Table of Contents


THE New Zealand Official Year-book, begun in 1892, has now reached its ninth issue.

There is evidence that the work is becoming known outside the colony, and the internal demand still increases.

The plan, first adopted in 1899, of supplying to the Agent-General in London sections of the book in the form of small pamphlets, must have proved useful, as further supplies were called for. This year the series of sectional pamphlets numbers twelve, and increased numbers of each have been despatched. As soon as enough matter for purposes of a pamphlet has been printed, copies are stitched and sent away without waiting for more, thus giving early circulation in England to conveniently small portions of the book handy for general use and especially for mailing.


Registrar-General's Office.

Wellington, N.Z., 23rd August, 1900.


CONSULS (p. 24): (1) Belgium, C. Bastin, Esq., appointed Acting-Consul-General at Melbourne; George Lyon Denniston, Esq., appointed Consul at Dunedin (provisionally). (2) France, F. O. Bridgeman, Esq., appointed Acting Consular Agent at Dunedin vice P. C. Neill, deceased.

HONOURS HELD BY COLONISTS (p. 26): Add Hon. Thomas Thompson, 1900.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (p. 29): Hons. J. E. Jenkinson and J. Rigg from 7 June, 1900 (Gazette, June 14th, 1900, p. 1124).

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (p. 31): Speaker, The Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke (elected 22 June, 1900); Chairman of Committees, Arthur Robert Guinness (elected 3 July, 1900); Thomas Mackenzie, for Waihemo (elected 18 July, 1900; date of notification in Gazette, 23 July, 1900).

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL (p. 27):—See inset facing p. 26.

PAGE 50: Defences, Military and Naval, 7th line, for Chief Engineer read Engineer-in-Chief.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND.

THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length—North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands (Hervey Group) is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being more than ten millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been nearly fifty-six millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.


The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the Middle Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, treacherously murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

In 1793 the “Daedalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.


Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery of these islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered; and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the Eastern Pacific Islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

For results of recent researches as to probable origin and present numbers of the Maoris, see Section II. of Part II., post.


The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° O' E. long.; on the west, 166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,520 acres.

  2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,000 acres.

  3. Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33' south, and longitude 169° 8' west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey Group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts as Government Agent for the colony in all matters of trade.

Area of the Australian Colonies.

The areas of the several Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from the latest official records of each colony:—

* Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward Gudgeon is now British Resident at Rarotonga. His salary is paid by this colony. He succeeded Mr. Frederick J. Moss, who was the first Resident appointed.

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700
South Australia903,690
Western Australia975,920
          Total Continent of Australia2,946,691
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471
          Total Australasia3,077,377

The size of these colonies may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria—Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand.

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
New ZealandArea in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438


The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a great part of it is covered with pumicesand, and is unfitted for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that can be drained; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of bush-land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass very little of the land is too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of its north-eastern corner, and runs thence northwestward until it enters the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for about fifty miles, but only for small steamers. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wairoa (Kaipara), the Wanganui, and the Manawatu, the two last of which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours, charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Ngauruhoe and Tongariro. It is a volcanic cone in the solfatara stage, and reaches the height of 9,008ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit, which is subject to slight and intermittent eruptions, giving rise to vast quantities of steam. Recently—in March, 1895—such an eruption took place, forming a few hot springs on the margin of the lake, and increasing the heat in the lake itself. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, some 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and is quite inaccessible except by the use of ropes. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, unsuitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

The Cape Colville Peninsula is rich in gold-bearing quartz.


Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony.


The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other magnificent peaks.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the Middle Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 6,000ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. Te Anau Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the colony as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 26ft. of water on the bar.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.


Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres.

Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.

The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200ft. above sea-level, which has an extinct crater at its summit. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild, frost being seldom experienced; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.

The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where between three and four hundred people live. Horse-shoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a Native settlement of over a hundred Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.


The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregular-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greatest portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The Kermadec group of islands, four in number, is situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Island, and L'Esperance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Esperance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands are about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31′ 29″ S., and longitude 166° 19′ 12″ E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adam's Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.


The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. An Act was passed in 1887 which provided that, on the dissolution of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected, under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose. By “The Members of the House of Representatives Disqualification Act, 1897,” no person, who, being a bankrupt within the meaning of “The Bankruptcy Act, 1892,” has not obtained an order of discharge under that Act shall be qualified to be nominated as a candidate for election, or to be elected, or to take his seat as a member of the House of Representatives, anything in “The Electoral Act, 1893,” or any other Act to the contrary notwithstanding.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. “The Electoral Act, 1893,” extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the colony and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. But the Amendment Act of 1896 abolished the property qualification (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts.


Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.


Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and to 756,505 at the close of the year 1899, exclusive of Maoris.



Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant—General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb., to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9th Aug., 1897.

The Earl of Ranfurly, K.C.M.G., from 10th Aug., 1897.



Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Resigned, 30 July, 1850. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec., 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.

Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875. Resigned, 25 May, 1899.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

J. S. Williams, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.

J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895, Died, 18 May, 1896.

W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898. Resigned, 24 April, 1899.

Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22 June, 1899.

J. C. Martin, acting Judge, appointed, 12 April, 1900.

Chapter 4. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843-56.


Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.



Parliament.Date of Opening of
Date of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)27 May, 1854  9 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
  8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 1856
(No session in 1857)
16 August, 1856.
10 April, 1858
(No session in 1859)
21 August, 1858.
30 July, 1860  5 November, 1860.
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1856)  3 June, 1861  7 September, 1861.
  7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 1866  8 October, 1866.
  9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
  9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
  1 June, 1869  3 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 187225 October, 1872.
15 July, 1873  3 October, 1873.
  3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)15 June, 187631 October, 1876
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 1878  2 November, 1878.
11 July, 187911 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 1880  1 September, 1880.
  9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
  5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)  7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886
26 April, 188710 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)  6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 189018 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 1891  5 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 1893  7 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)21 June, 189424 October, 1894.
20 June, 1895  2 November, 1895.
11 June, 189619 October, 1896.
Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)  7 April, 189712 April, 1897.
23 September, 189722 December, 1897.
24 June, 1898  5 November, 1898.
23 June, 189924 October, 1899.



Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.
* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.
  1. Bell-Sewell  7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
  2. Fox20 May, 1856  2 June, 1856.
  3. Stafford  2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
  4. Fox12 July, 1861  6 August, 1862.
  5. Domett  6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
  6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
  7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
  8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
  9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 1872  3 March, 1873.
12. Fox  3 March, 1873  8 April, 1873.
13. Vogel  8 April, 1873  6 July, 1875.
14. Pollen  6 July, 187515 February, 1876
15. Vogel15 February, 1876  1 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson  1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 1877  8 October, 1879.
19. Hall  8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 1884  3 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel  3 September, 1884  8 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson  8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 1891  1 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon  1 May, 1893. 


Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.
William Fox.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Alfred Domett.
Frederick Whitaker.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.
George Marsden Waterhouse.
Hon. William Fox.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.
Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Robert Stout.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
John Ballance.
Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.



Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 1854  8 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker  8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 1856  1 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.  1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Henry John Miller  8 July, 1892. 
   6 October, 1897. 


Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 
 15 April, 1856  3 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.  3 June, 1861 
 30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 1879 
 24 September, 1879 
 18 May, 1882 
   7 August, 1884 
   6 October, 1887  3 October, 1890.
Hon. Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 1891  8 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 1894 
   6 April, 1897. 



Country represented.Office held.Name.Place of Residence.
Austria-HungaryConsulE. LangguthAuckland.
“ ActingCarl Seegner
BelgiumConsul-GeneralEdouard PolletMelbourne.
ConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
Joseph James KinseyChristchurch.
John BurnsAuckland.
Hon. Richard Oliver, M.L.C.Dunedin.
ChiliWilliam BrownSydney.
DenmarkConsul (for North Island); Chief Consular Officer in New ZealandEduard Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
Consul (for South Island)Emil Christian SkogChristchurch.
Vice ConsulFrancis Henry Dillon BellWellington.
William PerryHokitika.
A. G. FenwickDunedin.
FranceConsul (for New Zealand)Count Louis Antoine Marie Joseph Henri De CourteWellington.
Consular AgentGeorge HumphreysChristchurch.
George DunnetAuckland.
Percival Clay NeillDunedin.
German EmpireConsul-General—KempermannSydney.
ConsulBendix HallensteinDunedin.
Willi FelsDunedin
Philip KippenbergerChristchurch.
Friedrich August KrullWanganui.
Carl SeegnerAuckland.
Vice-ConsulEberhard FockeWellington.
Hawaiian IslandsConsul—General (for Australasia)W. E. DixonSydney.
“ ActingGeorge DunnetAuckland.
ItalyConsul -General (in Australia)Commendatore P. CorteMelbourne.
Consular Agent(Vacant)Christchurch.
George FisherWellington.
Edward Bowes CargillDunedin.
Geraldo Giuseppe PerottiGreymouth.
R. Rose (acting)Auckland.
JapanConsulA. S. AldrichWellington.
NetherlandsConsul-GeneralW. W. BossehartMelbourne.
ConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
Vice-ConsulEdward Bowes CargillDunedin.
Ambrose MillarAuckland.
Harold Featherston JohnstonWellington.
PortugalConsulJohn Duncan
Vice-ConsulHenry Rees GeorgeAuckland.
Charles William RattrayDunedin.
RussiaConsulBaron d'Ungern-SternbergMelbourne.
ActingThomas Jamieson
Honorary Vice-ConsulAlexander H. TurnbullWellington.
Sweden and NorwayConsulArthur Edward PearceWellington.
Vice-ConsulEduard Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
Frank GrahamChristchurch.
United StatesConsul (for New Zealand)Frank DillinghamAuckland.
Vice-ConsulLeonard A. BachelderAuckland.
Consular AgentRobert PitcaithleyChristchurch.
John DuncanWellington.


The Hon. W. P. Reeves, Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


Table of Contents

APRIL, 1900.


Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., 28th June, 1895.

Under-Secretaries: Parliamentary—The Right Hon. the Earl of Selborne, 28th June, 1895. Permanent—Sir Edward Wingfield, K.C.B., B.C.L., 1st March, 1897.

Assistant Under-Secretaries: Frederick Graham, 1st March, 1897; Charles P. Lucas; H. B. Cox (Legal); and Reginald L. Antrobus, C.B.



Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommanney, K.C.M.G., Ernest Edward Blake, and Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, R.E.


Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 1890.

Gresson, Hon. H.B., 1877.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 1882.

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.

Kennaway, Walter, Esq., C.M.G., 1897.

O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, K.C.M.G, 1894.

Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.

Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G., 1891.

Seddon, Right Hon. Richard John, P.C., 1897.

Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.

Whitmore, Hon. Colonel Sir George Stoddart, C.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.


By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, is approved by Her Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announces that he is prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Queen the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke and Major William Jukes Steward.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers whose names do not appear in the list given above are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Haultain, Colonel T. M., 1870; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, George F., 1891; Rolleston, William, 1884; Tole, Joseph A., 1888; Ward, Joseph George, 1896.

[Inset, see page 27.]


BY a statute passed in August, 1900, which has been reserved for Her Majesty's assent, the Governor's allowance on account of his establishment is fixed at £1,500, and for travelling expenses at £500 per annum. This allowance is not payable for any period during which the Governor is absent from the colony.

By another statute the annual appropriation for Ministers' salaries is fixed at the sum of £8,900, of which £1,600 is for the Prime Minister, £1,300 for the Minister for Railways, and £1,000 for each of six other Ministers. All Ministers to whom salaries are appropriated are members of the Executive Council, holding one or more of the offices specified by law. Members of the Executive Council travelling within the colony on public service are entitled to allowance not exceeding one pound ten shillings per day when so engaged, but not during the time a Minister is attending a session of the General Assembly.

The Executive Council now consists of:—


Right Honourable RICHARD JOHN SEDDON, P.C., Prime Minister, Colonial Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and Customs, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Defence.

Honourable JOSEPH GEORGE WARD, Minister for Railways, Colonial Secretary, Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs, and Minister of Industries and Commerce.

Honourable JAMES CARROLL, Native Minister and Commissioner of Stamp Duties.

Honourable WILLIAM CAMPBELL WALKER, Minister of Education and Minister of Immigration.

Honourable WILLIAM HALL- JONES, Minister for Public Works.

Honourable JAMES MC GOWAN, Minister of Justice and Minister for Mines. (23rd January, 1900.)

Honourable THOMAS YOUNG DUNCAN, Minister of Lands and Minister for Agriculture. (2nd July, 1900.)

(Vacant) Attorney-General.

(Vacant) Minister for Public Health.

Honourable ALFRED JEROME CADMAN, Member of Executive Council without Portfolio.

Clerk of the Executive Council—ALEXANDER JAMES WILLIS.


Ranfurly, His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Uchter John Mark, fifth Earl of (Ireland, 1831), Viscount Northland (1791), Baron Welles (1781), Lord-in-Waiting to Her Majesty (1895–1897), Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; Knight of Justice and Member of the Council of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; son of third earl, brother of fourth earl; born 14th August, 1856; succeeded 1875; married, 1880, The Honourable Constance Elizabeth, only child of seventh Viscount Charlemont, C.B. Living issue: One son (Viscount Northland), two daughters (Ladies Constance and Eileen Knox). Appointed 6th April, 1897, and assumed office 10th August, 1897, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Northland House, Dungannon, Ireland; Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp: Dudley Alexander (Captain, “The Prince of Wales's Own”—West Yorkshire—Regiment).

Assistant Private Secretary: The Honourable Charles Edward Hill-Trevor.

ADMINISTRATOR OF THE GOVERNMENT.—The Chief Justice holds a dormant commission.


23RD JANUARY, 1900.

His Excellency the GOVERNOR presides.

Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C., LL.D., Premier, Colonial Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and Customs, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Defence.

Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands, Minister for Agriculture, and Commissioner of Forests.

Hon. J. Carroll, Minister of Native Affairs and Commissioner of Stamp Duties.

Hon. W. C. Walker, Minister of Education and Minister of Immigration.

Hon. W. Hall-Jones, Minister for Public Works and Minister of Marine.

Hon. J. G. Ward, Colonial Secretary, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, Minister of Industries and Commerce, and Minister for Railways.

Hon. J. McGowan, Minister of Justice and Minister of Mines. (23rd January, 1900).

Hon. A. J. Cadman, Member of Executive Council.

Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.



The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-five. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £150 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting day is made in case of an absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause, exceeding five sitting days in any one session. Under “The Legislative Council Act, 1891,” a seat is vacated by any member of the Council: (1.) If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.

Chairman of Committees—The Hon. WILLIAM DOUGLAS HALL BAILLIE.
Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.

* Reappointed, 16th October, 1899.

* Reappointed, 14th October, 1899.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.
Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.
Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.
Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.

Arkwright, the Hon. FrancisWellington13 December, 1895.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough  8 March, 1861.
Barnicoat, the Hon. John WallisNelson14 May, 1883.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago15 October, 1892.*
Bonar, the Hon. James AlexanderWestland27 June, 1868.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury20 January, 1891.
Cadman, the Hon. Alfred JeromeAuckland21 December, 1899.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago15 October, 1892.*
Fraser, the Hon. Francis HumphrisWellington22 June, 1899.
Gourley, the Hon. HughDunedin22 June, 1899.
Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.Wellington13 May, 1870.
Harris, the Hon. BenjaminAuckland  3 February, 1897.
Holmes, the Hon. MathewOtago19 June, 1866.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury  6 June, 1893.
Jennings, the Hon. William ThomasAuckland15 October, 1892.*
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington20 January, 1891.
Jones, the Hon. GeorgeOtago13 December, 1895.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki15 October, 1892.*
Kelly, the Hon. WilliamAuckland  3 February, 1897.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylymer ThomasMarlborough15 May, 1885.
Kerr, the Hon. JamesWestland15 October, 1892.*
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.
Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)Otago  8 July, 1865.
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury15 October, 1892.*
Morris, the Hon. George BenthamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Oliver, the Hon. RichardOtago10 November, 1881.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay20 January, 1891.
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury  9 October, 1877.
Pinkerton, the Hon. DavidOtago  3 February, 1897.
Pitt, the Hon. Albert, Lieut. ColonelNelson23 December, 1899.
Reeves, the Hon. Richard Harman JeffaresNelson13 December, 1895.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington  6 June, 1893.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.
Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel EdwardOtago15 May, 1885.
Smith, the Hon. Alfred LeeOtago18 June, 1898.
Smith, the Hon. William CowperHawke's Bay13 December, 1895.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury  7 March, 1882.
Swanson, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago15 May, 1885.
Tomoana, the Hon. HenareHawke's Bay24 June, 1898.
Twomey, the Hon. Jeremiah MatthewOtago18 June, 1898.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury15 May, 1885.
Walker, the Hon. William CampbellCanterbury15 October, 1892.*
Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay31 August, 1863.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland  7 March, 1882.


The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1887, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1890. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members—ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty-four European members, and the Middle Island thirty-six. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £20 per month, amounting to £240 per annum. £2 for every sitting-day exceeding five is deducted on account of absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 1st January, 1893, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1892.” Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.

Chairman of Committees—
Date of Notification of
Return of Writ.

* H. A. Field elected 6th December, 1899; died 10th December, 1899.

Clerk of House of Representatives—H. Otterson.
Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.
Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.
Sergeant-at-Arms—W. Fraser.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. W. Kane.
Chief Hansard Reporter—J. Grattan Grey.
Interpreters—L. M. Grace, W. E. Goff.
Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.
Deputy Clerk of Writs—–.
Acting Librarian—H. L. James, B.A.

* W. Crowther elected 6th December, 1899; died 14th March, 1900.

† Date of election.

        For European Electorates.  
Allen, Edmund GiblettWaikouaiti27 December, 1899.
Allen, JamesBruce
Arnold, James FrederickCity of Dunedin.
Atkinson, Arthur RichmondCity of Wellington
Barclay, Alfred RichardCity of Dunedin
Bennet, JamesTuapeka
Bollard, JohnEden
Buddo, DavidKaiapoi
Carncross, Walter Charles FrederickTaieri
Carroll, Hon. JamesWaiapu
Collins, William WhitehouseCity of Christchurch
Colvin, JamesBuller
Duncan, Thomas YoungOamaru
Ell, Henry GeorgeCity of Christchurch
Field, William Hughes*Otaki11 January, 1900.
Fisher, GeorgeCity of Wellington27 December, 1899.
Flatman, Frederick RobertGeraldine
Fowlds, GeorgeCity of Auckland
Fraser, Alfred Levavasour DurellNapier
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu
Gilfedder, MichaelWallace
Graham, JohnCity of Nelson
Guinness, Arthur RobertGrey
Hall, CharlesWaipawa
Hall-Jones, Hon. WilliamTimaru
Hanan, Josiah AlfredInvercargill
Hardy, Charles Albert CreerySelwyn
Herries, William. HerbertBay of Plenty
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton
Hornsby, John Thomas MarryatWairarapa
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands
Hutcheson, JohnCity of Wellington
Hutchison, GeorgePatea
Lang, Frederic WilliamWaikato
Laurenson, GeorgeLyttelton
Lawry, FrankParnell
Lethbridge, Frank YatesRangitikei
Lewis, CharlesCity of Christchurch
McGowan, Hon. JamesThames
McGuire, FelixHawera
McKenzie, Hon. JohnWaihemo
McKenzie, RoderickMotueka
McLachlan, JohnAshburton
McNab, RobertMataura
Massey, William FergusonFranklin
Meredith, RichardAshley
Millar, John AndrewCity of Dunedin27 December, 1899.
Mills, Charles HoughtonWairau
Monk, RichardWaitemata
Morrison, ArthurCaversham
Napier, William JosephCity of Auckland
O'Meara, JohnPahiatua
O'Rorke, Sir George Maurice, Kt.Manukau
Palmer, JacksonOhinemuri
Pirani, FrederickPalmerston
Rhodes, Robert HeatonEllesmere
Russell, George WarrenRiccarton
Russell, William RussellHawke's Bay
Seddon, Rt. Hon. Richard John, P.C. Westland 
Smith, Edward MetcalfTaranaki 
Stevens, JohnManawatu
Steward, Hon. William JukesWaitaki
Symes, WalterEgmont
Tanner, William WilcoxAvon
Thompson, RobertMarsden
Thomson, James WilliamClutha
Ward, Hon. Joseph GeorgeAwarua
Wilford, Thomas MasonSuburbs of Well'gton
Willis, Archibald DudingstonWanganui
Witheford, Joseph Howard*City of Auckland27 April, 1900.
        For Maori Electorates.     Day of Election.
Heke, HoneNorthern Maori19 December, 1899.
Kaihau, HenareWestern Maori
Parata, TameSouthern Maori
Pere, WiEastern Maori

Chapter 18. OFFICIAL LIST.

Table of Contents

[12th April, 1900.]


Premier—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C. Secretary to Cabinet—A. J. Willis



Colonial Secretary—Hon. J. G. Ward

Under-Secretary—Hugh Pollen

Chief Clerk—R. F. Lynch

Clerks—J. F. Andrews, L. W. Loveday

Officer in Charge of Government Buildings—W. H. Hennah


Controller and Auditor-General—J. K. Warburton.

Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—L. C. Roskruge

Clerks—W. Dodd, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holdsworth, E. J. A. Stevenson, C. M. Georgeson, J. H. Fowler, J. Skerrett

Cadette—E. A. Casey

Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, J. Swift, A. E. Bybles, J. Ward, A. A. Bethune, B. A. Meek, C. E. Briggs, A. Simpson, E. E. Smythe

Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser

Audit Inspectors—P. P. Webb, A. H. Maclean, J. King, A. W. Eames, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, C. P. Johnson, J. T. Dumbell, W. H. Carlyle, H. A. Lamb


Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen

Chief Clerk and Deputy Registrar-General—G. Drury

Clerks—F. H. Machattie, W. W. Cook, S. Coffey

Cadet—Ben Keys


Four Chief Towns.

Auckland—E. H. Lyons

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield

Christchurch—J. W. Parkerson

Dunedin—W. J. Hall


Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—John Mackay

Superintending Overseer—J. Burns

Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen

Clerk and Computer—N. B. K. Manley

Clerks—F. Barraud, J. W. Hall, R. Watts, A. Stace, A. Williams

Cadet—R. A. Gray

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks

Overseers—J. J. Gamble, B. Wilson

Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle

Overseer, Machine-room—

Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin

Sub-overseer, Binding Branch—G. H. Broad

Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers

Stamp Printer—H. Hume

Stereotyper and Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk

Readers—W. Fuller, H. S. Mountier

Forewoman, Binding Branch—Miss O'Malley

Engineer—T. R. Barrer



Colonial Treasurer—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of Consols—James B. Heywood

Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey

Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell

Clerks—C. Meacham, R. B. Vincent, W. E. Cooper, J. Driscoll, E. L. Mowbray, A. O. Gibbes, J. Holmes, J. Eman Smith, H. N. W. Church, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, A. J. Morgan, T. J. Davis, F. H. Tuckey, W. Wilson

Cadets—G. A. Fraser, E. J. Fitzgibbon

Cadettes—L. McIntosh, E. Fisher

Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Daveney


Registrar—E. Mason

Revising Barrister for Friendly Societies and Trade Unions—L. G. Reid

Clerk—C. T. Benzoni


Registrar—E. Mason

Deputy Registrars—

Auckland—John King, Registrar of Electors

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield, Registrar of Births, &c.

Christchurch—L. C. Williams, Registrar of Electors

Dunedin—James Taylor, Deputy Registrar of Births, &c.

(In all other Pension Districts Clerks of the Magistrates' Courts are the Deputy Registrars)


Commissioner—John McGowan

Deputy Commissioner—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—A. J. McGowan, H. Nancarrow, J. M. King, W. M. Tyers, G. W. Jänisch, J. W. Black, D. R. Purdie, C. V. Kreeft, D. G. Clark, J. Stevenson, J. R. Smyth, R. Hepworth

Cadets—E. Panting, C. E. J. Dowland, C. J. Lovatt



Minister of Justice—Hon. Jas. McGowan

Under-Secretary—F. Waldegrave

Translator—G. H. Davies

Clerks—C. B. Jordan, C. E. Matthews, W. D. Anderson, G. F. Dixon



Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid

Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid

Law Draftsman—F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D.

Clerk—E. Y. Redward


Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—F. Waldegrave

Deputy Registrar—J. C. Lewis

Clerks—W. J. Organ, Mary Eyre


Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice—

Wellington—Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G.

Puisne Judges—

Wellington—W. B. Edwards

Auckland—E. T. Conolly

Christchurch—J. E. Denniston (on leave)

Christchurch—J. C. Martin (Acting)

Dunedin—J. S. Williams

District Court Judges.

Wairarapa, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queenstown, Naseby, Lawrence, Invercargill, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, Reefton, and Kumara—C. D. R. Ward

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—R. L. Stanford

Wanganui—C. C. Kettle

Napier—A. Turnbull

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Blenheim—J. Allen

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—V. G. Day

Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon

Invercargill—F. G. Morgan


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—A. H. Holmes

Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Wairarapa—E. Rawson

Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—E. C. Kelling

Central Westland—H. Lucas

Marlborough—J. B. Stoney

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—V. G. Day

Otago—C. McK. Gordon

Southland—J. R. Colyer

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—A. J. Cotterill

Wellington—H. Gully

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—R. McCallum

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White

Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors (District Courts).

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wonganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert

Masterton—A. R. Bunny

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika—J. Park


Timaru—J. W. White

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Stipendiary Magistrates.

Auckland—H. W. Brabant

Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—T. Jackson

Onehunga, &c.—T. Hutchison*

Russell, &c.—E. C. Blomfield

Tauranga, &c.—J. M. Roberts*

Thames, &c.—R. S. Bush*

Gisborne, &c.—J. Booth

New Plymouth—R. L. Stanford

Hawera, &c.—H. Eyre-Kenny

Wanganui, &c.—C. C. Kettle

Palmerston North, &c.—A. Greenfield

Wellington, &c.—W. R. Haselden

Wairarapa, &c.—H. W. Northcroft

Napier, &c.—A. Turnbull

Nelson—H. W. Robinson*

Motueka, Collingwood, &c.—Wilson Heaps*

Blenheim, &c.—J. Allen*

Christchurch, &c.—R. Beetham

Kaiapoi, &c.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &c.—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, Westport, &c.—R. S. Hawkins*

Hokitika, &c.—D. Macfarlane*

Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew* and C. C. Graham

Oamaru, &c.—J. Keddell*

Milton, &c.—H. A. Stratford*

Clyde, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.*

Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*

Invercargill, &c.—

Chatham Islands—R. S. Florance

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—J. Lawson, J.P.

Wellington—J. Ashcroft, J.P.

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham, S.M.

Clerks of District and Magistrates' Courts.

New Plymouth—A. H. Holmes

Hawera—A. Trimble

Wanganui—A. D. Thomson

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Masterton—E. Rawson

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Greymouth—B. Harper

Weatport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—H. Lucas

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—T. W. Tayler

Oamaru—H. H. G. Ralfe

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer

Queenstown—H. N Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Naseby—John Terry

* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens' and Magistrates' Courts.

Thames—J. Jordan

Coromandel—T. M. Lawlor

Paeroa—T. A. Moresby

Te Aroha—D. Banks


Whangarei—G. M. Robertshaw

Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough)—H. McArdle

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Motueka—H. E. Gilbert

Collingwood—J. T. Foley

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—T. A. Godfrey

Reefton—H. Lucas

Ahaura—A. Askenbeck

Greymouth—B. Harper

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Naseby, &c.—John Terry

Wyndbam—D. Bogue

Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—J. Fleming

Queenstown and Arrowtown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Riverton—A. G. Ashby

Clerks of Magistrates' Courts.

Auckland—F. J. Burgess

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Hamilton—T. Kirk

Napier—R. B. Mathias

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Marton, &c.—F. M. Deighton

Wellington—W. P. James

Blenheim—J. B. Stoney

Christchurch—W. Martin

Lyttelton—W. Shanaghan

Kaiapoi—M. Lynskey

Dunedin—W. G. P. O'Callaghan


Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—A. Mackay, D. Scannell, R. Ward, H. W. Brabant, W. J. Butler, H. F. Edger, W. G. Mair, H. D. Johnson, J. M. Batham

Registrars—Auckland, J. W. Browne; Gisborne, J. Brooking; Wellington, R. C. Sim

Commissioners of the Native Land Court.

R. S. Bush, J. Booth, A. Turnbull, E. C. Blomfield, T. Jackson, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, H. W. Bishop, E. H. Carew, H. E. Kenny, R. L. Stanford, T. Hutchison, H. W. Robinson, R. S. Florance: Sub-commissioners—J. Brooking, W. A. Thom

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga

—G. T. Wilkinson


Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—The Judges of the Native Land Court

Registrars—The Registrars of the Native Land Court


Coroner—Auckland, A. McArthur, H. Want, T. Hutchison, E. Baker; Akitio G. H. Saxton; Blenheim, J. Allen; Christchurch, R. Beetham and H. W. Bishop; Clyde, S. E. McCarthy; Collingwood, E. Davidson; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Dunedin, E. H. Carew and C. C. Graham; Foxton, E. S. Thynne; Gisborne, J. Booth; Greymouth, R. S. Hawkins; Huntly, T. H. White; Hawera, C. E. Major; Hokitika, D. Macfarlane and R. W. Wade; Invercargill,

; Lawrence, H. A. Stratford; Marton, A. Ross; Masterton, H. W. Northcroft; Napier, A. Turnbull; Naseby, S. M. Dalgleish; Nelson, H. W. Robinson, and L. G. Boor; New Plymouth, R. L. Stanford; Oamaru, J. Keddell; Ohakana, S. Bates; Otahuhu, S. Luke; Otaki, W. H. Simcox; Paeroa, W. Forrest; Palmerston North, A. Greenfield and G. M. Snelson; Pokeno, T. Jackson; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Queenstown, L. Hotop and S. E. McCarthy; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Stratford,

; Tauranga, A. C. H. Tovey and J. M. Roberts; Te Awamutu, T. Gresham; Timaru, C. A. Wray; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Thames, A. Bruce and R. S. Bush; Waimate, E. M. Williams; Waipawa, S. Johnson; Wellington, J. Ashcroft; Wanganui, H. Eyre-Kenny and C. C. Kettle; Whangarei, J. M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard; Chatham Islands, R. S. Florance


Head Office.

Commissioner—John Bennett Tunbridge

Clerks—John Evans, John Tasker, William John Mahoney

Cadet—Walter Gollan

Police Department.

Inspectors—Peter Pender, William Stone Pardy, Francis McGovern, John Cullen, John Wybrant Ellison, Robert James Gillies

Sub-Inspectors—Terence O'Brien, Ewen Macdonell, Nicholas Kiely, Edward Wilson, Alfred James Mitchell


Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers—Auckland, Francis Egerton Severne, Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Thomas Rosson Pointon, Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Michael Flannery; New Plymouth, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Wanganui, Robert T. N. Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey


Minister—Hon. J. G. Ward

Clerk—A. M. Smith


Minister of Labour—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary for Labour and Chief Inspector of Factories—E. Tregear

Chief Clerk—James Mackay

Clerk—F. W. T. Rowley

Cadet- F. A. De la Mare

Shorthand Writer and Typist—J. W. Collins


North Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, H. Ferguson, L. D. Browett, W. J. Blake, Margaret Hawthorne, and 71 local Inspectors

South Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, J. Lomas, H. Maxwell, W. J. McKeown, Margaret Hawthorne, and 68 local Inspectors

(There are also 200 Bureau Agents in different parts of the colony.)



Minister for Public Works—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Under Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales

Superintending Engineer—P. S. Hay, M.A., M. Inst, C.E.

Chief Clerk—W. D. Dumbell

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—W. Black, C. T. Rushbrook, E. Horneman, A. Biddell, E. McCarthy, E. Bold, A. R. Stone, P. S. Waldie, N. Jacobs, A. H. Kimbell, P. J. Garvey, A. L. Goldfinch, L. White

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford

Architect—J. Campbell

Draughtsmen—T. Perham, E. Jackson, A. Koch, C. F. Napper, W. Withers, E. McC. Blake, W. G. Swan, J. H. Price, P. N. Hunt, G. Bjornstad, C. A. Lawrence, L. I. Richards, A. E. King, T. G. Applegarth

Head Storekeeper—John Young


District Engineers—Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M.Inst.C.E.

Resident Engineers—Hunterville, G. L. Cook, M.Inst.C.E.; Wellington, R. W. Holmes; Westport, R. A. Young, Assoc. M.I.C.E.; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E.; Jackson's, J. A. Wilson; Springfield, W. H. Gavin; Dunedin, W. A. Shain

Assistant Engineers—J. D. Louch, J. J. Hay, M.A., F. M. Hewson, D. Ross, T. Roberts. J. H. Dobson, J. S. Stewart, S. J. Harding, A. E. Barrowclough, F. H. Geiow, C. E. Armstrong, A. Ross, G. C. McGlashan, J. H. Lewis, A. Jack, H. Dickson, J. W. E. McEnnis, F. W. Furkert, J. Meenan, W. A. Jeff

Engineering Cadets—W. Sherratt, C. J. McKenzie, F. P. Bartley, J. J. Wilson

Clerks, Draughtsmen, &c.—C. Wood, A. S. Lewis, W. A. Cumming, P. F. M. Burrows, L. F. Tegnér, J. H. Denton, W. H. Hislop, E. Waddell, G. Glenister, J. C. Fulton, T. Douglas, C. Scholfield, W. E. Butler, J. B. Borton, C. T. Williams, T. J. McCosker, L. P. Cabot, F. E. Banks, W. E. Fitzgerald, L. M. Shera


Minister for Railways—Hon. J. G. Ward

General Manager—T. Ronayne

Assistant General Manager—C. Hudson

Chief Clerk—T. W. Waite

Clerks—R. W. McVilly, E. J. Andrews, B. M. Wilson, W. S. Ridler, F. S. Pope, W. Johnston, J. Hislop, J. E. Widdop, P. G. Taylor, A. J. Will, S. S. Millington, D. Sinclair, J. D. Nash

Audit Inspectors—H. Baxter, D. Munro, C. L. Russell

Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife

Clerks—H. Davidson, J. H. Davies, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, A. Morris, C. Batten, W. B. Fisher, J. Firth, E. J. Fleming, H. H. Leopard, R. J. Loe, W. Bourke, A. J. Belworthy, F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, W. E. Ahern, F. K. Porteous, T. A. O'Connor, J. W. Dayman, T. S. Hamer, W. H. Simmons

Stores Manager—G. Felton

Clerks—A. M. Heaton, F. J. Dawes, G. H. Norie, G. Bennett, S. Alpe, H. W. Barbor, E. J. Maguiness, R. P. Bray, L. B. Archibald, S. J. H. Dyer, G. B. Cope, J. R. Robertson, C. Brooke, H. D. Vickery, W. G. Caldwell

District Managers—Kaihu, E. E. Gillon; Auckland, A. Grant; Wanganui, H. Buxton; Napier and Wellington, T. E. Donne; Greymouth, C. A. Piper; Nelson, G. E. Richardson; Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; Dunedin, T. Arthur; Invercargill, S. F. Whitcombe

Stationmasters in charge—Kawakawa, R. B. Peat; Whangarei, A. B. Duncan; Westport, T. Hay-Mackenzie; Picton, W. Bowles

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Coom, M.Inst.C.E.

Inspecting Engineer—J. Burnett

Signal Engineer—H. J. Wynne

Railway Land Officer—E. G. H. Mainwaring

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Troup

Draughtsmen—J. Besant, W. R. B. Bagge, C. T. Jeffreys, Ad. Howitt, L. Reynolds, A. S. Henderson, C. H. Mackie, W. R. Davidson

Clerks—W. P. Hicks, M. Angus, J. T. Ford, W. A. Mirams, H. Jessup, H. W. Rowden, T. M. Lucy, H. H. Gardner, T. H. Wilson, F. J. Rowden, P. J. McGovern, E. D. Richards, A. N. Longton, G. P. Parrell, E. J. Wiseman

District Engineers—Auckland, C. H. Biss; Wanganui, D. T. McIntosh; Wellington, A. C. Koch; Westport, J. D. Harris; Greymouth, H. St. J. Christophers; Christchurch, H. Macandrew; Dunedin, F. W. MacLean; Invercargill, A. J. McCredie

Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotherum

Clerks—R. Triggs, R. Aekins, P. A. Buck, C. G. Edwards, G. G. Haldane, J. Rumgay, W. B. Sinclair, W. A. Wellings, C. H. Virtue, H. McKeowen, C. M. Hill, E. J. Guthrie, G. H. Reynolds, N. P. G. Ewart, C. L. Pettit, E. R. Roskruge, A. Beaton, E. Hagenson

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Pearson

Draughtsmen—R. Pye-Smith, W. A. Palmer, R. Eagle

Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, A. V. Macdonald; Wanganui-Napier, H. H. Jackson; Wellington, T. A. Peterkin; Hurunui-Bluff, A. L. Beattie; Relieving, J. H. Fox


North Island.

H. Eyre Kenny, Stipendiary Magistrate, Chairman, appointed by the Governor.

H. Davidson, Railway Accountant's Office, elected.

T. Wilson, Fireman, elected.

Middle Island.

C. D. R. Ward, District Judge, Chairman, appointed by the Governor.

T. W. Brebner, Stationmaster, elected.

P. E. Nolan, Signalman, elected.



Postmaster-General and Electric Telegraph Commissioner—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary—W. Gray

Superintendent of Electric Lines—J. K. Logan

Assistant Secretary and Inspector—T. Rose

Controller of Money-orders and Savingsbanks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Clerks, Secretary's Office—F. V. Waters, H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Crow, V. J. Brogan, W. Isbister, H. D. Grocott, J. C. Redmond, A. T. Markmann, W. J. Gow, F. W. Furby, R. A. Keenan

Mail Agent—A. P. Dryden

Clerks, Inspector's Branch—E. V. Senn, G. V. Hudson, H. S. B. Miller, J. Brennan, A. H. Tucker, W. A. Tanner

Clerks, Accountant's Branch—W. R. Morris, J. L. H. Ledger, H. A. R. Huggins, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Callaghan, W. Chegwidden, R. J. Thompson, H. Cornwall, F. Perrin, J. J. Esson, R. E. Hayes, D. A. Jenkins, E. Fitzsimons, H. N. McLeod, J. D. Avery, C. B. Harton, W. J. Drake, C. Dempsey, H. A. Smith, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, F. E. Beamish, P. J. Kelleher, G. H. Harris, H. C. Milne, C. W. J. Panting, H. C. Hickson, P. D. Hoskins, W. R. Wakelin, F. Stewart, J. G. Howard, T. E. Diamond, J. B. Jordan, N. M. Chesney, R. de Lambert, H. E. Combs, J. E. Hull, A. Marshall, F. G. A. Eagles, C. G. Collins, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, E. Harris, I. Johnston, B. M. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod, C. Smith, M. A. Asquith


Assistant Electrician—T. Buckley

Mechanicians—R. Heinitz, F. Palmer

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Clerks in Store—C. Nicholls, T. Palmer, W. H. Carter, M. McGilvray, S. M. Harrison

Circulation Branch, Post Office—


Auckland—S. B. Biss

* Thames—J. E. Coney

* Gisborne—G. W. Sampson

Napier—S. J. Jago

* New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

* Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

* Blenheim—J. Bull

* Nelson—H. Calders

* Westport—J. H. Sheath

* Greymouth—C. J. Berry

* Hokitika—W. St. G. Douglas

Christchurch—R. Kirton

* Timaru—J. A. Hutton

* Oamaru—W. W. Beswick

Dunedin—E. Cook

* Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin


Auckland—E. H. Bold

Christchurch—J. W. Gannaway

Dunedin—J. Orchiston

Nelson—W. G. Meddings


D. Cumming (Northern District), S. P. Stevens (Midland District), C. J. A. H. Tipping (Southern District)


Auckland—W. S. Furby

Napier—H. W. Harrington

Wellington—C. C. Robertson

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—J. G. Ballard


J. McGowan, Commissioner of Taxes, Chairman (by Act).

J. K. Logan, Superintendent of Electric Lines (by Act).

F. M. Scully, Representing Postal Branch, elected.

W. McNickle, Representing Telegraph Branch, elected.


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow.

Chief Clerk—T. Larchin

Clerks, Customs—F. Oxford, V. R. Meredith, C. H. Manson

Cadet—L J. Thompson

Audit—H. W. Brewer, H. Crowther (Writer)


Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—E. Pasley

New Plymouth—H. Bedford

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. McKellar

Wanganui—A. Elliott

Wairau—W. J. Hawley

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westport—J. Mills

Greymouth—A. McDowell

Hokitika—J. P. Ridings

* Combined post- and telegraph-offices.

Lyttelton and Christchurch—E. Patten

Timaru—A. Hart

Oamaru—T. M. Cullen

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—D. Johnston, jun.


Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter

Tauranga—E. Northcroft, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratclifte, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mongonui—A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Knipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter

Fuxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge

Patea—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Picton—F. J. Robertshaw, Officer in Charge

Chatham Islands—R. S. Florance, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Secretary—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—G. Allport

Clerks—J. J. D. Grix, G. Sinclair

Cadet—A. P. Owens

Marine Engineer for the Colony—W. H. Hales

Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Blackburne

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Chief Inspector of Machinery, Principal Engineer Surveyor, and Chief Examiner of Engineers—R. Duncan

Chief Clerk—R. P. Milne

Clerk—J. H. Macalister

Cadet—J. Furlong

Inspectors of Machinery, Engineer Surveyors, and Examiners of Engineers:—Auckland—W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood; Wellington—H. A. McGregor, P. J. Carman, and A. McVicar; Christchurch—G. Croll and A. W. Bethune; Dunedin—A. Morrison and H. Wetherilt

Board of Examiners of Traction, Locomotive, and Winding Engine Drivers: Robert Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, Chairman; John Hayes, F.S.G.C, Inspecting Engineer of Mines; P. G. Hay, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., R. P. Milne, Secretary

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Auckland—W. D. Reid

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates—Wellington, G. G. Smith

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel

Superintendent of Mercantile Marine and Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—C. E. W. Fleming

Master of s.s. “Tutanekai”—C. F. Post

Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons


Russell—H. Stephenson

Whangarei—J. Munro

Wellington—L. F. Ayson and F. Moorhouse

Hokitika—J. Duncan

Bluff—P. McGrath


Collingwood—F. Stallard

Foxton—A. Seabury

Hokianga—G. Martin

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Neale

Motucka—H. L. Moffatt

Nelson—F. W. Cox

Picton—W. Bowles

Port Robinson—J. Sinclair

Russell—H. Stephenson

Waitapu—S. G. Robinson


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. Jas. Carroll

Secretary for Stamps—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Chief Clerk and Accountant—H. O. Williams

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Record and Receiving Clerk—J. P. Murphy

Clerk—J. Murray

Chief Stamper—C. Howe

Cadets—W. Wilkes, W. F. Alexander

* The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department.


Auckland—E. Bamford

Gisborne—C. H. W. Dixon

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui- J. F. McBeth

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Timaru—J. A. Hutton

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—V. G. Day


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Wellington—Wm. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Gisborne—J. M. Batham

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. Allen

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges, District Land Registrar; E. Denham, Registrar of Deeds

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—V. G. Day


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Wellington—Wm. Stuart, H. Howorth

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Gisborne—J. M. Batham

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—Wm. Stuart

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—V. G. Day


C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—H. O. Williams

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—V. G. Day

Poverty Bay—C. H. W. Dixon


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. C. Walker

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools—George Hogben, M.A.

Assistant Secretary—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Clerks—F. K. de Castro, H. B. Kirk, M.A., R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne, E. C. Banks, F. D. Thomson, T. G. Gilbert, J. Beck

Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector—H. B. Kirk. M.A.


Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary

Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe, Secretary

Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary

Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary

Grey—W. Riemenschneider, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A., Secretary

Canterbury North—H. C. Lane, Secretary

Canterbury South—J. H. Bamfield, Secretary

Otago—P. G. Pryde, Secretary

Southland—J. Neill, Secretary


(Administrators of Education Reserves).

Auckland—H. N. Garland, Secretary

Taranaki—F. P. Corkill, Secretary

Wellington—N. J. Tone, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—A. T. Jones, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, Secretary

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves

Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary


Government Schools.

Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Archey, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—G. M. Burlinson, Manager

Private Schools.

St. Mary's Industrial School, Ponsonby—Rev. G. H. Gillan, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. W. J. Lewis, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager

St. Vincent de Paul's Industrial School, Dunedin—Rev. P. Murphy, Manager


Director—G. van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle


Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.*

Assistant Inspector—Mrs. Grace Neill

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—R. M. Beattie, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Porirua Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum-W. Baxter Gow, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. Truby King, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum—H. Gribben; Medical Officer, H. Macandrew, M.B.

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison; Medical Officer, A. G. Talbot, M.B.

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum)—Proprietors, Dr. Alexander and Executor of James Hume; Medical Officer, Frank Hay, M.B.



Minister of Mines—Hon. James McGowan

Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliott

Inspecting Engineer—John Hayes

Chief Clerk—T. H. Hamer

Clerk—H. E. Radcliffe

Analyst—W. Skey

Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Assistant Geologist—W. A. McKay

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard

Cadet—J. T. Watkins


Thames and Auckland Districts—James Coutts; Assistant Inspector, Thomas Ryan; Canterbury, Dunedin, and Southland Districts—E. R. Green; Cadet, H. Paton; West Coast Districts—R. Tennent; Assistant Inspector—A. H. Richards


Secretary—P. Galvin


Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken

Mount Ida—R. Murray


Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—F. B. Allen, M.A., B.Sc.; Assistant, W. H. Baker; Reefton—

Coromandel—P. J. MacLeod; Waihi—P. G. Morgan, M.A.; Assistant, K. M. Barrance


The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Alfred Benjamin Lindop, and William Shore, of Kaitangata


Same official members as above Board, excepting the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F. G. S., Auckland, Thomas Aitken Dunlop, Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, Reefton; and Francis Hodge, Coromandel.

* Also holds appointment of Inspector of Hospitals and Charitable Institutions.

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards, and Mr. T. H. Hamer is the Secretary.


Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines

Director—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—R. B. Gore

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey

Meteorological Observer, New Plymouth—G. W. Palmer

Meteorological Observer, Hokitika—A. D. Macfarlane

Meteorological Observer, Rotorua—Dr. Kenny

Meteorological Observer, Te Aroha—W. Hill

Meteorological Observer, Lincoln—M. Guérin

Meteorological Observer, Hanmer Plains Miss C. Taylor


Manager—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Hon. Treasurer—W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.

Secretary—R. B. Gore


Minister of Defence—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Under-Secretary—Sir A. P. Douglas, Bart. (Retired Lieutenant R.N.), Major N.Z.M.

Commander of the N.Z. Forces.

Colonel Arthur Pole Penton, N.Z.M., Lieut.-Colonel, R.A.

Staff Officers to the Commander of the N.Z. Forces.

Major Wm. Robarts Napier Madocks, N.Z.M. (Lieutenant R.A.)

Lieut.-Commanding: L. J. Joyce (acting)

Staff Officers for the Instruction of Mounted Rifle Volunteers.

Middle and South Islands—Major Alfred W. Robin, N.Z.M.

North Island—Major Richard Hutton Davies, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. F. Grey

Cadet—A. J. Baker

Defence Store Department.

Storekeeper—J. O'Sullivan (acting)

Assistant Storekeeper—T. H. Sewell


No. 1 Service Company.

Lieut.-Colonel W. B. Messenger

Captain H. C. Morrison

Lieutenant J. E. Hume

Lieutenant H. E. Pilkington

Lieutenant W. P. Wall

Lieutenant M. M. Gard'ner

Inspectors of Submarine Mining Establishment.

Captain J. Falconer

Captain William Coyle, late Coast Brigade, R.E.

No. 2 Service Company.

Captain J. Falconer

Captain William Coyle, late Coast Brigade, R.E.

Lieutenant F. Symon

Quartermaster, Permanent Militia.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Wellington).

John Teare, M.B.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Auckland).

John Wilkins, M.R.C.S.E.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Lyttelton).

C. H. Upham, M.R.C.S.E.

Honorary Surgeon, Permanent Militia.

Patrick J. O'Neill O'Carroll, L.R.C.S.I.

Honorary Chaplain, Lyttelton Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. E. E. Chambers

Honorary Chaplain, Wellington Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. W. C. Waters, M.A.

Officers Commanding Militia and Volunteer Districts, and Adjutants.

Auckland—Lieut.-Colonel Joseph Henry Banks, N.Z.M. (late Major H.M. 7th Dragoon Guards, &c.). Aćting Adjutant:

Wellington—Lieut—Colonel Stuart Newall, N.Z.M.

Canterbury—Lieut.-Colonel Henry Gordon, N.Z.M., late H.M. 44th Foot

North Otago (sub-district)—Y.D. Lieut.-Colonel Alfred Headland

Otago—Lieut.-Colonel William Holden Webb, N.Z.M., late H.M. 109th Foot

Southland (sub-district)—Captain John Edward Hawkins

Nelson—Captain Wm. S. Littlejohn (Captain, Nelson College Cadets)



Minister of Lands—Hon. John McKenzie

Surveyor-General and Secretary for Crown Lands—S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S.

Assistant Surveyor-General and Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—Alexander Barron

Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Chief Clerk—W. S. Short

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Road Surveyor—C. W. Hursthouse

Auditor of Land Revenue—W. G. Runcie

Superintendent of Village-settlements—J. E. March


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. J. Mueller

District Surveyors—L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin, A. H. Vickerman, H. D. M. Haszard

Assistant Surveyors—T. K. Thompson, R. S. Galbraith

Road Surveyors—A. B. Wright, A. C. Turner, T. Burd, D. Innes Barron

Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. M. Taylor


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—E. C. Gold-Smith

District Land Officer, Gisborne, L. Smith

District Surveyors—L. Smith, James Hay

Assistant Surveyors—P. A. Dalziel, T. Brook

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Strauchon

District Surveyors—H. M. Skeet, G. H. Bullard

Assistant-Surveyors—J. F. Frith, W. T. Morpeth, R. W. Watson

Road Surveyor—G. F. Robinson

Chief Draughtsman—C. R. Pollen

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. P. Doile


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant

District Surveyors—J. D. Climie, F. A. Thompson, H. J. Lowe, W. J. Wheeler

Assistant Surveyors—J. McKay, J. R. Strachan

Road Surveyors—G. T. Murray, R. H. Reaney

Chief Draughtsman—J. Mackenzie

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. G. Waitt


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, J. Snodgrass, R. T. Sadd

Assistant Surveyors—J. D. Thomson, C. Kain

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—H. Trent


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. W. Adams

District Surveyors—F. S. Smith, D. W. Gillies

Assistant Surveyor—E. W. Buckeridge

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—W. Armstrong


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—W. G. Murray

Assistant Surveyor—W. Wilson

Road Surveyor—F. B. Wither

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. J. Roberts


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—S. Weetman

District Surveyors—T. N. Broderick, G. H. M. McClure, L. O. Mathias

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab

Caretaker, Hanmer Springs—J. Rogers

Manager, Hanmer Springs Sanatorium—D. McDonald


Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. P. Maitland

Chief Surveyor—John Hay

District Surveyors—J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmot, D. M. Calder

Assistant Surveyors—W. D. R. McCurdie, W. T. Neill

Chief Draughtsman—S. Thompson

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—David Barron

Assistant Surveyor—A. Hodgkinson

Chief Draughtsman—G. Robinson

Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch


Auckland—G. Mueller, R. Thompson, B. Harris, D. Lundon, J. Renshaw

Hawke's Bay—E. C. Gold-Smith, C. Hall, T. Hyde, R. R. Groom, G. Mathewson

Taranaki—J. Strauchon, T. Kelly, C. K. Stock, J. Heslop

Wellington—J. W. A. Marchant, A. W. Hogg, J. Stevens, A. Reese

Nelson—Thomas Humphries, John Graham, D. Bate, F. Hamilton, O. Lynch

Marlborough—C. W. Adams, C. H. Mills, J. Redwood, A. P. Seymour, G. Taylor

Westland—W. G. Murray, A. Matheson, J. Chesney, J. S. Lang, A. Cumming

Canterbury—S. Weetman, A. C. Pringle, R. Meredith, D. McMillan, J. McLachlan

Otago—J. P. Maitland, H. H. Kirkpatrick, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—David Barron, A. Kinross, J. McIntyre, A. Baldey, D. King


The Surveyor-General; the Assistant Surveyor-General; the Chief Surveyors for the Land Districts of Wellington, Hawke's Bay, Nelson, and Canterbury

Secretary to Board—T. M. Grant



Chairman of Board and Land Purchase Inspector—Jas. McKerrow, F.R.A.S.

The Board consists of the Land Purchase Inspector as Chairman, the Surveyor—General, the Commissioner of Taxes—these for the whole colony—with the Commissioners of Crown Lands and a member of the Land Board in each land district, who are members only for the business arising within their respective districts.



Minister in Charge—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—John D. Ritchie

Assistant Chief Inspector of Stock—T. A. Fraser

Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt

Clerk and Biologist—T. W. Kirk, F.L.S.

Clerks—J. Longton, J. E. D. Spicer, F. C. Hjorring, A. R. Kennedy, F. C. Matthews, W. Miller,

Agricultural Chemist—B. C. Aston

Poultry Expert—D. D. Hyde

Veterinary Surgeons—J. A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S. (Chief); Archibald Park, M.R.C.V.S.; A. R. Young, M.R.C.V.S., Wellington; C. J. Reakes, M.R.C.V.S., Dunedin; A. Crabb, M.R.C.V.S., Christchurch; J. G. Clayton, M.R.C.V.S., Auckland

Meat Inspectors—J. R. Charlton, M.R.C.V.S., Islington, Christchurch; D. H. Rait, M.R.C.V.S., Timaru; E. Nelson, M.R.C.V.S., Petone, Wellington; P. M. Edgar, M.R.C.V.S., Ngahauranga, Wellington; J. F. McEachran, Aramoho, Wanganui

Assistant, Veterinary Laboratory, Wellington—G H. Barker

Relieving Inspector of Stock—D. Munro

Produce Commissioner, London—H. C. Cameron

Dairy Commissioner—J. A. Ruddick

Dairy Instructors and Graders—J. A. Kinsella, Wellington; J. Sawers, Wyndham; R. W. D. Robertson, Wellington; J. T. Lang, Wellington; A. A. Thornton, Lyttelton; J. Johnston, New Plymouth; D. J. McGowan, New Plymouth; E. Townshend, Auckland

Assistant Entomologist and Fruit Inspector at Auckland—Thomas Broun, F.E.S.

Pomologists—W. J. Palmer, Auckland; J. C. Blackmore, Christchurch; S. I. Fitch, Christchurch

Fruit Inspectors—H. Palethorpe, Wellington; A. Cowie, Christchurch; A. F. Cargill, Dunedin

Experimental-Station, Waverley—Farm Overseer—F. Gillanders Nurseryman—(vacant)


Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw and F. H. Brittain, Auckland; D. Fleming, Whangarei; D. Ross, Hamilton; H. E. Collett, Whakatane

Napier—W. Miller (in charge), W. R. Rutherfurd, Napier; C. Thomson, Gisborne; J. Kerr, Wairoa; J. Harvey, Woodville

Wairarapa—G. H. Jenkinson, Masterton (in charge); T. C. Webb, Carterton

Wellington—J. Drummond, Wellington

West Coast—A. K. Blundell (in charge), Wanganui; J. W. Deem, New Plymouth; F. E. Orbell, Hawera; H. G. J. Hull, Palmerston North

Nelson—H. M. Campbell, Nelson (in charge); G. S. Cooke, Richmond

Marlborough—John Moore, Blenheim

Westland—V. A. Huddleston, Hokitika

Canterbury-Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), E. A. Dowden, Christchurch; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora; J. C. Huddleston, Rotherham; Blair Fullarton, Ashburton

South Canterbury—C. C. Empson, Timaru; W. Black, Fairl; R. Rowan, Kurow

Otago—J. E. Thomson, Dunedin; A. Ironside, Mosgiel; J. C. Miller, Oamaru; F. G. Wayne, Milton; J. L. Bruce, Balclutha; W. Dalgleish, Clyde; J. Budge, Queenstown; R. I. Gossage, Naseby; A. Mills, Lawrence; James Duncan, Palmerston; E. A. Field, Gore; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; T. Gilmour, Riverton; J. W. Raymond, Bluff


Valuer General—John McGowan

Deputy Valuer-General—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Clerks—J. P. Dugdale, H. L. Wiggins, A. W. Knowles, A. E. Fowler, H. O'Rourke, H. Redmond, J. Ferguson

Cadet—H. A. Anderson

Draughtsman—H. H. Seed

Supervising Valuers—W. Duncan, Auckland; A. P. O'Callaghan, Christchurch; A. McKerrow, Dunedin; H. Carswell, Invercargill

District Valuers—James I. Wilson, jun., Whangarei; J. J. Reynolds, Auckland; W. Garrett, Paeroa; W. H. Wallis, Hamilton; Ian S. Simson, Gisborne; W. E. Griffin, Napier; H. J. C. Coutts, Hawera; S. Hill, New Plymouth; A. Barns, Wanganui; R. Gardner, Palmerston North; J. Fraser, Masterton; T. W. Caverhill, Petone; E. Kenny, Picton; J. Webster, Hokitika; A. D. Bayfield, Westport; D. Dick, Ashley; J. Whitelaw, Christchurch; A. Freeman, Christchurch; A. Allan, Timaru; E. A. Atkinson, Oamaru; W. L. Craig, Palmerston South; W. Dallas, Balclutha; A. J. Burns, Dunedin; J. George, Queenstown; John Smaill, Gore; Charles Rout, Invercargill; William Baird, Winton

Clerks—Auckland, E. W. Watson; Christchurch, J. M. Wheeler, A. Millar; Dunedin, A. Clothier, J. T. Bolt; Invercargill, T. Oswin, C. de R. Andrews

Cadet—Christchurch, E. J. R. Cumming


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson, F.F.A., F.I.A.V.

Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Accountant—G. W. Barltrop

Assistant Actuary—G. Leslie

Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven

Second Assistant Actuary—P. Muter

Office Examiner—G. A. Kennedy

Clerks—J. W. Kinniburgh, D. J. McG. McKenzie, W. S. Smith, A. H. Hamerton, F. B. Bolt, C. E. Galwey, T. L. Barker, A. L. B. Jordan, H. S. Manning, A. Avery, A. E. Allison, G. Webb, C. W. Palmer, C. J. Alexander, F. K. Kelling, J. B. Young, G. C. Fache, J. A. Thomson, R. T. Smith, H. Rose, A. de Castro, R. P. Hood, G. A. N. Campbell, A. T. Traversi, F. M. Leckie, W. H. Woon, S. P. Hawthorne, J. G. Reid, A. E. Jackson, C. H. E. Stichbury, J. R. Samson, H. H. Henderson, R. Fullerton, A. H. Johnstone, J. S. Butler, R. S. Latta, H. Davies, T. Fouhy, J. Lindsay, J. R. Fraser, G. E. Sadd, J. T. Gunn, T. M. Dimant, W. Spence

Chief Messenger—W. Archer


District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerks—C. H. Ralph and H. Wylie


Resident Agent—J. H. Dean

Clerk—G. C. Rodda


Resident Agent—J. Fairburn


District Manager and Supervisor of New Business—G. Robertson

Chief Clerk—M. J. K. Heywood

Clerks—W. C. Marchant and A. M. McDonald


Resident Agent—A. P. Burnes


Resident Agent—A. W. G. Burnes


District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—J. W. H. Wood

Clerk—G. J. Robertson


Resident Agent—S. T. Wicksteed


Resident Agent—O. H. Pinel


District Manager—R. S. McGowan

Chief Clerk—G. Crichton

Clerks—A. Marryatt and G. S. Nicoll


Resident Agent—J. Findlay

Clerk—W. J. Ewart


Public Trustee—J. W. Poynton

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Chief Clerk—A. A. K. Duncan

Assistant Chief Clerk—T. S. Ronaldson

Accountant—M. C. Barnett

Clerks—T. Stephens, M. Townsend, P. Fair, C. Zachariah, P. Hervey, E. C. Reeves, W. A. Fordham, A. Purdie, G. A. Smyth, A. J. Cross, W. McGowan, M. E. Harrap, S. Dimant, E. A. Smythe, J. B. Jack, W. Barr, E. O. Hales, C. Morris, S. W. Smith, C. A. Goldsmith, H. Masters, R. Price, M. Leahy, H. Turner, E. J. Holmes

District Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton; Clerks, T. R. Saywell, J. Allen, P. A. Devereux

District Agent, Auckland—E. F. Warren; Clerk, K. N. H. Browne

District Agent, Dunedin—F. H. Morice; Typist, F. Naphtali; Cadet, W. Campbell

District Agent, Greymouth—T. D. Kendall

District Agent, Nelson—E. P. Watkis

West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent—Thomas W. Fisher; Clerk, H. Oswin


Superintendent—John McGowan

Deputy Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Inspecting Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—W. Waddel, H. E. Williams, T. C. Somers, W. N. Hinchcliffe, J. Atkinson, J. E. Thompson, W. Auld, C. T. Fraser, T. W. Foote, A. A. Prichard, M. J. Crombie, C. Wilson C. B. Collins, D. Fraser, R. G. McLennan, A. Tudhope

Chief Valuers—W. Duncan, Auckland; A. P. O'Callaghan, Christchurch; A. McKerrow, Dunedin; H. Carswell, Invercargill

Clerks at Agencies—F. B. Robertson, Auckland; H. S. Barron, Invercargill


Cadets in the Civil Service are required, after arriving at the age of eighteen years, to serve for three years in a Volunteer corps. Heads of departments are required to see that cadets who come within the regulations join the Volunteer Force, and serve for the period named, and also to notify the Under-Secretary for Defence of the appointment of all cadets coming within this regulation.


THERE is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.



The Most Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1869 (Primate).

The Right Rev. William Leonard Williams, D.D., Waiapu; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Frederic Wallis, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871.

The Right Rev. Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.



The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. George Michael Lenihan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1896.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.


The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses, viz.: Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one or other of the dioceses. Delegates attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia.—President, the Bishop of Auckland, Primate. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese. The next General Synod will be held in Napier, on the 29th January, 1901.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a Synod is held, presided over by the Bishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the Metropolitan, and attended by all the Suffragan Bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the colony. The decrees of this Council, when approved by Rome, will be published in the course of a few months, and will be binding in every diocese in New Zealand.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly has met annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, in succession. In 1901 it will meet in Wanganui. Moderator, the Right Rev. W. R. Campbell, B.A; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier.

Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Synod meets annually in October at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. W. Bannerman, Roslyn, Dunedin; Interim Clerk, Rev. A. M. Finlayson, Waitati, Dunedin; Church Factor, Mr. Frederick Smith, High Street, Dunedin. Theological Professors, Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., D.D., and Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D. Mr. James Dunbar, Tutor in Greek.

Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets on or about the last Tuesday in February, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1900-1901), Rev. J. S. Smalley, F.R.G.S., Nelson; Secretary, Rev. D. J. Murray, Thames. The next Conference is to meet in Wesley Church, Taranaki Street, Wellington.

Primitive Methodists.—A Conference takes place every January. The next is to be held at Franklin Road, Auckland, commencing 11th January, 1901. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. James Cocker, Wanganui; Vice-President, Mr. William Dobbs, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. Thomas H. Lyon, Forth Street, Invercargill; Secretary of Executive Committee, Mr. D. Goldie, Pitt Street, Auckland; Treasurer of Mission Funds, Mr. Joseph Watkinson, Mangare, Auckland.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Rev. Joseph Clark, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. A. Chidgey, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. A. H. Collins, Auckland. The Union comprises 32 churches, 3,531 members, 4,686 scholars in the Sunday schools, with 560 teachers. There were also 78 local preachers, and 17 preaching-stations. This religious body has a newspaper of its own, the New Zealand Baptist, published in Christchurch; Editor, Rev. F. W. Boreham, Mosgiel.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1900-1901, Rev. S. J. Baker, Christchurch; Chairman-elect, Rev. J. R. Glasson, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. Frederic Warner, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. W. M. Trigg, Auckland; Head Office, Auckland. In 1901 the meeting of the Council will be held at Christchurch. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. A. T. Chodowski, Dunedin; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).


THE defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia (Artillery and Submarine Mining Corps), and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers (Cavalry, Mounted Rifles, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies). There is a Commander of the Forces, who is an Imperial officer, and he has a Staff officer who is also an Imperial officer. To the Under-Secretary for Defence all questions of expenditure are referred; while the Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department has charge of the defence-works.


The two islands (North and Middle) are divided into five districts and two sub-districts, each commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a staff of drill-sergeants.


This Force is divided into four companies, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force consists of one lieut-colonel, one captain, four subalterns, with an establishment of 215 of all ranks.


This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres for submarine mining and torpedo work, and consists of two captains and one subaltern, with a total establishment of 77 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steamlaunches, and of all submarine mining and torpedo stores. They are likewise employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.

* For information as to Military Contingents sent for service in South Africa, see Part III.


There are two troops of Cavalry, both being in the Middle Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for six days' training annually. The total strength of the two troops is 135 of all ranks.


There are sixteen corps of Mounted Rifles, nine in the North Island and seven in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 1,060 of all ranks. These corps go into camp for an annual training of six days.


There are nine batteries of this branch of the service (six in the North Island and three in the Middle Island), having a total strength of 815 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches at the four centres; some of these corps are trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working heavy ordnance, whilst others act as auxiliaries to the Submarine Miners in submarine mining and torpedo work. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and such like duties, and go into camp annually for sixteen days.


There is one corps of Garrison Artillery in the North, with a strength of 73 of all ranks, and one in the Middle Island, with a strength of 68 of all ranks, and go into camp annually for sixteen days.


There are five batteries of Field Artillery (two in the North Island and three in the Middle Island), with a total of 365 of all ranks. They are armed with 9-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, on field-carriages, and go into camp annually for sixteen days.


This branch consists of three corps, with a total of 277 of all ranks, one in the North and two in the Middle Island. Besides carrying rifles they are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.


In this branch of the service there are seventy-four corps (besides one honorary reserve, 45 strong), thirty-five being in the North Island and thirty-nine in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 4,794 of all ranks, including garrison bands.


There is a force of forty-one cadet corps—viz., fifteen in the North Island and twenty-six in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,064 of all ranks.


There are Volunteer cycle corps at Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, of a maximum strength of two officers and twenty-five non-commissioned officers, rank and file, and are attached to the infantry battalions at those centres.


Volunteer bearer corps at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, of a maximum strength of two officers and twenty-five non-commissioned officers, rank and file, are attached to the infantry battalions at those centres.


The armament at the forts of the four centres consists of 8 in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6in. 5-ton, of like pattern, all mounted on hydro-pneumatic disappearing carriages; 7 in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71 cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading 64 cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison pillar-mountings, and field-carriages; Hotchkiss quick-firing guns and Maxim machine guns. The Volunteer. Field Artillery are armed with 9-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, and the whole of the adult portion of the Force have carbines or rifles of Martini-Enfield and Martini-Henry patterns; Cadets being armed with Snider carbines.

There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and groundmines, in charge of the Submarine Mining Companies, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.


Members of the Permanent Militia are enrolled to serve until lawfully discharged, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is principally recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after passing the gunnery and other courses and serving three years in the Permanent Militia the men are eligible for transfer to police and prison services.


The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years' engagement, on completion of which they return to their regiments.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £20 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred and fifty rounds of ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every adult Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds of Snider ball to each cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”



As eleven of the crew of the barque “Spirit of the Dawn,” which was wrecked on Antipodes Island on the 4th September, 1893, remained on the island for eighty-eight days without becoming aware of the existence of the dépôt of provisions and clothing for castaways which is established there, attention may usefully be drawn to the fact that such dépôts are maintained by the New Zealand Government on that island, and on the Auckland, Campbell, Bounty, Kermadec, and Snares Islands.

The following are the positions of the dépôts:—

Auckland Islands.—A dépôt is placed on the south side of Erebus Cove, Port Ross, and another in Camp Cove, Carnley Harbour, and a third at the head of Norman Inlet. One boat is placed on the north-west end of Adams Island, another on Enderby Island, and another on Rose Island.

Campbell Island.—A dépôt is erected in Tucker Cove, Perseverance Harbour, and a boat has been placed at the head of that harbour.

Antipodes Islands.—A dépôt is placed abreast the anchorage on the north-east side of the principal island.

Bounty Islands.—There is a dépôt on the principal island.

Snares Island.—A dépôt has been established on this island in Boat Harbour.

Kermadec Islands.—A dépôt is established on Macaulay Island, near Lava Cascade, on the north-east end of the island, and another on Curtis Island, at the head of Macdonald Cove, on the northwestern end of the island.

Finger-posts to indicate the direction of the dépôts have also been put up.

The Government steamer visits the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Snares Islands twice a year, and the Kermadec Islands once a year.


VESSELS visiting New Zealand, and requiring docking or repairs, will find ample accommodation at the principal ports of the colony.

There are in New Zealand four graving-docks; two of these are situated in Auckland, one at Lyttelton, and one at Port Chalmers.


The Auckland Docks are the property of the Auckland Harbour Board, and cost, with machinery, appliances, &c., £207,000. The dimensions of the docks at Auckland are as follow:—

 Calliope Dock.Auckland Dock.
Length over all525 feet.312 feet.
Length on floor500      ”300      ”
Breadth over all100      ”65      ”
Breadth on floor40      ”42      ”
Breadth at entrance80      ”43      ”
Depth of water on sill at high water ordinary spring tides)33      ”13½      ”

The following is the scale of charges for the use of the Auckland and Calliope Graving Docks and appliances:—


Entrance fee110
For every vessel of 100 tons (gross register), or under, per day400
For every vessel over 100 tons (gross register), for first 100 tons, per day400
For every additional ton (gross register), per day002
For two or more vessels docking at the same time, the tonnage of which together does not exceed 100 tons (gross register), per day each2100
For shores out in docking or hanging the vessel, there must be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.
For use of steam-kiln, 10s. per day.
For use of pitch furnace, 10s. per day.
Entrance fee550
For all vessels up to 300 tons (gross register)2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons   ”22100
                ”     401 to 500 tons   ”2500
                ”     501 to 600 tons   ”27100
                ”     601 to 700 tons   ”3000
                ”     701 to 800 tons   ”32100
                ”     801 to 900 tons   ”3500
                ”     901 to 1,000 tons      ”37100
                ” 1,001 to 1,100 tons      ”4000
                ” 1,101 to 1,200 tons      ”4500
                ” 1,201 to 1,300 tons      ”5000
                ” 1,301 to 1,500 tons      ”5500
                ” 1,501 to 2,000 tons      ”6000
                ” 2,001 to 3,000 tons      ”6500
                ” 3,001 to 4,000 tons      ”7000
                ” 4,001 to 5,000 tons      ”7500

The foregoing charges are for three days or less. After the third day in dock the following rates are charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons (gross register)4d. per ton per diem.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d.       ”
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2½d.    ”
For all vessels over 2,001 tons and upwards2d.       ”

Twenty per cent reduction on Calliope Dock rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide, and remain in dock the same number of hours; but such reduction is not allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.

For shores cat in docking or hanging the vessel, there is to be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.

During the year 1899, 91 vessels of various descriptions, with a total of 31,800 tons, made use of the Auckland Graving Dock, occupying it in all 154 days 2 hours, for repairs or painting.

In Calliope Dock 7 vessels were docked, viz.: 2 warships and 4 merchant steamers, also 1 dredge, of an aggregate tonnage of 8,575, occupying the dock for 29 days.

Dock dues for the year amounted to £1,305 Os. 7d.

Under arrangement with the Admiralty, a complete plant of the most efficient and modern machinery has been provided at Calliope Dock-yard. The workshops are now under construction, and the machinery is being placed in position. This plant will include 80-ton shear-legs complete, trolly to carry 80 tons and rails, 10-ton steam crane at side of dock, engines, boilers, overhead travellers; planing, shaping, and slotting machines; radial drills, vertical drills, band-saws for iron, punching- and shearing-machines, plate-bending rolls; 24 in.-centre gantry lathe, 70 ft. bed; 9in. and 12 in. gantry lathes, milling-machines, emery-grinders, screwing-machines, ditto for pipes, horizontal boring-machines, Root's blower, smiths' forges (six), coppersmith's forge, levelling-slabs, steam-hammers, leadfurnace, wall-oranes, zinc-bath, plate-furnace, jib-crane for foundry, circular-saw bench, band-saw for wood, lathe for wood, general joiner, carpenters' benches (four), kiln for steaming boards, Fox's trimmer, cupola to melt 5 tons of metal, countersinking-machine, pipe-bending machine, tools of various descriptions, moulders' bins, force-pumps for testing pipes, vice-benches, electric-light engines, dynamos, &c. (two); and all other appliances and machinery required to render the plant adequate to repair any of Her Majesty's ships upon the station, or any merchant vessel visiting the port. The dock and machinery will be available for use, when not required for Her Majesty's vessels, in effecting repairs to any merchant vessel requiring same. An abundant supply of the purest fresh water is available at Calliope Dock and Calliope Wharf; and upon the completion of the works contemplated a most complete establishment of up-to-date machinery and appliances will have been provided.


The Port of Wellington has no dock; but there is a well-equipped patent slip at Evans Bay, on which vessels of 2,000 tons can be safely hauled up. This slip is the property of a private company, and is in no way connected with the Harbour Board. It is 1,070ft. long, with a cradle 260ft. in length. There is a depth of 32ft. at high water at the outer end of the slip. A dolphin and buoys are laid down for swinging ships in Evans Bay.

The company has convenient workshops, which contain machinery necessary for effecting all ordinary repairs to vessels using the slip.

During the year ending 31st March, 1899, eighty-nine vessels of various sizes, of an aggregate of 37,558 tons, were taken up on the slip for repairs, cleaning, painting, &c. The charges for taking vessels on the slip and launching them are 1s. per ton on the gross tonnage for the first full twenty-four hours, and 6d. per ton per day afterwards, unless by special agreement.


The dock at Port Chalmers is vested in the Otago Dock Trust, a body entirely distinct from the Otago Harbour Board. Vessels of large size can be taken in the Otago Dock, as the following measurements will show:—

Length over all335 feet.
Length on the floor328    “    
Breadth over all68    “    
Breadth on floor41    “    
Breadth where ship's bilge would be43    “    
Breadth at dock gates50    “    
Depth of water on sill at high-water (ordinary spring tides)17½    “    

Connected with the Otago Dock are a large machine-shop, steam-hammer, and forge, with all the appliances necessary for performing any work that may be required by vessels visiting the port. An 80-ton shear-legs has also been erected for heavy lifts.

There is also a patent slip, used for taking up small vessels.

All vessels using the Otago Graving Dock are liable to dock dues according to the following scale (unless under special contract), revised since the beginning of 1896:—

Vessels under 200 tons, for the first three days, or part or three days2500
Vessels of 200 tons, and under 800 tons3500
      ”          800 tons and upwards5000

And for every day, or part of a day, after the first three days:—

Vessels under 300 tons Sd. per register ton per day.
    ”     300   ”and under 400 tons7.¾d.     ”
    ”     400   ”“     500        “    7.½d.    ”
    ”     500        ”“     600    ”     7.¼d  .  ”
    ”     600   ”    ”     700   ”      7d.        ”
    ”     700   ”    ”     800   ”      6.¾d.  .  ”
    ”     800   ”    ”     900   ”      6.½d.  .  ”
    ”     900   ”    ”  1,000   ”    6.¼d.  .  ”
    ”  1,000 tons and upwards6d.  .    ”

During the last twelve months, ending 31st December, 1899, the dock was in use 238 working-days. The number of vessels docked was fifty-seven, having a total registered tonnage of 39,152.


The Graving-dock at Lyttelton, which is the property of the Harbour Board, is capable of docking a first-class ironclad, or any of the large ocean steamers except the “Gothic” now running to the colony. Its general dimensions are: Length over all, 503ft.; length on floor, 450ft.; breadth over all, 82ft.; breadth on floor, 46ft.; breadth at entrance, 62ft.; breadth where ship's bilge would be, on 6ft. blocks, 55ft.; depth of water on sill at high-water springs, 23ft.

The scale of charges for the use of the dock and pumping machinery are as follow:—

For all vessels up to 300 tons, for four days or less2000
“       301 to 400 tons,       ”22100
“       401 to 500 tons,       ”2500
“       501 to 600 tons,       ”27100
“       601 to 700 tons,       ”3000
“       701 to 800 tons,       ”32100
“       801 to 900 tons,       ”3500
“       901 to 1,000 tons,       ”37100
“       1,001 to 1,100 tons,       ”4000
“       1,101 to 1,200 tons,       ”4500
“       1,201 tons and upwards,       ”5000

After the fourth day in dock, the following rates are charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d.         ”
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2.¾d.     ”
“       2,001 tons up to 3,000 tons2.½d.     ”
“       3,001 tons up to 4,000 tons2.¼       ”
“       4,001 tons up to 5,000 tons2d.         ”

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours. Two vessels of 1,000 tons each can be docked at the same time. The 20 per cent. rebate is not allowed if any of the Lyttleton Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel. The twenty-four hours constituting the first day of docking commences from the time of the dock being pumped out.

Any vessel belonging to H.M. Nails or any colonial Government, or any commissioned ship belonging to any foreign nation, is admitted into the graving dock without payment of the usual dock dues, but is charged only such sum as is necessary for the reimbursement of actual expenditure of stores, wages, and materials.

There are electric lights, one on each side of the graving-dock; and there is a workshop alongside the dock, and several other engineering works within a short distance of it, where repairs and heavy foundry-work can be done.

The graving dock and machinery cost £105,000. The interest and sinking fund on that sum, at 6½ per cent., amounts to £6,825 per annum. Since its construction, the dock dues for the seventeen years, ended 31st December, 1899, amounted to £15,683 5s. Id., and the working expenses to £10,021 16s. 9d., leaving a credit balance for seventeen years, ended 31st December, 1899, of £5,661 8s. 4d.

During the year 1899 twenty-six vessels were docked, and the dock dues amounted to £1,155 12s. For the seventeen years, ending 1899, 331 vessels were docked.

Alongside the graving dock is a Patent slip, with a cradle 150ft. in length, suitable for vessels of 300 tons. It belongs to the Harbour Board.


The Timaru slip is capable of taking up a vessel of 200 tons.


The Anchor Steamship Company's cradle can take up a vessel of 150 tons.

Chapter 23. LIGHTHOUSES.

THE coasts of New Zealand are, considering their extent, fairly well lighted, but there are many places where lights are still required. Additions to the existing lights are made from time to time as funds are available.

Including the lighthouse on East Cape, now building, there are twenty-nine coastal lights—eight of the first order, fifteen of the second, three of the third, and three of smaller orders.

There has been no special difficulty in the erection of lighthouses in New Zealand, apart from the trouble caused by indifferent landings. There are no lighthouses built in the sea, such as the well-known Eddystone or Bell Rock. That on The Brothers is the only one which it is considered necessary to keep as a rock-station: that is, the keepers are relieved from time to time, three being always at the station and one on shore.

The cost of the erection of the lighthouses is given by the Marine Department as about £174,000 (the Ponui Passage Lighthouse, having been built by the Provincial Government of Auckland, the cost is not given). The annual consumption of oil is about 19,800 gallons; and the cost of maintenance, irrespective of the cost of maintaining the lighthouse steamer, is about £13,000 a year.

Besides the coastal lighthouses, there are harbour-lights at most of the ports of the colony for the guidance of vessels into and out of the ports.

The following table shows the names of the lighthouses, indicating also their situation, the order of apparatus, description, period (in seconds) and colour of the lights, and of what material the respective towers are built:—

Name of Lighthouse.Order of Apparatus.Description.Period of Revolving Light.Colour of Light.Tower built of.
Cape Maria van DiemenDioptric. 1st orderRevolving FixedSeconds. 60White Red, to show over Columbia ReefTimber.
Moko Hinou1st       ”Flashing10WhiteStone.
Tiri-Tiri (Auckland)2nd       ”Fixed White, with red are over Flat RockIron.
Ponui Passage5th       ”      ”..White and redTimber
Cuvier Island1st       ”Revolving30WhiteIron.
Portland Island2nd       ”      ” Fixed30“ Red, to show over Bull RockTimber.
Cape Palliser2nd       ”FlashingTwice every half-minute, with three seconds intervals between flashesWhiteIron.
Pencarrow Head2nd       ”Fixed..WhiteIron.
Cape Egmont2nd       ”      ”..      ”      ”
Manukau Head3rd       ”      ”..      ”Timber
Kaipara Head2nd       ”Flashing10      ”      ”
Brothers (in Cook Strait)2nd       ”      ” Fixed10Red, to show over Cook Rook      ”
Cape Campbell2nd       ”Revolving60White      ”
Godley Head (Lyttelton)2nd       ”Fixed..      ”Stone.
Akaroa Head2nd       ”Flashing10      ”Timber.
Moeraki3rd.       ”Fixed..      ”      ”
Taiaroa Head3rd       ”      ”..RedStone.
Cape Saunders2nd       ”Revolving60WhiteTimber.
Nugget Point1st       ”Fixed..      ”Stone.
Waipapapa Point2nd       ”Flashing10      ”Timber.
Dog Island1st orderRevolving30      ”Stone.
Centre Island1st orderFixed..White, with red arcs over inshore dangersTimber.
Puysegur Point1st       ”Flashing10White      ”
Cape Foulwind2nd       ”Revolving30      ”      ”
Farewell Spit2nd       ”      ”60White, with red arc over Spit end      ”
Nelson4th       ”Fixed..White, with red arc to mark limit of anchorageIron.
French Pass6th       ”      ”..Red and white, with white light on beacon..
Stephens Island1st       ”Group flashing80White      ”
East Cape (now building)2nd       ”Revolving10      ”      ”



[By an Act passed in 1871 the pension system was abolished in New Zealand. In 1893 the Civil Service Insurance Act was passed, the main provisions of which are described at the end of this table.]
Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.

* Per diem.

(a) 1s. 6d. from 25th October, 1869; increased to 2s. 2d., 7th December, 1870.

(b) 1s. from 17th December, 1868, to 17th December. 1869; 1s. 6d. from 17th December, 1869, to 17th December, 1870; 8d. from 17th December, 1870, to 30th September, 1874; increased to 1s. 6d, 1st October, 1874.

(c) 2s. from 5th June, 1867, to 5th June, 1868; 2s. from 5th June, 1868, to 5th June, 1869; permanent from 9th November, 1869.

(d) 2s. from 1st January, 1869, for eighteen months; permanent from 18th May, 1872.

(e) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 26th April, 1869; renewed for twelve months, 1870; renewed for twelve months, 1871; permanent from 12th May, 1872.

(f) 2nd October, 1869; ceased on 9th April, 1870; renewed, 22nd April, 874.

(g) 1s. 6d. from—, 1867; increased to 2s from 14th February, 1868.

(h) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 15th March, 1869; 1s. for twelve mouths, from March, 1870; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1871; permanent from 1st April, 1872.

* Per diem.

(i) 3s. for twelve months, from 9th April, 1870; 2s. 8d., permanent, from 1st May, 1871.

(k) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 18th October, 1869; 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from October, 1870; permanent, from 5th November, 1871.

(l) 1s. 6d. for eight months, from 20th September, 1869; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1870; 2s. 2d. for twelve mouths, from 11th June, 1871; 2s. 2d. from 11th June, 1872; permanent from 12th June, 1873.

(m) 1s. from 10th May, 1805; renewed for twelve months, April, 1866; again renewed for twelve months; 8d. for twelve months, from 1868 to 10th May, 1860; 8d. for twelve months, from May, 1869; permanent from 11th May, 1870.

Under “The Civil Service Act, 1866.”
Andrews, A.  1 May, 1896141120
Arrow, H.  1 Aug., 18812600
Austin, A. D.  1 Oct., 1887247100
Anderson, J. G.  6 Jan., 1896261181
Baddeley, H. C.12 Jan., 188822500
Baker, E.  1 Nov., 1880214171
Barnes, G. H.16 Feb., 189610000
Barr, A.  1 Oct., 1888366134
Batkin, C. T.  1 April, 189053360
Bertrand, J. R.17 Feb., 189513500
Bicknell, F.  1 Feb., 188296134
Blomfield, J.21 Mar., 1889101150
Bridson, W.  1 Aug., 189314687
Brown, W. R. E.  1 Aug., 1892265168
Burgess, A.  1 June, 1886116134
Burn, J. F.  1 July, 18875100
Butts, E. D.  1 April, 189325868
Campbell, F. E.  1 Mar., 1890466130
Cnrrington, O.  1 Feb., 187830000
Catley, J. T.  1 Oct., 189822368
Cheeseman, G. H.  1 Mar., 189382100
Cheesman, W. F.  1 April, 1890154151
Clarke, H. T.  1 Jan., 187940000
Clarke, H.  1 Oct., 187998130
Cook, R. C.  1 Sept., 1895160143
Costall, J.10 July, 1892131310
Creeke, W.  1 April, 189152158
Crowe, A.31 Dec., 188568123
Culpan, W.  1 Dec., 186862100
Cunningham, J.  1 Feb., 188817500
Dick, S. J.  1 Feb., 189325000
Dickey, A. J.  1 Nov., 187512205
Earle, J.13 Nov., 1888104100
Eliott, G. E.30 Nov., 187240000
Elliott, S.  1 July, 1898110114
Falck, F.  1 Mar., 1893125134
Ferguson, J.  1 Feb., 189719500
Filleul, W. G.16 April, 1896140168
Freeth, J. J.  1 Mar., 1894116134
Gill, R. J.  1 Sept., 1886228115
Graham, G. H.  8 Sept., 189152100
Gregory, J.16 Feb., 18815368
Greenway, J. H.  1 Nov., 1891116160
Giles, J.  1 Feb., 189423868
Halliday, C.31 Aug., 188696134
Hamilton, M.11 July, 188020000
Hart, J. T.12 Nov., 189019370
Haselden, C. J. A.  1 July, 1896255191
Hebberley, J.  1 June, 18987000
Heddell, P.17 Oct., 18949000
Henn, J.  1 April, 18938834
Hill, C. J.  9 Feb., 18957200
Holden, T.13 Oct., 18783150
Jackman, S. J.  1 May, 189214968
Johnson, J. W.  1 May, 18987816
Johnston, D.15 Dec., 1880366134
Judd, A.  1 April, 188717368
Keetley, E.  1 July, 1884181210
Keily, J. D.  1 July, 1891130190
Kissling, T.  1 Jan., 189431752
Laing, E. B.  1 April, 1887112100
Laing, W.  1 Feb., 1896212100
Lang, A.  1 Feb., 189375153
Lemon, C.  1 Mar., 189535000
Lincoln, R. S.  1 Mar., 188968170
Lodge, W. F.  1 Oct., 188118500
Lubecki, A. D.  1 April, 189620000
Lusher, R. A.31 Aug., 188076168
Millar, G.  1 Feb., 18968070
Miller, F.  1 April, 1899141134
Mitford, G. M.  1 Feb., 1869196150
Monson, J. R.  1 Oct., 1882271160
Morro, H. A. H.  1 Nov., 1880342172
Morpeth, W. J.  4 Aug., 189419549
Morrow, H.  1 June, 1890120168
Macarthur, J.  1 Jan., 18766500
McCulloch, H.  1 Aug., 189023300
MacDonnell, R. T.23 July, 189015000
McKellar, H. S.  1 Aug., 189243368
Norris, E. F.  1 Oct., 189588179
Nuttall, J.  1 July, 189774134
O'Brien, L.  1 April, 189627350
O'Connor, L.  1 Sept., 189214706
Parker, T. W.  1 June., 188124239
Parris, R.  1 Jan., 187731458
Pearson, W. H.30 Sept., 188434096
Phillips, W. M.  1 Dec., 18946945
Pickett, R.  1 Aug., 1866209106
Pinwill, A.  1 July, 1891120170
Pitt, H.  1 May, 188110000
Powell, D.  1 July, 18934418
Rawson, C. E.  1 Dec., 1895244011
Ronnell, W.  1 Dec., 1895167184
Rich, E. F.  1 June, 189221700
Robertson, J.  6 Oct., 189215500
Rodgerson, W. J.  1 July, 189224868
Rowe, C.  1 Oct., 1894109160
Searancke, W. N.  1 Feb., 187924000
Shrimpton, J.16 July, 1889146140
Sinclair, A.  1 June, 187819500
Slater, J.  1 April, 1898223162
Smith, J.  1 June, 18944956
Smith, J. E.  1 July, 1877484116
Smith, T. H.  1 July, 187637187
Snoswell, T.  5 Dec., 189183140
Snow, G. H.  1 Dec., 1887157100
Somerville, W.  1 July, 189619500
Stevens, F.  1 Dec., 189218300
Stewart, J. T.  1 May, 188930000
Thomas, G. W.  1 Nov., 187538150
Thompson, R.  1 Mar., 189622000
Tizard, E. F.  1 July, 1888180190
Tovey, J. H.  1 April, 189577010
Treseder, P.13 Oct., 189718434
Tucker, W.31 Dec., 1880104134
Veal, J.  1 Sept., 188549153
Veale, J. S.  1 Sept., 188756210
Von Sturmer, S.  1 July, 1895288111
Wardell, H. S.  1 July, 1888366130
Watson, R.  1 Oct., 189214500
White, W.  1 July, 18813650
White, W. B.  1 July, 187337549
Williams, E. M.  1 April, 188013500
Wilson, W. W.  1 Feb., 1881100143
Woon, J. G.  1 July, 1892209106
Wrigg, H. C. W.  1 Aug., 1889157210
Young, C.  8 Mar., 189911761
Under “The Hamerton Pension Act, 1891.”
Hamerton, R. C.11 Sept.,189125000
Under “The Mcredith and Others Pensions Act, 1870.”
Hamlin, Rhoda B.—18655000
Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866.”
Arapera te Reo  1 July, 18702000
Brown, M. R. 7500
Hastings, L. 5500
Iritona, Hanita  8 Nov., 18681200
Marara, Ngakoa  3 Dec., 18603600
McDonald, E. 3600
Morrison, Ann.26 Oct., 18663600
Russell, C. 3600
Von Tempsky, A.  3 Oct., 186812000
Adamson, T.(a)022*
Beamish, J. G.(b)016*
Corbett, George(c)020*
Crawford, C. F. 020*
Dore, G. H.(d)020*
Gibbons, M. C.12 Oct., 1869022*
Hamblyn, J.  1 Oct., 1872022*
Hope, E. L.(e)016*
Kedy, T.  9 April, 1870022*
Kershaw, P.  9 Aug., 1869016*
Lacey, Garrett. 022*
Lake, T. 026*
Lloyd, T.(f)020*
McDonnell, W. 15000
McDongall, T. R.  1 April, 18984000
McKay, G. 010*
McMahon, T.(g)020*
Monck, J. B.  1 April, '72 (h)010*
Ross, Edward O.17 Nov., 18667500
Shanaghan, J. 016*
Shepherd, B.(i)028*
Timms, W.(k)016*
Tuffin, G. 022*
Vance, R.  8 April, 1870022*
Walsh, W.15 Nov., 1866016*
Wasley, Edw. O.(l)022*
Williamson, F.  1 June, 1869020*
Anaru Papapu14 May, 1865009*
Apera te Keunga14 May, 1864026*
Karena Ruataniwha  1 July, 1870010*
Matiu Whitiki  1 April, 1885006*
Mauparoa  1 July, 1867010*
Mehaka Kepa  2 Aug., 1865009*
Pera Taitimu12 Oct., 1869010*
Under “The Walsh and Other Pensions Act, 1869.”
Hewett, Ellen A.10 Feb., 18655000
Under “The Militia Act Amendment Act, 1862.”
Bending, W. 020*
Bilcon, F. 020*
Cody, W. 010*
Dunn, A. J. N. 020*
King, E. M. 8000
Leaf, R.(m)006*
Sarten, Lucy1864020*
Skinner, W. H. 026*
Vickery, W. 020*
Wcolfe, T. 020*
Under “The Schafer, McGuire, and Others Pensions Act, 1872.”
McGuire. E.29 Sept, 1871010*
Russell, W.  1 July, 1871010*
Sohafer, C.  1 July, 18713000
Under “The Supreme Court Judges Act, 1874.”
Gresson, H. B.  1 April, 187575000


Adamson, Thomas, 7th May, 1869.

Austin, Samuel, 10th March, 1869.

Black, Solomon, 10th March, 1869.

Biddle, Benjamin, 10th March, 1869.

Hill, George, 10th April, 1869.

Lingard, William, 10th March, 1869.

Mace, Francis Joseph, 10th March, 1869.

Maling, Christopher, 10th March, 1869.

Mair, Gilbert, 7th February, 1870.

Preece, George, 10th March, 1869.

Roberts, John Mackintosh, 10th March, 1869.

Rodriguez, Antonio, 10th March, 1869.

Shepherd, Richard, 13th March, 1869.

Smith, Angus, 7th June, 1869.


Pensions of late Provincial Government, Nelson—Mrs. Robinson's three daughters, £100.

Pension to Mrs. Elizabeth Ford, £46; pension of late F. G. Rawson continued to his widow, £45; pension to Aperahama Tahumirangi for wounds received when in the service of the New Zealand Government, £10.


IT is provided by the above-named Act that every person appointed to the Civil Service under “The Civil Service Reform Act, 1886,” shall retire at the age of sixty years; but the Governor in Council may, nevertheless, require any officer who has attained such age to continue to perform his duties, unless unfitted by reason of ill-health or other cause. It is also provided that if any officer appointed under “The Civil Service Reform Act, 1886,” shall become permanently incapacitated through no fault of his own he shall receive compensation equal to one month's salary for each year of service. It is further provided that every officer under a certain age, to be fixed by regulations, appointed after the passing of this Act shall effect a policy, on his (or her) own life with the Life Insurance Commissioner, providing the following combined benefits:—

  1. The payment of a sum of money on the death of such officer, should it occur before he attains the age of sixty years (or after that age, in consideration of his paying the necessary additional premium); and

  2. The payment to such officer of an annuity until death should he survive the age of sixty years.

The policies and moneys secured thereby are not assignable, and cannot be charged or attached, unless the officer leaves the service voluntarily or otherwise, when he may either surrender the policy or maintain it in force, as he may choose.

The premiums are paid in the form of monthly deductions from salaries, according to the following schedule:—

Salary per Annum.Monthly Deduction from Salary.Yearly Deduction.
Under £150084500
£150 and under £20001267100
£200 and under £25001681000
£250 and under £300101012100
£300 and under £3501501500
£350 and under £40019217100
£400 and under £45011342000
£450 and under £500117622100
£500 and under £5502182500
£550 and under £600251027100
£600 and under £65021003000
£650 and under £700214232100
£700 and under £75021843500
£750 and under £80032637100

When the salary is increased so that it falls in the next higher category in the schedule, the deductions and benefits are also proportionately increased, according to the then present age of the policyholder, by endorsement of the policy.

By regulations under the Act, made by the Governor in Council, dated 8th March, 1894, scales of benefits were adopted. For every £5 annually deducted from the salary in accordance with the schedule already given there is provided a temporary insurance of £100 (constant at all ages at entry), ceasing at age sixty, together with a deferred annuity (varying with the age at entry from £63 11s. 1d. at age fifteen to £10 10s. 5d. at age forty) after the age of sixty. By consenting to a small additional deduction from salary, any officer may have the insurance continued after age sixty to the end of life. Newly-appointed officers who are over forty are allowed the option of accumulating 5 per cent, of their salaries in the Public Trust Office, or of taking out insurances or annuities in the Government Insurance Department.

At the end of 1899 there were 290 Civil Service policies in force, insuring £42,655 (including bonuses), and providing deferred annuities amounting to £11,954. Twenty-six policies had been lapsed or surrendered, insuring £4,565 at death, with £1,074 deferred annuities; four policies, insuring £556, had become claims by death; and the holders of seven policies, insuring £2,513 (with £168 deferred annuities), had left the Civil Service, but elected to continue their policies with the Insurance Department.

These policies, placed in separate tables, are merged in the general business of the Insurance Department, and share in the periodical distributions of profits. At successive valuations the necessary reserve is made to fully cover the liability which has accrued upon each of the contracts, thus avoiding the possibility of any future danger such as has overtaken so many pension schemes administered on unsound principles. Indeed, it may be said that two of the greatest benefits conferred upon the participants in this scheme are the avoidance of fluctuation in the fund through amalgamating with a large insurance institution, and the possession of fixed and irrevocable contracts, clearly defining the benefits to be received at death or by way of pension.


THERE are (January, 1900) 219 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, 51 are daily papers, 32 are published twice a week, 42 three times a week, 61 once a week, 3 fortnightly, 1 three times a month, and 29 monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.

M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper:—

Auckland Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M)Saturday
Bible Standard (M.)Monthly.
Christian Worker      ”
Church Gazette (M.)      ”
Danica (M.)Thrice monthly (1st, 10th, 20th).
New Zealand A B C Guide.Monthly.
New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry Journal (M.)      ”
New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' CompanionWednesday.
New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
New Zealand Illustrated MagazineMonthly.
New Zealand Illustrated Sporting Review and Licensed Victualler's Gazette (M.)Thursday.
New Zealand Joyful NewsMonthly.
New Zealand Punch (M.)Wednesday.
Observer (M.)Saturday.
Produce Circular and Monthly Report (M.)Monthly.
Sharland's Trade JournalSaturday.
Coromandel County News (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)Tu., Fri.
Waikato Argus (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (E.)Daily.
Northern Luminary (E.)Friday.
Manukau County Chronicle (M.)Saturday.
Weekly Onehunga Independent and District Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
Hot Lakes Chronicle (M.)Saturday.
Northern Advocate (E.)Friday.
Goldfields Advocate and Ohinemuri County Chronicle (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Hauraki Tribune and Thames Valley Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Ohinemuri Gazette (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Tauranga Herald and Te Puke Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Te Aroha—
Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Thames Star (E.)Daily.
Thames Advertiser and Miners' News (M.)      ”
Waihi Chronicle (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Waihi Miner and Hauraki Goldfield Gazette (E.)Daily.
Golden Age (E.)Wed., Sat.
Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
Telephone (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Record and Waitara Age (M.)Wed., Saturday
Weekly Record (M.)Saturday.
New Plymouth—
Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)      ”
Daily News (M.)Daily.
Stockwhip (M.)Sat., fortnightly.
Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
Taranaki News (E.)Saturday.
Opunake Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
Egmont Post (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Egmont Settler (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Waitara Times and Clifton County Gazette (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Bush Advocate (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Morning Press (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Hastings Standard (E.)Daily.
Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)      ”
New Zealand Fire and Ambulance RecordMonthly.
Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Eltham Argus and District Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Eltham Guardian; Kaponga, Ngaire, Te Roti, Hawera, Stratford, and Cardiff Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
Hawera Morning Post, Patea, Normanby, Eltham, Stratford, Kaponga, Manaia, and Opunake Register (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Paraekaretu Express, Hunterville, Ohingaiti, Moawhango, and Rata Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Waimate Witness (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Mangaweka Mail, and Ohingaiti, Rangiwhaia, Utiku, Taihape, and Moawhango Courier (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Mangaweka Settler, and Ohingaiti, Rangiwhaia, Taihape, and Waimarino Advertiser (M.)Wed., Sat.
Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Waimarino Argus and Raetihi, Ohakune, Karioi, Pipiriki, and Upper Wanganui Advocate (M.)Tuesday.
Jubilee (M.)Tuesday.
Wanganui Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Daily.
Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Record (M.)Saturday.
Yeoman (M.)Friday.
Wairarapa Leader (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Eketahuna Express and North Wairarapa Courier (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
Feilding Star (E.)Daily.
Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
Wairarapa Star (E.)      ”
Weekly Star and Wellington District Advertiser (M.)Thursday.
Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (M.)Tu., Thur., Sat.
Pahiatua Herald (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Palmerston North—
Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (E.)Daily.
Manawatu Daily Times (E.)      ”
Hutt and Petone Chronicle (M.)Wednesday.
Advocate (M.)Tuesday.
Church Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
Evening Post (E.)Daily.
Guardian (E.)Thursday.
Mercantile Protection Gazette of New Zealand (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand Craftsman (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Cyclists' Touring Club Gazette      ”
New Zealand Dairyman and Dairy Messenger (E.)      ”
New Zealand Field (M.)Friday.
New Zealand Insurance, Finance, and Mining Journal (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Mail, Town and Country Advertiser (M)Friday.
New Zealand Mines Record (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
Pioneer of Social Reform (M.)Monthly.
Register and Property Investors' GuideMonthly.
Wellington Price Current and New Zealand Trade Review (M)Monthly.
Woodville Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
Marlborough Express (E.)      ”
Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Brightwater Independent Chronicle (M.)Thursday.
Golden Bay Argus (E.)Thursday.
Colonist (M.)Daily.
Nelson Evening Mail (E.)      ”
Takaka News and Collingwood Advertiser (E.)Thursday.
Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Buller Post (E.)Thursday.
Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
Westport News (M.)Daily.
Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)      ”
Brunner News, Blackball Courier, and Grey Valley Advertiser (E.)Daily.
Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)      ”
Grey River Argus (M.)      ”
Weekly Argus (M.)Weekly.
Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Daily.
Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.)      ”
Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Leader (M.)Saturday.
West Coast Times (E.)Daily.
Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)      ”
Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Ashburton Standard and Farmers' Advocate (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Cheviot News (M.)Tues., Fri.
Canterbury Times (M.)Wednesday.
Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New Zealand (E.)Thursday.
New Zealand BaptistMonthly.
New Zealand Church News (M.)      ”
New Zealand Cyclist (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand Railway ReviewMonthly.
New Zealand Schoolmaster (E.)      ”
New Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Saturday.
New Zealand WheelmanWednesday.
Press (M.)Daily.
ProhibitionistFortnightly, Fri.
Spectator (M.)Wednesday.
Truth (E.)Daily.
Weekly Press (incorporating the “Referee”) (M.)Wednesday.
Oxford (East)—
Oxford Observer (M.)Saturday.
Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Tu., Fri.
Rangiora Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Ellesmere Guardian (M.)    ”     ”
Geraldine Advocate (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Mackenzie County Chronicle (E.)    ”     ”     ”
Pleasant Point Mail (E.)    ”     ”     ”
Temuka Times (E.)    ”     ”     ”
Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Gladstone Guardian (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
Morning Post (M.)Daily.
South Canterbury Times (E.)Daily.
Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
Waimate Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
Waimate Times (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
Oamaru Mail (E.)    ”
Alexandra South—
Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (M.)Thursday.
Clutha Leader (M.)Tuesday, Friday
Free Press (M.)    ”     ”
Dunstan Times, Vincent County Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (M.)Friday.
Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Sat.
Cromwell TimesTuesday, Friday.
Christian Outlook (M.)Saturday.
Evening Star (E.)Daily.
Farmers' Circular (M.)Thur., fortn'ly
New Zealand Guardian (M.)Monthly.
New Zealand Journal of Education    ”
New Zealand Mining Journal and Financial Guide (M.)    ”
New Zealand Tablet (M.)Friday.
Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
Otago Witness (M.)Thursday.
Otago Workman, Dunedin and Suburban Advertiser (M)Saturday.
Temperance Standard    ”
Trade Review and Farmers' Gazette (M.)Thursday.
Triad (M.)Monthly.
Weekly Budget (M.)Saturday.
Tuapeka Recorder (M.)Friday.
Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday Friday.
Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
Mount Ida Chronicle (E.)Friday (twice).
Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)Friday.
Mount Benger Mail (M.)Saturday.
Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
Mataura Ensign (E.)Tues., Th., Sat.
Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
Invercargill —
Southern Cross (M.)Saturday.
Southlander (M.)Friday.
Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
Southland Times (M.)    ”
Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)    ”
Orepuki Miner (E.)Tues., Th., Sat.
Otautau Mail and Wallace County Advertiser (M.)    ”     ”     ”
Riverton Times and Wallace County Advertiser (E.)    ”     ”     ”
Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Tues., Fri.
Winton Record and Hokonui Advocate (M.)Friday.
Wyndham Farmer (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Wyndham Herald (M.)Wed., Friday.

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 40 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 12, Hawke's Bay 8, Wellington 49, Marlborough 4, Nelson 13, Westland 8, Canterbury 37, and Otago 48.


THE above Act, dated 15th September, brings into force the following alterations of duties, and exemptions:—

Names of Articles.Rates of Duty.
Tea002the lb.
Currants and raisins001
Candles001the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.
Cocoa003the lb.
Coffee, roasted003
Stearine, for match-making00
Paraffin wax00
      Wax, “plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches010the gross of boxes.
      Wax, “pocket vestas” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches014
      Wax, “sportsman's,” “ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches046
      Wax, other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box023
Patent medicines1500per cent.
Proprietary medicines and medicaments—
1. Bearing the name of the proprietor on label or package1500
2. Bearing a prefixed name in the possessive case1500
3. Not otherwise enumerated, prepared by any occult secret or art1500
Drugs and druggists' sundries and apothecaries ' wares not otherwise enumerated1500
Chemicals not otherwise enumerated, including photographic chemicals and glacial acetic acid (B.P. standard)1500
Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopoeia containing 50 per cent, proof spirit or less1500
Steam-engines and parts thereof, including the boiler or boilers therefor, imported specially for mining or gold saving purposes and processes, or for dairying purposes500
Names of Articles.
Rice, dressed or undressed
Rice, manufactured into starch in bond
Coffee, raw
Confectioners' moulding-starch
Liquid chlorine
Cyanide of sodium
Picric acid
Prussiate of potash
Hyposulphite of sodium
All machinery for agricultural purposes, including chaff-cutters, corncrushers, corn-shellers; also articles used in manufacturing the same—viz., chaff-outting knives, tilt-rakes, fittings for threshing-mills, forgings for ploughs
All agricultural implements
Machinery for dairying purposes
Machinery of every description for mining purposes, including machine pumps, hut not including machinery for dredging
Machinery exclusively for the purpose of the manufacture of beetroot sugar
Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boiler of locomotive type; also traction engines
Engine governors
All bolts and nuts, blank or screwed nuts, black or finished nuts
Welded and flanged boiler-furnaces, plain or corrugated
Chain pulleys, and chains for same
Engineers', boilermakers', brass finishers', smiths', and all metal. and wood-workers' machine and hand tools
Chamfering, crozing and howelling machine for cask-making
Steel rams, black or finished, for hydraulic cranes or jiggers
Bags made of New Zealand tow or flax

For the purposes of this Schedule the expression “machinery” shall be deemed not to include steam-engines or parts of steam-engines, or steam-boilers (land or marine).


Under the Customs and Excise Duties Acts, 1888 and 1895, and “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896.”


THE headings of the respective classes in this Table and in the Table of Exemptions are used solely for convenience of classification, and shall not in any way affect the articles specified therein, or be construed to indicate the material of which any such article is made.

The word “iron” includes steel, or steel and iron combined.

Neither steam-engines, nor parts of steam-engines, nor steam boilers (land or marine) are included in the expression “machines” or “machinery” in either this Table or the Table of Exemptions.

The abbreviaton “n.o.e.” means not otherwise enumerated.

In computing “ad valorem” duties the invoice value of the goods is increased by 10 per cent.


Names of Articles and Rates of Duty.

1. Almonds, in the shell, 2d. the lb.

2. Almonds, shelled, n.o.e, 3d. the lb.

3. Bacon and hams, 2d. the lb.

4. Biscuits, ships', plain and unsweetened, 3s. the cwt.

5. Biscuits, other kinds, 2d. the lb.

6. Boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candy, 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

7. Candied peel and drained peel, 3d. the lb.

8. Capers, caraway seeds, catsup, cayenne pepper, chillies, chutney, curry-powder and -paste, fish-paste, gelatine, isinglass, liquorice, olives, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

9. Chocolate confectionery, and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa—

In plain trade packages, 3d. the lb.
In fancy packages, or in small packages for retail sale, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

10. Confectionery, n.o.e., 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

11. Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, n.o.e., 10s. the cwt.

12. Fish, potted and preserved, 2d. the lb., or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

13. Fruit, fresh, viz.:—

Apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, medlars, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, 1d. the lb.

(No duty exceeding ½d. the lb. to be levied on apples and pears from 14th July to 31st December.)

Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, and strawberries, ½d. the lb

Lemons, ½d. the lb.

14. Fruits, dried, 2d. the lb.

15. Fruits, preserved in juice or syrup, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

16. Fruit-pulp, and partially preserved fruit, n.o.e., 1.½d. the lb.

17. Fruits preserved by sulphurous acid, 1d. the lb.

18. Glucose, 1d. the lb.

19. Honey, 2d. the lb.

20. Jams, jellies, marmalade, and preserves, 2d. the lb. or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight

21. Jellies concentrated in tablets or powder, 4d. the lb.

22. Maizena and cornflour, ¼d. the lb.

23. Meats, potted or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

24. Milk, preserved, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

25. Mustard, 2d. the lb.

26. Nuts of all kinds, except coconuts, 2d. the lb.

27. Oysters, preserved, 2d. the lb. or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

28. Pearl barley, 1s. the cwt.

29. Peas, split, 2s. the cwt.

30. Pickles, 3s. the imperial gallon.

31. Provisions, n.o.e., 20 per cent., ad valorem.

32. Rice and rice-flour, 6s. the cwt.

33. Rice, undressed, and dressed in bond, 4s. the cwt.

34. Salt, except rock-salt, 10s. the ton.

35. Sardines, including the oil, 2d. the lb.

36. Sauces, 4s. the imperial gallon.

37. Spices, including pepper and pimento, unground, 2d. the lb.

38. Spices, including pepper and pimento, ground, 4d. the lb.

39. Sugar, ½d. the lb.

40. Treacle and molasses, ½d. the lb.

41. Vegetables, fresh, dried, or preserved, 20 per cent., ad valorem.

42. Vinegar, table, not exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity,* 6d. the gallon.


43. Cigarettes, not exceeding in weight 2.½lb. per 1,000, 17s. 6d. the 1,000. And for all weight in excess of 2.½lb. per 1,000, 6d. the oz.

44. Cigars, 7s. the lb.

45. Snuff, 7s. the lb.

46. Tobacco, 3s. 6d. the lb.

47. Tobacco unmanufactured, entered to be manufactured in the colony in any licensed tobacco manufactory, for manufacturing purposes only, into tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or snuff, 2s. the lb.


48. Ale, beer of all sorts, porter, cider, and perry, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or 12 reputed pint bottles, 2s. the gallon.

49. Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, 16s. the liquid gallon.

50. Hops, 6d. the lb.

51. Malt, 2s. the bushel.

52. Rice malt, 1d. the lb.

53. Solid word, 6d. the lb.

54. Spirits and strong waters, the strength of which can be ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer, 16s. the proof gallon.

(No allowance beyond 16.5 under proof shall be made for spirits or strong waters of a less hydrometer strength than 16.5 under proof.)

55. Spirits and strong waters, sweetened or mixed, when not exceeding the strength of proof, 16s. the liquid gallon.

56. Spirits and strong waters in cases shall be charged as follows, namely:—

Two gallons and under, as two gallons; over two gallons and not exceeding three, as three gallons; over three gallons and not exceeding four, as four gallons; and so on for any greater quantity contained in any case.

57. Spirits or strong waters, mixed with ingredients in any proportion exceeding 33 per cent. of proof spirit, and although thereby coming under any other designation, excepting patent or proprietary medicines, or tinctures and medicinal spirits otherwise enumerated, 16s. the liquid gallon.

58. Wine, Australian, containing not more than 35 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 5s. the gallon.

* Vinegar exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity to be treated as acetic acid.

59. Wine, other than sparkling and Australian, containing less than 40 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 6s. the gallon.

60. Wine, sparkling, 9s. the gallon.


61. Aërated and mineral waters and effervescing beverages, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

62. Chicory, 3d. the lb.

63. Chocolate, 3d. the lb.

64. Cocoa, 3d. the lb.

65. Coffee, essence of, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

66. Coffee, raw, 2d. the lb.

67. Coffee roasted, 5d. the lb.

68. Syrups; lime- or lemon-juice sweetened; raspberry vinegar, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

69. Tea, 4d. the lb.


70. Acid, acetic, n.o.e., containing not more than 30 per cent. of acidity, 1.1/d. the lb. For every 10 per cent. of acidity or fraction thereof additional, ½d. the lb.

71. Acid, tartaric, 1d. the lb.

72. Baking-powder, yeast preparations, and other ferments, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

73. Chemicals n.o.e., including photographic chemicals and glacial acetic acid, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

74. Cream of tartar, 1d. the lb.

75. Drugs and druggists' sundries and apothecaries' wares, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

76. Essences, flavouring, spirituous, 15 per cent. ad valorem until 1st February, 1896, and thereafter 16s. the liquid gallon.

77. Essences, flavouring, n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

78. Eucalyptus oil, in bulk or bottle, 20 per. cent. ad valorem.

79. Glycerine, refined, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

80. Opium, 40s. the lb.

81. Patent medicines, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

82. Proprietary medicines, or medicaments, (1) bearing the name of the proprietor on label or package; (2) bearing a prefixed name in the possessive case; (3) n.o.e., prepared by any occult secret or art, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

83. Saccharine, except in the form of tabloids or tablets; 1s. 6d. the ounce.

84. Sarsaparilla, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

85. Soda, carbonate and bicarbonate, 1s. the cwt.

86. Soda, crystals, 2s. the cwt.

87. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopoeia, containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 1s. the lb.

88. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopoeia, containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 6d. the lb.


89. Apparel and ready-made clothing, and all articles n.o.e. made up wholly or in part from textile or other piece-goods, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

90. Apparel made by British or foreign tailors, dress-, mantle-, or jacket-makers, to the order of residents in the colony, and intended for the individual use of such residents, whether imported by the residents themselves or through an importing firm, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

91. Blankets, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

92. Collars and cuffs, of paper or other material, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

93. Cotton counterpanes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

94. Cotton piece goods, to include turkey twills, dress prints (hard-spun and plain-woven), where the invoice value does not exceed 4d. the yard; and cotton piece goods n.o.e., 10 per cent. ad valorem.

95. Cotton piece goods—namely, tapestry; cretonnes; chintz art crêpe, and serges; velveteens, velvets, and plushes, all kinds; damasks, moquette; sateens, linenettes; crepons; crimps; zephyrs; ginghams; turkey twills; prints; printed cottons; piqués; vestings; quiltings and marcellas; muslins of all kinds; nets; window-nets; hollands, curtains, and blinds; diapers; ticks, including coloured Belgian; towellings; laces: 20 per cent. ad valorem.

96. Drapery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

97. Feathers, ornamental (including ostrich), and artificial flowers, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

98. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

99. Furs, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

100. Haberdashery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

101. Hats of all kinds, including straw hats, also caps, 25 per cent ad valorem.

102. Hosiery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

103. Lace, and laces, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

104. Millinery of all kinds, including trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

105. Ribbons and crape, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

106. Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

107. Shawls, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

108. Silks, satins, velvets, plushes, n.o.e., composed of silk mixed with any other material, in the piece, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

109. Textile piece-goods other than cotton or silk, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

110. Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades 20 per cent. ad valorem.

111. Yarns n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.


112. Boots, shoes, and slippers, n.o.e; goloshes, clogs, pattens, vamps, uppers, and laces, 22.½ per cent. ad valorem.

113. Heel-plates, and toe-stiffeners and plates, 22.½ per cent. ad valorem.

114. Leather—

Leather belting and belt-leather, harness, bridle, legging, bag, kip (other than East India), 4d. the lb.

Buff and split, including satin hides and tweeds, 3d. the lb.

Cordovan, levanted leather, roans, sheepskins, morocco n.o.e., basils, 3d. the lb.

Sole-leather, 2d. the lb.

East India kip, Persians, lambskins and goatskins (dressed other than morocco), kangaroo and wallabi skins (dressed), tan and coloured calf, 2d. the lb.

Leather n.o.e., 1d. the lb.

115. Leather board or compo, 4d. the lb.

116. Leather bags and leather-cloth bags, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

117. Leather, chamois, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

118. Leather cut into shapes, 22.½ per cent. ad valorem.

119. Leather leggings, 22.½ per cent. ad valorem.

120. Leather manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

121. Portmanteaux; trunks; travelling-bags and brief-bags of leather or leather-cloth, 10 in. in length and upwards, and carpet-bags, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

122. Saddlery and harness, whips and whip-thongs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


123. Basket- and wicker-ware n.o.e., not being furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

124. Carpets and druggets; floorcloth; mats and matting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

125. Desks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

126. Furniture and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

127. Furniture-, knife-, and plate-powder and polish, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

128. Mantelpieces, other than stone, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

129. Upholstery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.


130. Bricks, known as firebricks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

131. China, porcelain, and parianware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

132. Drainage pipes and tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

133. Earthen flooring and garden tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

134. Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

135. Filters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

136. Fireclay, ground, and fireclay goods, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

137. Glass, crown, sheet, and common window, 2s. the 100 superficial feet.

138. Glassware; also plate-glass, and glass polished, coloured, and other kinds n.o.e.; globes and chimneys for lamps, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

139. Lamps, lanterns, and lamp-wick, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

140. Plate-glass, bevelled or silvered; mirrors and looking-glasses, framed or unframed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.


141. Artificial flies, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

142. Cards, playing, 6d. per pack.

143. Clocks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

144. Dressing-cases, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

145. Fancy goods, and toys, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

146. Fishing tackle, including artificially-baited hooks other than flies, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

147. Jewellery; plate, gold or silver; greenstone, cut or polished: 20 per cent. ad valorem.

148. Mouldings in the piece, for picture-frames, cornices, or ceilings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

149. Musical instruments of all kinds n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

150. Oil, perfumed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

151. Papier-maché ware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

152. Perfumery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

153. Perfumed spirits and Cologne-water; £1 1s. the liquid gallon until the 1st February, 1896, and thereafter £1 10s. the liquid gallon.

154. Photographic goods n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

155. Pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed; picture- or photograph-frames and -mounts, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

156. Platedware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

157. Statues, statuettes, casts, and bronzes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

158. Tobacco-pipes and cases, cigar- and cigarette-holders and cases, cigarette-papers and -cases, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

159. Toilet preparations n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

160. Watches, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

161. Walking-sticks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


162. Calendars and show-cards, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

163. Cardboard boxes complete, or cardboard cut and shaped for boxes (including match-boxes), 25 per cent. ad valorem.

164. Directories of New Zealand, or of any part thereof; also covers for directories, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

165. Handbills, programmes, and circulars, playbills and printed posters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

166. Ink, writing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

167. Paper bags, coarse (including sugar-bags), 7s. 6d. the cwt.

168. Paper bags n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

169. Paper-hangings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

170. Paper, wrapping—viz., blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings small hand, lumber hand, and tissue, 5s. the cwt.

171. Paper, wrapping, other kinds, including brown, cartridge, and sugar papers, 5s. the cwt.

172. Printed matter relating to patent or proprietary medicines; trade catalogues, price-lists, and fashion-plates of the goods of firms or persons in the colony, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

173. Stationery and writing paper n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

174. Stationery, manufactured—viz., account-books; manuscript books; bill-head, invoice, and statement forms; printed or ruled paper; counter-books; cheque- and draft forms; tags; labels; blotting-pads; sketch-books; book covers; copying letter-books; manifold writers; albums (other than for photographs); diaries; birthday-books; plain or faintlined ruled books; printed window-tickets; printed, lithographed, or embossed stationery; and Christmas, New Year, birthday, and Easter cards and booklets: 25 per cent. ad valorem.

175. Stereotypes and matrices, 25 per cent. ad valorem.


176. Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles; also finished or partly finished or machined parts of same, n.o.e., including weldless steel tubing cut to short lengths, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

177. Boilers, land and marine, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

178. Brass cocks, valves, unions, lubricators, and whistles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

179. Brass manufactures n.o.e, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

180. Cartridges (shot), 10- to 24-bore, 1s. 6d. the 100.

181. Cartridge-cases, 9d. the 100.

182. Cartridges, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

183. Cash-registering machines, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

184. Coffin-furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

185. Composition-piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

186. Copper manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

187. Copying-presses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

188. Crab-winches, cranes n.o.e., capstans, and windlasses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

189. Cutlery, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

190. Firearms, all kinds, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

191. Galvanised-iron manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

192. Gasometers, and other apparatus for producing gas; also gas-meters, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

193. Gaspipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

194. Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

195. Iron bridges, and iron material, n.o.e., for the construction of bridges, wharves, jetties, or patent slips, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

196. Iron columns for buildings, and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

197. Iron doors for safes and vaults, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

198. Iron, galvanised corrugated sheets, screws, and nails, 2s. the cwt.

199. Iron galvanised tiles, ridging, guttering, and spouting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

200. Iron gates and gate-posts, staples, standards, straining posts and apparatus, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

201. Iron nails, 2s. the cwt.

202. Iron pipes, and fittings for same, including main-cocks, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

203. Iron, plain galvanised sheet and hoop, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

204. Iron tanks, exceeding 200 gallons and not exceeding 400 gallons, 10s. each.

205. Iron tanks, of and under 200 gallons, 5s. each.

206. Iron-work and wire-work, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

207. Japanned and lacquered metal ware, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

208. Lawn-mowers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

209. Lead, in sheets, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

210. Lead piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

211. Machinery, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

212. Machinery, electric, and appliances, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

213. All machinery for agricultural purposes, including chaff-cutters, corn-crushers, corn-shellers, also articles used in manufacturing the same—namely, chaff cutting knives, tilt-rakes, fittings for threshing-mills, forgings for ploughs; but excluding reapers and binders, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

214. Machinery for dairying purposes (excluding separators and coolers), 5 per cent. ad valorem.

215. Machinery for flour-mills, woollen-mills, paper-mills, rope- and twine-making, dredging, saw-milling, planing, and wood-working (including lathes), oil-refining, boring, and also machinery for refrigerating or preserving meat, leather-splitting machines, and band-knives for same, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

216. Machinery for stamping and blocking tin, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

217. Machinery of every description for mining purposes, including machine pumps, but excluding machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

218. Manufactures, n.o.e., of metal, or of metal in combination with any other material, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

219. Nails n.o.e., 3s. the cwt.

220. Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boilers of locomotive type; also traction-engines, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

221. Printing machines and presses, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

222. Pumps and other apparatus for raising water n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

223. Railway and tramway plant and materials n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

224. Sad-irons, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

225. Shot, 10s. the cwt.

226. Soda-water machines; also machines for aërating liquids, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

227. Steam engines and parts of steam engines n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

228. Steam-engines and parts thereof (including the boiler or boilers therefor), imported specially for mining and dairying purposes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

229. Tinware, and tinsmiths' furniture, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

230. Waterworks pipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

231. Weighbridges and weighing-machines, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

232. Wire mattresses and webbing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

233. Zinc tiles, ridging, guttering, piping, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

234. Zinc manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.


235. Bellows, other than forge, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

236. Blocks, wooden tackle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

237. Buckets and tubs, of wood, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

238. Carriages, carts, drays, wagons and perambulators, and wheels for the same, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

239. Carriage shafts, spokes, and felloes, dressed: bent carriage timber n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

240. Doors, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. each.

241. Doors, plain, 2s. each.

242. Sashes, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. the pair.

243. Sashes, plain, 2s. the pair.

244. Timber, palings, 2s. the 100.

245. Timber, posts, 8s. the 100.

246. Timber, rails, 4s. the 100.

247. Timber, sawn, dressed, 4s. the 100 ft. superficial.

248. Timber, sawn, rough, 2s. the 100 ft. superficial.

249. Timber, shingles and laths, 2s. the 1,000.

250. Woodenware and turnery n.o.e., and veneers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.


251. Axle grease and other solid lubricants, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

252. Harness oil and composition, and leather dressing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

253. Naphtha, 6d. the gallon.

254. Oil, kerosene, 6d. the gallon.

255. Oil, linseed, 6d. the gallon.

256. Oil, mineral, including shale-waste or unrefined mineral-oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

257. Oil, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

258. Oil, olive, in bulk, 6d. the gallon.

259. Oil vegetable, in bulk, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

260. Oil, vegetable or other, in bottle, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

261. Paints and colours ground in oil or turpentine, 2s. 6d. the cwt.

262. Paints and colours mixed ready for use, 5s. the cwt.

263. Putty, 2s. the cwt.

264. Stearine, 1.½d. the lb.

265. Varnish, enamel paints, gold size, 2s. the gallon.

266. Whiting and chalk, 1s. the cwt.


267. Animals, food for, of all kinds, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

268. Cattle (horned), 10s. each.

269. Chaff, £1 the ton.

270. Grain—namely, barley, 2s. the 100 lb.

271. Grain and pulse of every kind n.o.e., 9d. the 100 lb.

272. Grain and pulse of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, n.o.e., 1s. the 100 lb.

273. Horses, £1 each.

274. Linseed, £1 the ton.

275. Maize, 9d. the 100 lb.

276. Onions, £1 the ton.

277. Prepared calf-meal, £1 5s. the ton.


278. Bags, flour, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

279. Bags, calico, forfar, Hessian, and linen, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

280. Bagging and bags n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

281. Blacking and boot-gloss, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

282. Blacklead, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

283. Blue, 2d. the lb.

284. Brooms, brushes, and brushware n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

285. Brushes, hair, and combs; toilet, clothes, and hat brushes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

286. Candles, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

287. Cement, 2s. the barrel.

288. Cordage and rope n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

289. Cork, cut, including bungs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

290. Fireworks n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

291. Flock, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

292. Glue and size, 1.½d. the lb.

293. Granite, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

294. Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, including mantelpieces, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

295. Matches—

Wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches, 1s. the gross of boxes.

In boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches, 2s. the gross of boxes.

In boxes containing more than 100 matches, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. the gross of boxes.

Wax, “plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 2d. the gross of boxes.

“Pocket vestas” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 9d. the gross of boxes.

“Sportsman's,” “Ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches, 5s. the gross of boxes.

Other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. 6d. the gross of boxes.

296. Nets and netting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

297. Powder, sporting, 6d. the lb.

298. Rice, manufactured into starch in bond, 2s. the cwt.

299. Sacks, other than cornsacks and jute sacks, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

300. Sausage-skins and casings (including brine or salt), 3d. the lb.

301. Soap, common yellow and blue mottled, 5s. the cwt.

302. Soap n.o.e. 25 per cent. ad valorem.

303. Soap-powder, extract of soap, dry soap, and soft-soap, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

304. Spirits, methylated, 1s. the liquid gallon.

305. Spirits, cleared from warehouse, methylated under prescribed conditions, 6d. the liquid gallon.

306. Starch, 2d. the lb.

307. Tarpaulins, tents, rick- and wagon-covers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

308. Twine, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

309. Washing-powder, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

310. Wax, paraffin, mineral, vegetable, and Japanese, 1.½d. the lb.

In addition to any duty chargeable by law on any goods imported into the colony, a further duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem shall be charged when the goods are prison-made.



Names of Articles.

311. Almonds, Barbary, Sicily, and French, used in confectioners' manufactures.

312. Anchovies, salted, in casks.

313. Arrowroot, sago, tapioca, macaroni, vermicelli, and prepared groats.

314. Rock salt.


315. Cocoa-beans.


316. Acids—viz.: boracic; carbolic, in bulk; fluoric; muriatic; nitric; oxalic; oleic; pyrogallic; salicylic; sulphuric.

317. Concentrated extracts, or essences in liquid form or preserved in fat for perfume-manufacturing purposes in manufacturing warehouses, in bottles of not less than 1 lb. in weight.

318. Disinfectants.

319. Drugs and chemicals—viz.: alum; sulphate of aluminium; sulphate of ammonia; anhydrous ammonia; aniline dyes; arsenic, bluestone, or sulphate of copper; borax; catechu; chloride of calcium; nitrate of silver; cochineal; creosote, crude or commercial; glycerine, crude; gum, Arabic and tragacanth; gum benzoin; artificial gum Arabic; gum damar; phosphorus; potash, caustic potash, and chlorate of potash; pearlash; cyanide of potassium; sal-ammoniac; saltpetre; acetate of soda, crude; soda-ash; caustic soda; nitrate of soda; silicate of soda, sulphate of soda; sulphide of sodium; strychnine; sulphur; chloride of zinc; iron-sulphates; gall-nuts; turmeric; saffron; nitrous-oxide gas; tree washes; insecticides; maltine; chlorodyne.

320. Essential oils, except eucalyptus; cod-liver oil; oil of rhodium.

321. Horse-drenches.

322. Medicinal barks, leaves, herbs, flowers, roots, and gums.

323. Scrub-exterminator.

324. Sheep dip; sheep-drenches; sheep-licks.

325. Surgical and dental instruments and appliances.

326. Scientific and assay balances, retorts, flasks, and other appliances for chemical analysis and assay work.

327. Water-hardening chemicals for brewers' use.


328. Accoutrements for military purposes, excepting uniform clothing.

329. Brace-elastic and brace mountings.

330. Bunting, in the piece.

331. Butter- and cheese-cloth.

332. Buttons, tapes, wadding, pins, needles.

333. Calico, white and grey, also cotton sheetings, in the piece.

334. Corduroy, moleskin, and plain beaverskin, of cotton, in the piece.

335. Coloured cotton shirtings; flannelette shirtings.*

336. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, when cut up under supervision in sizes not exceeding 47 in. x 36 in. for making flour-bags, and not exceeding 54 in. for lining wool mats.

337. Fur-skins, green or sun-dried.

338. Gold or silver lace or braid for military clothing.

339. Hatmaker's materials—viz.: silk plush; felt hoods; shellac; galloons; calicoes; spale-boards for hat-boxes; leathers and linings; blocks; moulds; frames; ventilators; and tassels.

340. Hessians, plain or striped, and scrim.

341. Leather-cloth.

342. Minor articles (required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades), enumerated in any order of the Commissioner, and published in the Gazette.

343. Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck, in the piece.

344. Sewing cottons, silks, and threads; crotchet, darning, and knitting cottons; angola mendings not exceeding 45 yards, on cards.

345. Silk for flour-dressing.

346. Silk twist (shoemakers' and saddlers').

347. Staymakers' binding, eyelets, corset-fasteners, jean, ticks, lasting, sateen, and cotell.

348. Tailors' trimmings—viz.: plain-coloured imitation hair-cloth; canvas; plain Verona and plain diagonal, and such patterns of checked Italian cloth as may be approved of by the Commissioner of Customs; Italian cloth of cotton or wool; buckram; wadding and padding; silk, worsted, and cotton bindings and braids; stay-bindings; Russia braids; shoulder-pads; buckles; silesias; drab, slate, and brown jeans; pocketings; slate, black, and brown dyed unions and linens.

* See note on next page.

349. Umbrella-makers' materials—viz.: reversible and levantine silk mixtures, gloria, and satin de chêno of not less than 44 in. in width; alpaca cloth, with border; zanella cloth, with border; also other piece-goods on such conditions as the Commissioner may approve; sticks, runners, notches, caps, ferrules, cups, ribs, stretchers, tips, and rings.

350. Union shirtings the invoice value of which does not exceed 6d. the yard.*

351. Waterproof material in the piece.


352. Boot-elastic.

353. Bootmakers' linings, canvas, plain or coloured, bag and portmanteau linings, of such materials, qualities, and patterns as may be approved by the Commissioner.

354. Boots, shoes, and slippers—viz., children's, Nos. 0 to 3.

355. Cork soles, and sock soles.

356. East India kip, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

357. Goatskins, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

358. Grindery, except heel- and toe plates.

359. Hogskins.

360. Kangaroo-, wallabi-skins, undressed.

361. Leather, japanned or enamelled; goatskins, dressed as morocco, coloured (other than black).

362. Saddle-trees.

363. Saddlers' ironmongery (except bits and stirrup-irons), hames, and mounts for harness; straining, surcingle, brace, girth, and roller-webs; collar-check, and the same article plain, of such quality as may be approved by the Commissioner; legging-buckles.

364. Tanning materials, crude.


365. Blind-webbing and tape.

366. Upholsterers' webbing, hair seating, imitation hair-seating, curled hair; gimp and cord, of wool, cotton, or silk; tufts and studs.


367. Bottles, empty, plain glass, not being cut or ground; also jars up to 3 in. in diameter at the mouth.

368. Glass plates (engraved) for photo-lithographic work.

369. Jars or other dutiable vessels, containing free goods or goods subject to a fixed rate of duty, and being ordinary trade packages for the goods contained in them.


370. Action-work and keys, in frames or otherwise, for manufacture of organs, harmoniums, and pianos; organ-pipes and stop knobs.

371. Artists' canvas, colours, brushes, and pallet-knives.

372. Magic-lanterns, lenses, and slides.

373. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes, and lenses for same.

374. Musical instruments, specially imported for Volunteer bands.

375. Paintings, statuary, and works of art, presented to or imported by any public institution or art association registered as a body corporate, for display in the buildings of such institution or association, and not to be sold or otherwise disposed of.

* Whenever any dispute arises as to the application of the exemption in favour of coloured cotton, flannelette, or union shirtings, in the case of fabrics alleged to be such shirtings, the Commissioner has power to decide such dispute: and in case of doubt on his part, he may require the fabric in dispute to be cut up for shirt-making, under such conditions as he prescribes.

376. Photographic cameras and lenses.

377. Photographs of personal friends in letters or packet.

378. Precious stones, cut or uncut and unmounted.

379. Sensitized surfaces for photographic purposes.


380. Bookbinders' materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue-paste for ruling-ink, staple-presses, wire-staples, staple-sticks.

381. Butter-paper, known as parchment paper or waxed paper.

382. Cardboard and pasteboard, of sizes not less than that known as “royal.”

383. Cardboard boxes, materials for—viz., gold and silver paper, plain and embossed, gelatine and coloured papers, known as “box-papers.”

384. Cartridge paper, for drawing books.

385. Cloth lined boards, not less than “royal.”

386. Cloth-lined papers; enamelled-paper; ivorite and gelatine; metallic paper, not less than “demy.”

387. Copy-books and drawing-books.

388. Copying-paper, medium and double-foolscap, in original mill wrappers and labels.

389. Hand-made cheque-paper.

390. Ink, printing.

391. Masticated para.

392. Millboard and bookbinders' leather-board.

393. Paper, hand-made or machine-made book or writing, of sizes not less than the size known as “demy,” when in original wrappers.

394. Printing-paper.

395. Printed books, papers, and music n.o.e.

396. School slates, and educational apparatus.


397. Anchors.

398. Artificers' tools.

399. Axes and hatchets; spades, shovels, and forks; picks; mattocks; quartz and knapping hammers; scythes, sheep-shears, reaping-hooks; soldering-irons, paperhangers' scissors; butchers' saws and cleavers.

400. Axles, axle-arms, and boxes.

401. Band-saws and folding-saws, including frames.

402. Bellows nails.

403. Bicycles and tricycles, fittings for—viz., rubber-tires, pneumatic-tires, outside covers, and inner tubes; rubber and cork handles, and pedal rubbers; also drop-forgings and stampings, ball-bearings, weldless steel tube in full lengths, rims, forks, and spokes, in the rough.

404. Blacksmiths' anvils, forges, and fans.

405. Bolts, 5in. by ½in. in diameter, and under, and nuts for same.

406. Brass and copper, in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets.

407. Brass tubing and stamped work, in the rough, for gasaliers and brackets.

408. Caps, percussion.

409. Card-clothing for woollen-mills.

410. Chains, trace and plough chains; or metal articles required to repair or complete riding or driving harness or saddlery to be repaired or made in the colony.

411. Copper and composition rod, bolts, sheathing, and nails.

412. Couch-roll jackets, machine-wires, beater-bars, and strainer-plates for paper-mills.

413. Crucibles.

414. Emery-grinding machines and emery-wheels.

415. Empty iron drums, not exceeding 10 gallons capacity.

416. Engineers' machine tools.

417. Eyelets.

418. Fire-engines, including Merryweather's chemical fire-engines.

419. Fish-books.

420. Galvanising-baths, welded.

421. Gas-engines and hammers, and oil-engines.

422. Glassmakers' moulds.

423. Hydraulic cranes.

424. Iron- and brass-wove wire and wire gauze; also wire netting.

425. Iron boiler-plates and unflanged end-plates for boilers; boiler-tubes not exceeding 6in. in diameter, and unflanged; Bowling's expansion rings; furnace-flues.

426. Iron, plain black sheet, rod, bolt, bar, plate, hoop, and pig.

427. Iron rolled girders.

428. Iron plates, screws, and castings for ships.

429. Iron wire n.o.e., including fencing-wire, plain and barbed.

430. Lead, in pigs and bars.

431. Locomotives.

432. Machine saws.

433. Machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes.

434. Metal fittings for trunks, portmanteaux, travelling-bags, leggings, bags, and satchels.

435. Metal sheaves for blocks.

436. Metallic capsules.

437. Perambulators and the like vehicles, fittings for, n.o.e.

438. Perforated or cellular sheet zinc or iron.

439. Printing type and materials n.o.e.

440. Rails for railways and tramways.

441. Reapers and binders, and reaping and mowing machines, and extra parts for same; materials for manufacturing agricultural machinery—namely, reaper-knife sections, fingers, brass and steel springs, malleable castings, discs for harrows, mould-boards and plough-shares, mould-board plates, and steel share-plates cut to pattern, skeith plates; ploughs and harrows, combined threshers.

442. Riddles and sieves.

443. Rivets and washers.

444. Separators and coolers for dairying purposes.

445. Set-screws, engineers' studs, and split-pins.

446. Sewing-, knitting-, and kilting-machines.

447. Spiral springs (except sofa- and mattress-springs).

448. Steam and hydraulic pressure and vacuum gauges.

449. Surveyors' steel bands and measuring-tapes.

450. Swords.

451. Tacks of all kinds.

452. Tea-packing lead.

453. Tin, in pigs, bars, or sheets.

454. Tinsmiths' fittings, including stamped or blocked tin, planished or unplanished.

455. Tins, tops of, ornamented.

456. Wire, of brass, copper, or lead.

457. Zinc, plain sheet.

458. Zinc plates and copper plates for photo-lithographic work.


459. Ash, hickory, and lancewood timber, unwrought.

460. Blacksmiths' bellows.

461. Brush woodware.

462. Carriage- and cart-shafts, spokes and felloes in the rough; hubs, all kinds; poles if unbent and unplaned, all kinds; bent wheel-rims.

463. Carriage- and cart-makers' materials—viz., springs, mountings, trimmings, brass hinges, tire bolts, shackle-holders, step treads, and other iron fittings (except steps, lamp-irons, dash-irons, seat-rails, and fifth wheels), rubber-cloth.

464. Churns.

465. Lignum-vitaeæ.

466. Sieves, hair.

467. Wooden handles for tools.


468. Benzine in bulk.

469. Oils—viz., candlenut, fish, whale, seal, penguin, and palm.

470. Paints and colours n.o.e.

471. Shale oil, once run, suitable for gas-making.

472. Spirits of tar.

473. Turpentine, driers, and terebene.


474. Apparatus and appliances solely for teaching purposes, as may be approved by the Commissioner.

475. Belting for machinery, other than leather.

476. Binder-twine.

477. Bricks, other than fire-bricks.

478. Building materials n.o.e.

479. Brushes for cream-separators and combined screens.

480. Candlenuts and candlenut kernels.

481. Candlewick.

482. Canvas aprons and elevators for reapers and binders.

483. Carpenters' baskets.

484. Charts and maps.

485. Cotton waste.

486. Dye-stuffs and dyeing materials, crude.

487. Felt sheathing.

488. Food preservative n.o.e.

489. Gum boots.

490. Hawsers of 12 in. and over.

491. Honey and brown Windsor soap composition.

492. Iron and steel cordage.

493. Jute bagging, bags, and sacks.

494. Manures.

495. Marble and other stone, hewn or rough-sawn, not dressed or polished.

496. Netmakers' cotton twine.

497. Official supplies for consular officers of countries where a similar exemption exists in favour of British Consuls.

498. Papermakers' felts.

499. Passengers' baggage and effects, including only wearing apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the colony; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of such persons; and household or other effects not exceeding £100 in value, which have been in use for twelve months prior to embarkation by the persons or families bringing them to the colony, and not intended for any other person or persons or for sale; also cabin furnishings belonging to such persons.

500. Plaster of Paris.

501. Powder, blasting and meal.

502. Ship-chandlery n.o.e.

503. Ships' rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals.

504. Spirits for manufacturing perfumed spirit, flavouring essences, and culinary essences in manufacturing warehouses.*

505. Stones, mill-, grind-, oil-, and whet-.

* This exemption ceased on the 1st day of February, 1896.

506. Tobacco for sheepwash or for insecticide, after being rendered unfit for human consumption to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

507. Treacle or molasses, mixed with bone-black in proportions to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

508. Tubular woven cotton-cloth in the piece, for meat-wraps.

509. Type-writers.

510. Wax, bottling.

511. Woolpacks and woolpockets.

512. Yarn—viz., coir, flax, hemp.

513. Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Commissioner) which are suited only for, and are to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods within the colony. All decisions of the Commissioner in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette.

514. And all articles not otherwise enumerated.


515. Tobacco, 1s. in the lb.*

516. Cigars, cigarettes, and snuff, 1s. 6d. the lb.*

517. Beer, 3d. the gallon.

518. Articles in which spirit is a necessary ingredient, manufactured in a warehouse appointed under section 26 of “The Customs Laws Consolidation Act, 1882,” namely,—

Pharmacopoeia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 9d. the lb.

Pharmacopoeia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 3d. the pound.

Culinary and flavouring essences, 12s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

Perfumed spirit, 20s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

Toilet preparations which are subject to 16s. the liquid gallon on importation, 12s. the liquid gallon.

Toilet preparations which are subject to 25 per cent. duty on importation, 6s. the liquid gallon.


519. Olive stones, ground (see New Zealand Gazette, 15th May, 1890), 4d. the lb.

520. Brewers' caramel (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st August, 1890), 3d. the lb.

521. Liquid hops (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st December, 1893), 6s. the lb.

522. The United Asbestos Patent Salamander Decorations (see New Zealand Gazette, 14th May, 1896), 15 per cent. ad valorem.

* “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” section 2, enacts:—
“On and after the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, section three of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1891,” shall be deemed to be repealed, and in lieu of the duties imposed by that section there shall be levied, collected, and paid, on and after that day, upon tobacco manufactured in the colony, at the time of making the entry for home consumption thereof, the several duties of excise following, that is to say,—

”On tobaccoOne shilling the pound,
“On cigars and snuffOne shilling and sixpence the pound.
“On cigarettes— 
      If manufactured by machineryTwo shillings and sixpence the pound.
      If made by handOne shilling the pound.”



For the bringing land under the provisions of this Act (over and above the cost of advertisements)—£s.d.
      When the title consists of a Crown grant, and none of the land included therein has been dealt with020
      When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £300100
      When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £200 and does not exceed £3000150
      When the title is of any other description and the value exceeds £100 and does not exceed £2000100
      When the title is of any other description and when the value does not exceed £100050
Contribution to the Assurance Fund upon first bringing land under the Act, and upon the registration of an estate of freehold in possession derived by settlement, will, or intestacy—
      In the pound sterling000.½
Other fees—
      For every application to bring land under the Act050
      For every certificate of title on transfer where the consideration does not exceed £1000100
      For every other certificate of title100
      Registering memorandum of transfer, mortgage, incumbrance, or lease0100
      Registering transfer or discharge of mortgage or of incumbrance, or the transfer or surrender of a lease050
      Registering proprietor of any estate or interest derived by settlement or transmission0100
      For every power of attorney deposited0100
      For every registration abstract100
      For cancelling registration abstract050
      For every revocation order0100
      Noting caveat0100
      Cancelling or withdrawal of caveat, and for every notice relating to any caveat050
      For every search020
      For every general search050
      For every map or plan deposited050
      For every instrument declaratory of trusts, and for every will or other instrument deposited0100
      For registering recovery by proceeding in law or equity or re-entry by lessee0100
      For registering vesting of lease in mortgagee, consequent on refusal of Trustee in Bankruptcy to accept the same0100
      For entering notice of marriage or death0100
      For entering notice of writ or order of Supreme Court0100
      Taking affidavit or statutory declaration050
      For the exhibition of any deposited instrument, or for exhibiting deeds surrendered by applicant proprietor050
      For certified copy, not exceeding five folios050
      For every folio or part folio after first five006
      For every notice to produce deeds or instruments050
      For every outstanding interest noted on certificate of title050
      When any instrument purports to deal with land included in more than one grant or certificate, for each registration memorial after the first020


All fees under the Act shall be due and payable in advance.

Where several properties are included in one form of application, there shall be charged in respect of each property an application fee, and a fee for bringing the land under the Act. Land included within one outer boundary shall be deemed one property for the purpose of this regulation.

In all cases a fee of one pound (£1) is hereby prescribed as the charge to be made for advertising notice of application; provided that, whenever it is necessary that unusual publicity shall be given to any application, the District Land Registrar may require payment of such additional sum as shall, in his judgment, be sufficient to defray the cost of such advertisements.

In all cases where application is made to bring land under the Act, and the certificate of title is directed to issue and is issued in the name of the applicant, the fees for bringing such land under the Act, with the exception of the “application fee,” may, at the request of the applicant, remain unpaid until such land is dealt with by him as registered proprietor. The District Land Registrar shall retain any such certificate of title until the fees due upon the same have been paid, and, until such payment, shall not register any dealing with the land included in such certificate of title.

Printed forms supplied by the Registrar for use under the Act shall be charged for at the rate of one shilling each. Solicitors, land-brokers, and others having forms printed for their own use, and at their own expense, shall, on approval of such forms by the Registrar, be entitled to have the same sealed free of charge.


BY the Amendment Act of 1885 the Schedule of Duties payable under the principal Act of 1881 has been repealed, and the following imposed in lieu thereof:—

1. When the value does not exceed £100No duty
2. Upon any amount exceeding £100 but not exceeding £1,000— 
On the first £100No duty
And on the remainder£2.½ per cent.
3. Upon any amount exceeding £1,000 but not exceeding £5,000£3.½ per cent.
4. Upon any amount exceeding £5,000, but not exceeding £20,000£7 per cent.
Upon £20,000 and any amount over that sum£10 per cent.
Strangers in blood, excepting adopted children£3 per cent.

These duties are leviable upon the final balance of the real and personal estates.

The exemption in respect of property passing absolutely to widow at death of husband is now extended vice versaá.

There are also special provisions in the law affecting children and half children inheriting property, as to deeds of gift, &c.

[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets which follow the General Index.]

Table of Contents


THE estimated population of New Zealand on the 31st December, 1899, with the increase for the year, is shown below:

      Persons.    Males.    Females.
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1898743,463392,124351,339
Increase during year 1899:—By excess of births over deaths  11,155    5,2605,895
Excess of arrivals over departures1,887    1,295       592
Estimated population, exclusive of Maoris, on 31st December, 1899756,505398,679357,826
Maori population (1896)  39,854  21,673  18,181
            Total estimated population of Colony on 31st December, 1899796,359420,352376,007

The number of the Chinese in New Zealand at the end of the year 1899 was estimated to be 3,263 persons, of whom 33 were females.


The increase for each quarter of the year 1899 was:—

First Quarter.   
                  Increase from:    Total.    Males.    Females.
Excess of births over deaths2,9841,4161,568
Excess of arrivals over departures229298—69
Second Quarter.   
Excess of births over deaths2,7331,3201,413
Excess of departures over arrivals (decrease)—1,478–911–567
Third Quarter.   
Excess of births over deaths2,7271,2521,475
Excess of arrivals over departures369210159
Fourth Quarter.   
Excess of births over deaths2,7111,2721,439
Excess of arrivals over departures2,7671,6981,069
Year 1899.   
Excess of births over deaths11,1555,2605,895
Excess of arrivals over departures1,8871,295592

The movement of population since 1885 is given next. Although the large increase in 1893 by excess of arrivals over departures was not maintained during the six following years, the arrivals in the colony nevertheless exceeded the departures in each of these years, and the total excess of arrivals for the eight-year period 1892–99 inclusive is found to be 27,325 persons, drawn from other colonies or countries. The number may be somewhat greater than the actual fact, but probably not very much so. Reference to the possible source of error and its degree will be found further on.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.*Net Increase.

* Corrected in accordance with census results of 1886, 1891, and 1896. The amount of loss by departures in the period 1886–91, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.

† Loss.

‡ The results of the census taken in April, 1896, disclosed the fact that the estimate of population for December, 1895, was too low by 1,804 persons. Adding this number to the increase for 1896 (13,652 persons) makes 15,456, which is the difference between the populations given for the years 1895 and 1896.

1885575,17213,612  –2,744†10,8681.93


At a distance of four years' time from the date of the census it is impossible to state with anything like certainty of accuracy what the populations of the provincial districts may be. The natural increase by excess of births over deaths is correctly found and added, but the internal movement of people cannot be measured; and, in respect of the North and Middle Islands, it is known that a process of leaving the south and settling in the north has been going on for a long while. Further, the arrivals in the colony of persons from abroad and the departures to places outside New Zealand are counted in the Customs returns as at the first port of entry and the last of departure. Thus, the total excess of arrivals over departures has to be afterwards divided amongst the provincial districts proportionally, which is certainly not a method likely to give perfectly true results, though it is the best perhaps that can possibly be adopted for the years lying between those on which the quinquennial census is taken.

From the foregoing remarks, it will be seen that the estimated populations given below are no doubt too high for the Middle Island and too low for the North, but there is no means of allowing for the presumed error. The figures are given subject to these qualifications:—

(Figures given subject to previous remarks.)
Hawke's Bay37,139
    Chatham Islands255
    Kermadec Islands7
Estimated total population of colony, excluding Maoris, Dec. 31, 1899, 756,505

CENSUS, 1896.

The population of the colony (exclusive of Maoris), as returned in the census schedules for the night of the 12th April, 1896, was 703,360 persons, of whom 3,711 were Chinese, and 2,259 half-castes living amongst and as Europeans.

A census of the Maori population was taken during February of 1896, when the number of the Native race was found to be 39,854 persons, including 3,503 half-castes living as Maoris. 229 Maori women were returned as married to European husbands. The complete population (European and Maori) of the colony was therefore 743,214 persons, as exhibited in the following statement, specifying the numbers for each sex:—

     Persons.    Males.    Females.

* Not including 171 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war.

Population (exclusive of persons of the aboriginal native race, of mixed European and Native blood, and Chinese)697,390366,607330,783
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living as and among Europeans    2,259    1,123    1,136
Chinese    3,711    3,685         26
Aboriginal natives (including 229 Maori wives of Europeans)  36,351  19,729  16,622
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living among and as members of Maori tribes    3,503    1,944    1,559
              Total population on 12th April, 1896*743,214393,088350,126

The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 5,762 persons. The number of half-castes living among Europeans increased since 1891 by 75, or at the rate of 3.4 per cent. In that year the number of Maori wives of Europeans was 251; in 1896 it was 229. The Chinese decreased from 4,444 at the time of the census of 1891 to 3,711 in April, 1896; or at the rate of 16.5 per cent., caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,854 in 1896, according to the returns.

The increase on the total European population between April, 1891, and April, 1896, amounted to 76,702 persons, or a rate of 12.24 per cent. Between the census of 1886 and that of 1891 the numerical increase was 48,176 persons, or 8.33 per cent., so that an improved progress was made during the last five-year period to the extent of 3.91 per cent. The average annual increase in the period 1891–96 was at the rate of 2.33 per cent.

The population of the principal divisions of the colony in April, 1896, was—

     Persons.    Males.    Females
North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)340,631181,089159,542
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)362,236190,038172,198
Stewart Island       252       152       100
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Maoris)       234       132       102
Kermadec Islands           7           4           3
      Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)703,360371,415331,945


New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In April, 1896, the number of the counties was 81. Of these, the North Island had 47, with a population amounting altogether to 191,374 persons. The Middle Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,117 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself, and had a population of 244 persons. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

CensusCounties, 1896.

*Since the census was taken in 1896 four new counties have been constituted: Akitio, Eketahuna, and Mauriceville, cut out of Wairarapa North County; and Opotiki, cut out of Whakatane.

Since the 12th April, 1896, the following new boroughs have been constituted: New Brighton (population 800 in 1898), cut out of Selwyn County; Whangarei (population 1,250 in 1896), cut out of Whangarei County; Te Aroha (population 600 in 1899), cut out of Piako County; Stratford (population 1,700 in 1899), cut out of Stratford County.

Mongonui  1,889
Whangaroa     969
Hokianga  1,909
Bay of Islands  2,723
Hobson  3,750
Whangarei  6,847†
Otamatea  2,483
Rodney  3,464
Waitemata  6,762
Coromandel  4,987
Thames  4,515
Ohinemuri  4,761
Piako  2,706†
Waikato  2,814
Waipa  3,584
Raglan  1,545
Kawhia     598
West Taupo     156
East Taupo     232
Rotorua     840
Tauranga  1,622
Waiapu     447
Cook  5,287
Clifton  1,450
Taranaki  9,970
Stratford  5,141†
Hawera  6,934
Patea  3,084
Waitotara  2,737
Wanganui  3,095
Rangitikei  6,030
Kiwitea  2,428
Oroau  6,450
Pohangina  1,351
Manawatu  2,709
Horowhenua  3,792
Hawke's Bay  6,894
Wairoa  1,490
Waipawa  8,866
Patangata  2,374
Pahiatua  3,208
Wairarapa North  7,209*
Wairarapa South  5,409
Hutt  5,750
Sounds     747
Marlborough  6,330
Kaikoura  1,575
Collingwood  2,509
Waimea  8,591
Buller  4,833
Inangahua  4,254
Grey  4,592
Westland  4,723
Amuri     916
Cheviot  1,042
Akaroa  3,886
Geraldine  7,499
Levels  7,723
Mackenzie  1,514
Waimate  4,777
Waitaki  8,876
Waihemo  2,148
Waikouaiti  4,389
Peninsula  2,645
Taieri  6,950
Bruce  4,828
Tuapeka  6,477
Clutha  6,5    
Maniototo  3,742
Vincent  4,090
Lake  2,663
Wallace  6,657
Fiord     151
Stewart Island     151244

As before stated, the total county population amounted to 391,735, or 55.69 per cent. of the total for the colony. In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called town population. The population in boroughs was 307,294 persons, or 43.69 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1896 there were 78 residing in boroughs. In 1891 the counties had 352,097 persons, and the boroughs 270,343, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties, 76 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1896 than in 1891.


The populations of the municipal boroughs in the colony, as estimated for the year 1899, are stated, there being no means of giving exact information until another census enumeration has been made, which will be in April of the year 1901.

BoroughsEstimated Population 1899.

* For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see Census volume, p. 32, Part I.

Formerly known as Newton.

Whangarei  1,500
Birkenhead     780
Devonport  3,430
Grey Lynn  3,331
Newmarket  2,170
Parnell  4,402
Onehunga  2,913
To Aroha     600
Thames  5,000
Hamilton  1,250
Cambridge     880
Tauranga  1,050
Gisborne  2,500
New Plymouth  4,041
Stratford  1,700
Hawera  2,300
Patea     800
Wanganui  6,842
Marton  1,200
Feilding  2,150
Palmerston North  6,263
Foxton (1898)  1,140
Hastings  3,300
Napier  9,486
Dannevirke  1,700
Woodville  1,150
Pahiatua  1,200
Masterton  3,800
Carterton  1,300
Greytown  1,120
Lower Hutt  1,550
Petone  3,250
Onslow  1,400
Karori  1,096
Melrose  2,400
Picton     870
Blenheim  2,970
Nelson  7,120
Richmond     610
Westport  3,200
Greymouth  3,423
Brunner  1,200
Kumara  1,150
Hokitika  2,463
Ross     750
Rangiora  1,871
Kaiapoi  1,880
Linwood  6,707
St. Albans  6,440
Woolston  2,305
Sumner     592
New Brighton     900
Lyttelton  4,026
Akaroa     630
Ashburton  2,100
Timaru  5,795
Waimate  1,500
Oamaru  5,411
Hampden     320
Palmerston South     775
Hawksbury     730
Port Chalmers  2,100
North-east Valley  3,540
Maori Hill  1,603
West Harbour  1,364
Roslyn  4,454
Mornington  3,854
Caversham  4,838
St. Kilda  1,420
South Dunedin  5,158
Green Island     700
Mosgiel  1,500
Milton  1,500
Kaitangata  1,400
Balclutha  1,000
Lawrence  1,050
Roxburgh     500
Tapanui     450
Naseby     550
Cromwell     580
Alexandra     600
Arrowtown     400
Queenstown     750
Gore  2,800
Mataura     950
Winton     400
Invercargill     5,681
North Invercargill     950
South Invercargill  1,950
East Invercargill     985
Avenal     350
Gladstone     380
Campbelltown  1,200
Riverton  1,000

The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several localities which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal cities:—

Boroughs—Estimated Population, Dec., 1899.
    Birkenhead    780
    Devonport  3,430
    Newmarket  2,170
    Grey Lynn (Newton)  3,331
    Parnell  4,402
Road Districts— 
    Arch-hill  1,557
    Eden Terrace  1,604
    Epsom     660
    Mount Albert  1,668
    Mount Eden  3,677
    Mount Roskill     495
    One-tree Hill     975
    Point Chevalier     591
    Remuera  2,034
Northcote Riding     530
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding, being land in the Domain with hospital on it     197
          Total suburbs28,101
          Auckland City38,400
          Total Auckland and suburbs66,501
    Onslow  1,400
    Melrose  2,400
    Karori  1,096
               Total suburbs  4,896
               Wellington City42,966
               Total Wellington and suburbs47,862
Boroughs—Estimated Population, Dec.,1899
  St. Albans  6,440
  Linwood  6,707
  Woolston  2,305
Road Districts—
  Avon (part)  2,962
  Heathcote (part)  1,980
  Riccarton (part)  3,657
  Spreydon  1,278
  Halswell (part)     224
        Total suburbs36,941
        Christchurch City18,500
        Total Christchurch and suburbs55,441

In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.

  Caversham  4,838
  Maori Hill  1,603
  Mornington  3,854
  North-East Valley  3,540
  Roslyn  4,454
  St. Kilda  1,420
  South Dunedin  5,158
  West Harbour  1,364
     Total suburbs26,231
     Dunedin City23,560
     Total Dunedin and suburbs49,791

The increase of population for eight years at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was:—

         Census, 1891.        Dec., 1899. Estimated.        Numerical Increase.            Increase per Cent.
    Auckland and suburbs    51,287    66,501    15,214    29.66
    Wellington and suburbs    34,190    47,862    13,672    39.99
    Christchurch and suburbs    47,846    55,441  7,59515.87
    Dunedin and suburbs45,86949,791  3,922  8.55

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed between 1891 and 1899 at a greater rate than those of the Middle Island, and Wellington in particular to have developed at nearly five times the rate of Dunedin, and more than twice as fast as Christchurch.

While New South Wales and Victoria present what is termed by the statistician of the former colony “the disquieting spectacle of capital towns growing with wonderful rapidity, and embracing in their limits one-third of the population of the territory of which they are the centre,” New Zealand is saved from this by the configuration of the country, which has resulted in the formation of four chief towns, besides others of secondary importance but nevertheless trading centres.


Besides the boroughs, there are 37 town districts (including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881,”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. One only of these, Hampstead, has more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined, with populations, as in 1896:—

                      Town Districts.          Population.

* Constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881.”

Te Awamutu347
Waitara (Raleigh)517
Clyde (Wairoa)579
Kaikora North301
Allanton (formerly Grey)274

In addition to the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed for 1896 throughout the colony no less than 561 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centres without boundaries. One of these (New Brighton) has since been constituted a borough. It is impossible to say that the populations of these small centres are all strictly accurate, even for the census date, or given in such a way as to be fit for comparison one with another. In different cases more or less of surrounding country may have been considered as belonging to the centre, but there is at least at each place mentioned some sort of nucleus of population, if not a well-defined village or township. In making the statement the best has been done with a difficult matter, and the information is given as useful—in some cases, like that of Reefton, important—even if open to objection here and there. The county in which each is situated is also given:—


*Now known as Kimbolton. (Gazette, 5th January, 1899.)

Abbotsford, Taieri197
Adair, Levels127
Adams's Flat (and vicinity), Bruce72
Adamson's, Southland80
Addington, Selwyn480
Addison's Flat, Buller277
Ahaura, Grey252
Albert Town, Vincent52
Albury, Mackenzie96
Alford Forest, Ashburton426
Alfredton, Wairarapa North88
Allandale, Waihemo93
Allenton, Ashburton763
Alma, Waitaki158
Alton, Patea72
Anderson's Bay, Peninsula489
Annat, Selwyn72
Antonio's Flat, Inangahua59
Aongatete, Tauranga33
Apiti, Pohangina110
Aratapu, Hobson508
Arden, Taieri85
Arthurtown, Westland51
Arundel, Geraldine78
Ashley, Ashley70
Ashurst, Oroua361
Athol, Southland85
Avondale, Eden872
Awanui, Waiapu43
Bainfield, Southland114
Bainham, Collingwood106
Bald Hill Flat, Vincent242
Ballance, Pahiatua93
Bannockburn, Vincent410
Barkly, Southland146
Bay View, Southland38
Beaconsfield, Levels141
Beck's Maniototo76
Belfast, Selwyn600
Belgrove, Waimea332
Bendigo, Vincent56
Bennett's, Ashley150
Berwick, Taieri77
Birmingham,* Kiwitea155
Blackball, Grey176
Black's Point, Inangahua283
Blackwater, Inangahua163
Blue Spur, Westland53
Bluestone, Tuapeka188
Brighton, Taieri57
Brightwater, Waimea409
Broad Bay, Peninsula301
Brockville, Taieri44
Buffalo, Coromandel146
Bunnythorpe (and vicinity), Oroua309
Burke's, Mackenzie90
Burnside, Taieri159
Cabbage Bay, Coromandel133
Calcium, Wallace31
Callaghan's, Westland47
Cambrian's Maniototo134
Cambridge West, Waipa255
Canvastown, Marlborough54
Cape Foulwind, Buller223
Capleston, Inangahua170
Cardinal, Lake176
Castlereagh, Waitotara269
Castlepoint, Wairarapa North31
Caversham, Levels37
Centre Bush, Southland66
Charleston Buller151
Charlton, Southland32
Cheltenham, Kiwitea43
Chertsey, Ashburton93
Clareville, Wairarapa South46
Clifton, Collingwood58
Clyde, Vincent310
Coalbrookdale, Buller165
Coal Creek, Tuapeka305
Coalgate, Selwyn116
Cobden, Grey274
Courtenay, Selwyn67
Crofton, Rangitikei113
Cromarty (and vicinity), Fiord39
Crushington, Inangahua108
Cullensville, Marlborough136
Culverden, Amuri40
Cust, Ashley117
Dalefield, Wairarapa South194
Danieltown, Wallace34
Darfield and Horndon, Selwyn262
Dargaville, Hobson358
Deborah, Waitaki60
Deborah Bay, Waikouaiti131
Denlair, Wanganui52
Denniston, Buller181
Dillman's, Westland467
Dipton, Southland86
Doyleston, Selwyn241
Dromore, Ashburton54
Drummond, Wallace213
Dunback, Waihemo134
Dunganville, Grey125
Dunkeld, Tuapeka80
Dunsandel, Selwyn153
Duntroon, Waitaki195
Durie Town, Wanganui172
Duvauchelle's Bay, Akaroa89
East Clive, Hawke's Bay239
East Dipton, Southland162
Eastown, Wanganui228
East Winton, Southland137
Edendale, Southland184
Eketahuna, Wairarapa North476
Eltham, Hawera306
Enfield, Waitaki254
Epworth, Geraldine62
Ettrick, Tuapeka69
Evansdale, Waikouaiti45
Eweburn, Maniototo166
Fairdown, Buller44
Fairfax (and vicinity), Bruce171
Fairfield, Taieri80
Fairlie, Mackenzie369
Fendalton, Selwyn367
Fernhills, Southland67
Fernside, Ashley390
Ferntown, Collingwood81
Flax Swamp, Waikouaiti88
Flaxton, Ashley138
Fordell, Wanganui151
Fortrose, Southland140
Frankton, Lake156
Frasertown, Wairoa176
Galatea, Whakatane82
Garfield, Wallace41
Georgetown, Geraldine34
Georgetown, Waitaki119
German Bay, Akaroa212
Gibbston, Lake155
Gibbstown, Collingwood181
Gimmerburn, Maniototo178
Glenavy, Waimate55
Gleniti (and vicinity), Levels111
Glenore (and vicinity), Bruce91
Glentunnel, Selwyn189
Goldsborough, Westland179
Gordon Special Settlement, Piako70
Governor's Bay, Akaroa163
Granity Creek, Buller193
Grassmere, Southland104
Greatford, Rangitikei90
Greendale, Selwyn370
Green Island Bush, Taieri237
Greenpark, Selwyn349
Greenstone, Grey100
Greerton, Tauranga54
Grovetown, Marlborough316
Gumtown, Coromandel51
Hakaru, Otamatea34
Hakataramea, Waimate90
Hamilton, Maniototo50
Hampden, Waipawa188
Hamua, Wairarapa North103
Hardie's Taieri82
Harwood, Southland58
Hastings, Thames101
Hastwell, Wairarapa North169
Hatter's, or Nelson Creek, Grey128
Havelock, Hawke's Bay407
Hawarden, Ashley32
Hawksbury, Waikouaiti132
Heddon Bush, Wallace119
Henderson, Waitemata60
Henley, Taieri303
Herbert, Waitaki401
Herbertville, Patangata113
Heriot (and outlying), Tuapeka163
Highcliffe, Peninsula278
Hikurangi, Whangarei354
Hikutaia, Thames179
Hillgrove, Waitaki93
Hilton, Geraldine47
Hindon, Taieri117
Hirstfield, Wallace169
Hobsonville, Waitemata195
Hodgkinson, Wallace60
Hororata, Selwyn242
Howick, Manukau220
Huirangi, Taranaki50
Hunterville, Rangitikei755
Huntly, Waikato512
Hurunui, Ashley53
Hyde, Maniototo222
Ida Valley, Vincent262
Inangahua Junction, Inangahua31
Inglewood, Southland73
Islington, Selwyn207
Jackeytown, Oroua72
Kaeo, Whangaroa181
Kai Iwi, Waitotara64
Kaikohe, Bay of Islands134
Kaikoura, Kaikoura394
Kaitaia, Mongonui114
Kakanui (North), Waitotara163
Kakanui (South), Waitotara204
Kakaramea, Patea110
Kanieri, Westland175
Kapanga, Coromandel500
Karangahake, Ohinemuri609
Kaukapakapa, Waitemata313
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands321
Kawarau Gorge, Vincent44
Kawhia, Kawhia37
Kennedy Bay, Coromandel72
Kennington, Southland50
Kensington, Levels167
Kereru (and vicinity), Horowhenua135
Killinchy, Selwyn54
Kimberley, Selwyn162
Kingston, Lake47
Kirwee, Selwyn74
Kokonga, Maniototo111
Kohukohu, Hokianga262
Kopu, Thames136
Kuaotunu, Coromandel424
Kuaotunu Upper, Coromandel299
Kumeroa, Waipawa104
Kuri Bush, Taieri46
Kuriwao, Clutha122
Kurow, Waitaki271
Kyeburn Diggings, Maniototo97
Kyeburn, Lower, Maniototo113
Kyeburn, Upper, Maniototo72
Lake Hayes, Lake104
Lamlash, Peninsula31
Lauder, Maniototo51
Le Bon's Bay, Akaroa271
Leedstown, Rangitikei36
Leeston, Selwyn573
Leithfield, Ashley345
Levin, Horowhenua581
Lichfield, Piako49
Lime Hills, Southland126
Lincoln, Selwyn569
Lintley, Southland47
Linton, Oroua51
Little Akalca, Akaroa259
Little River, Akaroa137
Livingstone, Waitaki110
London, Taieri100
Long Bush, Southland84
Longridge, Southland105
Lowburn, Vincent132
Lower Hawea, Vincent225
Lower Woodstock, Westland57
Lowther, Southland28
Luggate, Vincent76
Lumsden, Southland223
Lumsden Extension, Southland154
Lyell, Buller159
Macandrew, Southland72
Macetown, Lake161
Mackaytown, Ohinemuri32
Mackenzie, Cheviot53
Macrae's (and vicinity), Waihemo103
Maheno, Waitaki206
Mairtown, Whangarei177
Makakahi, Pahiatua61
Makarewa, Southland250
Maketu, Tauranga72
Makikihi, Waimate57
Makuri, Pahiatua93
Makutoku, Waipawa175
Mangamahce, Wairarapa North35
Mangaonoho, Rangitikei166
Mangatainoko, Pahiatua106
Mangawai, Otamatea272
Mangaweka, Rangitikei349
Mangawhare, Hobson471
Manakau, Horowhenua149
Mandeville, Southland108
Mansfordtown, Waikouaiti380
Manutahi, Patea69
Manutahi, Taranaki175
Maori Gully, Grey58
Marlboroughtown, Marlborough148
Marsden, Grey44
Marshalltown, Kiwitea63
Matakohe, Otamatea93
Matamau, Waipawa137
Matata, Whakatane70
Martinborough, Wairarapa South75
Maungatua, Taieri63
Mauriceville East, Wairarapa North77
Mayfield, Waitemata76
Maxwelltown, Waitotara153
Meanee, Hawke's Bay145
Menzies' Ferry, Southland125
Mercer (and vicinity), Manukau210
Mercury Bay, Coromandel472
Merryjigs, Inangahua81
Merton, Waikouaiti753
Methven, Ashburton295
Middlemaren, Taieri130
Midhirst, Stratford248
Milford, Geraldine247
Mohaka, Wairoa36
Mokau, Kawhia108
Mokihinui, Buller45
Mongonui, Mongonui226
Morley, Wallace53
Morrinsville, Piako151
Morton, Levels235
Motueka, Waimea877
Mount Somers, Ashburton206
Mount Pisa, Vincent49
Murchison, Inangahua75
Nenthorn, Waikouaiti59
Newman, Wairarapa North227
Newport, Hobson97
Ngahauranga, Hutt212
Ngahere, Grey137
Ngapara, Waitaki233
Nightcaps, Wallace167
Normanby, Levels36
Norsewood (and vicinity), Waipawa898
North Heads, Waikouaiti78
North Taieri, Taieri183
No Town, Grey80
Nukumaru, Waitotara93
Oakura, Taranaki46
Oaklands, Peninsula52
Oban, Stewart Island41
Ohaeawai, Bay of Islands92
Ohakune, Wanganui40
Ohau (and vicinity), Horowhenua256
Ohinemutu, Rotorua131
Ohingaiti, Rangitikei410
Ohoka, Ashley654
Okaiawa, Hawera107
Okaihau and Omapera, Bay of Islands286
Okain's Bay, Akaroa222
Okarito, Westland62
Okato, Taranaki64
Ongaonga, Waipawa92
Ophir, Vincent266
Opua, Bay of Islands57
Oraka, Wallace111
Orari, Geraldine135
Oropi, Tauranga37
Orwell Creek, Grey105
Otago Heads, Peninsula179
Otahuhu, Manukau942
Otaki (and vicinity), Horowhenua836
Otakia, Taieri42
Otara, Southland200
Otekaike, Waitaki53
Otiahi, Waitaki176
Owaka, Clutha611
Owharoa, Ohinemuri163
Owhiro, Taieri38
Oxford East, Ashley153
Oxford West, Ashley241
Paeroa, Ohinemuri779
Pahia, Wallace84
Paikakariki, Hutt146
Pakawau, Collingwood71
Panmure, Eden323
Papanui, Selwyn479
Paraparaumu, Hutt192
Parkville, Wairarapa North233
Patangata, Patangata103
Patutahi (and vicinity), Cook263
Peel, Geraldine53
Pembroke, Lake176
Pigeon Bay, Akaroa352
Pihama, Hawera37
Piko, Levels160
Pine Hill, Waikouaiti88
Pipiriki, Wanganui44
Pirongia East, Waipa89
Pleasant Valley, Waikouaiti34
Plimmerton, Hutt49
Pohangina, Pohangina163
Point, Levels90
Porirua, Hutt74
Porangahau, Patangata171
Port Albert, Rodney56
Port Moeraki, Waitaki150
Portobello Town, Peninsula37
Pourakino, Wallace33
Prebbleton, Selwyn330
Prestonville, Southland107
Pukerau, Southland126
Purakanui, Waikouaiti47
Puriri, Thames143
Raetihi, Wanganui83
Rakaia, Ashburton458
Rangiriri, Waikato47
Rangiwhia (Pemberton), Kiwitea63
Rangotea, Manawatu136
Ranzau, Waimea60
Rata Settlement, Rangitikei195
Rawene, Hokianga120
Redcliffe, Waimate227
Reefton, Inangahua1,591
Reidston, Waitaki184
Renwicktown, Marlborough324
Reynolds, Waikouaiti38
Riccarton, Taieri99
Riccarton, Lower, Selwyn422
Riccarton, Upper, Selwyn502
Richmond, Salwyn288
Richmond Grove, Southland96
Rikiorangi, Hutt96
Rimu, Westland174
Riversdale, Southland265
Riwaka, Waimea575
Rockville, Collingwood102
Rolleston, Selwyn136
Rotheram, Amuri132
Rotorua, Rotorua499
Round Hill Diggings, Wallace225
Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands92
Russell, Bay of Islands257
Sandymount, Peninsula299
Sanson, Manawatu255
Sarau, Waimea58
Sawyer's Bay, Waikouaiti382
Scarborough, Pahiatua76
Sefton, Ashley270
Selwyn, Selwyn55
Shaftesbury, Piako44
Shannon, Horowhenua262
Sheffield, Selwyn176
Shiel Hill, Peninsula47
Shortland, Thames1,191
Silverstream, Mackenzie118
Skippers, Lake63
Southbrook, Ashley352
South Malvern, Selwyn92
Spreydon, Selwyn354
Springfield, Selwyn211
Spring Grove, Waimea361
Springston, Selwyn584
Stafford, Westland140
St. Andrews, Waimate201
St. Bathans, Maniototo254
Stirling (and vicinity), Bruce211
Stoke, Waimea547
Studholme Junction, Waimate93
Swannanoa, Ashley161
Swanson, Waitemata88
Switzers, Southland98
Taiaroa Heads, Peninsula40
Tairua, Thames141
Taitapu, Selwyn376
Takapau, Waipawa159
Tauherenikau, Wairarapa South71
Taupaki, Waitemata276
Taupo, East Taupo72
Taupiri, Waikato47
Taylorville, Wanganui51
Te Aroha West, Piako131
Te Aute, Waipawa93
Teddington, Akaroa103
Te Karaka, Cook67
Te Kopuru, Hobson184
Templeton, Selwyn310
Te Puke, Tauranga169
Thornbury, Wallace125
Thorpe, Waimea67
Tikokino, Waipawa39
Tiniroto, Cook57
Tinker's, Vincent242
Tinui, Wairarapa North221
Tokaanu, East Taupo59
Toko, Stratford134
Tokomaru, Horowhenua88
Totara, Whangaroa263
Tuakau, Manukau377
Tutaekara, Pahiatua74
Turua, Thames247
Upper Hutt, Hutt339
Upper Woodstock, Westland167
Urenui, Clifton91
Vauxhall, Peninsula89
Waddington, Selwyn121
Wade, Waitemata208
Waianiwa, Southland49
Waiau, Amuri183
Waihi, Ohinemuri1,102
Waihola, Bruce142
Waihou, Piako85
Waikaia, Southland256
Waikaka, Southland41
Waikanae, Horowhenua84
Waikare, Ashley258
Waikiwi, Southland45
Waikoikoi, Clutha215
Waimangaroa, Buller399
Waimate, Bay of Islands106
Waimatuku, Wallace225
Waimea West, Waimea293
Wainuiomata, Hutt45
Waiomio, Bay of Islands76
Waiorongomai, Piako201
Waipahi, Clutha109
Waipara, Ashley48
Waipiro, Waiapu73
Waipori, Tuapeka157
Waipu Central, Whangarei183
Waipukurau, Waipawa549
Wairio, Wallace81
Waitahuna, Tuapeka289
Waitati (and vicinity), Waikouaiti339
Waitekauri, Ohinemuri463
Waitotara, Patea207
Waituna, Kiwitea37
Waiwera, Clutha70
Wakefield, Waimea694
Wallacetown, Southland159
Wallingford, Patangata65
Walton, Taieri32
Wanstead, Patangata80
Warepa, Clutha257
Washdyke, Levels494
Waterford, Tauranga116
Waterton (and vicinity), Ashburton235
Watlington, Levels39
Wayne's, Waihemo38
Weber, Patangata108
Weedon's, Selwyn43
Wereroa, Horowhenua87
West Clive, Hawke's Bay428
Weston, Waitaki138
Weston Park, Waitaki49
Whakakiti, Wairarapa North71
Whakatane, Whakatane119
Whangapoua, Coromandel77
Whangaroa, Whangaroa152
Whare Flat Road, Taieri64
Whenuakiti, Coromandel90
Whitecliffs, Selwyn34
Whitmore, Oroua75
Whitstone, Waitaki84
Wickliffe Bay, Peninsula41
Wimbledon, Patangata79
Winchester, Geraldine212
Windsor, Waitaki99
Wingatui, Taieri174
Woodbury, Geraldine318
Woodend, Ashley498
Woodend, Southland96
Woodfield, Southland46
Woodlands, Taieri35
Woodlands, Southland218
Woodside, Taieri163
Wrey's Bush, Wallace123


The names and populations of the islands adjacent to and included in the colony were, in April, 1896:—

              Islands.    Total.    M.    F.
Great Barrier307193114
Week's Island211
Ponui (Light)11 
Ponui Island281315
Bean Rock (Light)11 
Rotoroa (Ruth's)1569
The Brothers33 

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had in 1896 a population of 950 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 913 in 1891. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1891 from 262 to 307 persons; Waiheke showed a decrease from 215 to 166 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 258 to 234.


The growth of population in these colonies over a period of thirty-nine years is shown in a comparative table. The total for 1899, being 4,482,980 persons, is greater than the population of Scotland, but very little less than that of Ireland for 1898, and more than one-seventh part of the population of England and Wales for that year. The Australasian Colonies have now twice the population of Denmark, over one-third more than Switzerland, and nearly that of the Netherlands.

Colony.        1860. Persons.        1870. Persons.        1880. Persons.        1890. Persons.        1899. Persons.
New South Wales348,546498,659747,9501,121,8601,356,650
South Australia124,112183,797267,573319,414370,700
Western Australia15,22725,08429,01946,290171,030
New Zealand79,711248,400484,864625,508756,500

In respect of the five federating colonies, the official estimates adopted at the Conference held in Sydney (which exclude aborigines throughout) are as below:—

New South Wales1,348,400
South Australia (including Northern Territory)370,700

The total population as estimated for the group of federating colonies is thus 3,546,700 persons.


The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1899 was 18,506, a decrease of 349 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1899, 16,529 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 1,977 as children. The total number of males was 11,862 and of females 6,644. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 1,918, and from Australia 15,529. Besides these, 205 persons came from Fiji, and 854 from the South Seas and other ports, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

Classified in respect of birthplace, it is found that 7,092 of the arrivals were persons born in the Australasian Colonies, 10,706 in the United Kingdom, and 40 in other British possessions. Of 668 persons born in foreign countries who arrived during 1899, 113 were born in Austria, 144 in Germany, 98 in the United States, 101 in France, 46 in Italy, 16 in Sicily, 19 in Sweden, 8 in Norway, and 123 in other countries.

Among the arrivals in 1899 are noticed 123 “race-aliens,” or persons of other than European descent. Particulars of birthplace and sex are as under:—

  Birthplace.        M.        F.        Total.
United Kingdom112
Pacific Islands628

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense has been discontinued since the 16th December, 1890, and there was no free immigration in the year 1899.

Only 26 Chinese (24 men and 2 women) arrived in the colony during 1899, but 184 (all men) left, the departures thus exceeding the arrivals by 158.

The total departures in 1899, including 210 officers and men of the first contingent for service in South Africa, were 16,619 persons, being 460 more than in 1898. Thus, the movement of population to the colony is found to have been less, and from the colony to have been greater, than in the previous year.

In 1890 and in 1891 the colony lost population by excess of departures over arrivals, but in each of the years 1892 to 1899, inclusive, New Zealand has drawn to itself more population than it has parted with, notwithstanding the attractions of Australian and other goldfields.

The departures from the colony by the Union Steamship Company's boats, as given through the Customs Department, are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, and, where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions are made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes had happened previous to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove very fairly correct, and indeed the census of 1896 showed that the estimates of population even after five years' interval was a very close approximation to the truth.

Of the departures in 1899, 15,043 persons were over twelve years of age, and 1,576 children. Nearly twice as many males left the colony as females, the numbers being 10,567 and 6,052 respectively. The departures to the United Kingdom amounted to 1,324 persons, and those to Australia numbered 14,184. Besides these, 113 persons left for Fiji, and 998 for other ports (including passengers for San Francisco).

The arrivals and departures for ten years are given in the following tables, in which 1893 shows the highest number of persons inwards, 26,135, and 1894 of persons outwards, 22,984. In regard to Australia the movement was also greatest during the same years, the arrivals in 1893 being 22,351, and departures in 1894 20,488 persons:—

Year.        From United Kingdom.        From Australian Colonies.        From Other Places.        Total Arrivals.
    Totals, ten years25,138158,9949,872194,004
Year.To United Kingdom.To Australian Colonies.To Other Places.Total Departures.

*Figures given according to the returns, but short of actual fact, as proved by the census of 1891.

Totals, ten years15,828145,9939,838171,659

It will be found that the above figures give the total arrivals from the United Kingdom in ten years as 25,138 persons, and the departures as 15,828; and there is no reason to doubt the correctness of these results. The colony drew directly from the Mother-country 9,310 persons over and above those that went back directly during the ten - year period. For each year in the period the arrivals from the United Kingdom exceed the departures, but the excess was only 730 in the year 1891 and 594 in 1899. In regard to Australia, for each year given in the table, except 1890 and 1891, the balance of interchange is in favour of New Zealand. For this ten-year period there was a net gain amounting to 13,001 persons from Australia.

The interchange of people with places other than the United Kingdom and Australia has been very even during the ten years under review, the balance in favour of New Zealand amounting to 34 persons only.

The Board of Trade, London, publishes the total emigration from the United Kingdom to Australasia as a whole. By the figures given it will be seen that there was of late years an annual decrease in the number of persons coming to these colonies from the Home country until 1897, when the number somewhat increased. Prior to 1893 the arrivals from the United Kingdom ranged from 44,055 in 1886 down to 16,183 in 1892. Alongside of the Imperial returns of departures to Australasia are shown in the following statement the arrivals in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom, taken from our own returns, which numbers are short of the full total of persons coming here from England by the arrivals viâ Australia or the United States of America. But, using the information available, it seems evident that New Zealand has been latterly preferred to Australia, from the high proportion which the arrivals here (direct) bear to every hundred of departures from England for the Australasian Colonies.

So long as New Zealand can secure one-sixth or more of the total persons leaving England for Australasia, she takes more than the proportion her population bears to that of the seven colonies collectively:—

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in New Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.

A statement is added giving the arrivals and departures for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1899, and the result is shown to be a net gain to these colonies of 7,335 persons during the year:—

ColonyArrivals.Departures.Excess of Arrivals over Departures.

—Denotes loss.

NOTE.—In these figures allowance has been made for unrecorded departures.

New South Wales92,10450,969143,07390,40150,422140,8231,7035472,250
Victoria (by sea only)55,79929,58585,38461,46832,93194,399–5,669–3,346–9,015
South Australia (including Northern Territory)48,66025,35874,01846,38925,94972,3382,271–5911,680
Western Australia (by sea only)13,1427,13620,27814,0296,19620,225–88794053
New Zealand11,8626,64418,50610,5676,05216,6191,2955921,887


At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in the colony, the Chinese population amounted to 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1886, and further to 4,444 in 1891. In April, 1896, the census revealed a further fall to 3,711 persons. During the period 1881–96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese, except for the circumstance that, during the years 1894 and 1895, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns are found to have been somewhat greater than the departures. In 1896, the Chinese Immigrants Act Amendment Act of that year raised the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head, and limited the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to this colony to one for every 200 tons burthen. In 1896 the amount paid by the Chinese as poll-tax was £1,270, in 1897 the sum was £240, in 1898 £400, and in 1899 £300. The number of Chinese in the colony at the end of the year 1899 is estimated to have been 3,263, of whom 33 were females.

Chinese immigration is under restraint in Australia as well as in New Zealand. In New South Wales the arrivals have been reduced until the number for 1896 was only 99, against 450 departures, by means of a similar poll-tax to that of New Zealand, and requirement that every vessel should not bring more than one Chinaman to every 300 tons. These conditions are helped by the law which forbids the naturalisation of a Chinese, and some prohibition as to mining without special authority. In 1887 no less than 1,798 Chinese paid poll-tax in New South Wales, and in 1896 the number was only 2.

Of the Chinese living in New Zealand in 1896, when the last census was taken, 3,685 were males and 26 females. Of the males, 88 were returned as married. The number of the Chinese under 14 years of age was only 14 males and 11 females. These numbers do not include the issue of unions between Chinese men and European women.

The occupations show 2,162 gold-miners, 527 market and other gardeners with 129 assistants, 94 greengrocers and 38 assistants, 94 shop- or store-keepers and 30 assistants, 59 labourers, 43 hotel servants; 31 vegetable, 27 general, and 25 fish hawkers; 31 laundry-men and women, 31 domestic servants, 29 lodginghouse keepers, 27 cooks (not domestic), 24 farm-labourers, 19 eating-house keepers, 19 grocers with 21 assistants, 16 fishermen, 11 merchants with 6 assistants, 7 drapers and 1 assistant. Amongst various others, in small numbers each, are returned 1 law-clerk, 2 missionaries, 5 medical men, 1 dentist, 1 chemist, 1 interpreter, 2 bankers, 1 opiumseller. Three of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 3 others of benevolent asylums. While 22 were lunatics, only 2 were prisoners in gaol.


The Year-book for 1898 states, in the form of extracts from the Census report, full information as to the density of population in New Zealand, the proportions of the sexes, the religions, birthplaces, ages, and occupations of the people. It is not considered necessary to reprint the figures, or the remarks which accompany them, as these will be found on pages 105 to 115 of the book for that year.


A description of this machine, which is used in some countries for purposes of dealing with the cards by means of which census computations are now usually made, may be found interesting. The machine is not suited for a country like New Zealand, where the population is not very large, and where the combinations required are not of the most elaborate nature. It was tested in Victoria before the census of 1896 was compiled, and the Government decided against it on that occasion. The question was raised in this colony, whether greater speed could not be achieved by means of the machine, which has led to this explanation. It has been thus described in connection with the Canadian census of 1891:—

“In tabulating the returns, the Hollerith electrical tabulating-machine (which should, perhaps, rather be called a totalling-machine), introduced in the United States, was used. For this purpose, a card, similar in principle to that used in New Zealand, is devoted to each person; but, instead of drawing lines, a hole is punched in the centre of the compartment. Each card is then successively placed on a horizontal board. This board is pierced with holes, corresponding in number to the total number of compartments on the card, and so situated that each hole is under the centre of a compartment. Under each of these holes, again, is a tube partly filled with mercury, which communicates by means of a wire from the bottom of the tube with the index of a counter. Above the card is a second horizontal board, on the lower side of which are springs, terminating in blunted needles, these being so arranged as to dip into the tubes wherever there is a hole in the card, and thus complete an electric circuit wherever the needle meets the mercury. The electric current then moves the index of the counter through one division each time the board is lowered. By passing all the cards through the machine, the number of persons corresponding to each particular fact can be counted at once, and this number is then written on the tabulation-sheets. The machine is so arranged also as to permit of particular needles only reaching the mercury, and thus a combination of two or more particulars can be worked out by merely passing the cards through the machine. Two or three different combinations can be worked out simultaneously, provided that any one particular does not enter more than one of the combinations—e.g., the religion according to education, and the infirmities according to age, could be worked out at the same time. It is, I believe, recognised that the device would not have been of so much value in the United Kingdom and the other colonies, where the number of details required is not so great. Owing to the time occupied in punching the cards as compared with that of ticking the compartments, the economy only begins to be appreciable when the combinations are very numerous.”



THE following notes on this subject are supplied by Mr. S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S.:—

In extension of the article under the head of “Maoris,” given on page 4, ante, it may be stated that progress in the sciences of ethnology and philology has made some strides since those pages were first penned. Although an origin for the Maoris cannot be stated with certainty at present, it will serve a useful turn if some indication is given of the direction in which these researches, undertaken by several people, are tending. It is impossible in the brief space of a page or two to give the evidence on which the following is based; and, moreover, there are conflicts of detail which require further discussion, but the main outlines of the history of the Polynesians—of which race the Maori forms the most important section—can be given as a tentative theory.

It is obvious that the further back in point of time these researches are carried the more uncertain become the conclusions. But there is a point in the history of the race where their carefully treasured traditions become history. Comparison of the traditions preserved by various branches of the race all point to the West as their origin; and when we take up the direction thus indicated, and follow it out by the light shed on the subject by ethnology and philology, it will take us very far from the present home of the race.

It appears, then, from these indications, that the race once inhabited a mainland, which is believed to be India—inland India, the plains and foot-hills of the Himalaya, with their borders touching the sea on the Persian Gulf. Ages must have passed whilst the people dwelt in those parts; they became navigators, crossed the neighbouring seas, acquired many customs from some race of a Semitic origin, together with some words of their language. This neighbouring race was probably dwelling in Arabia and the shores of the Persian Gulf. But a time came when the Aryan race began to make its appearance in India, a race of superior mental calibre, and probably more numerous. Before this intruding race the ancient Polynesian gradually retreated; but not at once. There was a period when much intercourse took place between the two races, when they mutually borrowed words and customs, and probably intermarried. How long this intercourse lasted there is no means at present of saying; but, in the course of centuries, probably, the intrusive race gradually forced the Polynesians southwards and seaward, where they acquired increased powers of navigation and the knowledge of surrounding lands. Voyages were made far East, to Indonesia, where the Polynesians found in occupation a negrito race, which is connected with, if not the same as the Papuan.

Pressure from behind, as the Aryans increased in numbers, added to the knowledge of the east acquired by the Polynesians, now induced that people to remove in large numbers to Indonesia, where their superior physique and intelligence would soon render them the masters of the former inhabitants. The race as a whole, however, did not migrate, for there are strong reasons for thinking that some of the hill tribes of India represent those who remained. Along the shores of the many-isled Indonesia the people formed their homes; the very nature of this islet-dotted sea exciting their powers as navigators and rovers. It cannot yet be said how long the race remained in that part of the world, but it must have been counted by centuries. There is strong reason for thinking that their voyages extended far into the Pacific, and to the north.

Tradition begins now to take its part in the history of the race, and it is probable that the original names of Atea, Hawaiki-te-varinga, Vavau, Herangi, and many others must be looked for in these regions. But here comes in a difficulty in tracing these early names, due to the fact of the subsequent irruption of other races, who brought their own names with them, and applied them to those places already named by the Polynesians, which thus became lost, except where preserved in the traditions of the emigrants.

About the first and second centuries of the Christian era the Polynesians came into touch with another ethnic wave-the Malay race, from the west and north-west. Again were the same scenes enacted as in distant India. At first wars, then periods of peace, when an interchange of customs and language took place. After a time of considerable duration, the Polynesians again moved on, nearly always to the east. The pressure of the Malay race forced them onward. Expert navigators and daring sailors as they were, the unknown was to them an attraction rather than a deterrent. There is little doubt that their patriarchal form of government had existed from the most ancient times, and that they were organized in tribes, owing allegiance to their own Arikis or supreme chiefs. Thus some tribes, and those that felt the outward pressure most, started away from Indonesia independently of the others, carrying with them their tribal gods and tribal customs. It is probable that at this time, some one tribe or more, varying the route that they had hitherto taken, retraced their steps, and finally reached Madagascar, where their descendants, the Hovas, are still found. But this was not the general direction of the movement. The larger number proceeded to the Hitinga or sunrise. This was the first migration into the Pacific. Tracing them by their own histories, and by such lights as modern science throws on the darkness of the past, it appears probable that these early voyagers, coasting along Northern New Guinea, the Solomon, the New Hebrides, and Fiji Islands—islands already occupied by the Papuan and Melanesian races—finally reached Samoa, or Hawaiki, as all that group is still called by the eastern Polynesians, but under the form Hawaiki-raro, or Leeward Hawaiki, to distinguish it from Hawaiki-runga, or Windward Hawaiki, the Tahitian and neighbouring group. This first migration, no doubt, extended its voyages very far. The Menehune people of Tahiti, and of Hawaii, the first inhabitants of New Zealand (the same people as the Moriori of the Chatham Islands) and the first inhabitants of Marquesas perhaps formed part of it.

But the pressure of the Malay races became more and more pronounced as they increased in numbers, and shouldered those of the Polynesian race remaining in Indonesia. The traditions refer to this as a time of trouble and unrest. Many of the Polynesians left for new fields; others who remained were eventually, and to a considerable extent, forced to the mountains, where, it is believed, their remnant may be seen to this day in several of the islands of Indonesia. Those who came east followed the footsteps of their countrymen who had preceded them, until they reached the Fiji group. This later migration appears to have been composed of a more warlike and more capable people than the first—centuries of contact with the Malays had influenced them—for we can trace them all through their migrations as the conquerors, whether pitted against their own race or the Melanesian. In Fiji, they occupied the Lau, or eastern group, but held frequent communication with the other islands, to all of which they gave names, differing from those known to the Fijians of to-day. It is obvious they mixed in blood with the original Melanesians, and thus acquired that strain that may be recognised in some branches of the Polynesians to-day. Doubtless, the original Fijians, occupying as they did the most easterly outpost of Melanesia, were the most adventurous of that race, and the best navigators. It is probable for this reason, and for others now obscure, that the Polynesian, with his high idea of caste, and racial dislike of black people, condescended to mix with the Fijians, which there is reason for thinking he did not do, or only to a limited extent with other Melanesians, on the passage south past the Solomons, New Hebrides, &c.

During the occupation of Fiji, voyages were not infrequent to the neighbouring islands of Samoa and Tonga. This is apparent from both Samoan and Tongan histories. Here it is necessary to remark that a close study of the above traditions leads to the conclusion that when the Fijians are mentioned therein, it is the Polynesian immigrants that formed the later migration into the Pacific that are referred to, not the native Fijians.

A time, however, came in the history of the race when great troubles arose in Fiji; there was much fighting and general unrest—much voyaging to and fro to the neighbouring groups and to more distant ones. Eventually a combination of forces took place between the Fijian Polynesians and the Tongans of Vavau and Haapai, and a descent was made on Samoa. This group was practically conquered, and the Samoans driven to the mountains, whilst the invaders occupied the coasts. This occupation of Samoa covered some generations; and during this time—which was, roughly, about from the tenth to the twelfth century—these capable, warlike, Fiji Polynesians, warriors and sailors, spread far and wide over the Pacific. These are the people who formed the southern and later migration to the Hawaiian Islands referred to by Fornander, and who, on their arrival in that group, soon acquired the leading position, which they have held down to the present day. The same thing occurred in other groups. They occupied Tahiti and the neighbouring islands, the Paumotu group, the Marquesas, Rarotonga, and, after some time, turned their faces south-westward and settled in New Zealand, where they arrived in a fleet of canoes in about the year 1350. These are the people who are generally termed Maoris, and who, on their arrival and after settling down in the land, by their masterful ways, greater intelligence, force of character, and probably superior physique, eventually became the conquerors of the people belonging to the prior migration into the Pacific, whom they found in occupation of these Islands.

These people were daring voyagers, in comparison with whom the most noted European navigators of the middle ages were mere coasters. The Polynesian chronicles relate voyages extending from Fiji to Easter Island, from New Zealand to the Hawaii group, and even to the antarctic regions. They were never equalled as voyagers until the sixteenth century, which saw such an extension of nautical enterprise, originating in Europe.


The census of the Maori population—that is, full-blooded Maoris, with all half-castes living as members of a Native tribe—was taken under the supervision of the officers of the Justice Department in the latter part of February, 1896. The enumeration of the Natives cannot be effected for one particular night, as is done with Europeans, and the instruction given to Enumerators was that the work should be done in as short a period of time as possible, beginning in the third week of February, and leaving the remainder of that month, and the month of March, for the work of examining, correcting, and completing the returns.

The names of the Natives were given in the Sub-Enumerators' books, besides information as to sex, age, principal tribe, sub-tribe, or hapu to which belonging, and particulars as to extent of cultivations owned individually or communally, with live stock.

Enumerators for the Maori census were directed to report on the general state of health of the Natives, and any other matters of interest relating to them.

The Enumerators for the northernmost counties reported fairly good health among the Natives, but that a habit of camping in low swampy places during the gum-digging season was injurious. Digging for kauri-gum is their principal occupation throughout the country north of Auckland.

In the country over which the Maori “King,” Mahutu, has. influence, Sub-Enumerators experienced great difficulties, being told that the “King” had already taken a census, and no other was required. The Maoris also seemed to connect the census with taxation, and objected to it on those grounds.

The Sub-Enumerators for Waikato, Kawhia, and Thames Counties reported very little sickness. In Counties Tauranga, Whakatane, Rotorua, and Taupo (East and West) no unusual sickness was found.

The Natives round Tauranga are stated to be more industrious than formerly, and taking to agricultural pursuits.

In the Counties of Cook and Waiapu the Maoris were stated to be in very good health, and, as a rule, comfortably off; most of the young and middle-aged were working at bush-falling, shearing, &c., and making good wages.

For Counties Wairoa and Hawke's Bay the accounts were not so good. In parts there had been fever of a typhoid character. Paucity of children and old people was observed by several Sub-Enumerators.

Around New Plymouth there had been no sickness. The same was reported for Hutt County.

In the Middle Island, where the Native population is only a little over two thousand people, the reports speak of satisfactory health, and, for parts in respect of which comment is made, of a sufficiently prosperous condition.

Although the above leads to the conclusion that the Maoris were fairly thriving at the time of the census, there is reference in some of the reports to epidemics sweeping away numbers of the people during the five years 1891–96; and the actual results of the census indicate either (1) a decrease of population, or (2) that at the enumeration of 1891 some Natives must have been counted more than once, and where names had not been given, the number returned was greater than the reality. The comparison of the figures is as under:—

April, 189141,99322,86119,132
April, 189639,85421,67318,181
      Apparent decrease in five years2,1391,188951

The numbers for the different counties cannot be compared for the two census years to much purpose, because of the movements of the Maoris during the quinquennium, but the Enumerator for Waikato distrusts the degree of decrease shown for his whole large district, though of the belief that there has been a decrease to a lesser extent. He considers that more Maoris are working for Europeans than formerly, and these are liable to be missed. Probably at next census the schedule left at the dwellings of Europeans should have a slip attached on which might be taken particulars relating to Maoris working on their farms, and not living in the kainga Maori.

In February, 1896, the numbers of Maoris on the principal islands of New Zealand was as shown on the next page:—

 Maoris.Half-castes living as Members of Maori Tribes (included in the preceding Numbers).
North Island37,10220,34316,7592,477                1,395                1,082                
Middle Island2,2071,1661,041895                485                410                
Stewart Island1175958104                49                55                
Chatham Islands—
      Maoris179948527                15                12                
      Morioris20119..                ..                ..                
Maori wives living with European husbands229..229..                ..                ..                
            Totals39,85421,67318,1813,503                1,944                1,559                

Besides the half-castes included in the above table, there were 2,259 half-castes (males, 1,123; females, 1,136) living with and enumerated as Europeans at the time of the census.

In these numbers will be noticed 20 of the old aboriginals, termed Morioris, at the Chatham Islands, and 229 Maori wives of European husbands. These Native wives of Europeans numbered 251 at the census of 1891, and 40 Morioris were then enumerated.


The half-caste population consists of those who live as members of Maori tribes, and others living with and counted as Europeans in the census. Adding the numbers of the two kinds gives the following figures for three censuses:—

Census.Half-castes living as Members of Maori Tribes.Half-castes living as Europeans.Total Half-caste Population.

These numbers indicate an increasing population of half-castes, notwithstanding the apparent decrease of the Maori population, before alluded to as probably in part correct.


It has been stated that the decrease shown by the census of 1896 in the Maori population can scarcely be considered a certainty to the full degree exhibited. It remains to see if consideration of the proportions of the people under and over fifteen years tends to confirm the conclusion. The proportions are accordingly given for six successive census years:—

Under 15 Years.Over 15 Years.Under 15 Years.Over 15 Years.

The figures here, taken over the full range of years, would seem to indicate almost unchanged conditions. The proportions per cent, under 15 years of the young people of either sex are somewhat different from those found in the European population—viz.: Males under 15, 34.81; over 15, 65.19; and females under 15, 38.01; and over 15 years, 61.99. But there is nothing to indicate decrease of numbers.

Dividing the whole Maori population into ten age-periods, the proportions per 100 living of each sex at these ages are next compared with those of the European population. The proportions for persons under 5 years for the two races are very nearly the same.

Ages.New Zealand European Population, 1896.Maori Population, 1896.
Under 5 years11.4512.4210.8811.86
  5 and under 10 years11.7512.8014.4315.02
10             ″             15             ″            11.6112.799.739.59
15             ″             20             ″            10.8812.1710.2911.90
20             ″             30             ″            17.4919.1317.9418.80
30             ″             40             ″            12.4711.9213.2212.71
40             ″             50             ″            9.938.3210.289.19
50             ″             60             ″  
60             ″             70             ″            4.863.253.823.08
70 and upwards1.351.131.911.55


The localization of the Maoris is shown by the numbers found to be living in the several counties, as under:—

Bay of Islands2,509
Great Barrier Island60
Waiheke Island58
West Taupo961
East Taupo519
Hawke's Bay1,326
Wairarapa North319
Wairarapa South349
Stewart Island117
Chatham Islands199

229 Maori wives of European husbands have not been included in these figures.


Table of Contents


THE number of births registered in the colony during 1899 was 18,835, or 25.12 in every 1,000 persons living. The rate is lower than that for the preceding year, and indeed since the year 1881 there has been a steady decline. The number of births registered in a year reached its maximum in 1884, when it stood at 19,846, after which it fell to 17,876 in 1892, rising year by year to 18,955 in 1898, but falling again in 1899 to 18,835, as stated above.

The position still remains, that the increase in the number of marriages solemnised of late years has not as yet had any considerable effect in raising the number of births, and the birth-rate for last year (1899) is the lowest so far recorded in the statistics of the colony.

The figures for each year are worthy of notice, especially in connection with the subsequent particulars given as to marriages solemnised and the growth of population:—

Year.Number of Births.Rate per 1,000 of Population.

While this process of a diminishing birth-rate* has been going on the marriages have been increasing numerically, and the population of the colony also (facts which, taken together, lead to the conclusion that child-bearing is to a certain extent avoided):—

Year.Number of Marriages.Mean Population (excluding Maoris).

* In respect of Australian birth-rates, see remarks from Mr. Coghlan's pamphlquoted at the end of this section.

In the year 1881 there were in New Zealand 5.72 births to every marriage in the previous year, and in 1899 the proportion had fallen to 3.46 births to each marriage.

In the Australian Colonies a similar decrease is noticeable. It has been remarked that in all the Australian Colonies the average number of children to a marriage tends to decrease. In Victoria the number for the year 1880 was 4.99, but fell to 4.05 in 1898. In New South Wales the figures are 5.0 and 4.11 for the same years respectively.

New Zealand had in 1880 the highest birth-rate of all the Australasian Colonies (40.78), but now the case is reversed.

The fall over ten years is calculated as under:—

New South Wales35.3634.5033.8933.3331.4830.6628.3528.4227.1427.10
South Australia33.2533.9232.4131.7630.4930.2328.4626.9724.9825.51
Western Australia34.8535.6333.0934.2228.2726.3022.6525.8229.3530.64
New Zealand29.4429.0127.8327.5027.2826.7826.3325.9625.7425.12

With a falling birth-rate, the census taken in 1896 showed lower numbers of each sex living at the period under five years than at the next quinquennial period, which is unsatisfactory, indicating as it does that there are not now sufficient living at the earlier years to maintain the number of those of five years and under ten now found in the tables. The census thus demonstrates the general correctness of the birth-rates, and shows that the results of the statistics are fairly accurate.

A declining birth-rate is noticeable in many civilised countries, and attention has been drawn to the serious consequences that may result by statisticians and political economists. That the fertility of women in New Zealand is decreasing further facts will tend to show.

Taking the number of married women in New Zealand at what may be considered the child-bearing ages (i.e., from fifteen to forty-five years, inclusive) as shown by each census since 1878, and for the same years the number of legitimate births (excluding plural) registered, the birth-rate per 1,000 married women of the above-stated ages is easily found, and is shown to be steadily declining. In 1878 the rate was 337 per 1,000, and in 1896 it had fallen to 252 or, in other words, in 1878 one married woman of the ages specified in every three gave birth to a child, while in 1896 the rate was 1 in 4 only. The figures for each census year are given below, and are followed by a table showing the declining birth-rate, and the increase in the marriage-rate, in the United Kingdom.

Year (Census).Number of Married Women between 15 and 45 Years of Age.Number of Legitimate Births (Confinements).Birth-rate per 1,000 Married Women of from 15 to 45 Years of Age.
Year.Mean Population.Births.Marriages.
Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.

The above figures are taken from the “Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, 1884 to 1898” (forty-sixth number), published in August, 1899.

From the year 1895 marriages have shown an increase, the rate being then 5.94 per 1,000 of population. In 1899 the rate rose to 7.28, the highest record since 1879, when it was 7.48 per 1,000 of mean population. The number of marriages solemnised in 1899 was 5,461, an increase of 370 on the number for 1898.

New South Wales7.707.997.396.596.666.89
South Australia8.006.247.316.206.186.16
Western Australia6.967.988.008.459.899.89
New Zealand8.815.996.046.856.917.28

In April, 1891, New Zealand had 83,204 children living under the age of 5 years, and in 1896 the number was 83,659, an increase of only 455, although the population at all ages increased in the quinquennium by 12.24 per cent. Between 1886 and 1891 the children living under 5 years actually decreased in number by 3,624, the increase of population of all ages (8.33 per cent.) being less than between 1891 and 1896 (12.24 per cent.). The number of children under one year to the total population at all ages, according to the results of three censuses, was:—

 Children under One Year.Total Population (all Ages).
Census, 188618,355578,482
      ”       189116,443626,658
      ”       189617,070703,360

Thus, in 1886, with a population of 578,482 persons, there were 18,355 children under one year, against 17,070 children of that age in 1896, with a population of 703,360 persons.

The births registered in 1885 were 19,693, against 18,546 in 1895, and the birth-rate fell from 34.35 per 1,000 of the population in the former year to 26.78 in the latter.

Deducting 1,637, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1895, from 18,546, the number of births for that year, leaves 16,909, or within 161 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.


There were 176 cases of twin births (352 children), and triplets were registered in one instance, in 1899. The number of children born was 18,835; the number of mothers was 18,657: thus on an average one mother in every 106 gave birth to twins, against 97 in 1898, and 101 in each of the years 1897 and 1896. In 1895 the proportion was one in 93, and in 1894 one in 103.


The births of 829 children were illegitimate: thus 44 in every 1,000 children born were born out of wedlock, against 42 in 1898.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. The rate in New Zealand is less than in any other of the Australasian Colonies except South Australia:—

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

These figures show a rise in the proportion of illegitimate births to every 100 births for this colony, amounting to 1.10 for the period 1890–99.

The fall in the actual number of all births in New Zealand must not be forgotten when considering the increase in the number of illegitimates. The total number of births registered fell from 19,299 in 1886 to 18,612 in 1896, while the illegitimate births rose from 602 to 834. The causes that led to the fall in the birth-rate certainly did not greatly affect the number of illegitimate children.

 Proportion Illegitimate
every 100 Births.
Total Number of
all Births.
Number of
The whole Colony3.124.4819,29918,612602834
Auckland and suburbs4.347.232,3761,922103139
Wellington and suburbs4.708.051,3411,34263108
Christchurch and suburbs4.707.711,8721,51988117
Dunedin and suburbs5.557.841,5851,1738892

The number of spinsters in the colony between 15 and 45 increased during the ten years from 52,348 (census 1886) to 85,105 (census 1896), or at the rate of 62.6 per cent., while the illegitimate births increased from 602 to 834, or at the rate of 38.5 only.

It would therefore appear that the larger proportion of illegitimate births now obtaining cannot with any certainty be taken as indicative of increased looseness of living on the part of the people.

The following figures, taken from “The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales, 1897–98,” showing the rate of illegitimacy per 100 births in the Australasian Colonies and in the United Kingdom, are based on statistics for a period of five years:—

Country.Illegitimate Births per Cent.
New South Wales6.45
South Australia5.92
Western Australia4.92
New Zealand4.18
England and Wales4.24

Of the total number of children born in Australasia during the five years ended 1897, 5.54 per cent. were illegitimate, as compared with 4.43 per cent. in the United Kingdom for the period 1892–96.

The figures in the next table, which give the percentages of illegitimate births in a number of foreign countries, also cover a period of five years, 1890–94.

CountryIllegitimate Births per Cent.

For England and Wales the proportion of illegitimate births to the total births in 1898 was 4.2 per cent., having gradually diminished from 7 per cent. in 1845. The minimum rate was 2.9 per cent., in Essex, and the maximum 7.8 per cent., in Herefordshire. For London the percentage was 3.7 in 1897.

The average proportion of illegitimate births in Scotland in 1897 was 7.0 per cent., the rate varying from 3.5 per cent., in Dumbartonshire, to 14.1 in Wigtownshire; but in Ireland in that year the extremely low average of 2.6 per cent. obtained, the rate varying from 0.7 in Connaught to 3.6 in Ulster.

The following figures, which represent the number of illegitimate births that have occurred in the maternity homes maintained at Christchurch and Auckland by the Salvation Army since their commencement, have been supplied by the chief officer of that organization:—



An important Act was passed in 1894, entitled the Legitimation Act, which makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent marriage of their parents. Under this Act any child born out of wedlock, whose parents afterwards marry, is deemed to be legitimised by such marriage on the birth being registered in the manner prescribed by the Act. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. It will thus be seen that in cases dealt with under the Act registration becomes the test of legitimacy. In the December quarter of 1894, 11 children were legitimised; in 1895 the number was 68; in 1896, 56; in 1897, 48; in 1898, 59; and in 1899, 41; making altogether 283 legitimations since the passing of the law.


By this statute it has been rendered unlawful for a person to take charge, for payment, of an infant to maintain or nurse for more than three days without holding license as an infants' home keeper. The house of such a person must be registered as an infants' home.

The administration of this law is a matter entirely managed by the police, and the Commissioner reports the working to be satisfactory after a two years' experience. The licensed homes are periodically inspected by the police authorities, and the results have shown that licensees generally comply with the required conditions, the homes and infants being well looked after.

The Commissioner adds: “During the year 1898 there were 553 licensed homes throughout the colony, representing 829 infants. Twenty-seven deaths occurred in the licensed homes during the year, an inquest being held in each case, but in no instance was wilful neglect or other misconduct on the part of the licensee disclosed. The mortality in the homes was equal to 32.57 per thousand. The mortality throughout the colony of infants under four years of age—the age to which the Act applies—for the year was 26.92. Considering that a large majority of these infants are illegitimate, and are the offspring of very young mothers; that they have struggled into existence against tremendous odds, their advent being naturally regarded as a curse; that when received into the homes they are, with few exceptions, what may be termed ‘rickety’ infants; that they are all deprived of their natural food (their mother's milk) and have to be reared artificially, I think the mortality compares favourably with that of infants of corresponding age throughout the colony. During the year twenty-four licensees were prosecuted for offences under the Act, sixteen of whom were convicted, and three licenses were cancelled.”


The total number of births registered as occurring in the four chief centres and suburbs in 1899 was 4,563, as against 4,629 for the previous year.

The births in the four cities fell from 2,878 in 1898 to 2,854 in 1899, and in the suburban boroughs from 1,751 to 1,709. The birth-rates for 1899 were,—

  Birth-rates per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Auckland City25.77 
      ”       and five suburban boroughs 25.30
Wellington City24.24 
      ”       and three suburban boroughs 24.97
Christchurch City18.74 
      ”       and four suburban boroughs 22.05
Dunedin City20.82 
      ”       and eight suburban boroughs 21.55

Thus, by the inclusion of the suburbs the rate is raised at Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, but lowered at Auckland. It will be observed that Auckland has the highest rate, Wellington next highest, Christchurch and Dunedin following with intervals. The difference between the Auckland rate (25.30) and the Dunedin rate (21.55) is considerable. The birth-rate for the whole colony for 1899 was 25.12 per thousand. Auckland is thus over the average, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin below it.

Taking the births in the four central boroughs without their suburbs, and comparing the numbers for 1899 and 1898, an increase is observed at Auckland of 72; a decrease at Christchurch of 50, at Wellington of 29, and at Dunedin of 17. The figures for the last five years are:—

Auckland (without suburbs)888892906916988
Wellington       ″      1,0001,0051,0671,0651,036
Christchurch       ″      359370376390340
Dunedin       ″      475498498507490

The birth-rates for the four central boroughs in 1899 show in each case a fall when compared with 1898. In Auckland the rate fell from 26.96 to 25.77; in Wellington, from 25.75 to 24.24; in Christchurch, from 22.07 to 18.74; and in Dunedin, from 21.61 to 20.82. The rates for five years, 1895 to 1899, are as follows:—

 Births per 1,000 of Population.
Auckland (without suburbs)28.0428.3928.2926.9625.77
Wellington       ″      28.3026.8427.7125.7524.24
Christchurch       ″      20.3621.8121.8822.0718.74
Dunedin       ″      19.8721.8821.5421.6120.82


Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation entitling them to enjoy all the rights and privileges that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit within this colony. Six hundred and seventy-four aliens (614 men and 60 women) were naturalised in 1899. The abnormal increase on the number naturalised in 1898 is, no doubt, due to the fact that a general election was held in 1899.

The number belonging to each nationality was as under:—

Natives of—
      German Empire16822
      Norway and Sweden1388
      Russia, Poland, and Finland210
      France and possessions225
      Italy and Sicily22
      United States of America171
      Portugal and possessions110
      Turkey and Syria60

The number of natives of each country naturalised during the last eighteen years is next shown,—

Natives of—
      Sweden and Norway953
      Italy and Sicily161
      United States of America37
      Other countries74

By section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1882,” repealed and re-enacted by section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1892,” it is provided that when the father, or mother being a widow, has obtained naturalisation in the colony, every child who during infancy has become resident with them in New Zealand shall be deemed to be naturalised, and shall have the rights and privileges of a natural-born subject.


The marriages for 1899 show an increase on the number for the previous year. The number was 5,461, or 370 more than in 1898. The marriage-rate rose from 6.91 per 1,000 persons living in 1898 to 7.28 in 1899, the rate for the latter year being the highest obtained since 1879, when it stood at 7.48 per 1,000 persons. The improvement shown during the last four years sets New Zealand in a good position relatively to the colonies in Australia.

The rates for a series of twelve consecutive years were:—

Year.QueenslandNew South Wales.Victoria.South AustraliaWestern Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

But the improved rate for this colony is still lower than the rate for many European countries.

German Empire18968.3
England and Wales18967.9

Of the marriages solemnised in 1899, 4,905 were between bachelors and spinsters, 184 between bachelors and widows, 252 between widowers and spinsters, and 120 between widowers and widows. Divorced men and women have been classified as bachelors or spinsters: 9 divorced men and 14 divorced women were married during the year.

Included amongst spinsters are thirteen married women, and amongst the bachelors two married men, who elected to go through the form of marriage with other persons under the protection of the provisions of section 204, subsection (5), of “The Criminal Code Act, 1893,” which runs: “No one commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage if he or she has been continually absent from his or her wife or husband for seven years then last past, and is not proved to have known that his wife or her husband was alive at any time during those seven years.”

The total number of marriages solemnized (5,461) does not include marriages where both parties are of the aboriginal native race, such persons being exempted from the necessity of complying with the provisions of the Marriage Act, although at liberty to take advantage thereof. Twenty-seven marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1899 in terms of the Act: 17 by Registrars, 8 by clergymen of the Church of England, 1 by a Wesleyan, and 1 by a Presbyterian Minister.


The results of the last three censuses in respect of the number of bachelors of 20 years and upwards, and spinsters of 15 years and upwards, in the colony show some interesting features. While in 1886 there was an excess of bachelors over the spinsters amounting to 12,339 men, in 1891 the census gave an excess of 3,497 only, showing that a process of equalisation had been going on. But by 1896 not only had the preponderance of the male element been lost, but an excess of spinsters over bachelors was reported amounting to 1,786 women.

It is curious to notice how differently the numbers for the Provincial Districts have been affected by the process in operation. An excess of bachelors was preserved in Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's. Bay, Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland from 1886 to 1896, but in all these cases except Taranaki it diminished very much. In Canterbury, however, an excess of spinsters was found in 1886 of 910, which increased to 2,516 in 1891, and to 3,997 in 1896; while in Otago an excess of 2,359 bachelors in 1886 changed to an excess of 773 spinsters in 1891, which increased to 2,066 in 1896: these two important districts of the Middle Island losing large numbers of bachelors by departures to the North Island.

The following table exhibits the excess of bachelors over spinsters or of spinsters over bachelors in each provincial district in 1886, 1891, and 1896:—

Provincial Districts.Census, 1886.Census, 1891.Census, 1896.
Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.
    Total excess12,339..    3,497..    ..    1,786
Auckland2,996..    156..    703..    
Taranaki242..    121..    524..    
Hawke's Bay1,809..    1,337..    1,142..    
Wellington2,225..    2,129..    637..    
Marlborough607..    644..    183..    
Nelson1,524..    1,486..    580..    
Westland1,479..    900..    501..    
Canterbury..    910..    2,516..    3,997
Otago2,359..    ..    773..    2,066
Chatham Islands8..    15..    7..    
Kermadec Islands..    ..    ..    2..    ..    


Of the marriages in the year 1899, 24.17 per cent. were solemnised by ministers of the Church of England, 25.30 per cent. by ministers of the Presbyterian Churches, 12.91 per cent. by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches, 10.87 per cent. by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church, 9.34 per cent. by ministers of other denominations, and 17.41 per cent. by Registrars.

The following shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the principal denominations in the past eight years, and the percentages of these denominations to the total population:—

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1896.
Church of England20.7823.0622.8622.7422.8623.0023.3724.1740.27
Wesleyans and other Methodists14.8216.1315.9915.6917.9217.6113.9812.9110.45
Roman Catholics9.748.9910.0811.1910.2610.1210.3710.8714.07
Other denominations6.346.666.657.296.055.869.259.3412.43
      By Registrars18.9418.5819.1218.7717.9017.9717.0117.41..

Marriage by the Registrar is found to be rather less frequent than it was seven years ago, the percentage falling from 18.94 in 1892 to 17.41 in 1899.


Of the men married in 1899, 24, or 4.39 in every 1,000, and of the women 35, or 6.41 per 1,000, signed the register by marks.

The illiteracy of the people, as measured by the proportion of married persons who affix marks instead of signatures to the marriage register, has greatly decreased of late, having fallen since 1881 from 32.04 per 1,000 among men to 4.39 per 1,000, and from 57.98 per 1,000 to 6.41 per 1,000 among women. This is shown in a very striking manner by the following table:—

Church of England16.5927.158.2910.663.031.52
Wesleyans and other Methodists32.4141.798.9310.712.849.93
Roman Catholics117.78133.3331.3318.2810.105.05
Other denominations10.3620.729.26..1.967.84
      By Registrars39.2293.5127.4243.088.4117.88
            Total marriages32.0457.9813.9316.824.396.41

The proportion of illiterates in 1899 was greatest among those married before Registrars. Previously the proportion was largest among Roman Catholics; but since 1881 it has, as shown by the table, most remarkably decreased.


Of the persons married in 1899, 115 bridegrooms and 1,027 brides were under 21 years of age—three of the bridegrooms were between 17 and 18 years of age, and eight between 18 and 19. Of the brides, one was under 15 years of age, ten were between 15 and 16, and twenty-eight between 16 and 17 years of age. The proportion of men married is greatest at the ages of 25 to 30, and of women at from 21 to 25 years.

The following are the proportions of men and women married at each age-period to every 100 marriages in the years 1888 and 1899:—

Under 21 years1.8524.302.1018.81
21 and under 2528.1742.0525.0139.17
25             ″             3033.8121.1536.9726.44
30             ″             4026.028.9827.1412.12
40             ″             506.692.745.332.40
50             ″             602.520.612.200.82
60             ″             700.880.141.010.22
70 and upwards0.

Registrars of Marriages are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage of minors without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians, if there be any in the colony. If a declaration be made in any case that there is no parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen days following the date on which the notice of intended marriage is given.

A marriage may not be solemnised except after the delivery to the minister or Registrar who officiates of a certificate issued by a Registrar authorising such marriage, and if any persons knowingly and wilfully intermarry without such certificate the marriage is null and void; and no clergyman or minister of any denomination is empowered to solemnise marriages until his name has been placed on the Registrar-General's list of officiating ministers for the year.

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

Although in New Zealand the age at which girls may legally marry is as above; nevertheless, by the criminal law, to unlawfully carnally know a girl under the age of 16 years is now a punishable offence. The age of consent was raised from 15 to 16 by statute passed in 1896.

The average age of the men married in this colony in 1899 was 29.86 years, and of the women, 25.48 years. In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (in the year 1894) 28.41 years for men, and 26.15 years for women. Thus the average age at marriage in the colony is higher for men, but lower for women, than in England.

The proportion of bridegrooms under 21 is much greater in England than in New Zealand; but the proportion of brides under 21 is greater in the colony.

In England, in 1891–95, of every 1,000 bridegrooms whose ages were stated, 56 were under 21 years of age, and of every 1,000 brides 183 were under 21 years of age. In New Zealand, in 1899, the proportions were 21 bridegrooms and 188 brides of similar ages in every 1,000 married:—

Year.Bridegrooms under 21 in every 100.Brides under 21 in every 100.


The number of the clergy enumerated at the census of 1896 was 777. In 1891 the number returned was 732. Besides the regular clergy, there were, in 1896, 11 Mormon missionaries and 221 Salvation Army officers, of whom 112 were females; also 17 evangelists, 52 missionaries (11 women), and 45 preachers. The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is (March, 1900) 946, and the denominations to which they belong are shown hereunder.

Church of England314
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand116
Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland87
Roman Catholic Church155
Wesleyan Methodist Church143
Congregational Independents20
Primitive Methodist Connexion31
Lutheran Church10
Hebrew Congregations6
Church of Christ13
Free Methodist Churches6
Newton (Auckland) Gospel Mission1
Independent Wesleyan1
The Forward Movement1
Salvation Army9
Catholic Apostolic Church3
Seventh-day Adventists4

There were, at the time of the census, 25 theological students, 72 church officers such as sextons and others, and 82 members of religious orders not ministering to charity or education.


The deaths in 1899 numbered 7,680, being equivalent to a rate of 10.24 in every 1,000 persons living, as against 9.84 in 1898. The lowest experienced since the year 1887, when the deaths were 10.29 per 1,000 of the population, was that for 1896 (9.10).

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with that in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, as will be seen by the figures given for a series of years:—

* Excluding the Northern Territory.
New Zealand9.6610.3510.0610.2310.199.919.109.149.8410.24
New South Wales12.9014.2412.2013.2412.3611.7912.3010.8812.4811.82
South Australia*12.5913.3011.4113.4411.6411.2511.4811.2413.0612.09
Western Australia12.0617.3316.6715.3114.4017.7816.4516.9716.0513.76
England and Wales19.520.    
Sweden17.116.817.916.816.415.215.615.4..    ..    
German Empire24.423.424.124.622.322.120.821.320.6..    

In this statement New Zealand is conspicuous as showing the lowest death-rate. The rates for the principal colonies in Australia are a little higher, but, generally speaking, far below those for the United Kingdom or the European Continental States mentioned in the table.


In the earlier annual reports on the vital statistics of the four chief towns the central boroughs alone were dealt with, particulars respecting the suburbs not having been obtained. But this omission was held to be a grave defect, as the suburban death-rate may differ much from the death-rate at the centre. Steps were therefore taken early in 1895 to collect statistics of the suburban boroughs as well as of the four chief cities. As regards Auckland and Christ-church, the whole of the area usually recognised as suburban has not yet been brought under municipal government, and the statistics given below do not deal with such portions as still remain in road districts. The omission, however, is not very important, for there are in either case quite enough suburbs included within borough boundaries to give a fair idea of the death-rate of greater Auckland and greater Christchurch. As further boroughs are formed the vital statistics will be made to include them.

The total number of deaths registered for the four centres in 1899 was 2,254—viz., 1,523 in the cities, and 731 in the suburbs. In 1898 the number was 2,203: 1,489 in the cities, and 714 in the suburbs.

By including the suburbs the death-rate for last year is lowered at each of the four centres. The rates for the year are:—

 Death-rates per 1,000 of mean Population.
Auckland City13.02 
      ”       and five suburban boroughs 11.98
Wellington City11.16 
      ”       and three suburban boroughs 10.86
Christchurch City12.68 
      ”       and four suburban boroughs 11.58
Dunedin City13.47 
      ”       and eight suburban boroughs 11.99


If the suburbs are included, the death-rate is found to be highest in Dunedin and lowest in Wellington; Auckland and Christchurch taking second and third places respectively. The death-rate for the colony was 10.24 per 1,000 of mean population. The four centres, as might be expected, each show a higher average than this.

If the number of deaths of infants under one year be excluded, the mortality among the rest of the population is found to have been for 1898 and 1899 in the following ratio to the 1,000 living:—

Auckland (including suburbs)8.978.40
Wellington      ″      8.527.91
Christchurch      ″      8.408.43
Dunedin      ″      9.909.99

The degree of infantile mortality is perhaps best shown in the proportion of deaths of children under one year of age to every 100 births. For 1898 and 1899 the proportions at the chief centres were,—

Auckland (including suburbs)15.1014.17
Wellington      ″      13.1111.79
Christchurch      ″      9.1614.30
Dunedin      ″      8.019.25

Thus the proportion at Dunedin is considerably less than that found at either of the other chief cities. Again, the percentage of deaths of children under 5 to the total number of deaths is: in Auckland, 37.60; in Christchurch, 34.94; in Wellington, 33.14; and in Dunedin, only 22.35. The total of deaths under 5 is 720, or 31.94 per cent. of all deaths, as against 642 and 29.14 for 1898. The deaths of persons of 65 and upwards numbered 505 last year; in 1898 they were 506.


Excluding suburbs, and dealing with the deaths at all ages in the four cities or central boroughs only, the rates for 1899 are found to be lower in Auckland and Wellington, but higher in Christchurch and Dunedin than in the previous year. The total number of deaths, and the death-rates, for four years are given:—

Cities (excluding Suburbs).Deaths, 1896.Deaths, 1897.Deaths, 1898.Deaths, 1899.
No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.

By omitting the deaths of infants under one year, and calculating the rate on the population of one year of age and upwards, the position of the four cities as regards magnitude of death-rate in 1899 remains unaltered.

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population, excluding Infants (under One Year of Age).
Auckland (excluding suburbs)10.029.649.869.53
Wellington      ″      9.179.359.188.39
Christchurch      ″      8.8610.658.859.16
Dunedin      ″      8.0710.7010.8711.59

Subjoined is a table showing the rates of infant mortality in the four cities for each of the past five years, together with the mean rates for the period.

 Deaths of Children under One Year to every 100 Births.
1895.1896.1897.1898.1899.Mean of Five Years.
Auckland (excluding suburbs)14.8616.4812.8017.1414.4715.15
Wellington      ″      12.4010.0510.5913.7112.2611.80
Christchurch       ″      11.1412.9712.5010.0019.7113.26
Dunedin       ″      9.477.836.229.6610.208.67


While treating of the death-rates at the chief cities and surroundings, it is desirable to refer to the causes of mortality, which is done in the remarks that follow. The deaths for the whole colony, classified according to their cause, are treated of at length a little further on.

Specific Febrile and Zymotic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

The mortality from these diseases at Christchurch and Dunedin, with their suburbs, was much higher in 1899 than in 1898. Growth of population can only be said to account for a very small part of the increase. At Wellington and at Auckland the deaths for last year by zymotic diseases were fewer than in 1898. The total deaths in this class for the four towns were 304 for 1898 and 360 for 1899.

Deaths from Febrile and Zymotic Diseases.
 Auckland and Suburbs.Wellington and Suburbs.Christchurch and Suburbs.Dunedin and Suburbs.Total.

Of the above, diarrhoea diseases caused most deaths in 1899 at the four centres taken together, the total number being 142. Whooping-cough came next, with 54 deaths, then influenza with 42, measles 37, typhoid fever 36, diphtheria 19, and other zymotic complaints 30. diarrhoea was most prevalent at Christchurch (61 deaths), whooping-cough at Auckland (23 deaths) and Wellington (20).

Comparison of the deaths for each city shows,—

Zymotic, &c., Diseases.Auckland and Suburbs.Wellington and Suburbs.Christchurch and Suburbs.Dunedin and Suburbs.
diarrhoea diseases3959163661142615
Typhoid fever1622912546..
Whooping cough23..20..2..9..
Other zymotic diseases91221374125

Parasitic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

Hydatids were fatal at Auckland (2 deaths), Wellington (3 deaths), Christchurch (1 death), and Dunedin (2 deaths). These, with 1 death from thrush at Auckland, make a total of 9.

Dietetic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

These numbered 29, of which 12 were attributed to intemperance; 17 being due to want of breast-milk or malnutrition.

Constitutional Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

From these, deaths at the four towns numbered 466 in 1899. The first in importance of these diseases, and of all causes of death, is tubercle. The figures for 1899 and 1898 show 248 and 249 deaths for each year respectively.

Phthisis and other Tubercular Diseases (at Four Chief Centres).
Phthisis.Other Tubercular Diseases.Phthisis.Other Tubercular Diseases.
Auckland and suburbs5911483
Wellington       ″      46125012
Christchurch       ″      3613495
Dunedin       ″      56156121

The mortality from tubercular diseases for 1899 was 11.00 per cent. of the total deaths at the four boroughs from all causes.

Deaths from cancer at the chief towns decreased in number from 160 in 1898 to 151 in 1899. The latter number is 6.70 per cent. of deaths for the year from all causes.

Diabetes showed 15 deaths, against 18 in 1898.

Developmental Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

There were 196 deaths; 81 of which were from premature birth, and 108 from old age.

Local Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

Deaths in this class were 5 less than in 1898, the figures being 1,007 against 1,012. Diseases of the respiratory system showed 245 deaths for 1899, or rather less than one-fourth of the whole mortality in the class, against 250 in the former year. Bronchitis, pneumonia, congestion of lungs, pleurisy, and allied diseases form this group.

Under the head of diseases of the digestive system there were 183 deaths at the four centres, including 42 from enteritis; gastritis, 14; cirrhosis of liver, 14; hepatitis, 5; and dentition, 22.

Diseases of the urinary system caused 86 deaths. The remaining deaths were: 223 from nervous diseases, 1 disease of organs of special sense, 230 of organs of the circulatory system, 10 of the lymphatic, 19 of the reproductive system, 7 of the organs of locomotion, and 3 of the integuments.

Violent Deaths (at Four Chief Centres)

There were 102 violent deaths at the cities and suburbs, 87 of which were classed as accidental. Nine of these latter were caused by fractures, and 16 by falls. In 6 cases death resulted from the deceased being run over by cab, cart, wagon, or train. Six deaths were from burning, 19 by drowning, 9 by suffocation, 4 by poisoning, 1 by misadventure with chloroform, 3 by an explosion of gun cotton, besides 8 from accident at birth, and 6 others.

Of 12 suicides, 5 were by shooting, 1 by cutting throat, 3 by poison, and 3 by hanging.


The vital statistics of the chief cities, with their suburbs, of the Australasian Colonies, show that the death-rate in Wellington (N.Z.) for 1899 was lower than that of any other of the principal towns for the same year.

Capital Cities (including Suburbs).Estimated Mean Population.Births.Deaths.Excess of Births over Deaths.
Total Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.Total Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.
* Ten-mile radius.      


The average age at death of persons of either sex, in each of the five years, 1895–99, was as follows:—

189536.21 years30.17 years.
189636.80             ″            32.41             ″            
189738.80             ″            34.77             ″            
189839.29             ″            35.69             ″            
189937.73             ″            33.54             ″            

From a mortality table, constructed by the Assistant Actuary of the Government Life Insurance Department for his own purposes, it appears that out of every 1,000 males born 662 reach the age of 50 years, 614 the age of 55, 550 the age of 60, and 471 the age of 65. For females, 688 out of every 1,000 born live to 50 years, 648 to 55, 598 to 60, and 530 to 65. These results must not be regarded as put forward by authority of the department.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1899, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.

One hundred and four out of every thousand of male children born, and eighty-seven of every thousand females, are found to have died before attaining the age of one year. The mortality is thus one in nine of male children and one in eleven of females, even in New Zealand, where conditions are far more favourable to infant life than in Australia, at least as far as relates to the cities.

It will also be seen from the figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are far greater for female than for male infants. Thus, during the year 1899 there were—

100 deaths of males to 70 deaths of females under 1 month of age;
100       ″       87       ″       from 1 to 3 months of age;
100       ″       85       ″       from 3 to 6 months of age;
100       ″       98       ″       from 6 to 12 months of age;
100       ″       83       ″       under 12 months of age.

The rates of infantile mortality—that is, the proportion the deaths of children under one year of age bear to the births—are higher in the Australian Colonies than in New Zealand.


The deaths registered in the colony during the last five years, when distributed among the several classes according to their assigned causes, give the rates shown hereunder:—

Causes of Death.Rate per 10,000 living.
Zymotic diseases11.2410.248.4410.9912.41
Parasitic diseases0.360.240.180.370.38
Dietetic diseases0.810.860.840.871.03
Constitutional diseases18.9517.0617.9918.8118.75
Developmental diseases7.127.257.468.809.64
Local diseases48.6043.3145.3046.8648.69
Ill-defined and not-specified causes3.423.723.634.264.27
            All causes99.1291.0091.3998.39102.40

The next table shows that forty-eight in every one hundred deaths in 1899 were from local diseases, of which diseases of the respiratory system formed 13 per cent., diseases of the circulatory system 10 per cent., and of the nervous system 11 per cent., while diseases of the digestive system contributed 8 per cent. Constitutional diseases, including, with others, phthisis and cancer, comprised 18 per cent. of the total mortality. Twelve per cent. of deaths were from zymotic causes, including 7.19 per cent. from miasmatic diseases, and 3.88 per cent. from diarrhoea. Deaths from developmental diseases come next in proportion, being 9.41 per cent. of the whole, followed by violent deaths, with 7.06 per cent.

Causes of Death.Number of Deaths.Proportion to Total Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1899.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1898.
Class I. Specific febrile or zymotic diseases,—Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.  
      Order 1. Miasmatic diseases2962565526.637.967.197.366.11
            ”       2. diarrhoea diseases1651332983.704.133.883.973.74
            ”       3. Malarial diseases…    …    …    …    …    …    …    …    
            ”       4. Zoogenous diseases…    …    …    …    …    …    …    …    
            ”       5. Venereal diseases168240.360.250.310.320.39
            ”       6. Septic diseases2136570.471.120.740.760.75
                            Total Class I.49843393111.1613.4612.1212.4110.99
Class II. Parasitic diseases1316290.290.500.380.380.37
Class III. Dietetic diseases4928771.100.871.001.030.87
Class IV. Constitutional diseases7806261,40617.4719.4718.3118.7518.81
Class V. Developmental diseases4143097239.279.619.419.648.80
Class VI. Local diseases,—
      Order 1. Diseases of nervous system48432480810.8410.0710.5210.7710.59
            ”       2. Diseases of organs of special sense2570.
            ”       3. Diseases of circulatory system50229679811.259.2010.3910.6410.54
            ”       4. Diseases of respiratory system57341498712.8412.8712.8513.1611.36
            ”       5. Diseases of digestive system3413086497.649.588.458.668.08
            ”       6. Diseases of lymphatic system1218300.270.560.390.400.50
            ”       7. Diseases of urinary system163922553.652.863.323.403.72
            ”       8. Diseases of reproductive system,—
                         (a.) Of organs of generation…    1111…    0.340.140.150.35
                         (b.) Of parturition…    7171…    2.210.930.950.98
      ”       9. Diseases of locomotive system146200.310.
      ”       10. Diseases of integumentary system97160.
                            Total Class VI.2,1001,5523,65247.0448.2647.5548.6946.86
Class VII. Violence,—
      Order 1. Accident or negligence366964628.202.996.026.166.29
            ”       2. Homicide5490.
            ”       3. Suicide5813711.300.400.920.951.03
            ”       4. Execution…    …    …    …    …    …    …    0.03
                            Total Class VII.4291135429.613.517.067.237.43
Class VIII. Ill-defined and not-specified causes1811393204.664.324.174.274.26
                            Grand totals4,4643,2167,680100.00