Table of Contents

SINCE the First Part of the Year-book was printed the following changes have taken place:—


French Vice-consulship at Wellington abolished. Viscount Alexandre Louis Ferdinand de Jouffroy D'Abbans appointed to act as French Consul at Wellington.


Captain R. W. P. Clarke-Campbell-Preston appointed, vice Captain Stewart, resigned.


Honourable Robert Hart, since deceased.

BISHOPS (See p. 31).

For the Bishopric of Waiapu, the Venerable Archdeacon William Leonard Williams, B.A., has been elected by the Diocesan Synod.

For the Bishopric of Wellington, the Reverend Frederick Wallis, M.A., has been nominated. Consecration fixed for 25th January, 1895.


The Colony: June, 1894 (excluding Maoris)—678,586 persons. Capital City, Wellington, January, 1894—35,013 persons, or, including suburbs, 38,298.


The passing of this Act alters that of 1892 by empowering the Government to take land compulsorily, where it is necessary, for small holdings, and where no agreement can be come to with the owners. It also allows of the exchange of high pastoral country belonging to the Crown for agricultural land suitable for small holdings. The sum which may be expended annually in acquisition of lands has been increased to £250,000.


On p. 39.—Native Land Court Judges: Add “H. W. Brabant.” Recorders Delete the same name.

Two important financial Acts, the New Zealand Consols Act and the Government Advances to Settlers Act, have also been passed.


The purpose of this Act is, by providing an inscription of New Zealand Consols, to give further facilities for the safe investment of savings. Practically, it establishes another branch of the Government Savings-Bank, with extended power of investment. Under section 3 the Colonial Treasurer is authorised to receive by way of deposits from persons in the colony sums of money up to £500,000, but the amount deposited in any one year must not be more than £250,000. The currency of such deposits is not to exceed forty years; the rate of interest shall not be above 4 per cent. per annum, and will probably be fixed at 31/2 per cent.

In case an inscriber desires to make use of his deposit, or any portion of it, to the extent of £5, or a multiple of £5, he can obtain a Consols certificate, which is payable to bearer and is transferable by delivery. This certificate entitles the holder to receive interest half-yearly at the same rate as the original inscription. and also to payment of the principal sum on the due date.

The Act also provides for the deposit of moneys by minors, which, it is felt, will be very acceptable to parents in encouraging habits of thrift in their children.

Post-office Money-order Offices throughout the colony will be made use of to receive applications for inscription, and also for payment of the half-yearly interest on the amounts deposited.


This Act enables the Government to assist settlers by advancing money to them on mortgage at a reasonable rate of interest. The term of the mortgage will be for thirty-six years and a half. The loan will be repayable by half-yearly instalments of £3 for every £100 advanced, including 5 per cent. per annum for interest and 1 per cent. per annum for redemption of the principal sum.

Such advances can be made on rural lands only, up to three-fifths of the value of the property, and the maximum amount of a loan to any one borrower is fixed at £2,500, and the minimum at £25.

The Government have power to raise a sum not exceeding three millions, of which only one and a half millions shall be raised in each year for two years; and the power to raise the three millions shall absolutely cease at the end of two years from the date of the passing of the Act.

Interest on the money borrowed for the purposes of the Act is to be at the rate of 31/2 per cent. per annum, and the difference of 11/2 per cent. between this rate and the 5-per-cent. rate charged to the borrower will be used to provide an assurance fund of one-half per cent., and to defray the expenses of administering the Act.

A General Board and District Boards are to be established; also a Superintendent, who shall be Chairman of the General Board; Valuers will be appointed to assist the Boards, and fees according to scale will require to be paid by borrowers.


THE Year-book for 1894 will be found to contain the usual revised official information, and statistics in the form of a considerably enlarged report, which, with some exception, gives figures brought down to the end of the year 1893.

To do the fullest justice to the statistics of 1893 in the report, it would have been necessary to delay the publication of the Year-book until the early part of 1895, printing the work after the termination of the present session of Parliament. Some of the figures were available only at the time when, to meet the present requirement, it was necessary to begin printing, and there was not sufficient time for exhaustive analysis in respect of several heads of information. But the report is nevertheless far more complete than was the previous one, and the statistics relating to last year are published earlier than in the neighbouring colonies.

There has also been difficulty about some of the special articles, because new information was continually coming out in departmental reports during the time that the book was in the press, and fresh legislation has been in progress.

Of the special articles, seventeen are entirely new, the rest being matter which it has been found desirable to give again after revision. Most of these articles will be extensively circulated separately in pamphlets, besides forming part of this work.

Although the number of copies printed of the previous Year-book (1893) was very considerable, and far in excess of the number struck off of the original Handbook for 1892, the supply has not been found in excess of the demand; and consideration of this fact has led to the reproduction of some matter which will probably be kept for leaflets only after this year.

The assistance of the various Government Departments is gratefully acknowledged.


Registrar-General's Office,
Wellington, 29th September, 1894.


Chapter 1.


THE Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line amounting to 4,330 miles in length—North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, Bounty Islands, and Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands (Hervey Group) is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser.

New Zealand is mountainous in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being upwards of eight millions of acres. The soil is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, and, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool- and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and the quantity of valuable timber are also leading characteristics.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Large deposits of coal are met with, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over forty-nine millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information on this subject is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.


The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, a Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months after this date Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staaten Land received again the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the Middle Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was treacherously murdered by the Natives on the 12th June following.

In 1793 the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners to Mr. Marsden. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814, and returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a somewhat permanent basis; but the first station, established by Mr. Leigh, a Wesleyan missionary, and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.


Prior to the colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery of these islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that when they came there were probably no other inhabitants of the country. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs was driven thence by a storm, and, after a long voyage, fetched the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his followers to join him, and with a large fleet of double canoes started for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, indicate that about twenty-seven generations have passed since the migration, which may therefore be assumed to have taken place about six hundred and seventy years ago. The locality of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the mother-land. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the Eastern Pacific Islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.

A special article will be found further on dealing with the subject of the numbers and present condition of the Maoris.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales, but on the 3rd May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Waitemata (Auckland), round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site, which resulted in the establishment of the settlement at the head of Blind Bay. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki, despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonising society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, in March, 1848, of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.


The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30′ S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10′ S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0′ E. long.; on the west, 166° 5′ E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:—

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,580 acres.

  2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres.

  3. The South or Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east to west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33′ south, and longitude 169° 8′ west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,440 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are-detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between 4 and 5 miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group lying about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Raoul or Sunday Island, the largest of these, is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about 3 miles round. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey Group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts as Government Agent for the colony in all matters of trade.

* Frederick J. Moss, Esq., late M.H.R., is now British Resident. His salary is paid by this colony.

Area of the Australian Colonies.

The areas of the several Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, vary considerably. The total area of the Australian Continent is given as 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but the following areas are taken from the official records of each colony:—

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700
South Australia903,425
Western Australia1,060,000
  Total Continent of Australia3,030,506
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471
  Total Australasia3,161,192

The size of these colonies may be better realised by comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria - Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the extent of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than that of the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand.

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is little more than one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, that of the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
New Zealand.Area in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438


The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which covers more than three degrees of latitude, trends to the westward, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country that are, or by clearing may be made, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast, about 250 miles in length, extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a large portion is covered with pumice-sand, and is unfitted for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture; The level or undulating country in this island fit, or capable of being made fit, for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that are capable of drainage; also large areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the farmer, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of the North Island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of bush-land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet; the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, and wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be, grasses will flourish; consequently very little of the land is unfit to supply food for cattle and sheep when treated as above or otherwise laid down in grass. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, while too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way from the extreme points, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of its north-eastern point, and runs thence north-westward until it flows into the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from the Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for small steamers only for about fifty miles. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wanganui and Manawatu, which flow towards the south-west into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, the Red Crater (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with considerable force and noise, the vapours being charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Tongariro. It is an extinct volcanic cone, and reaches the height of 9,100ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit. This lake lies at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, and is about 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and quite inaccessible except by ropes. It is much disturbed by eddies, from which steam or vapour is given off. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, the volcanic country north-east of that lake, and White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. This is also an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,300ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in its solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty, the cone being one of the most perfect in the world.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

Without a doubt the hot springs form the most remarkable feature of the North Island. They are found over a large area, extending from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaeawai, in the extreme north—a distance of some 300 miles; but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua, about forty miles north-north-east from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake: Rotomahana during the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the neighbourhood has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the lakes, geysers, and hot springs, the number of which is very great, and some of which possess remarkable curative properties for certain complaints—still afford considerable attraction for tourists and invalids. Recently the world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, not suitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.


Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is about sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony.


The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Jackson's Head,’ in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southernmost) District, being about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a mountainous range known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their latitude, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has aptly been termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, nearly 10,000ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward beyond this a fine chain of peaks runs as the backbone of the Middle Island to where Mount Cook, or Aorangi, towers supreme in the midst of the grandest scenes of the Southern Alps.

For beauty and grandeur of scenery the Southern Alps of New Zealand may worthily compare with, while in point of variety they are said actually to surpass, the Alps of Switzerland. In New Zealand no one has actually succeeded in making a complete ascent of any of the highest mountains. Many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is still, in parts of the Middle Island, a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the west being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen forest. The largest glaciers on each side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), environed by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 6,000ft. above the sea. Near Milford, the finest of these sounds, is the great Sutherland Waterfall, 1,904ft. high.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending towards the south-west 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, considered one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The District of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for tillage. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and are suitable for grazing sheep. There are goldfields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The inland lakes are very important features in Otago. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but its greatest width is not more than four miles. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. It covers an area of 114 square miles. Te Anau Lake is still larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in Otago are Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland, extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern side timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they rise in flood, forming, where not confined by rocky walls, beds of considerable width, generally covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river in the colony as regards volume of water is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They form the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, none but vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the sole ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 24ft. of water on the bars.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island that may be available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 8,000,000 acres.


Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres. It is mountainous, and for the most part covered with forest.


The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of. two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep.

The Kermadec group of islands, four in number, are situated between 29° 10′ and 31° 30′ south latitude, and between 177° 45′ and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Island, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands are about 290 miles south of Bluff* Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31′ 29” S., and longitude 166° 19′ 12” E. They have several good harbours. Port Boss, at the north end of the principal island, was described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end’ of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adam's Strait or Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive included the Governor, and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

The successors of these gentlemen, appointed in August, 1841, May, 1842, and January, 1844, respectively, continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them—Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General—sat as a member of the first General Assembly, opened on the 27th May, 1854. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the General Assembly. These latter held no portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; but in 1852 an Act granting representative institutions to the colony was passed by the Imperial Legislature. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, consisting of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years; but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of electors of the province; the members of the Provincial Council by those of the electoral districts. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into operation.


The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making such appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time the dissolution of Parliament by the Governor may necessitate such general election. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies. An Act was passed in 1887 which provided that, on the termination of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected, under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christ-church, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. “The Electoral Act, 1893,” has extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes, and remains, under the Act of 1893, substantially unaltered. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony, whatever the number or nature of the qualifications he or she may possess, or wherever they may be. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives. The changes in the electoral laws, with remarks on the results of the election of November, 1893, are the subject of a special article in Part III. of this work. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893,” is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult person, if resident one year in the colony and three months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration also entitles a man or woman to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. Maoris possessing a £25 freehold under Crown title can also register. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. The proportion of representation to population at the last general election for the House of Representatives, in November, 1893, was one European member to every 9,603 inhabitants, and one Maori member to every 10,498 Natives.


Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the then ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.


Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and 672,265 at the close of the year 1893, exclusive of Maoris.



Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to £31 Dec., 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which office he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major- General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874 Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant - General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892.



Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1856.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The three gentlemen last mentioned were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. Two of them, the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer, were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, but all three remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to Sept., 1854.



No. of Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Closing or Dissolution.
First Parliament27 May, 18549 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second Parliament15 April, 185616 August, 1856.
(There was no session held in the year 1857.)
10 April, 185821 August, 1858.
(There was no session held in the year 1859.)
30 July, 18605 November, 1860.
Third Parliament3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth Parliament30 June, 18668 October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth Parliament14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 187225 October, 1872.
15 July, 18733 October, 1873.
3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth Parliament15 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187915 August, 1879.
Seventh Parliament24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18801 September, 1880.
9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth Parliament18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth Parliament7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188715 July, 1887.
Tenth Parliament6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 18903 October, 1890.
Eleventh Parliament23 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 18915 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June. 18938 November, 1893.
Twelfth Parliament21 June, 1894. 



Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.Retired.

* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.

1.Bell-Sewell7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2.Fox20 May, 18562 June, 1856.
3.Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4.Fox12 July, 18616 August, 1862.
5.Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6.Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
7.Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8.Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9.Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10.Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11.Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12.Fox3 March, 18738 April, 1873.
13.Vogel8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14.Pollen6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15.Vogel15 February, 18761 September, 1876.
16.Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17.Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18.Grey15 October, 18778 October, 1879.
19.Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20.Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21.Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22.Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23.Atkinson28 August, 18843 September, 1884.
24.Stout-Vogel3 September, 18848 October, 1887.
25.Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26.Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27.Seddon1 May, 1893. 


Name of Premier.Name of Premier.
  • Henry Sewell.

  • William Fox.

  • Edward William Stafford.

  • William Fox.

  • Alfred Domett.

  • Frederick Whitaker.

  • Frederick Aloysius Weld.

  • Edward William Stafford.

  • William Fox.

  • Hon. Edward William Stafford.

  • George Marsden Waterhouse.

  • Hon. William Fox.

  • Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.

  • Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.

  • Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.

  • Harry Albert Atkinson.

  • Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).

  • Sir George Grey, K.C.B.

  • Hon. John Hall.

  • Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.

  • Harry Albert Atkinson.

  • Robert Stout.

  • Harry Albert Atkinson.

  • Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.

  • Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.

  • John Ballance.

  • Richard John Seddon.



Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 18548 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 18561 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Henry John Miller8 July, 1892. 



Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 
15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.3 June, 1861 
30 June, 186613 Sept., 1870.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.14 August, 187121 October, 1875.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.11 July, 1879 
24 September, 1879 
18 May, 1882 
7 August, 1884 
6 October, 18873 October, 1890.
Major William Jukes Steward23 January, 18918 November, 1893.
Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.21 June, 1894. 



Netherlands.—Dr. Laon Adrian de Vicq, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Consul; Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, and David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Vice-Consuls.

Belgium.—Gustave Beckx, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Alexander Beck, Christchurch, and Arthur Masy, Auckland, Consuls.

Italy.—Cavaliere Nicola Squitti, Barone de Palermiti e Guarna, Melbourne, Consul; Alexander Cracroft Wilson, Christchurch, George Fisher, Wellington, Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, Dr. Francesco Rosetti, Hokitika, Geraldo Guiseppe Perotti, Greymouth, and Patrick Comiskey, Auckland, Consular Agents.

German Empire.—A. Pelldram, Sydney, Consul-General; Bendix Hallenstein, Dunedin, Friedrich Augustus Krull, Wanganui, H. Brown (on leave), Eugene Langguth (acting), Auckland, and Hem-rich von Haast, Christchurch, Consuls; Augustus Friedrich Castendyk, Wellington, Vice-Consul.

France.—William Thomas Locke Travers, Wellington, Vice-Consul; David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin, and Hon. Edmund William Parker, Christchurch, Consular Agents.

Sweden and Norway.—Edward Pearce, Wellington, Consul; Edward Valdemar Johansen, Auckland, and Frank Graham, Christchurch, Vice-Consuls.

Denmark.—Edward Valdemar Johansen, Auckland, Consul for the North Island; Emil Christian Skog, Christchurch, Consul for the South Island; Francis Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington, and Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Vice-Consuls.

Spain.—Don Francisco Arenas Y. Bonet, Christchurch, Vice-Consul.

Portugal.—John Duncan, Wellington, Consul; Henry Rees George, Auckland, and Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Vice-Consuls.

Austro-Hungary.—Julius Mergell, Sydney, Consul.

United States.—George H. Wallace, Melbourne, Consul-General; John Darcey Conolly, Auckland, Consul (for New Zealand); Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland, Vice-Consul; Albert Cuff, Christchurch, Henry Stephenson, Russell, Robert Wyles, Mongonui, Thomas Cahill, M.D., Wellington, and Reynolds Driver, Dunedin, Consular Agents.

Nicaragua.—J. H. Amora, Sydney, Consul-General for Australasia.

Chili.—William Henry Eldred, Sydney, Consul-General; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Consular Agent.

Hawaiian Islands.—James Cruickshank, Auckland, Reynolds Driver (acting), Dunedin, Consuls.


(With their Addresses).


Sir W. B. Perceval, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


New South Wales.—The Hon. Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C.B., Westminster Chambers, 9, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—S. Yardley, C.M.G.

Victoria.—The Hon. Duncan Gillies, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—

South Australia.—The Hon. T. Playford, Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Samuel Deering.

Queensland.—The Hon. Sir James F. Garrick, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Charles Shortt Dicken, C.M.G.

Western Australia.—The Hon. Sir Malcolm Fraser, K.C.M.G., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. Secretary—Reginald Hare.

Tasmania.—The Hon. Sir Robert G. W. Herbert, G.C.B., Westminster Chambers, 5, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—



Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Most Hon. the Marquis of Ripon, K.G., 17th August, 1892.

Under-Secretaries: Permanent—The Hon. Sir Robert Henry Meade, K.C.B., 1st February, 1892; Parliamentary—Sydney Charles Buxton, M.P., 17th August, 1892.

Assistant Under-Secretaries—John Bramston, D.C.L., C.B., 30th June, 1876; Edward Wingfield, B.C.L., C.B., 19th July, 1878; Edward Fairfield, C.M.G., 1st February, 1892.

Private Secretary to Secretary of State — F. S. St. Quintin. Assistant Private Secretary—Hartmann W. Just, B.A.



Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommaney, K.C.M.G., and Ernest Edward Blake.


Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Dillon, Knt. Bach., 1873; K.C.M.G., 1881; C.B., 1886.

Buckley, Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G., 1892.

Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.

FitzGerald, James Edward, Esq., C.M.G., 1870.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 1890.

Grey, Bight Hon. Sir George, K.C.B., 1848; P.C., 1894.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 1882.

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.

Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie, C.M.G., 1879.

O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.

Perceval, Sir Westby Brook, K.C.M.G, 1894.

Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.

Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G., 1891.

Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.

Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius, C.M.G., 1872; K.C.M.G., 1875.

Whitmore, Hon. Colonel Sir George Stoddart, C.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.


By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, is approved by Her Majesty for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announces that he is prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Queen the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years’ service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title has since been conferred on Sir F. D. Bell, Sir G. M. O'Rorke, and Major William Jukes Steward.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers whose names do not appear in the list given above are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Dick, Thomas, 1884; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Gisborne, William, 1873; Haultain, Colonel T. M., 1870; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reynolds, William H., 1876; Richardson, George F., 1891; Rolleston, William, 1884; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.


GLASGOW, His Excellency the Right Honourable David, Earl of, G.C.M.G., a Captain of the Royal Navy, served in the White Sea during the Russian war, and in the Chinese war of 1857, and retired in 1878; born, 1833; married, in 1873, Dorothea Thomasina, daughter of Sir Edward Hunter-Blair; appointed February 24, and assumed office June 7, 1892, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Government House, Wellington; and Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp—Edward Hay Mackenzie Elliot (Major, South Lancashire Regiment).

Aide-de-Camp — Edward Francis Clayton (Lieutenant, Scots-Guards). Extra Aide-de-Camp—Stair Hathorn Johnston Stewart (Captain, late 20th Hussars).

ADMINISTRATOROFTHE GOVERNMENT.—A dormant commission empowers the Chief Justice of the Colony for the time being to administer the Government in case of the death, incapacity, removal, or departure of the Governor.


His Excellency the GOVERNOR presides.

Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier, Minister for Public Works, Minister of Defence, and Native Minister.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., Attorney-General and Colonial Secretary.

Hon. W. P. Reeves, Minister of Education, Commissioner of Stamp Duties, and Minister of Labour.

Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister of Justice and Minister of Mines.

Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands and Immigration, Minister of Agriculture, and Commissioner of Forests.

Hon. J. G. Ward, Colonial Treasurer, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, Commissioner of Customs, Minister of Marine, and Minister of Industries and Commerce.

Hon. J. Carroll (without portfolio), representing the Native race.

Hon. W. Montgomery (without portfolio).

Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.



The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-six. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life, but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural - born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible to become Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £150 a year, payable monthly Actual travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. A deduction of £1 5s. per sitting day is made in case of an absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause, exceeding five sitting days in any one session. A seat is vacated by any member of the Council — (1), If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. The presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.


Stating the Provincial District and the Date of Writ of Summons.


Chairman of Committees—The Hon. WILLIAM DOUGLAS HALL BAILLIE.

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment
Acland, the Hon. John Barton ArundelCanterbury8 July, 1865.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough8 March, 1861.
Barnicoat, the Hon. John WallisNelson14 May, 1883.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago15 October, 1892.
Bonar, the Hon. James AlexanderWestland27 June, 1868.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury23 January, 1891.
Buckley, the Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G.Wellington25 July, 1878.
Dignan, the Hon. PatrickAuckland3 February, 1879.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago15 October, 1892.
Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.Wellington13 May, 1870.
Hart, the Hon. Robert;Wellington9 July, 1872.
Holmes, the Hon. MathewOtago19 June, 1866.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury6 June, 1893.
Jennings, the Hon. William ThomasAuckland15 October, 1892.
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington23 January, 1891.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki15 October, 1892.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer ThomasMarlborough15 May, 1885.
Kerr, the Hon. JamesWestland15 October, 1892.
McCullough, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 October, 1892.
MacGregor, the Hon. JohnOtago15 October, 1892.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.
Mantell, the Hon. Walter Baldock DurantWellington19 June, 1866.
Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)Otago8 July, 1865.
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Morris, the Hon. George BenthamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Oliver, the Hon. RichardOtago10 November, 1881.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay23 January, 1891.
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury3 June, 1873.
Pharazyn, the Hon. RobertWellington15 May, 1885.
Pollen, the Hon. DanielAuckland12 May, 1873.
Reynolds, the Hon. William HunterOtago6 May, 1878.
Richardson, the Hon. Edward, C.M.G.Wellington15 October, 1892.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington6 June, 1893.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.
Shephard, the Hon. JosephNelson15 May, 1885.
Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel EdwardOtago15 May, 1885.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury7 March, 1882.
Stewart, the Hon. William DownieOtago23 January, 1891.
Swanson, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago15 May, 1885.
Wahawaha, the Hon. Major Ropata, N.Z.C.Auckland10 May, 1887.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury15 May, 1885.
Walker, the Hon. William CampbellCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay31 August, 1863.
Whyte, the Hon. John BlairAuckland23 January, 1891.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland7 March, 1882.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.


The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1887, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1890. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members—ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty European members, and the Middle Island forty. The Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. The qualification for membership is simply registration as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 8 of “The Electoral Act, 1893.” All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, and the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as or of sitting or voting as members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £20 per month, amounting to £240 per annum. £2 for every sitting-day exceeding five is deducted on account of absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 1st January, 1893, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1892.” Twenty members, exclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 to 5.30, resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers’ Gallery is open free to the public.


With the Name of the District for which they are elected, and the Date of Notification of Return of Writ.

Speaker—The Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt.

Chairman of Committees—Arthur Robert Guinness.

Name.Electoral District.Date of Notification of Return of Writ.
For European Electorates.
Allen, JamesBruce13 December, 1893.
Bell, Francis Henry DillonCity of Wellington13 December, 1893.
Buchanan, Walter ClarkeWairarapa13 December, 1893.
Buddo, DavidKaiapoi13 December, 1893.
Buick, Thomas LindsayWairau13 December, 1893.
Button, Charles EdwardCity of Auckland13 December, 1893.
Cadman, Hon. Alfred JeromeWaikato13 December, 1893.
Carncross, Walter Charles FrederickTaieri13 December, 1893.
Carnell, SamuelNapier13 December, 1893.
Carroll, Hon. JamesWaiapu13 December, 1893.
Collins, William WhitehouseCity of Christchurch13 December, 1893.
Crowther, WilliamCity of Auckland13 December, 1893.
Duncan, ThomasOamaru13 December, 1893.
Duthie, JohnCity of Wellington13 December, 1893.
Earnshaw, WilliamCity of Dunedin13 December, 1893.
Flatman, Frederick RobertPareora13 December, 1893.
Fraser, WilliamWakatipu13 December, 1893.
Graham, JohnCity of Nelson13 December, 1893.
Green, JamesWaikouaiti13 December, 1893.
Grey, Right Hon. Sir George, P.C., K.C.B.City of Auckland13 December, 1893.
Guinness, Arthur RobertGrey13 December, 1893.
Hall, CharlesWaipawa13 December, 1893.
Hall-Jones, WilliamTimaru13 December, 1893.
Harris, BenjaminFranklin13 December, 1893.
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton13 December, 1893.
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands13 December, 1893.
Hutchison, GeorgePatea13 December, 1893.
Hutchison, WilliamCity of Dunedin13 December, 1893.
Joyce, JohnLyttelton13 December, 1893.
Kelly, James WhyteInvercargill13 December, 1893.
Kelly, WilliamBay of Plenty13 December, 1893.
Lang, Frederic WilliamWaipa13 December, 1893.
Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie, C.M.G.Tuapeka13 December, 1893.
Lawry, FrankParnell13 December, 1893.
McGowan, JamesThames13 December, 1893.
McGuire, FelixEgmont13 December, 1893.
McKenzie, Hon. JohnWaihemo13 December, 1893.
McKenzie, RoderickBuller13 December, 1893.
Mackenzie, ThomasClutha13 December, 1893.
Mackintosh, JamesWallace13 December, 1893.
McLachlan, JohnAshburton13 December, 1893.
McNab, RobertMataura13 December, 1893.
Maslin, William StephenRangitata17 April, 1894.
Massey, William FergusonWaitemata13 December, 1893.
Meredith, RichardAshley13 December, 1893.
Millar, John AndrewChalmers13 December, 1893.
Mills, Charles HoughtonWaimea-Sounds13 December, 1893.
Mitchelson, Hon. EdwinEden13 December, 1893.
Montgomery, William HughEllesmere13 December, 1893.
Morrison, ArthurCaversham13 December, 1893.
Newman, Alfred KingcomeWellington Suburbs13 December, 1893.
O'Regan, Patrick JosephInangahua13 December, 1893.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach.Manukau13 December, 1893.
Pinkerton, DavidCity of Dunedin13 December, 1893.
Pirani, FrederickPalmerston13 December, 1893.
Reeves, Hon. William PemberCity of Christchurch13 December, 1893.
Russell, George Warren.Riccarton13 December, 1893.
Russell, William RussellHawke's Bay13 December, 1893.
Saunders, AlfredSelwyn 
Seddon, Hon. Richard JohnWestland13 December, 1893.
Smith, Edward MetcalfNew Plymouth13 December, 1893.
Smith, George JohnCity of Christchurch13 December, 1893.
Stevens, JohnRangitikei13 December, 1893.
Steward, Hon. William JukesWaitaki13 December, 1893.
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G.City of Wellington13 December, 1893.
Tanner, William WilcoxAvon13 December, 1893.
Thompson, RobertMarsden13 December, 1893.
Ward, Hon. Joseph GeorgeAwarua13 December, 1893.
Willis, Archibald DudingstonWanganui13 December, 1893.
Wilson, James GlennyOtaki13 December, 1893.
For Maori Electorates.
Heke, HoneNorthern Maori11 January, 1894.
Parata, TameSouthern Maori30 December, 1893.
Pere, WiEastern Maori11 January, 1894.
Te Ao, RopataWestern Maori2 January, 1894.

Clerk of House of Representatives—G. Friend.

Clerk-Assistant—H. Otterson.

Second Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.

Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—Thomas Bracken.

Interpreters—L. M. Grace, —.


Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.

Deputy Clerk of Writs—R. H. Govett.

Acting Librarian—H. L. James, B.A.

Chief Hansard Reporter—C. C. N. Barron.


There is no State Church in the colony, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. The Government in the early days of the colony set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.



The Right Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1869 (Senior Bishop, Acting Primate).

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; consecrated 1892.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.

The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871.

The Right Rev Cecil Wilson, M.A., Melanesia; consecrated 1894.

Bishopric of Waiapu, vacant (June, 1894).

Bishopric of Wellington, vacant (June, 1894).



The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. John Edmund Luck, D.D., O.S.B., Auckland; consecrated 1882.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Most Rev. Patrick Moran, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1856.


The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding their annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one of the various dioceses.—President, the Bishop of Auckland, Acting Primate; Secretary, Rev. C. M. Nelson, M.A., Auckland; Lay Secretary, James Allen, Esq., B.A., M.H.R., Dunedin. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese. The next General Synod will be held in Nelson, in February, 1895.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly meets annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, in succession. Moderator, the Very Rev. David Gordon, B.A.; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, Napier.

Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Synod meets annually in October at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., D.D., Dunedin; Clerk, Rev. W. Bannerman, Roslyn, Dunedin; Church Factor, Mr. Edmund Smith, High Street, Dunedin. Theological Professors, Rev. John Dunlop, M.A., D.D., and Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D.

Wesley an Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets in March, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1894-95), Rev. David McNicol, Grafton Road, Auckland; Secretary, Rev. Henry Bull, Onehunga. The next Conference is to assemble in Nelson on or about the 1st March, 1895.

Baptist Union of New Zealand. — President, Rev. T. Bray, Nelson; Secretary, Rev. W. E. Woolley, Thames. The Union comprises 30 churches, 3,068 members, 4,952 scholars in the Sunday schools, with 569 teachers, &cc. There are also 100 local preachers, and 27 preaching-stations.

Congregational Union of New Zealand.—The annual meetings are held the second week of February, at such place as may he decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for 1894, Mr. A. W. Beaven, Christchurch; Chairman Elect, Rev. B. L. Thomas, Auckland; Secretary, Mr. H. J. Le Bailly, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Rev. C. H. Bradbury, Wellington; Head Office, 314, Victoria Arcade, Auckland. In 1895 the meeting of the Council will be held in Dunedin, by invitation from the Otago District Committee.

Primitive Methodists.—A Conference is held every January. The next is to be held in Wellington, commencing 9th January, 1895. The Executive Committee of the Church sits in Auckland. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. Charles E. Ward, Auckland; Secretary. Rev. Joseph Sharp, Timaru; Secretary of Executive Committee, Mr. D. Goldie, Auckland.

United Methodist Free Churches.—The Assembly meets annually in February, in Canterbury, Auckland, Wellington, or Hawke's Bay. For 1894 the President is the Rev. J. Hosking, Christchurch, and the Secretary Mr. J. A. Flesher, Christchurch.

Hebrews.—Ministers, Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. Louis J. Harrison, Dunedin; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. Adolph T. Chodowski, Christchurch; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are held at these places on the third Sunday in Elul (about the end of August).

Bible Christians.—A District Meeting of the Connexion is held annually. Superintendent, Rev. W. Ready, Dunedin; Connexional Representative and District Treasurer, Rev. J. Orchard, Christchurch; Trust Secretary, Rev. B. H. Ginger, Cromwell; School and Temperance Secretary, Rev. F. T. Read, Addington.


The following shows the number of persons (exclusive of Maoris) belonging to the different religious denominations in New Zealand, and the number of churches and chapels, according to the census of April, 1891; also, the number of officiating ministers under “The Marriage Act, 1880,” on the 1st June, 1894:—

Religious Denominations.Persons.Churches and Chapels.Officiating. Ministers

* Including 42 Dissenters; 55 Christian Israelites.

* Including 2,326 of No denomination, so described.

Including 1,269 of No religion, so described; 123 Atheists; 65 Secularists.

In addition to the number of churches and chapels here given, there are about 400 schoolhouses, dwellings, or public buildings used for public worship, besides 20 buildings open to more than one Protestant denomination.

Church of England, and Episcopalians not otherwise defined250,945345270
Protestants (undescribed)2,386  
Church of Scotland, Free Church of Scotland, Free Presbyterians, Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland, and Presbyterians otherwise defined141,477246185
Wesleyan Methodists53,061213117
Methodists (undefined)2,071  
Primitive Methodists5,2204129
United Methodist Free Churches, Free Methodists, United Methodists1,9051816
Bible Christians1,06999
Congregational Independents6,6852119
Lutherans, German Protestants5,6161311
Society of Friends315  
Other Protestants—
Church of Christ (including Christian, Church of Christ, Christian Disciples, Disciples of Christ, Disciples)5,241159
Brethren (including Brethren, Christian Brethren, Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)3,5373 
Believers in Christ193  
Evangelists (including Evangelical Union, Evangelical Church, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Brethren)93  
Salvation Army9,383348
Swedenborgians (including New Church, New Jerusalem Church)178  
Seventh-day Adventists41512
Students of Truth325  
Other Protestants (variously returned)536*  
 Roman Catholics85,856181142
 Catholics (undefined)1,416  
 Greek Church56  
Catholic Apostolic15011
Other sects—
 Mormons, Latter-day Saints206  
 Buddhists, Pagans, Confucians3,928  
 Others (variously returned)154  
No denomination—
 Deists, Theists51  
 No denomination (variously returned)2,999*18 
No religionl,558  
Object to state15,342  


The following return shows the number of churches and chapels, schoolhouses, and other buildings used for public worship by the different religious denominations, in April, 1891; also the number of persons for whom there was accommodation, and the number usually attending, in each provincial district:—

Provincial Districts.Churches and Chapels.School-houses used for Public Worship.Dwellings or Public Buildings used for Public Worship.Number of Persons
For whom Accommodation.Attending Services.
Hawke's Bay588611,2747,064
Marlborough301 5,3103,335


[June, 1894.]



Premier—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary to Premier and to Cabinet—A.J. Willis

Shorthand- and Type-writer—J. Gray



Colonial Secretary—Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.

Under-Secretary—Hugh Pollen

Chief Clerk—R. H. Govett

Clerks—R. F. Lynch, J. F. Andrews, L. W. Loveday, M. J. Hodgins

Housekeeper and Chief Messenger—


Controller and Auditor-General—J. E. FitzGerald, C.M.G.

Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—J. G. Anderson

Clerks—L. C. Roskruge, W. Dodd, P. P. Webb, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holds-worth, C. M. Georgeson, A. W. Eames, J. T. Dumbell, B. A. Meek

Extra Clerks—D. C. limes, J. Swift, A. E. Bybles, J. Ward

Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. F. W. Palliser

Audit Travelling Inspectors—A. H. Maclean, J. King, E. J. A. Stevenson, W. R. Holmes, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, J. M. Glasgow, C. P. Johnson


Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen

Chief Clerk—G. Drury

Clerks—W. C. Sproule, E. F. Norris, S.

Coffey Cadet—M. J. Ryan


Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—S. Costall

Superintending Overseer—J. Burns

Chief Clerk and Accountant—B.B. Allen

Clerk and Computer—B. K. Manley

Clerks —F. Barraud, J. W. Hall, R. Watts. A. Stace, W. Phillips

Cadet—R. B. Gray

Overseers—J. J. Gamble, B. Wilson

Overseer, Machine-room—C. Young

Overseer, Binning Branch—W. Franklin

Sub-overseer, Binding Branch—G. F. Broad

Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle

Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers

Stamp Printer—H. Hume

Stereotyper and Electrotyper — W. J. Kirk

Readers—J. W. Henley, W. Fuller, M. F. Marks, H. S. Mountier

Forewoman, Binding Branch — Miss Marsden



Colonial Treasurer—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, and Paymaster-General—James B. Heywood

Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey

Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell

Private Secretary and Shorthand-writer to Colonial Treasurer—F. Hyde

Clerks—C. Meacham, R. B. Vincent, W. E. Cooper, J. R. Duncan, E. L. Mowbray, A. O. Gibbes, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, J. Holmes, H. N. W. Church, J. Eman Smith, A. J. Morgan, T. J. Davis, F. H. Tuckey

Cadets—C. E. Matthews, H. Hawthorne, W. Jeff, W. Wilson, F. Davies

Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Devaney


Registrar—E. Mason

Revising Barrister—L. G. Reid

Clerk—C. T. Benzoni


Minister—Hon. J. G. Ward

Clerk—A. M. Smith


Commissioner of Taxes—J. McGowan

Deputy Commissioner of Taxes—G. F. C. Campbell

Chief Clerk—F. J. M. D. Walmsley

Accountant—P. Heyes

Clerks—G. Maxwell, H. Nancarrow, A. J. McGowan, J. P. Dugdale, J. M. King, D. R. Purdie, A. F. Oswin, G. W. Jänisch, J. Stevenson, C. V. Kreeft, H. H. Seed, D. G. Clark. T. Oswin, J. R. Smyth, H. L. Wiggins, J. W. Black

Cadets—W. J. Organ, R. Hepworth, J.J. Hunt, C. de R. Andrews, M. J. Crombie



Minister of Justice—Hon. A. J. Cadman

Under-Secretary—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.

Chief Clerk—F. Waldegrave

Translator—G. H. Davies

Clerks—C. B. Jordan, E. W. Porritt, R. C. Sim, B. M. Wilson, R. Hirter


Attorney - General — Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.

Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid

Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid

Law Draftsman—J. Cumin

Clerk—E. Y. Redward


Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.

Deputy Registrar—F. Waldegrave

Clerks—J. C. Lewis, F. J. Stewart


Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice—

Wellington—Sir J. Prendergast, Knt.

Puisne Judges—

Wellington—C. W. Richmond

Auckland—E. T. Conolly

Christchurch—J. E. Denniston

Dunedin—J. S. Williams

District Court Judges.

Wairarapa, Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queens-town, Naseby, Lawrence, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, and Reefton—C. D. R. Ward

Invercargill—C. E. Raw-son

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—W. Stuart

Wanganui—C. C. Kettle

Napier—A. Turnbull

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Blenheim—J. Allen

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—A. H. King

Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon

Invercargill—F. G. Morgan


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Wairarapa—T. Hutchison

Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—A. Greenfield

Central Westland—H. Lucas

Marlborough—W. A. Hawkins

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—A. H. King

Otago—C. McK. Gordon

Southland—W. Martin

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—A. J. Cotterill

Wellington—H. Gully

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—W. Sinclair

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White

Hokitika—W. M. Purkiss

Dunedin—B. C. Haggitt

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors (District Courts).

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wanganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert

Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika and Greymouth—W. M. Purkiss

Timaru—J. W. White

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Stipendiary Magistrates.

Auckland—H. W. Northcroft

Pokeno, Waikato, &cc.—T. Jackson

Onehunga, &cc.—R. S. Bush*

* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

Russell, &cc.—J. S. Clendon

Tauranga, &cc.—J. M. Roberts

Thames, &cc.—H. E. Kenny*

Gisborne, &cc.—J. Booth

New Plymouth, &cc.—W. Stuart

Opunake, &cc.—A. Tuke

Wellington, &cc.—J. C. Martin

Wanganui, &cc—C. C. Kettle

Palmerston North, &cc.—H. W. Brabant

Wairarapa, &cc.—T. Hutchison

Napier, &cc.—A. Turnbull

Nelson, &cc.—H. W. Robinson, Wilson Heaps

Westport, Collingwood, &cc.—A. Greenfield*

Blenheim, &cc.—J. Allen*

Christchurch, &cc.—R. Beetham

Kaiapoi, &cc.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &cc.—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, &cc.—H. A. Stratford*

Hokitika, &cc.—D. Macfarlane*

Dunedin, &cc.—E. H. Carew

Oamaru, &cc.—J. Keddell*

Lawrence, &cc.—R. S. Hawkins*

Clyde, &cc.—J. N. Wood*

Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*

Invercargill. &cc.—C. E. Rawson*

Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—J. Lawson

Wellington—J. Ashcroft

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham

Clerics of District and Magistrates’ Courts.

New Plymouth—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Hawera—A. Trimble

Wanganui—A. D. Thomson

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Masterton—F. H. Ibbetson

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Greymouth—B. Harper

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—H. Lucas

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—J. R. Colyer

Oamaru—W. G Filleul

Invercargill—W. Martin

Queenstown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—H. J. Abel

Naseby—E. Rawson

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens’ and Magistrates’ Courts.

Thames—F. J. Burgess

Coromandel—T. M. Lawlor

Te Aroha—J. Jordan

Whangarei—T. W. Taylor

Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough)—W. H. Palmer

Nelson—C. H. Webb-Bowen

Motueka—H E. Gilbert

Collingwood—S. J. Dew

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—John Bird

Reefton—H. Lucas

Greymouth — B. Harper

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Naseby, &cc.—E. Rawson

Gore and Wyndham—C. J. Hinton

Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—J. Fleming

Queenstown and Arrowtown — H. N. Firth

Lawrence—H. J. Abel

Riverton—A. M. Eyes

Clerics of Magistrates’ Courts.

Auckland—J. B. Stoney

Tauranga—J. Thomson

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Hamilton—T. Kirk

Napier—A. S. B. Foster

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Marlon, &cc.—F. M. Deighton

Wellington—W. P. James

Blenheim—W. A. Hawkins

Christchurch—W. G. Walker

Lyttelton—W. Shanaghan

Kaiapoi—M. Lynskey

Dunedin—W. Somerville


Chief Judge—G. B. Davy

Judges—A. Mackay, D. Scannell, R. Ward, S. W. von Stürmer, W. E. Gudgeon, W. J. Butler, H. F. Edger, W. G. Mair, L. O'Brien

Registrars—Auckland, J. A. Wilson (acting); Gisborne, H. C. Jackson (Deputy); Wellington, H. D. Johnson

Recorders of the Native Land Court.

H. W. Brabant, R. S. Bush, J. Booth, H. W. Bishop, J. S. Clendon. T. Jackson, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, E. H. Carew, F. J. W. Gascoyne, H. E. Kenny

Trust Commissioners under Native Lands Frauds Prevention Act.

The Chief Judge, Judges and Recorders of the Native Land Court, also C. E. Rawson, H. Turton, H. W. Robinson, A. Turnbull, H. W. Northcroft, J. C. Martin

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga—G. T. Wilkinson


Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers—Auckland, George Sinclair Reston; Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Francis Edward Severne; New Plymouth, Edward Rickerby; Wanganui, Robert T. Noble Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey; Nelson, Thomas R. Pointon


Minister of Labour—Hon. W. P. Reeves

Secretary and Chief Inspector of Factories—E. Tregear

Chief Clerk—James Mackay

Record Clerk—V. L. Willeston

Cadets—F. W. T. Rowley and J. W. Collins

(There are over 200 Bureau Agencies in different parts of the colony.)


Wellington—J. Mackay, J. Shanaghan; Wellington and Auckland — Grace Neil; Christchurch—J. Lomas; Auckland — H. Ferguson; Dunedin — H. Maxwell; and 106 local Inspectors.



Minister for Public Works—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales

Resident Engineer (Head Office)—P. S. Hay. M.A., M. Inst. C.E.

Chief Clerk—J. A. McArthur

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—W. D. Dumbell, L. F. Tegnér, W. Gibson, H. R. Roe, J. Williams, W. B. Fisher, W. Butler. E. Horneman

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford

Architectural Draughtsman—J. Campbell

Draughtsmen—T. Perham, E. Jackson, W. Withers, W. G. Swan

Engineering Cadets—F. W. Furkert, A. Jack


District Engineer—Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M. Inst. C.E.

Resident Engineers—Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Hunterville, G. Fitzgerald; Wellington, J. A. Wilson, jun.; Eketahuna, G. L. Cook, M. Inst. C.E.; Westport, T. H. Rawson; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E. In charge of North Island Main Trunk Railway survey, R. W. Holmes

Assistant Engineers—W. A. Shain, A. C. Koch, H. Macandrew, J. D. Louch,

F. M. Hewson, J. J. Hay, M. A., W. H. Gavin, J. W. Richmond, J. S. Stewart

Engineering Cadets—J. H. Lewis, H. Dickson, J. E. W. McEnnis

Clerks, Draughtsmen, &cc.—W. Black, C. T. Rushbrook, C. Wood, J. Young, A. Biddell, A. E. Kennedy, W. W. Spotswood, T. Douglas, F. G. Ince, J. H. Denton, A. R. Stone, J. Meenan, E. Waddell


Inspectors of Machinery and Engineer Surveyors of Steamers—Chief Inspector and Principal Engineer Surveyor, W. M. Mowatt; Auckland, W. J. Jobson, L. Blackwood; Wellington, H. A. McGregor, P. J. Carman; Christchurch, G. Croll; Dunedin, R. Duncan, A. Morrison

Clerk—A. W. Dwan

Cadet—B. Anderson



Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary and Superintendent—W. Gray

Assistant Secretary and Inspector—T. Rose

Telegraph Engineer—J. K. Logan

Controller of Money-orders and Sayings-banks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Assistant Inspector of Post Offices—J. Grubb

Sub-Inspectors of Post Offices—D. Cumming, C. J. A. Tipping

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Clerks—W. R. Morris, E. V. Senn, F. V. Waters, H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Beswick, W. Crow, G. Cenci, A. P. Dryden, L. Ledger. V. J. Brogan. W. Callaghan, G. W. Morehouse, W. Chegwidden, H. S. B. Miller, H. Huggins, G. V. Hudson, F. Perrin, H. D. Grocott, J. Brennan, H. Cornwall, R. J. Thompson, R. E. Hayes, D. A. Jenkins, H. N. McLeod, J. C. Redmond, C. B. Harton, W. J. Drake, R. F. Smith, J. D. Avery, H. E. Duff, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, W. H. Carter, J. J.’ Murray, P. Tyrrell, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, W. Menzies, F. Menzies, E. Harris, B. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod

Electrician—W. C. Smythe

Mechanician—H. F. Smith

Assistant Mechanician—A. W. Macandrew

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant. Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Cadet—C. Nicholls

Circulation Branch (Post Office)—J. Hoggard, Chief Clerk


Auckland—E. H. Bold

Christchurch—W. G. Meddings

Dunedin—J. Orchiston


Nelson—J. W. Gannaway


Auckland—S. B. Biss

* Thames—J. E. Coney

* These are combined post- and telegraph-offices.

* Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Napier—S. J. Jago

* New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

* Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

* Blenheim—J. G. Ballard

* Nelson—H. Calders

* Westport—J. H. Sheath

* Greymouth—C. J. Berry

* Hokitika—A. E. Cresswell

* Christchurch—R. Kirton

* Timaru—R. J. Goodman

* Oamaru—J. A. Hutton

Dunedin—E. Cook

* Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin


Auckland—W. S. Furby

Napier—H. W. Harrington

Wellington—C. C. Robertson

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—A. D. Lubecki


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—T. Larchin

Clerks, Customs—E. T. W. Maclaurin, H. J. Marsh. Audit—H. W. Brewer, H. Crowther (Writer)


Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—D. Johnston, jun.

New Plymouth—C. S. Nixon

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. McKellar

Wanganui—A. Elliott

Wairau—E. W. Pasley

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westport—J. Mills

Grey mouth—A. McDowell

Hokitika—E. Chilman

Lyttelton and Christchurch—E. Patten

Timaru—A. Hart

Oamaru—R. Thompson

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—J. Borrie


Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—H. Stephenson, Coastwaiter

Tauranga—J. Bull, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mongonui—A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coast waiter

Foxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge

Paten—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Picton—J. B. Gudgeon, Officer in Charge

Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk—G. Allport

Nautical Adviser—K. Johnson

Clerk—J. J. D. Grix

Cadet—G. Sinclair

Examiners of Masters and Mates—R. Johnson and R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Examiners of Masters and Mates, Auckland—T. C. Tilly and J. Robertson

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—Sir A. Douglas, Bart.

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—Sir A. Douglas, Bart.

Examiners of Engineers, Auckland—W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood

Examiners of Engineers, Wellington—W. M. Mowatt, H. A. McGregor, and P. Carman

Examiner of Engineers, Christchurch—G. Croll

Examiners of Engineers, Dunedin—R. Duncan and A. Morrison

Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Fairchild


* The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department. (See “Ports and Harbours.”)

Collingwood—J. E. Fletcher

Foxton—A. Seabury

Hokianga—G. Martin

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Robertson

Nelson—J. P. Low

Okarito—G. Thomson

Waitapu—S. G. Robinson


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. W. P. Reeves

Secretary for Stamps—C. A. St.G. Hickson

Chief Clerk and Accountant.—H. O. Williams

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Record and Receiving Clerk—J. P. Murphy

Clerk—J. Murray Chief

Stamper—C. Howe


Auckland—Thomas Hall

Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—G. G. Bridges

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Timaru—R. J. Goodman

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—E. Bamford

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—G. B. Davy

Hawke's Bay—G. G. Bridges

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. Allen

Canterbury—J. M. Batham and E. Denham

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Auckland—Thomas Hall

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—G. B. Davy

Hawke's Bay—G. G. Bridges

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—G. B. Davy

Canterbury—J. M. Batham

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


C. A. St. G. Hickson


Auckland—Thomas Hall

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—G. G. Bridges

Wellington—H. O. Williams

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Otago—P. C. Corliss

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. P. Reeves

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools—Rev. W. J. Habens. B.A.

Chief Clerk—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Clerks—P. K. de Castro. H. B. Kirk, M.A., R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne, A. R. Smithers, E. C. Banks

Organizing Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector, H. B. Kirk, M.A.


Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary

Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary

Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary

Grey—W. Riemenschneider, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A., Secretary

Canterbury North—J. V. Colborne-Veel, M.A., Secretary

Canterbury South—J. H. Bamfield, Secretary

Otago—P. G. Pryde, Secretary

Southland—J. Neill, Secretary


(Administrators of Education Reserves).

Auckland—H. N. Garland, Secretary

Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wellington—W. H. Warren, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—A. T. Jones, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, Secretary

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves

Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary


Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Ponsonby—Rev. W. B. Purton, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. T. G. Dawson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Palethorpe, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—G. M. Burlinson, Manager


Director—G. Van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle


Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—Thomas Burns, L.R.C.P., &cc.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum—Thomas R. King, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—E. E. Fooks, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum—H. Gribben

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum)—Joint proprietors, Dr. Alexander and J. Hume


Commissioners—Messrs. J. McKerrow (Chief), T. Ronayne, J. L. Scott

Secretary—E. G. Pilcher

Clerks—T. W. Waite, J. P. Bell, C. Isherwood, L. C. E. Hamann, J. E. Widdop, W. S. W. McGowan, W. H. Gifford

Audit Inspectors—C. Wallnutt, D. Munro, C. L. Russell

Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife

Clerks—H. Davidson, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, R. Allen, V. Jänisch, A. Morris, E. P. Brogan, W. F. Ambler, E. J. Fleming, R. J. Loe,

F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, W. Bourke, E. R. Nicholson, W. H. Hales, W. E. Ahern

Stores Manager—R. Carrow

Clerks—G. Felton, R. E. Mackay, A. M. Heaton, J. Webster, J. E. Hasloch, L. G. Porter, W. Bushill, F. L. Ward District.

Managers—Whangarei, H. B. Dobbie; Kawakawa, J. D. Harris; Kaihu, T. H. Barstow; Auckland, C. Hudson; Wanganui, H. Buxton; Napier, A. Garstin; Wellington, B. Dawson; Greymouth, D. T. McIntosh; Westport, T. A. Peterkin; Nelson, H. St. J. Christophers; Picton, J. H. Fox; Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; Dunedin, A. Grant; Invercargill, S. F. Whitecombe

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. H. Lowe, M.Inst.C.E.

Assistant Engineer—F. W. MacLean Resident. Engineers—Auckland, J. Coom; Napier-Taranaki, J. I. Lawson; Christchurch, James Burnett; Dunedin, T. C. Maltby; Invercargill, C. H. Biss

Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotheram

Locomotive Engineer—H. H. Jackson

Locomotive Managers—Auckland, A. V. Macdonald; Wanganui, A. L. Beattie



Minister of Mines—Hon. A. J. Cadman

Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Eliott

Inspecting Engineer—H. A. Gordon

Chief Clerk—T. H. Hamer

Clerks—T. S. M. Cowie, H. E. Radcliffe

Analyst—W. Skey

Assistant Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard


Thames and Auckland Districts—G. Wilson; Canterbury, Dunedin, and Southland Districts—J. Gow; West Coast Districts, N. D. Cochrane


Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken

Mount Ida—R. Murray


Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—James Park; Assistant, F. B. Allen. Reefton—R. M. Aitken


The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; W. M. Mowatt, Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Thomas Brown, of Denniston; and William Shore, of Kaitangata


Same official members as above Board, with the following private members: Thomas Dunlop, of Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, of Reefton; George Casley, of Reefton

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards.


Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines

Director—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—R. B. Gore

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey

Meteorological Observer, New Plymouth—E. Veale

Meteorological Observer, Hokitika—A. D. Macfarlane


Manager—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Hon. Treasurer—W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.

Secretary—R. B. Gore


Minister of Defence—Hon. R. J. Seddon Commandant of the Forces—Colonel F. J. Fox, R.A.

Under - Secretary—Lieut. - Colonel A. Hume (acting)

Clerks—H. S. Royle, J. F. Grey


The Chief Engineer—W. H. Hales



Major F. Y. Goring

Major W. B. Messenger

Major Sir A. P. Douglas, Bart.

Captain H. C. Morrison

Captain J. Coleman

Lieutenant J. E. Hume

Inspector of Submarine Mining Establishment.

Captain J. Falconer

Torpedo Corps.

Captain J. Falconer

Captain W. T. Powell

Quartermaster, Permanent Militia.

Captain S. C. Anderson

Surgeon, Permanent. Militia.

Ernest Edward Foots, M.B.

Honorary Surgeon, Permanent Militia.

Patrick J. O'Neill O'Carroll

Honorary Chaplain, Lyttellon Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. E. E. Chambers

Honorary Chaplain, Wellington Detachment Permanent Militia.

The Rev. W. C. Waters, M.A.


Head Office.

Commissioner—Lieutenant - Colonel A. Hume

Clerks—J. M. Goldfinch, John Evans, John Tasker

Police Department.

Inspectors, 1st Class—Thomas Broham, John Bell Thomson, Peter Pender, William Stone Pardy

Inspectors, 2nd Class—John Emerson, James Hickson, Francis McGovern


Minister of Lands and Immigration—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary for Crown Lands and Surveyor-General—S. Percy Smith

Under-Secretary for Crown Lands and Superintending Surveyor—Alexander Barron


Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Draughtsmen—J. M. Kemp. G. P. Wilson, H. McCardell, T. M. Grant, H. A. R. Farquhar, G. N. Sturtevant, A. L. Haylock

Auditor of Land Revenue—C. O'H. Smith

Chief Clerk—W.S. Short.

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Bookkeeper—P. C. Willson

Clerks—F. T. O'Neill, F. Samuel, J. B. Red ward, A. A. S. Danby, R. Leckie, J. P. Kennedy, E. F. Hawthorne

Superintendent of Village-settlements—J. E. March

Overseer of Works, Rotorua Sanatorium—C. Malfroy

Caretaker, Hanmer Springs—J. Rogers


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. Mueller

District Surveyors—L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin

Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. M. Taylor


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyors—E. C. Gold-Smith, J. Hay

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Strauchon

District Surveyor—H. M. Skeet

Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Clarke

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. P. Doile


Assistant Surveyor - General and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. H. Baker

District Surveyors—L. Smith, W. D. B. Murray, J. D. Climie, F. A. Thompson

Chief Draughtsman—J. McKenzie

Receiver of Land Revenue—W. G. Runcie


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—S. Weetman

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. Robinson


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. S. Browning

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, F. S. Smith, J. Snodgrass, R. J. Sadd

Chief Draughtsman—H. Trent

Receiver of Land Revenue—J. T. Catley


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—David Barron

District, Surveyor—W. G. Murray

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. J. Roberts


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant

District Surveyor—T. N. Broderick, G. H. McClure

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—A. A. McNab


Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. P. Maitland

Chief Surveyor—C. W. Adams

District Surveyors—J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmot

Chief Draughtsman—P. Treseder

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade


Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. W. Williams

District Surveyor—John Hay

Chief Draughtsman—J. G. Clare

Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch


Officer in Charge—P. Sheridan

Land-purchase Officer—G. T. Wilkinson


Auckland—G. Müeller, R. Thompson, B. Harris, D. Lundon, L. J. Bagnall

Hawke's Bay—T. Humphries, C. Hall, T. Hyde, R. R. Groom. G. Mathewson

Taranaki—J. Strauchon, T. Kelly, C. K. Stock, J. Heslop

Wellington—J. H. Baker, W. A. Fitzherbert, A. W. Hogg, T. W. Fisher, F. Pirani

Marlborough—S. Weetman, A. P. Seymour, C. H. Mills, J. Redwood, J. A. Parsons

Nelson—J. S. Browning, J. Kerr, D. Bate, F. Hamilton

Westland—D. Barron, J. Bevan, L. Northcroft, A. Matheson

Canterbury—J. W. A. Marchant, W. C. Walker, A. C. Pringle, R. Meredith, D. McMillan

Otago—J. P. Maitland, A. McKerrow, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—G. W. Williams, C. Cowan, A. Kinross, J. McIntyre



Minister in Charge—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—John D. Ritchie

Assistant Chief Inspector of Stock—W. A. Scaife

Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt

Clerk and Acting Biologist—T. W. Kirk, F.L.S.

Veterinary Surgeon—J. A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S.

Produce Commissioner, London—C. R. Valentine

Dairy Instructors—John Sawers, J. T. Lang

Pomologists—W. J. Palmer, J. C. Blackmore


Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw, Auckland; G. S. Cooke, Whangarei; D. Ross, Hamilton

Napier—J. Drummond (in charge), H. Oldham, Napier; C. Thomson, Gisborne; J. Harvey, Woodville

Wellington—Wairarapa—W. Miller, Masterton

West Coast—Richard Hull (in charge), Wanganui; A. Monro, Hawera; A. K. Blundell. Palmerston North

Nelson—H. M. Campbell, Nelson (in charge)

Marlborough—John Moore. Blenheim

Canterbury-Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), J. E. Thomson. Christ-church; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora, Waiau; W. G. Rees, Ashburton

South Canterbury—H. S. Thomson (in charge), Timaru; E. A. Field, Simon's Pass, Fairlie; C. C. Empson, Kurow

Otago—E. A. Dowden, Dunedin; B. Fullarton, Mosgiel; J. C. Miller, Oamaru; J. L. Bruce, Palmerston; A. Ironside,

Clyde; D. Kerr, Naseby; R. H. Hassall, Tapanui; H. G. J. Hull, Balclutha; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; J. W. Raymond, Bluff


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson

Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie, F.S.S.

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Chief Medical Officer—T. Cahill, M.D.

Accountant—R. J. S. Todd

Assistant Actuary—G. Leslie

Chief Clerk—G. W. Barltrop

Clerks—R, C. Niven, J. C. Young, G. A. Kennedy, D. J. McG. McKenzie, W. S. Smith, J. W. Kinniburgh, R. V. Blacklock, A. H. Hamerton, G. G. Schwartz, C. E. Galwey, H. Spackman, T. L. Barker, A. R. Kennedy, P. Muter, F. B. Bolt, R. T. Smith, A. L. B. Jordan, A. D. Ellis, J. A. Thomson, F. K. Kelling, H. S. Manning, A. de Castro, F. M. Leckie, C. W. Palmer, J. B. Young, W. C. Marchant, R. P. Hood, A. Avery, H. Rose, G. C. Fache, S. P. Hawthorne, W. H. Woon

Chief Messenger—W. Archer


District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerk—J. B. Watkis


Resident Agent—J. H. Dean


Resident Agent—J. Fairburn


District Manager—G. Robertson

Clerks—G. Crichton and G. A. N. Campbell


Resident Agent—A. P. Burnes


Resident Agent—Cyrus Webb


Agency Clerk—C. H. Ralph


District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—J. W. H. Wood

Clerk—A. E. Allison


Agency Clerk—S. T. Wicksteed


District Manager—R. S. McGrowan

Clerk—M. J. Heywood


Resident Agent—O. H. Pinel


Agency Clerk—J. Findlay


Public Trustee—J. K. Warburton

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Chief Clerk—A. A. Duncan

Accountant and Second Clerk—T. S. Ronaldson

Third Clerk—T. Stephens

Examiner and Fourth Clerk—M. C. Barnett

Clerks—J. C. Matheson, P. Fair, H. Lamb, J. McLellan, P. Hervey, E. C.

Reeves, T. D. Kendall, W. A. Fordham, E. O'S. McCarthy, H. Oswin, A. Purdie, G. A. Smyth

Cadets—M. E. Harrap, S. Dimant, T. H. Andrew, J. Allen, W. Barr

Messenger—A. J. Cross

District. Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton

District Agent, Auckland—E. F. Warren

District Agent, Dunedin—F. H. Morice

District Agent, Greymouth—M. Townsend

West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent—Wilfred Rennell

Clerks—H. A. Eversleigh, C. Zachariah.


The Minister of Justice is charged with all matters relating to the Supreme, District, Magistrates’, and Wardens’ Courts, Crown Law Office, Coroners, patents, designs, and trade-marks, bankruptcy, criminal prosecutions in the higher Courts, Justices of the Peace, Licensing Committees, and prisons. The Supreme Court is presided over by a Chief Justice and four Puisne Judges. The Chief Justice and one Puisne Judge reside in Wellington, and one Judge resides at Auckland, one at Christchurch, and one at Dunedin. They all go on circuit periodically within their districts. Circuit sittings of the Supreme Court are held at fourteen places. There are four District Court Judges, holding Courts at seventeen towns. At nearly every town in which sittings of the Supreme or District Courts are held there is a Crown Prosecutor, paid by fees, and a Sheriff. In the District Courts the Crown Prosecutor exercises the function of a Grand Jury.

The Magistrates’ Courts are presided over by thirty-one Stipendiary Magistrates, and the Courts are held daily in the principal centres, and at convenient times in the smaller towns. The jurisdiction of these Courts may be “ordinary” (which includes, practically, all claims not exceeding £100 in value, except claims for damages for false imprisonment or illegal arrest, malicious prosecution, libel, slander, seduction, or breach of promise of marriage); “extended,” under which money-claims to an amount not exceeding £200 may be entertained; and “special,” which, in addition to the powers given to Courts of “extended” jurisdiction, enables the Court to deal with partnerships, injunctions, and other equity suits. At present eighteen of the Stipendiary Magistrates exercise the “extended” jurisdiction, but none the “special.” When, however, owing to increase of settlement, or pressure of business in the Supreme Court, necessity arises, the power to exercise either the extended or special jurisdiction can be conferred by Order in Council on any Court. The Magistrates exercising the special jurisdiction must be barristers or solicitors.

The procedure of the Courts is remarkably simple, no pleadings being required beyond a statement by the plaintiff sufficient to inform the defendant of the nature and extent of the claim. Due provision is made for counter-claims, and the joinder at any stage of the proceedings of all necessary parties, so that all questions arising in connection with the subject-matter before the Court may be finally dealt with at once. Appeal to the Supreme Court is allowed on points of law in cases where not more than £50 is concerned, and on points of law or fact in cases above that amount. Generally, the procedure is so simple and elastic that in the majority of cases heard it is not necessary to retain the services of a professional man, but, where solicitors are employed, the Court in its judgment settles the costs to be paid according to a prescribed scale. In places where there is not a Magistrate's Court Justices of the Peace have power to hold a Court and deal with claims not exceeding £20 in value, giving judgment “according to equity and good conscience.” The Act constituting these Courts was passed only last year, but experience of its working shows already that it has gone a very great way towards bringing cheap and speedy justice within reach of all. It is a consolidation and amendment of the Act of 1867 and subsequent statutes.

Another important enactment passed last year was “The Criminal Code Act, 1893,” which repeals thirty-three Imperial statutes (so far as this colony is concerned), and also twenty-eight New Zealand statutes, consolidating them all together with the common law as to crime into one Act. This defines the various crimes and prescribes the punishment for each. The only capital offences are treason, murder, and piracy with violence. By this Act penal servitude is abolished, and imprisonment with hard labour substituted therefor.

The Court may reserve any question of law for the Court of Appeal; and, if the Court refuse, the Attorney-General may give leave to move the Court of Appeal for leave to appeal.

The Court may give leave to any person convicted before it to apply to the Court of Appeal for a new trial on the ground that the verdict was against the weight of evidence, and the Court of Appeal may direct a new trial. In cases where the clemency of the Crown is sought, the Governor in Council, if he entertains a doubt whether the convicted person ought to have been convicted, may direct a new trial at such time and before such Court as he may think proper.

The First Offenders’ Probation Act continues to work well, and is the means of reclaiming many a one who but for it would swell the ranks of the criminal class.

Fourteen of the Magistrates are also Wardens, holding Wardens’ Courts in the various goldfields. There are fifty civilian Clerks of Courts, and eighty-two who are also police sergeants or constables.

Every Stipendiary Magistrate holds the office of Coroner, and is paid 10s. 6d. for each inquest, in addition to mileage at 1s. per mile. Besides these, there are thirty-eight Coroners, who are paid £1 1s. for each inquest, and mileage.

Bankrupt estates are administered by four Official Assignees, stationed respectively at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin; and by twenty Deputy Assignees, resident at as many other towns. The Supreme and District Courts have jurisdiction in bankruptcy proceedings, and the Governor has power to confer similar jurisdiction in small estates on any of the Magistrates’ Courts, but as yet this has not been found necessary.

The Commission of the Peace contains about seventeen hundred names, and additions are frequently made. A rota is kept in every borough and town of Justices residing within three miles of the Courthouse, and the Justices are required to attend the Court when summoned, or furnish a satisfactory excuse; failing this, they are struck off the Commission. Medical practitioners, Civil servants, and others are exempt from such attendance.

Witnesses in Criminal Courts are paid 6s. per diem, and in addition 4s. for every night they are absent from home. “Witnesses in civil cases are paid variously from 6s. to £1 1s. a day, according to their condition in life.

Intestate estates in New Zealand are dealt with by the Public Trust Office, and are referred to in the article on that institution.

The Licensing and Bankruptcy laws are dealt with in separate articles.

The Attorney-General of the colony is a Cabinet Minister holding other portfolios, but the Solicitor-General is a permanent officer and a member of the Civil Service.

Jury lists are compiled annually by the police, revised by the Bench of Justices, and forwarded to the Sheriffs, who from them prepare special and common jury panels.


The defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia (Artillery and Torpedo Corps), and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers (Cavalry, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies). The whole of these Forces are commanded by an Imperial officer, belonging to the Royal Artillery, who is under the orders of the Defence Minister. There is also an Under-Secretary for Defence, to whom all questions of expenditure are referred; while the Chief Engineer, Public Works Department, has charge of the defence-works.


The two islands (North and Middle) are divided into eleven districts, each commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a competent staff of drill-sergeants.


This Force is divided into four batteries, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force consists of three majors, two captains, one subaltern, with an establishment of 145 of all ranks.


This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres, for submarine and torpedo work, and consists of two captains, with a total of 64 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steam-launches, and of all submarine-mining and torpedo stores. They are likewise employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.


There are five troops of Cavalry, three in the North Island and two in the Middle Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for six days’ training annually. The total strength of the five troops is 294 of all ranks.


There are nine corps of Mounted Rifles, six in the North Island and three in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 453 of all ranks. The efficiency of these corps is, like that of the Cavalry, maintained by their going into camp for an annual training of six days.


There are sixteen batteries of this branch of the service, seven in the North Island and nine in the Middle Island, having a total strength of 1,023 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches, and one watch is trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working the heavy ordnance, while the other watch is trained in submarine and torpedo work, as auxiliaries to the Torpedo Corps. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and such-like duties.


There are eleven batteries of Field Artillery, three in the North Island and eight in the Middle Island, with a total of 539 of all ranks. They are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns on field-carriages.


This branch consists of three corps, with a total of 179 of all ranks. There is one corps in the North Island and two in the Middle Island. Besides carrying rifles they are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.


In this branch of the service there are fifty corps (including one honorary reserve), fourteen being in the North Island and thirty-six in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,773 of all ranks, including garrison bands at places where four or more corps have their head-quarters.


There is a force of thirty-six cadet corps—viz., six in the North Island and thirty in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 1,885 of all ranks.


The armament at the forts of the four centres consists of 8in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6in. 5-ton of like pattern, all mounted on hydro-pneumatic disappearing carriages; 7in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading 64cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison pillar-mountings, and field-carriages; and Hotchkiss and Maxim quick-firing guns. The Volunteer Field Artillery are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and the whole of the Force have carbines or rifles (short) of Snider pattern.

There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and ground-mines, in charge of the Torpedo Corps, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.


Members of the Permanent Militia are enrolled for three years’ service, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after passing the gunnery course in the Permanent Militia the men are eligible for transfer to police and prison service.


The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years’ engagement, on completion of which they return to the Royal Artillery or the Royal Engineers.


An annual capitation of £2 10s. is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £20 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred rounds of Snider ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds to each cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”


Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.
1893–9456,570 net3,976 net60,546



[By an Act passed in 1871 the pension system was abolished in New Zealand.]

Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.
Under “The Civil Service Act, 1866.”
Allan, A. S.1 Sept., 188819550
Arrow, H.1 Aug., 18812600
Aubrey, H. R.1 Nov., 188022300
Austin, A. D.1 Oct., 1887247100
Baddeley, H. C.12 Jan., 188822500
Bailey, B.16 May, 1887198139
Bailie, F.1 Feb., 18937788
Baker, E.1 Nov., 1880214171
Barnard, W. H.1 June, 1880101181
Barr, A.1 Oct., 1888366134
Batkin, C. T.1 April, 189053360
Bicknell, F.1 Feb., 188296134
Blomfield, J.21 Mar., 1889101150
Bridson, W.1 Aug., 189314687
Brown, S. P.23 Mar., 18728000
Brown, W. R. E.1 Aug., 1892;265168
Buchanan, J.1 July, 1886127136
Bull, E.1 July, 1887105143
Burgess. A.1 June, 1886116134
Burn, J. F.1 July, 18875100
Butts, E. D.1 April, 189325868
Campbell, P. E.1 Mar., 1890466130
Carrington, O.1 Feb., 187830000
Chapman, R.1 Jan., 1868255190
Cheesman, G. H.1 Mar., 189382100
Cheeseman, W. F.1 April, 1890154151
Clarke, H. T.1 Jan., 187940000
Clarke, H.1 Oct., 187998130
Cooper, G. S.1 Aug., 189253368
Corbett, W.2 Jan., 187027340
Costall, J.10 July, 1892131310
Creeke, W.1 April, 189152158
Crowe, A.31 Dec., 188568123
Culpan, W.1 Dec., 186862100
Cunningham, J.1 Feb., 188817500
Cunningham, P.1 Mar., 1880651111
Daniell, H. C.1 Jan., 1878266134
DeCastro, C. D.1 Mar., 1892172100
Dick, S. J.1 Feb., 189325000
Dickey, A. J.1 Nov., 187512205
Earle, J.13 Nov. 1888104100
Eliott, G. E.30 Nov., 187240000
Ensor, J.1 Feb., 18935168
Falck, F.1 Mar., 1893125134
Fenton, F. D.3 Nov., 1881630190
Gill, R. J.1 Sep., 1886228115
Gisborne, W.1 Oct., 1876466134
Graham, G. H.8 Sep., 189152100
Gregory, J.16 Feb., 18815368
Greenway, J. H.1 Nov., 1891116160
Halliday, C.31 Aug., 188696134
Hamilton, M.11 July, 188020000
Harsant, W.11 June, 1878151134
Hart, J. T.12 Nov., 189019370
Hartwright, H.1 Jan., 188615278
Henn, J.1 April, 18938834
Hill, E.13 Sep., 187110000
Hill, F.J.1 Aug., 18929500
Hill, T.1 May, 189240000
Holden, T.13 Oct., 18783150
Jackman, S.J.1 May, 189214968
Johnston, D.15 Dec., 1880366134
Judd, A.1 April, 188717368
Keetley, E.1 July, 1884181210
Kelly, J. D.1 July, 1891130190
Kissling, T.1 Jan., 189431752
Laing, E. B.1 April, 1887112100
Lang, A.1 Feb., 189375153
Lawlor, H. C1 June, 1868130180
Lincoln, R. S.1 Mar., 183968170
Lockwood, W. H.1 Jan., 188022184
Lodge, W. F.1 Oct., 188118500
Lundon, D.1 May, 189221000
Lusher, R. A.31 Aug., 188076168
Mathews, J.1 July, 186681134
Meech, W.1 Jan., 188264167
Meikle, A. M.1 May, 1887145143
Mills, W.23 Sept., 1875385144
Mitford, G. M.1 Feb., 1869196150
Monson, J. R.1 Oct., 1882271160
Monro, H. A.H.1 Nov., 1880342172
Morrow, H.1 June, 1890120168
Macarthur, J.1 Jan., 18766500
McCarthy, S.1 Mar., 187855168
McCulloch, H.1 Aug., 189023300
MacDonnell, R. T.23 July, 189015000
McKellar, H. S.1 Aug., 189243368
O'Connor, R.1 Sept., 189214706
Parker, T. W.1 June, 188124239
Parris, R.1 Jan., 187731458
Pauling, G. W.1 Feb., 18879115
Pearson, W. H.30 Sept., 188434096
Pickett, R.1 Aug., 1866209106
Pinwill, A.1 July, 1891120170
Pitt, H.1 May, 188110000
Plimpton, R.E.E.4 Dec., 1883110143
Pollen, D.30 Oct., 1876418150
Powell, D.1 July, 18934418
Rich, E. P.1 June, 189221700
Robertson, J.C Oct., 189215500
Rodgerson, W. J.1 July, 189224868
Rogan, J.1 Jan., 1878466134
Rough, D.1 May, 186827718
Sealy, H. B.1 Nov., 1876285143
Searancke, W. N.1 Feb., 187924000
Sheath, A. B.31 Mar., 188012990
Shrimpton, J.16 July, 1889146140
Sinclair, A.1 June, 187819500
Smith, J. E.1 July, 1877484116
Smith, T. H.1 July, 187637187
Snoswell, T.5 Dec., 189183140
Snow, C. H.1 Dec., 1887157100
Stevens, P.1 Dec., 189218300
Stewart, J. T.1 May, 188930000
Taylor, G.1 Mar., 189312100
Thomas, G. W.1 Nov., 187538150
Tidmarsh, W.1 Aug., 18676973
Tizard, E. P.1 July, 1888180190
Tucker, W.31 Dec., 1880104134
Veal, J.1 Sept., 188549153
Veale, J. S.1 Sept., 188756210
Wardell, H. S.1 July, 1888366130
Watson, R.1 Oct., 189214500
White, W.1 July, 18813650
White, W. B.1 July, 187337549
Wilkin, J. T. W.1 Feb., 1874127194
Willcocks, E. S.1 Nov., 188025000
Williams, E. M.1 April, 188013500
Wilson, W. W.1 Feb., 1881100143
Woon, J. G.1 July, 1892209106
Wrigg, H. C. W.1 Aug., 1889157210
Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.

* Per diem.

(a) 1s. 6d. from 25th October, 1869; increased to 2s. 2d., 7th December, 1870.

(b) 1s. from 17th December, 1868, to 17th December, 1869; 1s. 6d. from 17th December, 1869, to 17th December, 1870; 8d. from 17th December, 1870, to 30th September, 1874; increased to 1s. 6d., 1st October, 1874.

(c) 2s. from 5th June, 1867, to 5th June, 1868; 2s. from 5th June, 1868, to 5th June, 1869; permanent from 9th November, 1869.

(d) 2s. for two years, from 8th April, 1870; renewed for twelve months; again renewed for twelve months; permanent from 1st May, 1874.

(e) 2s. from 1st January, 1869, for eighteen months; permanent from 18th May, 1872.

(f) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 26th April, 1869; renewed for twelve months, 1870; renewed. for twelve months, 1871; permanent from 12th May, 1872.

(g) 2nd October, 1869; ceased on 9th April. 1870; renewed, 22nd April, 1874.

(h) 1s. 6d. from—, 1867; increased to 2s. from 14th February, 1868.

(i) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 15th March, 1869; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1870; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1871; permanent from 1st April, 1872.

(k) 3s. for twelve months, from 9th April, 1870; 2s. 8d., permanent, from 1st May, 1871.

(l) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 18th October, 1869; 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from October, 1870; permanent from 5th November, 1871.

(m) 1s. 6d. for eight months, from 20th September, 1869; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1870; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1871; 2s. 2d. from 11th June, 1872; permanent from 12th June, 1873.

(n) 1s. from 16th May, 1865; renewed for twelve months, April, 1866; again renewed for twelvemonths, 8d. for twelve months, from 1868, to 10th May, 1869; 6d. for twelve months, from May, 1869; permanent from 11th May, 1870.

Under “The Hamerton Pension Act, 1891.”
Hamerton, R. C.11 Sept., 189125000
Under “The Meredith and Others Pensions Act, 1870.”
Collins, Mary13 Nov., 18696500
Hamlin, Rhoda B.18655000
Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866.”
Arapera to Reo1 July, 18702000
Brown, M. R. 7500
Buck, Cath. M. 7000
Coffey, M. F. 2500
Hastings, L. 5500
Iritona, Hanita8 Nov., 18681200
Kopu, Mere Karaka1 Oct., 18743600
Marara, Ngakoa3 Dec., 18603600
McDonald, E. 3600
McDonnell, W. 15000
Morrison, Ann26 Oct., 18663600
Percy, J. A. 15000
Ross, Edward O.17 Nov., 18667500
Russell, C. 3600
Von Tempsky, A.3 Oct., 186812000
Adamson, T.(a)022*
Beamish, J. G.(b)016*
Corbett, George(c)020*
Crawford, C. F 020*
Crosby, H.(d)020*
Dore, G. H.(e)020*
Gibbons, M. C.12 Oct., 1869022*
Hamblyn, J.1 Oct., 1872022*
Hope, E. L.(f)016*
Kelly, T.9 April, 1870022*
Kershaw, P.9 Aug., 1869016*
Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866”—continued.
Lacey, Garrett 022*
Lake, T. 026*
Lloyd, T.(g)020*
McKay, G. 010*
McMahon, T.(h)020*
Monck, J. B.1 April, ‘72 (i)010*
Shanaghan, J. 016*
Shepherd, R.(k)028*
Timms, W.(l)016*
Tuffin, G. 022*
Vance, R.8 April, 1870022*
Walsh, W.15 Nov., 1866016*
Wasley, Edw. O.(m)022*
Williamson, F.1 June, 1869020*
Anaru Patapu14 May, 1865009*
Anaru Taruke1 Jan., 1867006*
Apera to Keunga14 May, 1864026*
Honi Parake1 Jan., 1867006*
Karena Ruataniwha1 July, 1870010*
Matiu Whitiki1 April, 1885006*
Mauparca1 July, 1867010*
Mehaka Kepa2 Aug., 1865009*
Pera Taitimu12 Oct., 1869010*
Ruihana10 April, 1869006*
Raniera Ngoto1 Oct., 1884006*
Under “The Walsh and Other Pensions Act, 1869”.
Hewett, Ellen A.10 Feb., 18655000
Under “The Militia Act Amendment Act, 1862.”.
Bending, W. 020*
Bilton, F. 020*
Callaghan, D. 022*
Cody, W. 010*
Dunn, A. J. N. 020*
Herford, A. 13000
King, E. M. 8000
Leaf, R.(n)006*
Oxenham, W. 016*
Sarten, Lucy1864020*
Skinner, W. H. 026*
Vickery, W. 020*
Woolfe, T. 020*
Under “The Schafer, McGuire, and Others Pensions Act, 1872.”
McGuire, E.29 Sept., 1871010*
Russell, W.1 July, 1871010*
Schafer, C.1 July, 18713000
Under “The Supreme Court. Judges Act. 1874.”
Gresson, H. B.1 April, 187575000


There are (January, 1894) 178 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these, 52 are daily papers, 15 are published three times a week, 25 twice a week, 62 once a week, 1 fortnightly, and 23 monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication. M. signifies morning paper; E., evening paper:—

  Wairoa BellFriday.
  Auckland Evening Star (E.)Daily.
  Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country JournalSaturday.
  Bible StandardMonthly.
  Church GazetteMonthly.
  Helping HandMonthly.
  New Zealand ABC GuideMonthly.
  New Zealand CraftsmanMonthly.
  New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry JournalMonthly.
  New Zealand Graphic, Ladies’ Journal, and Youths’ CompanionWednesday.
  New Zealand Herald (Mi)Daily.
  Produce Circular and Monthly ReportMonthly.
  Sharland's Trade JournalMonthly.
  Sporting ReviewSaturday.
  Coromandel County News (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Northern AdvertiserFriday.
  Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (M.)Mon., Wed., Sat.
  Marsden TimesWednesday.
  Northern LuminaryFriday.
  Manukau Gazette and Onehunga District Weekly CourierSaturday.
  Hot Lakes ChronicleWednesday.
  Gumdiggers’ Weekly
  Northern Advocate (E.)Wed., Friday.
  Korimako HouMonthly.
  Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Hauraki Tribune and Thames Valley Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Ohinemuri GazetteSaturday.
  Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Te Aroha—
  Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Thames Star (E.)Daily.
  Thames Advertiser and Miners’ News (M.)Daily.
  Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
  lnglewood Record and Waitara News (M.)Wed., Saturday.
New Plymouth— 
  Budget and Taranaki Weekly HeraldSaturday.
  Daily News (M.)Daily.
  Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
  Taranaki NewsSaturday.
  Egmont Settler (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
  Bush Advocate (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
  Evening News and Hawke's Bay Advertiser (E.)Daily.
  Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)Daily.
  Hawke's Bay Weekly CourierFriday.
  New Zealand Eire and Ambulance RecordMonthly.
  Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Egmont StarSaturday.
  Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
  Paraekaretu Express, Hunterville, Ohingaiti, Moawhango, and Rata Advertiser (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Waimate Witness (E.)Wed., Saturday.
  Mercury (E.)Daily.
  Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E.)Daily.
  Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
  Wanganui Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Daily.
  Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
  Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei RecordSaturday.
  Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East. Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Feilding Star (E.)Daily.
  Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Wairarapa Standard (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
  Eketahuna and Pahiatua Mail (M.)Daily.
  Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
  Wairarapa Star (E.)Daily.
  Wairarapa Weekly TimesWednesday.
  Weekly Star and Wellington District AdvertiserThursday.
  West Coast Mail and Horowhenua County Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Pahiatua Herald (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Palmerston North—
  Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (M.)Daily.
  Manawatu Daily Times (E.)Daily.
  Hutt and Petone ChronicleWednesday.
  Manawatu Farmer and Horowhenua County Chronicle (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
  Church ChronicleWeekly.
  Evening Post (E.)Daily.
  Evening Press (E.)Daily.
  Fair PlaySaturday.
  New Zealand Central Trade ReportMonthly.
  New Zealand Mail, Town and Country AdvertiserFriday,
  New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
  Register and Property Investors’ GuideMonthly.
  Weekly HeraldWeekly.
  Wellington Price Current and New Zealand Trade ReviewMonthly.
  Woodville Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
  Evening StarSaturday.
  Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
  Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
  Marlborough Weekly NewsFriday.
  Pelorus Guardian and Miners’ Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Golden Bay ArgusFriday.
  Colonist (M.)Daily.
  Nelson Evening Mail (E.)Daily.
  Takaka News and Collingwood AdvertiserThursday.
  Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Lyell Times and Central Buller GazetteSaturday.
  Buller MinerFriday.
  Westport News (M.)Daily.
  Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
  Brunnerton News, Blackball Courier, and Grey Valley Advertiser (E.)Daily.
  Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
  Grey River Argus (M.)Daily.
  Weekly ArgusWeekly.
  Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Daily.
  Inangahua Times (M.)Daily.
  Reefton Guardian (E.)Daily.
  Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
  West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
  Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)Daily.
  Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
  Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers, and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Canterbury TimesFriday.
  Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
  Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New ZealandFriday.
  New Zealand BaptistMonthly.
  New Zealand Church NewsMonthly.
  New Zealand MethodistSaturday.
  New Zealand Railway ReviewMonthly.
  New Zealand SchoolmasterMonthly.
  New Zealand Volunteer and Civil Service Gazette and Naval and Military ChronicleMonthly.
  New Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation ArmyTuesday.
  Press (M.)Daily.
  Prohibitionist (fortnightly)Saturday.
  Star (E.)Daily.
  Truth (E.)Daily.
  Weekly PressFriday.
  Young SoldierSaturday.
Oxford (East)—
  Oxford and Cust ObserverSaturday.
  Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Ellesmere GuardianWed., Saturday.
  Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
  South Canterbury Times (E.)Daily.
  Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
  Waimate Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
  Oamaru Mail (E.)Daily.
  Clutha LeaderFriday.
  Free PressFriday.
  Clutha County Gazette and Popotunoa Chronicle and Clinton AdvertiserFriday.
  Dunstan Times, Vincent County Gazette, and General Goldfields AdvertiserFriday.
  Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields GazetteTuesday.
  Evening Star (E.)Daily.
  Farmers’ CircularThursday.
  Licensed Victuallers’ Gazette and Hotel GuideSaturday.
  New Zealand Insurance, Finance, and Mining JournalMonthly.
  New Zealand PresbyterianMonthly.
  New Zealand Public Opinion and Saturday AdvertiserSaturday.
  New Zealand TabletFriday.
  Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
  Otago WitnessSaturday.
  Otago Workman, Dunedin and Suburban AdvertiserSaturday.
  People's JournalFriday.
  Phonographic Magazine and Typewriting NewsMonthly.
  Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
  Mount Ida Chronicle (Thurs. E. and Sat. M.)Thur., Saturday.
  Palmerston and Waikouaiti TimesFriday.
  Mount Benger MailSaturday.
  Tapanui Courier and Central Districts GazetteWednesday.
Arrow River—
  Lake County PressThursday.
  Mataura Ensign (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
  Southern CrossSaturday.
  Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
  Southland Times (M.)Daily.
  Weekly TimesFriday.
  Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)Friday.
  Waimea Plains Review and Market ReportFriday.
  Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Wed., Saturday.

The foregoing towns are arranged according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 33 publications registered as newspapers. Taranaki 9, Hawke's Bay 9, Wellington 34, Marlborough 7, Nelson 13, Westland 8, Canterbury 27, and Otago 38.


Chapter 2.

[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets which follow the General Index.]


THE estimated population of New Zealand on the 31st December, 1893, with the increase for the year by excess of births over deaths and by immigration over emigration, was as under:—

Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1892650,433345,146305,287
Increase during the year 1893—
Excess of births over deaths11,4205,3676,053
Excess of arrivals over departures10,4127,1223,290
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1893672,265357,635314,630
Maori population, census 189141,99322,86119,132
  Total estimated population of the colony on 31st December, 1893714,258380,496333,762

The estimated number of Chinese in the colony at the end of the year 1893 was 4,044 persons, of whom 17 were females. These are included in the above table. At the census of April, 1891, the number in the colony was 4,414, so that in the space of two years and nine months a reduction of 400, or 10 per cent., had taken place, caused mainly by the excess of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population can be given only for the date of the census, as very few births or deaths of Natives are registered; but the movement of Native population, judged by the results of the enumeration of 1886 (when the number was 41,969) compared with the number in 1891 (41,993), is so small that to use the same figures for several years in succession does not give rise to any great degree of error. Over 100 Maoris lost their lives at the eruption of Tarawera, which occurred between the census of 1886 and that of 1891.

Included in the population, as stated above, are the half-castes, who numbered 4,865 at the time of the census; 2,681 of these were half-castes living as members of Maori tribes, and 2,184 half-castes living as Europeans. The half-castes living as Europeans increased between 1886 and 1891 by 227, or at the rate of 11.6 per cent. The number of Maori wives of Europeans was 251 in 1891, against 201 in 1886.

The estimated European population of the principal divisions of the colony on 31st December, 1893, was—

North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)303,428161,577141,851
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)368,324195,771172,553
Stewart Island21212389
Chatham Islands (exclusive of natives)293159134
Kermadec Islands853
    Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)672,265357,635314,630

To obtain these estimates of population in the different islands the census figures have been corrected (1) by adding the natural increases, that is, the excess of births over deaths, to the population of each island, and (2) by allocating the excess of immigration over emigration for the whole colony proportionately to the population of each island at census time. By this plan, no doubt, the North Island has suffered somewhat. But the arrivals are all counted at the first and the departures at the last port touched at, so that it becomes necessary to distribute the total gain in the manner indicated above. Moreover, what is far more serious, there are no records of the movements of population from one island to another. In all probability the North Island population is in reality decidedly greater than is here shown, and the Middle Island less.

During the interval between the census of March, 1886, and that of April, 1891, the increase of population in the North Island was far in excess of that in the Middle Island. The figures are: North Island, 1891, 281,455 persons, against 250,482 in 1886, a difference of 30,973, or at the rate of 12.36 per cent.; Middle Island, 1891, 344,711 persons, against 327,592 in 1886, a difference of only 17,119, or 5.22 per cent. The European population of Stewart Island did not increase, but that of the Chatham Islands rose from 199 to 271 persons. The Kermadec Islands appeared for the first time in 1891 as part of New Zealand, with a population of 19 persons.

The Australian Colonies as a whole contained on the 31st December, 1893, an estimated population amounting to 4,110,311 persons (exclusive of the aboriginal natives of Queensland and South and Western Australia, but including the New Zealand Maoris).



* Including the Northern Territory.

New South Wales1,223,370658,990564,380
South Australia*346,874181,752165,122
Western Australia65,06441,01424,050
New Zealand714,258380,496333,762
  Total Australasian Colonies4,110,3112,196,0881,914,223

Religions and Birthplaces. 1891

The subjoined table gives a summary of the results of the census of 1891 as to the religions of the people, with the proportion of each denomination to the whole population at that and each of the three previous censuses:—

Denominations.Number of Adherents in 1891.Proportions per Cent. of Population.

In calculating the proportions for 1891 the “Unspecified” have not been taken into account.

Church of England, and Protestants (undefined)253,33142.5541.5040.1740.51
Wesleyan Methodists53,0617.798.077.818.49
Other Methodists10,3541.351.461.741.65
Congregational Independents6,6851.341.381.351.07
Salvation Army9,383  0.911.50
Society of Friends3150.040.050 050.05
Other Protestants11,2951.081.261.551.82
Roman Catholics, and Catholic; (undefined)87,27214.2114.0813.9413.96
Greek Church560.020.010010.01
Buddhists, Confucians3,9281.051.010.770.63
Other denominations8490.
No denomination8,2520.530.891.051.32
No religion1,5580050.060.170.25
Object to state15,3422.552.853.442.45

These returns of religions show that 81.03 per cent. of the people belonged to various Protestant denominations; 13.96 were Roman Catholics; and the remainder belonged to other sects, were of no denomination, or objected to state their religious views. The proportion of Roman Catholics is much less in New Zealand than in Australia.

Methodists increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 14.61 per cent.; Church of England adherents increased 9.02 per cent.; Presbyterians, 8.29 per cent.; Roman Catholics, 8.12 per cent.; while the Salvation Army had the highest rate of increase, 77.84 per cent.

Freethinkers numbered 4,475 persons in 1891 and 3,925 in 1886. They are included above in the numbers for “No denomination.”

The returns of birthplaces gave the following particulars:—

Born inPersons. Census 1891.1886. Per Cent.1891. Per Cent.
New Zealand366,71651.8958.61
Australia and Tasmania15,9432.982.55
Other British possessions3,7030.680.59
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway4,7550.860.77
Other countries, and at sea6,5571.501.05

The New-Zealand-born population increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 22.16 per cent., but the numbers born in the Mother-country, Australian Colonies, other British dominions, and foreign parts diminished more or less in each case during the quinquennium.

Education, 1891.

Of both sexes, 77.25 per cent. of the persons could read and write, 3.98 read only, and 18.77 could not read. Comparing with previous censuses, and for each sex separately, the proportion per cent. able to read and write will be found to rise steadily, while the proportions of those reading only, and unable to read, diminish. The under-mentioned figures illustrate this:—

Census.Proportion per Cent. (Males).Proportion per Cent. (Females).
Read and Write.Bead only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.

Occupations of the People, 1891.

The number in each class of occupation as at the census of 1891, and the proportion per cent. of the total, will found in the following table, which also shows the population divided into two sections, A and B, breadwinners and non-breadwinners or dependents:—

Occupations.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Total population626,658332,877293,781100.00100.00100.00
Section A.—Breadwinners.
Class I. Professional15,82110,0825,7392.523.031.95
Class II. Domestic24,9285,53719,3913.981.666.60
Class III. Commercial—      
  Sub-cl. A. Property and finance3,7563,4143420.601.030.12
  Sub-cl. B. Trade22,99220,6132,3793.676.190.81
  Sub-cl. C. Storage1,0351,03410.170.310.00
  Sub-cl. D. Transport and communication15,41315,2691442.464.590.05
Class IV. Industrial70,52159,19611,32511.2517.783.86
Class V. Agricultural, pastoral, and other primary producers—
  Sub-cl. A. Agricultural59,05856,6712,3879.4217.030.81
  Sub-cl. B. Pastoral9,5499,2792701.522.790.09
  Sub-cl. C. Mineral16,92916,906232.705.080.01
  Sub-cl. D. Other primary producers5,0105,00460.801.500.00
Class VI. Indefinite7,7514,3413,4101.241.301.16
Section B.—Dependents (Non-breadwinners).
Class VII. Dependents—
  Sub-cl. A. Dependent on natural guardians369,178122,410246,76858.9236.7784.00
  Sub-cl. B. Dependent upon the State, or upon public or private support4,7173,1211,5960.750.940.54

No less than 37.71 per cent. of the male population are shown to be dependent, and 84.54 per cent. of the females. These consist of 122,410 males and 246,768 females dependent upon natural guardians; and 3,121 males and 1,596 females, persons dependent upon the State or upon public or private support. The greater number of those dependent upon natural guardians were scholars and students. There were also a large number of dependent relatives not stated to be performing domestic duties, and a large number of females performing domestic duties for which remuneration was not paid.

The classes are divided into 24 orders, which again are divided into 103 suborders. The items of the suborders are the specific occupations. In the tables belonging to Part VII. of the census volume each specific occupation is given according to the classification there adopted, with explanatory notes showing the assistants and particulars of others included in the numbers for the various employments.

Conjugal Condition, 1891.

Of persons of both sexes, 67.62 per cent. were found to be unmarried, 29.18 married, and 3.20 widowed. Taking the male sex, and comparing the results of three censuses, the proportions of unmarried and married diminish, but the proportion of widowed increases. On the female side, the proportions of unmarried and widowed increase, while the married diminish. The figures are as under:—

Census.Proportion per Cent. (Males).Proportion per Cent. (Females).

The Chinese are not included in the figures from which these calculations are made.

The number of bachelors aged 20 and upwards was 70,197, and of spinsters aged 15 and upwards 67,000, being 105 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. Only in Canterbury and Otago were the spinsters in excess of the bachelors, but notably so in Canterbury.

The number of husbands was 90,371, and of wives 90,765, giving an excess of 394 of the latter.

Proportions of the Sexes.

Excluding the Maori population, the females in the colony are now7 in the proportion of 87.97 to every 100 males. At the time of the census the proportion of females to males was greater in New Zealand than in Queensland, New South Wales, and Western Australia, but less than in Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania.

 Females to every 100 Males at Census, 1891.
New South Wales84.12
South Australia92.33
Western Australia66.79
New Zealand88.25

Populations of Provincial Districts.

The following table gives the population in each provincial district estimated for the 31st December, 1893. It must, however, be pointed out that at a distance of two years and nine months from the census it is impossible to guarantee the correctness of these figures. There are no records of interprovincial arrivals and departures, and therefore in times of change the further the date from the last census the greater the liability to error. New Zealand being insular, the excess of arrivals over departures taken for the whole colony can be fairly well arrived at, and the excess of births over deaths, or natural increase, can also be found, giving a close estimate to the population of the colony for any year; but the internal movement of population cannot be determined, and therefore the subjoined figures must be accepted as approximations only. As stated previously, the provincial districts of the North Island are no doubt under-estimated in the allocation that has been made of the excess of arrivals over departures:—

 31st December, 1893.
Hawke's Bay30,99517,05113,944
  Chatham Islands293159134
  Kermadec Islands853

Populations of Counties.

These can only be given as at the date of the last census. The same objections that may be lodged against the endeavour to estimate the populations of the provincial districts at a distance of time from the census will apply with still greater force to any calculation of the numbers at present resident in the several counties and boroughs. The figures are therefore left as they were determined by the census. For statistical, as for administrative purposes, each borough is treated as distinct from the county wherein it lies. In April, 1891, the number of the counties was 78. (This number has since been increased to 79 by the division in 1893 of Oroua into two counties, Oroua and Kiwitea.) Of these the North Island had 45, with a county population amounting altogether to 155,057 persons. The Middle Island had 32 counties, the population being 196,838 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

Bay of Islands2,5621,4371,125
West Taupo1199128
East Taupo15210052
Hawke's Bay6,0283,5712,457
Wairarapa North5,1433,0922,051
Wairarapa South4,9802,8632,117
Stewart Island20211587

The county population amounted to 56.18 per cent. of the total.* The counties include all towns not constituted municipal boroughs, while, on the other hand, the population in many of the boroughs partakes of a rural character. The population in boroughs, which is given in detail further on, was 270,343 persons, or 43.14 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1891 there were 76 dwelling in boroughs. In 1886 the counties had 327,328 persons, and boroughs 245,612; or, for every 100 persons in counties, 75 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1891 than in 1886.

* For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see census volume, pp. 11 and 31.

Population of Boroughs.

There were 87 municipal boroughs in existence when the census of 1891 was taken.

Since the time of the census seven new boroughs have been constituted, as under:—

Boroughs.Population. Census, April, 1891.

* Population, 1893.

Danevirke, taken from Waipawa County838
Pahiatua, taken from Pahiatua County782
Karori, taken from Hutt County966
Richmond, taken from Waimea County452
Linwood, taken from Selwyn County4,580
Sumner, taken from Selwyn County614
Woolston, taken from Selwyn County2,288*

A complete list of the boroughs in the colony as in April, 1891, with populations, is here shown:—

Boroughs.Population, 1891.
New Plymouth3,350
Palmerston North4,303
Lower Hutt1,329
St. Albans5,247
Palmerston South790
Port Chalmers2,028
North-East Valley3,337
Maori Hill1,426
West Harbour1,297
St. Kilda1,153
South Dunedin4,222
Green Island687
Invercargill North717
Invercargill East736
Invercargill South1,559
A venal302

There is not in New Zealand, as in each of the other Australasian Colonies, one metropolitan centre of population overshadowing, by comparison, the other towns of the colony. The peculiar configuration of the colony made it specially adapted for the establishment of settlements comparatively remote from one another. As a result the colony was formerly divided into nine provinces, each having its capital town. Of these, the principal are the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

Auckland City, situate in the northern part of the North Island, had in April, 1891, a population of 28,613. As the population of the suburbs amounted to 22,671, the total number of persons dwelling in and around Auckland was 51,287.

The City of Wellington, the seat of Government, is situated on the border of Port Nicholson, at the southern extremity of the North Island. It contained in April, 1891, as many as 31,021 persons. The suburban population is small, amounting, at the above date, to 3,169 persons only. The whole population in and around Wellington thus numbered 31,190.

The City of Christchurch is situated in the Canterbury District of the Middle Island. The census returns gave a population of 16,223 in that borough, and of 31,623 in the suburbs—that is, within the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District—making the total number in the Borough and suburbs of Christchurch 47,846.

The City of Dunedin, the principal town of the former Province of Otago, is the centre of a population amounting to 45,869, of which the borough itself contained 22,376; the remainder being distributed among eight surrounding boroughs, which are practically suburbs of Dunedin.

Increase of Population.

The increase of population during 1893 was 21,832. As the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 11,420, the difference between that number and 21,832 represents the excess of immigration over emigration, amounting to 10,112.

There is good reason to believe that few of the births or deaths that occur remain unregistered. Where a limit of time is given within which a birth has to be registered it follows as a matter of course that there wall be occasional instances of neglect of the requirements of the law; but it would appear that such neglect is very exceptional, and that the number of unregistered events is so small as not appreciably to affect the numbers given.

The following shows the excess of births over deaths in each of past ten years:—


In 1893 the population of the colony was greater than in 1884 by 19.13 per cent. Nevertheless the excess of births over deaths for 1893 is less than that for 1884 by 19.06 per cent.

The excess of births over deaths in 1893 was equivalent to 1.73 per cent. of the mean population for the year, the actual increase of population being at the rate of 3.36 per cent.

A table is given showing the increase of population for ten years. It was remarked in the last Year-book that there seemed to be every probability of the increase shown for 1892 being exceeded in 1893, and this has actually taken place. Indeed, the increase by excess of arrivals over departures for the latter year was more than double that for 1892, and larger than any recorded since 1879. Thus the position that existed in the period 1885-91 has been completely reversed, owing chiefly to the large number of persons leaving Australia, on account of the great depression there, to seek employment in New Zealand.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Immigration over Emigration.*Net Increase.

*Corrected in accordance with census results of 1886 and 1891. The amount of loss by departures, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.



It will be observed that in the period 1885 to 1891 the total increase to the population was less than the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, owing to the fact that the outgo of population by departures was greater than the gain by arrivals. But another state of things prevailed in 1892 and 1893, when not only was the natural increase preserved to the colony, but additions by excess of arrivals over departures amounting to 4,958 persons and 10,412 persons were also obtained. Of a loss by excess of departures over arrivals for the period 1886–91 amounting to 17,194, the excess of arrivals in 1892 and 1893 replaced no less than 15,370 persons, and the March quarter of the current year is estimated to have replaced some 1,500 more.

Arrivals and Departures.

The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1893 was 26,135, an increase of 8,013 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1893, 22,596 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 3,539 as children. The total number of males was 17,385, and of females 8,750. The arrivals from the United Kingdom numbered 2,929, those from Victoria 7,937, from New South Wales and Queensland 13,134, from South and Western Australia 13, from Tasmania 1,267. Thus the arrivals from Australia amounted to 22,351 persons. Besides these, 261 persons came from Fiji, and 591 from Hawaii, the South Seas, and other parts, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

The practice of nominating immigrants to be brought out partly at the Government expense has been discontinued since the 16th “December, 1890, and there was no free immigration in the year 1893.

One hundred and sixteen Chinese arrived and 134 left the colony during 1893, the number of departures thus exceeding the arrivals by 18. The arrivals were 112 men and 3 women from Australia, and 1 man from California. The departures—128 men, 2 women, 3 boys, and 1 girl—were all for Australia.

The following table shows the immigration for twenty years—distinguishing between arrivals from the United Kingdom, the Australian Colonies, and other places. The arrivals during 1893 will be found to exceed those in any other year comprised in the period except 1874 and 1875, when the numbers were largely swollen by assisted immigrants from the United Kingdom; and it will also be noticed that the year 1893 witnessed by far the largest number of arrivals from Australia, being 22,351 persons, or 86 per cent. of the total immigration:—

Year.Arrivals from United Kingdom.
Government or Assisted.Unassisted.Total.Australian Colonies.Other Places.Total Arrivals.
1892 2,5552,55514,67489318,122
1893 2,9292,92922,35185526,135

Here the arrivals increased from 14,431 in 1891 to 26,135 in 1893, and those from Australia from 11,144 in the former year to 22,351 in the latter, or more than twice as many in 1893 as in 1891.

In 1881 an Act was passed imposing a tax on every Chinese landing in the colony, except in the case of any one of a crew of a vessel not intending to remain in the colony. The object of the Act was so to restrict the introduction of Chinese as to prevent an increase of that element in the population. The following figures show that the desired effect has been so far obtained; for, although the arrivals in 1892 and 1893 exceed those in 1891, the departures were still greater in each year than the arrivals. In 1881 the Chinese population amounted to 5,004, in 1886 the number had fallen to 4,542, and when the recent census was taken there were only 4,444 Chinese in the colony. The estimated number for December, 1893, is 4,044 persons.

The numbers of arrivals and departures of Chinese in each of the past thirteen years were:—


Restrictive legislation on the immigration of Chinese has been passed in the Australian Colonies as well as in New Zealand.

In New South Wales, an Act of 1888 raised the poll-tax imposed in 1881 to £100, and vessels were prohibited from carrying to the colony more than one Chinese passenger to every 300 tons. Chinese cannot engage in mining without express authority, and are not allowed naturalisation. The Act is stated to have resulted in the entire cessation of Chinese immigration.

Every effort is made to obtain correct statements of the migration to and from the colony, but there is still difficulty in regard to the departures. The arrivals are doubtless correct, but many people leave the colony for Australia without booking their passages, paying their fares on board after the steamer has cleared: in these cases the returns from the Customs authorities are deficient. As has been pointed out before, the difficulty is met to a large extent by arrangements under which the pursers of the intercolonial steamers belonging to the Union Steamship Company, on their return to this colony, post to the Registrar-General a statement of the number of passengers on the previous outward voyage. But during any period of cheap fares and strong competition between rival companies steamers may carry more passengers than can lawfully be taken, and of the number in excess no return is likely to be made.

The number of persons who left this colony in 1893 was 15,723, of whom 14,150 were over and 1,573 were under twelve years of age. The males numbered 10,263, and the females 5,460. The departures for the United Kingdom amounted to 1,583 persons. 4,329 left for Victoria, 8,257 for New South Wales and Queensland, and 691 for Tasmania — making 13,277 for Australia altogether. 167 persons left for Fiji, and 696 for Hawaii, South Seas, and other parts (including passengers for San Francisco).

The total excess of arrivals over departures—10,412 persons—is made up as under:—

 Excess of Arrivals.Excess of Departures.
From United Kingdom1,346 
From Australia9,074 
From Fiji94 
From Hawaii, South Seas, and other parts 102

The following table shows the recorded movements of population between New Zealand and the United Kingdom in each of the past ten years:—

Arrivals therefrom.Departures thereto.

These figures, which may be taken as correct, show a gain of 28,493 persons from intercourse with the United Kingdom. But the total gain by excess of arrivals over departures during the ten years, after correcting the populations by means of the census results of 1886 and 1891, is found to be 4,753 persons only; it follows, therefore, that the loss to Australia and other places amounted to 23,740 during the decennial period, of which number at least 90 per cent. must have gone to Australia. The figures for 1892 and 1893 show a different result for the two last years of the decennium, there having been a net gain from intercourse with Australia of 13,079 persons. Of the loss prior to 1892, by far the largest amount in any one year occurred in 1888, when the expenditure of loan-money by the General Government was reduced to one-half of what it had been in the previous year, 1887.

The returns published by the Board of Trade do not distinguish between the departures from the United Kingdom for New Zealand and those for Australia. Only the departures for Australasia as a whole are given. In 1893 these amounted to 11,412. The number of persons who arrived in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom was 2,929, or equal to nearly 26 per cent. of the entire direct emigration from the United Kingdom to the Australasian Colonies. This proportion is greater than in any previous year; but the number does not represent all the persons who come from the United Kingdom to this colony, as many travel viâ the Suez Canal or San Francisco, and thus appear as arrivals either from Australia or foreign ports.

According to the foregoing table the arrivals from the United Kingdom fell in number in regular annual sequence from 9,860 in 1884 to 2,435 in 1891; but New Zealand has since then somewhat increased her gain of population from the Old Country, the arrivals for 1892 numbering 2,555, and those for 1893 2,929 persons, while the departures for the United Kingdom have fallen year by year since 1889. In 1893 the excess of arrivals from the United Kingdom over the departures thereto was as high as 1,346 persons. In 1891 it was only 730 persons.

There has been a large annual decrease of late years in the number of persons who leave the United Kingdom for these southern colonies:—

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in New Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.

As the population of New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris) comprises 16.52 per cent. of the population of Australasia, not including Fiji, it is evident from the above figures that this colony during 1893 offered greater attractions to emigrants than did Australia; and it must be remembered that the above numbers do not include persons who arrive from England viâ Australia and the United States.

The following shows the immigration and emigration for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1893. The figures for departures are for all the colonies admittedly imperfect, on account of the number of persons leaving by sea of whose departure no record is obtained:—

Colony.Arrivals, 1893.Departures, 1893.Excess of Arrivals over Departures, 1893.

* Including estimated number of unrecorded departures.

Excess of departures.

New South Wales112,084110,5471,537
Victoria (by sea only)74,04787,458*-13,411
South Australia50,55645,8164,740
Western Australia8,9283,7055,223
New Zealand26,13515,72310,412



The births registered in the colony during 1893 numbered 18,187, or at the rate of 27.50 per 1,000 of the mean population. Numerically, the births registered in 1893 are found to be 311 in excess of the number for 1892; nevertheless the birth-rate fell from 27.83 in the former year to 27.50 in the latter. From the year 1884, when the births were 19,846, to 1892, when they numbered only 17,876, there was a regular annual decrease, notwithstanding the increase of population. In 1893 a change came; but the numerical increase of 311 in the registrations of births was not sufficient to alter the position as regards the birth-rate per 1,000 of the population, which has been decreasing ever since the year 1881.

That there should be a continuous fall in the birth-rate of New Zealand is only what might be expected, as the same process is going on in Australia; but the fall here has been greater, and it is noticeable that New Zealand has now a lower birth-rate than any of the colonies of Australia.

The following table shows that, with increasing population and, since 1886, a numerical increase of marriages, there has been an annual decrease of births registered from 1881 to 1892, and in the birth-rate since 1881:—

Year.Mean Population (excluding Maoris).Number of Marriages.Number of Births.Births per 1,000 of the Population.

It has been before remarked that a fall in the birth-rate in a young country is to a certain point a natural result of the increase in the proportion of the population under twenty-one years of age; but in New Zealand the proportion under twenty-one at the census of 1891 was found to be slightly lower than that in 1886, so that there must be further reasons to account for a decrease in the actual number of births such as is found up to the year 1893.

Inquiry was made of District Registrars to discover whether many births escaped registration, through the colony not being sufficiently subdivided for registration purposes; but the replies did not tend to show that the cause of decrease was want of facilities for registration, though it is nevertheless desirable to subdivide further when representations are made of fresh requirements.

Substantial decreases in the numbers of births registered were found in certain registration districts, of which the following are instances: Taking the same area in each year, the births in the Auckland and Onehunga Registration Districts were 2,384 in 1886, 1,962 in 1889, and 1,908 in 1893. Similarly, in the Wellington and Hutt Districts the births in 1886 were 1,342; in 1890, 1,355; and in 1893 only 1,338, notwithstanding a large increase in the city population. In the Christchurch District, which includes all the suburbs as well as some surrounding country, the decline is very marked. In 1886 the births were 1,873; in 1889 they had fallen to 1,597; and in 1893 to 1,443. For the Dunedin District, which also includes suburban boroughs and some adjacent country, the fall was from 1,589 births in 1886 to 1,369 in 1889, and 1,245 in 1893.

Here is shown a falling-off of births registered at and around the largest centres of population, where there can be no question of distance from the Registrar's office or of insufficient convenience to the public such as might arise in country places. But the fact of the births throughout the colony decreasing numerically as well as proportionately to population—while the marriages of late have increased in number—shows sufficiently well that the decline in the rate is not due to want of facilities for registration.

The decrease in the birth-rate all over the civilised world has been freely and openly commented on of late, and the voluntary limitation of families is no doubt largely resorted to in communities where there exists a high standard of comfort in living, with a great multiplication of wants and extension of education. In New Zealand there were, in 1881, 5.72 births to every marriage in the previous year, and in 1893 the proportion had fallen to 4.37 births to each marriage.

It was ascertained, after the census of 1881 had been compiled, that the married women of reproductive age in the colony averaged 314 to every 100 of legitimate births, which is equal to an average of one birth to every married woman at the age for child-bearing in every 3.14 years. In 1886 the average was found, on calculation, to be 333 wives to 100 births, or an average of one birth to each wife in 3.33 years. In 1891 there were 17,635 legitimate births, and the number of married women at the time of the census at the period 15 to 45 years was 63,165, which gives an average of 358 wives to each 100 births, or, deducting one child in each case of twins, the average becomes 362 wives to every 100 births, being a birth to each wife every 3.62 years. The census results therefore prove that the average interval between each birth in the case of married women at the child-bearing ages advanced from 3.14 years in 1881 to 3.33 years in 1886, and 3.62 years in 1891; so that this factor must evidently be taken into account in considering the question of the causes of the falling birth-rate.

Dr. J. S. Billings, of the Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, writing in the Forum on the diminishing birth-rate in the United States, calls attention to a fact which is not often referred to—namely, that the birth-rate is declining even more in the United States than in other countries.

In the United States the proportions per 1,000 for 1880 and 1890 were respectively 36.0 and 30.7; in England and Wales, 31.2 and 30.2; in Scotland, 33.6 and 30.2; in Ireland, 24.7 and 22.3; in France, 24.5 and 21.8; in Belgium, 31.1 and 28.7; in German Empire, 37.6 and 35.7; in Austria, 38.0 and 36.7; in Switzerland, 29.6 and 26.6; in Denmark, 31.8 and 30.6; in Norway, 30.7 and 30.3; and in the Netherlands, 35.5 and 32.9.

Dr. Billings discusses the question as to the cause of this remarkable decrease, and the following is his conclusion:—

The most important factor in the change is the deliberate and voluntary avoidance or prevention of child-bearing on the part of a steadily-increasing number of married people, who not only prefer to have but few children, but who know how to obtain their wish. The reasons for this are numerous, but I will mention only three.

The first is the diffusion of information with regard to the subject of generation by means of popular and school treatises on physiology and hygiene, which diffusion began between thirty and forty years ago. Girls of twenty years of age at the present day know much more about anatomy and physiology than did their grandmothers at the same age, and the married women are much better informed than were those of thirty years ago. To some extent this may also be true as regards the young men; but I do not think this is an important factor.

The second cause has been the growth of the opinion that the abstaining from having children on the part of a married couple is not only not in itself sinful, or contrary to the usual forms of religious creeds, but that it may even be under certain circumstances commendable.

The third cause is the great increase in the use of things which were formerly considered as luxuries, but which now have become almost necessities. The greater temptations to expenditure for the purpose of securing or maintaining social position, and the correspondingly greater cost of family life in what may be called the lower middle classes, lead to the desire to have fewer children, in order that they may be each better provided for, or perhaps, in some cases, from the purely selfish motive of desire to avoid care and trouble, and of having more to spend on social pleasures.

The fall in the birth-rates of the Australian Colonies over a period of nine years is shown in the following table:—


New South Wales37.6437.0336.4236.1833.7335.3534.5034.4132.23
South Australia37.3035.3234.6333.3432.3732.7533.9232.3231.71
Western Australia35.2239.2137.3435.8837.1432.5534.8533.0134.14
New Zealand34.3533.1532.0931.3230.0729.4429.0127.8327.50

In the year 1880 New Zealand had the highest birth-rate of the above colonies, 40.78; but since 1887 the position has been reversed, and the rate the lowest of all.

The birth-rates for five years in Great Britain and certain countries of the European Continent are given from the report of the Registrar-General of England. The rates in England and Wales, and in Scotland, are higher than those in New Zealand, but the rate for Ireland is lower. For 1890–91 France has the lowest rate of all quoted.


Countries.Number of Births per 1,000 of Mean Population.
German Empire36.936.636.435.737.0
England and Wales31.931.

The male births in New Zealand in 1893 numbered 9,310, and the female 8,877: the proportion was thus 104.88 males to 100 females. In 1892 the proportion was 103.72 males, and in 1891, 105.41. There are on an average more male to female births in each of the Australasian Colonies than in England, but the proportion of male births is still greater in many European countries.

There were 188 cases of twin births (376 children) in 1893; there was also one case of triplets. The number of children born was 18,187; the number of mothers was 17,997: thus on an average 1 mother in every 101 gave birth to twins. In 1892 the proportion was one in 102, in 1891 one in 101, and in 1890 one in 95.

The births of 673 children were illegitimate: thus 37 in every 1,000 children born were born out of wedlock.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. The rate in New Zealand is less than in any other of the Australasian Colonies except South Australia:—


Year.Queens-land.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

The rates in the Colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria are somewhat higher than the rate in England, which was. 4.2 in 1891. The rate for New Zealand is less. In Scotland the rate was as high as 7.6 in the year 1890. In Ireland it was only 2.7 in 1891. Of European continental countries the rate is highest in Austria, 14.7. In the German Empire it is 9.3, in France 8.1, in Italy 6.8, and in Switzerland 4.6.

It is held that the average number of children to a marriage may be ascertained by comparing the number of legitimate births for a series of years with the number of marriages during a series of years of the same number, but commencing with the year preceding that for which the first number of births is taken; for, although in the earlier years births will be included that are the fruits of marriages solemnised prior to the commencement of the period, yet there will be omitted the number of children born subsequently to the period, of parents married within the given time. This method probably gives results approximately true:—

Year.Marriages.Legitimate Births.Proportion of Births to every Marriage solemnised in the Preceding Year.
  Sums and proportion18,85387,9524.67

The average number of births per marriage was, for the last five years, 4.67, and a decrease in the number of births to a marriage from 4.93 to 4.37 is exhibited for the quinquennium. In the Australian Colonies a similar decrease is noticeable. It has been remarked that in all the Australian Colonies, except Tasmania, and possibly New South Wales, there is a tendency for the average number of children to a marriage to decrease. The number given in the Victorian Year-book for each of the colonies named is as follows:—


Victoria.New South Wales.Queensland.South Australia.Tasmania

* Mean of seven years.

Mean of numbers for twelve years, 1880–914.204.724.604.724.74*

The following statement of the average number of children to a marriage in various European countries is taken from the same source:—

 Children to each Marriage.

The excess per cent. of births over deaths for each of the Australasian Colonies is stated in the Victorian Year-book as under, for a mean of ten years ending with 1892, New Zealand having the largest for such period:—


New Zealand213
South Australia172
New South Wales156
Western Australia113

For the year 1892 New Zealand occupies the fourth place, the ratio of excess being highest in South Australia.


Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation which entitle them to enjoy all the rights and privileges that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit within this colony. Five hundred and ninety-six aliens were naturalised in 1893.

As the diversity of nationalities is considerable, the following statement is given of the number of each:—


Natives of
Sweden and Norway146
United States of America3

The number of natives of each country naturalised during the last twelve years is shown hereunder:—

Natives of
Sweden and Norway633
United States of America11
Other countries15

Of the number naturalised in the period 1882–93, natives of Germany comprised 33 per cent., Swedes arid Norwegians 23 per cent., Danes 17 per cent., and Chinese 7 per cent.

By section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1882,” repealed and re-enacted by section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1892,” it is provided that when the father, or mother being a widow, has obtained naturalisation in the colony, every child who during infancy has become resident with them in New Zealand shall be deemed to be naturalised and have the rights and privileges of a natural-born subject.


The number of marriages in 1893 was 4,115, an increase of 113 on the number in 1892. The marriage-rate was 6.22 per 1,000 persons living, the number of marriages being the greatest and the rate the highest since 1885, except in 1892, when it was 6.23 per 1,000 persons. The marriage-rate seems to have reached its lowest in the year 1889 (5.91). Since then it has risen again somewhat; but the position of New Zealand as regards the marriage-rate is, nevertheless, different from what it was in the year 1874. In that year the figures for the Australasian Colonies stood as follow:—


New Zealand881 per 1,000 of mean population.
Queensland8.62 per 1,000 of mean population.
South Australia800 per 1,000 of mean population.
New South Wales770 per 1,000 of mean population.
Western Australia6.96 per 1,000 of mean population.
Tasmania6.83 per 1,000 of mean population.
Victoria6.33 per 1,000 of mean population.

The respective rates for the Australasian Colonies for the last ten years are shown in the following table:—


Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

Taking this range of years, the marriage-rate is shown to be less in New Zealand than in the colonies of Australia, and it is also lower than in most European countries.


England and Wales, 18917.8
Scotland, 18916.9
Ireland, 18914.6
Denmark, 18916.8
Sweden, 18906.0
Austria, 18917.7
Hungary, 18908.2
Switzerland, 18917.1
German Empire, 18910.8
Netherlands 18917.1
Belgium, 18917.4
France, 18917.5
Spain, 18846.7
Italy, 18917.5

The greatest number of marriages in 1893 occurred in the autumn quarter, ending the 30th June, and the smallest number in the winter quarter, ending the 30th September.

Of the marriages which were solemnised in 1893, 3,625 were between bachelors and spinsters, 161 between bachelors and widows, 209 between widowers and spinsters, and 120 between widowers and widows. Divorced men and women have been classified as bachelors or spinsters: 5 divorced men and 8 divorced women were married during the year.

The proportion of each class of marriage to all the marriages varies but little from year to year as shown by the figures for 1888 and 1893.


  Marriages between1868.1893.
Bachelors and spinsters86.0488.09
Bachelors and widows4.753.91
Widowers and spinsters6.475.08
Widowers and widows2.742.92

The number of marriages given does not include those between persons both of whom are of the aboriginal native race, these persons being exempted from the necessity of complying with the provisions of the Marriage Act, although they are at liberty to take advantage thereof. Only 7 marriages in which both parties were Maoris were contracted in 1893 in terms of that Act.

Of the marriages in the past year, 23.06 per cent. were solemnised by ministers of the Church of England, 26.58 per cent. by ministers of the Presbyterian Churches, 16.13 per cent. by ministers of the Wesleyan and other Methodist Churches, 8.99 per cent. by ministers of the Roman Catholic Church, 6.66 per cent. by ministers of other denominations, and 18.58 per cent. by Registrars.

Comparing with 1890, the proportions of marriages solemnised by ministers of the Church of England and by Wesleyans in 1893 are found to be higher; the proportion of marriages by Presbyterian ministers, by the Roman Catholic clergy, and by Registrars are found to be lower.

The following shows the proportions of marriages by ministers of the principal denominations in the past seven years, and the percentages of these denominations to the total population:—

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.Percentage of Denomination to Total Population in 1891.
Church of England21.6021.9523.1121.6622.1820.7823.0640.51
Wesleyans and other Methodists14.7314.1015.0815.5814.7214.8216.1310.14
Roman Catholics11.8111.6910.4010.4510.079.748.9913.96
Other denominations4.155.705.235.275.676.346.6612.77
By Registrars23.2222.2319.4319.4520.1318.9418.58

It will be observed that the proportions of marriages by ministers of the Presbyterian and Wesleyan Churches are greater than the percentages of these denominations to the total population. It is manifest that the marriages solemnised by them include those of members of other religious bodies, and that the persons married before Registrars consist, to a large extent, of nominal members of the Church of England. As all marriages between members of the Roman Catholic Church are, by requirement of that Church, solemnised by the ministers thereof, it appears that fewer marriages in proportion to their numbers occur among the members of that Church than among members of other bodies. The proportion of marriages by the Roman Catholic clergy out of every 100 marriages solemnised is steadily falling. In 1887 it was as high as 11.81, against 8.99 in 1893, notwithstanding that the proportion of Roman Catholics in every 100 of the population was found by the census of 1886 to be 13.95, while in 1891 it was almost the same (13.96). Marriages by Registrars, which increased from 10.50 per cent. in 1875 to 23.22 per cent. of the total in 1887, fell to 18.58 per cent. in 1893.

Of the men married in 1893, 47, or 11.42 in every 1,000, and of the women 70, or 17.01 in every 1,000, signed the register by marks.

The illiteracy of the people, as measured by the proportion of married persons who affix marks instead of signatures to the marriage register, has greatly decreased of late, having fallen since 1881 to the extent of about 64 per cent. among men, and about 66 per cent. among women. This is shown in the following table: —


Church of England16.5927.159.3312.006.084.867.3813.70
Wesleyan and other Methodists32.4141.796.3314.7815.2010.144.5112.05
Roman Catholics117.78133.3346.4565.5735.2642.8216.2235.14
Other denominations10.3620.7211.4922.9915.000.003.657.30
By Registrars39.2293.5135.9862.0329.7740.6027.4537.91
  Total marriages32.0150.2019.2128.9616.3319.2311.4217.01

The proportion of illiterates in 1893 was greatest among those married before Registrars, but it must be remembered that, as previously stated, a large proportion of the persons married before Registrars are nominally members of the Church of England. Hitherto the proportion has been largest among Roman Catholics; but since 1881 it has, as shown by the table, most remarkably decreased.

Of the persons married in 1893, 72 males and 812 females were under 21 years of age—1 youth was 16 years old, and 6 of the males were between 18 and 19. But 291 of the females were under 19: of these, 8 were between 15 and 16, and 22 between 16 and 17 years of age. The proportion of males married is greatest at the ages of 25 to 30, and that of the females at from 21 to 25 years.

The following are the proportions of men and women married at each age-period to every 100 marriages in the years 1888 and 1893:—

Under 21 years1.8524.301.7519.73
21 and under 2528.1742.0527.3943.69
25 and under 3033.8121.1536.1323.26
30 and under 4026.028.9825.359.50
40 and under 506.692.745.692.75
50 and under 602.520.612.820.83
60 and under 700.880.140.750.22
70 and upwards0.

Registrars of Marriages in New Zealand are prohibited by law from issuing certificates for the marriage of minors without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians, if there he any in the colony. If a declaration he made in any case that there is no-parent or lawful guardian in the colony, then a certificate may be issued after the expiration of fourteen days following the date on which the notice of intended marriage is given.

A marriage may not be solemnised in New Zealand except after the delivery to the minister or Registrar who officiates of a certificate issued by a Registrar authorising such marriage, and if any persons knowingly and wilfully intermarry without such certificate. the marriage is null and void; and no clergyman or minister of any denomination is empowered to solemnise marriages until his name has been placed on the Registrar-General's list of officiating ministers for the year.

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—namely, 12 years for females and 14 for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of 12 or 14, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

The ages at which persons can contract binding marriage in the United States are 21 for males and 18 for females, according to the “Annual Statistician” (McCarty, San Francisco). In France and Belgium the ages are 18 and 15 respectively; in Germany, 18 and 14; in Austria, 14 and 14; and in Russia, 18 and 16.

The average age of the males in this colony who married in 1893 was 29–72 years, and of the females, 25–07 years. In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (in the year 1891) 28–37 years for men, and 26–08 years for women. Thus the average age at which men marry is higher in the colony than in England, but that of the women is lower.

The proportion of males marrying under 21 in England is much greater than in New Zealand; but the proportion of females under 21 who marry is much greater in the colony.

In England, in 1891, of every 1,000 males married whose ages were stated, 59 were under 21 years of age, and of every 1,000 females 190 were under 21 years of age. In New Zealand, in 1893. the proportions were 17 males and 197 females in every 1,000 married. While in New Zealand the proportion of bridegrooms under 21 years of age fluctuates within narrow limits, the proportion of brides under 21 years of age is steadily decreasing: this is shown by the following proportions for each sex under 21 years of age in every 100 married:—

Year.Bridegrooms under 21 in every 100.Brides under 21 in every 100.


The deaths in 1893 numbered 6,767, being equivalent to a rate of 10–23 in every 1,000 persons living. This is higher than the rate (10–06) in 1892, but less than that for 1891 (10–35). In each of the years, 1888, 1889, 1890, the rate was under 10 per 1,000.

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with those in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, and furnishes evidence of the great salubrity of the climate of the colony. The following table gives the death-rates for a series of years in the several countries named:—


* Excluding Northern Territory.

New Zealand10.3910.7610.5410.299.439.449.6610.3510.0610.23
New South Wales16.1416.4114.8913.1513.5413.4212.9014.2413.2213.25
South Australia*15.2412.4813.3812.7712.5211.4912.4013.2611.3813.42
Western Australia21.8717.6121.5616.8315.9114.1911.2616.9616.6315.27
German Empire26.025.726.224.223.823.824.423.424.1..

A comparison of the above rates appears to place the Australasian Colonies as a whole in the foremost rank for salubrity of climate and healthiness of people, New Zealand standing well above the rest; but it must be admitted that the ratio of all deaths to the 1,000 of population living in the middle of the year, although a good test of the sanitary condition of the same country from year to year, and also useful for comparing the healthfulness of such countries as contain the same or nearly the same proportionate numbers of persons living at each age-period of life, cannot be regarded as a perfectly fair index when new countries are compared with old, or even when new countries are compared one with another, should the proportions living at the several age-periods vary considerably.

The truest rates of mortality are obtained by ascertaining the proportion of deaths at each age-period to the numbers living at those ages.

Deaths and Death-rates of Four Principal Cities.

The total number of deaths registered at the four chief towns in 1893 was 1,374, or an increase of 123 on the number registered in the previous year, and of 43 on the number registered in 1891. A numerical increase of deaths in 1893 over 1892 is noticed at each city, but is greatest in Wellington. The deaths and death-rates for the last three years are stated:—

Deaths, 1891.Deaths, 1892.Deaths, 1893.
No.Per 1,000 No. of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.No.Per 1,000 of Population.

Here the rates are all higher for 1893 than for 1892, and in the case of Christchurch higher than in 1891. Of the rates for 1893 that of Wellington is the highest, Auckland coming next.

If the infantile mortality be excluded, the death-rate of Wellington still stands as the highest in 1893, but Dunedin takes second, Auckland third, and Christchurch the last place.

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population, excluding Infants (under One Year of Age).

A comparison of the death-rates of the chief towns of New Zealand for 1892 and 1893 with those of Australia shows the rates in this colony to be lower:—

Principal Cities.Deaths per 1,000 of Population.
Perth (including suburbs)27.2323.62
Auckland (excluding suburbs)12.5212.90

The rate for Wellington in 1893 is found to be 1–14 per 1,000 less than that for Brisbane, but the rate for Brisbane is the lowest of those quoted for Australian cities, while that of Wellington is the highest given for New Zealand.

Infantile Mortality in Four Principal Cities.

The degree of infantile mortality is exhibited in the proportion of deaths of children under one year of age to every 100 births. The results for five years are given, showing that the mean rate is highest at Christchurch, next at Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin following. The same order prevails in the proportions for the year 1893.

 Deaths of Children under One Year to every 100 Births.
1889.1890.1891.1892.1893.Mean of Five Years.


Capital Cities.*Estimated Mean Population.Births.Deaths.Excess of Births over Deaths.
Total Number.Number per 1,000 of the Population.Total Number.Number per 1,000 of the Population.Numerical.Centesimal.

* With suburbs.

If the births and deaths occurring in hospitals, asylums, &c., be excluded, the rate per 1,000 of the population of Greater Melbourne of births would be 31–98, and of deaths, 14–21; whilst the excess of births over deaths would be 8,051, or 125 per cent.

The figures in this line have been partly derived from estimates made in the office of the Government Statist, Melbourne.


Deaths in the Colony at Various Age-periods.

Of the persons who died in 1893, 266 males and 191 females were at or over 75 years of age. Of these, 121 males and 88 females were under 80 years of age, 93 males and 62 females were 80 and under 85, 45 males and 27 females were from 85 to under 90, 5 males and 11 females were from 90 to 95, 2 males and 2 females were between 95 and 100 years, and 1 woman reached the age of 100 years.

The combined ages of all the males who died amounted to 125,305 years, and those of the females to 78,471 years, giving an average age at death of 31–86 years for the males and 27–79 years for the females.

The average age at death of persons of each sex, in each of the past five years, was as follows:—

188932.29 years27.69 years.
189033.81 years.28.62 years.
189133.11 years.29.25 years.
189232.97 years.28.95 years.
189331.86 years.27.79 years.

More males than females are horn annually, and more male than female infants die in proportion to the number of each sex born. In 1893 the number of male children born was 9,310, and the number of deaths of male infants under one year of age was 922, being at the rate of 99 in every 1,000 born; the number of females born was 8,877, and the number that died under one year of age was 678, being in the proportion of 76 in every 1,000 born.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1893, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.

It will he seen from these figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are far stronger in favour of female than of male infants. Thus, during the year 1893 there were—

100 deaths of males to 70–60 deaths of females under 1 month of age;100 deaths of males to 60–10 deaths of females under 1 to 3 month of age;100 deaths of males to 94–34 deaths of females under 3 to 6 month of age;100 deaths of males to 74–32 deaths of females under 6 to 12 month of age;100 deaths of males to 73–54 deaths of females under 12 month of age;

The rates of infantile mortality—that is, the proportion the deaths of children under one year of age bear to the births—are higher in the Australian Colonies than in New Zealand. The following table gives the rate in the several colonies named for each of the ten years 1882–91:—


Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

Infantile mortality is as a rule greatest in the large towns, where the population is dense and the sanitary conditions are less favourable than in country districts. The absence in New Zealand of any such large centres of population as are found in some of the Australian Colonies may partially account for the lower rates of infantile mortality in this colony. The proportions of infantile deaths to births in each of the four principal boroughs in New Zealand during the past five years have been previously stated.

Death-rates of Married Men and Orphanhood of Children.

“The Registration of Births and Deaths Act Amendment Act, 1882,” requires that on the registration of the death of any person the age of each living child of the deceased shall be entered in the register. The particulars so recorded for several years have been tabulated, and the detailed, results are shown in the two tables on pages 62 and 63 of the “Statistics of New Zealand, 1893.” One of those tables deals with the year 1893 only; the other gives the aggregate results for the four years 1890 to 1893 inclusive. They show the total number of men who died at each year of age from 20 to 65, the number of married men (husbands and widowers) stated in the registers to have died childless, the number who died leaving children living, and the number and ages of the children so left.

From the first of these tables it is found that during 1893 there died 1,610 men between the ages of 20 and 65, of whom 836 were married; 701 married men left children at their deaths, while 135 are stated to have been childless. The proportions of married men and bachelors in every 100 males dying were 51–93 and 48–07 respectively. The proportions at the census of 1891 for the total number living at the above ages were: Married men, 56–81 per cent.; bachelors, 42–92 per cent.; and unspecified, 0–27 per cent. The differences here shown would tend to prove that the death-rate amongst married men at the ages under review is lighter than amongst bachelors; but it must be borne in mind that when registering a death the informant is not always in possession of full particulars as to the conjugal condition of the deceased, and that therefore the number of married men as shown in the tables may be somewhat short of the actual fact.

Assuming the ratio of married men at 20 to 65 to the total male population at those ages to be the same in 1893 as obtained at the census of 1891, the death-rate is found to be 8–69 per 1,000 living, whereas the rate for all males at the same age-period was in 1891 9–60 per 1,000.

Total Number of Males living at each Age-period.Total Number of Male Deaths.Death-rate per 1,000 living.Estimated Number of Married Men living.Number of Deaths of Married Men.Death-rate per 1,000 living.

The total number of children left by the 836 married men who died in 1893 was 3,352. Of these, 1,577 were under 15 years of age, 673 between 15 and 21, and 1,031 over 21, leaving 71 in respect of whom no information could be obtained. Thus the average number of children of all ages left by each married man dying between 20 and 65 would be 4.01, or 1.89 under 15, 0.80 between 15 and 21, 1.23 over 21 years of age, and 0.09 of unspecified age. Discarding the number (135) of fathers said to have died childless, the average number of children left by each of the others would be 4.78 of all ages—2.25 under 15, 0.96 between 15 and 21, 1.47 over 21, and 0.10 of unspecified age. Almost identical results are obtained if the figures for the four years 1890–93 be used instead of those for 1893 only.

Ages.Estimated Number of Husbands and Widowers living in 1693.Total Number of Male Deaths.Number of Married Men who diedNumber and Ages of Children left.
Childless.Leaving Children.Under 15.15 to 21.21 and upward.Unspecified.Total.
20–252,473154233   3
25–309,213161143161   61
30–3513,668107837103  6109
35–4015,052145156520210 11223
40–4513,444131978308552 365
60–656,31928137147131153510 794

An important fact brought out by the statistics quoted above is that every year upwards of 1,500 children under 15 years of age are left fatherless—how many without adequate means of living it is not possible to say.

Causes of Death.

The deaths registered during the last five years, when distributed among the several classes according to their assigned causes, give the rates shown hereunder:—

Causes of Death.Rate per 10,000 living.
Zymotic diseases12.0313.2617.3815.6717.95
Parasitic diseases0.260.320.210.420.36
Dietetic diseases0.970.740.981.311.07
Constitutional diseases16.5317.1916.8917.6117.56
Developmental diseases7.017.687.437.837.65
Local diseases43.7144.3347.4845.1646.40
Ill-defined and not-specified causes5.544.645.084.343.09
          All causes94.3696.55103.48100.58102.32

The following statement gives the number of deaths for 1893 according to the various classes of disease, and the proportion of deaths in each class and order to the total number of deaths:—

Causes of Death.Number of Deaths.Proportion to Total Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 living.
    Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent. 
Class I. Specific febrile or zymotic diseases,—
 Order 1. Miasmatic diseases50341491712.7614.6613.5513.87
 Order 2. Diarrhóal diseases107861932.713.052.852.92
 Order 3. Malarial diseases3140.
 Order 4. Zoogenous diseases       
 Order 5. Venereal diseases128206.300.280.300.30
 Order 6. Septic diseases1736530.431.270780.80
  Total Class I.6425451,18716.2819.3017.5417.95
Class II. Parasitic diseases1410240.360.350.350.36
Class III. Dietetic diseases4724711.190.851.051.07
Class IV. Constitutional diseases6315301,16116.0018.7717.1617.56
Class V. Developmental diseases2842225067.207.867.487.65
Class VI. Local diseases,—
  Order 1. Diseases of nervous system432316748109611.1911.0511.31
  Order 2. Diseases of organs of special sense64100.
  Order 3. Diseases of circulatory system3401805208.626.387.687.86
  Order 4. Diseases of respiratory system51539190613.0613.8513.3913.70
  Order 5. Diseases of digestive system3142275417.968.047.998.18
  Order 6. Diseases of lymphatic system78150.
  Order 7. Diseases of urinary system139581973532.052.912.98
  Order 8. Diseases of reproductive system,—
  (a.) Of organs of generation433370.101.170.550.56
  (b.) Of parturition54541.910.800.82
  Order 9. Diseases of locomotive system156216.380216.310.32
  Order 10. Diseases of integumentary system812200.200420.300.30
  Total Class VI.1,7801,2893,06945.1445.6445.3546.40
Class VII. Violence,—
  Order 1, Accident or negligence380914719.643.226.967.12
  Order 2. Homicide2130.
  Order 3. Suicide5515701.390531.031.06
  Order 4. Execution110.030.020.02
  Total Class VII.43810754511.113.798.058.24
Class VIII. Ill-defined and not-specified causes107972042.723.443.023.09
  Grand totals3,9432,8246,767100.00100.0010000102.32

The following table exhibits the number of deaths in 1893 from each specific disease:—



Class.Causes of Death.Males.Females.Total.
Orders and Diseases.
Epidemic rose-rash, rubeola7714
Scarlet fever, scarlatina Typhus...11
Relapsing fever...11
Cerebro-spinal fever.........
Simple and ill-defined fever123
Enteric fever, typhoid682997
Other miasmatic diseases.........
           Total Order 1503414917
ORDER 2.—Diarrhœal.
Simple cholera232245
           Total Order 210786193
ORDER 3.—Malarial.
Remittent fever314
           Total Order 3314
ORDER 4.—Zoogenous.
Splenic fever.........
Cow-pox and other effects of vaccination.......
           Total Order 4.........
ORDER 5.—Venereal.
Gonorrhœea, stricture of urethra, ulcer of groin4...4 
           Total Order 512820 
ORDER 6.—Septic. 
Pyæmia, septicæmia101020 
Puerperal fever, pyæmia, septicæmia...2424 
           Total Order 6173653 
           Total Class I.6425451,187 
Other diseases from vegetable parasites......... 
Hydatid disease538 
Other diseases from animal parasites...11 
           Total Class II.141024 
Want of breast-milk181129 
   Chronic alcoholism23932 
   Delirium tremens516 
Other dietetic diseases...22 
           Total Class III.472471 
Tabes mesenterica, tubercular peritonitis272249 
Tubercular meningitis, acute hydrocephalus353772 
Other forms of tuberculosis, scrofula333063 
Purpura, hæmorrhagic diathesis527 
Anæmia, chlorosis, leucocythæmia4812 
Diabetes mellitus191332 
Other constitutional diseases134 
           Total Class IV.6315301,161 
V.—DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES.Premature birth13395228 
Spina bifida459 
Imperforate anus325 
Cleft palate, hare-lip213 
Other congenital defects11718 
Old age11495209 
           Total Class V.284222506 
VI.—LOCAL DISEASES.ORDER 1.—Diseases of Nervous System. 
Inflammation of the brain or its membranes395796 
Cerebro-spinal meningitis325 
Softening of brain151025 
Hemiplegia, brain paralysis191332 
Paralysis (undescribed)352459 
Paralysis agitans...22 
Insanity, general paralysis of insane44953 
Laryngismus stridulus314 
Idiopathic tetanus448 
Paraplegia, diseases of spinal cord15621 
Locomotor ataxia8...8 
Other diseases of nervous system382462 
           Total Order 1432316748 
ORDER 2.—Diseases of Organs of Special Sense.
Otitis, otorrhœa336 
Epistaxis, and diseases of nose1...1 
Ophthalmia, and diseases of eye213 
           Total Order 26410 
ORDER 3.—Diseases of Circulatory System. 
Endocarditis, valvular disease194120314 
Hypertrophy of heart4...4 
Fatty degeneration of heart34741 
Angina pectoris538 
Senile gangrene11415 
Embolism, thrombosis336 
Varicose veins, piles......... 
Other diseases of circulatory system12416 
           Total Order 3340180520 
ORDER 4.—Diseases of Respiratory System. 
Other diseases of larynx and trachea2...2 
Asthma, emphysema201232 
Other diseases of respiratory system333063 
           Total Order 4515391906 
ORDER 5.—Diseases of Digestive System. 
Stomatitis, cancrum oris10313 
Sore throat, quinsy6814 
Diseases of stomach, gastritis283563 
Ulceration, perforation, of intestine145 
Ileus, obstruction of intestine20929 
Stricture or strangulation of intestine......... 
Intussusception of intestine7411 
Cirrhosis of liver24731 
Other diseases of liver, hepatitis, jaundice442872 
Other diseases of digestive system5611 
           Total Order 5314227541 
ORDER 6—Diseases of Lymphatic System and Ductless Glands. 
Diseases of lymphatic system347 
Diseases of spleen...11 
Addison's disease314 
           Total Order 67815 
ORDER 7.—Diseases of Urinary System. 
Acute nephritis91120 
Bright's disease602989 
Suppression of urine7...7 
Diseases of bladder and prostate33538 
Other diseases of urinary system (kidney diseases undescribed)21930 
           Total Order 713958197 
ORDER 8.—Diseases of Reproductive System. 
(a.) Diseases of organs of generation,— 
Ovarian disease...1111 
Diseases of uterus and vagina...1616 
Disorders of menstruation...44 
Pelvic abscess123 
Perineal abscess2...2 
Diseases of testes, penis, scrotum, &c.1...1 
(b.) Diseases of parturition,— 
Abortion, miscarriage...66 
Puerperal mania...22 
Puerperal metritis...11 
Puerperal convulsions...77 
Placenta prævia (flooding)...1818 
Phlegmasia dolens...22 
Other accidents of childbirth...1818 
           Total Order 848791 
ORDER 9.—Diseases of Organs of Locomotion. 
Caries, necrosis718 
Arthritis, ostitis2...2 
Other diseases of organs of locomotion6511 
           Total Order 915621 
ORDER 10.—Diseases of Integumentary System. 
Phlegmon, cellulitis...22 
Ulcer, bed-sore123 
Other diseases of integumentary system112 
           Total Order 1081220 
           Total Class VI.1,7801,2893,069 
VII—Violence.ORDER 1.—Accident or Negligence. 
Fractures, contusions16817185 
Gunshot wounds7...7 
Cut, stab10212 
Burn, scald202949 
           Total Order 138091471 
ORDER 2.—Homicide. 
Murder, manslaughter213 
Wounds in battle......... 
           Total Order 2213 
ORDER 3.—Suicide. 
Gunshot wounds18119 
Cut, stab819 
           Total Order 3551570 
ORDER 4.—Execution. 
           Total Class VII.438107545 
VIII—Ill-Defined and Not Specified Causes.Dropsy...11 
Marasmus, &c.10392195 
Mortification, gangrene......... 
Sudden (cause unascertained)2...2 
Other ill-defined and not-specified causes246 
           Total Class VIII10797204 
   General totals3,9432,8246,767 

The deaths in 1893 from specific febrile or zymotic diseases amounted to 1,187, a proportion of 179 in every 100,000 persons living, and an increase of 181 on the number of deaths in 1892 from the same causes. Under all the principal heads the deaths in 1893 were fewer than in 1892, except in case of measles, from which there were 525 deaths. The epidemic of this complaint seems to have begun in 1893, as no deaths are found recorded for the previous year.

The following are the diseases in this class which caused the greatest mortality in the past nine years:— 7


* Including rubeola (14).

Measles149285211 525*
Scarlet fever and scarlatina127182119312441
Diarrhóal diseases399455475214355290319329193
Enteric or typhoid fever11812315813011814511913497
Puerperal fever483324392519272924

From smallpox there were no deaths. Growing neglect of vaccination has been commented on before; but the records of the year 1893 show still greater disregard to the requirements of the law. The numbers of children under one year of age successfully vaccinated, and the proportion to the total number of births, are given for 1893 and the six preceding Years:—

Provincial Districts.Total Vaccinations registered.Number of Births registered.Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of Children under 1 Year of Age to Total Births. Per Cent.Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of Children under 14 Years of Age to Total Births. Per Cent.
Hawke's Bay4621,00328.5146.06
          Chatham Islands..6....
          Totals, 18937,41218,18728.0940.75
          Totals, 18928,21617,87632.4145.96
          Totals, 18919,28418,27338.8150.81
          Totals, 18909,35718,27842.6651.19
          Totals, 188911,91318,45748.3764.55
          Totals, 188812,78218,90251.1067.62
          Totals, 188712,91919,13553.7967.52

Thus it would appear that only one child in every three born is successfully vaccinated, which is a serious matter enough when the possibility of an epidemic of smallpox is taken into consideration.

The proportions of successful vaccinations of all children under fourteen years of age to the total of births show a similar decrease.

In England the deaths from smallpox for the year 1891 were only 49 in number; and the deaths caused by the effects of vaccination were 43. A system, defined as “moderate compulsion,” has been recommended there, under which persons who have been fined –1, or have been fined in two penalties of any amount, for neglecting to have their children vaccinated would be exempted from any further proceedings.

Deaths from scarlet fever fell from 4 in 1892 to 1 in 1893. From diphtheria there were 128 deaths in 1893, a decrease of 67 in the number in the previous year, but an increase on the mortality in 1891 of 42. Deaths from whooping-cough numbered only 55, against 115 in 1892, and 242 in 1891. The epidemic of influenza;— from which complaint there were only 9 deaths in each of the years 1887, 1888, and 1889—caused 70 deaths in 1890, 210 in 1891, 144 in 1892, and 106 in 1893. Deaths from diarrhœal diseases fell from 329 in 1892 to 193 in 1893.

The death-rate from diarrhœal diseases fluctuates considerably from year to year, and often, though not invariably, rises and falls with the varying temperature of seasons and years. The following table, showing the mean maximum temperature in the summer months at the stations specified, exhibits the rise or fall of mortality from these diseases with the rise and fall of temperature:—


Dunedin71.7766.1367.8368 0063.9364.2063.70
Deaths in year from diarrhœal diseases per 10,000 persons living7.963.535.784.675.065.122.92

The mortality from typhoid fever was lower in 1893 than in 1892, the numbers of deaths being 97 and 134. The proportion per 10,000 persons living was 1.5 in 1893, against 2.9 in 1892 and 1.89 in 1891. For the years 1887 to 1891 the proportions for the various Australasian Colonies are given in the Victorian Year-book, from which it appears that New Zealand has the lowest:—


New South Wales4.324.265.352.822.35
South Australia4.923.844.373132.52
Western Australia3.121.651.160.422.34
New Zealand2.822.301.982.401.89

The rate for England and Wales for the year 1891 was 1–68 per 10,000 living.

There are more deaths from phthisis than from any other cause. The number of deaths was 524 in 1892 and 545–295 males and 250 females—in 1893. The deaths in 1893 were in the proportion of 8–24 in every 10,000 persons living. The rate among males was higher—8.40 per 10,000 persons living—than among females, who suffered in the proportion of 8.06 per 10,000.

The death-rate from phthisis in New Zealand is the lowest for the Australasian Colonies, as will be seen from the figures quoted below:—


New South Wales9349.21
South Australia9.2910.36
Western Australia8.979.56
New Zealand8.387.86

In all the Australasian Colonies the rate is materially increased by the deaths of persons who have come out either already suffering from phthisis or predisposed thereto. There is no reason for believing that this circumstance has more effect on the death-rate in Australia-than in New Zealand; so that the lower rate obtaining in this colony may be taken as an indication of the superiority of its climate for withstanding consumptive tendencies.

The death-rate of England and Wales from phthisis is far higher than that of New Zealand. In 1891, when a lower rate obtained there than in any previous year, excepting 1888 and 1889, the rate was, nevertheless, 15–99 per 10,000 persons living. The Registrar-General of England remarks in his report that “the apparent arrest, in 1890 and 1891, of the almost continuous decline in phthisis mortality is partially attributable to the epidemic of influenza, which carried off many phthisical persons at an earlier stage than would otherwise have been the case.”

Phthisis is now known to be and is treated as an infectious preventible disease caused by the bacillus tuberculosis, communicable in many ways, and to the reception of which certain constitutions are much more predisposed than others, especially under conditions of life unfavourable to robust health, when a nidus is formed for the development of the bacillus.

Compulsory legislative interference has been recommended to protect the life and health of the people from tubercle, and isolation of consumptives, as well as means for disinfecting of sputa and things coming in contact with patients, are suggested from time to time as necessary measures.

A table is given, as in previous years, to show the ages, with the length of residence in the colony, of persons who died from phthisis in 1893:—


Length of Residence in the Colony.Age at Death.
Under 5 Years.5 to 10.10 to 15.15 to 25.25 to 35.35 to 45.45 to 55.55 to 65.65 to 75.75 and upwards.Total.
Under 1 month.........1..........1
1 to 6 months......24....1...7
6 to 12 months......321........6
1 to 2 years..1..11..1......4
2 to 3 years........1..........1
3 to 4 years......................
4 to 5 years......23..........5
.5 to 10 years......47711....20
10 to 15 years......1610412..24
15 to 20 years......2816711..35
20 to 25 years......1631031..24
25 years and upwards........7217177252
Not known........84621..21
Born in colony32542385........95
Under 1 month............1......1
1 to 6 months......2............2
6 to 12 months..........1..1....2
1 to 2 years......................
2 to 3 years......................
3 to 4 years........1....1....2
4 to 5 years........1..........1
5 to 10 years......231........6
10 to 15 years......14722....16
15 to 20 years......1312772....41
20 to 25 years......35722....19
25 years and upwards........75962130
Not known......216........9
Born in colony575663332......121
          Totals of both sexes81010147159856940143545

Cancer was returned as having caused 332 deaths in 1893. In 1892 the deaths stated were 307; in 1891, 295; in 1890, the same number; in 1889, 260; and in 1888, 263. The death-rates for England and New Zealand, which are given below, would lead to the belief that there has been a most serious increase in mortality from this cause of late years.


Year.New Zealand.England

It has been held, however, that the apparent increase in cancer is the result of more careful definition of the causes of death, and of improved diagnosis. To this the Registrar-General of England replies: “In the face of the constant and great growth of mortality under the head of cancer, and the expressed belief of medical practitioners especially engaged in dealing with this class of diseases that they are becoming more and more common, it seems scarcely possible to maintain the optimistic view that the whole of the apparent increase can be thus explained; and it must be admitted as at any rate highly probable that a real increase is taking place in the frequency of these malignant affections.” But the results of a careful investigation made by Mr. George King (Honorary Secretary, Institute of Actuaries), and Dr. Nensholme lead to conclusions differing from the above, it being now contended that there is no increase of cancer whatever, as will be seen by the following extract from the “Proceedings of the Royal Society, London”:—

The statistics for Frankfort-on-the-Main enable us to classify cancer in accordance with the part of the body primarily affected. We have, therefore, classified the returns into two groups, according as the cancer is “accessible” or easy of diagnosis, and “inaccessible” or difficult of diagnosis. The results of this classification show that in those parts of the body in which cancer is easily accessible and detected there has been no increase in cancer mortality between 1860 and 1889. It is true that the majority of the deaths from “accessible” cancer are among women—the deaths from “accessible” cancer among men at Frank-fort-on-the-Main being too few to be, when considered alone, trustworthy; but we know of no reason for supposing that, while female cancer of “accessible” parts has remained stationary, male and female cancer of the other parts of the body has really increased.

The general conclusions arrived at are these:—

  1. Males and females suffer equally from cancer in those parts of the body common to man and woman, the greater prevalence of cancer among females being due entirely to cancer of the sexual organs.

  2. The apparent increase in cancer is confined to what we have called inaccessible cancer. This is shown (a) by the Frankfort figures, (b) by the fact that the difference between the rates for males and females respectively is approximately constant, and does not progressively increase with the apparent increase in cancel in each of the sexes, and (c) because the apparent increase in cancer among the well-to-do assured lives, who are presumably attended by medical men of more than average skill, is not so great as among the general population.

  3. The supposed increase in cancer is only apparent, and is clue to improvement in diagnosis and more careful certification of the causes of death. This is shown by the fact that the whole of the increase has taken place in inaccessible cancer difficult of diagnosis, while accessible cancer easily diagnosed has remained practically stationary.

As to the nature of cancer, Dr. R. G. Macdonald, of Dunedin, in his notes on Cancer Statistics, writes,—

The German schools assert that cancer can be inoculated, and is contagious, while some of our English schools as positively assert that it is not, but is due to the exigencies of cell life. The contest now lies between the bacillus and the cell, and it remains to be seen who shall win the day.

The one is a foreigner, ab extra, of desperately evil repute; the other a native product, per excessum, which has thrown off allegiance to the parent stock, and has set out on a madcap career of its own. It is difficult for the individual attacked to say whether the cell or the bacillus would be preferable, and, indeed, it matters not, as it would be a choice between Scylla and Charybdis. To the great majority of humanity, however, it is of the utmost importance that the battle should be decided, as, should the bacillus theory prevail, much can be done to destroy its potency. Our food-supplies, and those already affected, would be much more carefully attended to, and general hygiene would require a fresh stimulus. It would, doubtless, be dealt with much the same as tubercle, and with the prospect of gradually eradicating it. Should the cell theory be triumphant, we must clamour for the millennium or “Looking Backward” at once; as, while the world goes as it does, it is impossible to get rid of worry or other neurotic causes; and it is equally impossible to get rid of the majority of cases arising from local injury or irritation.

He gives also, as conclusive proof that flesh-eating cannot he put down as the origin of the evil, Surgeon Major Hendley's account of cancer at the Jeypore Hospital: —

The records of the Jeypore Hospital, which is under my charge, show no such immunity of vegetarians from cancer. From January, 1880, to the present date, 102 major operations have been performed in the hospital in cases of cancer. Of these, forty-one were on the persons of meat-eaters, and sixty-one on those of strict vegetarians, who had never oaten meat since their birth. Amongst them are six Saraogis, a class of Jains who even reject many kinds of vegetables.

The following table gives the death-rates from cancer in New Zealand of males and females for the past ten years:—



Violent deaths form a very large proportion of the total mortality. In the year 1893 the proportion per 10,000 of males living was 12.47, and the proportion in the same number of females 3.45. Differently expressed, one out of every 802 males living, and one out of every 2,897 females, met with a violent death.

Of 438 males who died violent deaths, 55, or 12.56 per cent., were suicides. The deaths of females by violence were far fewer, amounting to no more than 107, and out of these 15 committed suicide, a proportion of 14.02 per cent. The table on page 97 gives the full list of deaths from external or violent causes for the year 1893.

Accidental deaths numbered 471—males 380 and females 91. Of the total number (380) of male deaths 168 resulted from fractures or contusions, and 129 from accidental drowning.

The accidental deaths in 1892 were 377 males and 83 females; and suicides, 54 males and 5 females.

The following figures, taken from the Victorian Year-book of 1893, show the death-rate from violence in the Australasian Colonies and the United Kingdom, from which it would appear that the rate in New Zealand is higher than in the Home-country, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but lower than in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia:—

Colonies or Countries.Proportion per 100,000 living of Deaths by Violence.
Western Australia161.7
New South Wales111.7
New Zealand95.7
United Kingdom77.5
South Australia74.2


The number of the deaf-and-dumb returned at the census of 1891 was 166 of both sexes, the males being 93 and females 73. Included amongst these are 26 persons described as “dumb” only. Out of a total number of 166, 134 were under 30 years of age.

It would appear that the proportion of the deaf-and-dumb in the colony is increasing with time, but not to any very great degree. The figures are given for five census periods:—


Census 18741.902.051.71
Census 18782.222.252.18
Census 18812332.232.45
Census 18862.302.372.22
Census 18912.652802.49

The number of deaf-and-dumb under 15 years of age was 75. The report of the Hon. the Minister of Education states that the Deaf-mute Institution at Sumner had 50 pupils in December, 1891, from which it may be inferred that about 25 juvenile deaf-mutes exist in the colony who do not participate in the advantage of the oral system of teaching and the other benefits to be derived from that establishment.

The number of the population of the colony under 15 years of age was 250,368 at the date of the census, so that, with a total number of 75 deaf-mutes at that period of life, there was 1 deaf-mute in every 3,338 children. The proportion of deaf-mutes of ail ages to the total population of the colony was 1 in every 3,775 persons.

The proportion of deaf-mutes to the total population at the census of 1891 for each of the Australasian Colonies was—

South Australia1 deaf-mute to every 1,369 persons.
Queensland1 deaf-mute to every 2,557 persons
Tasmania1 deaf-mute to every 2,716 persons
New South Wales1 deaf-mute to every 2,867 persons
Victoria1 deaf-mute to every 3,133 persons
New Zealand1 deaf-mute to every 3,775 persons
Western Australia1 deaf-mute to every 4,526 persons


In the 1891 census 274 persons were returned as “blind” or “nearly blind.” Of these, 164 were males and 110 females. The results of five censuses are compared in the following table, which shows a steady rise in the numbers of the blind considered in proportion to population, and also that blindness amongst males is somewhat more prevalent in New Zealand than amongst females:—


Census 18742.342.452.18
Census 18782562.422.73
Census 18812.822.932.68
Census 18863.223.652.70
Census 18914.374.913.74

The proportion of the blind per 10,000 persons living is—for England, about 8–79; for Ireland, 11.30; for Scotland, 6.95; for Germany, 7.93; for France, 8.37; and for Italy, 7.63. For the Australian Colonies the figures are: Victoria, 8.72; New South Wales, 6.59; Australian Continent, 7.38.

The greater prevalence of blindness in Australia than in New Zealand is best seen by the following comparison for 1891:—

Tasmania1 blind person to every 889 persons.
Western Australia1 blind person to every 922 persons.
Victoria1 blind person to every 1,146 persons.
South Australia1 blind person to every 1,297 persons.
New South Wales1 blind person to every 1,517 persons.
Queensland1 blind person to every 1978 persons.
New Zealand1 blind person to every 2,287 persons.

Of 274 blind persons, only 66 were found to be under 40 years of age, blindness being a disease more common to the later periods of life.

Blind persons are returned in the census under many heads of occupation, as might be expected, considering the fact, already alluded to above, that blindness is more common in later life than in youth. No doubt the occupations stated must be looked upon in many instances as past occupations—to which the persons referred to were brought up, and which they followed before they became blind.

The occupations for 1891 are as follow: —


Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
Justice of the Peace1..1....
Monthly nurse1......1
Instructor to the blind1..1....
Boarding-house keeper1..1....
Proprietor of land1..1....
News vendor1..1......
Bootlaces and match vendor1..1....
Labourer in coal-yard1..1....
General dealer2..2....
Commission agent1..1....
Assisting carrier1........
Boot- and shoe-maker1..1....
Labourer on roads1..1....
Labourer (undefined)13..13....
Relative assisting farmer1..1....
Farm labourer2..2....
Independent means and retired11..4..7
Not stated, and no occupation87635739
Domestic duties41....239
Governmt. scholar11......
Receiving tuition at home32..1..
Dependent relatives83..5..
Inmate of hospital3..2....
Inmate of benevolent asylum29..25..4
Inmate of industrial school11......
Receiving charitable aid1..1....


The lunatics returned in the census numbered 1,798 of both sexes, 1,088 being males and 710 females.

As in the case of the blind, the census results exhibit continuous increase in the proportion to population, and also show that lunacy is more prevalent amongst males than amongst females.


Census 187419.93232815.48
Census 187820.8525.0715.54
Census 188122.8627.3017.43
Census 188626.5031.0321.18
Census 189127.8231.2823.92

The number of lunatics stated in the asylum returns as for the 1st January, 1891, was 1,797, or just one fewer than the number brought out by the census. Although the asylum returns include certain idiots and inebriates not included in the census figures as lunatics, the comparison is sufficiently close to show that, with small exception, the lunatics of the colony are all cared for in the various institutions set apart for their reception, of which there are seven under Government, as well as one private asylum licensed by the Governor.

Referring to the proportions at age-periods, it is found that, taking both sexes, the proportion of lunatics in every 10,000 persons was only 2–61 at 15–20 years, but after that period rose rapidly to 96.67 at 45–50 years, from which time of life the proportions are somewhat less. The proportion of lunatic females of all ages to the total female population was less than that of males; nevertheless at the period 45–50 years 98.89 per 10,000 of females were lunatics, while the highest proportion shown for males is 96.85, at the period 55–60 years.

The number of idiots at the date of the last census was 128. These are not included as lunatics in the census numbers. The proportion per 10,000 of the population was 2.03 per 10,000 of both sexes; for males 2.32, and for females 1.7, per 10,000. At the census of 1886 only 89 persons were returned as idiots.

Insanity, including idiocy, exists in Ireland at the rate of 45.04 insane persons per 10,000 persons living. The rate in Scotland is 38.43; in Victoria, 36.17; in England, 32.53; in New South Wales, 30.38; in New Zealand, 29.85; in France, 25.1; in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, 20.59.



The shipping entered inwards for the year 1893 included 617 vessels, of 615,604 tonnage. 635 vessels were cleared outwards, of a tonnage amounting to 642,466. These figures show a decrease of 69 vessels and 59,619 tons entered, and 54 vessels of 13,634 tons cleared. Of the vessels inwards, 166, of 290,323 tons, were British; 405, of 272,250 tons, colonial; and 46, of 53,031 tons, foreign. Of those outwards, 186, of 317,130 tons, were British; 400, of 270,308 tons, colonial; and 49, of 55,028 tons, foreign. The decrease on the shipping inwards for 1893 is found to include 37 vessels, of 45,254 tons, British, and 26 vessels, of 20,846 tons, foreign. There was a. decrease of 6 in the number, but an increase of 6,481 in the tonnage, of colonial vessels entered. Of the vessels inwards, 319, of 166,170 tons, were sailing-vessels, and 298, of 449,434 tons, steamers. Of those outwards, 331, of 177,929 tons, were sailing-vessels, and 304, of 464,537 tons, steamers. The shipping inwards and outwards for ten years is exhibited in the following statement:—

Year.Total Number.British.Colonial.Foreign.
NOTE.—Coasting-vessels are not included in the above table.

The above figures apply to the foreign trade only; but in a new country like New Zealand, as yet deficient in roads, but having an extensive seaboard and a number of good harbours, the coastal trade must be relatively very large, as is evidenced by the figures next given:—

   Shipping entered Coastwise, 1893.Shipping cleared Coastwise, 1893.
 Number.Tons. Number.Tons. 

The total number of vessels entered coastwise is 17,477, of 4,331,135 tons, being an increase of 53 vessels and 134,533 tons on the figures for 1892. The total cleared coastwise is 17,368 vessels, of 4,280,474 tons, an increase of 83 vessels and 143,953 tons on the number for the previous year. The number and tonnage of the registered vessels belonging to the several ports on the 31st December, 1893 (distinguishing sailing-vessels and steamers), was as under:—

Vessels.Gross Tonnage.Net Tonnage.Vessels.Gross Tonnage.Net Tonnage.

Imports and Exports.

The total declared values of the imports in 1893 amounted to £6,911,515, being a decrease on the corresponding total in 1892 of £31,541. These figures are, however, somewhat misleading, as they include specie. The coin brought into the colony in 1893 was more than double the value of that imported in the previous year, and, if this item be deducted in either case, the decrease on the values of all other articles will be found to reach the sum of £248,265.

The following table gives the value of imports for each of the past ten years: —

Year.Imports, inclusive of Specie. £Imports, exclusive of Specie. £

It will be seen that the value of imports, exclusive of specie, fell by degrees from £7,326,208 in 1884 (the first year of the series) to £5,430,050 in 1888; that from the latter year it rose steadily till it reached £6,742,544 in 1892; and that in 1893 it again showed a decline—3.68 per cent. as compared with the figures for the foregoing year.

Since 1885 the value of New Zealand produce exported has been every year in excess of the value of the imports, and since 1887 (despite the fall in prices of wool, mutton, &c.) very greatly in excess. This being the case, it might have been expected that the rise in the value of imports observable during the five years 1888–92 would be maintained in 1893; but, owing to a variety of causes, not by any means indicating generally decreased consumption, the total value of the importations for last year is somewhat less than that for 1892.

Of £6,494,279, total value of goods imported during 1893, the chief items were as under:—

Articles.Value. £Proportion per Cent.
Clothing, drapery, &c.1,809,04627.86
Metal, machinery, and implements920,62614.18
Tea and sugar465,6687.17
Wine, beer, spirits, and tobacco407,2796.27
Paper and books294,7384.54
Other imports2,596,92239.98

The value of the clothing, drapery, &c., imported fell from £1,871,843 in 1892 to £1,809,046 in 1893. In 1883, with a population smaller by some 20 per cent., the value of the import was £2,013,565. The metal, machinery, and implements imported in 1893 were valued at £920,626, a decrease of £80,289 on the corresponding figures for 1892 (£1,000,915). In 1883 the import of these goods was valued at £1,341,697.

The value of sugar (including molasses and treacle) imported in 1893 was less than in any of the previous ten years. The values of these imports for the last three years averaged £363,579 per annum, but for the three years 1881, 1882, and 1883 the average, with a much smaller population, was £572,187 for each year. The smaller average amount for the last three years was due to a decrease in the value of sugar, not to a reduction in the total amount imported, which in the years 1881–83 gave an annual average of 40,580,904lb., against an annual average for the years 1891–93 of 58,979,173lb. It must, however, be observed that the amount of sugar imported in 1893 (48,916,278lb.) was about three-fourths only of the quantity imported in 1892 (64,576,461lb.).

The import of any article in a given year is seldom identical with the amount consumed in that time. To ascertain the latter we must look to the quantity actually entered at the Customs for home consumption and subjected to duty within the twelve months. Thus, the quantity of sugar, including glucose, molasses, and treacle, entered for consumption in 1893 was 59,719,861lb., which gave an average of 90.3lb. for every person, exclusive of Maoris; but persons of this race are estimated to consume, on an average, about one-fourth as much as Europeans. By deducting the quantity estimated to be used by Maoris, the average annual consumption of sugar per head of the European population is found to be 88.89lb.

The following table, giving the consumption per head of sugar in different countries, is, saving the figures for New Zealand, taken from the Victorian Year-book of 1892. The figures stating the consumption of tea, given further on, are taken from the same source.

 Lb. Lb. Lb.
South Australia102.11Denmark29.69Norway11.37
Western Australia93.51Holland28.37Finland11.22
New Zealand89.23Sweden17.52Russia7.69
United Kingdom68.99Belgium15.74Spain5.11
New South Wales60.95Austria-Hungary13.23Italy3.20
Argentine Republic50.04    

The quantity of tea entered for consumption in 1893 was 4,284,028lb. Supposing Maoris to use, on an average, 1 lb. per head per annum, the consumption of tea per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris, would be 6.41lb. in 1893.

The Australasian Colonies seem to be, in proportion to population, the largest tea-consumers in the world. The amount annually used in New South Wales is estimated to be 7.5lb. per head. The consumption of Victoria has been given by the Government Statist of that colony as 10lb., and of Tasmania as 5.35lb.; the figures for the United Kingdom being 4.7lb., for Canada 3.69lb., and for the United States 1.4lb. The consumption in New Zealand is thus somewhat less than in Victoria or New South Wales, but greater per head of population than in the other countries mentioned.

 Lb. Lb. Lb.
Western Australia10.70United Kingdom4.70Switzerland0.10
Queensland8.96United States1.40Germany0.07
New South Wales7.55Russia0.61Sweden0.03
South Australia7.24Denmark0.37France0.03
New Zealand6.41Persia0.13Austria-Hungary0.02

During 1893 excise duty was paid on 4,873,600 gallons of beer; and 229,383 gallons of beer, 461,283 gallons of spirits, and 112,115 gallons of wine were entered at the Customs for home consumption. The following table gives the consumption per head of alcoholic liquors by the people, excluding and including Maoris, showing separately the proportion of beer, wine, and spirits for the last eleven years. To the amount of beer manufactured in the colony in each year on which excise duty was paid has been added the amount brought into consumption from imports:—

Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.Including Maoris.

The very considerable reduction in the rate of consumption of these liquors in the last eleven years should give every encouragement to the advocates of temperance principles in the prosecution of their work. And it if most satisfactory to observe how favourably the above rates of consumption in this colony compare with those of other countries. The comparison can be made by means of the following statement of the annual consumption of beer and spirits per head in various places:—*

United Kingdom28.741.00
South Australia20.040.49
New South Wales11.941.15
United States10.741.34
New Zealand (including Maoris)7.250.66

The actual quantity of colonial beer made and used in the colony does not seem to increase in any great degree, as will be seen by the next figures:—


The quantity of tobacco entered for consumption in 1893 was 1,462,241lb., an increase of 85,373lb. on the quantity entered in 1892. This gave a consumption per head of population—including Maoris, who are heavy smokers—of 2.08lb. The average per head for the seven years 1887–93 was 1.97lb.

* Taken, except as regards New Zealand, from the Victorian Year-book of 1892.

It appears from the following statement of the consumption of tobacco in different countries that in New Zealand it is, proportionately to population, less than in the chief colonies of Australia, very much less than in the United States, and below the average of most European countries.

United States4.40
New South Wales3.53
Western Australia3.26
New Zealand1.97
South Australia1.70
United Kingdom1.38

The imports from the United Kingdom to New Zealand in 1893 were valued at £4,481,953, or a decrease of £285,414 on the imports from this source for the previous year. From Australia and Tasmania the imports were £1,411,465, which is an increase of £299,366 on the amount for 1892.

The following are the values of imports from different countries in 1892 and 1893, given in the order of the increase or decrease from each country:—

Australia and Tasmania1,112,0991,411,465299,366
India and Ceylon171,716265,76094,044
Pacific Islands45,19157,07111,880
Other European countries10,95115,0584,107
Cape Colony251,5631,538
West Indies 589589
Sumatra 116116
United Kingdom4,767,3694,481,955285,414
Fiji and Norfolk Island165,315143,31522,000
Hongkong and China51,86637,03914,827
Philippine Islands13,1023,6159,487
United States381,627379,3782,249
Dominion of Canada4,1482,4331,715
Asia Minor1,6676541,013

The imports from India and Ceylon show the very large increase of £94,044, on a value in 1892 of £171,716, or at the rate of 55 per cent.

The values of imports in each provincial district during 1893 were as under:—

Hawke's Bay200,437

The value of imports by parcel-post (£24,563) must be added to the above figures in order to make up the total of £6,911,515.

The value of all the exports in 1893 was £8,985,364; the value of New Zealand produce exported £8,557,443, being at the rate of £12 18s. 9d. per head of population. The following table gives the values of the several exports of New Zealand produce in each of the past ten years:—

YearWool.Gold.Frozen Meat.Butter and Cheese.Agricultural Produce.ManufacturesOther N.Z. Produce.Total.

The most important items of export under the heading “Other New Zealand Produce” are coal, silver, and minerals, kauri-gum, timber, bacon, salted and preserved meats, tallow, sheep- and rabbit-skins, hides, horses, and sausage-skins. The aggregate value of these in 1893 was £1,308,238.

Although the above table shows that the value of the exports of New Zealand produce fell from £9,428,761 in 1890 to £9,400,094 in 1891, and again from £9,365,868 in 1892 to £8,557,443 in 1893, it must not be inferred from this that the export trade is diminishing in every direction. On the contrary, a just comparison of quantities will show increased activity in many most important lines. To exhibit this properly it is necessary to use the figures for the years ending 31st March, 1893, and 31st March, 1894, on account of late shipmen of the wool-clip of 1893.

The quantities exported are shown, with the increase or decrease for 1893–94:—

Items.Year 1892–93.Year 1893–94.Increase in 1693–94.Decrease in 1893–94.
The Mine:—
  Coal Tons69,92269,234 688
  Gold Oz.229,665240,69711,032 
  Silver Oz.39,24247,5978,355 
  Minerals Tons2,4841,170 1,314
The Fisheries:—
  Fish Cwt.7,1665,076 2,090
  Oysters Doz.614,690650,77836,088 
The Forest:—
  Fungus Cwt.4,5974,898301 
  Gum (kauri) Tons8,9848,235 749
  Timber (sawn and hewn) Ft.22,818,66627,243,4424,424,776 
Animals and Produce:—
  Bacon and hams Cwt.4,2181,368 2,850
  Beef (salted) Cwt.7,0355,680 1,355
  Butter Cwt.51,66362,50010,837 
  Cheese Cwt.46,31437,361 8,953
  Hides No.18,59611,517 7,079
  Live-stock No.7,1749,1501,976 
  Meat (preserved) Cwt.32,63223,731 8,901
  Meat (frozen) Cwt.850,905873,03222,127 
  Sausage-skins Cwt.3,8345,2001,366 
  Skins (rabbit) No.16,065,19417,636,4601,571,266 
  Skins (sheep) No.2,326,1712,574,702248,531 
  Tallow Tons8,1098,094 15
  Wool Lb.117,334,601125,249,2127,914,611 
Agricultural Products:—
  Bran and sharps Tons9,7623,314 6,448
  Chaff Tons36040 320
  Flour Tons4,6132,025 2,588
  Grain (barley) Bush.46,39829,084 17,314
  Grain (beans and peas) Bush.92,904167,19474,290 
  Grain (malt) Bush.84,66134,370 50,291
  Grain (oats) Bush.3,047,8291,806,411 1,241,418
  Grain (wheat) Bush.3,018,3832,058,265 960,118
  Grain (maise) Bush.120,84929,986 90,863
  Hops Cwt.2,0151,786 229
  Meal (oat) Cwt.32,22020,618 11,602
  Potatoes Tons28,9315,734 23,197
  Seeds (grass and clover) Cwt.42,40030,516 11,884
  Leather Cwt.15,20213,765 1,437
  Phormium Tons11,99210,410 1,582

Some of the most important proportional increases are the following:—

    Export ofRate of Increase per Cent. in 1893–94.
Live-stockNo. 27.54
SilverOz. 21.29
ButterCwt. 20.98
Sawn timberFt. 19.39
Sheep-skinsNo. 10.68
Rabbit-skinsNo. 9.78
WoolLb. 6.75
GoldOz. 4.80
Frozen meatCwt. 2.60

On the other hand, the decline in the quantities of agricultural products, kauri-gum, cheese, hides, leather, and Phormium exported is very considerable.

The declared values of the chief articles exported in the calendar year 1893 are given in the table immediately below:—

Silver and minerals15,561
  Sawn and hewn101,082
Bacon and hams6,532
Beef and pork (salted)6,226
  Pigs and other live-stock1,435
Preserved meats46,601
Frozen meats1,085,167
Sheep-skins and pelts172,294
Bran and sharps12,075
  Beans and peas24,677
Seeds (grass and clover)57,554
Ale and beer1,949
Phormium (Now Zealand hemp)219,375
Woollen manufactures7,434
Other manufactures86,904
Total exports (colonial produce and manufactures)8,557,443
Other exports (British and foreign)123,402
    Total exports£8,985,364

The re-export trade of the colony would seem from the subjoined figures to have been almost stationary for the last ten years:—

Exports of British, Foreign, and other Colonial Produce (excluding Specie).

With these sums may be compared the re-export trade of New South Wales—a colony having less than double the population of New Zealand—which, exclusive of specie, amounted in 1893 to £2,847,722.

The quantity of wool exported in 1893 was 109,719,684lb., valued at £3,774,738. The annual production and the increase can be better estimated by taking the exports for the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of shearing, and adding thereto the quantity used in the colony for manufacturing purposes.

The following shows the produce on that basis for each of the last ten years, ending respectively on the 30th September:—

Year ending 30th September.Quantity exported.Quantity purchased by Local Mills.Total Annual Produce.

From these figures it appears that the wool-clip has increased 64 per cent. within the last ten years, and this notwithstanding the large increase in the export of rabbit-skins, from 9,807,665 in 1884 to 17,041,106 in 1893,—which does not indicate any great relief from the rabbit-pest.

The increase in the wool-production is of course mainly due to the greater number of sheep—namely, 19,380,369 in April, 1893, against 14,056,266 in May, 1884. It will be apparent from the following table that the tendency of increase is towards the multiplication of the smaller flocks, whose owners are better able to cope with the rabbit difficulty than the large runholders:—

Size of Flocks.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.1890.1891.1892.1893.
Under 5005,4225,6226,0246,2476,5797,0637,6628,2728,8229,629
  500 and under 1,0001,0331,1461,1891,1391,1821,3811,5281,6912,0332,239
  1,000 and under 2,0006727187477237948268549691,1931,315
  2,000 and under 5,000473505532531524597586666761836
  5,000 and under 10,000256270263289287279283287314341
  10,000 and under 20,000211213228221213239236239231241
20,000 and upwards154157166166166152160169176178

The following table,* showing the estimated wool-supply of the world since 1860, put forth by the London Board of Trade, is not without interest in this connection:—

Sources of Supply.1860.18701880.1889.
Increased to 690,000,000lb in 1892
United Kingdom140,000,000150,000,000149,000,000134,000,000
Continent; of Europe500,000,000485,000,000450,000,000450,000,000
North America110,000,000176,000,000270,000,000330,000,000
Cape of Good Hope26,000,00043,000,00060,000,00070,000,000
River Plate43,000,000197,000,000256,000,000360,000,000
Other countries76,000,90069,000,000133,000,000156,000,000
    Grand total955,000,0001,295,000,0001,626,000,0001,950,000,000

The centres of wool-production have gradually shifted, as will be seen by the next table,* showing the percentage of the total imports into the United Kingdom at different periods:—

* Taken from “Wool and Manufactures of Wool,” published by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, U.S.A.

 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
South America5.
British possessions—
  South Africa3.37.711.212.511.113.8
  East Indies4.24.713.64.2635.4

At the beginning of this century most of the merino wool required in England for her manufactures was obtained from Spain. The Spanish merino wool was superseded by Saxony and Silesian wools; subsequently Australasian wools began to take the place of the German merino, and have now command of the market.

The following paragraphs, on the subject of increasing density of population in Europe and parts of America creating a demand for Australasian wools, are taken from a report made to the Department of State in February, 1892, by United States Consul-General Bourn, based upon an official publication of the Italian Government:—

With an increased density of population in Europe there has been a gradual decrease in the number of sheep, as lands formerly used for pasturage were converted into tillage lands to meet the increased demand for food. From 1890 to 1890 the population of Europe increased from 286,000,000 to 356,000,000 —an increase of 70,000,000, or about 25 per cent., necessitating a tillage of at least 25 per cent. more land to supply food for this increase.

During this period the number of sheep in Europe decreased from 229,600,000 in 1860 to 192,240,000 in 1890—a decrease of 37,000,000, or about 16 per cent.; while the number in the chief extra European wool-producing and -exporting countries increased from 63,200,000 in 1860 to 264,560,000 at the date of the latest estimates. But Europe in 1890 consumed fully 66 per cent. more wool than in 1860, while there were 16 per cent. less sheep to supply the requirement. It is easy, therefore, to see why new fields have been sought in other continents for the deficiencies both in food and clothing.

In 1860 there were not more than 40,200,000 sheep in the La Plata country, Australia, and South Africa, or scarcely 18 per cent. of the number in Europe. In 1890 this amount had increased to 221,500,000, or about the number in Europe in 1860.

There were 8,806,500 sheep in Italy in 1860, but in 1875 there were only 6,977,000. The number then grew again to 8,596,000 in 1881, to be again reduced to 6,900,000 in 1890—a decrease of 21 per cent. since 1860, as compared with 16-per-cent. decrease for all Europe.

In the United States the process has been substantially the same. The increasing density of population in the east has gradually †driven the flocks westward into newer territory, where they have largely increased, though not so rapidly as in the La Plata country, Australia, and South Africa. From 23,000,000 in 1800 they increased to 41,000,000 in 1870. At this time the market for wool was so depressed that the farmers found it profitable to kill upwards of 9,000,000, thus reducing the amount to 31,000,000. Since then the gradual increase brought the number to about 50,000,000 in 1884, to be again reduced by the competition of Australian wool to about 43,000,000 on the 1st January, 1891. This variation in the number of sheep has, however, its compensation in the greatly increased production per head. The yield in 1871 was about 5lb. for each sheep, while in 1884 and 1891 it was respectively about 6lb. and 7lb.

The amount of gold exported in 1893 was 227,502oz.

The total quantity of gold entered for duty to the 31st December, 1893, which may be reckoned as approximately the amount obtained in the colony, was 12,535,107oz., of the value of £49,300,999.

Frozen meat now takes second place among the exports of New Zealand produce. An account of the development of this industry is given in a special article further on.

To ascertain the total value of the meat-export in 1893 it is necessary to take into consideration, with the amount of £1,085,167, value of frozen meat before stated, the value of preserved meats, £46,601; of salted beef and pork, £6,226; and of bacon and hams, £6,532.

The value of the grain exported in 1893 was £583,397. The grain exports were made up as under:—

Peas and beans158,32024,677
    Total value..£583,397

The quantity of butter exported amounted to 58,149cwt., the declared value of which was £254,645. Of this quantity, 52,363cwt., valued at £228,435, were shipped to the United Kingdom; 3,291cwt., value £14,638, to Victoria; and 682cwt., value £3,322, to Western Australia.

If the export of butter is to assume any large dimensions it must be through the production of an article suitable to the requirements of the English market, on which the colony has for the present to rely. It has been satisfactorily proved that butter from New Zealand can be delivered in good condition in England, and that for good samples remunerative prices are obtainable; but it is necessary that the butter sent should be not only sound, but also uniform in quality and colour. Such uniformity can be obtained only by the methods used in butter-factories. Upon the multiplication of these factories the future of the butter-export trade, with all its great possibilities, seems to depend.

The cheese exported was 46,201cwt., of a declared value of £99,626, of which 41,567cwt., valued at £88,497, were sent to the United Kingdom; 2,351cwt., value £5,426, to Queensland; l,174cwt., value £2,994, to Victoria; and 482cwt., value £1,191, to New South Wales.

The following statement shows the total quantity of butter and cheese exported in the past ten years, and the amount of each sent to the United Kingdom:—

Year.Total Export of Butter.Butter exported to the United Kingdom.Total Export of Cheese.Cheese exported to the United Kingdom.
188524,92327315,245272 3/4
188717,0186,93723,9139,900 3/4
188829,99511,46036,68225,436 1/4

The export of phormium for 1893 shows a falling-off. The market price continues low—averaging barely £17 a ton—a state of things not encouraging to producers. Any considerable increase in the value of the fibre will doubtless result in temporarily increasing the output; but a large permanent development of this industry depends upon the invention of such improvements in the machinery used as will serve to lessen the cost of production and improve the quality of the fibre.

There were 8,317 tons of kauri-gum, valued at the rate of £61 8s. 3d. a ton, exported from the colony in 1893. This gum is obtained only in the extreme northern part of the colony. A special article is devoted to an account of the industry.

The following table gives the values of the exports from each port in New Zealand for 1893, arranged in order of magnitude:—

Invercargill and Bluff681,023
Poverty Bay166,051
Wairau and Picton158,284
New Plymouth and Waitara121,405
Kaipara60, 690

The total value of the external trade in 1893 was £15,896,879, equivalent to £24 0s. 9d. per head of the population, excluding Maoris. It will be seen from the figures given further on that the ratio of trade to population has varied but little for several years. The highest record was in 1873, when the total trade per head reached £41 19s. 3d.,—the imports, in consequence of the large expenditure of borrowed money, having then amounted to £22 9s. 4d. per head, against £10 9s. in 1893.

It has been customary to leave the Maoris out of count in estimating the trade per head, for their industries and necessities swell the volume of trade in comparatively so slight a measure that the amount per bead of European population can be more truly ascertained by excluding them altogether.

The values of imports and exports per head of population, excluding Maoris, were, for each of the past ten years, as follow:—

Year.Imports per Head.Exports per Head.Total.

The trade with the United Kingdom amounted to £11,518,470, comprising 72.5 per cent. of the total trade.

With the Australian Colonies and Tasmania trade was done during 1893 to the value of £2,686,255, of which New South Wales claimed £1,364,507 and Victoria £1,097,419, made up as follows:—

 £ £
To New South Wales, 1893678,904From New South Wales, 1893685,603
To Victoria, 1893527,500From Victoria, 1893569,919

The last two amounts are the declared values of the imports into New Zealand from the colonies mentioned, not their export-value as given in the New South Wales and Victorian returns.

Included in the value of exports from New South Wales is £108,625, the value of the coal sent, and £225,000, the value of the gold coin. Of the exports from Victoria, £186,400 was the value of gold coin.

The trade with Fiji decreased slightly during the year. In 1889 it was £170,181; in 1890, £184,684, in 1891, £221,603; in 1892, £214,183; and in 1893, £194,729. The trade with the other Pacific Islands (including Norfolk Island) increased from £137,052 in 1892 to £150,206 in 1893.

Of the exports to the United States in 1893 the values of the principal New Zealand products were: Kauri-gum, £255,443; phormium, £169,065; gold, £51,803; sheepskins, £3,419; and sausage-skins, £6,804.

The following table shows the value of the total trade with the United States for each of the past ten years:—

Year.Imports fromExports: toTotal Trade.
Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.

By telegram dated Washington, the 4th July, it was announced that the new Tariff Bill, admitting raw wool duty free, had passed both Houses of Congress; but it is not known at the time of writing whether the President has given his assent to the bill. The repeal of the heavy duty that has hitherto been in force in the States could hardly fail to increase the export trade from this colony.

The trade with India (including Burmah and Ceylon) reached a total of £273,540. The imports—tea, rice, castor-oil, woolpacks, &c.—were reckoned at £265,760, leaving a balance of only £7,780 for exports. It would appear that ships arriving with cargoes from Calcutta or Rangoon do not return to those places, but load here with wool or other colonial produce for England.

The following table gives the value of the imports and exports of the Australasian Colonies for the year 1893:—

Colony.Total Value ofExcess of
Imports.Exports.Imports over Exports.Exports over Imports.
New South Wales18,107,03522,921,223..4,814,188
South Australia7,934,2008,463,936..529,736
Western Australia1,400,821878,147522,674..
New Zealand6,911,5158,985,364..2,073,849

The total excess of exports over imports was thus £12,494,216, while in 1892 the total excess for the same colonies was £5,561,677, and in 1891 only £829,707. The total imports, which in 1891 stood as high as £72,219,507, fell in 1892 to £59,813,818, and in 1893 to £53,047,851. In 1890 there was an excess of imports over exports of £3,266,303; but in 1893 the position was completely reversed, and the great excess of exports (over twelve millions sterling) shown for that year points to a vast contraction in purchasing power of the Australasian colonies, consequent on financial disturbances.

The trade per head of the population in each of the colonies was as follows:—

Colony.Mean Population, 1893.Imports.Exports.Total Trade.
New South Wales1,210,5101419218188331710
South Australia336,413231182532481410
Western Australia62,510228214103692
New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris)661,3491090131192409

The values of the exports of the Australian Colonies—more especially New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia—are largely increased by the inclusion of articles the produce or manufacture of other colonies and countries.

The value of home productions or manufactures exported from each colony in 1892, and the rate per head of the population, were as follow:—

     Colony.Home Produce exported.Per Head of Population.
New South Wales17,707,102141910
South Australia3,232,2599189
Western Australia870,8141581
New Zealand9,365,86814118

The following table sets forth the amount of the trade of each of the above-named colonies with the United Kingdom in 1892:—

Colony.Imports from the United Kingdom.Exports to the United Kingdom.Total Trade with the United Kingdom.
New South Wales8,883,9837,653,91516,537,898
South Australia2,372,1853,167,2985,539,483
Western Australia592,496395,700988,196
New Zealand4,767,3697,483,61812,250,987

The following statement shows the relative importance of the Australasian Colonies as a market for the productions of the United Kingdom:—

British India and Ceylon28,847,623
United States26,547,234

The exports to other countries did not amount to £8,000,000 in any one case.

The Australasian Colonies as a whole, with a population of 4,000,000, thus take the third place in importance as cons of British produce, the exports thereto being about two-thirds of the value of the similar exports to British India, with its 290,000,000 inhabitants.

The main products of these colonies must for some time to come arise from the work of the runholder, the farmer, and the miner. So long as there remain large areas of land capable of improvement and more lucrative occupation, as well as considerable mineral resources awaiting further development, no such increase in manufactures can be looked for as would enable colonial to supersede English goods in any material degree. The consumption ad may fall somewhat in the future as the proportion of adults increases owing to lessened immigration; but the relatively high rates of wages, and the absence of any widespread pauperism, should maintain a standard of living far above that existing in older countries. The rapid growth of population in Australasia may thus be expected largely to increase the demand for British products; indeed, there is every reason to believe that in the near future these colonies will become the most important market open to the British manufacturers.


There were 1,305 post-offices in New Zealand at the end of 1893.

The correspondence delivered and posted in each of the three last years, with the increase in each case in 1893, is shown:—

Correspondence, &c.1891.1892.1893.Increase in 1893.


Letters delivered23,867,40225,079,93826,340,7041,260,766
Letters posted23,745,46225,530,80425,744,745213,941
Post-cards delivered1,097,7881,224,9381,309,56884,630
Post-cards posted1,181,1411,346,0981,387,54241,444
Books and packets delivered3,342,7816,508,4637,611,2791,102,816
Books and packets posted3,827,9806,774,9246,548,789226,135*
Newspapers delivered9,768,2269,538,94510,699,2991,160,354
Newspapers posted8,733,6869,018,6208,856,731161,889*

It will be noticed that in the above table the figures for 1892 show in many cases very large increase on the numbers for the previous year. These abnormally large increases were mainly due to the introduction in 1892 of the minimum rates of postage for printed matter.

The average number of letters, &c., posted per head of the population in each of the past four years was,—

Books and parcels5.356.0810.5510.13

The facilities afforded for the transmission of parcels through the Post Office to places within and without the colony has proved of much convenience to the public. The regulations admit of parcels up to 11lb. in weight being sent to almost all the important countries of the world.

The number and weight of parcels posted in 1890, 1892, and 1893 are given. The word “parcels” in the preceding table includes the parcels herein mentioned:—

Parcels posted121,292Lb. 336,644148,049Lb. 448,887153,328Lb. 476,764

Owing to the greatly reduced book-post rates a large number of the lighter packets of the classes formerly sent by parcel-post continue to be diverted to the packet- and sample-post. This fact accounts for the small increase in the number of parcels. The weight and declared values, however, show satisfactory increases.

The following table shows the number of parcels exchanged with the United Kingdom, the Australian Colonies, &c., in 1892 and 1893:—

Country.Number of Parcels.

*From October, 1893.

From August, 1893. From April, 1893.

United Kingdom and foreign offices via London13,98813,5862,9612,962
New South Wales* 575 399
South Australia15621994142
Western Australia13294575
Samoa 11 11
Tonga 2 7
Rarotonga 9 5
Ceylon 23 6
Straits Settlements 20 6

The declared value of the parcels received from places outside the colony was £27,941, on which the Customs duty amounted to £5,279.

During 1893, 210,957 money-orders, for a total amount of £750,929 5s. 10d., were issued by the various post-offices in the colony. The money-orders from places beyond New Zealand which were paid in the colony numbered 19,425, for the amount of £73,545 19s. 7d.

The cost of the various mail-services between England and New Zealand was, in 1893, as follows:—

  Subsidies, &c.25,499411
  Interprovincial and other charges3,46799
  Postages received from England and the Australian Colonies10,33927
  Postages collected in the colony10,698310
   Loss to the colony£7,92983
  To P. and O. and Orient Lines2,69577
  Transit across Australia8870
  Transit across European Continent473111
  Intercolonial services1,6951111
  Postages collected from England and foreign offices8431411
Postages collected in the colony2,287153
  Loss to the colony£1,82175

The total amount of postages collected and contributions received for all these services in 1893 was £24,168 16s. 7d.

The average number of days in 1893 within which the mails were delivered between London and each of the under-mentioned ports in New Zealand was as follows:—

 San Francisco Service.P. and O. Line.Orient Line.
London to—

There were 5,513 miles of telegraph-line open at the end of 1893, requiring 13,515 miles of wire. 2,069,691 telegrams were transmitted during the year; of these, the private and Press, messages numbered 1,825,646, which, together with other telegraph receipts, yielded a revenue of £112,465 15s. 9d.

There were fourteen telephone exchanges and ten sub-exchanges on the 31st March. 1894. The number of subscribers increased from 3,811 in March, 1893, to 4,244 in March, 1894. The subscriptions to these exchanges during the year amounted to £21, 771 4s. 4d., and the working-expenses, maintenance, interest on capital cost, and allowance for depreciation, to £22,217 10s. 2d.

The capital expended in connection with the several telephone exchanges up to the 31st December, 1893, including spare material on hand, was £117,680 4s. 8d.



The revenue of the General Government is of two kinds—ordinary and territorial. The ordinary revenue for the year ended 31st March, 1894, amounted to £4,055,479, and the territorial to £313,059, giving a total revenue of £4,368,538.

The principal heads of ordinary revenue were: Customs, £1,655,503; Stamps (including Postal and Telegraph cash receipts), £674,647; land-tax, £285,327; income-tax, £75,238; property-tax, £1,412; beer duty, £61,808; Railways, £1,175,548; registration and other fees, £49,290; Marine, £20,183; and miscellaneous, £56,523.

The territorial revenue comprised receipts from pastoral runs, rents, and miscellaneous items, £184,389, together with proceeds of lend sales, £128,670.

The total revenue (ordinary and territorial), including the proceeds of £284,500, debentures issued under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884,” for the accretions of Sinking Fund for the year, amounted to £4,653,038.

The Customs duties constitute the largest item of revenue, nearly all classes of imports being subject to taxation.


The ordinary expenditure under permanent and annual appropriations was £4,386,359, the chief items being—Charges of the public debt, £1,885,697; Working Railways, £731,844; public instruction, £388,652; Postal and Telegraph, £292,433; Defence and Police, £171,073; subsidies and other payments to local bodies, £149,810; Crown Lands, Surveys, and Inspection of Stock, £119,996; Justice, £115,924; Hospitals, Lunatic Asylums, and Charitable Institutions, £115,858; and pensions, compensations, and other expenditure under special Acts of the Legislature, £80,984.

In addition to (£4,386,359) the ordinary expenditure, £250,000 was transferred to the Public Works Fund for the construction of reproductive works, and in aid of settlement of the land; and an additional extraordinary charge of £10,220 in connection with the purchase of the Cheviot Estate was provided.

It has been previously shown that the total ordinary and territorial revenue, together with the proceeds of debentures issued for the accretions of Sinking Fund, amounted to £4,653,038. It will therefore be seen that the revenue for the year exceeded the expenditure (including the sums transferred to the Public Works and Cheviot Estate purchase accounts) by £6,459; and that, by adding the credit balance brought forward at the beginning of the year (£283,779), there remains a net surplus on 31st March, 1894, of £290,238.

Besides expenditure out of revenue, there was also an expenditure out of the Public Works Fund of £409,475, of which £176,254 9 was for construction of railways, £147,668 for roads, £4,320 for purchase of Native lands, £44,032 for public buildings, £16,127 for telegraph extension, £6,588 for lighthouses and harbour defences, £8,406 for the Public Works Department, £5,272 for waterworks on goldfields, £415 for rates on Native lands, £343 for immigration, and £50 on services not provided for.

In addition to the above, the sum of £78,985 was expended during the year in acquiring Native lands under provisions of “The Native Land Purchases Act, 1892,” £2,000 being paid in debentures, the remainder in cash; purchase of estates under “The Land for Settlements Act, 1892,” absorbed a further sum of £37,542, provided for by the issue of debentures; and out of receipts from cash sales, rents, &c., the sum of £18,346 was paid for the surveying, roading, &c., of the lately acquired Cheviot Estate.

Besides the revenue raised by the General Government, all the County and Borough Councils, Town, Road, River, Harbour, and Drainage Boards have power to levy rates and obtain revenue from other sources.

The colony is divided into 94 boroughs and 79 counties; within the latter there are 250 road districts and 40 town districts, not including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881.”

The following table shows the receipts from rates and other sources, with the expenditure and outstanding loans of the local governing bodies, for six financial years:—

Year.Receipts of Local Bodies.Expenditure.Outstanding Loans.
From Rates.From Government and other Sources, including Loans.

* Not including loans amounting to £546,049, repayable to General Government by annual instalments.


Full particulars relating to local finance will be found under the head “Local Governing Bodies.”


The direct taxation prior to 1892 consisted of a property-tax of 1d. in the pound on all assessed real and personal property (with exemption of £500) and the stamp duties; but in 1891 a Land and Income Assessment Act was passed repealing the property-tax. A full description of the system of the land- and income-tax is given by the Commissioner in a special article in Part III. of this book, and to this attention is particularly directed. The leading features only are shortly stated here.

The Assessment Act of 1891 provides for an ordinary land-tax on the actual value of land, and an owner is allowed to deduct any amount owing by him secured on a registered mortgage. Under the original Act the deduction for improvements might not exceed £3,000; but, by the Amendment Act of 1893, the value of all improvements whatsoever is exempted from liability to land-tax. Besides this, an exemption of £500 is allowed when the balance, after making deductions as above stated, does not exceed £1,500; and above that a smaller exemption is granted, but it ceases when the balance amounts to £2,500. Mortgages are subject to the land-tax. The revenue from the land-tax is, in round numbers, £285,000 per annum. The rate of ordinary land-tax for 1893–94 was 1d. in the pound.

In addition to the ordinary land-tax, there is a graduated land-tax which commences when the unimproved value is £5,000. For the graduated land-tax, the present value of all improvements is deducted; but mortgages are not deducted. The Act of 1893, while reducing the ordinary taxation on land by exempting all improvements, increased the graduated-tax, and the revised rates are now one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling when the value is £5,000 and is less than £10,000, from which the rate increases by further steps of an eighth of a penny with the value of the property, until the maximum of 2d. in the pound is reached, payable when the value is £2,10,000, or exceeds that sum.

This graduated tax yields, in round numbers, £83,000 per annum, which is included in the sum of £285,000 given above. Twenty per cent. additional tax is levied in case of persons who have been absent from the colony for three years or more prior to the passing of the yearly taxing Act. This amounts to about £1,000, and is included in the £83,000 shown above.

Income-tax is levied on all incomes above £300, and from taxable incomes a deduction of £300 is made. The rate of income-tax for 1893–94 was 6d. in the pound on the first taxable £1,000, and 1s. in the pound on taxable incomes over £1,000.

Companies pay 1s. in the pound, and are not allowed the £300 exemption. The Act of 1893 further disallowed the £300 exemption in the case of persons not domiciled in New Zealand.

The indirect taxation is made up of Customs duties and excise duty on beer made in the colony. The following statement shows the amount raised by taxation in each of the past twelve years:—

Amount of Revenue raised by Taxation.Amount per Read of Population (excluding Maoris).

As the Maoris contribute somewhat to the Customs revenue, an allowance should he made on that account to ascertain more correctly the amount of taxation per head of the rest of the people. By including Maoris the Customs duties per head of the rest, of the population would be reduced by 3s. 1d. for the year 1893. If this amount be deducted from the taxation per head given for that year, the rate would be reduced from £3 11s. 2d. to £3 8s. 1d. This latter rate may fairly be used for comparison with the rates in the neighbouring colonies.

The following were the rates of taxation per head in the Australasian Colonies in 1892, specifying the proportions derived from Customs and other taxes:—

Colonies.Rate of Taxation per Head of Mean Population.Proportion of Taxation from Customs Duties.Ratio of Taxation by Customs to Value of Imports.
From Customs.Other Taxes.Total Taxation.

* Exclusive of Northern Territory.

 £s.d.£s.d.£s.d.Per Cent.Per Cent.
New South Wales2540131218577.6212.89
South Australia*11510012328174.497.88
Western Australia417100100571090.7439.88
New Zealand21171133121070.8323.87

The various local bodies levied taxation in the form of rates for the year ended 31st March, 1893, to the amount of £508,157, or 15s. 3d. per head of European population.

Public Debt.

The gross public debt of the colony on 31st March, 1894, was £39,826,415, an increase of £568,575 on the amount at the close of the preceding year. Of this increase £477,466 consisted of debentures issued for purposes giving immediate returns: viz., £72,000 under “The Native Land Purchases Act, 1892,” £38,966 under “The Land for Settlements Act, 1893,” £250,000 under “The Cheviot Estate Payment Act, 1893,” and £116,500 under “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886.”

There was a further issue of £16,300 under “The Naval and Military Settlers’ and Volunteers’ Land Act, 1892,” and £902,000 of Debentures were converted into £1,038,180 of 3 1/2-per-cent. Stock. Towards the annual accretions of Sinking Fund £284,500 of debentures under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884,” were issued.

On the other hand, there were redeemed £266,071 of debentures under the last-named Act, £51,300 of “Consolidated Loan Act, 1867” debentures, and £28,500 of “Lyttelton and Christchurch Railway Loan Ordinance, 1860” debentures; while, as before stated, £902,000 debentures were converted.

The net public Debt, after deducting the accrued Sinking Lund (£951,924) was on 31st March, 1894, £38,874,491, an increase of £730,421 during the year.

The following shows the debt of each of the Australasian Colonies on the 31st December, 1892:—

Colony.Amount of Debt.Accrued Sinking Fund.Net Indebtedness.Rate of Net Indebtedness per Head of Population at End of Year.

* Including £5,052,884 Treasury Bills.

Queensland29,457,134 29,457,13469185
Now South Wales*54,209,933 54,209,9334559
South Australia21,230,70012,50021,218,2006304
Western Australia2,261,864114,2942,147,57036120
New Zealand39,192,5191,037,55738,154,96258133

The amount of net indebtedness per head of population was thus greater in Queensland and South Australia than in New Zealand. The net indebtedness per head in this colony has a tendency to decrease. In March, 1889, it was £60 12s. 2d.; in 1890, £60 5s. 4d.; in 1891, £59 11s. 11d.; in 1892, £59 2s.; in 1893, £58 2s. 7d.; and in 1894, £57 8s. 10d.: the increase of the population having been proportionally greater than the increase of debt.

Years ended 31st March.Amount of Debentures and Stock in Circulation.Gross Indebtedness; per Head of European Population.Amount of Sinking Fund accrued.Net Indebtedness.Net Indebtedness per Head of European Population.Annual Charge (Interest and Sinking Fund).

The debt of the colony as above stated does not include the unpaid loans raised by the several local bodies, amounting at the end of March, 1893, to £6,203,869. These will be referred to when the particulars of the finance of local bodies are being dealt with.

Of the existing loans some portions were raised by the several Provincial Governments, while others represent loans raised for the purpose of paying off provincial liabilities. It is now almost impossible to ascertain the exact expenditure by these Governments on public works, or the allocation of the proceeds of the loans raised by them.

The burden of a public debt depends greatly on the extent to which it is expended on reproductive works, and on the degree of prosperity enjoyed by the people. The generally rugged character of this country, and the natural difficulties appertaining to many of the sites on which the chief towns were built, very early necessitated a large outlay on roads and public works. The need was fully recognised, and to some extent met, by most of the Provincial Governments, which have justly received great credit for their far-seeing and liberal exertions. A great deal of road-making, often of a very costly character, was accomplished, harbour and other improvements begun, and immigration encouraged. Some railways were made in Canterbury, Otago, and Southland. The City of Christchurch and the agricultural plains of Canterbury were connected with the Port of Lyttelton by a railway, which required the construction of a long and very costly tunnel through the hills surrounding Lyttelton. In Otago, the City of Dunedin was connected with Port Chalmers by railway, constructed by private enterprise under the guarantee of the Otago Provincial Government; and some miles of railway were made in Southland, extending from the Town of Invercargill into the interior; but no general and comprehensive scheme of public works could be carried out by the separate exertions of the Provincial Governments. The General Government, therefore, in 1870, brought forward its public-works and immigration policy, by which it was proposed to raise a loan of ten millions for the construction of main trunk railways, roads, and other public works of importance to the colony as a whole, and for the promotion of immigration on a large scale, the expenditure to be extended over a period of ten years. This policy was accepted by the Legislature, and embodied in “The Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870.”

The demands for local railways and other works soon caused the original proposals to be exceeded, and entailed an expenditure at a much more rapid rate and to a far greater amount than was originally contemplated. Although many of the works undertaken have been directly unremunerative, yet the effect of the policy, as a whole, has been largely to develop the settlement of the country, and enormously to increase the value of landed property; land, in parts which before the construction of railways was valued at from £1 to £2 per acre, having been subsequently sold at prices varying from £10 to £20 per acre. In addition to the important indirect results of the policy, the railway and telegraph-lines yield a revenue which covers a large proportion of the interest on their cost after paying working-expenses.

The following may be stated as approximately representing the loan expenditure by the General Government on certain public works to the 31st March, 1894: —


*Including £1,104,281 spent on railways by Provincial Governments, of which sum £82,259 was paid for the Dunedin and Port Chalmers line.

Waterworks on goldfields572,441
Roads and bridges3,855,455
Lighthouses, harbours, and defence works906,958
Public buildings, including schools1,890,711
Coal-mines and thermal springs25,435
Railways (by the Provincial and General Governments)15,759,308*

The above several items of expenditure give a total of £27,134,170. To this must be added so much of the loans raised by the various local bodies as have been devoted to the construction of harbours, roads, and other public works, together with the amounts expended out of loan by the Provincial Governments on immigration and public works other than railways. The expenditure on directly reproductive works—railways, telegraphs, and waterworks—has been £17,011,542. The expenditure on land is also partly reproductive, and that on immigration, roads, bridges, and lighthouses indirectly so.

Private Wealth.

Statistics purporting to illustrate the importance of, and progress made by, any colony or country are evidently defective if no mention be made of the accumulated wealth of its inhabitants.

An effort has been made to ascertain the amount of private wealth in New Zealand. It seems but right to endeavour to give some idea of the value of private property, though many difficulties present themselves in the course of the work. One method of estimating private wealth is to add together the values of all estates admitted to probate in any one year, and divide the sum by the number of deaths occurring in that year. The quotient would then represent the average wealth per head. But any inference drawn from the figures for a single year would be untrustworthy. For in a thinly-peopled country such as New Zealand an epidemic among young children, who have no property to leave, will unduly lower the average; while, on the other hand, the deaths of a few wealthy persons will raise it unwarrantably. By putting the figures for several years together, and taking the average for the term, we may partially, if not entirely, get rid of these disturbing elements, and arrive at fairly correct results, as thus:—

Years, inclusive.Amount sworn to.Total Number of Deaths.Average Amount left by each Person.Average Number of Persons living.Average Total Wealth for each Year of the Period.
 £ £s.d. £

From this it will be seen that the average total private wealth for each of the five years 1889–93 was £146,984,034. It is manifest, however, that this average does not exhibit with sufficient accuracy the actual present amount of wealth. If the average amount per head —£232 2s. 9d.—for the period 1889–93 were the same at the end of the year 1893, then the total wealth possessed by the 672,265 persons in the colony on 31st December of that year would amount to £156,058,273; or if for purposes of this estimate the mean population for the year be taken the total estimated private wealth of the colony would be £153,524,184.

These figures do not, however, represent the full amount of private wealth, as the values sworn to do not include those estates on which no stamp duty is payable—viz., lands and goods passing to the husband or wife of the deceased, and properties under £100. The total of these must he considerable, and should give a substantial increase to the average amount per head, and therefore to the total wealth.

The increase in private wealth is shown by the following figures:—

Year.Amount.Average per Head.

By the other and direct method of estimating private wealth the Government Statistician of New South Wales arrived at a value for New Zealand for the year 1890 of £150,192,000; and pursuing a similar course, but somewhat differing in detail, a calculation for the year 1892 was made in the Registrar-General's Office here, the results of which approximated closely to the sum arrived at by using the probate returns. The figures are admittedly open to many objections, as is always the case in such calculations; but though some items may be deemed to be assessed at too high a value, and others the reverse, the total would seem to be somewhat too low, judging from comparison with the result of the probate method, which must be considered as representing the net private wealth.

  1. Land, Buildings, and Improvements privately owned.— The value of privately-owned land with improvements was estimated to be £96,066,000. In the year 1883 the sum was £84,208,230, and in 1891 it had increased to £92,373,166, or at the rate of about 3 per cent. per annum. By allowing a slightly higher rate of increase for 1892, which was considered justifiable, the above estimate was arrived at.

  2. Live-stock. — For purposes of the calculation, horses were valued at £9 10s., cattle at £4 10s., sheep at 10s., and pigs at £1 5s. The total value of all kinds of stock was estimated at £15,299,189.

  3. Shipping.—The value of steamers was taken at £20 per ton, and sailing-vessels at £8. The total value of the shipping at these rates was £1,591,672.

  4. Railways (not Government).—The cost of the two private lines in the colony was returned at £1,613,000.

  5. Produce and Merchandise.—The value of goods and manufactures, with that of the produce on hand, was estimated at £14,408,015.

  6. Furniture and Household Goods.—The furniture was valued by allotting a certain sum to every house, according to the number of rooms, using for this purpose the number of houses of each class as returned at the last census. For clothing and other effects an average of £4 per head was accepted. The estimated value was £8,937,678.

  7. The Machinery and Plant belonging to the larger industries were valued in the census returns at £3,051,700; adding to this £1,500,000 for machinery in smaller works, and £650,000 for agricultural implements, the total was found to be £5,201,700.

  8. Coin and Bullion.—The coin and bullion in the banks, together with an allowance of £3 10s. per head of population (the estimate of the coin in actual use) were taken to represent the amount for the colony. The sum was £4,799,340.

  9. Mines and Sundries. — There is included in the total of £7,000,000 set down under this head what was believed to be the value of the interest of companies and persons in coal- and goldmines on Crown lands (the value of such mines on freehold lands being included in item No. 1), also sundry small sums not accounted for elsewhere. This estimate was not closely calculated.

The summary of the above gives the total of private property as under:—

1. Land, buildings, and improvements96,066,000
2. Live-stock15,299,000
3. Shipping1,592,000
4. Railways (not Government)1,613,000
5. Produce and merchandise14,408,000
6. Furniture and household goods8,938,000
7. Machinery and plant5,202,000
8. Coin and bullion4,799,000
9. Mines and sundries7,000,000

Working on a similar system, the Government Statistician of New South Wales estimated the private wealth of the seven colonies of Australasia for the year 1890 at £1,169,434,000.

It is interesting to compare this estimate of the wealth of the Australasian Colonies with the results of similar calculations for other parts of the world. A table giving this information for various countries has accordingly been introduced; but in comparing the wealth of one country with another it must be remembered that the purchasing-power of money in different parts of the world varies considerably, and without any information on this head bare statements of wealth per inhabitant are of very little use, and often misleading. Besides this, the question as to what extent Government undertakes such functions as the construction and working of railways disturbs comparisons of private wealth. The figures are for the most part taken from Mulhall's Dictionary of Statistics:—

Country.Private Wealth.Average Amount per Head of Population.
United Kingdom9,400,000,000247
Sweden and Norway880,000,000122
United States12,824,000,000205

In the year 1885 the property-tax returns gave £40,304,000 as the value of public property in the colony, including Crown lands, educational, municipal, and other reserves, with public works— namely, railways, telegraphs, lighthouses, buildings, harbour-works, and water-supply on goldfields. In 1888 the value of the above had risen to £42,505,000, and it is supposed that in 1893 the sum would probably be about £45,000,000. There are also from nine to ten millions of acres of lands the property of the Maoris. In 1889 the Native lands were valued at £3,000,000 sterling. The present value is probably not so much; some land has been sold, and, on the other hand, some of that retained may have increased in value.


The incomes of the people of New Zealand for 1893 have been the subject of two calculations made on different principles, but yielding similar results.

The first method adopted was to allot a probable income to each description of occupation found in the census of 1891 (the census figures being raised to the population of 1893). Whatever may be thought of the plan of basing a calculation on a series of arbitrarily assumed average incomes for various occupations as a basis, it has been adopted by Mr. Hayter, and no doubt serves as a sort of check on Mr. Mulhall's method.

The result for New Zealand shows an estimated aggregate of incomes amounting to between £27,000,000 and £28,000,000,* giving an average of about £41 per head of population of all ages and both sexes, and £91 per head of breadwinners.

Mr. Mulhall's method may be thus described: 90 per cent. of agricultural, pastoral, and mining produce, and 60 per cent. of manufactures are taken. Transport is computed at 10 per cent. on the gross value of the foregoing products; house rent according to the nearest estimate; commerce at 10 per cent. on the imports and exports; shipping, 30s. per ton; banking, 5 per cent. on banking power.

An allowance of 10 per cent. on the total of the preceding items is made to cover the earnings of servants, professional men, Civil Service, &c. The method is said to be one answering fairly well for comparative purposes.

The earnings of the people of New Zealand calculated on the above principle would be:—

Heads of Income.Amount.

* This sum being the total of all the incomes in the colony, much money is necessarily included several times over.

From agricultural, pastoral, and mining produce12,915,000
From manufactures3,181,000
From transport1,965,000
From house rent4,500,000
From commerce and shipping1,700,000
From banking991,000
From earnings of professional men, Civil Service, servants, &c.2,525,000

The average earnings per inhabitant in other countries have been calculated on the above method, by Mr. Mulhall, with the following results:—

Country.Average per Inhabitant.
United Kingdom3370
United States3900


Dealing only with persons returned as in receipt of wages or salary, and discarding all who derive their incomes from professional or trade profits, it is roughly estimated that the aggregate of the wages paid in the colony for the year amounts to £12,998,546, of which sum £11,983,521 is earned by males, and £1,015,025 by females, the average yearly earnings being £92 12s. for the one sex, and £33 18s. for the other:—

Occupations. (For details of Classes see report on Census, 1891.)Males.Females.
Estimated Number of Wage-earners, 1893.Average Annual EarningsAggregate Earnings, 1893.Estimated Number Average of Wage-earners, Annual Earnings 1893.Average Annual EarningsAggregate Earnings, 1893.

* Here again the total, being the sum of all wages paid in the colony, must be understood as a gross amount, including much money counted several times over.

  ££ ££
I. Professional7,472141.51,057,4524,04649.7200,945
II. Domestic3,53684.1297,39416,71832.1536,641
III. Commercial29,444121.93,590,8761,17923.828,016
IV. Industrial48,5568003,886,0587,75131.7245,535
V. Agricultural pastoral, mineral, &c.39,47077.73,068,94812117.62,126
VI. Indefinite.,96186.282,79311415.51,762
  Total wages, males   £11,983,521 
  Total wages, females   1,015,025 
Total   £12,998,546* 

Cost of Living.

An estimate has been made of the cost of living in New Zealand, which shows a total expenditure of £23,349,623 on food, drink, stimulants, clothing, fuel, light, rent, and furniture, with allowance for such matters as attendance (personal and medical), and other accessories to the primary needs of life. The rate arrived at per head of population is £35 6s. 1d.

Mr. Mulhall gives the average expenditure per head of population for various countries as below:—

Country.Average Expenditure per Head.
United Kingdom29149
United States32162

Mr. Coghlan's estimate for Australasia is as high as £42 1s. 3d. per head.

The quantities used per head of population in New Zealand of some of the principal articles of consumption are next shown. The figures are the averages for the last five years:—

Average Consumption.
Articles.Per In. habitant.
   Food, Drinks, and Stimulants.
Wheat bush.7.01
Potatoes lb.462.00
Cocoa and chocolate lb.0.43
Coffee and chicory lb.0.46
Tea lb.5.88
Sugar lb.81.76
Rice lb.8.39
Fruits, dried (imported) lb.6.72
Fruits, fresh (imported) lb.22.06
Mustard lb.0.28
Pickles doz. pts0.02
Sauces doz. pts0.02
Spices and pepper lb.0.53
Salt lb.33.98
Vinegar gal.0.12
Tobacco, snuff, cigars lb.1.99
Spirits gal.0.68
Wine gal.0.18
Beer gal.7.26
    Other Articles.
Kerosene gal.2.19
Soap, imported lb.055
Soap, New Zealand lb.14.58
Candles, imported lb.2.54
Candles, New Zealand lb.2.66
Matches gross0.17
Soda, carbonate lb.0.19
Soda, crystals lb.0.73
Coal tons1.11


The length of Government railways open for traffic on the 31st March, 1894, was 1,948 miles, the total cost thereof having been £15,137,036, and the average cost per mile £7,770. The cash revenue for the year 1893–94 amounted to £1,172,792 17s. 2d., excluding the value of postal services; and the total expenditure to £735,358 15s. 1d. The net cash revenue—£437, 434—was equal to a rate of £2 17s. 9d. per cent. on the capital cost; the percentage of expenditure to revenue was 62.7.

The following statement shows the number of miles of Government railways open, the number of train-miles travelled and of passengers carried, and the tonnage of goods traffic for the past six years:—

Year.Length open.Train-mileage.Passengers.Season Tickets issued.Goods and Live-stock.*

* The equivalent tonnage for live-stock has been given.


It will be observed that the number of passengers during the year 1893–94 was greater than in any previous year.

The particulars of the revenue and expenditure for the past six years are given herewith:—

Year.Passenger Fares.Parcels and Luggage.Goods and Live-stock.Rents and Miscellaneous.Total.Expenditure.Net Revenue.Percentages of Expenditure to Revenue.Percentage of Revenue to Capital Cost.
 £££££££ £s.d.

Although not included in the figures for the revenue, the real gain to the colony is greater than the net revenue shown by the value of the postal services performed by the railways (carriage of mails, &c.), amounting to £27,000 per annum.

In addition to the above railways there were 164 miles of private lines open for traffic on the 31st March, 1894—namely, the Wellington-Manawatu Railway, 84 miles; the Kaitangata Railway Company's line, 4 miles; and the Midland Railway, 76 miles.

The cost of the construction of the Wellington-Manawatu Railway was £763,729, being at the rate of £9,092 per mile. The term “cost of construction,” as used with railways, includes value of equipment, rolling-stock, &c., not merely the road-line and buildings. The revenue for the twelve months ending the 28th February, 1894, amounted to £88,304, and the working-expenses to £41,127, equivalent to 46.6 per cent. of the revenue.

The traffic returns from the opened part of the Midland line were for the year ended the 30th June, 1893, £12,765 1s. 4d., and the expenditure was £8,356 5s. 4d., equivalent to 65.5 per cent. of the revenue. The total expenditure on this line to the 30th June, 1893, was £1,177,503.

The following statement gives the number of miles of railway open for traffic and in course of construction in the Australian Colonies at the end of 1892:—

Colony.Number of Miles open for Traffic on 31st December.Number of Miles course of Construction on 31st December.
New South Wales812,185333
South Australia171,66457
Western Australia453198292
New Zealand (March, 1893)1501,836188


The development of banking in New Zealand since the year 1857 has been very great. Taking for each year the average of the four quarters’ returns made by the banks of issue, the figures for 1857, 1873, 1883, and 1893 are:—


In 1873 the deposits of these banks were £16.38 per head of the population. In 1893 they were £21.82 per head. The ratio of advances to deposits, which was 104.48 per cent. in 1873, reached its maximum in 1883, when the rate was 173.35 per cent. The proportion has since that year fallen steadily, till in 1893 it was only 88.66 per cent.

The averages for 1893 compared with those of the previous year show an increase in deposits of £846,715; in assets, of £697,366; and in liabilities, of £866,298.


In 1886 the average amount of advances made by the banks was £15,853,420, equal to £27.23 per head of the mean population. The advances gradually declined in amount and proportion to population until 1891, when they were in value £11,549,145, or £18.34 per head. During the year 1892, however, there was an increase, the average of the advances having been £12,228,425, equal to an amount of £19.04 per head of population; and there was a further increase in 1893, the average being £12,797,563, equal to £19.35 per head of population. The discounts were less in 1893 than in any year since 1873. The largest amount of discounts in any year was £6,061,959 in 1879, a rate of £13.53 per head of population. In 1889 the discounts were £2,850,944, equal to £4.66 per head of population; in 1890, £2,524,573, equal to £4.07 per head; in 1891, £2,314,325, or £3.68 per head; in 1892, £2,361,813, being again nearly £3.68 per head; and in 1893, £2,307,649, equal to £3.49 per head.

There was an increase of £846,715 in the deposits, which stood at £14,433,777 in 1893, against £13,587,062 in 1892. Exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits bearing interest increased from £9,439,660 to £9,897,541, or by £457,881; and the deposits not bearing interest from £3,742,952 to £4,063,760, or by £320,808. Thus, there was an increase of £778,689 in the average total of private deposits.

The following shows the average amount of notes in circulation, notes and bills discounted, and bullion and specie in the banks in each of the two past years:—

Average Amount of1892.1893.Increase (+) or Decrease.(-)
Notes in circulation959,943973,894+ 13,951
Notes and bills discounted2,361,8132,307,650-54,163
Specie and bullion2,450,7122,627,367+ 176,655

Special Banking Legislation.

An Act was passed last year intituled “The Banks and Bankers Act Amendment Act, 1893,” under which, notwithstanding anything in previous legislation, the shareholders or proprietors of any bank may, from time to time by extraordinary resolution, authorise its capital to be increased to such an amount and upon such terms as are deemed by them to be expedient. The holders of shares in such increased capital may be granted special privileges notwithstanding anything contained in the charter of the bank.

Any increased capital may be raised by the issue of new shares of such amount as may be determined on by extraordinary resolution of the shareholders or proprietors.

Besides the above, “The Bank-note Issue Act, 1893,” was passed, under which it is permanently enacted (Part I.) that notes issued or circulated in the colony by any bank shall, to the amount of the authorised issue, be a first charge on all the assets and property of such bank, and that the notes shall be payable in gold only at the office of the bank at the place of issue of the said notes.

The assets and property of a bank are defined as assets for the payment of debts or other obligations contracted or entered upon or due and payable in the colony.

The temporary enactments (Part II. of the same Act, which have force for twelve months only from the 2nd September, 1893,* or if Parliament be then not in session until two months after the beginning of the next session) enable the Governor to declare by Proclamation the notes of any bank therein named to be a legal tender of money to the amount therein expressed to be payable. The period of time is to be limited by the Proclamation, and no such Proclamation is to be made unless the Governor in Council is satisfied that, as between the bank and its creditors, its assets exceed its liabilities by at least the sum of the paid-up capital and the reserved profits. The bank must further pay all such notes in gold on presentation after expiry of the time limited at the office of the bank at the place of issue. At any time within six months after the period limited by the Proclamation, the Colonial Treasurer, on being satisfied that a bank-note covered by the Proclamation has been presented and not paid, shall pay the same in gold to any bona fide holder.

Qualified by provisions of Amendment Act, 1894. See post.

* Extended to 2nd September, 1895. by Act of 1894. See post.

On the 29th June, 1894, the Colonial Treasurer introduced in the House of Representatives three Bills relating to banking, which were thereupon passed through all stages and became law forthwith.

The most important of these, intituled “An Act to guarantee out of the Consolidated Fund a Special Issue of Shares by the Bank of New Zealand to the Amount of two Million Pounds Sterling,” provides that it shall be lawful for the directors of the bank to increase the capital by the issue of shares to an amount not exceeding two million pounds sterling in guaranteed shares of ten pounds each without further liability. These shares are preferential in respect of both capital and dividend, and the liability of the holders of ordinary shares is to secure payment of the guaranteed shares and the dividends thereon. The directors can refuse to register the transfer of ordinary shares, and no transfer, though passed by directors, is to be held valid till authorised in writing by the President of the bank. The directors are to call up one-third (£500,000) of the reserve capital within twelve months of the date on which they may be required to do so by the Colonial Treasurer. The guaranteed shares are to be called in at the end of ten years, and cancelled on payment of the principal sum with accrued dividend. The rate of dividend on preferential shares is not to exceed 4 per cent. per annum, and is to be paid by the bank. The guaranteed or preferential shares and dividends thereon are to ho a charge upon and in case of default by the bank, payable out of the Consolidated Fund of the colony; but if at any time any money shall be payable under the guarantee, the assets and property of the bank are to be security for the repayment of money so advanced; if the money be not repaid, the Colonial Treasurer may appoint a receiver.

By further Amendment Act these shares may be issued in the form of negotiable stock certificates or warrants to bearer, of such amounts as the directors may determine. The certificates with warrants or coupons are transferable by delivery. The holders of stock certificates or warrants may exchange these for registered stock, which is made transferable in such amounts as directors may sanction. Shares or stock may be held by any person without limit as to number, provided that the total value does not exceed two millions sterling.

One-half of the sum of two million pounds authorised by the Act to be raised is to be at the disposal of the bank for use in its ordinary business, and the remainder is to be invested as the Colonial Treasurer may approve, or as may be specially provided by law. Until the guaranteed shares are called in and cancelled, no dividend is to he paid to ordinary shareholders without the consent of the Colonial Treasurer, who is empowered to satisfy himself that any proposed dividend will not unduly affect the security of the colony in respect of the guarantee.

The removal of the head office of the bank to Wellington is provided for, as well as the election of a new board of directors, the President of whom is to be appointed by the Governor in Council. The Governor in Council is also empowered to appoint a banking expert as auditor of the business outside the United Kingdom. An auditor of the business in the United Kingdom is to be appointed by the Agent-General of the colony in London.

If an unfavourable report by one or both of the auditors, confirmed by the President, as to the conduct of the business of the bank be received by the Colonial Treasurer, the directors are to amend the management in such manner as the Treasurer may demand in writing.

The shares held in the Bank of New Zealand Estates Company (Limited) by the bank are, pending the completion of liquidation, to be treated in valuing as at par.

By “The Bank-note Issue Act 1893 Amendment Act, 1894,” the provisions of Part II. of the Act of 1893 are to continue in force until the 2nd September, 1895, and if at the end of that period Parliament be not in session, then until the commencement of the then next session and for two months thereafter. The words “and the reserve profits” at the end of the first proviso in section 5 of the Act of 1893 are repealed, so that a Proclamation can issue when the assets exceed the liabilities by the sum of the paid-up capital.

“The Bank Shareholders Act, 1894,” provides that the directors of any bank may decline to register any transfer of shares upon which there is any liability made by a shareholder to any person of whose responsibility they may not be satisfied. “The Bank Directors and Shares Transfer Act, 1894” gives authority to directors to refuse approval, without assigning reasons, to any transfer of shares on which there is liability. It limits the number of directors to not less than five or more than seven.


The number of post-offices open for the transaction of money-order and savings-bank business at the end of 1893 was 339.

There were 29,755 new accounts opened in the year, and 19,599 accounts were closed. The total number of open accounts at the end of 1893 was 122,634, of which 89,260 were for amounts not exceeding £20. 10

The deposits received during the year amounted to £2,386,089 10s. 7d., and the withdrawals to £2,122,521 16s. 8d., the excess of deposits over withdrawals having thus been £263,567 13s. 11d, The total sum standing at credit of all accounts on the 31st December, 1893, was £3,241,998 £7s. 10d., which gave an average of £26 8s. 6d. to the credit of each account.

There are seven savings-banks in the colony not connected with the Post Office. The total amount deposited in them in 1893 was £456,262 13s. 10d., of which the deposits by Maoris comprised £154 15s. 10d. The withdrawals reached the sum of £479,006 15s. 8d., being in excess of the deposits by £22,7.4 1s. 10d. The total amount to the credit of the depositors at the end of the year was £724,851 4s. 1d., of which sum £326 12s. 7d. belonged to Maoris.

Summary of all Deposits.

The deposits above stated for the banks of issue represent the average for the four quarters of the year. If the total deposits at the end of the year be assumed to be equal to the average for the last quarter, then it may be affirmed that, exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits in the several banks of issue and in the two classes of savings-banks amounted at the end of 1893 to £17,507,566. In addition, there are the deposits with building societies, which in 1892 were £270,263; and it is known that there were also deposits with financial companies, of which no particulars have been supplied to the department. The known deposits amount on an average to £26 17s. 7d. per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris.

Building Societies.

There were 48 registered building societies in operation in the colony at the end of 1892. Of these, 8 were terminable societies, the rest were permanent.

The total receipts by these societies during their financial year amounted to £658,686 2s. 6d., of which deposits comprised £291,355 14s. 6d.

The assets at the end of the year were valued at £975,193 4s. 10d. The total liabilities to shareholders, reserve fund, &c., were £701,872 9s. 8d., those to depositors, £270,262 12s. 3d., and those to other creditors, £3,058 2s. 1ld.

Friendly Societies.

The Registrar of Friendly Societies received returns for the year 1892 from 379 lodges, courts, tents, &c., of various friendly societies throughout the colony, also from 30 central bodies. The number of members at the end of 1892 was 28,754.

The total value of the assets of these societies was £501,155, equivalent, to £17 8s. 7d. per member. Of the total assets, the value of the sick and funeral benefit funds was £394,761.

The receipts during the year on account of the sick and funeral funds amounted to £64,953, and the expenditure to £51,718, of which the sick-pay to members reached the sum of £29,400. In addition to the sick-pay, the sum of £27,052 was paid out of the medical and management expenses fund for medical attendance and medicine supplied to the members and their families.

Life Insurance.

There were existing in the colony at the close of the year 1892 as many as 60,660 life insurance policies, an average of over 93 in every 1,000 persons living. The gross amount represented by these policies was £16,915,141 16s., an average of £278 17s. for each policy, and of £26 0s. 1d. for every European inhabitant of the colony at the end of the year. The distribution of these policies among the various life assurance offices is shown in the following table:—

NEW ZEALAND BBUSINESS OFNumber of Years of Business in the Colony.Number of existing Policies at End of Year 1892.Gross Amount insured by Policies at End of Year 1892.
The Australian Mutual Provident Society3118,4945,541,65900
The Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society (Limited)93,2941,004,008111
The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States8887433,95900
The Mutual Assurance Society of Victoria (Limited)91,067233,8041711
The Mutual Life Association of Australasia163,419845,244162
The National Mutual Life Association of Australasia (Limited)132,991742,57200
The New York Life Insurance Company619277,67400
The Life Insurance Department of the New Zealand Government2330,3168,036,22000

It will be observed that nearly half the policies are held in the Government Life Insurance Department. A special article concerning this institution will be found in the third part of this volume.

Crown Lands.

Before referring to the results of each of the various systems in operation in 1893 for the disposal of Crown lands it is desirable to state that a description of these systems will be found in the first of the special articles in Part III. of this work.

There were 26,275 acres of Crown land sold for cash or money-scrip during the year, the cash received amounting to £24,987 17s. 9d., and the scrip representing a value of £1,798. The lands absolutely disposed of without sale amounted to 198,323 acres 1 rood 34 perches, of which the reserves set apart for public purposes comprised 35,071 acres 2 roods 10 perches; the grants to Natives or Europeans under the Native Land Acts, 160,995 acres 2 roods 13 perches; and those in satisfaction of land-scrip or otherwise, 2,256 acres 1 rood 11 perches.

The total area of land alienated from the foundation of the colony to the 31st December, 1893, was 20,702,000 acres. This does not include lands sold by Natives to Europeans direct, for which no Crown grants have been issued. The exact quantity so sold cannot be ascertained, but is believed to be very small.

In 1893, 12,359 acres were taken up under the deferred-payment system. The total area of land taken up under this system, from its commencement to the 31st December, 1893, was 1,253,062 acres. Of this quantity, the area forfeited was 250,144 acres, while 567,318 acres had been finally alienated by completion of payments. The area still held under the system at the end of 1893 was, therefore, 435,600 acres. The following statement gives the number of acres taken up under this system in each of the past ten years:—


The operation of the perpetual-lease system with right of purchase, which became part of the land-law of the colony in 1882, had the effect of lessening the demand for land on deferred payment, as under the perpetual-lease system the rental was only 5 per cent. on the upset value of the land, and thus, until the purchase was made, if it was made at all, the settler had all his capital available for beneficial improvements. On the 31st December, 1893, 1,100,537 acres were in occupation under this system, in 4,200 holdings. During the year, 10,337 acres, in 47 holdings, were taken up and 52,808 acres converted into freehold. This tenure is now superseded by the methods introduced by “The Land Act, 1892,” under which from the date of the passing of the Act up to 31st December last, 138,073 acres had been selected for occupation with right of purchase by 505 selectors, and 208,785 acres as leaseholds in perpetuity by 810 lessees.

The lands disposed of for village settlements are included in the sales of land previously stated, but the following details of the number and area of selections to the 31st December, 1893, are given in order to show the extent of these settlements:—

Village sections for cash93261836
Village sections on deferred payments330185030
Small-farm sections for cash6956,132318
Small-farm sections on deferred payments1,16714,83424

The freeholds acquired have been—

Village sections24138102
Small-farm sections7618,99020

The forfeitures were—

Village sections8453338
Small-farm sections1551,90414

During 1893, 14 selectors took up 71 acres in village-homestead special settlements on perpetual lease, under arrangements made prior to the passing of the Act of 1892. Since that Act came into force, village-homestead settlements can he taken up on lease in perpetuity only.

The area of lands held from the Government on depasturing leases (exclusive of small grazing-runs) amounted to 11,896,110 acres, in 1,481 runs, yielding an annual rental of £125,351.

The total area of land occupied as small grazing-runs was, at the end of last year, 893,874 acres, held by 477 persons, and the total rent received in 1893 was £18,892.


The results of the last census show that in April, 1891, there were in New Zealand 43,777 occupied holdings of over 1 acre in extent, covering an area of 19,397,529 acres, of which 12,410,242 acres were freehold of the occupiers, and 6,987,287 acres were rented from—(1) private individuals, (2) Natives, (3) public bodies, and (4) the Crown (for other than pastoral purposes). The following table shows the number of holdings of various sizes, and number of acres held in fee-simple and on lease, excluding the Crown lands rented for pastoral purposes only:—

Sizes of Holdings.Number of Holdings.Acreage
Freehold.Leasehold, &c.*Total.

* Excluding Crown pastoral leases.

Acres. Acres. 
1 to 1011,11628,12424,34352,467
10 to 508,899148,965105,751254,716
50 to 1005,613277,135158,128.435,263
100 to 2006,851654,729374,0221,028,751
200 to 3203,916609,857403,4621,013,319
320 to 6403,8021,057,676660,0701,717,746
640 to 1,0001,321662,612395,8491,058,461
1,000 to 5,0001,6752,144,6271,280,5583,425,185
5,000 to 10,0002471,208,819559,9801,768,799
10,000 to 20,0001891,911,063788,3412,699,404
20,000 to 50,0001172,507,848833,0833,340,931
50,000 to 100,00024801,647723,0001,524,647
Upwards of 100,000 acres7397,140680,7001,077,840
   Totals, 189143,77712,410,2426,967,28719,397,529
   Totals, 188636,48511,728,2365,348,83817,077,074
   Totals, 188130,83210,309,1704,897,72715,206,897

The extent of land rented from the Crown for pastoral purposes, including the small grazing-runs, amounted, in April, 1891, to 12,469,976 acres.

The number of persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits in 1891, as ascertained from the results of the census taken in April of that year, was 68,607, of whom 65,950 were males and 2,657 females. Of this number 56,671 males and 2,387 females were directly engaged in agricultural, and 9,279 males and 270 females in pastoral occupations.

The agricultural statistics, which are collected annually in February or March, take into account only such occupied holdings as are wholly or partly under cultivation, and moreover do not include those occupied by aboriginal natives. Information concerning the farming carried on by the Maoris is obtained only when a census of the Native race is taken. In 1891 the Maoris had under wheat a total area of 11,203 acres; under maize, 5,599 acres; potatoes, 16,093 acres; other crops, 16,221 acres; and in sown grasses, 26,718 acres.

A summary of the results of the agricultural statistics collected in February, 1894, is exhibited in the two following tables: the first showing the produce of the principal crops in each provincial district; the second, the number of holdings, and the acreage under various kinds of crops and in sown grasses:—

Produce of Principal Crops.

Provincial Districts.Wheat.Oats.Barley.Hay.Potatoes.
Hawke's Bay9,922154,78425,3438,5124,086
Westland  153671,085
Provincial Districts.Number of Holdings.Number of Acres broken up, but not under Crop.Number of Acres under Crop.Total under all Kinds of Crops (including Sown Grasses), and of Land broken up, but not under Crop.
In Grain and Pulse.In Green and other Crops.In Sown Grasses.
Wheat.Oats.Barley.Other Crops.Total-under Grain-cropsOats sown for Green Food or Hay.Potatoes.Other Crops.Total under Green and other Crops.Hay.In Grass including Land in Hay) after having been broken up.Grass-sown Lands (including Lands in Hay) not previously ploughed.
Hawke's Bay2,15314,7943845,2901,2642697,2072,78874226,27929,8095,815336,7971,041,1441,429,751
Westland437216  1233822352738903493,22813,41317,750

From these tables it will be seen that the final results of the recent collection give the number of cultivated holdings over 1 acre in extent occupied by Europeans as 45,290. It should, however, be observed that it is a common practice in Otago and Canterbury for persons to take unimproved lands from the proprietors in order to raise one, two, or three grain-crops therefrom, the land being afterwards sown down with grass-seed. Lands so occupied are returned as separate holdings. When the low price of grain renders cropping unprofitable, either land is not taken up in this manner, or land so occupied reverts to the owner and is included with the rest of his holding.

In 1876 the number of occupied and cultivated holdings was estimated to be, on an average, 14.88 to every 100 adult males; in 1881, 17.30; in 1886, 20.17; and in 1891, 22.79. Assuming the ratio of adult males to total male population to he still the same as existed at the census of 1891, the number of holdings in 1894 gives an average of 24.97 to every 100 of the adult male population. It is highly satisfactory to observe this progress, indicating as it does that a continually increasing proportion of the grown people are settling upon the land.

The extent of land in cultivation (including sown grasses and land broken up but not under crop) amounted to 10,063,051 acres. Of this area, land under artificial grasses comprised 86.44 per cent.; land under grain-crops, 6.66 per cent.; land under green and other crops, 5.49 per cent.; and land in fallow, 1.41 per cent.

More than half the land under grain-crops was in the Canterbury Provincial District, and more than one-third in Otago; but while the area of land in wheat was greater in Canterbury than in Otago by 121,194 acres, that under oats was less by 55,539 acres.

Of the total extent (28,857 acres) of land in barley, 11,365 acres were in Canterbury, 6,801 in Otago, 4,231 in Nelson, 3,865 in Marlborough, and 1,264 in Hawke's Bay.

The total area under wheat at the beginning of 1894 was 242,737 acres, and the produce was estimated at 4,891,695 bushels, an average yield per acre of 20.15 bushels. In 1893 the gross produce of wheat was returned as 8,378,217 bushels, giving an average of 21.98 bushels per acre. It has been maintained that the estimate for 1894 is far too high, and that the better plan would be to wait till after harvest before taking an account of the produce. The law, however, requires the account to be taken in February, and any delay therein causes loud complaints that the returns are too late to be of use. The estimates are checked wherever possible by comparison with the quantities actually threshed out. Deductions were also made this year to cover loss by bad weather, pests, &c.; but, nevertheless, the estimate is declared to be in excess of the actual yield.

The area under wheat in New Zealand, the estimated gross produce in bushels, and the average yield per acre for each of the last ten years is shown. It will be noticed that the breadth of land laid down in wheat was nearly twice as great in 1892 as in 1894.

Year.Land under Wheat.Estimated Gross Produce.Average Yield per Acre.

The following gives the area in wheat and the estimated produce for the Australian Colonies for the season of 1893:—

Colony.Wheat-crop, 1893.
 Acres.Bushels.Bushels per Acre.
New South Wales452,9216,817,4571505
South Australia1,520,5809,240,1086.08
Western Australia35,060429,49712.25
New Zealand (1894)242,7374,891,69520.15

The amount of wheat consumed or used up by the people in any year is estimated by deducting from the gross yield both the amount exported in that year and the quantity of seed required for the next crop. It is impossible, however, to give by this means an exact statement of the quantity required for actual consumption for two reasons: (1) The crop itself is an estimate, and the actual harvested yield may be either more or less; (2) the amount retained in any one year may be very much in excess of local requirements, and may form part of the following year's exports, thus largely increasing the apparent amount retained one year for consumption, and reducing the apparent amount so retained the following year. It is thus clear that the results for any one year cannot by themselves be taken for the purpose of ascertaining the requirements of the people, and that even the average for a term of years will probably vary somewhat, as any year's results are added to or subtracted from the computation.

The total average consumption of wheat in New Zealand for the period 1877 to 1893, inclusive, estimated according to the foregoing method, was, apparently, 8.45 bushels per head of population, including Maoris. From this has to be deducted the wheat required for seed-purposes, estimated at 2 bushels to the acre. The remainder, being the amount required for food and other items of local consumption, averaged 7.40 bushels per head. The particulars for each year and the results for the whole period are here given:—

Year.Produce (including Estimated Quantity of Maori-grown Wheat and Imports of Wheat and Flour).*Exports of Wheat Mini Flour.*Retained in the Colony.Used as Seed at 2 Bushels per Acre.Difference for Food-consumption.Mean Population (including Maoris).Proportion per Head retained.
For Food, &c.Total retained

* In equivalent bushels of wheat.

Totals and Averages131,327,53046,056,01685,271,51410,535,40674,736,11410,092,7657.408.45

The difficulty of correctly computing the consumption of bread-stuffs is shown by the great differences in the estimates arrived at.

The average quantity required per head of the population (exclusive of that used for seed) is estimated by Mr. Coghlan at 6.4 bushels for New South Wales, and by Mr. Hayter at 4 1/2 to 5 bushels for Victoria.

The amount of wheat required annually for use in the United Kingdom averages 5.65 bushels per head of the population.

The consumption of wheaten breadstuffs in New Zealand is thus considerably in excess of that in Victoria, and is also in excess of the amount consumed per head in New South Wales and the other Australian Colonies. The flour used in the colony is produced by local mills, the quantity produced elsewhere imported in 1893 having, been only 109 centals—about 4 tons, while the quantity exported reached 2,009 tons.

The following is the average annual consumption of wheat per inhabitant for some of the principal countries of the world:—

United Kingdom5.6 bushels.
Canada6.6 bushels.
Franco8.1 bushels.
Germany3.0 bushels.
Russia2.1 bushels.
Italy5.4 bushels.
United States5.4 bushels.

Taking 7.40 bushels per head as the amount of wheat actually required for home consumption in the colony by a population of 724,000 persons (the estimated mean for 1894), and allowing seed for 245,000 acres at 2 bushels an acre, it will he seen that this year's harvest so far from leaving any surplus available for export actually falls short of local requirements by 731,839 bushels. There was, however, in February a total of 557,307 bushels remaining on hand with farmers from last year's crop, and if this be taken into account the deficiency will be reduced to 174,532 bushels. The stocks held by grain merchants, of which no returns are collected, have also to be reckoned in. Besides, the estimate of 7.40 bushels a head is probably too high, owing to the collection of agricultural statistics being made so early as February, when the expected produce is returned in excess of the actual yield subsequently threshed out.

The number of acres under oats (for grain) at the commencement of 1894 was 376,646, and the produce was estimated at 12,153,068 bushels, giving an average yield per acre of 32.27 bushels. Of the land in oats in 1894, rather more than 52 per cent., producing over 56 per cent. of the total crop, was in Otago. Canterbury took second place for oat-production, with 37.49 per cent. of the area and 34.33 per cent. of the produce.

The oat-crop in 1893 for the Australasian Colonies was as follows:—

 Acres.Bushels.Average per Acre.
New South Wales20,890466,60322.29
South Australia15,745166,48910.57
Western Australia1,69429,64517.50
New Zealand (1894)376,64612,153,06832.27

There were 28,857 acres returned as under barley in 1894, the estimated crop being 724,653 bushels, an average yield per acre of 25.11 bushels. Last year the area under barley was 24,906 acres, and the crop 654,231 bushels.

The estimated potato-crop was 126,540 tons from 21,121 acres, or an average yield per acre of 5.99 tons.

A comparison of the gross, yield of potatoes with the amount exported in each of the past eleven years shows that for the period 1883–93 an average of 598lb. a head was retained in the colony. Allowing for waste, pig-feed, and quantity used for seeding, the average amount retained for human consumption is found to be 449lb. a head. Particulars are given in a table annexed.

Year.Produce (including estimated Quantity of Maori-grown Potatoes and Imports).Quantity Exported.Retained in the Colony.Used for Seed at 12cwt. per Acre.Pig-feed, &c., and Waste (estimated).Difference for Food (Human Consumption).Mean Population (including Maoris).Proportion per Head retained.
For Food.Total.
 Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons.Tons. Lb..Lb..

Turnips and rape form a most important crop in a sheep-breeding country such as New Zealand, and in 1892 the area of land under this crop amounted to no less than 422,359 acres. The returns for 1893 gave only 379,447 acres, a decrease of over 10 per cent., while the returns for the present year show 385,437 acres as under this crop.

778 acres were under hops in 1894, giving a total produce of 7,665cwt., as against 706 acres and 7,059cwt. last year. Small as this area is it is more than sufficient to supply local requirements, as the import of hops in 1893 amounted only to 494cwt., while the export reached l,667cwt. In 1890 the total quantity used by the breweries in the colony amounted to 3,940cwt. Of the land under hops in 1894, 642 acres were in the Waimea County and 105 in Collingwood, both in the Provincial District of Nelson.

The growing of tobacco does not progress in New Zealand. In 1889, 34 acres were being cultivated; in 1890, 25 acres; in 1891, 16 acres; in 1892, 6 acres; in 1893, 4 acres; and in 1894, 4 acres, producing 2,290lb. of dried leaf.

There were 21,088 acres in orchards in 1894, an increase of 1,003 acres on the area so returned in the previous year. The fruit-crop of the colony is supplemented by a considerable import from the Australian Colonies and Fiji.

New Zealand is essentially suited for grazing purposes. Wherever there is light and moisture English grasses thrive when the natural bush and fern are cleared oil*. In fact, the white-clover gradually overcomes the fern; and, from the mildness of the winter season, there are few places where there is not some growth, even in the coldest months of the year. In all parts of the colony stock live, although in varying condition, without other food than such as they can pick up. Sown-grass lands, as might be expected, heads the list of cultivations.

In February, 1894, there were 8,698,897 acres under artificial grasses. Of these, 3,865,348 acres had been previously ploughed, presumably under grain or other crops, and 4,833,549 acres had not been ploughed. A great part of the latter consisted of bush- or forest-land sown down in grass after the timber had been wholly or partially burnt off.

The following shows the acreage in sown grasses in the Australasian Colonies in 1893:—

New South Wales361,280
South Australia20,210
Western Australia (1891)23,344
New Zealand (1894)8,698,897

It will be observed that the acreage of land under sown grasses was nearly ten times as great in New Zealand as in the whole of Australia and Tasmania. When compared in size with the colonies of Australia, New Zealand is relatively small—about one-thirtieth of their total area—but in respect of grazing-capabilities the relative importance of New Zealand is much greater. Australia is generally unsuitable, owing to conditions of climate, for the growth of English grasses, and the amount of feed produced by the natural grasses throughout the year is very much less per acre than that obtained from the sown-grass lands in New Zealand—so much so that it may be stated that the average productiveness of the grass land in New Zealand is probably about nine times as great as that in Australia; and that the land of this colony covered with artificial grass may be considered equal, for grazing purposes, to an area of Australian land about nine times as great.

The total quantity of grass-seed produced was, in 1894, returned at 753,493 bushels, of which 226,981 bushels were cocksfoot, 513,857 bushels ryegrass, and 12,655 bushels other kinds. The value of all the grass-seed is calculated to be about £135,722.

The total value of all agricultural produce, &c., for the current year is reckoned at about £3,781,898, made up as follows:—

Grain and pulse1,575,899
Hops and other crops50,878
Hay and green forage (excluding grass)550,533
Garden- and orchard-produce541,592
   Total value of agricultural produce£3,781,898

Animals and Produce.

Returns of sheep are sent in April of each year to the Agricultural Department, but full returns of other stock are obtained only when a census is taken. The number of each kind of live-stock, according to the returns from the European portion of the population, in the colony in each of the census years 1886 and 1891 is given below:—

Live-stock.Census, 1891.Census, 1886.
Brood-mares (included in foregoing)31,27629,853
Asses and mules348297
Cattle (including calves)788,919853,358
Breeding-cows (included in foregoing)280,711279,136
Milch-cows (also included in breeding-cows)206,906Not specified.
Sheep (including lambs)17,865,42316,564,595
Breeding-ewes (included in foregoing)7,371,4296,457,355

The above statement does not include the live-stock owned by Maoris. A census was taken in 1891 of the Native race, their stock and cultivations, about the time of the general census, but not of so elaborate a character. In this way the following numbers of stock owned by Maoris were ascertained: Sheep, 262,763; cattle, 42,912; pigs, 86,259; no statement of the horses, of which they have many, being given. The full numbers of sheep, cattle, and pigs in the colony were therefore,—


The number of sheep in the colony on 30th April, 1893, according to returns made to the Department of Agriculture was 19,380,369, and it is expected that the tables now being compiled will, when complete, show that the number in April of the present year exceeded twenty millions.

It has been estimated that the annual consumption of mutton in New Zealand is equivalent to 2.25 sheep per inhabitant, and that the number of sheep required in the present year for food will be about 1,629,000. (Maoris, for the purposes of this calculation, have been included in the population.)

The following gives the number of the principal kinds of livestock in the several Australasian Colonies for the year 1891:—


* Including those owned by Maoris.

Excluding those owned by Maoris.

Includes only British India and Ceylon; French East Indies; Java, Hongkong, Japan, Russia in Asia (Caucasia and Trans-Caucasia), and Cyprus.

New South Wales61,831,4162,046,347459,755
South Australia7,646,239399,077188,587
Western Australia1,962,212133,69040,812
New Zealand*18,128,186*831,831211,040

New Zealand thus takes third place in order for number of sheep, and fourth for the number of her cattle.

The following statement, based on returns published by the Statistician of the Department of Agriculture of the United States, shows the approximate numbers of cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs in the civilised world:—

North America57,887,43817,717,13951,292,79748,059,045
South America57,610,1835,486,03696,242,1372,723,516
Australasia and Fiji11,872,3601,786,644124,645,6061,156,325

The numbers owned in the United Kingdom, her colonies and possessions, are:—

United Kingdom11,519,4172,067,54933,642,8083,265,898
British India and Ceylon53,766,0501,055,38530,074,606486,700
Australasia and Fiji11,872,3601,786,644124,645,6061,156,325
Cape of Good Hope, Natal, and Basutoland3,226,115587,41817,665,352333,866
Other British Possessions188,332138,703959,69630,285

Butter has always held an important position among the productions of the New Zealand small-farmer. Made by different persons and in different ways, it has not been generally suitable for the requirements of the English market, although considerable quantities have been exported to Australia and also to the United Kingdom; but the success attending the efforts made to produce butter of uniform superior character in dairy factories, and the fairly remunerative prices realised for such butter in England, have caused great attention to be given to co-operative dairying for the purpose of supplying produce for the English market.

It is only in census years that any information is obtained of the quantity of butter and cheese annually produced in the colony, and the returns given by farmers must be considered as estimates only, as the majority of them do not keep accounts of their productions.

The following are the results of the returns made in the census years mentioned. The numbers represent the quantities produced in the preceding years:—

Annual Production of

Census Year.Cheese. Lb.Butter. Lb.

The figures for 1891 include l,969,759lb. of butter and 4,390,400lb. of cheese made in factories.

The importance of the dairy industry to New Zealand caused the Government to appoint a Dairy Instructor, to visit factories and give lectures and addresses on the benefits of co-operative dairying, the making of cheese and butter, and subjects relating thereto. Particulars of this industry will be found in a separate article further on.

The growing importance of our export trade of butter and cheese with the United Kingdom, which must be regarded as the market chiefly to be considered, is shown in the table on page 120.


The natural mineral resources of New Zealand are very great, and have exercised in the past a most important influence on the development and progress of the colony. Gold to the value of £49,300,999 was obtained prior to the 31st December, 1893. The gold produce in 1893 was of the value of £913,138. In the earlier years the gold was obtained from alluvial diggings, but at the present time it is mostly taken from gold-bearing quartz, which is distributed widely through several parts of the colony, and thus there is a much better prospect of the permanency of this industry than was afforded by the alluvial diggings. The amount of silver extracted to the end of 1893 amounted to only £153,887 in value, but recent discoveries of ore give promise of large production in the future. Of other minerals, the product to the same date amounts to £11,617,524, of which kauri-gum yielded £6,860,196, and coal, with coke, £4,525,933. The following gives the quantities and values of precious metals and minerals obtained during the year 1893, and the total value of mining produce since 1853:—

 1893Total Value since 1853.
Copper-ore  17,866
Chrome-ore  37,367
Hæmatite-ore  226
Mixed minerals3765070,322
Coke (exported)515323,643

The approximate total output of the coal-mines up to the 31st December, 1893, was 8,496,849 tons.

[For full account of mines and minerals see special article, post.]


Statistics of manufactories or works are taken every five years only at the time of the census. The number of industries returned in 1891–2,570—shows an increase on the number—2,268 —in 1886, but the rate of increase—13.32 per cent.—was not so large as might have been expected. Between 1881 and 1886 the industries returned increased from 1,643 to 2,268, or at the rate of 38 per cent. Gold-quartz-mining and hydraulic mining-works are included in the above, increasing the number of industries by 209; 95 collieries are also included, with 2 antimony mines and 1 manganese, besides 9 building-stone quarries.

To include mining works among manufactories may appear strange at first, but the Census Act requires returns to be furnished 11 for such works, and they have machinery and plant which must be included in any account of the machinery in use within the colony.

The remarks of the Registrar-General in the report on the census of 1886 as to what are included in the returns are reprinted, as again applicable: “There is difficulty in defining what works should be included and what omitted. For example, some of the furniture factories consist of large workshops in rear of shops, in which several hands are employed in making furniture; hut there are numerous cabinetmakers who also employ one or two hands in making furniture, but whose works can hardly be classed as manufactories. There are many industries in a similar condition, so that no hard-and-fast rule can he laid down; otherwise many industries that are in the aggregate of considerable magnitude, and of growing importance, would have to be omitted, or the table filled up with the enumeration of what are in reality retail businesses combined with the doing of a limited amount of work on the premises, either by way of repairs or as new work. Consequently, much discretion has to be exercised in the selection for the returns, possibly causing some little roughness in the result. Much additional work to that given is no doubt being performed by these minor industries. Some small industries have been given on account of their possessing a special character, or of being the germ of what may grow to some importance.”

The hands and horse-power employed were—

 Hands employed.Horse-power employed.
Census, 188116,5991,39913,601
Census, 188623,1612,49419,315
Census, 189126,9112,96933,392

Here the male hands employed are shown to have increased by 10,312 or 62.12 per cent. in ten years, and by 3,750 or 16.19 per cent. in the period 1886–91. The increase in the case of females is much greater for the ten-year period than in case of the males, being 112.22 per cent. for 1881–91, and for the quinquennium 1886–91, 1905 per cent.

The increase in horse-power is 145.51 per cent. for 1881–91, and 72.88 per cent. for 1886–91.

At the census of 1891 an attempt was made for the first time to obtain information as to the wages paid in those factories or large works supplying wholesale orders, and making use of machinery and plant, which are dealt with in the industrial returns. The amount for the year 1890 was £2,106,860 paid to males, and £102,999 to females, of all ages. The total value of materials operated upon was £3,471,767, so far as returned. The deficiency is not considered to be such as very materially to affect the figures given. The annual value of the manufactures and produce was obtained in 1886 as well as in 1891, and a comparison is consequently possible:—

 Annual Value of Manufactures and Produce.
Census, 18919,422,146
Census, 18867,436,649

or 26.70 per cent.

It will be observed that while the industries increased between 1886 and 1891 in number by only 13.82 per cent., as previously stated, the proportionate increase on the actual result of the work, as shown by the value of the manufactures or produce, was at the higher rate of 26.70 per cent. The hands increased at the rate of 16.19 per cent. for males, and 19.05 per cent. for females.

The approximate value of the land, buildings, machinery, and plant used in the manufactories or works can be compared for four census-periods:—

 Value of Laud and Buildings used for Manufactories or Works.Centesimal Increase or Decrease.Value of Machinery and Plant used for Manufactories or Works.Centesimal Increase.
 £ £ 
Census, 18781,761,69413.151,289,37825.03
Census, 18811,993,33046.981,612,14171.65
Census, 18862,929,828 2,767,289 
Census, 18912,775,277- 5.573,051,69910.28

The value of the lands used for mining is not included in the above figures, and the value of Crown lands has been omitted throughout.

The order of the provincial districts, arranged according to the number of industries belonging to each, is as under: —

 Number of Industries including Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.Number of Industries excluding Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.
Hawke's Bay8585

The values of the manufactures for the provincial districts were respectively as follows:—

 Value of Manufactures including Output of Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.Value of Manufactures excluding Output of Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.
Hawke's Bay525,394525,394
Taranaki155,772155 772
Westland69,99353 294

The following shows the most important industries arranged according to value of manufactures or produce, and specifying all amounts over £100,000:—

 Total Value of all Manufactures or Produce, including Repairs.

* Returns unsatisfactory.

Meat-freezing, -preserving, and boiling-down works1,464,659
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring establishments1,026,349
Boot-and-shoe factories403,736
Iron- and brass-foundries, boiler-making, machinists and millwrights403,635
Printing establishments354,559
Gold-mining, quartz-mining and -crushing works278,893
Soap-and-candle works155,714
Cheese-and butter-factories150,957
Agricultural-implement factories144,472
Coach-building and -painting works139,660
Other industries, in which the value of manufactures was under £100,0001,877,028

The order of the principal industries arranged according to the number of hands employed was:—

 No of Hands.
Printing establishments2,569
Gold-mining, quartz-mining and -crushing works1,971
Boot-and-shoe factories1,943
Iron- and brass-foundries, boiler-making, machinists, and millwrights1,787
Meat-freezing, -preserving, and boiling-down works1,568
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring establishments1,196
Other industries8,256

The principal industries returned at the census of 1891, and particulars relating thereto, are given in detail in the following, table:—

Nature of Industry.Total Number of Industries.Number of Hands employed.Wages paid.Amount of Horse-power employed.Value of all Manufactured or Produce (including Repairs) for the Year 1890.Approximate Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant.
Males.Females.Total.To Males.To Females.Total.
     £££ ££
Printing, &c., establishments1422,3731962,569207,0677,118214,185328354,559341,683
Machines, tools, and implements36526252845,2464145,287148144,47273,478
Coach-building and -painting108675367852,5267552,60194139,66096,225
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring1041,19061,19692,16627692,4424741,026,349153,592
Ship-and boat-building37145..14510,831..10,8312835,84710,172
Sail-and oilskin-factories3268561244,9091,4266,335..31,08316,799
Hat- and cap factories1651611124,1382,1386,276..21,62826,005
Boot- and shoe-factories471,4754681,943107,04017,950124,99046403,73682,137
Rope- and twine-works24222..22213,658..13,65812976,71136,086
Meat-preserving, -freezing, and boiling-down works431,56171,568138,312147138,4595,1121,464,659476,151
Bacon-curing establishments33831846,671256,696783,43514,180
Cheese- and butter-factories742185126913,8001,12814,928387150,957100,453
Fruit-preserving and jam-making works1574431173,7819614,7423327,25510,042
   Carried forward1,29714,6402,61717,2571,066,43293,7401,160,17213,3836,313,0612,743,849
Brought forward1,29714,6402,61717,2571,066,43293,7401,160,17213,3836,313,0612,743,849
Aërated-water factories112253826116,9823917,02115591,69173,147
Coffee-and-spice works17792816,512506,5629364,02430,850
Soap-and-candle works19201820921,19420021,394259155,71474,443
Chaff-cutting establishments6320322057,260707,33026963,23636,300
Brick-, tile-, and pottery- works1064841049424,93825225,19045956, 830119,780
Iron and brass foundries791,78521,787157,24527157,272954403,635268,887
Spouting-and-ridging works12100..1007,981..7,9812533,14029,670
Gold- and quartz mining works1351,971..1,971183,582..183,5822,656278,893241,715
Hydraulic gold-mining and gold-dredging74495..49532,904..32,9047,72873,713154,270
Other industries2911,5363141,850104,8098,590113,3991,472596,526667,632

The Government Printing Office and the Railway workshops have not been included in making up the preceding table (and indeed the information was not all obtained). This is in accordance with the practice observed at previous censuses in New Zealand, but is open to question, and it has, at least, the disadvantage of disturbing comparisons with other colonies where such Government establishments are included.


Civil Cases.

Sittings of the Supreme Court are held for trial of civil cases at Auckland, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Wellington, and Wanganui, in the North Island; and at Blenheim, Nelson, Hokitika, Christchurch, Timaru, Oamaru, Dunedin, and Invercargill, in the Middle Island.

The number of writs of summons tested in the Supreme Court in 1898 was 717, against 744 in 1891, and 929 in 1890. The number of civil cases tried decreased from 184 in 1891 to 129 in 1892. Of these 17 were tried before a common jury, 27 by special jury, and 85 by Judge without jury. The total of amounts for which judgments were recorded in 1892 was £48,316. There were 87 writs of execution issued during the year.

Seventy-one cases were dealt with at sixteen District Courts in 1892. Eleven of these cases were tried before juries, and 88 before Judge only, making a total of 49 cases tried. Nineteen cases lapsed or were discontinued, and 8 remained pending. The total of amounts sued for was £7,455, and judgments were recorded for £2,225. Before the Magistrates’ Courts 18,803 cases were tried, against 18,217 in 1891; the total sum sued for being £246,167, and the total for which judgment was given £133,762.