Table of Contents


EVERY effort has been made on this occasion, and with some success, to complete the preparation of the Year-book at an earlier date than previously.

The work was expedited subject to the disadvantage that some of the departmental reports presented to Parliament were not available for purposes of the statistical sections.

The latest figures are, however, mostly given throughout, and eleven new special articles introduced into Part III.

To meet the requirements of the Agent-General for the colony, extra copies of the sections have been made up into a number of small pamphlets, and these forwarded to London as early as possible without waiting for the completion of the book.

So far full evidences of the usefulness of the Year-book are forthcoming from time to time, and there is a large demand for it.


Registrar-General's Office,

Wellington, N.Z., 12th August, 1899.


CONSULS (see p. 24): (1) C. W. Rattray, Esq., appointed Vice-Consul for Denmark at Dunedin, vice E. Quick, Esq., resigned; (2) George Dunnet, Esq., provisionally recognised as Consular Agent of France at Auckland; (3) C. W. Rattray, Esq., appointed Acting Vice-Consul for Portugal at Dunedin, vice E. Quick, resigned; (4) Arthur Edward Pearce, Esq., appointment as Consul for Sweden and Norway at Wellington recognised.

ROLL OF MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (see p. 29): Hon. Francis Humphris Fraser, Wellington, appointed 22nd June, 1899; Hon. Hugh Gourley, Dunedin, appointed 22nd June, 1899; Hon. Albert Pitt (Col.), Nelson, appointed 22nd June, 1899.

MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (see pp. 31, 148); John Hutcheson, M.H.R. for Wellington, resigned 7th July, 1899, re-elected 25th July, 1899.

HONOURS HELD BY COLONISTS (see p. 26): Add Hon. H. B. Gresson, retired Judge. (Despatch, 29th August, 1877.)

CHIEF JUSTICE (see p. 19): Sir James Prendergast, Kt., resigned his appointment as Chief Justice from 25th May, 1899. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice 22nd June, 1899.

“THE DIVORCE ACT, 1898,” came into operation 1st June, 1899 (p. 828, Gazette, 20th April, 1899): Assented to by Her Majesty the Queen (p. 753, Gazette).


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND

THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length—North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands (Hervey Group) is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being about ten millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over fifty-four millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.

Discovery and Early Settlement

The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the Middle Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the north-east coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, treacherously murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

In 1793 the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.

The Maoris

Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery of these islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the Eastern Pacific Islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

For results of recent researches as to probable origin and present numbers of the Maoris, see Section III. of Part II., post.

Boundaries and Area

The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30′ S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10′ S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0′ E. long.; on the west, 166° 5′ E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,520 acres.

  2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,000 acres.

  3. Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33′ south, and longitude 169° 8′ west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey Group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts as Government Agent for the colony in all matters of trade.

*Lieut-Colonel Walter Edward Gudgeon is now British Resident at Rarotonga. His salary is paid by this colony. He succeeded Mr. Frederick J. Moss, who was the first Resident appointed.

Area of the Australian Colonies

The areas of the several Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from the latest official records of each colony:—

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700
South Australia903,690
Western Australia975,920
            Total Continent of Australia2,946,691
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471
            Total Australasia3,077,377

The size of these colonies may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria - Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

      United KingdomArea in
square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
      New ZealandArea in
Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438

Physical Features of the North Island

The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a great part of it is covered with pumicesand, and is unfitted for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that can be drained; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of bush-land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass very little of the land is too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of its north-eastern corner, and runs thence northwestward until it enters the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for about fifty miles, but only for small steamers. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wairoa (Kaipara), the Wanganui, and the Manawatu, the two last of which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours, charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Ngauruhoe and Tongariro. It is a volcanic cone in the solfatara stage, and reaches the height of 9,008ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit, which is subject to slight and intermittent eruptions, giving rise to vast quantities of steam. Recently —in March, 1895—such an eruption took place, forming a few hot springs on the margin of the lake, and increasing the heat in the lake itself. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, some 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and is quite inaccessible except by the use of ropes. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. Tins is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, unsuitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

The Cape Colville Peninsula is rich in gold-bearing quartz.

COOK Strait

Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony.

Physical Features of the Middle Island

The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, 9,949 ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other magnificent peaks.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the Middle Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.
 Acres.Miles ch.Miles ch.Miles ch.
Tasman13,66418 02 141 15
Murchison5,80010 701 50 66
Godley5,3128 01 551 3
Mueller3,2008 00 610 50
Hooker2,4167 250 540 41

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 6,000ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many line plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. Te Anan Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the colony as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 26ft. of water on the bar.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island avail able for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 9,000,000 acres.

Stewart Island

Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres.

Stewart Island is a great tourist resort during the summer months, and is easily reached by steamer from the Bluff, distant about 25 miles.

The principal peak is Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft. above sea-level, which has an extinct crater at its summit. Most of the island is rugged and forest-clad; the climate is mild, frost being seldom experienced; and the soil, when cleared of bush, is fertile.

The chief attractions are the numerous bays and fiords. Paterson Inlet is a magnificent sheet of water, about ten miles by four miles, situated close to Half-moon Bay, the principal port, where between three and four hundred people live. Horse-shoe Bay and Port William are within easy reach of Half-moon Bay. Port Pegasus, a land-locked sheet of water about eight miles by a mile and a half, is a very fine harbour. At “The Neck” (Paterson Inlet) there is a Native settlement of over a hundred Maoris and half-castes. The bush is generally very dense, with thick undergrowth. Rata, black-pine, white-pine, miro, and totara are the principal timber trees. Fish are to be had in great abundance and variety; oysters form an important industry. Wild pigeons, ducks, and mutton-birds are plentiful.

The colour of gold is to be found all over the island.

The Outlying Islands

The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The Kermadec group of islands, four in number, is situated between 29° 10′ and 31° 30′ south latitude, and between 177° 45′ and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Island, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands are about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31′ 29″ S., and longitude 166° 19′ 12″ E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adam's Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a dépôt of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.


The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. An Act was passed in 1887 which provided that, on the dissolution of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected, under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christ-church, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose. By “The Members of the House of Representatives Disqualification Act, 1897,” no person, who, being a bankrupt within the meaning of “The Bankruptcy Act, 1892,” has not obtained an order of discharge under that Act shall be qualified to be nominated as a candidate for election, or to be elected, or to take his seat as a member of the House of Representatives, anything in “The Electoral Act, 1893,” or any other Act to the contrary notwithstanding.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. “The Electoral Act, 1893,” extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the colony and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration until 1896 entitled a man or woman to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. But the Amendment Act of 1896 abolished the property qualification (except in case of existing registrations), and residence alone now entitles a man or woman to have his or her name placed upon an electoral roll. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts.

The Seat of Government

Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.

Public Works

Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and to 743,463 at the close of the year 1898, exclusive of Maoris.



Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

  • [British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.

  • [Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb., to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892, to 6 Feb., 1897.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 8 Feb., 1897, to 9th Aug., 1897.

The Earl of Ranfurly, K.C.M.G., from 10th Aug., 1897.



Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec., 1843. Resigned, 30 July, 1850. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec, 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Relieved, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Relieved, 12 Feb., 1889.

Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April, 1875.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

J. S. Williams, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.

J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec., 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.

W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily, 25 April, 1898.

Chapter 4. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843–56


Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

  • [The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.


Number of Parliaments since the Constitution Act passed for conferring Representative Institutions upon the Colony of New Zealand, with The Dates of Opening and Closing of Sessions and Dates of Dissolution

Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)27 May, 1854.9 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 185616 August, 1856.
(No session in 1857) 10 April, 185821 August, 1858.
(No session in 1859) 30 July, 18605 November, 1860.
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 1866October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 187225 October, 1872.
15 July, 18733 October, 1873.
3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)15 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187911 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18801 September, 1880.
9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18888 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887).7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188710 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 189018 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 18915 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 18937 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)21 June, 189424 October, 1894.
20 June, 18952 November, 1895.
11 June, 189619 October, 1896.
Thirteenth7 April, 189712 April, 1897.
23 September, 189722 December, 1897.
24 June, 18985 November, 1898.


Since the Establishment of Responsible Government in New Zealand in 1856

Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.

*Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.

1. Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4. Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1862.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox3 March, 18738 April, 1873.
13. Vogel8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon1 May, 1893. 


Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.
William Fox.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Alfred Domett.
Frederick Whitaker.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.
George Marsden Waterhouse.
Hon. William Fox.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.
Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Robert Stout.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
John Ballance.
Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.


With Dates of their Appointment and Dates of Retirement or Death

Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Henry John Miller8 July, 1892. 


With Dates of their Election and Dates of Retirement

Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 
 15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.3 June, 1861 
 30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 1879 
 24 September, 1879 
 18 May, 1882 
 7 August, 1884 
 6 October, 18873 October, 1890.
Hon. Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 1894 
 6 April, 1897. 


Consuls of Foreign Countries residing in, or with Jurisdiction over, New Zealand, April, 1899

Country represented.Office held.Name.Place of Residence.
Austria-HungaryConsulE. LangguthAuckland.
BelgiumConsul-GeneralEdouard PolletMelbourne.
BelgiumConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
BelgiumConsulJoseph James KinseyChristchurch.
BelgiumConsulJ. BurnsAuckland.
BelgiumConsulHon. Richard Oliver, M.L.C.Dunedin.
ChiliConsulWilliam BrownSydney.
DenmarkConsul (for North Island); Chief Consular Officer in New ZealandEduard Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
DenmarkConsul (for South Island)Emil Christian SkogChristchurch.
DenmarkVice ConsulFrancis Henry Dillon BellWellington.
DenmarkVice ConsulEdmund QuickDunedin.
FranceConsul (for New Zealand)Count Louis Antoine Marie Joseph Henri De CourteWellington.
FranceActing Consular AgentProfessor William Michael ClarkeChristchurch.
FranceConsular AgentGeorge DunnetAuckland.
FranceConsular AgentPercival Clay NeillDunedin.
German EmpireConsul-General— Kem permannSydney.
German EmpireConsulBendix HallensteinDunedin.
German EmpireConsulPhilip KippenbergerChristchurch.
German EmpireConsulFriedrich August KrullWanganui.
German EmpireConsulCarl SeegnerAuckland.
German EmpireVice-ConsulEberhard FockeWellington.
Hawaiian IslandsConsul-General (for Australasia)W. E. DixonSydney.
Hawaiian IslandsConsulJames MacfarlaneAuckland.
Hawaiian IslandsConsulWilliam Godfrey NeillDunedin.
ItalyConsul-General (in Australia)Commendatore P. CorteMelbourne.
ItalyConsular Agent(Vacant)Christchurch.
ItalyConsular AgentGeorge FisherWellington.
ItalyConsular AgentEdward Bowes CargillDunedin.
ItalyConsular AgentGeraldo Giuseppe PerottiGreymouth.
ItalyConsular AgentR. Rose (acting)Auckland.
JapanConsulA. S. AldrichWellington.
NetherlandsConsul-GeneralJ. C. T. ReelfsMelbourne.
NetherlandsConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulEdward Bowes CargillDunedin.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulAmbrose MillarAuckland.
NetherlandsVice-ConsulHarold Featherston JohnstonWellington.
PortugalConsulJohn DuncanWellington.
PortugalActing ConsulIan Gavin DuncanWellington.
PortugalVice-ConsulHenry Rees GeorgeAuckland.
PortugalVice-ConsulEdmund QuickDunedin.
PortugalActing Vice-ConsulCharles William RattrayDunedin.
RussiaConsulBaron d'Ungern-SternbergMelbourne.
SpainActingThomas JamiesonChristchurch.
Sweden and NorwayConsulEdward PearceWellington.
Sweden and NorwayActing ConsulArthur Edward PearceWellington.
Sweden and NorwayVice-ConsulEduard Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
Sweden and NorwayVice-ConsulFrank GrahamChristchurch.
United StatesConsul (for New Zealand)Frank DillinghamAuckland.
United StatesVice-ConsulLeonard A. BachelderAuckland.
United StatesConsular AgentRobert PitcaithleyChristchurch.
United StatesConsular AgentJohn DuncanWellington.
United StatesConsular AgentWilliam Godfrey NeillDunedin.


The Hon. W. P. Reeves, Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


Queensland.—The Hon. Sir Horace Tozer, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Charles Shortt Dicken, C.M.G.

New South Wales.—Sir Daniel Cooper, Bart., G.C.M.G. (acting), Westminster Chambers, 9, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—S. Yardley, C.M.G.

Victoria.—Lieut.-General Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke, R.E., G.C.M.G., 15, Victoria Street, S. W. Secretary—S. B. H. Rodgerson.

South Australia.—The Hon. J. A. Cockburn, M.D., Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—T. F. Wickstead.

Western Australia.—The Hon. Edward Horne Wittenoom, 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. Secretary—Reginald Charles Hare.

Tasmania.—The Hon. Sir Philip Oliver Fysh, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 5, Victoria Street, S.W.


Table of Contents

April, 1899

(Downing Street, S.W., London), with Dates of Appointment.

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., 28th June, 1895.

Under-Secretaries: Parliamentary—The Right Hon. the Earl of Selborne, 28th June, 1895. Permanent—Sir Edward Wingfield, K.C.B., B.C.L., 1st March, 1897.

Assistant Under-Secretaries: Frederick Graham, 1st March, 1897; Charles P. Lucas; H. B. Cox (Legal); and Reginald L. Antrobus, C.B.


Downing Street, S.W. City Office: 1, Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C., London.

Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommanney, K.C.M.G., Ernest Edward Blake, and Major Maurice Alexander Cameron, R.E.


Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 1890.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 1882.

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.

Kennaway, Walter, Esq., C.M.G., 1897.

O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, K.C.M.G, 1894.

Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.

Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G., 1891.

Seddon, Right Hon. Richard John, P.C., 1897.

Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.

Whitmore, Hon. Colonel Sir George Stoddart, C.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.

Persons allowed to retain the Title of “Honourable” within Her Majesty's Dominions

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, is approved by Her Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announces that he is prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Queen the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke and Major William Jukes Steward.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers whose names do not appear in the list given above are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Dick, Thomas, 1884; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Haultain, Colonel T. M., 1870; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Richardson, George F., 1891; Rolleston, William, 1884; Tole, Joseph A., 1888; Ward, Joseph George, 1896.


Ranfurly, His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Uchter John Mark, fifth Earl of (Ireland, 1831), Viscount Northland (1791), Baron Welles (1781), Lord-in-Waiting to Her Majesty (1895–1897), Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; Knight of Justice and Member of the Council of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; son of third earl, brother of fourth earl; born 14th August, 1856; succeeded 1875; married, 1880. The Honourable Constance Elizabeth, only child of seventh Viscount Charlemont, C.B. Living issue: One son (Viscount Northland), two daughters (Ladies Constance and Eileen Knox). Appointed 6th April, 1897, and assumed office 10th August, 1897, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Northland House, Dungannon, Ireland; Government House, Wellington; Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp: Dudley Alexander (Captain, “The Prince of Wales's Own”—West Yorkshire—Regiment).

Assistant Private Secretary: The Honourable Charles Edward Hill-Trevor.

Aide-de-Camp: Henry Dudley Ossulston Ward (Lieutenant, Royal Horse Artillery).

Extra Aide-de-Camp: Arthur Charles Wellesley (Lieutenant, 4th Battalion Lincolnshire Regiment).

Administrator of the Government.—The Chief Justice holds a dormant commission.

Chapter 16. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, April, 1899

His Excellency the Governor presides.

Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C., Premier, Colonial Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and Customs, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Native Affairs.

Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, Commissioner of Forests, and Minister in Charge of Advances to Settlers Office.

Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister for Railways and Minister of Mines.

Hon. J. Carroll, Commissioner of Stamp Duties, Acting Colonial Secretary, and Member of Executive Council representing the Native Race.

Hon. W. C. Walker, Minister of Immigration, Minister of Education, and Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid.

Hon. W. Hall-Jones, Minister for Public Works, Minister of Marine, and Minister in Charge of Printing Office.

Hon. T. Thompson, Minister of Justice, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Industries and Commerce.

Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.


Legislative Council

The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-five. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed giving the Council power to elect its own Speaker for a period of five years, and making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £150 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting day is made in case of an absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause, exceeding five sitting days in any one session. Under “The Legislative Council Act, 1891,” a seat is vacated by any member of the Council: (1.) If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.

Roll of Members of the Honourable the Legislative Council of New Zealand, April, 1899

Speaker—The Hon. Henry John Miller

Chairman of Committees—The Hon. William Douglas Hall Baillie

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.
Acland, the Hon. John Barton ArundelCanterbury8 July, 1865.
Arkwright, the Hon. FrancisWellington13 December, 1895.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.
Barnicoat, the Hon. John WallisNelson14 May, 1883.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago15 October, 1892.
Bonar, the Hon. James AlexanderWestland27 June, 1868.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury20 January, 1891.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago15 October, 1892.
Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.Wellington13 May, 1870.
Harris, the Hon. BenjaminAuckland3 February, 1897.
Holmes, the Hon. MathewOtago19 June, 1866.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury6 June, 1893.
Jennings, the Hon. William ThomasAuckland15 October, 1892.
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington20 January, 1891.
Jones, the Hon. GeorgeOtago13 December, 1895.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki15 October, 1892.
Kelly, the Hon. WilliamAuckland3 February, 1897.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer ThomasMarlborough15 May, 1885.
Kerr, the Hon. JamesWestland15 October, 1892.
McCullough, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 October, 1892.
MacGregor, the Hon. JohnOtago15 October, 1892.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.
Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)Otago8 July, 1865.
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Morris, the Hon. George BenthamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Oliver, the Hon. RichardOtago10 November, 1881.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay20 January, 1891.
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury9 October, 1877.
Pinkerton, the Hon. DavidOtago3 February, 1897.
Reeves, the Hon. Richard Harman JeffaresNelson13 December, 1895.
Richardson, the Hon. Edward, C.M.G.Wellington15 October, 1892.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington6 June, 1893.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.
Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel EdwardOtago15 May, 1885.
Smith, the Hon. Alfred LeeOtago18 June, 1898.
Smith, the Hon. William CowperHawke's Bay13 December. 1895.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury7 March, 1882.
Swanson, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago15 May, 1885.
Tomoana, the Hon. HenareHawke's Bay24 June, 1898.
Twomey, the Hon. Jeremiah MatthewOtago18 June, 1898.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury15 May, 1885.
Walker, the Hon. William CampbellCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay31 August, 1863.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland7 March, 1882.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.

House of Representatives

The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1887, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1890. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members—ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty-four European members, and the Middle Island thirty-six. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £20 per month, amounting to £240 per annum. £2 for every sitting-day exceeding five is deducted on account of absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 1st January, 1893, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1892.” Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m., resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.

Roll, of Members of the House of Representatives, April, 1899

Speaker-The Hem. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Chairman of Committees—Arthur Robert Guinness.

Name.Electoral District.Date of Notification of Return of Writ.
      For European Electorates.
Allen, Edmund GiblettWaikouaiti21 December, 1896.
Allen, JamesBruce21 December, 1896.
Bollard, JohnEden21 December, 1896.
Brown, HenryTaranaki21 December, 1896.
Buchanan, Walter ClarkeWairarapa21 December, 1896.
Cadman, Hon. Alfred JeromeOhinemuri21 December, 1896.
Carncross, Walter Charles FrederickTaieri21 December, 1896.
Carroll, Hon. JamesWaiapu21 December, 1896.
Carson, GilbertWanganui21 December, 1896.
Crowther, WilliamCity of Auckland21 December, 1896.
Duncan, Thomas YoungOamaru21 December, 1896.
Duthie, JohnCity of Wellington12 March, 1898.
Field, Henry AugustusOtaki21 December, 1896.
Fisher, GeorgeCity of Wellington21 December, 1896.
Flatman, Frederick RobertGeraldine21 December, 1896.
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu21 December, 1896.
Gilfedder, MichaelWallace21 December, 1896.
Graham, JohnCity of Nelson21 December, 1896.
Guinness, Arthur RobertGrey21 December, 1896.
Hall-Jones, Hon. WilliamTimaru21 December, 1896.
Herries, William HerbertBay of Plenty21 December, 1896.
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton21 December, 1896.
Holland, James JobCity of Auckland21 December, 1896.
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands21 December, 1896.
Hunter, GeorgeWaipawa21 December, 1896.
Hutcheson, JohnCity of Wellington21 December, 1896.
Hutchison, GeorgePatea21 December, 1896.
Joyce, JohnLyttelton21 December, 1896.
Kelly, James WhyteInvercargill21 December, 1896.
Lang, Frederic WilliamWaikato21 December, 1896.
Lawry, FrankParnell21 December, 1896.
Lethbridge, Frank YatesRangitikei21 December, 1896.
Lewis, CharlesCity of Christchurch21 December, 1896.
McGowan, JamesThames21 December, 1896.
McGuire, FelixHawera21 December, 1896.
McKenzie, Hon. JohnWaihemo21 December, 1896.
Mackenzie, Mackay John ScobieCity of Dunedin21 December, 1896.
McKenzie, RoberickMotucka21 December, 1896.
McLean. Robert Donald DouglasNapier21 December, 1896.
McNab, RobertMataura3 June, 1898.
Massey, William FergusonFranklin21 December, 1896.
Meredith, RichardAshley21 December, 1896.
Millar, John AndrewCity of Dunedin21 December, 1896.
Mills, Charles HoughtonWairau21 December, 1896.
Monk, RichardWaitemata21 December, 1896.
Montgomery, William HughEllesmere21 December, 1896.
Moore, RichardKaiapoi21 December, 1896.
Morrison, ArthurCaversham21 December, 1896.
O'Meara, JohnPahiatua21 December, 1896.
O'Regan, Patrick JosephBuller21 December, 1896.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach.Manukau21 December, 1896.
Pirani, FrederickPalmerston21 December, 1896.
Rawlins, Charles ChampionTuapeka7 November, 1898.
Rolleston. Hon. WilliamRiccarton21 December, 1896.
Russell, William RussellHawke's Bay21 December, 1896.
Seddon, Rt. Hon. Richard John, P.C.Westland21 December, 1896.
Sligo, AlexanderCity of Dunedin18 October, 1897.
Smith, George JohnCity of Christchurch21 December, 1896.
Stevens, JohnManawatu21 December, 1896.
Steward. Hon. William JukesWaitaki21 December, 1896.
Symes, WalterEgmont21 December, 1896.
Tanner, William WilcoxAvon21 December, 1896.
Taylor, Thomas EdwardCity of Christchurch21 December, 1896.
Thompson, RobertMarsden21 December, 1896.
Thompson, Hon. ThomasCity of Auckland21 December, 1896.
Thomson, James WilliamClutha21 December, 1896.
Ward, Hon. Joseph GeorgeAwarua13 August, 1897.
Wason, John CathcartSelwyn21 December, 1896.
Wilson, CharlesSuburbs of Wellington28 April, 1897.
Wright, Edward GeorgeAshburton21 December, 1896.
      For Maori Electorates.
Heke, HoneNorthern Maori14 January, 1897.
Kaihau, HenareWestern Maori14 January, 1897.
Parata, TameSouthern Maori14 January, 1897.
Pere, WiEastern Maori14 January, 1897.

Clerk of House of Representatives—H. Otterson.

Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.

Second Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.

Sergeant-at-Arms—W. Eraser.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers-E. W. Kano.

Chief Hansard Reporter—J. Grattan Grey.

Interpreters—L. M. Grace, W. E. Goff. Clerk of Writs-H. Pollen.

Deputy Clerk of Writs— ———.

Acting Librarian—H. L. James, B.A.


Table of Contents

[4th April, 1899.]


Premier—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary to Cabinet—A. J. Willis


Chief Office

Colonial Secretary—Hon. James Carroll (acting)

Under—Secretary—Hugh Pollen Chief Clerk—

Clerks—R. F. Lynch, J. F. Andrews, L. W. Loveday

Officer in Charge of Government Buildings—W. H. Hennah

Audit Office

Controller and Auditor-General—J. K. Warburton. Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—L. C. Roskruge Clerks—W. Dodd, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holdsworth, E. J. A. Stevenson, C. M. Georgeson, J. Skerrett

Cadet—J. H. Fowler Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, J. Swift, A.E. Bybles, J. Ward, A. A. Bethune, B. A. Meek, C. E. Briggs

Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser

Audit Inspectors-P. P. Webb, A. H. Maclean, J. King, A. W. Eames, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, C. P. Johnson, J. T. Dumbell, W. H. Carlyle, H. A. Lamb

Registrar-General's Office

Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen Chief Clerk and Deputy Registrar-General-G. Drury

Clerks—F. H. Macliattie, S. Coffey, W. W. Cook.

Cadet—Ben Keys

Registrars of Births, Deaths, and Marriages

Four Chief Towns.

Auckland—E. H. Lyons

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield

Christchurch—J. W. Parkerson

Dunedin—W. J. Hall

Printing and Stationery Department

Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—John Mackay

Superintending Overseer—J. Burns Chief Clerk and Accountant—B.B. Allen Clerk and Computer—N. B. K. Manley Clerks — F. Barrand, J. W. Hall, R.

Watts, A. Stace, A. Williams Cadet—R. A. Gray

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks Overseer,—J. J. Gamble, B. Wilson Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle Overseer, Machine-room—Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin Sub-overseer, Binding Branch—G. H. Broad

Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers Stamp Printer—H. Hume Stereotyperand Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk Readers—W. Fuller, H. S. Mountier Forewoman, Binding Branch — Miss O'Malley Engineer—T. R. Barrer


Chief Office

Colonial Treasurer—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of Consols — James B. Heywood

Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell Clerks—C. Meacham, R. B. Vincent, W. E. Cooper, J. Driscoll, E. L. Mowbray, A. O. Gibbes, J. Holmes, H. N. W. Church, J. Eman Smith, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, A. J. Morgan, T. J. Davis, F. H. Tuckey, W. Wilson Cadets—G. A. Fraser, E. J. Fitzgibbon Cadettes—H. L. Hansen, E. Fisher Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland-B. J. Davoney

Friendly Societies' and Trades Unions' Registry Office; also Office of the Registrar under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act

Registrar—E. Mason

Revising Barrister for Friendly Societies and Trades Unions—L. G. Reid Clerk—C. T. Benzoni

Old-age Pensions Office

Registrar—E. Mason

Deputy Registrars—

Auckland—John King, Registrar of Electors

Wellington—F. W. Mansfield, Registrar of Births. &c.

Christchurch—L. C. Williams, Registrar of Electors

Dunedin—James Taylor, Deputy Registrar of Births, &c.

(In all other Pension Districts Clerks of the Magistrates' Courts are the Deputy Registrars)


Commissioner—John McGowan

Deputy Commissioner—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsiey Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—A. J. McGowan, H. Nancarrow, J. M. King, W. M. Tyers, G. W. Jänisch, J. W. Black, D. R. Purdie, C. V. Kreeft, A. F. Oswin, D. G. Clark, J. Stevenson, J. R. Smyth, R. Hepworth

Cadets—E. Panting, C. E. J. Dowland, C. J. Lovatt


Head Office

Minister of Justice—Hon. T. Thompson Under-Secretary—F. Waldegrave Translator—G. H. Davies Clerks—C. B. Jordan, C. E. Matthews, W. D. Anderson, G. F. Dixon

Crown Law Office

Attorney-General—(vacant) Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid Law Draftsman—F. Fitchett, M. A., LL.D.

Clerk—E. Y. Redward

Patent Office

Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—F. Waldegrave

Deputy Registrar—J. C. Lewis Clerks—M. J. Organ, Mary Eyre


Supreme Court Judges

Chief Justice—

Wellington—Sir J. Prendergast, Knt. Puisne Judges—

Wellington—W. B. Edwards Auckland—E. T. Conolly Christchurch—J. E Denniston Dunedin—J. S. Williams (on leave), F. W. Pennefather (Acting)

District Court Judges

Wairarapa, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queens-town, Naseby, Lawrence, Invereargil, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, Reefton, and Kumara—C. D. R. Ward

Registrars of the Supreme Court

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—R. L. Stanford

Wanganui—C. C. Kettle

Napier—A. Turnbull

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Blenheim—J. Allen

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—A. H. King

Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon

Invercargill—F. G. Morgan


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—A. H. Holmes

Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper Wairarapa—W. R Haselden

Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—E. C. Kelling

Central Westland—H. Lucas

Marlborough—J. B. Stoney

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxain

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—A. H. King

Otago—C. McK. Gordon

Southland—J. R. Colyer

Crown Solicitors

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—A. J. Cotterill

Wellington—H. Gully

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—R. McCallum

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White


Dunedin—J. F. M. Fraser

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors (District Courts)

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wanganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert

Masterton—A. R. Bunny

Westport and Recfton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika—J. Park

Greymouth—M. Hannan

Timaru—J. W. White

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Stipendiary Magistrates

Auckland—H. W. Brabant

Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—T. Jackson

Onehunga, &c.—T. Hutchison*

Russell, &c.—J. S. Clendon

Tauranga, &c.—J. M. Roberts*

Thames, &c.—R. S. Bush*

Gisborne, &c.—J. Booth

New Plymouth—R. L.

Stanford Hawera, &c.—H. W. Northcroft

Wanganui, &c.—C. C. Kettle

Palmerston North, &c.—A. Greenfield

Wellington, &c.—H. Eyre Kenny

Wairarapa, &c.—W. R. Haselden

Napier, &c.—A. Turnbull

Nelson—H. W. Robinson*

Motueka, Collingwood, &c.—Wilson Heaps*

Blenheim, &c.—J. Allen*

Christchurch, &c.—R. Beetham

Kaiapoi, &c.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &c.—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, Westport, &c.—H. A. Stratford*

Hokitika, &c.—D. Macfarlane*

Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew* and C. C. Graham

Oamaru, &c.—J. Keddell*

Milton, &c.—R. S. Hawkins*

Clyde, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.*

Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*

Invercargill, &c.—J. W. Poynton*

*Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

Chatham Islands—R. S. Florance

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy

Auckland—J. Lawson, J.P.

Wellington—J. Ashcroft, J.P.

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham, S.M.

Clerks of District and Magistrates' Courts.

New Plymouth—A. H. Holmes

Hawera-A. Trimble

Wanganui—A. D. Thomson

Palmerston North-W. Matravers

Masterton—E. Rawson

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Greymouth—B. Harper

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—H. Lucas

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—T. W. Tayler

Oamaru—H. H. G. Ralfe

Invercargill—J. R. Colyer

Queenstown—H. N Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Naseby—John Terry

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens' and Magistrates' Courts

Thames—J. Jordan

Coromandel—T. M. Lawler

Paeroa—T. A. Moresby

Te Aroha—D. Banks

Tauranga—J. Thomson

Whangarei—G. M. Robertshaw

Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough) — H. McArdle

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Motueka—H. E. Gilbert

Collingwood—J. T. Foley

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—T. R. W. Philpotts

Reefton—H. Lucas

Ahaura—A. Askenbeck

Greymouth—B. Harper

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Naseby, &c.—John Terry

Wyndham—D. Bogue

Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—J. Fleming

Queenstown and Arrowtown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Riverton—A. G. Ashby

Clerks of Magistrates' Courts

Auckland—F. J. Burgess

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Hamilton—T. Kirk

Napier—R. B. Mathias

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Marton, &c.—F. M. Deighton

Wellington—W. P. James

Blenheim—J. B. Stoney

Christ church-W. Martin

Lyttelton—W. Shanaghan

Kaiapoi—M. Lynskey

Dunedin—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Native Land Court

Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—A. Mackay, D. Scannell, R. Ward, H. W. Brabant, W. J. Butler. H. F. Edger, W. G. Mair, H. D. Johnson, J. M. Batham

Registrars—Auckland, J. W. Browne; Gisborne, J. Brooking; Wellington, R. C. Sim

Commissioners of the Native Land Court

R. S. Bush, J. Booth, A. Turnbull, J. S. Clendon, T. Jackson, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, H. W. Bishop, E. H. Carew, H. E. Kenny, R. L. Stanford, T. Hutchison, H. W. Robinson, R. S. Florance: Sub-commissioners—J. Brooking, W. A. Thom

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga—G. T. Wilkinson

Validation Court

Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—The Judges of the Native Land Court

Registrars—The Registrars of the Native Land Court


Coroners—Auckland, T. M. Philson, H. W. Brabant, T. Hutchison, E. Baker; Akaroa, G. H. Saxton; Blenheim, J. Allen; Christchurch, R. Beetham and H. W. Bishop; Clyde, S. E. McCarthy; Col' wood, E. Davidson; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Dunedin, E. H. Carew; Foxton, E. H. Thynne; Gisborne, J.

Booth; Greymouth, H. A. Stratford; Huntly, T. H. White; Hawera, C. E. Major; Hokitika, D. Macfarlane and R. W. Wade; Invercargill, J. W. Poynton; Lawrence, R. S. Hawkins; Marton. A. Ross; Masterton, W. R. Haselden; Napier, A. Turnbull; Naseby, S. M. Dalgleish; Nelson, H. W. Robinson, and L. G. Boor; New Plymouth, R. L. Stanford; Oamaiu, J. Keddell; Opotiki, S. Bates; Otahuhu, S. Luke; Otaki, W. H. Simcox; Paeroa, W. Forrest; Palmerston on North, A. Greenfield and G. M. Snelson; Pokeno, T. Jackson; Port Albert, J. Shepherd; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Queenstown, L. Hotopand S. E. McCarthy; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Stratford, H. J. C. Coutts; Tauranga, A. C. H. Tovey and J. M. Roberts; Te Awamutu, T. Gresham; Trmaru, C. A. Wray; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Thames, A. Bruce and R. S. Bush; Waimate, E. M. Williams; Waipawa, S. Johnson; Wellington, J. Ashcroft; Wangauni, H. W. Northcroft and C. C. Kettle; Whangarei, J. Bell; Woodville, E. J. Gothard; Chatham Islands, R. S. Florance

New Zealand Police Force

Head Office

Commissioner—John Bennett Tunbridge Clerks—John Evans, John Tasker, William John Mahoney Cadet—Walter Gollan

Police Department

Inspectors—Thomas Broham, Peter Pender, William Stone Pardy, Francis McGovern, John Cullen. John Wybrant Ellison, Robert. James Gillies

Sub—Inspectors—Terence O'Brien, Ewen McDonnell, Nicholas Kiely, Edward Wilson

Prisons Department

Inspector—Lieut-Colonel Arthur Hume, N. Z. M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers—Auckland, George Sinclair

Reston; Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Michael Flannery; Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Francis Edward Severne; New Plymouth, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Wanganui, Robert T. N. Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey


Minister—Hon. T. Thompson Clerk—A. M. Smith


Minister of Labour—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary for Labour and Chief Inspector of Factories—E. Tregenr

Chief Clerk—James Mackay Clerk—F. W. T. Rowley

Cadet—F. A. De la Mare

Shorthand Writer and Typist—J. W. Collins

Inspectors of Factories

North Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, H. Ferguson, L. D. Browett, W. J. Blake, Margaret. Hawthorne, and 71 local Inspectors

South Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, J. Lomas, H. Maxwell, W. J. McKeown, Margaret Hawthorne, and 68 local Inspectors (There are also 200 Bureau Agents in different parts of the colony.)


Head Office

Minister for Public Works—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Halcs

Superintending Engineer—P. S. Hay, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.

Chief Clerk—W. D. Dumbell

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—C. T. Rushbrook, A. S. Lewis, A. Biddell, E. McCarthy, E. Bold, A. R. Stone, E. Hornemau, H. R. Rae, N. Jacobs, P. S. Waldie, F. E. Banks, A. H. Kimbell, A. L. Goldfinch, L. White

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford Architect—J. Campbell

Draughtsmen—T. Perham, E. Jackson, A. Koch, W. Withers, E. McC. Blake, W. G. Swan, J. H. Price, G. Bjornstad, W. A. Smith, C. A. Lawrence, L. L. Richards Engineering Cadet—J. J. Wilson Head Storekeeper—John Young

District Offices

District Engineers—Auckland, C. R.

Vickerman; Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M.Inst C.E.

Resident Engineers—Hunterville, G. L. Cook, M.Tnst.C E.; West port, R. A. Young, Assoc. M.I.C.E.; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E.; Jackson's, J. A. Wilson; Hyde, W. A. Shain. In charge of North Island Main Trunk Railway survey, R. W. Holmes

Assistant Engineers—A. C. Koch, J. D. Louch, F. M. Hewson, D. Ross, J. J. Hay. M.A., W. H. Gavin, T. Roberts, J. H. Dobson, J. S. Stewart, S. J. Harding, F. H. Geieow, C. E. Armstrong, J. H. Lewis, H. Dickson, J. W. E. McEnnis, A. Jack, F. W. Furkert, J. Meenan

Engineering Cadets—W. A Jeff, W. Sherratt, C. J. McKenzie, F. P. Bartley

Clerks, Draughtsmen, &c.—W. Black, C. Wood, P. F. M. Burrows, L. F. Tegner, W. A. Camming, J. H. Denton, W. H. Hislop, E. Waddell, G. Glenister, J. C. Fulton, T. Douglas, J. B. Borton, C. Scholfield, H F. Doogan, C. E. Crawford, L. P. Cabot, W. E. Butler, W. E. Fitzgerald, L. M. Shera, A. W. Hamann


Minister for Railways—Hon. A. J. Cadman

General Manager—T. Ronayne

Assistant General Manager—C. Hudson Chief Clerk—T. W. Waite

Clerks—R. W. Mc Villy, E. J. Andrews, B. M. Wilson, W. S. Ridler, F. S. Pope, W. Johnston, J. E. Widdop, W. H. Gifford, A. J. Will, W. H. Warren, S. S. Millington, D. Sinclair

Audit Inspectors—H. Baxter, D. Munro, C. L. Russell

Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife

Clerks—H. Davidson, J. H. Davies, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, A. Morris, E. P. Brogan, C. Batten, W. B. Fisher, J. Firth, E. J. Fleming, H. H. Leopard, R. J. Loe, F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, W. Bourke, W. H. Hales, W. E. Ahern, F. K. Porteous, T. A. O'Connor, H. H. Bell

Stores Manager—G. Felton

Clerks—A. M. Heaton, F. J. Dawes, G. H. Norie, S. Alpe, H. W. Barbor, R. H. Stephens. E. J. Maguiness, H. R. Carey. L. B. Archibald, J. M. Skinner, G. B. Cope, J. R. Robertson

District Managers—Kaihu, T. H. Barstow; Auckland, A. Grant; Wanganui, H. Buxton; Napier and Welling ton, T. E. Donne; Greymouth, C. A. Piper; Picton, H. B. Dobbie; Nelson, G. E. Rich Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; T. Arthur; Invereargill, S. F. Whitcombe

Station masters in charge—Kawakawa, R. B. Peat; Whangarei, A. B. Duncan; Westport, T. Hay-Mackenzie

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. H. Lowe, M, Inst. CE.

Inspecting Engineer—J. Coom, M.Inst. C. E.

Signal Engineer—A. H. Johnson

Railway Land Officer—E. G. H. Mainwaring

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Troup

Draughtsmen—J. Besant, W. R. B. Bagge, C. T. Jeffreys. A. S. Henderson, H. D. Thomson, W. R. Davidson

Clerks—W. P. Hicks, M. Angus, J. T. Ford, W. A. Miruins, H. Jessup, H. W. Rowden, H. H. Gardner, P. J. McGovern, E. D. Richards, A. N. Longton, D. F. Sullivan

District Engineers—Auckland, C. H. Biss; Wanganui, D. T. McIntosh; Wellington, H. Macandrew; Westport, J. D. Harris; Greymouth, H. St. J. Christophers; Christchurch, James Burnett; Dunedin, F. W. MacLean

Assistant Engineer. Invercargill—A. J. McCredie

Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotheram

Clerks—R. Triggs, R. Aekins, C. G. Edwards, G. G. Haldane, J. Rumgay, W. B. Sinclair, E. L. Forward, C. H. Virtue, N. G. Ward, H. McKeowen, C. M. Hill, E. J. Guthrie, G. H. Reynolds, N. P. G. Ewart, C. L. Pettit

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Pearson

Draughtsmen—R. Pye-Smith, E. E. Gillon, W. A. Palmer

Locomotive Engineers-Auckland, A. V. Macdonald; Wanganui-Napier, H. H. Jackson; Wellington, T. A. Peterkin; Hurunui—Bluff, A. L. Beattie; Relieving, J. H. Fox

Board of Appeal

North Island

H. Eyre Kenny, Stipendiary Magistrate, Chairman, appointed by the Governor.

H. Davidson, Railway Accountant's Office' elected.

T. Wilson, Fireman, elected.

Middle Island

C. D. R. Ward, District Judge. Chairman, appointed by the Governor.

T. W. Brebner, Stationmaster, elected.

P. E. Nolan, Signalman, elected.


General Post Office

Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs—Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary—W. Gray

Superintendent of Electric Lines—J. K. Logan

Assistant Secretary and Inspector—T. Rose

Controller of Money-orders and Savings banks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Clerks—W. R. Morris, E. V. Senn, F. V. Waters, H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Crow, W. Isbister, L. Ledger, V. J. Brogan, W. Callaghan, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Chegwidden, H. S. B. Miller. H. Huggins, G. V. Hudson, F. Perrin, H. D. Grocott, J. Brennan, H. Cornwall, R. J. Thompson, R. E. Hayes, J. J. Esson, D. A. Jenkins, E Fitzsimons, H. N. McLeod, J. C. Redmond, C. B. Harton, H. A. Smith, W. J. Drake, J. D. Avery, A. H. Tucker, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, W. H. Carter, P. Tyrrell, A. T. Markmann, P. Kelleher, W. A. Tanner, G. H. Harris, H. C. Hickson, C. Dempsey, P. D. Hoskins, H. C. Milne, J. G. Howard, W. R. Wakelin, C. J. Panting, F. Stewart, T. E. Diamond, F. W. Furby, R. A. Keenan, J. B. Jordan, N. M. Chesney, F. G. A. Eagles, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, E. Harris, B. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod, C. Smith, M. A. Asquith

Electrician—W. C. Smythe

Assistant Electrician—T. Buckley

Mechanician—R. Heinitz

Assistant Mechanician—F. Palmer

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Clerks in Store—C. Nicholls, T. Palmer

Cadets in Store—F. H. Guinness, M. McGilvray

Circulation Branch (Post Office)—J. Hoggard, Chief Clerk

Inspectors of Telegraphs

Auckland—E. H. Bold

Christchurch—W. G. Meddings

Dunedin—J. Orchiston

Assistant Inspectors of Post Offices

D. Cumming, C. J. A. H. Tipping, S. P. Stevens

Sub-Inspector of Telegraphs

Nelson—J. W. Gannaway

Chief Postmasters

Auckland—S. B. Biss

*Thames—J. E. Coney

*Gisborne—G. W. Sampson

Napier—S. J. Jago

*New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

*Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

*Blenheim—J. Bull

*Nelson—H. Calders

*Westport—J. H. Sheath

*Greymouth—C. J. Berry

*Hokitika—W. St. G. Douglas

Christchurch—R. Kirton

*Timaru—J. A. Hutton

*Oamaru—W. W. Beswick

Dunedin—E. Cook

*Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin

* Combined post- and telegraph-offices.

Officers in Charge of Telegraph Offices

Auckland—W. S. Furby

Napier—H. W. Harrington

Wellington—C. C. Robertson

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—J. G. Ballard

Board of Appeal

J. McGowan, Commissioner of Taxes, Chairman (by Act).

J. K. Logan, Superintendent of Electric Lines (by Act).

F. M. Scully, Representing Postal Branch, elected.

W. McNickle, Representing Telegraph Branch, elected.


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—

Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.

Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow.

Chief Clerk—T. Larchin

Clerks, Customs—F. Oxford, V. R. Meredith, C. H. Manson

Audit—. W. Brewer, H. Crowther (Writer)

Collectors of Customs

Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—E. Pasley

New Plymouth—H. Bedford

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. McKellar

Wanganui—A. Elliott

Wairau—W. J. Hawley

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westport—J. Mills

Greymouth—A. McDowell

Hokitika—E. Chilman

Lyttelton and Christchurch—E. Patten

Timaru—A. Hart

Oamaru—J. P. Ridings

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—D. Johnston, jun.

Officers in Charge of Ports, and Coastwaiters

Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter

Tauranga—E. Northcroft, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratclifte, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mongonui—A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter

Foxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge

Patea—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Picton—F. J. Robertshaw, Officer in Charge

Chatham Islands—R. S. Florance, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Secretary—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—G. Allport

Clerks—J. J. D. Grix, G. Sinclair

Cadet—A. P. Owens

Marine Engineer for the Colony—W. H. Hales

Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—(vacant)

Examiner of Masters and Mates—Wellington, R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Examiners of Masters and Mates, Auckland—T.C. Tilly and J. Adamson

Examiner of Musters and Mates, Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—W. J. Grey

Chief Inspector of Machinery, Principal Engineer Surveyor, and Chief Examiner of Engineers—R. Duncan

Inspectors of Machinery, Engineer Surveyors, and Examiners of Engineers:—Auckland—W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood; Wellington—H. A. McGregor, P. Carman, and A. McVicar; Christ-church—G. Croll; Dunedin—A. Morrison and H. Wetherilt

Master of s.s. Tutanekai—C F. Post

Master of s.s. Hinemoa—J. Bollons

Inspectors of Sea Fisheries

Russell—H. Stephenson

Whangarei—J. Munro

Wellington—F. Moorhouse

Hokitika—J. Duncan

Bluff—P. McGrath


* The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department.

Collingwood—F. Stallard

Foxton—A. Seabury

Hokianga—G. Martin

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Neale

Motueka—H. L. Moffatt

Nelson—F. W. Cox

Picton—H. B. Dobbie

Port Robinson—J. Sinclair

Russell—H. Stephenson

Waitapu—S. G. Robinson


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. Jas. Carroll

Secretary for Stamps—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Chief Clerk and Accountant—H. O. Williams

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Record and Receiving Clerk—J. P. Murphy

Clerk—J. Murray

Chief Stamper—C. Howe

Cadet—W. Wilkes

Deputy Commissioners of Stamps

Auckland—E. Bamford

Gisborne—C. H. W. Dixon

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Timaru—J. A. Hutton

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson

District land Registrars and Registrars of Deeds

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Wellington—Win. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Gisborne—J. M. Batham

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. Allen

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges, District Land Registrar; E. Denham, Registrar of Deeds

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Examiners of Titles

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Wellington—Wm. Stuart, H. Howorth

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Gisborne—J. M. Batham

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—Wm. Stuart

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Registrar of Joint-stock Companies

C. A. St. G. Hickson

Registrars of Building Societies, Industrial and Provident Societies, and Assistant Registrars of Joint stock Companies

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—R. L. Stanford

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—H. O. Williams

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Poverty Bay—C. H. W. Dixon


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. C. Walker

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools—George Hogben, M.A.

Assistant Secretary—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Clerks—F. K. de Castro. H. B. Kirk, M.A., R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne, E. C. Banks, F. D. Thomson, T. G. Gilbert

Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector—H. B. Kirk. M.A.

Education Boards

Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary

Taranaki—(vacant), Secretary

Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary

Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary

Grey—W. Riemenschneider, Secretary

Westland—A.J. Morton, B.A., Secretary

Canterbury North—H. C. Lane, Secretary

Canterbury South—J. H. Bamfield, Secretary

Otago—P. G. Pryde, Secretary

Southland—J. Neill, Secretary

School Commissioners

(Administrators of Education Reserves). Auckland—H. N. Garland, Secretary

Taranaki—(vacant), Secretary

Wellington—N. J. Tone, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—A. T. Jones, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, Secretary

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves

Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary

Industrial Schools

Government Schools

Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury) —T. Archey, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—G. M. Burlinson, Manager

Private Schools

St. Mary's Industrial School. Ponsonby—Rev. G. H. Gillan, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. W. J. Lewis, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager

St. Vincent de Paul's Industrial School, Dunedin—Rev. P. Murphy, Manager

Institution for Deaf-mutes, Sumner

Director—G. van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle


Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.*

*Also holds appointment of Inspector of Hospitals and Charitable Institutions.

Deputy Inspector—Mrs. Grace Neill

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—R. M. Beattie, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Porirua Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum—T. R. King, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. Truby King, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum—H. Gribben; Medical Officer, H. Macandrew, M.B.

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison; Medical Officer, A. G. Talbot, M.B.

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum)—Proprietors, Dr. Alexander and Executor of James Hume; Medical Officer, Frank Hay, M.B.


Chief Office

Minister of Mines—Hon. A. J. Cadman

Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliott

Inspecting Engineer—George Wilson

Chief Clerk—T. H. Eamer

Clerk—H. E. Radcliffe

Analyst—W. Skey

Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Assistant Geologist—W. A. McKay

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard

Cadet—J. T. Watkins

Inspectors of Mines

Thames and Auckland Districts—James Coutts; Assistant Inspector, Thomas Ryan; Canterbury, Dunedin, and Southland Districts—J. Hayes; Cadet, H. Paton; West Coast Districts—R. Tennent; Assistant Inspector—A. H. Richards

Mining Bureau

Secretary—P. Galvin

Managers of Water-races

Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken

Mount Ida—R. Murray

Schools of Mines

Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—F. B. Allen, M.A., B. Sc.; Assistant, W. H. Baker; Reefton—; Coromandel—J. M. MacLaren, M.A.; Waihi—P. G. Morgan, M.A.

Board of Examiners under “The Coal-mines Act, 1891.”

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Thomas Brown, of Denniston; and William Shore, of Kaitangata

Board of Examiners under “The Mining Act. 1891.”

Same official members as above Board, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon and Thomas Aitken Dunlop, of the Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, of Reefton, and Francis Hodge, of Coromandel.

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards, and Mr. T. H. Homer is the Secretary.

Geological Survey, Museum, and Observatories

Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines

Director—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—R. B. Gore

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey

Meteorological Observer, New Plymouth—E. Veale

Meteorological Observer, Hokitika—A. D. Macfarlane

New Zealand Institute

Manager—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Hon. Treasurer—W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.

Secretary—R. B. Gore


Minister of Defence—Hon. T. Thompson

Under-Secretary—Sir A. P. Douglas, Bart. (Retired Lieutenant R.N.), Major N.Z.M.

Commander of the N.Z. Forces

Colonel Arthur Pole Penton, R.A.

Staff-officer to the Commander of the N.Z. Forces

Major Wm. Robarts Napier Madocks, N.Z.M. (Lieutenant R.A.)

Clerk—T. F. Grey

Cadet—A. J. Baker

Defence Store Department

Storekeeper—Capt. S. C. Anderson.

Assistant Storekeeper—T. H. Sewell

Clerk—J. O'Sullivan

New Zealand Permanent Militia

No. 1 Service Company

Major W. B. Messenger

Captain H. C. Morrison

Captain J. Coleman

Lieutenant J. E. Hume

Lieutenant H. E. Pilkington

Lieutenant W. P. Wall

Inspectors of Submarine Mining Establishment

Captain J. Falconer

Captain William Coyle

No. 2 Service Company

Captain J. Falconer

Captain William Coyle

Quartermaster, Permanent Militia

Captain S. C. Anderson

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Wellington)

John Teare, M.B.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Auckland)

John Wilkins, M.R.C.S.E.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Lyttelton)

C. H. Upham, M.R.C.S.E.

Honorary Surgeon, Permanent Militia

Patrick J. O'Neill O'Carroll, L.R.C.S.I.

Honorary Chaplain, Lyttelton Detachment Permanent Militia

The Rev. E. E. Chambers

Honorary Chaplain, Wellington Detachment Permanent Militia

The Rev. W. C. Waters, M.A.

Officers Commanding Militia and Volunteer Districts, and Adjutants

Auckland—Lieut.-Colonel Joseph Henry Banks, N.Z.M. (late Major H.M. 7th Dragoon Guards, &c.). Acting Adjutant: Captain John Grant, N.Z. Vols.

Wellington—Lieut.-Colonel Stuart Newall, N.Z.M.

Canterbury—Lieut.-Colonel Henry Gordon, N.Z.M., late H.M. 44th Foot

North Otago (sub-district)—V.D. Major Alfred Headland

Otago—Lieut.-Colonel William Holden Webb, N.Z.M., late S.M. 109th Foot

Southland (sub-district)—Captain John Edward Hawkins

Nelson—V.D. Lieut.-Colonel Albert Pitt, N.Z.M. Adjutant: Wm. S. Little-john (Captain, Nelson College Cadets)



Minister of Lands—Hon. John McKenzie

Surveyor - General and Secretary for Crown Lands—S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S. Assistant. Surveyor-General and Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—Alexander Barron

Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Chief Clerk—W.S. Short

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Auditor of Land Revenue—W. G. Runcie

Superintendent of Village-settlements—J. E. March

Auckland District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. J. Mueller

District Surveyors—L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin, A. H. Vickerman, H. D. M. Haszard

Assistant Surveyors—T. K. Thompson, R. S. Galbraith

Road Surveyors—C. W. Hursthouse, A. B. Wright, R. H. Reaney

Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. M. Taylor

Hawke's Bay District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—E. C. Gold-Smith (also District Land Officer, Gisborne)

District Surveyors—L. Smith, James Hay, W. J. Wheeler

Assistant Surveyor—P. A. Dalziel, J. Mouat

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull

Taranaki District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Strauchon

District Surveyors—H. M. Skeet, G. H. Bullard

Assistant-Surveyors—J. F. Frith, W. T. Morpeth

Road Surveyor—G. F. Robinson

Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Clarke

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. P. Doile

Wellington District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant

District Surveyors—J. D. Climie, F. A. Thompson, H. J. Lowe

Assistant Surveyors—J. McKay, J. G. Littlejohn, H. Maitland

Road Surveyors—G. T. Murray, A. C. Turner

Chief Draughtsman—J. Mackenzie

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. G. Wait

Nelson District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, J. Snodgrass, R. T. Sadd

Assistant Surveyors—J. D. Thomson, D. Innes Barron

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—H. Trent

Caretaker, Hanmer Springs—J. Rogers

Manager, Hanmer Springs Sanatorium—D. McDonald

Marlborough District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. W. Adams

District Surveyors—F. S. Smith, D. W. Gillies

Assistant Surveyor—E. W. Buckeridge

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. Robinson

Westland District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—W G. Murray

Assistant Surveyor—W. Wilson

Road Surveyor—F. B. Wither

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. J. Roberts

Canterbury District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—S. Weetman

District Surveyors—T. N. Broderick, G. H. M. McChire, L. O. Mathias

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab

Otago District

Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. P. Maitland

Chief Surveyor—John Hay

District Surveyor—J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmot, D. M. Calder

Assistant Surveyors—W. D. R. McCurdie, W. T. Neill

Chief Draughtsman—S. Thompson

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade

Southland District

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—David Barron

Assistant Surveyor—A. Hodgkinson

Chief Draughtsman—J. G. Clare

Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch

Members of Land Boards

Auckland—G. Mueller, R. Thompson, B. Harris, D. Lundon, J. Renshaw

Hawke's Bay—E. C. Gold-Smith, C. Hall, T. Hyde, R. R. Groom, G. Mathewson

Taranaki—J. Strauchon, T. Kelly, C. K. Stock, J. Heslop, H. J. C. Coutts

Wellington—J. W. A. Marchant, A. W. Hogg, J. Stevens, H. A. Field, A. Reese Nelson—Thomas Humphries, John Graham, D. Bate, F. Hamilton, O. Lynch

Marlborough—C. W. Adams, C. H. Mills, J. Redwood, A. P. Seymour

Westland—W. G. Murray, A. Matheson, J. Chesney, J. S. Lang

Canterbury—S. Weetman, A. C. Pringle, R. Meredith, D. McMillan, J. McLachlan

Otago—J. P. Maitland; H. H. Kirkpatrick, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—David Barron, A. Kinross, J. McIntyre, A. Baldey, D. King

Board of Examiners of Surveyors

The Surveyor-General; the Assistant Surveyor-General; the Chief Surveyors for the Land Districts of Wellington, Hawke's Bay, Nelson, and Canterbury

Secretary to Beard—T. M. Grant


Board of Land Purchase Commissioners

Chairman of Board and Land Purchase Inspector—Jas. McKerrow, F.R.A.S.

The Board consists of the Land Purchase Inspector as Chairman, the Surveyor - General, the Commissioner of Taxes—these for the whole colony—with the Commissioners of Crown Lands and a member of the Land Board in each land district, who are members only for the business arising within their respective districts.


Chief Office

Minister in Charge—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—John D. Ritchie

Assistant, Chief Inspector of Stock—T. A. Fraser

Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt

Clerk and Biologist—T. W. Kirk, F.L.S.

Assistant Entomologist at Auckland—Thomas Broun, F.E.S.

Veterinary Surgeons—J. A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S. (Chief); Archibald Park, M.R.C.V.S.; C. J. Reakes, M.R.C.V.S.

Produce Commissioner, London—H. C. Cameron

Dairy Commissioner—J. A. Ruddick

Dairy Instructors and Graders—James Sawers, J. T. Lang, A. A. Thornton, R. W. D. Robertson, James Johnston, A. Büsck

Pomologists—W. J. Palmer, J. C. Blockmore, S. I. Fitch

Poultry Expert—D. D. Hyde

Inspectors of Stock

Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw, Auckland; D. Fleming, Whangarei; D. Ross, Hamilton; H. E. Collett, Whakatane

Napier—W. Miller (in charge), H. Oldham, Napier; W. R. Rutherfurd, Napier; C. Thomson, Grisborne; J. Harvey, Woodville

Wairarapa—G. H. Jenkinson, Masterton (in charge); F. G. Wayne, Carterton

Wellington—J. Drummond, Wellington

West Coast—A. K. Blundell (in charge), Wanganui; F. E. Orbell, Hawera; H. G. J. Hull, Palmerston North

Nelson—H. M. Campbell, Nelson (in charge); G. S. Cooke, Richmond

Marlborough—John Moore, Bienheim

Westland—V. A. Huddleston, Hokitika

Canterbury—Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), E. A. Dowden, Christ-church; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora; J. C. Huddleston, Rotherham; Blair Fullarton, Ashburton

South Canterbury—C. C. Empson, Timaru; J. W. Deem, Fairlie; F. H. Brittain, Kurow

Otago—J. E. Thomson, Dunedin; J. S. Nichol, Outram; J. C. Miller, Oamaru; R. Bree, Milton; J. L. Bruce, Balclutha; A. Ironside, Clyde; R. I. Gossage, Naseby; A. Mills, Lawrence; James Duncan, Palmerston; E. A. Field, Gore; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; J. A. Easton, Riverton; J. W. Raymond, Bluff


Valuer General—John McGowan

Deputy Valuer-General—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Clerks—J. P. Dugdale, H. L. Wiggins, A. W. Knowles, H. O'Rourke, J. T. Bolt, H. Redmond, J. Ferguson

Draughtsman—H. H. Seed

Supervising Valuers—W. Duncan, Auckland; A. Barns, Wanganui; T. K. Macdonald, Wellington; A. P. O'Callaghan, Christchurch; A. McKerrow, Dunedin; H. Carswell, Invercargill

District Valuers—James I. Wilson, jun., Whangarei; J. J. Reynolds, Auckland; W. Garrett, Paeroa; W. H. Wallis, Hamilton; Ian S. Simson, Gisborne; W. E. Griffin, Napier; S. Hill, New-Plymouth; R. Gardner, Palmerston North; J. Fraser, Masterton; E.Kenny, Picton; J. Webster, Hokitika; D. Dick, Ashley; J. Whitelaw, Christchurch; A. Freeman, Christchurch; A. Allan, Timaru; E. A. Atkinson, Oamaru; W. L. Craig, Palmerston South; W. Dallas, Balclutha; A. J. Burns, Dunedin; J. George, Queenstown; T. Green, Gore; A. Macpherson, Invercargill

Clerks—Auckland, E. W. Watson; Christ-church, J. M. Wheeler, A. Millar; Dunedin, A. Clothier; Invercargill, T. Oswin, C. de R. Andrews

Cadets—Christchurch, E. J. R. Cumming; Dunedin, H. A. Anderson


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson, F.F.A., F.I.A.V.

Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Accountant—G. W. Barltrop

Assistant Actuary—G. Leslie

Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven

Second Assistant Actuary—P. Muter

Office Examiner—G. A. Kennedy

Clerks—J. W. Kinniburgh, D. J. McG. McKeuzie, W. S. Smith, A. H. Hamerton, F. B. Bolt, C. E. Galwey, T. L. Barker, H. Spackman, A. L. B. Jordan, H. S. Manning, A. Avery, G. Webb, C. W. Palmer, C. J. Alexander, F. K. Kelling, J. B. Young, G. C. Fache, J. A. Thomson, R. T. Smith, A. W. G. Burnes, F. W. Beale, H. Rose, A. de Castro, R. P. Hood, G. A. N. Campbell, F. M. Leckie, W. H. Woon, A. T. Traversi, S. P. Hawthorne, J. G. Reid, A. E. Jackson, C. H. E. Stichbury, J. R. Samson, H. H. Henderson, R. Fullerton. A. H. John-tone, J. S. Butler, R. S. Latta, H. Davies,

T. Fouhy, J. Lindsay, J. R. Fraser, G. E. Sadd, J. T. Gunn, T. M. Dimant, W. Spence, J. J. Feeney

Chief Messenger–W. Archer

Auckland Agency

District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerk—J. B. Watkis

Napier Agency

Resident Agent—J. H. Dean

Clerk—G. C. Rodda

Wanganui Agency

Resident Agent—J. Fairburn

Clerk—W. Rattray

Wellington Agency

District Manager and Supervisor of New Business—G. Robertson

Chief Clerk—M. J. K. Heywood

Clerks—W. C. Marchant and A. M. McDonald

Nelson Agency

Resident Agent—A. P. Burnes

Blenheim Agency

Agency Clerk—C. H. Ralph

Greymouth Agency

Resident Agent—A. E. Allison

Christchurch Agency

District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—J. W. H. Wood

Clerk—G. J. Robertson

Timaru Agency

Agency Clerk—S. T. Wicksteed

Oamaru Agency

Resident Agent—O. H. Pinel

Dunedin Agency

District Manager—R. S. McGowan

Chief Clerk—G. Crichton

Clerks—A. Marryatt and G. S. Nicoll

Invercargill Agency

Resident Agent—J. Findlay


Public Trustee—J. C. Martin

Deputy Public Trustee—A. A. Duncan

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Chief Clerk—T. S. Ronaldson

Accountant—M. C. Barnett

Clerks—T. Stephens, M. Townsend, P. Fair, C. Zachariah, P. Hervey, E. C. Reeves, W. A. Fordham, A. Purdie, G. A. Smyth, A. J. Cross, N. Levien, W. McGowan, M. E. Harrap, S. Dimant, E. A. Smythe, W. Barr, E. O. Hales, C. Morris, S. W. Smith, C. A. Goldsmith, H. Masters, W. Campbell, R. Price, M. Leahy, H. Turner

District Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton; Clerks, J. Allen, T. R. Saywell

District Agent, Auckland—E. F. Warren; Clerk, E. Holloway; Cadet, K. N. H. Browne

District Agent, Dunedin—F. H. Morice; Typist, F. Naphtali; Cadet, J. B. Jack

District Agent, Greymouth—T. D. Kendall

District Agent, Napier—

District Agent, Nelson—E. P. Watkis

West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent—Thomas W. Fisher; Clerk, H. Oswin


Superintendent—John McGowan

Deputy Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Inspecting Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—W. Waddel, T. C. Somers, H. E. Williams, W. Hinchcliffe, J. Atkinson, T. W. Foote, J. E. Thompson, W. Auld, C. T. Fraser, A. A. Prichard, M. J. Crombie, C. Wilson, C. B. Collins, D. Fraser, R. G. McLennan, C. G. Collins

Chief Valuers—W. Duncan, Auckland; A. Barns, Wanganui; T. Kennedy Macdonald, Wellington; A. P. O'Callaghan, Christchurch; A. McKerrow, Dunedin; H. Carswell, Invercargill

Clerks at Agencies—F. B. Robertson, H. Barron

Cadets in Government Service to be Volunteers

Cadets in the Civil Service are required, after arriving at the age of eighteen years, to serve for three years in a Volunteer corps. Heads of departments are required to notify the Under Secretary for Defence of the appointment of all cadets coming within this regulation.


There is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.

Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the “Church of England.”


The Most Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1869 (Primate).

The Right Rev. William Leonard Williams, B.A., Waiapu; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Frederic Wallis, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871.

The Right Rev. Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.

Roman Catholic Church


The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. George Michael Lenihan, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1896.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1896.

Annual Meetings and Officers

The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one or other of the dioceses.—President, the Bishop of Auckland, Primate; Secretary, Rev. J. P. Kempthorne. Nelson; Lay Secretary, H. J. H. Blow, Esq., Wellington. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese. The next General Synod will be held in Napier, in January, 1901.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a Synod is held, presided over by the Bishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly meets annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, in succession. Moderator, the Right Rev. David John Steele, M.A.; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier.

Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Synod meets annually in October at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. George Lindsay, Invercargill; Clerk, Rev. W. Bannerman, Roslyn, Dunedin; Church Factor, Mr. Frederick Smith, High Street, Dunedin. Theological Professors, Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., D.D., and Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D. Mr. James Dunbar, Tutor in Greek.

Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets on or about the last Tuesday in February, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1899–1900), Rev. J. Orchard, Kaiapoi; Secretary, Rev. D. J. Murray, Thames. The next Conference is to meet in Pitt Street Church, Auckland.

Primitive Methodists.—A Conference takes place every January. The next is to be held at Stratford, Taranaki, commencing 12th January, 1900. The Executive Committee of the Church sits in Auckland. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. Peter W. Jones, Timaru; Vice-President, James Taylor, Esq., J.P., Tawa Flat, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. Joseph Sharp, Collingwood Street, Auckland; Secretary of Executive Committee and Treasurer of Mission Funds, Mr. D. Goldie, Pitt Street, Auckland.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, H. H. Driver, Esq., Dunedin; Treasurer, Mr. A. Chidgey, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. A. H. Collins, Auckland. The Union comprises 31 churches, 3,240 members, 5,055 scholars in the Sunday schools, with 583 teachers. There were also 89 local preachers, and 22 preaching-stations. This religious body has a newspaper of its own—the New Zealand Baptist—published in Christchurch; Editor, Rev. Arthur Dewdney, Oamaru.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the month of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1899–1900, Mr. George Fowlds, Auckland; Chairman-elect, Rev. S. J. Baker, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. Frederic Warner, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. F. Meadowcroft, Wellington; Head Office, Auckland. In 1900 the meeting of the Council will be held at Wellington. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. A. T. Chodowski, Dunedin; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).


The defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia (Artillery and Submarine Mining Corps), and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers (Cavalry, Mounted Rifles, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies). There is a Commander of the Forces, who is an Imperial officer, and he has a Staff officer who is also an Imperial officer. To the Under-Secretary for Defence all questions of expenditure are referred; while the Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department has charge of the defence-works.

Militia and Volunteer Districts

The two islands (North and Middle) are divided into five districts and two sub-districts, each commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a staff of drill-sergeants.

Permanent Militia (Artillery)

This Force is divided into four companies, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force consists of one major, two captains, three subalterns, with an establishment of 217 of all ranks.

Permanent Militia (Submarine Miners)

This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres for submarine mining and torpedo work, and consists of two captains, with a total establishment of 76 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steam-launches, and of all submarine mining and torpedo stores. They are likewise employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.


There are two troops of Cavalry, both being in the Middle Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for six days' training annually. The total strength of the two troops is 117 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Mounted Rifles

There are sixteen corps of Mounted Rifles, nine in the North Island and seven in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 974 of all ranks. These corps go into camp for an annual training of six days.

Volunteers.—Naval Artillery

There are nine batteries of this branch of the service (six in the North Island and three in the Middle Island), having a total strength of 815 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches at the four centres; some of these corps are trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working heavy ordnance, whilst others act as auxiliaries to the Submarine Miners in submarine mining and torpedo work. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and such like duties.

Volunteers.—Garrison Artillery

There is one corps of Garrison Artillery in the North, with a strength of 102 of all ranks, and one in the Middle Island, with a strength of 54 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Field Artillery

There are five batteries of Field Artillery (two in the North Island and three in the Middle Island), with a total of 332 of all ranks. They are armed with 9-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, on field-carriages.


This branch consists of three corps, with a total of 211 of all ranks, one in the North and two in the Middle Island. Besides carrying rifles they are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.

Volunteers.—Rifle Corps

In this branch of the service there are seventy-three corps (besides one honorary reserve, 45 strong), thirty-five being in the North Island and thirty-eight in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 4,646 of all ranks, including garrison bands.

Volunteers.—Cadet Corps

There is a force of forty-one cadet corps—viz., fifteen in the North Island and twenty-six in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,295 of all ranks.

Ordnance, Arms, etc

The armament at the forts of the four centres consists of 8 in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6 in. 5-ton, of like pattern, all mounted on hydro-pneumatic disappearing carriages; 7 in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71 cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading 64 cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison piilar-mountings, and field-carriages; Hotchkiss quick-firing guns and Maxim machine guns. The Volunteer Field Artillery are armed with 9-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, and the whole of the adult portion of the Force have carbines or rifles of Martini-Enfield and Martini-Henry patterns; Cadets being armed with Snider carbines.

There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and ground-mines, in charge of the Submarine Mining Companies, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.

Enrolment, etc

Members of the Permanent Militia are enrolled to serve until lawfully discharged, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is principally recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after passing the gunnery and other courses and serving three years in the Permanent Militia the men are eligible for transfer to police and prison services.


The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years' engagement, on completion of which they return to their regiments.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £20 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred and fifty rounds of ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every adult Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds of Snider ball to each cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”

Expenditure on the Establishment and Maintenance of Defences from 1884–85 to 1898–99

Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.


As eleven of the crew of the barque “Spirit of the Dawn,” which was wrecked on Antipodes Island on the 4th September, 1893, remained on the island for eighty-eight days without becoming aware of the existence of the dépôt of provisions and clothing for castaways which is established there, attention may usefully be drawn to the fact that such dépôts are maintained by the New Zealand Government on that island, and on the Auckland, Campbell, Bounty, Kermadec, and Snares Islands.

The following are the positions of the dépôts:—

Auckland Islands.—A dépôt is placed on the south side of Erebus Cove, Port Ross, and another in Camp Cove, Carnley Harbour, and a third at the head of Norman Inlet. One boat is placed on the north-west end of Adams Island, another on Enderby Island, and another on Rose Island.

Campbell Island.—A dépôt is erected in Tucker Cove, Perseverance Harbour, and a boat has been placed at the head of that harbour.

Antipodes Islands.—A dépôt is placed abreast the anchorage on the north-east side of the principal island.

Bounty Islands.—There is a dépôt on the principal island.

Snares Island.—A dépôt has been established on this island in Boat Harbour.

Kermadec Islands.—A dépôt is established on Macaulay Island, near Lava Cascade, on the north-east end of the island, and another on Curtis Island, at the head of Macdonald Cove, on the northwestern end of the island.

Finger-posts to indicate the direction of the dépôts have also been put up.

The Government steamer visits the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Snares Islands twice a year, and the Kermadec Islands once a year.


Vessels visiting New Zealand, and requiring docking or repairs, will find ample accommodation at the principal ports of the colony.

There are in New Zealand four graving-docks; two of these are situated in Auckland, one at Lyttelton, and one at Port Chalmers.

Auckland Docks

The Auckland Docks are the property of the Auckland Harbour Board, and cost, with machinery, appliances, &c., £207,000. The dimensions of the docks at Auckland are as follow:—

 Calliope Dock.Auckland Dock.
Length over all525 feet.312 feet.
Length on floor500 feet.300 feet.
Breadth over all110 feet.65 feet.
Breadth on floor40 feet.42 feet.
Breadth at entrance80 feet.43 feet.
Depth of water on sill at high water ordinary spring tides)33 feet.13 1/2 feet.

The following is the scale of charges for the use of the Auckland and Calliope Graving Docks and appliances:—

Auckland Graving Dock.
Entrance fee110
For every vessel of 100 tons (gross register), or under, per day400
For every vessel over 100 tons (gross register), for first 100 tons, per day400
For every additional ton (gross register), per day002
For two or more vessels docking at the same time, the tonnage of which together does not exceed 100 tons (gross register), per day each2100

For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there must be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dock master.

For use of steam-kiln, 10s. per day.

For use of pitch furnace, 10s. per day.

Calliope Graving Dock.
Entrance fee550
For all vessels up to 300 tons (gross register)2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons (gross register)22100
For all vessels 401 to 500 tons (gross register)2500
For all vessels 501 to 600 tons (gross register)27100
For all vessels 601 to 700 tons (gross register)3000
For all vessels 701 to 800 tons (gross register)32100
For all vessels 801 to 900 tons (gross register)3500
For all vessels 901 to 1,000 tons (gross register)37100
For all vessels 1,001 to 1,100 tons (gross register)4000
For all vessels 1,101 to 1,200 tons (gross register)4500
For all vessels 1,201 to 1,300 tons (gross register)5000
For all vessels 1,301 to 1,500 tons (gross register)5500
For all vessels 1,501 to 2,000 tons (gross register)6000
For all vessels 2,001 to 3,000 tons (gross register)6500
For all vessels 3,001 to 4,000 tons (gross register)7000
For all vessels 4,001 to 5,000 tons (gross register)7500

The foregoing charges are for three days or less. After the third day in dock the following rates are charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons (gross register)4d. per ton per diem.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d. per ton per diem.
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2 1/2d. per ton per diem.
For all vessels over 2,001 tons and upwards2d. per ton per diem.

Twenty per cent. reduction on Calliope Dock rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide, and remain in dock the same number of hours; but such reduction is not allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.

For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there is to be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dock master.

During the year 1898, 85 vessels of various descriptions, with a total of 39,319 tons, made use of the Auckland Graving Dock, occupying it in all 145 days 8 hours, for repairs or painting.

In Calliope Dock 13 vessels were docked, viz.: 1 warship and 12 merchant steamers, also 1 dredge (twice), of an aggregate tonnage of 11,479, occupying the dock for 57 days 7 hours.

Dock dues for the year amounted to £1,402 6s. 9d.

Lyttelton Dock and Patent Slip

The Graving-dock at Lyttelton, which is the property of the Harbour Board, is capable of docking a first-class ironclad, or any of the large ocean steamers except the “Gothic” now running to the colony. Its general dimensions are: Length over all, 503ft.; length on floor, 450ft.; breadth over all, 82ft.; breadth on floor, 46ft.; breadth at entrance, 62ft.; breadth where ship's bilge would be, on 6ft. blocks, 55ft.; depth of water on sill at high-water springs, 23ft.

The scale of charges for the use of the dock and pumping machinery are as follow:—

For all vessels up to 300 tons, for four days or less2000
For all vessels up to 301 to 400 tons, for four days or less22100
For all vessels up to 401 to 500 tons, for four days or less2500
For all vessels up to 501 to 600 tons, for four days or less27100
For all vessels up to 601 to 700 tons, for four days or less3000
For all vessels up to 701 to 800 tons, for four days or less32100
For all vessels up to 801 to 900 tons, for four days or less3500
For all vessels up to 901 to 1,000 tons, for four days or less37100
For all vessels up to 1,001 to 1,100 tons, for four days or less4000
For all vessels up to 1,101 to 1,200 tons, for four days or less4500
For all vessels up to 1,201 tons and upwards, for four days or less5000

After the fourth day in deck, the following rates are charged:—

For all vessels up to 500 tons4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons3d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons2 3/4d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 2,001 tons up to 3,000 tons2 1/2d. per ton per day.
For all vessels over 3,001 tons up to 4,000 tons2 1/4 per ton per day.
For all vessels over 4,001 tons up to 5,000 tons2d. per ton per day.

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours. Two vessels of 1,000 tons each can be docked at the same time. The 20-per cent. rebate is not allowed if any of the Lyttleton Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel. The twenty four hours constituting the first day of docking commences from the time of the dock being pumped out.

Any vessel belonging to H.M. Navy or any colonial Government, or any commissioned ship belonging to any foreign nation, is admitted into the graving dock without payment of the usual dock dues, but is charged only such sum as is necessary for the reimbursement of actual expenditure of stores, wages, and materials.

There are electric lights, one on each side of the graving-dock; and there is a workshop alongside the dock, and several other engineering works within a short distance of it, where repairs and heavy foundry-work can be done.

The graving dock and machinery cost £105,000. The interest and sinking fund on that sum, at 6 1/2 per cent., amounts to £6,825 per annum. Since its construction, the dock dues for the sixteen years, ended 31st December, 1898, amounted to £14,487 13s. 1d., and the working expenses to £9,454 9s. 3d., leaving a credit balance for sixteen years, ended 31st December, 1898, of £5,033 3s. 10d.

During the year 1898 twenty-three vessels were docked, and the dock dues amounted to £800 3s. 10d. For the sixteen years, ending 1898, 305 vessels were docked.

Alongside the graving dock is a Patent slip, with a cradle 150ft. in length, suitable for vessels of 300 tons. It belongs to the Harbour Board.

Otago Graving Dock

The dock at Port Chalmers is vested in the Otago Dock Trust, a body entirely distinct from the Otago Harbour Board. Vessels of large size can be taken in the Otago Dock, as the following measurements will show:—

Length over all335 feet.
Length on the floor328 feet.
Breadth over all68 feet.
Breadth on floor41 feet.
Breadth where ship's bilge would be43 feet.
Breadth at dock gates50 feet.
Depth of water on sill at high-water (ordinary spring tides)17 1/2 feet.

Connected with the Otago Dock are a large machine-shop, steam-hammer, and forge, with all the appliances necessary for performing any work that may be required by vessels visiting the port. An 80-ton shear-legs has also been erected for heavy lifts.

There is also a patent slip, used for taking up small vessels.

All vessels using the Otago Graving Dock are liable to dock dues according to the following scale (unless under special contract), revised since the beginning of 1896:—

Vessels under 200 tons, for the first three days, or part of three days2500
Vessels of 200 tons, and under 800 tons3000
Vessels of 800 tons and upwards42100

And for every day, or part of a day, after the first three days:—

Vessels under 300 tons8d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 300 tons and under 400 tons7 3/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 400 tons and under 500 tons7 1/2d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 500 tons and under 600 tons71/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 600 tons and under 700 tons7d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 700 tons and under 800 tons6 3/4d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 800 tons and under 900 tons6 1/2d. per register ton per day.
Vessels under 900 tons and under 1,000 tons6 1/4d. per register ton per day.
1,000 tons and upwards6d. per register ton per day.

During the last twelve months, ending 31st December, 1898, the dock was in use 234 working-days. The number of vessels docked was sixty-four, having a total registered tonnage of 48,970.

Wellington Patent Slip

The Port of Wellington has no dock; but there is a well equipped patent slip at Evans Bay, on which vessels of 2,000 tons can be safely hauled up. This slip is the property of a private company, and is in no way connected with the Harbour Board. It is 1,070ft. long, with a cradle 260ft. in length. There is a depth of 32ft. at high water at the outer end of the slip. A dolphin and buoys are laid down for swinging ships in Evans Bay.

The company has convenient workshops, which contain machinery necessary for effecting all ordinary repairs to vessels using the slip.

During the year ending 31st March, 1898, there were 99 vessels of various sizes taken up on the slip for repairs, cleaning, painting, &c., of an aggregate tonnage of 35,200 tons. The charges for taking vessels on the slip and launching them are 1s. per ton on the gross tonnage for the first full twenty-four hours, and 6d. per ton per day afterwards, unless by special agreement.

Timaru Slip

The Timaru slip is capable of taking up a vessel of 200 tons.

Nelson Cradle

The Anchor Steamship Company's cradle can take up a vessel of 150 tons.


The coasts of New Zealand are, considering their extent, fairly well lighted, but there are many places where lights are still required. Additions to the existing lights are made from time to time as funds are available.

Including the lighthouse on East Cape, now building, there are twenty-nine coastal lights—eight of the first order, fifteen of the second, three of the third, and three of smaller orders.

There has been no special difficulty in the erection of lighthouses in New Zealand, apart from the trouble caused by indifferent landings. There are no lighthouses built in the sea, such as the well known Eddystone or Bell Rock. That on The Brothers is the only one which it is considered necessary to keep as a rock-station: that is, the keepers are relieved from time to time, three being always at the station and one on shore.

The cost of the erection of the lighthouses is given by the Marine Department as about £174,000 (the Ponui Passage Lighthouse, having been built by the Provincial Government of Auckland, the cost is not given). The annual consumption of oil is about 19,800 gallons; and the cost of maintenance, irrespective of the cost of maintaining the lighthouse steamer, is about £13,000 a year.

Besides the coastal lighthouses, there are harbour-lights at most of the ports of the colony for the guidance of vessels into and out of the ports.

The following table shows the names of the lighthouses, indicating also their situation, the order of apparatus, description, period (in seconds) and colour of the lights, and of what material the respective towers are built:—

Name of Light-house.Order of Apparatus.Description.Period of Revolving Light.Colour of Light.Tower built of.
 Dioptric. Seconds.  
Cape Maria van Deimen1st orderRevolving60WhiteTimber
..Fixed..Red, to show over Columbia Reef
Moko Hinou1st orderFlashing10WhiteStone.
Tiri-Tiri (Auckland)2nd orderFixed..White, with red are over Flat RockIron.
Ponui Passage5th orderFixed..White and redTimber
Cuvier Island1st orderRevolving30WhiteIron.
Portland Island2nd orderRevolving30WhiteTimber.
..Fixed..Red, to show over Bull Rock
Cape Palliser2nd orderFlashingTwice every half-minute, with three seconds intervals between flashesWhiteIron.
Pencarrow Head2nd orderFixed WhiteIron.
Cape Egmont2nd orderFixed..WhiteIron.
Manukau Head3rd orderFixed..WhiteTimber
Kaipara Head2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber
Brothers (in Cook Strait)2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber
..Fixed..Red, to show over Cook Rock
Cape Campbell2nd orderRevolving60White 
Godley Head (Lyttelton)2nd orderFixed..WhiteStone.
Akaroa Head2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Moeraki3rd orderFixed..WhiteTimber.
Taiaroa Head3rd orderFixed..RedStone.
Cape Saunders2nd orderRevolving60WhiteTimber.
Nugget Point1st orderFixed..WhiteStone.
Waipapapa Point2nd orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Dog Island1st orderRevolving30WhiteStone.
Centre Island1st orderFixed..White, with red arcs over inshore dangersTimber.
Puysegur Point1st orderFlashing10WhiteTimber.
Cape Foulwind2nd orderRevolving30WhiteTimber.
Farewell Spit2nd orderRevolving60White, with red arc over Spit endTimber.
Nelson4th orderFixed..White, with red arc to mark limit of anchorageIron.
French Pass6thFixed..Red and white, with white light on beacon 
Stephens Island1st orderGroup flashing30WhiteIron
East Cape (now building)2nd orderRevolving10WhiteIron.


It is provided by the above-named Act that every person appointed to the Civil Service under “The Civil Service Reform Act, 1886,” or afterwards, shall retire at the age of sixty years; but the Governor in Council may, nevertheless, require any officer who has attained such age to continue to perform his duties, unless unfitted by reason of ill-health or other cause. It is also provided that if any officer appointed under “The Civil Service Reform Act, 1886,” shall become permanently incapacitated through no fault of his own he shall receive compensation equal to one month's salary for each year of service. It is further provided that every officer under a certain age, to be fixed by regulations, appointed after the passing of this Act shall effect a policy on his (or her) own life with the Life Insurance Commissioner, providing the following combined benefits:—

  1. The payment of a sum of money on the death of such officer, should it occur before he attains the age of sixty years (or after that age, in consideration of his paying the necessary additional premium); and

  2. The payment to such officer of an annuity until death should he survive the age of sixty years.

The policies and moneys secured thereby are not assignable, and cannot be charged or attached, unless the officer leaves the service, voluntarily or otherwise, when he may either surrender the policy or maintain it in force, as he may choose.

The premiums are paid in the form of monthly deductions from salaries, according to the following schedule:—

Salary per Annum.Monthly Deduction from Salary.Yearly Deduction.
Under £150084500
£150 and under £20001267100
£200 and under £25001681000
£250 and under £300101012100
£300 and under £3501501500
£350 and under £40019217100
£400 and under £45011342000
£450 and under £500117622100
£500 and under £5502182500
£550 and under £600251027100
£600 and under £65021003000
£650 and under £700214232100
£700 and under £75021843500
£750 and under £80032637100

When the salary is increased so that it falls in the next higher category in the schedule, the deductions and benefits are also pro proportionately increased, according to the then present age of the policyholder, by endorsement of the policy.

By regulations under the Act, made by the Governor in Council, dated 8th March, 1894, scales of benefits were adopted. For every £5 annually deducted from the salary in accordance with the schedule already given there is provided a temporary insurance of £100 (constant at all ages at entry), ceasing at age sixty, together with a deferred annuity (varying with the age at entry from £63 11s. 1d. at age fifteen to £10 10s. 5d. at age forty) after the age of sixty. By consenting to a small additional deduction from salary, any officer may have the insurance continued after age sixty to the end of life. Newly-appointed officers who are over forty are allowed the option of accumulating 5 per cent. of their salaries in the Public Trust Office, or of taking out insurances or annuities in the Government Insurance Department.

At the end of 1898 there were 236 Civil Service policies in force, insuring £34,518 (including bonuses), and providing deferred annuities amounting to £9,282. Fourteen policies had been lapsed or surrendered, insuring £2,659 at death, with £579 deferred annuities; three policies, insuring £354, had become claims by death; and the holders of seven policies, insuring £2,513 (with £168 deferred annuities), had left the Civil Service, but elected to continue their policies with the Insurance Department.

These policies, placed in separate tables, are merged in the general business of the Insurance Department, and share in the periodical distributions of profits. At successive valuations the necessary reserve is made to fully cover the liability which has accrued upon each of the contracts, thus avoiding the possibility of any future danger such as has overtaken so many pension schemes administered on unsound principles. Indeed, it may be said that two of the greatest benefits conferred upon the participants in this scheme are the avoidance of fluctuation in the fund through amalgamating with a large insurance institution, and the possession of fixed and irrevocable contracts, clearly defining the benefits to be received at death or by way of pension.


There are (March, 1899) 208 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, 50 are daily papers, 29 are published twice a week, 36 three times a week, 61 once a week, 3 fortnightly, and 29 monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication.

M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper:—

    Auckland Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M)Saturday
    Bible Standard (M.)Monthly.
    Christian WorkerMonthly.
    Church Gazette (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand A B C GuideMonthly.
    New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry Journal (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' CompanionWednesday.
    New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
    New Zealand Illustrated Sporting Review and Licensed Victualler's Gazette (M.)Thursday.
    New Zealand Joyful NewsMonthly.
    New Zealand Standard (M.)Monthly.
    Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Produce Circular and Monthly Report (M.)Monthly.
    Sharland's Trade JournalSaturday.
    Southern Cross Log (E.)Monthly.
    Coromandel County News (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Wairoa Bell and Northern Advertiser (E.)Tu., Fri.
    Waikato Argus (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (E.)Daily.
    Northern Luminary (E.)Friday.
    Weekly Onehunga Independent and District Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
    Hot Lakes Chronicle (E.)Saturday.
    Northern Advocate (E.)Friday.
    Goldfields Advocate and Ohinemuri County Chronicle (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Hauraki Tribune and Thames Valley Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Ohinemuri Gazette (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Te Aroha—
    Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Thames Star (E.)Daily.
    Thames Advertiser and Miners' News (M.)Daily.
    Waihi Miner and Hauraki Goldfield Gazette (E.)Daily.
    Golden Age (E.)Wed., Sat.
    Whakatane TimesWed., Sat.
    Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
    Telephone (M.)Saturday.
New Plymouth.
    Record and Waitara Age (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Weekly Record (M.)Saturday.
    New Plymouth—
    Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
    Daily News (M.)Daily.
    Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
    Taranaki News (M.)Saturday.
    Opunake Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Egmont Post (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Egmont Settler (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Waitara Evening Mail and Clifton County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Waitara Times and Clifton County Gazette (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Bush Advocate (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Morning Press (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Hastings Standard (E.)Daily.
    Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
    Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)Daily.
    New Zealand Fire and Ambulance RecordMonthly.
    Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Eltham Argus and District Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Eltham Guardian; Kaponga, Ngaire, Te Roti, Hawera, Stratford, and Cardiff Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
    Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
    Hawera Morning Post, Patea, Normanby, Eltham, Stratford, Kaponga, Manaia, and Opunake Register (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Paraekaretu Express, Hunterville, Ohingaiti, Moawhango, and Rata Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Waimate Witness (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Mangaweka Settler, and Ohingaiti, Rangiwhaia, Taihape, and Waimarino Advertiser (M.)Wed., Sat.
    Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
    Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Waimarino Argus and Raetihi, Ohakune, Karioi, Pipiriki, and Upper Wanganui Advocate (M.)Tuesday.
    Jubilee (M.)Tuesday.
    Wanganui Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Record (M.)Saturday.
    Yeoman (M.)Friday.
    Wairarapa Leader (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Eketahuna Express and North Wairarapa Courier (E.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Feilding Star (E.)Daily.
    Foxton Telegraph and West Coast Advertiser (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Wairarapa Standard and Featherston Advocate (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Star (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Star and Wellington District Advertiser (M.)Thursday.
    Otaki Mail and Horowhenua County and West Coast Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Pahiatua Herald (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Palmerston North—
    Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (E.)Daily.
    Manawatu Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Hutt and Petone Chronicle (M.)Wednesday.
    Church Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
    Evening Post (E.)Daily.
    Guardian (E.)Thursday, fortnightly.
    New Zealand Craftsman (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Cyclists' Touring Club Gazette (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Dairyman and Dairy Messenger (E.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Field (M.)Friday.
    New Zealand Insurance, Finance, and Mining Journal (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Mail, Town and Country Advertiser (M)Friday.
    New Zealand Mines Record (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
    Register and Property Investors' GuideMonthly.
    Wellington Price Current and New Zealand Trade Review (M)Monthly.
    Woodville Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
    Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Brightwater Independent Chronicle (M.)Thursday.
    Golden Bay Argus (E.)Thursday.
    Colonist (M.)Daily.
    Nelson Evening Mail (E.)Daily.
    Takaka News and Collingwood Advertiser (E.)Thursday.
    Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Buller Post (E.)Thursday.
    Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
    Westport News (M.)Daily.
    Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Brunner News, Blackball Courier, and Grey Valley Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
    Grey River Argus (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Argus (M.)Weekly.
    Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Daily.
    Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.)Daily.
    Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Leader (M.)Saturday.
    West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
    Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
    Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Ashburton Standard and Farmers' Advocate (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Cheviot News (M.)Tues., Fri.
    Canterbury Times (M.)Wednesday.
    Colonial InventorMonthly.
    Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
    Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New Zealand (E.)Thursday.
    New Zealand RaptistMonthly.
    New Zealand Church News (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Cyclist (M.)Saturday.
    New Zealand Railway ReviewMonthly.
    New Zealand Schoolmaster (E.)Monthly.
    New Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Saturday.
    New Zealand WheelmanWednesday.
    Press (M.)Daily.
    ProhibitionistFortnightly, Fri.
    Spectator (M.)Wednesday.
    Star (E.)Daily.
    Truth (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Press (incorporating the “Referee”) (M.)Wednesday.
    Oxford (East)—
    Oxford Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Tu., Fri.
    Rangiora Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Ellesmere Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Fairlie Star (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Geraldine Advocate (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Pleasant Point Mail (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Temuka Times (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    South Canterbury Times (E.)Daily.
    South Canterbury Weekly Gazette (M.)Friday.
    Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
    Waimate Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
    Waimate Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
    Oamaru Mail (E.)Daily.
    Alexandra South—
    Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette (M.)Thursday.
    Clutha Leader (M.)Friday.
    Free Press (M.)Friday.
    Dunstan Times, Vincent County Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (M.)Tuesday.
    Cromwell TimesWeekly.
    Advocate (M.)Saturday.
    Christian Outlook (M.)Saturday.
    Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Farmers' Circular (M.)Thur., fortn'ly.
    New Zealand Tablet (M.)Friday.
    Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
    Otago Witness (M.)Thursday.
    Otago Workman, Dunedin and Suburban Advertiser (M)Saturday.
    Phonographic Magazine and Typewriting NewsMonthly.
    New Zealand Mining Journal and Financial Guide (M.)Monthly.
    Temperance StandardMonthly
    Triad (M.)Monthly
    Weekly Budget (M.)Saturday.
    Tuapeka Recorder (M.)Friday.
    Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Mount Ida Chronicle (E.)Friday (twice).
    Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)Friday.
    Mount Benger Mail (M.)Saturday.
    Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
    Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
    Mataura Ensign (E.)Tues., Th., Sat.
    Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Southern Cross (M.)Saturday.
    Southlander (M.)Friday.
    Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
    Southland Times (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
    Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)Friday.
    Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Tues., Fri.
    Winton Record and Hokonui Advocate (M.)Tues., Fri.
    Wyndham Farmer (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Wyndham Herald (M.)Wed., Friday.

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 37 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 11, Hawke's Bay 8. Wellington 46, Marlborough 4, Nelson 12, Westland 9, Canterbury 37, and Otago 44.


Under the Customs and Excise Duties Acts, 1888 and 1895, and “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896.”

Table of Duties

The headings of the respective classes in this Table and in the Table of Exemptions are used solely for convenience of classification, and shall not in any way affect the articles specified therein, or be construed to indicate the material of which any such article is made.

The word “iron” includes steel, or steel and iron combined.

Neither steam-engines, nor parts of steam-engines, nor steam-boilers (land or marine) are included in the expression “machines” or “machinery” in either this Table or the Table of Exemptions.

The abbreviation “n.o.e.” means not otherwise enumerated.

In computing “ad valorem” duties the invoice value of the goods is increased by 10 per cent.

Class I.—Foods and Articles for Human Consumption

Names of Articles and Rates of Duty

  1. Almonds, in the shell, 2d. the lb.

  2. Almonds, shelled, n.o.e, 3d. the lb.

  3. Bacon and hams, 2d. the lb.

  4. Biscuits, ships', plain and unsweetened, 3s. the cwt.

  5. Biscuits, other kinds, 2d. the lb.

  6. Boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candy, 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

  7. Candied peel and drained peel, 3d. the lb.

  8. Capers, caraway seeds, catsup, cayenne pepper, chillies, chutney, curry-powder and -paste, fish-paste, gelatine, isinglass, liquorice, olives, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  9. Chocolate confectionery, and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa—

    In plain trade packages, 3d. the lb.

    In fancy packages, or in small packages for retail sale, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  10. Confectionery, n.o.e., 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

  11. Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, n.o.e., 10s. the cwt.

  12. Fish, potted and preserved, 2d. the lb., or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  13. Fruit, fresh, viz.:—

    Apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, medlars, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, 1d. the lb.

    (No duty exceeding 1/2d. the lb. to be levied on apples and pears from 14th July to 31st December.)

    Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, and strawberries, 1/2d. the lb.

    Lemons, 1/2d. the lb.

  14. Fruits, dried, 2d. the lb.

  15. Fruits, preserved in juice or syrup, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  16. Fruit-pulp, and partially preserved fruit, n.o.e., 1 1/2 d. the lb.

  17. Fruits preserved by sulphurous acid, 1d. the lb.

  18. Glucose, 1d. the lb.

  19. Honey, 2d. the lb.

  20. Jams, jellies, marmalade, and preserves, 2d. the lb. or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  21. Jellies concentrated in tablets or powder, 4d. the lb.

  22. Maizena and cornflour, 1/4d. the lb.

  23. Meats, potted or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  24. Milk, preserved, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  25. Mustard, 2d. the lb.

  26. Nuts of all kinds, except cocoanuts, 2d. the lb.

  27. Oysters, preserved, 2d. the lb. or packages of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  28. Pearl barley, 1s. the cwt.

  29. Peas, split, 2s. the cwt.

  30. Pickles, 3s. the imperial gallon.

  31. Provisions, n.o.e., 20 per cent., ad valorem.

  32. Rice and rice-flour, 6s. the cwt.

  33. Rice, undressed, and dressed in bond, 4s. the cwt.

  34. Salt, except rock-salt, 10s. the ton.

  35. Sardines, including the oil, 2d. the lb.

  36. Sauces, 4s. the imperial gallon.

  37. Spices, including pepper and pimento, unground, 2d. the lb.

  38. Spices, including pepper and pimento, ground, 4d. the lb.

  39. Sugar, 1/2d. the lb.

  40. Treacle and molasses, 1/2d. the lb.

  41. Vegetables, fresh, dried, or preserved, 20 per cent., ad valorem.

  42. Vinegar, table, not exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity,* 6d. the gallon.

    * Vinegar exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity to be treated as acetic acid.

    Class II.—Tobacco.

  43. Cigarettes, not exceeding in weight 2 1/2lb. per 1,000, 17s. 6d. the 1,000. And for all weight in excess of 2 1/2lb. per 1,000, 6d. the oz.

  44. Cigars, 7s. the lb.

  45. Snuff, 7s. the lb.

  46. Tobacco, 3s. 6d. the lb.

  47. Tobacco unmanufactured, entered to be manufactured in the colony in any licensed tobacco manufactory, for manufacturing purposes only, into tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or snuff, 2s. the lb.

    Class III.—Alcoholic Beverages, and Materials for Making Same.

  48. Ale, beer of all sorts, porter, cider, and perry, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or 12 reputed pint bottles, 2s. the gallon.

  49. Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  50. Hops, 6d. the lb.

  51. Malt, 2s. the bushel.

  52. Rice malt, 1d. the lb.

  53. Solid wort, 6d. the lb.

  54. Spirits and strong waters, the strength of which can be ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer, 16s. the proof gallon.

    (No allowance beyond 16.5 under proof shall be made for spirits or strong waters of a less hydrometer strength than 16.5 under proof.)

  55. Spirits and strong waters, sweetened or mixed, when not exceeding the strength of proof, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  56. Spirits and strong waters in cases shall be charged as follows, namely:—Two gallons and under, as two gallons; over two gallons and not exceeding three, as three gallons; over three gallons and not exceeding four, as four gallons; and so on for any greater quantity contained in any case.

  57. Spirits or strong waters, mixed with ingredients in any proportion exceeding 33 per cent. of proof spirit, and although thereby coming under any other designation, excepting patent or proprietary medicines, or tinctures and medicinal spirits otherwise enumerated, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  58. Wine, Australian, containing not more than 35 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 5s. the gallon.

  59. Wine, other than sparkling and Australian, containing less than 40 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 6s. the gallon.

  60. Wine, sparkling, 9s. the gallon.

    Class IV.—Non-Alcoholic Beverages, and Materials for Making Same.

  61. Aërated and mineral waters and effervescing beverages, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  62. Chicory, 3d. the lb.

  63. Chocolate, 3d. the lb.

  64. Cocoa, 3d. the lb.

  65. Coffee, essence of, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  66. Coffee, raw, 2d. the lb.

  67. Coffee roasted, 5d. the lb.

  68. Syrups; lime- or lemon-juice sweetened; raspberry vinegar, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  69. Tea, 4d. the lb.

    Class V.—Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, and Druggists' Sundries.

  70. Acid, acetic, n.o.e., containing not more than 30 per cent. of acidity, 1 1/2d. the lb. For every 10 per cent. of acidity or fraction thereof additional, 1/2d. the lb.

  71. Acid, tartaric, 1d. the lb.

  72. Baking-powder, yeast preparations, and other ferments, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  73. Chemicals n.o.e., including photographic chemicals and glacial acetic acid, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  74. Cream of tartar, 1d. the lb.

  75. Drugs and druggists' sundries and apothecaries' wares, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  76. Essences, flavouring, spirituous, 15 per cent. ad valorem until 1st February, 1896, and thereafter 16s. the liquid gallon.

  77. Essences, flavouring, n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  78. Eucalyptus oil, in bulk or bottle, 20 per. cent. ad valorem.

  79. Glycerine, refined, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  80. Opium, 40s. the lb.

  81. Patent medicines, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

  82. Proprietary medicines, or medicaments, (1) bearing the name of the proprietor on label or package; (2) bearing a prefixed name in the possessive case; (3) n.o.e., prepared by any occult secret or art, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

  83. Saccharine, except in the form of tabloids or tablets, 1s. 6d. the ounce.

  84. Sarsaparilla, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  85. Soda, carbonate and bicarbonate, 1s. the cwt.

  86. Soda, crystals, 2s. the cwt.

  87. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopœia, containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 1s. the lb.

  88. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopœia, containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 6d. the lb.

    Class VI.—Clothing and Textile Goods.

  89. Apparel and ready-made clothing, and all articles n.o.e. made up wholly or in part from textile or other piece-goods, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  90. Apparel made by British or foreign tailors, dress-, mantle-, or jacket-makers, to the order of residents in the colony, and intended for the individual use of such residents, whether imported by the residents themselves or through an importing firm, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

  91. Blankets, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  92. Collars and cuffs, of paper or other material, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  93. Cotton counterpanes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  94. Cotton piece-goods, to include turkey twills, dress prints (hard-spun and plain-woven), where the invoice value does not exceed 4d. the yard; and cotton piece-goods n.o.e., 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  95. Cotton piece goods—namely, tapestry; cretonnes; chintz art crêpe, and serges; velveteens, velvets, and plushes, all kinds; damasks, moquette; sateens, linenettes; crepons; crimps; zephyrs; ginghams; turkey twills; prints; printed cottons; piqués; vestings; quiltings and marcellas; muslins of all kinds; nets; window-nets; hollands, curtains, and blinds; diapers; ticks, including coloured Belgian; towellings; laces: 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  96. Drapery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  97. Feathers, ornamental (including ostrich), and artificial flowers, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  98. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  99. Furs, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  100. Haberdashery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  101. Hats of all kinds, including straw hats, also caps, 25 per cent ad valorem.

  102. Hosiery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  103. Lace, and laces, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  104. Millinery of all kinds, including trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  105. Ribbons and crape, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  106. Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  107. Shawls, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  108. Silks, satins, velvets, plushes, n.o.e., composed of silk mixed with any other material, in the piece, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  109. Textile piece-goods other than cotton or silk, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  110. Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  111. Yarns n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.


    Class VII.—Leather and Manufactures of Leather.

  112. Boots, shoes, and slippers, n.o.e; goloshes, clogs, pattens, vamps, uppers, and laces, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

  113. Heel-plates, and toe-stiffeners and plates, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

  114. Leather—

    Leather belting and belt-leather, harness, bridle, legging, bag, kip (other than East India), 4d. the lb.

    Buff and split, including satin hides and tweeds, 3d. the lb.

    Cordovan, levanted leather, roans, sheepskins, morocco n.o.e., basils, 3d. the lb.

    Sole-leather, 2d. the lb.

    East India kip, Persians, lambskins and goatskins (dressed other than morocco), kangaroo and wallabi skins (dressed), tan and coloured calf, 2d. the lb.

    Leather n.o.e., 1d. the lb.

  115. Leather board or compo, 4d. the lb.

  116. Leather bags and leather-cloth bags, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  117. Leather, chamois, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  118. Leather cut into shapes, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

  119. Leather leggings, 22 1/2 per cent. ad valorem.

  120. Leather manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  121. Portmanteaux; trunks; travelling-bags and brief-bags of leather or leather-cloth, 10 in. in length and upwards, and carpet-bags, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  122. Saddlery and harness, whips and whip-thongs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class VIII.—Furniture and Household Furnishings.

  123. Basket- and wicker-ware n.o.e., not being furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  124. Carpets and druggets; floorcloth; mats and matting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  125. Desks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  126. Furniture and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  127. Furniture-, knife-, and plate-powder and polish, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  128. Mantelpieces, other than stone, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  129. Upholstery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class IX.—China, Glass, and Earthen Goods.

  130. Bricks, known as firebricks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  131. China, porcelain, and parianware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  132. Drainage pipes and tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  133. Earthen flooring and garden tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  134. Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  135. Filters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  136. Fireclay, ground, and fireclay goods, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  137. Glass, crown, sheet, and common window, 2s. the 100 superficial feet.

  138. Glassware; also plate-glass, and glass polished, coloured, and other kinds n.o.e.; globes and chimneys for lamps, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  139. Lamps, lanterns, and lamp-wick, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  140. Plate-glass, bevelled or silvered; mirrors and looking-glasses, framed or unframed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class X.—Fancy Goods, Musical Instruments, etc.

  141. Artificial flies, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  142. Cards, playing, 6d. per pack.

  143. Clocks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  144. Dressing-cases, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  145. Fancy goods, and toys, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  146. Fishing tackle, including artificially-baited hooks other than flies, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  147. Jewellery; plate, gold or silver; greenstone, cut or polished: 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  148. Mouldings in the piece, for picture-frames, cornices, or ceilings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  149. Musical instruments of all kinds n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  150. Oil, perfumed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  151. Papier-maché ware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  152. Perfumery n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  153. Perfumed spirits and Cologne-water; £1 1s. the liquid gallon until the 1st February, 1896, and thereafter £1 10s. the liquid gallon.

  154. Photographic goods n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  155. Pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed; picture- or photograph-frames and -mounts, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  156. Platedware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  157. Statues, statuettes, casts, and bronzes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  158. Tobacco-pipes and cases, cigar- and cigarette-holders and cases, cigarette-papers and -cases, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  159. Toilet preparations n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  160. Watches, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  161. Walking-sticks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XI.—Paper Manufactures and Stationery.

  162. Calendars and show-cards, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  163. Cardboard boxes complete, or cardboard cut and shaped for boxes (including match-boxes), 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  164. Directories of New Zealand, or of any part thereof; also covers for directories, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  165. Handbills, programmes, and circulars, playbills and printed posters, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  166. Ink, writing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  167. Paper bags, coarse (including sugar-bags), 7s. 6d. the cwt.

  168. Paper bags n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  169. Paper-hangings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  170. Paper, wrapping—viz., blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings, small hand, lumber hand, and tissue, 5s. the cwt.

  171. Paper, wrapping, other kinds, including brown, cartridge, and sugar papers, 5s. the cwt.

  172. Printed matter relating to patent or proprietary medicines; trade catalogues, price-lists, and fashion-plates of the goods of firms or persons in the colony, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  173. Stationery and writing paper n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  174. Stationery, manufactured—viz., account-books; manuscript books; bill-head, invoice, and statement forms; printed or ruled paper; counter-books; cheque- and draft-forms; tags; labels; blotting-pads; sketch-books; book covers; copying letter-books; manifold writers; albums (other than for photographs); diaries; birthday-books; plain or faint-lined ruled books; printed window-tickets; printed, lithographed, or embossed stationery; and Christmas, New Year, birthday, and Easter cards and booklets: 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  175. Stereotypes and matrices, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XII.—Manufactures of Metal.

  176. Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles; also finished or partly finished or machined parts of same, n.o.e., including weld-less steel tubing cut to short lengths, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  177. Boilers, land and marine, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  178. Brass cocks, valves, unions, lubricators, and whistles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  179. Brass manufactures n.o.e, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  180. Cartridges (shot), 10- to 24-bore, 1s. 6d. the 100.

  181. Cartridge-cases, 9d. the 100.

  182. Cartridges, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  183. Cash-registering machines, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  184. Coffin-furniture, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  185. Composition-piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

  186. Copper manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  187. Copying-presses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  188. Crab-winches, cranes n.o.e., capstans, and windlasses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  189. Cutlery, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  190. Firearms, all kinds, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  191. Galvanised-iron manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  192. Gasometers, and other apparatus for producing gas; also gas-meters, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  193. Gaspipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  194. Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  195. Iron bridges, and iron material, n.o.e., for the construction of bridges, wharves, jetties, or patent slips, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  196. Iron columns for buildings, and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  197. Iron doors for safes and vaults, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  198. Iron, galvanised corrugated sheets, screws, and nails, 2s. the cwt.

  199. Iron galvanised tiles, ridging, guttering, and spouting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  200. Iron gates and gate-posts, staples, standards, straining posts and apparatus, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  201. Iron nails, 2s. the cwt.

  202. Iron pipes, and fittings for same, including main-cocks, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  203. Iron, plain galvanised sheet and hoop, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

  204. Iron tanks, exceeding 200 gallons and not exceeding 400 gallons, 10s. each.

  205. Iron tanks, of and under 200 gallons, 5s. each.

  206. Iron-work and wire-work, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  207. Japanned and lacquered metal ware, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  208. Lawn-mowers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  209. Lead, in sheets, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

  210. Lead piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

  211. Machinery, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  212. Machinery, electric, and appliances, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  213. All machinery for agricultural purposes, including chaff-cutters, corn-crushers, corn-shellers, also articles used in manufacturing the same—namely, chaff-cutting knives, tilt-rakes, fittings for threshing-mills, forgings for ploughs; but excluding reapers and binders, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  214. Machinery for dairying purposes (excluding separators and coolers), 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  215. Machinery for flour-mills, woollen-mills, paper-mills, rope- and twine-making, dredging, saw-milling, planing, and wood-working (including lathes), oil-refining, boring, and also machinery for refrigerating or preserving meat, leather-splitting machines, and band-knives for same, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  216. Machinery for stamping and blocking tin, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  217. Machinery of every description for mining purposes, including machine pumps, but excluding machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  218. Manufactures, n.o.e., of metal, or of metal in combination with any other material, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  219. Nails n.o.e., 3s. the cwt.

  220. Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boilers of locomotive type; also traction-engines, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  221. Printing machines and presses, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  222. Pumps and other apparatus for raising water n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  223. Railway and tramway plant and materials n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  224. Sad-irons, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  225. Shot, 10s. the cwt.

  226. Soda-water machines; also machines for aërating liquids, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  227. Steam-engines and parts of steam-engines n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  228. Steam-engines and parts thereof (including the boiler or boilers therefor), imported specially for mining and dairying purposes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  229. Tinware, and tinsmiths' furniture, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  230. Waterworks pipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  231. Weigh-bridges and weighing-machines, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  232. Wire mattresses and webbing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  233. Zinc tiles, ridging, guttering, piping, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  234. Zinc manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XIII.—Timber and Articles made from Timber.

  235. Bellows, other than forge, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  236. Blocks, wooden tackle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  237. Buckets and tubs, of wood, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  238. Carriages, carts, drays, wagons and perambulators, and wheels for the same, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  239. Carriage shafts, spokes, and felloes, dressed: bent carriage timber n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  240. Doors, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. each.

  241. Doors, plain, 2s. each.

  242. Sashes, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. the pair.

  243. Sashes, plain, 2s. the pair.

  244. Timber, palings, 2s. the 100.

  245. Timber, posts, 8s. the 100.

  246. Timber, rails, 4s. the 100.

  247. Timber, sawn, dressed, 4s. the 100 ft. superficial.

  248. Timber, sawn, rough, 2s. the 100 ft. superficial.

  249. Timber, shingles and laths, 2s. the 1,000.

  250. Woodenware and turnery n.o.e., and veneers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XIV.—Oils, Paints, etc.

  251. Axle-grease and other solid lubricants, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  252. Harness oil and composition, and leather dressing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  253. Naphtha, 6d. the gallon.

  254. Oil, kerosene, 6d. the gallon.

  255. Oil, linseed, 6d. the gallon.

  256. Oil, mineral, including shale-waste or unrefined mineral-oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  257. Oil, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  258. Oil, olive, in bulk, 6d. the gallon.

  259. Oil vegetable, in bulk, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  260. Oil, vegetable or other, in bottle, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  261. Paints and colours ground in oil or turpentine, 2s. 6d. the cwt.

  262. Paints and colours mixed ready for use, 5s. the cwt.

  263. Putty, 2s. the cwt.

  264. Stearine, 1 1/2 d. the lb.

  265. Varnish, enamel paints, gold size, 2s. the gallon.

  266. Whiting and chalk, 1s. the cwt.

    Class XV.—Agricultural and Farm Products, etc.

  267. Animals, food for, of all kinds, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  268. Cattle (horned), 10s. each.

  269. Chaff, £1 the ton.

  270. Grain—namely, barley, 2s. the 100 lb.

  271. Grain and pulse of every kind n.o.e., 9d. the 100 lb.

  272. Grain and pulse of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, n.o.e., 1s. the 100 lb.

  273. Horses, £1 each.

  274. Linseed, £1 the ton.

  275. Maize, 9d. the 100 lb.

  276. Onions, £1 the ton.

  277. Prepared calf-meal, £1 5s. the ton.

    Class XVI.—Miscellaneous.

  278. Bags, flour, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  279. Bags, calico, forfar, hessian, and linen, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  280. Bagging and bags n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  281. Blacking and boot-gloss, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  282. Blacklead, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  283. Blue, 2d. the lb.

  284. Brooms, brushes, and brushware n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  285. Brushes, hair, and combs; toilet, clothes, and hat brushes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  286. Candles, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  287. Cement, 2s. the barrel.

  288. Cordage and rope n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  289. Cork, cut, including bungs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  290. Fireworks n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  291. Flock, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  292. Glue and size, 1 1/2d. the lb.

  293. Granite, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  294. Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, including mantelpieces, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  295. Matches—

    Wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches, 1s. the gross of boxes.

    In boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches, 2s. the gross of boxes.

    In boxes containing more than 100 matches, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. the gross of boxes.

    Wax, “plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 2d. the gross of boxes.

    “Pocket vestas” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 9d. the gross of boxes.

    “Sportsman's,” “Ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches, 5s. the gross of boxes.

    Other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. 6d. the gross of boxes.

  296. Nets and netting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  297. Powder, sporting, 6d. the lb.

  298. Rice, manufactured into starch in bond, 2s. the cwt.

  299. Sacks, other than corn sacks and jute sacks, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  300. Sausage-skins and casings (including brine or salt), 3d. the lb.

  301. Soap, common yellow and blue mottled, 5s. the cwt.

  302. Soap n.o.e. 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  303. Soap-powder, extract of soap, dry soap, and soft-soap, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  304. Spirits, methylated, 1s. the liquid gallon.

  305. Spirits, cleared from warehouse, methylated under prescribed conditions, 6d. the liquid gallon.

  306. Starch, 2d. the lb.

  307. Tarpaulins, tents, rick- and wagon-covers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  308. Twine, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  309. Washing-powder, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  310. Wax, paraffin, mineral, vegetable, and Japanese, 1 1/2d. the lb.

    In addition to any duty chargeable by law on any goods imported into the colony, a further duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem shall be charged when the goods are prison-made.

    Table of Exemptions from Duties of Customs. Class I.—Foods, etc.

    Names of Articles.

  311. Almonds, Barbary, Sicily, and French, used in confectioners' manufactures.

  312. Anchovies, salted, in casks.

  313. Arrowroot, sago, tapioca, macaroni, vermicelli, and prepared groats.

  314. Rock salt.

    Class IV.—Non-Alcoholic Beverages, etc.

  315. 315. Cocoa-beans.

    Class V.—Drugs, etc.

  316. Acids—viz.: boracic; carbolic, in bulk; fluoric; muriatic; nitric; oxalic; oleic; pyrogallic; salicylic; sulphuric.

  317. Concentrated extracts, or essences in liquid form or preserved in fat for perfume-manufacturing purposes in manufacturing warehouses, in bottles of not less than 1 lb. in weight.

  318. Disinfectants.

  319. Drugs and chemicals—viz.: alum; sulphate of aluminium; sulphate of ammonia; anhydrous ammonia; aniline dyes; arsenic, bluestone, or sulphate of copper; borax; catechu; chloride of calcium; nitrate of silver; cochineal; creosote, crude or commercial; glycerine, crude; gum, arabic and tragacanth; gum benzoin; artificial gum arabic; gum damar; phosphorus; potash, caustic potash, and chlorate of potash; pearlash; cyanide of potassium; sal-ammoniac; saltpetre; acetate of soda, crude; soda-ash; caustic soda; nitrate of soda; silicate of soda, sulphate of soda; sulphide of sodium; strychnine; sulphur; chloride of zinc; iron-sulphates; gall-nuts; turmeric; saffron; nitrous-oxide gas; tree washes; insecticides; maltine; chlorodyne.

  320. Essential oils, except eucalyptus; cod-liver oil; oil of rhodium.

  321. Horse-drenches.

  322. Medicinal barks, leaves, herbs, flowers, roots, and gums.

  323. Scrub-exterminator.

  324. Sheep-dip; sheep-drenches; sheep-licks.

  325. Surgical and dental instruments and appliances.

  326. Scientific and assay balances, retorts, flasks, and other appliances for chemical analysis and assay work.

  327. Water-hardening chemicals for brewers' use.

    Class VI.—Clothing and Textiles.

  328. Accoutrements for military purposes, excepting uniform clothing.

  329. Brace-elastic and brace mountings.

  330. Bunting, in the piece.

  331. Butter- and cheese-cloth.

  332. Buttons, tapes, wadding, pins, needles.

  333. Calico, white and grey, also cotton sheetings, in the piece.

  334. Corduroy, moleskin, and plain beaver-skin, of cotton, in the piece.

  335. Coloured cotton shirtings; flannelette shirtings.*

    * See note on next page.

  336. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, when cut up under supervision in sizes not exceeding 47 in. × 36 in. for making flour-bags, and not exceeding 54 in. for lining wool mats.

  337. Fur-skins, green or sun-dried.

  338. Gold or silver lace or braid for military clothing.

  339. Hatmaker's materials—viz.: silk plush; felt hoods; shellac; galloons; calicoes; spale-boards for hat-boxes; leathers and linings; blocks; moulds; frames; ventilators; and tassels.

  340. Hessians, plain or striped, and scrim.

  341. Leather-cloth.

  342. Minor articles (required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades), enumerated in any order of the Commissioner, and published in the Gazette.

  343. Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck, in the piece.

  344. Sewing cottons, silks, and threads; crotchet, darning, and knitting cottons; angola mendings not exceeding 45 yards, on cards.

  345. Silk for flour-dressing.

  346. Silk twist (shoemakers' and saddlers').

  347. Stay makers' binding, eyelets, corset-fasteners, jean, ticks, lasting, sateen, and cotell.

  348. Tailors' trimmings—viz.: plain-coloured imitation hair-cloth; canvas; plain Verona and plain diagonal, and such patterns of checked Italian cloth as may be approved of by the Commissioner of Customs; Italian cloth of cotton or wool; buckram; wadding and padding; silk, worsted, and cotton bindings and braids; stay-bindings; Russia braids; shoulder-pads; buckles; silesias; drab, slate, and brown jeans; pocketings; slate, black, and brown dyed unions and linens.

  349. Umbrella-makers' materials—viz.: reversible and levantine silk mixtures, gloria, and satin de chêne of not less than 44 in. in width; alpaca cloth, with border; zanella cloth, with border; also other piece-goods on such conditions as the Commissioner may approve; sticks, runners, notches, caps, ferrules, cups, ribs, stretchers, tips, and rings.

  350. Union shirtings the invoice value of which does not exceed 6d. the yard.*

    * Whenever any dispute arises as to the application of the exemption in favour of coloured cotton, flannelette, or union shirtings, in the case of fabrics alleged to be such shirtings, the Commissioner has power to decide such dispute: and in case of doubt on his part, he may require the fabric in dispute to be cut up for shirt-making, under such conditions as he prescribes.

  351. Waterproof material in the piece.

    Class VII.—Leather, and Articles used in Leather Manufactures.

  352. Boot-elastic.

  353. Bootmakers' linings, canvas, plain or coloured, bag and portmanteau linings, of such materials, qualities, and patterns as may be approved by the Commissioner.

  354. Boots, shoes, and slippers—viz., children's, Nos. 0 to 3.

  355. Cork soles, and sock soles.

  356. East India kip, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

  357. Goatskins, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

  358. Grindery, except heel- and toe-plates.

  359. Hogskins.

  360. Kangaroo-, wallabi-skins, undressed.

  361. Leather, japanned or enamelled; goatskins, dressed as morocco, coloured (other than black).

  362. Saddle-trees.

  363. Saddlers' ironmongery (except bits and stirrup-irons), hames, and mounts for harness; straining, surcingle, brace, girth, and roller-webs; collar-check, and the same article plain, of such quality as may be approved by the Commissioner; legging-buckles.

  364. Tanning materials, crude.

    Class VIII.—Furniture, etc.

  365. Blind-webbing and tape.

  366. Upholsterers' webbing, hair-seating, imitation hair-seating, curled hair; gimp and cord, of wool, cotton, or silk; tufts and studs.

    Class IX.—China, Glass, etc.

  367. Bottles, empty, plain glass, not being cut or ground; also jars up to 3 in. in diameter at the mouth.

  368. Glass plates (engraved) for photo-lithographic work.

  369. Jars or other dutiable vessels, containing free goods or goods subject to a fixed rate of duty, and being ordinary trade packages for the goods contained in them.

    Class X.—Fancy Goods, etc.

  370. Action-work and keys, in frames or otherwise, for manufacture of organs, harmoniums, and pianos; organ-pipes and stop-knobs.

  371. Artists' canvas, colours, brushes, and pallet-knives.

  372. Magic-lanterns, lenses, and slides.

  373. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes, and lenses for same.

  374. Musical instruments, specially imported for Volunteer bands.

  375. Paintings, statuary, and works of art, presented to or imported by any public institution or art association registered as a body corporate, for display in the buildings of such institution or association, and not to be sold or otherwise disposed of.

  376. Photographic cameras and lenses.

  377. Photographs of personal friends in letters or packets.

  378. Precious stones, cut or uncut and unmounted.

  379. Sensitized surfaces for photographic purposes.

    Class XI.—Paper, etc.

  380. Bookbinders' materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue-paste for ruling-ink, staple-presses, wire-staples, staple-sticks.

  381. Butter-paper, known as parchment paper or waxed paper.

  382. Cardboard and pasteboard, of sizes not less than that known as “royal”.

  383. Cardboard boxes, materials for—viz., gold and silver paper, plain and embossed, gelatine and coloured papers, known as “box-papers.”

  384. Cartridge paper, for drawing-books.

  385. Cloth-lined boards, not less than “royal.”

  386. Cloth-lined papers; enamelled-paper; ivorite and gelatine; metallic paper, not less than “demy.”

  387. Copy-books and drawing-books.

  388. Copying-paper, medium and double-foolscap, in original mill wrappers and labels.

  389. Hand-made cheque-paper.

  390. Ink, printing.

  391. Masticated para.

  392. Millboard and bookbinders' leather-board.

  393. Paper, hand-made or machine-made book or writing, of sizes not less than the size known as “demy,” when in original wrappers.

  394. Printing-paper.

  395. Printed books, papers, and music n.o.e.

  396. School slates, and educational apparatus.

    Class XII.—Metals.

  397. Anchors.

  398. Artificers' tools.

  399. Axes and hatchets; spades, shovels, and forks; picks; mattocks; quartz and knapping-hammers; scythes, sheep-shears, reaping-hooks; soldering-irons, paperhangers' scissors; butchers' saws and cleavers.

  400. Axles, axle-arms, and boxes.

  401. Band-saws and folding-saws, including frames.

  402. Bellows nails.

  403. Bicycles and tricycles, fittings for—viz., rubber-tires, pneumatic-tires, outside covers, and inner tubes; rubber and cork handles, and pedal-rubbers; also drop-forgings and stampings, ball-bearings, weldless steel tube in full lengths, rims, forks, and spokes, in the rough.

  404. Blacksmiths' anvils, forges, and fans.

  405. Bolts, 5in. by 1/2in. in diameter, and under, and nuts for same.

  406. Brass and copper, in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets.

  407. Brass tubing and stamped work, in the rough, for gasliers and brackets.

  408. Caps, percussion.

  409. Card-clothing for woollen-mills.

  410. Chains, trace and plough chains; or metal articles required to repair or complete riding or driving harness or saddlery to be repaired or made in the colony.

  411. Copper and composition rod, bolts, sheathing, and nails.

  412. Couch-roll jackets, machine-wires, beater-bars, and strainer-plates for paper-mills.

  413. Crucibles.

  414. Emery-grinding machines and emery-wheels.

  415. Empty iron drums, not exceeding 10 gallons capacity.

  416. Engineers' machine tools.

  417. Eyelets.

  418. Fire-engines, including Merryweather's chemical fire-engines.

  419. Fish-hooks.

  420. Galvanising-baths, welded.

  421. Gas-engines and hammers, and oil-engines.

  422. Glassmakers' moulds.

  423. Hydraulic cranes.

  424. Iron- and brass-wove wire and wire-gauze; also wire netting.

  425. Iron boiler-plates and unflanged end-plates for boilers; boiler-tubes not exceeding 6in. in diameter, and unflanged; Bowling's expansion rings; furnace-flues.

  426. Iron, plain black sheet, rod, bolt, bar, plate, hoop, and pig.

  427. Iron rolled girders.

  428. Iron plates, screws, and castings for ships.

  429. Iron wire n.o.e., including fencing-wire, plain and barbed.

  430. Lead, in pigs and bars.

  431. Locomotives.

  432. Machine saws.

  433. Machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes.

  434. Metal fittings for trunks, portmanteaux, travelling-bags, leggings, bags, and satchels.

  435. Metal sheaves for blocks.

  436. Metallic capsules.

  437. Perambulators and the like vehicles, fittings for, n.o.e.

  438. Perforated or cellular sheet zinc or iron.

  439. Printing type and materials n.o.e.

  440. Rails for railways and tramways.

  441. Reapers and binders, and reaping and mowing machines, and extra parts for same; materials for manufacturing agricultural machinery—namely, reaper-knife sections, fingers, brass and steel springs, malleable castings, discs for harrows, mould-boards and plough-shares, mould-board plates, and steel share-plates cut to pattern, skeith-plates; ploughs and harrows; combined threshers.

  442. Riddles and sieves.

  443. Rivets and washers.

  444. Separators and coolers for dairying purposes.

  445. Set-screws, engineers' studs, and split-pins.

  446. Sewing-, knitting-, and kilting-machines.

  447. Spiral springs (except sofa- and mattress-springs).

  448. Steam and hydraulic pressure and vacuum gauges.

  449. Surveyors' steel bands and measuring-tapes.

  450. Swords.

  451. Tacks of all kinds.

  452. Tea-packing lead.

  453. Tin, in pigs, bars, or sheets.

  454. Tinsmiths' fittings, including stamped or blocked tin, planished or unplanished.

  455. Tins, tops of ornamented.

  456. Wire, of brass, copper, or lead.

  457. Zinc, plain sheet.

  458. Zinc plates and copper plates for photo-lithographic work.

    Class XIII.—Timber, etc.

  459. Ash, hickory, and lancewood timber, unwrought.

  460. Blacksmiths' bellows.

  461. Brush woodware.

  462. Carriage- and cart-shafts, spokes and felloes in the rough; hubs, all kinds; poles if unbent and unplaned, all kinds; bent wheel-rims.

  463. Carriage- and cart-makers' materials—viz., springs, mountings, trimmings, brass hinges, tire-bolts, shackle-holders, step treads, and other iron fittings (except steps, lamp-irons, dash-irons, seat-rails, and fifth wheels), rubber-cloth.

  464. Churns.

  465. Lignum-vitæ.

  466. Sieves, hair.

  467. Wooden handles for tools.

    Class XIV.—Oils, etc.

  468. Benzine in bulk.

  469. Oils—viz., candlenut, fish, whale, seal, penguin, and palm.

  470. Paints and colours n.o.e.

  471. Shale oil, once run, suitable for gas-making.

  472. Spirits of tar.

  473. Turpentine, driers, and terebene.

    Class XV.—Miscellaneous.

  474. Apparatus and appliances solely for teaching purposes, as may be approved by the Commissioner.

  475. Belting for machinery, other than leather.

  476. Binder-twine.

  477. Bricks, other than fire-bricks.

  478. Building materials n.o.e.

  479. Brushes for cream-separators and combined screens.

  480. Candlenuts and candlenut kernels.

  481. Candlewick.

  482. Canvas aprons and elevators for reapers and binders.

  483. Carpenters' baskets.

  484. Charts and maps.

  485. Cotton waste.

  486. Dye-stuffs and dyeing materials, crude.

  487. Felt sheathing.

  488. Food preservative n.o.e.

  489. Gum boots.

  490. Hawsers of 12 in. and over.

  491. Honey and brown Windsor soap composition.

  492. Iron and steel cordage.

  493. Jute bagging, bags, and sacks.

  494. Manures.

  495. Marble and other stone, hewn or rough-sawn, not dressed or polished.

  496. Netmakers' cotton twine.

  497. Official supplies for consular officers of countries where a similar exemption exists in favour of British Consuls.

  498. Papermakers' felts.

  499. Passengers' baggage and effects, including only wearing apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the colony; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of such persons; and household or other effects not exceeding £100 in value, which have been in use for twelve months prior to embarkation by the persons or families bringing them to the colony, and not intended for any other person or persons or for sale; also cabin furnishings belonging to such persons.

  500. Plaster of Paris.

  501. Powder, blasting and meal.

  502. Ship-chandlery n.o.e.

  503. Ships' rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals.

  504. Spirits for manufacturing perfumed spirit, flavouring essences, and culinary essences in manufacturing warehouses.*

    * This exemption ceased on the 1st day of February, 1896.

  505. Stones, mill, grind, oil, and whet.

  506. Tobacco for sheepwash or for insecticide, after being rendered unfit for human consumption to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

  507. Treacle or molasses, mixed with bone-black in proportions to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

  508. Tubular woven cotton-cloth in the piece, for meat-wraps.

  509. Type-writers.

  510. Wax, bottling.

  511. Woolpacks and woolpockets.

  512. Yarn—viz., coir, flax, hemp.

  513. Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Commissioner) which are suited only for, and are to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods within the colony. All decisions of the Commissioner in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette.

  514. And all articles not otherwise enumerated.

    Table of Excise Duties.

  515. Tobacco, 1s. in the lb.*

  516. Cigars, cigarettes, and snuff, 1s. 6d. the lb.*

    * “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” section 2, enacts:—

    “On and after the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, section three of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1891,” shall be deemed to be repealed, and in lieu of the duties imposed by that section there shall be levied, collected, and paid, on and after that day, upon tobacco manufactured in the colony, at the time of making the entry for home consumption thereof, the several duties of excise following, that is to say,—

    “On tobaccoOne shilling the pound,
    “On cigars and snuffOne shilling and sixpence the pound.
    “On cigarettes— 
        If manufactured by machineryTwo shillings and sixpence the pound.
        If made by handOne shilling the pound.”
  517. Beer, 3d. the gallon.

  518. Articles in which spirit is a necessary ingredient, manufactured in a warehouse appointed under section 26 of “The Customs Laws Consolidation Act, 1882,” namely,—

    Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing more than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 9d. the lb.

    Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 3d. the pound.

    Culinary and flavouring essences, 12s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

    Perfumed spirit, 20s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

    Toilet preparations which are subject to 16s. the liquid gallon on importation, 12s. the liquid gallon.

    Toilet preparations which are subject to 25 per cent. duty on importation, 6s. the liquid gallon.

    Duties imposed by His Excellency the Governor under Section 17 of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1888.”

  519. Olive stones, ground (see New Zealand Gazette, 15th May, 1890), 4d. the lb.

  520. Brewers' caramel (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st August, 1890), 3d. the lb.

  521. Liquid hops (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st December, 1893), 6s. the lb.

  522. The United Asbestos Patent Salamander Decorations (see New Zealand Gazette, 14th May, 1896), 15 per cent. ad valorem.

[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets which follow the General Index.]

Table of Contents


THE estimated population of New Zealand on the 31st December, 1898, with the increase for the year, is shown below:

Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) ou 31st December, 1897729,056384,703344,353
Increase during year 1898:—
     By excess of births over deaths11,7115,3356,376
     Excess of arrivals over departures2,6962,086610
Estimated population, exclusive of Maoris, on 31st December, 1898743,463392,124351,339
Maori population (1896)39,85421,67318,181
          Total estimated population of Colony on 31st December, 1898783,317413,797369,520

The number of the Chinese in New Zealand at the end of the year 1898 was estimated to be 3,464 persons, of whom 31 were females.


The increase for each quarter of the year 1898 was:—

First Quarter.
          Increase from:Total.Males.Females.
Excess of births over deaths2,8311,2961,535
Excess of departures over arrivals (decrease)−173−23−150
Second Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths2,9341,3021,632
Excess of departures over arrivals (decrease)−1,082−678−404
Third Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths2,8531,3101,543
Excess of arrivals over departures610505105
Fourth Quarter.
Excess of births over deaths3,0931,4271,666
Excess of arrivals over departures3,3412,2821,059
 Year 1898.
Excess of births over deaths11,7115,3350,376
Excess of arrivals over departures2,6962,086610

The movement of population for seven years is given next. Although the large increase in 1893 by excess of arrivals over departures was not maintained during the five following years, the arrivals in the colony at all events exceeded the departures in each of these years, and the total excess of arrivals for the seven-year period 1892–98 inclusive is found to be 25.438 persons, drawn from other colonies or countries. The number may be somewhat greater than the actual fact, but probably not very much so. Reference to the possible source of error and its degree will be found further on.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Arrivals over Departures.Net Increase.
* The results of the census taken in April, 1896, disclosed the fact that the estimate of population for December, 1895, was too low by 1,804 persons. Adding this number to the increase for 1896 (13,652 persons) makes 15,456, which is the difference between the populations given for the years 1895 and 1896.


At a distance of three years' time from the date of the census it is impossible to state with anything like certainty of accuracy what the populations of the provincial districts may be. The natural increase by excess of births over deaths is correctly found and added, but the internal movement of people cannot be measured; and, in respect of the North and Middle Islands, it is known that a process of leaving the south and settling in the north has been going on for a long while. Further, the arrivals in the colony of persons from abroad and the departures to places outside New Zealand are counted in the Customs returns as at the first port of touching and the last of departure. Thus, the total excess of arrivals over departures has to be afterwards divided amongst the provincial districts proportionally, which is certainly not a method likely to give perfectly true results, though it is the best perhaps that can possibly be adopted for the years lying between those on which the quinquennial census is taken.

From the above remarks, it will be seen that the estimated populations given below are no doubt too high for the Middle Island and too low for the North, but there is no means of allowing for the presumed error. The figures are given with these qualifications:—

(Figures given subject to previous remarks.)
 Persons. Persons.
Hawke's Bay36,411Otago172,162
Wellington129,738      Chatham Islands251
Marlborough13,243      Kermadec Islands7
      Estimated total population of colony, excluding Maoris, Dec. 31, 1898 743,463

CENSUS, 1896

The population of the colony (exclusive of Maoris), as returned in the census schedules for the night of the 12th April, 1896, was 703,360 persons, of whom 3,711 were Chinese, and 2,259 half castes living amongst and as Europeans.

A census of the Maori population was taken during February of 1896, when the number of the Native race was found to be 39,854 persons, including 3,503 half-castes living as Maoris. 229 Maori women were returned as married to European husbands. The complete population (European and Maori) of the colony was therefore 743,214 persons, as exhibited in the following statement, specifying the numbers for each sex:—

* Not including 171 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war.
Population (exclusive of persons of the aboriginal native race, of mixed European and Native blood, and Chinese)697,390366,607330,783
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living as and among Europeans2,2591,1231,136
Aboriginal natives (including 229 Maori wives of Europeans)36,35119,72916,622
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living among and as members of Maori tribes3,5031,9441,559
          Total population on 12th April, 1896*743,214393,088350,126

The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 5,762 persons. The number of half-castes living among Europeans increased since 1891 by 75, or at the rate of 3.4 per cent. In that year the number of Maori wives of Europeans was 251; in 1896 it was 229. The Chinese decreased from 4,444 at the time of the census of 1891 to 3,711 in April, 1896; or at the rate of 16.5 per cent., caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,854 in 1896, according to the returns.

The increase on the total European population between April, 1891, and April, 1896, amounted to 76,702 persons, or a rate of 12.24 per cent. Between the census of 1886 and that of 1891 the numerical increase was 48,176 persons, or 8.33 per cent., so that an improved progress was made during the last five-year period to the extent of 3.91 per cent. The average annual increase in the period 1891-96 was at the rate of 2.33 per cent.

The population of the principal divisions of the colony in April, 1896, was—

North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)340,631181,089159,542
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)362,236190,038172,198
Stewart Island252152100
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Maoris)234132102
Kermadec Islands743
      Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)703,360371,415331,945


New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In April, 1896, the number of the counties was 81. Of these, the North Island had 47, with a population amounting altogether to 191,374 persons. The Middle Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,117 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself, and had a population of 244 persons. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

    Counties.    Census, 1896

* Since the census was taken in 1836 two new counties—Akitio and Eketahuna—have been constituted. Both were cut out of Wairarapa North County.

† Since the 12th April, 1896, the following new boroughs have been constituted: New Brighton (population 800 in 1898), cut out of Selwyn County; Whangarei (population 1,250 in 1896), cut out of Whangarei County.

Mongonui 1,889
Whangaroa 969
Hokianga 1,909
Bay of Islands 2,723
Hobson 3,750
Whangarei 6,847†
Otamatea 2,483
Rodney 3,464
Waitemata 6,762
Eden 15,940
Manukau 12,185
Coromandel 4,987
Thames 4,515
Ohinemuri 4,761
Piako 2,706
Waikato 2,814
Waipa 3,584
Raglan 1,545
Kawhia 598
West Taupo 156
East Taupo 232
Rotorua 840
Tauranga 1622
Whakatane 1,988
Waiapu 447
Cook 5,287
Clifton 1,450
Taranaki 9,970
Stratford 5,141
Hawera 6,934
Patea 3,084
Waitotara 2,737
Wanganui 3,095
Rangitikei 6,030
Kiwitea 2,428
Oroua 6,450
Pohangina 1,351
Manawatu 2,709
Horowhenna 3,792
Hawke's Bay 6,894
Wairoa 1,490
Waipawa 8,866
Patangata 2,374
Pahiatua 3,208
Wairarapa North7,209*
Wairarapa South 5,409
Hutt 5,750
Sounds 747
Marlborough 6,330
Kaikoura 1,575
Collingwood 2,509
Waimea 8,591
Buller 4,833
Inangahua 4,254
Grey 4,592
Westland 4,723
Amuri 916
Cheviot 1,042
Ashley 11,913
Selwyn 30,090†
Akaroa 3,886
Ashburton 10,820
Geraldine 7,499
Levels 7,723
Mackenzie 1,514
Waimate 4,777
Waitaki 8,876
Waihemo 2,148
Waikouaiti 4,389
Peninsula 2,645
Taieri 6,950
Bruce 4,828
Tuapeka 6,477
Clutha 6,564
Maniototo 3,742
Vincent 4,090
Lake 2,663
Southland 21,603
Wallace 6,657
Fiord 151
Stewart Island 244

As before stated, the total county population amounted to 391,735, or 55.69 per cent. of the total for the colony.* In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called town population. The population in boroughs was 307,294 persons, or 43.69 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1896 there were 78 residing in boroughs. In 1891 the counties had 352,097 persons, and the boroughs 270,343, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties, 76 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1896 than in 1891.


The populations of the municipal boroughs in the colony, as estimated for the year 1898, are stated, there being no means of giving exact information until another census enumeration has been made, which will probably be in April of the year 1901.

Boroughs.Estimated Population 1898.
† Subject to revision; no particulars supplied for a calculation.
New Plymouth4,176
Palmerston North6,200
Lower Hutt1,550
St. Albans6,500
New Brighton800
Palmerston South775
Port Chalmers2,100
North-east Valley3,575
Maori Hill1,608
West Harbour1,400
St. Kilda1,359
South Dunedin5,066
Green Island700
North Invereargill920
South Invereargill1,920
East Invercargill980

* For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see Census volume, p. 32, Part I.

The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several localities which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal cities:—

* To be called “Grey Lynn” from 16th August, 1899.
 Estimated Population, Dec., 1898.
Road Districts—
     Eden Terrace1,604
     Mount Albert1,668
     Mount Eden3,677
     Mount Roskill495
     One-tree Hill975
     Point Chevalier591
Northcote Riding530
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding, being land in the Domain with hospital on it197
          Total suburbs27,539
          Auckland City35,670
          Total Auckland and suburbs63,209
          Total suburbs4,695
          Wellington City42,512
          Total Wellington and suburbs47,207
 Estimated Population, Dec., 1898.
     St. Albans6,500
Road Districts—
     Avon (part)2,962
     Heathcote (part)1,980
     Riccarton (part)3,657
     Halswell (part)224
          Total suburbs36,415
          Christchurch City18,085
          Total Christchurch and suburbs54,500
     In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.
     Maori Hill1,608
     North-East Valley3,575
     St. Kilda1,359
     South Dunedin5,066
     West Harbour1,400
          Total suburbs25,992
          Dunedin City23,500
          Total Dunedin and suburbs49,492

The increase of population for seven years at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was:—

 Census, 1891Dec., 1893. Estimated.Numerical IncreaseIncrease per Cent.
Auckland and suburbs51,28763,20911,92223.2
Wellington and suburbs34,19047,20713,01738.1
Christchurch and suburbs47,84654,5006,65413.9
Dunedin and suburbs45,86949,4923,6237.9

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed between 1891 and 1898 at a greater rate than those of the Middle Island, and Wellington in particular to have developed at nearly five times the rate of Dunedin and about three times as fast as Christchurch during the quinquennium.

While New South Wales and Victoria present what is termed by the statistician of the former colony “the disquieting spectacle of capital towns growing with wonderful rapidity, and embracing in their limits one-third of the population of the territory of which they are the centre,” New Zealand is saved from this by the configuration of the country, which has resulted in the formation of four chief towns, besides others of secondary importance but nevertheless trading centres.


Besides the boroughs, there are 39 town districts (including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881,”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. Two only of these, Stratford and Hampstead, have more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined, with populations, as in 1896:—

Town Districts.Population.
* Constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881.”
Te Aroha672
Te Awamutu347
Waitara (Raleigh)517
Clyde (Wairoa)579
 Town Districts. Population.
Kaikora North301
Allanton (formerly Grey)274

In addition to the boroughs and town districts above referred to, the census results showed for 1896 throughout the colony no less than 561 places of the nature of townships, villages, or small centres without boundaries. One of these (New Brighton) has since been constituted a borough. It is impossible to say that the populations of these small centres are all strictly accurate, even for the census date, or given in such a way as to be fit for comparison one with another. In different cases more or less of surrounding country may have been considered as belonging to the centre, but there is at least at each place mentioned some sort of nucleus of population, if not a well-defined village or township. In making the statement the best has been done with a difficult matter, and the information is given as useful—in some cases, like that of Reefton, important—even if open to objection here and there. The county in which each is situated is also given:—

* Now known as Kimbolton. (Gazette, 5th January, 1899.)
Abbotsford, Taieri197
Adair, Levels127
Adams's Flat (and vicinity), Bruce72
Adamson's, Southland80
Addington, Selwyn480
Addison's Flat, Buller277
Ahaura, Grey252
Albert Town, Vincent52
Albury, Mackenzie96
Alford Forest, Ashburton426
Alfredton, Wairarapa North88
Allandale, Waihemo93
Allenton, Ashburton763
Alma, Waitaki158
Alton, Patea72
Anderson's Bay, Peninsula489
Annat, Selwyn72
Antonio's Flat, Inangahua59
Aongatete, Tauranga33
Apiti, Pohangina110
Aratapu, Hobson508
Arden, Taieri85
Arthurtown, Westland51
Arundel, Geraldine78
Ashley, Ashley70
Ashurst, Oroua361
Athol, Southland85
Avondale, Eden872
Awanui, Waiapu43
Bainfield, Southland114
Bainham, Collingwood106
Bald Hill Flat, Vincent242
Ballance, Pahiatua93
Bannockburn, Vincent410
Barkly, Southland146
Bay View, Southland38
Beaconsfield, Levels141
Beck's Maniototo76
Belfast, Selwyn600
Belgrove, Waimea332
Bendigo, Vincent56
Bennett's, Ashley150
Berwick, Taieri77
Birmingham,* Kiwitea155
Blackball, Grey176
Black's Point, Inangahua283
Blackwater, Inangahua163
Blue Spur, Westland53
Bluestone, Tuapeka188
Brighton, Taieri57
Brightwater, Waimea409
Broad Bay, Peninsula301
Brockville, Taieri44
Buffalo, Coromandel146
Bunnythorpe (and vicinity), Oroua309
Burke's, Mackenzie90
Burnside, Taieri159
Cabbage Bay, Coromandel133
Calcium, Wallace31
Callaghan's, Westland47
Cambrian's Maniototo134
Cambridge West, Waipa255
Canvastown, Marlborough54
Cape Foulwind, Buller223
Capleston, Inangahua170
Cardrona, Lake176
Castlecliffe, Waitotara269
Castlepoint, Wairarapa North31
Caversham, Levels37
Centre Bush, Southland66
Charleston Buller151
Charlton, Southland32
Cheltenham, Kiwitea43
Chertsey, Ashburton93
Clareville, Wairarapa South46
Clifton, Collingwood58
Clyde, Vincent310
Coalbrookdale, Buller165
Coal Creek, Tuapeka305
Coalgate, Selwyn116
Cobden, Grey274
Courtenay, Selwyn67
Crofton, Rangitikei113
Cromarty (and vicinity), Fiord39
Crushington, Inangahua108
Cullensville, Marlborough136
Culverden, Amuri40
Cust, Ashley117
Dalefield, Wairarapa South194
Danieltown, Wallace34
Darfield and Horndon, Selwyn262
Dargaville, Hobson358
Deborah, Waitaki60
Deborah Bay, Waikouaiti131
Denlair, Wanganui52
Denniston, Buller181
Dillman's, Westland467
Dipton, Southland86
Doyleston, Selwyn241
Dromore, Ashburton54
Drummond Wallace213
Dunback, Waihemo134
Dunganville, Grey125
Dunkeld, Tuapeka80
Dunsandel, Selwyn153
Duntroon, Waitaki195
Durie Town, Wanganui172
Duvauchelle's Bay, Akaroa89
East Clive, Hawke's Bay239
East Dipton, Southland162
Eastown, Wanganui228
East Winton, Southland137
Edendale, Southland184
Eketahuna, Wairarapa North476
Eltham, Hawera306
Enfield, Waitaki254
Epworth, Geraldine62
Ettrick, Tuapeka69
Evansdale, Waikouaiti45
Eweburn, Maniototo166
Fairdown, Buller44
Fairfax (and vicinity), Bruce171
Fairfield, Taieri80
Fairlie, Mackenzie369
Fendalton, Selwyn367
Fernhills, Southland67
Fernside, Ashley390
Ferntown, Collingwood81
Flax Swamp, Waikouaiti88
Flaxton, Ashley138
Fordell, Wanganui151
Fortrose, Southland140
Frankton, Lake156
Frasertown, Wairoa176
Galatea, Whakatane82
Garfield, Wallace41
Georgetown, Geraldine34
Georgetown, Waitaki119
German Bay, Akaroa212
Gibbston, Lake155
Gibbstown, Collingwood181
Gimmerburn, Maniototo178
Glenavy, Waimate55
Gleniti (and vicinity), Levels111
Glenore (and vicinity), Bruce91
Glentunnel, Selwyn189
Goldsborough, Westland179
Gordon Special Settlement, Piako70
Governor's Bay, Akaroa163
Granity Creek, Buller193
Grassmere, Southland104
Greatford, Rangitikei90
Greendale, Selwyn370
Green Island Bush, Taieri237
Greenpark, Selwyn349
Greenstone, Grey100
Greerton, Tauranga54
Grovetown, Marlborough316
Gumtown, Coromandel51
Hakaru, Otamatea34
Hakataramea, Waimate90
Hamilton, Maniototo50
Hampden, Waipawa188
Hamua, Wairarapa North103
Hardie's Taieri82
Harwood, Southland58
Hastings, Thames101
Hastwell, Wairarapa North169
Hatter's, or Nelson Creek, Grey128
Havelock, Hawke's Bay407
Hawarden, Ashley32
Hawksbury, Waikouaiti132
Heddon Bush, Wallace119
Henderson, Waitemata60
Henley, Taieri303
Herbert, Waitaki401
Herbertville, Patangata113
Heriot (and outlying), Tuapeka163
Highcliffe, Peninsula278
Hikurangi, Whangarei354
Hikutaia, Thames179
Hillgrove, Waitaki93
Hilton, Geraldine47
Hindon, Taieri117
Hirstfield, Wallace169
Hobsonville, Waitemata195
Hodgkinson, Wallace60
Hororata, Selwyn242
Howick, Manukau220
Huirangi, Taranaki50
Hunterville, Rangitikei755
Huntly, Waikato512
Hurunui, Ashley53
Hyde, Maniototo222
Ida Valley, Vincent262
Inangahua Junction, Inangahua31
Inglewood, Southland73
Islington, Selwyn207
Jackeytown, Oroua72
Kaeo, Whangaroa181
Kai Iwi, Waitotara64
Kaikohe, Bay of Islands134
Kaikoura, Kaikoura394
Kaitaia, Mongonui114
Kakanui (North), Waitaki163
Kakanui (South), Waitaki204
Kakaramea, Patea110
Kanieri, Westland175
Kapanga, Coromandel500
Karangahake, Ohinemuri609
Kaukapakapa, Waitemata313
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands321
Kawarau Gorge, Vincent44
Kawhia, Kawhia37
Kennedy Bay, Coromandel72
Kennington, Southland50
Kensington, Levels167
Kereru (and vicinity), Horowhenua135
Killinchy, Selwyn54
Kimberley, Selwyn162
Kingston, Lake47
Kirwee, Selwyn74
Kokonga, Maniototo111
Kohukohu, Hokianga262
Kopu, Thames136
Kuaotunu, Coromandel424
Kuaotunu Upper, Coromandel299
Kumeroa, Waipawa104
Kuri Bush, Taieri46
Kuriwao, Clutha122
Kurow, Waitaki271
Kyeburn Diggings, Maniototo97
Kyeburn, Lower, Maniototo113
Kyeburn, Upper, Maniototo72
Lake Hayes, Lake104
Lamlash, Peninsula31
Lauder, Maniototo51
Le Bon's Bay, Akaroa271
Leedstown, Rangitikei36
Leeston, Selwyn573
Leithfield, Ashley345
Levin, Horowhenua581
Lichfield, Piako49
Lime Hills, Southland126
Lincoln, Selwyn569
Lintley, Southland47
Linton, Oroua51
Little Akaloa, Akaroa259
Little River, Akaroa137
Livingstone, Waitaki110
London, Taieri100
Long Bush, Southland84
Longridge, Southland105
Lowburn, Vincent132
Lower Hawea, Vincent225
Lower Woodstock, Westland57
Lowther, Southland28
Luggate, Vincent76
Lumsden, Southland223
Lumsden Extension, Southland154
Lyell, Buller159
Macandrew, Southland72
Macetown, Lake161
Mackaytown, Ohinemuri32
Mackenzie, Cheviot53
Macrae's (and vicinity), Waihemo103
Maheno, Waitaki206
Mairtown, Whangarei177
Makakahi, Pahiatua61
Makarewa, Southland250
Maketu, Tauranga72
Makikihi, Waimate57
Makuri, Pahiatua93
Makutoku, Waipawa175
Mangamahoe, Wairarapa North35
Mangaonoho, Rangitikei166
Mangatainoko, Pahiatua106
Mangawai, Otamatea272
Mangaweka, Rangitikei349
Mangawhare, Hobson471
Manakau, Horowhenua149
Mandeville, Southland108
Mansfordtown, Waikouaiti380
Manutahi, Patea69
Manutahi, Taranaki175
Maori Gully, Grey58
Marlboroughtown, Marlborough148
Marsden, Grey44
Marshalltown, Kiwitea63
Matakohe, Otamatea93
Matamau, Waipawa137
Matata, Whakatane70
Martinborough, Wairarapa 
Maungatua, Taieri63
Mauriceville East, Wairarapa North77
Mayfield, Waitemata76
Maxwelltown, Waitotara153
Meanee, Hawke's Bay145
Menzies' Ferry, Southland125
Mercer (and vicinity), Manukau210
Mercury Bay, Coromandel472
Merryjigs, Inangahua81
Merton, Waikouaiti753
Methven, Ashburton295
Middlemarch, Taieri130
Midhirst, Stratford248
Milford, Geraldine247
Mohaka, Wairoa36
Mokau, Kawhia108
Mokihinui, Buller45
Mongonui, Mongonui226
Morley, Wallace53
Morrinsville, Piako151
Morton, Levels235
Motueka, Waimea877
Mount Somers, Ashburton206
Mount Pisa, Vincent49
Murchison, Inangahua75
Nenthorn, Waikouaiti59
Newman, Wairarapa North227
Newport, Hobson97
Ngahauranga, Hutt212
Ngahere, Grey137
Ngapara, Waitaki233
Nightcaps, Wallace167
Normanby, Levels36
Norsewood (and vicinity), Waipawa898
North Heads, Waikouaiti78
North Taieri, Taieri183
No Town, Grey80
Nukumaru, Waitotara93
Oakura, Taranaki46
Oaklands, Peninsula52
Oban, Stewart Island41
Ohaeawai, Bay of Islands92
Ohakune, Wanganui40
Ohau (and vicinity), Horowhenua256
Ohinemutu, Rotorua131
Ohingaiti, Rangitikei410
Ohoka, Ashley654
Okaiawa, Hawera107
Okaihau and Omapere, Bay of Islands286
Okain's Bay, Akaroa222
Okarito, Westland62
Okato, Taranaki64
Ongaonga, Waipawa92
Ophir, Vincent266
Opua, Bay of Islands57
Oraka, Wallace111
Orari, Geraldine135
Oropi, Tauranga37
Orwell Creek, Grey105
Otago Heads, Peninsula179
Otahuhu, Manukau942
Otaki (and vicinity), Horowhenua836
Otakia, Taieri42
Otara, Southland200
Otekaike, Waitaki53
Otiaki, Waitaki176
Owaka, Clutha611
Owharoa, Ohinemuri103
Owhiro, Taieri38
Oxford East, Ashley153
Oxford West, Ashley241
Paeroa, Ohinemuri779
Pahia, Wallace84
Paikakariki, Hutt146
Pakawau, Collingwood71
Panmure, Eden323
Papanui, Selwyn479
Paraparaumu, Hutt192
Parkville, Wairarapa North233
Patangata, Patangata103
Patutahi (and vicinity), Cook263
Peel, Geraldine53
Pembroke, Lake176
Pigeon Bay, Akaroa352
Pihama, Hawera37
Piko, Levels160
Pine Hill, Waikouaiti88
Pipiriki, Wanganui44
Pirongia East, Waipa89
Pleasant Valley, Waikouaiti34
Plimmerton, Hutt49
Pohangina, Pohangina163
Point, Levels90
Porirua, Hutt74
Porangahau, Patangata171
Port Albert, Rodney56
Port Moeraki, Waitaki150
Portobello Town, Peninsula37
Pourakino, Wallace33
Prebbleton, Selwyn330
Prestonville, Southland107
Pukerau, Southland126
Puakanui, Waikouaiti47
Puriri, Thames143
Raetihi, Wanganui83
Rakaia, Ashburton458
Rangiriri, Waikato47
Raugiwhia (Pemberton), Kiwitea63
Rangotea, Manawatu136
Ranzau, Waimea60
Rata Settlement, Rangitikei195
Rawene, Hokianga120
Redcliffe, Waimate227
Reefton, Inangahua1,591
Reidston, Waitaki184
Renwicktown, Marlborough324
Reynolds, Waikouaiti38
Riccarton, Taieri99
Riccarton, Lower, Selwyn422
Riccarton, Upper, Selwyn502
Richmond, Selwyn288
Richmond Grove, Southland96
Rikiorangi, Hutt96
Rimu, Westland174
Riversdale, Southland265
Riwaka, Waimea575
Rockville, Collingwood102
Rolleston, Selwyn136
Rotheram, Amuri132
Rotorua, Rotorua499
Round Hill Diggings, Wallace225
Ruapekapeka, Bay of Islands92
Russell, Bay of Islands257
Sandymount, Peninsula299
Sanson, Manawatu255
Sarau, Waimea58
Sawyer's Bay, Waikouaiti382
Scarborough, Pahiatua76
Sefton, Ashley270
Selwyn, Selwyn55
Shaftesbury, Piako44
Shannon, Horowhenua262
Sheffieid, Selwyn176
Shiel Hill, Peninsula47
Shortland, Thames1,191
Silverstream, Mackenzie118
Skippers, Lake63
Southbrook, Ashley352
South Malvern, Selwyn92
Spreydon, Selwyn354
Springfield, Selwyn211
Spring Grove, Waimea361
Springston, Selwyn584
Stafford, Westland140
St. Andrews, Waimate201
St. Bathans, Maniototo254
Stirling (and vicinity), Bruce211
Stoke, Waimea547
Studholme Junction, Waimate93
Swannanoa, Ashley161
Swanson, Waitemata88
Switzers, Southland98
Taiaroa Heads, Peninsula40
Tairua, Thames141
Taitapu, Selwyn376
Takapau, Waipawa159
Tauherenikau, Wairarapa South71
Taupaki, Waitemata276
Taupo, East Taupo72
Taupiri, Waikato47
Taylorville, Wanganui51
Te Aroha West, Piako131
Te Aute, Waipawa93
Teddington, Akaroa103
Te Karaka, Cook67
Te Kopuru, Hobson184
Templeton, Selwyn310
Te Puke, Tauranga169
Thornbury, Wallace125
Thorpe, Waimea67
Tikokino, Waipawa39
Tiniroto, Cook57
Tinker's, Vincent242
Tinui, Wairarapa North221
Tokaanu, East Taupo59
Toko, Stratford134
Tokomaru, Horowhenua88
Totara, Whangaroa263
Tuakau, Manukau377
Tutaekara, Pahiatua74
Turua, Thames247
Upper Hutt, Hutt339
Upper Woodstock, Westland167
Urenui, Clifton91
Vauxhall, Peninsula89
Waddington, Selwyn121
Wade, Waitemata208
Waianiwa, Southland49
Waiau, Amuri183
Waihi, Ohinemuri1,102
Waihola, Bruce142
Waihou, Piako85
Waikaia, Southland256
Waikaka, Southland41
Waikanae, Horowhenua84
Waikare, Ashley258
Waikiwi, Southland45
Waikoikoi, Clutha215
Waimangaroa, Buller399
Waimate, Bay of Islands106
Waimatuku, Wallace225
Waimea West, Waimea293
Wainuiomata, Hutt45
Waiomio, Bay of Islands76
Waiorongomai, Piako201
Waipahi, Clutha109
Waipara, Ashley48
Waipiro, Waiapu73
Waipori, Tuapeka157
Waipu Central, Whangarei183
Waipukurau, Waipawa549
Wairio, Wallace81
Waitahuna, Tuapeka289
Waitati (and vicinity), Waikouaiti339
Waitekauri, Ohinemuri463
Waitotara, Patea207
Waituna, Kiwitea37
Waiwera, Clutha70
Wakefield, Waimea694
Wallacetown, Southland159
Wallingford, Patangata65
Walton, Taieri32
Wanstead, Patangata80
Warepa, Clutha257
Washdyke, Levels494
Waterford, Tauranga116
Waterton (and vicinity), Ashburton235
Watlington, Levels39
Wayne's, Waihemo38
Weber, Patangata108
Weedon's, Selwyn43
Wereroa, Horowhenua87
West Clive, Hawke's Bay428
Weston, Waitaki138
Weston Park, Waitaki49
Whakakiti, Wairarapa North71
Whakatane, Whakatane119
Whangapoua, Coromandel77
Whangaroa, Whangaroa152
Whare Flat Road, Taieri64
Whenuakiti, Coromandel90
Whitecliffs, Selwyn34
Whitmore, Oroua75
Whitstone, Waitaki84
Wickliffe Bay, Peninsula41
Wimbledon, Patangata79
Winchester, Geraldine212
Windsor, Waitaki99
Wingatui, Taieri174
Woodbury, Geraldine318
Woodend, Ashley498
Woodend, Southland96
Woodfield, Southland46
Woodlands, Taieri35
Woodlands, Southland218
Woodside, Taieri163
Wrey's Bush, Wallace123


The names and populations of the islands adjacent to and included in the colony were, in April, 1896:—

Great Barrier307193114
Week's Island211
Ponui (Light)11..
Ponui Island281315
Bean Rock (Light)11..
Rotoroa (Ruth's)1569
The Brothers33..

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had a population of 950 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 913 in 1891. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1891 from 262 to 307 persons; Waiheke showed a decrease from 215 to 166 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 258 to 234.


The Australasian Colonies as a whole contained a population on the 31st December, 1898, estimated at 4,476,985 persons, including those living in the Northern Territory of South Australia, but exclusive of the aboriginal natives of Queensland, South and Western Australia, and 39,854 New Zealand Maoris.

The population of Fiji in December, 1898, was 121,738 persons—67,245 males and 54,493 females. These numbers include natives and imported labourers, besides people of European descent.

Colony.Population* on 31st December, 1898.Rate of Increase during 1898.

− Denotes loss.

* Subject to slight alteration on receipt of final returns.

 No.No.No.per cent.per cent.per cent.
New South Wales721,335624,9051,346,2401.691.761.72
South Australia (including Northern Territory)191,745176,055367,8001.810.771.31
Western Australia112,05456,075168,1291.548.753.83
New Zealand (exclusive of 39,854 Maoris392,124351,339743,4631.932.031.98

The growth of population in these colonies over a period of thirty-eight years is shown in a comparative table. The total for 1898, being 4,476,986 persons, is greater than the population of Scotland but a little less than that of Ireland for 1895, and one-seventh part of the population of England and Wales for that year. The Australasian Colonies have now twice the population of Denmark, one-third more than Switzerland, and nearly that of the Netherlands.

New South Wales348,546498,659747,9501,121,8601,346,240
South Australia124,112183,797267,573319,414367,800
Western Australia15,22725,08429,01946,290168,129
New Zealand79,711248,400484,864625,508743,463


The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1898 was 18,855, an increase of 263 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1898, 16,942 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 1,913 as children. The total number of males was 12,524, and of females 6,331. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 2,598, and from Australia 14,969. Besides these, 214 persons came from Fiji, and 1,074 from the South Seas and other ports, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

Classified in respect of birthplace, it is found that 7,318 of the arrivals were persons born in the Australasian Colonies, 9,872 in the United Kingdom, and 34 in other British possessions. Of 1,631 persons arriving from foreign countries, 859 were born in Austria, 187 in Germany, 177 in the United States, 147 in France, 99 in Italy, 34 in Sweden, 7 in Norway, and 121 from other countries.

Among the arrivals in 1898 are noticed 76 “race-aliens,” or persons of other than European descent. Particulars of birthplace and sex are as under:—

Pacific Islands18321

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense has been discontinued since the 16th December, 1890, and there was no free immigration in the year 1898.

Only 28 Chinese (25 men and 3 women) arrived in the colony during 1898, but 93 left (all men), the departures thus exceeding the arrivals by 65.

The total departures in 1898 were 16,159 persons, being 319 more than in 1897. Thus, the movement of population to and from the colony is found to have been greater than in the previous year.

In each of the years 1892 to 1898, inclusive, the colony has drawn to itself more population than it has parted with, notwithstanding the attractions of Australian and other goldfields.

The departures from the colony by the Union Steamship Company's boats, as given through the Customs Department, are checked by special returns kindly furnished by the pursers of the steamers, and, where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions are made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes had happened previous to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove very fairly correct, and indeed the census of 1896 showed that the estimates of population even after five years' interval was a very close approximation to the truth.

Of the departures in 1898, 14,622 persons were over twelve years of age, and 1,537 children. Nearly twice as many males left the colony as females, the numbers being 10,438 and 5,721 respectively. The departures to the United Kingdom amounted to 1,199 persons, and those to Australia numbered 13,619. Besides these, 151 persons left for Fiji, and 1,190 for other ports (including passengers for San Francisco).

The arrivals and departures for seven years are given in the following tables, in which 1893 shows the highest number of persons inwards, 26,135, and 1894 of persons outwards, 22,984. In regard to Australia the movement was also greatest during the same years, the arrivals in 1893 being 22,351, and departures in 1894 20,488 persons:—

Year.From United Kingdom.From Australian Colonies.From Other Places.Total Arrivals.
     Totals, seven years17,973120,7827,284146,039
Year.To United Kingdom.To Australian Colonies.To Other Places.Total Departures.
     Totals, seven years10,936102,9316,734120,601

It will be found that the above figures give the total arrivals from the United Kingdom in seven years as 17,973 persons, and the departures as 10,936; and there is no reason to doubt the correctness of these results. The colony drew directly from the Mother-country 7,037 persons over and above those that went back directly during the seven-year period. For each year in the period the arrivals from the United Kingdom exceed the departures, but the excess was only 943 in the year 1892, as compared with 1,399 in 1898. In regard to Australia, for each year given in the table the balance of interchange is in favour of New Zealand. For this seven-year period there was a net gain amounting to 17,851 persons.

The interchange of people with places other than the United Kingdom and Australia has also been since 1892 in favour of New Zealand, the net gain amounting to 550 persons.

The Board of Trade, London, publishes the total emigration from the United Kingdom to Australasia as a whole. By the figures given it will be seen that there was of late years an annual decrease in the number of persons coming to these colonies from the Home country until 1897, when the number somewhat increased. Prior to 1893 the arrivals from the United Kingdom ranged from 44,055 in 1886 down to 16,183 in 1892. Alongside of the Imperial returns of departures to Australasia are shown in the following statement the arrivals in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom, taken from our own returns, which numbers are short of the full total of persons coming here from England by the arrivals via Australia or the United States of America. But, using the information available, it seems evident that New Zealand has been latterly preferred to Australia, from the high proportion which the arrivals here (direct) bear to every hundred of departures from England for the Australasian Colonies.

So long as New Zealand can secure one-sixth or more of the total persons leaving England for Australasia, she takes more than the proportion her population bears to that of the seven colonies collectively:—

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in New Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.

A statement is added giving the arrivals and departures for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1898. The figures are Mr. Coghlan's, and the result is shown to be a net gain to these colonies of 7,670 persons during the year:—

Colony.Arrivals.Departures.Excess of Arrivals over Departures.

* Subject to revision: Coghlan's preliminary figures.

−Denotes loss.

NOTE.—In these figures allowance has been made for unrecorded departures.

New South Wales*89,49549,613139,10886,59049,285135,8752,9053283,233
South Australia*64,24530,45294,69762,78331,39694,1791,462−944518
Western Australia22,68310,02632,7092,7696,98728,7569143,0393,953
New Zealand12,5246,33118,85510,4385,72.116,1592,0866102,696


At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in the colony, the Chinese population amounted to 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1886, and further to 4,444 in 1891. In April, 1896, the census revealed a further fall to 3,711 persons. During the period 1881–96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese, except for the circumstance that, during the years 1894 and 1895, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns are found to have been some-what greater than the departures. In 1896, the Chinese Immigrants Act Amendment Act of that year raised the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head, and limited the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to this colony to one for every 200 tons burthen. This Act is to remain in force only until “The Asiatic Restriction Act, 1896,” which has been, and still is, reserved for Her Majesty's assent, and has a wider scope, comes into operation. In 1896 the amount paid by the Chinese as poll-tax was £1,270, in 1897 the sum was £240, and in 1898 £400. The number of Chinese in the colony at the end of the year 1898 is estimated to have been 3,164, of whom 31 were females.

Chinese immigration is under restraint in Australia as well as in New Zealand. In New South Wales the arrivals have been reduced until the number for 1896 was only 99, against 450 departures, by means of a similar poll-tax to that of New Zealand, and requirement that every vessel should not bring more than one Chinaman to every 300 tons. These conditions are helped by the law which forbids the naturalisation of a Chinese, and some prohibition as to mining without special authority. In 1887 no less than 1,798 Chinese paid poll-tax in New South Wales, and in 1896 the number was only 2.

Of the Chinese living in New Zealand in 1896, when the last census was taken, 3,685 were males and 26 females. Of the males, 88 were returned as married. The number of the Chinese under 14 years of age was only 14 males and 11 females. These numbers do not include the issue of unions between Chinese men and European women.

The occupations show 2,162 gold-miners, 527 market and other gardeners with 129 assistants, 94 greengrocers and 38 assistants, 94 shop- or store-keepers and 30 assistants, 59 labourers, 43 hotel servants; 31 vegetable, 27 general, and 25 fish hawkers; 31 laundrymen and women, 31 domestic servants, 29 lodging house keepers, 27 cooks (not domestic), 24 farm-labourers, 19 eating-house keepers, 19 grocers with 21 assistants, 16 fishermen, 11 merchants with 6 assistants, 7 drapers and 1 assistant. Amongst various others, in small numbers each, are returned 1 law-clerk, 2 missionaries, 5 medical men, 1 dentist, 1 chemist, 1 interpreter, 2 bankers, 1 opium seller. Three of the Chinese were inmates of hospitals, and 3 others of benevolent asylums. While 22 were lunatics, only 2 were prisoners in gaol.


The Year-book for 1898 states, in the form of extracts from the Census report, full information as to the density of population in New Zealand, the proportions of the sexes, the religions, birthplaces, ages, and occupations of the people. It is not considered necessary to reprint the figures, or the remarks which accompany them, as these will be found on pages 105 to 115 of the previous issue of this work.


A description of this machine, which is used in some countries for purposes of dealing with the cards by means of which census computations are now usually made, may be found interesting. The machine is not suited for a country like New Zealand, where the population is not very large, and where the combinations required are not of the most elaborate nature. It was tested in Victoria before the census of 1896 was compiled, and the Government decided against it. The question was raised in this colony, whether greater speed could not be achieved by means of the machine, which has led to this explanation. It has been thus described in connection with the Canadian census of 1891:—

“In tabulating the returns, the Hollerith electrical tabulating-machine (which should, perhaps, rather be called a totalling-machine), introduced in the United States, was used. For this purpose, a card, similar in principle to that used in New Zealand, is devoted to each person; but, instead of drawing lines, a hole is punched in the centre of the compartment. Each card is then successively placed on a horizontal board. This board is pierced with holes, corresponding in number to the total number of compartments on the card, and so situated that each hole is under the centre of a compartment. Under each of these holes, again, is a tube partly filled with mercury, which communicates by means of a wire from the bottom of the tube with the index of a counter. Above the card is a second horizontal board, on the lower side of which are springs, terminating in blunted needles, these being so arranged as to dip into the tubes wherever there is a hole in the card, and thus complete an electric circuit wherever the needle meets the mercury. The electric current then moves the index of the counter through one division each time the board is lowered. By passing all the cards through the machine, the number of persons corresponding to each particular fact can be counted at once, and this number is then written on the tabulation-sheets. The machine is so arranged also as to permit of particular needles only reaching the mercury, and thus a combination of two or more particulars can be worked out by merely passing the cards through the machine. Two or three different combinations can be worked out simultaneously, provided that any one particular does not enter more than one of the combinations—e.g., the religion according to education, and the infirmities according to age, could be worked out at the same time. It is, I believe, recognised that the device would not have been of so much value in the United Kingdom and the other colonies, where the number of details required is not so great. Owing to the time occupied in punching the cards as compared with that of ticking the compartments, the economy only begins to be appreciable when the combinations are very numerous.”


Table of Contents


THE number of births registered in the colony during 1898 was 18,955, or 25.74 in every 1,000 persons living. The rate is lower than that for the preceding year, and indeed since the year 1881 has steadily declined. The number of births registered in a year reached its maximum in 1884, when it stood at 19,846, after which it fell to 17,876 in 1892, rising again to 18,955 in 1898, the number stated previously.

The position still remains, that the increase in the number of marriages solemnised of late years has not as yet had any considerable effect in raising the number of births, and the birth-rate for last year (1898) is the lowest so far recorded in the statistics of the colony.

The figures for each year are worthy of notice, especially in connection with the subsequent particulars given as to marriages solemnised and the growth of population:—

Year.Number of
Rate per 1,000
of Population.

While this process of a diminishing birth-rate has been going on the marriages have been increasing numerically, and the population of the colony also:—

Year.Number of
Mean Population
(excluding Maoris).

In the year 1881 there were in New Zealand 5.72 births to every marriage in the previous year, and in 1898 the proportion had fallen to 3.85 births to each marriage.

In the Australian Colonies a similar decrease is noticeable. It has been remarked that in all the Australian Colonies the average number of children to a marriage tends to decrease. In Victoria the number for the year 1880 was 4.99, but fell to 4.05 in 1898. In New South Wales the figures are 5.0 and 4.11 for the same years respectively.

New Zealand had in 1880 the highest birth-rate of all the Australasian Colonies (40.78), but now, with the exception of South Australia (24.55) and Victoria (25.73), its birth-rate (25.74) is the lowest.

The fall over eleven years is calculated as under:—

Colony.     1888.     1889.     1890.     1891.     1892.     1893.     1894.     1895.     1896.     1897.     1898.
* Subject to revision: Coghlan's preliminary figures.
New South Wales36.1833.7335.3534.5034.4132.2331.4730.6628.3528.4227.13*
South Australia33.3432.3732.7533.9232.3231.7130.4930.2328.462.64424.55*
Western Australia33.8837.1432.5534.8533.0134.1427.4925.6222.6526.8229.35
New Zealand31.2230.0729.4429.0127.8327.5027.2826.7826.3325.9625.74

With a falling birth-rate, the census taken in 1896 showed lower numbers of each sex living at the period under five years than at the next quinquennial period, which is unsatisfactory, indicating as it does that there are not now sufficient living at the earlier years to maintain the number of those of five years and under ten now found in the tables. The census thus demonstrates the general correctness of the birth-rates, and shows that the results of the statistics are fairly accurate.

From the year 1895 marriages have shown an increase, the rate being then 5.94 per 1,000 of population. In 1898 the rate rose to 6.91, the highest recorded since 1882, when it was 7.07 per 1,000 of mean population. The number of marriages solemnised in 1898 was 5,091, an increase of 163 on the number for 1897.

New South Wales7.707.997.396.596.66
South Australia8.006.247.316.206.18
Western Australia6.967.988.008.459.89
New Zealand8.815.996.046.856.91

In April, 1891, New Zealand had 83,204 children living under the age of 5 years, and in 1896 the number was 83,659, an increase of only 455, although the population at all ages increased in the quinquennium by 12.24 per cent. Between 1886 and 1891 the children living under 5 years actually decreased in number by 3,624, the increase of population of all ages (8.33 per cent.) being less than between 1891 and 1896 (12.24 per cent.). The number of children under one year to the total population at all ages, according to the results of three censuses, was:—

 Children under
One Year.
Total Population
(all Ages).
Census, 188618,355578,482
Census, 189116,443626,658
Census, 189617,070703,360

Thus, in 1886, with a population of 578,482 persons, there were 18,355 children under one year, against 17,070 children of that age in 1896, with a population of 703,360 persons.

The births registered in 1885 were 19,693, against 18,546 in 1895, and the birth-rate fell from 34.35 per 1,000 of the population in the former year to 26.78 in the latter.

Deducting 1,637, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1895, from 18,546, the number of births for that year, leaves 16,909, or within 161 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.


There were 194 cases of twin births (388 children), and triplets were registered in two instances, in 1898. The number of children born was 18,955; the number of mothers was 18,757: thus on an average 1 mother in every 101 gave birth to twins, the same proportion as in 1896 and 1897. In 1895 the proportion was one in 93, and in 1894 one in 103.


The births of 801 children were illegitimate: thus 42 in every 1,000 children born were born out of wedlock, against 44 in 1897 and 1896.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. The rate in New Zealand is less than in any other of the Australasian Colonies except South Australia:—

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

These figures show a rise in the proportion of illegitimate births to every 100 births for this colony, amounting to 1.36 for the period 1888–97.

The fall in the actual number of all births in New Zealand must not be forgotten when considering the increase in the number of illegitimates. The total number of births registered fell from 19,299 in 1886 to 18,612 in 1896, while the illegitimate births rose from 602 to 834. The causes that led to the fall in the birth-rate certainly did not greatly affect the number of illegitimate children.

 Proportion Illegitimate
every 100 Births.
Total Number of
all Births.
Number of
The whole Colony3.124.4819,29918,612602834
Auckland and suburbs4.347.232,3761,922103139
Wellington and suburbs4.708.051,3411,34263108
Christchurch and suburbs4.707.711,8721,51988117
Dunedin and suburbs5.557.841,5851,1738892

The number of spinsters in the colony between 15 and 45 increased during the ten years from 52,348 (census 1886) to 85,105 (census 1896), or at the rate of 62.6 per cent., while the illegitimate births increased from 602 to 834, or at the rate of 38.5 only.

It would therefore appear that the larger proportion of illegitimate births now obtaining cannot with any certainty be taken as indicative of increased looseness of living on the part of the people.

The following figures, taken from “The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales, 1896–97,” showing the rate of illegitimacy per 100 births in the Australasian Colonies and in the United Kingdom, are based on statistics for a period of five years:—

per Cent.
New South Wales627
South Australia3.08
Western Australia5.29
New Zealand3.97
England and Wales4.24

Of the total number of children born in Australasia during the five years ended 1896, 5.22 per cent. were illegitimate, as compared with 4.44 per cent. in the United Kingdom for the period 1891–95.

The figures on the next page, which give the percentages of illegitimate births in a number of foreign countries, also cover a period of five years.

per Cent.

In Scotland, for the year 1895, the proportion of illegitimate births was 13.9 per cent. in Banff, and 14.6 per cent. in Wigtown; but in Ireland the rate varied from 0.7 per cent. in Connaught to 3.9 in Ulster.


An important Act was passed in 1894, entitled the Legitimation Act, which makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent marriage of their parents. Under this Act any child born out of wedlock, whose parents afterwards marry, is deemed to be legitimised by such marriage on the birth being registered in the manner prescribed by the Act. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. It will thus be seen that in cases dealt with under the Act registration becomes the test of legitimacy. In the December quarter of 1894, 11 children were legitimised; in 1895 the number was 68; in 1896, 56; in 1897, 48; and in 1898, 59, making altogether 242 legitimations since the passing of the law.


The excess per cent. of births over deaths in each of the Australasian Colonies for a mean of ten years, ending with 1894, is stated in the Victorian Year-book as under:—

New Zealand208
South Australia170
New South Wales156
Western Australia116


The total number of births registered as occurring in the four chief centres and suburbs in 1898 was 4,629, as against 4,408 for the previous year.

The births in the four cities rose from 2,847 in 1897 to 2,878 in 1898, and in the suburban boroughs from 1,561 to 1,751. The birth-rates for 1898 were,—

  Birth-rates per 1,000 of
Mean Population.
Auckland City26.96 
      ”     and five suburban boroughs 27.53
Wellington City25.75 
      ”     and three suburban boroughs 26.04
Christchurch City22.07 
      ”     and four suburban boroughs 24.31
Dunedin City21.61 
      ”     and eight suburban boroughs 21.88

Thus, by the inclusion of the suburbs the rate is raised at each of the four centres. It will be observed that Auckland has the highest rate, Wellington next highest, Christchurch and Dunedin following with intervals. The difference between the Auckland rate (27.53) and the Dunedin rate (21.88) is very marked. The birth-rate for the whole colony for 1898 was 25.74 per thousand. Auckland and Wellington are thus over the average, Christchurch and Dunedin below it.

Taking the births in the four central boroughs without their-suburbs, and comparing the numbers for 1898 and 1897, an increase is observed—at Auckland 10, at Christchurch 14, and at Dunedin 9; and a decrease at Wellington of 2. The figures for the last five years are:—

Auckland (without suburbs)873888892906916
Wellington (without suburbs)9901,0001,0051,0671,065
Christchurch (without suburbs)400359370376390
Dunedin (without suburbs)527475498498507

The birth-rates recorded for the four central boroughs in 1898 show a rise at Christchurch, 22.07, as against 21.88 for 1897; and at Dunedin, from 21.54 in 1897 to 21.61 in 1898; but a fall at Auckland, from 28.29 to 26.96; and at Wellington, from 27.71 to 25.75. The rates for the years 1894–98 are as follows:—

 Births per 1,000 of Population.
Auckland (without suburbs)27.8028.0423.3928.2926.96
Wellington (without suburbs)28.2528.3026.8427.7125.75
Christchurch (without suburbs)22.8120.3621.8121.8822.07
Dunedin (without suburbs)22.1419.8721.8321.5421.61


Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation entitling them to enjoy all the rights and privileges that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit within this colony. One hundred and thirteen aliens (108 men and 5 women) were naturalised in 1898.

The number belonging to each nationality was as under:—

Natives of—
     German Empire301
     Norway and Sweden220
     United States of America20

The number of natives of each country naturalised during the last seventeen years is next shown,—

Natives of—
     Sweden and Norway807
     United States of America19
     Other countries67

By section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1882,” repealed and re-enacted by section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1892,” it is provided that when the father, or mother being a widow, has obtained naturalisation in the colony, every child who during infancy has become resident with them in New Zealand shall be deemed to be naturalised, and shall have the rights and privileges of a natural-born subject.


The marriages for 1898 show an increase on the number for the previous year. The number was 5,091, or 163 more than in 1897. The marriage-rate rose from 6.83 per 1,000 persons living in 1897 to 6.91 in 1898, the rate for 1898 being the highest obtained since 1882, when it stood at 7.07 per 1,000 persons. The improvement shown during the last three years sets New Zealand in a good position relatively to the colonies in Australia.

The rates for a series of eleven consecutive years were:—

Year.Queens-land.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

But the improved rate for this colony is still lower than the rate for many European countries.

German Empire18968.3
England and Wales18967.9

Of the marriages solemnised in 1898, 4,628 were between bachelors and spinsters, 148 between bachelors and widows, 211 between widowers and spinsters, and 104 between widowers and widows. Divorced men and women have been classified as bachelors or spinsters: 10 divorced men and 11 divorced women were married during the year.

Included amongst spinsters are twelve married women, and amongst the bachelors three married men, who elected to go through the form of marriage with other persons under the protection of the provisions of section 204, subsection (5), of “The Criminal Code Act, 1893,” which runs: “No one commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage if he or she has been continually absent from his or her wife or husband for seven years then last past, and is not proved to have known that his wife or her husband was alive at any time during those seven years.”

The total number of marriages solemnized (5,091) does not include marriages where both parties are of the aboriginal native race, such persons being exempted from the necessity of complying with the provisions of the Marriage Act, although at liberty to take advantage thereof. Only seven marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1898 in terms of the Act.


The results of the last three censuses in respect of the number of bachelors of 20 years and upwards, and spinsters of 15 years and upwards, in the colony show some interesting features. While in 1886 there was an excess of bachelors over the spinsters amounting to 12,339 men, in 1891 the census gave an excess of 3,497 only, showing that a process of equalisation had been going on. But by 1896 not only had the preponderance of the male element been lost, but an excess of spinsters over bachelors was reported amounting to 1,786 women.

It is curious to notice how differently the numbers for the Provincial Districts have been affected by the process in operation. An excess of bachelors was preserved in Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland from 1886 to 1896, but in all these cases except Taranaki it diminished very much. In Canterbury, however, an excess of spinsters was found in 1886 of 910, which increased to 2,516 in 1891, and to 3,997 in 1896; while in Otago an excess of 2,359 bachelors in 1886 changed to an excess of 773 spinsters in 1891, which increased to 2,066 in 1896: these two important districts of the South Island losing large numbers of bachelors by departures to the North Island.

Provincial Districts.Census, 1886.Census, 1891.Census, 1896.
Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.
     Total excess12,339..3,497....1,786
Hawke's Bay1,809..1,337..1,142....
Chatham Islands8..15..7..
Kermadec Islands......2....


Of the marriages in the year 1898, 23.37 per cent. were solemnised by ministers of the Church of England, 26.02 per cent. by ministers of the Presbyterian Churches, 13.98 per cent. by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches, 10.37 per cent. by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church, 9.25 per cent. by ministers of other denominations, and 17.01 per cent. by Registrars.

The following shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the principal denominations in the past seven years, and the percentages of these denominations to the total population:—

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1896.
Church of England20.7823.0622.8622.7422.8623.0023.3740.27
Wesleyans and other Methodists14.8216.1315.9915.6917.9217.6113.9810.45
Roman Catholics9.748.9910.0811.1910.2610.1210.3714.07
Other denominations6.346.666.657.296.055.869.2512.43
     By Registrars18.9418.5819.1218.7717.9017.9717.01..

Marriage by the Registrar is found to be rather less frequent than it was six years ago, the percentage falling from 18.94 in 1892 to 17.01 in 1898.


Of the men married in 1898, 37, or 7.27 in every 1,000, and of the women (three of whom were Chinese) 39, or 7.66 per 1,000, signed the register by marks.

The illiteracy of the people, as measured by the proportion of married persons who affix marks instead of signatures to the marriage register, has greatly decreased of late, having fallen since 1881 from 32.04 per 1,000 among men to 7.27 per 1,000, and from 57.98 per 1,000 to 7.66 per 1,000 among women. This is shown in a very striking manner by the following table:—

     M.     F.     M.     F.     M.     F.
Church of England16.5927.158.2910.663.361.68
Wesleyans and other Methodists32.4141.798.9310.713.456.90
Roman Catholics117.78133.3331.3318.2815.1511.36
Other denominations10.3620.729.26....318
     By Registrars39.2293.5127.4243.0824.2523.09
          Total marriages32.0457.9813.9316.827.277.66

The proportion of illiterates in 1898 was greatest among those married before Registrars. Previously the proportion was largest among Roman Catholics; but since 1881 it has, as shown by the table, most remarkably decreased.


Of the persons married in 1898, 80 bridegrooms and 923 brides were under 21 years of age—two of the bridegrooms were between 17 and 18 years of age, and nine between 18 and 19. Of the brides, one was under 15 years of age, two were between 15 and 16, and thirty between 16 and 17 years of age. The proportion of men married is greatest at the ages of 25 to 30, and of women at from 21 to 25 years.

The following are the proportions of men and women married at each age-period to every 100 marriages in the years 1888, 1897, and 1898:—

     M.     F.     M.     F.     M.     F.
Under 21 years1.8524.301.6218.651.5718.13
21 and under 2528.1742.0525.1941.2524.4540.86
25     ”     3033.8121.1538.8226.5639.2927.32
30     ”     4026.028.9825.9910.5225.9710.53
40     ”     506.692.745.282.135.602.12
50     ”     602.520.612.250.672.040.86
60     ”     700.880.140.670.200.900.18
70 and upwards0.

Registrars of Marriages are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage of minors without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians, if there be any in the colony. If a declaration be made in any case that there is no parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen days following the date on which the notice of intended marriage is given.

A marriage may not be solemnised except after the delivery to the minister or Registrar who officiates of a certificate issued by a Registrar authorising such marriage, and if any persons knowingly and wilfully intermarry without such certificate the marriage is null and void; and no clergyman or minister of any denomination is empowered to solemnise marriages until his name has been placed on the Registrar-General's list of officiating ministers for the year.

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

Although in New Zealand the age at which girls may legally marry is as above; nevertheless, by the criminal law, to unlawfully carnally know a girl under the age of 16 years is now a punishable offence. The age of consent was raised from 15 to 16 by statute passed in 1896.

The average age of the men married in this colony in 1898 was 29.95 years, and of the women, 25.30 years. In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (in the year 1894) 28.41 years for men, and 26.15 years for women. Thus the average age at marriage in the colony is higher for men, but lower for women, than in England.

The proportion of bridegrooms under 21 is much greater in England than in New Zealand; but the proportion of brides under 21 is greater in the colony.

In England, in 1891–95, of every 1,000 bridegrooms whose ages were stated, 56 were under 21 years of age, and of every 1,000 brides 183 were under 21 years of age. In New Zealand, in 1898, the proportions were 16 bridegrooms and 181 brides of similar ages in every 1,000 married:—

under 21
in every 100.
Brides under 21
every 100.


The number of the clergy enumerated at the census of 1896 was 777. In 1891 the number returned was 732. Besides the regular clergy, there were, in 1896, 11 Mormon missionaries and 221 Salvation Army officers, of whom 112 were females; also 17 evangelists, 52 missionaries (11 women), and 45 preachers. The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is (March, 1899) 923, and the denominations to which they belong are shown hereunder.

Church of England304
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand117
Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland84
Roman Catholic Church159
Wesleyan Methodist Church138
Congregational Independents19
Primitive Methodist Connexion32
Lutheran Church10
Hebrew Congregations5
Church of Christ8
Independent Wesleyan1
The New Church1
The Forward Movement1
Salvation Army7
Catholic Apostolic Church3
Seventh-day Adventists4
Conditional Immortalitists1
Christchurch Central Mission1
The Union Free Church1
The Newtown Christian Mission1

There were, at the time of the census, 25 theological students, 72 church officers such as sextons and others, and 82 members of religious orders not ministering to charity or education.


The deaths in 1898 numbered 7,244, being equivalent to a rate of 9.84 in every 1,000 persons living. The rate is slightly higher than that obtaining in 1897 (9.14). The lowest experienced since the year 1887, when the deaths were 10.29 per 1,000 of the population, was that for 1896 (9.10).

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with that in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, as will be seen by the figures given for a series of years:—

Country.    1890.    1891.    1892.    1893.    1894.    1895.    1896.    1897.    1898.

* Excluding the Northern Territory.

† Subject to revision: Coghlan's preliminary figures.

New Zealand9.6610.3510.0610.2310.199.919.109.149.84
New South Wales12.9014.2413.2213.2512.3011.7912.4310.8912.48†
South Australia*12.4013.2611.3813.4211.6411.2511.4811.1812.95†
Western Australia11.2616.9616.6315.2714.0017.3216.4517.6316.05
England and Wales19.520.
German Empire24.423.424.124.622.322.220.8....

In this statement New Zealand is conspicuous as showing the lowest death-rate. The rates for the principal colonies in Australia are a little higher, but still far below those for the United Kingdom or the European Continental States mentioned in the table.


In the earlier annual reports on the vital statistics of the four chief towns the central boroughs alone were dealt with, particulars respecting the suburbs not having been obtained. But this omission was held to be a grave defect, as the suburban death-rate may differ much from the death-rate at the centre. Steps were therefore taken early in 1895 to collect statistics of the suburban boroughs as well as of the four chief cities. As regards Auckland and Christ-church, the whole of the area usually recognised as suburban has not yet been brought under municipal government, and the statistics given below do not deal with such portions as still remain in road districts. The omission, however, is not very important, for there are in either case quite enough suburbs included within borough boundaries to give a fair idea of the death-rate of greater Auckland and greater Christchurch. As further boroughs are formed the vital statistics will be made to include them.

The total number of deaths registered for the four centres in 1898 was 2,203—viz., 1,489 in the cities, and 714 in the suburbs. In 1897 the number was 2,013: 1,378 in the cities, and 635 in the suburbs.

By including the suburbs the death-rate for last year is lowered at each of the four centres, the difference being most noticeable in Auckland and Dunedin. The rates for the year are:—

 Death-rates per 1,000
of mean Population.
Auckland City14.22 
Auckland City and five suburban boroughs 13.13
Wellington City12.47 
Wellington City and three suburban boroughs 11.94
Christchurch City10.87 
Christchurch City and four suburban boroughs 10.63
Dunedin City12.73 
Dunedin City and eight suburban boroughs 11.65


If the suburbs are included, the death-rate is found to be highest in Auckland and lowest in Christchurch; Wellington and Dunedin taking second and third places respectively. The death-rate for the colony was 9.84 per 1,000 of mean population. The four centres, as might be expected, each show a higher average than this.

If the number of deaths of infants under one year be excluded, the mortality among the rest of the population is found to have been for 1897 and 1898 in the following ratio to the 1,000 living:—

Auckland (including suburbs)8.978.97
Wellington (including suburbs)8.798.52
Christchurch (including suburbs)9.178.40
Dunedin (including suburbs)9.289.90

The degree of infantile mortality is perhaps best shown in the proportion of deaths of children under one year of age to every 100 births. For 1897 and 1898 the proportions at the chief centres were,—

Auckland (including suburbs)12.5415.10
Wellington (including suburbs)9.8413.11
Christchurch (including suburbs)11.259.16
Dunedin (including suburbs)6.308.01

Thus the proportion at Dunedin is little more than half that found at Auckland. Again, the percentage of deaths of children under 5 to the total number of deaths is: in Auckland, 36.99; in Wellington, 34.61; in Christchurch, 25.05; in Dunedin, only 18.71. The total of deaths under 5 is 642, or 29.14 per cent. of all deaths, as against 541 and 26.88 for 1897. The deaths of persons of 65 and upwards numbered 506 last year; in 1897 they were 442.


Excluding suburbs, and dealing with the deaths at all ages in the four cities or central boroughs only, the rates for 1898 are found to be higher in Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin than in the previous year, but lower in Christchurch. The total number of deaths, and the death-rates, for four years are given:—

Cities (excluding Suburbs).Deaths, 1895.Deaths, 1896.Deaths, 1897.Deaths, 1898.
No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.

By omitting the deaths of infants under one year, and calculating the rate on the population of one year of age and upwards, the position of the four cities as regards magnitude of death-rate is altered materially, Dunedin now taking first place.

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population, excluding Infants (under One Year of Age).
Auckland (excluding suburbs)11.0210.029.649.86
Wellington (excluding suburbs)9.849.179.359.18
Christchurch (excluding suburbs)8.708.8610.658.85
Dunedin (excluding suburbs)9.678.0710.7010.87

Subjoined is a table showing the rates of infant mortality in the four cities for each of the past five years, together with the mean rates for the period. In respect of both last year's rate and the mean rate Auckland stands first, and Dunedin fourth.

 Deaths of Children under One Year to every 100 Births.
 1894.1895.1896.1897.1898.Mean of
Five Years.
Auckland (excluding suburbs)15.1214.8616.4812.8017.1415.28
Wellington (excluding suburbs)9.4912.4010.0510.5913.7111.25
Christchurch (excluding suburbs)9.0011.1412.9712.5010.0011.12
Dunedin (excluding suburbs)8.739.477.836.229.668.38


While treating of the death-rates at the chief cities and surroundings, it is desirable to refer to the causes of mortality, which is done in the remarks that follow. The deaths for the whole colony, classified according to their cause, are treated of at length a little further on.

Specific Febrile and Zymotic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

The mortality from these diseases at Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin, with their suburbs, was much higher in 1898 than in 1897. Growth of population can only be said to account for a small part of the increase. At Christchurch the deaths for last year by zymotic diseases were fewer than in the former year, the total deaths in this class for the four towns being 304 for 1898 and 201 for 1897.

Deaths from Febrile and Zymotic Diseases.
 Auckland and
Wellington and
Christchurch and
Dunedin and

Of the above, diarrhœal diseases caused most deaths in 1898 at the four centres taken together, the total number being 124. Influenza came next with 70 deaths, typhoid fever contributed 38, measles 28, diphtheria 10, and other zymotic complaints 34.

Comparison of the deaths for each city shows,—

Zymotic, &c., Diseases.Auckland and Suburbs.Wellington and Suburbs.Christchurch and Suburbs.Dunedin and Suburbs.
Diarrhœal diseases495922362414615
Typhoid fever1222712441..
Scarlet fever1..............
Other zymotic diseases4127136475

The higher figures for Wellington, relating to the year 1898, in respect of diarrhœa, influenza, and measles are very noticeable.

Parasitic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

Hydatids were fatal at Auckland (1 death) and Dunedin (2). These, with 1 death from thrush, make the total of 4.

Dietetic Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

These numbered 23, of which 17 were attributed to intemperance.

Constitutional Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

From these, deaths at the four towns numbered 467 in 1898. The first in importance of these diseases, and of all causes of death, is tubercle. The figures for 1897 and 1898 show 257 and 249 deaths for each year respectively.

Phthisis and other Tubercular Diseases (at Four Chief Centres).
Phthisis.Other Tubercular
Phthisis.Other Tubercular
Auckland and suburbs5112483
Wellington      ”47125012
Christchurch      ”453495
Dunedin      ”67206121

The mortality from tubercular diseases for 1898 was 11.30 per cent. of the total deaths at the four boroughs from all causes.

Deaths from cancer increased at the chief towns from 129 in 1897 to 160 in 1898. The latter number is 7.26 per cent, of deaths for the year from all causes.

Diabetes showed 18 deaths, against 12 in 1897.

Developmental Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

There were 191 deaths; 80 of which were from premature birth and 92 from old age.

Local Diseases (at Four Chief Centres)

Deaths in this class were only 10 more than in 1897, the figures being 1,012 against 1,002. Diseases of the respiratory system showed 250 deaths for 1898, or about one-fourth of the whole mortality in the class, against 210 in the former year. Bronchitis, pneumonia, congestion of lungs, pleurisy, and allied diseases form this group.

Under the head of diseases of the digestive system there were 181 deaths at the four centres, including 49 from enteritis; gastritis, 13; cirrhosis of liver, 15; hepatitis, 8; and dentition, 15.

Diseases of the urinary system showed 70 deaths. The remaining deaths were: 230 from nervous diseases, 4 of organs of special sense, 234 of organs of the circulatory system, 6 of the lymphatic, 26 of the reproductive system, 7 of the organs of locomotion, and 4 of the integuments.

Violent Deaths (at Four Chief Centres)

There were 101 violent deaths at the cities and suburbs, 75 of which were accidental. Six were caused by fractures, and 13 by falls. In 7 cases death resulted from the deceased being run over by bicycle, cart, engine, tram, or train. Eight deaths were from burning, 12 by drowning, 9 suffocation, 2 poisoning, 1 misadventure with chloroform; besides 6 from accident at birth, and 11 others.

Of 24 suicides, 8 were by shooting, 5 by cutting throat, &c., 4 by poison, 5 by hanging, 1 by dynamite, and 1 by jumping from a bridge.


The vital statistics of the chief cities, with their suburbs, of the Australasian Colonies, using the latest figures to hand, show that the death-rate in Wellington (N.Z.) for 1898 was considerably lower than that of Melbourne, Sydney, or Adelaide, for the same year. The rate in Hobart and suburbs for 1897 was higher than that of Wellington for 1898, but the proper comparison of both towns for the same period cannot be made yet.

Capital Cities (including Suburbs).Estimated Mean Population.Births.Deaths.Excess of Births over Deaths.
Total Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.Total Number.Rate per 1,000 Population.
Melbourne, 1898464,59012,01625.868,52318.353,493
Sydney, 1898422,10011,90128.196,36515.085,536
Adelaide, 1898146,8703,92720.742,54217.311,385
Brisbane, 1897103,3233,34932.411,21911.802,130
Perth, 189736,0491,07229.7478221.69290
Hobart, 189738,52886522.4557114.82294
Wellington, 189845,9981,19826.0454911.94649


The average age at death of persons of either sex, in each of five years, was as follows:—

189436.64 years31.59 years.
189536.21 years30.17 years.
189636.80 years32.41 years.
189738.80 years34.77 years.
189839.29 years35.69 years.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1898, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.

Eighty-nine out of every thousand of male children born, and seventy of every thousand females, are found to have died before attaining the age of one year. The mortality is thus one in eleven of male children and one in fourteen of females, even in New Zealand, where conditions are far more favourable to infant life than in Australia, at least as far as relates to the cities.

It will also be seen from the figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are far greater for female than for male infants. Thus, during the year 1898 there were—

100 deaths of males to 79 deaths of females under 1 month of age;
100 deaths of males to 86 deaths of females from 1 to 3 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 70 deaths of females from 3 to 6 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 76 deaths of females from 6 to 12 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 78 deaths of females under 12 months of age.

The rates of infantile mortality—that is, the proportion the deaths of children under one year of age bear to the births—are, as previously stated, higher in the Australian Colonies than in New Zealand. The following table gives the rate in the several colonies named for each of the ten years, 1883–92:—

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.


The deaths registered in the colony during the last five years, when distributed among the several classes according to their assigned causes, give the rates shown hereunder:—

Causes of Death.Rate per 10,000 living.
Zymotic diseases14.1211.2410.248.4410.99
Parasitic diseases0.320.360.240.180.37
Dietetic diseases0.630.810.860.840.87
Constitutional diseases19.4218.9517.0617.9918.81
Developmental diseases8.
Local diseases45.2248.6043.3145.3046.86
Ill-defined and not-specified causes3.843.423.723.634.26
          All causes101.8599.1291.0091.3998.39

Forty-eight in every one hundred deaths in 1898 were from local diseases, of which diseases of the respiratory system formed 12 per cent., diseases of the circulatory system and of the nervous system 11 per cent. (each), while diseases of the digestive system contributed 8 per cent. Constitutional diseases, including, with others, phthisis and cancer, comprised 19 per cent. of the total mortality. Eleven per cent. of deaths were from zymotic causes, including 6.21 per cent. from miasmatic diseases, and 3.80 per cent. from diarrhœal. Deaths from developmental diseases come next in proportion, being 8.95 per cent. of the whole, and are closely followed by violent deaths, 7.55 per cent.

Causes of Death.Number of Deaths.Proportion to Total Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1898.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1897.
Class I. Specific febrile or zymotic diseases,—   Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
      Order 1. Miasmatic diseases2531974505.916.656.216.113.90
      2Order 2. Diarrhœal diseases1321132753.793.813.803.743.56
      Order 3. Malarial diseases0.01
      Order 4. Zoogenous diseases
      Order 5. Venereal diseases1613290.370.440.410.390.35
      Order 6. Septic diseases1936550.441.210.750.750.62
          Total Class I.45035980910.5112.1111.1710.998.44
Class II. Parasitic diseases1512270.350.410.370.370.18
Class III. Dietetic diseases4420641.030.670.880.870.84
Class IV. Constitutional diseases7426431,38517.3421.6919.1218.8117.99
Class V. Developmental diseases5433056488.0110.298.958.807.46
Class VI. Local diseases,—
      Order 1. Diseases of nervous system46531578010.8610.6310.7710.5910.38
      Order 2. Diseases of organs of special sense67130.
      Order 3. Diseases of circulatory system48928777611.439.6810.7110.5410.39
      Order 4. Diseases of respiratory system52531183612.2710.4911.5411.3611.09
      Order 5. Diseases of digestive system3452505958.068.438.228.087.86
      Order 6. Diseases of lymphatic system1324370.300.810.510.500.41
      Order 7. Diseases of urinary system1721622744.023.443.783.723.28
      Order 8. Diseases of reproductive system,—        
          (a.) Of organs of generation26260.880.360.350.36
          (b.) Of parturition72722.430.990.980.89
      Order 9. Diseases of locomotive system1410240.330.340.330.330.29
      Order 10. Diseases of integumentary system125170.
          Total Class VI.2,0411,4093,45047.6947.5447.6346.8645.30
Class VII. Violence,—
      Order 1. Accident or negligence385784639.002.636.396.296.66
      2Order 2. Homicide4260.
      Order 3. Suicide6610761.540.341.051.030.76
      Order 4. Execution220.
          Total Class VII.4579054716.683.047.557.437.55
Class VIII. Ill-defined and not-specified causes1881263144.394.254.334.263.63
          Grand totals4,2802,9647,244100.00100.00100.0098.3991.39

The next table shows, for either sex, the number of deaths from each cause registered during the year 1898:—

Class.Causes of Death.Males.Females.Total.
Orders and Diseases.
Epidemic rose-rash, rubeola...11
Scarlet fever, scarlatina112
Relapsing fever.........
Cerebro-spinal fever.........
Simple and ill-defined fever...11
Enteric fever, typhoid6951120
Other miasmatic diseases.........
Total Order 1253197450
ORDER 2.---Diarrhœal.
Simple cholera16824
Total Order 2162113275
ORDER 3.---Malarial.
Remittent fever.........
Total Order 3.........
ORDER 4.---Zoogenous.
Splenic fever.........
Cow-pox and other effects of vaccination.........
Total Order 4.........
ORDER 5.---Venereal.
Gonerrhœa, stricture of urethra, ulcer of groin2...2
Total Order 5161329
ORDER 6.---Septic.
Pyæmia, septicæmia131124
Puerperal fever, pyæmia, septicæmia...1919
Total Order 6193655
Total Class I.450359809
Other diseases from vegetable parasites.........
Hydatid disease11920
Other diseases from animal parasites.........
Total Class II.151227
Want of breast-milk347
Chronic alcoholism28937
Delirium tremens2...2
Other dietetic diseases6511
Total Class III.442064
IV.---CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES.Rheumatic fever111930
Tabes mesenterica, tubercular peritonitis301949
Tubercular meningitis, acute hydrocephalus354075
Other forms of tuberculosis, serofula262248
Purpura, hæmorrhagic diathesis213
Anæmia, chlorosis, leucocythæmia101424
Diabetes mellitus242448
Other constitutional diseases6511
Total Class IV.7426431,385
V.---DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES.Premature birth132119251
Spina bifida437
Imperforate anus...11
Cleft palate, hare-lip.........
Other congenital defects121022
Old age183160343
Total Class V.343305648
VI.---LOCAL DISEASESORDER 1.---Diseases of Nervous System.
Inflammation of the brain or its membranes584199
Cerebro-spinal meningitis...55
Softening of brain11718
Hemiplegia, brain paralysis202141
Paralysis (undescribed)473279
Paralysis agitans112
Insanity, general paralysis of insane351853
Laryngismus stridulus...11
Idiopathic tetanus112
Paraplegia, diseases of spinal cord241236
Locomotor ataxia9211
Other diseases of nervous system362561
Total Order 1465315780
ORDER 2.---Diseases of Organs of Special Sense.
Otitis, otorrhœa6612
Epistaxis, and diseases of nose...11
Ophthalmia, and diseases of eye.........
Total Order 26713
ORDER 3.---Diseases of Circulatory System.
Endocarditis, valvular disease328193521
Hypertrophy of heart213
Fatty degeneration of heart282250
Angina pectoris19524
Senile gangrene549
Embolism, thrombosis5611
Varicose veins, piles...11
Other diseases of circulatory system448
Total Order 3489287776
ORDER 4.---Diseases of Respiratory System.
Other diseases of larynx and trachea.........
Asthma, emphysema231639
Other diseases of respiratory system502878
Total Order 4525311836
ORDER 5.---Diseases of Digestive System.
Stomatitis, cancrum oris336
Sore throat, quinsy448
Diseases of stomach, gastritis384179
Ulceration, perforation, of intestine12113
Ileus, obstruction of intestine211637
Stricture or strangulation of intestine415
Intussusception of intestine8614
Cirrhosis of liver26935
Other diseases of liver, hepatitis, jaundice361551
Other diseases of digestive system20929
Total Order 5345250595
ORDER 6.---Diseases of Lymphatic System and Ductless Glands.
Diseases of lymphatic system4610
Diseases of spleen112
Addison's disease437
Total Order 6132437
ORDER 7.---Diseases of Urinary System.
Acute nephritis151833
Bright's disease8764151
Suppression of urine213
Diseases of bladder and prostate42446
Other diseases of urinary system (kidney diseases undescribed)11718
Total Order 7172102274
ORDER 8.---Diseases of Reproductive System.
(a.) Diseases of organs of generation,---
Ovarian disease...66
Diseases of uterus and vagina...2020
Disorders of menstruation.........
Pelvic abscess.........
Perineal abscess.........
Diseases of testes, penis, scrotum, &c..........
(b.) Diseases of parturition,---
Abortion, miscarriage...1717
Puerperal mania...22
Puerperal metritis.........
Puerperal convulsions...1313
Placenta prævia (flooding)...1010
Phlegmasia dolens...44
Other accidents of child-birth...2626
Total Order 8...9898
ORDER 9.---Diseases of Organs of Locomotion.
Caries, necrosis11415
Arthritis, ostitis...11
Other diseases of organs of locomotion358
Total Order 9141024
ORDER 10.---Diseases of Integumentary System.
Phelgmon, cellulitis123
Ulcer, bed-sore...11
Other diseases of integumentary system112
Total Order 1012517
Total Class VI.2,0411,4093,450
ORDER 1.---Accident or Negligence.    
Fractures, contusionsVII.---VIOLENCE.18126207
Gunshot wounds15...15
Cut, stab3...3
Burn, scald251540
Total Order 138578463
ORDER 2.---Homicide.   
Murder, manslaughter426
Wounds in battle.........
Total Order 2426
ORDER 3.---Suicide.   
Gunshot wounds21...21
Cut, stab10616
Total Order 3661076
ORDER 4.---Execution.   
Total Class VII.45790547
Marasmus, &c.154119273
Mortification, gangrene.........
Sudden (cause unascertained)18119
Other ill-defined and not-specified causes8210
Total Class VIII.188126314
General totals4,2802,9647,244


The deaths in 1898 from specific febrile or zymotic diseases amounted to 809, a proportion of 10.99 in every 10,000 persons living, and an increase of 200 on the number of deaths in 1897, when the proportion was only 8.44. The chief causes of increase lie in the prevalence of influenza and measles during the last year.

The following are the diseases in this class that have caused the greatest mortality during the past ten years:—

Scarlet fever and scarlatina193124415..422
Diarrhœal diseases355290319329193207232334257275
Enteric or typhoid fever1181451191349711594124106120
Puerperal fever25192729243832101819


Measles, which was epidemic in 1893, caused only 16 deaths in the four succeeding years; but in 1898 the mortality rose to 56 deaths. Scarlatina was fatal in two cases in 1898. The mortality from diphtheria fell from 49 deaths in 1897 to 45 in 1898, while in the year 1892 the deaths were 195 in number, and 128 in the following year.

Whooping-cough, which in 1894 had destroyed 190 lives, and 150 in 1895, was in 1896, 1897, and 1898 much less fatal, the figures showing 24 deaths, 2 deaths, and 6 deaths respectively for those years.

Influenza, the deaths from which had fallen from 233 in 1894 to 89 in 1896, and 120 in 1897, contributed 219 deaths in 1898, being the most fatal of all the diseases in the group for last year, excepting only the diarrhœal diseases. From these diarrhœal complaints the deaths in 1898 were 275, or 18 more than in 1897; while in 1896 the mortality reached the height of 334 deaths, and in 1889 was even higher (355), with a much smaller population than in 1898.

Enteric or typhoid fever, which stands third in the order of fatality of zymotic diseases for 1898, with 120 deaths, shows a slight increase over 1897 (106 deaths). The highest mortality during the decennium was in 1892, when the deaths numbered 134 for the colony.

The proportions for the several Australasian Colonies for the years 1887–92 were:—

New South Wales4.324.265.352.822.352.81
South Australia4.923.844.373.132.522.70
Western Australia3.121.651.160.422.349.83
New Zealand2.822.301.982.401.892.20


From small-pox there were no deaths. By means of further expenditure in remunerating vaccination inspectors, the number of vaccinations registered was raised from 8,523 in 1895, to 10,349 in 1898. Figures for ten years are shown; but there is every indication that a collapse is imminent, consequent on the alteration of the law in England, where vaccination is in effect no longer compulsory.

 Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of
of Births
Children under 1
Year of Age to
Total Births. Per Cent.
Children under
14 Years of Age
to Total Births.
Per Cent.

One child in every three is shown to have been successfully vaccinated, and for a matter so peculiar as vaccination, and so differently regarded by many persons (see evidence taken by the Royal Commission in England), the above results are not to be despised. Comparison with such colonies as New South Wales shows New Zealand to have been hitherto more careful in regard to the prevention of smallpox than some others.

Mr. Coghlan, for instance, writes that “Vaccination is not compulsory in New South Wales, and is resorted to chiefly in times of scare, when an epidemic of small-pox is thought to be imminent. It is easy to discern,” says he, “from the returns the years when the community was threatened by the disease.” Thus, in 1881, the Government Vaccinators in New South Wales vaccinated 61,239 persons; in 1883, only 896; of late years averaging about 2,000 per annum, but only 945 in 1896.

An extract from the latest report of the Registrar-General of England is given, which is highly interesting in its reference to the epidemic at Gloucester:—

Small-pox.—The deaths referred to small-pox in the year 1896 were 541 in number, and corresponded to a rate of 18 per million of the population, as compared with rates of 49, 27, and 7 per million respectively in the three preceding years. Of the total deaths from small-pox registered in England and Wales, not fewer than 443 occurred in the registration district of Gloucester, in the course of the epidemic which prevailed there. Within the first two quarters of the year 1896 there were registered it. The City of Gloucester 716 deaths from all causes, and of these as many at till deaths, or 59 per cent., were ascribed to small-pox. During the first half of the year, therefore, the mortality of the city was increased on account of small-pox alone by 143 per cent. In England and Wales, out of the 541 persons whose deaths were caused by small-pox during 1896, 45, or 8.3 per cent., were certified to have been vaccinated, and 118, or 21.8 per cent., to have been unvaccinated, whilst with respect to the remaining 378, or 69.9 per cent., no sufficient statement as to vaccination appeared in the certificates. In addition to the deaths definitely referred to small-pox, 151 deaths were attributed to chicken-pox, and 42 to effects of vaccination; so that in the year 1896 the total number of deaths either certainly or possibly caused by variola, and of deaths alleged to have been caused by measures taken to prevent that disease, was 734, or 24 per million of the population.

The 42 deaths ascribed to the effects of vaccination include not only the deaths which were directly referred to vaccination, but also those which were stated in the certificates, or were found on inquiry to have been caused by the entrance of any noxious material whatever at the site of vaccination.

The main features of the new English law include a system of domiciliary visitation by public vaccinators, in substitution for that requiring children to be taken to vaccination stations, and exemption of parents and others from any penalty for not vaccinating children on production to the proper officer of a magistrate's certificate to the effect that he is satisfied as to the conscientious objections raised. Vaccination with glycerinated calf lymph, or other lymph issued by Local Government Boards is offered by the Government. The Act continues in force until the beginning of the year 1904.


There were 27 deaths from parasitic diseases, the proportion per 10,000 living being 0.37. Deaths from hydatids increased from 8 in 1897 to 20 in 1898, a very marked rise.


Under the class “Dietetic Diseases” are included 39 deaths from intemperance. But these cannot be said to represent the full extent of the mortality really caused by the abuse of alcoholic liquors. Many deaths of intemperate persons are attributed to disease of the liver, kidneys, &c., in the medical certificates.

The mortality of persons engaged in the liquor trade has been calculated for England, and the conclusions drawn are quoted: “The mortality of persons directly engaged in the supply of spirituous liquors still continues to be enormous. Up to the age of twenty-five years brewers experience little more than the average mortality, but after that age the baneful influence of their employment rapidly becomes apparent. Their mortality throughout the main working period of life exceeds that of occupied males by about 50 per cent. At all ages after the twentieth year publicans are subject to a death-rate which is much higher than the average among occupied males, while at the age-groups 25–5 and 35–45 years the rates are just double the average… . The comparative mortality figure of brewers is 1,427, that of publicans is 1,838 in London, 1,948 in the industrial districts, and 1,348 in the agricultural districts, as against 953—the standard figure for occupied males… . Taking publicans without distinction of locality, a table shows that they die seven times as fast as do occupied males from alcoholism, 6 1/2 times as fast from diseases of the liver, six times as fast from gout, and more than double as fast from diseases of the urinary system, from rheumatic fever, from diabetes, and from suicide.

“Among publicans in London the case is in some respects worse. Their mortality from all causes is nearly double that of all occupied males taken as a standard. They die nearly ten times as fast from alcoholism, 3 3/4 times as fast from diseases of the liver, and more than twice as fast from affections of the urinary organs and from suicide.”


The deaths from constitutional diseases in 1898 numbered 1,385, or 18.81 per 10,000 of population, and 19 out of every 100 deaths from all causes. This class of disease is more fatal than any other except that defined as “Local diseases,” on account of the great numbers of deaths from cancer and phthisis, with other tubercular complaints, which are classed as “Constitutional.”

From phthisis there are more deaths than from any other cause. The number of deaths was 597 in 1898, against 596 in 1897 and 523 in 1896. The deaths in 1898 were in the proportion of 8.11 in every 10,000 persons living, against 8.26 in the previous year.

Figures for ten years are quoted, showing that the total number of deaths from this disease for 1898 was the highest recorded during the decennium, though the rate has been slightly higher in the past.

Year.Deaths from
Rate per 10,000.

The death-rate from phthisis in New Zealand is the lowest for the Australasian Colonies, as will be seen from the figures quoted below:—

New South Wales9.349.218.62
South Australia9.2910.369.41
Western Australia8.979.568.40
New Zealand8.387.868.16

In all the Australasian Colonies the rate is materially increased by the deaths of persons who have come out either already suffering from phthisis or predisposed thereto. There is no reason for believing that this circumstance has more effect on the death-rate in Australia than in New Zealand; so that the lower rate obtaining in this colony may be taken as proof of the superiority of its climate for withstanding consumptive tendencies.

The death-rate of England and Wales from phthisis, though declining, is far higher than that of New Zealand. In 1896 it stood at 13.07 per 10,000, which is the lowest rate on record.

Phthisis is now known to be and is treated as an infectious preventable disease caused by the bacillus tuberculosis, which is communicable in many ways. Certain constitutions are far more predisposed than others to receive this bacillus, especially under conditions of life unfavourable to robust health, when a nidus is formed for the development of the bacillus.

Legislative action has been recommended to safeguard the life and health of the people from tubercle; and the complete isolation of consumptive patients, with the disinfecting of their sputa, and of everything that has been in contact with them, is suggested from time to time as a necessary measure.

From other forms of tuberculosis the deaths in 1898 were 172, or 2.34 per 10,000 of population. Thus a large addition has to be made to the deaths from phthisis to appreciate the full mischief done by tubercular disease.


The deaths from cancer during the year 1898 were 471. There were more deaths of males than of females, the numbers being, males 263, females, 208. The rate of mortality per 10,000 living was 6.40. The apparent increase in deaths from this disease is shown below and compared with that of England. But the increase is not believed by all authorities to be a fact to the extent represented, but partly the result of more careful certification of the causes of death, and of improved diagnosis, in cases of what is termed inaccessible cancer.

It is certain, however, that out of a total of 7,244 deaths from all causes in New Zealand during 1898, 471, or 6.50 per cent., were caused by cancer.

Year.New Zealand.England.

The English rate for 1896 is the highest on record there.

The following table gives the death-rates from cancer in New Zealand of males and females for the years 1886, 1890, 1894, and 1898:—


The increase since 1881 is well exhibited in respect of each sex, and in regard to the higher ages which are the periods at which the cancer deaths occur, by a proportional statement:—

 40 to 50.50 to 60.60 to 70.

The actual number of deaths of persons of either sex and all ages registered in New Zealand during the last ten years was:—



The total of deaths from developmental diseases was 648, or 8.80 per 10,000 persons living. The mortality from premature birth comprised 251 deaths, and that from atelectasis, cyanosis, and other congenital defects 54 deaths. The proportion of deaths from premature birth varies from 9 to 12 out of every 1,000 births, and that from congenital defects from 2 to 4 per 1,000 births. Particulars for five years exhibit the annual rates:—

Year.Deaths from
Premature Birth.
per 1,000.
Deaths from
Congenital Defects.
per 1,000.

Stating the result in another way, there was one death from premature birth to every 76 births in 1898, and one death from congenital defect to every 351 births. In England the proportion of deaths from premature birth to every 1,000 births was as high as 18.98 in the year 1895.


Deaths from old age in 1898 numbered 343, against 275 in 1897.

The remarks of Mr. James Pullar, F.F.A., in a paper read before the Insurance Institute of Victoria on the 9th September, 1896, are important, but disquieting to persons who have thought that longer life may be expected in these days than formerly by persons who have passed middle age. The concluding lines refer to one possible effect of legislation in the direction of old-age pensions. He says:—

I do not think I can do better than to submit some of the points brought forward by Sir J. C. Browne in an address on “Old Age” delivered at the opening of the Yorkshire Medical Department a few years ago.

The increased vitality of the nation, as evidenced by comparative ratios of mortality, when investigated, is shown to be mainly amongst infants, children, and young persons. After age forty-five the decline was insignificant, and from sixty-five to seventy-five there had actually been an increase in the death-rate. Premature old age is held to be accountable for this.

“Certain groups of diseases which must be mainly traced to the excessive wear and tear of modern life were the cause. While increasing mortality from degenerative diseases diminished the prospect of enjoying a ripe old age, the increasing prevalence of minor degenerative changes enhanced the probability that men and women would be plunged into a premature old age, and become decrepit, while still in what used to be considered the prime of life.

“Men and women were growing old before their time. Old age was encroaching on the strength of manhood, and the infirmities associated with it were stealthily taking possession of the system some years earlier than they were wont to do in former generations. Deaths due simply to old age were now reported between forty-five and fifty-five years of age, and in large numbers between fifty-five and sixty; and there had been a reduction in the age at which atrophy and debility killed those who had passed middle life. Senile insanity, due to atrophy of the brain, or exaggerated dotage, was far more common than it ever was, and, on the average, declared itself at an earlier age than formerly.”

The preceding quotations are a heavy indictment against the restless spirit of the age; and, while it is held to be quite beyond the power of medical science to promote a typical old age on a large scale, we can all give our support to movements which have for their basis the betterment of the race. It has been strongly maintained—and with good warrant, I believe—that one of the most important factors in averting madness and in prolonging life was the great life-insurance movement of the present century. We must, however, admit that this has not been so successfully brought into touch with the poorer classes of the community in this colony as in Britain; and the whole tendency of the old age pension movement would undoubtedly be towards an increase of that tranquillity of mind which a guarantee of a provision in old age would be certain to induce.


Deaths by diseases of the nervous system were 780, or 10.77 out of every 100 deaths from all causes, and 10.59 out of every 10,000 persons living. Of the 780 deaths, 218 were credited to apoplexy, 117 to convulsions, and 99 to inflammation of the brain and its membranes. Paralysis, including hemiplegia, paralysis of the insane, and paraplegia, caused 175 deaths, and locomotor ataxia 11 deaths. Paraplegia, with diseases of the spinal cord, caused 36. Deaths from nervous diseases (excluding convulsions of children) numbered 663, or 9.00 per 10,000 persons living.

Diseases of the circulatory system resulted in 776 deaths, being 10.71 out of every 100 from all causes, and 10.54 per 10,000 persons living. Of the total number in this order, endocarditis and valvular disease of the heart contributed 521 deaths. From angina pectoris there were 24 deaths, from syncope 126, from aneurism, 17; and from other forms of heart disease (hypertrophy, fatty degeneration, and pericarditis) 58.

Diseases of the respiratory system show 836 deaths, of which 623 were attributable to bronchitis and pneumonia. Taken together, these two complaints were the cause of more deaths than was phthisis, and adding 41 from pleurisy, 40 from croup, 15 from laryngitis, and 117 from other respiratory diseases, the mortality in the order is found to be 11.54 per cent. of the total deaths, and 11.36 per 10,000 of the population.

Deaths from diseases of the digestive system also formed a large proportion of the whole (8.22 per cent.), the number being 595. Enteritis was most fatal, showing 158 deaths, and gastritis 79, liver diseases coining next with 86 deaths.

Of 274 deaths from diseases of the urinary system in 1898, the deaths from Bright's disease of the kidneys (albuminuria) numbered 151.


Deaths by violence form a large item in the total mortality. In 1898 the proportion per 10,000 of persons living was 7.43, the total number of deaths having been 547.

Of 457 males who died violent deaths, 66 were suicides. The deaths of females by violence were far fewer than those of males, amounting to 90, and out of these only 10 committed suicide. The table on page 122 gives the full list of deaths from external or violent causes for the year 1898.

Accidental deaths numbered 463, males 385 and females 78. Of the total male deaths, 181 resulted from fractures or contusions, and 107 from drowning. Of the female deaths, 12 were due to drowning.

The following figures, taken from the Victorian Year book of 1894, show the death-rate from violence in the Australasian Colonies and the United Kingdom, from which it would appear that the rate in New Zealand was then higher than in the Home-country, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but lower than in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia:—

Colonies or Countries.Proportion of Deaths by Violence
per 100,000 living.
Western Australia161.7
New South Wales111.7
New Zealand95.7
United Kingdom77.5
South Australia74.2


At the time of the census, April, 1896, there were in the colony 411 medical men stated to be in practice, against 362 returned in 1891. (The number of medical practitioners registered in the colony is 689, including 64 whose addresses are not known and 150 who have left New Zealand.) Medical students numbered 48. There were 82 persons who are grouped in the detailed tables of the census as irregular medical practitioners, including, among others, 5 Chinese doctors, 31 herbalists and 11 assistants, and 11 medical galvanists.



Prior to the abolition of provinces the hospitals of the colony were supported mainly out of provincial revenues. After that event the expenditure for hospitals was for the most part charged against the revenue of counties and municipal corporations, until October, 1885, when “The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1885,” came into force.

The portion of the colony included within the three principal islands—the North, Middle, and Stewart Islands—was by the above Act divided into twenty-eight hospital districts, each consisting of one or more counties with the interior boroughs, to be presided over by elective Boards, designated “Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards.”

The revenues of these Boards accrue from the following sources:—

  1. Rents and profits of land and endowments vested in the Board, or set apart for the benefit of particular institutions;

  2. Voluntary contributions;

  3. Grants from contributory local authorities; and

  4. Subsidies from the Consolidated Fund (these being at the rate of 10s. for every £1 of bequests, but in no case exceeding £500 in respect of any one bequest; £1 4s. for every £1 of voluntary contributions; and £1 for every £1 received from any local authority).

The contributory local authorities (being the County and Borough Councils, and Boards of road and town districts where the Counties Act is not in force) are empowered by the Act to raise by special rates the amounts assessed by the Hospital District Boards as their proportionate contributions to the Hospital and Charitable-aid Fund.

The District Boards undertake the general management and control of those hospitals that are not incorporated in terms of the Act, and are required to contribute to the support of the incorporated hospitals. To be incorporated a hospital must have as many as 100 subscribers, contributing not less than £100 annually by amounts of not less than 5s., and must have been declared by the Governor in Council, after receipt by him of a duly signed petition, to be a body politic and corporate, under the government of trustees.

There are 42 hospitals in the colony, of which 22 are incorporated institutions, while 20 are directly managed and controlled by District Boards. In 1898 these hospitals afforded accommodation for 1,122 male and 522 female patients, a total of 1,644. The number of cubic feet of space included within the walls of all the sleeping-wards was 2,319,404, which gave an average of 1,410 cubic feet to each bed. 7,071 males and 3,499 females were admitted as patients during the year 1898, and 679 male and 212 female patients were inmates at the end of the year. The total number of indoor patients during the year was 11,558—viz., 7,788 males and 3,770 females.

Outdoor relief was also given to a very large number of persons; but, as in some of the hospitals no records are kept of the outdoor patients, it is impossible to state the number of distinct persons who received such relief.

The total revenues of the various hospitals as at five different annual periods were:—

Voluntary contributions and bequests7,3966,5738,2297,91511,521
Payments by patients5,3407,4909,31810,22812,728
From Government31,47234,56430,65936,37338,687
From Hospital Boards and local authorities26,05926,34423,56027,75831,524
Rents and other sources5,3043,6584,1285,5225,429

Benevolent Asylums and Charitable Institutions

The various benevolent asylums and charitable institutions are placed on a similar footing to the hospitals. Most of the Boards of hospital districts are also Charitable-aid Boards; but, for the purpose of distributing charitable aid only, some of the hospital districts have been united into larger districts, so that, although there are thirty Boards for hospital purposes, there are only twenty-three for charitable-aid purposes.

Returns were received from sixteen benevolent asylums (not including orphanages), established for the support of indigent persons. The number of inmates in these institutions at the end of 1898 was 1,180, of whom 713 were males and 467 females. Outdoor relief was given by four of these institutions to 2,960 persons, including 1,373 children.

Auckland Sailors' Home

There is a Sailors' Home at Auckland for the use of seafaring men resident in or visiting the town. The late Edmund Costley having left a large sum for charitable purposes, it was resolved to employ the bequest in building and endowing an institution where sailors might be received without distinction of race or religious belief, and board, lodging, and refreshments provided for them, together with such instruction and amusements as might tend to promote their social comfort and general welfare.

The Home, built in 1887, has room for 35 inmates, who are charged 15s. a week for board and lodging. It is managed by a council of eight members elected by the subscribers to the institution, with the Primate of New Zealand (the Right Rev. W. G. Cowie), who first originated the scheme, as Life President.

Orphan Asylums

There were in 1898 four orphan asylums in the colony, one maintained by a District Hospital Board, one by the Church of England authorities, and two by clergy of the Roman Catholic Church; three of them receiving, at the charge of the State, orphan, destitute, and other children committed to them by a Stipendiary Magistrate.

Exclusive of the children so committed, 20 male and 24 female orphans were received during the year 1898, and 58 male and 87 female orphans remained as inmates at the end of the year.

Orphanages receiving committed children are, for that purpose, constituted “industrial schools.”

Lunatic Asylums

There are seven public lunatic asylums in the colony, maintained wholly or in part out of the public revenue. There is also one private asylum, licensed by the Governor for the reception of lunatics.

The amount of sleeping-accommodation provided in each of the public asylums is shown in tabular form, giving separately the number and cubic contents of the sleeping-rooms intended for one person only, and of the dormitories occupied by several inmates conjointly, together with the number of patients actually in the asylums on the 31st December, 1898:—

Sleeping-rooms for One Person only.Dormitories for more than One Person.
Number.Aggregate Number of Cubic Feet.Inmates (Patients) on 31st December, 1898.Number.Aggregate Number of Cubic Feet.Inmates (Patients) on 31st December 1898.

At Ashburn Hall, Waikari, there are 69 rooms, each for one person only, with an aggregate cubic content of 101,400 ft. The number of inmates on the 31st December, 1898, was 41, and two patients were out on trial.

At the end of 1898, 1,472 male and 1,008 female patients were under the care of the asylum officers of the colony. Of these, 1,370 males and 931 females were regarded as incurable, 13 males and 23 females were out on trial, and 89 males and 54 females were supposed to be curable. 232 male and 180 female patients were discharged during the year.

The following shows the proportion of insane—or, rather, of inmates of lunatic asylums and those out on trial—to the population (exclusive in each case of Maoris) at the end of the years stated:—

1884, 1 insane person to every 393 of population.
1886, 1 insane person to every 370 of population.
1888, 1 insane person to every 365 of population.
1890, 1 insane person to every 348 of population.
1892, 1 insane person to every 339 of population.
1894, 1 insane person to every 316 of population.
1896, 1 insane person to every 308 of population.
1898, 1 insane person to every 300 of population.

It must not be overlooked that the proportions are increased by the admission into the asylums of inebriates, idiots, and others, who should not properly be there.

The Inspector of Hospitals and Asylums, in his report for the year 1897, specifies the causes of insanity in 349 cases (males, 201; females, 148) out of a total of 544 (300 males and 244 females) admitted during that year. In 64 of these (29 males, 35 females) the cause is given as “congenital or hereditary,” and in 49 (males, 39; females, 10) as “drink.” The proportion of cases due to drink to the total number of specified causes was therefore 14.04 per cent. against a similar proportion of 13.78 in the year 1896.


There were 202 persons—111 males and 91 females—returned at the census of 1896 as deaf and dumb, or dumb only: of these 47 were inmates of the Sumner Institution, leaving 155 deaf-mutes who were living at home or in some other private residence. The total shows a proportion of 2.86 persons per 10,000 living, against 2.65 ascertained in 1891. The proportions of the deaf and dumb taken according to the sexes did not differ much. The figures are given for six census years.

Census 18742.051.71
Census 18782.252.18
Census 18812.232.45
Census 18862.372.22
Census 18912.802.49
Census 18962.992.71

The numbers at the census of 1896 for quinquennial age-periods are:—

All ages11191
Under 5 years12
  5 years to 10 years2510
10 years to 15 years2323
15 years to 20 years1615
20 years to 25 years139
25 years to 30 years810
30 years to 35 years89
35 years to 40 years44
40 years to 45 years51
45 years to 50 years32
50 years to 55 years34
55 years to 60 years2..
60 years to 65 years....
65 years to 70 years....
70 years to 75 years..1
75 years to 80 years....
80 years and upwards....

The highest numbers are shown at the ages 5 to 10 and 10 to 15.

The occupations of the deaf and dumb were returned in 1896 as under:—

 Persons.Males under 20.Males over 20Females under 20.Females over 20.
Domestic servant2..1..1
Brewer's assistant1..1....
Carpenter, joiner4..4....
Labourer, undefined413....
Relative assisting farmer11110....
Labourer (farm)3..3....
Threshing-machine assistant2..2....
Gold-miner (alluvial)2..2....
Independent means3..2..1
No occupation3..1..2
Domestic duties37....1027
Government. scholar43..1..
Receiving tuition at home21..1..
Dependent relative4831..17..
Inmate of lunatic asylum4......4
Inmate of deaf and dumb in institution4726..21..
Occupation not stated8..5..3

In 1891 deaf-mutes were found to exist in the Australasian Colonies in the following proportions, with which is given the proportion for New Zealand in 1896:—

South Australiahad 1 deaf-mute to every 1,369 persons.
Queenslandhad 1 deaf-mute to every 2,557 persons.
Tasmaniahad 1 deaf-mute to every 2,716 persons.
New South Waleshad 1 deaf-mute to every 2,867 persons.
Victoriahad 1 deaf-mute to every 3,133 persons.
Western Australiahad 1 deaf-mute to every 4,526 persons.
New Zealand (1896)had 1 deaf-mute to every 3,482 persons.


In 1896 there were 211 males and 133 females, making a total of 344 persons returned as blind, including 43 who were given in the schedules as “nearly” or “partly” blind. Of the above total number, 37 were inmates of the Jubilee Institute for the Blind at Auckland. It would thus appear that only one out of every nine persons in the colony who suffered from blindness had been received into the institution. The number of blind persons in 1891 was 274. The proportions in every 10,000 of population show a continuous rise at successive censuses, and that there is more blindness amongst males than females.


The proportion of the blind per 10,000 persons living is: for England, about 8.79; for Ireland, 11.30; for Scotland, 6.95; for Germany, 7.93; for France, 8.37; and for Italy, 7.63. For the Australian Colonies the figures are: Victoria, 8.72; New South Wales, 6.59; Australian Continent, 7.38.

The number of the blind in quinquennial periods of age is stated for each sex. Of 211 males, 73 were under and 138 upwards of 50 years old. Of 133 females, 62 were under 50, and 71 over that age.

All ages344211133
Under 5 years844
  5 years to 10 years963
10 years to 15 years1486
15 years to 20 years261313
20 years to 25 years1284
25 years to 30 years1055
30 years to 35 years1486
35 years to 40 years1495
40 years to 45 years734
45 years to 50 years21912
50 years to 55 years28226
55 years to 60 years402812
60 years to 65 years392514
65 years to 70 years322111
70 years to 75 years21156
75 years to 80 years261412
80 and upwards231310

Of the total number of the blind, 344 persons, there were 55 in regard to whom no occupation was stated; 56 (females) were returned as engaged in domestic duties, 68 persons as inmates of hospital, asylum, or blind institute, 21 as dependent relatives, 22 as of no occupation, 19 as farming, 12 of independent means, and the rest (91) of various occupations in small numbers each. A complete statement is added, in regard to which it must be remarked that many of the occupations are evidently the past occupations of persons whom blindness has prevented from continuing to work at their usual calling.

Persons.Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Barrister (not in practice)1..1....
Teacher of the blind2..2....
School - teacher (retired1..1....
Teacher of music2..2....
Boarding-house keeper2..2....
Assistant, hotel1..1....
Stationer's traveller1..1....
Grain merchant1..1....
Shopkeeper, storekeeper4..3..1
Basket maker4..4....
Bootmaker, shoemaker  2....
Milliner, dressmaker1......1
Mat maker1..1....
Cordial maker1..1....
Road contractor1..1....
Plasterer's labourer1..1.... 
Labourer (undefined)8..8.... 
Relative assisting farmer211.... 
Farm labourer3..3.... 
Miner, quartz1..1.... 
Miner, alluvial1..1.... 
Miner, undefined1..1.... 
Independent means12..9..3
No occupation22..13..9
Domestic duties56....155
Government scholar32..1..
Private school2....11
Receiving tuition at home22......
Dependent relatives2115..6..
Inmate of hospital11..7..4
Inmate of benevolent asylum16..13..3
Inmate of lunatic asylum4..3..1
Inmate of blind institute3791495
In receipt of charitable aid5..2..3
Occupation not stated55127819

Blindness in the Australasian Colonies existed in 1891 in the following proportions, contrasted with which are the 1896 figures for New Zealand:—

Tasmaniahad 1 blind person to every 889 persons.
Western Australiahad 1 blind person to every 922 persons.
Victoriahad 1 blind person to every 1,146 persons.
South Australiahad 1 blind person to every 1,297 persons.
New South Waleshad 1 blind person to every 1,517 persons.
Queenslandhad 1 blind person to every 1,978 persons.
New Zealand (1896)had 1 blind person to every 2,045 persons.



THE following notes on this subject are supplied by Mr. S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S.:—

In extension of the article under the head of “Maoris,” given on page 4, ante, it may be stated that progress in the sciences of ethnology and philology has made some strides since those pages were first penned. Although an origin for the Maoris cannot be stated with certainty at present, it will serve a useful turn if some indication is given of the direction in which these researches, undertaken by several people, are tending. It is impossible in the brief space of a page or two to give the evidence on which the following is based; and, moreover, there are conflicts of detail which require further discussion, but the main outlines of the history of the Polynesians—of which race the Maori forms the most important section—can be given as a tentative theory.

It is obvious that the further back in point of time these researches are carried the more uncertain become the conclusions. But there is a point in the history of the race where their carefully treasured traditions become history. Comparison of the traditions preserved by various branches of the race all point to the West as their origin; and when we take up the direction thus indicated, and follow it out by the light shed on the subject by ethnology and philology, it will take us very far from the present home of the race.

It appears, then, from these indications, that the race once inhabited a mainland, which is believed to be India—inland India, the plains and foot-hills of the Himalaya, with their borders touching the sea on the Persian Gulf. Ages must have passed whilst the people dwelt in those parts; they became navigators, crossed the neighbouring seas, acquired many customs from some race of a Semitic origin, together with some words of their language. This neighbouring race was probably dwelling in Arabia and the shores of the Persian Gulf. But a time came when the Aryan race began to make its appearance in India, a race of superior mental calibre, and probably more numerous. Before this intruding race the ancient Polynesian gradually retreated; but not at once. There was a period when much intercourse took place between the two races, when they mutually borrowed words and customs, and probably intermarried. How long this intercourse lasted there is no means at present of saying; but, in the course of centuries, probably, the intrusive race gradually forced the Polynesians southwards and seaward, where they acquired increased powers of navigation and the knowledge of surrounding lands. Voyages were made far East, to Indonesia, where the Polynesians found in occupation a negrito race, which is connected with, if not the same as the Papuan.

Pressure from behind, as the Aryans increased in numbers, added to the knowledge of the east acquired by the Polynesians, now induced that people to remove in large numbers to Indonesia, where their superior physique and intelligence would soon render them the masters of the former inhabitants. The race as a whole, however, did not migrate, for there are strong reasons for thinking that some of the hill tribes of India represent those who remained. Along the shores of the many-isled Indonesia the people formed their homes; the very nature of this islet-dotted sea exciting their powers as navigators and rovers. It cannot yet be said how long the race remained in that part of the world, but it must have been counted by centuries. There is strong reason for thinking that their voyages extended far into the Pacific, and to the north. Tradition begins now to take its part in the history of the race, and it is probable that the original names of Atea, Hawaiki-te-varinga, Vavau, Herangi, and many others must be looked for in these regions. But here comes in a difficulty in tracing these early names, due to the fact of the subsequent irruption of other races, who brought their own names with them, and applied them to those places already named by the Polynesians, which thus became lost, except where preserved in the traditions of the emigrants.

‘About the first and second centuries of the Christian era the Polynesians came into touch with another ethnic wave—the Malay race, from the west and north-west. Again were the same scenes enacted as in distant India. At first wars, then periods of peace, when an interchange of customs and language took place. After a time of considerable duration, the Polynesians again moved on, nearly always to the east. The pressure of the Malay race forced them onward. Expert navigators and daring sailors as they were, the unknown was to them an attraction rather than a deterrent. There is little doubt that their patriarchal form of government had existed from the most ancient times, and that they were organized in tribes, owing allegiance to their own Arikis or supreme chiefs. Thus some tribes, and those that felt the outward pressure most, started away from Indonesia independently of the others, carrying with them their tribal gods and tribal customs. It is probable that at this time, some one tribe or more, varying the route that they had hitherto taken, retraced their steps, and finally reached Madagascar, where their descendants, the Hovas, are still found. But this was not the general direction of the movement. The larger number proceeded to the Hitinga or sunrise. This was the first migration into the Pacific. Tracing them by their own histories, and by such lights as modern science throws on the darkness of the past, it appears probable that these early voyagers, coasting along Northern New Guinea, the Solomon, the New Hebrides, and Fiji Islands—islands already occupied by the Papuan and Melanesian races—finally reached Samoa, or Hawaiki, as all that group is still called by the eastern Polynesians, but under the form Hawaiki-raro, or Leeward Hawaiki, to distinguish it from Hawaiki-runga, or Windward Hawaiki, the Tahitian and neighbouring group. This first migration, no doubt, extended its voyages very far. The Menehune people of Tahiti, and of Hawaii, the first inhabitants of New Zealand (the same people as the Moriori of the Chatham Islands) and the first inhabitants of Marquesas perhaps formed part of it.

But the pressure of the Malay races became more and more pronounced as they increased in numbers, and shouldered those of the Polynesian race remaining in Indonesia. The traditions refer to this as a time of trouble and unrest. Many of the Polynesians left for new fields; others who remained were eventually, and to a considerable extent, forced to the mountains, where, it is believed, their remnant may be seen to this day in several of the islands of Indonesia. Those who came east followed the footsteps of their countrymen who had preceded them, until they reached the Fiji group. This later migration appears to have been composed of a more warlike and more capable people than the first—centuries of contact with the Malays had influenced them—for we can trace them all through their migrations as the conquerors, whether pitted against their own race or the Melanesian. In Fiji, they occupied the Lau, or eastern group, but held frequent communication with the other islands, to all of which they gave names, differing from those known to the Fijians of today. It is obvious they mixed in blood with the original Melanesians, and thus acquired that strain that may be recognised in some branches of the Polynesians to-day. Doubtless, the original Fijians, occupying as they did the most easterly outpost of Melanesia, were the most adventurous of that race, and the best navigators. It is probable for this reason, and for others now obscure, that the Polynesian, with his high idea of caste, and racial dislike of black people, condescended to mix with the Fijians, which there is reason for thinking he did not do, or only to a limited extent with other Melanesians, on the passage south past the Solomons, New Hebrides, &c.

During the occupation of Fiji, voyages were not infrequent to the neighbouring islands of Samoa and Tonga. This is apparent from both Samoan and Tongan histories. Here it is necessary to remark that a close study of the above traditions leads to the conclusion that when the Fijians are mentioned therein, it is the Polynesian immigrants that formed the later migration into the Pacific that are referred to, not the native Fijians.

A time, however, came in the history of the race when great troubles arose in Fiji; there was much fighting and general unrest—much voyaging to and fro to the neighbouring groups and to more distant ones. Eventually a combination of forces took place between the Fijian Polynesians and the Tongans of Vavau and Haapai, and a descent was made on Samoa. This group was practically conquered, and the Samoans driven to the mountains, whilst the invaders occupied the coasts. This occupation of Samoa covered some generations; and during this time—which was, roughly, about from the tenth to the twelfth century—these capable, warlike. Fiji-Polynesians, warriors and sailors, spread far and wide over the Pacific. These are the people who formed the southern and later migration to the Hawaiian Islands referred to by Fornander, and who, on their arrival in that group, soon acquired the leading position, which they have held down to the present day. The same thing occurred in other groups. They occupied Tahiti and the neighbouring islands, the Paumotu group, the Marquesas, Rarotonga, and, after some time, turned their faces south-westward and settled in New Zealand, where they arrived in a fleet of canoes in about the year 1350. These are the people who are generally termed Maoris, and who, on their arrival and after settling down in the land, by their masterful ways, greater intelligence, force of character, and probably superior physique, eventually became the conquerors of the people belonging to the prior migration into the Pacific, whom they found in occupation of these Islands.

These people were daring voyagers, in comparison with whom the most noted European navigators of the middle ages were mere coasters. The Polynesian chronicles relate voyages extending from Fiji to Easter Island, from New Zealand to the Hawaii group, and even to the antarctic regions. They were never equalled as voyagers until the sixteenth century, which saw such an extension of nautical enterprise, originating in Europe.


The census of the Maori population—that is, full-blooded Maoris, with all half-castes living as members of a Native tribe—was taken under the supervision of the officers of the Justice Department in the latter part of February, 1896. The enumeration of the Natives cannot be effected for one particular night, as is done with Europeans, and the instruction given to Enumerators was that the work should be done in as short a period of time as possible, beginning in the third week of February, and leaving the remainder of that month, and the month of March, for the work of examining, correcting, and completing the returns.

The names of the Natives were given in the Sub-Enumerators' books, besides information as to sex, age, principal tribe, sub-tribe, or hapu to which belonging, and particulars as to extent of cultivations owned individually or communally, with live stock.

Enumerators for the Maori census were directed to report on the general state of health of the Natives, and any other matters of interest relating to them.

The Enumerators for the northernmost counties reported fairly good health among the Natives, but that a habit of camping in low swampy places during the gum-digging season was injurious. Digging for kauri-gum is their principal occupation throughout the country north of Auckland.

In the country over which the Maori “King,” Mahutu, has influence, Sub-Enumerators experienced great difficulties, being told that the “King” had already taken a census, and no other was required. The Maoris also seemed to connect the census with taxation, and objected to it on those grounds.

The Sub-Enumerators for Waikato, Kawhia, and Thames Counties reported very little sickness. In Counties Tauranga, Whakatane, Rotorua, and Taupo (East and West) no unusual sickness was found.

The Natives round Tauranga are stated to be more industrious than formerly, and taking to agricultural pursuits.

In the Counties of Cook and Waiapu the Maoris were stated to be in very good health, and, as a rule, comfortably off; most of the young and middle-aged were working at bush-falling, shearing, &c., and making good wages.

For Counties Wairoa and Hawke's Bay the accounts were not so good. In parts there had been fever of a typhoid character. Paucity of children and old people was observed by several Sub-Enumerators.

Around New Plymouth there had been no sickness. The same was reported for Hutt County.

In the Middle Island, where the Native population is only a little over two thousand people, the reports speak of satisfactory health, and, for parts in respect of which comment is made, of a sufficiently prosperous condition.

Although the above leads to the conclusion that the Maoris were fairly thriving at the time of the census, there is reference in some of the reports to epidemics sweeping away numbers of the people during the five years 1891–96; and the actual results of the census indicate either (1) a decrease of population, or (2) that at the enumeration of 1891 some Natives must have been counted more than once, and where names had not been given, the number returned was greater than the reality. The comparison of the figures is as under:—

April, 189141,99322,86119,132
April, 189639,85421,67318,181
          Apparent decrease in five years2,1391,188951

The numbers for the different counties cannot be compared for the two census years to much purpose, because of the movements of the Maoris during the quinquennium, but the Enumerator for Waikato distrusts the degree of decrease shown for his whole large district, though of the belief that there has been a decrease to a lesser extent. He considers that more Maoris are working for Europeans than formerly, and these are liable to be missed. Probably at next census the schedule left at the dwellings of Europeans should have a slip attached on which might be taken particulars relating to Maoris working on their farms, and not living in the kainga Maori.

In February, 1896, the numbers of Maoris on the principal islands of New Zealand was as shown on the next page:—

 Maoris.Half-castes living as Members of Maori Tribes (included in the preceding Numbers).
North Island37,10220,34316,7592,4771,3951,082
Middle Island2,2071,1661,041895485410
Stewart Island11759581044955
Chatham Islands—
Maori wives living with European husbands229..229......

Besides the half-castes included in the above table, there were 2,259 half-castes (males, 1,123; females, 1,136) living with and enumerated as Europeans at the time of the census.

In these numbers will be noticed 20 of the old aboriginals, termed Morioris, at the Chatham Islands, and 229 Maori wives of European husbands. These Native wives of Europeans numbered 251 at the census of 1891, and 40 Morioris were then enumerated.


The half-caste population consists of those who live as members of Maori tribes, and others living with and counted as Europeans in the census. Adding the numbers of the two kinds gives the following figures for three censuses:—

Census.Half-castes living
as Members of
Maori Tribes.
living as Europeans.
Total Half-caste

These numbers indicate an increasing population of half-castes, notwithstanding the apparent decrease of the Maori population, before alluded to as probably in part correct.


It has been stated that the decrease shown by the census of 1896 in the Maori population can scarcely be considered a certainty to the full degree exhibited. It remains to see if consideration of the proportions of the people under and over fifteen years tends to confirm the conclusion. The proportions are accordingly given for six successive census years:—

Under 15 Years.Over 15 Years.Under 15 Years.Over 15 Years.

The figures here, taken over the full range of years, would seem to indicate almost unchanged conditions. The proportions per cent. under 15 years of the young people of either sex are somewhat different from those found in the European population—viz.: Males under 15, 34.81; over 15, 65.19; and females under 15, 38.01; and over 15 years, 61.99. But there is nothing to indicate decrease of numbers.

Dividing the whole Maori population into ten age-periods, the proportions per 100 living of each sex at these ages are next compared with those of the European population. The proportions for persons under 5 years for the two races are very nearly the same.

Ages.New Zealand European Population, 1896.Maori Population, 1896.
Under 5 years11.4512.4210.8811.86
  5 and under 10 years11.7512.8014.4315.02
10 and under 15 years11.6112.799.739.59
15 and under 20 years10.8812.1710.2911.90
20 and under 30 years17.4919.1317.9418.80
30 and under 40 years12.4711.9213.2212.71
40 and under 50 years9.938.3210.289.19
50 and under 60 years8.216.077.506.30
60 and under 70 years4.863.253.823.08
70 and upwards1.351.131.911.55


The localization of the Maoris is shown by the numbers found to be living in the several counties, as under:—

Bay of Islands2,509
Great Barrier Island60
Waiheke Island58
West Taupo961
East Taupo519
Hawke's Bay1,326
Wairarapa North319
Wairarapa South349
Stewart Island117
Chatham Islands199

229 Maori wives of European husbands have not been included in these figures.



ON the basis of the results of the census of 1896 the colony is divided in accordance with the Representation Act Amendment Acts, 1887 and 1889, into sixty-two districts for purposes of European representation—fifty-eight rural districts having one member each, and four city electorates three members each. The Act of 1889 directed that in computing for electoral purposes the population of the colony 28 per cent. should be added to the country population—i.e., all persons living outside towns of 2,000 inhabitants and over. The total population of the colony (other than Maoris), with the addition aforesaid, having been ascertained, was then divided by the number of members (70), and the quotient thus obtained formed the quota. The four city electoral districts (which have three members each) were so defined in extent that the population should be three times the quota. Inasmuch as it would be impossible to divide the country into a given number of districts all having exactly the precise quota of population, the law permits the Commissioners to make an allowance of 750 persons by way of addition to or deduction from the population of rural districts, and of 100 in case of city electorates; and due consideration is given to community of interest, facilities of communication, and topographical features, as far as possible, in forming the districts.

“The Representation Act Amendment Act, 1896,” provides for two permanent Commissions, called the “North” and “Middle” Island Representation Commissions. These sit together as a joint Commission for the purpose of fixing the number of districts for the North and Middle Islands respectively, but afterwards act separately and independently of one another, the duties and functions of each being confined to their respective island.

The North Island with its adjacent islands includes 30 electoral districts, having 34 members; the Middle and Stewart Islands having 32 districts and 36 members. In 1893 the North Island returned 31 and the Middle Island 39 members. But movement of population has resulted in the addition of three members to the North, and a corresponding reduction in the Middle Island.

These districts are, as above stated, for purposes of European representation. But the colony is again divided into four districts for purposes of Maori representation, under the electoral law, each district having one Native member elected by the Maoris; so that the House of Representatives consists of 74 members altogether—70 Europeans and 4 Maoris.


By the principal Act, which came into force in 1893, the great step was taken of admitting women to the franchise. The Amendment Act of 1896 abolished the non-residential or property qualification, with a saving clause in favour of then-existing registrations in respect of such qualification.

[Electors are enrolled on sending to the Registrar a claim and declaration according to a prescribed form. There are no fixed periods for making up fresh electoral rolls, but the rolls are revised and printed before a general election, and also for any district in which a bye-election is to take place. Nor are there any fixed periods for the revising and purifying of the rolls. It is the duty of the Registrar of each electoral district to keep the rolls revised and complete.]


For European Representatives.
(Polling-day, 4th December, 1896. Number of Polling-places, 1,521.)

Dealing with the population of both sexes, it is found that the total number of persons on the rolls was 339,230, out of a total adult population estimated at 356,658. These results give a proportion of 95.11 per cent. of adults who were registered as electors, as against 94.98 at the previous election in 1893. The number of persons who voted was 258,254, or 76.13 per cent. of the number on the rolls, a slightly higher proportion than obtained in 1893, which was 75.25 per cent.

Date of General Election.Total Adult Persons.Number on Rolls.Proportion of Adult Persons registered as Electors.Number of Persons who voted.Proportion of Persons on Rolls who voted.

Dealing with men only, the number on the rolls was 196,925, or almost the full number of adult males in the colony as estimated from the census. It would seem that the rolls must have been, at any rate, more accurate than in 1893, when the number of male names was actually fourteen thousand above the estimated adult male population. The males who voted in 1896 were 149,471, or 75.90 per cent. of those on the rolls, against 69.61 per cent. in 1893.

Date of General Election.Total Adult Males.Number on Rolls.Proportion of Adult Males registered as Electors.Number who voted.Proportion of Males on Rolls who voted.

* Excluding figures for three electorates in which there was no contest.

† The number on rolls was in excess of the estimated adult male population at the date of the election.


The figures relating to women show that a larger proportion (89.13 per cent.) of adults were registered as electors in 1896 than in 1893 (78.48 per cent.), which would indicate an increasing disposition to use the franchise. But the number of women who voted, 108,783, is only 76.44 per cent. of the females on the rolls, while in 1893 there were 90,290 who voted, giving the higher proportion of 85.18 per cent.; so that as to actual voting (assuming the figures to be correct) there is no proof of a greater willingness now on the part of the females to go to the poll than at the time the franchise was conferred upon them.

Date of General Election.Total Adult Females.Number on Rolls.Proportion of Adult Females registered as Electors.Number who voted.Proportion of Females on Rolls who voted.

* Excluding figures for three electorates in which there was no contest.


The following table shows for the different districts the number of electors of each sex on the rolls, with the voters, and the estimated population:—

District.Number of Members.Estimated Population, 4th Dec., 1896.Electors on Roll.Number of Voters who recorded Votes.
Bay of Islands19,9802,8341,1541,837770
City of Auckland336,03910,8729,3326,7306,304
Bay of Plenty19,5372,4361,5131,8641,194
Hawke's Bay19,7173,0231,7232,4351,395
Suburbs of Wellington110,7172,8642,7302,1851,951
City of Wellington336,02011,0288,2767,3775,791
City of Nelson110,8792,4002,1232,0121,767
City of Christchurch336,0329,2449,1957,5077,599
City of Dunedin335,4968,9079,6647,1337,450

Particulars are given for the four city electorates, where the electors have the right of voting for three members. The number of votes exercisable is more than ten thousand in excess of those recorded, so that some of the electors evidently voted for only one or two candidates:—

City.Number of Members returned.Electors on the Rolls.