Table of Contents


THIS is the thirteenth issue of the New Zealand Official Yearbook.

The plan of publishing pamphlets of “Advance Sheets” from time to time, as the work is printed, has been again followed on this occasion.

By this means an earlier publication is insured of small quantities of matter at a time, and suitable for mailing by parties having correspondents.

The pamphlets are also used by the Agent-General in London.


Registrar-General's Office,

Wellington, N.Z., 6th October, 1904.


ON page 21: Supreme Court Judges—H. S. Chapman held office until March, 1852.

On page 26: Consul of France in New Zealand (with jurisdiction over the Cook Archipelago, Suwarrow, Penrhyn, and Palmerston Islands, and the Tonga Islands)—Robert Boeufvé, vice Count de Courte.

On page 26: Vice-Consul for Argentine Republic at Dunedin—Hon. T. Fergus.

On page 26: Vice-Consul for Belgium at Wellington—G. F. Johnston. Esq.

On page 27: Vice-Consul for Netherlands at Dunedin—George Ritchie, Esq.

On page 27: Consular Agent of Italy at Dunedin—James Mills, Esq.

On page 29: New Zealand Cross—Wrigg. Harry C. W. Cross given 1898 for service rendered in 1867.

On page 30: Retired Judges of the Supreme Court—Add the name of Edward Tennyson Conolly.

On page 30: Governor of New Zealand—Lord Ranfurly's term of office having expired, he is succeeded by the Right Honourable Sir William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.V.O.

20TH JUNE, 1904.

PLUNKET, His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir William Lee, fifth Baron (United Kingdom, 1827), formerly an Attaché in the Diplomatic Service, and subsequently Private Secretary to successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland (1900-4): Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order; son of fourth Baron (Archbishop of Dublin); born 19th December, 1864; succeeded 1897: married, 1894, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, daughter of first Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, K.P., G.C.B., &c. Issue: Two sons (Honourables Terence and Brinsley), four daughters (Honourables Helen, Eileen, Moira, and Joyce). Appointed 9th March, 1904, and assumed office 20th June, 1904, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over His Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies, Salary, £5,000. Allowance on account of establishment, £1,500, and travelling-expenses, £500 per annum. The allowance is not payable for any period during which the Governor is absent from the colony. Residences: Old Connaught, Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland: Government House, Wellington: Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary: Horace Clare Waterfield, Esq.

1st Aids-de-Camp: Captain Francis Powell Braithwaite, 5th Northumberland Fusiliers.

Aides-de-Camp: Lieutenant the Honourable Arthur Maurice Robert Bingham, 5th Lancers, Captain John Hugh Boscawen (honorary).

On page 30, twelfth line: After “ex-Ministers” insert the words (omitted since 1902) “whose names do not appear in the foregoing list,” and further on delete “A. J. Cadman,” and “Sir J. G. Ward.” these being previously mentioned as having been knighted.

On page 32: Speaker of the Legislative Council Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G., elected 7th July, 1904.

On page 32: Chairman of Committees, Legislative Council Hon. R. H. J. Reeves: elected 6th July, 1904.

On page 33: Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt., Auckland, summoned to Legislative Council, 25th June, 1904.

On page 35: O'Meara, John, Pahiatua, deceased; Mr. W. H. Hawkins elected 28th July, 1904.

On page 37: Printing and Stationery Department, now a class of itself, should be transferred to page 47, and precede Stamp Department.

On page 69: Westport Harbour pilotage (compulsory) and port charges altered:—

Since the 1st January, 1904, the pilotage and towage charges have been altered and now are: Pilotage (compulsory)—Sailing-vessels up to 120 tons, 1d. per net registered ton each way (in and out): sailing-vessels exceeding 120 tons, and not exceeding 1,500 tons register, 2d. per net registered ton each way (in and out); steamers exceeding 1,000 tons, but not exceeding 2,000 tons (in and out), £10; steamers under 1,000 tons pro rata; steamers exceeding 2,000 tons, but not exceeding 3,000 tons, £20: steamers exceeding 3,000 tons, but not exceeding 4,000 tons register (in and out), £25. Towage (inwards and outwards)—Minimum charge, £7 10s.; sailing vessels up to 100 tons register, £7 10s.; from 101 to 200 tons, £10; from 201 to 400 tons, £17; from 401 to 600 tons, £20: from 601 to 800 tons, £25; from 801 to 1,000 tons, £30; vessels over 1,000 tons and up to 1,500 tons register, £35; steamers up to 500 tons register, £12: from 501 tons to 1,000 tons, £21; from 1,001 to 2,000 tons, £24; from 2,001 to 3,000 tons, £30; from 3,001 to 4,000 tons, £36; over 4,000 tons, £40.

On page 80: Mangaweka Settler is published three times a week—viz., Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

On page 86: Tea; Exemption—Tea grown in British dominions, except that in packets not exceeding 1 lb. in weight. See page 102.

On page 99: Add items as under: 537. Leather board or compo cut into shapes (see New Zealand Gazette of 20th August, 1903), 4d. the pound. 538. Creamalina (see New Zealand Gazette of 17th September, 1903), 1d. the pound. 539. Ground cocoa-shells (see New Zealand Gazette of 7th January. 1904), 3d. the pound. The Customs tariff is modified on and after 1st July, 1904, in respect of the undermentioned articles imported into the Cook and other Islands recently annexed (see New Zealand Gazette of 9th June, 1904): Claret, 2s. the gallon (in lieu of 6s. the gallon): horses, 10s. each (in lieu of £1 each): drugs imported by missionary societies for dispensation among the Natives, free.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND.

THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the colony are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The annexation of the Cook and sundry other islands has necessitated an enlargement of the boundaries of the colony, which will be specially treated of further on.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being nearly twelve millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool, meat, and dairy produce country; while its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over sixty-three millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.


The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month east anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the Middle Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, treacherously murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

In 1793 the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka — now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time — namely, on the 29th January, 1840 — Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.


Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery of these islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descend ants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition run that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the Eastern Pacific Islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

For results of recent researches as to probable origin and present numbers of the Maoris, see Year-book for 1901.


The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30′ S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10′ S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0′ E. long.; on the west, 166° 5′ E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

By Proclamation bearing date the 10th June, 1901, the Cook Group of islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary-lines mentioned in the following Schedule, were included in the Colony of New Zealand :—

A line commencing at a point at the intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich, and proceeding due north to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the eighth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the seventeenth degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-seventieth degree of longitude west of Greenwich; and thence due east to the point of intersection of the twenty-third degree of south latitude and the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth degree of longitude west of Greenwich.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand :—

1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,520 acres.

2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,000 acres.

3. Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33' south, and longitude 169' 8' west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

10. Islands forming the Cook Group:—

Rarotonga.—Distance from Auckland, 1,638 miles; circumference, 20 miles; height. 2,920ft.

Mangaia.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles; circumference, 30 miles; height, 656 ft.

Atiu.—Distance from Rarotonga, 116 miles: circumference, 20 miles; height, 374 ft.

Aitutaki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 12 miles; height, 366 ft.

Mauke.—Distance from Rarotonga, 150 miles; circumference, 6 miles; height, about 60 ft.

Mitiaro.—Distance from Rarotonga, 140 miles; circumference, 5 miles; height, about 50 ft; also,

Takutea.—Distant from Rarotonga, 125 miles.

The Herveys (Manuae and Aoutu).—Distant from Rarotonga, 120 miles.

Total area of above group, 150 square miles.

11. Islands outside the Cook Group:—

Savage or Nine.—Distance from Rarotonga, 580 miles; circumference, 40 miles; height, 200 ft.; area, about 100 square miles.

Palmerston.—Distance from Rarotonga, 273 miles; an atoll, miles by 2 miles.

Penrhyn, or Tongareva.—Distance 735 miles from Rarotonga; an atoll, 12 miles by 7 miles.

Humphrey, or Manahiki.—Distance from Rarotonga, 650 miles; an atoll, 6 miles by 5 miles.

Rierson, or Rakaanga.—Distance from Rarotonga, 670 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.

Danger, or Pukapuka.—Distance from Rarotonga, 700 miles; an atoll, 3 miles by 3 miles.

Suwarrow.—Distance from Rarotonga, 530 miles; an atoll.

Total area of islands outside the Cook Group, 130 square miles.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,751 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 498 square miles.

Area of the Commonwealth States of Australia.

The areas of the several Australian States, as stated by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from the latest official records of each colony :—

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700
South Australia903,690
Western Australia975,920
Total, Continent of Australia2,946,691
Total, Commonwealth of Australia2,972,906

The size of these States (with New Zealand) may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australian States, with New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand.

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
New Zealand.Area in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands718


The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude, a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a great part of it is covered with pumice-sand, and is unfit for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The lev or undulating country in this island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that can be drained; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of bush-land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass very little of the land is too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of the north-eastern corner of this lake, and runs thence north-westward until it enters the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for about fifty miles, but only for small steamers. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wairoa (Kaipara), the Wanganui, and the Manawatu, the two last of which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours, charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Ngauruhoe and Tongariro. It is a volcanic cone in the solfatara stage, and reaches the height of 9,008ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit, which is subject to slight and intermittent eruptions, giving rise to vast quantities of steam. Recently—in March, 1895—such an eruption took place, forming a few hot springs on the margin of the lake, and increasing the heat in the lake itself. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, some 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and is quite inaccessible except by the use of ropes. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

3. Mount Egmont. This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country — the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, unsuitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

The Cape Colville Peninsula is rich in gold-bearing quartz.


Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony.


The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other magnificent peaks.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the Middle Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope :—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 6,000ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. Te Anau Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the colony as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 26ft. of water on the bar.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.


Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres.

Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.

The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft. above sea-level, which has an extinct crater at its summit. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild, frost being seldom experienced; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.

The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where over two hundred people live. Horse-shoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a Native settlement of over a hundred Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.


The outlying group of the CHATHAM ISLANDS, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregular-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The KERMADEC GROUP of islands, four in number, is situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Islands, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres: Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The AUCKLAND ISLANDS are about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31' 29″ S., and longitude 166° 19' 12″ E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a dépôt of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.

The COOK ISLANDS, with others recently annexed, are as under*:—

* A special article fully descriptive of these annexed islands was given in the Year-book for 1902, and again in that for 1903.

RAROTONGA (Cook Group): A magnificent island, rising to a height of 3,000 ft., clothed to the tops of the mountains with splendid vegetation. It has abundant streams, considerable tracts of sloping land, and rich alluvial valleys. The two harbours are poor.

MANGAIA, the south-easternmost of the Cook Group, is of volcanic origin, and about thirty miles in circumference. The productions, which are numerous and cheap, are obtained by assiduous labour.

ATIU (Cook Group) resembles Mangaia in appearance and extent. It is a mere bank of coral, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, steep and rugged, except where there are small sandy beaches and some clefts, where the ascent is gradual.

AITUTAKI (Cook Group) presents a most fruitful appearance, its shores being bordered by flat land, on which are innumerable cocoanut and other trees, the higher ground being beautifully interspersed with lawns. It is eighteen miles in circuit.

MAUKE or Parry Island (Cook Group) is a low island; it is about two miles in diameter, well wooded, and inhabited.

MITIARO (Cook Group) is a low island, from three to four miles long and one mile wide.

HERVEY ISLANDS (Cook Group): This group consists of three islands, surrounded by a reef, which may be six leagues in circumference.

NIUE, or Savage Island, lying east of the Friendly Islands, is a coral island, thirty-six miles in circumference, rising to a height of 200 ft. It has the usual tropical productions.

PALMERSTON ISLAND, lying about 500 miles east of Niue and about 220 from the nearest island of the Cook Group (Aitutaki), is remarkable as the “San Pablo” of Magellan, the first island discovered in the South Sea. It has no harbour. The soil is fairly fertile, and there is some good hardwood timber.

PENRHYN ISLAND (Tongareva) lies about 300 miles north-east of Manahiki. It is one of the most famous pearl islands in the Pacific, and there is a splendid harbour, a lagoon with two entrances, fit for ships of any size.

MANAHIKI, lying about 400 miles eastward of Danger Island, is an atoll, about thirty miles in circumference, valuable from the extent of the cocoanut groves. The interior lagoon contains a vast deposit of pearl-shell.

RAKAANGA is an atoll, three miles in length and of equal breadth.

DANGER ISLAND (Pukapuka): Next to the 10th parallel, but rather north of the latitude of the Navigators, and east of them are a number of small atolls. Of these, the nearest to the Samoan Group—about 500 miles—is Danger Island, bearing north-west of Suwarrow about 250 miles.

SUWARROW ISLAND has one of the best harbours in the Pacific. It lies about 500 miles east of Apia, the capital of the Samoan Group. It is a coral atoll, of a triangular form, fifty miles in circumference, the reef having an average width of half a mile across, enclosing a land-locked lagoon twelve miles by eight, which forms an excellent harbour. The entrance is half a mile wide, and the accommodation permits of ships riding in safety in all weathers, with depths of from three to thirty fathoms. It is out of the track of hurricanes, uninhabited, but capable by its fertility of supporting a small population. As a depot for the collection of trade from the various islands it ought to be very valuable.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed in the year 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.


The Governor is appointed by the King. His salary is £5,000 a year, with an annual allowance of £1,500 on account of his establishment, and of £500 for travelling-expenses, provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-eight electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each, a total of seventy-six.* The full number of members composing the House of Representatives is thus eighty. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose. No person, who, being a bankrupt within the meaning of “The Bankruptcy Act, 1892,” has not obtained an order of discharge under that Act shall be qualified to be nominated as a candidate for election, or to be elected, or to take his seat as a member of the House of Representatives, anything in any other Act to the contrary notwithstanding.

* But after the expiry of the present Parliament, these four city electorates will become twelve single electorates, and there will be as many districts as there are members (excluding Maoris). The change was effected by the City Single Electorates Act passed in 1903.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. “The Electoral Act, 1893,” extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not specially excepted by the Electoral Act now in force, is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the colony and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not previously registered under the residential qualification. But the Amendment Act of 1896 abolished the property qualification (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. [The above provisions are now incorporated in “The Electoral Act, 1902,” which consolidates the electoral laws, with such amendments as were found necessary.]


Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.


Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and to 832,505 in December, 1903; besides whom there were 43,143 Maoris, and also 12,292 persons residing in the Cook and other Pacific Islands recently annexed to the colony.



Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb., to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9th Aug., 1897.

The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10th Aug., 1897.



Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Resigned, 30 July, 1850. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec., 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.

Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1899.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

J. S. Williams, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.

J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889. Resigned, 9 Sept., 1903.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.

W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April, 1899.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.

J. C. Martin, acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900. Resigned, 4 Dec., 1900.

Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21 Feb., 1901.

F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11 Sept., 1903.

Chapter 4. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843-56.


Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her late Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.



Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 27 May, 18549 August, 1854
31 August, 185416 September, 1854
15 September, 18558 August, 1855
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 1856 (No session in 1857)16 August, 1856
10 April, 1858 (No session in 1859)21 August, 1858
30 July, 18605 November, 1860
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 18608 October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 187116 July, 1872
15 July, 187325 October, 1872.
3 July, 18743 October, 1873.
20 July, 187531 August, 1874.
16 November, 1871.21 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)15 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187911 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18809 June, 1881
1 September, 1880.24 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188710 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 189018 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 189125 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 18937 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)21 June, 189424 October, 1894.
20 June, 18952 November, 1895.
11 June, 189619 October, 1896.
Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)7 April, 189712 April, 1897.
23 September, 189722 December, 1897.
24 June, 18985 November, 1898.
23 June, 189924 October, 1899.
Fourteenth (dissolved 12th November, 1902)22 June, 190022 October, 1900.
1 July, 19018 November, 1901.
1 July, 19024 October, 1902.
Fifteenth29 June, 190325 November, 1903.



Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired

* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.

1. Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861
4. Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1862.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1863.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox3 March, 18738 April, 1873
13. Vogel8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon1 May, 1893. 


Name of Premier.Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
William Fox.Harry Albert Atkinson.
Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
William Fox. 
Alfred Domett.Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Frederick Whitaker.Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson.
William Fox.Robert Stout.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson.
George Marsden Waterhouse.Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Hon. William Fox.Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.John Ballance.
Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.



Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Sir Henry John Miller8 July, 1892.9 July 1903.
6 October, 1897
Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.9 July, 19035 January, 1904.


Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 18543 June, 1861.
15 April, 1856
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.3 June, 186113 Sept., 1870.
30 June, 1866
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 18793 October, 1890.
24 September, 1879
18 May, 1882
7 August, 1884
6 October, 1887
Hon. Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 189412 November, 1902.
6 April, 1897.
22 June, 1900
Arthur Robert Guinness29 June, 1903. 



Country represented.Office held.Name.Place of Residence.
Austria-HungaryConsul - General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and New ZealandOtto, Baron Hoenning-O'CarrollSydney.
Austria-HungaryConsulE. LangguthAuckland.
BelgiumConsul - General for Australasia and FijiF. HuylebroeckMelbourne.
BelgiumConsulHon. Charles John JohnstonWellington.
BelgiumConsulJoseph James KinseyChristchurch.
BelgiumConsulJohn BurnsAuckland.
BelgiumConsulGeorge Lyon DennistonDunedin.
BrazilVice-ConsulA. H. MilesWellington.
ChiliConsulWilliam BrownSydney.
DenmarkConsul (for North Island)Francis Henry Dillon BellWellington.
DenmarkConsul (for South Island)Emil Christian SkogChristchurch.
DenmarkVice-ConsulFrederick Ehrenfried BaumeAuckland.
DenmarkVice-ConsulWilliam Edward PerryHokitika.
DenmarkVice-ConsulO. H. MollerDunedin.
FranceConsul (for New Zealand)Count Louis Antoine Marie Joseph Henri De CourteAuckland.
FranceConsular AgentPercival Clay NeillDunedin.
FranceConsular AgentGeorge HumphreysChristchurch.
FranceConsular AgentA. Stuart-MenteathWellington.
German EmpireConsul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiPaul Von BuriSydney.
German EmpireConsulCarl SeegnerAuckland.
German EmpireConsulBendix HallensteinDunedin.
German EmpireConsulPhilip KippenbergerChristchurch
German EmpireConsulFriedrich August KrullWanganui.
German EmpireVice-ConsulEberhard FockeWellington.
ItalyConsul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiC. BertolaMelbourne.
ItalyConsular AgentThomas WallaceChristchurch.
ItalyConsular AgentGeorge FisherWellington.
ItalyConsular Agent(Vacant)Dunedin.
ItalyConsular AgentGeraldo Giuseppe PerottiGreymouth.
ItalyConsular AgentRichard A. CarrAuckland.
JapanConsulA. S. AldrichWellington.
LiberiaConsulA. M. MeyersAuckland.
NetherlandsConsul - General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and FijiW. L. BosschartMelbourne.
NetherlandsConsulHon. Charles John JohnstonWellington.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulAmbrose MillarAuckland.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulHarold Featherston JohnstonWellington.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulG. de VriesChristchurch.
PortugalConsulJohn DuncanWellington.
PortugalVice-ConsulHenry Rees GeorgeAuckland.
PortugalVice-ConsulArthur Donald Stuart DuncanWellington.
PortugalVice-ConsulCharles William RattrayDunedin.
RussiaConsul-GeneralMichel OustinowMelbourne.
SpainHonorary Consul (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand)Henry CaveMelbourne.
SpainHonorary Vice-ConsulAlexander H. TurnbullWellington.
Sweden and NorwayConsulArthur Edward PearceWellington.
Sweden and NorwayVice-ConsulSidney Jacob NathanAuckland.
Sweden and NorwayVice-ConsulWalter Joseph MooreChristchurch.
United StatesConsul-General (for New Zealand, Fiji, Society, and other South Sea Islands)Hon. Frank DillinghamAuckland.
United StatesVice-Consul-GeneralLeonard A. BachelderAuckland.
United StatesConsular AgentFrank GrahamChristchurch.
United StatesConsular AgentWilliam ReidWellington.
United StatesConsular AgentFrederick Orlando BridgmanDunedin.


The Hon. W. P. Reeves, Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


Table of Contents

APRIL, 1904.


Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. Alfred Lyttelton, M.P., 9th October, 1903.

Undersecretaries: Parliamentary—The Right Hon. the Duke of Marlborough, K.G., November, 1903. Permanent—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommaney, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., June, 1900.

Assistant Under-Secretaries: Frederick Graham C.B.; Charles P. Lucas, C.B.; H. B. Cox (Legal); and Reginald L. Antrobus, C.B.



Crown Agents—Sir Ernest Edward Blake, K.C.M.G., Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, C.M.G., R.E., and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.



Seddon, Right Hon. Richard John, 1897.


Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, 1886.

Cadman, Hon. Sir Alfred Jerome, 1903.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, 1882.

Hector, Sir James, 1887.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, 1894.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.

Ward, Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.


Campbell, Sir John Logan, 1902.

Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901.

O'Rorke. Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.

Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.

Russell, Sir William Russell, 1902.

Steward, Hon. Sir William Jukes, 1902.


Cradock, Major Montagu, 1901.

Davies, Brevet-Colonel R. H., 1901.

Newall, Brevet-Colonel Stewart, 1901.

Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.

Robin, Brevet-Colonel Alfred William, 1901.


Bauchop Major A., 1902.

Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.

Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900.

Kennaway, Walter, 1891.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, 1879.

Roberts, John, 1891.


Abbott, Major F. W., 1902.

Bartlett, Major E., 1902.

Hickey, Lieutenant D. A., 1902.

Hughes, Captain J. G., 1900.

Major. Major C. T., 1900.

Polson, Major D., 1900.

Stevenson, Captain, R., 1902.

Todd, Captain D. J. M., 1900.

Townley, Lieutenant W. V., 1902.

Tudor, Lieutenant P. L., 1902.

Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.


Williamson, Miss J. M. N., 1900.


Hardham, Farrier-Major W. J., 1901.


Adamson, Thomas, 1869.

Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.

Black, Solomon, 1869.

Hill, George, 1869.

Lingard, William, 1869.

Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.

Maling, Christopher, 1869.

Mair, Gilbert, 1870.

Preece, George, 1869.

Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.

Rodriguez, Antonio, 1869.

Shepherd, Richard, 1869.

Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.


Baigent, Private Ivanhoe.

Black, Sergeant-Major G. C.

Burr, Sergeant-Major W. T.

Cassidy, Sergeant W.

Fletcher, Sergeant-Major W. H.

Free, Private A.

Kent, Sergeant W.

Langham, Sergeant-Major J.

Lockett, Sergeant-Major E. B.

Pickett, Sergeant-Major M.

Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.

Travers, Quartermaster-Sergeant.

Wade, Private H. B.

White, Sergeant-Major H.


By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke and Major Sir William Jukes Steward.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Cadman, A. J., 1901; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891, Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, George F., 1891; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888; Ward, Sir J. G., 1897.


By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the colony. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.


Table of Contents

1ST MAY, 1904.

RANFURLY, His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Uchter John Mark, fifth Earl of (Ireland, 1831), Viscount Northland, (1791), Baron Welles (1781), Lord-in-Waiting to Her late Majesty (1895-97), Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; Knight of Justice of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; son of third earl, brother of fourth earl; born 14th August, 1856; succeeded, 1875; married, 1880, the Honourable Constance Elizabeth, only child of seventh Viscount Charlemont, C.B. Living issue: One son (Viscount Northland), two daughters (Ladies Constance and Eileen Knox). Appointed 6th April, 1897, and assumed office 10th August, 1897, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over His Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Allowance on account of establishment £1,500, and travelling-expenses £500 per annum. The allowance is not payable for any period during which the Governor is absent from the colony. Residences: Northland House, Dungannon, Ireland; Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary: Dudley Alexander (Major “The Prince of Wales's Own,” West Yorkshire Regiment).

Assistant Private Secretary: The Honourable Charles Edward Hill-Trevor.

Aide-de-Camp: Lieut. Viscount Northland (Coldstream Guards).

ADMINISTRATOR OF THE GOVERNMENT. — The Chief Justice, appointed under a dormant Commission.


Table of Contents

1ST MAY, 1904.

THE annual appropriation for Ministers' salaries is fixed by statute at the sum of £8,900, of which £1,600 is for the Prime Minister, £1,300 for the Minister for Railways, and £1,000 for each of six other Ministers. All Ministers to whom salaries are appropriated are members of the Executive Council, holding one or more of the offices specified by law. Members of the Executive Council travelling within the colony on public service are entitled to allowance not exceeding £1 10s. per day when so engaged, but not during the time a Minister is attending a session of the General Assembly. The members of the Executive Council to whom salaries are payable, and who are not otherwise provided with residences at the seat of Government, are entitled to an allowance in lieu thereof at the rate of £200 a year.

The Executive Council now consists of:—

His Excellency the GOVERNOR presiding.

Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C., Prime Minister, Colonial Treasurer, Minister of Defence, Minister of Labour, Minister of Education, and Minister of Immigration.

Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, K.C.M.G., Minister for Railways, Colonial Secretary, Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs, Minister of Industries and Commerce, and Minister of Public Health.

Hon. James Carroll, Native Minister and Commissioner of Stamp Duties.

Hon. William Hall-Jones, Minister for Public Works and Minister of Marine.

Hon. James McGowan, Minister of Justice and Minister of Mines. (23rd January, 1900.)

Hon. Thomas Young Duncan, Minister of Lands and Minister for Agriculture. (2nd July, 1900.)

Hon. Charles Houghton Mills, Commissioner of Trade and Customs. (29th October, 1900.)

Hon. Albert Pitt, Attorney-General. (22nd June, 1903.)

Without Portfolio, Hon. Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau te Wherowhero (22nd May, 1903.)

Clerk of the Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.



THE number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-four. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of His Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £200 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting day is made in case of an absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. Under “The Legislative Council Act, 1891,” a seat is vacated by any member of the Council: (1.) If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5) if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council.

The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 p.m. when necessary.



Chairman of Committees—The Hon. JOHN RIGG.

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.

* Life Members.

Arkwright, the Hon. FrancisWellington.13 December, 1902.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas Hall.Marlborough.8 March, 1861.*
Baldey, the Hon. AlfredOtago.18 March, 1903.
Beehan, the Hon. WilliamAuckland.22 June, 1903.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago.16 October, 1899.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury.23 January, 1891.*
Cadman, the Hon. Sir Alfred Jerome, K.C.M.G.Auckland.21 December, 1899.
Carncross, the Hon. Walter Charles FrederickTaranaki.18 March, 1903.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago16 October, 1899.
Fraser, the Hon. Francis HumphrisWellington.22 June, 1899.
George, the Hon. Seymour ThorneAuckland.22 June, 1903.
Gourley, the Hon. HughOtago.22 June, 1899.
Harris, the Hon. BenjaminAuckland.3 February, 1904.
Holmes, the Hon. JamesWestland.18 April, 1902.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury.6 June, 1900.
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington.23 January, 1891.*
Jones, the Hon. GeorgeOtago.13 December, 1902.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki.16 October, 1899.
Kelly, the Hon. WilliamAuckland.3 February, 1904.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer ThomasMarlborough.15 May, 1885.*
Louisson, the Hon. CharlesCanterbury.22 December, 1900.
Macdonald, the Hon. Thomas KennedyWellington.22 June, 1903.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago.19 December, 1881.*
Marshall, the Hon. JamesWestland.18 April, 1902.
Miller, the Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt.Otago.8 July, 1865.*
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury.16 October, 1899.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay.20 January, 1891.*
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury.9 October, 1877.*
Pinkerton, the Hon. DavidOtago.3 February, 1904.
Pitt, the Hon. Albert, Lieut.-ColonelNelson.23 December, 1899.
Reeves, the Hon. Richard Harman JeffaresNelson.13 December, 1902.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington.6 June, 1900.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki.24 February, 1868.*
Smith, the Hon. Alfred LeeOtago.18 June, 1898.
Smith, the Hon. William CowperHawke's Bay.13 December, 1902.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury.7 March, 1882.*
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago.15 May, 1885*
Thompson, the Hon. ThomasAuckland.18 March, 1903.
Trask, the Hon. FrancisNelson.18 March, 1903.
Twomey, the Hon. Jeremiah MatthewCanterbury.18 June, 1898.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury.15 May, 1885.*
Wherowhero, the Hon. Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau teAuckland.22 May, 1903.
Wigram, the Hon. Henry FrancisCanterbury.22 June, 1903.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland.7 March, 1882.*

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.


The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1900, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1902. Previously (from 1890) the House consisted of seventy-four members, seventy Europeans and four Maoris; and previously to that (from 1881) of ninety-five members, ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island at present returns thirty-eight European members, and the Middle Island thirty-eight. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members,* and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in ‘The Electoral Act, 1902,” is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November 1901, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1901.” Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.



Chairman of Committees—JOHN ANDREW MILLAR.

Name.Electoral District.Date of Notification of Return of Writ.
For European Electorates.
Aitken, John Guthrie WoodCity of Wellington.10 December, 1902.
Alison, Ewen WilliamWaitemata10 December, 1902.
Allen, Edmund GiblettChalmers10 December, 1902.
Allen, JamesBruce10 December, 1902.
Arnold, James FrederickCity of Dunedin10 December, 1902.
Barber, William Henry PeterNewtown10 December, 1902.
Baume, Frederick EhrenfriedCity of Auckland10 December, 1902.
Bedford, Harry DodgshunCity of Dunedin10 December, 1902.
Bennet, JamesTuapeka10 December, 1902.
Bollard, JohnEden10 December, 1902.
Buchanan, Walter ClarkWairarapa10 December, 1902.
Buddo, DavidKaiapoi10 December, 1902.
Carroll, Hon. JamesWaiapu10 December, 1902.
Colvin, JamesBuller10 December, 1902.
Davey, Thomas HenryCity of Christchurch10 December, 1902.
Duncan, Hon. Thomas YoungOamaru10 December, 1902.
Duthie, JohnCity of Wellington10 December, 1902.
Ell, Henry GeorgeCity of Christchurch10 December, 1902.
Field, William HughesOtaki10 December, 1902.
Fisher, GeorgeCity of Wellington10 December, 1902.
Flatman, Frederick RobertGeraldine10 December, 1902.
Fowlds, GeorgeGrey Lynn10 December, 1902.
Fraser, Alfred Levavasour DurellNapier10 December, 1902.
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu10 December, 1902.
Graham, JohnCity of Nelson10 December, 1902.
Guinness, Arthur Robert (Speaker)Grey10 December, 1902.
Hall, CharlesWaipawa10 December, 1902.
Hall-Jones, Hon. WilliamTimaru10 December, 1902.
Hanan, Josiah AlfredInvercargill10 December, 1902.
Harding, Alfred ErnestKaipara10 December, 1902.
Hardy, Charles Albert CreerySelwyn10 December, 1902.
Herdman, Alexander LaurenceMount Ida10 December, 1902.
Herries, William HerbertBay of Plenty10 December, 1902.
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton10 December, 1902.
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands10 December, 1902.
Jennings, William ThomasEgmont10 December, 1902.
Kidd, AlfredCity of Auckland10 December, 1902.
Kirkbride, Matthew MiddlewoodManukau10 December, 1902.
Lang, Frederic WilliamWaikato10 December, 1902.
Laurenson, GeorgeLyttelton10 December, 1902.
Lawry, FrankParnell10 December, 1902.
Lethbridge, Frank YatesOroua10 December, 1902.
Lewis, CharlesCourtenay10 December, 1902.
McGowan, Hon. JamesThames10 December, 1902.
McKenzie, RoderickMotueka10 December, 1902.
Mackenzie, ThomasWaikouaiti10 December, 1902.
McLachlan, JohnAshburton10 December, 1902.
McNab, RobertMataura10 December, 1902.
Major, Charles EdwinHawera10 December, 1902.
Mander, FrancisMarsden10 December, 1902.
Massey, William FergusonFranklin10 December, 1902.
Millar, John AndrewCity of Dunedin10 December, 1902.
Mills, Hon. Charles HoughtonWairau10 December, 1902.
Moss, Edward George BrittonOhinemuri10 December, 1902.
O'Meara, JohnPahiatua10 December, 1902.
Reid, Donald (jun.)Taieri10 December, 1902.
Remington, Arthur EdwardRangitikei10 December, 1902.
Rhodes, Robert HeatonEllesmere10 December, 1902.
Russell, Sir William Russell, Kt. Bach.Hawke's Bay10 December, 1902.
Rutherford, Andrew WilliamHurunui10 December, 1902.
Seddon, Rt. Hon. Richard John, P.C.Westland10 December, 1902.
Sidey, Thomas KayCaversham10 December, 1902.
Smith, Edward MetcalfTaranaki10 December, 1902.
Steward, Hon. Sir William Jukes, Kt. Bach.Waitaki10 December, 1902.
Symes, WalterPatea10 December, 1902.
Tanner, William WilcoxAvon10 December, 1902.
Taylor, Thomas EdwardCity of Christchurch10 December, 1902.
Thomson, James WilliamClutha10 December, 1902.
Thomson, John CharlesWallace10 December, 1902.
Vile, JobManawatu10 December, 1902.
Ward, Hon. Sir Joseph George, K.C.M.G.Awarua10 December, 1902.
Wilford, Thomas MasonHutt10 December, 1902.
Willis, Archibald DudingstonWanganui10 December, 1902.
Witheford, Joseph HowardCity of Auckland10 December, 1902.
Witty, GeorgeRiccarton10 December, 1902.
Wood, William ThomasPalmerston10 December, 1902.
For Maori Electorates.Day of Election.
Heke, HoneNorthern Maori22 December, 1902.
Kaihau, HenareWestern Maori22 December, 1902.
Parata, TameSouthern Maori22 December, 1902.
Pere, WiremuEastern Maori22 December, 1902.

* See note on page 17, ante.

Clerk of House of Representatives—H. Otterson.

Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.

Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.

Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. W. Kane.

Chief Hansard Reporter—Silas Spragg.

Interpreters—L. M. Grace, D. F. G. Barclay.

Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.

Deputy Clerk of Writs— R. F. Lynch.

Chief Librarian—Charles Wilson.

Chapter 18. OFFICIAL LIST.
(1st April, 1904.


Prime Minister—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary to Cabinet.—A. J. Willis



Colonial Secretary—Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G.

Under-Secretary—Hugh Pollen

Chief Clerk—R. F. Lynch

Clerks—J. F. Andrews, A. R. Kennedy, F. A. de la Mare

Officer in Charge of Government Building—W. H. Hennah


Controller and Auditor-General—J. K. Warburton

Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—L. C. Roskruge

Clerks—W. G. Holdsworth, H. S. Pollen, E. J. A. Stevenson, J. T. Dumbell, C. E. Easton

Cadets—G. G. Smith, J. A. Hay, G. S. Gapper, H. T. Thompson, R. M. Sunley, J. P. Rutherford, T. Treahy, A. A. Cairns

Cadette—E. A. Casey

Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, A. E. Bybles, C. E. Briggs, E. E. Smythe, J. McC. Hamilton, T. S. Hamer

Chief Audit Inspector and Audit of Local Bodies—P. P. Webb

Clerk—J. Ward

Audit. Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser

Audit Inspectors—A. H. Maclean, J. King, A. W. Eames, G. H. I. Easton, C. P. Johnson, H. A. Lamb, A. A. Bethune, J. H. Fowler, R. A. Gray


Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen

Chief Clerk and Deputy Registrar-General—G. Drury

Clerks—F. H. Machattie, W. W. Cook, Ben Keys

Index Clerk—S. Coffey


Four Chief Towns.

Auckland—E. H. Lyons

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield

Christchurch—L. C. Williams

Dunedin—H. Maxwell


Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—John Mackay

Superintending Overseer—J. J. Gamble

Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen

Clerk and Computer—N. B. K. Manley

Clerks — F. Barraud, J. W. Hall, R. Watts, A. Stace, A. Williams


Cadet—P. C. Jordan

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks

Overseers—B. Wilson, J. F. Rogers

Overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle

Night, Foreman—

Readers—W. Fuller, H. S. Mountier, H. Lee, W. Sutherland

Overseer, Machine-room—J. Phillips

Sub-overseer, Machine-room—John Burns

Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin

Sub-overseer, Binding Branch — G. H. Broad

Forewoman, Binding Branch — Miss O'Malley

Stamp Printer — H. Hume

Overseer, Lithographic Branch—D. Ross

Chief Draughtsman—G. N. Sturtevant

Stereotyper and Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk Engineer—T. R. Barrer


Director—A. Hamilton

Cadet—C. Freyberg

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin — H. Skey

Meteorological Observer, New Plymouth—G. W. Palmer

Meteorological Observer, Hokitika—A. D. Macfarlane

Meteorological Observer, Rotorua—Dr. Wohlmann

Meteorological Observer, Te Aroha—W. Hill

Meteorological Observer, Lincoln—Geo. Gray

Meteorological Observer, Hanmer Plains—J. B. Gould


President — Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S.

Hon. Treasurer—J. W. Joynt, M.A.

Hon. Secretary—H. Gill



Colonial Treasurer—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of New Zealand Consols—James B. Heywood

Assistant Secretary and Accountant to the Treasury — Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey

Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell

Clerks—R. B. Vincent, E. L. Mowbray, A. O. Gibbes, J. Holmes, H. N. W. Church, A. J. Morgan, T. J. Davis, F. H. Tuckey, H. Hawthorn, W. Wilson, G. C. Rodda, E. Fisher

Cadets—W. Gillanders, W. L. Clapson, A. Hore, P. Dunstan

Cadettes— L. McIntosh, M. Ralston, D. M. Schramm, H. M. Batham, E. M. Taylor, E. A. C. Burrage, R. B. Banks

Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Daveney


Registrar and Actuary—George Leslie

Revising Barrister—L. G. Reid

Clerk and Deputy Registrar—C. T. Benzoni

Cadette—M. A. Bridson


Head Office.

Registrar—J. Eman Smith

Chief Clerk—G. C. Fache

Clerks—F. M. Leckie, J. S. Lambert, R. S. Stokes, F. G. Twiss

Cadets—P. Cunningham, G. N. Morris, T. G. C. Mackay

District Agencies.

Deputy Registrars—

Auckland—S. Ruddock. Cadet—J. H. Boyes

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield

Christchurch—L. C. Williams

Dunedin—Robert Hill. Cadet — T. B. Purves

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer. Cadet—E. B. Patrick

Coromandel—D. Banks

Dargaville—S. Thompson

Hamilton—W. Shanaghan

Helensville—J. Watt

Kaitaia—W. Sefton

Mangonui—J. Henry

Maungaturoto—J. Hemphill

Otahuhu—G. Foreman

Raglan—W. McCarthy

Rawene—F. A. Moore

Rotorua—W. Bern

Russell—W. J. Pardy

Taupo—J. Ryan

Warkworth—S. Stacey

Whangarei—T. Kirk

Whangaroa—A. G. Douthet

Thames—J. Jordan

Opotiki—C. O'Reilly

Paerca—H. R. Bush

Tauranga—W. A. Thom

Te Aroha—H. R. Bush

Whakatane—P. Stackpoole

Gisborne—G. J. A. Johnstone

Port Awanui—W. Kelly

Napier—R. B. Mathias

Dannevirke—S. Tansley

Waipawa—J. Eccleton

Wairoa— H. H. Carr

New Plymouth—W. A. D. Banks

Stratford—J. B. Stoney

Wanganui—C. A. Barton

Hawera—A. Trimble

Marton—J. E. Patrick

Patea—M. O'Brien

Feilding—J. M. Rodgers

Greytown—H. D. Armour

Masterton—E. Rawson

Otaki—T. O'Rourke

Pahiatua—W. J. Reeve

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Motueka—L. Read

Blenheim—J. Terry

Havelock—H. McArdle

Akaroa—E. P. Bird

Amberley—M. Roche

Ashburton—T. W. Tayler

Culverden—A. S. Bird

Kaiapoi—A. G. Ashby

Kaikoura—J. P. Clarkson

Timaru—T. Howley

Fairlie—S. Kidd

Temuka—J. Gillespie

Waimate—W. Y. Purchase

Greymouth—B. Harper

Reefton—A. Askenbeek

Hokitika—J. C. Malfroy

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Oamaru—R. P. Ward

Balclutha—W. A. Matthews

Clyde—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Milton—D. McRae

Naseby—F. W. Hart

Palmerston South—W. Hilliard

Port Chalmers—H. R. Paterson

Queenstown—A. A. Mair

Riverton—A. F. Bent

Chatham Islands—R. W. Rayner


Commissioner—John McGowan

Deputy Commissioner—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Accountant—P. Heyes


Clerk in Charge—H. Nancarrow

Clerks — D. R. Purdie, J. Stevenson, E. W. Watson, E. Randell, J. N. Grant, M. Fraser, J. Ferguson, H. S. Barron, C. E. J. Dowland


Clerk in Charge—J. M. King

Clerks—W. M. Tyers, J. W. Black, D. G. Clark, G. W. Jänisch, C. T. Rout, H. A. Anderson

Receiver of Land and Income Tax—C. V. Kreeft

Cadets—J. M. Park, N. H. Mackie

Cadettes—G. Cooke, K. L. Morgan



Minister of Justice — Hon. James McGowan

Under-Secretary—F. Waldegrave

Chief Clerk—C. B. Jordan

Translator—G. H. Davies

Clerks—C. E. Matthews, G. F. Dixon, L. A. B. Teulenberg


Attorney-General—Hon. Albert Pitt

Solicitor-General—F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D.

Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid

Law Draftsman—

Clerk—E. Y. Redward

Cadet—T. Christie


Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks—F. Waldegrave

Deputy Registrar—J. C. Lewis

Clerk—Mary Eyre

Cadet—J. T. Bishop


Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice—

Wellington—Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G.


Wellington — Theo. Cooper, F. R. Chapman

Auckland—W. B. Edwards

Christchurch—J. E Denniston

Dunedin—J. S. Williams

District Court Judges.

Hamilton and Thames—C. C. Kettle

Wairarapa, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Stratford, Hawera, Palmerston North, Pahiatua, Nelson. Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queenstown, Naseby, Lawrence, Invercargill, Gore, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, Reefton, and Kumara—C. D. R. Ward

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—T. Hutchison

Wanganui—R. L. Stanford

Napier—H. W. Brabant

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. Eyre-Kenny

Blenheim—T. Scott Smith

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—V. G. Day

Dunedin—G. A. King

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—W. A. D. Banks

Hawke's Bay—H. W. Brabant

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Wairarapa—E. Rawson

Wanganui and Rangitikei—C. A. Barton

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—E. C. Kelling

Central Westland—A. Askenbeck

Marlborough—J. Terry

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—V. G. Day

Otago—G. A. King

Southland—J. R. Colyer

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—W. Kerr

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—H. A. Cornford

Wellington—F. H. D. Bell

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Palmerston North—H. S. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—R. McCallum

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White

Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors (District Courts).

New Plymouth—W. Kerr

Stratford—W. Kerr

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Palmerston North—H. S. Fitzherbert

Masterton—A. R. Bunny

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika—J. Park

Greymouth—M. Hannan

Timaru—J. W. White

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Stipendiary Magistrates.

Auckland—C. C. Kettle

Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—H. W. Northcroft

Onehunga, &c.—E. C. Blomfield*

* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

Russell, &c.—R. S. Florance

Tauranga, &c.—J. M. Roberts*

Thames, &c.—R. S. Bush*

Gisborne, &c.—W. A. Barton

New Plymouth—T. Hutchison

Hawera, &c.—A. Turnbull

Wanganui, &c.—R. L. Stanford

Palmerston North, &c.—A.D. Thomson

Wellington, &c.—A. McArthur, M.A., LL.D.

Wairarapa, &c.—W. P. James

Napier, &c.—H. W. Brabant

Nelson, &c.—H. Eyre-Kenny*

Blenheim, &c.—T. Scott-Smith

Christchurch, &c.—W. R. Haselden

Kaiapoi, &c.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &c.—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, Westport, &c.—W. G. K. Kenrick

Hokitika, &c.—V. G. Day

Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew,* C. C. Graham

Oamaru, &c.—J. Keddell*

Milton, &c.—G. Cruickshank*

Clyde, &c.—F. J. Burgess*

Naseby—J. McEnnis*

Invercargill, &c.—S. E. McCarthy*

Chatham Islands—

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—E. Gerard

Wellington—J. Ashcroft, J.P.

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham, S.M.

Clerks of District and Magistrates' Courts.

New Plymouth—W. A. D. Banks

Hawera—A. Trimble

Wanganui—C. A. Barton

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Masterton—E. Rawson

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Hokitika—J. C. Malfroy

Kumara—T. M. Lawlor

Greymouth—B. Harper

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—A. Askenbeck

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—T. W. Tayler

Oamaru—R. P. Ward

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer

Queenstown—A. A. Mair

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Naseby—F. Hart

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens' and Magistrates' Courts.

Thames—J. Jordan

Coromandel—D. Banks

Paeroa—H. R. Bush

Waihi—E. W. Cave

Tauranga—W. A. Thom

Whangarei—T. Kirk

Havelock (Marlborough)—H. McArdle

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Blenheim—John Terry

Motueka—L. Read

Collingwood—J. N. Nalder

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—E. Brophy

Reefton—A. Askenbeck

Ahaura—W. D. Wallace

Greymouth—B. Harper

Kumara—T. M. Lawlor

Hokitika—J. C. Malfroy

Ashburton—T. W. Tayler

Naseby, &c.—F. Hart

Wyndham—D. Bogue

Clyde, Black's, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—E. D. Mosley

Queenstown and Arrowtown—A. A. Mair

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Gore—M. Foley

Riverton—A. F. Bent

Clerks of Magistrates' Courts.

Auckland—H. H. G. Ralfe

Gisborne—G. J. Johnstone

Hamilton—W. Shanaghan

Napier—R. B. Mathias

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Wairoa—H. H. Carr

Stratford—C. J. Hewlett

Dannevirke—S. Tansley

Marton, &c.—J. E. Patrick

Feilding—J. M. Rodgers

Otaki—T. O'Rourke

Wellington—A. H. Holmes

Christchurch—W. Martin

Lyttelton—J. Fitzgerald

Kaiapoi—A. G. Ashby

Waimate—W. Y. Purchas

Dunedin—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Port Chalmers—R. H. Paterson


Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—H. W. Brabant, H. F. Edger, W. G. Mair, H. D. Johnson, J. M. Batham

Registrars — Auckland, J. W. Browne; Gisborne, J. Brooking; Wellington, R. C. Sim

Commissioners of the Native Land Court.

R. S. Bush, A. Turnbull, E. C. Blomfield, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, H. W. Bishop, E. H. Carew, H. Eyre-Kenny, R. L. Stanford, T. Hutchison, H. W. Robinson, R. S. Florance: Sub-Commissioners — J. Brooking, W. A. Thom

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga—G. T. Wilkinson


Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—The Judges of the Native Land Court

Registrars—The Registrars of the Native Land Court


Auckland. T. Gresham, E. Baker; Arrowtown, H. Graham; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Collingwood, E. Davidson; Feilding, J. J. Bagnall; Hamilton, J. S. Bond; Hawera, C. E. Major; Kawhia, T. D. Hamilton; Marton, J. J. McDonald: Otahuhu, S. Luke; Otaki, W. H. Simcox; Paeroa, W. Forrest: Pahi. J. B. Ariell; Palmerston North, J. Mowlem; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Midhirst, J. Mackay; Taihape, J. P. Aldridge; Takaka, A. Sinclair; Tapanui, W. Quin; Thames, A. Bruce; Tauranga, A. C. H. Tovey; Te Awa mutu, J. B. Teasdale; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Waihi, M. D. King; Waipawa, S. Johnson; Wellington, J. Ashcroft; Whangarei, J. M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard. All Stipendiary Magistrates are ex officio Coroners.


Head Office.

Commissioner—Walter Dinnie

Chief Clerk—John Evans

Clerks—John Tasker, Walter Gollan

Police Force.

Inspectors—John Cullen. John Wybrant Ellison, Robert James Gillies, Terence O'Brien. Ewen Macdonell, Nicholas Kiely, Edward Wilson, Alfred James Mitchell

Sub-Inspectors — Patrick Black, Henry Green, John Dwyer, John O'Donovan


Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers — Auckland. Francis Egerton Severne; Dunedin, John Henry Bratby; Hokitika, Thomas Rosson Pointon, Invercargill, Alexander Armstrong; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Michael Flannery; New Plymouth, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Wanganui, Robert T. N. Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey; Waiotapu, Jeremiah Charles Scanlon; Hanmer Springs, Alexander William Roberts


Minister—Hon Sir J.G. Ward. K.C.M.G.

Secretary—T. E. Donne

Acting Chief Clerk—G. S. Munro


Minister—Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G.

Superintendent—T. E. Donne

Chief Clerk—C. R. C. Robieson

Inspector—F. Moorhouse

Accountant—R. E. Hayes

Journalist—J. Cowan

Clerks — H. Kirk, P. J. Kelleher, J. Andrews, R. G. M. Par, J. W. Hill, S. J. Collett, G. F. McGirr, C. T. Brebner

Shorthand-writers and Typists—S. Dimant, N. Lambert

District, Agents—Auckland, E. H. Montgomery; Te Aroha, W. Hill; Rotorua, C. Walnutt; Christchurch, W. R. Blow; Dunedin, G. W. C. Moon; Invercargill, W. A. Saunders

Government Balneologist, Rotorua—A. S. Wohlmann, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.

House Surgeon, Rotorua—W. B. Craig, M.B.

Resident Medical Officer, Te Aroha—G. G. Kenny, M.B.

Manager, Hanmer Hot Springs—J. B. Gould


Minister of Labour — Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.


Secretary for Labour, Chief Inspector of Factories, and Registrar of Industrial Unions—E. Tregear

Chief Clerk, Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories, and Deputy Registrar of Industrial Unions—James Mackay

Clerks—F. Rowley, J. W. Collins, W. H. Hagger, W. J. McKeown, and W. J. Jamieson, C. E. Aldridge

Shorthand Writer and Typiste—R. Ritson

Cadets — W. Linklater. Thomas McIntosh

Officer in Charge Women's Branch—Mrs. Helen Staveley

Auckland—Clerk, E. A. LeCren. Cadet, W. E. Shanahan

Christchurch—Clerk, A. J. R. Isherwood

Dunedin—Clerk, Jean Maxwell


North Island—J. Shanaghan, H. Ferguson, E. A. Le Cren, W. J. Blake, W. H. Hagger, Margaret Hawthorne, W. H. McQuarter-, H. H. Knowles, and 75 local Inspectors

South Island—J. Shanaghan, J. Lomas, A. J. R. Isherwood, L. D. Browett, S. Tyson, James Isdell, T. O'Grady, R. S. Bean, J. B. Lindsay, P. Hally, P. Keddi, W. H. Hagger, Margaret Hawthorne, and 70 local Inspectors

(There are also 200 Bureau Agents in different parts of the colony.)



Minister for Public Works—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales

Superintending Engineer—P. S. Hay, M.A., M. Inst. C.E.

Inspecting Engineer—R. W. Holmes, M. Inst. C.E.

Architect—J. Campbell

Chief Clerk—W. D. Dumbell

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—G. C. Schmidt, P. S. Waldie, E. Bold, A. Biddell, A. H. Kimbell, N. Jacobs, C. E. Crawford, W. McNamara, H. F. Curtis, A. Sampson, T. H. Hanna, J. J. Bennett, A. L. Goldfinch, L. White, E. Kidd, K. Webb

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford

Draughtsmen—E. Jackson, C. A. Lawrence, W. Withers, L. L. Richards, W. G. C. Swan, J. H. Price, A. E. King, R. G. Applegarth, A. E. Macrae, T. S. Lambert, F. S. Marchant, S. W. May-Somerville, A. T. Ford, G. V. Venning

Head Storekeeper—J. C. Fulton

Engineering Cadets—H. Vickerman, B.Sc., H. Patterson

Clerical Cadet—W. S. King

Clerical Cadettes—E. M. B. Lynch, M.A., W. L. J. Mellsop


District Engineers—Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M. Inst. C.E.

Resident Engineers—Hunterville, G. L. Cook, M. Inst. C.E.; Taumaranui, J. D. Louch, Assoc.M. Inst. C.E.; Nelson, W. A. Shain; Westport, R. A. Young, Assoc. M. Inst.C.E.; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E.; Springfield, J. A. Wilson, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., J. J. Hay, M.A.

Assistant Engineers—S. J. Harding, J. H. Dobson, F. M. Hewson. J. Hannah, J. H. Lewis, G. C. McGlashan, C. E. Armstrong, F. W. Furkert, W. Widdowson, H. Dickson, J. W. E. McEnnis, A. Ross, J. V. Haskell, C. A. Owen, J. Meenan, A. Stewart, W. P. Moynihan, W. Sherratt, C. J. McKenzie, F. P. Bartley, J. J. Wilson

Engineering Cadets — F. S. Dyson, J. Wood, L. B. Campbell, W. E. Fitzgerald, J. McNair, J. Norris, P. McNab, P. Keller, F. C. Hay, H. H. Sharp, T. M. Crawford, H. T. Thompson, R. Park

Draughtsmen—C. Wood, P. F. M. Burrows, J. Baird, W. H. Hislop, T J. McCosker, J. J. Fraser, H. C. W. Wrigg, J. B. Robertson, W. J. C. Slane

Clerks—W. Black. C. T. Rushbrook, A. R. Stone, J. H. Denton, A. J. Sutcliffe, E. Waddell, L. P. Cabot, J. B. Borton, P. P. Giesen, F. E. Banks, H. Grave, G. T. Grace, E. G. Beale, J. A. White, C. A. Alabone, E. J. Edwards, C. T. Williams, L. M. Shera, H. M. O'Donnell, S. A. Holland, W. A. Bowie, H. Colvin, W. Sotheran

Storekeepers—T. Douglas, C. Loomes, S.J. Moncrieff

Clerical Cadet—A. D. Park

Clerical Cadette—E. J. Colquhoun


Minister for Railways—Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G.


General Manager—T. Ronayne

Chief Clerk—R. W. McVilly

Clerks—E. J. Andrews, B. M. Wilson, W. S. Ridler, J. L. Day, J. O. Duff, J. Hislop, J. E. Widdop, W. H. Gifford, J. V. Fogo, D. MacKellar, J. Thomson, W. A. Wellings, P. J. McGovern, W. H. Warren, W. P. Miller, H. Gerard, C. T. Reehal, F. C. Fraser, A. J. Levick, W. H. Rennie, R. W. Warren

Audit Inspectors—H. Baxter, D. Munro, R. Hislop, I. Faris

Railway Accountant—H. Davidson

Clerks—J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, G. G. Wilson, J. McLean, E. Davy, A. Morris, C. Batten, J. Firth, W. B. Fisher, E. J. Fleming, H. H. Leopard, R. J. Loe, W. Bourke, T. Pattle, A. J. Belworthy, F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, H. D. Smith, W. E. Ahern, F. K. Porteous, A. D. C. Gosman, T. A. O'Connor, A. E. Wilson, C. C. Felton, J. W. Dayman, W. H. Simmons, J. B. Gauntlett, A. T. Parkes, C. U. McGrath


Stores Manager—G. Felton

Stores Audit Inspector—F. J. Dawes

Clerks—M. C. Rowe, G. H. Norie, S. Alpe, H. W. Barbor, A. E. Boyes, W. G. Wray, R. P. Bray, L. G. Porter, G. H. Stubbs, S. S. Millington, J. Kerr, A. D. Lincoln, J. Brabiner, J. Hayes, J. Ginnane, V. C. Hardie, G. D. Pattle, J. H. Martin


Chief Traffic Manager—H. Buxton

Relieving District. Traffic Manager—

Clerks—J. E. Armstrong, G. A. C. Robieson, J. D. Nash

Traffic Superintendents—Wellington, T. Arthur; Dunedin, A. Grant.

District Managers—Whangarei, E. E. Gillon; Auckland, T. W. Waite; Wanganui, W. Stringleman; Westland, F. W. Styles; Christchurch, S. F. Whitcombe; Invercargill, C. A. Piper

Stationmasters in Charge—Kawakawa, J. T. Parsons; Kaihu, R. B. Peat; Gisborne, G. G. Wellsted; Westport, T. Hay-Mackenzie; Nelson. E. G. Wilson; Picton, T. S. Edwards


Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Coom, M.Inst.C.E.

Inspecting Engineer—J. Burnett. M.Inst.C.E.

Signal Engineer—H.J. Wynne, A.M.Inst.C.E.

Railway Land Officer—E. G. H. Mainwaring

Inspector of Bridge Construction—A. H. Alabaster

Electrician—J. T. Fahy

Electric Mechanician—T. Hendry

Office Engineer—G. A. Troup

Draughtsmen—J. Besant, C. T. Jeffreys, W. R. B. Bagge, Ad. Howitt, L. Reynolds, A. S. Henderson, W. W. Fry, G. G. Wilson, jun.

Clerks—W. P. Hicks, J. T. Ford, W. A. Mirams, H. Jessup, T. H. Wilson, E. S. Kelly, H. W. Rowden, J. M. Robb, F. J. Rowden, E. D. Richards, W. B. O'Brien, G. P. Parrell, T. Trezise, H. McAlister, F. T. A. Williams, H. G. C. Simmons, O. Foreman, C. S. Nelson

District Engineers—Auckland, C. H. Biss; Wanganui. D. T. McIntosh; Wellington, A. C. Koch; Westport and Westland, F. J. Jones; Christchurch. H. Macandrew; Dunedin, F. W. MacLean; Invercargill, A. J. McCredie


Chief Mechanical Engineer — A.L. Beattie

Clerks—J. P. Kelly, R. Aekins, D. D. Weir, J. Rumgay, J. Worthington, H. McKeowen, H. B. Sturmer, C. L. Pettit, J. H. Leopard, J. P. McKeowen, E. S. Stringleman, N. E. White, J. Linehan, E. M. Bish, F. C. Reynolds, A. A. B. Boult

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Pearson

Draughtsmen—R. Pye-Smith, G. Wilson, A. Smellie, J. M. Porteous

Boiler Inspector—J. W. Nichols

Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, A. V. Macdonald; Wellington-Napier-New Plymouth, T. A. Peterkin; Hurunui-Bluff, H. H. Jackson; Westport and Westland, G. E. Richardson. Relieving, F. T. Murison

Brake Engineer—J. H. Fox

Loco. Inspector—E. L. W. Haskins


North Island.

H. Eyre-Kenny, Stipendiary Magistrate, Chairman, appointed by the Governor

H. Davidson, Railway Accountant's Office, elected

W. T. Wilson, Engineman, elected

M. J. Mack, Guard, elected

W. Morrison, Ganger, elected

(Workshop representative to be elected)

Middle Island.

C. D. R. Ward, District Judge, Chairman, appointed by the Governor

A. Graham, Stationmaster, elected

A. Dunn, Guard, Christchurch, elected

J. A. McCullough, Leading Tinsmith, elected

D. Wilson, Engineman, elected

R. Duncan, Surfaceman, elected



Postmaster-General and Electric Telegraph Commissioner—Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G.

Secretary—W. Gray

Superintendent of Electric Lines—J. K. Logan

Assistant Secretary and Inspector—T. Rose

Controller of Money-orders and Savings-banks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Assistant Controller Money-Orders and Savings - Banks, and Assistant Accountant—W. R. Morris

Clerks, Secretary's Office—F. V. Waters (Second Clerk), H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Crow, V. J. Brogan, T. Ward, H. D. Grocott, J. C. Redmond, A. T. Markmann, W. J. Gow, F. W. Furby, J. B. Jordan, S. Macalister, J. P. P. Clouston, W. J. Wilkie, W. H. Banett, A. Donovan

Master of cable steamer “Tutanekai”—C. F. Pos

Mail Agents—W. Isbister, D. E. Lindsay

Clerks, Inspector's Branch—G. V. Hudson, J. Brennan. W. A. Tanner, F. S. Robins, S. M. Harrison, G. P. Edwards, H. McGill

Clerks, Accountant's Branch—J. L. H. Ledger, H. A. R. Huggins, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Callaghan, W. Chegwidden, R. J. Thompson, H. Cornwall, F. Perrin, J. J. Esson, D. A. Jenkins, H. N. McLeod, J. D. Avery, C. B. Harton, W. J. Drake, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. E. Beamish, A. C. Elliott, G. H. Harris, H. C. Milne, C. W. J. Panting, H. C. Hickson, P. D. Hoskins, W. R. Wakelin, F. Stewart, G. G. Rose, H. E. Combs, J. E. Hull, A. Marshall, G. F. W. Kroner, F. G. A. Eagles, C. G. Collins, T. M. Highet, J. C. A. Dudley, T. H. N. Beasley, W. I. Dawson, W. K. Frethey, J. Snell, W. Gilbert, G. L. Messenger, T. A. Churches, C. H. Clinkard, J. M. Dale, H. A. Lamb, R. Porteous, D. Rutherford, A. A. Edwards, A. Baskiville, W. A. Smith, R. H. Twose, E. White, C. Gamble, S. H. A. Levien, J. Madden, J. Alexander, P. Cutforth, A. Leeden, C. B. Burdekin, J. Courtney, G. Foote, E. Bermingham, S. Brock. E. Harris, B. M. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. MacLeod, C. M. A. Smith, M. J. Mackellar, M. A. Asquith, E. E. Warren

Electrician—T. Buckley

Assistant Electrician—W. E. Chisholm

Mechanicians—R. Heinitz. F. Palmer

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Clerks in Store—C. Nicholls, T. Palmer, W. H. Carter, M. McGilvray, J. G. Howard, W. R. Aekins, J. L. Murphy, C. R. H. Robertson


Auckland—D. Cumming

* Thames—H. W. Capper

* Combined post and telegraph offices.

*Gisborne—W. H. Renner

Napier—J. H. Sheath

*New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

*Wanganui—D. Miller

Wellington—J. A. Hutton

*Blenheim—E. Northcroft

*Nelson—S. P. Stevens

*Westport—H. Logie

*Greymouth—G. W. Sampson

*Hokitika—D. St. George

Christchurch—J. F. McBeth

*Timaru—W. McHuteneson

*Oamaru—W. W. Beswick

Dunedin—J. W. Wilkin

*Invercargill—C. J. A. H. Tipping


Auckland—W. G. Meddings

Christchurch—J. W. Gannaway

Dunedin—J. Orchiston

Nelson—C. C. Robertson

Wellington—W. S. Furby


P. Curtis (Northern District), W. J. Chaney (Central District), W. St. G. Douglas (Midland District), T. T. King (Southern District)


Auckland—H. F. Seager

Napier—B. H. Keys

Wellington—H. W. Harrington

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—J. G. Ballard


J. McGowan, Commissioner of Taxes, Chairman (by Act)

J. K. Logan, Superintendent of Electric Lines (by Act)

F. M. Scully, Representing Postal Branch, elected

W. F. Young, Representing Telegraph Branch, elected


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Hon. C. H. Mills

Secretary and Inspector of Customs—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—T. Larchin

Clerks, Customs—C. H. Manson, H. S. Cordery

Cadet—G. F. McKellar

Audi—H. W. Brewer, W. A. Cameron


Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—W. J. Hawley

New Plymouth—J. H. Hempton

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. Johnston

Wanganui—A. Elliot

Nelson—R. Carter

Westport—H. J. Crowther

Greymouth—C. Colebrook

Hokitika—W. Rose

Lyttelton and Christchurch—J. Mills

Timaru—C. S. Nixon

Oamaru—T. M. Cullen

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—A. McDowell


Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter

Tauranga—C. E. Nicholas, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mangonui — H. G. Hunt, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter

Patea—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Wairau — H. A. Jackman, Officer in Charge

Picton—T. W. Lecocq, Officer in Charge

Chatham Islands—R. S. Florance, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Secretary—G. Allport

Clerks—J. J. D. Grix, W. Canton

Cadets—B. W. Millier, D. H. Butcher

Cadette—M. Fisher

Marine Engineer for the Colony—W. H. Hales

Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Blackburne

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Auckland—W. D. Reid

Assistant—T. A. G. Atwood

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates—Wellington, G. G. Smith

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—C. E. W. Fleming

Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons


Wellington, Chief Inspector — L. F. Ayson

Russell—H. Stephenson

Whangarei—A. McDonnell

Wanganui—W. J. Campbell

Palmerston North—M. D. Stagpoole

Foxton—J. Forster

Hokitika—J. Marks

Dunedin—J. McIntyre

Bluff—P. McGrath

Napier—C. H. Pratt


* The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department.

Collingwood—F. Stallard

Foxton—J. B. Hall

Hokianga—G. Martin

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Neale

Motueka—H. L. Moffatt

Picton—T. Edwards

Port Robinson—J. Sinclair

Russell—H. Stephenson

Wairau—H. Fisk

Waitapu—S. Fittall


Chief Inspector of Machinery, Principal Engineer Surveyor of Steamers, Principal Surveyor of Ships, and Chief Examiner of Engineers and Engine-drivers— R. Duncan, Head Office, Wellington

Chief Clerk—R. P. Milne

Clerks—W. D. Andrews, J. G. Macpherson, J. M. Healy, and J. Driscoll

Cadets—W. M. Egglestone, W. J. Craig

Inspectors of Machinery, Engineer Surveyors of Steamers and Surveyors of Ships, and Examiners of Engineers and Engine-drivers :—

Auckland — H. Wetherilt, W. R. Douglas, N. D. Hood

Wanganui—S. Dalrymple

Wellington—A. Calvert, P. Grant, C. W. R. Suisted, W. Cullen, A. Ramsay

Nelson—A. McVicar

Christchurch—P. J. Carman

Timaru—J. Williamson

Dunedin—A. Walker, M. Sharp

Invercargill—A. W. Bethune

Board of Examiners of Stationary, Traction, Locomotive, and Winding Engine Drivers — Robert Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, M.Inst.Nav.A., M.Inst.Soc.A.Lond., Chairman; John Hayes, F.S.G.C., Inspecting Engineer of Mines; P. S. Hay, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.; R. P. Milne, Secretary


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. James Carroll

Secretary for Stamps—C.A.St.G. Hickson

Chief Clerk—C. H. W. Dixon

Accountant—J. P. Murphy

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Clerks—V. Willeston, J. Murray

Chief Stamper—C. Howe

Cadette—C. McIntosh

Cadet—F. Acheson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Gisborne—R. N. Jones

Taranaki—T. Hutchison

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui — D. Miller

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—C. E. Nalder

Canterbury—P. G. Withers

Timaru—W. McHutchison

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—R. W. Dyer

Westland—V. G. Day


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—T. Hutchison

Wellington—Wm. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Poverty Bay—R. N. Jones

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—C. E. Nalder

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges

Otago—W. Wyinks

Southland—R. W. Dyer

Westland—V. G. Day


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—T. Hutchison

Wellington—H. Howorth

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Poverty Bay—R. N. Jones

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—C. E. Nalder

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges

Otago—W. Wyinks

Southland—R. W. Dyer

Westland—V. G. Day


C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—T. Hutchison

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—C. H. W. Dixon

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—C. E. Nalder

Canterbury—P. G. Withers

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—R. W. Dyer

Westland—V. G. Day

Poverty Bay—R. N. Jones


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools—George Hogben, M.A.

Assistant Secretary—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Chief Clerk—F. K. de Castro

Clerks—R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne, F. D. Thomson, B.A., H. J. Barrett, T. G. Gilbert, J. Beck, I. Davey

Cadets—I. Robertson, B.A., C.T. Wild, B.A., M. G. D. Grant, G. P. Prichard, J. F. Cooper, F. W. Millar, A. J. H. Benge, J. Turner, K. McKenzie, H. V. Croxton, I. Johnstone

Temporary Clerks—B. Stocker, M.A., H. J. Bathgate, C. G. Knight, C. G. Rees, T. McInerney

Inspector of Native Schools — W. W. Bird, M.A.

Inspectors of Technical Instruction—M. H. Browne, E. C. Isaac

Assistant Inspectors of Industrial Schools—R. H. Pope (also clerk), T. A. Walker, Miss J. Stewart (also Visiting Officer to “Inmates” at Service, &c.)

Visiting Officers to “Inmates” of Industrial Schools at Service, &c.—E. G. Hyde, Miss J. Stewart, Mrs. A. Young

Officer in charge of Public School Cadets—Lieut.-Colonel L. W. Loveday


Auckland—V. E. Rice

Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe

Wanganui—W. J. Carson

Wellington—G. L. Stewart

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin

Marlborough—J. Smith

Nelson—S. Ellis

Grey—H. Smith, B.A.

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.

Canterbury North—H. C. Lane

Canterbury South—A. Bell, M.A.

Otago—P. G. Pryde

Southland—J. Neill


(Administrators of Education Reserves, with Names of Secretaries).

Auckland—H. N. Garland

Taranaki—F. P. Corkill

Wellington—J. H. N. Wardrop

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford

Marlborough—J. Smith

Nelson—A. T. Jones

Westland—A. J. Morton

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman

Otago—C. Macandrew


Government Schools.

Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

Wellington Receiving Home—Mrs. E. S. Dick, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Archey, Manager

Te Oranga Home (Canterbury)—Mrs. E. T. Branting, Manager

Christchurch Receiving Home—Miss A. B. Cox, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—G. M. Burlinson, Manager

Official Correspondent for Boarded-out Children, Otago — Miss J. Sievwright

Private Schools.

St. Mary's Industrial School, Auckland — Rev. G. H. Gillan, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. W. J. Lewis, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. George Mahony, Manager

St. Vincent de Paul's Industrial School, Dunedin — Right Rev. M. Verdon, Manager


Director—G. van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle


Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.*

* Also holds appointment of Inspector of Hospitals and Charitable Institutions.

Assistant Inspectors—J. F. S. Hay, M.B., C.M., and Mrs. Grace Neill

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—R. M. Beattie, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Porirua Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum—W. Baxter Cow, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. Truby King, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum—John Downey; Medical Officer, H. Macandrew, M.B.

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison; Medical Officer, W. J. Mackie, M.D.

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum)—Proprietors, Dr. E. W. Alexander and Executor of James Hume; Medical Officer, E. H. Alexander, M.B., C.M.



Minister of Mines—Hon. James McGowan

Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliot

Inspecting Engineer—John Hayes

Chief Clerk—T. H. Hamer

Clerk—H. E. Radcliffe

Analyst—J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc., F.C.S.

Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard

Shorthand Writer—J. T. Watkins

Cadet—T. H. Sherwood


Thames and Auckland Districts—James Coutts; Assistant Inspector, Thomas Ryan: Canterbury, Dunedin, and Southland Districts—E. R. Green; Assistant Inspector, Robert McIntosh; Cadet, H. Paton: West Coast Districts—R. Tennent; Assistant Inspector—A. H. Richards, Cadet—A. J. Ching


Secretary—P. Galvin


Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken

Mount Ida—R. Murray


Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—O. G. Adams; Assistant, A. H. V. Morgan, M.A.: Reefton—J. Henderson: Coromandel — D. V. Allen: Waihi—P. G. Morgan, M.A.


The Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop; and H. A. Gordon


Same official members as above Board, excepting the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Auckland; Thomas Aitken Dunlop, Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, Reefton; and Francis Hodge, Coromandel

The Surveyor-General is Chairman of both Boards, and Mr. T. H. Hamer is the Secretary


Minister of Defence—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.


Senior Clerk—T. F. Grey

Clerk—A. J. Baker

Commandant of the N.Z. Forces.

Colonel James Melville Babington, H.M. General Staff (local Major-General)

Staff Officer of Artillery.

Major St. Leger Montgomery Moore, N.Z.M. (Captain R.G.A.)

Staff Officer Engineer Service—Captain Alick Christopher Robinson, N.Z.M. (Lieut. R.E.)

Inspecting Officer Defence Cadet Volunteers and Defence Rifle Clubs—Captain John Gethin Hughes, D.S.O., N.Z.M.

Commandant Military School of Instruction, Wellington.

Lieut.-Colonel Robert Haylock Owen, N.Z.M. (late Captain. H.M. South Lancashire Regiment)

Defence Store Department.

Storekeeper—J. O'Sullivan


Officer Commanding—Major St. Leger Montgomery Moore, N.Z.M. (Captain R.G.A.)

Royal New Zealand Artillery.

Captain J. E. Hume

Lieutenant H. E. Pilkington

Lieutenant W. P. Wall

Lieutenant M. M. Gardner

Lieutenant G. E. B. Mickle

Lieutenant R. O. Chesney

Lieutenant S. G. Sandle

Royal New Zealand Engineers.

Lieutenant F. Symon

Lieutenant R. B. Smythe

Surgeon, Permanent Force (Wellington).

H. A. H. Gilmer

Surgeon, Permanent Force (Auckland).

John A. Laing, M.D.

Surgeon, Permanent Force (Lyttelton).

C. H. Upham, M.R.C.S.E.

Honorary Chaplain, Lyttelton Detachment Permanent Force.

Rev. E. E. Chambers

Honorary Chaplain, Wellington Detachment Permanent Force.

Rev. G. P. Davys

Hon. Captain—Robert Fraser (Lieut. R.N.R.)

Hon. Captain — Reginald Moorhouse (Lieut. R.N.R.)

Hon. Lieutenant — John Macpherson

Hon. Lieutenant—William Geo. Nelson

Officers Commanding Militia and Volunteer Districts, and Adjutants.

Auckland — Brevet-Colonel Richard Hutton Davies, C.B., N.Z.M.

Wellington — Brevet - Colonel William Holden Webb, N.Z.M., late H.M. 109th Foot; Adjutant, Captain L. J. Joyce, N.Z.M.

Canterbury — Colonel Thomas William Porter, C.B., N.Z.M.

Otago — Brevet-Colonel Alfred William Robin, C.B., N.Z.M.

Nelson — Major (temporary Lieut.-Colonel) George Cecil Burleigh Wolfe, N.Z.M., late Captain R.M.L.I.; Adjutant, Lieut. (temporary Captain) Sydney Vincent. Trask, N.Z.M.



Minister of Lands—Hon. Thomas Young Duncan

Surveyor-General and Secretary for Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant

Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—W. C. Kensington

Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Chief Clerk—F. T. O'Neill

Auditor of Land Revenue—W. G. Runcie

Accountant—R. A. Paterson

Superintendent of Village Settlements—J. E. March


Assistant Surveyor-General, Chief Surveyor, and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. J. Mueller

District Surveyors—J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin, H. D. M. Haszard, T. K. Thompson, R. S. Galbraith, D. A. I. Barron

Assistant Surveyors—A. G. Allom, H. F. Edgecumbe

Chief Draughtsman—C. R. Pollen

Receiver of Land Revenue — T. M. Taylor


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—E. C. Gold Smith

District Land Officer, Gisborne, F. S. Smith

District Surveyors—F. S. Smith. James Hay, P. A. Dalziel

Assistant. Surveyor—T. Brook

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Mackenzie

District Surveyors—H. M. Skeet, G. H. Bullard, J. F. Frith, W. T. Morpeth

Chief Draughtsman—J. Langmuir

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. A. Cullen


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Stranchon

District Surveyors—J. D. Climie, F. A. Thompson, H. J. Lowe, W. J. Wheeler, J. McKay

Assistant Surveyor—J. R. Strachan, H. E. Girdlestone, E. A. Marchant

Chief Draughtsman—L. Smith

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. G. Wait


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—W. G. Murray

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, J. Snodgrass, R. T. Sadd, J. D. Thomson

Assistant Surveyor—W. C. McAlister

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—H. Trent


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. W. Adams

District Surveyor—D. W. Gillies

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—W. Armstrong


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. J. Roberts

District Surveyor—W. Wilson

Chief Draughtsman—T. M. Grant

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. D. A. Macfarlane


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyor—T. N. Broderick, G. H. M. McClure

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—David Barron

District Surveyors—E. H. Wilmot, D. M. Calder, W. T. Neill

Chief Draughtsman—S. Thompson

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—John Hay

District Surveyors—L. O. Mathias, H. Maitland

Chief Draughtsman—G. Robinson

Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch


Auckland—G. J. Mueller, J. Renshaw, A. R. Harris, M. W. Armstrong, H. J. Greenslade

Hawke's Bay — E. C. Gold Smith, T. Hyde, R. R. Groom, C. R. Baines

Taranaki — J. Mackenzie, J. Heslop, James Rattenbury, J. B. Connett, J. McCluggage

Wellington—J. Strauchon, A. Reese, J. Stevens, T. H. Robinson, J. Dawson

Nelson—W. G. Murray, O. Lynch, R. Kerr, J. S. Wratt, G. Walker

Marlborough—C. W. Adams, J. Redwood, A. P. Seymour, H. M. Reader, G. Renner

Westland—G. J. Roberts, A. Matheson, J. S. Lang, A. Cumming, M. Pollock

Canterbury — T. Humphries, A. C. Pringle, J. Sealy, J. Allan, J. Stevenson

Otago—D. Barron, H. H. Kirkpatrick, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—J. Hay, A. Kinross, J. McIntyre, D. King, J. McLean



Minister in Charge — Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Chief Engineer of Roads—C. W. Hurst-house

Chief Clerk—W. S. Short (solicitor)

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Assistant Accountant—J. R. Smyth

Assistant Road Engineer—E. C. Robinson

Clerks—A. Arthur, J. O. Anson, W. Barclay, F. Blake, C. E. Bennett, J. Connell, A. W. Innes, F. Mueller, J. B. Poynter, N. J. Ryan

Cadette—R. B. Orr

Cadets—E. H. Baker, J. W. Black, J. D. Brosnan. R. F. Madden, G. H. Murray, J. M. Tudhope

District Officers.

District Road Engineers—Auckland, A. B. Wright; Te Kuiti, T. Burd; Rotorua, A. C. Turner; Hawke's Bay, D. N. McMillan; Taranaki, G. T. Murray; Wanganui, R. H. Reaney; Wellington, G. F. Robinson; Marlborough, C. H. Williams; Canterbury, F. B. Wither; Otago, W. D. R. McCurdie; Southland, J. H. Treseder

Assistant Road Engineers—Auckland, A. H. Vickerman; Rotorua, C. B. Turner, E. M. Donaldson; Te Kuiti, W. H. Adams, A. Julian; Wellington, T. Carroll

District Accountants—Auckland, G. A. Kallender: Wellington, R. Howe

Clerks — Auckland, H. J. Kallender; Rotorua, W. J. Wiggs; Te Kuiti, F. H. Sims; Hawke's Bay, P. S. Foley; Taranaki, J. Clarke, C. W. Richards; Wanganui, F. Manson, W. Merson, J. R. Cade; Wellington, P. J. Moran, S. d'A. Grut, T. C. Duncan; Nelson, J. A. Hay; Marlborough, F. H. Ibbetson; Westland, C. McFarlane; Canterbury, P. W. Willson; Otago, W. H. Trimble, R. W. Gill; Southland, M. J. Aitkin

Cadets — Auckland, M. H. Hampson; Wanganui, H. A. Joyce; Southland, J. P. Larkin

Draughtsmen—Auckland, R. C. Anderson; Rotorua, F. I. Ellis; Te Kuiti, J. T. Kirkby; Hawke's Bay, P. S. Reaney, W. H. Gilmour; Taranaki, F. A. Tregelles; Wellington, G. R. Ibbetson

Road Inspectors — Auckland, G. G. Menzies, R. J. Baff, R. R. Menzies, R. Hill, H. H. Thompson, S. R. James, J. Higgins; Rotorua, J. A. Brownlie; Hawke's Bay, T. H. Strauchon, P. Gallagher D. G. Robertson; Taranaki, R. Barron, H. C. Strombon, E. Julian, R. D. Tosswill; Wanganui, A. L. Soufflot, R. S. Summers, G. Sutherland, W. Waters; Wellington, W. Nathan, B. Wolff, J. C. Scott, C. Hardinge; Nelson, J. F. Rasmussen; Westland, W. Adair; Canterbury, R. H. Young, U. Hurrell; Otago, H. C. Sutton; Southland, B. Marr, W. Y. Millar

Bridge Inspectors — Te Kuiti, M. W. Forsyth; Wanganui, H. J. Hayns; Wellington, D. Hughes, S. W. Jones

Overseers — Rotorua, W. Fairley, Te Kuiti, W. J. Worthington, W. Bond, J. Williamson; Hawke's Bay, J. Allison; Taranaki, W. Rigg: Wanganui, J. A. Rutherford, E. A. Vine; Wellington, W. Boyden, G. Whittaker, W. Whittaker; Nelson, W. Morris; Marlborough, T. James; Westland, R. Rothwell, W. L. Fleming, A. M. Beer; Otago, P. Fitzpatrick



Chairman of Board and Land Purchase Inspector—Alexander Barron

The Board consists of the Land Purchase Inspector as Chairman, the Surveyor - General, the Commissioner of Taxes—these for the whole colony—with the Commissioners of Crown Lands and a resident in the land district in which the land under negotiation is situated, who are members only for the business arising within their respective districts.


Minister in Charge—Hon. T. Y. Duncan


Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—J. D. Ritchie

Chief Clerk—R. Evatt

Clerk in Charge of Correspondence Branch—F. S. Pope

Clerk in Charge of Accounts Branch—J. E. D. Spicer

Clerks—Correspondence Branch: F. C. Hjorring, R. W. Atkinson, D. Sinclair, T. D. H. Hall, W. A. Pye. Accounts Branch — E. Fitzgibbon, F. C. Matthews, A. Callcott, A. E. Rowden, S. T. K. Sharp, A. McTaggart


Pathologist and Chief Veterinarian—J. A. Giluth, M.R.C.V.S.

Assistant Chief Veterinarian — C. J. Reakes, M.R.C.V.S.

Laboratory Assistant—G. H. Barker

Clerks—H. E. Carey, D. L. Luxford, C. Aston

Veterinarians (Ms.R.C.V.S.) — H. C. Wilkie (F.R.C.V.S., F.Z.S.), Dunedin; J. Lyons, Auckland; C. R. Neale, Gisborne; A. R. Young, New Plymouth; S. Burton, Palmerston North; J. G. Clayton, Wellington

Veterinarians and Meat Inspectors (Ms.R.C.V.S.) — A. Crabb, Christchurch; D. H. Rait, Hastings; J. R. Charlton, Islington; T. G. Lilico, Timaru; J. A. K. Towers, Ngahauranga; D. Machattie, Ashburton; J. Kerrigan, Invercargill; V. A. Bankes, Wanganui; F. C. Robertson, Belfast; W. H. Hawthorn, Auckland; W. G. Taylor, Napier; W. D. Snowball, Dunedin; A. W. Barnes, Nelson; T. Cunningham, Mataura; D. Spilman, Petone; P. M. Edgar, Aramoho; F. Glover, Waitara; W. C. Quinnell, Pareora

Meat Inspectors—H. S. S. Kyle, Invercargill; H. Marsack, Auckland; F. Beattie, Paeroa; J. Jarman, Thames; C. J. Barron, Blenheim; G. W. Mitchell, Lyttelton; E. T. B. Worthy, Hawera; T. J. Reakes, New Plymouth; F. Stewart, Gore

Assistant Meat Inspectors — A. G. Howard, A. D. Gillies, J. Mille, W. H. Rodney, G. W. Rait, B. Thomson, H. W. Binney, J. Preston, B. Ferguson, G. Thomson, C. J. Stone, T. Anderson, S. T. Evatt, W. A. P. Sutton, W. S. Carswell, A. M. R. Mills, W. C. Moore, J. C. Mackley, W. T. Wynyard, G. B. Williams


Dairy Commissioner—J. A. Kinsella

Clerk—D. Bray

Dairy Instructors—W. M. Singleton, A. G. Shirley, J. Pedersen

Dairy Instructors and Dairy - produce Graders, D. Cuddie, D. Dickie, W. Wright, Wellington; S. A. Dumbleton, Patea; L. Hansen, New Plymouth

Dairy-produce Graders—A. A. Thornton, Lyttelton and Port Chalmers; J. Johnston, New Plymouth; E. Townshend, Auckland; E. A. Dowden, Wellington

Clerks to Graders—J. Fleming, R. F. Crosbie, J. Hutton


Biologist—T. W. Kirk, F.L.S.

Assistant Biologist—A. H. Cockayne

Clerks—J. H. Kingdon, B. Clarry

Assistant Entomologist—Auckland, Captain T. Broun, F.E.S.

Pomologists — North Island, W. J. Palmer, W. A. Boucher. South Island, J. C. Blackmore

Fruit Inspectors—Auckland, Captain T. Broun, F.E.S.; Wellington, H. Palethorpe; Christchurch, A. C. Smale; Dunedin, A. F. Cargill


Poultry Expert—D. D. Hyde

Clerk—G. A. Ross

Poultry Graders — Auckland, R. W. Pounsford; Wellington, T. Burke; Christchurch, S. Newton; Dunedin, T. F. Leihy

Poultry-station Managers—Ruakura, C. Cussen; Momohaki, H. C. Collett; Burnham, Leslie Hill; Milton, F. Brown


Chief Fibre Expert—C. J. Fulton.

Fibre Graders—Auckland, W. H. O. Johnston; Wellington, R. T. Bell, W. H. Middlemiss; Bluff, W. J. Shea

Clerk, Wellington—H. Wynn-Williams


Viticultural Expert—R. Bragato

Vine Inspector—A. T. Potter


Superintendent of Bone-sterilising — F. G. Lawrie


Chemist—B. C. Aston, F.C.S.

Assistant Chemist — H. W. Lawrence, F.C.S.

Laboratory Assistant—


Compiler of Statistics—E. B. Burdekin

Clerk—A. C. Philpott


Overseers — Waerenga, N. Kensington; Ruakura, M. Mulcahy; Weraroa, G. Ross; Momohaki, F. Gillanders; Te Mata (Hawke's Bay), S. F. Anderson

Clerks—Ruakura, D. Edwards; Weraroa D. N. Cole


Caretakers — Auckland, Thomas Hill; Wellington, J. P. Ross; Lyttelton, W. J. Thomas


Auckland District — Ohaeawai, D. A. Graham; Whangarei, *J. T. Stone; Auckland, *E. Clifton (in charge of district), F. H. Brittain, R. Hull, Hamilton, *D. Ross; Kihikihi, J. Kerr; Tauranga, A. H. Burkill

Hawke's Bay District — Gisborne. * C. Thomson and D. Fleming; Wairoa, *W. R. Rutherfurd; Napier, *W. Miller (in charge of district); Hastings, F. G. Wayne; Woodville, J. Harvey

* Also Registrar of Brands.

Wairarapa District—Masterton, *G. H. Jenkinson (in charge of district); Carterton, T. C. Webb

Wellington District — Wellington, *A. Mills (in charge of district), J. Drummond (port)

Manawatu District—Palmerston North, *J. Duncan (in charge of district)

West Coast (North Island) District—Hunterville, V. A. Huddleston; Wanganui, *A. K. Blundell (in charge of district); Hawera, *J. W. Deem; Stratford, J. Budge; New Plymouth, R. Rowan

Marlborough District — Blenheim, *J. Moore (in charge of district)

Canterbury District — Rotherham, *J. Munro; Rangiora, C. A. Cunningham; Christchurch, *H. T. G. Turner (in charge of district); Lincoln, J. C. Miller; Ashburton, B. Fullarton; Timaru, J. C. Huddleston; Fairlie, W. Black

Southern District — Dunedin, T. A. Fraser, Assistant Chief Inspector in charge of district). *J. E. Thomson (port); Kurow, W. Wills; Oamaru, *A. Ironside; Palmerston South, H. Hill; Mosgiel, R. I. Gossage; Naseby, C. Shaw; Clyde. *S. M. Taylor; Lawrence, *G. McLeod; Milton, T. Gillespie; Balclutha, J. L. Bruce; Gore, W. Dalgliesh; Invercargill, *R. Wright; Bluff, J. W. Raymond (port); Riverton, T. Gilmour; Queenstown, R. Fountain

Westland District — Hokitika, *C. C. Empson (in charge of district)

Nelson District—Nelson, G. S. Cooke (in charge of district)

Relieving Inspector of Stock, D. Munro


(The Inspectors of Stock marked * are also Registrars of Brands.)

Auckland, W. C. Robinson; Wanganui, D. Bell; Nelson, A. T. P. Hubbard

Clerks—Auckland, W. C. Robinson; Napier, R. M. Miller, W. McN. Miller; Masterton, R. J. Harcombe; Wellington, V. A. Mills; Palmerston North, W. Nettlefold; Wanganui, D. Bell; Blenheim, G. J. Ward; Christchurch, J. Longton, R. F. Crosbie; Timaru, W. Pogson; Dunedin, R. F. Cameron; Lawrence. E. Fowler; Invercargill, J. W. Bell, R. L. Johnston


(The Inspectors of Stock are also Inspectors under the Slaughtering Act.)

F. Beattie, Paeroa; J. Jarman, Thames; E. T. B. Worthy, Hawera; A. Macpherson, Christchurch; F. Stewart, Gore


(The Inspectors of Stock are also Inspectors of Dairies.)

Auckland, G. M. Williamson; Paeroa, F. Beattie; Thames, J. Jarman; Napier, J. G. Parker; New Plymouth, T. J. Reakes; Hawera, E. T. B. Worthy; Wellington, J. Drummond; Lyttelton, G. W. Mitchell; Christchurch, A. Macpherson; Blenheim, C. J. Barron; Dunedin, W. R. Brown; Nelson, A. T. P. Hubbard; Gore, F. Stewar


(The Inspectors of Stock are also Inspectors of Noxious Weeds.)

Napier, J. G. Parker; Matapu, J. Heslop; Waitara, J. M. Hignett; Dunedin, W. R. Brown; Invercargill, M. O'Meara; Nelson, A. T. P. Hubbard; Hamilton, E. Seddon; Otahuhu, A. Dickson; Hamilton, J. G. Scott; Hunterville, R. Crockett; Stratford, F. Arden


(The Inspectors of Stock are also Inspectors under the Rabbit Nuisance Act.)


Cambridge, J. S. Scott, R. Alexander; Kihikihi, B. Bayly; Pahiatua, T. Bacon; Masterton, J. Halligan; Taueru, H. Munro; Alfredton, H. S. Ussher; Carterton, A. C. Hackworth; Johnsonville, W. Ross; Levin, W. S. Goodall; Blenheim, G. Gee; Martin-borough, W. R. Taylor; Kaikoura, F. W. Sutton; Mount Somers, C. Watson; Fairlie, W. Johnston; Timaru. D. Elliott; Waimate, E. F. Sullivan; Hanmer, C. S. Neville; Kurow, C. S. Dalgleish; Maheno, F. McKenzie; Inch Valley, M. McLeod; Waikouaiti, F. Urquhart; Taieri, H. McLeod; Otago Peninsula, A. Munro; Sutton, R. Irving; Waipiata, B. Grant; Clyde, A. Clarke; Roxburgh, J. G. Johnston; Lawrence, D. Maider; Pembroke, H. A. Munro; Milton, C. Branigan; Owaka, F. W. Blair; Tapanui, A. C. Clapcott; Clinton, T. P. Short; Gore, A. Hughes; Lumsden, W. M. Munro; Wyndha, D. McLeod, J. C. Robinson; Invercargill. J. McKellar; Riverton, T. N. Baxter


Minister in Charge—Hon. C. H. Mills.

Valuer General—John McGowan

Deputy Valuer-General—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Clerk in Charge—A. E. Fowler

Clerks—H. L. Wggins, G. Halliday, J. T. Bolt, J. Atkinson, E. J. R. Cumming, C. J. Lovatt

Draughtsman—H. H. Seed

Officers in Charge — A. J. McGowan, Auckland: R. Hepworth, Christchurch; A. Clothier, Dunedin; T. Oswin, Invercargill

District Valuers—James I. Wilson, jun., Whangarei; W. Garrett, J. J. Reynolds, Auckland; W. H. Wallis, Hamilton; W. E. Griffin, Napier; H. J. C. Coutts, Hawera; S. Hill, New Plymouth; A. Barns, Wanganui; R. Gardner, Palmerston North; J. Fraser, Masterton; J. Ames, Wellington; T. W. Caverhill, Petone; E. Kenny, Picton; J. Glen, Nelson; J. Webster, Hokitika; A. D. Bayfield, Westport; H. Murray, Christchurch; A. Freeman, Christchurch; A. Allan, Timaru; E. A. Atkinson. Oamaru; W. L. Craig, Palmerston South; J. Wright, Dunedin; R. Milne, Milton; J. George, Queenstown; John Smaill, Gore; Charles Rout, A. Pyper, Invercargill

Clerks—Auckland, T. C. Somers; Christchurch, J. M. Wheeler, A. Millar; Dunedin,; Invercargill, C. de R. Andrews

Cadets— Auckland, E. Panting; Wellington, F. C. Douglas; Invercargill. D. Corcoran

Cadettes—Auckland, F. B. Robertson; Wellington, G. E. Davidson, M. F. McLean; Christchurch, N. Smythe; Dunedin, M. J. Drysdale


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson, F.F.A., F.I.A.V.

Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Accountant—G. W. Barltrop

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Assistant Actuary—P. Muter

Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven

Office Examiner—G. A. Kennedy

Clerks—J. W. Kinniburgh, A. Avery, W. S. Smith, A. H. Hamerton, F. B. Bolt, T. L. Barker, A. L. B. Jordan, H. S. Manning, C. E. Galwey, A. T. Traversi, G. Webb, F. K. Kelling, J. B. Young, H. Rose. R. P. Hood, G. A. N. Campbell, J. A. Thomson, A. de Castro, R. T. Smith, H. L. Levestam, C. J. Alexander, S. P. Hawthorne, J. G. Reid, C. H. E. Stichbury, J. R. Samson, R. Fullerton, A. H. Johnstone, G. S. Nicoll, R. S. Latta, T. Fouhy, G. E. Sadd, W. H. Woon, W. Spence, J. J. Feeney, W. J. Ewart, H. Wylie, T. M. Dimant, B. Trevithick

Chief Messenger—W. Archer


District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerk—C. H. Ralph


Resident Agent—J. H. Dean


Resident Agent—A. E. Allison

Clerk—F. D. Banks


District Manager and Supervisor of New Business—G. Robertson

Chief Clerk—M. J. K. Heywood

Clerks — W. C. Marchant, A. M. McDonald, G. H. Brialey


Resident Agent — A. P. Burnes


Resident Agent — Geo. Crichton


District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—J. W. H. Wood

Clerks—G. J. Robertson, H. Mouat


Resident Agent—S. T. Wicksteed


Resident Agent—A. W. G. Burnes


District Manager—R. S. McGowan

Chief Clerk—O. H. Pinel

Clerk—A. Marryatt


Resident Agent—J. Findlay

Clerk—J. Hendry


Public Trustee—J. W. Poynton

Deputy Public Trustee and Chief Clerk—A. A. K. Duncan

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Inspector—T. S. Ronaldson

Accountant—T. D. Kendall

Examiner—A. Purdie

Clerks—T. Stephens, P. Fair, C. Zachariah, P. Hervey, E. C. Reeves, W. A. Fordham, G. A. Smyth, A. J. Cross, E. A. Smythe, K. N. H. Brown, W. Barr, E. O. Hales, S. W. Smith, C. A. Goldsmith, H. Masters, R. Price, N. M. Chesney, H. Turner, C. M. Calders, M. E. Nash, J. Menzies, E. P. Hay, R. MacGibbon, S. S. Mackenzie, O. L. Bowley, G. M. Morris, A. C. Bretherton, N. M. Macdagall, A. L. Chappell

District Agent, Christchurch — M. C. Barnett. Clerks, W. S. McGowan, G. P. Purnell, P. A. Devereux, A. K. Hadfield

District Agent, Auckland—E. F. Warren. Clerks, J. B. Jack, V. Adams, C. Robinson, A. R. Jordan

District Agent, Dunedin—F. H. Morice. Clerks, J. Allen, C. F. Young, W. Layburn

District Agent, Greymouth—T. R. Saywell

District Agent, Nelson—E. P. Watkis

West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent and District Agent, New Plymouth—Thomas W. Fisher. Clerks, H. Oswin, A. C Campbell


Minister in Charge—Hon. C. H. Mills.

Superintendent—John McGowan

Deputy Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk — F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Inspecting Accountant — P. Heyes

Clerk in Charge — W. Waddell

Clerks — M. J. Crombie, W. N. Hinchliffe, H. E. Williams, J. E. Thompson, C. B. Collins, W. Auld, A. A. Prichard, A. W. Knowles, T. W. Foote, H. S. O'Rourke, C. D. Wilson, R. G. McLennan. Typist C. T. Fraser

Cadets—A. Tudhope. J. F. O'Leary, T. W. Vickery, J. J. M. Harvey, F. J. R. Gledhill


Minister of Health — Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G.

Director and Chief Health Officer, &c.—J. Malcolm Mason, M.D., D.P.H., &c.

Assistant Chief Health Officers—Dr. Thomas H. Ambrose Valintine, M.R. C.S.Eng., D.P.H., &c.

Wellington: R. H. Makgill, M.D. Edin., D.P.H. Camb.

Native Health Officer — Dr. Maui Pomare

Chief Clerk—J. H. McAlister

Clerks—H. B. Magrath, T. P. Butler, H. Eastgate, J. W. Taylor, L. J. Ell. Typistes, Gwenllian Craig. G. Martelli

Pathologist—J.A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S.

Analysts—Wellington, J. S. McLaurin; Auckland, J. A. Pond; Dunedin, J. G. Black; Christchurch, A. W. Bickerton

District Health Officers — Blenheim, Dr. W. Anderson; Napier, Dr. F. I. De Lisle; Auckland, Dr. J. P. Frengley; Dunedin, Dr. F. Ogston; Christchurch, Dr. H. E. Finch; Greymouth, Dr. C. G. Morice

Port Health Officers—Picton, Dr. W. E. Redman; Oamaru, Dr. A. Douglas; Wanganui, Dr. R. C. Earle; Port Chalmers, Dr. G. Hodges; Wellington, Dr. H. Pollen; Westport, Dr. M. Mackenzie; Greymouth, Dr. C. G. Morice; Timaru, Dr. E. T. Thomas; Onehunga, Dr. W. G. Scott; Auckland, Dr. E. W. Sharman; Kaipara, Dr. F. M. Purchas; Whangarei, Dr. G. B. Sweet; Bluff, Dr. J. Torrance; Lyttelton, Dr. C. H. Upham; Gisborne, Dr. J. W. Williams; Napier, Dr. T. C. Moore; New Plymouth, Dr. H. A. McClelland.

Sanitary Inspectors — Dunedin, W. E. Gladstone; Wellington, C. A. Schauer; New Plymouth, A. H. Kendall; Auckland, C. C. Winstanley; Napier, M. Kershaw; Nelson, C. Middleton; Christchurch, D. Munro; Invercargill, K. Cameron; Marton, F. C. Wilson; Masterton, G. H. Dolby.


Cadets in the Civil Service are required, after arriving at the age of eighteen years, to serve for three years in a Volunteer corps. Heads of Departments are required to see that cadets who come within the regulations join the Volunteer Force, and serve for the period named, and also to notify the Under-Secretary for Defence of the appointment of all cadets coming within this regulation.


THERE is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.



The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871, Primate.

The Right Reverend Moore Richard Neligan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1903.

The Right Rev. William Leonard Williams, D.D., Waiapu; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Frederic Wallis, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.



The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. George Michael Lenihan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1896.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.


The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses, viz.: Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one or other of the dioceses. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia.—President, the Bishop of Dunedin, Primate. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese. The next General Synod will be held in Dunedin, on the 28th January, 1907.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an Archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a Synod is held, presided over by the Bishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the Metropolitan, and attended by all the Suffragan Bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the colony. The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the colony.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The General Assembly will meet on the second Tuesday of November, 1904, in St. John's Church, Wellington; and thereafter, on ordinary occasions, alternately in Wellington and Dunedin. Moderator, the Rev. Michael Watt, D.D., Dunedin; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier; Theological Professors. Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., D.D., and Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D; and Mr. James Dunbar, tutor in Greek.

Methodist Church of Australasia in New Zealand.—The annual New Zealand Conference meets on or about the last Tuesday in February, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1904-5), Rev. S. Lawry, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. C. H. Laws, Dunedin. The next Conference is to meet in Wesley Church, Taranaki Street. Wellington.

Primitive Methodist Connexion.—A Conference takes place every January. The next is to be held at Christchurch, commencing 11th January, 1905. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. E. Drake, Wanganui; Vice-President, J. Embury, Esq., Wellington; Secretary, Rev. R. Raine, Invercargill; Hon. District Secretary, Mr. D. Goldie, Pitt Street, Auckland; Treasurer of Mission Funds, Mr. Joseph Watkinson, Mangere, Auckland.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Gilbert Carson, Esq., Wanganui; Vice-President, Rev. J. M. B. Bennett, B.A., Dunedin; Secretary, Rev. J. North, Oamaru: Treasurer, Mr. A. Chidgey, Christchurch. The Union comprises 39 churches, 25 preaching-stations, 3,885 members, and a constituency of 17,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist, Editor, Rev. F. W. Boreham, Mosgiel. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an average income of £1,200, employs a doctor, a missionary, three zenana ladies, and 13 native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1904-1905, Rev. John Wilkins, Auckland; Chairman-elect, Mr. F. Meadowcroft, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. A. T. Lee, Devonport, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. A. M. Lewis, Wellington; Head Office, Auckland. In 1905 the meeting of the Council will be held at Christchurch. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. I. Zachariah, Christchurch; Rev. A. T. Chodowski, Dunedin; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).


THE defence forces consist of the Royal N.Z. Artillery and Royal N.Z. Engineers, and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers, Field Artillery, Garrison Artillery, Engineers (submarine mining and field), Mounted Rifles, Rifle, Cycle, Bearer companies, and Defence Rifle Clubs. There is a Commander of the Forces, who is an Imperial officer. A Royal Artillery officer is Staff Officer for Artillery. A Royal Engineer officer is Staff Officer for Engineer services. To the Under-Secretary for Defence all questions of expenditure are referred.


A School of Military Instruction has been established, with headquarters at Wellington.


The two islands (North and Middle) are divided into five military districts, each commanded by an officer of Field rank, with an Adjutant and clerical staff, besides a staff of N.C.O.'s, mostly drawn from the Imperial Army, for instruction of Volunteers.


This Force is divided into four detachments, which are stationed at Auckland Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, ordnance stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force has an establishment of 270 rank and file.


This branch is divided between Auckland and Wellington, with small detachments at Lyttelton and Port Chalmers, and has an establishment of 96 of all ranks. They have charge of two submarine mining steamers of the “Sir F. Chapman” class, and of all submarine mining and electric light stores.


There are five batteries of Field Artillery (two in the North Island and three in the Middle Island), with a total of 382 (25 officers, 357 rank and file) of all ranks. They are armed with 15-pounder B.L. and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, on field-carriages, and go into camp annually for sixteen days.


There are five Garrison Artillery Corps in the North Island, and five in the Middle Island, comprising in all a total of 54 officers and 861 rank and file. They go into camp annually for sixteen days.


There are six Engineer corps, two Submarine Mining and four Field corps, with a total strength of 479 of all ranks. The Submarine Miners have cutters, &c., provided, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and other duties pertaining to this branch of the service. Attendance at an annual camp is also compulsory. The Field Engineers, besides carrying rifles, are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for making and blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.


There are forty-two corps of Mounted Rifles in the North Island and thirty-one in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 4,537 of all ranks. These corps go into camp for an annual training of six days.


In this branch of the service there are a hundred and twenty-four corps, fifty-nine being in the North Island and sixty-five in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 7,313 of all ranks, including garrison bands.


There are Volunteer cycle corps at Wellington, Christchurch, Nelson, and Dunedin, of a maximum strength of two officers and twenty-five non-commissioned officers, rank and file: they are attached to the infantry battalions at those centres.


Volunteer bearer corps at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin are of a maximum strength of three officers and fifty non-commissioned officers, rank and file. There is also a bearer corps at Nelson of a maximum strength of two officers and twenty-five non-commissioned officers, rank and file.


There is a force of fifty-three cadet corps—viz., twenty-eight in the North Island and twenty-five in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,773 of all ranks.


These have lately been established by the Government. Members can purchase rifles at cost price from Government. An annual grant of ammunition is made to those members who fulfil conditions as to quarterly drills. There are 100 rifle clubs, comprising 2,416 members.


The whole of the adult portion of the Force have Lee-Enfield carbines or rifles; Cadets being armed with magazine Lee-Enfield and Martini-Enfield carbines. Defence rifle clubs are armed with magazine Lee-Enfield rifles.


Members of the Permanent Forces are enrolled to serve for a period of eight years from enrolment, the last three years of such being in the Reserve; adult Volunteers for three years. The Permanent Forces are principally recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers. After passing the gunnery and other courses and serving three years in the Permanent Forces the men are eligible for transfer to police and prison services.


The Instructors for artillery and engineer and submarine mining corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years' engagement, on completion of which they return to their regiments.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and 5s. to each efficient cadet. One hundred and fifty rounds of ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every adult Volunteer, and fifty rounds to each cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886,” and “The Defence Act Amendment Act, 1890.”


Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.

* The special expenditure on account of contingents for South Africa is not included.


ELEVEN of the crew of the barque “Spirit of the Dawn,” which was wrecked on Antipodes Island on the 4th September, 1893, remained on the island for eighty-eight days without becoming aware of the existence of the dépôt of provisions and clothing for castaways which is established there. Attention is now drawn to the fact that such dépôts are maintained by the New Zealand Government on that island, and on the Auckland, Campbell, Bounty, Kermadec, and Snares Islands.

The following are the positions of the dépôts:—

Auckland Islands.—A dépôt is placed on the south side of Erebus Cove, Port Ross, and another in Camp Cove, Carnley Harbour, and a third at the head of Norman Inlet. One boat is placed on the north-west end of Adams Island, another on Enderby Island, and another on Rose Island.

Campbell Island.—A dépôt is erected in Tucker Cove, Perseverance Harbour, and a boat has been placed at the head of that harbour.

Antipodes Islands.—A dépôt is placed abreast the anchorage on the north-east side of the principal island.

Bounty Islands.—There is a dépôt on the principal island.

Snares Island.—A dépôt has been established on this island in Boat Harbour.

Kermadec Islands.—A dépôt is established on Macaulay Island, near Lava Cascade, on the north-east end of the island, and another on Curtis Island, at the head of Macdonald Cove, on the northwestern end of the island.

Finger-posts to indicate the direction of the dépôts have also been put up.

The Government steamer visits the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Snares Islands twice a year, and the Kermadec Islands once a year, and one of His Majesty's ships calls at the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Bounty Islands twice a year, the visits being made about midway between the trips of the Government steamer.


VESSELS visiting New Zealand, and requiring docking or repairs, will find ample accommodation at the principal ports of the colony.

There are in New Zealand four graving-docks; two of these are situated in Auckland, one at Lyttelton, and one at Port Chalmers.


The Auckland Docks are the property of the Auckland Harbour Board, and cost, with machinery, appliances, &c., £250,300. The dimensions of the docks at Auckland are as follow:—

 Calliope Dock.Auckland Dock.
Length over all525 feet.312 feet.
Length on floor500 feet.300 feet.
Breadth over all110 feet.65 feet.
Breadth on floor40 feet.42 feet.
Breadth at entrance80 feet.43 feet.
Depth of water on sill (at high water ordinary spring tides)33 feet.13 1/2 feet.

Alterations have been made to the lower altars of Calliope Dock which will enable vessels of 63 ft. beam to be docked without any difficulty.

The following is the scale of charges for the use of the Auckland and Calliope Graving Docks and appliances:—

Entrance fee110
For every vessel of 100 tons (gross register), or under, per day500
For every vessel from 101 to 200 tons (gross register), per day600
For every additional ton (gross register), per day002

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates will be allowed when two or three vessels dock on the same tide, and remain in dock the same number of hours, but such reduction will not be allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.

For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there must be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.

For use of steam-kiln, 10s. per day.

For use of pitch furnace, 10s. per day.

Entrance fee550
For all vessels up to 300 tons (gross register), for four days or less2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons (gross register), for four days or less22100
For all vessels 401 to 500 tons (gross register), for four days or less2500
For all vessels 501 to 600 tons (gross register), for four days or less27100
For all vessels 601 to 700 tons (gross register), for four days or less3000
For all vessels 701 to 800 tons (gross register), for four days or less32100
For all vessels 801 to 900 tons (gross register), for four days or less3500
For all vessels 901 to 1,000 tons (gross register), for four days or less37100
For all vessels 1,001 to 1,100 tons (gross register), for four days or less4000
For all vessels 1,101 to 1,200 tons (gross register), for four days or less4500
For all vessels 1,201 tons (gross register) and upwards, for four days or less5000

After the fourth day in dock, the following rates will be charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons (gross register)4d. per ton a day.
For all vessels 501 to 1,000 tons (gross register)3d. per ton a day.
For all vessels 1,001 to 2,000 tons (gross register)2 3/4d. per ton a day.
For all vessels 2,001 to 3,000 tons (gross register)2 1/2d. per ton a day.
For all vessels 3,001 to 4,000 tons (gross register)2 1/4d. per ton a day.
For all vessels 4,001 tons (gross register) and upwards2d. per ton a day.

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates will be allowed when two or three vessels dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours, but such reduction will not be allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are decked at the same time as another vessel.

For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there shall be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.

During the year 1903, 95 vessels of various descriptions, with a total of 33,136 tons, made use of the Auckland Graving Dock, occupying it in all 230 days, for repairs or painting.

In Calliope Dock 17 vessels were docked, with an aggregate tonnage of 27,127, and occupying the dock for 158 days.

Dock dues for the year amounted to £5,261 17s. 10d.

Under arrangement with the Admiralty, a complete plant of the most efficient and modern machinery has been provided at Calliope Dock-yard. The workshops are now erected, and all the machinery is placed in position, with the exception of the shear-legs. This plant includes 80-ton shear-legs complete, trolly to carry 80 tons and rails, 10-ton steam crane at side of dock, engines, boilers, overhead travellers; planing, shaping, and slotting machines; radial drills, vertical drills, band-saws for iron, punching and shearing machines, plate-bending rolls; 24 in.-centre gantry lathe, 70 ft. bed; 9 in. and 12 in. gantry lathes, milling - machines, emery - grinders, screwing - machines, ditto for pipes, horizontal boring - machines, Root's blower, smiths' forges (six), coppersmith's forge, levelling-slabs, steam - hammers, lead-furnace, wall-cranes, zinc-bath, plate-furnace, jib-crane for foundry, circular-saw bench, band-saw for wood, lathe for wood, general joiner, carpenters' benches (four), kiln for steaming boards, Fox's trimmer, cupola to melt 5 tons of metal, countersinking machine, pipe-bending machine, tools of various descriptions, moulders' bins, force-pumps for testing pipes, vice-benches, electric-light engines, dynamos (two), &c.; and all other appliances and machinery required to render the plant adequate to repair any of His Majesty's ships upon the station, or any merchant vessel visiting the port. The dock and machinery will be available for use, when not required for His Majesty's vessels, in effecting repairs to any merchant vessel requiring same. Electric lights have been provided for workshops, dock, and dockyard. The dockyard is now connected by telephone with the central exchange. An abundant supply of the purest fresh water is available at Calliope Dock and Calliope Wharf; and a most complete establishment of up-to-date machinery and appliances has been provided.


The Port of Wellington has no dock; but there is a well-equipped patent slip at Evans Bay, on which vessels of 2,000 tons can be safely hauled up. This slip is the property of a private company, and is in no way connected with the Harbour Board. It is 1,070ft. long, with a cradle 260ft. in length. There is a depth of 32ft. at high water at the outer end of the slip. A dolphin and buoys are laid down for swinging ships in Evans Bay.

The company has convenient workshops, which contain machinery necessary for effecting all ordinary repairs to vessels using the slip.

During the year ending 31st March, 1903, 101 vessels of various sizes, of an aggregate of 39,872 tons, were taken up on the slip for repairs, cleaning, painting, &c. The charges for taking vessels on the slip and launching them are 1s. per ton on the gross tonnage for the first full twenty-four hours, and 6d. per ton per day afterwards, unless by special agreement.


The Graving-dock at Lyttelton, which is the property of the Harbour Board, is capable of docking men-of-war, or almost all of the large ocean steamers now running to the colony. Its general dimensions are: Length over all, 503ft.; length on floor, 450ft.; length inside caisson at a height of 4 ft. above the floor, 462 ft.; breadth over all, 82ft.; breadth on floor, 46ft.; breadth at entrance, 62ft.; breadth where ship's bilge would be, on 6ft. blocks, 55ft.; depth of water on sill at high-water springs, 23ft.

The scale of charges for the use of the dock and pumping machinery are as follow:—

For all vessels up to 300 tons, for four days or less2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons, four days or less22100
For all vessels 401 to 500 tons, four days or less2500
For all vessels 501 to 600 tons, four days or less27100
For all vessels 601 to 700 tons, four days or less3000
For all vessels 701 to 800 tons, four days or less32100
For all vessels 801 to 900 tons, four days or less3500
For all vessels 901 to 1,000 tons, four days or less37100
For all vessels 1,001 to 1,100 tons, four days or less4000
For all vessels 1,101 to 1,200 tons, four days or less4500
For all vessels 1,201 tons and upwards, four days or less5000

After the fourth day in dock, the following rates are charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2 3/4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels 2,001 tons up to 3,000 tons2 3/4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels 3,001 tons up to 4,000 tons2 1/4 per ton per day.
For all vessels 4,001 tons up to 5,000 tons2d. per ton per day.

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours. Two vessels of 1,000 tons each can be docked at the same time. The 20-per-cent. rebate is not allowed if any of the Lyttelton Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel. The twenty-four hours constituting the first day of docking commences from the time of the dock being pumped out.

Any vessel belonging to H.M. Navy or any colonial Government, or any commissioned ship belonging to any foreign nation, is admitted into the graving dock without payment of the usual dock dues, but is charged only such sum as is necessary for the reimbursement of actual expenditure of stores, wages, and materials.

There are electric lights, one on each side of the graving-dock; and there is a workshop alongside the dock, and several other engineering works within a short distance of it, where repairs and heavy foundry-work can be undertaken.

The graving dock and machinery cost £105,000. The interest and sinking fund on that sum, at 6 1/2 per cent., amounts to £6,825 per annum. Since its construction, the dock dues for the twenty-one years, ended 31st December, 1903, amounted to £21,711 4s. 11d., and the working expenses to £13,041 5s. 4d., leaving a credit balance for twenty-one years, ended 31st December, 1903, of £8,669 19s. 7d.

During the year 1903 twenty-seven vessels were docked, and the dock dues amounted to £1,228 0s. 1d. For the twenty-one years, ending 1903, 429 vessels were docked, or an average of about twenty-one a year.


Alongside the graving dock is a patent slip, with a cradle 150ft. in length, suitable for vessels of 300 tons. It belongs to the Harbour Board.

The following is the scale of charges:—

Up to 75 tons gross register, £4 for five days, and 10s. per day after the fifth day.

Over 75 tons and up to 150 tons gross register, £6 for five days, and 15s. per day after fifth day.

Over 150 tons and up to 250 tons gross register, £8 for five days, and 20s. per day after fifth day.

Over 250 tons gross register, £10 for five days, and 20s. per day after fifth day.

A day to mean between sunrise and sunset.

The above rates cover the cost of all labour connected with hauling up and launching (the crew of the vessel to give their assistance as may be required), and the cost of blocking a vessel and shifting the blocks after hauling up.


The dock at Port Chalmers is vested in the Otago Dock Trust, a body entirely distinct from the Otago Harbour Board. Vessels of large size can be taken in the Otago Dock, as the following measurements will show:—

Length over all335 feet.
Length on the floor328 feet.
Breadth over all68 feet.
Breadth on floor41 feet.
Breadth where ship's bilge would be43 feet.
Breadth at dock gates50 feet.
Depth of water on sill at high-water (ordinary spring tides)17 1/2 feet.

Connected with the Otago Dock are a large machine-shop, steam-hammer, and forge, with all the appliances necessary for performing any work that may be required by vessels visiting the port. An 80-ton shear-legs has also been erected for heavy lifts.

There is also a patent slip, used for taking up small vessels.

‘All vessels using the Otago Graving Dock are liable to dock dues according to the following scale (unless under special contract), revised since the beginning of 1896:—

Vessels under 200 tons, for the first three days, or part of three days2500
Vessels of 200 tons, and under 800 tons3500
Vessels of 800 tons and upwards5000

And for every day, or part of a day, after the first three days:—

Vessels under 300 tons8d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 300 tons and under 400 tons7 3/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 400 tons and under 500 tons7 1/2d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 500 tons and under 600 tons7 1/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 600 tons and under 700 tons7d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 700 tons and under 800 tons6 3/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 800 tons and under 900 tons6 1/2d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 900 tons and under 1,000 tons6 1/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 1,000 tons and upwards6d. per register ton per day.

During the twelve months ended 31st December, 1903, the dock was in use 214 working-days. The number of vessels docked was fifty-two, having a total registered tonnage of 46,212.

Chapter 23. HARBOURS.


PILOTAGE, port charges, berthage charges, &c., at fourteen of the principal harbours in New Zealand, as on the 1st January, 1904 (compiled by Mr. C. Hood Williams, Secretary to the Lyttelton Harbour Board):—


Pilotage (not compulsory): Sailing-vessels, inwards and outwards, 3d. per ton each way.

Steamers, inwards and outwards, 2d. per ton each way when services of pilot are taken.

Pilotage includes the removal fee to or from the berth at 1d. per ton.

Port charges: 3d. per ton half-yearly (on all vessels over 15 tons) in one payment. Steamers arriving for coal, stores, water, or for receiving or landing mails or passengers and their luggage, which do not come to any wharf or receive or discharge cargo within the port, are exempt from port charges.

Harbourmaster's fees: 1d. per ton. Vessels paying pilotage are exempt.

Exemption berthage certificates are given to competent masters in the coastal and intercolonial trades, but not to those in foreign trade.

Berthage: Every person who shall use any wharf with any vessel shall pay for the use thereof—Ferry steamers, 10s. to £1 10s. per month; other vessels under 20 tons, 6d. and 1s. per day, not exceeding 10s. per quarter. For every vessel not included in the above, 1/4d. per ton per day. Outside berths, 1/8d. per ton per day.


Pilotage (not compulsory): Sailing-vessels over 100 tons, first 100 tons, 6d. per ton; every ton over 100 tons, 2d. per ton. Into and out of Turanganui River: Sailing-vessels, 3d. per ton; sailing-vessels towed, 2d. per ton; steamers, 2d. per ton.

Port charges: Vessels, intercolonial or foreign, 1d. per ton on arrival, not to exceed 3d. per ton in any three months; vessels, coastal, over 200 tons, 1d. per ton on arrival, not to exceed 3d. per ton in any three months; vessels, coastal, 200 tons and under, 3d. per ton on arrival, not to exceed 3d. per ton in any three months.

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage alongside the wharves: Per day or part, under 50 tons, 5s.; over 50 tons and up to 75 tons, 7s. 6d.; over 75 tons up to 100 tons, 10s.; for every additional 50 tons or fraction thereof, 2s. 6d. Vessels discharging outside of bars to pay half foregoing dues. Steamers to pay double rates as per tonnage; and in all cases sailing-vessels to make way for steamers.


Pilotage (not compulsory): Into Inner Harbour—Sailing-vessels, 4d. per ton: steamers, 3d. per ton. To roadstead—First 100 tons, sailing-vessels, 6d. per ton; steamers, 3d. per ton. Every ton over 100 tons—Sailing-vessels, 2d. per ton; steamers, 1d. per ton. Into Breakwater Harbour—First 100 tons, sailing vessels, 6d. per ton; steamers, 3d. per ton. Every ton over 100 tons—Sailing-vessels, 2d. per ton; steamers, 1d. per ton. Outward pilotage, half rates.

Port charges: 6d. per ton quarterly in advance, vessels plying within port; 2d. per ton on arrival of vessels not plying within port, but not to exceed 1s. per ton in any half-year. Ocean-going vessels (not being “colonial trading” or coasting vessels) returning to port within one month from date of first arrival are exempt from port charges for second or subsequent arrivals within one calendar month.

Harbourmaster's fees: 5s. per vessel of less than 60 tons. Steamers under 60 tons and licensed as lighters are exempt. 1d. per ton sailing-vessels 60 tons and upwards; 10s. per vessel steamers of 60 tons and under 120 tons; 1d. per ton steamers of 120 tons and upwards. Vessels paying for pilotage service inwards do not pay Harbourmaster's fees.

Berthage: Breakwater Harbour wharves—3d. per ton on cargo landed, shipped, or transhipped; 1s. each horse or large cattle shipped or transhipped; 1/2d. each sheep or small animal shipped or transhipped. Other wharves—10s. per vessel of 60 tons; £1 per vessel over 60 tons to 120 tons; 2d. per ton vessels over 120 tons. Half rates only charged where vessels entering the Inner Harbour pay for pilotage services. Vessels licensed as lighters or tow-boats shall, whilst actually employed at lighterage work, only pay one-third of the foregoing charges upon each and every trip.

Hawsers and moorings: Vessels at wharf in Breakwater Harbour—1/4d. per ton per day, or part of a day, on registered tonnage. Vessels moored to buoys within Breakwater Harbour, 1/8d. per ton per day or part of a day.

Fenders: Vessels at wharves in Breakwater Harbour—5s. per day, vessels under 500 tons; 7s. per day, vessels of 500 tons and under 1,000 tons; 10s. per day vessels of 1,000 tons and under 1,500 tons; 15s. per day, vessels of 1,500 tons and under 2,000 tons; £1 per day, vessels of 2,000 tons; and so on, in proportion.


Pilotage (compulsory): Charged both inwards and outwards, intercolonial or coasting—Sailing vessels, 3d. per ton; steamers, 1 1/2d. per ton; foreign sailing-vessel or steamer, 1/2d. per ton.

Port charges: Intercolonial, 4d. per ton, payable half-yearly; foreign, 1/2d. per ton on arrival in roadstead.

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage rate: 3 1/2d. per ton on all cargo landed, shipped, or transhipped outwards; on registered tonnage also 1/2d. per ton.

Warps: 1d. per ton register for first 100 tons; 1/2d. per ton for excess.

Fenders: 1s. per day or part of day.

Water (minimum 3s.): 5s. per 1,000 gallons.


Pilotage: All vessels when piloted by signals from the staff only, 1d. per ton register. River pilotage, to be charged for any assistance rendered by the pilot or any of his crew inside the bar, 2d. per ton. When a pilot boards and conducts a vessel outside the bar, 3d. per ton. Steamers engaged in tendering ocean steamers at anchor in the roadstead charged half pilotage rates.

Port charges: Nil.

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage: For every steamer using any wharf, being berthed alongside, and whether discharging or loading cargo or not, 2d. per ton on gross register for first day of eight working hours, and 1d. for every succeeding day of eight working hours. For every sailing-vessel the charge to be 2d. for first day of eight working hours, and 1/2d. for every succeeding day of eight working hours, not exceeding five days. For every vessel occupying a berth outside another vessel, and loading or discharging cargo, 1/4d. per ton on gross register per day of eight working hours whilst loading or discharging. Ships' dues on vessels detained in port by stress of weather will not be charged after the third day.


Pilotage (optional): Sailing-vessels inwards, 4d. per ton; sailing-vessels outwards, 3d. per ton; steamers inwards, 3d. per ton; steamers outwards, 2d. per ton. Pilotage includes the removal fee to or from the berth at 1d. per ton.

Port charges: 2d. per ton on arrival; not exceeding 6d. in any half-year. Half-yearly days, 1st January and July. Steamers arriving for coal, stores, water, or for receiving or landing mails or passengers and their luggage, which do not come to any wharf or receive or discharge cargo within the port, are exempt from port charges.

Harbourmaster's or berthing fee on vessels of 120 tons and upwards, 1d. per ton; under 120 tons, 10s. Vessels paying pilotage are exempt. Exemption berthage certificates are given to competent masters in the coastal and intercolonial trades, but not to those in foreign trade.

Berthage: None, unless vessels delay discharging or loading for an undue time.


Pilotage (compulsory): Steamers, inwards and outwards, 1d. per registered ton. Sailing-vessels, inwards and outwards, 3d. per ton. Minimum pilotage each way (in all cases), £1.

Port charges: For vessels not employing the pilot, to pay the following, upon first arrival, half-yearly: Vessels over 100 tons register, 1s. per ton; vessels under 100 tons register, 6d. per ton.

Harbour lights: Vessels not employing the pilot, over 100 tons register, 1d. per ton; under 100 tons register, 1/2d. per ton, on arrival.

Harbourmaster's fees: 120 tons and upwards, 1d. per ton; less than 120 tons, 10s. for each removal of any steamer or sailing vessel within the harbour.

Berthage, fenders, and warps: Nil.


Pilotage (not compulsory). Signal station. Four pilots authorised: Vessels up to 120 tons register, 1d. per ton; over 120 tons, 2d. per ton inwards and outwards; minimum charge, 5s.; maximum charge, £10.

Port charges: Receiving and discharging ships' ballast, 1s. per ton; minimum charge, 20s.; 1d. per ton for use of shoot.

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage: Use of wharf, for every vessel up to 1,400 tons lying at wharf, 1d. per ton net register per trip; for every vessel over 1,400 tons, 2d. per ton net register per trip; minimum charge, 5s. No vessel to be charged for more than one trip in any one week.


Pilotage (not compulsory): Signal-station. For sailing vessels, 6d. per ton: for steamers, 4d. per ton, each way.

Port charges: Discharging ships' ballast, 6d. per ton

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage: Use of wharf, 6d. per ton net register per trip. Vessels in ballast for coal or timber, 1d. per ton net register for the first four days; maximum, £5 10s.; minimum, 5s.


Pilotage (compulsory): Pilotage, inwards and outwards, sailing-vessels 3 1/2d. per ton; steamers, 2 1/2d. per ton. Foreign going steamers and sailing vessels free on second call on same voyage.

Port charges: 2d. per ton, quarterly in advance, for vessels of 100 tons and upwards plying within the port or employed in coasting only, not to exceed 6d. per ton in any half-year; 2d. per ton for vessels of 100 tons and upwards not plying within the port or not solely employed in coasting, not to exceed 6d. per ton in any half-year. For exemptions from pilotage and harbour fees, see sections 132, 133, and 134 of “The Harbours Act, 1878.”

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthing charges: None.

Warps (21 in. coir hawsers): £1 per warp for use during a vessel's stay in port, not exceeding six months.

Fenders (soft wood): 10s. for first day, and 5s. per day after. 10s. for use of each hardwood fender.


Pilotage (compulsory): Sailing-vessels, 3d. per ton inwards and outwards; when tug used, 2d. per ton; steamers, 2d. per ton inwards and outwards. Foreign and intercolonial steamers under 3,500 cargo tons, working 800 tons or less, only one pilotage fee; 3,500 tons or over, working 1,000 tons cargo or less, one pilotage fee only. Foreign going steamer and sailing-vessel calling more than once during same voyage before leaving New Zealand, one inward and outward rate only (subject to above exemptions).

Port charges: Coasters, 1 1/2d. per ton each trip; sailing-vessels, not coasters, 3d. per ton each trip; steam-vessels, not coasters, 6d. per ton on cargo worked; in all cases not to exceed 1s. 3d. per ton in any half-year, dating from the 1st day of January and July in each year. Intercolonial steamers coming coastwise 1 1/2d. per ton register, or 6d. per ton on cargo landed and shipped, whichever rate may be the lesser.

Harbourmaster's fees: 1d. per ton each service; vessels less than 120 tons, 10s.; steamers of 1,000 tons or over, which have loaded wholly in New Zealand or Australian ports, working 500 tons of cargo or less, only one harbourmaster's fee. This fee is charged to all vessels or steamers not paying pilotage.

Berthage: 3d. per ton on all cargo landed or shipped.

Hawsers and moorings: Vessels at wharves, 1/2d. per ton register for first seven days; subsequent days, 1/4d. per ton. Vessels at buoys, under 800 tons register, 1/8d. per ton; over 800 tons, 1/16d. per ton.

Fenders: Sailing-vessels under 500 tons register, 2s. per day; under 1,000 tons, 3s. per day; over 1,000 tons, 4s. per day. Steamers under 1,000 tons register, 4s. per day; under 1,500 tons, 10s. per day; under 2,000 tons, 15s. per day; over 2,000 tons, £1 per day. Foreign-going vessels detained in the port sixty days, half rates thereafter for hawsers and moorings and fenders.


Tonnage rate: On cargo, inwards or outwards—Coal, merchandise, stone, produce, and timber, 8d. per ton; wool, 2s. per ton; frozen sheep, 1d. per carcase; frozen lamb, 1d. per carcase; rabbits and hares, 3s. per ton, gross weight; all other frozen goods 3s. per ton, gross dead weight; live stock, 1s. 8d. per ton. Note.—Collected in the same manner as berthage dues have been collected.

Warps: 1/2d. per ton per day for seven days; 1/4d. per ton per day thereafter. In the event of any vessel remaining at any wharf for a period exceeding six weeks, the charge for warps will thereafter be reduced to 1/8d. per ton register of such vessel for each day or part of a day that she may occupy a berth at the wharf.


Pilotage (compulsory): Inwards and outwards, sailing-vesssls without tug, 6d. per ton; with tug, 4d. per ton; steamers, 4d. per ton. Foreign steamers calling twice on one voyage only charged once. All vessels holding exemption certificates, one annual pilotage. For every vessel under steam carrying an exempt pilot and employing a Board's pilot the charge shall be 1/2d. per ton for the Upper Harbour.

Port charges: 6d. per ton half-yearly, all vessels.

Harbourmaster's fees: Vessels less than 120 tons, 10s.; over 120 tons, 1d. per ton.

Berthage: Vessels trading within the port—10 tons, 5s. per quarter; 25 tons, 10s. per quarter; 50 tons, 15s. per quarter; 100 tons, £1 per quarter. Vessels trading beyond the port—Sailing-vessels 1/4d. per ton (maximum, eighteen days, £10); steam-vessels, 1/2d. per ton per day. Vessels laid up for less than a month, one-half the above rates; over a month, 1/2d. per ton per month.

Towage: When assistance is given to steam-vessels under steam, one-fourth usual towage, not exceeding £5 for Upper Harbour, and £7 for Lower Harbour.

NOTE.—Foreign steamers taking or discharging not more than 50 tons general cargo and 100 tons frozen produce, pay £50 for port charges, pilotage, and harbourmaster's fees; also maximum charges on any one vessel, £200.


Pilotage (compulsory): Steamers, inwards and outwards, 2 1/2d. per registered ton; sailing-vessels, 4 1/2d. inwards and outwards if tug not employed; 2 1/2d. per registered ton inwards and outwards if tug employed. Sailing-vessels in ballast, 2 1/2d. per registered ton inwards and outwards. Steamers in and out, 5d. per registered ton, payable yearly; sailing-vessels, in and out, 9d. per registered ton, payable yearly.

Port charges: On all vessels, per trip, 2d. per registered ton, or in one sum, half-yearly from date of entry, 6d. per registered ton.

Harbourmaster's fees: Free.

Berthage: Steamers, 2nd. per ton net register for the first day, and 1d. per ton per week or part of a week thereafter. Sailing-vessels and hulks of over 50 tons register, 1d. per ton net register per week for the first four weeks, and 1/4d. per ton per week thereafter.

Towage assistance to steamers using their own motive power: Over 3,000 tons, £5; over 2,000 tons, £4; under 2,000 tons, £3.

Maximum charge for berthage dues, pilotage, and port charges, £180 in any one visit.

Steamers calling more than once on same voyage only charged one inward and outward pilotage.


Wharfage rates at fourteen of the principal harbours in New Zealand, as on 1st January, 1904 (compiled by Mr. C. Hood Williams, Secretary to the Lyttelton Harbour Board):—


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton imports; 1s. per ton exports.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared before landing, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton landed; 1s. per ton shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared before landing, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. 6d. per ton landed; 1s. per ton shipped.

Transhipments: Half-rates when declared, or 2s. 6d. per ton, including seven days' storage and labour.

Wool.—6d. per bale, shipped or landed.

Transhipments: If landed, dumped, and re-shipped, 3d. per bale.

Coal.—1s. 3d. per ton landed; 6d. per ton shipped.

Transhipments: Shipped or discharged over side for steamer's use, free.

Timber.—Sawn, 2s. per 1,000 ft. landed; 1s. per 1,000 ft. shipped. Baulk or round (less 12 1/2 per coat.), 1s. per 1,000 ft. landed, 6d. per 1,000 ft. shipped.

Passengers' luggage under half ton, goods carried by hand by passengers, and single packages under 5 ft. measurement, free.


General Merchandise.—Imports, 5s. to 6d.; exports, 2s. 6d. to 6d. By measurement, from 40 cubic feet to 4 cubic feet; same for weight. Ale, beer, and porter, per gallon—Import, 1 1/2d., export, 1/2d.; spirits and wine, per ton measurement, 7s. 6d. No export charges on goods that have paid inward wharfage.

Transhipments: Free.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—Grain—Imports, 5s.; exports, 1s. Grass-seed—Imports, 5s.; exports, 2s. Potatoes—Imports, 5s.; exports, 2s. 6d. (12 sacks).

Transhipments: Free.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—Sheep, 2d. per carcase; lambs, 1d. per carcase; haunches, legs, &c., 2s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Wool.—1s. 3d. per bale, export.

Transhipments: 3d. per bale if landed and reshipped. Free if transhipped into vessel.

Coal.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Coal for engines and freezing-ships, free.

Timber.—Sawn, 4s. per 1,000 ft.; baulk, 1s. per 1,000 ft., imports; 1s., and 6d., per 1,000 ft., exports.

Transhipments: Free.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton imports, 1s. per ton exports, according to measurement or weight. If labour supplied, add on 6d. imports, and 6d. exports. Ballast, inwards, 1s. per ton; outwards, 1s. per ton. Empties, half rates.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. imports; 1s. exports, according to measurement or weight. If labour supplied, add on 6d. imports, and 6d. exports.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Frozen or Chilled Meat, &c.—Imports free; exports 1s. per ton. Tallow and pelts, imports free; exports 2s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Quarter import rates, Outer Harbour; half import rates Inner or Breakwater Harbours.

Wool.—6d. per bale, exports only. Imports, free.

Transhipments: Wool, flax, skins, or tow, 3d. over side; 3d. per bale if landed for transhipment or dumping.

Coal.—1s. imports; 1s. exports.

Transhipments: Quarter rates, Outer Harbour; half rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours. Coal for engines and freezing-ships, Outer Harbour, free, if declared so.

Timber.—3s. 4d. per 1,000 ft., imports; 1s. 3d. per 1,000 ft. exports.

Transhipments: Half rates, Inner or Breakwater Harbours; quarter rates, Outer Harbour.

NOTE.—Goods other than wool, skins, tow, meats, and flax landed on a wharf for transhipment to a vessel lying at another berth, charged inward wharfage only when declared at time of entry.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton; grass-seed, 2s. (20 sacks).

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton.

Wool.—6d. per bale; five bales of 4 cwt., 2s. per ton; three bales of over 4 cwt. 2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates.

Coal.—2s. per ton; brown coal, 1s. 9d., with labour.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates, with labour.

Timber.—480 ft. per ton, 2s.; hardwood, 320 ft. per ton (rough or sawn), 2s., with labour.

Transhipments: Three-quarter rates.


General Merchandise.—Imports, 3s. per ton; exports, 2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—Imports, 3s. per ton; exports, 2s. per ton. Potatoes, export, 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—Sheep, 1/2d. per carcase; lambs, 1/2d. per carcase; legs, shoulders, and loins calculated at so many to a carcase, according to freight.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Coal.—1s. per ton. Coal for ship's use, outward, 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Half-rates.

Timber.—6d. per 100 ft.; for shipment, 2d.; white pine, 1d.

Transhipments: Half rates.


General Merchandise.—2s per ton inwards, including labour and one night's storage. Inward cargo landed after noon on Friday is stored free till noon on following Monday; landed after noon on Saturday is stored free till 5 p.m. on the following Tuesday. 1s. per ton outwards, including labour. Railway wharfage—1s. inwards; 6d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage. Over side of vessel lying at wharf, 6d. per ton. If shifted more than a quarter of a mile, 6d. per ton extra.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton inwards, including labour and one night's storage; 1s. per ton outwards, including labour. Railway wharfage—1s. inwards; 6d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 2s. per ton, including labour and seven days' storage. Over side of vessel at wharf, 6d. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1s. inwards; 1s. outwards, without labour. Railway wharfage—1s. inwards: 6d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: Meat, 1s. 3d. per ton, without labour; butter, 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and storage. Meat, butter, &c., over side of vessel at wharf, 6d. per ton.

Wool.—4d. per bale at Railway Wharf, without labour; 6d. per bale at other wharves, including labour.

Transhipments: 6d. per bale, including labour, and 3d. additional if stored. Over side of vessel to vessel at wharf, 3d. per bale.

Coal.—1s. per ton imports; 6d. per ton exports, without labour. Railway wharfage—1s. per ton inwards; 6d. per ton outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: Across wharf for steamer's use, free. From vessel or hulk to vessel at wharf, free. If shifted more than a quarter of a mile, 6d. per ton extra.

Timber.—2d. per 100 ft. inwards; 1 1/2d. per 100 ft. outwards, without labour. If labour supplied, 2d. per 100 ft. added inwards, and 1 1/2d. outwards. Railway wharfage—2d. inwards; 1 1/2d. outwards, without labour.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including seven days' storage and labour; and 6d. over vessel's side into another vessel at wharf.

Harbour Improvement Rate.—The charge of 3d. per ton shall be made to and payable by ships to the Board, as a harbour improvement rate on goods landed on the wharves or landing-places under the control of the Board, except on coal and on ballast, and except on such goods as are the products of the Colony of New Zealand and are landed for the purpose of transhipment to vessels to be carried out of the colony: Provided that for the purposes of this by-law the following measurements shall be taken: Empties, half tonnage; wool, five bales to the ton; great cattle, each one ton; small cattle, twelve to the ton; timber, 500 ft. superficial measurement to the ton; bricks, slates, and tiles, 500 to the ton; carts and carriages, each two tons; loose hides, twenty-five to the ton.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton, imports and exports, with labour.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; 2s. 6d. if landed.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports and exports, with labour.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; 2s. 6d. if landed.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—None shipped.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf, half rates if landed.

Wool.—Exports, 1s. per bale; imports free.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed.

Coal.—1s. per ton imports; 2s. with labour. Free exports.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, with labour. Free, when not landed on wharf.

Timber.—1d. per 100 ft. super., import; 1d. per 100 ft. super., export; 2s. per ton by measurement, with labour.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed on wharf. Re-shipments, 2s. 6d. per ton.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Coal.—6d. per ton.

Timber.—2d. per 100 ft. If for export and carried by rail, free.


General Merchandise.—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments; 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Grain and Agricultural Produce—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—3s. per ton. This charge includes 1s. a ton for receiving and delivering.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: 2s. 6d. per ton, including labour and one week's storage; 1s. per ton if transhipped to vessel or lighter.

Coal.—6d. per ton inwards; 3d. outwards. Special rate on coal paid by shippers.

Timber.—2d. per 100 ft. If for export and carried by rail, free.


General Merchandise.—1s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Free.

Coal.—6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, whether landed on wharf or otherwise.

Timber.—3d. per 100 ft.

Transhipments: Free.

N.B.—All re shipments of goods from Lyttelton under declaration, free.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. 6d. per ton.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Frozen Meat.—1/2d. per carcase.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Wool.—1s. per bale.

Transhipments: Half rates.

Coal.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Half rates. For bunkering purposes, free.

Timber.—4d. per 100 ft.

Transhipments: Half rates.


General Merchandise.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—1/2d. per sheep. Butter, as merchandise, 2s. per ton. Other frozen goods, 2s. per ton

Transhipments: Free.

Wool.—6d. per bale.

Transhipments: Free.

Coal.—2s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free.

Timber.—5d. and 7d. per 100 ft. Fencing posts and rails, 4s. per 100. Palings, 7d. per 100.

Transhipments: Free.

Stone.—1/2d. per foot.

Live Cattle and Horses.—2s. 6d. each; yearlings, half rates. Sheep, 2d. each; pigs, 4d. each.


General Merchandise.—1s., 2s., 3s., 4s., and 5s. per ton, imports; 2s. and 3s. per ton, exports. (Classified.) Manufactured articles and articles which have paid an import duty, free.

Transhipments: 2s. per ton, or 1s. if import rate is 1s.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—1s. per ton, imports; 1s. 3d. per ton by weight, exports; bran and pollard, exports, free.

Transhipments: 1s. per ton.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—3s. per ton, exports; butter, imports, 4s. per ton; frozen meat, imports, 5s. per ton; sheep and lambs, 1d. per carcase, exports.

Transhipments: 2s. per ton.

Wool.—Exports, 3s. per ton by measurement; 4s. per ton, imports (three bales to ton).

Transhipments: 2s. per ton by measurement.

Coal.—3s. per ton, imports: Exports free.

Transhipments: 2s. per ton.

Timber.—6d. and 3d. per 100 superficial feet, imports; exports, free.

Transhipments: 2s. per ton by measurement. Notice of transhipment must be given within twenty-four hours after ship's arrival.


General Merchandise.—1s. 10d. per ton, imports and exports.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed.

Grain and Agricultural Produce.—11d. per ton, imports and exports.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed.

Frozen Meat, Butter, &c.—11d. per ton, exports; cheese, 1s. per ton.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed.

Wool.—Exports, 9d. per bale; imports free.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed.

Coal.—1s. 6d. per ton, imports; free exports.

Transhipments: 1s. 6d. per ton when landed ex hulk; free when not landed on wharf.

Timber.—1s. per 1,000 ft. super., import; 1s. per 1,000 ft. super., export.

Transhipments: Free, when not landed on wharf; half rates if landed on wharf.

Chapter 24. LIGHTHOUSES.

THE coasts of New Zealand are, considering their extent, fairly well lighted, but there are many places where lights are still required. Additions to the existing lights are made from time to time as funds are available.

There are thirty coastal lights—eight of the first order, sixteen of the second, three of the third, and three of smaller orders, and a lighthouse is being erected on Jack's Point, near Timaru.

There has been no special difficulty in the erection of lighthouses in New Zealand, apart from the trouble caused by indifferent landings. There are no lighthouses built in the sea, such as the well-known Eddystone or Bell Rock. That on The Brothers is the only one which it is considered necessary to keep as a rock-station: that is, the keepers are relieved from time to time, three being always at the station and one on shore.

The cost of the erection of the lighthouses is given by the Marine Department as about £190,700 (the Ponui Passage Lighthouse, having been built by the Provincial Government of Auckland, the cost is not given). The annual consumption of oil is about 22,700 gallons; and the cost of maintenance, irrespective of the cost of maintaining the lighthouse steamer, is about £16,000 a year.

Besides the coastal lighthouses, there are harbour-lights at most of the ports of the colony for the guidance of vessels into and out of the ports.

The following table shows the names of the coastal lighthouses, indicating also their situation, the order of apparatus, description, period (in seconds) and colour of the lights, and of what material the respective towers are built:—

Name of Lighthouse.Order of Apparatus.Description.Period of Revolving Light.Colour of Light.Tower built of.
Cape Maria van Diemen1st orderRevolving Fixed60WhiteTimber.
 Revolving Fixed..Red, to show over Columbia Reef
Moko Hinou1st orderFlashing10WhiteStone.
Tiri-Tiri (Auckland)2nd orderFixed..White, with red arc over Flat RockIron.
Ponui Passage5th orderorder..White and redTimber.
Cuvier Island1st orderRevolving30WhiteIron.
East Cape2nd orderRevolving10WhiteIron.
Portland Island2nd orderFixed30Red, to show over Bull RockTimber.
Cape Palliser2nd orderFlashingTwice every half-minute, with three seconds intervals between flashesWhiteIron.
Pencarrow Head2nd orderFixed WhiteIron.
Cape Egmont2nd orderorderFixed Iron.
Manukau Head3rd orderorder Timber...
Kaipara Head2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Brothers (in Cook Strait)2nd orderFixed10Red, to show over Cook RockTimber.
Cape Campbell2nd orderRevolving60WhiteTimber.
Godley Head (Lyttelton)2nd orderFixed WhiteStone.
Akaroa Head2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Moeraki3rd orderFixed WhiteTimber.
Taiaroa Head3rd orderorderFixedRedStone.
Cape Saunders2nd orderRevolving60WhiteTimber.
Nugget Point1st orderFixed WhiteStone.
Waipapapa Point2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Dog Island1st orderRevolving30WhiteStone
Centre Island1st orderFixed White, with red arcs over inshore dangersTimber.
Puysegur Point1st orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Cape Foulwind2nd orderRevolving30WhiteTimber.
Kahurangi Point2nd orderFixed WhiteIron.
Farewell Spit2nd orderRevolving60White, with red arc over Spit endIron.
Nelson4th orderFixed White, with red arc to mark limit of anchorageIron.
French Pass6th orderorder Red and white, with white light on beaconIron.
Stephens Island1st orderGroup flashing30WhiteIron.


Table of Contents

THERE are (January, 1904) 200 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, sixty are daily papers, twenty-six are published three times a week, twenty-six twice a week, fifty-seven once a week, four fortnightly, one three-weekly, and twenty-six monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.

M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper:—


* Edited in Mosgiel by Rev. F. W. Boreham.

Auckland Star (E.)Daily.
Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M)Saturday
Bible Standard (M.)Monthly.
Christian Worker (M.)Monthly.
Church Gazette (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry Journal (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' Companion (M.)Wednesday.
New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
New Zealand Illustrated Magazine (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Illustrated Sporting Review and Licensed Victualler's Gazette (M.)Thursday.
New Zealand Joyful News (M.)Monthly.
Observer (M.)Saturday.
Saturday Night (E.)Saturday.
Sharland's Trade Journal (M.)Saturday.
Coromandel County News and Kuaotunu and Mercury Bay Mail (E).Tuesday, Friday.
Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Waikato Argus (E.)Daily.
Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (E.)Daily.
Northern Luminary (E.)Friday.
Kawhia Settler and Raglan Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
Manukau and Franklin Mail and Auckland Courier (E.)Friday.
Manukau County Chronicle (M.)Saturday.
Raglan County Chronicle (M.)Friday.
Hot Lakes Chronicle (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Warkworth —
Rodney and Otamatea Times, Waitemata and Kaipara Gazette (E.)Friday.
Northern Advocate (E.)Daily.
Goldfields Advocate and Ohinemuri County Chronicle (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat
East Coast Guardian (E.)Wed., Saturday.
Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Ohinemuri Gazette (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
To Aroha—
Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Thames Advertiser and Miners' News (M.)Daily.
Thames Star (E.)Daily.
Waihi Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
Gisborne Times (M.)Daily.
Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
Inglewood Record and Waitara Age (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
New Plymouth—
Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
Daily News (M.)Daily.
Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
Taranaki News (M.)Saturday.
Opunake Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Stratford Evening Post (E.)Daily.
Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Dannevirke Advocate (E.)Daily.
Dannevirke Daily Press (E.)Daily.
Hastings Standard (E.)Daily.
Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)Daily.
New Zealand Fire and Ambulance Record (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Health Journal (M.)Monthly.
Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Eltham Argus and Rawhitiroa and Kaponga Advertiser (E.)Daily.
Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
Hawera and Norman by Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
Hunterville Express, and Upper Rangitikei Advertiser (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Waimate Witness (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Settler (E.)Wed., Saturday.
Farmers' Advocate (M.)Saturday.
Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Post (M.)Thursday.
Taihape and Mangaweka News (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
New Zealand Good Templar Watchword (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Tit Bits (M.)Saturday.
Wanganui Chronicle (M.)Daily.
Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
Yeoman (M.)Friday.
Wairarapa Leader (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Daily.
Eketahuna Express and County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Feilding Star (E.)Daily.
Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Greytown North—
Te Puke ki Hikurangi (E.)Tues., fortnightly.
Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Kimbolton Times and County News (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wairarapa Age (M.)Daily.
Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
Weekly Star and Wellington District Advertiser (M.)Thursday.
Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Pahiatua Herald (E.)Daily.
Palmerston North—
Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (E.)Daily.
Manawatu Daily Times (M.)Daily.
Hutt and Petone Chronicle (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Church Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
Evening Post (E.)Daily.
Mercantile Record (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand Craftsman (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Dairyman and Farmers' Union Journal (E.)Monthly.
New Zealand Field (M.)Friday.
New Zealand Free Lance (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand Home Journal (E.)Monthly.
New Zealand Mail, Town and Country Advertiser (M)Wednesday.
New Zealand Mines Record (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
New Zealand Trade Review and Price Current (M.)Three-weekly.
Post and Telegraph Officers' Advocate (E.)Monthly (15th).
Prohibitionist (E.)Fri., fortnightly.
Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Golden Bay Argus (E.)Thursday.
Motueka Star (E)Tuesday, Friday.
Colonist (M.)Daily.
Nelson Evening Mail (E.)Daily.
Takaka News and Collingwood Advertiser (E.)Thursday.
Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Buller Post (E.)Tuesday.
Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
Westport News (M.)Daily.
Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
Grey River Argus (M.)Daily.
Weekly Argus (M.)Weekly.
Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Daily.
Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.).Daily.
Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Leader (M.)Saturday.
West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)Daily.
Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Ashburton Daily News (E.)Daily.
Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Cheviot News (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Canterbury Times (incorporating “Sportsman” and “New Zealand Cyclist”) (M.)Wednesday.
Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New Zealand (E.)Wednesday.
New Zealand Church News (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Poultry-keeper and Fanciers' Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Railway Review (E.)Monthly.
New Zealand Schoolmaster (E.)Monthly.
New Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand Wheelman and Motor News (M.)Sat., fortnightly.
Press (M.)Daily.
Spectator (M.)Tuesday.
Star (E.)Daily.
Truth (E.)Daily.
Weekly Press (incorporating “The Referee”) (M.)Wednesday.
White Ribbon (M.)Monthly.
Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Daily.
Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Ellesmere Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
Timaru Post (E.)Daily.
Waimate Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Waimate Times (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
Oamaru Mail (E.)Daily.
Alexandra South—
Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (M.)Thursday.
Clutha Leader (M.)Tuesday, Friday
Free Press (M.)Tuesday, Friday
Dunstan Times, Vincent County Official Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (M.)Tuesday.
Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (M.)Tuesday.
Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Farmers' Circular (M.)Thur., fortn'ly
Farmers Standard of New Zealand (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Baptist (E.)*Monthly.
New Zealand Guardian (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Journal of Education (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Mining, Engineering, and Building Journal (M.)Thursday.
New Zealand Tablet (M.)Thursday.
Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
Otago Witness (M.)Thursday.
Otago Liberal and Workman (M)Saturday
Outlook (M.)Saturday
Schoolmates (M.)Monthly.
Trade Review and Farmers' Gazette (M.)Thursday.
Triad (M.)Monthly.
Weekly Budget (M.)Saturday.
Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Mount Ida Chronicle (M.)Friday.
Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)Friday.
Mount Benger Mail (M.)Saturday.
Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
Mataura Ensign (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Southern Cross (M.)Saturday.
Southlander (M.)Friday.
Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
Southland Times (M.)Daily.
Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
Orepuki Advocate (M.)Saturday.
Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)Saturday.
Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (E.)Tues., Friday.
Winton Record and Hokonui Advocate (M.)Friday.
Wyndham Farmer (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wyndham Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 37 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 11, Hawke's Bay 10, Wellington 45, Marlborough 4, Nelson 13, Westland 8, Canterbury 28, and Otago 44.


Under the Customs and Excise Duties Acts, 1888 and 1895, “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” “The Customs Duties Amendment Act, 1900,” and “The Preferential and Reciprocal Trade Act, 1903.” [For rates under last-named Act, see p. 101.]


THE headings of the respective classes in this Table and in the Table of Exemptions are used solely for convenience of classification, and shall not in any way affect the articles specified therein, or be construed to indicate the material of which any such article is made.

The word “iron” includes steel, or steel and iron combined.

Neither steam-engines, nor parts of steam-engines, nor steam-boilers (land or marine) are included in the expression “machines” or “machinery” in either this Table or the Table of Exemptions.

The abbreviaton “n.o.e.” means not otherwise enumerated.

In computing “ad valorem” duties the invoice value of the goods is increased by 10 per cent.


Names of Articles and Rates of Duty.

1. Almonds, in shell, 2d. the lb.

2. Almonds, shelled, n.o.e., 3d. the lb.

3. Bacon and hams, 2d. the lb.

4. Biscuits, ships' plain and unsweetened, 3s. the cwt.

5. Biscuits, other kinds, 2d. the lb.

6. Boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candy, 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

7. Candied peel and drained peel, 3d. the lb.

8. Capers, caraway seeds, catsup, cayenne pepper, chillies, chutney, curry-powder and -paste, fish-paste, gelatine, isinglass, liquorice, olives, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

9. Chocolate confectionery, and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa—

In plain trade packages, 3d. the lb.

In fancy packages, or in small packages for retail sale, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

10. Confectionery n.o.e., 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

11. Currants, 1d. the lb.

12. Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, n.o.e., 10s. the cwt.

13. Fish, potted and preserved, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

14. Fruit, fresh, viz.:—

Apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, medlars, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, 1d. the lb.

(No duty exceeding 1/2d. the lb. to be levied on apples and pears from 14th July to 31st December.)

Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, and strawberries, 1/2d. the lb.

Lemons, 1/2d. the lb.

15. Fruits, dried, 2d. the lb.

16. Fruits, preserved in juice or syrup, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

17. Fruit-pulp, and partially preserved fruit n.o.e., 1 1/2d. the lb.

18. Fruits preserved by sulphurous acid, 1d. the lb.

19. Glucose, 1d. the lb.

20. Honey, 2d. the lb.

21. Jams, jellies, marmalade, and preserves, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

22. Jellies concentrated in tablets or powder, 4d. the lb.

23. Maizena and cornflour, 1/4d. the lb.

24. Meats, potted or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

25. Milk, preserved, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

26. Mustard, 2d. the lb.

27. Nuts of all kinds, except cocoa-nuts, 2d. the lb.

28. Oysters, preserved, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

29. Pearl barley, 1s. the cwt.

30. Peas, split, 2s. the cwt.

31. Pickles, 3s. the imperial gallon.

32. Provisions, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

33. Raisins, 1d. the lb.

34. Rice-flour, 6s. the cwt.

35. Sardines, including the oil, 2d. the lb.

36. Sauces, 4s. the imperial gallon.

37. Spices, including pepper and pimento, unground, 2d. the lb.

38. Spices, including pepper and pimento, ground, 4d. the lb.

39. Sugar, 1/2d. the lb.

40. Treacle and molasses, 1/2d. the lb.

41. Vegetables, fresh, dried, or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

42. Vinegar, table, not exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity,* 6d. the gallon.

* Vinegar exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity to be treated as acetic acid.


43. Cigarettes, not exceeding in weight 2 1/2 lb. per 1,000, 17s. 6d. the 1,000. And for all weight in excess of 2 1/2 lb. per 1,000, 6d. the oz.

44. Cigars, 7s. the lb.

45. Snuff, 7s. the lb.

46. Tobacco, 3s. 6d. the lb.

47. Tobacco, unmanufactured, entered to be manufactured in the colony in any licensed tobacco manufactory, for manufacturing purposes only, into tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or snuff, 2s. the lb.


48. Ale, beer of all sorts, porter, cider, and perry, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or 12 reputed pint bottles, 2s. the gallon.

49. Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, 16s. the liquid gallon.

50. Hops, 6d. the lb.

† Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

51. Malt, 2s. the bushel.

52. Rice malt, 1d. the lb.

53. Solid wort, 6d. the lb.

54. Spirits and strong waters, the strength of which can be ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer, 16s. the proof gallon.

(No allowance beyond 16.5 under proof shall be made for spirits or strong waters of a less hydrometer strength than 16.5 under proof.)

55. Spirits and strong waters, sweetened or mixed, when not exceeding the strength of proof, 16s. the liquid gallon.

56. Spirits and strong waters in cases shall be charged as follows, namely:—

Two gallons and under, as two gallons; over two gallons and not exceeding three, as three gallons; over three gallons and not exceeding four, as four gallons; and so on for any greater quantity contained in any case.

57. Spirits or strong waters, mixed with ingredients in any proportion exceeding 33 per cent. of proof spirit, and although thereby coming under any other designation, excepting patent or proprietary medicines, or tinctures and medicinal spirits otherwise enumerated, 16s. the liquid gallon.

58. Wine, Australian, containing not more than 35 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 5s. the gallon.

59. Wine, other than sparkling and Australian, containing less than 40 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 6s. the gallon.

60. Wine, sparkling, 9s. the gallon.


61. Aerated and mineral waters and effervescing beverages, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

62. Chicory, 3d. the lb.

63. Chocolate, 3d. the lb.

64. Cocoa, 3d. the lb.

65. Coffee, essence of, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

66. Coffee, roasted, 3d. the lb.

67. Syrups; lime- or lemon-juice sweetened; raspberry vinegar, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

68. Tea, 2d. the lb.*


69. Acid, acetic, n.o.e., containing not more than 30 per cent. of acidity, 1 1/2d. the lb.

For every 10 per cent. of acidity or fraction thereof additional, 1/2d. the lb.

70. Acid, tartaric, 1d. the lb.

71. Baking-powder, yeast preparations, and other ferments, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

72. Chemicals n.o.e., including photographic chemicals, and glacial acetic acid (B.P. standard), 15 per cent. ad valorem.

73. Cream of tartar, 1d. the lb.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

74. Drugs and druggists' sundries and apothecaries' wares, n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

75. Essences, flavouring, spirituous, 16s. the liquid gallon.

76. Essences, flavouring, n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

77. Eucalyptus oil, in bulk or bottle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

78. Glycerine, refined, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

79. Opium, 40s. the lb.

80. Patent medicines, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

81. Proprietary medicines, or medicaments, (1) bearing the name of the proprietor on label or package; (2) bearing a prefixed name in the possessive case; (3) n.o.e., prepared by any occult secret or art, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

82. Saccharine, except in the form of tabloids or tablets, 1s. 6d. the ounce.

83. Sarsaparilla, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

84. Soda, carbonate and bicarbonate, 1s. the cwt.

85. Soda, crystals, 2s. the cwt.

86. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopœia, containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 1s. the lb.

87. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopœia, containing 50 per cent. proof spirit or less, 15 per cent. ad valorem.


88. Apparel and ready-made clothing, and all articles n.o.e. made up wholly or in part from textile or other piece-goods, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

89. Apparel made by British or foreign tailors, dress-, mantle-, or jacket-makers, to the order of residents in the colony, and intended for the individual use of such residents, whether imported by the residents themselves or through an importing firm, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

90. Blankets, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

91. Collars and cuffs, of paper or other material, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

92. Cotton counterpanes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

93. Cotton piece-goods, to include turkey twills, dress prints (hard-spun and plain-woven), where the invoice value does not exceed 4d. the yard; and cotton piece-goods n.o.e., 10 per cent. ad valorem.

94. Cotton piece-goods—namely, tapestry; cretonnes; chintz art crêpe, and serges; velveteens, velvets, and plushes, all kinds; damasks; moquette; sateens; linenettes; crepons; crimps; zephyrs; ginghams; turkey twills; prints; printed cottons; piqués; vestings; quiltings, and marcellas; muslins of all kinds; nets; window-nets; hollands, curtains, and blinds; diapers; ticks, including coloured Belgian; towellings; laces, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

95. Drapery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

96. Feathers, ornamental (including ostrich), and artificial flowers, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

97. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

98. Furs, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

99. Haberdashery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

100. Hats of all kinds, including straw hats, also caps, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

101. Hosiery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

102. Lace, and laces, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

103. Millinery of all kinds, including trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

104. Ribbons and crape, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

105. Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

106. Shawls, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

107. Silks, satins, velvets, plushes, n.o.e., composed of silk mixed with any other material, in the piece, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

108. Textile piece-goods other than cotton or silk, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

109. Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

110. Yarns n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.


111. Boots, shoes, and slippers, n.o.e.; goloshes, clogs, pattens, vamps, uppers, and laces, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

112. Heel-plates, and toe stiffeners and plates, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

113. Leather—

Leather belting, and belt-leather, harness, bridle, legging, bag, kip (other than East India), 4d. the lb.

Buff and split, including satin hides and tweeds, 3d. the lb.

Cordovan, levanted leather, roans, sheepskins, morocco n.o.e., basils, 3d. the lb.

Sole-leather, 2d. the lb.

East India kip, Persians, lambskins and goatskins (dressed other than morocco), kangaroo and wallabi skins (dressed), tan and coloured calf, 2d. the lb.

Leather n.o.e., 1d. the lb.

114. Leather board or compo, 4d. the lb.

115. Leather bags and leather-cloth bags, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

116. Leather, chamois, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

117. Leather cut into shapes, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

118. Leather leggings, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

119. Leather manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

120. Portmanteaux; trunks; travelling-bags and brief-bags of leather or leather-cloth, 10 in. in length and upwards, and carpet-bags, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

121. Saddlery, and harness, whips and whip-thongs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


122. Basket- and wicker-ware n.o.e., not being furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

123. Carpets, and druggets; floorcloth; mats, and matting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

124. Desks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

125. Furniture and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron. 25 per cent. ad valorem.*

126. Furniture-, knife-, and plate-powder and polish, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

127. Mantelpieces, other than stone, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

128. Upholstery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.


129. Bricks, known as firebricks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

130. China, porcelain, and parianware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

131. Drainage pipes and tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

132. Earthen flooring and garden-tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

133. Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

134. Filters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

135. Fireclay, ground, and fireclay goods, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

136. Glass, crown, sheet, and common window, 2s. the 100 superficial feet.*

137. Glassware; also plate-glass, and glass polished, coloured, and other kinds, n.o.e.; globes and chimneys for lamps, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

138. Lamps, lanterns, and lampwick, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

139. Plate-glass, bevelled or silvered; mirrors and looking glasses, framed or unframed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.


140. Artificial flies, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

141. Cards, playing, 6d. per pack.

142. Clocks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

143. Dressing-cases, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

144. Fancy goods, and toys, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

145. Fishing tackle, including artificially-baited hooks other than flies, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

146. Jewellery; plate, gold or silver; greenstone, cut or polished, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

† Plate, gold or silver, if of foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

147. Mouldings in the piece for picture-frames, cornices, or ceilings 15 per cent. ad valorem.

148. Musical instruments of all kinds n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

† Pianos, if of foreign manufacture, are subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

149. Oil, perfumed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

150. Paper-macheé ware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

151. Perfumery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

152. Perfumed spirits and Cologne-water, £1 10s. the liquid gallon.

153. Photographic goods n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

154. Pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed; picture- or photograph-frames and -mounts, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

155. Platedware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

156. Statues, statuettes, casts, and bronzes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

157. Tobacco-pipes and -cases, cigar- and cigarette-holders and -cases, cigarette papers and -cases, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

158. Toilet preparations n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

159. Watches, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

160. Walking-sticks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


161. Calendars and show-cards, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

162. Cardboard boxes complete, or cardboard cut and shaped for boxes (including match-boxes), 25 per cent. ad valorem.

163. Directories of New Zealand, or of any part thereof; also covers for directories, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

164. Handbills, programmes and circulars, playbills and printed posters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

165. Ink, writing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

166. Paper bags, coarse (including sugar-bags), 7s. 6d. the cwt.

167. Paper bags n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

168. Paper-hangings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

169. Paper wrapping—viz., blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings, small hand, lumber hand, and tissue, 5s. the cwt.*

170. Paper, wrapping, other kinds, including brown, cartridge, and sugar papers, 5s. the cwt.*

171. Printing matter relating to patent or proprietary medicines; trade catalogues, price-lists, and fashion-plates of the goods of firms or persons in the colony, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

172. Stationery and writing-paper n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

173. Stationery, manufactured—viz., account-books; manuscript books; bill-head, invoice, and statement forms; printed or ruled paper; counterbooks; cheque- and draft-forms; tags; labels; blotting-pads; sketchbooks; book-covers; copying letter-books; manifold writers; albums (other than for photographs); diaries; birthday-books; plain or faint-lined ruled books; printed window-tickets; printed, lithographed, or embossed stationery; and Christmas, New Year, birthday, and Easter cards and booklets, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

174. Stereotypes and matrices, 25 per cent. ad valorem.


175. Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles; also finished or partly finished or machined parts of same, n.o.e., including weldless steel tubing cut to short lengths, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

176. Boilers, land and marine, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

177. Brass cocks, valves, unions, lubricators, and whistles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

178. Brass manufactures, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

179. Cartridges (shot), 10- to 24-bore, 1s. 6d. the 100.

180. Cartridge cases, 9d. the 100.

181. Cartridges n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

182. Cash-registering machines, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

183. Coffin-furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

184. Composition-piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

185. Copper manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

186. Copying-presses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

187. Crab-winches, cranes n.o.e., capstans, and windlasses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

188. Cutlery, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

189. Firearms, all kinds, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

190. Galvanised iron manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

191. Gasometers, and other apparatus for producing gas; also gas-meters, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

192. Gaspipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

193. Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

194. Iron bridges, and iron material n.o.e. for the construction of bridges, wharves, jetties, or patent slips, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

195. Iron columns for buildings, and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

196. Iron doors for safes and vaults, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

197. Iron, galvanised corrugated sheets, screws, and nails, 2s. per cwt.

198. Iron galvanised tiles, ridging, guttering, and spouting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

199. Iron gates and gate-posts, staples, standards, straining posts and apparatus, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

200. Iron nails, 2s. per cwt.*

201. Iron pipes, and fittings for same, including main-cocks, 5 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101

202. Iron, plain galvanised sheet and hoop, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

203. Iron tanks, exceeding 200 gallons and not exceeding 400 gallons, 10s. each.

204. Iron tanks of and under 200 gallons, 5s. each.

205. Iron work and wire work, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

206. Japanned and lacquered metal ware, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

207. Lawn-mowers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

208. Lead, in sheets, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

209. Lead piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

210. Machinery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

211. Machinery, electric, and appliances, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

212. Machinery for flour-mills, woollen-mills, paper-mills, rope- and twine-making, dredging, saw-milling, planing,† oil refining, boring; and also machinery for refrigerating or preserving meat, leather-splitting machines and band-knives for same, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

† See also item 418.

213. Manufactures, n.o.e., of metal, or of metal in combination with any other material, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

214. Nails n.o.e., 3s. the cwt.

215. Printing machines and presses, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

216. Pumps and other apparatus for raising water n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

217. Railway and tramway plant and materials n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

218. Sad-irons, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

219. Shot, 10s. the cwt.

220. Soda-water machines; also, machines for aerating liquids, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

221. Steam-engines and parts of steam-engines n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

222. Steam-engines, and parts thereof, including the boiler or boilers therefor, imported specially for mining or gold-saving purposes and processes, or for dairying purposes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

223. Tinware, and tinsmiths' furniture n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

224. Waterworks pipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

225. Weighbridges and weighing-machines, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

226. Wire mattresses and webbing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

227. Zinc tiles, ridging, guttering, piping, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

228. Zinc manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.


229. Bellows, other than forge, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

230. Blocks, wooden tackle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

231. Buckets and tubs, of wood, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

232. Carriages, carts, drays, wagons, and perambulators, and wheels for the same, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

233. Carriage shafts, spokes, and felloes, dressed: bent carriage timber, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

234. Doors, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. each.

235. Doors, plain, 2s. each.

236. Sashes, glazed, with ornamental glass, 4s. the pair.

237. Sashes, plain, 2s. the pair.

238. Timber, palings, 2s. the 100.

239. Timber, posts, 8s. the 100.

240. Timber, rails, 4s. the 100.

241. Timber, sawn, dressed, 4s. the 100 ft. superficial.

242. Timber, sawn, rough, 2s. the 100 ft. superficial.

243. Timber, shingles and laths, 2s. the 1,000.

244. Woodenware and turnery n.o.e, and veneers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


245. Axle-grease, and other solid lubricants, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

246. Harness oil and composition, and leather dressing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

247. Naphtha, 6d. the gallon.

248. Oil, linseed, 6d. the gallon.

249. Oil, mineral, including shale-waste or unrefined mineral-oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

250. Oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

251. Oil, olive, in bulk, 6d. the gallon.

252. Oil vegetable, in bulk, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

253. Oil vegetable or other, in bottle, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

254. Paints and colours ground in oil or turpentine, 2s. 6d. the cwt.

255. Paints and colours mixed ready for use, 5s. the cwt.

256. Putty, 2s. the cwt.

257. Stearine, 1 1/2d. the lb.

258. Stearine for match-making, 3/4d. the lb.

259. Varnish; enamel paints; gold size, 2s. the gallon.

260. Whiting and chalk, 1s. the cwt.


261. Animals, food for, of all kinds, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

262. Cattle (horned), 10s. each.

263. Chaff, £1 the ton.

264. Grain—namely, barley, 2s. the 100 lb.

265. Grain and pulse of every kind n.o.e., 9d. the 100 lb.

266. Grain and pulse of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, n.o.e., 1s. the 100 lb.

267. Horses, £1 each.

268. Linseed, £1 the ton.

269. Maize, 9d. the 100 lb.

270. Onions, £1 the ton.

271. Prepared calf-meal, £1 5s. the ton.


272. Bags, flour, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

273. Bags, calico, forfar, hessian, and linen, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

274. Bagging and bags n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

275. Blacking and boot-gloss, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

276. Blacklead. 20 per cent. ad valorem.

277. Blue, 2d. the lb.

278. Brooms, brushes, and brushware, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

279. Brushes, hair, and combs; toilet- clothes- and hat-brushes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

280. Candles, 1d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.*

281. Cement, 2s. the barrel.*

282. Cordage and rope, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.*

* Such as is foreign produce or manufacture, subject to preferential duty, see p. 101.

283. Cork, cut, including bungs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

284. Fireworks n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

285. Flock, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

286. Glue and size, 1 1/2d. the lb.

287. Granite, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

288. Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, including mantelpieces, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

289. Matches—

Wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches, 1s. the gross of boxes.

In boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches, 2s. the gross of boxes.

In boxes containing more than 100 matches, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. the gross of boxes.

Wax, “plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. the gross of boxes.

“Pocket vestas” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 4d. the gross of boxes.

“Sportsman's,” “Ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas,” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches, 4s. 6d. the gross of boxes.

Wax, other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. 3d. the gross of boxes.

290. Nets and netting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

291. Paraffin wax, 3/4d. the lb.

292. Powder, sporting, 6d. the lb.

293. Sacks, other than cornsacks and jute sacks, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

294. Sausage-skins and casings (including brine or salt), 3d. per lb.

295. Soap, common yellow, and blue mottled, 5s. the cwt.

296. Soap, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

297. Soap-powder, extract of soap, dry soap, and soft-soap, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

298. Spirits, methylated, 1s the liquid gallon.

299. Spirits, cleared from warehouse, methylated, under prescribed conditions, 6d. the liquid gallon.

300. Starch, 2d. the lb.

301. Tarpaulins, tents, rick- and wagon-covers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

302. Twine n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

303. Washing-powder, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

304. Wax, mineral, vegetable, and Japanese, 1 1/2d. the lb.

In addition to any duty chargeable by law on any goods imported into the colony, a further duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem shall be charged when the goods are prison-made.



Names of Articles.

305. Almonds, Barbary, Sicily, and French, used in confectioners' manufactures.

306. Anchovies, salted, in casks.

307. Arrowroot, sago, tapioca, macaroni, vermicelli, and prepared groats.

308. Salt.

309. Rice, dressed or undressed.

310. Rice manufactured into starch in bond.


311. Cocoa-beans.

312. Coffee, raw.


313. Acids—viz.: boracic; carbolic, in bulk; fluoric; muriatic; nitric; oxalic; oleic; picric; pyrogallic; salicylic; sulphuric.

314. Concentrated extracts or essences in liquid form or preserved in fat for perfume-manufacturing purposes in manufacturing warehouses, in bottles of not less than 1 lb. in weight.

315. Disinfectants.

316. Drugs and chemicals—viz.: alum; sulphate of aluminium; sulphate of ammonia; anhydrous ammonia; aniline dyes; arsenic; bluestone, or sulphate of copper; borax; catechu; chloride of calcium; nitrate of silver; cochineal; creosote, crude or commercial; glycerine, crude; gum, arabic and tragacanth; gum benzoin; artificial gum arabic; gum damar; phosphorus; potash, caustic potash, and chlorate of potash; pearlash; prussiate of potash; cyanide of potassium; cyanide of sodium; liquid chlorine; sal-ammoniac; saltpetre; acetate of soda, de; soda-ash; caustic soda; nitrate of soda; silicate of soda; sulphate of soda; sulphide of sodium; hyposulphite of sodium; strychnine; sulphur; chloride of zinc; iron-sulphates; gall-nuts; turmeric; saffron; nitrous-oxide gas; tree-washes; insecticides; maltine; chlorodyne.

317. Essential oils, except eucalyptus; cod-liver oil; oil of rhodium.

318. Horse drenches.

319. Medicinal barks, leaves, herbs, flowers, roots and gums.

320. Scrub-exterminator.

321. Sheep-dip; sheep-drenches; sheep-licks.

322. Surgical and dental instruments and appliances.*

* If of foreign manufacture subject to duty see p. 101.

323. Scientific and assay balances, retorts, flasks, and other appliances for chemical analysis and assay work.

324. Water-hardening chemicals for brewers' use.


325. Accoutrements for military purposes, excepting uniform clothing.

† Subject to the provisions of section 28 of “The Defence Act. 1900,” as follows :—

Equipments to be admitted free of Customs Duty.

“28. All military clothing, saddlery, and equipments imported into the colony for the bond fide use of a Volunteer corps shall, on the certificate in writing of the Minister of Defence that the same are or have been imported for such purpose, be admitted into the colony free of Customs duty.”

326. Brace-elastic and brace-mountings.

327. Bunting, in the piece.

328. Butter- and cheese-cloth.

329. Buttons, tapes, wadding, pins, needles.

330. Calico, white and grey, also cotton sheetings, in the piece.

331. Corduroy, moleskin, and plain beaver-skin, of cotton, in the piece.

332. Coloured cotton shirtings; flannelette shirtings.*

333. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, when cut up under supervision in sizes not exceeding 47 in. x 36 in. for making flour-bags, and not exceeding 54 in. for lining wool mats.

334. Fur-skins, green or sun-dried.

335. Gold or silver lace or braid for military clothing.

336. Hatmakers' materials—viz.: silk plush; felt hoods; shellac; galloons; calicoes; spale boards for hat-boxes; leathers and linings; blocks; moulds; frames; ventilators; and tassels.

337. Hessians, plain or striped, and scrim.

338. Leather-cloth.

339. Minor articles (required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades), enumerated in any order of the Commissioner, and published in the Gazette.

340. Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck, in the piece.

† If of foreign manufacture subject to duty, see p. 101.

341. Sewing cottons, silks, and threads; crochet, darning, and knitting cottons; angola mendings not exceeding 45 yards, on cards.

342. Silk for flour-dressing.

343. Silk twist (shoemakers' and saddlers')

344. Staymakers' binding, eyelets, corset-fasteners, jean, ticks, lasting, sateen, and cotell.

345. Tailors' trimmings—viz.: plain-coloured imitation hair-cloth; canvas; plain Verona and plain diagonal, and such patterns of checked Italian cloth as may be approved of by the Commissioner of Customs; Italian cloth of cotton or wool; buckram; wadding and padding; silk, worsted, and cotton bindings and braids; stay-bindings; Russia braids; shoulder-pads; buckles; silesias; drab, slate, and brown jeans; pocketings; slate, black, and brown dyed unions and linens.

346. Umbrella-makers' materials—viz.: reversible and levantine silk mixtures, gloria, and satin de chêpe of not less than 44 in. in width; alpaca cloth, with border; zanella cloth, with border; also other piece-goods on such conditions as the Commissioner may approve; sticks, runners, notches, caps, ferrules, cups, ribs, stretchers, tips, and rings.

347. Union shirtings the invoice value of which does not exceed 6d. the yard.*

* Whenever any dispute arises as to the application of the exemption in favour of coloured cotton, flannelette, or union shirtings, in the case of fabrics alleged to be such shirtings, the Commissioner has power to decide such dispute; and in case of doubt on his part, he may require the fabric in dispute to be cut up for shirt-making, under such conditions as he prescribes. (See section 6 of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1895.”)

348. Waterproof material in the piece.


349. Boot elastic.

350. Bootmakers' linings, canvas, plain or coloured, bag and portmanteau linings, of such materials, qualities, and patterns as may be approved by the Commissioner.

351. Boots, shoes, and slippers—viz., children's, No. 0 to 3.

352. Cork soles, and sock soles.

353. East India kip, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

354. Goatskins, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

355. Grindery, except heel- and toe-plates.

356. Hogskins.

357. Kangaroo-, wallabi-skins, undressed.

358. Leather, japanned or enamelled; goatskins, dressed as morocco, coloured (other than black).

359. Saddle-trees.

360. Saddlers' ironmongery (except bits and stirrup-irons), hames, and mounts for harness; straining, surcingle, brace, girth, and roller webs; collar-check, and the same article plain, of such quality as may be approved by the Commissioner; legging-buckles.

361. Tanning materials, crude.


362. Blind-webbing and tape.

363. Upholsterers' webbing, hair-seating, imitation hair-seating; curled hair; gimp and cord of wool, cotton, or silk; tufts, and studs.


364. Bottles, empty, plain glass, not being cut or ground; also, jars up to 3 in. in diameter at the mouth.

365. Glass plates (engraved) for photo-lithographic work.

366. Jars or other dutiable vessels, containing free goods or goods subject to a fixed rate of duty, and being ordinary trade packages for the goods contained in them.


367. Action-work and keys, in frames or otherwise, for manufacture of organs, harmoniums, and pianos; organ-pipes and stop-knobs.

368. Artists' canvas, colours, brushes, and palette knives.

369. Magic-lanterns, lenses, and slides.

370. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes, and lenses for same.

371. Musical instruments, specially imported for Volunteer bands.

372. Paintings, statuary, and works of art, presented to or imported by any public institution or art association registered as a body corporate, for display in the buildings of such institution or association, and not to be sold or otherwise disposed of.

373. Photographic cameras and lenses.

374. Photographs of personal friends in letters or packets.

375. Precious stones, cut or uncut and unmounted.

376. Sensitized surfaces for photographic purposes.


377. Bookbinders' materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue paste for ruling-ink, staple presses, wire-staples, staple-sticks.

378. Butter-paper, known as parchment paper or waxed paper.

379. Cardboard and pasteboard, of sizes not less than that known as “royal.”

380. Cardboard boxes, material for—viz., gold and silver paper, plain and embossed, gelatine and coloured papers, known as “box papers.”

381. Cartridge-paper for drawing books.

382. Cloth-lined boards, not less than “royal.”

383. Cloth-lined papers, enamelled paper; ivorite and gelatine; metallic paper; not less than “demy.”

384. Copy-books and drawing-books.

385. Copying-paper, medium and double-foolscap, in original mill wrappers and labels.

386. Hand-made cheque-paper.

387. Ink, printing.

388. Masticated para.

389. Millboard, and bookbinders' leather-board.

390. Paper, hand-made or machine-made book or writing, of sizes not less than the size known as “demy,” when in original wrappers.

391. Printing-paper.*

* If of foreign manufacture, subject to duty, see p. 101.

392. Printed books, papers, and music, n.o.e.

393. School slates, and educational apparatus.


394. All machinery for agricultural purposes, including chaff-cutters, corn-crushers; corn-shellers, also articles used in manufacturing the same—viz., chaff - cutting knives, tilt-rakes, fittings for threshing - mills. forgings for ploughs.

395. All agricultural implements.

396. All bolts and nuts, blank or screwed nuts, black or finished nuts.

397. Anchors.

398. Artificers' tools.

399. Axes and hatchets; spades, shovels, and forks; picks; mattocks; quartz and knapping-hammers; scythes, sheep-shears, reaping-hooks; soldering-irons; paperhangers' scissors; butchers' saws and cleavers.

400. Axles, axle-arms, and boxes.

401. Band-saws and folding-saws, including frames.

402. Bellows-nails.

403. Bicycles and tricycles, fittings for—viz., rubber-tires, pneumatic-tires, outside covers, and inner tubes; rubber and cork handles, and pedal-rubbers; also drop-forgings and stampings, ball-bearings, weldless steel tube in full lengths, rims, forks, and spokes, in the rough.*

404. Blacksmiths' anvils, forges, and fans.

405. Blowers.

406. Brass and copper, in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets.

407. Brass tubing and stamped work, in the rough, for gasaliers and brackets.

408. Caps, percussion.

409. Card-clothing for woollen-mills.

410. Chain pulleys, and chains for same.

411. Chains, trace and plough chains; or metal articles required to repair or complete riding or driving harness or saddlery to be repaired or made in the colony.

412. Chamfering, crozing and howelling machine for cask-making.

413. Copper and composition, rod, bolts, sheathing, and nails.

414. Couch-roll jackets, machine-wires, beater-bars, and strainer-plates for paper-mills.

415. Crucibles.

416. Emery-grinding machines and emery-wheels.

417. Empty iron drums, not exceeding 10 gallons capacity.

418. Engineers', boilermakers', brass-finishers', smiths', and all metal- and wood-workers' machine and hand tools.

419. Engine governors.

420. Eyelets.

421. Fire-engines, including Merryweather's chemical fire-engines.

422. Fish-hooks.

423. Galvanising-baths, welded.

424. Gas-engines and hammers, and oil-engines.*

425. Glassmakers' moulds.

426. Hydraulic cranes.

427. Iron- and brass-wove wire and wire gauze; also wire netting.

428. Iron boiler-plates and unflanged end-plates for boilers; boiler-tubes not exceeding 6 in. in diameter, and unflanged; Bowling's expansion rings; furnace-flues.

429. Iron, plain black sheet, rod, bolt, bar, plate,* hoop, and pig.

* If of foreign manufacture subject to duty, see p. 101.

† Hoop and pig-iron not affected by preferential tariff.

430. Iron rolled girders.

431. Iron plates, screws, and castings for ships.

432. Iron wire n.o.e., including fencing-wire, plain and barbed.

433. Lead, in pigs and bars.

434. Locomotives.

435. Machine saws.

436. Machinery exclusively for the purpose of the manufacture of beet-root sugar.

437. Machinery for dairying purposes.

438. Machinery of every description for mining purposes, including machine pumps, but not including machinery for dredging.

439. Machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes.

440. Metal fittings for trunks, portmanteaux, travelling-bags, leggings, bags, and satchels.

441. Metal sheaves for blocks.

442. Metallic capsules.

443. Perambulators and the like vehicles, fittings for, n.o.e.

444. Perforated or cellular sheet zinc or iron.

445. Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boiler of locomotive type; also traction-engines.

446. Printing type and materials n.o.e.

447. Rails for railways and tramways.*

* See preferential tariff, p. 101.

448. Reapers and binders, and reaping and mowing machines, and extra parts for same; materials for manufacturing agricultural machinery, namely, reaper-knife sections, fingers, brass and steel springs, malleable castings, discs for harrows, mould-boards and plough-shares, mould-board plates, and steel-share plates cut to pattern, skeith-plates; ploughs and harrows' combined threshers.

449. Riddles and sieves.

450. Rivets and washers.

451. Separators and coolers for dairying purposes.

452. Set-screws, engineers' studs, and split-pins.

453. Sewing-, knitting-, and kilting machines.

454. Spiral springs (except sofa- and mattress-springs).

455. Steam and hydraulic pressure and vacuum gauges.

456. Steel rams, black or finished, for hydraulic cranes or jiggers.

457. Surveyors' steel bands and measuring-tapes.

458. Swords.

459. Tacks of all kinds.

460. Tea-packing lead.

461. Tin, in pigs, bars, or sheets.

462. Tinsmiths' fittings, including stamped or blocked tin, planished or unplanished.

463. Tins, tops of, ornamented.

464. Welded and flanged boiler-furnaces, plain or corrugated.

465. Wire, of brass, copper, or lead.

466. Zinc, plain sheet.

467. Zinc plates and copper plates for photo-lithographic work.


468. Ash, hickory, and lancewood timber, unwrought.

469. Blacksmiths' bellows.

470. Brush wood ware.

471. Carriage- and cart-shafts, spokes and felloes in the rough; hubs, of all kinds; poles if unbent and unplaned, of all kinds; bent wheel-rims.

472. Carriage- and cart-makers' materials—viz.: springs, mountings, trimmings, brass hinges, tire-bolts, shackle-holders, step treads, and other iron fittings (except steps, lamp-irons, dash-irons, seat-rails, and fifth wheels), rubber-cloth.

473. Churns.

474. Lignum-vitæ.

475. Sieves, hair.

476. Wooden handles for tools.


477. Benzine in bulk.

478. Oils—viz.: candlenut, fish, kerosene, penguin, palm, seal, whale.

479. Paints and colours n.o.e.

480. Shale oil, once run, suitable for gas-making.

481. Spirits of tar.

482. Turpentine, driers, and terebene.


483. Apparatus and appliances solely for teaching purposes, as may be approved by the Commissioner.

484. Bags made of New Zealand tow or flax.

485. Belting for machinery, other than leather.

486. Binder-twine.

487. Bricks, other than fire-bricks.

488. Building materials n.o.e.

489. Brushes for cream-separators and combined screens.

490. Candlenuts and candlenut kernels.

491. Candle-wick.

492. Canvas aprons and elevators for reapers and binders.

493. Carpenters' baskets.

494. Charts and maps.

495. Confectioners' moulding-starch.

496. Cotton waste.

497. Dye-stuffs and dyeing materials, crude.

498. Felt sheathing.

499. Food preservative n.o.e.

500. Gum boots.*

* If of foreign manufacture subject to duty, see p. 101.

501. Hawsers of 12 in. and over.

502. Honey and brown Windsor soap composition.

503. Iron and steel cordage.*

504. Jute bagging, bags, and sacks.

505. Manures.

506. Marble, and other stone, hewn or rough sawn, not dressed or polished.

507. Netmakers' cotton twine.

508. Official supplies for consular officers of countries where a similar exemption exists in favour of British Consuls.

509. Papermakers' felts.

510. Passengers' baggage and effects, including only wearing-apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the colony; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of such persons; and household or other effects not exceeding £100 in value, which have been in use for twelve months prior to embarkation by the persons or families bringing them to the colony, and not intended for any other person or persons or for sale; also cabin-furnishings belonging to such persons.

† Including bicycles which have been in use for twelve months.

511. Plaster of Paris.

512. Powder, blasting and meal.

513. Ship-chandlery n.o.e.

514. Ships' rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals.

515. Stones, mill- grind-oil- and whet-.

516. Tobacco for sheepwash or for insecticide, after being rendered unfit for human consumption to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

517. Treacle or molasses, mixed with bone-black in proportions to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

518. Tubular woven cotton-cloth in the piece, for meat wraps.

519. Type-writers.

520. Wax, bottling.

521. Woolpacks and woolpockets.

522. Yarn—viz.: coir, flax, hemp.

523. Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Commissioner) which are suited only for, and are to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods within the colony. All decisions of the Commissioner in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette.

524. And all articles not otherwise enumerated.


525. Tobacco, 1s. the lb.*

526. Cigars, cigarettes, and snuff, 1s. 6d. the lb.*

* “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” section 2, enacts:—

“On and after the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, section three of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1831,' shall be deemed to be repealed, and in lieu of the duties imposed by that section there shall be levied, collected, and paid, on and after that day, upon tobacco manufactured in the colony, at the time of making the entry for home consumption thereof, the several duties of excise following, that is to say —

On tobaccoOne shilling the pound.
On cigars and snuffOne shilling and sixpence the pound.
On cigarettes—
If manufactured by machineryTwo shillings and sixpence the pound.
If made by handOne shilling the pound.”

527. Beer, 3d. the gallon.

528. Articles in which spirit is a necessary ingredient, manufactured in a warehouse appointed under section 26 of “The Customs Laws Consolidation Act, 1882,” namely—

Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 9d. the lb.

Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 3d. the lb.

Culinary and flavouring essences, 12s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

Perfumed spirit, 20s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

Toilet preparations which are subject to 16s. the liquid gallon on importation, 12s. the liquid gallon.

Toilet preparations which are subject to 25 per cent. duty on importation, 6s. the liquid gallon.

Duties imposed by His Excellency the Governor under Section 17 of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1888.”

529. Olive stones, ground (see New Zealand Gazette, 15th May, 1890), 4d. the lb.

530. Brewers' caramel (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st August, 1890), 3d. the lb.

531. Liquid hops (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st December, 1893), 6s. the lb.

532. The United Asbestos Patent Salamander Decorations (see New Zealand Gazette, 11th May, 1896), 15 per cent. ad valorem.

533. Matches of any material other than wood or wax, a duty corresponding to the duty payable on wooden matches (see New Zealand Gazette, 27th April, 1899).

534. Fibre conduit pipes and fittings for same (see New Zealand Gazette, 4th May, 1899), 5 per cent. ad valorem.

535. Caramel cereal (see New Zealand Gazette, 14th March, 1901), 1/2d. the lb.

536. Compo-board (see New Zealand Gazette, 12th December, 1901), 4s. the 100 ft. super.

The “Opium Prohibition Act, 1901,” makes it unlawful for any person to import opium into the colony in any form suitable for smoking. Permits may be issued by the Commissioner of Trade and Customs for the importation of the drug in the following forms:—

Opium, crude.
Opium, in powder.
Opium, extract of, solid.

No permit shall be issued to any person of the Chinese race. Heavy penalties are prescribed for breaches of the above law.

“The Opium Prohibition Act Amendment Act, 1902,” makes it illegal to have opium in possession, except the kinds stated above, which can be held under permit.

“The Timber Export Act, 1901,” authorised the collection, by Order in Council, of the following duties :—

Logs, round3s. per
100 superficial
Or such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.
Legs, squared with axe or saw
Half logs
Flitches of any particular kind, or pieces of such size as the Governor by Order in Council from time to time determines3s. per
100 superficial
Or such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.

An Order in Council dated the 27th March, 1902, directs that there shall be levied, collected, and paid previous to exportation from New Zealand, duties upon white pine and kahikatea timber as under :—

Logs, round3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Logs, cut in half3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Logs, squared with axe or saw, 10 in. by 10 in. or its equivalent, or over3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Flitches, any width, and not exceeding 10 in. thick,2s. per 100 superficial feet.

A further Order in Council, dated 10th April, 1902, directs that duties on kauri timber shall be charged as under :—

Logs, round3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Logs, cut in half3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Logs, squared with axe or saw3s. per 100 superficial feet.
Flitches, exceeding 30 in. in width and 9 in. in thickness2s. per 100 superficial feet.

“The Timber Export Duty Act, 1903,” forms part of and is to be read with “The Timber Export Act, 1901.” The following duties may, by Order in Council,* be substituted for those in the Schedule to the last-named statute :—

* No order yet issued

Logs, round5s. per 100 superficial feetOr such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.
Logs, squared with axe or saw
Half logs
Flitches of any particular kind, or pieces of such size as the Governor by Order in Council from time to time determines3s. per 100 superficial feetOr such lesser duty as the Governor by Order in Council determines.


THE above Act forms part of and is to be read together with “The Customs Law Consolidation Act, 1882.” Certain goods (enumerated in these Schedules) imported into New Zealand, not being the produce or manufacture of some part of the British dominions, are to be subject to duty or extra duties as set forth hereunder:—


(An additional duty equal to the amount payable under any tariff for the time being in force in New Zealand.)



(An additional duty equal to one-half of the amount payable under any tariff for the time being in force.)

Basket- and wicker-ware, n.o.e., not being furniture.

Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles; also finished or partly finished or machined parts of same, n.o.e., including weldless steel tubing cut to short lengths.

Boots, shoes, and slippers, n.o.e.; goloshes, clogs, pattens, vamps, uppers, and laces.


Carriages, carts, drays, wagons, and perambulators, and wheels for same.

China, porcelain, and parian ware.


Cordage and rope, n.o.e.

Cream of tartar.

Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware.

Fancy goods and toys.

Firearms, all kinds.

Fish, potted and preserved.

Furniture and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron.

Glass, crown, sheet, and common window.

Glassware; also plate-glass, and glass polished, coloured, and other kinds, n.o.e.; globes and chimneys for lamps.

Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware.


Iron nails.

Iron pipes, and fittings for same, including main-cocks.

Lamps, lanterns, and lamp-wick.

Musical instruments—viz., pianos.


Paper, wrapping—viz., blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings, small hand, lumber hand, and tissue.

Paper, wrapping, other kinds, including brown, cartridge, and sugar papers.

Plate and plated-ware.

Pumps and other apparatus for raising water.


(Duties equal to 20 per centum of the value for duty as defined by the principal Act, or by any Act amending the principal Act.)

Bicycles and tricycles, fittings for—viz., rubber tires, pneumatic tires, outside covers, and inner tubes; rubber and cork handles, and pedal-rubbers; also drop-forgings and stampings, ball-bearings, weldless steel tube in full lengths, rims, forks, and spokes in the rough.

Gas engines and hammers, and oil engines.

Gum boots.

Iron and steel cordage.

Iron, plain black sheet, rod, bolt, bar, and plate.

Printing paper.*

* No duty as above described is to be levied on printing papers imported by and for the use of the proprietors of any registered newspaper, if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Collector that they are imported under a valid contract for the supply of such papers for a period not exceeding three years, entered into prior to the 16th November, 1903.

Rails for railways and tramways.

† No preferential duty will be levied on rails for tramways and other goods mentioned in the above Schedules directly imported before 31st March, 1906, for use in the construction or equipment of any tramway for which plans and specifications have been completed or are in course of preparation on the passing of the Act.

Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck.

Surgical and dental instruments and appliances.

The Act also provides that from and after the 31st March, 1904, no duty shall be leviable on tea grown in any part of the British dominions, except on tea in packets not exceeding one pound in weight.

[The main features of the Act, including its provisions as to reciprocity of trade, will be found described in Part III. of this volume.]



For the bringing land under the provisions of this Act (over and above the cost of advertisements)—
When the title consists of a Crown grant, and none of the land included therein has been dealt with020
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £300100
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £200 and does not exceed £3000150
When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £100 and does not exceed £2000100
When the title is of any other description and when the value does not exceed £100050
Contribution to the Assurance Fund upon first bringing land under the Act,—
In the pound sterling00
Other fees—
For every application to bring land under the Act050
For every certificate of title on transfer where the consideration does not exceed £100010 
For every other certificate of title10 
Registering memorandum of transfer, mortgage, incumbrance, or lease0100
Registering transfer or discharge of mortgage or of incumbrance, or the transfer or surrender of a lease050
Registering proprietor of any estate or interest derived by settlement or transmission0100
For every power of attorney deposited0100
For every registration abstract100
For cancelling registration abstract050
For every revocation order0100
Noting caveat0100
Cancelling or withdrawal of caveat, and for every notice relating to any caveat050
For every search020
For every general search050
For every map or plan deposited050
For every instrument declaratory of trusts, and for every will or other instrument deposited0100
For registering recovery by proceeding in law or equity or re-entry by lessee0100
For registering vesting of lease in mortgagee, consequent on refusal of Trustee in Bankruptcy to accept the same0100
For entering notice of marriage or death0100
For entering notice of writ or order of Supreme Court0100
Taking affidavit or statutory declaration050
For the exhibition of any deposited instrument, or for exhibiting deeds surrendered by applicant proprietor050
For certified copy, not exceeding five folios050
For every folio or part folio after first five006
For every notice to produce deeds or instruments050
For every outstanding interest noted on certificate of title050
When any instrument purports to deal with land included in more than one grant or certificate, for each registration memorial after the first020


All fees under the Act shall be due and payable in advance.

Where several properties are included in one form of application, there shall be charged in respect of each property an application fee, and a fee for bringing the land under the Act. Land included within one outer boundary shall be deemed one property for the purpose of this regulation.

In all cases a fee of one pound (£1) is hereby prescribed as the charge to be made for advertising notice of application; provided that, whenever it is necessary that unusual publicity shall be given to any application, the District Land Registrar may require payment of such additional sum as shall, in his judgment, be sufficient to defray the cost of such advertisements.

In all cases where application is made to bring land under the Act, and the certificate of title is directed to issue and is issued in the name of the applicant, the fees for bringing such land under the Act, with the exception of the “application fee,” may, at the request of the applicant, remain unpaid until such land is dealt with by him as registered proprietor. The District Land Registrar shall retain any such certificate of title until the fees due upon the same have been paid, and, until such payment, shall not register any dealing with the land included in such certificate of title.

Printed forms supplied by the Registrar for use under the Act shall be charged for at the rate of one shilling each. Solicitors, land-brokers, and others having forms printed for their own use, and at their own expense, shall, on approval of such forms by the Registrar, be entitled to have the same sealed free of charge.


By the Amendment Act of 1885 the Schedule of Duties payable under the principal Act of 1881 has been repealed, and the following imposed in lieu thereof:—

1. When the value does not exceed £100No duty.
2. Upon any amount exceeding £100 but not exceeding £1,000—
On the first £100No duty.
And on the remainder£2 1/2 per cent.
3. Upon any amount exceeding £1.000 but not exceeding £5,000£3 1/2 per cent.
4. Upon any amount exceeding £5,000, but not exceeding, £20,000£7 per cent.
Upon £20,000 and any amount over that sum£10 per cent.
Strangers in blood, excepting adopted children£3 per cent. additional.

These duties are leviable upon the final balance of the real and personal estates.

The exemption in respect of property passing absolutely to widow at death of husband is now extended vice versâ.

There are also special provisions in the law affecting children, grandchildren, step-children, and adopted children inheriting property.

The above duties also apply to deeds of gift.


Table of Contents


THE population of New Zealand, as estimated for the 31st December, 1903, with the increase for the year, is shown below :—

Estimated population, exclusive of Maoris (also Cook and other annexed Islands), on 31st December, 1902807,929425,908382,021
Increase during the year 1903 :—
By excess of births over deaths13,3016,2707,031
Excess of arrivals over departures11,2757,4963,779
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris, also Cook and other annexed Islands), on 31st December, 1903832,505439,674392,831
Maori population, census, 190143,14323,11220,031
Population of Cook and other Pacific Islands12,2926,3695,923
Total estimated population of colony (including Maoris, also Cook and other Islands on 31st December, 1903887,940469,155418,785

The number of the Chinese in New Zealand at the end of the year 1903 was estimated to be 2,762 persons, of whom 31 were females.

Details showing the distribution of the Maori population and also of the Cook and other annexed Pacific Islands follow; but the figures in the succeeding portions of this section exclude these special features.


[Further particulars as to sex, age, &c., will be found in the Year-book for 1903, in the section specially dealing with the Native population.]

Bay of Islands2,235
Great Barrier Island37
Waiheke Island70
West Taupo1,130
East Taupo651
Waitotara and Wanganui1,689
Hawke's Bay1,605
Wairarapa North337
Wairarapa South476
Levels and Geraldine134
Stewart Island112
Chatham Islands211



* Results of census taken in 1902.

(a) Birthplaces.—Rarotonga, 1,517; Mangaia, 206; Aitutaki, 58; Mauke, 16: Atiu, 37;
Mitiaro, 11; Society Islands, 73; other Pacific Islands, 58; United Kingdom, 30; America, 11;
New Zealand, 21; China, 7; Germany, 5; Portugal, 5; Australia, 3 Jamaica, 1; New Guinea, 1.

(b) Birthplaces.—Atiu, 913; Rarotonga, 3; Austria, 1; China, 1.

(c) Not including 149 natives absent in ships or at the guano islands,

(d) Whites and half-castes living as whites, 28 persons; absent in ships or at Tonga, 418 persons.

(e) Birthplaces.—Palmerston atoll, 100; Manahiki, 10; Penrhyn, 3; Pukapuka, 1; Society Islands, 1.

(f) Birthplaces—Penrhyn, 342; Cook Islands, 25; Society Islands, 61; Arorai, 2; United Kingdom, 8; other places, 4.

(g) Birthplaces.—Manahiki, 469; Pukapuka, 11; Society Islands, 2; England, 2.

Mauke (or Parry Island)370
Hervey Islands10
Total Cook group6,234
Niue (or Savage Island)*4,079(d).
Penrhyn (or Tongareva)*445(f)
Danger (or Pukapuka)505
Total other Islands6,058
Total population of annexed Pacific Islands12,292


The increase for each quarter of the year 1903 was :—

Increase from:Total.Males.Females.
First Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths3,1071,4721,635
Excess of arrivals over departures3,8143,111703
Second Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths3,1981,5121,686
Excess of arrivals over departures796585211
Third Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths3,1891,4641,725
Excess of arrivals over departures1,466785681
Fourth Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths3,8071,8221,985
Excess of arrivals over departures5,1993,0152,184
Year 1903.
Excess of births over deaths13,3016,2707,031
Excess of arrivals over departures11,2757,4963,779

As to the increase of arrivals over departures, it will be seen that the December quarter is by far the largest proportion of the four (5,199 persons). The March quarter comes next with 3,814 persons, while the June and September quarters yield but small numbers. The increase by births over deaths is also greatest in the December quarter, the numbers for the others being nearly equal.

The movement of population since 1885 is given in the next table. Although the large increase in 1893 by excess of arrivals over departures was not maintained during the nine following years, the arrivals in the colony nevertheless exceeded the departures in each of these years, and the total excess of arrivals for the twelve-year period 1892-1903 inclusive is found to be 54,945 persons, drawn from other colonies or countries.

The excess of arrivals in the colony during the year 1903 over the departures will be seen from the table to have been greater than that shown for 1902. For 1901, the figures are 6,522; for 1902, 7,992; while for 1903, the number is 11,275. Comparing these results with those for 1900, when the excess of arrivals was only 1,831, it shows an annual progressively increasing population coming from abroad.

In three years New Zealand has drawn 25,789 persons, mostly from Australia and the Home country, after deducting from the total arrivals all those who departed outwards.

So far as can be ascertained the United Kingdom only furnished 5,144 of the above large number added to New Zealand for the three years, while Australia shows as contributing 21,510, partly in consequence of the great depression on account of the drought. But the full number from the United Kingdom is not ascertainable, and Australia is credited with more than the actual fact. The figures for other places show a loss to New Zealand of 865 persons.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.*Net Increase.

* Corrected where necessary in accordance with census results. The amount of loss by departures in the period 18-6-91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.

† Loss.


The net gain to this country for 1903 appears as 1,756 persons from United Kingdom, and 9,949 from Australia, while 430 represents the net loss to other places. But here again the gain from Australia is given somewhat too high, and that from the Home country too low.

Still, to absorb the greater part of ten thousand persons from Australia in one year, no matter from what causes—prosperity here and reverses there—is an excellent result, not nearly approached in any previous year since 1893, the time of financial panic on the Continent, when New Zealand took 9,074 persons by way of net gain.


The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1903 was 30,883, an increase of 590 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1903, 27,231 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 3,652 as children. The total number of males was 20,479 and of females 10,404. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 3,547, and from Australia 25,888. Besides these, 476 persons came from Fiji, and 972 from the South Seas and other ports, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

Classified in respect of birthplace, it is found that 8,161 of the arrivals were persons born in Australasia, 21,105 in the United Kingdom, and 33 in other British possessions. Of 1,584 persons born in foreign countries who arrived during 1903, 190 were born in Germany, 516 in Austria, 143 in France, 221 in the United States, 75 in Denmark, 60 in Sweden, 51 in Norway, 20 in Greece, 82 in Italy, 20 in Switzerland, 24 in Russia, 3 in Belgium, 3 in Spain, and 176 in other countries (China, Japan, Pacific Islands, Syria, and Asia Minor).

Among the arrivals in 1903, are noticed 166 “race-aliens,” or persons of other than European descent. Particulars of birthplace and sex are as under :—

Asia Minor718
United States101

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense has been discontinued since the 16th December, 1890, and there was no free immigration in the year 1903. Certain reductions in fares are, however, arranged by the Agent-General with the shipping companies for men with moderate means who intend to take up land and settle in the colony, and the sum of £1,000 was voted by Parliament in 1903 for assistance by way of reduced fares for passages of intending settlers to the colony.

One hundred and thirty-two Chinese (all men) arrived in the colony during 1903, and 124 (all men) left, the arrivals thus exceeding the departures by 8.

The total departures in 1903 were 19,608 persons, being 2,693 less than in 1901. Thus, the movement of population to the colony is found to have been greater, and that from the colony less, than in the previous year.

The departures from the colony by the Union Steamship Company's boats, as given through the Customs Department, are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, and, where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions are made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes had happened previous to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove fairly correct, and indeed the last census shows that the estimated population even after five years' interval was a very close approximation to the truth.

Of the departures in 1903, 18,089 persons were over twelve years of age, and 1,519 children. Nearly twice as many males left the colony as females, the numbers being 12,983 and 6,825 respectively. The departures to the United Kingdom amounted to 1,791 persons, and those to Australia numbered 15,939. Besides these, 524 persons left for Fiji, and 1,354 for other ports (including passengers for San Francisco).

In 1891 the colony lost population by excess of departures over arrivals, but in each of the years 1892 to 1903, inclusive, New Zealand has drawn to itself more population than it has parted with.

CENSUS, 1901.

The population of the colony (exclusive of Maoris), as returned in the census schedules for the night of the 31st March, 1901, was 772,719 persons, of whom 2,857 were Chinese, and 2,407 half-castes living amongst and as Europeans.

A census of the Maori population was taken during February of 1901, when, according to returns made by the enumerators, the number of the Native race was found to be 43,143 persons, including 3,133 half-castes living as Maoris. 196 Maori women were returned as married to European husbands. The complete population (European and Maori) of the colony was therefore 815,862 persons, as exhibited in the following statement, specifying the numbers for each sex :—


* Not including 352 persons, officers and crews of two British men-of-war.

Population (exclusive of persons of the aboriginal native race, of mixed European and Native blood, and Chinese)767,455401,979365,476
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living as and among Europeans2,4071,1881,219
Aboriginal natives (including 196 Maori wives of Europeans)40,01021,41818,592
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living among and as members of Maori tribes3,1331,6941,439
Total population on 31st March, 1901*815,862429,104386,758

The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 5,540 persons. The number of half-castes living among Europeans increased since 1896 by 148, or at the rate of 6.55 per cent. In that year the number of Maori wives of Europeans was 229; in 1901 it was 196. The Chinese decreased from 3,711 at the time of the census of 1896 to 2,857 in March, 1901; or at the rate of 23.01 per cent., caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,854 in 189 and increased to 43,143 in 1901, according to the returns.

The increase on the total European population between April, 1896, and 31st March, 1901, amounted to 69,359 persons, or a rate of 9.86 per cent. Between the census of 1891 and that of 1896 the numerical increase was 76,702 persons, or 12.24 per cent. The average annual increase in the period 1896-1901 was at the rate of 1.90 per cent.

The population of the principal divisions of the colony on 31st March, 1901, was—

North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)390,571206,606183,965
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)381,661199,103182,558
Stewart Island272166106
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Maoris)20711295
Kermadec Islands853
Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)772,719405,992366,727


The gradual equalization of the numbers of the sexes and growing density of population and dwellings in the colony are alluded to in a further table.

Date of Enumeration.Number of Females to 100 Males.Number of Persons to a Square Mile.Number of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.
December, 186162.160.9444.420.214
February, 187170.522.4564.480.548
April, 188181.724.6935.120.917
April, 189188.266.0245.061.191
March, 190190.337.4274.861.527


The increase of population of European descent at successive census periods has been :—

Date of Enumeration.Population. Persons.Numerical Increase. Persons.Centesimal Increase.
December, 185859,41339,60839.99
December, 186199,02173,13773.86
December, 1864172,15846,51027.01
December, 1867218,66837,72517.25
February, 1871256,39343,12116.82
March, 1874299,514114,89838.36
March, 1878414,41275,52118.22
April, 1881489,93388,54918.07
March, 1886578,48248,1768.33
April, 1891626,65876,70212.24
April, 1896703,36069,3599.86
March, 1901772,719  


These are stated as in March, 1901, and at the previous census. Taranaki stands first for rate of progress with an increase of 21.42 per cent. in five years, Wellington comes next with 16 per cent., Auckland third with 14.57, Marlborough and Nelson have increased from 6 to 7 per cent., Canterbury and Otago somewhat over 5 per cent.

Provincial Districts.Population, April, 1896.Population, March, 1901.Increase.
Persons.Persons.Numerical. Persons.Centesimal.
Hawke's Bay34,03835,4241,3864.07
Chatham Islands234207-27-11.54
Kermadec Islands78114.28
(—) Decrease.


New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In March, 1901, the number of the counties was 86. Of these, the North Island had 52, with a population amounting altogether to 216,725 persons. The Middle Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,618 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself, and had a population of 253 persons, exclusive of persons on shipboard. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony, with their interior boroughs set opposite, were as under at the date of the enumeration :—

Counties.Census, 1901.Boroughs.Census, 1901.

* Since reduced by creation of Waihi Borough.

† Since reduced by creation of Awakino County.

* Since reduced by creation of Egmont County, and Inglewood and Eltham Boroughs.

† Since reduced by creation of Kairanga County.

‡ Since reduced by creation of Woodville County.

§ Boundaries since altered.

Since reduced by creation of Featherston County.

Since reduced by creation of Takaka County.

** Since merged in Wellington.

†† Since merged in Christchurch.

* Since reduced by creation of Mount Herbert County.

† Boundaries since altered. [Chatham Islands, with a population of 207 at time of census of 1901, has since been created a county.]

  On shipboard18  
  On shipboard22  
Bay of Islands2,587  
  On shipboard26  
  On shipboard163  
  On shipboard31  
  On shipboard17  
  On shipboard27Devonport3,823
    On shipboard1
Eden19,314Grey Lynn4,110
    On shipboard874
    On shipboard47
  On shipboard14  
  On shipboard8On shipboard11
  On shipboard50  
Piako2,436Te Aroha888
  On shipboard1  
West Taupo287  
East Taupo256  
....  On shipboard1
  On shipboard5  
    On shipboard58
Hawke's Bay6,833Napier8,774
    On shipboard241
*Taranaki11,194New Plymouth4,405
  On shipboard92....
    On shipboard5
  Palmerston North6,534
South Wairarapa5,419Carterton1,205
    On shipboard332
  Lower Hutt1,823
On shipboard2  
  On shipboard95
On shipboard23  
On shipboard3Richmond543
  On shipboard157
  Onshipboard4  Onshipboard236
  New Brighton1,008
  ††St. Albans6,607
Waihemo2,014Palmerston South738
  Port Chalmers2,056
  North-east Valley3,527
  Maori Hill1,550
  West Harbour1,465
  St. Kilda1,700
  South Dunedin5,363
  Green Island667
  Invercargill North925
  Invercargill South1,874
  Invercargill East939
Stewart Island253  

The total county population amounted to 417,596, or 54.04 per cent. of the total for the colony. In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called town population. The population in boroughs was 350,202 persons, or 45.32 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1901 there were 84 residing in boroughs. In 1896 the counties had 391,735 persons, and the boroughs 307,294, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties, 78 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was greater in 1901 than in 1896.


The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several localities which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal cities :—

..Population, Census, 1901.
  Grey Lynn (Newton)4,110
Road Districts—
  Eden Terrace2,011
  Mount Albert2,085
  Mount Eden5,129
  Mount Roskill581
  One-tree Hill1,283
  Point Chevalier684
Northcote Riding767
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding, being land in the Domain with hospital on it250
Total suburbs33,013
Auckland City34,213
Total Auckland and suburbs67,226
 Population, Census, 1901.

* Since merged in Wellington.

Total suburbs5,706
Wellington City43,638
Total Wellington and suburbs49,344
 Population, Census, 1901.

† Since merged in Christchurch.

†St. Albans6,607
New Brighton1,008
Road Districts—
Halswell (part)156
Riccarton (part)4,371
Avon (part)2,843
Heathcote (part)2,388
Total suburbs39,503
Christchurch City17,538
Total Christchurch and suburbs57,041

In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.

Maori Hill1,550
North-East Valley3,527
St. Kilda1,700
South Dunedin5,363
West Harbour1,465
Total suburbs27,511
Dunedin City24,879
Total Dunedin and suburbs52,390

The increase of population for ten years at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was :—

 Census, 1891.Census, 1901.Numerical Increase.Increase per Cent.
Auckland and suburbs51,28767,22615,93931.08
Wellington and suburbs34,19049,34415,15444.32
Christchurch and suburbs47,84657,0419,19519.22
Dunedin and suburbs45,86952,3906,52114.22

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed between 1891 and 1901 at a greater rate than those of the Middle Island, and Wellington in particular to have developed at more than three times the rate of Dunedin, and more than twice as fast as Christchurch.

While New South Wales and Victoria present what is termed by the statistician of the former State “the disquieting spectacle of capital towns growing with wonderful rapidity, and embracing in their limits one-third of the population of the territory of which they are the centre,” New Zealand is saved from this by the configuration of the country, which has resulted in the formation of four chief towns, besides others of secondary importance but nevertheless trading centres of considerable consequence.


Besides the boroughs, there were 35 town districts (including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881,”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. One only of these, Hampstead, has more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined, with populations, as in 1901 :—

Town Districts.Population.

* Constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881.”

† Now a municipal borough.

Te Awamutu355
Waitara (Raleigh)765
Clyde (Wairoa)623
Kaikora North268
Allanton (formerly Grey)227

In addition to the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed for 1901 throughout the colony no less than 683 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centres without boundaries, the populations of which are given in the previous Year-book.


The names and populations of the islands adjacent to and included in the colony were, in March, 1901:—


* Now a county.

Mokohinau Lighthouse853
Tiritiri Lighthouse523
Great Barrier510357153
Little Barrier11110
Ponui Lighthouse211
Week's (Puketutu)633
Bean Rock Lighthouse11..
Cuvier and Lighthouse743
East Island Lighthouse651
Portland and Lighthouse21138
Somes and Lighthouse752
Brothers Lighthouse33..
Dog Island and Lighthouse1697
Centre and Lighthouse954
Chatham Islands*20711295
Kermadec Islands853

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had in 1901 a population of 1,158 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 950 in 1896. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1896 from 307 to 510 persons; Waiheke showed a decrease from 166 to 162 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 234 to 207.


The growth of population in Australasia over a period of forty years is shown in a comparative table. The total for March, 1901, being 4,557,323 persons, is greater than the population of Ireland or Scotland for 1900, and one-seventh part of the population of England and Wales for that year. Australasia has now twice the population of Denmark, over one-third more than Switzerland, and nearly that of the Netherlands.

 Persons. 1860.Persons. 1870.Persons. 1880.Persons. 1890.Census. March, 1901.
New South Wales348,546498,659747,9501,121,8601,362,200
South Australia124,112183,797267,573319,414362,604
Western Australia15,22725,08429,01946,290182,553
New Zealand79,711248,400484,864625,508772,719


Of the various religious denominations, the Church of England has most adherents in this colony. They numbered 314,024 at the date of the census; or, including 1,239 Protestants not more specifically described, 315,263 persons, being 40.84 out of every 100 of population. The Presbyterians numbered 176,503 persons, or 22.87 per cent., and the Roman Catholics came next with 108,960, or, including Catholics not further defined, 109,822, which gives a proportion of 14.23 per cent. The Methodists were 83,802, or 10.86 in every 100 persons. Of other denominations, the Baptists, of whom there were 16,035, and the Salvation Army, 7,999 persons, were those returning more than 1 per cent. of the total population, the proportions being 2.08 and 1.04 respectively. 18,295 persons objected to state their religious belief, or 2.38 in every 100.

The numbers and percentages for five censuses are given in tabular form, so as to allow of the degree of increase relatively to the population being observed:—

Denominations.Number of Adherents in 1901.Proportion per Cent. of Population.

* “Unspecified” not taken into account.

Church of England and Protestants (undefined)315,26341.5040.1740.5140.2740.84
Salvation Army7,999..0.911.501.501.04
Society of Friends3130.
Other Protestants16,8771.261.551.822.162.19
Roman Catholics and Catholics (undefined)109,82214.0813.9413.9614.0714.23
Greek Church1890.
Buddhists, Confucians2,4321.010.770.630.480.30
Other Denominations1,3470.
No Denomination8,2400.891.051.321.221.07
No Religion1,1090.
Object to state18,2952.853.442.452.272.38


A table is given with full details as to birthplace, and under the head of “Allegiance” the number of British and foreign subjects in New Zealand:—


Where born.Census, 1901.Census, 1896.Increase or Decrease.
Total population772,719405,992366,727703,36069,3599.86
Total for specified birth-places772,277405,690366,587702,75669,5219.89
  United Kingdom,—
  Australasia and Fiji,—
   New Zealand516,106257,828258,278441,66174,44516.86
   New South Wales6,4303,3953,0354,5361,89441.75
   South Australia1,5758077681,22235328.88
   Western Australia190103871127869.64
   Australia (State not named)1,2226695531,200221.83
  Other British Possessions,—
   India and Ceylon1,2867225641,341-55-4.10
   Cape of Good Hope1417269246-105-42.68
   St. Helena43251850-7-14.00
   British North America (Canada)1,5449475971,4121329.35
   West Indies20814464247-39-15.79
   Austria Hungary1,8741,713161881993112.71
   Denmark and Possessions2,1201,3847362,125-5-0.24
   France and Possessions609409200698-89-12.75
   Netherlands and Possessions11610511132-16-12.12
   Portugal and Possessions17215121173-1-0.58
   Russia and Possessions38733948365226.03
   Spain and Possessions59411888-29-32.95
   Other European Countries30201030....
   America North America776501275969-193-19.92
   United States of America88159228978010112.95
   Other Foreign Countries422289133485-6312.99
   At sea1,2035906131,322-119-9.00
British subjects761,104396,052365,052690,00371,10110.30
Foreign subjects11,6159,9401,67513,3571,742-13.04

NOTE.—The minus sign (-) indicates decrease.


There were 226 persons—134 males and 92 females—returned as deaf and dumb, or dumb only: of these 45 were inmates of the Sumner Institution, leaving 181 deaf-mutes who were living at home or in some other private residence. The total shows a proportion of 2.91 persons per 10,000 living, against 2.86 ascertained in 1896. The proportions of the deaf and dumb taken according to the sexes did not differ much. The figures are given for six census years.


Census 18782.252.18
Census 18812.232.45
Census 18862.372.22
Census 18912.802.49
Census 18962.992.71
Census 19013.282.51

The numbers at the census of L901 for quinquennial age-periods are:—


All age13492
Under 5 years to 10 years1816
10 years to 15 years3214
15 years to 20 years1810
20 years to 25 years168
25 years to 30 years812
30 years to 35 years128
35 years to 40 years68
40 years to 45 years55
45 years to 50 years61
50 years to 55 years35
55 years to 60 years51
60 years to 65 years31
65 years to 70 years..1
70 years to 75 years....
75 years to 80 years12
80 years and upwards....

The highest numbers are shown at the ages 10 to 15.

The occupations (past or present) of the deaf and dumb were returned in 1901 as under:—


Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Hotel servant1..1....
Domestic servant41....3
Storekeeper's assistant1..1....
Printer's assistant11......
Labourer at freezing-works11......
Brewer's assistant1..1....
Of independent means2..2....
No occupation8..8....
Domestic duties38....137
Scholar, private school21..1..
Scholar, government school86..2..
Receiving tuition at home32..1..
Dependent on relatives41205115
Inmate of deaf and dumb institution4524120..
Industrial school1....1..
Occupation not stated188712


There were 297 males and 156 females, making a total of 453 persons returned as blind, including 63 who were given in the schedules as “nearly” or “partly” blind. Of the above total number, 15 were inmates of the Jubilee Institute for the Blind at Auckland. It would thus appear that only one out of every thirty persons in the colony who suffered from blindness had been received into the institution. The number of blind persons in 1896 was 344. The proportions in every 10,000 of population show a continuous rise at successive censuses, and that there is more blindness amongst males than females.



The proportion of the blind per 10,000 persons living in the past has been: for England, about 8.79; for Ireland, 11.30; for Scotland, 6.95; for Germany, 7.93; for France, 8.37; and for Italy, 7.63. For the Australian States the figures are: Victoria, 8.72; New South Wales, 6.59; Australian Continent, 7.38.

The number of the blind in quinquennial periods of age is stated for each sex. Of 297 males, 100 were under and 197 upwards of 50 years old. Of 156 females, 63 were under 50, and 93 over that age.


All ages453297156
Under 5 years3..3
5 years to 10 years1697
10 years to 15 years17116
15 years to 20 years15114
20 years to 25 years201010
25 years to 30 years1495
30 years to 35 years17134
35 years to 40 years21165
40 years to 45 years18117
45 years to 50 years221012
50 years to 55 years23167
55 years to 60 years453213
60 years to 65 years372215
65 years to 70 years745321
70 years to 75 years402818
75 years to 80 years362511
80 and upwards29218

Of the total number of the blind, 453 persons, there were 43 in regard to whom no information as to occupation is given on the household schedule, 71 (females) were returned as engaged in domestic duties, 15 persons as inmates of the blind institute, 10 as dependent relatives, 132 as of no occupation, 21 as labourers, 21 as farmers, 9 as farm labourers, 6 as dairy farmers, 5 as sheep-farmers, 8 as carpenters, 10 as pensioners, 6 of independent means, and the rest (96) of various occupations in small numbers each. A complete statement is added, in regard to which it must be remarked that many of the occupations are evidently the past occupations of persons whom blindness has prevented from continuing to work at their usual calling.


Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Barrister (not in practice)1..1....
Teacher of the blind2..2....
Street musician1..1....
Boarding - house keeper2..2....
Domestic servant1......1
Insurance agent1..1....
Proprietor of houses4..4....
Assistant butcher2..2....
Seed merchant1..1....
Commercial traveller2..2....
Cab proprietor1..1....
Boot- and shoemaker4..4....
Farm labourer9..9....
Sheep farmer5..4..1
Miner, coal1..1....
Miner, quartz3..3....
Miner, alluvial4..4....
Inspector of minerals1..1....
No occupation1321180239
Independent means6..4..2
Domestic duties71....368
Scholar, Government school22......
Scholar, private school11......
Receiving tuition at home21..1..
Dependent on relative103..7..
Inmate of Blind Institute158..7..
Occupation not stated43516..22


The lunatics enumerated were 2,675 persons, 1,599 males and 1,076 females, nearly all of whom were inmates of the asylums for the insane in the colony. Departmental returns show 2,773 persons (including 22 Maoris, 10 males and 12 females) as the total number of inmates on the 31st December, 1901.

Comparison with the results of previous censuses shows a continually increasing proportion of lunatics to the population in respect of either sex, and that there is considerably more lunacy among the men than women.


Census 187419.9323.2815.48
Census 187820.8525.0715.54
Census 188122.8627.3017.43
Census 188620.5031.0321.18
Census 189127.8231.2823.92
Census 189631.1335.7026.02
Census 190134.4739.2329.19

The number of males who were lunatics was highest at the period 45—50 years, and the females at 40—45, as will be found by the following statement:—


All ages2,6751,5991,076
Under 5 years211
5 years to 10 years532
10 years to 15 years19118
15 years to 20 years432221
20 years to 25 years1146351
25 years to 30 years18610878
30 years to 35 years245141104
35 years to 40 years257145112
40 years to 45 years312176136
45 years to 50 years333213120
50 years to 55 years296177119
55 years to 60 years298191107
60 years to 65 years244139105
65 years to 70 years16210953
70 years to 75 years886028
75 years to 80 years352114
80 years and upwards221111

The proportion of lunatics per 10,000 males living at the above age-periods was only 5.18 at 15-20 years, but had advanced to 59.67 at 35-40 years, and reached its maximum at the period 55-60, when the proportion was 139-30. In the case of females, the proportion rose to a maximum of 130.97 at 60-65.

In 1900 one person in every 288, exclusive of Maoris, in New Zealand was afflicted with lunacy.


The number of idiots of both sexes enumerated in the census was 105, against 144 in 1896; the proportion to 10,000 of population being 1.36 against 2.02 at the previous census. As with lunacy, the proportion of idiocy amongst the males (1.43 per 10,000) is higher than amongst the females (1.28).


THE information obtained at the time of the census in respect of the degree of education of the people is remarked upon in the Year-book, 1903. Later particulars are now given as to schooling.


It has been found impossible to collect the full statistics relating to schooling for the year 1903 in time for this work, and the figures for the previous year are accordingly given.

The number of schools, teachers, and scholars, as in December, 1902, are shown in the following summary:—

Description of Schools.Number of Schools.Teachers.Scholars.

* Excluding 59 visiting teachers.

† In addition to the above, the census results showed that 5,055 children (2,215 boys, 2,840 girls) were being taught at home in March, 1901. Attendance at Sunday-schools is given further on.

Public (Government) schools (scholars other than Maoris and half-castes)1,7083,704129,234
Public (Government) schools (half-castes living among Europeans)1,194
Colleges, grammar, and high schools (aided or endowed)25155*3,072
Private and denominational schools (excluding Maori scholars)29785415,624
Industrial schools and orphanages....746
Native village schools, European children attending....363
Private Native boarding - schools, European children attending....19
School for Deaf-mutes1..60
Jubilee Institute for Blind1120
Native village schools supported by Government (excluding European children stated above)991803,379
Private Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid by Government)41470
Private Native boarding-schools (maintenance of scholars paid from endowments)150
Private Native day-schools3597
Public (Government) schools, Maoris attending....1,667
Public (Government) schools, half-castes living as Maoris attending....167
Private and denominational schools for Europeans, Maoris attending....43

Thus at the end of 1902 there were 2,138 schools of all classes at which members of the European and Maori races were being educated. This was an increase of 29 on the number in 1901. The public primary schools numbered 1,708 in 1902, against 1,677 in 1901. The number of aided or endowed colleges, grammar, and high schools was 25, the same as in the previous year. The number of private schools from which returns were received by the Registrar-General was 297, a decrease of 12. There were also ten industrial schools and orphanages, public and private, at which education was given, as well as a school for deaf-mutes subsidised by Government, and a school for the blind.

The number of schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 106, eight more than in 1901.

Public (Government) Schools.

Compared with 1901 there was in 1902 an increase of 911 in the number of pupils belonging to the public schools at the end of the year, and the average attendance shows an increase of 1,914 for the whole year, but a decrease of 798 for the fourth quarter.


YearSchool Attendance.Yearly Increase on
Number belonging at Beginning of Year.Number belonging at End of Year.Average Attendance*Average Attendance Expressed as percentage of Roll-numberNumber belonging at Beginning of Year.Number belonging at End of Year.Average Attendance
Fourth Quarter.Whole Year.Fourth Quarter.Whole Year.

* From 1877 to 1893 (inclusive) the “strict” average is given, and for subsequent years the “working” average.

† From 1877 to 1894 (inclusive) the increase on the “strict” average is given, and for subsequent years that on the “working” average.


In the report of the Minister of Education the figures are thus commented upon:—

The average of the weekly roll-numbers for the year shows a marked increase (1,083) over that for 1901, but it still falls 9 short of that for the year 1897, which is the highest yet recorded. The figures for 1897 were 133,961; for 1901 they were 132,869; and for 1902 they were 133,952. The number on the roll at the end of the year also shows the substantial increase of 911 over the number on the roll in December, 1901, the actual totals being respectively 132,262 and 131,351, this year's number being in advance of any previous year's.

Partly through the operation of the School Attendance Act of 1901 and partly from other causes, such as the increase in the number of schools in sparsely populated districts, attendance at public schools has improved, and there seems to he good reason to hope that it may still further improve. The standard of regularity of attendance reached in 1900 and 1901—namely, 84.1 of the average weekly roll-number, rose to 84.9 in 1902. This figure is a high one compared with the corresponding figures for the British Isles and for the several States of the Australian Commonwealth. According to the latest returns which are available the average attendance in primary day-schools in England was 83.6 per cent. of the net enrolment, in Scotland 82.9 per cent., and in Ireland Go per cent. For the Australian States the numbers were: New-South Wales, 72.6; Victoria, 66.5; Queensland, 81.3; South Australia, 79.9; Western Australia, 74.4; Tasmania, 74.4. These returns are for 1901 in the case of Scotland, Ireland, and New South Wales, and for 1992 in all other cases.

Education at the public schools is free (except that, at such as are also district high schools, fees are charged for the teaching of the higher brandies) and purely secular. The attendance of all children between the ages of 7 and 13 is compulsory, except when special exemptions are granted, or a child is being otherwise sufficiently educated.

The subjects to be taught at the primary schools are required by the Education Act to be the following: Reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar and composition, geography, history (including civic instruction), elementary science and drawing, object-lessons, vocal music, physical instruction, moral instruction, nature study, health, and (in the case of girls) sewing and needlework, and the principles of domestic economy. Provision must also be made for the instruction in military drill of all boys in these schools.


The Manual and Technical Instruction Act of 1900, and the amending Act of 1902, provides for public instruction in such manual and technical subjects as are set forth in the regulations thereunder. The same Acts provide also for the instruction in elementary handwork of pupils attending primary or secondary schools.

All classes recognised under the Act are eligible for grants in aid of necessary buildings, furniture, and apparatus, and for capitation. During 1902 capitation was paid on classes for drawing (various branches), painting, modelling, design, wood-carving, architecture, carpentry and joinery, plumbing, painters' and decorators work, mechanical and electrical engineering, natural and experimental science (various branches), languages, mathematics, commercial subjects, cookery, laundry work, dressmaking, tailoring, wool-sorting, and singing.

Special classes were maintained by Government grants for the training of public-school teachers in the subjects of manual and technical instruction prescribed and established in several of the education districts of the colony.

The subjects taken up in school classes included cookery, woodwork, cottage gardening, swimming and life-saving, first aid and ambulance, dressmaking, and laundry work.

There were (1902) fifteen Technical or Art Schools, at which 350 recognised classes, attended by about 4,500 students, were conducted. Several new schools were in course of erection, and others contemplated.

In connection with the Canterbury College there is an endowed School of Engineering and Technical Science, the students in which work for the university degree of B.Sc. in engineering. One hundred and ninety-two students attended in 1902.

The Canterbury Agricultural College has an endowment of 62,000 acres of land, of the rental value of £1,500 per annum, and possesses extensive buildings, and an experimental farm of a very complete character. The institution offers an opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture. Two years' residence at the college is accepted by the University of New Zealand as part of the curriculum qualifying for the degree of B.Sc. in agriculture. The college accommodates forty students.

There are several Schools of Mines located in districts in which mining is actively carried on, and the Otago University maintains a professorial chair of mining and metallurgy, to which the Government makes an annual grant of £500. The number of students in mining in 1902 was over three hundred, sixty of whom were at the Otago University.

With the view of encouraging attendance at recognised technical schools and classes, arrangements have been made with the Railway Department by which teachers of classes registered with the Minister of Education may give certificates to their pupils which will enable them to obtain railway tickets at special rates.

The following table shows the results of examinations conducted in the colony on behalf of the Science and Art Department, London, and of the City and Guilds of London Institute:—


Subjects of Examination.Auckland.Wanganui.Wellington.Masterton.Pahiatua.Napier.Christchurch.Timaru.Dunedin.Invercargill.

Total of papers, 473; total of passes, 334.

* A bronze medal and a book prize were also gained by Wellington students.

† A prise was also gained by a Dunedin student.

[“C” represents candidates; “P” passes.]

Drawing on the blackboard55................1..22............
Geometrical drawing (art)11..33225......11334343....
Model drawing7744431......43106....9921
Freehand drawing in outline151477111122....9632101021
Drawing in light and shade1051111............31....771..
Principles of ornament....................111......31....
Modelling design Memory drawing of plant form....................11................
Memory drawing of plant form....11..........22..................
Painting from still life........................221..........
" ornament....................11........11....
Drawing from the antique................................43....
Drawing from life........................11....22....
Modelling the head from life....................11................
Students' works11102211*3......3122....136......
Practical plane and solid geometry................................3311
Machine construction and drawing206331410....................10675
Building construction111..139............96....75....
Applied mechanics................................97....
Magnetism and electricity33....33............................
Agricultural science....11................................
Theoretical inorganic chemistry1......................................
Woodwork, first year........................75........1813
Carpentry and joinery (ordinary)........................11............
Mechanical engineering....1..2......................108....
Plumbers' work (preliminary)3......54............................
Painters' and decorators' work........................32............
Gas manufacture........22............................
Electric light and power (preliminary)........1010............11............
Electric light and power11....96....................1......
Electric light and power wiremen's work......2................................
Telegraphy and telephony....................1143............

In the twenty-sixth annual report, the Minister of Education remarks as follows on manual training and technical instruction:—

“A great advance was made during 1902 in respect to manual and technical education. The total number of recognised classes, which at the end of 1901 was 425, increased to 980 at the close of 1902. Of these, 566 were classes for handwork in schools, and 414 were ‘special,’ ‘associated,’ or ‘college classes,’ of which 64 were continuation classes—that is, classes for adults or for boys and girls that have left the day schools—in the ordinary branches of a general education, and the remaining 350 were technical classes properly so called. The total number of classes that so far are known to be in operation during the year 1903 is about 1,800. The number of classes for handwork in the upper classes of the public schools is still small in comparison with the number of classes doing such work in the lower classes; with the introduction of the new standard syllabus shortly to be issued all excuse for this anomaly will disappear. One of the most pleasing features of the year is the increase of the number of classes in country schools and of classes for adults in small country towns. Much more might be done, especially if the agricultural associations and the local authorities generally would follow the example so well set by a few of them.

“The Act of 1902, it may be pointed out, by recognising Borough Councils, County Councils, and other local authorities as bodies that might join with Boards of Education, School Committees, or the governing bodies of University colleges to form technical classes, and by giving such authorities representation on the boards of managers, placed them in the same position as associations of various kinds were placed in before. There is now really nothing to prevent any district or any body of persons in a district from starting classes under the Act and securing grants sufficient to equip and carry on the classes, unless it be the comparatively small number of thoroughly competent instructors that are to be obtained. This, however, is an evil that is being gradually removed as those who have been attending training classes for teachers in these subjects become qualified.

“The grants to Education Boards for the instruction of teachers in manual and technical subjects, amounting in all to £1,875, were available for the year 1902 as in 1901, and the amounts were paid over to all the Boards that had complied with the conditions; similar grants will he available during 1903. The revised regulations that were gazetted in December, 1902, considerably simplified the mode in which grants are obtained. Supplementary regulations, approved in June, 1903, offered grants not exceeding £5 per annum on account of each pupil admitted free to technical classes, provided such pupil had passed Standard VI. or a higher examination. These free places are called ‘junior technical scholarships’; they last for two years, and may be extended (as ‘senior, technical scholarships’) for two years more if the holders show signs of satisfactory progress. In order that the substratum on which technical education is based may be sound, it is made a condition of the tenure of the junior technical scholarships that the holders shall attend continuation classes in one or more subjects of general-instruction, such as English or some other language, and arithmetic or some other branch of mathematics. It is, indeed, difficult to see what more could be done by statute or regulation to encourage manual and technical education; it is now a matter for those in the various parts of the colony to start such classes as are suited to the wants of the several districts. Some have urged that Government ought to go further and establish classes everywhere; but it is tolerably certain that to set up classes where people art not prepared to make some effort in their own behalf would result in a considerable waste of public money without any corresponding benefit.

“The grants for buildings and apparatus paid during 1902 amounted to £4,997 8s. 3d.; for material, £246 1s. 8d.: capitation, £5,604 17s. 4d.”

In the following table a statement is given of the expenditure upon manual and technical instruction during the year:—


Subsidy of pound for pound on contributions42852
  Building and apparatus4,99783
  Class material24618
    Training of Teachers:—
    Auckland Education Board
    Hawke's Bay15000
    North Canterbury20000
Grants in aid of classes11655
Railway fares of teachers attending training-classes1,094166
Railway fares of instructors of training-classes123118
students attending registered classes18626
Expenses in connection with Examinations:—
Science and Art Board of Education, South Kensington, with City and Guilds of London Institute224311
Students' works, books, publications, &c.71135
Advertising and sundries4305
Inspectors' salaries and travelling-expenses911167
Less recoveries (examination fees: South Kensington, £44 5s. City and Guilds, £16 7s. 6d.)60126
School or Classes.Number of Classes.Subjects of Instruction, and Average Attendance.
Freehand (from the Flat and Round), Light and Shade.Plane and Solid Geometry, Perspective.Design and Ornament.Drawing, Modelling, and Painting from Antique and Nature.Architecture, and Building-construction.Mechanical Drawing and Machine-construction.Practical Mechanics and Mathematics.Mechanical and Electrical Engineering.Experimental and Natural Science (Chemistry, Physics, Botany, Photography).Woodwork and Ironwork.Wood-carving, Modelling, and Reponse Work.Carpentry and Joinery, Painters' and Decorators' Work.Plumbing and Tinsmiths' Work.Cookery and Laundry-work, Dressmaking, Tailoring.Wool-sorting.Commercial Subjects.English, Latin, French, Maori, Arithmetic.Singing and Elocution.Training classes for Teachers in Elementary Handwork and Drawing.
Auckland Education Board—
  Technical School, Auckland89......14134....112714..............
Elam School of Art, Auckland17326....15..............................
Taranaki Education Board—
Technical classes, New Plymouth5....................................60
Wanganui Education Board—
Technical classes, Wanganui303623..288923..11..26..20....1415....
Palmerston N.74212..5........14..10........1055....
Wellington Education Board—
Technical School, Wellington391048431731160302..17522443....12842..93
Technical classes, Masterton19....................................
Masterton Technical Classes Association827....1614............8......199....
Hawke's Bay Education Board—
  Technical School, Napier757..616................28..........59
  Technical classes, Gisborne435..37..............................25
Continuation classes, Wairoa5............11................819....
Marlborough Education Board—
Continuation classes, Waitohi1....................................9
Nelson Education Board—
Technical classes, Nelson3..........................28..........
Westland Education Board—
Technical classes, Kumara1..................18..................
Board of Governors, Canterbury College—
School of Art, Christchurch41218951314755..........533213..........104
School of Engineering Christchurch29..........119217828....................
School of Domestic Instruction, Christchurch6..........51......14................61
North Canterbury Education Board—
Technical classes, Normal School, Christchurch........6............51......14......61
Technical classes, Ashburton2....................16..............21
South Canterbury Education Board—
Timaru Technical Classes Association1414....10..26......12....70......9713272
Technical classes, Timaru6..................28................65
Waimate Technical Classes Association815..................11....20..5412....
Otago Education Board—
School of Art, Dunedin3924110832051423..........................
Technical School, Dunedin39..........362365......271730731518514425
Technical classes, Port Chalmers3..............................20......
Southland Education Board—
Technical School, Invercargill236....10827....1336127..102..782323..
Technical classes, Gore6..........................10..31....51
Country Continuation-classes7..............................238....
Controlling Authority.Subjects of Instruction and Number of Classes in each Subject.
Elementary Handwork.Drawing in Light and Shade (Blackboard Drawing).Elementary Design.Cookery.Dressmaking.Woodwork.Chemistry.Physics.Cottage Gardening.Agriculture and Agricultural Chemistry.Ambulance and First-aid.Swimming and Life-saving.

* Modelling, brush drawing, paper, carton, and cardboard work, stick, and brick-laying, cane-weaving, &c.

Education Board, Auckland34..1....1........11
Education Board, Taranaki18..3..........1..31
Board of Governors, High School, New Plymouth........1..............
Education Board, Wanganui......1............11
Education Hoard, Wellington73..1721..1....11....
Board of Governors, Wellington College and Girls' High School—
Girls' High School1..1..................
Education Board, Hawke's Bay33311..1....1....1..
Education Board, Nelson14....9............35
Board of Governors, Nelson College—
Girls' College, Nelson........................
Education Board, Westland17......................
Education Board, North Canterbury72..113..3..........18
Board of Governors, Canterbury College—
Boys' High School, Christchurch..........111........
Girls' High School, Christchurch..1122............1
Board of Governors, Ashburton High School......................1
Education Board, South Canterbury294....................
Board of Governors, Timaru High Schools—
Boys' High School..........1..........1
Girls' High School..........1..........1
Education Board, Otago27....10..1..121..9
Education Board, Southland55........31......5..
Board of Governors, Southland High Schools......1112..........


The introduction of university education into New Zealand was effected by the Superintendent and Provincial Council of Otago, who in 1869 passed an Ordinance under which the University of Otago was established. Following closely on the founding of this institution was the establishment of the University of New Zealand under an Act of the General Assembly, “The New Zealand university' Act, 1870.” This University subsequently received a Royal charter, whereby the degrees which it confers are declared entitled to “rank, precedence, and consideration” throughout the British Empire “as fully as if the said degrees had been conferred by any university of the United Kingdom.” It was apparently contemplated by Parliament (vide section 19 of the Act last quoted) that the New Zealand University and the Otago University should be amalgamated; but the negotiations for this purpose having failed the two institutions remained for some time distinct bodies. In the year 1874, however, the University of Otago surrendered or put in abeyance its power of conferring degrees, and became affiliated to the University of New Zealand, and at the same time it was stipulated that the University of New Zealand should not directly exercise functions of teaching.

In 1902 an amendment Act was passed reconstituting the Senate, which now consists of twenty-four members or Fellows, live to be elected by each of the four University College districts, that is to say—two by each governing body, two by each District Court of Convocation, and one by each Professorial Board. The remaining four members are nominated by the Governor in Council.

In the year 1873 the Superintendent and Provincial Council of Canterbury passed an Ordinance for founding “The Canterbury College,” and the college was accordingly established with the same standard of university education as that of the University of Otago, but without the power of conferring degrees.

In December, 1878, a Royal Commission on University and Secondary Education was appointed by the Governor, which met in July, 1879, and reported that two colleges, with an income of £4,000 each, ought to be established in Auckland and Wellington, and that suitable buildings, at a cost of £12,500 each, should be erected in those cities. In the following year the Royal Commission repeated these recommendations.

“The Auckland University College Act, 1882,” which became law on the 13th September in that year, definitely established the college, and endowed it with a statutory grant of £4,000 per annum. By “The Auckland University College Reserves Act, 1885,” three blocks of land, containing about 10,000 acres each, and a block containing about 354 acres, which had been devoted to the purpose of promoting higher education in the Province of Auckland, became vested in the Council of University College.

The Auckland University College was affiliated to the University of New Zealand by the Senate of the university on the 6th March, 1883, and on the 21st May in the same year the college was opened by the Governor.

Nothing was done for Wellington until the year 1894, when an Act was passed entitled “The Middle District of New Zealand University College Act, 1894,” which said “There shall be established in the City of Wellington a college to be connected with the University of New Zealand,” and provision was made for a governing body to be called the Council, but no provision was made for any pecuniary grant nor any endowment, and, though certain members of the Council were appointed, nothing could be done for want of funds.

Not until 1897 were the needs of Wellington actually attended to. In the session of Parliament that year the Eight Hon. Mr. Seddon, P.C., Premier of the colony, introduced the Victoria College Act: an Act, as stated in the preamble, “to promote higher education by the establishment of a College at Wellington in commemoration of the sixtieth year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria,” the college being intended to embrace in its work the Provincial Districts of Wellington, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Nelson, Marlborough, and Westland. The Act was passed on the 22nd December, 1897, and the Council was formed as provided in the Act, and the work of organization was begun. The Act provides for the payment out of the Consolidated Fund of a giant of £4,000 a year, and also requires the Council to give six scholarships each year, called “Queen's Scholarships,” to persons of either sex under the age of fourteen years, upon the results of an examination under such conditions as the Council may provide. The Act further sets apart a parcel of land 4,000 acres in extent in the Nukumaru Survey District (Wellington Provincial District) as an endowment for the college.

The Council of the college has established six chairs: classics, English, mathematics and mathematical physics, chemistry, physics, and biology; and lectureships in modern languages, mental science, jurisprudence and constitutional history, general history, and political economy and law. It is intended as funds allow to add other subjects.

The New Zealand University is not a teaching body, as above explained, undergraduates hitherto for the most part keeping their terms at one or other of the affiliated institutions: the Auckland University College, the Victoria College, the Canterbury College, and the University of Otago, each of which has now a staff of professors and lecturers. On the 1st June, 1903, the number of graduates who had obtained direct degrees was 866.

The number of undergraduates on the roll of the University at that date was 2,782 (exclusive of such as had not performed any academical act for a period of ten years), but only 1,768 were keeping terms (not including undergraduates who had not, in the last two years, entered at a college or come up for any college or university examination), of whom 1,160 were males and 608 females. One hundred and thirty of the males and twenty-our of the females were medical students. The numbers of students attending lectures at the affiliated institutions during the year 1902 were as follow: At the Auckland University College, 114 matriculated and 123 non-matriculated; at Canterbury College, 151 matriculated and 74 non-matriculated; at the Otago University, 186 matriculated and 49 non-matriculated. The Victoria College, before-mentioned, affords further facilities for university students, and in June, 1903, had a total of 167 students on the roll—137 matriculated and 30 non-matriculated.


There were 297 private schools in the colony at the end of 1902, a decrease of 12 on the number in 1901: 26 were for boys, 65 for girls, and 206 for children of both sexes. The number of pupils attending them was 15,624—namely, 6,451 boys and 9,173 girls, not counting 43 Maoris, 22 boys and 21 girls. The number of European pupils at these schools was greater than in 1901 by 280. Of the private schools, 139 were Roman Catholic, with an attendance of 10,802 pupils.

The following gives, for the past ten years, the number of private schools and of Europeans attending them, the number of Roman Catholic schools and pupils being also shown separately:—

Year.Number of Private Schools.Pupils.Included in Previous Numbers.
Boys.Girls.Totals.Roman Catholic Schools.Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.

The total number of children of European descent (including such half-castes as live among Europeans) known to be receiving education at school at the end of 1902 was 150,332; of these, 142,168 were from 5 to 15 years of age. The census showed also 5,055 children receiving tuition at home in 1901, against 6,352 in 1896. No doubt increased school accommodation in country places does away with the need for tutors and governesses to a certain extent.

The distribution of the private schools in the various provincial districts of the colony is shown in the next page:—

Provincial Districts.Number of Schools.Number of Teachers.Number of Scholars.Daily Average Attendance.

* Exclusive of 43 Maoris (22 boys, 21 girls).

Hawke's Bay45716917564715881,059393509902

NOTE.—Denominational schools, such as Roman Catholic and Anglican, are included in the above as private schools. Particulars for the Roman Catholic schools in December, 1902, are as under:—

Provincial Districts.Number of Schools.Number of Teachers.Number of Scholars.Daily Average Attendance.
Hawke's Bay224843337371451822301379680


The number of Native village schools at the end of 1902 either supported or subsidised by the Government was 99, or eight more than at the end of the previous year. In addition, there were four boarding-schools for Native children, the cost of whose maintenance was partly paid either by the Government or from endowments, and three private Native day-schools. The number of Maori children attending schools during the fourth quarter of 1902 was 5,573—namely, 3,130 males and 2,443 females. These included 336 half-castes at the Native village schools who were living as members of Maori tribes, and 167 at public European schools.

The numbers at the several schools in 1901 and 1902 were as under:—

Schools.Maori Children attending Schools.
Boys.Girls.Total of both Sexes.
At public European schools9361,0266808081,6161,834
At Native village schools1,6411,8951,2941,4842,9353,379
At subsidised or endowed boarding-schools12212090100212220
At private European or Native schools92895751149140

There was thus, in 1902, an increase of 339 in the number of Maori boys, and 322 in the number of Maori girls, attending school.

Seventy-six out of the ninety-nine Native village schools in operation on 31st December, 1902, were under the charge of masters and nineteen under mistresses, and one under the joint control of a master and mistress; there were besides eighty-four assistants, and eleven sewing-mistresses. The salaries paid to the head-teachers range from £55 10s. to £271, and those for assistants and sewing-mistresses from a nominal sum to £50.

The expenditure on Native schools for 1902 was as follows: Teachers' salaries and allowances, £15,622 1s. 5d.; books and school requisites, £419 16s. 3d.; repairs and small works, £877 14s. 4d.; inspection, £909 3s.; organising instructor's salary and travelling-expenses, £493 11s. 7d.; boarding - schools and scholarships, £2,174 7s. 11d.; buildings, fencing, furniture, &c., £5,593 8s. 9d.; technical instruction classes, £548 5s. 2d.; sundries, £307 19s. 1d.: total, £26,946 7s. 6d.


The total income of the various Education Boards for the year 1902 was £579,468, including £770 of deposits, refunds, &c. The grants by Government amounted to £528,372. These grants under “The Public School Teachers' Salaries Act, 1901,” consist of (a)