exceed 6d. per ton half-yearly, all vessels.

Harbourmaster's fees: Vessels less than 120 tons, 10s.; over 120 tons, 1d. per ton.

Berthage: Every steam or sailing vessel occupying a berth at the Board's wharves shall, subject to the following exemption, pay the following berthage rate: One halfpenny per ton net register per day or part of a day, provided that the maximum amount chargeable shall not exceed £15, and that the minimum amount shall be 1s. per day or part of a day. Any small boat or yacht using or berthing at any of the Board's wharves, jetties, or landing stages, and not holding a license under the by-laws, shall pay the sum of 1s. per day or part of a day, or in lieu thereof the Board will accept a yearly berthage fee of 5s., paid in advance, provided that nothing contained herein shall render any dingey or small boat belonging to licensed vessels, or vessels berthed at the Board's wharves and paying a berthage rate, subject to any berthage charge.

Towage: When assistance is given to steam-vessels under steam, one-fourth usual towage, not exceeding £5 for Upper Harbour and £7 for Lower Harbour.

Extracts from by-laws: The maximum charges on any one vessel for port charges, pilotage and harbourmaster's fees, both inwards and outwards, shall not exceed £180 on any one visit; and in the case of a foreign steamer calling twice at the port on one voyage shall not exceed £200. Minimum charge: On application of the master or agent of any foreign-going steamer visiting the port, the ordinary charges for pilotage and port charges shall be suspended, and a charge of 5s. per ton on cargo as per ships manifest discharged, and 10s. per ton on cargo loaded, shall be substituted therefor, but there shall be a minimum charge of £50. Any payments made under this by-law shall not be deemed to be an inward and outward pilotage under section (d) of By-law No. 79.


Pilotage (compulsory): Steamers, inwards and outwards, 2 ½d. per registered ton: sailing-vessels, 4 ½d. inwards and outwards if tug not employed; 2 ½d. per registered ton inwards and outwards if tug employed. Sailing-vessels in ballast, 2 ½d. per registered ton inwards and outwards. Steamers, in and out, 5d. per registered ton, payable yearly; sailing-vessels, in and out, 9d. per registered ton, payable yearly. On application by master or agent of foreign-going steamers ordinary charges for pilotage, port charges, and berthage may be suspended, and a charge of 5s. per ton for inward cargo and 10s. per ton for outward cargo may be substituted therefor, with a minimum charge of £50.

Port charges: On all vessels, per trip, 2d. per registered ton, but no vessel shall be required to pay more than 6d. per registered ton in any six months from date of entry.

Harbourmaster's fees: Nil.

Berthage: Steamers, 2d. per ton net register for the first day, and 1d. per ton per week or part of a week thereafter. Sailing-vessels and hulks of over 50 tons register, 1d. per ton net register per week for the first four weeks, and ¼d. per ton per week thereafter.

Towage assistance to steamers using their own motive power: Over 3,000 tons, £5; over 2,000 tons, £4; under 2,000 tons, £3.

Steamers calling more than once on same voyage only charged one inward and outward pilotage.

Maximum charge for harbour dues, £180 in any one visit, including ten days' berthage.

Wharfage Rates.

Wharfage rates at eighteen of the principal harbours in New Zealand, as on 1st January, 1909 (compiled by Mr. C. Hood-Williams, Secretary to the Lyttelton Harbour Board).


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton imports; 1s. per ton exports.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared before landing, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton lauded; 1s. per ton shipped. Transhipments: Half-rates when declared before landing, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. 6d. per ton landed; 1s. per ton shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including seven days' storage and labour.

Wool.—6d. per bale, shipped or landed.

Transhipments: If landed, dumped, and reshipped, 3d. per bale.

Coal.—1s. 3d. per ton landed; 6d. per ton shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared. Shipped or discharged over side for steamer's use, free.

Timber.—Sawn, 2s. per 1,000 ft. landed; 1s. per 1,000ft. shipped. Baulk or round (less 12 ½ per cent.), 1s. per 1,000 ft. landed, 6d. per 1,000 ft. shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared.

Passengers' luggage under half a ton, goods carried by hand by passengers and single packages under 5 ft. measurement, free.

NOTE.—The by-laws of the Auckland Harbour Board are being revised, so there may be some changes during 1909.


General Merchandise.—Imports: General, 3s. per ton; kerosene, sugar, and wire, 2s. 6d. per ton; wine and spirits, 7s. 6d. per ton. Exports: General, 2s. 6d. per ton. If paid inward, free.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—Imports: Grain, 2s. 6d. per ton; grass-seed, 3s per ton; maize, 1s. per ton; potatoes (12 sacks), 2s. 6d. per ton; chaff (20 sacks), 2s. 6d. per ton; flour, 2s. 6d. per ton; bran and pollard, 1s. per ton. Exports: Grain, 1s. per ton; grass-seed, 2s. per ton; maize, 1s. per ton; potatoes (12 sacks), 1s. per ton; chaff (20 sacks), 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—Exports: Carcases mutton, average weight, 55 lb., 4s. per ton; carcases lamb, average weight, 30 lb., 4s. per ton; beef, tallow, and other meat products, 2s. 6d. per ton; butter, 2s. 6d. per ton; hides, every 40 or 10 sacks, 2s. 6d. per ton; sheep-skins, per bale or every 60, 1s. per ton.

Wool.—1s. per bale, export.

Transhipments: 3d. per bale; 1s. per bale if landed for dumping.

Coal.—1s. per ton; bunker coal not landed, 6d. per ton.

Timber.—3s. per 1,000 ft. super., imports; 1s. per 1,000 ft. super., exports.


General Merchandise.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports or exports, without labour.

Transhipments: Free, if inward wharfage has been paid; half-rates otherwise.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports or exports, without labour.

Transhipments: Free, if inward wharfage has been paid; half-rates otherwise.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—None shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Wool.—1s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Coal.—1s. 6d. per ton, without labour.

Transhipments: Free, if inward wharfage has been paid; half-rates otherwise.

Timber.—6d. to 1s. per 1,000 ft. sawn timber South and North of Opani Point respectively; 6d. per 1,000 shingles; 2s. per 100 props; 1s. 6d. per 100 slabs; 4s. per 100 sleepers; 2s. 6d. per 100 posts or rails; 2s. 6d. per 1,000 palings; 6d. per ton firewood.

New Plymouth.

General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton; grass-seed, 2s. per 20 sacks.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Wool.—6d. per bale; five bales of 4 cwt., 2s. per ton; three bales of over 4 cwt., 2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates.

Coal.—2s. per ton; brown coal, 1s. 9d.: with labour.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates, with labour.

Timber.—480 ft. per ton, 2s.; hardwood, 320 ft. per ton (rough or sawn), 2s.: with labour.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates.


General Merchandise.—Inwards, 2s. per ton, including forty-eight hours' storage; outwards, 2s. per ton, including ten days' storage. Labour provided by the Board.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—Imports, 2s. per ton; grass-seed, 2s. per 20 sacks. Labour provided. Exports, in not less than 3-ton lots, 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. per ton weight, without labour.

Transhipments: Half-rates, without labour.

Wool.—Dumped, 4 ½d. per bale; undumped, 6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Coal.—Imports, 1s. 6d. per ton, without labour; brown coal, 1s. per ton, without labour.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Timber.—Under 5,000 ft., 3d. per 100 ft.; over 5,000ft., 2d. per 100 ft.: without labour. Exported white-pine, if over 5,000 ft., 1 ½d. per 100 ft.: without labour.

Transhipments: Half-rates.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton, imports or exports (produce shipped direct from South ports, 1s. 6d.).

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton of 10 sacks grain, 20 sacks cocksfoot grass-seed, 20 sacks bran, 40 sacks chaff, 16 sacks pollard or ryegrass. Potatoes, export, 1s. per ton; import, 2s. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—Butter and cheese 1s. per ton, without labour, from grading-wharf; otherwise, 2s., with labour. Frozen meat, 1s. for 20 carcases sheep, 2s. per carcase cattle. Cased meats, 1s. per ton, without labour.

Wool.—6d. per bale, including storage.

Coal.—1s. per ton, without labour.

Timber.—4d. per 100 ft.; labour extra.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton, imports and exports.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports and exports.

Butter.—2s. per ton.

Wool.—9d. per bale, imports and exports.

Coal.—1s. per ton.

Timber.—2 ½d. per 100 ft. Exports, fruit, free. Returned empties, free.


General Merchandise.—2s. 6d. per ton imports, 1s. 3d. per ton exports, according to measurement or weight. If labour supplied, add on 6d. imports, and 6d. exports. Ballast, inwards, 1s. per ton; outwards, 1s. per ton. Empties, half-rates.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. 6d. imports, 1s. 3d. exports, according to measurement or weight. If labour supplied, add on 6d. imports, and 6d. exports.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Frozen or Chilled Meat, &c.—Imports free; exports 2s. 6d. per ton. Tallow and pelts, imports free; exports 3s. per ton.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Wool.—1s. per bale, exports only. Imports, free.

Transhipments: Wool, flax, skins, or tow, 3d. over side; 3d. per bale if landed for transhipment or dumping.

Coal.—1s. 9d. imports; 1s. exports.

Transhipments: Quarter-rates, Outer Harbour; half-rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours. Coal for engines and freezing-ships, Outer Harbour, free, if declared so.

Timber.—3s. 4d. per 1,000 ft., imports; 1s. 3d. per 1,000 ft. exports.

Transhipments: Half-rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours; quarter-rates Outer Harbour.

NOTE.—Goods other than wool, skins, tow, meats, and flax lauded on a wharf for transhipment to a vessel lying at another berth charged inward wharfage only when declared at time of entry.


General Merchandise.—Imports, 3s. per ton; exports, 2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—Imports, 3s. per ton; exports, 1s. 6d. per ton. Potatoes, export, 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Frozen Meat.—Sheep, ½d. per carcase; lambs, ½d. per carcase; legs, shoulders, and loins calculated at so-many to a carcase, according to freight.

Wool.—3d. per bale.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Coal.—1s. 3d. per ton. Coal for ship's use, outward, 3d. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Timber.—6d. per 100 ft.; for shipment, 2d.; white-pine, 1d.

Transhipments: Half-rates.


General Merchandise.—2s. 6d. per ton inwards, including labour and one night's storage. Glass, acids, and special goods, 5s. per ton. Inward cargo landed after noon on Friday is stored free till noon on following Monday; landed after noon on Saturday is stored free till 5 p.m. on the following Tuesday. 1s. per ton outwards, including labour. Glass, acids, and special goods, 2s. 6d. per ton. Railway wharfage—1s. 3d. inwards, 6d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 3s. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage. Glass, acids, and special goods, 5s. per ton. Over side of vessel lying at wharf, 6d. per ton.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. 6d. per ton inwards, including labour and one night's storage; 1s. per ton outwards, including labour. Railway wharfage—1s. 3d. inwards, 6d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage. Over side of vessel at wharf, 6d. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. inwards, 1s. outwards, per ton, without labour. Railway wharfage—1s. 3d. inwards, 6d. outwards, per ton, without labour. Dairy produce treated as general merchandise.

Transhipments: Meat, 1s. 6d. per ton, without labour; butter, 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and storage. Meat, butter, &c., over side of vessel at wharf, 6d. per ton.

Wool.—4d. per bale at Railway Wharf, without labour; 6d. per bale at other wharves, including labour.

Transhipments: 6d. per bale, including labour, and 3d. additional if stored. If shifted more than a quarter of a mile, 3d. per bale extra. Over side of vessel to vessel at wharf, 3d. per bale.

Coal.—1s. per ton imports, 6d. per ton exports, without labour. Railway wharfage—1s. per ton inwards, 6d. per ton outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: Across wharf for steamer's use, free. From vessel or hulk to vessel at wharf, free.

Timber.—3d. per 100ft. inwards; 2d. per 100 ft. outwards, without labour. If labour supplied, 3d. per 100 ft. added inwards, and 2d. outwards. Railway wharfage—3d. inwards, 2d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 3s. per ton, including seven days' storage and labour. Over vessel's side into another vessel at wharf, 6d. per ton.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton, imports and exports, with labour.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; 2s. 6d. if landed.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports and exports, with labour.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; 2s. 6d. if landed.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—None shipped.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Wool.—Exports, 1s. per bale; imports free.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Coal.—1s. per ton imports; 2s. with labour. Free exports; 2a. 6d. per ton with labour.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf.

Timber.—1d. per 100 ft. super., import; 1d. per 100 ft. super., export; 2s. per ton by measurement: with labour.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed on wharf. Reshipments, 2s. 6d. per ton.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton, and 1s. per ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton., and 1s. per ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—2s. per ton, and 1s. per ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Coal.—6d. per ton.

Timber.—2d. per 100 ft. If for export and carried by rail, free.


General Merchandise.—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering. Coke, bricks, and fireclay carried by rail for export, free.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Coal.—6d. per ton inwards; outwards, free, if carried by rail.

Timber.—Inwards, 2d. per 100 ft.; outwards, free, if carried by rail.


General Merchandise.—Is. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Free.

Coal.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Timber.—3.½d. per 100 ft.

Transhipments: Free.

N.B.—All reshipments of goods from Lyttelton under declaration, free.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. 6d. per ton weight.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Wool.—Is. per bale.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Coal.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates. For bunkering purposes, free.

Timber.—4d. per 100 ft.; 6d. per 100 ft. Australian and foreign timber.

Transhipments: Half-rates.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—½d. per sheep. Butter, as merchandise, 2s. per ton. Other frozen goods, 2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Free.

Coal.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Timber.—5d. and 7d. per 100 ft. Fencing posts and rails, 4s. per 100. Palings, 7d. per 100.

Transhipments: Free.

Stone.—½d. per foot.

Live Cattle and Horses.—2s. 6d. each; yearlings, half-rates. Sheep, 2d. each; pigs, 4d. each.

Otago (Dunedin).

General Merchandise.—1s., 2s., 3s., 4s., and 5s. per ton, imports. (Classified.) Exports: Beer 2s. per ton. A rate of 2s. per ton by weight upon all flour, malt, meal, tallow, hides, wool, ores, and quartz. Cattle, 1s. 6d.; calves, 1s.; pigs, 6d.; horses, 2s. 6d.; foals, 1s. 6d. each. All other goods 6d. per ton export.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. per ton, imports; 6d. per ton by weight, exports; bran and pollard, exports, 6d. per ton; flour and oatmeal, 2s. A rate of 6d. per ton by weight upon all barley, wheat, oats, rye, beans, whole peas, maize, potatoes, turnips, carrots, onions, straw, hay, and building-stone.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—Flax, fungus, rabbits, live-stock, and beef, 6d. per ton exports (measurement); butter, imports, 4s. per ton; butter and cheese, exports, 6d. per ton (weight); frozen meat, imports, 5s. per ton, 6d. per ton exports.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Wool.—Exports, 2s. per ton, wool, skins, and hides (three bales to ton); 4s. per ton, imports (three bales to ton).

Transhipments: 1s. per ton by measurement.

Coal.—3s. per ton, imports; exports, 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Timber.—6d. and 3d. per 100 superficial feet, imports; exports, 6d. per ton 500 superficial feet.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton by measurement. Notice of transhipment must be given within twenty-four hours after ship's arrival.


General Merchandise.—1s. 10d. per ton, imports and exports.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—11d. per ton, imports and exports.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—11d. per ton, exports; cheese, 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Wool.—Exports, 9d. per bale; imports, free.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed.

Coal.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports; free exports.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton when landed ex hulk; free when not landed on wharf.

Timber.—1s. per 1,000 ft. super., import; 1s. per 1,000ft. super., export.

Transhipments: Free when not landed on wharf; half-rates if landed on wharf.

Chapter 23. LIGHTHOUSES.

Number of Light.Name of Lighthouse.Order of Apparatus.Fixed, Flashing, or Revolving.Interval of Revolution or Flash.Height, in Feet, above High Water.Colour of Light.Distance visible in Nautical Miles.Colour of Lighthouse.

* An asterisk denotes those lighthouses which are in telephonic communication with telegraph system

† Harbour lights.

NOTE.—The distance visible of lights of greater power than 5th order dioptric is calculated in nautical miles as seen from a height of 15ft. above the sea. In very clear weather the lower-order lights may be seen at a greater distance than is given in this table.

1*Cape Maria Van Diemen1st order dioptricRevolving1 minute330White25White.
   Fixed  Red, to show over Columbia Reef  
2Moko Hinou1st order dioptricFlashing10 seconds385White27White.
3Cuvier Island1stRevolving30 seconds390 27 
4*Tiritiri2ndFixed 300White, with red are over Flat Rock24Red.
5Bean Rock5thFixed 50White, red, green10White.
5aRangitoto BeaconPintsch's patent gaslightOcculting5 seconds68White, showing 5 sec. flash and 5 sec. obscured12 
6Ponui Passage5th order dioptricFixed 50White and red10White.
7*East Cape2ndFlashing10 seconds362White flash26 
8Gisborne Leading LightsDioptric side-lightsFixed 60, 40Red5 
9Portland Island2nd order dioptricRevolving30 seconds300White24White.
   Fixed  Red, to show over Bull Rock  
10Napier4th order dioptricFixed 160White19White.
11Cape Palliser2ndGroup fl., 2 fl.30 seconds258White; interval of 3 sec. between flashes23 
12*Pencarrow Hd.2ndFixed 322White25White.
 Low-level LightWigham patent   White, with red are10 
13Somes Island2nd order dioptric  95White, red. and green15.½ 
14Mauawatu RiverOrdinary lamp  44White5 
15Wanganui River6th order port light  65 8 
16Patea5th  130Red10 
17*Cape Egmont2nd order dioptric  103White16White.
18New Plymouth Leading Lights4th order port light  100, 30Red16 
19Waitara6th  70White8 
20*Manukau3rd order dioptric  385 27Brown.
 5th order port light  70White and green10White.
21*Kaipara2nd order dioptricFlashing10 seconds278White23.½Red.
22HokiangaMasthead-light  152 5 
23*Nelson4th order port lightFixed 60White, with red are13White.
24French Pass6th  12White and red, with white light on beacon8 
25Stephens Island1st order dioptricGroup fl., 2 fl.30 seconds600White32.½ 
Number of Light.Name of Lighthouse.Order of Apparatus.Fixed, Flashing, or Revolving.Interval of Revolution or Flash.Height, in Feet, above High Water.Colour of Light.Distance visible in Nautical Miles.Colour of Lighthouse.

* An asterisk denotes those lighthouses which are in telephonic communication with telegraph system.

† Harbour lights.

NOTE.—The distance visible of lights of greater power than 5th order dioptric is calculated in nautical miles as seen from a height of 15 ft. above the sea. In very clear weather the lower-order lights may be seen at a greater distance than is given in this table.

26Jackson HeadWigham ben. lampFixed 37White5Concrete ben.
27The Brothers2nd order dioptricFlashing10 seconds258 23White.
   Fixed  Red, over Cook Rock  
28Tory Channel Leading Lights5th order port light  86, 22White10White.
29Wairan River6th  38 8 
30*Cape Campbell2nd order dioptricRevolving1 minute155 18.1⁄7 
31*Godley Head2ndFixed 450 29White.
32*Akaroa Head2ndFlashing10 seconds270 23 
33Timaru5th order port lightFixed 85Red and green10 
34Jack's Point4th order dioptric  94White15.½ 
35Oamaru5thFlashing14 seconds120 10Light stone
36Moeraki3rdFixed 170 19.½White.
37*Taiaroa Head3rd  196Red20.½ 
37aOtago Harbour Entrance, N. Mole LightWigham ben. lightOcculting 29White8 
38*Cape Saunders2nd order dioptricRevolving1 minute210 21White.
39*Nugget Point1stFixed 250 22.½ 
40Waipapa Point2ndFlashing10 seconds70 14 
41Dog Island1st order catadioptricRevolving30150 18.½White & black bands.
42*Centre Island1st order dioptricFixed 265White, with red ares23White.
43Puysegur Point1stFlashing10 seconds180White20 
44Hokitika5thFixed 122 10 
45Greymouth6th order port light  62 8Flagstaff.
46*Cape Foulwind2nd order dioptricRevolving30 seconds238 22White.
47WestportDioptric masthead-Lt.Fixed 50 8 
48Kahurangi Point2nd order dioptric  110White, with red sector to show over Stewart Breaker16.½White.
49*Farewell Spit2nd order dioptricRevolving1 minute97White, with red are over Spit end16Upper part white & lower part red.


THERE are (January, 1909) 236 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, sixty-six are published daily, thirty-five are published three times a week, twenty-five twice a week, sixty-eight once a week, three fortnightly, one three-weekly, one four-weekly, and thirty-seven monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.

M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper.

        Auckland Free Press (M.)Saturday.
        Auckland Star (E.)Daily.
        Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M.)Thursday.
        Christian Worker (M.)Monthly.
        Church Gazette (M.) 
        Defence (M.) 
        Napredak (E.)Saturday.
        New Zealand Farmer, Stock and Station Journal (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' Companion (M.)Wednesday.
        New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
        New Zealand Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic Review and Licensed Victuallers' Gazette (M.)Thursday.
        New Zealand Motor and Cycle Journal (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Observer (M.)Thursday.
        New Zealand Town and Country Life, Farmers' Weekly, and Land Agents' Record (M.)Wednesday.
        New Zealand Worker (E.) 
        Saturday Night (E.)Saturday.
        Sentinel and Sporting Times (E.)Thursday.
        Sharland's New Zealand Journal (M.)Monthly.
        Sport, Stage Chronicle, and Business Guide (E.)Saturday.
        Stage (M.)Monthly.
        Tourist and Resources of New Zealand (M.) 
        Waikato Independent (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Coromandel County News and Kuaotunu and Mercury Bay Mail (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Glas Istine (E)Tuesday.
        North Auckland Times (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Waikato Argus (E.)Daily.
        Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (E.) 
        Kaipara Advertiser and Waitemata Chronicle (M.)Wednesday.
        Northern Luminary, Bay of Islands, Hokianga, Mangonui, and Whangaroa Counties Gazette (E.)Saturday.
        Kawhia Settler and Raglan Advertiser (E.)Friday.
        Hokianga Times (E.)Monday.
        North Auckland Age (E.) 
        Morrinsville Herald and Matamata Chronicle (M.)Saturday.
        Manukau Chronicle and Auckland Provincial Times (E.)Friday.
        Raglan County Chronicle (M.) 
        Hot Lakes Chronicle (M.)Wed., Saturday.
        Rotorua Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Taumarunui Echo (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Te Kuiti—
        King Country Chronicle (E.)Mon., Thursday.
        Rodney and Otamatea Times, Waitemata and Kaipara Gazette (E.)Wednesday.
        Whangarei Morning Press (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Northern Advocate (E.)Daily.
        Northern Advocate Weekly (E)Friday.
        Northern Mail (E.) 
        Goldfields Advocate (M.)Saturday.
        East Coast Guardian (E.)Wed., Saturday.
        Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Ohinemuri Gazette (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Bay of Plenty Times (E.) 
Te Aroha—
        Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Te Aroha Mail (M.)Wed., Saturday.
        Thames Advertiser (M.)Daily.
        Thames Star (E.) 
        Waihi Daily Telegraph (E.) 
        Waihi Times (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Whakatane County Press (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Gisborne Times (M.)Daily.
        Poverty Bay Herald (E.) 
        Inglewood Record and Waitara Age (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
New Plymouth—
        Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
        Taranaki Daily News (M.)Daily.
        Taranaki Herald (E.) 
        Opunake Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Stratford Evening Post (E.)Daily.
        Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Daily Press (M.)Daily.
        Dannevirke Advocate (E.) 
        Dominion Templar and Rechabite Advocate (M.)Monthly.
        Hastings Standard (E.)Daily.
        New Zealand Bulletin (M.)Saturday.
        Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
        Hawke's Bay Herald (M.) 
        New Zealand Fire and Ambulance Record (M.)Monthly.
        White Ribbon (M.) 
        Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Waipukurau Press (E.) 
        East Coast Mail (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Eltham Argus (E.)Daily.
        Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
        Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
        Hunterville Express and Raugitikei Advertiser (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Waimate Witness and Kaponga Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Mangaweka Settler (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
        Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Ohakune Times (E.) 
        Waimarino County Call (E.) 
        Taihape Daily Times and Waimarino Advocate (E.)Daily.
        Good Cheer (M.)Monthly.
        Wanganui Chronicle (M.)Daily.
        Wanganui Herald (E.) 
        Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
        Echo (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Wairarapa Daily News (E.)Daily.
        Eketahuna Express and County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Feilding Star and Kiwitea-Oroua County Gazette (E.)Daily.
        Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Greytown North—
        Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Daily.
        Martinborough Star (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Wairarapa Age (M.)Daily.
        Wairarapa Daily Times (E.) 
        Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Pahiatua Herald (E.)Daily.
Palmerston North—
        Manawatu Daily Times (M.) 
        Manawatu Evening Standard (E.) 
        Hutt and Petone Chronicle (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Business Life (E.)Monthly.
        Church Chronicle (M.) 
        Citizen (M.)Fri., fortnightly.
        Commonweal (E.)Monthly.
        Dominion (M.)Daily.
        Evening Post (E.) 
        Farmers' Union Advocate (E.)Saturday.
        Katipo (E.)Monthly.
        Mercantile Gazette of New Zealand (E.)Wednesday.
        Nation (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Building, Engineering, and Mining Journal (M.) 
        New Zealand Craftsman (E.) 
        New Zealand Dairyman and Farmers' Union Journal (E.) 
        New Zealand Free Lance (M.)Saturday.
        New Zealand Gazette (E.)Thursday.
        New Zealand Mines Record (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Primitive Methodist (M.) 
        New Zealand Railway Review (E.)Four-weekly.
        New Zealand Shipping Gazette and Mercantile Journal (E.)Saturday.
        New Zealand Shipping Gazette and Mercantile Journal (E.)Daily.
        New Zealand Times (M.) 
        New Zealand Trade Review and Price Current (M.)Three-weekly.
        New Zealand Truth (M.)Saturday.
        Playgoer (E.)Friday.
        Progress (M.)Monthly.
        Searchlight (M.)Saturday.
        Sketcher (M.) 
        Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
        Marlborough Herald (E.) 
        Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Marlborough Press. County of Sounds Gazette (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Golden Bay Argus (E.)Thursday.
        Motueka Star (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Colonist (M.)Daily.
        Nelson Evening Mail (E.) 
        Golden Bay News (E.)Thursday.
        Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed., Saturday
        Buller Post (E.)Tuesday.
        Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
        Westport News (M.)Daily.
        Westport Times and Evening Star (E.) 
        Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
        Grey River Argus (M.) 
        Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.) 
        Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.) 
        Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
        Leader (M.)Saturday.
        West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
        Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.) 
        Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
        Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Cheviot News (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Canterbury Times (incorporating “Sportsman” and “New Zealand Cyclist”) (M.)Wednesday.
        Current Thought (M.)Monthly.
        Examiner (M.) 
        Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
        New Brighton Monthly Magazine (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Baptist (E.) 
        New Zealand Church News (M.) 
        New Zealand Poultry Journal (M.) 
        Press (M.)Daily.
        Spectator (M.)Thursday.
        Star (E.)Daily.
        Truth (E.) 
        Vanguard (E.)Sat., fortnightly
        War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Saturday.
        Weekly Press (incorporating “The Referee”) (M.)Wednesday.
        Kaikoura Star and Kaikoura County Gazette and Recorder (E.)Daily.
        Kaikoura Sun, Farmers' Advocate, and County Gazetteer (E.) 
        Co.-op. Monthly (M.)Monthly.
        Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
        Ellesmere Guardian (M.) 
        Geraldine Mail (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        Geraldine Guardian (M.) 
        Temuka Leader (M.) 
        Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
        Timaru Post (E.) 
        Waimate Advertiser (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Waimate Times (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
        North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
        Oamaru Mail (E.) 
Alexandra South—
        Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (E.)Wednesday.
        Clutha Leader (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Free Press (M.) 
        Dunstan Times, Vincent County Official Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (E.)Monday.
        Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (E.) 
        Dominion Journal (M.)Monthly.
        Evening Star (E.)Daily.
        Farmers' Circular (M.)Thur., fortnightly
        Farmers' Standard of New Zealand (M.)Monthly.
        New Zealand Guardian (M.) 
        New Zealand Journal of Education (M.) 
        New Zealand Tablet (M.)Thursday.
        New Zealand Tribune (M.)Friday.
        Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
        Otago Witness (M.)Wednesday.
        Outlook (M.)Saturday.
        Red Funnel (M.)Monthly.
        Triad (M.) 
        Weekly Budget (M.)Saturday.
        Young Man's Magazine (M.)Monthly.
        Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
        Bruce Herald (E.)Mon., Thursday.
        Milton Mirror (E.) 
        Taieri Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
        Mount Ida Chronicle (M.)Friday.
        Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.) 
        Mount Benger Mail (M.)Wednesday.
        Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.) 
        Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
        Bluff Press and Stewart Island Gazette (E.)Tuesday.
        Gore Standard (M.)Daily.
        Mataura Ensign (E.) 
        Southern Cross (M.)Saturday.
        Southlander (M.)Friday.
        Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
        Southland Times (M.) 
        Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
        Orepuki Advocate and Western District Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
        Otautau Farmer and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
        Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle (E.)Tuesday.
        Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.) 
        Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (E.)Tues., Friday.
        Winton Record, Hokonui Advocate, and Awarua Guardian (M.)Friday.
        Wyndham Farmer (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
        Wyndham Herald (M.) 

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Of the provincial districts, Auckland has 59 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 12, Hawke's Bay 13, Wellington 52, Marlborough 6, Nelson 13, Westland 6, Canterbury 28, and Otago 47.


NOTE.—The headings of the respective classes in Schedules A and B are solely used for convenience of classification, and shall not in any way affect the interpretation of the Tariff.

The word “iron” includes steel, or steel and iron combined.

Neither steam-engines, nor parts of steam-engines, nor boilers (land or marine), .nor feed-water heaters, fuel-economizers, steam-superheaters, or mechanical stokers are included in the expression “machines” or “machinery” as used in the Tariff.

The abbreviation “n.o.e.” means “not otherwise enumerated.”


* From 1st April, 1908.

By Order in Council, dated 27th July, 1908, the importation into New Zealand of goods manufactured or produced wholly or in part by prison labour is prohibited.

Tariff Item No.Goods.Rate of Duty.
Ordinary Tariff.Preferential Surtax on Foreign Goods (Schedules C, D, and E).
 Goods subject to fixed rates, except as specified:—  
1Bacon, and hams2d. the lb. 
2Biscuits, ships', plain and unsweetened; also dog-biscuits3s. the cwt.7.1⁄5d. the cwt.*
3Biscuits, other kinds2d. the lb.2⁄5d. the lb.*
4Candied peel, and drained peel3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
5Confectionery n.o.e.; including medicated lozenges, medicated confectionery, boiled sugars, liquorice n.o.e., sugared or crystallized fruits2d. the lb., including internal containing packages (other than plain bottles and plain trade packages)2⁄5d. the lb.,* including internal containing packages (other than plain bottles and plain trade packages).
6Chocolate confectionery and confectionery containing chocolate:—  
 (1.) In plain trade packages3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
 (2) In fancy packages, or in small packages for retail sale20% ad val.4% ad val.*
7Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, n.o.e.10s. the cwt.5s. the cwt.*
8Fish, potted, and preserved (NOTE.—The term “fish” is used in the Tariff in its widest sense, and includes shellfish, crustaceans, and other foods obtained from the fisheries.)2d. the lb., including any liquor, oil, or sauce1d. the lb., including any liquor, oil, or sauce. (NOTE.—Sardines are not subject to preferential duty.)
9Fruits, dried—viz., currants, and raisinsFree. 
10Fruits, dried—viz., figs, dates, and prunesFree. 
11Fruits, dried, n.o.e.2d. the lb. 
12Fruits, fresh—viz., apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, medlars, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, and grapes (No duty exceeding ½d. the lb. to be levied on apples and pears on and from the 14th July to and including 31st December.)1d. the lb. 
13Fruits, fresh—viz., currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, strawberries, and lemons½d. the lb. 
14Fruit-pulp, partially preserved fruit, fruit preserved by sulphurous acid, unsweetened and n.o.e.1.½d. the lb. 
15Glucose, and caramel1d. the lb. 
16Honey2d. the lb. 
17Jams, jellies, marmalade, and preserves2d. the lb., or package of that reputed weight, whichever rate is higher, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.2⁄5d. the lb., or package of that reputed weight, whichever rate is higher, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.*
18Jellies, concentrated4d. the lb.4⁄5d. the lb.*
19Maizena and cornflourFree. 
21Pearl barley1s. the cwt. 
22Peas, split2s. the cwt. 
23Pickles3s. the gallon. 
24Sauces, catsup, and chutney4s. the gallon. 
25Soy, in vessels of 10 gallons capacity or under4s. the gallon. 
26Spices, ground, n.o.e., including pepper, pimento, and olive-stones, ground2d. the lb..2⁄5d. per lb.*
27Spices, unground, including chillies, pepper, and pimento, ungroundFree. 
29Treacle and molassesFree. 
30Vinegar, not exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity, calculated as acetic acid6d. the gallon1.1⁄5d. per gallon.*
31Walnuts, shelled or unshelled2d. the lb. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad v.l.:—  
32Capers, caraway-seeds, caviare, cayenne pepper, curry-powder, and -paste, fish-paste, olives20% ad val. 
33Lard, and refined animal fats, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.
34Meats, potted or preserved20% ad val10% ad val.*
35Provisions n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
36Vegetables, fresh, dried, or preserved20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
37Fruits, preserved in juice, or syrup (Fruits, preserved in juice, or syrup, fortified with alcohol to any extent exceeding 33 per cent. of proof spirit, shall be charged 16s. per proof gallon on such juice or syrup, in addition to 25 per cent. ad val. on the total value of the goods.)25% ad val.12.½% ad val.*
38Milk or cream, preserved, evaporated, or dried25% ad val.12.½% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
39Cigarettes, not exceeding in weight 2.½ lb. per 1,00017s. 6d. the 1,000. 
40Cigarettes, n.o.e.7s. the lb. 
41Cigars, including the weight of every band, wrapper, or attachment, to any cigar7s. the lb. 
42Snuff7s. the lb. 
43Tobacco, including the weight of every label, tag, or other attachment3s. 6d. the lb. 
44Tobacco, unmanufactured, entered to be manufactured in New Zealand in any licensed tobacco-manufactory, for manufacturing purposes only, into tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or snuff2s. the lb. 
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
45Ale, beer of all sorts, porter, cider, and perry, when containing more than 2 per cent. of proof spirit; the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles or the equivalent in bottles of a larger or smaller reputed quantity2s. the gallon. 
46Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, when exceeding the strength of 33 per cent. of proof spirit, but not exceeding the strength of proof16s. the liquid gallon. 
47Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, when exceeding the strength of proof16s. the proof gallon. 
48Hops6d. the lb.3d. the lb.
49Maize, flaked1s. the bushel. 
50Malt, whole or ground2s. the bushel. 
51Rice malt1d. the lb. 
52Solid wort6d. the lb. 
53Spirits, and spirituous mixtures, the strength of which can be ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer or other instrument (No allowance beyond 16.5 under proof shall be made for spirits or spirituous mixtures of a less strength than 16.5 under proof.)16s. the proof gallon. 
54Spirits, and spirituous mixtures, sweetened, n.o.c., when not exceeding the strength of proof16s. the liquid gallon. 
55Spirits, and spirituous mixtures, sweetened, n.o.e., when exceeding the strength of proof16s. the proof gallon. 
 Spirits, and spirituous mixtures, in bottles or jars in cases, shall be charged as follows—viz.: Two gallons and under as two gallons, over two gallons and not exceeding three as three gallons, over three gallons and not exceeding four as four gallons, and so on for any greater quantity contained in any case.  
56Spirits, and spirituous mixtures, containing more than 33 per cent. of proof spirit, in combination with other ingredients, and although thereby coming under any other designation excepting medicinal preparations otherwise enumerated16s. the liquid gallon. 
 Wine.—The term “wine” as applied to the Tariff includes medicated wine, or wine mixed with food; also such spirituous beverages, and fluid foods, containing less than 33 per cent. of proof spirit, as may be so decided by the Minister.  
57Wine, Australian, containing not more than 40 per cent. of proof spirit; the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or the equivalent in bottles of a larger or smaller reputed quantity5s. the gallon. 
58Wine, other than sparkling, and Australian, containing not more than 40 per cent. of proof spirit; the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or the equivalent in bottles of a larger or smaller reputed quantity6s. the gallon. 
59Wine, sparkling, containing not more than 40 per cent. of proof spirit; the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or the equivalent in bottles of a larger or smaller reputed quantity9s. the gallon. 
60Wine of any kind containing more than 40 per cent. of proof spirit16s. the liquid gallon. 
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
61Chicory3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
62Cocoa, and chocolate, including cocoa-beans roasted and crushed; also cocoa or chocolate mixed with milk or any other food substance whatsoever3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
63Coffee, roasted3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
64Tea n.o.e.2d. the lb.2⁄5d. the lb.*
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
65Aerated, and mineral waters; effervescing beverages; and beverages n.o.e.20% ad val. 
66Coffee, essence of; and essence of coffee with milk or any other food substance20% ad val.10% ad val.*
67Fruit juices or imitation fruit juices, unsweetened, in containers of less than 10 gallons capacity20% ad val.10% ad val.*
68Fruit juices or imitation fruit juices, sweetened; syrups; raspberry vinegar, sweetened20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates, except as specified:—  
69Acid, acetic, containing not more than 30 per cent. of acidity1 ½d. the lb. 
70Acid, acetic, containing more than 30 per cent. of acidity, for every 10 per cent. of acidity or fraction thereof½d. the lb. 
71Acid, tartaricFree. 
72Cream of tartarFree. 
73Essences flavouring, containing more than 33 per cent. of proof spirit16s. the liquid gallon. 
74Medicinal preparations (excepting medicated wines or wines mixed with food), containing more than 50 per cent, of proof spirit1s. the lb. 
75Opium.2 the lb. 
76Saccharin n.o.e., including substances of a like nature or use1s. 6d. the ounce. 
77Soda, bicarbonateFree. 
78Soda-crystals2s. the cwt.4 4/5d. the cwt.*
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
79Baking powder; yeast preparations, and other ferments; also yeast foods20% ad val.10% ad val.*
80Chemicals, and chemical preparations, n.o.e., including photographic chemicals n.o.e.; also anti-incrustation, boiler, and other compounds20% ad val.10% ad val.*
81Essences, flavouring, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
82Eucalyptus oil in bulk or bottle20% ad val. 
83Glycerine, refined20% ad val.10% ad val.*
84Medicinal preparations, drugs, and druggists' sundries, and apothecaries' wares, n.o.e.; also aerated water makers', and cordial manufacturers', and brewers' drugs, chemicals, and other sundries, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
85Medicinal preparations (excepting medicated wines or wines mixed with food) containing 50 per cent. of proof spirit or less20% ad val.10% ad val.*
86Saccharin, in the form of tablets, pilules, granules, or cachets, each containing not more than ½ grain of saccharin in combination with at least 10 per cent. of alkali20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates of duty:—  
87Cotton, raw4d. the lb. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
88All articles n.o.e., made of textile, felt, or other piece-goods, or of any combination of the same, wholly or partly made up or manufactured, and not being apparel or clothing either wholly or partly made up20% ad val. 
89Drapery n.o.e.20% ad val. 
90Flags20% ad val. 
91Haberdashery n.o.e.20% ad val. 
92Lace, and laces, n.o.e.20% ad val. 
93Ribbons, and crepe, all kinds20% ad val. 
94Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other20% ad val. 
95Textile piece-goods n.o.e., including imitation silks, composed of any material or substance whatsoever20% ad val. 
96Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades20% ad val. 
97Yarns n.o.e.20% ad val. 
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
98Apparel, and ready-made clothing, n.o.e.25% ad val. 
99Feathers, ornamental (including ostrich); artificial flowers, leaves, and sprays25% ad val. 
100Furs, and fur trimmings25% ad val. 
101Hats of all kinds (including straw hats), also caps25% ad val. 
102Hosiery n.o.e.25% ad val. 
103Millinery of all kinds, including trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets25% ad val. 
 Goods subject to 40 per cent. ad val.:—  
104Apparel made to the order, or measurement, of residents in the colony, and intended for the individual use of such residents, whether imported by the residents themselves or otherwise40% ad val. 
105Apparel—viz., Volunteer clothing made to measurement sent from New Zealand40% ad val. 
 Goods subject to mixed rates:—  
106Boots, shoes, clogs, and pattens, n.o.e., viz.—  
 Men's, above size No. 51s. 6d. the pair, and 15% ad val.9d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Youths', above size No. 11s. the pair, and 15% ad val.6d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Boys', Nos. 7 to 1 both inclusive1d. the pair, and 15% ad val.3d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Women's above size No. 11s. the pair, and 15% ad val.6d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Girls', Nos. 7 to 1, both inclusive6d. the pair, and 15% ad val.3d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Other kinds1s. the pair, and 15% ad val.6d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Slippers (not including lawn tennis, and gymnasium shoes soled with india-rubber or felt)6d. the pair, and 15% ad val.3d. the pair, and 7 ½% ad val.
 Slippers of felt, with carpet, twine, or felt soles22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.
 Shoes or goloshes known as Plimsolls with moulded india-rubber soles22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.
 Champion, gymnasium, yachting, and lawn tennis boots, and shoes, with moulded india-rubber soles22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.
 Goloshes or overshoes of all kinds, of rubber22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.
 Shoettes, and sandals, n.o.e.22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
 Leather belting, belt leather, barness, welting, bridle, strap, legging, bag, and kip other than East India4d. the lb. 
 All hide leathers dressed, n.o.e.3d. the lb. 
 (NOTE.—Any leathers n.o.e. (1) either dressed in sides, or pieces of whatever size, or (2) if in whole skins over 16 ft., are to be classed as hide leather.)  
 Calf skins, being whole skins, however dressed, and 16 ft. spread and under1d. the lb. 
 Sheepskins, and lambskins, however dressed, n.o.e.3d the lb. 
 East India kip, dressed1d. the lb. 
 Sole, pump, and skirt leather2d. the lb. 
 Leather dressed, n.o.e., including kangaroo, and wallabi1d. the lb. 
108Leather board or compo4d. the lb. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
109Leather bags, and leather cloth bags, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
110Leather, chamois20% ad val.10% ad val.*
111Leather manufactures, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
112Saddlery, and harness; whips, and whip thongs20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 22 ½ per cent. ad val.:—  
113Heel plates, and toe stiffeners, and toe plates22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.*
114Laces, vamps, and uppers; also clog or patten soles22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.*
115Leather cut into shapes22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.*
116Leather leggings22 ½% ad val.11 ¼% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
117Portmanteaux; trunks; travelling bags, and brief bags, of leather or leather cloth, 10 in. in length and upwards; and carpet bags25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
118Basketware, and wickerware, n.o.e., not being furniture20% ad val.10% ad val.
119Carpets; druggets; floorcloth; mats; matting; plain, and fancy stair oil baize; wood, and fancy oil baize; and oil, and other dado cloths20% ad val. 
120Furniture, knife, and plate powder, and polish; also floor and linoleum polishes, not being varnishes20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
121Furniture, and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron, or other metal25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.
122Mantelpieces, other than stone25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
123Upholstery n.o.e.25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.
 Goods free of duty:—  
124Glass, crown, sheet, and common windowFree. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val., except as specified:—  
125Bricks, known as firebricks20% ad val.10% ad val.*
126China, porcelain, and parian ware20% ad val.10% ad val.
127Drainage pipes, and drainage tiles20% ad val.10% ad val.*
128Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware20% ad val.10% ad val.
129Filters20% ad val.10% ad val.*
130Fireclay, ground; and fireclay goods20% ad val.10% ad val.*
131Flooring, wall, hearth, and garden tiles20% ad val.10% ad val.*
132Glass, plate, polished, coloured, and other kinds, n.o.e.Free. 
133Glassware; globes, and chimneys, for lamps20% ad val.10% ad val.
134Lamps, lanterns, and lampwick, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
135Plate glass bevelled or silvered; mirrors, and looking-glasses, framed or unframed25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
136Cards, playing6d. the pack. 
137Perfumed spirits, and Cologne water.1 10s. the liquid gallon. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
138Clocks, time registers, and time detectors20% ad val.10% ad val.
139Fancy goods, and toys; also sporting, gaming, and athletic requisite, n.o.e., including billiard tables, and billiard requisites; hair, and toilet combs20% ad val.10% ad val.
140Fishing tackle, including artificially baited hooks, other than flies20% ad val.10% ad val.*
141Jewellery; plate, gold, or silver; plated-ware; greenstone, cut or polished20% ad val.10% ad val. (except greenstone, cut or polished).
142Lay figures, busts, and dress stands20% ad val.10% ad val.*
143Magic lanterns, bioscopes, cinematographs, kinetoscopes, phonographs, gramophones, graphophones, and the like instruments, including accessories peculiar thereto n.o.e.; also limelight, and the like apparatus, including accessories peculiar thereto, except magic-lantern slides20% ad val.10% ad val.*
144Mouldings, and panels, in the piece, of either wood, plaster pulp, metal, or other material, for picture frames, cornices, walls, or ceilings20% ad val. 
145Musical instruments20% ad val.10% ad val.
146Photographic goods n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
147Pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed; picture or photograph frames or mounts20% ad val.10% ad val.* (except pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed.
 (NOTE.—Any painting, drawing, or photograph, in any medium, having a value for duty exceeding .5 shall be assessed for duty at .5, plus the value of the frame and mounting, if any, and plus the value of the canvas or other material upon which such painting, drawing, or photograph is made.)  
148Statutes, statuettes, casts, and bronzes20% ad val.10% ad val.*
149Tobacco pipes and cases, cigar and cigarette holders and cases, cigarette papers and cases20% ad val.10% ad val.*
150Watches20% ad val. 
151Walking-sticks20% ad val.10% ad val.
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
152Artificial flies25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
153Oil, perfumed; also toilet preparations, and perfumery, n.o.e.25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
154Handbills, circulars, programmes, playbills, printed posters, trade catalogues, price-lists, and fashion-plates; printed advertising matter n.o.e.; also paper bags, and wrapping-paper, or wrappers, of all kinds, printed or lithographed; printed or lithographed envelopes or labels3d. the lb.3⁄5d. the lb.*
 (NOTE.—This shall not apply to trade catalogues or price-lists of the goods of firms or persons having no established business in New Zealand.)  
155Ink, writing2s. the gallon1s. the gallon.*
156Paper bags, coarse (including sugar bags)7s. 6d. the cwt.3s. 9d. the cwt.*
157Paper wrapping all kinds, not printed including blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings, small hand, lumber hand, tissue, brown, cartridge, and sugar papers5s. the cwt.2s. 6d. the cwt.
 Goods free of duty:—  
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
159Cardboard, pasteboard, strawboard, wood-pulp board, corrugated board, and cloth-lined board, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
160Cloth-lined, enamelled, gelatine, and metallic papers, n.o.e.; also “ivorite” n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
161Stationery, and writing paper, n.o.e., also printers' menu, wedding, programme, and mourning cards of cardboard, celluloid, or other material, edged, or embossed, but otherwise unprinted20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
162Calendars, and showcards, all kinds25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
103Cardboard- or paper-boxes complete; or cardboard or paper, cut, or shaped, for boxes, wrappers, or other receptacles (including match-boxes)25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
164Directories of New Zealand, or of any part thereof; also covers for directories25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
165Paper bags n.o.e.25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
166Stationery, manufactured, viz.:—  
 Account-books, manuscript-books, scribbling, and letter blocks, and books, plain, or ruled; bill-head, invoice, and statement forms; printed or ruled paper, counter-books, cheque, and draft forms; tags, labels not printed or lithographed, blotting-pads, sketch-books, book-covers, copying letter-books, manifold-writers, albums (other than for photographs), diaries, birthday-books, plain or faint lined ruled books, printed window-tickets, printed, lithographed, or embossed stationery n.o.e., and Christmas, New Year, birthday, Easter, and other cards, and booklets25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
167Stereotypes, matrices, half-tone, and line blocks25% ad val. 
 Goods subject to fixed rates, except as specified:—  
168Cartridges (shot) 10- to 24-bore2s. 6d. the 1001s. 3d. the 100.*
169Cartridge-cases1s. 3d. the 1007 ½d. the 100.*
170Composition-piping3s. 6d. the cwt.8 2⁄5d. the cwt.*
171Iron, galvanised corrugated sheets2s. the cwt.4 4⁄5d. the cwt.*
172Iron, and other nails, n.o.e., including dog-spikes2s. the cwt.1s. the cwt.
173Iron, plain galvanised sheet or hoop1s. 6d. the cwt.3 3⁄5d. the cwt.*
174Iron tanks, for every 100 gallons, or fraction of 100 gallons, in holding .capacity2s. 6d.6d.*
175Lead, in sheetsFree. 
176Lead piping3s. 6d. the cwt.8 2⁄5d. the cwt.*
177Shot10s. the cwt.2s. the cwt.*
 Goods subject to 5 per cent. ad val.:—  
178Engines and machines for mining purposes—namely, capstan engines for mining shafts; winding engines, steam, air, or electrically driven, including bed plates, foundation bolts, and friction clutches, when imported with the engines; drums for winding engines5% ad val.10% ad val.*
179Machinery—viz., flour milling, refrigerating, dredging, woollen mill, paper mill, rope and twine making, oil refining, boring, meat preserving, leather splitting5% ad val.10% ad val. (except flour milling, oil refining, and boring machinery).*
180Printing machines or presses; embossing, bronzing, type casting, and type setting machines; ruling machines, cardboard box making machines, and tools for same5% ad val.10% ad val. (except type casting and type setting machines).*
181Soda-water machines; also machines for aerating liquids5% ad val.10% ad val.*
182Steam engines, and parts thereof, for mining (including gold-dredging), or gold saving purposes and processes, or for dairying purposes5% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 10 per cent. ad val.:—  
183Machinery, electric, and appliances—namely, electric generators, and electric motors, including slide rails therefor, electric lamps including globes for are lamps, electric transformers10% ad val.5% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
184Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles, also finished, or partly finished or machined parts of the same, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.
185Bill-hooks, bush-hooks, slashers, and hedge knives20% ad val.10% ad val.*
186Boilers, land, and marine, including feed-water heaters, fuel economizers, steam superheaters, and mechanical stokers20% ad val.10% ad val.*
187Cartridges, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
188Cash registering machines20% ad val 
189Crab winches, cranes, capstans, and windlasses20% ad val.10% ad val.*
190Electric batteries, and cells; furniture, fittings, instruments, and appliances, n.o.e., for the generation, transmission, application, or utilisation or electricity, or of electric power of any description whatsoever20% ad val.10% ad val.*
191Firearms, all kinds20% ad val.10% ad val.
192Hardware, ironmongery, and hollow-ware, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.
193Iron pipes wrought n.o.e., and wood or fibre pipes, exceeding 6 in. in internal diameter, also knees, bends, elbows, and other fittings for the same. Cast iron pipes exceeding 9 in. in internal diameter, and knees, bends, elbows, and other fittings for the same20% ad val.10% ad val.
194Lawn mowers20% ad val.10% ad val.
195Lead-headed nails and galvanised cup-headed roofing nails20% ad val. 
196Machinery, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
197Manufactured or partly manufactured articles of metal, or manufactured or partly manufactured articles of metal in combination with any other material whatsoever, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
198Steam-engines, and parts of steam-engines, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
199Galvanised iron manufactures, n.o.e., made up from galvanised iron, or from plain sheet iron, and then galvanised25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
200Japanned, and lacquered metalware25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
201Tinware, and tin manufactures, n.o.e.25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
202Timber, palings, split2s. the 100. 
203Timber, posts, split8s. the 100. 
204Timber, rails, split4s. the 100. 
205Timber, sawn, dressed4s. the 100 sup. ft. 
206Timber, sawn, rough2s. the 100 sup. ft. 
207Timber, shingles, and laths2s. the 1,000. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
208Bellows, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
209Blocks, wooden tackle20% ad val. 
210Broom, mop, hoe, rake, and similar handles.20% ad val. 
211Carriages, carts, drays, wagons, perambulators, and the like vehicles, and wheels for the same20% ad val.10% ad val.
212Carriage shafts, spokes, and felloes, dressed; bent carriage timber, n.o.e.20% ad val. 
213Cars, wagons, and trucks, railway, and tramway; and wheels for the same, n.o.e. Motor vehicles. Motor car bodies, or bodies for motor buses, whether attached or unattached20% ad val.10% ad val. (except motor vehicles, motor car bodies, or bodies for motor buses, whether attached or unattached).*
214Doors, and sashes, either plain, or glazed with ornamental glass20% ad val.10% ad val.*
215Woodenware, and turnery, n.o.e., and veneers20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates, except as specified:—  
216Oils in vessels capable of containing one gallon of oil or more—namely, vegetable oilsFree. 
217Oil—namely, crude petroleum, crude residual oil, once-run shale oil, once-run petroleum oil½d. the gallon 
218Oil, n.o.e., including mineral lubricating-oil, in vessels capable of containing one gallon or more6d. the gallon1 1⁄5d. the gallon.*
219Paints, and colours, ground in oil or turpentine; also putty; and driers, n.o.e.2s. 6d. the cwt.6d. the cwt.*
220Paints, and colours, mixed ready for use; also enamel paints, n.o.e.5s. the cwt.1s. the cwt.*
221Stearine¾d. the lb.3⁄20d. the lb.*
222Varnish and lacquers, including lithographic varnish, gold size, liquid gold, and other metallic paints; also liquid medium for mixing with metallic paints2s. the gallon4 4⁄5d. the gallon.*
223Whiting, and chalk1s. the cwt.2 2⁄5d. the cwt.*
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
224Axle grease, and other solid lubricants; petroleum greases, and mixture of the same with other substances, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
225Harness oil, and composition, leather dressing, and belt dressing; also leather revivers and polishes n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
226Oils in vessels having a lesser capacity than one gallon20% ad val. 
 Goods subject to fixed rates:—  
227Cattle (horned)10s. each. 
228Chaff.1 the ton. 
229Grain—namely, barley2s. the 100 lb. 
230Grain, and pulse, of every kind, n.o.e.9d. the 100 lb. 
231Grain, and pulse, of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, n.o.e., including wheat flour1s. the 100 lb.2 2⁄5d. the 100 lb.*
232Horses.1 each. 
233Onions.1 the ton. 
234Potatoes.1 the ton. 
235Prepared calf-meal.1 5s. the ton. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent. ad val.:—  
236Animals, food for, of all kinds, n.o.e., including horse, and cattle spices, and condiments, proprietary or otherwise; also hemp-seed, maw-seed, millet-seed, canary-seed, and mixed bird-seed20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to fixed rates, except as specified:—  
237Blue1d. the lb.1⁄5d. the lb.*
238Candles1 ½d. the lb.¾d. the lb.
239Cement, Portland, and other structural, and building cement2s. the barrel2s. the barrel.
240Gelatine, isinglass, glue, and size1 ½d. the lb.3⁄10d. the lb.*
 Wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches1s. the gross boxes6d. the gross of boxes.*
 In boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches2s. the gross boxes1s. the gross of boxes.*
 In boxes containing more than 100 matches; for every 100 matches, or fraction thereof, contained in one box2s. the gross boxes1s. the gross of boxes.*
 Wax, “plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches1s. the gross boxes6d. the gross of boxes.*
 “Pocket vestas,” in tin or other boxes, containing under 100 matches1s. 4d. the gross boxes8d. the gross of boxes.*
 Wax, other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box2s. 3d. the gross boxes1s. 1 ½d. the gross of boxes.*
 Matches of any material other than wood or wax, a duty corresponding to the duty payable on wooden matches.  
 (NOTE.—Boxes made of gold, silver, metal, wood, or composition, of permanent value when empty, shall, in addition to the duty payable on any matches contained therein, be charged as jewellery or fancy goods.)  
242Paraffin wax1d. the lb. 
243Powder, sportingFree. 
244Sausage skins, and casings (including brine or salt)3d. the lb. 
245Soap, common yellow, and blue mottled5s. the cwt.1s. the cwt.*
246Spirits, methylated to the satisfaction of the Minister1s. the liquid gallon2 2⁄5d. the liquid gallon.*
247Spirits eleared from warehouse, methylated under prescribed conditions6d. the liquid gallon, not including the added naphtha or other methylating material. 
248Starch2d. the lb.2⁄5 d. the lb.*
249Wax, mineral, vegetable, Japanese, and beeswax Goods subject to 10 per cent. ad val.:—Id. the lb. 
250Flock10% ad val. 
 Goods subject to 20 per cent, ad val.:—  
251Bags, calico, forfar, linen, flour; bagging, bags, and sacks, n.o.e., including after bags, and sheaths20% ad val.10% ad val.*
252Blacking, and boot-gloss, and -polish20% ad val.10% ad val*
253Blacklead20% ad val.10% ad val.*
254Boats, launches, yachts, also all vessels propelled by means other than oars (when imported in any vessel), including all fittings therefor n.o.c.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
255Cordage, rope, and twine, n.o.e.20% ad val10% ad val.
256Fireworks, n.o.e.20% ad val.10% ad val.*
257Nets, and netting20% ad val.10% ad val.*
258Soap powder, extract of soap, dry soap, soft soap, liquid soap, soap solutions, and washing, or cleansing powders, crystals, pastes, and liquids20% ad val. 
259Tarpaulins, tents, sails, rick, and wagon covers20% ad val.10% ad val.*
 Goods subject to 25 per cent. ad val.:—  
260Bags of textile or felt, all kinds, if printed25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
261Brooms, brushes, and brushware25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
262Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed, or polished, and articles made therefrom; also imitation stone, dressed, or polished, and articles made therefrom, or from cement25% ad val.12 ½% ad val. (except marble, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom.)*
263Soap, n.o.e.25% ad val.12 ½% ad val.*
 In addition to any duty chargeable by law on any goods imported into the Dominion, a further duty of 20 per cent. ad val. shall be charged when the goods are prison made.  
Goods in this Schedule, except where otherwise provided, are exempt from duties of Customs.
Tariff Item No.Goods.Preferential Surtax on Foreign Goods (Schedules C, D, and E).

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

* From 1st April, 1908.

By Order in Council, dated 27th July, 1908, the importation into New Zealand of goods manufactured or produced wholly or in part by prison labour, is prohibited.

264Almonds, and nuts, except walnuts. 
265Anchovies, salted, in casks, or other containers, capable of holding 28 lb. net or over. 
266Arrowroot (lb.), sago (cwt.), tapioca (cwt.), macaroni (lb.), vermicelli (lb.), rice-flour, prepared barley-flour, potato-flour, infants' and invalids' farinaceous foods. 
267Cocoa or cacao butter, coconut butter, nut butter, and other refined vegetable butters or fats. 
269Rice, dressed or undressed, also rice meal refuse and rice meal. 
270Soy, in vessels exceeding 10 gallons capacity. 
271Cocoa-beans, uncrushed. 
272Coffee, raw. 
273Fruit-juices, or imitation fruit-juices, unsweetened, in containers of 10 gallons capacity or over. 
274Tea, in bulk—viz., in packages of 5 lb. or over net weight of tea2d. the lb.
275Acids—viz., boracic; carbolic; chromic; citric; fluoric; formic; lactic; muriatic; nitric; oleic; oxalic; picric; pyrogallic; salicylic; sulphuric. 
276Concentrated extracts, or essences, in liquid form, or preserved in fat, for the purpose of manufacturing perfumery, when entered to be warehoused in a manufacturing warehouse for the purpose of making perfumery or other articles therein. 
277Dextrine n.o.e. 
279Drugs and chemicals, viz.:— 
Carnauba wax.
Creosote, crude or commercial.
Crude distillates of coal-tar or wood, in vessels containing 10 gallons or over, for the manufacture of disinfectants in New Zealand.
Formic aldehyde, and solution thereof.
Fusel oil.
Gall nuts.
Glycerine, crude.
Gums—viz., arabic, benzoin, damar, tragacanth, artificial gum-arabic.
Liquefied gases, and compressed gases.
Liquorice in blocks of 7 lb. net and over, or soft liquorice-extract in bulk, in tins or other vessels capable of holding 7 lb. net or over.
Naphthalene, crude or refined.
Strychnine, and salts of strychnine.
Sugar of milk.
Alum, alum sulphate.
Ammonium chloride, or sal ammoniac, ammonium sulphate.
Arsenic, and arsenates.
Calcium carbide (tons), chloride, sulphate, sulphite, and bisulphite; chlorinated lime.
Carbon bisulphide.
Copper sulphate, or bluestone, oxide of copper.
Iron sulphates.
Magnesium sulphite, and bisulphite.
Manganese oxides.
Potash (cwt.); pearlash (cwt.); potash, caustic (cwt.), chlorate, cyanide (tons), nitrate (or saltpetre) (cwt.), permanganate, prussiates, sulphite, and bisulphite; metallic potassium.
Salts of thorium, zirconium, or other rare metals, and solutions thereof, including mixtures of same, suited for the manufacture of incandescent mantles.
 Silver nitrate in crystals. 
 Soda acetate, crude; soda ash (cwt.); soda, arseniate, anhydrous carbonate (cwt.), caustic (cwt.), cyanide (tons), bisulphite, hyposulphite, silicate (cwt.), sulphate, sulphide, sulphite, nitrate, permanganate. 
 Metallic sodium, sodium peroxide. 
 Zinc chloride. 
 (NOTE.—Mixtures of any of the articles enumerated under this Schedule as drugs and chemicals, with each other, or with chemicals, or substances not enumerated, shall, if not provided for elsewhere in the Tariff, be charged as medicinal preparations n.o.e., or chemicals n.o.e. under Schedule A, Class V.) 
280Drugs crude, not powdered, and unsuited for use as foods, or in the manufacture thereof—viz., barks, woods, twigs, leaves, herbs, flowers (except hops), roots, corms, gums, balsams, inspissated juices (except opium), seeds, fruits, fruit rinds, pitch, cantharides, ergot; also powdered pyrethrum flowers or Dalmatian powder, and powdered hellebore in bulk. 
281Essential oils, except eucalyptus; cod liver oil (gallons); oil of rhodium. 
282Horse, and cattle drenches. 
283Insecticides for agricultural uses, also tree washes. 
284Opium when entered to be warehoused in a manufacturing warehouse, for the purpose of making therein approved medicinal preparations. 
285Scrub exterminators. 
286Sheep dip; sheep drenches; sheep licks. 
287Surgical and dental instruments; also the following surgeons', physicians', dentists', and opticians' materials—viz., antiseptic dressings, gauzes, lint, tow, cotton wool, poroplastic felt, adhesive plaster, oiled silk or other fabric, spongio piline, bandages, catgut, and sterilised, and other sewings, thermometers; also appliances including splints for wear, peculiarly adapted to correct a deformity of the human body, to afford support to an abnormal condition of the human body, or to reduce or alleviate 
 such condition, or to substitute any part of such body; crutches; ear trumpets, ear tubes, and audiphones, for the partially deaf. Opticians' trial cases, lenses, and frames, spectacles, and magnifying glasses, ophthalmoscopes, optometers and other measuring instruments, test cards, and diagrams, artificial eyes (demonstration and other). Dentists' materials—viz., artificial teeth, tooth crowns, celluloid blanks, base plates, denture strengtheners, guttapercha stick, points, pellets, and sheets, rubber dam, amadou absorbent, absorbent paper, rubber in sheets, metal-plate, -wire, -foil, sticks; solder: fusible metal, porcelain powder, and enamel, inlays, modelling composition and wax, investment compound, amalgam, and cement; also such other appliances and materials peculiar to surgical or dental use as may from time to time be enumerated in any order of the Minister. 
288Scientific and philosophical instruments and apparatus—namely, assay-balances; laboratory retorts, and laboratory flasks, and other instruments, and apparatus for chemical analysis, and assay works; assay furnaces, including dentists', and jewellers' furnaces; also such instruments, and apparatus, suited strictly for scientific and philosophical purposes, as may from time to time be approved by the Minister. 
289Brace-elastic, and brace-mountings. 
290Brattice cloth made of jute or hessian. 
291Bunting, in the piece. 
292Butter cloth; also cheese cloth, and cheese bandages or caps20% ad val.*
293Buttons, tapes, wadding, pins, needles. 
294Cotton or linen piece-goods, and unions of the same, n.o.e., except imitation silks composed of any material or substance whatsoever. 
295Fur skins, green or sun-dried. 
296Gold or silver lace or braid for military clothing, feather-stitch braid. 
297Hatmakers' materials—viz., felt hoods; shellac; galloons; calicoes; spale boards for hat boxes; leathers; silk plush in the piece; linings, when cut up or otherwise, under such conditions as the Minister may prescribe; blocks; moulds; frames; ventilators; tassels. 
298Hessians, plain or striped, and scrim. 
299Leather cloth, plain colours. 
300Minor articles (required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades), enumerated in any order of the Minister, and published in the Gazette. 
301Ostrich feathers grown in New Zealand, when returned from abroad dressed, or dyed, upon evidence being produced to the satisfaction of a Collector of Customs as to their previous exportation. 
302Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck, in the piece. 
303Sewing cottons, silks, and threads; angola mendings not exceeding 45 yards in length; crewel, flourishing, embroidery, darning, knitting, and crochet threads, of silk, linen or cotton, or unions of the same, plain or fancy; macrame thread or macrame twine. 
304Silk for flour dressing, in the piece. 
305Silk twist (shoemakers', and saddlers'). 
306Staymakers' binding, eyelets, corset-fasteners, jean, ticks, lasting, sateen, and cotell; also corset shields, and busk protectors. 
307Tailors' trimmings—viz., haircloth; plain or coloured imitation haircloth; canvas; buckram; wadding, and padding; silk, worsted, and cotton bindings, and braids; stay bindings; Russia braids; shoulder-pads; buckles; silesias; drab, slate, and brown jeans; pocketings; slate, black, and brown dyed unions and linens; Verona, and Italian cloth, of cotton or wool, or unions of the same; also such other lining materials as may be approved by the Minister. 
308Tubular woven cotton cloth in the piece for meat-wraps20% ad val.*
309Umbrella-makers' materials—viz., reversible, and levantine silk mixtures, gloria, and satin de chene, of not less than 44 in. in width; alpaca cloth, with border; zanella cloth, with border; also other piece-goods on such conditions as the Minister may approve; sticks, runners, notches, caps, ferrules, cups, ribs, stretchers, tips, and rings. 
310Union textiles n.o.c., in the piece, the invoice value of which does not exceed 6d. the yard, when cut up, and made into shirts or pyjamas, under such conditions and regulations as the Minister may prescribe. 
311Waterproof material in the piece, having within, or upon it, a coating of india-rubber. 
312Boot elastic. 
313Bootmakers' linings, canvas, plain, or coloured, bag and portmantean linings, of such materials, qualities, and patterns, as may be approved by the Minister. 
314Boots, shoes, shoettes, sandals, clogs, and pattens, slippers, and goloshes—namely, children's Nos. 0 to 610% ad val.*
315Cork soles, and sock-soles; moulded shoe and slipper soles of rubber10% ad. val.*
316East India kip, also hides, crust of rough tanned, but undressed. 
317Goat-skins, and kid-skins, however dressed. 
318Grindery—namely, button fasteners, and staples; eyelets, and hook eyelets, and eyelet rings; tingles; spikes for running or cricketing shoes; boot-protectors; wood or rubber heels or knobs; leather toe-tips, “Wells” patent or a similar make, stiffeners or toes moulded ready for use, copper toes, boot stretchers and trees, hollow-fillers, japanned toe-tips; legging springs and stiffeners; lasting tacks, pegs, brass rivets, iron rivets; brass, iron, and copper cut-bills; steel points, sparrow bills; wrought, cut, and malleable hob-nails; Hungarian nails; wrought, and cut tip-nails; iron or wooden lasts; stands for lasts; sole, heel, stiffening, and toe-cap knives; shoemakers' wax; heel-balls; bristles, hemp, and flax; rubber solution or cement; welting cut into strips or in coils ready for use; shoemakers' binding or beading; welting leather cut into strips not exceeding 1 in. in width; webbing; tanners', curriers', and bootmakers' inks or stains; bootmakers' sectional cutting-boards; glass or emery paper, or cloth, on sheets, in rolls, or cut into shapes. 
320Kangaroo, and wallaby skins, undressed. 
321Leather, japanned or enamelled. 
323Saddlers' ironmongery (except bits and stirrup-irons), hames, and mounts for harness; straining, surcingle, brace, girth, and roller webs; collar check, and the same article plain, of such quality as may be approved by the Minister; legging-buckles, also metal articles required to repair or complete riding or driving harness, or saddlery, to be repaired or made in the colony. 
324Tanning materials, crude. 
325Blind webbing, and tape. Worsted covered cord, and solid glace cord, for venetian, and other blinds. 
326Upholsterers' materials—viz., webbing, hair-seating, imitation hair-seating; curled hair; gimp, and cord, of wool, cotton, or silk; tufts, and studs; chair canvas. 
327Bottles, empty, plain stone; also empty plain glass bottles, not being cut or ground; jars, plain glass; and plain earthen jars, up to 3 in. in diameter at the mouth. 
328Earthen, or glass roofing tiles, ridging, or finials; also roofing slates (number). 
329Glass plates (engraved) for photo-lithographic work. 
330Jars, or other dutiable vessels, containing free goods, or goods subject to a fixed rate of duty, and being ordinary trade packages for the goods contained in them. 
331Lamps, miners' safety, and glasses therefor; lamps peculiarly adapted for use on harbour beacons and lighthouses, also appliances peculiar to such lamps; side lights, and head lights, especially suited for the use of ships. 
332Action work, and keys, in frames, or otherwise, iron, or metal piano frames, for manufacture of organs, harmoniums, and pianos; organ pipes, and stop-knobs 
333Articles, being exhibits for public display only in public museums, whether purchased under bond or directly imported by, or for presentation to such museums, upon declaration that such goods will not be sold or otherwise disposed of in New Zealand without payment of any duty which may be payable. 
334Artists' materials—viz., canvas in the piece or on stretchers, oiled paper or drawing paper in sheets or blocks, colours, brushes, palettes, and palette knives10% ad val.*
335Cigarette papers entered to be warehoused in any licensed tobacco manufactory for the manufacture therein of cigarettes 
336Films for bioscopes, cinematographs, and kinetoscopes. 
337Microscopes, and telescopes, and slides, and lenses, for same. 
338Paintings, statuary, and works of art, whether purchased under bond or directly imported by, or for presentation to any public institution or art association registered as a body corporate, for display in the buildings of such institution or association, and not to be sold or otherwise disposed of; 
 statuary or works of art, whether purchased under bond, or directly imported, for display in any public park or place, on conditions prescribed by the Minister. 
339Paintings or pictures painted or drawn by New Zealand students, within five years of the time of their departure from the colony for the purpose of undergoing a period of tuition abroad for the first time, upon evidence being produced to the satisfaction of a Collector of Customs 
340Photographic cameras, and lenses, including focussing cloths, and camera covers10% ad val.*
341Photographs of personal friends in letters or packets. 
342Precious stones, cut or uncut, if unmounted. 
343Sensitised surfaces, and albumenised paper, plain, not being post-cards or other stationery10% ad val.*
344Slides for magic lanterns. 
 (NOTE.—In every case where exemption from duty is governed by a size, the equivalent area shall be exempt under like condition.) 
345Bookbinders' materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue or red paste for ruling-ink, staple-presses, wire staples, staple-sticks. 
346Butter paper (known as vegetable parchment paper), and waxed paper unprinted. 
 (NOTE.—Butter paper or waxed paper, printed, shall be charged as wrapping paper, or wrappers, of all kinds, printed or lithographed. Schedule A, Class XI.) 
347Cardboard, pasteboard, wood-pulp board, and corrugated board, of size not less than that known as “royal” and weighing not less than 2 oz. per sheet of “royal” size; also strawboard of size not less than that known as “royal” and weighing not less than 3 oz. per sheet of “royal” size. 
348Cardboard boxes, material for—viz., gold, and silver paper, plain or embossed; embossed paper in strips; gelatine or coloured papers; known as “box papers”20% ad val.*
349Cartridge drawing paper. 
350Celluloid, plain, in sheets, n.o.e. 
351Cloth-lined boards, not less than “royal” size. 
352Cloth-lined paper, and enamelled, gelatine, and metallic paper, of size not less than “demy”; also “ivorite” of size not less than “demy.” 
353Copy-books, having printed headlines on each page; also drawing-books10% ad val.*
354Copying-paper, medium and larger sizes, in original mill wrappers and labels. 
355Ink, printing10% ad val.*
356Masticated para. 
357Millboard, and bookbinders' leather board. 
358Paper, hand-made or machine-made, book, or writing, when in original wrappers, of sizes not less than the size known as “demy,” and not being a wrapping paper, or of the same quality as wrapping paper. 
359Paper, printing20% ad val.
360Printed books, papers, and music, n.o.e., excepting advertising matter. 
361Sunday school tickets, and reward cards, being Scriptural or religious motto cards, not exceeding 5d. per dozen invoice value, and not exceeding 6 in. by 4 in. in size, and having no reference upon them to Christmas, New Year, Easter, or birthdays. 
302Agricultural machines, and agricultural implements, n.o.e.; also parts peculiar to the manufacture or repair of agricultural machines, and implements—including: chaff cutting knives, fittings for threshing mills, forgings or castings for ploughs, discs for harrows, plough-shares, mould-board plates, and steel-share plates cut to pattern, skeith-plates, tilt-rakes, reaper-knife sections or fingers, finished brass, and steel springs. 
 (NOTE.—Agriculture as supplied to the Tariff shall include horticulture and viticulture.) 
363Anchors10% ad val.*
364Artificers' tools, n.o.e., not including brushes or brushware; also the following tools—namely, axes, and hatchets, spades, shovels, forks, picks, mattocks, quartz, and knapping hammers, scythes, sheep-shears, reaping hooks, soldering irons, paperhangers' scissors, butchers' saws or cleavers; measuring bands or tapes; coal cutters, and air picks. 
305Axles, axle-arms, and axle boxes. 
366Bellows nails. 
367Bicyeles and tricyeles, fittings for—namely, rubber tires, pneumatic rubber tires, outside covers of rubber, and inner tubes, handle grips, pedal rubbers; also the following articles when not plated, japanned, enamelled, or varnished—namely, drop forgings, stampings, steel balls, weldless steel tubes with or without butted ends, wood or metal rims (not bored), spokes, forks, stays, handle bars, and seat pillars, unbuilt, bracket shells, fork, and stay ends, fork tips, bridges, crowns, and lugs; also ball heads complete when not brazed, including all plated parts. Hubs complete plated or otherwise, sprockets, chains, and chain-wheels, whether plated or not. Bottom brackets complete, including axles, cups, cranks, and pedals, plated or otherwise20% ad val. (except rubber tires, pnuematic rubber tires, outside covers of rubber, and inner tubes).
368Beekeepers' tools, implements, and apparatus—namely, metal fittings for bee hives, bee smokers, wax extractors, rubber gloves, gloves of textile soaked in oil, queen cages, comb foundation, foundation machines, honey knives, honey extractors, queen rearing outfits, wax presses, tools peculiar to the use of beekeepers. 
369Blacksmiths' anvils, forges, and fans10% ad val.*
370Bolts, and bolt ends, up to 24 in. in length; nuts, blank or screwed nuts, black or finished nuts. 
371Brass, copper, and tin, in pigs, bars, or sheets; also tinned hoops. 
372Brass or metal tubing, and stamped work, in the rough. 
373Caps, percussion10% ad val.*
374Card clothing, for woollen-mills, and for paper-mills. 
375Castings for ships; also propeller-screws, including only bosses and blades20% ad val.*
376Chains, iron, plain, or with hook, swivel, or ring, attached10% ad val.*
377Copper, brass, and composition rod, bolt, sheathing, and nails. 
378Couch-roll jackets, machine wires, beater-bars, and strainer-plates, for paper-mills. 
380Electrical materials—namely, insulated cable and wire, carbon in block, sheet, or rod, are lamp carbons; mica, vulcanite, and other insulating material, rubber or guttapercha solutions, insulating tape. 
381Electricians' portable testing sets. 
382Emery grinding machines, and emery wheels. 
383Empty iron drums, not exceeding 10 gallons capacity. 
384Engineers', and all metal- or wood- or stone-workers' machine tools or hand tools, not including brushes or brushware. 
385Engine-governors10% ad val.*
387Fire-engines (number), chemical fire-engines (number), and chemical fire-extinguishers (number); . also fire-hose and couplings therefor, portable fire-escapes, fire-ladders, fire-reels, and firemen's helmets, if declared, to the satisfaction of the Collector, for the use of a fire brigade10% ad val.*
388Fish-hooks, unmounted, and without attachments. 
389Galvanising baths, welded. 
390Gas.engines, and hammers, and oil engines20% ad val.
391Glass.nakers' moulds. 
392Hydraulic wheel presses. 
393Iron boiler-plates and unflanged end-plates for boilers; boiler-tubes not exceeding 6 in. in internal diameter and unflanged; expansion-rings; furnace-flues20% ad val.*
394Iron pipes wrought, and wood or fibre pipes, not exceeding 6 in. in internal diameter, also knees, bends, elbows, and other fittings for the same. Cast iron pipes not exceeding 9 in. in internal diameter, also knees, bends, elbows, and other fittings for the same. Wrought iron boring, casing, and lining tubes, for oil boring, mining, or well sinking purposes20% ad val.
395Iron, plain black—viz., sheet, plate, hoop, rod, bolt, bar, angle, tee channel; pigiron; plain iron rolled girders, rolled chequered plates; shafting, plain rolled or plain turned, but otherwise unwrought20% ad val. (except hoop 6 in. in width or over, and pig iron).
396Iron and steel cordage20% ad val.
397Lead, in pigs and bars. 
398Locomotive wheels and tires, including wheels and tires for railway or tramway passenger cars; coil, spiral, and volute springs, suited for the manufacture of locomotives; automatic air-pressure brakes specially suited for use on railway carriages and wagons. 
399Machine saw-blades. 
400Machinery—viz., dairying machinery (including cream-separating machines, also coolers); also vacuum pumps for milking machines when imported along with the machines to which they belong10% ad val. (excluding cream-separating machines, coolers, and vacuum pumps when imported along with the machines to which they belong).*
401Machinery, mining, and gold saving; also, briquette making, and coal washing machines, rock-breaking machines, trommels, stamper batteries, ore feeders, grizzly bars, steel shoes and dies, ore crushing rolls, ball mills, grinding pans, tube mills, concentrators and rubber endless belts for same, battery screening woven or punched; also, the following machines, materials, and appliances, when imported for mining purposes, namely:— 
 Air compressors, not including the motive power for charging the same 
 Chain links and rollers for conveyors, and conveyor belts of rubber or fibre 
 Electric exploders 
 Fans for mine ventilation10% ad val. (except concentrators and rubber endless belts for same).*
 Filter presses 
 Sand pumps 
 Sinking pumps 
 Solution pumps made wholly of metal 
 Steam pumps having a capacity exceeding 5,000 gallons per hour 
 Turbine pumps 
 Shaft signalling gear 
 Steel or iron head frames for mining shafts 
 Battery blanket not exceeding 3 ft. wide 
 Material for filter cloths and plush or other cloth for gold saving 
402Medals, including only old or second-hand war medals, humane societies', and other similar medals; also old coins. 
403Metal fittings, for trunks, portmanteaux, travelling bags, leggings, bags, and satchels. 
404Metal sheaves, grooved metal pulleys10% ad val.*
405Metal tubes in the rough, having a slit through their whole length, suited for the manufacture of fenders, bedsteads, gates, and the like articles. 
406Metal wire of all kinds, plain (tons); metal cordage n.o.e., not being gold or silver (cwt.; also barbed fencing wire (tons), and fencing-staples (cwt.). 
407Metal wove-wire, and metal gauze; also wire netting, and expanded metal lathing or fencing, in the piece10% ad val.*
408Metallic capsules10% ad val.*
409Meters, gas, or electricity, being household supply meters. 
410Meters, water-. 
411Motor engines for bicycles20% ad val.
412Moulders' chaplets and dowels. 
413Perambulators, and the like vehicles, fittings for, n.o.e. 
414Perforated or cellular sheet zinc or iron10% ad val.*
415Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boiler of locomotive type; also traction engines10% ad val.*
416Printing type, and printing materials, n.o.e., suited only for the use of printers10% ad val.*
417Rails for railways and tramways, including lay-outs, and points, and crossings, for the same; also fish plates20% ad val.
418Rivets, and washers. 
419Rock drills, diamond drills, and drill sharpeners. 
420Set screws, engineers' studs, and split pins. 
421Sewing, knitting, and kilting machines. 
422Spray pumps, not being syringes. 
423Steam or hydraulic pressure, and vacuum gauges; pressure indicators or pressure gauges for gas or oil engines; speed indicators, engineers', for testing machinery10% ad val.*
424Surveyors' instruments—viz., steel bands, chains, measuring tapes, field instruments, and drawing instruments; draughtsmen's drawing instruments10% ad val.*
425Tacks, and nails, 1 in. and under. 
426Tea packing lead. 
427Tinsmiths' fittings, and furniture, including stamped or blocked tin or copper, planished or unplanished. 
428Welded and flanged boiler furnaces, plain or corrugated10% ad val.*
429Zinc, plain sheet. 
430Zinc plates or copper plates for photo-lithographic work. 
431Ash, hickory, lancewood, and beechwood timber, unwrought. 
432Blacksmiths', braziers', assay, and treadle power bellows. 
433Carriage or cart makers' materials—viz., shafts, spokes, and felloes, in the rough; hubs, all kinds; poles if unbent and unplaned, all kinds; bent wheel rims. 
434Chassis for motor vehicles, whether attached or unattached to such vehicles, including wheels therefor. 
437Material for the manufacture of carriages, carts, drays, and wagons, motor vehicles, and railway cars or wagons—viz., springs, truck pedestals, mountings, trimmings, hinges, tire bolts, shackle holders, step treads, rubber cloth, rubber tires, pneumatic rubber tires, outer covers of rubber, inner tubes: also, iron or metal fittings (except steps, lamp irons, dash irons, seat rails, and fifth wheels) for the manufacture of carriages, carts, drays, wagons, and motor vehicles (other than motor bicycles or railway or tramway cars or wagons). 
438Sieves, hair. 
439Wooden handles for tools. 
440Oils in vessels capable of containing one gallon of oil or more—viz., refined mineral oils not exceeding in specific gravity 0.870 at 60° F.; fish, penguin, mutton bird, seal, and whale oils. (NOTE.—Mixtures of mineral or vegetable oils, with each other, or with fish, penguin, mutton bird, seal, whale, or other oils, shall be charged with duty (1) if imported in vessels capable of containing one gallon of oil or more, as oil n.o.e., including mineral lubricating oil, Class XIV, Schedule A; (2) if imported in vessels having a lesser capacity than one gallon, 20 per cent. ad val.) 
441Paints, and colours, n.o.e.10% ad val.*
442Turpentine; turpentine substitute composed of volatile mineral oils, or of volatile mineral oils in combination with turpentine, or other volatile vegetable oils; liquid driers; terebene. 
443Wood naphtha. 
445Apparatus, appliances, articles, and materials, for educational purposes, as may be approved by the Minister, and under conditions prescribed by him. 
446Bagging, bags, or sacks, of jute or hessian; also cornsacks; bags made of New Zealand tow or flax. 
447Belting, for driving machinery, other than leather belting and not being cordage or rope10% ad val.*
448Binder-twine10% ad val.*
449Bricks other than firebricks. 
450Candle-nuts, and candle-nut kernels. 
452Canvas aprons and elevators, for reapers and binders. 
453Canvas, indiarubber, or other hose, tubing, or piping, armoured or otherwise; flexible metal hose, tubing, or piping20% ad val.*
454Charts and maps. 
455Confectioners' moulding starch. 
456Cork, cut; bungs; fishermen's cork floats; also plain unornamental stoppers of every description for bottles, jars, and casks10% ad val.*
457Cotton and other waste, engineers. 
458Diving dresses, and dresses suited solely for use in poisonous gases or smoke, with apparatus peculiar thereto. 
459Dyes; dye stuffs; and dyeing materials, crude. 
460Engine packing. 
461Felt sheathing10% ad val.*
462Gum boots, half-knee, knee, or thigh, the soles of which may be of either leather or rubber. 
463Hawsers of 12 in. or over. 
464Honey and brown Windsor soap composition. 
465Indiarubber gloves. 
467Marble, granite, and other stone, hewn or rough sawn, not dressed or polished. 
468Netmakers' cotton twine; nets, seine fishing. 
469Official supplies for consular officers of countries where a similar exemption exists in favour of British consuls. 
470Paper-makers' felts. 
471Passengers' baggage and effects, including only wearing apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the Dominion; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment, of such persons, not exceeding £50 in value, and house-hold or other effects not exceeding £100 in value, which have been in use for twelve months prior to embarkation by the persons or families bringing them to the Dominion, and which are not intended for any other person or persons, or for sale; also cabin furnishings belonging to such persons not exceeding in value £10: 
 Provided that goods falling within the above exemption may be admitted free, only, if imported within two years of the arrival in the Dominion of the persons or families by whom they have been used. 
472Plaster of Paris. 
473Powder—viz., blasting powder, and blasting meal. 
474Returned empties which are identified as such to the satisfaction of a Collector of Customs. 
475Shipbuilders' models of vessels suited only for exhibition. 
476Ship chandlery, n.o.e. 
477Ships' rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals, and rocket life-saving apparatus. 
478Stones, mill, grind, oil, and whet. 
479Tobacco for sheep-wash, or for insecticide, after being rendered unfit for human consumption to the satisfaction of the Minister. 
480Treacle or molasses, mixed with bone-black in proportions to the satisfaction of the Minister. 
482Wax, bottling. 
483Wool packs and wool pockets. 
484Yarn—viz., coir, flax, jute, and hemp. 
485Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Minister) which are suited only for, and are to be used solely in, the fabrication or repair of goods within the Dominion. All decisions of the Minister in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette. 
486All articles n.o.e. 
 Provided that all goods falling under this Schedule, which are prison made, shall be charged an ad val. duty of 20 per cent. 

Chapter 26. EXCISE DUTIES.

Table of Contents

Tariff Item No.Goods.Rate of Duty.
* No higher duty shall be levied on any goods the produce or manufacture of the said colonies than that which would be levied under “The Customs Duties Act, 1903,” on the same goods if they were the produce and manufacture of some other part of the British Dominions. (See “The Customs Duties Act, 1908,” section 8.)
487Feathers15% ad val.
488Fish1.½d. the lb.
489Fruits, driedFree.
490Fruits, greenFree.
491Maize6d. per cental.
493Tobacco (manufactured)2s. 6d. per lb.
494Tea (not otherwise exempt)1d. per lb.
495Wines (other than sparkling)2s. per gallon.
496Wines (sparkling)5s. per gallon.
497All other goods (except spirits), 3 per cent. less than the duty which would otherwise be payable.*
498Tobacco1s. per lb.
499Cigars and snuff1s. 6d. per lb.
       If manufactured by machinery2s. 6d. per lb.
       If made by hand1s. the lb.
501Beer3d. the gallon.
502Articles in which spirit is a necessary ingredient, manufactured in a warehouse appointed under section 32 of “The Customs Law Act, 1908,” namely— 
      Perfumed spirit20s. the liquid gallon.
      Toilet preparations which are subject to 16s. the liquid gallon on importation12s. the liquid gallon.
      Toilet preparations which are subject to 25 per cent. duty on importation6s. the liquid gallon.
      Culinary and flavouring essences12s. the liquid gallon.
      Medicinal preparations (excepting medicated wine or wine mixed with food) containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit9d. the lb.
      Medicinal preparations (excepting medicated wine or wine mixed with food) containing 50 per cent. of proof spirit or lessFree.
503Where any dispute arises as to the true meaning and application of certain terms used in the Tariff, the Minister may determine such dispute in such manner as appears to him just, and his decision thereon shall be final.
504“156. All military clothing, saddlery, and equipments imported into New Zealand for the bona fide use of a Volunteer corps or of an officer of the Defence Forces shall, on the certificate in writing of the Minister that the same are or have been imported for such purpose, be admitted free of duty.”
505“37. (2.) Customs duties shall not be chargeable on regalia, emblems, certificates, and banners, the property of any society or registered branch.”
        The following foods, being infants' and invalids' foods, viz.:—
506Allenbury's Foods Nos. 1, 2, and 3.Free.
507Allenbury's Pancreatised Milk and Cereal Diet.
508Allinson's Food.
509Benger's Food.
510Burroughs Wellcome and Co.'s Peptogenic Milk Powder.
511Carnrick's Soluble Food.
512Chapman's Food.
513Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica.
514Frame Food Diet.
515Gluten Flour.
516Hewlett's Food.
517Horlick's Malted Milk
518Maltico Food.
519Mellin's Food.
520Moseley's Food.
521Neave's Food.
522Nestle's Milk Food.
523Nestle's Milo Food.
524Ridge's Food.
525Savory and Moore's Food.
526Food composed of pasteurised milk or casein of milk in combination with malted or unmalted ground grain.
527Dextro levulose, or invert sugar.1d. the lb.
531Glucose obtained from other sources than starch.
532Winding engines for mining purposes driven by hydraulic power (including bed plates, foundation bolts, and friction clutches, when imported with the engines), ordinary tariff, 5 per cent. ad vol.; preferential surtax, 10 per cent. ad val. 
533Cotton, linen, and union pieces goods having patterns or woven devices or other signs which indicate that they are to be cut up into separate articles, 20 per cent. ad val. 
534Creep-clips, tie-irons, bearing brackets, and bed-plates being rail-fastenings, free; preferential surtax 20 per cent. ad val. 
535Sanitas malted nuts, free. 
536Machines for bevelling and cutting glass, free. 
537Bevelled or silvered glass, other than plate glass, ordinary tariff, 25 per cent. ad val.; preferential surtax, 12.½ per cent. ad val. 


The Customs tariff is modified in respect of the undermentioned articles imported into the Cook and other Islands within the extended boundaries of the Dominion:—

        Claret, 2s. the gallon.

        Horses, 10s. each.

        Drugs imported by missionary societies for dispensation among the Natives, free.

“The Customs Duties Act, 1908,” provides that there shall be levied and collected in the said Islands, in addition to all other duties imposed by the Act, the following, viz.:—

Sugar, whether imported from New Zealand or elsewhere, ½d. per lb.

Cotton piece-goods (except calico), linen piece-goods, and piece-goods of mixed cotton and linen, whether imported from New Zealand proper or elsewhere, 10 per cent. ad valorem.


“The Opium Act, 1908,” makes it unlawful for any person to import opium into the Dominion in any form suitable for smoking. Permits may be issued by the Minister of Customs for the importation of the drug in certain forms.

No permit shall be issued to any person of the Chinese race. Heavy penalties are prescribed for breaches of the above law.

The Act makes it illegal to have opium in possession, except the kinds which can be held under permit, and requires that every person who purchases opium from the holder of a permit shall enter or cause to be entered in a book kept for such purpose the particulars of all purchases in the same manner as the holder of a permit is required to enter particulars of all sales.

An Order in Council dated 2nd February, 1909, issued under authority of section 93 of “The Customs Law Act, 1908,” prohibits the importation into New Zealand of any fluid preparation of opium containing a greater quantity of extractive matter than tincture of opium prepared according to the Pharmacopœia of the United States of America.

Chapter 28. TIMBER EXPORT.

“The Timber Export Act, 1908,” provides that the Governor may from time to time, by Order in Council, cause to be levied, previous to exportation from New Zealand, the following duties upon timber:—

Logs, round5s. per
100 superficial
Or such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.
Logs, squared with axe or saw  
Half logs  
Flitches of any particular kind, or pieces of such size as the Governor by Order in Council from time to time determines3s. per
100 superficial
Or such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.

Orders in Council dated 6th October, 1908, and 17th December, 1908, direct that the following duties shall be levied, collected, and paid:—

On White-pine or Kahikatea Timbers.

Logs, round5s. per 100 superficial feet.
Logs, cut in half5s.
Logs, squared with axe or saw, 10 in. by 10 in., or its equivalent or over5s.
Flitches, exceeding 12 in. in width and 4 in. in thickness or its equivalent, and less than the equivalent of 10 in. in width and 10 in. in thickness3s.
Provided that no duty shall be levied on flitches unless they exceed 4 in. in thickness.

On Kauri Timber.

Logs, round5s. per 100 superficial feet
Logs, cut in half 
Logs, squared with axe or saw 
Flitches exceeding 30 in. in width and 9 in. in thickness, or its equivalent3s.


By treaty with the Colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River, Transvaal, and Southern Rhodesia the existing New Zealand Customs tariff is altered in respect of importations from the above colonies into New Zealand, and on and after the 1st January, 1907, the following duties shall be levied*:—

Feathers15 per cent. ad valorem.
Fish1.½d. per lb.
Fruits, driedFree.
Fruits, greenFree.
Maize6d. per cental.
Tobacco (manufactured)2s. 6d. per lb.
Tea (not otherwise exempt)1d. per lb.
Wines (other than sparkling)2s. per gallon.
Wines (sparkling)5s. per gallon.
All other goods (except spirits)3 per cent. less than the duty which would otherwise be payable.

The following duties are chargeable under the treaty on New Zealand goods imported into the above colonies of South Africa:—

Bran1s. per cental.
Flour2s. 3d. per cental.
Oats1s. 10d. per cental.
Wheat1s. per cental.
Butter2d. per lb.
Cheese12 per cent. ad valorem.
Meats1d. per lb.
All other goods (except spirits)3 per cent. less than the duty which would otherwise be payable.

It is also agreed that if a fiscal difference is made by either of the contracting parties between locally manufactured spirits and imported spirits, the manufactured spirits of the other contracting party shall be admitted at the same rate of duty as is payable on the locally manufactured spirits.

The above treaty continues in full force and effect until terminated by the Governor by Order in Council gazetted.

* No higher duty be levied on any goods the produce and manufacture of the said colonies that which would be levied under “The Customs Duties Act, 1908,” on the same goods if they were the produce or manufacture of some other part of the British dominions (see “The Customs Duties Act, 1908,” sec. 8).


Table of Contents

For the bringing land under the provisions of this Act (over and above the cost of advertisements)—£s.d.
When the title consists of a Crown grant, and none of the land included therein has been dealt with020
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £300100
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £200 and does not exceed £3000150
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £100 and does not exceed £2000100
When the title is of any other description and when the value does not exceed £100050
Contribution to the Assurance Fund upon first bringing land under the Act,—   
In the pound sterling000.½
Other fees—
For every application to bring land under the Act050
For every certificate of title on transfer where the consideration does not exceed £1000100
For every other certificate of title100
Registering memorandum of transfer, mortgage, incumbrance, or lease0100
Registering transfer or discharge of mortgage or of incumbrance, or the transfer or surrender of a lease050
Registering proprietor of any estate or interest derived by settlement or transmission0100
For every power of attorney deposited0100
For every registration abstract100
For cancelling registration abstract050
For every revocation order0100
Noting caveat0100
Cancelling or withdrawal of caveat, and for every notice relating to any caveat050
For every search020
For every general search050
For every map or plan deposited050
For every instrument declaratory of trusts, and for every will or other instrument deposited0100
For registering recovery by proceeding in law or equity or re-entry by lessor0100
For registering vesting of lease in mortgagee, consequent on refusal of Trustee in Bankruptcy to accept the same0100
For entering notice of marriage or death0100
For entering notice of writ or order of Supreme Court0100
Taking affidavit or statutory declaration050
For the exhibition of any deposited instrument, or for exhibiting deeds surrendered by applicant proprietor050
For certified copy, not exceeding five folios050
For every folio or part folio after first five006
For every notice to produce deeds or instruments050
For every outstanding interest noted on certificate of title050
When any instrument purports to deal with land included in more than one grant or certificate, for each registration memorial after the first020


All fees under the Act shall be due and payable in advance.

Where several properties are included in one form of application there shall be charged in respect of each property an application fee and a fee for bringing the land under the Act. Land included within one outer boundary shall be deemed one property for the purpose of this regulation.

In all cases a fee of one pound (£1) is hereby prescribed as the charge to be made for advertising notice of application; provided that, whenever it is necessary that unusual publicity shall be given to any application, the District Land Registrar may require payment of such additional sum as shall, in his judgment, be sufficient to defray the cost of such advertisements.

In all cases where application is made to bring land under the Act, and the certificate of title is directed to issue and is issued in the name of the applicant, the fees for bringing such land under the Act, with the exception of the “application fee,” may, at the request of the applicant, remain unpaid until such land is dealt with by him as registered proprietor. The District Land Registrar shall retain any such certificate of title until the fees due upon the same have been paid, and, until such payment, shall not register any dealing with the land included in such certificate of title.

Printed forms for use under the Act are supplied by the Stamp Department at a charge of one shilling each. Solicitors, land-brokers, and others having forms printed for their own use, and at their own expense, shall, on approval of such forms by the Registrar, be entitled to have the same sealed free of charge.


By the Death Duties Act of 1908 the Schedule of Duties payable on the estates of deceased persons is as follows:—

1. When the value does not exceed £100No duty.
2. Upon any amount exceeding £100 but not exceeding £1,000—
        On the first £100No duty.
        And on the remainder£2.½ per cent.
3. Upon any amount exceeding £1,000 but not exceeding £5,000£3.½ per cent.
4. Upon any amount exceeding £5,000, and up to £20,000£7 per cent.
5. Upon £20,000 and any amount over that sum£10 per cent.
6. Strangers in blood, excepting adopted children£3 per cent. additional.

These duties are leviable upon the final balance of the real and personal estates.

The exemption in respect of property passing absolutely to widow at death of husband is now extended vice versa.

There are also special provisions in the law affecting children, grandchildren, step-children, and adopted children inheriting property.

The above duties also apply to deeds of gift.


Table of Contents


THE population of New Zealand, as estimated for the 31st December, 1908, with the increase for the year, is shown below:—

* Excluding 776 natives of South Sea Islands at labour abroad.
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook
and other Pacific Islands) on 31st December, 1907
Increase during the year 1908—
     By excess of births over deaths8,0458,85216,897
     By excess of immigration over emigration9,6354,62614,261
        Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris,
also Cook and other Pacific Islands) on
31st December, 1908
Maori population, census, April, 190625,53822,19347,731
Population of Cook and other Pacific Islands,
census, 1906
       Total estimated population of Dominion on
31st December, 1908

Details showing the distribution of the Maori population and also of the Cook and other Pacific Islands follow; but the figures in the succeeding portions of this section exclude these special features.

Total Number of Maoris in each County, Census 1906.

Bay of Islands2,571
Great Barrier Island41
Eden (including Waiheke
and Chamberlin Islands)
East Taupo889
West Taupo1,136
Tauranga and adjacent islands2,040
Hawke's Bay1,505
Wairarapa South119
Mount Herbert106
Stewart Island and adjacent
Chatham Islands202

Population of Cook and other Pacific Islands now included within the Boundaries of the Dominion.

 Whites and Halfcastes
living as
Natives and Halfcastes
living as

* Absent in ships or at the guano islands, &c.

(a) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 28; New Zealand, 23; Australia, 6; Tasmania, 3 Rarotonga, 10; France, 8; Germany, 5; Sweden, 1; Cape Verde Islands, 2; United States America. 8; Holland, 1; Portugal, 2; Society Group, 1; Hong Kong, 6; Jamaica. 2; Manila, 1.

(b) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 5; New Zealand, 2; Rarotonga, 1.

(c) Birthplaces.—Australia, 1; Hong Kong, 2; Austria, 1.

(d) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 4; New Zealand, 1; Jamaica, 1; Norway, 1; Aitutaki, 1.

(e) Birthplaces.—France, 1; Germany, 1.

(f) Birthplaces.—Cape Verde Islands, 1; Hong Kong, 1.

(g) Birthplaces not stated.

(h) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 5; United States America, 1.

(i) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; Australia, 1.

(k) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1.

SUMMARY OF BIRTHPLACES.—United Kingdom, 44; New Zealand, 26; Australia, 8; Tasmania, 3; Rarotonga, 11; France, 9; Germany, 6; Sweden, 1; Cape Verde Islands, 3; United States America, 9; Holland, 1; Portugal, 2; Society Group, 1; Hong Kong, 9; Jamaica, 3; Manila, 1 Norway, 1; Aitutaki, 1; Austria, 1; not stated, 21 (on Niue Island). Total, 161.

Mauke (or Parry Island)2(e)44444610
                Total Cook Group1316,5776,70892*
Niue (or Savage Island)21(g)3,8013,822580
Palmerston 8282 
Penrhyn (or Tongareva)6(h)414420 
Danger (or Pukapuka) 43543532
                Total other islands305,6025,632684*
Total population of Pacific islands16112,17912,340776*

Increase of Population (exclusive of Maoris and Pacific-Islanders).

The increase for each quarter of the year 1908 was:—

First Quarter.
Increase from:Males.Females.Total
* Decrease.
Excess of births over deaths2,1542,4034,557
Excess of immigration over emigration2,8686803,548
                        Increase during quarter5,0223,0838,105
Second Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths1,8872,0603,947
Excess of emigration over immigration- 469*- 246*- 715*
                        Increase during quarter1,4181,8143,232
Third Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths1,8442,0043,848
Excess of immigration over emigration2,0651,0523,117
                        Increase during quarter3,9093,0566,965
Fourth Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths2,1602,3854,545
Excess of immigration over emigration5,1713,1408,311
                        Increase during quarter7,3315,52512,856
Year 1908.
Excess of births over deaths8,0458,85216,897
Excess of immigration over emigration9,6354,62614,261
                        Total increase during 190817,68013,47831,158

As to the increase of arrivals over departures, it will be seen that the December quarter is by far the largest proportion of the four (8,311 persons). The March quarter comes next with 3,548 persons, then the September quarter with 3,117 persons, while June quarter shows a loss of 715 persons. The increase by births over deaths is greatest in the March and December quarters, the numbers for the others being nearly equal. It is considered that the unusually large increase for the March quarter was helped by the coming into operation of the notification of births system, which led to an earlier registration than would otherwise have been obtained, many people registering at once while attending to notify.

The movement of population since 1885 is given in the next table. Although the large increase in 1893 by excess of arrivals over departures was not maintained during the nine following years, the arrivals in the Dominion nevertheless exceeded the departures in each of these years, and the total excess of arrivals for the seventeen-year period 1892–1908, inclusive, is found to be 107,441 persons, drawn from other colonies or countries.

The excess of arrivals in the Dominion during the year 1908 over the departures will be seen from the table to have been decidedly greater than that for 1907. For 1901, the figures were 6,522; for 1902,7,992; for 1903, 11,275; for 1904, 10,355; for 1905, 9,302; for 1906, 12,848; for 1907, 5,730; and for 1908 the number is 14,261. Comparing these results with those for 1900, when the excess of arrivals was only 1,831, a substantial annual gain in population coming from abroad is shown.

In five years New Zealand has secured 52,496 persons, mostly from Australia and the Home-country, after deducting from the total arrivals all those who departed outwards; and the arrivals in the Dominion last year (44,970) were greater than the number recorded during any year save one (1863) in the history of New Zealand.

The Exhibition of 1906–7 caused considerably more arrivals in the latter part of the year 1906 than in the corresponding portion of 1907. and the departures in the first four months of 1907 exceeded those in 1906 for the same reason.

The interchange of people between New Zealand and the Commonwealth of Australia was more in favour of this country during 1908 than for the previous year, and New Zealand gained 5,301 persons after deducting departures to the Continent. The number of departures for other British possessions in 1908 (609) consists mainly of persons who left for British Columbia.

So far as can be ascertained the United Kingdom only furnished 25,933 of the above large number added to New Zealand for the five years (52,496). while Australia shows as contributing 26,881. But the full number from the United Kingdom is not ascertainable, and Australia is credited with more than the actual fact. The figures for other places show a loss to New Zealand of 318 persons.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.*Net Increase.

* Corrected where necessary in accordance with census results. The amount of loss by departures in the period 1886–91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.



The net gain to this country for 1908 appears as 8,713 persons from United Kingdom, 5,301 from Australia, and 302 from foreign ports, while the net loss was 55 persons to other British possessions. But here again the gain from Australia is given somewhat too high, and that from the Home-country too low.

Arrivals and Departures during 1908.

The number of persons who arrived in the Dominion in the year 1908 was 44,970, an increase of 8,862 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1908, 39,933 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 5,037 as children. The total number of males was 29,342 and of females 15,628. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 11,348, and from Australia 31,769. Besides these, 710 persons came from Fiji, and 1,143 from the South Seas and other ports.

Classified in respect of birthplace, it is found that 19,919 of the arrivals were persons born in Australasia, 22,990 in the United Kingdom, and 329 in other British possessions. Of 1,732 persons born in foreign countries who arrived during 1908, 238 were born in Germany, 244 in Austria Hungary, 137 in France, 145 in the United States, 74 in Denmark, 46 in Sweden, 23 in Norway, 19 in Greece, 50 in Italy, 21 in Switzerland, 4 in Holland, 5 in Poland, 66 in Russia, 538 in China, 32 in Syria, and 90 in other countries (Roumania, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Spain, Portugal, Finland, Japan, Pacific Islands, Asia Minor, and South America).

Among the arrivals in 1908 are noticed 655 “race-aliens,” or persons of other than European descent. Particulars of birthplace and sex are as under:—

Asia Minor336
Pacific Islands (other than Fiji)11..11
New Zealand25..25
South Africa246

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense was discontinued during 1890, but revived in a modified form in 1906. It had been made evident that help was needed to enable families to reunite in New Zealand. Husbands who had preceded their families, and who were making good progress, though finding it naturally uphill work at first, were anxious to bring out their wives and children. Brothers wished to. bring out brothers, and other relations were anxious to be reunited. The Government therefore decided that these persons should be allowed to pay either £10 or £12 for each adult (according to the berthing accommodation required) to the Under-Secretary for Immigration at Wellington, furnishing at the same time the full names, ages, and addresses of their relatives. When this is done the High Commissioner grants assisted passages, provided they are in good health.

In many cases where the amount could not be deposited owing to lack of means, amounts have been received upon account, and undertakings accepted to pay the balances at stated times.

Certain reductions in fares are also arranged by the High Commissioner with the. shipping companies for men with moderate means who intend to settle in the Dominion, and the sum of £9,000 was voted by Parliament in 1908 for assistance by way of reduced fares for passages of intending settlers.

The arrangements indicated enable farmers and others possessed of a small capital to obtain passages from the United Kingdom to New Zealand at £10 per adult. The question of the suitability of any applicant is decided by the High Commissioner in London, and the passage-money must be paid to his officers.

The total departures in 1908 were 30,709 persons, being 331 more than in 1907. Thus, the movement of population from the Dominion is found to have been greater than in the previous year, as it was with the arrivals.

The departures from the Dominion by the Union Steamship Company's boats, as given through the Customs Department, are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, and, where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions are made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes had happened previous to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove fairly correct, and indeed the last census shows that the estimated population even after five years' interval was a very close approximation to the truth.

Of the departures in 1908, 28,143 persons were over twelve years of age, and 2,566 children. Considerably more males than females left the Dominion, the numbers being 19,707 and 11,002 respectively. The departures to the United Kingdom amounted to 2,635 persons, and those to Australia numbered 26,468. Besides these, 584 persons left for Fiji, and 1,022 for other ports.

In 1891 the Dominion lost population by excess of departures over arrivals, but in each of the years 1892 to 1908, inclusive, New Zealand has drawn to itself more population than it has parted with.

Five hundred and thirty-eight Chinese (522 men and 16 women) arrived in the Dominion during 1908, and 248 (230 men and 18 women) left, the arrivals thus exceeding the departures by 290.

The Board of Trade, London, up to the year 1907, published the total emigration from the United Kingdom to Australasia as a whole. By the figures given it will be seen that there was from 1893 an annual decrease in the number of persons coining to the Commonwealth and the Dominion from the Home-country until 1897, when the number somewhat increased. Prior to 1893 the arrivals from the United Kingdom ranged from 43,076 in 1886 down to 15,950 in 1892. Along with the Imperial returns of departures to Australasia are shown in the following statement the arrivals in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom, taken from our own returns, which numbers are short of the full total of persons coming here from England by the arrivals via Australia or the United States of America, and the same remark applies to departures. But, using the information available, it seems evident that New Zealand has been preferred to Australia, from the high proportion which the arrivals here (direct) bear to every hundred of departures from England for Australasia.

So long as New Zealand can secure one-sixth or more of the total persons leaving England for Australasia, she takes more than the proportion her population bears to that of the six States and New Zealand collectively.

from United
to Australasia.
Arrivals in New
Zealand direct
from United
Arrivals in New
Zealand per
100 Departures for
Australasia from
United Kingdom.

The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign, in any European language, a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons arc excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces, and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of 26th November, 1908.

The Chinese.

At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons, which fell to 1,542 in 1884, and further to 3,711 in 1896. During the period 1881–96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese, but during the years 1894 and 1895 the arrivals shown by the Customs returns were found to be somewhat greater than the departures. The census of 1896 showed the number of Chinese as 8,711, and during that year an Act was passed, raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901 the Chinese population was 2,857, and in 1906 it was 2,570, of whom 55 were females. During 1908 the arrivals in the Dominion were 538 (522 males and 16 females) and the departures 248 (230 males and 18 females), the total number remaining on 31st December being estimated at 2,998 (2,937 males and 61 females). The sum of £32,000 was received as poll-tax for the year 1908, representing 320 new arrivals, the balance being those who bad previously resided in the Dominion. The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person, who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act, having a similar purpose, was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in “The Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.”

Of the number of Chinese in 1906, 2,515 were males and 55 females. Of the males 63 were returned as married; 40 females were given as wives, and 13 as daughters or relatives, one a dressmaker, and one a shirtmaker.

The number of Chinese under 14 years of age was only 33 (23 males and 10 females).

The occupations showed 612 gold-miners, 734 market gardeners with 57 labourers and assistants, 184 fruiterers or greengrocers with 42 assistants, 219 laundrymen with 24 assistants, 53 storekeepers with 25 clerks and assistants, 105 labourers undefined, 36 farm labourers, 51 hotel cooks and servants, 18 boardinghouse-keepers with 3 cooks and servants, 5 fish-hawkers, 34 vegetable-hawkers, 21 rabbiters, 8 carpenters and cabinetmakers, 7 merchants, 5 fishermen, 24 grocers and assistants, 4 restaurant-keepers, 3 rag, bone, and bottle dealers, 1 draper, 2 station labourers, 4 interpreters, 1 butcher, 39 general hawkers, and one person of independent means.

On board ships in port were 10 firemen and 8 ship's servants. In addition to the number of hotel and boardinghouse cooks there were 4 farm, 3 station, and 36 cooks undefined. Amongst others in small numbers are noticed 2 missionaries, 1 medical man, 2 herbalists, and 1 clergyman.

Three of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 15 of benevolent asylums. There were 22 Chinese lunatics (in asylums), and 5 of this race were prisoners in gaol on the census night.

Population of Chief Cities and Suburbs.

Since the date of the census estimates based on the number of inhabited dwellings have been made for Auckland City and for the suburban boroughs, which include Mount Eden and Northcote, constituted since the census.

The populations of the suburbs lying in road districts cannot be given with certainty until the census of 1911, but an estimated increase has been added. The total population of Auckland and suburbs by the last estimate is as under:—

Auckland City42,748
Grey Lynn7,020
Mount Eden8,246
                Total boroughs75,345
                Road districts18,199
                Total, Greater Auckland, January, 190993,544

Wellington is given similarly according to the estimate for January, 1909.

What are deemed the suburbs are all municipalised.

Wellington City69,357
                Total, Greater Wellington, January, 190973,697

For Greater Christchurch the estimates made up from statements of inhabited houses give:—

Christchurch City55,651
New Brighton1,542
                Total boroughs62,096
                Population in road districts or parts of14,613
                Total, Greater Christchurch, January, 190970,709

In the case of Greater Dunedin the suburbs all lie in boroughs.

The estimates for January, 1909, give the following results calculated from inhabited houses:—

Dunedin City38,548
Maori Hill2,256
North-east Valley4,993
St. Kilda3,100
West Harbour1,641
                Total, Greater Dunedin, January, 190961,279
City or Borough.Estimated Population. Persons.
* Recently constituted; population not yet ascertained.
Auckland City42,748
Grey Lynn7,020
Mount Eden8,246
Te Aroha1,060
New Plymouth5,352
Wanganui East*
Palmerston North11,650
Lower Hutt3,819
Wellington City69,357
Nelson City8,650
Christchurch City55,651
New Brighton1,542
Palmerston South800
Port Chalmers2,120
North-east Valley4,993
Maori Hill2,256
West Harbour1,641
Dunedin City38,548
St. Kilda3,100
Green Island705
North Invercargill980
South Invercargill2,350
East Invercargill1,090
Town Districts.Estimated Population Persons.
* Recently constituted; population not yet ascertained.
Te Awamutu400
Lethbridge (Turakina)280
Clyde (Wairoa)750
Kaikora North268
Upper Hutt790
Pleasant Point527

Population of Provincial Districts.

Although the internal movement of population during the intervals between different censuses cannot be fully ascertained, nevertheless estimates have been made for the Provincial Districts.

Hawke's Bay46,111

The population of counties, road districts, and small centres can only be given as at the last census, and may be found in Supplement A of this part of the Year-book, which also gives particulars as to ages, religions, birthplaces, and occupations of the people as at census time.


OF every 100 persons in New Zealand at the time of the census of 1906, 83.5 could read and write, 1.6 could read only, and 14.9 could neither read nor write. The proportion able to read and write has increased, and that of persons who cannot read has decreased, steadily since 1874. The figures are given for four censuses:—

 Read and write.Read only.Cannot read.
Census 187468.158.0923.76
Census 188674.014.8021.19
Census 189680.602.8916.51
Census 190683.501.6014.90

To ascertain, however, how completely education is carried out, accepting as a test the knowledge of reading and writing, it is necessary to show the position at present in respect of age periods, which is accordingly given.

At the period under five years none are found to read and write, and only 0.37 were able to read; 99.63 being unable to do either on account of extreme youth. At five to ten years 65.51 could read and write, and 10.14 read only, leaving 24.35 who could not read. But this last only includes three years of the school-going period.

With the subsequent periods up to forty years figures under “Read only” and “Cannot” are reduced to small fractions as under:—

 Read and write.Read only.Cannot read.
10 to 15 years99.450.220.33
15 to 20 years99.630.080.29
20 to 25 years99.560.080.36
25 to 30 years99.430.130.44
30 to 35 years99.350.160.49
35 to 40 years99.120.240.64

At forty to forty-five years those who “cannot read” are over 1 per cent., and the proportion goes on increasing regularly, thus:—

 Read and write.Read only.Cannot read.
50 to 55 years96.321.532.15
60 to 65 years94.052.533.42
70 to 75 years89.155.125.73
80 and upwards86.146.127.74

The improved conditions of the young people are clearly shown above. At the last two periods given, which belong to advanced life, 10.85 per cent. and 13.86 per cent. are found to be either “reading only” or quite illiterate.

Public Instruction.

Education at the public schools is free (except that, at such as are also district high schools, fees are charged for the teaching of the higher branches) and purely secular. The attendance of all children between the ages of 7 and 14 is compulsory, except when special exemptions are granted, or a child is being otherwise sufficiently educated.

The subjects to be taught at the primary schools are required by the Education Act to be the following: Reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar and composition, geography, history, including civic instruction), elementary science and drawing, object-lessons, vocal music, physical instruction, moral instruction, nature-study, health, and (in the case of girls) sewing and needlework, the principles of domestic economy, also handwork for both sexes. Provision must also be made for the instruction in military drill of all boys in these schools.

The Dominion is divided into thirteen education districts, over each of which an Education Board presides, and into smaller districts, in each of which a School Committee elected by the householders has authority, subject to the general control of the Board, which is elected by the Committees of the district. The Board of an education district receives and disburses the money voted by the General Assembly for purposes of instruction, and, subject to the condition of consultation with the Committee of the school district, appoints the teachers. The Boards also appoint the Inspectors, but the latter work under regulations made by the Governor in Council, who also makes the regulations under which certificates are granted to teachers after examination and adequate experience.

School Statistics to 31st December, 1907.

It has been found impossible to collect the full statistics relating to schooling for the year 1908 in time for this work, and the figures for the previous year are accordingly given.

The number of schools, teachers, and scholars, as in December, 1907, are shown in the following summary:—

Description of Schools.Number of Schools.Number of Instructors.Number of Scholars for the Fourth Quarter of 1907.

* Excluding 60 visiting teachers.

† Excluding men, women, lads, and girls, in addition to the children in the school, who were receiving technical and industrial training.

‡ And 3 sewing-mistresses.

Public (Government) schools (scholars other than Maoris and half-castes)1,9631,5042,4333,93771,57065,513137,083
Public (Government) schools (half-castes living among Europeans)    7006321,332
Colleges, grammar and high schools (aided or endowed)29....* 2042,5281,6684,196
Private schools (excluding Maori scholars)3021377458827,51010,57818,088
Industrial schools and orphanages........491362853
Native village schools, European children attending........220197417
Private Native boarding-schools, European children attending........7..7
School for Deaf-mutes1......403575
Jubilee Institute for Blind1..22181028
Native village schools supported by Government (excluding European children stated above)99831242072,0601,7063,766
Private Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid by Government)71010204060100
Private Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid from endowments)    9696192
Private Native day-schools74101410579184
Public (Government) schools, Maoris attending........1,4201,0022,422
Public (Government) schools, half-castes living as Maoris attending........121103234
Private schools for Europeans, Maoris attending........454186

Thus at the end of 1907 there were 2,409 schools of all classes at which members of the European and Maori races were being educated. This was an increase of 111 on the number in 1906. The public primary schools numbered 1,963 in 1907, against 1,847 in 1906. The number of aided or endowed colleges, grammar, and high schools was 29, 1 more than in the previous year. The number of private schools from which returns were received by the Registrar-General was 302, a decrease of 6. There were also 11 industrial schools and orphanages, public and private, at which education was given, as well as a school for deaf-mutes subsidised by Government, and a school for the blind.

The number of schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 113.

Public (Government) Schools.

Compared with 1906, there was in 1907 an increase of 1,769 in the number of pupils belonging to the public schools at the end of the year, and the average attendance shows a decrease of 1,932 for the whole year.

YearSchool Attendance.Yearly Increase on
Number belonging at Beginning of Year.Number belonging at End of Year.Average Attendance.*Average Attendance expressed as Percentage of Roll-number.Number belonging at Beginning of Year.Number belonging at End of Year.Average Attendance.
Whole Year.Whole Year.

* From 1877 to 1893 (inclusive) the “strict” average is given, and for subsequent years the “working” average.

† From 1877 to 1894 (inclusive) the increase on the “strict” average is given, and for subsequent years that on the “working” average.


In the report of the Minister of Education the figures are thus commented upon:—

In the average of the weekly roll-numbers there is an increase of 1,626 for the year. The figures for 1906 were 140,320, and 141,946 for 1907. At the end of the year the number on the roll was 141,071, as against 139,302 for the previous year, an increase of 1,769.

The high standard of regularity of attendance of the last two years, 86.9, fell in 1907 to 84.6. In the first quarter the average daily attendance was 85.6 per cent. of the average weekly roll-number, in the second quarter 85.0 per cent., in the third quarter 83.0 per cent., and in the fourth 84.6 per cent. Otago, which from 1901 to 1905 stood at the head of the list, again heads the list with a percentage of 88.2, Westland coming second with a percentage of 87.8. Southland, with a percentage of 86.2, and South Canterbury with 85.9, hold third and fourth places. As a whole the South Island shows a greater degree of regularity of attendance than the North, the respective rates being 85.6 per cent. and 83.7 per cent. of the average weekly roll. In 1906 the figures were 87.1 per cent. and 86.7 per cent. respectively.

The decrease in total average attendance for the year 1907 was attributable in the main to epidemics of sickness which prevailed during a part of the year in almost all parts of the Dominion. In the North Island the decrease was 1,035; and in the South Island 897.

Public-school Teachers.

In December, 1907, there were employed on the primary staffs in the public schools of the Dominion 3,937 teachers; of these 3,287 were adults and 650 pupil-teachers: the corresponding numbers for December, 1906, were 3,201 adults and 671 pupil-teachers. Of the adult teachers at the end of 1907, 1,332 were men and 1,955 women; of the pupil-teachers, 172 were male pupil-teachers and 478 female. The number of adult male teachers was 18 more, and of adult female teachers 68 more than in December, 1906. The number of male pupil-teachers increased by 19; but the number of female pupil-teachers decreased by 40.

Education Districts.Number of Schools.Number of Adult Teachers.Pupil-teachers.Total Number of Adult Teachers and Pupil-teachers.*Yearly Average Attendance. (Mean of Totals for Four Quarters.)Average Number of Pupils to One Teacher.
* Exclusive of secondary departments of district high schools.
Hawke's Bay10279116195845532487,87831.8
North Canterbury205155240395347510950416,16132.1
South Canterbury774975124811221464,50630.9
Totals for 19071,9631,3321,9553,2871724786503,937120,02630.5
Totals for 19061,9211,3141,8873,2011535186713,872121,95831.5

Training of Teachers.

Four training colleges for teachers have now for some time been in active operation, and in only one of the four, where the accommodation has so far been limited, does the number of students fall materially below the full complement for which the colleges were intended to provide. At the close of the year the students in attendance numbered 253, of whom 61 were men and 192 were women, a proportion of 24.1 and 75.9 respectively. The corresponding total for the close of 1906 was 216, of whom 48 were male students. Among those attending during the year have also to be reckoned a few students who left before the close of the period either to go into active service under the Boards or for some other reason. The total provision in contemplation is for 80 students in each of the centres. Towards this number out of the total reported, Wellington contributes 78; Dunedin 73; Christchurch 66; and Auckland, 36.

The course of training extends over two years, but in the case of those who have already undergone a preliminary training as pupil-teachers, it has not always been deemed necessary to require the full period of attendance. In a very few instances, as has been determined in its discretion by the Board controlling the training college, an attendance of one year has been accepted; but the great bulk of the students remain for two years, and it is so intended. The students attending for the second year in 1907 numbered at Wellington. 46; at Dunedin, 41; at Christchurch, 34; at Auckland, 28: total, 149.

Connected with each training college is a normal or practising school, which includes, besides the ordinary classes of a public elementary school, a model “country” school of forty children and a secondary department. The secondary department affords opportunities of practical training to those who intend to take up secondary work either in the high schools or in the upper departments of district high schools.

According to the regulations adopted, students of a training college take English and other non-special subjects at the university college, and attend lectures in the methods of teaching and in the history and principles of education, under the principal, who is generally also by appointment the university college lecturer in education. Every one is required to take up at least one branch of science, special attention being directed to nature-study and elementary agriculture; and handwork of various forms suited to school purposes also receives a prominent place in the curriculum.

A pupil-teacher in any education district who has satisfactorily completed his term of service may enter at the training college most convenient for him, the complete course extending over two years. During this period he receives, in addition to the amount of his university college fees, a sum of £30 a year, with a further allowance of £30 if he is compelled to live away from home to attend the college. Advantages not quite so great are also offered to other qualified candidates who have not been pupil-teachers. Others again may be admitted for longer or shorter periods although they may for some time have been engaged in the practice of their profession.

The amount paid during 1907 for the training of teachers was £34,875, made up as follows: Salaries of staffs of four training colleges £12,414; students' allowances and University fees, £13,148; grants for special instruction in handwork, £1,895; railway fares of teachers in training and for Instructors, £5,564; alterations to buildings, Wellington (balance), £632; on account of buildings, Auckland, £987; for library books, Auckland, £100; and apparatus, &c., Christchurch, £135. It must be remembered, however, that £12,411 of this total provides not only for the efficient training of over two hundred and fifty teachers, but the instruction of over fifteen hundred children in attendance at the practising schools.

Teachers' Superannuation.

On 1st January, 1906, a fund was established, to provide annual allowances to teachers upon their retirement from the service by reason either of infirmity or age. The fund is supported by contributions from salaries ranging from five to ten per cent., and the State guarantees to make good any deficiency that may occur.

The age of retirement is compulsory at 65 years, and optional at 60 years for males, and for females 60 years and 50 years, respectively. Allowances are based upon length of service, and provision is made for widows and orphans of members who may die before retirement.

The number of contributors to the fund on 31st March, 1908, was 2,882, the number of persons receiving allowances on that date was 130, of whom 15 were widows and 12 children, representing a total annual payment of £5,820. The balance to the credit of the fund was £62,223.

Income and Expenditure of Education Boards.

The total income of the various Education Boards for the year 1907 was £788,875, including £12,947 of refunds, fines, fees, donations, interest, &c. The grants by Government amounted to £775,928, including £47,385 receipts from education reserves. These grants consist of payments to the Board of every district of a sum sufficient to pay the salaries of teachers and pupil-teachers in the district, and further payments of a sum of £250 per annum, together with a sum of 11s. 3d. per annum for each child in daily average attendance at a public school. (The Governor may by Order in Council declare that in lieu of the payments last named there shall be paid to the Boards a capitation allowance of 12s., and in addition £250 per annum to each Board having a daily average attendance of less than 8,000 children.) There is also a varying sum for the establishment and maintenance of normal or training schools, and for the support of such schools already established; also grants for school buildings and for technical education.

The expenditure on teachers' salaries was £484,673, as against £472,152 for 1906. Of this increase—£12,521—part was due to the usual increase in the number of schools, for training of teachers, and for manual and technical instruction, due to the increase in the number of classes and in the attendance.

The receipts and expenditure of the Education Boards, numbering thirteen altogether, are tabulated below, with further particulars:—

Balance, 1st January, 190759,075811
Government grants—
      Rents from reserves£47,38548
      Balance of grants for salaries of teachers and pupil-teachers437,6841510
      Allowance at £250 and capitation74,004133
      Other grants27,675158
        Total for maintenance586,75095
      Scholarships and salaries of stall's of secondary departments of district high schools30,440101
      Manual and technical instruction31,126136
      Buildings and teachers' house allowances127,61061
        Total from Government775,927191
Local receipts—
      Fees, donations, &c.8,68460
      Interest, rents, &c.3,640172
Refunds, fines, &c.62260
Boards' administration37,831181
Teachers' and pupil-teachers' salaries and pupil-teachers' lodging-allowances484,673610
Incidental expenses of schools (including £4,585 3s. 3d. paid over to School Committees out of special capitation provided by Government for the purpose)38,319197
Salaries of relieving teachers4,035118
Scholarships and secondary education32,465149
Training of teachers20,08619
Manual and technical instruction43,461151
Buildings, house allowances, sites, &c.131,228124
Refunds and sundries5,669152
Balance, 31st December, 190750,178111

Technical Education.

The Education Act provides for public instruction in such subjects of manual training and of art, science, and technology as are set forth in regulation. The Act provides also for the instruction in elementary handwork of pupils attending primary or secondary schools. All classes recognised under the Act are eligible for grants in aid of necessary buildings, equipment, and material, and for capitation, and subsidies of £1 for £1 on voluntary contributions.

During 1907 capitation was paid on attendances at classes for drawing (various branches), painting, modelling, design, wood-carving, architecture, cabinet - making, carpentry and joinery, plumbing, painters' and decorators' work, mechanical and electrical engineering, practical mathematics and mechanics, surveying, natural and experimental science (various branches), agriculture, dairy-work, wool-sorting, farriery and smithing, modern languages, mathematics, commercial subjects, cookery, laundry-work, dressmaking, millinery, tailoring, and vocal music.

The subjects taken up in classes in connection with primary and secondary schools included cookery, laundry-work, woodwork, elementary practical agriculture, dairy-work, swimming and life-saving, first aid and ambulance, dressmaking, and elementary practical physics and chemistry.

Special annual grants are made to Education Boards for the maintenance of training classes for teachers in subjects of manual and technical instruction prescribed for school classes.

Provision has also been made for free technical education. Persons complying with the conditions prescribed by the regulations are entitled to hold junior free places at technical schools or classes. These free places are tenable for two years, and may be continued under certain conditions for three years more as senior free places. In order that the substratum on which technical education is based may be sound, it is made a condition of the tenure of junior free places that the holders shall receive instruction in one or, more subjects of general instruction, such as English and arithmetic or some other branch of mathematics, in addition to instruction in technical subjects. Holders of senior free places are required to take up definite courses of technical instruction. Over 1,800 persons qualified for free technical instruction during the year.

The controlling authorities of classes for manual and technical instruction are Education Boards, governing bodies of secondary-schools and university colleges, and, in the case of certain classes in existence prior to 1904, the managers of those classes. School classes, or classes held in connection with primary or secondary schools, are under the control of the Education Boards or of the governing bodies respectively. “Special classes”—that is, continuation classes, and classes for manual or technical instruction—are established and controlled by the same bodies. “College classes” are classes for higher technical instruction established and controlled by the governing body of a university college. Continuation classes and classes for manual and technical instruction may also be established by Borough Councils, County Councils, and other local authorities acting jointly with an Education Board or the governing body of a university college or secondary school; these are called “associated classes,” and all bodies contributing thereto may have a voice, according to the share of the cost of maintenance borne by them, in the election of managers for the classes.

The Education Department conducts every year examinations on behalf of the Board of Education, South Kensington (science and art subjects), and the City and Guilds of London Institute (technological subjects). In 1907 examinations were held at twenty centres. At the science and art examinations, 370 out of 582 candidates who presented themselves for examination in various subjects were successful. At the technological examinations 179 candidates passed out of a total of 263. The number of separate subjects in which candidates are examined increases from year to year, and likewise the number of centres from which candidates are drawn. The percentage of failures in New Zealand is less than in England, although a smaller proportion of colonial students qualify in the honours grade.

In connection with the annual grants made by the Government to University Colleges for specialisation, the Auckland University College and the Otago University have each established a School of Mines, providing for courses for the university degree of B.Sc. or for the associateship in mining and metallurgy. The Otago University is also establishing a Veterinary School. The Canterbury College has an endowed School of Engineering and Technical Science, providing for courses for the university degree of B.Sc. in mechanical, electrical, or civil engineering, or for the associateship in engineering. One hundred and ninety-one students attended this school in 1907.

There also are several Schools of Mines located in districts in which mining is actively carried on, and particulars relating to these will he found in the Mining Section of this book.

The Canterbury Agricultural College has an endowment of 62,000 acres of land, of the rental value of £1,500 per annum, and possesses extensive buildings, and an experimental farm of a very complete character. The institution offers an opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture. Two years' residence at the college is accepted by the University of New Zealand as part of the curriculum qualifying for the degree of B.Sc. in agriculture. The college accommodates forty students.

With the view of encouraging attendance at recognised technical schools and classes, arrangements have been made with the Railway Department by which students attending classes registered with the Minister of Education may obtain railway tickets at special rates. Free railway tickets are issued to holders of free places at technical schools, and to public school teachers attending approved training-classes.

In his thirty-first annual report, the Minister of Education remarks:—

Considerable progress continues to be made in the several education districts in connection with the establishment and conduct of classes for manual and technical instruction. In districts in which the controlling authorities or the managers, as the case may be, have appointed directors or superintendents there is evidence of a decided advance, in face of many real difficulties and hindrances, towards the goal in view—namely, the establishment of organized technical schools, providing graded courses having a direct bearing on local requirements in the way of science, art, and technology. It is to be hoped that the time is not far distant when attendance at a technical school shall mean not, as has been too often the case in the past, merely attendance at one or two classes, not necessarily connected, but attendance at a definite course of instruction. The advance referred to, while due in some measure to the provisions made by the Government for free technical education has been brought about by the continued efforts of those in charge of the schools, supplemented by the enlightened attitude, in many cases, of employers who have done and are doing a good deal to encourage attendance at classes. Valuable assistance in the same direction has also been rendered by many local bodies and industrial and trade associations. Assistance of a practical nature in the shape of monetary contributions continues to be received by controlling authorities and managers. These contributions are to be regarded as evidence of local interest in the work, and, with the Government subsidy of £1 for £1, have made a welcome addition to the funds of the classes concerned.

During the year applications by controlling authorities for new and additional buildings and equipment for classes have been favourably entertained so far as available funds and other circumstances permitted. In one or two instances the estimate by the controlling authority of the actual requirements of a centre in the way of buildings seems at present hardly to have been borne out by returns of classes and attendance thereat. There is, however, reason to expect that in the instances referred to the accommodation provided will be fully taken up in the near future. The matter is in the hands of those in whose interest it is to use the opportunities now placed within their reach.

Reference was made last year to the establishment in certain districts of sub-centres in the smaller towns. This desirable extension of work continues to progress with results that appear to justify the experiment. Given suitable and convenient means of communication, there would appear to be no reason why technical schools in the larger centres of population should not, as parent schools, arrange for classes at convenient sub-centres. In any case it would seem to be desirable from many points of view for what may he termed the central technical school in a district to be closely in touch with such classes as may he established in adjacent townships. A good deal of well-meant, but, it is to be feared, wasted effort would probably be saved, and better results in other ways achieved thereby.

Over eighteen hundred junior and senior free places were held at technical schools during the year, an increase of about two hundred. The proportion of junior free pupils qualifying for senior free places, entitling them to three years' additional free education, continues to be comparatively small, the total number of senior free pupils last year being only 146. The demand on the part of free pupils for instruction in commercial subjects continues to be as marked as in previous years, nearly 60 per cent. of the pupils selecting commercial courses in preference to courses relating to industries, trades, or professions such as engineering. For many reasons, this condition of things does not appear to be in the best interests of a country such as ours. Our national resources are only just beginning to be exploited, and in the near future the demand for an increasing number of skilled workers must arise; if, therefore, those who at the present moment should be undergoing a training which will equip then to eventually take their place among the workers are acquiring an equipment which will enable them to become distributors only, the consequences to the nation from a purely economic standpoint cannot be other than disastrous. In endeavouring to discover adequate reasons why so many students choose commercial rather than industrial courses at our technical schools, the question presents itself, have the facilities provided by controlling authorities for commercial instruction created a demand for it, or has a popular demand made it necessary that the courses of instruction should be provided? In other words, has the supply created the demand, or has the demand created the supply? There is no doubt that to provide instruction in book-keeping, shorthand, typewriting, commercial history, and commercial geography, and kindred subjects presents few organizing difficulties to controlling authorities. The establishment of commercial classes does not call for a large expenditure of either mental energy or money, while suitable instructors are more easily obtained than in the case of most other subjects.

A large proportion of the pupils in attendance at classes for commercial subjects are young girls, who are either already in offices or looking forward to employment in an office as a means of livelihood. For economic reasons most of these young girls are called upon at a comparatively early age to contribute to the household expenses of the family, and, as there is an increasing demand for female clerks, the possibilities of employment after passing through a two-years course of systematic instruction are fairly certain. The avenues to what is regarded in some quarters as polite employment present few obstacles, and the ranks of the workers in what used to be regarded as “woman's sphere” are steadily becoming depleted.

That it is part of the function of a technical school to provide systematic instruction in subjects related to commercial pursuits cannot be questioned, since both the business man and the distributor have an equal right with all other workers to facilities for acquiring a knowledge of the principles governing the conduct of a business; at the same time, it does seem that, whatever the reason may be, the number of students taking commercial subjects is unduly large when compared with the number taking other subjects of technical instruction.

Day technical classes attended chiefly by free pupils who have passed thereto direct from the public school were held at several of the larger centres. The range of instruction at these classes is, generally speaking, secondary in character, and many of the subjects of instruction are such as may properly, and in many oases do, find a place in the curriculum of secondary schools. It is a question, in view of the youth of most of the pupils and of other considerations, whether the end in view would not be better attained by a preliminary course of instruction, without specialisation, at a secondary school in the case of those pupils who purpose following commercial or domestic pursuits.

The number of recognised classes in operation during the year was 5,851, as against 5,012 for the previous year. Of these classes, 4,459 were classes for instruction in various branches of handwork in connection with over a thousand primary and secondary schools, while 1,392 were technical and continuation classes for instruction in various branches of science, art, and technology. Of the latter, 791 were special classes under an Education Board or the Board of Governors of a secondary school as controlling authority; 487 were associated classes, conducted by managers representing the controlling authority, local bodies, and others contributing to the classes; while 114 were college classes under the governing body of a university college as controlling authority. Technical classes were held at over a hundred different places, an increase of nearly thirty.

Instruction in various branches of handwork is now a feature of the curriculum of most public and secondary schools. Cookery and woodwork among other subjects are now being taught in every education district. During the year 327 cookery classes and 280 woodwork classes were in operation. These classes continue in most cases to be conducted on the central system. In certain districts increasing attention is being given by controlling authorities to instruction in science on practical lines. Grants have been made by the Government for the erection and equipment of laboratories for individual practical work, with the result that a not inconsiderable number of laboratories are now available for the instruction of pupils attending district high schools and secondary schools.

Instruction in elementary agriculture was given in nearly four hundred schools during the year. In several districts this important branch of elementary education is in charge of itinerant instructors, who, in addition to supervising school gardens and experimental plots, also conduct training classes for teachers as well as classes for persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. In three districts instruction was given in the principles and practice of dairying in addition to work in connection with school gardens. Altogether the progress made in the districts in which special attention is being given to agricultural instruction by controlling authorities cannot be regarded as other than satisfactory. Many of the classes have received valuable help in the way of voluntary contributions from local bodies, agricultural associations, and others interested in the work.

The special grants to Education Boards for the training of teachers have been increased this year. The grants have, on the whole, been well and wisely used, and most of the classes established for the benefit of teachers have been well attended. Special courses in the shape of summer and winter sessions have again been arranged for in some districts with very satisfactory results. These classes, together with the opportunities provided by the training colleges in the four largo centres, should enable those taking up the profession of teaching in public schools so provide themselves with a not altogether inadequate equipment for their work. At the examinations of the City and Guilds of London Institute, twenty-one teachers passed the examination in cookery and five that in woodwork.

The total expenditure by the Government on manual and technical instruction for 1907 was £71,754. The details are as follows: Capitation on all classes, £26,764; grants for material for class use, £1,008; grants for buildings, rent, and equipment, £22,862; subsidies on voluntary contributions, £13,482; free places, £4,131; railway fares of free-place holders, £784; railway fares of in instructors and students, £809; inspection, £996; expenses in connection with the examinations of the Board of Education, South Kensington, and of the City and Guilds of London Institute, £840; sundries, £14. The sum of £161 was recovered by way of examination fees and from sale of material used at examinations, leaving a net expenditure of £71,593. This total includes a subsidy of £10,000 on the contribution of the Auckland Savings-bank to the funds of the Auckland Technical College.

Subjects of Instruction.Number of
Elementary handwork2,152
Drawing in light and shade, blackboard drawing and design642
Elementary science100
Elementary physiology, health, and first aid53
Swimming and life-saving81
Elementary agriculture398
Elementary physical measurements90
Subjects of Instruction.Average Attendance.
Freehand (from the flat and round), light and shade1,951
Perspective and geometrical drawing137
Design and ornament179
Drawing, modelling, and painting from antique and nature717
Architecture and building-construction, practical plane and solid geometry337
Mechanical and trade drawing and machine-construction506
Practical mechanics and mathematics, surveying668
Mechanical and electrical engineering, telegraphy and telephony623
Experimental and natural science (chemistry, physics, botany, magnetism, electricity, &c.)850
Woodwork, ironwork, and metalwork367
Wood-carving, modelling, and repoussé work274
Carpentry and joinery, cabinetmaking, painters' and decorators' work, coachbuilding484
Plumbers' and tinsmiths' work, iron and brass moulding, black-smithing385
Cookery and laundry-work, dressmaking, millinery, tailoring2,470
Commercial subjects5,238
English, Latin, French, German, Maori, arithmetic, and mathematics2,969
Music, singing, and elocution143
Training-classes for teachers in elementary handwork, cookery, and dressmaking379
Training-classes for teachers in drawing810
Training-classes for teachers in physical measurements, elementary agriculture, nature-study, and-science1,273

The following table shows the results of the examinations conducted in New Zealand on behalf of the Board of Education. South Kensington, and the City and Guilds of London Institute:—

Subjects of Examination.Number of
        Freehand drawing12091
        Model drawing10752
        Geometrical drawing4129
        Perspective drawing1512
        Blackboard drawing528
        Drawing in light and shade2718
        Memory drawing of plant-form87
        Drawing from life11
        Painting from still life1412
        Painting ornament11
        Drawing from the antique20
        Modelling the head from life11
        Modelling from life11
        Principles of ornament22
        Students' works134
        Practical plane and solid geometry87
        Machine construction and drawing5133
        Building construction and drawing3328
        Applied mechanics116
        Theoretical inorganic chemistry97
        Magnetism and electricity1310
        Human physiology73
        Practical mathematics44
        Agricultural science and rural economy55
Subjects of Examination.Number of
Plumbers' work (preliminary)2414
Principles of plumbing (ordinary)2617
Principles of plumbing (honours)11
Plumbers' work, practical (ordinary)247
Plumbers' work, practical (honours)10
Plumbers' work (ordinary)2618
Plumbers' work (honours)65
Carpentry and joinery (preliminary)128
Carpentry and joinery (ordinary)75
Carpentry and joinery (honours)33
Cabinetmaking (ordinary)11
Cabinetmaking (honours)11
Mechanical engineering (ordinary), Part I127
Mechanical engineering (ordinary), Part II41
Electric light and power (preliminary)75
Electric light and power (ordinary)94
Wiremen's work10
Telegraphy and telephony (ordinary)75
Telegraphy (honours)11
Telephony (honours)11
Woodwork, first year66
Woodwork, final83
Plain cookery6154
Plain needlework22
Tailors' cutting (ordinary)43

The expenditure for the year is given in detail:—

        School classes13,16245   
        Technical classes13,60235   
Subsidy of £1 for £1 on contributions—
        School classes624123   
        Technical classes12,857193   
Buildings, apparatus, and rent—
        School classes2,4591411   
        Technical classes20,402162   
        Material for technical classes   1,008112
Railway fares of instructors   754114
        Railway fares students attending registered classes   115010
        Railway fares free-place holders   784183
Expenses in connection with examinations—
        Science and Art, Board of Education, South Kensington30562   
        City and Guilds of London Institute534174   
Free places at technical schools   4,131112
        Sundries   1429
Less recoveries (examination fees, £142 2s. 6d.;
proceeds of sale
of material used at examination, £19 3s. 10d.)
                        Total   £71,593107

Secondary or Superior Schools.

There were 29 subsidised or endowed schools of higher education in December, 1907. The names of these secondary schools, with the numbers of pupils on the rolls in the last term or quarter of the year, and the fees charged, are stated further on. These schools must not be confused with the district high schools, although they nearly all admit to free places holders of Education Board Scholarships and of National Scholarships, besides all who gain certificates of proficiency within prescribed limits of age, &c. There are grants payable under the Education Act varying from £4 to £10 15s. for each free place, according as the net income from endowments is small or great.

At the end of 1907 the secondary schools giving free tuition to duly qualified pupils, and receiving grants therefor numbered twenty-six, as against twenty-three for the previous year. The total number of pupils on the roll of these schools was 3,579, and of this total 2,468 (1,335 boys and 1,133 girls), or 70 per cent, of the roll number, were given free places under the regulations for free places at a mean average cost of the Treasury of £8 13s. 6d. per pupil; the approximate annual rate as determined on the payments for the last term of the year being £21,596. In 1906 the number of such free pupils was 2,435, and the approximate annual rate £21,240, with a mean capitation of £8 17s. 4d. per pupil. In addition, free tuition was given to 245 holders of scholarships or exhibitions granted by these schools, by Boards of Education (in some circumstances), or by endowed secondary schools not coming under the conditions, making the total number of fre