Table of Contents


ALTHOUGH the complete Year-book is only now ready for publication, Parts I. and II. of the work, including the official and statistical information, have been in circulation some little time.

These two divisions have been again enlarged so as to give more particulars than before, and are now sufficient to form a volume by themselves.

The compilation of the returns of manufactories and industries generally obtained at the time of the census not being yet quite finished, it is proposed to publish these important tables separately, as soon as possible, with some others on the subject of representation and the last general election, in the form of a supplementary pamphlet.


Registrar-General's Office,
Wellington, 15th December, 1896.



UNDER the above Act the non-residential or property qualification is abolished, and no person is now entitled to be registered on an electoral roll by virtue of property held. But existing registrations of non-residential qualifications remain valid.


Under this Act landless people obtain preference over others in obtaining land. Applicants for rural land have to prove that they possess the requisite means for stocking, cultivating, and erecting buildings. Provision for deposits is made. Advances for purposes of workmen's homes are provided for, &c.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND.

THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length—North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands (Hervey Group) is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and for the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of laud laid down being upwards of eight millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are other natural advantages.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over fifty-one millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.

Discovery and Early Settlement.

The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the Middle Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, treacherously murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.

In 1793 the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall and Kendall, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, B.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, in March, 1848, of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.

The Maoris.

Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery of these islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, fetched the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, and on the well-authenticated traditions of the people, indicate that about twenty-one generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about five hundred and twenty-five years ago. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the Eastern Pacific Islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

Boundaries and Area.

The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0' E. long.; on the west, 166° 5£ E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,580 acres.

  2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres.

  3. The South or Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33' south, and longitude 169° 8£ west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey Group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts as Government Agent for the colony in all matters of trade.

Area of the Australian Colonies.

The areas of the several Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from the official records of each colony:—

* Frederick J. Moss, Esq., late M.H.B., is now British Resident. His salary is paid by this colony.

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700     
South Australia903,425     
Western Australia1,060,000     
            Total Continent of Australia3,030,506     
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471     
            Total Australasia3,161,192     

The size of these colonies may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria - Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles; amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand.

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is about one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
New Zealand.Area in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438

Physical Features of the North Island.

The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a great part of it is covered with pumice-sand, and is unfitted for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that can be drained; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of bush-land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, which will flourish wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be; once laid down in grass very little of the land is too poor to supply food for cattle and sheep. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is' at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of its north-eastern corner, and runs thence northwestward until it flows into the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King-country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for about fifty miles, but only for small steamers. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wanganui and Manawatu, which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours, charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Ngauruhoe and Tongariro. It is a volcanic cone in the solfatara stage, and reaches the height of 9,008ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit, which is subject to slight and intermittent eruptions, giving rise to vast quantities of steam. Recently—in March, 1895—such an eruption took place, forming a few hot springs on the margin of the lake, and increasing the heat in the lake itself. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, some 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and is quite inaccessible except by ropes. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. This is an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,260ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the numerous lakes, geysers, and hot springs, some of which possess remarkable curative properties in certain complaints—are still very attractive to tourists and invalids. The world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, unsuitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

Cook Strait.

Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is some sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony.

Physical Features of the Middle Island.

The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Jackson's Head, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, nearly 10,000ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward of this again are Mount Cook (or Aorangi), Mount Sefton, and other magnificent peaks.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass; the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand few of the mountains have been scaled; many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the Middle Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on either side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of GlacierGreatest Width.Average Width.

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), surrounded by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 6,000ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are also very remarkable features. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles, and its area only 114 square miles. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. Te Anau Lake is somewhat larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the colony as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika. on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft, to 24ft. of water on the bars.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 8,000,000 acres.

Foveaux Strait.

Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres. It is mountainous, and for the most part covered with forest.

The Outlying Islands.

The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The Kermadec group of islands, four in number, are situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Island, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islet, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands are about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31' 29” S., and longitude 166° 19' 12” E. They have several good harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adam's Strait and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1811, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and of an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1851, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into force.


The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time a dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may render a general election necessary. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. An Act was passed in 1387 which provided that, on the dissolution of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected, under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christ-church, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. “The Electoral Act, 1893,” has extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes, and remains, under the Act of 1893, substantially unaltered. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony, whatever the number or nature of the qualifications he or she may possess, or wherever they may be. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The changes in the electoral laws are the subject of special comment further on in this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the colony and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration also entitles a man or woman to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. Maoris possessing £25 freeholds under Crown title can also register; but, if registered on a European roll, cannot vote for representatives of their own race. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts.

The Seat of Government.

Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial' tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and Pi. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.

Public Works.

Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and to 698,706 at the close of the year 1895, exclusive of Maoris.



Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator; from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec, 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec, 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec, 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major - General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855 to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec, 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec, 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 3 Dec, 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, from 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb., to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892.



Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10 Jan., 1842. Resigned, 12 June, 1857.

H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26 Dec, 1843. Resigned, 30 July, 1850. Reappointed, 23 Mar., 1864. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

S. Stephen, appointed, 30 July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20 Oct., 1855. Died, 13 Jan., 1858.

Daniel Wakefield, appointed, Oct., 1855. Died, Oct., 1857.

H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8 Dec, 1857. Permanently, 1 July, 1862. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

Sir G. A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1 Mar., 1858. Resigned, 31 Mar., 1875.

A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2 Nov., 1858. Died, 1 June, 1888.

C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20 Oct., 1862. Died, 3 Aug., 1895.

J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15 May, 1866. Believed, 30 June, 1868.

C. D. B. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1 Oct., 1868. Believed, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21 Sept., 1886. Believed, 12 Feb., 1889.

Sir J. Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1 April. 1875.

T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875. Died, 26 July, 1889.

J. S. Williams, appointed, 3 Mar., 1875.

J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11 Feb., 1889.

E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19 Aug., 1889.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20 Dec, 1895. Died, 18 May, 1896.

W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11 July, 1896.

Chapter 4. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843–56.


Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec, 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.B., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.E., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.E., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.E., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.B., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.B., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.



Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Prorogation.
First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)27 May, 1854
31 August, 1854
8 August, 1855
9 August, 1854.
16 September, 1854.
15 September, 1855.
Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)15 April, 1856 (No session in 1857)
10 April, 1858 (No session in 1859)
30 July, 1860
16 August, 1856.
21 August, 1858.
5 November, 1860.
Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)3 June, 1861
7 July, 1862
19 October, 1863
24 November, 1864
26 July, 1865
7 September, 1861.
15 September, 1862.
14 December, 1863.
13 December, 1864.
30 October, 1865.
Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)30 June, 1866
9 July, 1867
9 July, 1868
1 June, 1869
14 June, 1870
8 October, 1866.
10 October, 1867.
20 October, 1868.
3 September, 1869.
13 September, 1870.
Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)14 August, 1871
16 July, 1872
15 July, 1873
3 July, 1874
20 July, 1875
16 November, 1871.
25 October, 1872.
3 October, 1873.
31 August, 1874.
21 October, 1875.
Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)15 June, 1876
19 July, 1877
26 July, 1878
11 July, 1879
31 October, 1876.
10 December, 1877.
2 November, 1878.
11 August, 1879.
Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)24 September, 1879
28 May, 1880
9 June, 1881
19 December, 1879.
1 September, 1880.
24 September, 1881.
Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)18 May, 1882
14 June, 1883
5 June, 1884
15 September, 1882.
8 September, 1883.
24 June, 1884.
Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)7 August, 1884
11 June, 1885
13 May, 1886
26 April, 1887
10 November, 1884.
22 September, 1885.
18 August, 1886.
10 July, 1887.
Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)6 October, 1887
10 May, 1888 20
June, 1889
19 June, 1890
23 December, 1887.
31 August, 1888.
19 September, 1889.
18 September, 1890.
Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)23 January, 1891
11 June, 1891
23 June, 1892
22 June, 1893
31 January, 1891.
5 September, 1891.
12 October, 1892.
7 October, 1893.
Twelfth (dissolved 1896)21 June, 1894
20 June, 1895
11 June, 1896
24 October, 1894.
2 November, 1895.



Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.
*Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.
1. Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4. Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1862.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox3 March, 18738 April, 1873.
13. Vogel8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon1 May, 1893. 


Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.
William Fox.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Alfred Domett.
Frederick Whitaker.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.
Edward William Stafford.
William Fox.
Hon. Edward William Stafford.
George Marsden Waterhouse.
Hon. William Fox.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.
Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Robert Stout.
Harry Albert Atkinson.
Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
John Ballance.
Richard John Seddon.


With Dates of their Appointment and Dates of Retirement or Death.

Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Henry John Miller8 July, 1892. 


With Dates of their Election and Dates of Retirement.

Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.3 June, 1861 30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 18793 October, 1890.
 24 September, 1879 
 18 May, 1882 
 7 August, 1884 
 6 October, 1887 
Hon. Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 1894. 


Consuls of Foreign Countries residing in, or with Jurisdiction over, New Zealand, August, 1896.

Country represented.Office held.Name.Place of Residence.
Argentine RepublicConsulJohn Lee Lee-SmithDunedin.
Austria-HungaryConsulJulius MergellSydney.
BelgiumConsul-GeneralGustave BeckxMelbourne.
          ”ConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
          ”          ”Alexander BeckChristchurch.
          ”Acting ConsulValdemar JohansenAuckland.
ChiliConsul-GeneralWilliam Henry EldredSydney.
          ”Consular AgentEdmund QuickDunedin.
DenmarkConsul (for North Island)Edward Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
          ”Consul (for South Island)Emil Christian SkogChristchurch
          ”Vice ConsulFrancis Henry Dillon BellWellington.
          ”          ”Edmund QuickDunedin.
FranceConsul (for New Zealand)Viscount Alexandre Louis Ferdinand De Jouffroy D'AbbansWellington.
          ”Consular AgentAmbrose MillarAuckland.
          ”          ”Percival Clay NeillDunedin.
          ”"Hon. Edmund William ParkerChristchurch.
German EmpireConsul-GeneralA. PelldramSydney.
          ”ConsulBendix HallensteinDunedin.
          ”          ”Philip KippenbergerChristchurch.
          ”          ”Friedrich August KrullWanganui.
          ”          ”Carl SeegnerAuckland.
          ”Vice-ConsulAugustus Friedrich CastendykWellington.
Hawaiian IslandsConsul-General (for Australasia)W. E. DixonSydney.
          ”ConsulJames MacfarlaneAuckland.
          ”          ”William Godfrey NeillDunedin.
ItalyConsul-General (in Australia)Commendatore P. CorteMelbourne.
          ”Consular Agent(Vacant)Christchurch.
          ”          ”George FisherWellington.
          ”          ”Edward Bowes CargillDunedin.
          ”          ”Geraldo Guiseppe PerottiGreymouth.
          ”          ”R. Rose (acting)Auckland.
NetherlandsConsul-GeneralDr. Laon Adrian de VicqMelbourne.
          ”ConsulCharles John JohnstonWellington.
          ”Vice-ConsulEdward Bowes CargillDunedin.
NicaraguaConsul-General (for Australasia)J. H. AmoraSydney.
PortugalConsulJohn DuncanWellington.
          ”Vice-ConsulHenry Rees GeorgeAuckland.
          ”          ”Edmund QuickDunedin.
RussiaConsulBaron d'Ungern-SternbergMelbourne.
SpainVice-ConsulDon Francisco Arenas Y. BonetChristchurch
Sweden and NorwayConsulEdward PearceWellington.
          ”Vice-ConsulEdward Valdemar JohansenAuckland.
          ”          ”Frank GrahamChristchurch.
United StatesConsul-GeneralDaniel W. MarattaMelbourne.
          ”Consul (for New Zealand)John Darcy ConnollyAuckland.
          ”Vice-ConsulLeonard A. BachelderAuckland.
          ”Consular AgentRobert PitcaithleyChristchurch.
          ”          ”Robert WylesMongonui.
          ”          ”Thomas Cahill, M.D.Wellington.
          ”          ”William Godfrey NeillDunedin.

(With their Addresses.)

Table of Contents

New Zealand.

The Hon. W. P. Reeves, Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


Queensland.—The Hon. Sir James F. Garrick, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Charles Shortt Dicken, C.M.G.

New South Wales.—The Hon. Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C.B., Westminster Chambers, 9, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—S. Yardley, C.M.G.

Victoria.—The Hon. Duncan Gillies, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—J. B. Rodgerson.

South Australia.—The Hon. Thomas Playford, Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—T. F. Wickstead.

Western Australia.—The Hon. Sir Malcolm Fraser, K.C.M.G., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. Secretary—Reginald Hare.

Tasmania.—The Hon. Sir Robert G. W. Herbert, G.C.B. (acting), Westminster Chambers, 5, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—

Chapter 12. THE COLONIAL OFFICE, July, 1896

(Downing Street, S.W., London), with Dates of Appointment.

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., 28th June, 1895.

Under-Secretaries: Parliamentary—The Right Hon. the Earl of Selborne, 28th June, 1895. Permanent — The Hon. Sir Robert Henry Meade, K.C.B., 1st February, 1892.

Assistant Under-Secretaries—John Bramston, D.C.L., C.B., 30th June, 1876; Edward Wingfield, B.C.L., C.B., 19th July, 1878; Edward Fairfield, C.B., C.M.G., 1st February, 1892.


Downing Street, S.W. City Office: 1, Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C., London.

Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommanney, K.C.M.G., Ernest Edward Blake, and Major M. A. Cameron, R.E.


Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Dillon, Knt. Bach., 1873; K.C.M.G., 1881; C.B., 1886.

Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 1890.

Grey, Right Hon. Sir George, K.C.B., 1848; P.C., 1894.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 1882.

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.

Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie, C.M.G., 1879.

O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, K.C.M.G, 1894.

Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.

Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G., 1891.

Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.

Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius, C.M.G., 1872; K.C.M.G., 1875.

Whitmore, Hon. Colonel Sir George Stoddart, C.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.

Persons allowed to retain the Title of “Honourable” within Her Majesty's Dominions.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, is approved by Her Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announces that he is prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Queen the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title has since been conferred on Sir F. D. Bell, Sir G. M. O'Rorke, and Major William Jukes Steward.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers whose names do not appear in the list given above are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Dick, Thomas, 1884; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Gisborne, William, 1873; Haultain, Colonel T. M., 1870; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1896; Reynolds, William H., 1876; Richardson, George F., 1891; Rolleston, William, 1884; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.


Glasgow, His Excellency the Right Honourable David, Earl of, G.C.M.G., a Captain of the Royal Navy, served in the White Sea during the Russian war, and in the Chinese war of 1857, and retired in 1878; born, 1833; married, in 1873, Dorothea Thomasina, daughter of Sir Edward Hunter-Blair; appointed February 24, and assumed office June 7, 1892, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Government House, Wellington; and Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp—Edward Hay Mackenzie Elliot (Major, South Lancashire Regiment).

Aide-de-Camp—R. W. P. Clarke-Campbell-Preston (Captain, 3rd Battalion Black Watch Royal Highlanders). Extra Aide-de-Camp—P. H. Guy Feilden (Sub-Lieutenant 7th Battalion King's Royal Rifle Corps).

Administrator of the Government.—A dormant commission empowers the Chief Justice of the Colony for the time being to administer the Government in case of the death, incapacity, removal, or departure of the Governor.

Chapter 16. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, August, 1896.

His Excellency the Governor presides.

Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier, Colonial Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and Customs, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Native Affairs.

Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agriculture, Commissioner of Forests, and Minister in Charge of Advances to Settlers Office.

Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister for Railways and Minister of Mines.

Hon. J. Carroll, Commissioner of Stamp Duties, Acting Colonial Secretary, and Member of Executive Council representing the Native Race.

Hon. W. C. Walker, Minister of Immigration, Minister of Education, and Minister in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid.

Hon. W. Hall-Jones, Minister for Public Works, Minister of Marine, and Minister in Charge of Printing Office.

Hon. T. Thompson, Minister of Justice, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Industries and Commerce.

Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.


Legislative Council.

The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-four. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life; but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible as Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £150 a year, payable monthly. Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting day is made in case of an absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause, exceeding five sitting days in anyone session. Under “The Legislative Council Act, 1891,” a seat is vacated by any member of the Council—(1), If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. By the Standing Orders of the Council, the presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.

Roll of Members of the Honourable the Legislative Council of New Zealand, August, 1896.

Speaker—The Hon. Henry John Miller.
Chairman of Committees—The Hon. William Douglas Hall Baillie.
Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.
Acland, the Hon. John Barton ArundelCanterbury8 July, 1865.
Arkwright, the Hon. FrancisWellington13 December, 1895.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.
Barnicoat, the Hon. John WallisNelson14 May, 1883.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago15 October, 1892.
Bonar, the Hon. James AlexanderWestland27 June, 1868.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury23 January, 1891.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago15 October, 1892.
Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.Wellington13 May, 1870.
Holmes, the Hon. MathewOtago19 June, 1866.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury6 June, 1893.
Jennings, the Hon. William ThomasAuckland15 October, 1892.
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington23 January, 1891.
Jones, the Hon. GeorgeOtago13 December, 1895.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki15 October, 1892.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer ThomasMarlborough15 May, 1885.
Kerr, the Hon. JamesWestland15 October, 1892.
MacGregor, the Hon. JohnOtago15 October, 1892.
McCullough, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 October, 1892.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.
Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)Otago8 July, 1865.
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Morris, the Hon. George BenthamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Oliver, the Hon. RichardOtago10 November, 1881.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay23 January, 1891.
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury3 June, 1873.
Reeves, the Hon. Richard Harman JeffaresNelson13 December, 1895.
Reynolds, the Hon. William HunterOtago6 May, 1878.
Richardson, the Hon. Edward, C.M.G.Wellington15 October, 1892.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington6 June, 1893.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.
Shephard, the Hon. JosephNelson15 May, 1885.
Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel EdwardOtago15 May, 1885.
Smith, the Hon. William CowperHawke's Bay13 December. 1895.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury7 March, 1882.
Stewart, the Hon. William DownieOtago23 January, 1891.
Swanson, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago15 May, 1885.
Wahawaha, the Hon. Major Ropata, N.Z.C.Auckland10 May, 1887.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury15 May, 1885.
Walker, the Hon. William CampbellCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay31 August, 1863.
Whyte, the Hon. John BlairAuckland23 January, 1891.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland7 March, 1882.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.

House of Representatives.

The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1887, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1890. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members—ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty-one European members, and the Middle Island thirty-nine. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Every registered elector, being of the male sex, and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as or of sitting or voting as members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £20 per month, amounting to £240 per annum. £2 for every sitting-day exceeding five is deducted on account of absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 1st January, 1893, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1892.” Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 to 5.30, resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.

Roll of Members of the House of Representatives, August, 1896.

Speaker—The Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt.
Chairman of Committees—Arthur Robert Guinness.
Name.Electoral District.Date of Notification of Return of Writ.
For European Electorates.  
Allen, JamesBruce13 December, 1893.
Bell, Francis Henry DillonCity of Wellington               ”
Buchanan, Walter ClarkeWairarapa               ”
Buddo, DavidKaiapoi               ”
Buick, Thomas LindsayWairau               ”
Button, Charles EdwardCity of Auckland               ”
Cadman, Hon. Alfred JeromeWaikato               ”
Carncross, Waiter Charles FrederickTaieri               ”
Carnell, SamuelNapier               ”
Carroll, Hon. JamesWaiapu               ”
Collins, William WhitehouseCity of Christchurch               ”
Crowther, WilliamCity of Auckland               ”
Duncan, ThomasOamaru               ”
Duthie, JohnCity of Wellington               ”
Earnshaw, WilliamCity of Dunedin               ”
Flatman, Frederick RobertPareora13 December, 1893.
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu               ”
Graham, JohnCity of Nelson               ”
Green, JamesWaikouaiti               ”
Guinness, Arthur RobertGrey               ”
Hall, CharlesWaipawa               ”
Hall-Jones, Hon. WilliamTimaru               ”
Harris, BenjaminFranklin               ”
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton               ”
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands               ”
Hutchison, GeorgePatea               ”
Hutchison, WilliamCity of Dunedin               ”
Joyce, JohnLyttelton               ”
Kelly, James WhyteInvercargill               ”
Kelly, WilliamBay of Plenty               ”
Lang, Frederic WilliamWaipa               ”
Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie, C.M.G.Tuapeka17 July, 1894.
Lawry, FrankParnell13 December, 1893.
Lewis, CharlesCity of Christchurch21 February, 189
McGowan, JamesThames13 December, 1893.
McGuire, FelixEgmont               ”
McKenzie, Hon. JohnWaihemo               ”
McKenzie, RoderickBuller               ”
Mackenzie, ThomasClutha               ”
Mackintosh, JamesWallace               ”
McLachlan, JohnAshburton               ”
McNab, RobertMataura               ”
Maslin, William StephenRangitata               ”
Massey, William FergusonWaitemata17 April, 1894.
Meredith, RichardAshley13 December, 1893.
Millar, John AndrewChalmers               ”
Mills, Charles HoughtonWaimea-Sounds               ”
Mitchelson, Hon. EdwinEden               ”
Montgomery, William HughEllesmere               ”
Morrison, ArthurCaversham               ”
Newman, Alfred KingcomeWellington Suburbs               ”
O'Regan, Patrick JosephInangahua               ”
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach.Manukau               ”
Pinkerton, DavidCity of Dunedin               ”
Pirani, FrederickPalmerston               ”
Russell, George WarrenRiccarton               ”
Russell, William RussellHawke's Bay               ”
Saunders, AlfredSelwyn               ”
Seddon, Hon. Richard JohnWestland               ”
Smith, Edward MetcalfNew Plymouth               ”
Smith, George JohnCity of Christchurch               ”
Stevens, JohnRangitikei               ”
Steward, Hon. William JukesWaitaki               ”
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G.City of Wellington               ”
Tanner, William WilcoxAvon               ”
Thompson, RobertMarsden               ”
Thompson, Hon. ThomasCity of Auckland27 July, 1895.
Ward, Hon. Joseph GeorgeAwarua13 December, 1893.
Willis, Archibald DuddingstonWanganui               ”
Wilson, James GlennyOtaki               ”
For Maori Electorates.  
Heke, HoneNorthern Maori11 January, 1894.
Parata, TameSouthern Maori30 December, 1893.
Pere, WiEastern Maori11 January, 1894.
Te Ao, RopataWestern Maori2 January, 1894.

Clerk of House of Representatives—G. Friend.

Clerk-Assistant—H. Otterson.

Second Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherford.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—–.

Chief Hansard Reporter—J. Grattan Grey.

Interpreters—L. M. Grace, W. E. Goff.

Sergeant-at-Arms—W. Fraser.

Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.

Deputy Clerk of Writs—R. H. Govett.

Acting Librarian—H. L. James, B.A.

Chapter 18. OFFICIAL LIST.
[September, 1896.]

Table of Contents


Premier's Office.

Premier—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary to Premier and to Cabinet—A. J. Willis


Chief Office.

Colonial Secretary—Hon.

Under-Secretary—Hugh Pollen

Chief Clerk—R. H. Govett

Clerks—R. F. Lynch, J. F. Andrews, L. W. Loveday

Housekeeper and Chief Messenger—W. H. Hennah

Audit Office.

Controller and Auditor-General—J. K. Warburton.

Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—L. C. Roskruge

Clerks—W. Dodd, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holdsworth, E. J. A. Stevenson, C. M. Georgeson, A. W. Eames

Cadet—J. H. Fowler

Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, J. Swift, A. E. Bybles, J. Ward, A. A. Bethune, B. A. Meek, C. E. Briggs

Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser

Audit Travelling Inspectors—P. P. Webb, A. H. Maclean, J. King, W. R. Holmes, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, C. P. Johnson, J. T. Dumbell, W. H. Carlyle

Registrar-General's Office.

Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen Chief Clerk—G. Drury

Clerks—F. H. Machattie, S. Coffey, W. W. Cook.

Printing and Stationery Department.

Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—John Mackay

Superintending Overseer—J. Burns

Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen

Clerk and Computer—N. B. K. Manley

Clerks—F. Barraud, J. W. Hall, R. Watts, A. Stace, A. Williams

Cadet—R. A. Gray

Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks

Overseers—J. J. Gamble, B. Wilson

Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle

Overseer, Machine-room—C. Young

Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin Sub-overseer, Binding Branch—G. H. Broad

Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers

Stamp Printer—H. Hume

Stereotyper and Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk

Readers—W. Fuller, H. S. Mountier

Forewoman, Binding Branch — Miss Thompson.

Engineer—T. R. Barrer


Chief Office.

Colonial Treasurer—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar of Consols — James B. Heywood

Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey

Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell

Private Secretary and Shorthand-writer to Colonial Treasurer—

Clerks—C. Meacham, R. B. Vincent, W. E. Cooper, J. Driscoll, E. L. Mowbray, A. O. Gibbes, J. Holmes, H. N. W. Church, J. Eman Smith, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, A. J. Morgan, T. J. Davis, F. H. Tuckey, H. Hawthorne

Cadets—W. Wilson, G. A. Eraser

Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Devaney

Friendly Societies' and Trades Unions' Registry Office; also Office of the Registrar under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act.

Registrar—E. Mason

Revising Barrister for Friendly Societies and Trades Unions—L. G. Reid

Clerk—C. T. Benzoni


Minister—Hon. T. Thompson

Clerk—A. M. Smith


Commissioner—John McGowan

Deputy Commissioner—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—G. Maxwell, H. Nancarrow, A. J. McGowan, J. P. Dugdale, J. M. King, D. R. Purdie, A. F. Oswin, G. W. Jänisch, J. Stevenson, C. V. Kreeft, J. W. Black, A. Clothier, W. M. Tyers, H. H. Seed, D. G. Clark, T. Oswin, J. R. Smyth, H. L. Wiggins

Cadets—R. Hepworth, J. J. Hunt, C. de R. Andrews, M. J. Crombie, J. Ferguson


Head Office.

Minister of Justice—Hon. T. Thompson

Under-Secretary—F. Waldegrave

Translator—G. H. Davies

Clerks—C. B. Jordan, C. E. Matthews, W. D. Anderson, G. F. Dixon

Crown Law Office.


Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid

Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid

Law Draftsman — F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D.

Clerk—E. Y. Redward

Patent Office.

Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—F. Waldegrave

Deputy Registrar—J. C. Lewis

Clerks—M. J. Organ, Mary Eyre


Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice—Wellington—Sir J. Prendergast, Knt. Puisne Judges—Wellington—W. B. Edwards Auckland—E. T. Conolly Christchurch—J. E Denniston Dunedin—J. S. Williams

District Court Judges.

Wairarapa, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queenstown, Naseby, Lawrence, Invercargill, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, and Reefton—C. D. R. Ward

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—W. Stuart

Wanganui—C. C. Kettle

Napier—A. Turnbull

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Blenheim—J. Allen

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—A. H. King

Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon

Invercargill—F. G. Morgan


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Wairarapa—T. Hutchison

Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—A. Greenfield

Central Westland—H. Lucas

Marlborough—J. B. Stoney

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—A. H. King

Otago—C. McK. Gordon

Southland—W. Martin

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—A. J. Cotterill

Wellington—H. Gully

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—R. McCallum

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White


Dunedin—B. C. Haggitt

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors (District Courts).

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wanganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert

Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika—J. Park

Greymouth—M. Hannan

Timaru—J. W. White

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Stipendiary Magistrates.

Auckland—H. W. Northcroft

Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—T. Jackson

Onehunga, &c.—R. S. Bush*

Russell, &c.—J. S. Clendon

Tauranga, &c.—J. M. Roberts

Thames, &c.—H. E. Kenny*

Gisborne, &c.—J. Booth

New Plymouth—W. Stuart

Hawera, &c.—H. W. Brabant

Wanganui, &c.—C. C. Kettle

Palmerston North, &c.—R. L. Stanford

Wellington, &c.—

Wairarapa, &c.—T. Hutchison

Napier, &c.—A. Turnbull

Nelson, &c.—H. W. Robinson, Wilson Heaps

Westport, Collingwood, &c.—A. Greenfield*

Blenheim, &c.—J. Allen*

Christchurch, &c.—R. Beetham

Kaiapoi, &c.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &c—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, &c.—H. A. Stratford*

Hokitika, &c.—D. Macfarlane*

Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew

Oamaru, &c.—J. Keddell*

Milton, &c.—R. S. Hawkins*

Clyde, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.

Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*

Invereargill, &c.—J. W. Poynton*

Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—J. Lawson, J.P.

Wellington—J. Ashcroft, J.P.

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham, J.P.

Clerks of District and Magistrates' Courts.

New Plymouth—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Hawera—A. Trimble

Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

Wanganui—A. D. Thomson

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Masterton—F. H. Ibbetson

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Greymouth—B. Harper

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—H. Lucas

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—J. R. Colyer

Oamaru—H. H. G. Ralfe

Invercargill—W. Martin

Queenstown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Naseby—John Terry

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens' and Magistrates' Courts.

Thames—J. Jordan

Coromandel—T. M. Lawlor

Paeroa—T. A. Moresby

Te Aroha—J. M. Hickson

Whangarei—T. W. Tayler

Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough)—H. G. Hoddinott

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Motueka—H. E. Gilbert

Collingwood—S. J. Dew

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—John Bird

Reefton—H. Lucas

Greymouth—B. Harper

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Naseby, &c.—John Terry

Wyndham—D. Bogue

Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—P. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—J. Fleming

Queenstown and Arrowtown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—A. M. Eyes

Riverton—A. A. Mair

Clerks of Magistrates' Courts.

Auckland—F. J. Burgess

Tauranga—J. Thomson

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Hamilton—T. Kirk

Napier—R. B. Mathias

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Marton, &c.—F. M. Deighton

Wellington—W. P. James

Blenheim—J. B. Stoney

Christchurch—W. G. Walker

Lyttelton—W. Shanaghan

Kaiapoi—M. Lynskey

Dunedin—A. S. B. Forster

Native Land Court.

Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—A. Mackay, D. Scannell, R. Ward, H. W. Brabant, W. E. Gudgeon, W. J. Butler, H. F. Edger, W. G. Mair, J. A. Wilson, H. D. Johnson

Registrars—Auckland, J. W. Browne; Gisborne, J. Brooking; Wellington, E. Buckle

Commissioners of the Native Land Court.

R. S. Bush, J. Booth, A. Turnbull, J. S. Clendon, T. Jackson, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, H. W. Bishop, E. H. Carew, F. J. W. Gascoyne, H. E. Kenny

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga—G. T. Wilkinson

Validation Court.

Judge—G. E. Barton; also the Chief Judge and Judges of the Native Land Court

Registrar and Clerk—R. C. Sim


Coroners—Auckland, T. M. Philson, H. W. Northcroft, R. S. Bush, E. Baker; Akaroa, G. H. Saxton; Blenheim, J. Allen; Christchurch, R. Beetham and H. W. Bishop; Clyde, S. E. McCarthy; Collingwood, E. Davidson; Coromandel, A. R. H. Swindley; Dunedin, E. H. Carew; Foxton, E. S. Thynne; Gisborne, J. Booth; Greymouth, H. A. Stratford; Huntly, T. H. White; Hawera, C. E. Major; Hokitika, D. Macfarlane and R. W. Wade; Invercargill, J. W. Poynton; Lawrence, R. S. Hawkins; Mahurangi, M. Angove; Marton, A. Simpson; Masterton, T. Hutchison; Napier, A. Turnbull; Naseby, S. M. Dalgleish; Nelson, O. Curtis, H. W. Robinson, W. Gibbs, and L. G. Boor; New Plymouth, W. Stuart; Oamaru, J. Keddell; Opotiki, S. Bates; Otahuhu, S. Luke; Otaki, W. H. Simcox; Paeroa, W. Forrest; Palmerston North, J. Linton; Pokeno, T. Jackson; Port Albert, J. Shepherd; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Southbridge, R. B. Willis; Stratford, H. J. C. Coutts; Tauranga, A. C. H. Tovey and J. M. Roberts; Te Awamutu, T. Gresham; Timaru, C. A. Wray; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Thames, C. Haselden, A. Bruce, and H. E. Kenny; Waimate, E. M. Williams; Waipawa, S. Johnson; Wellington, J. Ashcroft; Westport, A. Greenfield; Wanganai, H. W. Brabant and C. C. Kettle; Whangarei, J. Bell; Woodville, E. J. Gothard; Chatham Islands, F. J. W. Gascoyne.

Prisons Department.

Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers—Auckland, George Sinclair Reston; Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Francis Edward Severne; Nelson, Thomas R. Pointon; New Plymouth, Edward Rickerby; Wanganui, Robert T. Noble Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey


Minister of Labour—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary for Labour and Chief Inspector of Factories—E. Tregear

Chief Clerk—James Mackay

Cadets—F. W. T. Rowley, F. A. De la Mare

Inspectors of Factories.

North Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, H. Ferguson, L. D. Browett, Margaret Scott, and 71 local Inspectors

South Island—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan, J. Lomas, H. Maxwell, Margaret Scott, and 68 local Inspectors. (There are also 200 Bureau Agents in different parts of the colony.)


Head Office.

Minister for Public Works—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales

Resident Engineer (Head Office)—P. S. Hay, M. A., M. Inst. C.E.

Chief Clerk—J. A. McArthur

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—W. D. Dumbell, L. F. Tegnér, J. H. Denton, H. R. Rae, J. Williams, N. Jacobs, E. McCarthy, J. A. McAlister, A. Lewis, E. Horneman, F. E. Banks, A. H. Kimbell

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford

Architectural Draughtsman—J. Campbell

Draughtsmen—T. Perham, E. Jackson, W. Withers, W. G. Swan, J. H. Price

Engineering Cadet—W. Sherratt

District Offices.

District Engineer—Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M. Inst. C. E.

Resident Engineers—Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Hunterville, W. A. Shain; Wellington, J. A. Wilson; Westport, T. H. Rawson; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E.; Hyde, G. L. Cook, M. Inst. C. E. In charge of North Island Main Trunk Railway survey, R. W. Holmes

Assistant Engineers—J. D. Louch, A. C. Koch, H. Macandrew, F. M. Hewson, J. J. Hay, M. A., W. H. Gavin, J. W. Richmond, J. S. Stewart, T. Roberts, J. H. Dobson, S. Harding

Engineering Cadets—J. H. Lewis, H. Dickson, J. E. W. McEnnis, F. W. Furkert, A. Jack, J. Meenan, W. A. Jeff

Clerks, Draughtsmen, &c.—W. Black, C. T. Rushbrook, C. Wood, J. Young, A. Biddell, W. A. Cumming, T. Douglas, E. C. Farr, P. F. M. Burrows, E. Sandford, W. E. Butler, J. C. Fulton, J. H. Churches, J. B. Borton, A. R. Stone, E. Waddell, P. S. Waldie, L. M. Shera, A. W. Hamann

Inspection of Machinery Branch.

Inspectors of Machinery—Chief Inspector, R. Duncan; Auckland, W. J. Jobson, L. Blackwood; Wellington, H. A. McGregor, P. J. Carman; Christchurch, G. Croll; Dunedin, A. Morrison, H. Wetherilt

Clerk—R. P. Milne

Cadet—B. Anderson


Minister for Railways—Hon. A. J. Cadman

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

General Manager—T. Ronayne

Assistant General Manager—C. Hudson

Chief Clerk—T. W. Waite

Clerks—R. W. McVilly, C. Isherwood, E. J. Andrews, B. M. Wilson, W. Johnston, L. C. E. Hamann, J. E. Widdop, W. H. Gifford, A. D. Miller, R. D. Scott, R. Hope

Audit Inspectors—D. Munro, C. L. Russell, H. Baxter

Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife

Clerks—H. Davidson, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, A. Morris, V. Jänisch, E. P. Brogan, C. Batten, W. B. Fisher, J. Firth, E. J. Fleming, E. R. Nicholson, R. J. Loe, F. W. Lush, A. H. Hunt, W. Bourke, W. H. Hales, W. E. Ahern, T. A. O'Connor

Stores Manager—G. Felton

Clerks—A. M. lieaton, R. E. Mackay, J. Webster, J. E. Hasloch, S. Alpe, H. W. Barbor, R. H. Stephens, E. J. Maguiness

District Managers—Whangarei, H. B. Dobbie; Kawakawa, J. D. Harris; Kaihu, T. H. Barstow; Auckland, A. Grant; Wanganui, H. Buxton; Napier, E. G. Pileher; Wellington, T. E. Donne; Greymouth, D. T. McIntosh; Westport, T. A. Peterkin; Nelson, H. St. J. Christophers; Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; Dunedin, T. Arthur; Invereargill, S. F. Whitcombe; Picton, A. Duncan (Station-master in charge)

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. H. Lowe, M.Inst. C.E.

Resident Engineer—F. W. MacLean

Railway Land Officer—E. G. H. Main-waring

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Troup

Draughtsmen—J. A. Henderson, J. Besant, C. T. Jeffreys, F. C. Widdop

Clerks—W. P. Hicks, G. McCartney, W. S. Ridler, J. T. Ford, W. A. Mirams, H. Jessup, H. W. Rowden, R. S. Kent, E. D. Richards

Resident Engineers—Auckland, A. V. Macdonald; Napier-Taranaki, —; Christchurch, James Burnett; Dune-din, J. Coom; Invercargill, C. H. Biss (Assistant Engineer)

Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotheram

Clerks—R. Triggs, W. H. Butterworth, C. Loveday, F. T. Murison, P. A. Buck, W. B. Sinclair, J. M. Tasker, G. A. Bush

Chief Draughtsman—G. A. Pearson

Draughtsmen — R. Pye-Smith, E. E. Gillon

Locomotive Engineers—Wellington, H. H. Jackson; Auckland, J. H. Fox; Wanganui, A. L. Beattie


General Post Office.

Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary—W. Gray

Superintendent of Electric Lines—J. K. Logan

Assistant Secretary and Inspector—T. Rose

Controller of Money-orders and Savings-banks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Clerks—W. R. Morris, E. V. Senn, F. V. Waters, H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Crow, G. Cenci, L. Ledger, V. J. Brogan, W. Callaghan, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Chegwidden, H. S. B. Miller, H. Huggins, G. V. Hudson, F. Perrin, H. D. Grocott, J. Brennan, H. Cornwall, R. J. Thompson, R. E. Hayes, D. A. Jenkins, E. Fitzsimons, H. N. McLeod, J. C. Redmond, W. Davies, C. B. Harton, W. J. Drake, R. F. Smith, J. D. Avery, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, W. H. Carter, J. J. Murray, P. Tyrrell, A. T. Markmann, P. Kelleher, W. A. Tanner, H. A. English, G. H. Harris, H. C. Hickson, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, F. Menzies, E. Harris, B. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod, C. Smith

Electrician—W. C. Smythe

Mechanician—H. F. Smith

Assistant Mechanician—A. W. Macandrew

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Clerk—C. Nicholls

Cadet—F. H. Guinness

Circulation Branch (Post Office)—J. Hoggard, Chief Clerk

Inspectors of Telegraphs.

Auckland—E. H. Bold

Christchurch—W. G. Meddings

Dunedin—J. Orchiston

Assistant Inspectors of Post Offices.

D. Cumming, C. J. A. Tipping, S. P. Stevens

Sub-Inspector of Telegraphs.

Nelson—J. W. Gannaway

Chief Postmasters.

Auckland—S. B. Biss

*Thames—J. E. Coney

*Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Napier—S. J. Jago

*New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

*Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

*Blenheim—J. Bull

*Nelson—II. Calders

*Westport—J. H. Sheath

*Greymouth—C. J. Berry

*Hokitika—A. E. Cresswell

Christchurch—R. Kirton

*Timaru—R. J. Goodman

*Oamaru—J. A. Hutton

Dunedin—E. Cook

*Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin

Officers in Charge of Telegraph Offices.

Auckland—W. S. Furby

Napier—H. W. Harrington

Wellington—C. C. Robertson

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—J. G. Ballard.


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Hon. R. J. Seddon.

Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow.

Chief Clerk—T. Larchin

Clerks, Costums—G. Craig, P. Doull.

Audit—II. W. Brewer, H. Crowther (Writer)

Collectors of Customs.

Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—E. Pasley

New Plymouth—H. Bedford

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. McKellar

Wanganui—A. Elliott

Wairau—A. Carter

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westport—J. Mills

Greymouth—A. McDowell

Hokitika—E. Chilman

Lyttelton and Christchurch—E. Patten Timaru—A. Hart

Oamaru—J. P. Ridings

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—D. Johnston, jun.

*These are combined post- and telegraph-office.

Officers in Charge of Ports, and Coastwaiters.

Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter

Tauranga—E. Northeroft, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mongonui — A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter

Foxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge

Pate—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Picton—F. Teesdale, Officer in Charge Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. W. Hall-Jones

Secretary—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—G. Allport

Clerk—J. J. D. Grix

Cadet—G. Sinclair

Marine Engineer for the Colony—W. H. Hales.

Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—G. Allman

Examiners of Masters and Mates—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Examiners of Masters and Mates, Auckland—T. C. Tilly and J. Robertson

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—W. J. Grey

Engineer Surveyors and Examiners of Engineers, Auckland—W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood

Engineer Surveyors and Examiners of Engineers, Wellington—R. Duncan (Principal), H. A. McGregor, and P. Carman

Engineer Surveyor and Examiner of Engineers, Christchurch—G. Croll

Engineer Surveyors and Examiners of Engineers, Dunedin—A. Morrison and H. Wetherilt.

Master of Government steamer—J. Fair-child

Inspectors of Sea Fisheries.

Russell—H. Stephenson

Whangarei—J. Munro

Wellington—F. Moorhouse

Hokitika—J. Duncan

Bluff—P. McGrath


Collingwood—J. E. Fletcher

Foxton—A. Seabury

Hokianga—G. Martin

Russell—H. Stephenson

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Robertson

Nelson—F. W. Cox

Okarito—G. Thomson

Picton—A. Duncan

Port Robinson—J. Sinclair

Waitapu—S. G. Robinson


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. Jas. Carroll

Secretary for Stamps—C. A.St. G. Hickson Chief Clerk and Accountant—H. O. Williams

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Record and Receiving Clerk—J. P. Murphy

Clerk—J. Murray

Chief Stamper—C. Howe

Deputy Commissioners of Stamps.

Auckland—E. Bamford

Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui J. F. McBeth

Nelson—W. W. de Custro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Timaru—R. J. Goodman

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson

District Land Registrars and Registrars of Deeds.

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—J. M. Batham

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

*The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department.

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. Allen

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges and E. Denham

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Examiners of Titles.

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—J. M. Batham, H. Howorth

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. M. Batham

Canterbury—G. G. Bridges

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Registrar of Joint-stock Companies.

C. A. St. G. Hickson

Assistant Registrars of Joint-stock Companies.

Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—Thos. Hall

Wellington—H. O. Williams

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. C. Walker

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools — Rev. W. J. Habens, B.A.

Chief Clerk—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Clerks—F. K. de Castro, H. B. Kirk, M.A., R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne, E. C. Banks, F. D. Thomson

Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector — H. B. Kirk, M.A.

Education Boards.

Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary

Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary

Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary

Grey—W. Riemenschneider, Secretary Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A., Secretary Canterbury North—H. C. Lane, Secretary

Canterbury South — J. H. Bamfild, Secretary

Otago—P. G. Pryde, Secretary

Southland—J. Neill, Secretary

School Commissioners
(Administrators of Education Reserves).

Auckland—H. N. Garland, Secretary

Taranki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wellington—N. Tone, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—A. T. Jones, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, Secretary

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves

Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary

Industrial Schools.

Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Ponsonby—Rev. G. M. Lenihan, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. T. G. Dawson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Palethorpe, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago) — G. M. Burlinson, Manager

Institution for Deaf-mutes, Summer.

Director—G. Van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle


Inspector — Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.

Deputy Inspector—Mrs. Grace Neill

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—Ernest E. Fooks, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington and Porirua Asylums—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. Truby King, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum — H. Gribben

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum) — Proprietor, Dr. Alexander


Chief Office.

Minister of Mines—Hon. A. J. Cadman Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliott

Inspecting Engineer—

Chief Clerk—T. H. Hamer

Clerks—T. S. M. Cowie, H. E. Radeliffe Analyst—W. Skey

Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Assistant Geologist—W. A. McKay

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard

Inspectors of Mines.

Thames and Auckland Districts—G. Wilson; Canterbury, Dunedin, and Southland Districts—J. Gow; West Coast Districts, N. D. Cochrane

Managers of Water-races.

Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken Mount Ida—R. Murray

Schools of Mines.

Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—F. B. Allen; Assistant, Percy Morgan. Reefton—R. M. Aitken

Board of Examiners under “The Coal-mines Act, 1891.”

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Thomas Brown, of Denniston; and William Shore, of Kaitangata

Board of Examiners under “The Mining Act, 1891.”

Same official members as above Board, with the following private members: James Coutts and Thomas Dunlop, of the Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, of Reefton

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards, and Mr. T. H. Hamer is the Secretary.

Geological Survey, Museum, and Observatories.

Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines

Director—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—R. B. Gore

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey

Meteorological Observer, New Plymouth—E. Veale

Meteorological Observer, Hokitika—A. D. Macfarlane

New Zealand Institute.

Manager—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Hon. Treasurer—W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.

Secretary—R. B. Gore


Minister of Defence—Hon. T. Thompson Under-Secretary—Major Sir A. P. Douglas, Bart., late R.N.

Military Adviser and Inspector of the N.Z. Forces — Colonel F. J. Fox, N.Z.M., late Major, R.A.

Clerk—T. F. Grey

Harbour Defence.

Chief Engineer—W. H. Hales

Defence Store Department.

Storekeeper—Capt. S. C. Anderson.

Assistant Storekeeper—T. H. Sewell Clerk—J. O'Sullivan

New Zealand Permanent Militia.


Major F. Y. Goring

Major W. B. Messenger

Captain H. C. Morrison

Captain J. Coleman

Lieutenant J. E. Hume

Inspector of Submarine Mining Establishment.

Captain J. Falconer

Torpedo Corps.

Captain J. Falconer

Captain W. T. Powell

Quartermaster, Permanent Militia.

Captain S. C. Anderson

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Wellington).

John Teare, M.B.

Surgeon, Permanent Militia (Auckland).

John Wilkins, M.R.C.S.E.

Honorary Surgeon, Permanent Militia.

Patrick J. O'Neill O'Carroll

Honorary Chaplain, Lyttleton Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. E. E. Chambers

Honorary Chaplain, Wellington Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. W. C. Waters, M.A.

Officers Commanding Militia and Volunteer Districts, and Adjutants.

Auckland — Lieut.-Colonel Forster Yelverton Goring, N.Z.M. Acting Adjutant: Lieut. John Grant, N.Z. Vols.

Wellington — Lieut - Colonel Stuart Newall, N.Z.M.

Canterbury—Lieut.-Colonel Henry Gordon, N.Z.M., late H.M. 44th Foot

North Otago—V.D. Major Alfred Headland

South Otago—Lieut.-Colonel William Holden Webb, N.Z.M., late H.M. 109th Foot

Southland—V.D. Lieut.-Colonel James Ewart Hannah, N.Z. Vols.

Nelson—V.D. Lieut.-Colonel Albert Pitt, N.Z.M. Adjutant: Wm. S. Little-john (Captain, Nelson College Cadets)

New Zealand Police Force.

Head Office.

Commissioner — Lieutenant - Colonel A. Hume

Clerks—John Evans, John Tasker

Police Department.

Inspectors, 1st: Class—Thomas Broham, Peter Pender, William Stone Pardy, John Emerson, James Hickson, Francis McGovern

Inspector, 2nd Class—John Pratt


Head Office.

Minister of Lands—Hon. John McKenzie Surveyor - General and Secretary for Crown Lands—S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S.

Superintending Surveyor and Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—Alexander Barron

Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Chief Clerk—W. S. Short

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Auditor of Land Revenue (acting) — W. G. Runcie

Superintendent of Village-settlements—J. E. March

Auckland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. J. Mueller

District Surveyors—L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin

Assistant Surveyors—A. H. Vickerman, H. D. M. Hazard, T. K. Thompson, R. S. Galbraith, D. Innes Barron

Road Surveyors—C. W. Hursthouse, A. B. Wright, R. H. Reaney

Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington Receiver of Land Revenue—T. M. Taylor Overseer of Works, Rotorua, Sanatorium — J. M. C. Malfroy

Hawke's Bay District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyors—E. C. Gold-Smith, James Hay

Assistant Surveyor—J. Mouat

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull

Taranaki District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Strauchon

District Surveyor—H. M. Skeet

Assistant-Surveyors—G. H. Bullard, J. F. Frith, W. T. Morpeth

Road Surveyor—G. F. Robinson

Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Clarke

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. P. Doile

Wellington District.

Assistant Surveyor-General and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. H. Baker

District Surveyors—L. Smith, J. D. Climie, F. A. Thompson

Assistant Surveyors—H. J. Lowe, P. A. Dalziel, J. McKay, J. G. Littlejohn, H. Maitland

Road Surveyors—G. T. Murray, A. C. Turner

Chief Draughtsman—J. McKenzie

Receiver of Land Revenue (Acting) — T. G. Waitt

Nelson District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. S. Browning

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, F. S. Smith, J. Snodgrass, R. T. Sadd

Assistant Surveyor—J. D. Thomson

Chief Draughtsman—H. Trent

Receiver of Land Revenue—J. T. Catley

Caretaker, Hanmer Springs Sanatorium — J. Rogers

Marlborough District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—S. Weetman

Assistant Surveyors—D. W. Gillies, E. W. Buckeridge

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. Robinson

Westland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—David Barron

District Surveyor—W G. Murray

Assistant Surveyor—W. Wilson

Road Surveyor—F. B. Wither

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. J. Roberts

Canterbury District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant District Surveyors—T. N. Broderick, G. H. M. McClure

Assistant Surveyor—L. O. Mathias

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab

Otago District.

Commissioner of Crown Lands — J. P. Maitland

Chief Surveyor—C. W. Adams

District Surveyors—J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmot

Assistant Surveyors—D. M. Calder, W. D. R. McCurdie, W. T. Neill

Chief Draughtsman—P. Treseder

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade

Southland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. W. Williams

District Surveyor—John Hay

Assistant Surveyor—A. Hodgkinson

Chief Draughtsman—J. G. Clare

Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch

Land for Settlements Branch.

Land Purchase Inspector—James McKerrow, F. A. S.

Members of Land Boards.

Auckland—G. Mueller, R. Thompson, B. Harris, D. Lundon, J. Renshaw

Hawke's Bay—T. Humphries, C. Hall, T. Hyde, R. R. Groom. G. Mathewson

Taranaki—J. Strauchon, T. Kelly, C. K. Stock, J. Heslop, R. B. Roy

Wellington — J. H. Baker, W. A. Fitzherbert, A. W. Hogg, J. Stevens, F. Pirani

Nelson—J. S. Browning, J. Kerr, D. Bate, F. Hamilton

Marlborough—S. Weetman, A. P. Seymour, C. H. Mills, J. Redwood, J. A. Parsons

Westland — D. Barron, J. Bevan, L. Northeroft, A. Matheson

Canterbury—J. W. A. Marchant, A. C. Pringle, R. Meredith, D. McMillan, J. McLachlan

Otago—J. P. Maitland, A. McKerrow, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—G. W. Williams, C. Cowan, A. Kinross, J. McIntyre, A. Baldey


Chief Office.

Minister in Charge—Hon. J. McKenzie Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—John D. Ritchie

Assistant Chief Inspector of Stock—T. A. Fraser

Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt

Clerk and Biologist—T. W. Kirk, F.L.S.

Assistant Entomologist at Auckland—Thomas Broun

Veterinary Surgeons—J. A. Gilruth, MRCVS.; Archibald Park, MRCVS

Produce Commissioner, London—Henry Gray

Dairy Commissioner—J. B. MacEwan

Dairy Instructors and Graders—James Sawers, B. Wayte, J. T. Lang, C. W. Sorensen, A. A. Thornton

Pomologists — W. J. Palmer, J. C. Blackmore, Joseph Mayo

Inspectors of Stock.

Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw, Auckland; G. S. Cooke, Whangarei; D. Ross, Hamilton

Napier—J. Drummond (in charge), H. Oldham, Napier; C. Thomson, Gisborne; J. Harvey. Woodville

Wairarapa — W. Miller, Masterton; D. Kerr, Carterton

Wellington—W. G. Rees, Wellington

West Coast—A. K. Blundell (in charge), Wanganui; F. E. Orbell, Hawera; H. G. J. Hull, Palmerston North

Nelson—H. M. Campbell, Nelson (in charge); J. A. Easton, Foxhill

Marlborough—John Moore, Blenheim Westland—V. A. Huddleston, Hokitika Canterbury-Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), E. A. Dowden, Christchurch; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora; J. C. Huddleston, Rotherham; Blair Fullarton, Ashburton

South Canterbury—H. S. Thomson (in charge), Timaru; J. W. Deem, Fairlie; R. H. Hassall, Kurow

Otago—J. E. Thomson, Dunedin; J. S. Nichol, Outram; J. C. Miller, Oamaru; J. L. Bruce, Palmerston; A. Ironside, Clyde; R. I. Gossage, Naseby; C. C. Empson, Lawrence; James Duncan, Balclutha; E. A. Field, Gore; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; J. W. Raymond, Bluff


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson, F.F.A. Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie, F.S.S.

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Accountant—G. W. Barltrop

Assistant Actuary

G. Leslie

Chief Clerk—R. C. Niven

Office Examiner—G. A. Kennedy

Second Assistant Actuary—P. Muter

Clerks—J. C. Young, J. W. Kinniburgh, W. S. Smith, R. V. Blacklock, A. H. Hamerton, D. J. McG. McKenzie, F. B. Bolt, C. E. Galwey, H. Spackman, T. L. Barker, A. L. B. Jordan, R. T. Smith, J. A. Thomson, F. K. Kelling, H. S. Manning, C. J. Alexander, A. de Castro, F. M. Leckie, C. W. Palmer, J. B. Young, A. Avery, R. P. Hood, G. C. Fache, G. A. N. Campbell, S. P. Hawthorne, W. H. Woon, J. G. Reid, A. T. Traversi

Chief Messenger—W. Archer

Auckland Agency.

District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerk—J. B. Watkis

Napier Agency.

Resident Agent—J. H. Dean

Wanganui Agency.

Resident Agent—J. Fairburn

Wellington Agency.

District Manager—G. Robertson

Clerks—G. Crichton, W. C. Marchant

Nelson Agency.

Resident Agent—A. P. Burnes

Blenheim Agency.

Agency Clerk—C. H. Ralph

Greymouth Agency.

Resident Agent—A. E. Allison

Christchurch Agency.

District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—J. W. H. Wood

Clerk—H. Rose.

Timaru Agency.

Agency Clerk—S. T. Wicksteed

Oamaru Agency.

Resident Agent—O. H. Pinel

Dunedin Agency.

District Manager—R. S. McGowan

Chief Clerk—M. J. Heywood

Clerk—A. Marryatt

Invercargill Agency.

Agency Clerk—J. Findlay


Public Trustee—J. C. Martin

Deputy Public Trustee—A. A. Duncan

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Chief Clerk—T. S. Ronaldson

Accountant—M. C. Barnett

Clerk in Charge of Wills, Trusts, &c.—T. Stephens

Examiner—M. Townsend

Clerks—P. Fair, C. Zachariah, P. Hervey, E. C. Reeves, T. D. Kendall, W. A. Fordham, H. Oswin, A. Purdie, G. A. Smyth, A. J. Cross, E. G. Hyde, T. R. Saywell, N. Levien, M. E. Harrap, S. Dimant, J. Skerrett, E. A. Smythe, J. Allen, W. Barr, E. O. Hales, C. Morris, S. W. Smith, J. B. Jack, K. Brown, C. A. Goldsmith, W. Campbell, R. Price

District Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton

District Agent, Auckland—E. F. Warren

District Agent, Dunedin—F. H. Morice

District Agent, Greymouth—J. C. Matheson

District Agent, Napier—E. P. Waikis West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent — Thomas C. Fisher


Superintendent—John McGowan

Deputy Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Valuers—Auckland, W. Duncan; Wellington, T. K. Macdonald; Christ-church, A. P. O'Callaghan; Invercargill, H. Carswell

Clerks, Head Office - H. Lamb, E. McFadden, W. Waddel, T. C. Somers, W. M. Smith, A. Prichard, J. T. Bolt, H. O'Rourke, J. E. Thompson, C. Wilson, T. W. Foote, A. W. Knowles, H. Redmond, L. A. Treadwell, W. Garrett, C. A. Goldsmith, C. Collins, E. Pantin

Clerks at Agencies—Millar, — Walker, Naphtali, E. Holloway, F. B. Robertson


There is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religions bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.

Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the “Church of England.”


The Most Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1869 (Primate).

The Right Rev. William Leonard Williams, B.A., Waiapu; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Frederic Wallis, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1895.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871.

The Right Rev. Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.

Roman Catholic Church.


The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


Bishopric of Auckland vacant. Rev. G. M. Lenihan, Administrator.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Right Rev. Dr. Verdon, Dunedin; consecrated 1896.

Annual Meetings and Officers.

The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one or other of the dioceses. — President, the Bishop of Auckland, Primate; Secretary, Rev. J. P. Kempthorne, Nelson; Lay Secretary, James Allen, Esq., B.A., M.H.R., Dunedin. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese. The next General Synod will be held in Christchurch, in February, 1898.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a Synod is held, presided over by the Bishop, and at which all his clergy attend.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly meets annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, in succession. Moderator, the Very Rev. William Watt; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, D.D., Napier.

Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Synod meets annually in October at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. David Borrie, North-east Valley; Clerk, Rev. W. Bannerman, Roslyn, Dunedin; Church Factor, Mr. Frederick Smith, High Street, Dunedin. Theological Professors, Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., DD., and Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., DD. Mr. James Dunbar, Tutor in Greek.

Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets on or about the 1st March, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1896—97), Rev. W. Baumber, Wesley Church, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. W. J. Williams, Pitt Street Church, Auckland. The next Conference is to meet in Wesley Church, Wellington.

United Methodist Free Churches.—The Assembly meets annually in February, in Canterbury, Auckland, Wellington, or Hawke's Bay. For 1896 the President is the Rev. A. Peters, Auckland; and the Secretary Mr. J. A. Flesher, Christchurch. [These Churches were united with the Wesleyan Methodist and Bible Christian Churches on the 13th of April, 1896.]

Bible Christians.—A District Meeting of the Connexion is held annually. President, Rev. B. H. Ginger, Addington; Connexional Representative and Treasurer, Rev. J. Orchard, Christchurch; Trust Secretary, Rev. J. G. W. Ellis, Templeton; School and Temperance Secretary, Rev. F. Quintrell, Palmerston North; Editor of Magazine, Rev. W. Grigg, Belfast; Publisher, Rev. B. H. Ginger. [The legal union of the Bible Christian Connexion with the Wesleyan and United Methodist Churches took effect on Monday, 13th April, 1896. The ministers of the denomination are now returned amongst the Wesleyan Methodists, and all the offices cease to exist, with the exception of that held by the Rev. J. Orchard, who still continues to represent the English Conference of the Bible Christian Church.]

Primitive Methodists.—A Conference takes place every January. The next is to be held in Feilding, commencing 6th January, 1897. The Executive Committee of the Church sits in Auckland. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. James Clover, Waimate, Canterbury; Secretary, Rev. William S. Potter, New Plymouth; Secretary of Executive Committee, Mr. D. Goldie, Auckland.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Rev. Arthur Dewdney, Oamaru; Secretary, Rev. A. H. Collins, Auckland. The Union comprises 31 churches, 3,095 members, 4,931 scholars in the Sunday schools, with 579 teachers. There are also 101 local preachers, and 24 preaching-stations. This religious body has a newspaper of its own—the New Zealand Baptist—published in Christchurch.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held during the second week of February, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1896, Rev. W. M. Fell, Dunedin; Chairman Elect, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Secretary, Mr. J. Bowden, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. G. Fowlds, Auckland; Registrar, Rev. C. H. Bradbury, Dunedin: Head Office, Auckland. In 1897 the meeting of the Council will be held at Christchurch. The Executive Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.

Hebrews.—Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. Louis J. Harrison, Dunedin; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are held at these places on the third Sunday in Elul (about the end of August).

Chapter 20. JUDICIAL.

The Minister of Justice is charged with all matters relating to the Supreme, District, Magistrates', and Wardens' Courts, Crown Law Office, Coroners, patents, designs, and trade-marks, bankruptcy, criminal prosecutions in the higher Courts, Justices of the Peace, Licensing Committees, and prisons. The Supreme Court is presided over by a Chief Justice and four Puisne Judges. The Chief Justice and one Puisne Judge reside in Wellington, one Judge resides at Auckland, one at Christchurch, and one at Dunedin. They all go on circuit periodically within their districts. Circuit sittings of the Supreme Court are held at fourteen places. There are three District Court Judges, holding Courts at seventeen towns. At nearly every town in which sittings of the Supreme or District Courts are held there is a Crown Prosecutor, paid by fees, and a Sheriff. In the District Courts the Crown Prosecutor exercises the function of a Grand Jury.

The Magistrates' Courts are presided over by thirty Stipendiary Magistrates, and Courts are held daily in the principal centres, and at convenient times in the smaller towns. The jurisdiction of these Courts may be “ordinary” (which includes, practically speaking, all claims not exceeding £100 in value, except claims for damages for false imprisonment or illegal arrest, malicious prosecution, libel, slander, seduction, or breach of promise of marriage); “extended,” under which money-claims to an amount not exceeding £200 may be entertained; and “special,” which, while including all the powers of the “extended” jurisdiction, enables the Court to deal also with partnerships, injunctions, and other equity suits. At present twenty-eight of the Stipendiary Magistrates exercise the “extended” jurisdiction, but none the “special.” When, however, owing to increase of settlement, or pressure of business in the Supreme Court, necessity arises, the power to exercise either the extended or special jurisdiction can be conferred by Order in Council on any Court. The Magistrates exercising the special jurisdiction must be barristers or solicitors.

The procedure of the Courts is remarkably simple, no pleadings being required beyond a statement by the plaintiff sufficient to inform the defendant of the nature and extent of the claim. Due provision is made for counter-claims, and the joinder at any stage of the proceedings of all necessary parties, so that all questions arising in connection with the subject-matter before the Court may be finally dealt with at once. Appeal to the Supreme Court is allowed on points of law, and of law only, in cases where not more than £50 is concerned, and on points of either law or fact in cases above that amount. Generally, the procedure is so simple and elastic that in the majority of cases heard it is not necessary to retain the services of a professional man, but, where solicitors are employed, the Court in its judgment settles the costs to be paid according to a prescribed scale. In places where there is not a Magistrate's Court Justices of the Peace have power to hold a Court and deal with claims not exceeding £20 in value, giving judgment “according to equity and good conscience.”

In criminal cases the Supreme or District Court may reserve any question of law for the Court of Appeal; and, if the Court refuse to reserve a question, the Attorney-General may give leave to move the Court of Appeal for leave to appeal.

The Supreme Court may give leave to any person convicted before it to apply to the Court of Appeal for a new trial on the ground that the verdict was against the weight of evidence, and the Court of Appeal may direct a new trial. In cases where the clemency of the Crown is sought, the Governor in Council, if he entertains a doubt whether the convicted person ought to have been convicted, may direct a new trial at such time and before such Court as he may think proper.

Fourteen of the Magistrates are also Wardens, holding Wardens' Courts in the various goldfields. There are fifty civilian Clerks of Courts, and eighty-nine who are also police sergeants or constables.

Every Stipendiary Magistrate holds the office of Coroner, and is paid 10s. 6d. for each inquest, in addition to mileage at 1s. per mile. Besides these, there are thirty-four Coroners, who are paid £1 1s. for each inquest, and mileage.

Bankrupt estates are administered by four Official Assignees, stationed at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, respectively; and by twenty Deputy Assignees, resident at as many other towns. The Supreme and District Courts have jurisdiction in bankruptcy proceedings, and the Governor has power to confer similar jurisdiction in small estates on any of the Magistrates' Courts, but as yet this has not been found necessary.

The Commission of the Peace contains about seventeen hundred names, and additions are frequently made. A rota is kept in every borough and town of Justices residing within three miles of the Courthouse, and the Justices are required either to attend the Court when summoned or to furnish a satisfactory excuse; failing this, they are struck off the Commission. Medical practitioners, Civil servants, and others are exempt from such attendance.

Witnesses in Criminal Courts are paid 6s. per diem, and in addition 4s. for every night they are absent from home. Witnesses in civil cases are paid variously from 6s. to £1 1s. a day, according to their condition in life.

Intestate estates in New Zealand are dealt with by the Public Trust Office, and are referred to in the article on that institution.

The Attorney-General of the colony is a Cabinet Minister holding other portfolios, but the Solicitor-General is a permanent officer and a member of the Civil Service.

Jury lists are compiled annually by the police, revised by the Bench of Justices, and forwarded to the Sheriffs, who prepare from them special and common jury panels.


The defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia (Artillery and Torpedo Corps), and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers (Cavalry, Mounted Rifles, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies). There is a Military Adviser and Inspector of these Forces, who is an ex-Imperial officer. To the Under-Secretary for Defence all questions of expenditure are referred; while the Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department has charge of the defence-works.

Militia and Volunteer Districts.

The two islands (North and South) are divided into seven districts, each commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a competent staff of drill-sergeants.

Permanent Militia (Artillery).

This Force is divided into four batteries, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres, The Force consists of two majors, two captains, one subaltern, with an establishment of 145 of all ranks.

Permanent Militia (Torpedo Corps).

This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres, for submarine and torpedo work, and consists of two captains, with a total establishment of 64 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steam-launches, and of all submarine-mining and torpedo stores. They are likewise employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.


There are three troops of Cavalry, one in the North Island and two in the South Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for six days' training annually. The total strength of the three troops is 180 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Mounted Rifles.

There are eleven corps of Mounted Rifles, seven in the North Island and four in the South Island, with a total strength of 547 of all ranks. These corps go into camp for an annual training of six days.

Volunteers.—Naval Artillery.

There are fifteen batteries of this branch of the service, eight in the North Island and seven in the South Island, having a total strength of 1,087 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches; one watch is trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working heavy ordnance, the other in submarine and torpedo work, as auxiliaries to the Torpedo Corps. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and suchlike duties.

Volunteers.—Garrison Artillery.

There is one corps of Garrison Artillery in the South Island, with a strength of 50 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Field Artillery.

There are nine batteries of Field Artillery, three in the North Island and six in the South Island, with a total of 514 of all ranks. They are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, on field-carriages.


This branch consists of two corps, with a total of 146 of all ranks, both in the South Island. Besides carrying rifles they are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.

Volunteers.—Rifle Corps.

In this branch of the service there are forty-six corps (including one honorary reserve), fourteen being in the North Island and thirty-two in the South Island, with a total strength of 2,845 of all ranks, including garrison bands.

Volunteers.—Cadet Corps.

There is a force of thirty-nine cadet corps—viz., eleven in the North Island and twenty-eight in the South Island, with a total strength of 2,139 of all ranks.

Ordnance, Arms, etc.

The armament at the forts of the four centres consists of 8in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6in. 5-ton, of like pattern, all mounted on hydro-pneumatic disappearing carriages; 7in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading 64cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison pillar-mountings, and field-carriages; and Hotchkiss and Maxim quick-firing guns. The Volunteer Field Artillery are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and 6-pounder Nordenfeldts, and the whole of the adult portion of the Force have carbines or rifles of Martini-Henry pattern; Cadets being armed with Snider carbines.

There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and ground-mines, in charge of the Torpedo Corps, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.

Enrolment, etc.

Members of the Permanent Militia are enrolled for three years' service, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after passing the gunnery and other courses in the Permanent Militia the men are eligible for transfer to police and prison service.


The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years' engagement, on completion of which they return to their regiments.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £20 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred and fifty rounds of Martini-Henry ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every adult Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds of Snider ball to each cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”

Expenditure on the Establishment and Maintenance of Defences from 1884–85 to 1895–96.

Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.
 £      £      £      
1884–8590, 8169, 601100, 417
1885–8691, 242127, 167218, 409
1886–8789, 927139, 429229, 356
1887–88122, 06173, 458195, 519
1888–8953, 59150, 089103, 680
1889–9063, 61415, 75279, 366
1890–9180, 89110, 79891, 689
1891–9275, 3437, 64482, 987
1892–9359, 80811, 20571, 013
1893–9456, 5703, 97660, 546
1894–9562, 1812, 49564, 676
1895–9684, 9813, 31488, 295

Chapter 22. LIGHTHOUSES.

The coasts of New Zealand are, considering their extent, fairly well lighted, but there are many places where lights are still required. Additions to the existing lights are made from time to time as funds are available.

There are twenty-seven coastal lights altogether–eight of the first order, thirteen of the second, three of the third, and three of smaller orders.

There has been no special difficulty in the erection of lighthouses in New Zealand, apart from the trouble caused by indifferent landings. There are no lighthouses built in the sea, such as the well-known Eddystone or Bell Rock. That on The Brothers is the only one which it is considered necessary to keep as a rock-station: that is, the keepers are relieved from time to time, three being always at the station and one on shore.

The cost of the erection of the lighthouses is given by the Marine Department as upwards of £167,651 (the Ponui Passage Lighthouse, having been built by the Provincial Government of Auckland, the cost is not given). The annual consumption of oil is about 19,000 gallons; and the cost of maintenance, irrespective of the cost of maintaining the lighthouse steamer, is about £12,500 a year.

Besides the coastal lighthouses, there are harbour-lights at most of the ports of the colony for the guidance of vessels into and out of the ports.

The following table shows the names of the lighthouses, indicating also their situation, the order of apparatus, description, period (in seconds) and colour of the lights, and of what material the respective towers are built:—

Name of Light-house.Order of Apparatus.Description.Period of Revolving Light, inColour of Light.Tower built of.
  Dioptric. Seconds.   
Cape Maria van Diemen1st orderRevolving Fixed60White Red, to show over Columbia ReefTimber.
Moko Hinou1st     ”    Flashing10WhiteStone.
Tiri-Tiri (Auckland)2nd     ”    Fixed..White, with red are over Flat RockIron.
Ponui Passage5th     ”              ”    ..White and redTimber.
Cuvier Island1st     ”    Revolving30WhiteIron.
Portland Island2nd     ”        ”    
Red, to show over Bull Rock
Pencarrow Head2nd     ”              ”    ..WhiteIron.
Cape Egmont2nd     ”              ”              ”    ..          ”    
Manukau Head 3rd     ”              ”    ..          ”    ....          ”    ..Timber.
Kaipara Head2nd     ”    Flashing10          ”              ”    
Brothers (in Cook Strait)2nd     ”              ..Fixed10
Red, to show over Cook Rock          ”    
Cape Campbell2nd     ”    Revolving60White          ”    
Godley Head (Lyttelton)2nd     ”    Fixed..          ”    Stone.
Akaroa Head2nd     ”    Flashing10          ”    Timber.
Moeraki3rd     ”    Fixed..          ”              ”    
Taiaroa Head3rd     ”              ”    ..RedStone.
Cape Saunders2nd     ”    Revolving60WhiteTimber.
Nugget Point1st     ”    Fixed..          ”    Stone.
Waipapapa Point2nd     ”    Flashing10          ”    Timber.
Dog Island1st orderRevolving30          ”    Stone.
Centre Island1st orderFixed..White, with red ares over inshore dangersTimber.
Puysegur Point1st     ”    Flashing10White          ”    
Cape Foulwind2nd     ”    Revolving30          ”              ”    
Farewell Spit2nd     ”              ”    60White, with red are over Spit end          ”    
Nelson4th     ”    Fixed..White, with red are to mark limit of anchorageIron.
French Pass6th     ”    ..     ”    ..Red and white, with white light on beacon          ”    
Stephens Island1st     ”    Group flashing30White          ”    


As eleven of the crew of the barque “Spirit of the Dawn,” which was wrecked on Antipodes Island on the 4th September, 1893, remained on the island for eighty-eight days without becoming aware of the existence of the dépôt of provisions and clothing for castaways which is established there, attention may usefully be drawn to the fact that such dépôts are maintained by the New Zealand Government on that island, and on the Auckland, Campbell, Bounty, Kermadec, and Snares Islands.

The following are the positions of the dépóts:—

Auckland Islands.—A dépôt is placed on the south side of Erebus Cove, Port Ross, and another in Camp Cove, Carnley Harbour, and a third at the head of Norman Inlet. One boat is placed on the north-west end of Adams Island, another on Enderby Island, and another on Rose Island.

Campbell Island.—A dépôt is erected in Tucker Cove, Perseverance Harbour, and a boat has been placed at the head of that harbour.

Antipodes Islands.—A dépôt is placed abreast the anchorage on the north-east side of the principal island.

Bounty Islands.—There is a dépôt on the principal island.

Snares Island.—A dépôt has been established on this island in Boat Harbour.

Kermadec Islands.—A dépôt is established on Macaulay Island, near Lava Cascade, on the north-east end of the island, and another on Curtis Island, at the head of Macdonald Cove, on the northwestern end of the island.

Finger-posts to indicate the direction of the dépôts have also been put up.

The Government steamer visits the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, and Snares Islands twice a year, and the Kermadec Islands once a year.


Vessels visiting New Zealand, and requiring docking or repairs, will find ample accommodation at the principal ports of the colony.

There are in New Zealand four graving-docks; two of these are situated in Auckland, one at Lyttelton, and one at Port Chalmers.

Auckland Docks.

The dimensions of the docks at Auckland are as follow:—

 Calliope Dock.Auckland Dock.
Length over all525 feet.312 feet.
Length on floor500 ”300 ”
Breadth over all110 ”65 ”
Breadth on floor40 ”42 ”
Breadth at entrance80 ”43 ”
Depth of water on sill at high water (ordinary spring tides)33 ”13 ½ ”

The scale of charges for the use or intended use of the Auckland or Calliope Graving Docks, or the materials therein, or connected therewith, is—

Auckland Graving Dock.£s.d.
For every entrance fee110
For every vessel of 100 tons (gross register), or under, per day400
      ”     vessel over 100 tons (gross register), for first 100 tons400
      ”     additional ton (gross register)002
For two or more vessels docking at the same time, the tonnage of which together does not exceed 100 tons (gross register), per day each2100
For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there must be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by the Dockmaster.
For use of steam-kiln, 10s. per day.
For use of pitch furnace, 10s. per day.
Calliope Graving Dock.£s.d.
For every entrance fee550
For all vessels up to 300 tons (gross register)2000
For all vessels 301 to 400 tons ”22100
      ”     401 to 500 tons      ”2500
      ”     501 to 600 tons      ”27100
      ”     601 to 700 tons      ”3000
      ”     701 to 800 tons      ”32100
      ”     801 to 900 tons      ”3500
      ”     901 to 1,000 tons      ”37100
      ”     1,001 to 1,100 tons      ”4000
      ”     1,101 to 1,200 tons      ”4500
      ”     1,201 to 1,300 tons      ”5000
      ”     1,301 to 1,500 tons      ”5500
      ”     1,501 to 2,000 tons      ”6000
      ”     2,001 to 3,000 tons      ”6500
      ”     3,001 to 4,000 tons      ”7000
      ”     4,001 to 5,000 tons      ”7500
The foregoing charges are for three days or less. After the third day in dock the following rates are charged:—
For all vessels up to 500 tons (gross register), 4d. per ton a day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons (gross register), 3d. per ton a day.
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons (gross register), 2 ½d. per ton a day.
For all vessels over 2,001 tons (gross register) and upwards, 2d. per ton a day.
Twenty per cent. reduction on Calliope Dock rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide, and remain in dock the same number of hours; but such reduction is not allowed if any of the Auckland Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel.
For shores cut in docking or hanging the vessel, there is to be paid, according to injury done, such amount as may be fixed by tho Dockmaster.

During the year 1895, 93 vessels of various descriptions, varying from 17 to 1,465 tonnage, made use of the Auckland Graving Dock for repairs or painting.

The Calliope Dock was used by the war steamers “Buzzard,” 1,580 tons; “Falke,” 1,580; “Karrakatta,” 1,500; “Ringarooma” (twice), 2,500; the merchant steamers “Hawke's Bay,” 4,583 tons; and “Indra,” 3,582; the “Rathdown,” sailing-ship, 2,145 tons; and a steam-dredger, 394 tons.

Lyttelton Dock and Patent Slip.

The graving-dock at Lyttelton, which is the property of the Harbour Board, is capable of docking a first-class ironclad, or any of the large ocean-steamers now running to the colony; its general dimensions are: Length over all, 503ft.; length on floor, 450ft.; breadth over all, 82ft.; breadth on floor, 46ft.; breadth at entrance, 62ft.; breadth where ship's bilge would be, 54ft.; depth of water on sill at high-water springs, 23ft.

The scale of charges for the use of the dock and pumping machinery are as follow:—

For all vessels up to 300 tons, for four days or less2000
      ”     301 to 400 tons,     ”22100
      ”     401 to 500 tons,     ”2500
      ”     501 to 600 tons,     ”27100
      ”     601 to 700 tons,     ”3000
      ”     701 to 800 tons,     ”32100
      ”     801 to 900 tons,     ”3500
      ”     901 to 1,000 tons,     ”37100
      ”     1,001 to 1,100 tons,     ”000
      ”     1,101 to 1,200 tons,     ”4500
      ”     1,201 tons and upwards,     ”5000
After the fourth day in dock, the following rates are charged:—
For all vessels up to 500 tons 4d.per ton per day.
For all vessels of 501 tons to 1,000 tons 3d.    ”
For all vessels over 1,001 tons up to 2,000 tons 2 ¾ d.    ”
      ”     2,001 tons up to 3,000 tons 2 ½ d.    ”
      ”     3,001 tons up to 4,000 tons 2 ¼    ”
      ”     4,001 tons up to 5,000 tons 2 d.    ”

Twenty per cent. reduction on the above rates is allowed when two or three vessels can arrange to dock on the same tide and remain in dock the same number of hours. Two vessels of 1,000 tons each can be docked at the same time. The 20-per-cent. rebate is not allowed if any of the Lyttleton Harbour Board's vessels are docked at the same time as another vessel. The twenty-four hours constituting the first day of docking commences from the time of the dock being pumped out.

Any vessel belonging to H.M. Navy or any colonial Government, or any commissioned ship belonging to any foreign nation, is admitted into the graving dock without payment of the usual dock dues, but is charged only such sum as is necessary for the reimbursement of actual expenditure of stores, wages, and materials.

There are electric lights, one on each side of the graving-dock; and there is a workshop alongside the dock, and several other places within a short distance of it, where repairs and heavy foundry-work can be done.

The graving dock and machinery cost £105,000. The interest and sinking fund on that sum, at 6 ½ per cent., amounts to £6,825 per annum. Since its construction, the dock dues for the thirteen years, ended 31st December, 1895, amounted to £10,321 9s. 2d., and the working expenses to £7,508 10s. 5d., leaving a credit balance for thirteen years, ended 31st December, 1895, of £2,812 18s. 9d.

During the year 1895 fifteen vessels were docked, the aggregate tonnage being 23,474, and the dock dues amounted to £648 9s. 6d. For the thirteen years ending 1895 244 vessels were docked.

Alongside the graving dock is a patent slip, with a cradle 150ft. in length, suitable for vessels of 300 tons. It belongs to the Harbour Board.

Port Chalmers Dock.

The dock at Port Chalmers is vested in the Otago Dock Trust, a body entirely distinct from the Otago Harbour Board. Vessels of large size can be taken in the Otago Dock, as the following measurements will show:—

Length over all335 feet.
Length on the floor328     ”
Breadth over all68     ”
Breadth on floor41     ”
Breadth where ship's bilge will be43     ”
Breadth at dock gates50     ”
Depth of water on sill at high-water ordinary tides17½     ”

Connected with the Otago Dock are a large machine-shop, steam-hammer, and forge, with all the appliances necessary for performing any work that may be required by vessels visiting the Port. An 80-ton sheer-legs has also recently been erected for heavy lifts.

There is also a patent slip, used for taking up small vessels.

Wellington Patent Slip.

The Port of Wellington has no dock; but there is a well-equipped patent slip at Evans Bay, on which vessels of 2,000 tons can be safely hauled up. This slip is the property of a private company, and is in no way connected with the Harbour Board. It is 1,070ft. long, with a cradle 260ft. in length. There is a depth of 32ft. at high water at the outer end of the slip. A dolphin and buoys are laid down for swinging ships in Evans Bay.

The company has convenient workshops, which contain machinery necessary for effecting all ordinary repairs to vessels using the slip.

During the year ending 31st March, 1896, there were 101 vessels of various sizes taken up on the slip for repairs, cleaning, painting, &c., of an aggregate tonnage of 31,000 tons. The scale of charges has been fixed by the company at very low rates for vessels of under 100 tons register, with a view of encouraging coastal traffic, and for vessels above that size the rates are 1s. per ton on the gross tonnage for the first full twenty-four hours, and 6d. per ton per day afterwards, unless by special agreement.

Timaru Slip.

The Timaru slip is capable of taking up a vessel of 200 tons.

Nelson Cradle.

The Anchor Steamship Company's cradle can take up a vessel of 150 tons.


Paid by the Government of New Zealand, as on 31st March, 1896.

[By an Act passed in 1871 the pension system was abolished in New Zealand. In 1893 the Civil Service Insurance Act was passed, the main provisions of which are described at the end of this table.]

Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.

* Per diem.

(a) 1s. 6d. from 25th October, 1869; increased to 2s. 2d., 7th December, 1870.

(b) 1s. from 17th December, 1868, to 17th December, 1869; 1s. 6d. from 17th December, 1869, to 17th December, 1870; 8d. from 17th December, 1870, to 30th September, 1874; increased to 1s. 6d., 1st October, 1874.

(c) 2s. from 5th June, 1867, to 5th June, 1868; 2s. from 5th June, 1868, to 5th June, 1869; permanent from 9th November, 1869.

(d) 2s. for two years, from 9th April, 1870; renewed for twelve months; again renewed for twelve months; permanent from 1st May, 1874.

(f) 2s. from 1st January, 1869, for eighteen months; permanent from 18th May, 1872.

(f) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 26th April, 1869; renewed for twelve months, 1870; renewed for twelve months, 1871; permanent from 12th May, 1872.

Under “The Civil Service Act, 1866.
Allan, A. S.1 Sept., 188819550
Arrow, H.1 Aug., 18812600
Aubrey, H. R.1 Nov., 188022300
Austin, A. D.1 Oct., 1887247100
Anderson, J. G.6 Jan., 1896261181
Baddeley, H. C.12 Jan., 188822500
Bailie, F.1 Feb., 18937788
Baker, E.1 Nov., 1880214171
Barnard, W. H.1 June, 1880101181
Barr, A.1 Oct., 1888366134
Batkin, C. T.1 April, 189053360
Bertrand, J. R.17 Feb., 189513500
Bicknell, F.1 Feb., 188296134
Blomfield, J.21 Mar., 1889101150
Bridson, W.1 Aug., 189314687
Brown, W. R. E.1 Aug., 1892265168
Buchanan, J.1 July, 1886127136
Bull, E.1 July, 1887105143
Burgess, A.1 June, 1886116134
Burn, J. F.1 July, 18875100
Butts, E. D.1 April, 189325868
Campbell, F. E.1 Mar., 1890466130
Carrington, O.1 Feb., 187830000
Chapman, R.1 Jan., 1868255190
Cheeseman, G. H.1 Mar., 189382100
Chesseman, W. F.1 April, 1890154151
Clarke, H. T.1 Jan., 187940000
Clarke, H.1 Oct., 187998130
Cook, R. C.1 Sept., 1895160143
Cooper, G. S.1 Aug., 189253368
Costall, J.10 July, 1892131310
Creeke, W.1 April, 189152158
Crowe, A.31 Dec., 188568123
Culpan, W.1 Dec., 186862100
Cunningham, J.1 Feb., 188817500
DeCastro, C. D.1 Mar., 1892172100
Dick, S. J.1 Feb., 189325000
Dickey, A. J.1 Nov., 187512205
Earle, J.13 Nov. 1888104100
Eliott, G. E.30 Nov., 187240000
Ensor, J.1 Feb., 18935168
Falck, F.1 Mar., 1893125134
Fenton, F. D.3 Nov., 1881630190
Freeth, J. J.1 Mar., 1894116134
Gill, R.J.1 Sep., 1886228115
Gisborne, W.1 Oct., 1876466134
Graham, G. H.8 Sep., 189152100
Gregory, J.16 Feb., 18815368
Greenway, J. H.1 Nov., 1891116160
Giles, J.1 Feb., 189423868
Halliday, C.31 Aug., 188696134
Hamilton, M.11 July, 188020000
Harsant, W.11 June, 1878151134
Hart, J. T.12 Nov., 189019370
Hartwright, H.1 Jan., 188615278
Heddell, P.17 Oct., 18949000
Henn, J.1 April, 18938834
Hill, C. J.9 Feb., 18957200
Hill, E.13 Sep., 187110000
Holden, T.13 Oct., 18783150
Jackman, S. J.1 May, 189214968
Johnston, D.15 Dec., 1880366134
Judd, A.1 April, 188717368
Keetley, E.1 July, 1884181210
Kelly, J. D.1 July, 1891130190
Kissling, T.1 Jan., 189431752
Laing, E. B.1 April, 1887112100
Laing, W.1 Feb., 1896212100
Lang, A.1 Feb., 189375153
Lemon, C.1 Mar., 189535000
Lincoln, R. S.1 Mar., 188968170
Lockwood, W. H.1 Jan., 188022184
Lodge, W. F.1 Oct., 188118500
Lundon, D.1 May, 189221000
Lusher, R. A.31 Aug., 188076168
Meikle, A. M.1 May, 1887145143
Mills, W.23 Sept., 1875385144
Mitford, G. M.1 Feb., 1869196150
Monson, J. R.1 Oct., 1882271160
Monro, H. A. H.1 Nov., 1880342172
Morpeth, W. J.4 Aug., 189419549
Morrow, H.1 June, 1890120168
Macarthur, J.1 Jan., 18766500
McCulloch, H.1 Aug., 189023300
MacDonnell, R. T.23 July, 189015000
McKellar, H. S.1 Aug., 189243368
Norris, E. F.1 Oct., 189588179
O'Connor, R.1 Sept., 189214706
Parker, T. W.1 June, 188124239
Parris, R.1 Jan., 187731458
Pauling, G. W.1 Feb., 18879115
Pearson, W. H.30 Sept., 188434096
Phillips, W. M.1 Dec., 18946945
Pickett, R.1 Aug., 1866209106
Pinwill, A.1 July, 1891120170
Pitt, H.1 May, 188110000
Plimpton, R.E.E.4 Dec., 1883110143
Pollen, D.30 Oct., 1876418150
Powell, D.1 July, 18934418
Rawson, C. E.1 Dec., 1895244011
Rennell, W1 Dec., 1895167184
Rich, E. P.1 June, 189221700
Robertson, J.6 Oct., 189215500
Rodgerson, W. J.1 July, 189224868
Rogan, J.1 Jan., 1878466134
Rough, D.1 May, 186827718
Rowe, C.1 Oct., 1894109160
Searancke, W. N.1 Feb., 187924000
Sheath, A. B.31 Mar., 188012990
Shrimpton, J.16 July, 1889146140
Sinclair, A.1 June, 187819500
Smith, J.1 June, 18944956
Smith, J. E.1 July, 1877484116
Smith, T. H.1 July, 187637187
Snoswell, T.5 Dec., 189183140
Snow, C. H.1 Dec., 1887157100
Stevens, F.1 Dec., 189218300
Stewart, J. T.1 May, 188930000
Taylor, G.1 Mar., 189312100
Thomas, G. W.1 Nov., 187538150
Thompson, R.1 Mar., 189622000
Tidmarsh, W.1 Aug., 18676973
Tizard, E. F.1 July, 1888180190
Tovey, J. H.1 April, 189577010
Tucker, W.31 Dec., 1880104134
Veal, J.1 Sept., 188549153
Veale, J. S.1 Sept., 188756210
Von Sturmer, S.1 July, 1895288111
Wardell, H. S.1 July, 1888366130
Watson, R.1 Oct., 189214500
White, W.1 July, 18813650
White, W. B.1 July, 187337549
Wilkin, J. T. W.1 Feb., 1874127194
Willcocks, E. S.1 Nov., 188025000
Williams, E. M.1 April, 188013500
Wilson, W. W.1 Feb., 1881100143
Woon, J. G.1 July, 1892209106
Wrigg, H. C. W.1 Aug., 1881157210
Under “The Hamerton Pension Act, 1891.
Hamerton, R. C.11 Sept., 189125000
Under “The Meredith and Others Pensions Act, 1870.
Collins, Mary13 Nov., 18696500
Hamlin, Rhoda B.18655000
Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1865.
Arapera to Reo1 July, 18702000
Brown, M. R...7500
Buck, Cath. M...7000
Hastings, L...5500
Iritona, Hanita8 Nov., 18681200
Marara, Ngakoa3 Dec., 18603600
McDonald, E...3600
Morrison, Ann26 Oct., 18663600
Russell, G...3600
Von Tempsky, A.3 Oct., 186812000
Adamson, T.(a)022*
Beamish, J. G.(b)016*
Corbett, George(c)020*
Crawford, C. F...020*
Crosby, H.(d)020*
Dore, G. H.(e)020*
Gibbons, M. C.12 Oct., 1869022*
Hamblyn, J.1 Oct., 1872022*
Hope, E. L.(f)016*
Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.

* Per diem.

(g) 2nd October, 1869; ceased on 9th April, 1870; renewed, 22nd April, 1874.

(h) 1s. 6d. from —, 1667; increased to 2s. from 14th February, 1868.

(i) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 15th March, 1869; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1870; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1871; permanent from 1st April, 1872.

(k) 3s. for twelve months, from 9th April, 1870; 2s. 8d., permanent, from 1st May, 1871.

(i) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 18th October, 1869; 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from October 1870; permanent from 5th November, 1871.

(m) 1s. 6d. for eight months, from 20th September, 1869; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1870; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1871 2s. 2d. from 11th June, 1872; permanent from 12th June, 1873.

(n) 1s. from 10th May, 1865; renewed for twelve months, April, 1866; again renewed for twelve months; 8d. for twelve mouths, from 1868, to 10th May, 1869; 6d. for twelve months, from May, 1869; permanent from 11th May, 1870.

Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866
Kelly, T.9 April, 1870022*
Kershaw, P.9 Aug., 1869016*
Lacey, Garrett..022*
Lake, T...026*
Lloyd, T.(g)020*
McDonnell, W...15000
McKay, G...010*
McMahon, T.(h)020*
Monck, J. B.1 April, '72 (i)010*
Ross, Edward O.17 Nov., 18667500
Shanaghan, J...016*
Shepherd, R.(k)028*
Timms, W.(l)016*
Tuffin, G.0022*
Vance, R.8 April, 1870022*
Walsh, W.15 Nov., 1866016*
Wasley, Edw. O.(m)022*
Williamson, F.1 June, 1869020*
Anaru Patapu14 May, 1865009*
Apera te Keunga14 May, 1864026*
Karena Ruataniwha1 July, 1870010*
Matiu Whitiki1 April, 1885006*
Mauparoa1 July, 1867010*
Mehaka Kepa2 Aug., 1865009*
Pera Taitimu12 Oct., 1869010*
Raniera Ngoto1 Oct., 1884006*
Hewett, Ellen A.10 Feb., 18655000
Under “The Militia Act Amendment Act, 1862.
Bending, W...020*
Bilton, F...020*
Cody, W...010*
Dunn, A. J. N...020*
King, E. M...8000
Leaf, R.(n)006*
Oxenham, W...016*
Sarten, Lucy1864020*
Skinner, W. H...026*
Vickery, W...020*
Woolfe, T...020*
Under “The Schafer, McGuire, and Others Pensions Act, 1872.
McGuire, E.29 Sept., 1871010*
Russell, W.1 July, 1871010*
Schafer, C.1 July, 18713000
Under “The Supreme Court Judges Act, 1874.
Gresson, H. B.1 April, 187575000


It is provided by the above-named Act that every person appointed to the Civil Service under “The Civil Service Reform Act, 1886,” or afterwards, shall retire at the age of sixty years; but the Governor in Council may, nevertheless, require any officer who has attained such age to continue to perform his duties, unless unfitted by reason of ill-health or other cause.

Every officer appointed after the passing of this Act is required to effect a policy with the Government Life Insurance Commissioner (on his life), providing for the following combined benefits:—

  1. The payment of a sum of money on the death of such officer, should it occur before he attains the age of sixty years; and

  2. The payment to such officer of an annuity until death should he survive the age of sixty years.

The premiums are paid in the form of deductions from the salaries of officers effecting policies according to the following schedule. The policies and moneys secured thereby are not assignable, and cannot be charged or attached.

There are provisions for payment of surrender value of policies to officers whose services are dispensed with, or who voluntarily leave the Service.

Annual Deductions for Policies.
Under £150500
£150 and under £2007100
£200 ” £2501000
£250 ” £30012100
£300 ” £3501500
£350 ” £40017100
£400 ” £4502000
£450 ” £50022100
£500 and under £5502500
£550 ” £60627100
£600 ” £6503000
£650 ” £70032100
£700 ” £7503500
£750 ” £80037100


Table of Contents

Under the Customs and Excise Duties Acts, 1888 and 1895, and “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896.

Table of Duties.

The headings of the respective classes in this Table and in the Table of Exemptions are used solely for convenience of classification, and shall not in any way affect the articles specified therein, or be construed to indicate the material of which any such article is made.

The word “iron” includes steel, or steel and iron combined.

Neither steam-engines, nor parts of steam-engines, nor steam-boilers (land or marine) are included in the expression “machines” or “machinery” in either this Table or the Table of Exemptions.

The abbreviation “n.o.e.” means not otherwise enumerated.

Class I.—Foods and Articles for Human Consumption.

Names of Articles and Rates of Duty.

  1. Almonds, in the shell, 2d. the lb.

  2. Almonds, shelled, n.o.e., 3d. the lb.

  3. Bacon and hams, 2d. the lb.

  4. Biscuits, ships', plain and unsweetened, 3s. the cwt.

  5. Biscuits, other kinds, 2d. the lb.

  6. Boiled sugars, comfits, lozenges, Scotch mixtures, and sugar-candy, 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

  7. Candied peel and drained peel, 3d. the lb.

  8. Capers, caraway seeds, catsup, cayenne pepper, chillies, chutney, curry-powder and -paste, fish-paste, gelatine, isinglass, liquorice, olives, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  9. Chocolate confectionery, and all preparations of chocolate or cocoa—

    In plain trade packages, 3d. the lb.

    In fancy packages, or in small packages for retail sale, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  10. Confectionery, n.o.e., 2d. the lb., including internal packages.

  11. Fish, dried, pickled, or salted, n.o.e., 10s. the cwt.

  12. Fish, potted and preserved, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  13. Fruit, fresh, viz.:—

    Apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, medlars, apricots, quinces, tomatoes, 1d. the lb.

    (No duty exceeding ½d. the lb. to be levied on apples and pears from 14th July to 31st December.)

    Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, and strawberries, ½d. the lb.

    Lemons, ½d. the lb.

  14. Fruits, dried, 2d. the lb.

  15. Fruits, preserved in juice or syrup, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  16. Fruit-pulp, and partially preserved fruit, n.o.e., 1 ½d. the lb.

  17. Fruits preserved by sulphurous acid, 1d. the lb.

  18. Glucose, 1d. the lb.

  19. Honey, 2d. the lb.

  20. Jams, jellies, marmalade, and preserves, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  21. Jellies concentrated in tablets or powder, 4d. the lb.

  22. Maizena and cornflour, ¼d. the lb.

  23. Meats, potted or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  24. Milk, preserved, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  25. Mustard, 2d. the lb.

  26. Nuts of all kinds, except cocoanuts, 2d. the lb.

  27. Oysters, preserved, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  28. Pearl barley, 1s. the cwt.

  29. Peas, split, 2s. the cwt.

  30. Pickles, 3s. the imperial gallon.

  31. Provisions n.o.e., 20 per cent., ad valorem.

  32. Rice and rice-flour, 6s. the cwt.

  33. Rice, undressed, and dressed in bond, 4s. the cwt.

  34. Salt, except rock-salt, 10s. the ton.

  35. Sardines, including the oil, 2d. the lb.

  36. Sauces, 4s. the imperial gallon.

  37. Spices, including pepper and pimento, unground, 2d. the lb.

  38. Spices, including pepper and pimento, ground, 4d. the lb.

  39. Sugar, ½d. the lb.

  40. Treacle and molasses, ½d. the lb.

  41. Vegetables, fresh, dried, or preserved, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  42. Vinegar, table, not exceeding 6.5 per cent, of acidity,* 6d. the gallon.

    Class II.—Tobacco.

  43. Cigarettes, not exceeding in weight 2 ½lb. per 1,000, 17s. 6d. the 1,000. And for all weight in excess of 2 ½lb. per 1,000, 6d. the oz.

  44. Cigars, 7s. the lb.

  45. Snuff, 7s. the lb.

  46. Tobacco, 3s. 6d. the lb.

  47. Tobacco unmanufactured, entered to be manufactured in the colony in any licensed tobacco manufactory, for manufacturing purposes only, into tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, or snuff, 2s. the lb.

    Class III.—Alcoholic Beverages, and Materials for Making Same.

  48. Ale, beer of all sorts, porter, cider, and perry, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or 12 reputed pint bottles, 2s. the gallon.

  49. Cordials, bitters, and liqueurs, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  50. Hops, 6d. the lb.

  51. Malt, 2s. the bushel.

  52. Rice malt, 1d. the lb.

  53. Solid wort, 6d. the lb.

  54. Spirits and strong waters, the strength of which can be ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer, 16s. the proof gallon.

    (No allowance beyond 16.5 under proof shall be made for spirits or strong waters of a less hydrometer strength than 16£5 under proof.)

  55. Spirits and strong waters, sweetened or mixed, when not exceeding the strength of proof, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  56. Spirits and strong waters in cases shall be charged as follows, namely:—

    Two gallons and under, as two gallons; over two gallons and not exceeding three, as three gallons; over three gallons and not exceeding four, as four gallons; and so on for any greater quantity contained in any case.

  57. Spirits or strong waters, mixed with ingredients in any proportion exceeding 33 per cent, of proof spirit, and although thereby coming under any other designation, excepting patent or proprietary medicines, or tinctures and medicinal spirits otherwise enumerated, 16s. the liquid gallon.

  58. Wine, Australian, containing not more than 35 (par cent, of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 5s. the gallon.

  59. Wine, other than sparkling and Australian, containing less than 40 per cent. of proof spirit verified by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon, or for six reputed quart bottles, or twelve reputed pint bottles, 6s. the gallon.

  60. Wine, sparkling, 9s. the gallon.

    Class IV.—Non-Alcoholic Beverages, and Materials for Making Same.

  61. Aërated and mineral waters and effervescing beverages, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  62. Chicory, 3d. the lb.

  63. Chocolate, 3d. the lb.

  64. Cocoa, 3d. the lb.

  65. Coffee, essence of, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  66. Coffee, raw, 2d. the lb.

  67. Coffee, roasted, 5d. the lb.

  68. Syrups; lime- or lemon-juice sweetened; raspberry vinegar, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  69. Tea, 4d. the lb.

    *Vinegar exceeding 6.5 per cent. of acidity to be treated as acetic acid.

    Class V.—Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, and Druggists' Sundries.

  70. Acid, acetic, n.o.e., containing not more than 30 per cent of acidity, 1 ½d. the lb.

    For every 10 per cent. of acidity or fraction thereof additional, ½d. the lb.

  71. Acid, tartaric, 1d. the lb.

  72. Baking-powder, yeast preparations, and other ferments, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  73. Chemicals n.o.e., including photographic chemicals, and glacial acetic acid, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  74. Cream of tartar, 1d. the lb.

  75. Drugs and druggists' sundries and apothecaries' wares, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  76. Essences, flavouring, spirituous, 15 per cent. ad valorem until 1st February, 1896, and thereafter 16s. the liquid gallon.

  77. Essences, flavouring, n.o.e., 15 per cent.

  78. Eucalyptus oil, in bulk or bottle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  79. Glycerine, refined, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  80. Opium, 40s. the lb.

  81. Patent medicines, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

  82. Proprietary medicines, or medicaments, (1) bearing the name of the proprietor on label or package; (2) bearing a prefixed name in the possessive case; (3) n.o.e., prepared by any occult secret or art, 40 per cent. ad valorem.

  83. Saccharine, except in the form of tabloids or tablets, 1s. 6d. the ounce.

  84. Sarsaparilla, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  85. Soda, carbonate and bicarbonate, 1s. the cwt.

  86. Soda, crystals, 2s. the cwt.

  87. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopoeia, containing more than 50 per cent, of proof spirit, 1s. the lb.

  88. Tinctures and medicinal spirits of any recognised pharmacopoeia, containing less than 50 per cent, of proof spirit, 6d. the lb.

    Class VI.—Clothing and Textile Goods.

  89. Apparel and ready-made clothing, and all articles n.o.e. made up wholly or in part from textile or other piece-goods, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  90. Apparel made by British or foreign tailors, dress-, mantle-, or jacket-makers, to the order of residents in the colony, and intended for the individual use of such residents, whether imported by the residents themselves or through an importing firm, 40 per cent, ad valorem.

  91. Blankets, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  92. Collars and cuffs, of paper or other material, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  93. Cotton counterpanes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  94. Cotton piece-goods, to include turkey twills, dress prints (hard-spun and plain-woven), where the invoice value does not exceed 4d. the yard; and cotton piece-goods n.o.e., 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  95. Cotton piece-goods—namely, tapestry; cretonnes; chintz art crepe, and serges; velveteens, velvets, and plushes, all kinds; damasks, moquette; sateens, linenettes; crepons; crimps; zephyrs; ginghams; turkey twills; prints; printed cottons; piqués; vestings; quiltings and marcellas: muslins of all kinds; nets; window-nets; hollands, curtains, and blinds; diapers; ticks, including coloured Belgian; towellings; laces, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  96. Drapery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  97. Feathers, ornamental (including ostrich), and artificial flowers, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  98. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  99. Furs, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  100. 100. Haberdashery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  101. Hats of all kinds, including straw hats, also caps, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  102. Hosiery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  103. Lace, and laces, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  104. Millinery of all kinds, including trimmed hats, caps, and bonnets, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  105. Ribbons and crape, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  106. Rugs, woollen, cotton, opossum, or other, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  107. Shawls, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  108. Silks, satins, velvets, plushes, n.o.e., composed of silk mixed with any other material, in the piece, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  109. Textile piece-goods other than cotton or silk, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  110. Umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  111. Yarns n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class VII.—Leather and Manufactures of Leather.

  112. Boots, shoes, and slippers, n.o.e.; goloshes, clogs, and pattens, vamps, uppers, and laces, 22 ½ per cent. ad valorem.

  113. Heel-plates, and toe-stiffeners and plates, 22 ½ per cent. ad valorem.

  114. Leather—

    Leather belting and belt-leather, harness, bridle, legging, bag, kip (other than East India), 4d. the lb.

    Buff and split, including satin hides and tweeds, 3d. the lb.

    Cordovan, levanted leather, roans, sheepskins, morocco n.o.e., basils, 3d. the lb.

    Sole-leather, 2d. the lb.

    East India kip, Persians, lambskins and goatskins (dressed other than morocco), kangaroo and wallabi skins (dressed), tan and coloured, calf, 2d. the lb.

    Leather n.o.e., 1d. the lb.

  115. Leather board or compo, 4d. the lb.

  116. Leather bags and leather-cloth bags, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  117. Leather, chamois, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  118. Leather cut into shapes, 22 ½ per cent. ad valorem.

  119. Leather leggings, 22 ½ per cent. ad valorem.

  120. Leather manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  121. Portmanteaux; trunks; travelling-bags and brief-bags of leather or leather-cloth, 10in. in length and upwards, and carpet-bags, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  122. Saddlery and harness, whips and whip-thongs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class VIII.—Furniture and Household Furnishing.

  123. Basket- and wicker-ware n.o.e., not being furniture, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  124. Carpets and druggets; floorcloth; mats and matting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  125. Desks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  126. Furniture and cabinetware, n.o.e., and other than iron, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  127. Furniture-, knife-, and plate-powder and polish, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  128. Mantelpieces, other than stone, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  129. Upholstery n.o.e., 25 per cent, ad valorem.

    Class IX.—China, Glass, and Earthen Goods.

  130. Bricks, known as firebricks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  131. China, porcelain, and parianware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  132. Drainage pipes and tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  133. Earthen flooring and garden-tiles, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  134. Earthenware, stoneware, and brownware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  135. Filters, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  136. Fireclay, ground, and fireclay goods, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  137. Glass, crown, sheet, and common window, 2s. the 100 superficial feet.

  138. Glassware; also plate-glass, and glass polished, coloured, and other kinds, n.o.e.; globes and chimneys for lamps, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  139. Lamps, lanterns, and lampwick, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  140. Plate-glass, bevelled or silvered; mirrors and looking-glasses, framed or unframed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class X.—Fancy Goods, Musical Instruments, etc.

  141. Artificial flies, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  142. Cards, playing, 6d. per pack.

  143. Clocks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  144. Dressing-cases, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  145. Fancy goods, and toys, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  146. Fishing tackle, including artificially-baited hooks other than flies, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  147. Jewellery; plate, gold or silver; greenstone, cut or polished, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  148. Mouldings in the piece, for picture-frames, cornices, or ceilings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  149. Musical instruments of all kinds n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  150. Oil, perfumed, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  151. Papier-maché ware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  152. Perfumery, n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  153. Perfumed spirits and Cologne-water; £1 1s. the liquid gallon until the 1st February, 1896, and thereafter £1 10s. the liquid gallon.

  154. Photographic goods n.o.e. 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  155. Pictures, paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs, framed or unframed; picture- or photograph-frames and -mounts, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  156. Platedware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  157. Statues, statuettes, casts, and bronzes, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  158. Tobacco-pipes and cases, cigar- and cigarette-holders and cases, cigarette-papers and -cases, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  159. Toilet preparations n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  160. Watches, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  161. Walking-sticks, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XI.—Paper Manufactures and Stationery.

  162. Calendars and show-cards, all kinds, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  163. Cardboard boxes complete, or cardboard cut and shaped for boxes (including match-boxes), 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  164. Directories of New Zealand, or of any part thereof; also covers for directories, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  165. Handbills, programmes and circulars, playbills and printed posters, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  166. Ink, writing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  167. Paper bags, coarse (including sugar-bags), 7s. 6d. the cwt.

  168. Paper bags n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  169. Paper-hangings, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  170. Paper, wrapping—viz., blue candle, glazed cap, glazed casings, small hand, lumber hand, and tissue, 5s. the cwt.

  171. Paper wrapping, other kinds, including brown, cartridge, and sugar papers, 5s. the cwt.

  172. Printed matter relating to patent or proprietary medicines; trade catalogues, price-lists, and fashion-plates of the goods of firms or persons in the colony, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  173. Stationery and writing paper n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  174. Stationery, manufactured—viz., account-books; manuscript books; bill-head, invoice, and statement forms; printed or ruled paper; counter-books; cheque- and draft-forms; tags: labels; blotting-pads; sketch-books; book-covers; copying letter-books; manifold writers; albums (other than for photographs); diaries; birthday-books; plain or faint-lined ruled books; printed window-tickets; printed, lithographed, or embossed stationery; and Christmas, New Year, birthday, and Easter cards and booklets, 25 per cent, ad valorem.

  175. Stereotypes and matrices, 25 per cent, ad valorem.

    Class XII.—Manufactures OF Metal.

  176. Bicycles, tricycles, and the like vehicles; also finished or partly finished or machined parts of same, n.o.e., including weldless steel tubing cut to short lengths, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  177. Boilers, land and marine, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  178. Brass cocks, valves, unions, lubricators, and whistles, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  179. Brass manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  180. Cartridges (shot), 10- to 24-bore, 1s. 6d. the 100.

  181. Cartridge-cases, 9d. the 100.

  182. Cartridges n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  183. Cash-registering machines, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  184. Coffin-furniture, 20 per cent, ad valorem.

  185. Composition-piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

  186. Copper manufactures n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  187. Copying-presses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  188. Crab-winches, cranes n.o.e., capstans, and windlasses, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  189. Cutlery, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  190. Firearms, all kinds, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  191. Galvanised-iron manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  192. Gasometers, and other apparatus for producing gas; also gas-meters, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  193. Gaspipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  194. Hardware, ironmongery, and holloware, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  195. Iron bridges, and iron material n.o.e., for the construction of bridges, wharves, jetties, or patent slips, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  196. Iron columns for buildings, and other structural ironwork, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  197. Iron doors for safes and vaults, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  198. Iron, galvanised corrugated sheets, screws, and nails, 2s. the cwt.

  199. Iron galvanised tiles, ridging, guttering, and spouting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  200. Iron gates and gate-posts, staples, standards, straining posts and apparatus, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  201. Iron nails, 2s. the cwt.

  202. Iron pipes, and fittings for same, including main-cocks, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  203. Iron, plain galvanised sheet and hoop, Is. 6d. the cwt.

  204. Iron tanks, exceeding 200 gallons and not exceeding 400 gallons, 10s. each.

  205. Iron tanks of and under 200 gallons, 5s. each.

  206. Iron work and wire work, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  207. Japanned and lacquered metal ware, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  208. Lawn-mowers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  209. Lead, in sheets, 1s. 6d. the cwt.

  210. Lead piping, 3s. 6d. the cwt.

  211. Machinery n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  212. Machinery, electric, and appliances, 10 per cent. ad valorem

  213. All machinery for agricultural purposes, including chaff-cutters, corn crushers, corn-shellers, also articles used in manufacturing the same— namely, chaff-cutting knives, tilt-rakes, fittings for threshing-mills, forging for ploughs; but excluding reapers and binders, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  214. Machinery for dairying purposes (excluding separators and coolers), 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  215. Machinery for flour-mills, woollen-mills, paper-mills, rope- and twine making, dredging, saw-milling, planing, and wood-working (including lathes), oil-refining, boring, and also machinery for refrigerating or preserving meat, leather-splitting machines, and band-knives for same, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  216. Machinery for stamping and blocking tin, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  217. Machinery of every description for mining purposes, including machine pumps, but excluding machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  218. Manufactures, n.o.e., of metal, or of metal in combination with any other material, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  219. Nails n.o.e., 3s. the cwt.

  220. Portable engines on four or any greater number of wheels, with boilers of locomotive type; also traction-engines. 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  221. Printing machines and presses, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  222. Pumps and other apparatus for raising water n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  223. Railway and tramway plant and materials n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  224. Sad-irons, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  225. Shot, 10s. the cwt.

  226. Soda-water machines; also machines for aërating liquids, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  227. Steam-engines and parts of steam-engines n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  228. Steam-engines and parts thereof (including the boiler or boilers therefor), imported specially for mining and dairying purposes, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  229. Tinware, and tinsmiths' furniture n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  230. Waterworks pipes, iron, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  231. Weighbridges and weighing-machines, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  232. Wire mattresses and webbing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  233. Zinc tiles, ridging, guttering, piping, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  234. Zinc manufactures n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XIII.—Timber and Articles made from Timber.

  235. Bellows, other than forge, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  236. Blocks, wooden tackle, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  237. Buckets and tubs, of wood, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  238. Carriages, carts, drays, wagons, and perambulators, and wheels for the same, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  239. Carriage shafts, spokes, and felloes, dressed; bent carriage timber n.o.e. 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  240. Doors, glazed with ornamental glass, 4s. each.

  241. Doors, plain, 2s. each.

  242. Sashes, glazed, with ornamental glass, 4s. the pair.

  243. Sashes, plain, 2s. the pair.

  244. Timber, palings, 2s. the 100.

  245. Timber, posts, 8s. the 100.

  246. Timber, rails, 4s. the 100.

  247. Timber, sawn, dressed, 4s. the 100ft. superficial.

  248. Timber, sawn, rough, 2s. the 100ft. superficial.

  249. Timber, shingles and laths, 2s. the 1,000.

  250. Woodenware and turnery n.o.e., and veneers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

    Class XIV.—Oils, Paints, etc.

  251. Axle-grease and other solid lubricants, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  252. Harness oil and composition, and leather dressing, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  253. Naphtha, 6d. the gallon.

  254. Oil, kerosene, 6d. the gallon.

  255. Oil, linseed, 6d. the gallon.

  256. Oil, mineral, including shale-waste or unrefined mineral-oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  257. Oil n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  258. Oil, olive, 6d. the gallon.

  259. Oil, vegetable, in bulk, n.o.e., 6d. the gallon.

  260. Oil, vegetable or other, in bottle, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  261. Paints and colours ground in oil or turpentine, 2s. 6d. the cwt.

  262. Paints and colours mixed ready for use, 5s. the cwt.

  263. Putty, 2s. the cwt.

  264. Stearine, 1½d. the lb.

  265. Varnish, enamel paints, gold size, 2s. the gallon.

  266. Whiting and chalk, 1s. the cwt.

    Class XV.—Agricultural and Farm Products, etc.

  267. Animals, food for, of all kinds, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  268. Cattle (horned), 10s. each.

  269. Chaff, £1 the ton.

  270. Grain—namely, barley, 2s. the 1001b.

  271. Grain and pulse of every kind n.o.e., 9d. the 1001b.

  272. Grain and pulse of every kind, when ground or in any way manufactured, n.o.e., ls.-the 1001b.

  273. Horses, £1 each.

  274. Linseed, £1 the ton.

  275. Maize, 9d. the 1001b.

  276. Onions, £1 the ton.

  277. Prepared calf-meal, £1 5s. the ton.

    Class XVI.—Miscellaneous.

  278. Bags, flour, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  279. Bags, calico, forfar, hessian, and linen, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  280. Bagging and bags n.o.e., 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  281. Blacking and boot-gloss, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  282. Blacklead, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  283. Blue, 2d. the lb.

  284. Brooms, brushes, and brushware n.o.e., 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  285. Brushes, hair, and combs; toilet, clothes, and hat brushes, 20 per cent. ad volorem.

  286. Candles, 2d. the lb. or package of that reputed weight, and so in proportion for packages of greater or less reputed weight.

  287. Cement, 2s. the barrel.

  288. Cordage and rope n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  289. Cork, cut, including bungs, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  290. Fireworks n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  291. Flock, 10 per cent. ad valorem.

  292. Glue and size, 1½d. the lb.

  293. Granite, sawn on not more than two sides, and not dressed or polished, 5 per cent. ad valorem.

  294. Marble, granite, and other stone, dressed or polished, and articles made therefrom, including mantelpieces, 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  295. Matches—

    Wooden, in boxes containing not more than 60 matches, 1s. the gross of boxes.

    In boxes containing over 60 and not more than 100 matches, 2s. the gross of boxes.

    In boxes containing more than 100 matches, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. the gross of boxes.

    Wax, “ plaid vestas” in cardboard boxes containing under 100 matches, 1s. 2d. the gross of boxes.

    “Pocket vestas” in tin or other boxes containing under 100 matches 1s. 9d. the gross of boxes. “Sportsman's,” “Ovals,” and “No. 4 tin vestas” in boxes containing not more than 200 matches, 5s. the gross of boxes.

    Other kinds, for every 100 matches or fraction thereof contained in one box, 2s. 6d. the gross of boxes.

  296. Nets and netting, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  297. Powder, sporting, 6d. the 1b.

  298. Rice, manufactured into starch in bond, 2s. the cwt.

  299. Sacks, other than cornsacks, and jute sacks, 15 per cent. ad valorem.

  300. Sausage-skins and casings (including brine or salt), 3d. the lb.

  301. Soap, common yellow, and blue mottled, 5s. the cwt.

  302. Soap n.o.e. 25 per cent. ad valorem.

  303. Soap-powder, extract of soap, dry soap, and soft-soap, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  304. Spirits, methylated, 1s. the liquid gallon.

  305. Spirits, cleared from warehouse, methylated under prescribed conditions, 6d. the liquid gallon.

  306. Starch, 2d. the lb.

  307. Tarpaulins, tents, rick- and wagon-covers, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  308. Twine, n.o.e., 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  309. Washing-powder, 20 per cent. ad valorem.

  310. Wax, paraffin, mineral, vegetable, and Japanese, 1½d. the lb.

    In addition to any duty chargeable by law on any goods imported into the colony, a further duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem shall be charged when the goods are prison-made.

    Table of Exemptions from Duties of Customs.

    Class I.—Foods, etc.

    Names of Articles.

  311. Almonds, Barbary, Sicily, and French, used in confectioners' manufactures.

  312. Anchovies, salted, in casks.

  313. Arrowroot, sago, tapioca, macaroni, vermicelli, and prepared groats.

  314. Rock salt.

    Class IV.—Non-alcoholic Beverages, etc.

  315. Cocoa-beans.

    Class V.—Drugs, etc.

  316. Acids—viz.: boracic; carbolic, in bulk; fluoric; muriatic; nitric; oxalic; oleic; pyrogallic; salicylic; sulphuric.

  317. Concentrated extracts, or essences in liquid form or preserved in fat for per fume-manufacturing purposes in manufacturing warehouses, in bottles of not less than 1lb. in weight.

  318. Disinfectants.

  319. Drugs and chemicals—viz.: alum; sulphate of aluminium; sulphate of ammonia; anhydrous ammonia; aniline dyes; arsenic; bluestone, or sulphate of copper; borax; catechu; chloride of calcium;nitrate of silver; cochineal; creosote, crude or commercial; glycerine, crude; gum, arabic and tragacanth; gum benzoin; artificial gum arabic; gum damar; phosphorus; potash, caustic potash, and chlorate of potash; pearlash; cyanide of potassium; sal-ammoniac; saltpetre; acetate of soda, crude; soda-ash; caustic soda; nitrate of soda; silicate of soda; sulphate of soda; sulphide of sodium; strychnine; sulphur; chloride of zinc; iron-sulphates; gall-nuts; turmeric; saffron; nitrous-oxide gas; tree washes; insecticides; maltine; chlorodyne.

  320. Essential oils, except eucalyptus; cod-liver oil; oil of rhodium.

  321. Horse-drenches.

  322. Medicinal barks, leaves, herbs, flowers, roots, and gums.

  323. Scrub-exterminator.

  324. Sheep-dip; sheep-drenches; sheep-licks.

  325. Surgical and dental instruments and appliances.

  326. Scientific and assay balances, retorts, flasks, and other appliances for chemical analysis and assay work.

  327. Water-hardening chemicals for brewers' use.

    Class VI.—Clothing and Textiles.

  328. Accoutrements for military purposes, excepting uniform clothing.

  329. Brace-elastic and brace-mountings.

  330. Bunting, in the piece.

  331. Butter- and cheese-cloth.

  332. Buttons, tapes, wadding, pins, needles.

  333. Calico, white and grey, also cotton sheetings, in the piece.

  334. Corduroy, moleskin, and plain beaverskin, of cotton, in the piece.

  335. Coloured cotton shirtings; flannelette shirtings.*

  336. Forfar, dowlas, and flax sheeting, when cut up under supervision in sizes not exceeding 47in. × 36in. for making flour-bags, and not exceeding 54in. for lining wool mats.

  337. Fur-skins, green or sun-dried.

  338. Gold or silver lace or braid for military clothing.

  339. Hatmakers' materials—viz.: silk plush; felt hoods; shellac; galloons; calicoes; spale-boards for hat-boxes; leathers and linings; blocks; moulds; frames; ventilators; and tassels.

  340. Hessians, plain or striped, and scrim.

  341. Leather-cloth.

  342. Minor articles (required in the making-up of apparel, boots, shoes, hats, caps, saddlery, umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades), enumerated in any order of the Commissioner, and published in the Gazette.

  343. Sailcloth, canvas, and unbleached double-warped duck, in the piece.

  344. Sewing cottons, silks, and threads; crotchet, darning, and knitting cottons; angola mendings not exceeding 45 yards, on cards.

  345. Silk for flour-dressing.

  346. Silk twist (shoemakers' and saddlers').

  347. Staymakers' binding, eyelets, corset-fasteners, jean, ticks, lasting, sateen, and cotell.

  348. Tailors' trimmings—viz.; plain-coloured imitation hair-cloth; canvas; plain Verona and plain diagonal, and such patterns of checked Italian cloth as may be approved of by the Commissioner of Customs;Italian cloth of cotton or wool; buckram; wadding and padding; silk, worsted, and cotton bindings and braids; stay-bindings; Russia braids; shoulder-pads; buckles; silesias; drab, slate, and brown jeans; pocketings; slate, black, and dyed unions and linens.

    * See note overleaf.

  349. Umbrella-makers' materials—viz.: reversible and levantine silk mixtures, gloria, and satin de chêne of not less than 44in. in width; aplaca cloth, with border; zanella cloth, with border; also other piece-goods on such conditions as the Commissioner may approve; sticks, runners, notches, caps, ferrules, cups, ribs, stretchers, tips, and rings.

  350. Union shirtings the invoice value of which does not exceed 6d. the yard.*

  351. Waterproof material in the piece.

    Class VII.—Leather, and Articles used in Leather Manufactures.

  352. Boot-elastic.

  353. Bootmakers' linings, canvas, plain or coloured, bag and portmanteau linings, of such materials, qualities, and patterns as may be approved by the Commissioner.

  354. Boots, shoes, and slippers—viz., children's, No. 0 to 3.

  355. Cork soles, and sock soles.

  356. East India kip, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

  357. Goatskins, crust or rough-tanned, but undressed.

  358. Grindery, except heel- and toe-plates.

  359. Hogskins.

  360. Kangaroo-, wallabi-skins, undressed,

  361. Leather, japanned or enamelled; goatskins, dressed as morocco, coloured (other than black).

  362. Saddle-trees.

  363. Saddlers' ironmongery (except bits and stirrup-irons), hames, and mounts for harness; straining, surcingle, brace, girth, and roller webs; collar-check, and the same article plain, of such quality as may be approved by the Commissioner; legging-buckles.

  364. Tanning materials, crude.

    Class VIII.—Furniture, etc.

  365. Blind-webbing and tape.

  366. Upholsterers' webbing, hair-seating, imitation hair-seating, curled hair, gimp and cord of wool, cotton, or silk; tufts and studs.

    Class IX.—China, Glass, etc.

  367. Bottles, empty, plain glass, not being cut or ground; also, jars up to 3in. in diameter at the mouth.

  368. Glass plates (engraved) for photo-lithographic work.

  369. Jars or other dutiable vessels, containing free goods or goods subject to a fixed rate of duty, and being ordinary trade packages for the goods contained in them.

    Class X.—Fancy Goods, etc.

  370. Action-work and keys, in frames or otherwise, for manufacture of organs, harmoniums, and pianos; organ-pipes and stop-knobs.

  371. Artists' canvas, colours, brushes, and pallet-knives.

  372. Magic-lanterns, lenses, and slides.

  373. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes, and lenses for same.

  374. Musical instruments, specially imported for Volunteer bands.

  375. Paintings, statuary, and works of art, presented to or imported by any public institution or art association registered as a body corporate, for display in the buildings of such institution or association, and not to be sold or otherwise disposed of.

    * Whenever any dispute arises as to the application of the exemption in favour of coloured cotton, flannelette, or union shirtings, in the case of fabrics alleged to be such shirtings, the Commissioner has power to decide such dispute: and in case of doubt on his part, he may require the fabric in dispute te be cut up for shirt-making, under such conditions as prescribes.

  376. Photographic cameras and lenses.

  377. Photographs of personal friends in letters or packets.

  378. Precious stenes, cut or uncut and unmounted.

  379. Sensitized surfaces for photographic purposes.

    Class XI.—Paper, etc.

  380. Bookbinders' materials—viz., cloth, leather, thread, headbands, webbing, end-papers, tacketing-gut, marbling-colours, marble-paper, blue-paste for ruling-ink, staple-presses, wire-staples, staple-sticks.

  381. Butter-paper, known as parchment paper or waxed paper.

  382. Cardboard and pasteboard, of sizes not less than that known as “royal.”

  383. Cardboard boxes, material for—viz., gold and silver paper, plain and embossed, gelatine and coloured papers, known as “box-papers.”

  384. Cartridge-paper, for drawing-books.

  385. Cloth-lined boards, not less than “royal.”

  386. Cloth-lined papers; enamelled paper; ivorite and gelatine; metallic paper, not less than “demy.”

  387. Copy-books and drawing-books.

  388. Copying-paper, medium and double-foolscap, in original mill wrappers and labels.

  389. Hand-made cheque-paper.

  390. Ink, printing.

  391. Masticated para.

  392. Millboard and bookbinders' leather-board.

  393. Paper, hand-made or machine-made book or writing, of sizes not less than the size known as “demy,” when in original wrappers.

  394. Printing-paper.

  395. Printed books, papers, and music n.o.e.

  396. School slates, and educational apparatus.

    Class XII.—Metals.

  397. Anchors.

  398. Artificers' tools.

  399. Axes and hatchets; spades, shovels, and forks; picks; mattocks; quartz and knapping-hammers; scythes, sheep-shears, reaping-hooks; soldering-irons, paperhangers' scissors; butchers' saws and cleavers.

  400. Axles, axle-arms, and boxes.

  401. Band-saws and folding-saws, including frames.

  402. Bellows-nails.

  403. Bicycles and tricycles, fittings for—viz., rubber-tires, pneumatic-tires, outside covers, and inner tubes; rubber and cork handles, and pedal-rubbers; also drop-forgings and stampings, ball-bearings, weldless steel tube in full lengths, rims, forks, and spokes, in the rough.

  404. Blacksmiths' anvils, forges, and fans.

  405. Bolts, 5in. by ½in. in diameter, and under, and nuts for same.

  406. Brass and copper, in pigs, bars, tubes, or sheets.

  407. Brass tubing and stamped work, in the rough, for gasaliers and brackets.

  408. Caps, percussion.

  409. Card-clothing for woollen-mills.

  410. Chains, trace and plough chains; or metal articles required to repair or complete riding or driving harness or saddlery to be repaired or made in the colony.

  411. Copper and composition rod, bolts, sheathing, and nails.

  412. Couch-roll jackets, machine-wires, beater-bars, and strainer-plates for paper-mills.

  413. Crucibles.

  414. Emery-grinding machines and emery-wheels.

  415. Empty iron drums, not exceeding 10 gallons capacity

  416. Engineers' machine tools.

  417. Eyelets.

  418. Fire-engines, including Merry weather's chemical fire-engines.

  419. Fish-hooks.

  420. Galvanising-baths, welded.

  421. Gas-engines and hammers, and oil-engines.

  422. Glassmakers' moulds.

  423. Hydraulic cranes.

  424. Iron- and brass-wove wire and wire-gauze; also wire netting.

  425. Iron boiler-plates and unflanged end-plates for boilers; boiler-tubes not exceeding 6in. in diameter, and unflanged; Bowling's expansion rings; furnace-flues.

  426. Iron, plain black sheet, rod, bolt, bar, plate, hoop, and pig.

  427. Iron rolled girders.

  428. Iron plates, screws, and castings for ships.

  429. Iron wire n.o.e., including fencing-wire, plain and barbed.

  430. Lead, in pigs and bars.

  431. Locomotives.

  432. Machine saws.

  433. Machinery for gold-saving purposes and processes.

  434. Metal fittings for trunks, portmanteaux, travelling-bags, leggings, bags, and satchels.

  435. Metal sheaves for blocks.

  436. Metallic capsules.

  437. Perambulators and the like vehicles, fittings for, n.o.e.

  438. Perforated or cellular sheet zinc or iron.

  439. Printing type and materials n.o.e.

  440. Rails for railways and tramways.

  441. Reapers and binders, and reaping and mowing machines, and extra parts for same; materials for manufacturing agricultural machinery—namely, reaper-knife sections, fingers, brass and steel springs, malleable castings, discs for harrows, mould-boards and plough-shares, mould-board plates, and steel share-plates cut to pattern, skeith-plates; ploughs and harrows; combined threshers.

  442. Riddles and sieves.

  443. Rivets and washers.

  444. Separators and coolers for dairying purposes.

  445. Set-screws, engineers' studs, and split-pins.

  446. Sewing-, knitting-, and kilting-machines.

  447. Spiral springs (except sofa- and mattress-springs).

  448. Steam and hydraulic pressure and vacuum gauges.

  449. Surveyors' steel bands and measuring-tapes.

  450. Swords.

  451. Tacks of all kinds.

  452. Tea-packing lead.

  453. Tin, in pigs, bars, or sheets.

  454. Tinsmiths' fittings, including stamped or blocked tin, planished or unplanished.

  455. Tins, tops of, ornamented.

  456. Wire, of brass, copper, or lead.

  457. Zinc, plain sheet.

  458. Zinc plates and copper plates for photo-lithographic work.

    Class XIII.—Timber, etc.

  459. Ash, hickory, and lancewood timber, unwrought.

  460. Blacksmiths' bellows.

  461. Brush woodware.

  462. Carriage- and cart-shafts, spokes and felloes in the rough; hubs of all kinds; poles if unbent and unplaned, of all kinds; bent wheel-rims.

  463. Carriage- and cart-makers' materials—viz., springs, mountings, trimmings, brass hinges, tire-bolts, shackle-holders, step treads, and other iron fittings (except steps, lamp-irons, dash-irons, seat-rails, and fifth wheels), rubber-cloth.

  464. 464. Chums.

  465. Lignum-vitæ.

  466. Sieves, hair.

  467. Wooden handles for tools.

    Class XIV.—Oils, etc.

  468. Benzine in bulk.

  469. Oils—viz., candlenut, fish, whale, seal, and penguin, and palm.

  470. Paints and colours n.o.e.

  471. Shale oil, once run, suitable for gas-making

  472. Spirits of tar.

  473. Turpentine, driers, and terebene.

    Class XV.—Miscellaneous.

  474. Apparatus and appliances solely for teaching purposes, as may be approved by the Commissioner.

  475. Belting for machinery, other than leather.

  476. Binder-twine.

  477. Bricks, other than fire-bricks.

  478. Building materials n.o.e.

  479. Brushes for cream-separators and combined screens.

  480. Candlenuts and candlenut kernels.

  481. Candle-wick.

  482. Canvas aprons and elevators for reapers and binders.

  483. Carpenters' baskets.

  484. Charts and maps.

  485. Cotton waste.

  486. Dye-stuffs and dyeing materials, crude.

  487. Felt sheathing.

  488. Food preservative n.o.e.

  489. Gum boots.

  490. Hawsers of 12in. and over.

  491. Honey and brown Windsor soap composition.

  492. Iron and steel cordage.

  493. Jute bagging, bags, and sacks.

  494. Manures.

  495. Marble, and other stone, hewn or rough-sawn, not dressed or polished.

  496. Netmakers' cotton twine.

  497. Official supplies for consular officers of countries where a similar exemption exists in favour of British Consuls.

  498. Papermakers' felts.

  499. Passengers' baggage and effects, including only wearing-apparel and other personal effects that have been worn or are in use by persons arriving in the colony; also implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of such persons; and household or other effects not exceeding £100 in value, which have been in use for twelve months prior to embarkation by the persons or families bringing them to the colony, and not intended for any other person or persons or for sale; also cabin-furnishings belonging to such persons.

  500. Plaster of Paris.

  501. Powder, blasting and meal.

  502. Ship-chandlery n.o.e.

  503. Ships' rockets, blue-lights, and danger-signals.

  504. Spirits for manufacturing perfumed spirit, flavouring essences, and culinary essences in manufacturing warehouses. This exemption to cease on the 1st day of February, 1896.

  505. Stones, mill, grind, oil, and whet.

  506. Tobacco for sheepwash or for insecticide, after being rendered unfit for human consumption to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

  507. Treacle or molasses, mixed with bone-black in proportions to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

  508. Tubular woven cotton-cloth in the piece, for meat wraps.

  509. Type-writers.

  510. Wax, bottling.

  511. Woolpacks and woolpockets.

  512. Yarn—viz., coir, flax, hemp.

  513. Articles and materials (as may from time to time be specified by the Commissioner) which are suited only for, and are to be used solely in, the fabrication of goods within the colony. All decisions of the Commissioner in reference to articles so admitted free to be published from time to time in the Gazette.

  514. And all articles not otherwise enumerated.

    Table of Excise Duties.

  515. Tobacco, 1s. the lb.*

  516. Cigars, cigarettes, and snuff, 1s. 6d. the lb.*

  517. Beer, 3d. the gallon.

  518. Articles in which spirit is a necessary ingredient, manufactured in a ware house appointed under section 26 of “The Customs Laws Consolidation Act, 1882,” namely—

    Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing more than 50 percent of proof spirit, 9d. the lb.

    Pharmacopœia tinctures, essences, extracts, and medicinal spirits containing less than 50 per cent. of proof spirit, 3d. the lb.

    Culinary and flavouring essences, 12s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

    Perfumed spirit, 20s. the liquid gallon, from 1st February, 1896.

    Toilet preparations which are subject to 16s. the liquid gallon on importation, 12s. the liquid gallon.

    Toilet preparations which are subject to 25 per cent, duty on importation, 6s. the liquid gallon.

    Duties imposed by His Excellency the Governor under Section 17 of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1888.”

  519. Olive stones, ground (see New Zealand Gazette, 15th May, 1890), 4d. the lb.

  520. Brewers' caramel (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st August, 1890), 3d. the lb.

  521. Liquid hops (see New Zealand Gazette, 21st December, 1893), 6s. the lb.

  522. The United Asbestos Patent Salamander Decorations (see New Zealand Gazette, 14th May, 1896), 15 per cent. ad valorem.

*“The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” section 2, enacts:-

“On and after the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, section three of “The Customs and Excise Duties Act, 1891,” shall be deemed to be repealed, and in lieu of the duties imposed by that section there shall be levied, collected, and paid, on and after that day, upon tobacco manufactured in the colony, at the time of making the entry for home consumption thereof, the several duties of excise following, that is to say,—

“On tobaccoOne shilling the pound.
“On cigars and snuffOne shilling and sixpence the pound.
“On cigarettes—
    If manufactured by machineryTwo shillings and sixpence the pound.
    If made by handOne shilling the pound.”


There are (January, 1896) 198 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, 53 are daily papers, 19 are published three times a week, 29 twice a week, 66 once a week, 4 fortnightly, and 27 monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication. M. signifies morning paper; E. evening paper:—

    Wairoa Bell (E.)Friday.
    Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M.)Saturday.
    Bible Standard (M.)Monthly.
    Church Gazette (M.)Monthly.
    Helping HandMonthly.
    Liberty (M.)Monthly.
    Mining Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    New Zealand ABC GuideMonthly.
    New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry Journal (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' CompanionWednesday.
    New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
    Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Produce Circular and Monthly Report (M.)Monthly.
    Searchlight (M.)Saturday.
    Sharland's Trade JournalSaturday.
    Sporting ReviewThursday, Sat.
    Waikato Advocate (M.)Saturday.
    Coromandel County News (E.)Tuesday, Friday
    Coromandel Sun (M.)Saturday.
    Northern Advertiser (E.)Friday.
    Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Northern Luminary (M.)Saturday.
    Hot Lakes Chronicle (E.)Wednesday.
    Northern Advocate (E.)Friday.
    Korimako HouMonthly.
    Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday Paeroa—
    Hauraki Tribune and Thames Valley Advertiser (M.)Tu., Th., Sat.
    Ohinemuri Gazette (M.)Saturday
    Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Te Aroha—
    Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Despatch (M.)Saturday.
    Thames Star (E.)Daily.
    Thames Advertiser and Miners' News (M.)Daily.
    Waihi Miner and Hauraki Goldfield Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
    Telephone (M.)Saturday.
New Plymouth.
    Record and Waitara Age (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Weekly Record (M.)Saturday.
New Plymouth—
    Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
    Daily News (M.)Daily.
    Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
    Taranaki News (M.)Saturday.
    Opunake Times (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Egmont Post (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Egmont Settler (E.)Daily.
    Waitara Times and Clifton County Gazette (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Bush Advocate (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
    Evening News and Hawke's Bay Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)Daily.
    Hawke's Bay Weekly Courier (M.)Friday.
    New Zealand Fire and Ambulance RecordMonthly.
    Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Eltham Guardian; Kaponga, Ngaire, Te Roti, Hawera, Stratford, and Cardiff Advertiser (M.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and
    Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
Hawera Morning Post, Patea, Normanby, Eltham, Stratford,
    Kaponga, Manaia, and Opunake Register (M.)Daily.
    Paraekaretu Express, Hunterville, Ohingaiti, Moawhango, and Rata Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Waimate Witness (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Mercury (M.)Daily.
    Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
    Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Wanganui Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei RecordSaturday.
    Yeoman (M.)Friday.
    Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Eketahuna Express and North Wairarapa Courier (M.)Wed., Sat.
    Feilding Star (E.)Daily.
    Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Wairarapa Standard (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Eketahuna and Pahiatua Mail (M.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Star (E.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Weekly Times (E.)Wednesday.
    Weekly Star and Wellington District Advertiser (M.)Thursday.
    West Coast Mail and Horowhenua County Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Pahiatua Herald (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Palmerston North—
    Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (M.)Daily.
    Manawatu Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Manawatu Weekly, and Oroua and Rangitikei Record (M.)Thursday.
    Hutt and Petone Chronicle (M.)Wednesday.
    Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Church Chronicle (M.)Weekly.
    Daily Commercial News and Shipping Reporter (M.)Saturday.
    Daybreak (M.)Fortnightly, Sat.
    Evening Post (E.)Daily.
    Fairplay (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Craftsman (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Mail, Town and Country Advertiser (M)Friday.
    New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
    People (M.)Saturday.
    Register and Property Investors' GuideMonthly.
    Southern Sunbeam (M.)Saturday.
    Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
    Wellington Price Current and New Zealand Trade Review (M)Monthly.
    Woodville Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Evening Star (E.)Saturday.
    Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
    Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Golden Bay Argus (E.)Thursday.
    Colonist (M.)Daily.
    Nelson Evening Mail (E.)Daily.
    Nelson Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Takaka News and Collingwood Advertiser (E.)Thursday.
    Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Re-porter (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Lyell Times and Central Buller Gazette (M.)Saturday.
    Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
    Westport News (M.)Daily.
    Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Brunner News, Blackball Courier, and Grey Valley Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
    Grey River Argus (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Argus (M.)Weekly.
    Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Daily.
    Inangahua Times and Reefton Guardian (E.)Daily.
    Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Leader (M.)Thursday.
    West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
    Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.

* The War Cry receives Press telegrams at evening rates on Monday.

    Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest
    Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Canterbury Times (M.)Friday.
    Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
    Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New Zealand (E)Friday.
    New Zealand BaptistMonthly.
    New Zealand ButcherMonthly.
    New Zealand Church News (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Railway ReviewMonthly.
    New Zealand Schoolmaster (E.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Volunteer and Civil Service Gazette and Naval and Military Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Saturday.*
    New Zealand WheelmanFortnightly, Sat.
    Press (M.)Daily.
    ProhibitionistFortnightly, Sat.
    Southern Queen (M.)Monthly.
    Spectator (M.)Friday.
    Truth (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Press (M.)Friday.
    Young SoldierSaturday.
Oxford (East)—
    Oxford and Cust Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Rangiora Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Ellesmere Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat
    Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat
    South Canterbury Times (E.)Daily.
    Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
    Waimate Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
    Oamaru Mail (E.)Daily.
    Clutha Leader (M.)Friday.
    Free Press (M.)Friday.
    Clutha County Gazette, Popotunoa Chronicle, and Clinton Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    Dunstan Times, Vincent County Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (M.)Tuesday.
    Advocate (M.)Saturday.
    Christian Outlook (M.)Saturday.
    Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Farmers' Circular (M.)Thursday, fortnightly.
    New Zealand Insurance, Finance, and Mining Journal (M.) 
    New Zealand Tablet (M.)Friday.
    Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
    Otago Witness (M.)Thursday
    Otago Workman, Dunedin. and Suburban Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
    Phonographic Magazine and Typewriting NewsMonthly.
    Temperance StandardMonthly.
    Triad (M.)Monthly.
    Weekly Budget (M.)Saturday.
    Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Mount Ida Chronicle (Thurs. E. and Sat. M.)Thur., Saturday.
    Palmerston and Waikouaiti Times (M.)Friday.
    Mount Benger Mail (M.)Saturday.
    Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
    Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
    Mataura Ensign (E.)Tues., Th., Sat.
    Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Southern Cross (E.)Saturday.
    Southlander (M.)Friday.
    Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
    Southland Times (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
    Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)Friday.
    Waimea Plains Review and Market Report (M.)Friday.
    Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Wyndham Herald (M.)Wed., Friday.

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 37 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 10, Hawke's Bay 8, Wellington 45, Marlborough 6, Nelson 10, Westland 11, Canterbury 31, and Otago 40.

[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets which follow the General Index.]

Table of Contents

Chapter 29. Population.

The estimated population of New Zealand, excluding Maoris, on the 31st December, 1895, with the increase for the year by excess of births over deaths and by immigration over emigration, was as under:—

Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1894686,128363,763322,365
Increase during the year 1895—
Excess of births over deaths11,6835,5276,156   
Excess of arrivals over departures895435460   
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1895698,706369,725328,981

But the above estimate has been shown by the census, taken on the 12th April, 1896, to be slightly too low, as a deduction from the census population of the natural increase and excess of arrivals over departures for the March quarter of this year, with allowance for twelve days of April, would give for the 31st December, 1895, a total of 700,331 persons.

The population of the colony (exclusive of Maoris), as returned in the census schedules for the night of the 12th April, 1896, was 703,360 persons, of whom 3,711 were Chinese, and 2,259 half-castes living amongst and as Europeans.

A census of the Maori population was taken during February of 1896, when the number of the Native race was found to be 39,854 persons, including 3,503 half-castes living as Maoris. 229 Maori women were returned as married to European husbands. The complete population (European and Maori) of the colony was therefore 743,214 persons, as exhibited in the following statement, specifying the numbers for each sex:—


* Not including 171 persons, officers and crew of a British man-of-war.

Population (exclusive of persons of the aboriginal native race, of mixed European and Native blood, and Chinese)697,390366,607330,783
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living as and among Europeans2,2591,1231,136
Aboriginal natives (including 229 Maori wives of Europeans)36,35119,72916,622
Half-castes and persons of mixed race living among and as members of Maori tribes3,5031,9441,559
                        Total population*743,214393,088350,126

The total half-caste or mixed European and Native population was 5,762 persons. The number of half-castes living among Europeans increased since 1891 by 75, or at the rate of 3.4 per cent. In that year the number of Maori wives of Europeans was 251; in 1896 it was 229. The Chinese decreased from 4,444 at the time of the census of 1891 to 3,711 in April, 1896; or at the rate of 16.5 per cent., caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,854 in 1896, according to the returns.

The increase on the total European population between April, 1891, and April, 1896, amounted to 76,702 persons, or a rate of 12.24 per cent. Between the census of 1886 and that of 1891 the numerical increase was 48,176 persons, or 8.33 per cent., so that an improved progress was made during the last five-year period to the extent of 3.91 per cent. The average annual increase in the period 1891–96 was at the rate of 2.33 per cent.

The population of the principal divisions of the colony in April, 1896, was—

North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)340,631181,089159,542
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)362,236190,038172,198
Stewart Island252152100
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Natives)234132102
Kermadec Islands743
    Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)703,360371,415331,945

During the interval between the censuses of April, 1891, and April, 1896, the increase of population in the North Island was far in excess of the increase in the South Island. The figures are: North Island, 1891, 281,455 persons, against 340,631 in 1896, a difference of 59,176, or at the rate of 21.03 per cent.; South Island, 1891, 344,711 persons, against 362,236 in 1896, a difference of only 17,525, or 5.08 per cent. The European population of Stewart Island increased from 202 to 252, and that of the Chatham Islands fell from 271 to 234 persons. The Kermadec Islands appeared for the first time in 1891 as part of New Zealand, with a population of 19 persons; the population is now only 7 persons. During the period 1886–91 the increase for the North Island was 30,973 persons, or a rate of 12.37 per cent; and of the South Island 17,119, or 5.23 per cent.; so that the North Island has advanced with more rapid strides in the quinquennium 1891–96 than in the previous one; while the rate of progress in the South Island has for both periods been but 5 per cent., or less than the natural increase by excess of births over deaths.

Population of Provincial Districts.

The following table gives the numbers of males and females in each provincial district in April, 1891, and April, 1896, and also for the Chatham Islands:—

Provincial Districts.April, 1891.April, 1896.
Hawke's Bay28,50615,74412,76234,03818,39715,641
  Chatham Islands271149122234132102
  Kermadec Islands19118743

The numerical and centesimal increases for the provincial districts during the periods 1886–91 and 1891–96 were:—

Provincial Districts.1886–91.1891–96.
AucklandIncrease, 2,7802.13Increase, 20,40515.32
Taranaki”    4,06622.59”    9,11041.29
Hawke's Bay”    3,93816.03”    5,53219.41
Wellington20,18926.04”    24,12924.69
Marlborough1,65414.88Decrease, −284−2.22
Nelson”    4,56715.12Increase, 9642.77
WestlandDecrease, −44−0.28Decr., −1,418−8.93
CanterburyIncrease, 6,9925.76Increase, 7,4665.82
Otago”    3,9432.64”    10,8477.09

Of the total increase in the period 1891–96, amounting to 76,702 persons for the colony, or 12.24 per cent., more than one-half took place in the Wellington and Auckland Provincial Districts; the numbers by way of increase for those districts being 24,129, or 24.69 per cent., and 20,405, or 15.32 per cent., respectively. But the largest proportional advance was in Taranaki, being the really excellent increase of 41.29 per cent. Hawke's Bay shows an increase of 19.41 per cent. The population of Otago increased 7.09 per cent. only; Canterbury still less, 5.82 per cent.; while in Marlborough there was an actual decrease for the quinquennium of 2.22 per cent., and in Westland the decrease of population was at the rate of 8.93. The advantage is strikingly in favour of the provincial districts of the North Island, as pointed out previously. The rate of progress in 1891–96 was greater than that in 1886–91 in Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Otago, being nearly the same in Wellington and Canterbury. At Nelson the progress was decidedly less in the later period, and in Westland there is further decline noticed. Marlborough, which showed an increase for 1886–91, now shows a loss.

Population of Counties.

New Zealand is, by “The Counties Act, 1876,” divided into counties and boroughs, excepting certain outlying islands, which are not within county boundaries. It is provided by the above-mentioned Act that boroughs shall not be included in counties. In April, 1896, the number of the counties was 81. Of these, the North Island had 47, with a population amounting altogether to 191,374 persons. The South Island had 33 counties, the population being 200,117 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself, and has a population of 244 persons. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

Counties.Census, 1896.Census, 1891.Increase or Decrease.
* Sundry boroughs were cut out from these counties between 1891 and 1896.
Mongonui1,889 1,389Inc. 500
Whangaroa969 878”    91
Hokianga1,909 1,494”    415
Bay of Islands2,723 2,562”    161
Hobson3,750 3,298”    452
Whangarei6,847 6,120”    727
Otamatea2,483 2,054”    429
Rodney3,464 3,170”    294
Waitemata6,762 6,184”    578
Eden15,940 13,782”    2,158
Manukau12,185 11,925”    260
Coromandel4,987 2,846”    2,141
Thames4,515 4,340”    175
Ohinemuri4,761 1,516”    3,245
Piako2,706 2,517”    189
Waikato2,814 2,738”    70
Waipa3,584 3,395”    189
Raglan1,545 1,090”    455
Kawhia598 308”    290
West Taupo156 119”    37
East Taupo232 152”    80
Rotorua840 418”    422
Tauranga1,622 1,393”    229
Whakatane1,988 1,524”    464
Waiapu447 379”    68
Cook5,287 3,945”1,342
Clifton1,450 908”    542
Taranaki9,970 7,905”    2,065
Stratford5,141 2,521”  2,620
Hawera6,934 4,347”    2,587
Patea3,084 2,608”    476
Waitotara2,737 2,255”    482
Wanganui3,095 2,281”    814
Rangitikei6,030 4,438”    1,592
Kiwitea2,4287,418”    2,811
Manawatu2,709 2,725Dec. 16
Horowhenua3,792 2,289Inc. 1,503
Hawke's Bay6,894 6,028”    860
Wairoa1,490 1,246”    244
Waipawa8,866 *
Patangata2,374 2,044Inc. 330
Pahiatua3,208 *
Wairarapa North7,209 5,143”    2,066
Wairarapa South5,409 4,980”    429
Hutt5,750 *
Sounds747 720”    27
Marlborough6,330 6,520Dec. 190
Kaikoura1,575 1,460Inc. 115
Collingwood2,509 2,103”    406
Waimea8,591 * 
Buller4,833 4,659”    174
Inangahua4,254 4,648Dec. 394
Grey4,592 4,330Inc. 202
Westland4,723 5,031Dec. 308
Amuri916 967”    51
Cheviot1,042 164Inc. 878
Ashley11,913 12,396Dec. 483
Selwyn30,090 *
Akaroa3,886 3,771Inc. 115
Ashburton10,820 9,501”    1,319
Geraldine7,49914,588”    634
Mackenzie1,514 1,180”    334
Waimate4,777 4,043”    734
Waitaki8,876 8,375”    501
Waihemo2,148 2,040”    108
Waikouaiti4,389 4,334”    55
Peninsula2,645 2,701Dec. 56
Taieri6,950 7,079”    129
Bruce4,828 4,696Inc. 132
Tuapeka6,477 6,327”    150
Clutha6,504 5,574”    990
Maniototo3,742 2,927”    815
Vincent4,090 3,718”    372
Lake2,663 2,919Dec. 256
Southland21,603 *
Wallace6,657 5,306Inc.1,351
Fiord151 71”    80
Stewart Island244 202”    42

For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see Census Volume, p. 32, Part I.

As before stated, the total county population amounted to 391,735, or 55.69 per cent. of the total for the colony. In counties are included all towns not constituted municipal boroughs; but, on the other hand, the people living in many of the boroughs can hardly be called townsfolk. The population in boroughs, which is given in detail further on, was 307,294 persons, or 43.69 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1896 there were 78 residing in boroughs. In 1891 the counties had 352,097 persons, and the boroughs 270,343, or, in other words, for every 100 persons in counties, 76 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1896 than in 1891.

Population of Boroughs.

There were 95 municipal boroughs in existence when the census of 1896 was taken. This was an increase of 8 on the number in 1891. Some of the new boroughs were town districts in 1891. In the following tables no populations are given for 1891 in respect of boroughs incorporated after that date, as a true comparison cannot well be made.

Boroughs.Census, 1896.Census, 1891.Increase or Decrease.
* Boroughs constituted since 1891.
Birkenhead690455Inc. 235
Devonport3,0102,455”    555
Auckland31,42428,613”    2,811
Newton2,3792,087”    292
Newmarket1,9291,586”    343
Parnell4,1963,967”    229
Onehunga2,9132,924Dec. 11
Thames4,2614,618”    357
Hamilton1,2481,212Inc. 36
Cambridge865850”    15
Tauranga1,0181,055Dec. 37
Gisborne2,3342,158Inc. 176
New Plymouth3,8253,350”    475
Hawera1,7701,284”    486
Patea739676”    63
Wanganui5,9365,011”    925
Marton1,151976”    175
Feilding2,0451,583”    462
Palmerston North5,9104,303”    1,607
Foxton1,1021,223Dec. 121
Hastings3,1902,303Inc. 887
Napier9,2318,341”    890
Woodville1,060971”    89
Masterton3,4933,114”    379
Carterton1,2911,112”    179
Greytown1,1291,141Dec. 12
Lower Hutt1,5201,329Inc. 191
Petone2,6852,178”    507
Onslow1,249979”    270
Wellington37,44131,021”    6,420
Melrose2,0441,224”    820
Picton870788”    82
Blenheim3,0183,294Dec. 276
Nelson6,6596,626Inc. 33
Westport2,4242,622Dec 198
Greymouth3,0993,787”    688
Brunner1,6322,231”    599
Kumara1,1491,176”    27
Hokitika2,0592,178”    119
Ross727822”    95
Rangiora1,8691,783Inc. 86
Kaiapoi1,8281,371”    457
Christchurch16,96416,223”    741
St. Albans5,7815,247”    531
Sydenham10,3129,680”    632
Lyttelton3,8984,087Dec. 189
Akaroa613571Inc. 42
Ashburton2,0821,900”    182
Timaru3,6133,668Dec. 55
Waimate1,2861,379”    93
Oamaru5,2255,621”    396
Hampden353300Inc. 53
Palmerston South775799Dec. 15
Hawkesbury760743Inc. 17
Port Chalmers1,9012,028Dec. 127
North-east Valley3,3743,337Inc. 37
Maori Hill1,4831,426”    57
West Harbour1,3661,297”    69
Dunedin22,81522,376”    439
Roslyn4,1183,845”    273
Mornington3,5843,523”    61
Caversham4,7634,690”    73
St. Kilda1,1851,153”    32
South Dunedin4,5924,222”    370
Green Island663687Dec. 24
Mosgiel1,3821,304Inc. 78
Milton1,1391,158Dec. 19
Kaitangata1,3621,145Inc. 217
Lawrence9961,026Dec. 30
Roxburgh433410Inc. 23
Tapanui408428Dec. 20
Balclutha925867Inc. 58
Naseby447496Dec. 49
Cromwell539474Inc. 65
Alexandra454310”    144
Arrowtown409426Dec. 17
Queenstown781779Inc. 2
Gore2,0321,618”    414
Winton397288”    109
Invercargill5,6324,950”    682
North Invercargill877717”    160
South Invercargill1,8861,559”    327
East Invercargill935736”    199
Avenal327302”    25
Gladstone339287”    52
Campbelltown1,075650”    425
Riverton893843”    50

The Cities of Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin have considerable suburbs. The suburban population of Wellington is comparatively small. The following gives the names and populations of the several localities which may fairly be termed suburbs of the four principal boroughs:—

Suburbs of Auckland.
 Population, 1896.
Road Districts— 
    Eden Terrace1,604
    Mount Albert1,668
    Mount Eden3,677
    Mount Roskill495
    One-tree Hill975
    Point Chevalier591
Northcote Riding530
Outlying portion of Parnell Riding, being land in the Domain with hospital on it197
            Total suburbs26,192
            Auckland City31,424
            Total Auckland and suburbs57,616
Suburbs of Wellington.
            Total suburbs4,317
            Wellington City37,441
            Total Wellington and suburbs41,758
Suburbs of Christchurch.
 Population, 1896.
    St. Albans5,781
Road Districts— 
    Avon (part)2,962
    Heathcote (part)1,980
    Riccarton (part)3,657
    Halswell (part)224
            Total suburbs34,366
            Christchurch City16,964
            Total Christchurch and suburbs51,330

In laying off the suburbs of Christchurch the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District have been mainly followed.

Suburbs of Dunedin.
    Maori Hill1,483
    North-East Valley3,374
    St. Kilda1,185
    South Dunedin4,592
    West Harbour1,366
            Total suburbs24,465
            Dunedin City22,815
            Total Dunedin and suburbs47,280

The increase of population for five years at the four chief centres, with their suburbs, was:—

 Census, 1891.Census, 1896.Numerical Increase.Increase per Cent.
Auckland and suburbs51,28757,6166,32912.3
Wellington and suburbs34,19041,7587,56822.1
Christchurch and suburbs47,84651,3303,4847.3
Dunedin and suburbs45,86947,2801,4113.1

Thus the two principal cities of the North Island are found to have progressed at a greater rate than those of the South Island, and Wellington in particular to have developed at seven times the rate of Dunedin and three times as fast as Christchurch during the quinquennium.

Population of Town Districts.

Besides the boroughs, there are 39 town districts (not including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal Springs Districts Act, 1881,”) which are portions of the counties in which they are situated. Two only of these, Stratford and Hampstead, have more than 1,000 inhabitants. A list of these town districts is subjoined:—

                Town Districts.Population.
* Constituted under “The Thermal Springs Districts Act, 1881.”
Te Aroha672
Te Awamutu347
Waitara (Raleigh)517
Clyde (Wairoa)579
Kaikoura North301
Allanton (formerly Grey)274

Population of Adjacent Islands.

The names and populations of the islands are:—

Great Barrier307193114
Week's Island211
Ponui Light11..
Ponui Island281315
Bean Rock Light11..
Rotoroa (Ruth's)1569
The Brothers33..

The islands which are not included within the boundaries of the counties had a population of 950 persons (exclusive of Maoris), against 913 in 1891. Only three of the islands had a population over 100 persons at last census. The population of the Great Barrier increased since 1891 from 262 to 307 persons; Waiheke shows a decrease from 215 to 166 persons. Europeans at the Chatham Islands decreased from 258 to 234.

Australasian Colonies: Estimated Population on 31st December, 1895.
New South Wales685,160592,7101,277,870
South Australia181,161171,492352,653
Western Australia69,72731,508101,235
New Zealand369,725328,981698,706

The Australasian Colonies as a whole contained a population on the 31st December, 1895, estimated at 4,233,616 persons, exclusive of the aboriginal natives of Queensland, South and Western Australia, and 39,854 New Zealand Maoris.

The population of Fiji was 120,245 persons—66,350 males and 53,895 females. These numbers include natives and imported labourers, besides people of European descent.

Increase of Population.

The increase of population during 1895 was 12,578. As the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 11,683, the difference between that number and 12,578 represents the excess of arrivals over departures, amounting to 895.

There is good reason to believe that few of the births or deaths that occur remain unregistered. Where a limit of time is given within which a birth has to be registered, it follows as a matter of course that there will be occasional instances of neglect of the requirements of the law; but it would appear that such neglect is very exceptional, and that the number of unregistered events is so small as not appreciably to affect the numbers given.

The following shows the excess of births over deaths in each of the past ten years:—


In 1895 the population of the colony was greater than in 1886 by 18.9 per cent. Nevertheless the excess of births over deaths for 1895 is less than for 1886 by 11.3 per cent.

The excess of births over deaths in 1895 was equivalent to 1.69 per cent of the mean population for the year, the actual increase being at the rate of 1.83 per cent.

A table is given showing the increase of population for eleven years. Although the large increase shown for 1893 was not maintained during 1894 and 1895, the arrivals in the colony during these last two years at all events exceeded the departures by more than three thousand people. Notwithstanding the attractions of the Australian goldfields, and other disturbing influences, the colony not only retained the population drawn to it in the years 1892 and 1893, but also absorbed 3,148 persons from other countries.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Immigration over Emigration.*Net Increase.

* Corrected in accordance with census results of 1886 and 1891. The amount of loss by departures, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.

† Loss.


It will be observed that in the period 1885 to 1891 the total increase of the population was less than the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, owing to the fact that the loss by departures was greater than the gain by arrivals. But during the four years 1892, 1893, 1894, and 1895 the colony gained 18,518 persons by excess of immigration, besides the natural increase for those years.

Arrivals and Departures.

The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1895 was 21,862, a decrease of 3,375 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1895, 19,561 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 2,301 as children. The total number of males was 14,181, and of females 7,681. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 2,365, from Victoria 4,365, from New South Wales 13,209, from Tasmania 999. Thus the arrivals from Australia amounted to 18,573. Besides these, 301 persons came from Fiji, and 623 from the South Seas and other ports, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense has been discontinued since the 16th December, 1890, and there was no free immigration in the year 1895.

Two hundred and fourteen Chinese arrived in and 170 left the colony during 1895, the number of arrivals thus exceeding the departures by 44.

The following table shows the immigration for twenty-two years—stating separately arrivals from the United Kingdom, the Australian Colonies, and other places. The arrivals during 1893 and 1894 will be found to exceed those in any other years comprised in the period except 1874 and 1875, when the numbers were largely swollen by assisted immigrants from the United Kingdom; and it will also be noticed that the years 1893 and 1894 had by far the largest numbers of arrivals from Australia:—

Year.Arrivals from United Kingdom.From Australian Colonies.From Other Places.Total Arrivals.
Government or Assisted.Unassisted.Total.

Here the arrivals increase from 15,028 in 1890 to 21,862 in 1895, and those from Australia from 11,539 in the former year to 18,573 in the latter.

In 1881 an Act was passed imposing a tax on every Chinese landing in the colony, except in the case of any one of the crew of a vessel not intending to remain. The object of the Act—so to hamper Chinese immigration as to prevent the number of Chinese in the colony from increasing—was until 1894 successfully attained.

The “Chinese Immigrants Act Amendment Act, 1896,” raised the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants from £10 to £100 per head, and limited the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to this colony to one for every 200 tons burthen. This Act is to remain in force only until the “Asiatic Restriction Act, 1896,” which has been reserved for Her Majesty's assent, and which has a wider scope, comes into operation. In 1881 the Chinese population amounted to 5,004, in 1886 the number had fallen to 4,542, and at the census of 1891 there were 4,444 Chinese in the colony. The number in April, 1896, was only 3,711 persons, so that a continuous decrease is shown at each enumeration since the year 1881.

The numbers of arrivals and departures of Chinese in each of the past fifteen years were:—


Laws restricting Chinese immigration have been passed in the Australian Colonies as well as in New Zealand.

In New South Wales, an Act of 1888 raised the poll-tax imposed in 1881 to £100, and vessels were prohibited from carrying to the colony more than one Chinese passenger to every 300 tons. Chinese cannot engage in mining without express authority, and are not allowed to become naturalised. The Act is stated to have resulted in the complete stoppage of Chinese immigration.

Every effort is made to obtain correct statements of the migration to and from the colony, but there is still difficulty in regard to the departures. The arrivals are doubtless correct, but many people leave the colony for Australia without booking their passages, paying their fares on board after the steamer has cleared: in these cases the returns from the Customs authorities are deficient. The difficulty is in great measure overcome by an arrangement under which the pursers of the intercolonial steamers belonging to the Union Steamship Company, on their return to this colony, post to the Registrar-General a statement of the number of passengers on the previous outward voyage. But during any period of cheap fares and keen competition between rival companies steamers may carry more passengers than should lawfully be taken, and of the number in excess no return is likely to be made.

The number of persons who left this colony in 1895 was 20,967, of whom 18,977 were over and 1,990 were under twelve years of age. The males numbered 13,746, and the females 7,221. The departures for the United Kingdom amounted to 1,703 persons. 3,108 left for Victoria, including 1 for South Australia, 14,781 for New South Wales and Queensland, and 488 for Tasmania—making altogether 18,377 for Australia. 183 persons left for Fiji, and 704 for other ports (including passengers for San Francisco).

The total excess of arrivals over departures—895 persons—is made up as under:—

 Excess of Arrivals.
From United Kingdom662
„  Australia662
„  Other places37

Comparing the arrivals and departures for 1895 with those of the previous year, it will be observed that the arrivals fell from 25,237 to 21,862, and the departures from 22,984 to 20,967. But no fewer than 18,377 persons left New Zealand last year for Australia, very many, no doubt, tempted by the reported rich finds of gold in Western Australia; notwithstanding which large exodus, there was (according to the returns) an excess of arrivals in New Zealand from the continent in the year amounting to 196, so that this colony held its own against Australia in spite of special inducements for miners to leave.

The following table shows the recorded movements of population between New Zealand and the United Kingdom in each of the past ten years:—

 United Kingdom.
Arrivals therefrom.Departures thereto.

These figures, which may be taken as correct, show a gain of 16,545 persons through intercourse with the United Kingdom; and the total gain to the colony from all places during the ten years by excess of arrivals over departures, totalled 1,324 persons. It follows, therefore, that the loss to Australia and other places was 15,221 during the decennial period, of which number at least 90 per cent. must have gone to Australia. The figures for 1892–95 give a different result for the last four years of the decennium, showing a net gain from the Australian passenger-traffic of 14,078 persons. Of the loss prior to 1892, by far the largest in any one year occurred in 1888, when the expenditure of loan-money by the General Government was suddenly reduced by one-half.

The returns published by the Board of Trade do not distinguish between the departures from the United Kingdom for New Zealand and those for Australia. The departures for Australasia as a whole only are given. In 1895 these amounted to 10,809. The number of persons arriving in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom was 2,365, or equal to nearly 22 per cent. of the entire direct emigration from the United Kingdom to the Australasian Colonies. This number does not represent all the persons who came from the United Kingdom to this colony, as many travelled by way of the Suez Canal or San Francisco, and thus appeared as arrivals either from Australia or from foreign ports.

According to the foregoing table the arrivals from the United Kingdom fell in number in regular annual sequence, from 6,893 in 1886 to 2,435 in 1891; but New Zealand has since then somewhat increased her gain of population from the Old Country, the arrivals for 1892 numbering 2,555, for 1893 2,929, for 1894 2,846, and for 1895 2,365 persons; while the departures for the United Kingdom fell year by year from 1889 to 1893, and rose only slightly in 1894 and 1895. In 1895 the excess of arrivals from the United Kingdom over the departures thereto was, however, only 662 persons. In 1891 it was 730 persons.

There has been of late years a large annual decrease in the number of persons who leave the United Kingdom for these southern colonies:—

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in New Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.

As the population of New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris) comprises no more than 16.52 per cent. of the population of Australasia, not including Fiji, it is evident from the above figures that this colony during 1893, 1894, and 1895 offered greater attractions to emigrants than did Australia; and it must be remembered that, as remarked before, the above numbers do not include persons who arrived from England via Australia and the United States.

The following shows the immigration and emigration for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1895. The emigration figures are, for all the colonies, admittedly imperfect, as no record is obtained of a number of departures by sea:—

Colony.Arrivals, 1895.Departures, 1895.Excess of Arrivals over Departures, 1895.
* Excess of departures.
New South Wales129,217126,6582,559
Victoria (by sea only)81,19988,886−7,687*
South Australia65,94466,677−733*
Western Australia29,52311,12918,394
New Zealand21,86220,967895



The births registered in the colony during 1895 numbered 18,546, or at the rate of 26.78 per 1,000 of the mean population. Numerically, the births registered in 1895 are found to be only 18 in excess of the number for 1894; nevertheless the birth-rate fell from 27.28 in the former year to 26.78 in the latter. From the year 1884, when the births were 19,846, to 1892, when they numbered only 17,876, there was a regular annual decrease, notwithstanding the increase of population. In 1893 came a change; but the numerical increase in the registrations of births has not been sufficient to raise the birth-rate.

That there should be a continuous fall in the birth-rate of New Zealand is only what might be expected, as the same process is going on in Australia; but the fall here has been greater, and it is noticeable that New Zealand has now a lower birth-rate than any of the colonies of Australia, except Western Australia, to which colony there has during the past few years been a large influx of population, consisting mostly of single men.

The following table shows that, with increasing population and, since 1886, a numerical increase of marriages (there was a slight decrease in 1895), there has been for many years an annual decrease in the birth-rate:—

Year.Mean Population (excluding Maoris).Number of Marriages.Number of Births.Births per 1,000 of the Population.

A fall in the birth-rate in a young country is to a certain point a natural result of the increase in the proportion of the population under twenty-one years of age; but in New Zealand the proportion under twenty-one at the census of 1891 was found to be slightly lower than in 1886, so that there must be further reasons to account for such a decrease in the actual number of births as is found up to the year 1893.

Inquiry was made of District Registrars to discover whether many births escaped registration, through the colony not being sufficiently subdivided for registration purposes; but the replies did not tend to show that the decrease could be assigned to this cause, though it is nevertheless desirable to subdivide further when representations are made of fresh requirements.

Whenever it is reported to the Registrar-General that a birth has not been registered, an authority is issued to the District Registrar to prosecute the responsible party for neglect. Registrars are all under instructions to watch closely for cases of negligence, so that proceedings may be taken. Twenty-seven convictions were secured in the year 1895, and fines inflicted.

The decrease in the birth-rate all over the civilised world has been freely and openly commented on of late, and the voluntary limitation of families is no doubt largely resorted to in communities where the spread of education has created a high standard of comfort in living, and multiplied wants to a great extent. In 1881 there were in New Zealand 5.72 births to every marriage in the previous year, and in 1895 the proportion had fallen to 4.24 births to each marriage.

It was ascertained, after the census of 1881 had been compiled, that the married women of reproductive age in the colony averaged 314 to every 100 of legitimate births, which is equal to an average of one birth to every married woman at the age for child-bearing in every 3.14 years. In 1886 the average was found, on calculation, to be 333 wives to 100 births, or an average of one birth to each wife in 3.33 years. In 1891 there were 17,635 legitimate births, and the number of married women at the time of the census at the period 15 to 45 years was 63,165, which gives an average of 358 wives to each 100 births, or, deducting one child in each case of twins, the average becomes 362 wives to every 100 births, being a birth to each wife every 3.62 years. The census results therefore prove that the average interval between each birth in the case of married women at the child-bearing ages advanced from 3.14 years in 1881 to 3.33 years in 1886, and 3.62 years in 1891; so that this factor must evidently be taken into account in considering the question of the causes of the falling birth-rate.

The fall in the birth-rates of the Australian Colonies during a period of eleven years is shown in the following table:—

Birth-rates per 1,000 of Population.
New South Wales37.6437.0336.4236.1833.7335.3534.5034.4132.2331.4730.66
South Australia37.3035.3234.6333.3432.3732.7533.9232.3231.7130.4930.23
Western Australia35.2239.2137.3435.8837.1432.5534.8533.0134.1427.4925.62
New Zealand34.3533.1532.0961.3230.0729.4429.0127.8327.5027.2826.78

In the year 1880 New Zealand had the highest birth-rate of any of these colonies, 40.78; but since 1887 the position has been reversed, and the rate is now the lowest of all, except Western Australia, where the conditions of population are abnormal as yet.

In the United States the birth-rates per 1,000 for 1880 and 1890 were respectively 36.0 and 30.7; in England and Wales, 34.2 and 30.2; in Scotland, 33.6 and 30.2; in Ireland, 24.7 and 22.3; in France, 24.5 and 21.8; in Belgium, 31.1 and 28.7; in the German Empire, 37.6 and 35.7; in Austria, 38.0 and 36.7; in Switzerland, 29.6 and 26.6; in Denmark, 31.8 and 30.6; in Norway, 30.7 and 30.3; and in the Netherlands, 35.5 and 32.9.

The birth-rates for eight years in Great Britain and certain countries of the European Continent are given from the report of the Registrar-General of England. The rates in England and Wales, and in Scotland, are higher than those in New Zealand, but the rate for Ireland is lower. For 1890 and following years France has the lowest rate of all quoted.

Birth-rates in European Countries, 1887 to 1894.
Countries.Number of Births per 1,000 of Mean Population.
German Empire36.936.636.435.737.035.736.735.8
England and Wales31.931.

The male births in New Zealand in 1895 numbered 9,493, and the female 9,053: the proportion was thus 104.86 males to 100 females. In 1894 the proportion was 104.59 males, and in 1893, 104.88. There are on an average more male to female births in each of the Australasian Colonies than in England, but the proportion of male births is still greater in many European countries.

There were 198 cases of twin births (396 children) in 1895. The number of children born was 18,546; the number of mothers was 18,348: thus on an average 1 mother in every 93 gave birth to twins. In 1894 the proportion was one in 103, in 1893 one in 95, in 1892 one in 102, in 1891 one in 101, and in 1890 one in 94.

The births of 835 children were illegitimate: thus 45 in every 1,000 children born were born out of wedlock.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. The rate in New Zealand is less than in any other of the Australasian Colonies except South and Western Australia:—

Proportion of Illegitimate Births in every 100 Births.
Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

The rates in the Colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia, and Tasmania are somewhat higher than the rate in England, which was 4.3 in 1894. The rate for New Zealand was slightly higher. In Scotland the rate was as high as 7.6 in the year 1890. In Ireland it was only 2.7 in 1891. Of European continental countries Austria has the highest rate, 14.7. In the German Empire it is 9.3, in France 8.1, in Italy 6.8, and in Switzerland 4.6.

An important Act was passed in 1894, entitled the Legitimation Act, which makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent marriage of their parents. Under this Act any child born out of wedlock, whose parents afterwards marry, is deemed to be legitimised by such marriage on the birth being registered in the manner prescribed by the Act. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. It will thus be seen that in cases dealt with under the Act registration becomes the test of legitimacy. In the December quarter of 1894, 11 children were legitimised; in 1895 the number was 68. It appears likely that the Act will often be taken advantage of in case of half-castes.

It is held that the average number of children to a marriage may be ascertained by comparing the total of legitimate births for a series of years with the total of marriages during a series of years of the same number, but beginning one year earlier; for, although in the earlier years births will be included that are the fruit of marriages solemnised prior to the commencement of the period, yet there will be omitted the children born subsequently to the period of parents married within the given time. This method probably gives results approximately true:—

Year.Marriages.Legitimate Births.Proportion of Births to every Marriage solemnised in the Preceding Year.
    Sums and proportion (five years)19,89787,9674.42

For the last five years the average number of births per marriage has been 4.42, the number falling during the period from 4.64 in 1891 to 4.24 in 1895. In the Australian Colonies a similar decrease is noticeable. It has been remarked that in all the Australian Colonies, except Tasmania, and possibly New South Wales, the average number of children to a marriage tends to decrease. In Victoria the number for the year 1880 was 4.99, but fell to 4.07 in 1892. In New South Wales the figures are 5.0 for 1880, and a mean of 4.70 for the period 1890–92.

The following statement of the average number of children to a marriage in various European countries is taken from the Victorian Year-book for 1894:—

 Children to each Marriage.

The excess per cent. of births over deaths in each of the Australasian Colonies for a mean of ten years ending with 1894, is stated in the Victorian Year-book as under:—

Excess per Cent. of Births over Deaths.
New Zealand208
South Australia170
New South Wales156
Western Australia116

For the year 1894 New Zealand again occupies the first place.


Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation entitling them to enjoy all the rights and privileges that a natural born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit within this colony. Fifty-seven aliens were naturalised in 1895.

As the diversity of nationalities is considerable, the following statement is given of the number belonging to each:—

Number of Aliens naturalised in 1895.
Natives of
China 17
German Empire 15
Sweden and Norway 9
Syria 6
Denmark 4
Turkey 1
Austria 1

The number of natives of each country naturalised during the last fourteen years is shown hereunder:—

Natives of
Sweden and Norway670
United States of America13
Other countries60

By section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1882,” repealed and re-enacted by section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1892,” it is provided that when the father, or mother being a widow, has obtained naturalisation in the colony, every child who during infancy has become resident with them in New Zealand shall be deemed to be naturalised and shall have the rights and privileges of a natural-born subject.


The number of marriages in 1895 was 4,110, a decrease of 68 on the number in 1894. The marriage-rate was 5.94 per 1,000 persons living, being lower than the rates for the years from 1890 to 1894 inclusive, but the same as the rates for 1889. New Zealand has not, so far, regained the position she held in 1874, when the figures for the Australasian Colonies stood as follow:—

Marriage-rates in 1874.
New Zealand8.81 per 1,000 of mean population.
Queensland8.62 per 1,000 of mean population.
South Australia800 per 1,000 of mean population.
New South Wales7.70 per 1,000 of mean population.
Western Australia6.96 per 1,000 of mean population.
Tasmania6.83 per 1,000 of mean population.
Victoria6.33 per 1,000 of mean population.

The respective rates for the Australasian Colonies for the last ten years are shown in the following table:—

Marriages per 1,000 of the Population.
Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

Taking this range of years, the marriage-rate is shown to be less in New Zealand than in the colonies of Australia, and it is also lower than in most European countries.

Marriages in every 1,000 of the Population.
German Empire,18947.9
England and Wales,18947.5

The greatest number of marriages in 1895 occurred in the autumn quarter, ending the 30th June, and the smallest number in the winter quarter, ending the 30th September.

Of the marriages solemnised in 1895, 3,673 were between bachelors and spinsters, 170 between bachelors and widows, 176 between widowers and spinsters, and 91 between widowers and widows. Divorced men and women have been classified as bachelors or spinsters: 8 divorced men and 10 divorced women were married during the year.

The proportion of each class of marriages all the marriages varies but little from year to year, as shown by the figures for 1888 and 1895.

Proportion per 100 Marriages.
    Marriages between1888.1895.
Bachelors and spinsters86.0489.37
Bachelors and widows4.754.14
Widowers and spinsters6.474.28
Widowers and widows2.742.21

The number given above does not include marriages where both parties are of the aboriginal native race, such persons being exempted from the necessity of complying with the provisions of the Marriage Act, although at liberty to take advantage thereof. Only 6 marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1895 in terms of the Act.

Of the marriages in the past year, 22.74 per cent. were solemnised by ministers of the Church of England, 24.32 per cent. by ministers of the Presbyterian Churches, 15.69 per cent. by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches, 11.19 per cent. by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church, 7.29 per cent. by ministers of other denominations, and 18.77 per cent. by Registrars.

The following shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the principal denominations in the past seven years, and the percentages of these denominations to the total population:—

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1891.
Church of England23.1121.6622.1820.7823.0622.8622.7440.51
Wesleyans and other Methodists15.0815.5814.7214.8216.1315.9915.6910.14
Roman Catholics10.4010.4510.079.748.9910.0811.1913.96
Other denominations5.235.275.676.346.666.657.29 12.77
By Registrars19.4319.4520.1318.9418.5819.1218.77

It will be observed that the proportions of marriages by ministers of the Presbyterian and Wesleyan Churches are greater than the percentages of these denominations to the total population. Clearly, therefore, among the persons married by them are included members of other religious bodies, while many of those married before Registrars must be nominally members of the Church of England. As all marriages between members of the Roman Catholic Church are, by requirement of that church, solemnised by the ministers thereof, it appears that fewer marriages in proportion to their numbers occur among Roman Catholics than among members of other bodies. The percentage of marriages (11.19) solemnised by the Roman Catholic clergy in 1895, although higher than in any one of the years 1891–94, was yet much below the proportion borne by Roman Catholics to the total population—viz., 13.95 at the census of 1886, and 13.96 in 1891. Marriages by Registrars, which increased from 10.50 per cent. in 1875 to 23.22 per cent. of the total in 1887, were 18.77 per cent. in 1895.

Of the men married in 1895, 39, or 9.48 in every 1,000, and of the women 39 (the same number), signed the register by marks.

The illiteracy of the people, as measured by the proportion of married persons who affix marks instead of signatures to the marriage register, has greatly decreased of late, having fallen since 1881 from 32.04 per 1,000 among men to 9.48 per 1,000, and from 57.98 per 1,000 to 9.48 per 1,000 among women. This is shown in a very striking manner by the following table:—

Persons in every 1,000 Married who signed by Mark.
Church of England16.5927.159.3312.006.084.863.213.21
Wesleyan and other Methodists32.4141.796.3314.7815.2010.144.654.65
Roman Catholics117.78133.3346.4565.5735.2642.8217.3928.26
Other denominations10.3620.7211.4922.9915.000.0010.0010.00
By Registrars39.2293.5135.9862.0329.7740.6022.0220.73
Total marriages32.0457.9819.2128.9616.3319.239.489.48

The proportion of illiterates in 1895 was greatest, at least of the males, among those married before Registrars, but it must be remembered that, as previously stated, a large proportion of the persons married before Registrars are nominally members of the Church of England. Previously the proportion was largest among Roman Catholics; but since 1881 it has, as shown by the table, most remarkably decreased.

Of the persons married in 1895, 86 bridegrooms and 787 brides were under 21 years of age—one of the bridegrooms was between 17 and 18 years of age, and 11 between 18 and 19. Of the brides, 4 were under 15 years, 2 were between 15 and 16, and 22 between 16 and 17 years of age. The proportion of men married is greatest at the ages of 25 to 30, and of women at from 21 to 25 years.

The following are the proportions of men and women married at each age-period to every 100 marriages in the years 1888 and 1895:—

Under 21 years1.8524.302.0919.15
21 and under 2528.1742.0524.1440.14
25 and under 3033.8121.1537.8126.08
30 and under 4026.028.9826.4011.34
40 and under 506.692.746.182.58
50 and under 602.520.612.550.49
60 and under 700.880.140.660.22
70 and upwards0.060.030.17..

Registrars of Marriages are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage of minors without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians, if there be any in the colony. If a declaration be made in any case that there is no parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen days following the date on which the notice of intended marriage is given.

A marriage may not be solemnised except after the delivery to the minister or Registrar who officiates of a certificate issued by a Registrar authorising such marriage, and if any persons knowingly and wilfully intermarry without such certificate the marriage is null and void; and no clergyman or minister of any denomination is empowered to solemnise marriages until his name has been placed on the Registrar-General's list of officiating ministers for the year.

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

Although in New Zealand the age at which girls may legally marry is as above; nevertheless, by the criminal law, to unlawfully carnally know a girl under the age of 16 years is now a punishable offence. The age of consent was raised from 15 to 16 by statute passed this year (1896).

The ages at which persons can contract binding marriage in the United States are 21 for males and 18 for females, according to the “Annual Statistician” (McCarty, San Francisco). In France and Belgium the ages are 18 and 15 respectively; in Germany, 18 and 14; in Austria, 14 and 14; and in Russia, 18 and 16.

The average age of the men married in this colony in 1895 was 29.90 years, and of the women, 25.05 years. In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (in the year 1894) 28.41 years for men, and 26.15 years for women. Thus the average age at marriage in the colony is higher for men, but lower for women, than the age in England.

The proportion of bridegrooms under 21 is much greater in England than in New Zealand; but the proportion of brides under 21 is greater in the colony.

In England, in 1894, of every 1,000 bridegrooms whose ages were stated, 55 were under 21 years of age, and of every 1,000 brides 181 were under 21 years of age. In New Zealand, in 1895, the proportions were 21 bridegrooms and 191 brides in every 1,000 married. While in New Zealand the proportion of bridegrooms under 21 years of age fluctuates within narrow limits, the proportion of brides under 21 years of age is steadily decreasing: this is shown by the following proportions for each sex under 21 years of age in every 100 married:—

Year.Bridegrooms under 21 in every 100.Brides under 21 in every 100.


The deaths in 1895 numbered 6,863, being equivalent to a rate of 9.91 in every 1,000 persons living. This is lower than the rate in 1894 (10.19) and in the three preceding years, but higher than the rate in 1890, which was 9.66 per 1,000 persons.

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with those in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, and shows how healthful is the climate of the colony. The following table gives the death-rates for a series of years in the several countries named:—

* Excluding the Northern Territory.
New Zealand10.5410.299.439.449.6610.3510.0610.2310.199.91
New South Wales14.8913.1513.5413.4212.9014.2413.2213.2512.3011.79
South Australia*13.3812.7712.5211.4912.4013.2611.3813.4211.6411.25
Western Australia21.5616.8315.9114.1911.2616.9616.6315.2714.0017.32
German Empire26.224.223.823.824.423.424.124.622.3..

A comparison of the above rates appears to place the Australasian Colonies as a whole in the foremost rank for salubrity of climate and healthiness of people, New Zealand standing well in front of the rest; but it must be admitted that the ratio of all deaths to the 1,000 of population living in the middle of the year, although a good test of the sanitary condition of any one country year by year, and also useful for comparing the healthfulness of such countries as contain the same or nearly the same proportionate numbers of persons living at each age-period of life, cannot be regarded as a perfectly fair index when new countries are compared with old, or even when new countries are compared one with another, should the proportions living at the several age-periods vary considerably.

The truest rates of mortality are obtained by ascertaining the proportion of deaths at each age-period to the numbers living at those ages.

Deaths and Death-rates of Four Principal Cities and their Suburbs.

In previous annual reports on the vital statistics of the four chief towns the central boroughs alone were dealt with, particulars respecting the suburbs not having been obtained. But this omission was held to be a grave defect, as the suburban death-rate may differ much from the death-rate at the centre. Steps were therefore taken early in 1895 to collect statistics of the suburban boroughs as well as of the four chief cities. As regards Auckland and Christchurch, the whole of the area usually recognised as suburban has not yet been brought under municipal government, and the statistics given below do not deal with such portions as still remain in road districts. The omission, however, is not very important, for there are in either case quite enough suburbs included within borough boundaries to give a fair idea of the death-rate of greater Auckland and greater Christchurch. As further boroughs are formed the vital statistics will be made to include them.

The total number of deaths registered in 1895 as occurring in the four chief towns, with their suburban boroughs, was 1,962—viz., 1,368 in the cities and 594 in the suburbs.

By including the suburbs the death-rate for the year is lowered at each of the four centres, the difference being considerable in Auckland (1.57) and in Dunedin (1.06). The rates for the year are,—

 Death-rate per 1,000 of Population.
Auckland City14.87 
„ and five suburban boroughs 13.30
Wellington City13.07 
„ and three suburban boroughs 12.50
Christchurch City10.83 
„ and four suburban boroughs 10.54
Dunedin City10.21 
„ and eight suburban boroughs 9.15

The death-rate is thus shown to be highest in Auckland and lowest in Dunedin. Wellington and Christchurch taking second and third places respectively. The death-rate for the colony is 9.91 per 1,000 of mean population. The four centres might each be expected to show a higher average than this, and in fact the excess is considerable both at Auckland and at Wellington, and is found, though in smaller measure, at Christchurch; but at Dunedin, owing to the slight mortality in the suburbs, the average falls decidedly short of the general rate for the colony.

If the number of deaths of infants under one year be excluded, the mortality among the rest of the population would be in the following ratio to the 1,000 living for the years 1894 and 1895:—

Auckland (including suburbs)10.509.77
Wellington     ”    8.989.13
Christchurch     ”    7.857.98
Dunedin     ”    8.808.03

As in 1894, Dunedin now takes the third, and Christchurch the last place.

The degree of infantile mortality may be exhibited in the proportion of deaths of children under one year of age to every 100 births. For 1895 the proportions at the chief centres are,—

Auckland (including suburbs)14.14
Wellington     ”   12.43
Christchurch     ”   11.69
Dunedin     ”    6.05

Thus the proportion at Dunedin is considerably less than half that found at Auckland. Again, the percentage of deaths of children under 5 to the total number of deaths was, in Auckland, 34.62; in Wellington, 38.11; in Christchurch, 31.70; in Dunedin, only 19.60. The total of deaths under 5 is 615, or 31.35 per cent. of all deaths, as against 575 and 29.28 for 1894. The deaths of persons of 65 and upwards numbered 345 last year; in 1894 they were 377.

Excluding suburbs, and dealing only with the deaths in the four cities or central boroughs, the deaths and death-rates for three years are,—

Cities (excluding Suburbs).Deaths, 1893.Deaths, 1894.Deaths, 1895.
No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.

Here the rate at Auckland shows a decrease as compared with the previous year, but an increase as compared with 1893. The rates at Wellington and Christchurch are higher than in 1894, but lower than in 1893; while the Dunedin rate is seen to have fallen in 1894, and to have still further declined last year.

Omitting the deaths of infants under one year, and calculating the rate on the population of one year of age and upwards, Dunedin takes precedence of Christchurch.

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population, excluding Infants (under One Year of Age).
Auckland (excluding suburbs)9.6611.5311.02
Wellington     ”    10.269.409.84
Christchurch     ”    9.248.698.70
Dunedin     ”    10.189.669.67

Subjoined is a table showing the rates of infant mortality in the four cities for each of the past five years, together with the mean rates for the period. In respect of both last year's rate and the mean rate, Auckland stands first and Dunedin fourth. For 1895 Wellington has a higher rate than Christchurch, but the mean rate at Christchurch is the greater of the two.

 Deaths of Children under One Year to every 100 Births.
1891.1892.1893.1894.1895.Mean of Five Years.
Auckland (excluding suburbs)13.3614.2812.6415.1214.8614.05
Wellington     ”    12.1411.5012.269.4912.4011.56
Christchurch     ”    12.7116.8118.609.0011.1413.65
Dunedin     ”    9.879.5111.168.739.479.75

A comparison of the death-rates of the chief towns of New Zealand for 1895 with those of Australian capitals shows the rates in this colony to be generally lower:—

        Principal Cities.Deaths per 1,000 of Population. 1895.
Perth (including suburbs)26.05
Hobart     ”    15.10
Melbourne     ”    15.97
Sydney     ”    13.18
Adelaide     ”    14.86
Brisbane (inc. suburbs), 189412.47
Auckland     ”    13.30
Wellington     ”    12.50
Christchurch     ”    10.54
Dunedin     ”    9.15
Vital Statistics of Australasian Capitals, 1895.
Chief Cities (including Suburbs).Mean Population.Births.Deaths.Excess of Births over Deaths.
Total Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.Total Number.Rate per 1,000 of Population.
Brisbane (1894)94,0003,26134.691,17212.472,089

Deaths in the Colony at Various Age-periods.

Of the persons who died in 1895, 357 men and 211 women were at or over 75 years of age. Of these, 188 men and 101 women were under 80 years of age, 93 men and 58 women between 80 and 85, 51 men and 37 women from 85 to under 90, 19 men and 10 women from 90 to 95, 5 men and 5 women between 95 and 100 years. There was, besides, one death of a male stated to have been 102 years of age.

The combined ages of all the males who died amounted to 143,365 years, and of the females to 87,411 years, giving an average age at death of 36.21 years for the males and 30.17 years for the females.

The average age at death of persons of either sex, in each of the past five years, was as follows:—

189033.81 years28.62 years.
189133.11     ”    29.25     ”    
189232.97     ”    28.95     ”    
189331.86     ”    27.79     ”    
189436.64     ”    31.59     ”    
189536.21     ”    30.17     ”    

It will be observed that the average age fell in 1893, and rose again in 1894 with almost startling suddenness. But on comparing the figures for the two years it is found that in 1893 the measles epidemic carried off 525 persons, of whom 382 were children under 5 years of age. In 1894 there were no more than 14 deaths from measles (8 under 5), and the total number of deaths of children under 5 fell in consequence from 2,371 to 2,003. At the same time the deaths at 50 years and upwards increased from 2,091 to 2,519.

More males than females are born annually, and more male than female infants die in proportion to the number of each sex born. In 1895 the number of male children born was 9,493, and the number of deaths of male infants under one year of age was 893, being at the rate of 94 in every 1,000 born; the number of females born was 9,053, and the number that died under one year of age was 744, being in the proportion of 82 in every 1,000 born.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1895, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.
Number of Deaths.
1895 Male323172183215893
Deaths to the 1,000 Births.
1895 Male34.0218.1219.2822.6594.07

It will be seen from these figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are far greater in favour of female than of male infants. Thus, during the year 1895 there were—

100 deaths of males to 78 deaths of females under 1 month of age;
100 ”    94 ”    from 1 to 3 months of age;
100 ”    80 ”    from 3 to 6 months of age;
100 ”    86 ”    from 6 to 12 months of age;
100 ”    83 ”    under 12 months of age.

The rates of infantile mortality—that is, the proportion the deaths of children under one year of age bear to the births—are higher in the Australian Colonies than in New Zealand. The following table gives the rate in the several colonies named for each of the ten years 1883–92:—

Number of Deaths of Children under One year of Age to every 100 Births.
Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

Infantile mortality is as a rule greatest in large towns, where the population is dense and the sanitary conditions are less favourable than in country districts. The absence in New Zealand of any such large centres of population as are found in some of the Australian Colonies may partially account for the lower rates of infantile mortality in this colony.

Death-rates of Married Men and Orphanhood of Children.

“The Registration of Births and Deaths Act Amendment Act, 1882,” requires that on the registration of the death of any person the age of each living child of the deceased shall be entered in the register. The particulars so recorded for several years have been tabulated, and the detailed results are shown in the two tables on pages 58 and 59 of the “Statistics of New Zealand, 1895.” One of those tables deals with the year 1895 only; the other gives the aggregate results for the five years 1891 to 1895 inclusive. They show the total number of men who died at each year of age from 20 to 65, the number of married men (husbands and widowers) stated in the registers to have died childless, the number who died leaving children, and the number and ages of the children so left.

From the first of these tables it is found that during 1895 there died 1,669 men between the ages of 20 and 65, of whom 906 were married; 769 married men left children at their deaths, while 137 are stated to have been childless. The proportions of married men and bachelors in every 100 males dying were 54.28 and 45.72 respectively. The proportions at the census of 1891 for the total number living at the above ages were: Married men, 56.81 per cent.; bachelors, 42.92 per cent.; and unspecified, 0.27 per cent. The difference here shown would seem to prove that the death-rate amongst married men at the ages under review is lighter than amongst bachelors; but it must be borne in mind that when registering a death the informant is not always in possession of full particulars as to the conjugal condition of the deceased, and that therefore the number of married men as shown in the tables may be somewhat short of the actual fact.

Assuming the ratio of married men at 20 to 65 to the total male population at those ages to be the same in 1895 as at the census of 1891, the death-rate among married men is found to be 9.15 per 1,000 living, whereas the rate for all men at the same age-period was in 1895 9.45 per 1,000.

Total Number of Males living at each Age period.Total Number of Male Deaths.Death-rate per 1,000 living.Estimated Number of Married Men (and Widowers) living.Number of Deaths of Married Men.Death-rate per 1,000 living.

The death-rate for married men at the same age-period found to obtain in 1894 was 9.68.

The total number of children left by the 906 married men who died in 1895 was 3,822. Of these, 1,633 were under 15 years of age, 814 between 15 and 21, and 1,186 over 21, leaving 189 about whom no information could be obtained. Thus the average number of children of all ages left by each married man dying between 20 and 65 is 4.22, or 1.80 under 15, 0.90 between 15 and 21, 1.31 over 21 years of age, and 0.21 of unspecified age. Discarding the number (137) of fathers said to have died childless, the average number of children left by each of the others is 4.97 of all ages—2.12 under 15, 1.06 between 15 and 21, 1.54 over 21, and 0.25 of unspecified age. Very similar results are obtained if the figures for the five years 1891–95 be used instead of those for 1895 only.

Ages.Estimated Number of Husbands and Widowers living in 1895.Total Number of Male Deaths.Number of Married Men who died.Number and Ages of Children left.
Childless.Leaving Children.Under 15.15 to 21.21 and upwards.Unspecified.Total.

An important fact brought out by the statistics quoted above is that every year upwards of 1,500 children under 15 years of age are left fatherless—how many without adequate means of living it is not possible to say.

Causes of Death.

The deaths registered during the last five years, when distributed among the several classes according to their assigned causes, give the rates shown hereunder:—

Causes of Death.Rate per 10,000 living.
Zymotic diseases17.3815.6717.9514.1211.24
Parasitic diseases0.210.420.360.320.36
Dietetic diseases0.981.311.070.630.81
Constitutional diseases16.8917.6117.5619.4218.95
Developmental diseases7.437.837.658.047.12
Local diseases47.4845.1646.4045.2248.60
Ill-defined and not-specified causes5.084.343.093.843.42
          All causes103.48100.58102.32101.8599.12

The following statement gives the number of deaths for 1895 according to the various classes of disease, the proportion of deaths in each class and order to the total number of deaths, and the proportion of deaths in each class and order per 10,000 living in 1895:—

Causes of Death.Number of Deaths.Proportion to Total Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1895.Proportion per 10,000 living, 1894.
Class I. Specific febrile or zymotic diseases,—   Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Order 1. Miasmatic diseases2322264585.857.806.686.629.70
    ”    2. Diarrhœal diseases1181142322.983.933.393.353.05
    ”    3. Malarial diseases2460.
    ”    4. Zoogenous diseases0.02
    ”    5. Venereal diseases1410240.350.350.340.340.41
    ”    6. Septic diseases1345580.331.550.850.840.88
                Total Class I.3793997789.5613.7711.3411.2414.12
Class II. Parasitic diseases1312250.330.410.360.360.32
Class III. Dietetic diseases3224560.810.830.820.810.63
Class IV. Constitutional diseases6896231,31217.3721.5019.1218.9519.42
Class V. Developmental diseases2792144937.037.397.187.128.04
Class VI. Local diseases,—        
        Order 1. Diseases of nervous system43232775910.8911.2911.0610.979.7
        ”    2. Diseases of organs of special sense7180.
        ”    3. Diseases of circulatory system41324065310.418.289.529.438.26
        ”    4. Diseases of respiratory system56538995414.2413.4313.9113.7812.63
        ”    5. Diseases of digestive system3422545968.628.778.698.618.88
        ”    6. Diseases of lymphatic system1310230.330.340.330.330.24
        ”    7. Diseases of urinary system161702314.062.423.373.343.09
        ”    8. Diseases of reproductive system,—        
            (a.) Of organs of generation32321.110.460.460.50
            (b.) Of parturition69692.381.010.991.07
    ”    9. Diseases of locomotive system97160.
    ”    10. Diseases of integumentary system1113240.280.450.340.340.27
                Total Class VI.1,9531,4123,36549.2448.7449.0348.6045.22
Class VII. Violence,—        
        Order 1. Accident or negligence39810550310.033.637.337.279.09
        ”    2. Homicide84120.
        ”    3. Suicide729811.820.311.191.171.07
        ”    4. Execution110.030.010.01
                Total Class VII.47811959712.054.118.708.6210.26
Class VIII. Ill-defined and not-specified causes143942373.613.253.453.423.84
Grand totals3,9602,8976,863100.00100.00100.0099.12101.85

The following table exhibits the number of deaths in 1895 from each specific disease:—

Class.Causes of Death.Males.Females.Total.
Orders and Diseases.
Epidemic rose-rash, rubeola.........
Scarlet fever, scarlatina246
Relapsing fever.........
Cerebro-spinal fever.........
Simple and ill-defined fever325
Enteric fever, typhoid504494
Other miasmatic diseases.........
          Total Order 1232226458
      ORDER 2.—Diarrhœal.   
Simple cholera101020
          Total Order 2118114232
      ORDER 3.—Malarial.   
Remittent fever...22
          Total Order 3246
      ORDER 4.—Zoogenous.   
Splenic fever.........
Cow-pox and other effects of vaccination.........
          Total Order 4.........
      ORDER 5.—Venereal.   
Gonorrhœa, stricture of urethra, ulcer of groin415
          Total Order 5141024
      ORDER 6.—Septic.   
Pyæmia, septicæmia6713
Puerperal fever, pyæmia, septicaemia...3232
          Total Order 6134558
          Total Class I.379399778
Other diseases from vegetable parasites.........
Hydatid disease7613
Other diseases from animal parasites.........
          Total Class II.131225
III.—DIETETIC DISEASES.Starvation.........
Want of breast-milk141630
Intemperance—Chronic alcoholism17623
Delirium tremens112
Other dietetic diseases...11
          Total Class III.322456
Tabes mesenterica, tubercular peritonitis273562
Tubercular meningitis, acute hydrocephalus283462
Other forms of tuberculosis, scrofula513384
Purpura, hæmorrhagic diathesis437
Anæmia, chlorosis, leucocythæmia151429
Diabetes mellitus232346
Other constitutional diseases5813
          Total Class IV.6896231,312
V.—DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES.Premature birth8895183
Spina bifida235
Imperforate anus...11
Cleft palate, hare-lip...33
Other congenital defects13316
Old age14191232
          Total Class V.279214493
VI.—LOCAL DISEASES      ORDER 1.—Diseases of Nervous System.   
Inflammation of the brain or its membranes413374
Cerebro-spinal meningitis935
Softening of brain10818
Hemiplegia, brain paralysis161733
Paralysis (undescribed)372562
Paralysis agitans1...1
Insanity, general paralysis of insane471461
Laryngismus stridulus123
Idiopathic tetanus628
Paraplegia, diseases of spinal cord161026
Locomotor ataxia13215
Other diseases of nervous system313263
          Total Order 1432327759
      ORDER 2.—Diseases of Organs of Special Sense. Otitis, otorrhœa718
Epistaxis, and diseases of nose.........
Ophthalmia, and diseases of eye.........
          Total Order 2718
      ORDER 3.—Diseases of Circulatory System.   
Endocarditis, valvular disease272144416
Hypertrophy of heart1...1
Fatty degeneration of heart302454
Angina pectoris639
Senile gangrene549
Embolism, thrombosis9615
Varicose veins, piles.........
Other diseases of circulatory system9413
          Total Order 3413240653
      ORDER 4.—Diseases of Respiratory System.   
Other diseases of larynx and trachea...22
Asthma, emphysema18725
Other diseases of respiratory system433679
          Total Order 4565389954
Stomatitis, cancrum oris336
Sore throat, quinsy101020
Diseases of stomach, gastritis363975
Ulceration, perforation, of intestine10212
Ilcus, obstruction of intestine191332
Stricture or strangulation of intestine12 
Intussusception of intestine628
Cirrhosis of liver39645
Other diseases of liver, hepatitis, jaundice472673
Other diseases of digestive system5510
          Total Order 5342254596
      ORDER 6.—Diseases of Lymphatic System and Ductless Glands.   
Diseases of lymphatic system224
Diseases of spleen1...1
Addison's disease639
          Total Order 6131023
      ORDER 7.—Diseases of Urinary System   
Acute nephritis161228
Bright's disease7444118
Suppression of urine2...2
Diseases of bladder and prostate38240
Other diseases of urinary system (kidney diseases undescribed)11819
          Total Order 716170231
      ORDER 8.—Diseases of Reproductive System.   
(a.) Diseases of organs of generation,—   
Ovarian disease...1010
Diseases of uterus and vagina...1818
Disorders of menstruation...22
Pelvic abscess...22
Perineal abscess.........
Diseases of testes, penis, scrotum, &c..........
(b.) Diseases of parturition,—   
Abortion, miscarriage...66
Puerperal mania...33
Puerperal metritis.........
Puerperal convulsions...1414
Placenta prævia (flooding)...1818
Phlegmasia dolens...22
Other accidents of childbirth...2626
          Total Order 8...101101
      ORDER 9.—Diseases of Organs of Locomotion.   
Caries, necrosis213
Arthritis, ostitis235
Other diseases of organs of locomotion538
          Total Order 99716
      ORDER 10. — Diseases of Integumentary System.   
Phlegmon, cellulitis213
Ulcer, bed-sore213
Other diseases of integumentary system2...2
          Total Order 10111324
          Total Class VI.1,9531,4123,365
VII.—VIOLENCE.      ORDER 1.— Accident or Negligence.   
Fractures, contusions15318171
Gunshot wounds25126
Cut, stab527
Burn, scald241943
          Total Order 1398105503
      ORDER 2.—Homicide.   
Murder, manslaughter8412
Wounds in battle.........
          Total Order 28412
      ORDER 3.—Suicide.   
Gunshot wounds16...16
Cut, stab718
          Total Order 372981
      ORDER 4.—Execution.   
          Total Class VII.478119597
Marasmus, &c.13093223
Sudden (cause unascertained).........
Other ill-defined and not-specified causes11...11
          Total Class VIII14394237
          General totals3,9662,8976,863

The deaths in 1895 from specific febrile or zymotic diseases amounted to 778, a proportion of 112 in every 100,000 persons living, and a decrease of 181 on the number of deaths in 1894 from the same causes.

The following are the diseases in this class that have caused the greatest mortality during the past ten years:—

* Including rubeola (14).
Scarlet fever and scarlatina718211931244156
Diarrhœal diseases455475214355290319329193207232
Enteric or typhoid fever1231581301181451191349711594
Puerperal fever33243925192729243832

From smallpox there were no deaths. The total vaccinations registered fell from 9,322 to 8,523, and the proportion of successful vaccinations of children under fourteen years of age to the total of births, from 50.31 to 44.34. The number of children under one year of age successfully vaccinated, and the proportion to the total number of births, are given for 1895 and the eight preceding Years:—

Provincial Districts.Total Vaccinations registered.Number of Births registered.Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of Children under 1 Year of Age to Total Births. Per Cent.Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of Children under 14 Years of Age to Total Births. Per Cent.
Hawke's Bay4731,09226.6543.32
Westland 281  
        Chatham Islands..3....
                Totals, 18953,52318,54631.7244.34
                Totals, 18949,32218,52832.4250.31
Totals, 18937,41218,18728.0940.75
Totals, 18928,21617,87632.4145.96
Totals, 18919,28418,27338.8150.81
Totals, 18909,35718,27842.6651.19
Totals, 188911,91318,45748.3764.55
Totals, 188812,78218,90251.1067.62
Totals, 188712,91919,13553.7967.52

The figures for last year show badly when compared with those for the previous year, 1894, and are in themselves unsatisfactory, for they go to prove that only one child in every three born is successfully vaccinated, which is a serious matter enough when the possibility of an epidemic of smallpox is taken into consideration.

In England, after three years practical immunity from smallpox, the deaths rose in 1892 to 431, or 15 per million persons living. In 1893 there was a further rise to 1,457, or a rate of 49 per million living; but in 1894 the rate fell to 820, or 27 per million. The Registrar-General remarks that “of the 820 persons whose deaths were recorded in 1894 only 153, or 19 per cent., were described as having been vaccinated; 176, or 21 per cent., were returned as not vaccinated; and with respect to the remaining 60 per cent. no statement as to vaccination appeared in the certificates. In addition to the above, 108 deaths were attributed to chicken-pox, and 50 deaths to ‘effects of vaccination.’ Thus, in the year 1894 the total number of deaths either certainly or possibly caused by variola, and of deaths alleged to have been caused by the means taken to prevent that disease, was 978, or 33 per million persons living.” A system, described as “moderate compulsion,” has been recommended in England, under which persons who had been fined £1, or had been fined in two penalties of any amount, for neglecting to have their children vaccinated would be exempted from any further proceedings.

Measles, which was epidemic in 1893, caused only 14 deaths in 1894, and none in 1895. The mortality from diphtheria, whooping-cough, and influenza fell during 1895, but from diarrhœal diseases the deaths increased from 207 to 232. The deaths from influenza, though only 125 against 233 in 1894, show this disease to be contributing largely to the mortality, and for six years the deaths number 888 altogether. Deaths from typhoid fever decreased from 115 in 1894 to 94 in 1895, the rate for the last year being 1-36 per 10,000 persons living against 1.69 in the previous year.

The following table showing the proportions for the several Australasian Colonies for the years 1887-92 is taken from the Victorian Year-book:—

Deaths from Typhoid Fever, 1887-92, per 10,000 Persons living.
New South Wales4.324.265.352.822.352.81
South Australia4.923.844.373.132.522.70
Western Australia3.121.651.160.422.349.83
New Zealand2.822.301.982.401.892.20

There were 25 deaths from parasitic diseases, the proportion per 10,000 living being 0.36. Seven men and six women died from hydatids.

The deaths from constitutional diseases in 1895 numbered 1,312, or 18.95 per 10,000 of population. The most fatal diseases in this class were phthisis and cancer.

From phthisis there are more deaths than from any other cause. The number of deaths was 553 in 1895—295 males and 258 females —against 576—315 males and 261 females—in 1894. The deaths in 1895 were in the proportion of 7.99 in every 10,000 persons living. The rate among males was higher—8.04 per 10,000 persons living— than among females, 7.92 per 10,000.

The death-rate from phthisis in New Zealand is the lowest for the Australasian Colonies, as will be seen from the figures quoted below:—

Death-rates from Phthisis per 10,000 Persons living.
New South Wales9.349.218.62
South Australia9.2910.369.41
Western Australia8.979.568.40
New Zealand8.387.868.16

In all the Australasian Colonies the rate is materially increased by the deaths of persons who have come out either already suffering from phthisis or predisposed thereto. There is no reason for believing that this circumstance has more effect on the death-rate in Australia than in New Zealand; so that the lower rate obtaining in this colony may be taken as proof of the superiority of its climate for withstanding consumptive tendencies.

The death-rate of England and Wales from phthisis is far higher than that of New Zealand. In 1894 it stood at 13.85 per 10,000. The Registrar-General of England remarks in his report that “up to the year 1888 the mortality from phthisis had shown a steady decline for many years, but in 1889, 1890, and 1891 it rose somewhat. In 1892 and 1893, however, the rate fell again to 1,468 in a million, and again in 1894 to 1,385 per million, which is the lowest rate on record.”

Phthisis is now known to be and is treated as an infectious preventive disease caused by the bacillus tuberculosis, which is communicable in many ways. Certain constitutions are far more predisposed than others to receive this bacillus, especially under conditions of life unfavourable to robust health, when a nidus is formed for the development of the bacillus.

Legislative action has been recommended to safeguard the life and health of the people from tubercle, and the complete isolation of consumptive patients, with the disinfecting of their sputa, and of everything that has been in contact with them, is suggested from time to time as a necessary measure.

A table is given, as in previous years, to show the ages, with the length of residence in the colony, of persons who died from phthisis in 1895:—

Deaths from Phthisis, 1895.
Length of Residence in the Colony.Age at Death.
Under 5 Years.5 to 10.10 to 15.15 to 25.25 to 35.35 to 45.45 to 55.55 to 65.65 to 75.75 and upwards.Not specified.Total.
Under 1 month........................
1 to 6 months......231............
6 to 12 months......2221..........
1 to 2 years......11..............
2 to 3 years......12..1........4
3 to 4 years......1211...... 5
4 to 5 years..........1..........1
5 to 10 years........2..1........3
10 to 15 years......29631......21
15 to 20 years......467831....29
20 to 25 years......346103......26
25 years and upwards........479198....47
Not known......2785431131
Born in colony535464464........113
Under 1 month........................
1 to 6 months......2..............2
6 to 12 months........................
1 to 2 years......1..............1
2 to 3 years....111............3
3 to 4 years........................
4 to 5 years........................
5 to 10 years......3221........8
10 to 15 years......3681........18
15 to 20 years......33111411..24
20 to 25 years......484212....21
25 years and upwards........6810911..35
Not known..........2..........2
Born in colony..3881391021......144
            Totals of both sexes56141611509160461631553

From other forms of tuberculosis the deaths in 1895 were 208, or 3.00 per 10,000 of population.

Cancer was returned as the cause of 383 deaths in 1895, showing a decrease of 25 on the number for the previous year. In 1894. the deaths stated were 408; in 1893, 332; in 1892, 307; in 1891, 295; in 1890, the same number; and in 1889, 260. The death-rates for England and New Zealand, given below, would lead to the belief that there has been of late years a most serious increase in mortality from this cause.

Deaths from Cancer in every 10,000 Persons living.
Year.New Zealand.England.

It has been held, however, that the apparent increase in cancer is the result of more careful definition of the causes of death, and of improved diagnosis. To this the Registrar-General of England replies: “In the face of the constant and great growth of mortality under the head of cancer, and the expressed belief of medical practitioners especially engaged in dealing with this class of diseases that they are becoming more and more common, it seems scarcely possible to maintain the optimistic view that the whole of the apparent increase can be thus explained; and it must be admitted as at any rate highly probable that a real increase is taking place in the frequency of these malignant affections.” But a careful investigation made by Mr. George King (Honorary Secretary, Institute of Actuaries), and Dr. Nensholme leads to conclusions differing from the above, and it is now, on the contrary, argued that there has been no increase of cancer whatever, as will be seen by the following extract from the “Proceedings of the Royal Society, London”:—

The statistics for Frankfort-on-the-Main enable us to classify cancer in accordance with the part of the body primarily affected. We have therefore classified the returns into two groups, according as the cancer is “accessible” or easy of diagnosis, and “inaccessible” or difficult of diagnosis. The results of this classification show that in those parts of the body in which cancer is easily accessible and detected there has been no increase in cancer mortality between 1860 and 1889. It is true that the majority of the deaths from “accessible” cancer are among women—the deaths from “accessible” cancer among men at Frank-fort-on-the-Main being too few to be, when considered alone, trustworthy; but we know of no reason for supposing that, while female cancer of “accessible” parts has remained stationary, male and female cancer of the other parts of the body has really increased.

The general conclusions arrived at are these:—

  1. Males and females suffer equally from cancer in those parts of the body common to man and woman, the greater prevalence of cancer among females being due entirely to cancer of the sexual organs.

  2. The apparent increase in cancer is confined to what we have called inaccessible cancer. This is shown (a) by the Frankfort figures, (b) by the fact that the difference between the rates for males and females respectively is approximately constant, and does not progressively increase with the apparent increase in cancer in each of the sexes, and (c) because the apparent increase in cancer among the well-to-do assured lives, who are presumably attended by medical men of more than average skill, is not so great as among the general population.

  3. The supposed increase in cancer is only apparent, and is due to improvement in diagnosis and more careful certification of the causes of death. This is shown by the fact that the whole of the increase has taken place in inaccessible cancer difficult of diagnosis, while accessible cancer easily diagnosed has remained practically stationary.

The following table gives the death-rates from cancer in New Zealand of males and females for the past twelve years:—

Deaths from Cancer in every 10,000 Persons of each Sex living in New Zealand.


Deaths from diabetes mellitus were more numerous in 1895 than in any previous year, except in 1894, when the number reached 49. In 1887, when the European population of the colony was 596,374 persons, the deaths were only 17, but in 1895 the total was 46, with a population of 692,417. The death rates were, for 1887, 29 out of every million persons living, and 66 per million for 1895.

The total of deaths from developmental diseases was 493, or 7.12 per 10,000 persons living. The mortality from premature birth comprised 183 deaths. Below is given the proportion for the last five years of deaths from this cause to the total births in the colony. Deaths from congenital defects were 78, and the proportion of these to the total births is also given below. It will be noticed that both proportions show an increase during the period.

Number and Proportions per 1,000 Births.

Year.Deaths by Premature Birth.Deaths by Congenital Defects.
No.Proportion per 1,000.No.Proportion per 1,000.

Or, stating the result in another way, there was one death from premature birth to every 89 births in 1890, and one to 101 in 1895. Similarly the deaths by congenital defects show one to every 345 births in 1890, and one in 238 in 1895. In England the proportion of deaths by premature birth to every 1,000 births was as high as 17.79 in the year 1894.

Deaths from old age in 1895 numbered 232, against 258 in 1894. Deaths by diseases of the nervous system (759) were 11.06 per cent, of the total mortality last year, and 10.97 per 10,000 of persons living. Of the 759 deaths, 185 were credited to apoplexy, 162 to convulsions, and 74 to inflammation of the brain and its membranes. A comparison of the deaths from nervous diseases (excluding convulsions of children) for the last five years does not give any reason for supposing that these complaints are on the increase.

Year.Deaths from Nervous Diseases (excluding Convulsions of Children.) No.Proportion per 10,000 Persons living.

Deaths from Bright's disease of the kidneys (albuminuria) numbered 118 in the year 1895. In the year 1891, with a smaller population, the mortality was 102 deaths; but for the years 1885-86-87 the deaths were only 53, 57, and 46 respectively. The proportions per million of population were: 1885, 92; 1886, 98; 1887, 77; 1891, 162; 1894, 137; 1895, 170.

Deaths by violence form a very large item in the total mortality. In 1895 the proportion per 10,000 of males living was 13.03, and the proportion in the same number of females 3.65. In other words, one out of every 767 males living, and one out of every 2,737 females, met with a violent death.

Of 478 males who died violent deaths, 72, or 15.06 per cent., were suicides. The deaths of females by violence were far fewer, amounting to no more than 119, and out of these only 9 committed suicide, a proportion of 7.56 per cent. The table on page 117 gives the full list of deaths from external or violent causes for the year 1895.

Accidental deaths numbered 503—males 398 and females 105. Of the total male deaths, 153 resulted from fractures or contusions, and 135 from drowning. Of the female deaths, 31 were due to drowning.

The accidental deaths in 1894 were 479 males and 138 females; and suicides, 59 males and 14 females.

The following figures, taken from the Victorian Year-book of 1894, show the death-rate from violence in the Australasian Colonies and the United Kingdom, from which it would appear that the rate in New Zealand is higher than in the Home-country, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but lower than in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia:—

Colonies or Countries.Proportion per 100,000 living of Deaths by Violence.
Western Australia161.7
New South Wales111.7
New Zealand95.7
United Kingdom77.5
South Australia74.2


The number of deaf-and-dumb of both sexes returned at the census of 1891 was 166, the males being 93 and females 73. Included amongst these are 26 persons described as “dumb” only. Out of a total number of 166, 134 were under 30 years of age.

It would appear that the proportion of the deaf-and dumb in the colony is increasing with time, but not to any very great degree. The figures are given for five census periods:—

Deaf-and-dumb.—Proportions per 10,000 of Population.
Census 18741.902.051.71
Census 18782.222.252.18
Census 18812.332.232.45
Census 18862.302.372.22
Census 18912.652.802.49

The number of deaf-and-dumb under 15 years of age was 75. Of these, 50 were at the end of 1891 inmates of the Deaf-and-dumb Institution at Sumner. (See Report of the Hon. the Minister for Education, 1892.)

The number of the population of the colony under 15 years of age was 250,368 at the census of 1891, so that, with a total number of 75 deaf-mutes at that period of life, there was 1 deaf-mute in every 3,338 children. The proportion of deaf-mutes of all ages to the total population of the colony was 1 in every 3,775 persons.

The proportion of deaf-mutes to the total population at the census of 1891 for each of the Australasian Colonies was—

South Australia1 deaf-mute to every 1,369 persons.
Queensland1 deaf-mute to every 2,557 persons.
Tasmania1 deaf-mute to every 2,716 persons.
New South Wales1 deaf-mute to every 2,867 persons.
Victoria1 deaf-mute to every 3,133 persons.
New Zealand1 deaf-mute to every 3,775 persons.
Western Australia1 deaf-mute to every 4,526 persons.


In the 1891 census 274 persons were returned as “blind” or nearly blind.” Of these, 164 were males and 110 females. The results of five censuses are compared in the following table, which shows a steady rise in the numbers of the blind considered in proportion to population, and also that in New Zealand blindness is somewhat more prevalent among males than amongst females:—

Proportions of Blind to every 10,000 of the Population.
Census 18742.342.452.18
Census 18782.562.422.73
Census 18812.822.932.68
Census 18863.223.652.70
Census 18914.374.913.74

The proportion of the blind per 10,000 persons living is—for England, about 8.79; for Ireland, 11.30; for Scotland, 6.95; for Germany, 7.93; for France, 8.37; and for Italy, 7.63. For the Australian Colonies the figures are: Victoria, 8.72; New South “Wales, 6.59; Australian Continent, 7.38.

The greater prevalence of blindness in Australia than in New Zealand is best seen by the following comparison for 1891:—

Tasmania1 blind person to every 889 persons.
Western Australia1 blind person to every 922 persons.
Victoria1 blind person to every 1,146 persons.
South Australia1 blind person to every 1,297 persons.
New South Wales1 blind person to every 1,517 persons.
Queensland1 blind person to every 1,978 persons.
New Zealand1 blind person to every 2,287 persons.

The occupations for 1891 are as follow:—

Occupations (Past and Present) of the Blind.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Justice of the Peace1..1....
Monthly nurse1......1
Instructor to the blind1..1.. 
Boarding-house keeper1..1....
Proprietor of land1..1....
News vendor1..1....
Bootlaces and match vendor1..1....
Labourer in coal-yard1..1....
General dealer2..2....
Commission agent1..1....
Assisting carrier11......
Boot- and shoe-maker1..1....
Labourer on roads1..1.. 
Labourer (undefined)13..13....
Relative assisting farmer1..1....
Farm labourer2..2....
Independent means and retired11..4..7
Not stated, and no occupation87635739
Domestic duties41....239
Government. scholar11..1..
Receiving tuition at home32..1..
Dependent relatives83..5..
Inmate of hospital3..2..1
Inmate of benevolent asylum29..25..4
Inmate of industrial school11......
Receiving charitable aid1..1....

Of 274 blind persons, only 66 were found to be under 40 years of age, blindness being a disease more common to the later periods of life.

Blind persons are returned in the census under many heads of occupation, as might be expected, considering the fact just mentioned, that blindness is more common in later life than in youth. No doubt the occupations stated must be looked upon in many instances as past occupations—to which the persons referred to were brought up, and which they followed before they became blind.


The lunatics returned in the census of 1891 numbered 1,798 of both sexes, 1,088 being men and 710 women.

As in the case of the blind, the census results exhibit continuous increase in the proportion to population, and also show that lunacy is more prevalent amongst men than amongst women.

Lunatics.—Proportions per 10,000 of Population.
Census 187419.9323.2815.48
Census 187820.8525.0715.54
Census 188122.8627.3017.43
Census 188626.5031.0321.18
Census 189127.8231.2823.92

The number of lunatics stated in the asylum returns as for the 1st January, 1891, was 1,797, or just one fewer than the number brought out by the census. Although the asylum returns include certain idiots and inebriates not included in the census figures as lunatics, the figures are sufficiently close to show that, saving perhaps one or two here and there, the lunatics of the colony are all cared for in the various institutions set apart for their reception, of which there are seven under Government, and one private asylum licensed by the Governor.

On examining the numbers at the several age-periods, it is found that, taking both sexes, the proportion of lunatics in every 10,000 persons was only 2.61 at 15.20 years, but from that period onwards rose rapidly to 96.67 at 45.50 years, after which it diminished some what. The proportion of lunatic females of all ages to the total female population was considerably less than the proportion of males; nevertheless at the period 45.50 years 98.89 per 10,000 women were lunatics, while the highest proportion shown for men is 96.85, at the period 55.60 years.

The number of idiots at the date of the last census was 128. These are not included as lunatics in the census numbers. The proportion of idiots to population was 2.03 per 10,000 of both sexes; for males 2.32, and for females 1.7. At the census of 1886 only 89 persons were returned as idiots.

Insanity, including idiocy, exists in Ireland at the rate of 45.04 insane persons per 10,000 persons living. The rate in Scotland is 38.43; in Victoria, 36.17; in England, 32.53; in New South Wales, 30.38; in New Zealand, 29.85; in France, 25.1; in Sweden Norway, and Denmark, 20.59.

Hospitals, Lunatic Asylums, Benevolent Asylums, and Charitable Institutions.


Prior to the abolition of provinces the hospitals of the colony were supported mainly out of provincial revenues. After that event, the expenditure for hospitals was for the most part charged against the revenue of counties and municipal corporations, until October, 1885, when “The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1885,” came into force.

The portion of the colony included within the three principal islands—the North, Middle, and Stewart Islands—was by the above Act divided into twenty-eight hospital districts, each consisting of one or more counties with the interior boroughs, to be presided over by elective Boards, designated “Hospital and Charitable-aid Boards.”

The revenues of these Boards accrue from the following sources:—

  1. Rents and profits of land and endowments vested in the Board, or set apart for the benefit of particular institutions;

  2. Voluntary contributions;

  3. Grants from contributory local authorities; and

  4. Subsidies from the Consolidated Fund (these being at the rate of 10s. for every £1 of bequests, but in no case exceeding £500 in respect of any one bequest; £1 4s. for every £1 of voluntary contributions; and £1 for every £1 received from any local authority).

The contributory local authorities (being the County and Borough Councils, and Boards of road and town districts where the Counties Act is not in force) are empowered by the Act to raise by special rates the amounts assessed by the Hospital District Boards as their proportionate contributions to the Hospital and Charitable - aid Fund.

The District Boards undertake the general management and control of those hospitals that are not incorporated in terms of the Act, and are required to contribute to the support of the incorporated hospitals. To be incorporated a hospital must have as many as 100 subscribers, contributing not less than £100 annually by amounts of not less than 5s., and must have been declared by the Governor in Council, after receipt by him of a duly signed petition, to be a body politic and corporate, under the government of trustees.

There are 39 hospitals in the colony, of which 21 are incorporated institutions, while 18 are directly managed and controlled by District Boards. In 1895 these hospitals afforded accommodation for 1,014 male and 494 female patients, a total of 1,508. The number of cubic feet of space included within the walls of all the sleeping-wards was 2,060,345, which gave an average of 1,366 cubic feet to each bed. 6,050 males and 2,943 females were admitted as patients during the year 1895, and 653 male and 217 female patients were inmates at the end of the year. The total number of indoor patients during the year was 9,827—viz., 6,650 males and 3,177 females.

Outdoor relief was also given to a very large number of persons; but, as in some of the hospitals no records are kept of the outdoor patients, it is impossible to state the number of distinct persons who received such relief.

Benevolent Asylums and Charitable Institutions.

The various benevolent asylums and charitable institutions are placed on a similar footing to the hospitals. Most of the Boards of hospital districts are also Charitable-aid Boards; but, for the purpose of distributing charitable aid only, some of the hospital districts have been united into larger districts, so that, although there are 28 Boards for hospital purposes, there are only 21 for charitable-aid purposes.

Returns were received in 1895 from 16 benevolent asylums (not including orphanages), established for the support of indigent persons. The number of inmates in these institutions at the end of 1895 was 1,016, of whom 636 were males and 380 females. Outdoor relief was given by four of these institutions to 3,776 persons, including 2,158 children.

Auckland Sailors' Home.

There is a Sailors' Home at Auckland for the use of seafaring men resident in or visiting the town. The late Edmund Costley having left a large sum for charitable purposes, it was resolved to employ the bequest in building and endowing an institution where sailors might be received without distinction of race or religious belief, and board, lodging, and refreshments provided for them, together with such instruction and amusements as might tend to promote their social comfort and general welfare.

The Home, built in 1887, has room for 35 inmates, who are charged 15s. a week for board and lodging. It is managed by a council of eight members elected by the subscribers to the institution, with the Anglican Bishop of Auckland (the Right Rev. W. G. Cowie), who first originated the scheme, as life president.

Orphan Asylums.

There were in 1895 five orphan asylums in the colony, one maintained by a District Hospital Board, one by the Church of England authorities, and three by clergy of the Roman Catholic Church; three of them receiving, at the charge of the State, orphan, destitute, and other children committed to them by a Stipendiary Magistrate.

Exclusive of the children so committed, 30 male and 29 female orphans were received during the year 1895, and 63 male and 88 female orphans remained as inmates at the end of ‘the year’.

Orphanages receiving committed children are, for that purpose, constituted “industrial schools,” and mention of these will be found in the article “State Instruction”

Lunatic Asylums.

There are seven public lunatic asylums in the colony, maintained wholly or in part out of the public revenue. There is also one private asylum, licensed by the Governor for the reception of lunatics. There were, at the end of 1895, 1,206 male and 781 female patients belonging to these asylums. Of these, 1,093 males and 702 females were regarded as incurable, 15 males and 16 females were out on trial, and 98 males and 63 females were supposed to be curable. 253 male and 234 female patients were discharged during the year.

The following shows the proportion of insane—or, rather, of inmates of lunatic asylums—to the population (exclusive in each case of Maoris) at the end of the years stated:—

1884, 1 insane person to every 393 of population.
1885,     ”    ”    382     ”
1886,     ”    ”    370     ”
1887,     ”    ”    360     ”
1888,     ”    ”    365     ”
1889,     ”    ”    349     ”
1890,     ”    ”    348     ”
1891,     ”    ”    343     ”
1892,     ”    ”    339     ”
1893,     ”    ”    330     ”
1894,     ”    ”    316     ”
1895,     ”    ”    351     ”

It must not be overlooked that the proportions are increased by the admission into the asylums of inebriates, idiots, and others, who should not properly be there.

The Inspector of Hospitals and Asylums, in his report for the year 1895, specifies the causes of insanity in 402 cases (males, 245; females, 157) admitted during the year. In 81 of these (44 males, 37 females) the cause is given as “congenital or hereditary,” and in 53 (males, 40; females, 13) as “drink.” The proportion of cases due to drink to the total number of specified cases was therefore 13.18 per cent.

Chapter 31. Trade and Interchange.


The shipping entered inwards during 1895 comprised 611 vessels, of 672,951 tonnage; while entered outwards were 597 vessels of 648,946 tons. Comparison with the figures for the previous year shows in the entries an increase of 2 vessels and 41,851 tons, and in the clearances a decrease of 17 vessels but an increase of 17,696 tons. Of the vessels inwards, 146, of 299,667 tons, were British; 420, of 319,313 tons, colonial; and 45, of 53,971 tons, foreign. Those outwards numbered 134, of 281,840 tons, British; 420, of 315,171 tons, colonial; and 43, of 51,935 tons, foreign. There was a fall of 3 in the number but a rise of 12,766 in the tonnage of colonial vessels entered, and a rise in the British shipping entered of 5 vessels and 27,673 tons. Of the entries, 275, of 137,667 tons, were sailing-vessels, and 336, of 535,284 tons, steamers. Of the clearances, 268, of 127,777 tons, were sailing-vessels, and 329, of 521,169 tons, steamers. The shipping inwards and outwards for ten years is given in the table following:—

Vessels entered, 1886–95.

Year.Total Number.British.Colonial.Foreign.

Note.—Coasting-vessels are not included in the above table.

Vessels cleared, 1886–95.

The above figures apply to the foreign trade only; but in a new country such as New Zealand, as yet deficient in roads, but having an extensive seaboard and a number of good harbours, the coastal trade must be relatively very large, as is evidenced by the figures next given:—

Shipping entered Coastwise, 1895.


Shipping cleared Coastwise, 1895.


The total number of vessels entered coastwise was thus 18,054, of 4,854,937 tons, being an increase of 462 vessels and 252,094 tons on the figures for 1894. The clearances coastwise were 18,051 vessels, of 4,858,976 tons, an increase of 667 vessels and 290,797 tons on the number for the previous year. The number and tonnage of the registered vessels belonging to the several ports on the 31st December, 1895 (distinguishing sailing-vessels and steamers), was as under:—

Registered Vessels, 31st December, 1895.

Vessels.Gross Tonnage.Net Tonnage.Vessels.Gross Tonnage.Net Tonnage.

Imports and Exports.

The quantities and values of imports used in making up the figures given in this portion of the statistical report are obtained from Customs entries, verified, where necessary, as with goods subject to an ad valorem duty, by examination. For exports, the “free on board in New Zealand” value is given; but, as regards the main items, the Collector of Customs examines carefully the amounts stated, and compares them with current price-lists, to prevent any over-estimate. Goods transhipped at a foreign port are regarded as imported from the country where they were originally shipped, and exports as destined for the country where it is intended to land them. The countries named, however, may not be those of origin or destination, as no attempt is made to trace the goods beyond the ports disclosed by the documents presented to the Customs. Very little cargo in transitu passes through New Zealand.

The total declared values of the imports in 1895 amounted to £6,400,129, being a decrease on the corresponding total in 1894 of £387,891. These figures are, however, somewhat misleading, as they include specie. The coin brought into the colony in 1895 was only £284,176 against £797,843 in the previous year, and, if these items be deducted in either case, the increase on the values of all other articles will be found to reach the sum of £125,776.

The following table gives the value of imports for each of the past eleven years:—

inclusive of
exclusive of

It will be seen that the value of imports, exclusive of specie, fell by degrees from £7,278,101 in 1885 (the first year of the series) to £5,430,050 in 1888; from the latter year it rose till it reached £6,742,544 in 1892; while in 1893 it again showed a decline—3.68 per cent., in 1894 a further decline of 7.76 per cent., but in 1895 an increase of 2.10 per cent.

Since 1885 the value of New Zealand produce exported has been every year in excess of the value of the imports, and since 1887 (despite the fall in prices of wool, mutton, &c.) very greatly in excess. This being the case, it might have been expected that the rise in the value of imports observable during the five years 1888–92 would be maintained in 1893, 1894, and 1895. The fall in the three latter years is due to a variety of causes, not by any means indicating generally decreased consumption.

Of £6,115,953, total value of goods imported during 1895, the chief items were as under:—

Articles.Value.Proportion per Cent.
Clothing, drapery, &c.1,622,64826.53
Metal, machinery, and implements781,60212.78
Tea and sugar562,9529.21
Wine, beer, spirits, and tobacco371,7946.08
Paper and books290,0924.74
Other imports2,486,86540.66

The value of the clothing, drapery, &c., imported increased from £1,559,966 in 1894 to £1,622,648 in 1895. In 1884, with a population smaller by more than 20 per cent., the value of the import was £1,819,674. The iron, machinery, and implements imported in 1895 were valued at £781,602, a decrease of £54,987 on the corresponding figures for 1894 (£836,589). In 1884 the import of these goods was valued at £1,255,981.

The value of sugar (including molasses and treacle) imported in 1894 was larger than in any one of the previous ten years, but this increase was not maintained in 1895. This import for the last three years has averaged £383,663 per annum, but for the three years 1882, 1883, and 1884 the average, with a much smaller population, was £615,207 for each year. The smaller average amount for the last three years is due, not to a reduction in the quantity imported, but partly to a fall in the price of sugar and partly to the fact that the proportion of refined to raw sugar has vastly decreased.

The import of any article in a given year is seldom identical with the amount consumed in that time. To ascertain the latter we must look to the quantity actually entered at the Customs for home consumption and subjected to duty within the twelve months. Thus, the quantity of sugar, including glucose, molasses, and treacle, entered for consumption in 1895 was 65,782,616lb., which gave an average of 95.0lb. for every person, exclusive of Maoris; but the latter are estimated to consume, on an average, about one-fourth as much as Europeans. If the quantity so used be deducted, the average annual consumption per head of the European population will be slightly reduced (93.59lb.).

The following table, giving the consumption per head of sugar in different countries, is, saving the figures for New Zealand, taken from the Victorian Year-book of 1893. The figures stating the consumption of tea, given further on, are taken from the same source.

Annual Consumption of Sugar per Head in various Countries.

South Australia102.11
New Zealand93.59
Western Australia93.51
United Kingdom68.99
New South Wales60.95
Argentine Republic50.04

The quantity of tea entered for consumption in 1895 was 4,472,668lb. Supposing Maoris to use, on an average, 1lb. per head per annum, the consumption of tea per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris, would be 6.40lb. in 1895.

The Australasian Colonies seem to be, in proportion to population, the largest tea-consumers in the world. The amount annually used in New South Wales is estimated to be 7.55lb. per head. The consumption of Victoria has been given by the Government Statist of that colony as 10lb., and of Tasmania as 5.35lb.; the figures for the United Kingdom being 4.7lb., for Canada 3.69lb., and for the United States 1.4lb. The consumption in New Zealand is thus somewhat less than in Victoria or New South Wales, but greater per head of population than in the other countries mentioned.

Annual Consumption of Tea per Head.

Western Australia10.70
New South Wales7.55
South Australia7.24
New Zealand6.40
United Kingdom4.70
United States1.40

During 1895 excise duty was paid on 4,936,400 gallons of beer; and 201,770 gallons of beer, 435,431 gallons of spirits, and 93,138 gallons of wine were entered at the Customs for home consumption. The following table gives the consumption per head of alcoholic liquors by the people, excluding and including Maoris, showing separately the proportions of beer, wine, and spirits for the last thirteen years. To the amount of beer manufactured in the colony in each year on which excise duty was paid has been added the amount brought into consumption from imports:—

Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.Excluding Mao is.Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.

So considerable a reduction in the rate of consumption of these liquors in the last thirteen years should give every encouragement to the advocates of temperance principles in the prosecution of their work. And it is most satisfactory to observe how favourably the above rates of consumption in this colony compare with those of other countries. A comparison can be made by means of the following statement of the annual consumption of beer and spirits per head in various places:—*

*Taken, except as regards New Zealand, from the Victorian Year-book of 1893.

United Kingdom28.741.00
South Australia20.040.49
New South Wales11.941.15
United States10.741.34
New Zealand (including Maoris)7.000.59

The actual quantity of colonial beer made and used in the colony does not seem to increase in any great degree, as will be seen by the next figures:—

Beer manufactured in New Zealand on which Excise Duty was paid.

1885 1,402,720
1886 4,243,760
1887 4,264,160
1888 4,050,560
1889 4,402,480
1890 4,676,240
1891 4,567,920
1892 4,752,720
1893 4,873,600
1894 4,807,360
1895 4,936,400

The quantity of tobacco entered for consumption in 1895 was 1,493,235lb., an increase of 121,541lb. on the quantity entered in 1894. This gave a consumption per head of population—including Maoris, who are heavy smokers—of 2.03lb. The average per head for the nine years 1887–95 was 1.97lb.

It appears from the following statement of the consumption of tobacco in different countries that in New Zealand it is, proportionately to population, less than in the chief colonies of Australia, very much less than in the United States, and below the average of most European countries.

Average Annual Consumption per Head of Tobacco in various Countries.

United States4.40
New South Wales3.53
Western Australia3.26
New Zealand2.03
South Australia1.70
United Kingdom1.38

The imports from the United Kingdom to New Zealand in 1895 were valued at £3,992.359, or an increase of £42.589 on the imports from this source for the previous year. From Australia and Tasmania the imports were £1.261,125, a decrease of £479,840 on the amount in 1894.

The following are the values of imports from different countries in 1894 and 1895, given in the order of the increase or decrease from each country:—

United Kingdom1.949,7703,992,35942,589
India and Ceylon193,381233,13539,754
Hongkong and China26,42238,66412,242
Pacific Islands52,19757,7735,576
Fiji and Norfolk Island223,218224,7981,580
West Indies8961,819923
Asia Minor2,5583,291733
Cape Colony165842
Costa Rica 4242
Australia and Tasmania1,740,9651,261,125479,840
Sweden and Norway4,4353834,052
Philippine Islands5,4503,6371,813
Dominion of Canada15,36714,508859
Russia645 645
United States394,691394,233458
Arabia175 175
British Guiana60 60

The imports from India and Ceylon show an increase of £39,754, or 20.56 per cent, on the figures for 1894.

The values of imports in each provincial district during 1895 were as under:—

Hawke's Bay184,475

The value of imports by parcel-post (£26,938) must be added to the above figures in order to make up the total (including specie) of £6,400,129.

The Customs revenue for the year 1895 amounted to £1,619,970, and the excise duties to £64,068. The revenue from Customs was £2 6s. 9d. per head of population excluding Maoris, and £2 4s. 2d. if they be included. In 1887 the Customs revenue was £2 2s. 11d. per head of European population, and from that time the proportion increased slowly year by year until 1892, when it reached £2 11s. 6d. per head. During the next two years there was a falling-off; but 1895 shows a slight increase on 1894. Details for ten years are given:—

Customs Revenue per Head of Population.


In 1895 a new tariff was passed, which has been given in full in this book. The rates of duty levied during the year included 15s. and 16s. per gallon on spirits (perfumed, 21s. and 30s.); 7s. per pound on cigars and snuff; 7s. per pound on cigarettes to 20th September, and from 21st September 17s. 6d. per 1,000 of 2 1/2 lb. and under, and 6d. per ounce weight over 2 1/2 lb. per 1,000; 3s. 6d. per pound on manufactured and 2s. on unmanufactured tobacco. Sparkling wine was charged 9s. a gallon; Australian, 5s.; other kinds, 6s.; ale and beer, 1s. 6d. to 30th July, and 2s. from 31st July. The duty on tea was 6d., 5d., 4d., and 3d. per pound, but has been fixed at 4d.; on cocoa, chocolate, and chicory, 3d.; raw coffee, 3d. to 30th July, and 2d. from 31st July; roasted, 5d. Sugar, molasses, and treacle paid 1/2 d., and glucose 1d. per pound. Opium was charged 40s. per pound. The remainder of the Customs revenue, with small exception, was made up of charges on goods by weight, ad valorem duties ranging from 5 to 40 per cent., and receipts from the foreign parcels post. There was also an excise duty of 1s. per pound on tobacco, 1s. 6d. per pound on cigars and cigarettes, 3d. per gallon on beer, and 9d. per pound on tinctures, &c., manufactured in the colony.

By “The Tobacco Excise Duties Act, 1896,” the excise duty on cigarettes, which is at present 1s. 6d. per lb., is altered as on and from the 31st December, 1896, to 2s. 6d. per lb. on machine-mad and 1s. per lb. on hand-made cigarettes.

“The Tobacco Act Amendment Act, 1896,” enacts that all packages of manufactured tobacco shall be labelled before leaving the manufactory, and provides for the issue of warrants to use cutting-machines for cutting duty-paid manufactured tobacco for sale (or to be used in the manufacture of cigarettes by hand), and to manufacture cigarettes by hand, under certain conditions.

The value of all the exports in 1895 was £8,550,224; the value of New Zealand produce exported, £8,390,153: being at the rate of £12 2s. 4d. per head of population. The following table gives the values of the several exports of New Zealand produce in each of the past ten years:—

Exports of New Zealand Produce.

YearWool.Gold.Frozen Meat.Butter and Cheese.Agricultural Produce.ManufacturesOther N.Z. Produce.Total.
18873,321,074747,878455,870109,383588,022124,3821,204,3726, 51,081
18883,115,098914,309628,800197,170905,907233,3831,260,4617, 55,128
18893,976,375785,490783,374213,9451,424,297569,8801,288,6479, 42,008
18904,150,599751,3601,087,617207,6871,289,864547,9471,393,6879, 28,761

The most important items of export under the heading “Other New Zealand Produce” are coal, silver, minerals, fish, oysters, fungus, kauri-gum, timber, bacon, salted and preserved meats, tallow, sheep- and rabbit-skins, hides, sausage-skins, and live stock. The aggregate value of these in 1895 was £1,370,698.

The above table shows that the value of the exports of New Zealand produce fell from £9,428,761 in 1890 to £9,400,094 in 1891, and again from £9,365,868 in 1892 to £8,557,443 in 1893, rose in 1894 to £9,085,148, and fell in 1895 to £8,390,153, a decrease of £694,995 on the figures for the previous year. The exports for any two calendar years may vary considerably, according as the bulk of a season's wool-clip is shipped at the close of one year or at the beginning of the next; and for comparison of quantities it is well to take the figures for two successive years ending 31st March, in order to include the whole of one clip in each year. The following are the figures for the years ended 31st March, 1895, and 31st March, 1896. The quantities exported are shown, with the increase or decrease on each item.

Quantities of the Principal Articles of New Zealand Produce exported.

Items.Year 1894–95.Year 1895–96.Increase in 1895–96.Decrease in 1895–96.
The Mine:—     
The Fisheries:—     
    OystersDoz.614,775567,615 47,160
The Forest:—     
    Gum (kauri)Tons8,1047,165 939
    Timber (sawn and hewn)Ft.32,660,03640,384,9567,724,920 
Animals and Produce:—     
    Bacon and hamsCwt.1,7252,034309 
    Beef (salted)Cwt.5,3565,231 125
    ButterCwt.66,28360,200 6,083
    CheeseCwt.78,65071,477 7,173
    Live-stockNo.17,71715,563 2,154
    Meat (preserved)Cwt.32,97739,6046,627 
    Meat (frozen)Cwt.1,122,2421,171,52149,279 
    Skins (rabbit)No.14,986,00813,884,344 1,101,664
    Skins (sheep)No.2,729,1293,247,250518,121 
    Woollb.132,025,538128,284,720 3,740,818
Agricultural Products:—     
    Bran and sharpsTons1,8752,692817 
    Chaff    ”271,0801,053 
    Flour    ”807947140 
    Grain (barley)Bush.19,06341,64222,579 
    Grain (beans and peas)Bush.191,906190,443 1,463
    Grain (malt)Bush.47,15585,48038,325 
    Grain (oats)Bush.2,210,7261,900,537 310,189
    Grain (wheat)Bush.81,43172,380 9,051
    Grain (maize)Bush.42258,68458,262 
    Meal (oat)Cwt.25,74319,672 6,071
    Seeds (grass and clover)Cwt.25,57638,51612,940 
    LeatherCwt.30,71221,577 9,135
    PhormiumTons3,2582,457 801

This statement shows, to some extent, an increase in the demand for the staple articles of New Zealand produce.

Some of the most important proportional increases are the following:—

Export of Rate of Increase per Cent. in 1895–96.
Seeds (grass and clover)Cwt.50.59
Bran and sharpsTons43.57
Sawn timberFt.23.65
Preserved meatCwt.20.10
Bacon and hamsCwt.17.91
Frozen meatCwt.4.39

Besides the above increases, maize, of which only the trifling quantity of 422 bushels was exported in 1894–95, increased to 58,684 bushels in 1895–96; and the export of chaff increased from 27 to 1,080 tons during the same period.

On the other hand, there was a decrease in the percentage of exports as follows: Leather, 29.74; phormium, 24.58; oatmeal, 23.58; oats, 14.03; live-stock, 12.16; kauri-gum, 11.59; wheat, 11.11; butter, 9.18; cheese, 9.12; oysters, 7.67; rabbit-skins, 7.35. And a small decline is also observed in wool of 3,740,818lb., or 2.83 per cent., as compared with the quantities exported in the previous twelve months.

The next table shows the declared values of the chief articles exported in the years ending 31st March, 1895 and 1896, with increases and decreases for 1895–96:—

 Year 1894–95.Year 1895–96.Increase
The Mine.££££
Coal82,22979,922 2,307
Silver and minerals8,93713,9405,003 
            The Fisheries.
Oysters2,6042,458 146
            The Forest.
    Sawn and hewn121,341147,00425,663 
    Other8,7256,172 2,55
    Animals and Produce.££££
Bacon and hams6,7556,556 199
Beef (salted)5,7385,420 318
Butter263,246241,647 21,599
Cheese160,383132,039 28,344
Live-stock45,88837,119 8,769
Preserved meats61,63169,9088,277 
Frozen meats1,295,8501,318,31722,467 
Rabbit-skins92,45075,679 16,771
Sheepskins and pelts164,056183,27319,217 
    Agricultural Products.    
Bran and sharps4,0629,4565,394 
    Beans and peas28,16425,515 2,649
    Oats174,263166,128 8,135
Oatmeal11,4598,863 2,596
Seeds (grass and clover)54,77170,48615,715 
Phormium (New Zealand hemp)42,72727,508 15,219
Woollen manufactures12,09714,6582,561 
Other manufactures55,03842,404 12,63
            Total215,370195,214 20,156
Total exports (colonial produce and manufactures)8,655,5009,158,831503,331 
Other exports (British and foreign)133,834126,398 7,436
Total exports£8,797,739£9,318,697£520,958 

If the calendar year be taken, the values for 1895 stand as follows:—

The Mine.£
Silver and minerals13,900
The Fisheries.
The Forest.
    Sawn and hewn141,892
Animals and Produce.
Bacon and hams6,450
Beef and pork (salted)5,506
    Pigs and other live-stock773
Preserved meats66,137
Frozen meats1,262,711
Sheepskins and pelts180,905
Agricultural Products.£
Bran and sharps5,119
    Beans and peas29,580
Seeds (grass and clover)64,112
Ale and beer2,340
Phormium (New Zealand hemp)21,040
Woollen manufactures14,411
Other manufactures35,755
Total exports (colonial produce and manufactures)8,390,153
Other exports (British and foreign)127,966
            Total exports£8,550,224

The re-export trade of the colony would seem from the subjoined figures to have been almost stationary for the last ten years:—

Exports of British, Foreign, and other Colonial Produce (excluding Specie).


With these sums may be contrasted the re-export trade of New South Wales—a colony having less than double the population of New Zealand—which, exclusive of specie, amounted in 1894 to £2,676,606.

The quantity of wool exported in 1895 was 116,015,1701b., valued at £3,662,131. The annual production and the increase can be better estimated by taking the exports for the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of shearing, and adding thereto the quantity used in the colony for manufacturing purposes.

The following shows the produce for each of the last ten years ending with the 30th September:—

Year ending 30th September.Quantity exported.Quantity purchased by Local Mills.Total Annual Produce.

From these figures it appears that the wool-clip has increased by 45.17 per cent. within the last ten years, and this notwithstanding the large increase in the export of rabbit-skins, from 8,546,254 in 1886 to 15,229,314 in 1895,—which does not indicate any great relief from the rabbit-pest.

The increase in the wool-production is of course mainly due to the greater number of sheep—namely, 19,826,604 in April, 1895, against 15,254,198 in May, 1886. It will be apparent from the following table that the tendency of increase is towards the multiplication of the smaller flocks, whose owners are better able to cope with the rabbit difficulty than the large runholders:—

Number of Flocks, 1886 to 1895.

Size of Flocks.1886.1887.1888.1889.1890.1891.1892.1893.1894.1895.
Under 5006,0246,2476,5797,0637,6628,2728,8229,62910,31411,336
500 and under 1,0001,1891,1391,1821,3811,5281,6912,0332,2392,4272,497
1,000 and under 2,0007477237948268549691,1931,3151,4091,405
2,000 and under 5,000532531524597586666761836933904
5,000 and under 10,000263289287279283287314341345341
10,000 and under 20,000228221213239236239231241230232
20,000 and up-wards166166166152160169176178179183

The Victorian Year-book for 1894 gives the average price of Australian wool in London for the twenty-four years ended with 1892, showing a decline from 1s. 3d. to 9d. per lb.

 Per lb.

The wool production and distribution for the world is given from the same source:—

Countries.Wool produced, 1891.*

*The figures for this Table, excepting those for Australasia, have been compiled from information contained in a report issued by the Department of Agriculture, Washington. United States, 1893.

    United Kingdom147,475,000
    All other European countries8,818,000
    Russia and Poland291,500,000
        Total Europe787,392,000
Argentine Republic376,700,000
Cape Colony and Natal128,682,000
East Indies72,000,000
Russia (Asiatic)66,000,000
Turkey (Asiatic), Persia, Afghanistan, Beluchistan, and Thibet20,500,000
British North American Provinces12,000,000
United States307,100,000
All other countries48,000,000
Total out of Europe1,780,546,000
            Grand total2,567,938,000lbs.

The centres of wool-production have gradually shifted, as will be seen by the next table, showing the percentage of the total imports into the United Kingdom at different periods:—

† Taken from “Wool and Manufactures of Wool,” published by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, U.S.A.

 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
British Possessions—      
    South Africa3.37.711.212.511.113.8
    East Indies4.24.713.
South America5.

At the beginning of this century most of the merino wool required for manufacture in England was obtained from Spain. In 1820 (about) Spanish wool was superseded by merino wool from Saxony and Silesia; some twenty years later, Australasian wools began to take the place of the German merino, and have ever since held command of the market.

The following paragraphs, as to increase of population in Europe and America creating a demand for Australasian wools, are taken from a report made in February, 1892, by the United States Consul-General Bourn to his Government:—

With an increased density of population in Europe there has been a gradual decrease in the number of sheep, as lands formerly used for pasturage are converted into tillage lands to meet the increased demand for food. From 1860 to 1890 the population of Europe increased from 286,000,000 to 356,000,000—an increase of 70,000,000, or about 25 per cent., necessitating a tillage of at least 25 per cent. more land to supply food for this increase.

During this period the number of sheep in Europe decreased from 229,600,000 in 1860 to 192,240,000 in 1890—a decrease of 37,000,000, or about 16 per cent.; while the number in the chief extra-European wool-producing and exporting countries increased from 63,200,000 in 1860 to 264,500,000 at the date of the latest estimates. But Europe in 1890 consumed fully 66 per cent. more wool than in 1860, while there were 16 per cent. less sheep to supply the requirement. It is easy, therefore, to see why new fields have been sought in other continents for the deficiencies both in food and clothing.

In 1860 there were not more than 40,200,000 sheep in the La Plata country, Australia, and South Africa, or scarcely 18 per cent. of the number in Europe. In 1890 this amount had increased to 221,500,000, or about the number in Europe in 1860.

There were 8,806,500 sheep in Italy in 1860, but in 1875 there were only 6,977,000. The number then grew again to 8,596,000 in 1881, to be again reduced to 6,900,000 in 1890—a decrease of 21 per cent. since 1860, as compared with 16 per cent. decrease for all Europe.

In the United States the process has been substantially the same. The increasing density of population in the east has gradually driven the flocks westward into newer territory, where they have largely increased, though not so rapidly as in the La Plata country, Australia, and South Africa. From 23,000,000 in 1860 they increased to 41,000,000 in 1870. At this time the market for wool was so depressed that the farmers found it profitable to kill upwards of 9,000,000, thus reducing the amount to 31,000,000. Since then the gradual increase brought the number to about 50,000,000 in 1884, to be again reduced by the competition of Australian wool to about 43,000,000 on the 1st January, 1891. This variation in the number of sheep has, however, its compensation in the greatly increased production per head. The yield in 1871 was about 5lb. for each sheep, while in 1884 and 1891 it was respectively about 6lb. and 7lb.

The amount of gold exported in 1895 was 293,493oz.

The total quantity of gold entered for duty to the 31st December, 1895, which may be reckoned as approximately the amount obtained in the colony, was 13,050,213oz., of the value of £51,351,002.

Frozen meat now takes second place among the exports of New Zealand produce. In 1895, 1,134,097cwt., valued at £1,262,711, were shipped in the colony. An account of the development of the industry was given in a special article in the Year-book, 1894. The total export for each year since the commencement of the trade has been:—

To ascertain the total value of the meat-export in 1895 it is necessary to take into consideration, with the amount of £1,262,711, value of frozen meat before stated, the value of preserved meats, £66,137; of salted beef and pork, £5,506; and of bacon and hams, £6,450.

Beef, mutton, lamb, and pork, &c., are used in the United Kingdom according to the following proportions: Beef, 52 per cent.; mutton and lamb, 24 per cent; pork, &c., 24 per cent. To the 24 per cent. of mutton and lamb, New Zealand contributes 2.02 per cent., the Argentine Republic 1.03 per cent., and Australia 0.35 per cent., making altogether 3.40 per cent. So that the total imports of frozen mutton at present represent only 3.40 per cent. of the total meat consumption of the United Kingdom.

The value of the grain exported in 1895 was £215,783. The grain exports were made up as under:—

Peas and beans218,39129,580
Total value..£215,783

The quantity of butter exported amounted to 57,964cwt., the declared value of which was £227,601. Of this quantity, 55,194cwt., valued at £215,619, were shipped to the United Kingdom; 1,233cwt., value £5,051, to New South Wales; 504cwt., value £2,038, to Victoria; 484cwt., value £2,271, to Fiji; 312cwt., value £1,637, to the South Seas; and 188cwt., value £757, to Western Australia.

If the export of butter is to assume any large dimensions it must be through the production of an article suitable to the requirements of the English market, on which the colony has for the present to rely. It has been satisfactorily proved that butter from New Zealand can be delivered in good condition in England, and that for good samples remunerative prices are obtainable; but it is necessary that the butter sent should be not only sound, but also uniform in quality and colour. Such uniformity can be obtained only by the methods used in butter-factories. Upon the multiplication of these factories the future of the butter-export trade, with all its great possibilities, seems to depend.

The cheese exported was 76,743cwt., of a declared value of £150,909, of which 73,369cwt., valued at £142,913, were sent to the United Kingdom; 1,410cwt., value £3,238, to New South Wales; 905cwt., value £1,961, to Queensland; and 384cwt., value £1,065, to the other Australian Colonies. While the quantity of butter exported—57,964cwt.—in 1895 shows an increase of 150 per cent. on the quantity exported in 1886, the increase in the export of cheese during the ten-year period has been at the rate of 367 per cent.—76,743cwt. in 1895, as against 16,429cwt. in 1886.

The following statement shows the total quantity of butter and cheese exported in the past ten years, and the amount of either commodity sent to the United Kingdom:—

Year.Total Export of Butter.Butter Exported to the United Kingdom.Total Export of Cheese.Cheese Exported to the United Kingdom.

The export of phormium fell from 4,677 tons in 1894 to 1,806 tons in 1895, a decrease of over 61 per cent. The market price continues low—averaging under £12 a ton—a state of things not encouraging to producers. Any considerable rise in the value of the fibre will doubtless result in temporarily increasing the output; but a large permanent development of this industry depends on the cultivation and careful selection of the plants used, and on improvements in the method of preparing the fibre.

There were 7,425 tons of kauri-gum, valued at the rate of £56 8s. a ton, exported from the colony in 1895. This gum is obtained only in the extreme northern part of the colony.

The following table gives the values of the exports from each port in New Zealand for the last two years, arranged in order of magnitude for 1895:—

Invercargill and Bluff595,277658,231
Poverty Bay136,539220,536
Wairau and Picton123,355164,398
New Plymouth and Waitara108,84672,450

The exports from the North and South Islands respectively during the two years were as under:—

 North Island.South Island.Proportion to Total Export.
Year.££North Island.South Island.

The total value of the external trade in 1895 was £14,950,353, equivalent to £21 11s. 10d. per head of the population, excluding Maoris. The figures given further on show that the ratio of trade to population has varied but little for several years. The highest record was in 1873, when the total trade per head reached £41 19s. 3d.; the imports, in consequence of the large expenditure of borrowed money, amounting at that time to £22 9s. 4d. per head, against £9 4s. 10d. in 1895.

It has been customary to exclude the Maoris in estimating the trade per head, for their industries and necessities swell the volume of trade in comparatively so slight a measure that the amount per head of European population can be more truly ascertained by omitting them altogether.

The values of imports and exports per head of population, excluding Maoris, were, for each of the past ten years, as follow:—

Year.Imports per Head.Exports per Head.Total.
 £ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.
188611 12 211 9 323 1 5
188710 9 511 10 321 19 8
18889 16 412 16 722 12 11
188910 5 615 4 525 9 11
189010 0 215 13 825 13 10
189110 6 615 3 1025 10 4
189210 16 314 16 1125 13 2
189310 9 013 11 924 0 9
18949 19 1113 11 1023 11 9
18959 4 1012 7 021 11 10

The trade with the United Kingdom amounted to £11,038,005, comprising nearly 74 per cent. of the total.

With the Australian Colonies and Tasmania, trade was done during 1895 to the value of £2,296,878; of which New South Wales claimed £1,344,864, and Victoria £719,095, made up as follows:—

Exports from New Zealand.

To New South Wales, 1895625,691
To Victoria, 1895350,931

Exports to New Zealand.

From New South Wales, 1895719,173
From Victoria, 1895368,164

The latter amounts are the declared values of the imports into New Zealand from the colonies mentioned, not their export-value as given in the New South Wales and Victorian returns.

Included in the exports from New South Wales is coal valued at £91,816, and gold coin, £210,000. The exports from Victoria include specie to the amount of £60,060.

The trade with Fiji showed a slight decrease during the year. In 1890 it was £184,684; in 1894, £221,603; in 1892, £214,183; in 1893, £194,729; in 1894, £266,239; and in 1895, £259,085. The trade with the other Pacific Islands (including Norfolk Island) decreased from £159,916 in 1894, to £149,129 in 1895.

Of the exports to the United States in 1895 the values of the principal New Zealand products were: Kauri-gum, £275,862; sheepskins, £11,624; sausage-skins, £7,939; rabbit-skins, £5,932; hides, £2,762; wool, £2,275: and phormium, £1,056.

The following table shows the value of the total trade with the United States for each of the past ten years:—

Trade with the United States.

Year.Imports fromExports toTotal Trade.
Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.

The trade with India and Ceylon reached a total of £235,272, against £195,718 in 1894. The imports—tea, rice, castor-oil, wool-packs, &c.—were reckoned at £233,135, leaving a balance of only £2,137 for exports.

The following table gives the value of the imports and exports of the Australasian Colonies for the year 1895:—

Colony.Total Value ofExcess of Exports over Imports.

* Excess of imports over exports, £863,008.

New South Wales15,992,41521,934,7855,942,370
South Australia5,585,6017,177,0381,591,437
Western Australia (1894)2,114,4141,251,406*
New Zealand6,400,1298,550,2242,150,095

In the preceding table is given the total trade inwards and outwards of each colony, counting twice over the value of goods produced in one colony and carried thence into another, and reckoning the same goods three times where they are imported from without into one colony and re-exported thence in the same year into another colony. But, in order to form a just idea of the trade of the Australasian Colonies as a whole, it is necessary to eliminate the intercolonial traffic altogether. From the following table the value of imports and exports exchanged between the various colonies has accordingly been excluded:—

External Trade of Australasia.

Year.Total Trade.Imports.Exports.Excess of Imports.Excess of Exports.

It will be observed that in the year 1885 the excess of imports over exports for Australasia amounted to no less a sum than £10,051,632, and that five years later the excess of imports had fallen to £1,758,502. In 1891 the position was completely reversed, the exports exceeding the imports by £1,915,712. This excess increased to £6,266,931 in the following year (1892), and to £13,064,942 in 1894. The change indicates that as a result of recent financial disturbances the purchasing power of these colonies has considerably lessened.

The fall in prices of colonial produce, to which the reduction that has taken place of late in the total value of exports is due, is generally considered to have been the result of several causes working simultaneously, viz.: the appreciation of gold, greater competition of producers throughout the world, increase in facilities of transport and communication, and improvement of machinery used in production.

It has, however, been argued that prices are really regulated by credit; that credit is but slightly affected by the amount of money or gold in existence, and that the whole volume of credit throughout the world has been enormously lessened since and as the result of the Baring crisis, in 1890. The Statist (October 27th, 1894) thus alludes to this:—

Until the volume of credit expands it is impossible that prices should rise. On the contrary, every contraction of credit has necessitated a fall in prices. The newer countries, which produce food and raw materials for the older countries, have been compelled to sell at whatever prices they could obtain, because they could not get credit in London, and because they were compelled to meet their obligations. But, as distrust at home here prevented speculation, there was a paucity of buyers; and such buyers as there were, not being very eager, held aloof in the hope of getting better and ever better terms. So the embarrassments of the producing countries, and the distrust of the capitalist countries, have made it more difficult to carry on transactions, and at last sales have been effected only by continually reducing prices.

There is nothing mysterious, or puzzling, or incomprehensible in all this when it is looked at from the right standpoint. And it is perfectly clear that no increase in the gold production could have any material influence upon what has happened. Gold is employed only to a very small fractional extent, either in international dealings or in the wholesale markets for commodities within the same country, and the mere additions made to the amount of gold could consequently have no effect upon prices. If credit had been good, the increase in the gold output would have enabled the banks to lend and discount more freely than before; and every addition to the loans and discounts would have been an addition to the volume of credit existing, and so would have tended to send up prices.

The trade per head of the population in each of the colonies was as follows:—

Trade per Head of the Population in 1895.

Colony.Mean Population.Imports.Exports.Total Trade.
  £ s. d.£ s. d.£ s. d.
Queensland452,85211 16 319 16 931 13 0
New South Wales1,264,66012 12 1117 6 1129 19 10
Victoria1,180,04010 11 512 6 722 18 0
South Australia348,53916 0 620 11 1036 12 4
Western Australia (1894)77,22027 7 816 4 143 11 9
Tasmania159,1456 17 68 12 715 10 1
New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris)692,4179 4 1012 7 021 11 10

The values of the exports of the Australian Colonies, more especially New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, are largely increased by the inclusion of articles the produce or manufacture of other colonies and countries.

The value of home productions or manufactures exported from each colony in 1895, and the rate per head of mean population, were as follow:—

ColonyHome Produce exported.Per Head of Population.
New South Wales16,436,210121911
South Australia3,537,7511030
Western Australia (1894)1,219,04715159
New Zealand8,390,1531224

The next table sets forth the amount of the trade of each of the above-named colonies with the United Kingdom in 1895:—

Colony.Imports from the United Kingdom.Exports to the United Kingdom.Total Trade with the United Kingdom.
New South Wales6,420,1079,371,41815,791,525
South Australia1,857,9892,362,5934,220,582
Western Australia (1894)611,308330,216941,524
New Zealand3,992,3597,045,64611,038,005

The statement appended shows the relative importance of the Australasian Colonies as a market for the productions of the United Kingdom:—

Exports of Home Productions from the United Kingdom, in 1894, to—

British India and Ceylon30,244,246
United States18,799,485

The exports to other countries did not amount to £8,000,000 in any one case.

The Australasian Colonies as a whole, with a population of 4,000,000, thus take the fourth place in importance as consumers of British produce, the exports thereto being more than half the value of similar exports to British India, with its 290,000,000 inhabitants.

The staple products of these colonies must for some time to come be the work of the runholder, the farmer, and the miner. So long as there remain large areas of land capable of improvement and more lucrative occupation, as well as considerable mineral resources awaiting further development, no such increase in manufactures can be looked for as would enable colonial to supersede English goods in any material degree. The consumption per head may fall somewhat in the future, as the proportion of adults decreases owing to lessened immigration; but the relatively high rates of wages, and the absence of any widespread pauperism, should maintain a standard of living far above that existing in older countries. The rapid growth of population in Australasia may thus be expected largely to increase the demand for English products; indeed, there is every reason to believe that in the near future these colonies will become the most important market open to the English manufacturer.