Table of Contents


The Handbook published last year met with so favourable a reception that the Government decided on publishing a similar work annually, to be called the “New Zealand Official Year-Book.” This volume will therefore be one of a series.

As the demand for the Handbook was largely in excess of the number printed, it seemed evident that some of the special articles, after having been revised, would bear repetition. But there is a large quantity of completely new matter introduced into this book, especially in the portions relating to agriculture, sheep-farming, meat-freezing, butter- and cheese-making, climate and temperature, mineral waters, thermal springs, land- and income-tax methods, &c. Of the articles dealing with these subjects, some appear for the first time, while others have been re-written and enlarged.

The whole of Part III. is entirely new. It consists of a digest of the land-laws and descriptions of the various land districts, giving such particulars as the nature of the soil—whether fit for agricultural, pastoral, or mining purposes—the timber, and other natural products; besides mentioning the industries pursued, the towns and settlements, the means of communication, with other leading features.

The statistical information, with small exceptions, will be found to contain the latest figures. The difficulty of obtaining complete figures for 1892 covering such a range of subjects as is here dealt with, early enough to print in a book to be presented to Parliament during this session, was found to be very considerable; and the date at which many figures became available left little time for analysis or comment thereon. But certainly the information is made public at a much earlier date than is the case in the neighbouring colonies.

The able and kindly assistance rendered by the heads of the various Government Departments is again acknowledged. Without cordial co-operation it would have been impossible to do so much as has been performed, especially in so short a space of time.

E. J. von Dadelszen.

Registrar-General's Office,

Wellington, 25th August, 1893.


For Statistical and Critical Work Officers of Registrar-General's Department.

For general assistance Mr. Charles Janion.

N.B. Every care has been taken to avoid errors, but if any be discovered it is requested that they may be reported. Suggestions will also receive consideration.

Since the First Part of the Year-book was printed the following changes have taken place:—

The Franchise (See p. 16).

“The Electoral Act, 1893,” has extended to women of both races the right to register as electors, and to vote at the elections for members of the House of Representatives. The qualification for registration is the same for both sexes, and remains substantially unaltered. No person is entitled to be registered on more than one electoral roll within the colony, whatever the number or nature of the qualifications he or she may possess, or wherever they may be. Women are not qualified to be elected as members of the House of Representatives.

Foreign Consuls (see p. 23.)

Mr. J. H. Amora, of Sydney, appointed Consul-General in Australasia, for Nicaragua.

Mr. Frank Graham, recognised as Vice-consul for Sweden and Norway, at Christchurch.

Mr. E. V. Johansen, of Auckland, Consular jurisdiction for Denmark to extend over the whole of the North Island.

Mr. E. C. Skog, of Christchurch, to be Consul for Denmark, for the South Island.

Executive Council (see p. 25).

The Hon. Alfred Jerome Cadman sworn in (6th September) as a member, and appointed Minister of Justice and Minister of Mines. The Hon. R. J. Seddon appointed Native Minister.


Bell, Sir Francis Dillon, Knt. Bach., 1873; K.C.M.G., 1881; C.B., 1886.

Buckley, Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G., 1892.

Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1886.

FitzGerald, James Edward, Esq., C.M.G., 1870.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 1890.

Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., 1848.

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.O.M.G., 1882.

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., C.M.G., 1875; K.C.M.G., 1887.

Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie, C.M.G., 1879.

O'Rorke, Sir George Maurice, Knt. Bach., 1880.

Prendergast, Sir James, Knt. Bach., 1881.

Richardson, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., 1879.

Roberts, John, Esq., C.M.G., 1891.

Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William, K.C.M.G., 1879; G.C.M.G., 1887.

Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1886.

Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius, C.M.G., 1872; K.C.M.G., 1875.

Whitmore, Hon. Colonel Sir George Stoddart, O.M.G., 1869; K.C.M.G., 1882.

By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated Downing Street, 15th June, 1893, His Excellency the Governor has been apprised that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing responsible government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, is approved by Her Majesty for use and recognition throughout Her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case may be.

Besides the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils the following ex-Ministers whose names do not appear in the list given above, are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable”: Bryce, John, 1884; Dick, Thomas, 1884; Fergus, Thomas, 1891; Gisborne, William, 1873; Haultain, C. T. M., 1870; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; Johnston, Walter W., 1884; Mitchelson, Edwin, 1891; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reynolds, William H., 1876; Richardson, George F., 1891; Rolleston, William, 1884; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. NEW ZEALAND.

The Colony of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The former are known as the North, the Middle, and Stewart Islands. These three islands have a coast-line amounting to 4,330 miles in length—namely, North Island, 2,200 miles; Middle Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. The other islands now included within the colony are the Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, Bounty Islands, and Kermadec Islands. A protectorate over the Cook Islands (Hervey Group) is exercised by the Imperial Government, the Governor of New Zealand acting as responsible adviser.

New Zealand is a mountainous country in many parts, but has, nevertheless, large plains in both North and Middle Islands. In the North Island, which is highly volcanic, is situated the famous-Thermal-Springs District, of which a special account will be given. The Middle Island is remarkable for its lofty mountains, with their magnificent glaciers, and the deep sounds or fiords on the western coast.

New Zealand is firstly a pastoral, and secondly an agricultural country. Sown grasses are grown almost everywhere, the extent of land laid down being upwards of eight millions of acres. The land is admirably adapted for receiving these grasses, which, after the bush has been burnt off, is mostly sown over without previous ploughing. In the Middle Island a large area is covered with native grasses, all used for grazing purposes. The large extent of good grazing-land has made the colony a great wool- and meat-producing country; and its agricultural capabilities are, speaking generally, very considerable. The abundance of water and quantity of valuable timber are also leading characteristics.

New Zealand is, besides, a mining country. Coal is found in immense quantities, chiefly on the west coast of the Middle Island. Gold, alluvial and in quartz, is found in both islands, the yield having been over forty-eight millions sterling in value to the present time. Full statistical information is given further on, compiled up to the latest dates.

Discovery and Early Settlement.

The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, a Dutch navigator. He sailed from Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskirk,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he sailed in an easterly direction, and on the 13th December of that year sighted the west coast of the Middle Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country, which is at present marked in the charts as New Zealand.”

It has been assumed as probable that the first European who visited New Zealand was Juan Fernandez, who, having started from one of the ports of the west coast of South America in 1576, after sailing for about a month in a south-westerly direction, reached a land described by him as fertile and pleasant, and inhabited by a race of white people, well made, and dressed in a kind of woven cloth. People of brown complexions were often described as white by the Spaniards; and, although there is no direct evidence that the land so discovered was New Zealand, yet no other seems to answer his description. It appears, however, certain that the country was visited before the date of Tasman's arrival in 1642, as the land he came to was shown in the Dutch chart used by him, and was named thereon “Zeland Nova,” William Bleau, a Dutchman, who died in 1638, having published an atlas in which a line of coast is indistinctly shown with the name against it, “Zelandia Nova.”

Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw formed part of a great polar continent, and was part of that country (subsequently found to be an island) discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staaten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staaten Land to New Zealand. Within about three months after this date Schouten's “Staaten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country which Tasman had called by the same name received instead that of “New Zealand”—an evident restoration of the name previously given—by which name it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (now Massacre) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he sailed along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot on the country.

There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until that of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in a southerly direction in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having circumnavigated the North Island and the Middle and Stewart Islands—the latter having been considered as part of the Middle Island—he sailed from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He again visited New Zealand in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.

M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” being on a voyage of discovery, sighted the northeast coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. Another visit was soon after paid by a French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was treacherously murdered by the Natives on the 12th June following.

In 1793 the “Dĉdalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.

In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners to Mr. Marsden. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked, in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814, and returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815. It was not until 1821 that the work of evangelization was put on a somewhat permanent basis; but the first station, established by Mr. Leigh, a Wesleyan missionary, and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.

The Maoris.

Prior to the discovery and colonisation of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr., now Sir, William Fox, and Sir Donald McLean, then Native Minister, state that at what time the discovery was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters which are lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants, and that when they came there were probably no other inhabitants of the country. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiiki, and that one of their chiefs was driven thence by a storm and, after a long voyage, fetched the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, set on foot a scheme of emigration, whereupon a large fleet of double canoes started for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal “canoes” after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. Calculations, based on the genealogical staves kept by the tohungas, or priests, indicate that about twenty-seven generations have passed since the migration, which would give for its date about the beginning of the fourteenth century. The position of Hawaiiki is not known, but there are several islands of this or a somewhat similar name. Similarity of language indicates a Polynesian origin, which would prove that the Maoris advanced to New Zealand through various groups of the Pacific islands, in which they left families of the same race, who to this day speak the same or nearly the same tongue. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand, he availed himself of the assistance of a native from Tahiti, whose language proved to be almost identical with that of the New Zealanders, and through the medium of whose interpretation a good deal of information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained, which could not have been had without it.

A special article will be found further on dealing with the subject of the numbers and present condition of the Maoris.


The first attempt at colonisation was made in 1825 by a company formed in London. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf and a strip of land at Hokianga. The attempt, however, was a failure, owing to the savage character of the inhabitants. In consequence of frequent visits of numerous whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans—generally men of low character—gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.

In 1838 a colonisation company, known as the New Zealand Company, was formed to establish settlement on systematic principles. A preliminary expedition, under the command of Colonel William Wakefield, was despatched from England on the 12th May, 1839, and arrived in New Zealand in the following August. Having purchased land from the Natives, Colonel Wakefield selected the shore of Port Nicholson, in Cook Strait, as the site of the first settlement. On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of the Queen over the islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A treaty called “The Treaty of Waitangi,” to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, by which all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales; but on the 3rd May, 1841, it was proclaimed a separate colony. The seat of Government had been previously established at Auckland, round which a settlement was formed.

The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site, which resulted in the establishment of the settlement at the head of Blind Bay. About the same time a settlement was commenced at New Plymouth, by the arrival, on the 31st March, 1841, of a body of immigrants despatched by the New Plymouth Company, an organization for purposes of colonisation that had been formed in England, and had purchased 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.

The next important event in the progress of colonisation was the arrival at Port Chalmers, in March, 1848, of two ships containing immigrants, despatched by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement in that part of the colony by persons who belonged to or were in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.

In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the settlement of the adjoining country was commenced in a systematic manner, the intention having been to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.

Boundaries and Area.

The Proclamation of Captain Hobson on the 30th January, 1840, gave as the boundaries of the colony the following degrees of latitude and longitude: On the north, 34° 30' S. lat.; on the south, 47° 10' S. lat.; on the east, 179° 0' E. long.; on the west, 166° 5' E. long. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island.

In April, 1842, by Royal Letters Patent, and again by the Imperial Act 26 and 27 Vict., c. 23 (1863), the boundaries of the colony were altered so as to extend from 33° to 53° of south latitude and from 162° of east longitude to 173° of west longitude. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, 1887, the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the 177th and 180th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the Colony of New Zealand.

The following now constitute the Colony of New Zealand:-

  1. The island commonly known as the North Island, with its adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 44,468 square miles, or 28,459,580 acres.

  2. The island known as the Middle Island, with adjacent islets, having an aggregate area of 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres.

  3. The South or Stewart Island, and adjacent islets, having an area of 665 square miles, or 425,390 acres.

  4. The Chatham Islands, situate 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, in the Middle Island, with an area of 375 square miles, or 239,920 acres.

  5. The Auckland Islands, about 200 miles south of Stewart Island, extending about 30 miles from north to south, and nearly 15 from east co west, the area being 210,650 acres.

  6. The Campbell Islands, in latitude 52° 33' south, and longitude 169° 8' west, about 30 miles in circumference, with an area of 45,410 acres.

  7. The Antipodes Islands, about 458 miles in a south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers, in the Middle Island. These are detached rocky islands, and extend over a distance of between four and five miles from north to south. Area, 12,960 acres.

  8. The Bounty Islands, a small group of islets, thirteen in number, lying north of the Antipodes Islands, and about 415 miles in nearly an east-south-easterly direction from Port Chalmers. Area, 3,300 acres.

  9. The Kermadec Islands, a group of which the largest is called Sunday or Raoul Island, lie about 614 miles to the north-east of Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Sunday Island is about 20 miles in circuit. The next in size is Macaulay Island, about three miles in circumference. Area of the group, 8,208 acres.

The total area of the colony is thus about 104,471 square miles, of which the aggregate area of the outlying groups of islands that are practically useless for settlement amounts to about 438 square miles.

A protectorate is exercised by the Imperial Government over the Cook Islands (or Hervey Group) by Proclamation dated the 27th October, 1888. The British Resident* is appointed on the recommendation of the New Zealand Government. He acts for the colony as Government Agent in all matters of trade.

*Frederick J. Moss, Esq., late M.H.R., is now British Resident. His salary is paid by this colony.

Area of the Australian Colonies.

The areas of the various Australian Colonies, as given by different authorities, differ considerably. Mr. Hayter, in his “Victorian Year-book,” gives the total area of the Australian Continent at 2,944,628 square miles, according to a computation made by the late Surveyor-General of Victoria, Mr. J. A. Skene, from a map of Continental Australia compiled and engraved under his direction; but in the case of each colony, except Victoria, the area computed by Mr. Skene differs from that given in the official records of that colony, the difference in the case of Western Australia amounting to over 84,000 square miles. The following areas are, therefore, taken from the official records of each colony:-

 Square Miles.
New South Wales310,700
South Australia903,425
Western Australia1,060,000
            Total Continent of Australia3,030,506
New Zealand (including the Chatham and other islands)104,471
            Total Australasia3,161,192

The size of these colonies may be better realised by the comparison of their areas with those of European countries. The areas of the following countries—Austria-Hungary, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Portugal, Spain, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Switzerland, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Eastern Roumelia, and Turkey in Europe—containing on the whole rather less than 1,600,000 square miles, amount to little more than half the area of the Australian Continent. If the area of Russia in Europe be added to those of the other countries the total area would be about one-seventh larger than the Australian Continent, and about one-twelfth larger than that of the Australasian Colonies, including New Zealand.

Area of the Colony of New Zealand.

The area of the Colony of New Zealand is little more than one-seventh less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland, that of the Middle Island of New Zealand being a little larger than the combined areas of England and Wales.

    United Kingdom.Area in Square Miles.
England and Wales58,311
    New Zealand.Area in Square Miles.
North Island44,468
Middle Island58,525
Stewart Island665
Chatham Islands375
Other islands438

Physical Features of the North Island.

The North Island extends over a little more than seven degrees of latitude—a distance in a direct line from north to south of 430 geographical or 498 statute miles; but, as the northern portion of the colony, which extends over more than three degrees of latitude, takes a north-westerly direction, the distance in a straight line from the North Cape to Cape Palliser, the extreme northerly and southerly points of the island, is about 515 statute miles.

This island is, as a whole, hilly, and, in parts, mountainous in character, but there are large areas of plain or comparatively level country, which either are now, or will be in the future when clear of forest and other indigenous vegetation, available for agricultural purposes. Of these, the principal are the plains in Hawke's Bay on the East Coast, the Wairarapa Plain in the Wellington District, and a strip of country along the West Coast extending from a point about thirty miles from the City of Wellington to a little north of New Plymouth, which is about 250 miles distant from Wellington. The largest plain in the North Island, Kaingaroa, extends from the shore of Lake Taupo in a north-north-easterly direction to the sea-coast in the Bay of Plenty; but a large portion is covered with pumice sand, and is unsuitable for tillage or pasture. There are several smaller plains and numerous valleys suitable for agriculture. The level or undulating country in this island suitable for or capable of being made fit for agriculture has been estimated roughly at 13,000,000 acres. This includes lands now covered with standing forest, and swamps that are capable of drainage; also considerable areas of clay-marl and pumice-covered land. The clay-marl in its natural state is cold and uninviting to the agriculturist, but under proper drainage and cultivation it can be brought to a high state of productiveness. This kind of land is generally neglected at the present time, as settlers prefer soils more rapidly remunerative and less costly to work. The larger portion of this island was originally covered with forest. Although the area of forest-covered land is still very great, yet year by year the amount is being reduced, chiefly to meet the requirements of settlement, the trees being cut down and burnt, and grass-seed being then sown on the ashes to create pasture. Hilly as the country is, yet from the nature of the climate it is especially suited for the growth of English grasses, and wherever there is any soil, however steep the land may be, grasses will flourish; consequently very little of the land is incapable of being made to supply food for cattle and sheep when treated as above or otherwise laid down in grass. The area of land in the North Island deemed purely pastoral or capable of being made so, being too steep for agricultural purposes, is estimated at 14,200,000 acres. In the centre of the island is a lake, about twenty miles across either way from the extreme points, called Taupo. A large area adjacent to the lake is at present worthless pumice-country. The Waikato River, the largest in the North Island, flows out of its north-eastern point, and trends thence in a north-westerly direction until it flows into the ocean a little distance south of the Manukau Harbour. This river is navigable for small steamers for about a hundred miles from its mouth. The Maori King country, occupied by Natives who for several years isolated themselves from the Europeans, lies between Lake Taupo and the western coast. The River Thames, or Waihou, having its sources north of Lake Taupo, flows northward into the Firth of Thames. It is navigable for small steamers only for about fifty miles. The other navigable rivers in this island are the Wanganui and Manawatu, which flow in a south-westerly direction into Cook Strait.

The mountains in the North Island are estimated to occupy about one-tenth of the surface, and do not exceed 4,000ft. in height, with the exception of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty. Of these, the three following are the most important:—

  1. The Tongariro Mountain, situated to the southward of Lake Taupo. It consists of a group of distinct volcanic cones, the lava-streams from which have so overlapped in their descent as to form one compact mountain-mass at the base. The highest of these cones is called Ngauruhoe, and attains an elevation of 7,515ft. The craters of Ngauruhoe, Ketetahi (6,140ft.), and Te Mari (4,990ft.) are the three vents from which the latest discharges of lava have taken place, the most recent having occurred in 1868. These craters are still active, steam and vapour issuing from them with, at times, considerable force and noise, the vapours being charged with pungent gases and acids, making it dangerous to approach too near the crater-lips.

  2. Ruapehu. This mountain lies to the south of Tongariro. It is an extinct volcanic cone, and reaches the height of 9,100ft., being in part considerably above the line of perpetual snow. The most remarkable feature of this mountain is the crater-lake on its summit. This lake is situated at the bottom of a funnel-shaped crater, the steep sides of which are mantled with ice and snow. The water occupies a circular basin about 500ft. in diameter, and is about 300ft. below the enclosing peaks, and quite inaccessible except by ropes. It is much disturbed by eddies, from which steam or vapour is given off. This lake, and the three craters previously mentioned on Tongariro, are all in one straight line, which, if produced, would pass through the boiling springs at Tokaanu on the southern margin of Lake Taupo, and through other hot springs on the north of the lake in the direction of White Island, an active volcano in the Bay of Plenty, situated about twenty-seven miles from the mainland.

  3. Mount Egmont. This is also an extinct volcanic cone, rising to a height of 8,300ft. The upper part is always covered with snow. This mountain is situated close to New Plymouth, and is surrounded by one of the most fertile districts in New Zealand. Rising from the plains in its solitary grandeur, it is an object of extreme beauty and ceaseless admiration.

It is estimated that the area of mountain-tops and barren country at too high an altitude for sheep, and therefore worthless for pastoral purposes, amounts, in the North Island, to 300,000 acres.

The most remarkable feature of the North Island is the numerous hot springs, which occur in hundreds from Tongariro, south of Lake Taupo, to Ohaoawai, situated at almost the extreme north of the colony—a distance of 300 miles. Clouds of sulphurous steam are seen rising at different places over this extensive area, but the principal seat of hydrothermal action appears to be in the neighbourhood of Lake Rotorua. The district is generally known as the Hot or Thermal-Springs District.

This district is situated about forty miles in a north-north-east direction from Lake Taupo. By the destruction of the famed Pink and White Terraces and of Lake Rotomahana on the occasion of the eruption of Mount Tarawera on the 10th June, 1886, the district has been deprived of attractions unique in character and of unrivalled beauty; but the natural features of the country—the lakes, geysers, and hot springs, the number of which is very great, and some of which possess remarkable curative properties for certain complaints—still afford considerable attraction for tourists and invalids. Recently the world-wide importance of conserving this region as a sanatorium for all time has been recognised by the Government, and it is now dedicated by Act of Parliament to that purpose. A very interesting account of the thermal springs of the North Island will be found further on.

Notwithstanding the length of coast-line, good harbours in the North Island are not numerous. Those on the west coast north of New Plymouth are bar-harbours, not suitable for large vessels. The principal harbours are the Waitemata Harbour, on which Auckland is situated—this is rather a deep estuary than a harbour; several excellent havens in the northern peninsula; and Port Nicholson, on the borders of which Wellington is situated. This is a landlocked harbour, about six miles across, having a comparatively narrow but deep entrance from the ocean. The water is deep nearly throughout.

Cook Strait.

Cook Strait separates the North and Middle Islands. It is about sixteen miles across at its narrowest part, but in the widest about ninety. The strait is invaluable for the purpose of traffic between different parts of the colony, and is constantly traversed by vessels of the magnificent line of coastal steamers that trade in New Zealand waters.

Physical Features of the Middle Island.

The extreme length of the Middle Island, from Port Jackson, in Cook Strait, to Puysegur Point, at the extreme south-west, is about 525 statute miles; the greatest distance across at any point is in Otago (the southern) District, being about 180 miles.

The Middle Island is intersected along almost its entire length by a mountainous range known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach a height of from 10,000ft. to 12,000ft., Mount Cook, the highest peak, rising to 12,349ft.

In the south, in the neighbourhood of the sounds and Lake Te Anau, there are many magnificent peaks, which, though not of great height, are, owing to their southerly position, nearly all crowned with perpetual ice and snow. Further north the mountains increase in height—Mount Earnslaw, at Lake Wakatipu; and Mount Aspiring, which has aptly been termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, nearly 10,000ft. in height, at Lake Wanaka. Northward beyond this a fine chain of peaks runs as the backbone of the Middle Island to where Mount Cook, or Aorangi, towers majestic in the midst of the grandest scenes of the Southern Alps.

The scenery of the Southern Alps of New Zealand in many instances excels in beauty and grandeur that of the Alps of Switzerland, while in the Southern Alps there is also greater variety. In New Zealand no one has actually succeeded in making a complete ascent of any of the highest mountains. Many of the peaks and most of the glaciers are as yet unnamed; and there is, in parts of the Middle Island, still a fine field for exploration and discovery—geographical, geological, and botanical. The wonders of the Southern Alps are only beginning to be known; but the more they are known the more they are appreciated. The snow-line in New Zealand being so much lower than in Switzerland, the scenery, though the mountains are not quite so high, is of surpassing grandeur.

There are extensive glaciers on both sides of the range, those on the western side being of exceptional beauty, as, from the greater abruptness of the mountain-slopes on that side, they descend to within about 700ft. of the sea-level, and into the midst of the evergreen New Zealand forest vegetation. The largest glaciers on each side of the range are easily accessible.

The following gives the sizes of some of the glaciers on the eastern slope:—

Name.Area of Glacier.Length of Glacier.Greatest Width.Average Width.
 Acres.Miles ch.Miles ch.Miles ch.
Tasman13,66418 02 141 15
Murchison5,80010 701 50 66
Godley5,3128 01 551 3
Mueller3,2008 00 610 50
Hooker2,4167 250 540 41

The Alletsch Glacier in Switzerland, according to Ball, in the “Alpine Guide,” has an average width of one mile. It is in length and width inferior to the Tasman Glacier.

Numerous sounds or fiords penetrate the south-western coast. They are long, narrow, and deep (the depth of water at the upper part of Milford Sound is 1,270ft., although at the entrance only 130ft.), environed by giant mountains clothed with foliage to the snow-line, with waterfalls, glaciers, and snowfields at every turn. Some of the mountains rise almost precipitously from the water's edge to 5,000ft. and 10,000ft. above the sea. The great Sutherland waterfall, 1,904ft. high, is near Milford, the finest of these sounds.

The general surface of the northern portion of the Middle Island, comprising the Provincial Districts of Nelson and Marlborough, is mountainous, but the greater part is suitable for grazing purposes. There are some fine valleys and small plains suitable for agriculture, of which the Wairau Valley or Plain is the largest. Deep sounds, extending for many miles, break the coast-line abutting on Cook Strait. The City of Nelson is situated at the head of Blind Bay, which has a depth inwards from Cook Strait of about forty statute miles.

The Provincial District of Canterbury lies to the south of the Marlborough District, and on the eastern side of the island. Towards the north the land is undulating; then there is a stretch of almost perfectly level country extending in a south-westerly direction for 160 miles, after which, on the south, the country is undulating as far as the borders of the Otago District. On the east a block of hill-country rises abruptly from the plain and extends for some miles seaward. This is Banks Peninsula, containing several good harbours, the principal being Port Cooper, on the north, on which is situated Lyttelton, the chief port of the district: the harbour of Akaroa, considered one of the finest in the colony, is on the southern coast of this peninsula.

The southern district of Otago is, on the whole, mountainous, but has many fine plains and valleys suitable for agricultural purposes. The mountains, except towards the west coast, are generally destitute of timber, and are suitable for grazing sheep. There are gold-fields of considerable extent in the interior of this district. The interior lakes are very important features in Otago. Lake Wakatipu extends over fifty-four miles in length, but is not more than four miles at its greatest width. It is 1,070ft. above sea-level, and has a depth varying from 1,170ft. to 1,296ft. It covers an area of 114 square miles. Te Anau Lake is still larger, having an area of 132 square miles. These lakes are bounded on the west by broken, mountainous, and chiefly wooded country, extending to the ocean.

The chief harbours in the Otago District are those of Port Chalmers, at the head of which Dunedin is situated, and the Bluff Harbour, at the extreme south.

The District of Westland extending along the west coast of the Middle Island, abreast of the District of Canterbury, is more or less auriferous throughout. The western slopes of the central range of mountains are clothed with forest-trees to the snow-line; but on the eastern slopes timber is scarce, natural grasses covering the ground.

The rivers in the Middle Island are for the most part mountain-torrents, fed by glaciers in the principal mountain-ranges. When the snow melts they become of considerable size, and their beds, when not confined by rocky walls, extend over considerable areas, chiefly covered by enormous deposits of shingle. The largest river, as regards volume of water, in the colony is the Clutha. It is 154 miles in length, but is only navigable for boats or small river-steamers for about thirty miles. The rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika, on the West Coast, are navigable for a short distance from their mouths. They constitute the only ports in the Westland District. In their unimproved state they admitted, owing to the bars at their mouths, only vessels of small draught; but, in consequence of the importance of the Grey and Buller Rivers as the only ports available for the coal-export trade, large harbour-works have been undertaken, resulting in the deepening of the beds of these rivers, and giving a depth of from 18ft. to 24ft. of water on the bars.

The area of level or undulating land in the Middle Island that may be available for agriculture is estimated at about 15,000,000 acres. About 13,000,000 are suitable for pastoral purposes only, or may become so when cleared of forest and sown with grass-seed. The area of barren land and mountain-tops is estimated at about 8,000,000 acres.

Foveaux Strait.

Foveaux Strait separates the Middle from Stewart Island. This last island has an area of only 425,390 acres. It is mountainous in character, and chiefly covered with forest.

The Outlying Islands.

The outlying group of the Chatham Islands, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles eastward of Lyttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant islets. The largest island contains about 222,490 acres, of which a large and irregularly-shaped lake or lagoon absorbs 45,960 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great height. Pitt Island is the next in size; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater portion of both islands is occupied as sheep-runs.

The Kermadec group of islands, four in number, are situated between 29° 10' and 31° 30' south latitude, and between 177° 45' and 179° west longitude. They are named Raoul or Sunday Island, Macaulay Island, Curtis Island, and L'Espérance or French Rock. The principal island, Sunday, is 600 miles distant from Auckland. The islands are volcanic, and in two of them signs of activity are still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and islets of the group: Sunday Island, 7,200 acres; Herald group of islets, 85 acres; Macaulay Island, 764 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; L'Espérance, 12 acres: total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is twenty miles in circumference, is roughly triangular in shape, and the highest point on it is 1,723ft. above the sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of its surface, and, except in a few places, it is covered with forest. The soil everywhere on the island is very rich, being formed by the decomposition of a dark-coloured pumiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely mixed a fine vegetable mould. The great luxuriance and richness of the vegetation all bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere—except where destroyed by the eruptions, and on the steep cliffs—the same rich loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless.

The Auckland Islands are about 290 miles south of Bluff Harbour, their position being given on the Admiralty chart as latitude 50° 31' 29” S., and longitude 166° 19' 12” E. They have magnificent harbours. Port Ross, at the north end of the principal island, has been described by the eminent French commander, D'Urville, as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adam's Strait or Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet of water. The largest of the islands is about twenty-seven miles long by about fifteen miles broad, and is very mountainous, the highest part being about 2,000ft. above the sea. The west coast is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The New Zealand Government maintains at this island a dépôt of provisions and clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners. These have already been found of inestimable value by an unfortunate shipwrecked crew condemned to some months' residence on the island.


British sovereignty was proclaimed over New Zealand in January, 1840, and the country became a dependency of New South Wales until the 3rd May, 1841, when it was made a separate colony. The seat of Government was at Auckland, and the Executive comprised, with the Governor, three gentlemen, holding offices as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer.

In August, 1841; May, 1842; and January, 1844, three new members were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. They were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time on the 27th May, 1854, although they remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Between the 14th June and the 2nd September, 1854, the Executive Council was variously constituted with three or four members of the House of Representatives and two Legislative Councillors, without portfolios.

The Government of the colony was at first vested in the Governor, who was responsible only to the Imperial Government; but in 1852 an Act was passed by the Imperial Legislature which granted representative institutions to the colony. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, consisting of a Legislative Council, the members of which were to be nominated by the Governor, and an elective House of Representatives. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. The first Ministers under a system of Responsible Government were appointed on the 18th April, 1856. By the Act of 1852 the colony was divided into six provinces, each to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council, empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise practically amounted to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years; but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the electors of the whole province; the members of the Provincial Council by those of the electoral districts. The Provincial Governments remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly which subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties, and established a system of local county government, came into operation.


The Governor is appointed by the Queen. His salary is £5,000 a year, and is provided by the colony.

Members of the Legislative Council hold their seats under writs of summons from the Governor. Till the year 1891 the appointments were for life; but in September of that year an Act was passed making such appointments after that time tenable for seven years only, though Councillors may be reappointed. In either case seats may be vacated by resignation or extended absence. Two members of the Council are aboriginal native chiefs.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years from the time of each general election; but at any time the dissolution of Parliament by the Governor necessitates such general election. Four of the members are representatives of Native constituencies, three members for the Maori districts being aboriginal natives and one a half-caste. An Act was passed in 1887 which provided that, on the termination of the then General Assembly, the number of members to be thereafter elected to the House of Representatives should be seventy-four in all, of whom four were to be elected, under the provisions of the Maori Representation Acts, as representatives of Maori electors only. For the purposes of European representation the colony is divided into sixty-two electoral districts, four of which—the Cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—return each three members, and all the other electorates one each. Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the votes of the inhabitants in every electoral district appointed for that purpose.

In 1889 an amendment of the Representation Act was passed, which contained a provision prohibiting any elector from giving his vote in respect of more than one electorate at any election. This provision greatly increased the effective power of those voters who were registered for one electoral district only, and resulted in a considerable addition to the number of so-called labour members in the House of Representatives. Every man registered as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 2 of “The Public Offenders Disqualification Act, 1867,” is qualified to be elected a member of the House of Representatives for any electoral district. For European representation every adult male, if resident one year in the colony and six months in one electoral district, can be registered as an elector. Freehold property of the value of £25 held for six months preceding the day of registration also entitles a man to register, if not already registered under the residential qualification. Maoris possessing a £25 freehold under Crown title, or being on any ratepayers' roll, can also register. For Maori representation every adult Maori resident in any Maori electoral district (of which there are four only in the colony) can vote. Registration is not required in Native districts. The proportion of representation to population at the last general election for the House of Representatives, in December, 1890, was one European member to every 8,952 inhabitants, and one Maori member to every 10,413 Natives.

The Seat of Government.

Up to the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have it removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (the ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government in the colony. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania might be asked to each appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales; the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.

These gentlemen, having made a personal inspection of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”

The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.

Public Works.

Nearly all the public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the Government of the colony, and in the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement. In 1870, however, a great impetus was given to the progress of the whole country by the inauguration of the “Public Works and Immigration Policy,” which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement. Railways, roads, and water-races were constructed, and immigration was conducted on a large scale. As a consequence, the population increased from 267,000 in 1871 to 501,000 in 1881, and 650,433 at the close of the year 1892, exclusive of Maoris.


Succession of Governors of New Zealand, and the Dates on which they assumed and retired from the Government.

Captain William Hobson, R.N., from Jan., 1840, to 10 Sept., 1842.

[British Sovereignty was proclaimed by Captain Hobson in January, 1840, and New Zealand became a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand; the seat of Government being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the time of Governor Hobson's death, in September, 1842, until the arrival of Governor Fitzroy, in December, 1843, the Government was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland.]

Lieutenant Shortland, Administrator, from 10 Sept., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843.

Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., from 26 Dec., 1843, to 17 Nov., 1845.

Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848), from 18 Nov., 1845, to 31 Dec., 1853.

[Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the 1st January, 1848, when he was sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the 13th September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of which he assumed on the 7th March, 1853. In August, 1847, Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster: he was sworn in, 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster: he was sworn in, 14th February, 1848; died, 8th January, 1851; and was succeeded as Lieutenant-Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed 14th April, 1851; sworn in, 26th April, 1851. The duties of the Lieutenant-Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of the office of Governor, on the 7th March, 1853.]

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator, from 3 Jan., 1854, to 6 Sept., 1855.

Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6 Sept., 1855, to 2 Oct., 1861.

Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator, from 3 Oct., 1861; Governor, from 4 Dec., 1861, to 5 Feb., 1868.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5 Feb., 1868, to 19 Mar., 1873.

Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Mar. to 14 June, 1873.

Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.C., from 14 June, 1873, to 3 Dec., 1874.

The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., Administrator, from 3 Dec., 1874; Governor, from 9 Jan., 1875, to 21 Feb., 1879.

James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 21 Feb. to 27 Mar., 1879.

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator, 27 Mar., 1879; Governor, from 17 April, 1879, to 8 Sept., 1880.

James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 9 Sept. to 29 Nov., 1880.

Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29 Nov., 1880, to 23 June, 1882.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 24 June, 1882, to 20 Jan., 1883.

Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20 Jan., 1883, to 22 Mar., 1889.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 23 Mar. to 2 May, 1889.

The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2 May, 1889, to 24 Feb., 1892.

Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, from 25 Feb. to 6 June, 1892.

The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7 June, 1892.

Chapter 3. EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 1843–56.

Members of the Executive Council of the Colony of New Zealand previous to the Establishment of Responsible Government (not including the Officers Commanding the Forces).

Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3 May, 1841, to 31 Dec., 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.

Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3 May to 10 Aug., 1841; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.

George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3 May, 1841, to 9 May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.

William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10 Aug., 1841, to 7 May, 1856.

Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9 May, 1842, to 7 May, 1356.

Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6 Jan., 1844, to 7 May, 1856.

[The holders of these three last-mentioned offices were nominated by Her Majesty as ex officio members of the Executive Council. They were not members of the General Assembly, opened for the first time 27th May, 1854, although they remained in office until the establishment of Responsible Government.]

James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14 June to 2 Aug., 1854.

Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 30 June to 11 July, 1854.

Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14 July to 2 Aug., 1854.

Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.

James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31 Aug. to 2 Sept., 1854.


Number of Parliaments since the Constitution Act Passed for conferring Representative Institutions upon the Colony of New Zealand, with the Dates of Opening of Sessions and Dates of Closing or Dissolution.

No. of Parliament.Date of Opening of Sessions.Date of Closing or Dissolution.
First Parliament 27 May, 18549 August, 1854.
31 August, 185416 September, 1854.
8 August, 185515 September, 1855.
Second Parliament 15 April, 185616 August, 1856.
(There was no session held in the year 1857.)
10 April, 185821 August, 1858.
(There was no session held in the year 1859.)
30 July, 18605 November, 1860.
Third Parliament 3 June, 18617 September, 1861.
7 July, 186215 September, 1862.
19 October, 186314 December, 1863.
24 November, 186413 December, 1864.
26 July, 186530 October, 1865.
Fourth Parliament 30 June, 18668 October, 1866.
9 July, 186710 October, 1867.
9 July, 186820 October, 1868.
1 June, 18693 September, 1869.
14 June, 187013 September, 1870.
Fifth Parliament 14 August, 187116 November, 1871.
16 July, 187225 October, 1872.
15 July, 18733 October, 1873.
3 July, 187431 August, 1874.
20 July, 187521 October, 1875.
Sixth Parliament 15 June, 187631 October, 1876.
19 July, 187710 December, 1877.
26 July, 18782 November, 1878.
11 July, 187915 August, 1879.
Seventh Parliament 24 September, 187919 December, 1879.
28 May, 18801 September, 1880.
9 June, 188124 September, 1881.
Eighth Parliament 18 May, 188215 September, 1882.
14 June, 18838 September, 1883.
5 June, 188424 June, 1884.
Ninth Parliament 7 August, 188410 November, 1884.
11 June, 188522 September, 1885.
13 May, 188618 August, 1886.
26 April, 188715 July, 1887.
Tenth Parliament 6 October, 188723 December, 1887.
10 May, 188831 August, 1888.
20 June, 188919 September, 1889.
19 June, 18903 October, 1890.
Eleventh Parliament 27 January, 189131 January, 1891.
11 June, 18915 September, 1891.
23 June, 189212 October, 1892.
22 June, 1893. 


Since the Establishment of Responsible Government in New Zealand in 1856.

Name of Ministry.Assumed Office.When retired.
* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.
1. Bell-Sewell  7 May, 185620 May, 1856.
2. Fox20 May, 1856  2 June, 1856.
3. Stafford2 June, 185612 July, 1861.
4. Fox12 July, 1861  6 August, 1862.
5. Domett6 August, 186230 October, 1863.
6. Whitaker-Fox30 October, 186324 November, 1864.
7. Weld24 November, 186416 October, 1865.
8. Stafford16 October, 186528 June, 1869.
9. Fox28 June, 186910 September, 1872.
10. Stafford10 September, 187211 October, 1872.
11. Waterhouse11 October, 18723 March, 1873.
12. Fox  3 March, 18738 April, 1873.
13. Vogel  8 April, 18736 July, 1875.
14. Pollen  6 July, 187515 February, 1876.
15. Vogel15 February, 1876  1 September, 1876.
16. Atkinson1 September, 187613 September, 1876.
17. Atkinson (reconstituted)13 September, 187613 October, 1877.
18. Grey15 October, 1877  8 October, 1879.
19. Hall8 October, 187921 April, 1882.
20. Whitaker21 April, 188225 September, 1883.
21. Atkinson25 September, 188316 August, 1884.
22. Stout-Vogel16 August, 188428 August, 1884.
23. Atkinson28 August, 1884  3 September, 1884.
24. Stout-Vogel3 September, 1884  8 October, 1887.
25. Atkinson8 October, 188724 January, 1891.
26. Ballance24 January, 18911 May, 1893.*
27. Seddon  1 May, 1893 


Name of Premier.Name of Premier.
Henry Sewell.Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.
William Fox.Harry Albert Atkinson.
Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).
William Fox. 
Alfred Domett.Sir George Grey, K.C.B.
Frederick Whitaker.Hon. John Hall.
Frederick Aloysius Weld.Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.
Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson.
William Fox.Robert Stout.
Hon.. Edward William Stafford.Harry Albert Atkinson.
George Marsden Waterhouse.Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.
Hon. William Fox.Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.
Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.John Ballance.
Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.Richard John Seddon.

With Date of their Appointment and Date of Retirement or Death.

Name of Speaker.Date of Appointment.Date of Retirement or Death.
Hon. William Swainson16 May, 1854  8 August, 1855.
Hon. Frederick Whitaker  8 August, 185512 May, 1856.
Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley12 May, 1856  1 July, 1868.
Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.  1 July, 186814 June, 1879.
Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.14 June, 187923 January, 1891.
Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.23 January, 189128 June, 1892.
Hon. Henry John Miller.  8 July, 1892. 

With Dates of their Election and Dates of Retirement.

Name of Speaker.Date of Election.Date of Retirement.
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.26 May, 1854 
 15 April, 18563 June, 1861.
Sir David Monro, Kt.  3 June, 1861 
 30 June, 186614 August, 1871.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G.,C.B.14 August, 187115 June, 1876.
Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.15 June, 187613 June, 1879.
Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt.11 July, 1879 
 24 September, 1879 
 18 May, 1882 
   7 August, 1884 
   6 October, 188722 January, 1891.
Major William Jukes Steward22 January, 1891. 


Consuls of Foreign Countries residing in, or with Jurisdiction over, New Zealand in the Year 1893.

Netherlands.—Dr. Laon Adrian de Vicq, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Consul; Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, and David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Vice-Consuls.

Belgium.—Gustave Beckx, Melbourne, Consul-General; Charles John Johnston, Wellington, Alexander Beck, Christchurch, and Arthur Masy, Auckland, Consuls.

Italy.—Cavaliere Nicola Squitti, Barone de Palermiti e Guarna, Melbourne, Consul; Alexander Cracroft Wilson, Christchurch, George Fisher, Wellington, Edward Bowes Cargill, Dunedin, Dr. Francesco Rosetti, Hokitika, Geraldo Guiseppe Perotti, Greymouth, and Patrick Comiskey, Auckland, Consular Agents.

German Empire.—A. Pelldram, Sydney, Consul-General; Bendix Hallenstein (on leave), Willi Fels (acting), Dunedin, Friedrich Augustus Krull, Wanganui, H. Brown (on leave), Carl Seegner (acting), Auckland, and Heinrich von Haast, Christchurch, Consuls; Augustus Friedrich Castendyk, Wellington, Vice-Consul.

France.—Felix Jacques de Lostalot de Bachoué, Wellington, Vice-Consul; David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin, and Hon. Edmund William Parker, Christchurch, Consular Agents.

Sweden and Noway.—Edward Pearce (on leave), Arthur Edward Pearce (acting), Wellington, Consul; Harlan Page Barber, Auckland, Vice-Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Consular Agent.

Denmark.—Edward Valdemar Johansen, Auckland, Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Emil Christian Skog, Christchurch, and A. F. Castendyk, Wellington, Vice-Consuls.

Spain.—Don Francisco Arenas Y. Bonet, Christchurch, Vice-Consul.

Portugal.—John Duncan, Wellington, Consul; Henry Rees George, Auckland, and Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Vice-Consuls.

United States.—George H. Wallace, Melbourne, Consul-General; John Darcey Conolly, Auckland, Consul (for New Zealand); Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland, Vice-Consul; Albert Cuff, Christchurch, Henry Stephenson, Russell, Robert Wyles, Mongonui, William Hort Levin, Wellington, and Reynolds Driver, Dunedin, Consular Agents.

Chili.—William Henry Eldred, Sydney, Consul-General; David Boosie Cruickshank, Auckland, Consul; Edmund Quick, Dunedin, Consular Agent.

Columbia.—Thomas P. Fallon, Melbourne, Consul-General.

Hawaiian Islands.—James Cruickshank, Auckland, Reynolds Driver (acting), Dunedin, Consuls.

(With their Addresses).

Table of Contents

New Zealand.

W. B. Perceval, Esq., Westminster Chambers, 13, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Walter Kennaway, C.M.G.


New South Wales.—Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C.B., Westminster Chambers, 9, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—S. Yardley, C.M.G.

Victoria.—, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—C. H. Pearson.

South Australia.—Sir John Cox Bray, K.C.M.G., Victoria Chambers, 15, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Samuel Deering.

Queensland.—Sir James F. Garrick, K.C.M.G., Q.C., Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, S.W. Secretary—Charles Shortt Dicken, C.M.G.

Western Australia.—Sir Malcolm Fraser, K.C.M.G., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, W. Secretary—Reginald Hare.

Tasmania.—Sir Edward N. Coventry Braddon, K.C.M.G., Westminster Chambers, 5, Victoria Street, S.W.


(Downing Street, S.W., London), with Dates of Appointment.

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—The Most Hon. the Marquis of Ripon, K.G., 17th August, 1892.

Under-Secretaries: Permanent—The Hon. Robert Henry Meade, C.B., 1st February, 1892; Parliamentary—Sydney Charles Buxton, M.P., 17th August, 1892.

Assistant Under-Secretaries—John Bramston, D.C.L., C.B., 30th June, 1876; Edward Wingfield, B.C.L, C.B., 19th July, 1878; Edward Fairfield, C.M.G., 1st February, 1892.

Private Secretary to Secretary of State—F. S. St. Quintin. Assistant Private Secretary—Hartmann W. Just, B.A.


Downing Street, S.W. City Office: 1, Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C., London.

Crown Agents—Sir Montagu Frederick Ommaney, K.C.M.G., and Ernest Edward Blake.


Glasgow, His Excellency the Right Honourable David, Earl of, G.C.M.G., a captain of the Royal Navy, served in the White Sea during the Russian war, and in the Chinese war of 1857, and retired in 1878; born, 1833; married, in 1873, Dorothea Thomasina, daughter of Sir Edward Hunter-Blair; appointed February 24, and assumed office June 7, 1892, as Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her Majesty's Colony of New Zealand and its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same. Salary, £5,000. Residences: Government House, Wellington; and Government House, Auckland.

Private Secretary—Colonel Pat Boyle (late Grenadier Guards).

Assistant Private Secretary—George Maurice Gillington.

Aides-de-camp—Reginald Stanley Hunter-Blair (Captain, Gordon Highlanders), and Edward Francis Clayton (Lieutenant, Scots Guards).

Administrator of the Government.—A dormant commission empowers the Chief Justice of the Colony for the time being to administer the Government in case of the death, incapacity, removal, or departure of the Governor.

His Excellency the Governor presides.

Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier, Minister for Public Works, Minister of Mines, and Minister of Defence.

Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., Attorney-General, Colonial Secretary, and Minister of Marine.

Hon. W. P. Reeves, Minister of Education, Commissioner of Stamp Duties, Minister of Labour, and Minister of Justice.

Hon. J. McKenzie, Minister of Lands and Immigration, Minister of Agriculture, and Commissioner of Forests.

Hon. J. G. Ward, Colonial Treasurer, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, and Commissioner of Trade and Customs.

Hon. J. Carroll (without portfolio), representing the Native race.

Hon. W. Montgomery (without portfolio).

Clerk of Executive Council—Alexander James Willis.

Legislative Council.

The number of members at present constituting the Legislative Council is forty-six. The number cannot be less than ten, but is otherwise unlimited. Prior to 1891 Councillors summoned by the Governor held their appointments for life, but on the 17th of September of that year an Act was passed making future appointments to the Council tenable for seven years only, to be reckoned from the date of the writ of summons of the Councillor's appointment, though every such Councillor may be reappointed. The qualifications are that the person to be appointed be of the full age of twenty-one years, and a subject of Her Majesty, either natural-born or naturalised by or under any Act of the Imperial Parliament or by or under any Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand. All contractors to the public service to an amount of over £50 and Civil servants of the colony are ineligible to become Councillors. Payment of Councillors is at the rate of £150 a year, payable monthly. Deductions of £2 2s. per sitting day are made in case of absence, except through illness or other unavoidable cause. A seat is vacated by any member of the Council—(1), If he takes any oath or makes any declaration or acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to any foreign Prince or Power; or (2), if he does, or concurs in, or adopts any act whereby he may become a subject or citizen of any foreign State or Power, or is entitled to the rights, privileges, or immunities of a subject of any foreign State or Power; or (3), if he is a bankrupt, or compounds with his creditors under any Act for the time being in force; or (4), if he is a public defaulter, or is attainted of treason, or is convicted of felony or any infamous crime; or (5), if he resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to and accepted by the Governor; or (6), if for more than one whole session of the General Assembly he fails, without permission of the Governor notified to the Council, to give his attendance in the Council. The presence of one-fourth of the members of the Council, exclusive of those who have leave of absence, is necessary to constitute a meeting for the exercise of its powers. This rule, however, may be altered from time to time by the Council. The ordinary sitting-days are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m., resuming again at 7.30 when necessary.

Roll of Members of the Honourable the Legislative Council

Stating the Provincial District and the Date of Writ of Summons.

Speaker—The Hon. Henry John Miller.

Chairman of Committees—The Hon. William Douglas Hall Baillie.

Name.Provincial District.Date of Appointment.
Aclannd, the Hon. John Barton ArundelCanterbury  8 July, 1865.
Baillie, the Hon. William Douglas HallMarlborough  8 March, 1861.
Barnicoat, the Hon. John WallisNelson14 May, 1883.
Bolt, the Hon. William MouatOtago15 October, 1892.
Bonar, the Hon. James AlexanderWestland27 June, 1868.
Bowen, the Hon. Charles ChristopherCanterbury23 January, 1891.
Buckley, the Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G.Wellington25 July, 1878.
Dignan, the Hon. PatrickAuckland  3 February, 1879.
Feldwick, the Hon. HenryOtago15 October, 1892.
Grace, the Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G.Wellington13 May, 1870.
Hart, the Hon. RobertWellington  9 July, 1872.
Holmes, the Hon. MathewOtago19 June, 1866.
Jenkinson, the Hon. John EdwardCanterbury  6 June, 1893.
Jennings, the Hon. William ThomasAuckland15 October, 1892.
Johnston, the Hon. Charles JohnWellington23 January, 1891.
Kelly, the Hon. ThomasTaranaki15 October, 1892.
Kenny, the Hon. Courtney William Aylmer ThomasMarlborough15 May, 1885.
Kerr, the Hon. JamesWestland15 October, 1892.
McCullough, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 October, 1892.
MacGregor, the Hon. JohnOtago15 October, 1892.
McLean, the Hon. GeorgeOtago19 December, 1881.
Mantell, the Hon. Walter Baldock DurantWellington19 June, 1866.
Miller, the Hon. Henry John (Speaker)Otago  8 July, 1865.
Montgomery, the Hon. WilliamCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Morris, the Hon. George BenthamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Oliver, the Hon. RichardOtago10 November, 1881.
Ormond, the Hon. John DaviesHawke's Bay23 January, 1891.
Peacock, the Hon. John ThomasCanterbury  3 June, 1873.
Pharazyn, the Hon. RobertWellington15 May, 1885.
Pollen, the Hon. DanielAuckland12 May, 1873.
Reynolds, the Hon. William HunterOtago  6 May, 1878.
Richardson, the Hon. Edward, C.M.G.Wellington15 October, 1892.
Rigg, the Hon. JohnWellington  6 June, 1893.
Scotland, the Hon. HenryTaranaki24 February, 1868.
Shephard, the Hon. JosephNelson15 May, 1885.
Shrimski, the Hon. Samuel EdwardOtago15 May, 1885.
Stevens, the Hon. Edward Cephas JohnCanterbury  7 March, 1882.
Stewart, the Hon. William DownieOtago23 January, 1891.
Swanson, the Hon. WilliamAuckland15 May, 1885.
Taiaroa, the Hon. Hori KereiOtago15 May, 1885.
Wahawaha, the Hon. Major Ropata, N.Z.C.Auckland10 May, 1887.
Walker, the Hon. LancelotCanterbury15 May, 1885.
Walker, the Hon. William CampbellCanterbury15 October, 1892.
Whitmore, the Hon. Sir George Stoddart, K.C.M.G.Hawke's Bay31 August, 1863.
Whyte, the Hon. John BlairAuckland23 January, 1891.
Williams, the Hon. HenryAuckland  7 March, 1882.

Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and Examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—Leonard Stowe.

Clerk-Assistant—Arthur Thomas Bothamley.

Second Clerk-Assistant—George Moore.

Interpreter—Henry S. Hadfield.

House of Representatives.

The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is seventy-four—seventy Europeans and four Maoris. This number was fixed by the Act of 1887, which came for the first time into practical operation at the general election of 1890. Previously (from 1881) the House consisted of ninety-five members—ninety-one Europeans and four Maoris. The North Island returns thirty European members, and the Middle Island forty. The cities of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin return each three members, and all other electoral districts one each. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. The qualification for membership is simply registration as an elector, and not coming within the meaning of section 2 of “The Public Offenders' Disqualification Act, 1867.” All contractors to the public service of New Zealand, when any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, to such person in any one financial year, and the Civil servants of the colony, are incapable of being elected as or of sitting or voting as members. The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £20 per month, amounting to £240 per annum. Travelling expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 1st January, 1892, under the provisions of “The Payment of Members Act, 1892.” Twenty members, exclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise ordered, the sitting-days of the House are Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 2.30 to 5.30, resuming at 7.30 p.m. Order of admission to the Speaker's Gallery is by ticket to be obtained from the Speaker. The Strangers' Gallery is open free to the public.

Roll of Members of the House of Representatives,
With the Name of the District for which they are elected, and the Date of Notification of Return of Writ.

Speaker—The Hon. William Jukes Steward.

Chairman of Committees—Arthur Robert Guinness.

Name.Electoral District.Date of Notification of Return of Writ.
Allen, JamesBruce12 May, 1892.
Blake, EdwinAvon18 December, 1890.
Bruce, Robert CunninghamRangitikei13 July, 1892.
Buchanan, Walter ClarkeWairarapa18 December, 1890.
Buckland, William FrancisManukau18 December, 1890.
Buick, Thomas LindsayWairau18 December, 1890.
Cadman, Alfred JeromeCity of Auckland9 August, 1893.
Carncross, Walter Charles FrederickTaieri18 December, 1890.
Carroll, Hon. JamesEastern Maori6 January, 1891.
Dawson, WilliamDunedin Suburbs18 December, 1890.
Duncan, ThomasOamaru18 December, 1890.
Duthie, JohnCity of Wellington 
Earnshaw, WilliamPeninsula18 December, 1890.
Fergus, Hon. ThomasWakatipu18 December, 1890.
Fish, Henry SmithCity of Dunedin18 December, 1890.
Fisher, GeorgeCity of Wellington18 December, 1890.
Fraser, WilliamTe Aroha18 July, 1891.
Grey, Sir George, K.C.B.Newton8 April, 1891.
Guinness, Arthur Robert.Grey18 December, 1890.
Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G.Ellesmere18 December, 1890.
Hall-Jones, WilliamTimaru18 December, 1890.
Hamlin, EbenezerFranklin18 December, 1890.
Harkness, Joseph GeorgeCity of Nelson18 December, 1890.
Hogg, Alexander WilsonMasterton18 December, 1890.
Houston, Robert MorrowBay of Islands18 December, 1890.
Hutchison, GeorgeWaitotara18 December, 1890.
Hutchison, WilliamCity of Dunedin18 December, 1890.
Joyce, JohnAkaroa18 December, 1890.
Kapa, Eparaima te MutuNorthern Maori21 February, 1891.
Kolly, JamesInvercargill18 December, 1890.
Kelly, WilliamEast Coast18 December, 1890.
Lake, EdwardWaikato12 October, 1891.
Lawry, FrankParnell18 December, 1890.
Mackenzie, Mackay John ScobieMount Ida18 December, 1890.
Mackenzie, ThomasClutha18 December, 1890.
Mackintosh, JamesWallace18 December, 1890.
McGowan, JamesThames31 July, 1893.
McGuire, FelixEgmont24 February, 1891.
McKenzie, Hon. JohnWaitaki18 December, 1890.
McLean, WilliamCity of Wellington20 January, 1892.
Meredith, RichardAshley18 December, 1890.
Mills, Charles HoughtonWaimea-Picton18 December, 1890.
Mills, JamesPort Chalmers18 December, 1890.
Mitchelson, Hon. EdwinEden18 December, 1890.
Moore, RichardKaiapoi18 December, 1890.
Newman, Alfred KingcomeHutt18 December, 1890.
O'Conor, Eugene JosephBuller18 December, 1890.
Palmer, JacksonWaitemata18 December, 1890.
Parata, TamoSouthern Maori6 January, 1891.
Pinkerton, DavidCity of Dunedin18 December, 1890.
Reeves, Hon. William PemberCity of Christchurch18 December, 1890.
Rhodes, Arthur Edgar GravenorGeraldine18 December, 1890.
Richardson, Hon. George FrederickMataura18 December, 1890.
Rolleston, Hon. WilliamHalswell18 December, 1890.
Russell, William RussellHawke's Bay18 December, 1890.
Sandford, EbenezerCity of Christchurch14 October, 1891.
Saunders, AlfredSelwyn18 December, 1890.
Saddon, Hon. Richard JohnWestland18 December, 1890.
Shera, John McEfferCity of Auckland18 December, 1890.
Smith, Edward MetcalfNew Plymouth18 December, 1890.
Smith, William CowperWaipawa18 December, 1890.
Steward, Hon. William JukesWaimate18 December, 1890.
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G.Inangahua16 June, 1893.
Swan, George HenryNapier18 December, 1890.
Taipua, HoaniWestern Maori6 January, 1891.
Tanner, William WilcoxHeathcote18 December, 1890.
Taylor, Richard MolesworthCity of Christchurch18 December, 1890.
Thompson, RobertMarsden18 December, 1890.
Thompson, ThomasCity of Auckland18 December, 1890.
Valentine, Hugh SutherlandTuapeka18 December, 1890.
Ward, Hon. Joseph GeorgeAwarua18 December, 1890.
Willis, Archibald DudingstonWanganui13 June, 1893.
Wilson, James GlennyPalmerston18 December, 1890.
Wright, Edward GeorgeAshburton18 December, 1890.

Clerk of House of Representatives—G. Friend.
Sergeant-at-Arms—Lieut.-Colonel P. F. de Quincey.
Clerk of Writs—H. Pollen.
Deputy-Clerk of Writs—R. H. Govett.
Clerk-Assistant—H. Otterson.
Second Clerk-Assistant—A. J. Rutherfurd.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—E. D. O'Rorke.
Interpreters—FS. Hamlin and G. Mair.
Acting Librarian H. L. James, B.A.

Representation and Electoral Districts.

The existing Parliament of New Zealand will expire by effluxion of time during the present year (1893). On the basis of the results of the census of 1891 the colony has, in accordance with the Representation Act Amendment Acts, 1887 and 1889, been divided afresh into sixty-two districts for purposes of European representation. The names and boundaries of these districts were duly proclaimed in the New Zealand Gazette on the 26th January, 1892. The method laid down in the Act of 1889 for computing, for the purposes of that Act, the population of the colony, is to add 28 per cent, to the population not contained in any city, borough, or town district having a population of over 2,000 persons. The total population of the colony (other than Maoris), with the addition aforesaid, having been ascertained, was then divided by the number of members (70), and the quotient thus obtained formed the quota. The four city electoral districts were so defined as to extent that the population should be three times the quota. Inasmuch as it would be impossible to divide the country into a given number of districts all having exactly the exact quota of population, the law permits the Commissioners to make an allowance of 750 persons by way of addition to or deduction from the population of rural districts, and 100 persons in case of city electorates; and due consideration is given to community of interest, facilities of communication, and topographical features, as far as possible, in forming the districts.

The following table shows the names of the electoral districts for the purposes of the coming general election, with the number of members returnable, the actual town and rural population as at the census of April, 1891, and the nominal population for each district:—

Electoral Districts, etc.
Quota, 10,454.
Name of Electoral District.No. of Members.Actual Population. (Census, 1891.)Actual Total. (Census, 1891.)Nominal Population.
North Island.
Bay of Islands1..8,6818,68111,111
City of Auckland331,08236231,44431,545
Bay of Plenty1..8,2838,28310,602
Hawke's Bay12,3036,4878,79010,606
New Plymouth13,3505,7539,10310,713
City of Wellington331,690..31,69031,690
Wellington Suburbs12,1786,8279,00510,916
Middle Island.
Waimea Sounds1..7,7247,7249,886
City of Christchurch331,15030431,45431,539
City of Dunedin330,0041,15331,15731,479

The North Island with its adjacent islands includes 27 electoral districts, having 31 members and an actual population of 281,446 persons. The Middle and Stewart Islands have 35 electoral districts, 39 members, and 344,913 persons actual population.

These 62 districts with 70 members are for purposes of European representation. The House of Representatives consists, however, of 74 members, 4 of whom represent Maori constituencies, under the Maori Representation Acts of 1867, 1872, and 1876, of which the Native population was ascertained by the Maori census of February, 1891, to be as under:—

Electoral Districts.Maori Population
(Census, 1891).
North Island—Persons.
    Northern Maori8,970
    Eastern Maori14,440
    Western Maori16,365
Middle Island— 
    Southern Maori2,218

No less than 7,086 Maoris out of the above number voted at the election in October, 1890.

The last general election for European members took place on the 5th December, 1890.


There is no State Church in the colony, nor is State (pecuniary) aid given to any form of religion. The Government in the early days of the colony set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies. This has ceased, however, to be done for many years past, and no endowments are ever made now for that purpose.

Church of the Province of New Zealand, commonly called the “Church of England.”

The Right Rev. William Garden Cowie, D.D., Auckland; appointed 1869.

The Right Rev. Edward Craig Stuart, D.D., Waiapu; appointed 1877.

The Most Rev. Octavius Hadfield,* Primate; Wellington; appointed 1870.

The Right Rev. Charles Oliver Mules, M.A., Nelson; appointed 1892.

Bishop Hadfield has given notice of his intention, by reason of the infirmity of age, of resigning his office as Bishop of Wellington on the 9th October, 1893.

The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; appointed 1890.

The Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; appointed 1871.

The Bishop of Melanesia (Bishopric, June, 1893, vacant.)

Roman Catholic Church.


The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., Archbishop and Metropolitan, Wellington; consecrated 1874.


The Right Rev. John Edmund Luck, D.D., O.S.B., Auckland; consecrated 1882.

The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes, S.M., D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1887.

The Most Rev. Patrick Moran, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1856.

Annual Meetings and Officers.

The principal present heads or officers of the various churches, and the places and times of holding their annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follow:—

Church of England.—For Church purposes, the colony is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in one of the various dioceses.—President, Bishop Hadfield, Primate, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. C. M. Nelson, M.A., Auckland; Lay Secretary, James Allen, Esq., M.H.R., Dunedin. The next General Synod will be held in Nelson, in February, 1894.

Roman Catholic Church.—The diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A Retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses.

Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.—The Assembly meets annually, in February, at Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, in succession. Moderator, the Very Rev. William Gillies; Clerk and Treasurer, Rev. David Sidey, Napier.

Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland.—The Assembly meets annually in October at Dunedin. Moderator, Rev. Robert Ewen, Limestone Plains, Invercargill; Clerk, Rev. W. Bannerman, Roslyn, Dunedin; Church Factor, Mr. Edmund Smith, High Street, Dunedin.

Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The annual Conference meets in March, the exact date being determined by the President, who holds office for one year. Each Conference determines where the next one shall assemble. President (1893–94), Rev. W. Keall, Palmerston North; Secretary, Rev. Henry Bull, Onehunga. The next Conference is to assemble in Christchurch on or about the 1st March, 1894.

Baptist Union of New Zealand.—President, Rev. G. D. Cox, Auckland; Secretary, Rev. W. R. Woolley, Thames. The Union comprises 30 churches, 2,915 members, and 4,881 scholars in the Sunday schools. There are also 90 local preachers, and 19 mission stations.

Congregational Union.—The annual meetings are held about the middle of February, at such place as may be decided by the vote of the Council. Chairman, Rev. H. W. J. Miller, Onehunga; Chairman Elect, Mr. A. W. Beaven, Christchurch; Secretary, Mr. H. J. Le Bailly, Auckland; Treasurer, Mr. W. H. Lyon, Auckland; Registrar, Rev. J. Foster, Ravensbourne, Dunedin. In 1894 the meetings will be held in Auckland, by invitation of the District Committee of the Congregational Churches of that city.

Primitive Methodists.—A Conference is held every January. The next, which marks the jubilee of Primitive Methodism in New Zealand, is to be held in New Plymouth, where the Rev. Robert Ward, the first Primitive Methodist missionary to these shores, landed in 1844. The Conference officials for the present year are: President, Rev. James Guy, Auckland; Secretary, Rev. William Woollass, Invercargill.

United Methodist Free Churches.—The Assembly meets annually in January, in Canterbury, Auckland, Wellington, or Hawke's Bay. President, Rev. C. Penney; Secretary, Rev. A. Peters, Austin street, Wellington.

Hebrew Church.—Ministers, Rev. S. A. Goldstein, Auckland; Rev. J. L. Harrison, Dunedin; Rev. H. van Staveren, Wellington; Rev. Adolph T. Chodowski, Christchurch; Mr. Alexander Singer, Hokitika. Annual meetings of the general Congregations are held at these places on the third Sunday in Elul (about the end of August).

Bible Christians.—A General Conference of the Connexion is held annually. Superintendent, Rev. J. Orchard, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. W. Ready, Dunedin; Trust Secretary, Rev. B. H. Ginger, Cromwell; School Secretary, Rev. F. T. Read, Addington, Christchurch. The next District Meeting is to be held at Christchurch, to commence its sittings on the 4th January, 1894.

Religious Denominations, Churches and Chapels, Officiating Ministers, etc.

The following shows the number of persons (exclusive of Maoris) belonging to the different religious denominations in New Zealand, and the number of churches and chapels, according to the census of April, 1891; also, the number of officiating ministers under “The Marriage Act, 1880,” on the 1st June, 1893.

Religious Denominations.Persons.Churches and Chapels.Officiating Ministers.

* Including 42 Dissenters; 55 Christian Israelites. Including 2,326 of No denomination, so described.

† Including 1,269 of No religion, so described; 123 Atheists; 65 Secularists.

‡ In addition to the number of churches and chapels here given, there are about 400 schoolhouses, dwellings, or public buildings used for public worship, besides 20 buildings open to more than one Protestant denomination.

        Church of England, and Episcopalians not otherwise defined250,945345274
        Protestants (undescribed)2,386....
        Church of Scotland, Free Church of Scotland, Free Presbyterians, Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Presbyterian Church of Otago and Southland, and Presbyterians otherwise defined141,477246179
        Wesleyan Methodists53,061213111
        Methodists (undefined)2,071....
        Primitive Methodists5,2204127
        United Methodist Free Churches, Free Methodists, United Methodists1,9051814
        Bible Christians1,06998
Congregational Independents6,6852118
Lutheran, German Protestants5,6161310
Society of Friends315....
Other Protestants—
        Church of Christ (including Christian, Church of Christ, Christian Disciples, Disciples of Christ, Disciples)5,241158
        Brethren (including Brethren, Christian Brethren, Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren, Plymouth Brethren)3,53731
        Believers in Christ193....
        Evangelists (including Evangelical Union, Evangelical Church, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Brethren)93....
        Salvation Army9,£3348
        Swedenborgians (including New Church, New Jerusalem Church)178....
        Seventh-day Adventists41513
        Students of Truth325....
        Other Protestants (variously returned)536*....
        Roman Catholics85,856181132
        Catholics (undefined)1,416....
        Greek Church56....
Catholic Apostolic15011
Other sects—
        Mormons, Latter-day Saints206....
        Buddhists, Pagans, Confucians3,928....
        Others (variously returned)154....
No denomination—
        Deists, Theists51....
        No denomination (variously returned)2,999*18..
No religion1,558†....
Object to state15,342....

The total number specified as to religion is 625,370 out of the number of adherents to the various Churches given above.

Churches, Chapels, Schoolhouses, etc.

The following return shows the number of churches and chapels, schoolhouses, and other buildings used for public worship by the different religious denominations, in April, 1891; also the number of persons for whom there was accommodation, and the number usually attending, in each provincial district:—

Provincial Districts.Churches and Chapels.School-houses used for Public Worship.Dwellings or Public Buildings used for Public Worship.Number of Persons
For whom Accommodation.Attending Services.
Hawke's Bay588611,2747,064

Chapter 17. OFFICIAL LIST.
[1st June, 1893.]


Premier's Office.

Premier—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Secretary to Premier and to Cabinet—A. J. Willis


Chief Office.

Colonial Secretary—Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.

Under-Secretary—Hugh Pollen

Chief Clerk—R. H. Govett

Clerks—R. F. Lynch, L. W. Loveday, R. Leckie, M. J. Hodgins

Housekeeper and Chief Messenger—F. H. Revell

Audit Office.

Controller and Auditor-General—J. E. FitzGerald, C.M.G.

Assistant Controller and Auditor—J. C. Gavin

Chief Clerk—J. G. Anderson

Clerks—L. C. Roskruge, W. Dodd, P. P. Webb, A. Rowband, H. S. Pollen, W. G. Holdsworth, C. M. Georgeson, A. W. Eames, J. T. Dumbell, B. A. Meek

Extra Clerks—D. C. Innes, J. Swift, A. E. Bybles, J. Ward

Audit Officer, Agent-General's Office, London—C. E. W. Palliser

Audit Travelling Inspectors—A. H. Maclean, J. King, E. J. A. Stevenson, W. R. Holmes, E. T. Greville, G. H. I. Easton, J. M. Glasgow, C. P. Johnson

Registrar-General's Office.

Registrar-General—E. J. Von Dadelszen Chief Clerk—G. Drury

Clerks—W. C. Sproule, E. F. Norris, S. Coffey

Printing and Stationery Department.

Government Printer, Stationery Store Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—S. Costall

Superintending Overseer—J. Burns

Chief Clerk and Accountant—

Clerk and Computer—B. B. Allen

Clerks—F. Barraud, R. Watts, A. Stace, W. Phillips, B. K. Manley, J. W. Hall

Overseers—J. Gamble, B. Wilson

Overseer, Machine-room—C. Young

Overseer, Binding Branch—W. Franklin

Sub-overseer, Binding Branch—G. F. Broad

Sub-overseer, Jobbing-room—G. Tattle'

Night Foreman—J. F. Rogers

Stamp Printer—H. Hume

Stereotyper and Electrotyper—W. J. Kirk

Readers—A. F. Warren, J. W. Henley, W. Fuller, M. F. Marks

Forewoman, Binding Branch—Miss Marsden


Chief Office.

Colonial Treasurer—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary to the Treasury, Receiver-General, and Paymaster-General—James B. Heywood

Accountant to the Treasury—Robert J. Collins

Cashier—C. E. Chittey

Corresponding Clerk—H. Blundell

Clerks—A. M. Smith, C. Meacham, W. E. Cooper, R. B. Vincent, J. F. Andrews, J. R. Dunean, E. L. Mowbray, T. H. Burnett, J. Radcliffe, T. J. Davis, H. N. W. Church, J. Holmes, A. O. Gibbes, J. Eman Smith, A. J. Morgan, F. H. Tuckey

Cadets—C. E. Matthews, H. Hawthorne, H. Hirter, W. Jeff, A. J. Will

Officer for Payment of Imperial Pensions at Auckland—B. J. Devaney

Friendly Societies' and Trades Unions' Registry Office.

Registrar—E. Mason

Revising Barrister—L. G. Reid

Clerk—C. T. Benzoni


Commissioner of Taxes—C. M. Crombie

Deputy - Commissioner of Taxes—J. McGowan

Chief Clerk—G. F. C. Campbell

Clerks—D. Walmsley, G. Maxwell, A. F. Oswin, H. Nancarrow, D. R. Purdie, J. P. Dugdale, M. C. Barnett, A. J. McGowan, J. M. King, C. V. Kreeft, G. W. Jänisch, H. H. Seed, T. Oswin, D. G. Clark, J. Stevenson, J. R. Smyth, H. L. Wiggins, J. W. Black

Cadets—J. J. Hunt, C. de R. Andrews, R. Hepworth, W. J. Organ


Head Office.

Minister of Justice and Native Minister—Hon. A. J. Cadman

Under-Secretary—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.

Chief Clerk—F. Waldegrave

Translator—G. H. Davies

Clerks—C. B. Jordan, E. W. Porritt, R. C. Sim, T. G. Poutawera, B. M. Wilson

Crown Law Office.

Attorney - General—Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.

Solicitor-General—W. S. Reid

Assistant Law Officer—L. G. Reid

Law Draftsman—J. Curnin

Clerk—E. Y. Redward

Patent Office.

Registrar of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks—C. J. A. Haselden, J.P.

Deputy Registrar—F. Waldegrave

Clerks—J. C. Lewis, F. J. Stewart


Supreme Court Judges.

Chief Justice—

Wellington—Sir J. Prendergast, Knt. Bach.

Puisne Judges—

Wellington—C. W. Richmond

Auckland—E. T. Conolly

Christchurch—J. E. Denniston

Dunedin—J. S. Williams

District Court Judges.


Wanganui, New Plymouth, Hawera, and Palmerston North—C. C. Kettle

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Ashburton, Timaru, Oamaru, Queens-town, Naseby, Lawrence, Hokitika, Greymouth, Westport, and Reefton—C. D. R. Ward

Invercargill—C. E. Rawson

Registrars of the Supreme Court.

Auckland—H. C. Brewer

New Plymouth—W. Stuart

Napier—A. Turnbull

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Blenheim—J. Allen

Christchurch—A. R. Bloxam

Hokitika—A. H. King

Dunedin—C. McK. Gordon

Invercargill—F. G. Morgan


Auckland—H. C. Brewer

Taranaki—J. J. Freeth

Hawke's Bay—A. Turnbull

Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton

Wellington—D. G. A. Cooper


Wanganui and Rangitikei—A. D. Thomson

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westland North—A. Greenfield

Central Westland—H. Lucas

Marlborough—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Canterbury—A. R. Bloxam

Timaru—C. A. Wray

Westland—A. H. King

Otago—C. McK. Gordon

Southland—W. Martin

Crown Solicitors.

Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Gisborne—J. W. Nolan

Napier—A. J. Cotterill

Wellington—H. Gully

Wanganui—S. T. Fitzherbert

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Blenheim—W. Sinclair

Christchurch—T. W. Stringer

Timaru—J. W. White

Hokitika—W. M. Purkiss

Dunedin—B. C. Haggitt

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Oamaru—A. G. Creagh

Crown Prosecutors.

New Plymouth—A. Standish

Hawera—E. L. Barton

Wanganui and Palmerston North—S. T. Fitzherbert

Westport and Reefton—C. E. Harden

Hokitika and Greymouth—W. M. Purkiss

Timaru—J. W. White

Camaru—A. G. Creagh

Nelson—C. Y. Fell

Queenstown—Wesley Turton

Invercargill—T. M. Macdonald

Resident Magistrates.

Auckland—J. Giles

Pokeno, Waikato, &c.—T. Jackson

Onehunga, &c.—R. S. Bush*

Mongonui, &c.—J. S. Clendon

Tauranga, &c.—J. M. Roberts

Thames, &c.—H. W. Northeroft*

Gisborne, &c.—J. Booth

* Are also Wardens of Goldfields.

New Plymouth—W. Stuart

Opanake, &c.—A. Tuke

Wellington, &c.—J. C. Martin

Wanganui, &c.—C. C. Kettle

Palmerston North, &c.—H. W. Brabant


Napier, &c.—A. Turnbull

Nelson, &c.—H. W. Robinson

Westport, Collingwood, &c.—A. Greenfield

Blenheim, &c.—J. Allen*

Christchurch, &c.—R. Beetham

Kaiapoi, &c.—H. W. Bishop

Timaru, &c.—C. A. Wray

Greymouth, &c.—H. A. Stratford*

Hokitika, &c.—D. Macfarlane*

Dunedin, &c.—E. H. Carew

Oamaru, &c.—J. Keddell*

Lawrence, &c.—R. S. Hawkins*

Clyde, &c.—J. N. Wood*

Naseby—S. M. Dalgleish*

Invercargill, &c.—C. E. Rawson

Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne

Clerks of District and Resident Magistrates' Courts.

New Plymouth—J. J. Freeth

Hawera—A. Trimble

Wanganui—A. D. Thomson

Palmerston North—W. Matravers

Wairarapa—F. H. Ibbetson

Nelson—C. H. W. Bowen

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Greymouth—B. Harper

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Reefton—H. Lucas

Timaru—T. Howley

Ashburton—J. R. Colyer

Oamaru—W. G. Filleul

Invercargill—W. Martin

Queenstown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—H. J. Abel

Naseby—E. Rawson

Official Assignees in Bankruptcy.

Auckland—J. Lawson

Wellington—J. Asheroft

Christchurch—G. L. Greenwood

Dunedin—C. C. Graham

Receivers of Gold Revenue, Mining Registrars, and Clerks of Wardens' and Resident Magistrates' Courts.

Thames—F. J. Burgess

Coromandel—T. M. Lawlor

Te Aroha—J. Jordan

Whangarei—T. W. Taylor

Havelock and Cullensville (Marlborough)—W. A. Hawkins

Nelson—C. H. W. Bowen

Motueka—H. E. Gilbert

Collingwood—J. Mayne

Westport—E. C. Kelling

Charleston—A. A. Winterburn

Reefton—H. Lucas

Greymouth—B. Harper

Kumara—J. McEnnis

Hokitika—C. A. Barton

Naseby, &c.—E. Rawson

Gore and Wyndham—C. J. Hinton

Clyde, Blacks, and Alexandra—F. T. D. Jeffrey

Cromwell—J. Fleming

Queenstown and Arrowtown—H. N. Firth

Lawrence—H. J. Abel

Riverton—A. M. Eyes

Clerks of Resident Magistrates' Courts.

Auckland—J. B. Stoney

Whangarei—T. W. Taylor

Tauranga—J. Thomson

Gisborne—W. A. Barton

Hamilton—T. Kirk

Napier—A. S. B. Foster

Hastings—P. Skerrett

Marton, &c.—F. M. Deighton

Wellington—W. P. James

Blenheim—W. G. P. O'Callaghan

Christchurch—W. G. Walker

Lyttelton—W. Shanaghan

Kaiapoi—M. Lynskey

Dunedin—W. Somerville

Native Land Court.

Chief Judge—H. G. Seth-Smith

Judges—A. Mackay, D. Scannell, R. Ward, G. E. Barton, S. W. von Stürmer, W. E. Gudgeon, W. J. Butler

Registrars—Auckland, W. J. Morpeth; Gisborne, £. Brooking; Wellington, H. F. Edger

Recorders of the Native Land Court.

R. S. Bush, J. Booth, H. W. Bishop, J. S. Clendon, T. Jackson, H. W. Northcroft, C. C. Kettle, J. M. Roberts, W. Stuart, E. H. Carew, F. J. W. Gascoyne

Trust Commissioners under Native Lands Frauds Prevention Act.

The Chief Judge and Judges of Native Land Court; also J. Booth, C. E. Rawson, H. Turton, H. W. Robinson, J. Giles, T. Jackson, C. C. Kettle, R. S. Bush, J. S. Clendon, H. W. Brabant, A. Turnbull, H. W. Northcroft, W. Stuart.

Government Native Agent, Otorohanga—G. T. Wilkinson

Prisons Department.

Inspector—Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Hume, N.Z.M.

Clerk—T. E. Richardson

Gaolers—Auckland, George Sinclair Reston; Dunedin, Samuel Charles Phillips; Hokitika, Bartholomew Lloyd O'Brien; Invercargill, John Henry Bratby; Lyttelton, Matthew Michael Cleary; Napier, Francis Edward Severne; New Plymouth, Edward Rickerby; Wanganui, Robert T. Noble Beasley; Wellington, Patrick Samuel Garvey; Nelson, Thomas R. Pointon


Minister of Labour—Hon. W. P. Reeves Secretary and Chief Inspector of Factories—E. Tregear

Chief Clerk—James Mackay

Clerks—J. Shanaghan, V. L. Willeston (There are over 200 Bureau Agencies in different parts of the colony.)

Inspectors of Factories.

Wellington—J. Mackay and J. Shanaghau; Christchurch—J. Lomas; Auckland—H. Ferguson; Dunedin—T. K. Weldon; and 102 local Inspectors.


Head Office.

Minister for Public Works—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow

Engineer-in-Chief—W. H. Hales

Resident Engineer (Head Office)—P. S. Hay, M. A., M. Inst. C.E.

Chief Clerk—J. A. McArthur

Accountant—G. J. Clapham

Land-purchase Officer—H. Thompson

Record Clerk—H. W. H. Millais

Clerks—W. D. Dumbell, W. Gibson, H. R. Rae, W. Butler, E. Horneman

Chief Draughtsman—W. G. Rutherford

Architectural Draughtsman—J. Campbell

Draughtsmen—T. Perham, E. Jackson

District Offices.

District Engineer—Dunedin, E. R. Ussher, M. Inst. C.E.

Resident Engineers—Auckland, C. R. Vickerman; Hunterville, G. Fitzgerald; Wellington, J. A. Wilson, jun. Eketahuna, G. L. Cook, M. Inst. C.E.; Westport, T. H. Rawson; Greymouth, J. Thomson, B.E. In charge of North Island Main Trunk Railway survey, R. W. Holmes

Assistant Engineers—W. A. Shain, A. C. Koch, H. Macandrew, J. D. Louch, J. J. Hay, M.A., W. H. Gavin, J. W. Richmond, J. S. Stewart

Clerks, Draughtsmen, &c.—W. Black, C. T. Rushbrook, C. Wood, J. Young, A. E. Kennedy, W. W. Spotswood, T. Douglas, A. R. Stone, J. Meenan


General Post Office.

Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Electric Telegraphs—Hon. J. G. Ward

Superintendent—C. Lemon, Ph.D.

Secretary—W. Gray

Inspector—T. Rose

Controller of Money-orders and Savings-banks, and Accountant—G. Gray

Assistant Inspector of Post Offices—J. Grubb

Sub-Inspectors of Post Offices—D. Cumming, C. J. A. Tipping

Chief Clerk—D. Robertson

Clerks—W. R. Morris, E. V. Senn, F. V. Waters, H. Plimmer, J. C. Williamson, W. Beswick, G. Cenci, A. P. Dryden, L. Ledger, V. J. Brogan, W. Callanghan, G. W. Moorhouse, W. Chegwidden, H. S. B. Miller, H. Huggins, G. V. Hudson, F. Perrin, J. Brennan, H. Cornwall, R. J. Thompson, R. E. Hayes, D. A. Jenkins, J. C. Redmond, C. B. Harton, W. J. Drake, R. F. Smith, J. D. Avery, H. E. Duff, J. G. Roache, J. Coyle, F. W. Faber, W. H. Carter, J. J. Murray, P. Tyrrell, E. Bermingham, C. Bermingham, S. Brock, W. Menzies, F. Menzies, C. A. Ferguson, E. Harris, B. Kenny, V. Johnston, M. A. McLeod

Electrician—W. C. Smythe

Mechanician-H. F. Smith

Storekeeper—J. Black

Assistant Storekeeper—C. B. Mann

Circulation Branch (Post Office)—J. Hoggard, Chief Clerk

Inspectors of Telegraphs.

Napier—E. H. Bold

Christchurch—W. G. Meddings

Dunedin—J. K. Logan

Sub-Inspectors of Telegraphs.

Auckland—J. Orchiston

Nelson—J. W. Gannaway

Chief Postmasters.

Auckland—S. B. Biss

*Thames—J. E. Coney

*Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Napier—S. J. Jago

*New Plymouth—F. D. Holdsworth

*Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

*Blenheim—J. G. Ballard

*Nelson—H. Calders

*Westport—J. H. Sheath

*Greymouth—C. J. Berry

*Hokitika—A. E. Cresswell

Christchurch—R. Kirton

*Timaru—R. J. Goodman

*Oamaru—J. A. Hutton

Dunedin—E. Cook

*Invercargill—J. W. Wilkin

Officers in Charge of Telegraph Offices.

Auckland—W. S. Furby

Napier—H. W. Harrington

Wellington—C. C. Robertson

Christchurch—J. W. Mason

Dunedin—A. D. Lubecki


Commissioner of Trade and Customs—Hon. J. G. Ward

Secretary and Inspector of Customs and Secretary of Marine—W. T. Glasgow

Chief Clerk, Customs—T. Larchin

Clerks, Customs—E. T. W. Maclaurin, H. J. Marsh. Audit—H. W. Brewer, H. Crowther (Writer)

Collectors of Customs.

Auckland—A. Rose

Poverty Bay—D. Johnston, jun.

New Plymouth—C. S. Nixon

Napier—E. R. C. Bowen

Wellington—D. McKellar

Wanganui—A. Elliott

Wairau—E. W. Pasley

Nelson—W. Heaps

Westport—J. Mills

Greymouth—A. McDowell

Hokitika—E. Chilman

Lyttelton and Christchurch—E. Patten

Timaru—A. Hart

Oamaru—R. Thompson

Dunedin—C. W. S. Chamberlain

Invercargill and Bluff Harbour—J. Borrie

These are combined post- and telegraph-offices.

Officers in Charge of Ports, and Coastwaiters.

Thames—T. C. Bayldon, Coastwaiter

Russell—W. J. Walsh, Officer in Charge

Tauranga—J. Bull, Officer in Charge

Whangaroa—A. G. Ratcliffe, Coastwaiter

Whangarei—J. Munro, Coastwaiter

Mongonui—A. D. Clemett, Officer in Charge

Hokianga—G. Martin, Coastwaiter

Kaipara—J. C. Smith, Officer in Charge

Waitara—J. Cameron, Coastwaiter

Foxton—J. B. Imrie, Officer in Charge

Patea—J. W. Glenny, Officer in Charge

Picton—J. B. Gudgeon, Officer in Charge

Chatham Islands—F. J. W. Gascoyne, Officer in Charge


Minister of Marine—Hon. Sir P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G.

Assistant Secretary—L. H. B. Wilson

Chief Clerk—G. Allport

Nautical Adviser—R. Johnson

Clerk—J. J. D. Grix

Examiners of Masters and Mates—R. Johnson and R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Weather Reporter—R. A. Edwin, Com. R.N.

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Auckland—J. Robertson

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Lyttelton—Sir A. Douglas, Bart.

Examiner of Masters and Mates, Dunedin—Sir A. Douglas, Bart.

Examiners of Engineers, Auckland—W. J. Jobson and L. Blackwood

Examiners of Engineers, Wellington—W. M. Mowatt and H. A. McGregor

Examiner of Engineers, Christchurch—G. Croll

Examiners of Engineers, Dunedin—R. Duncan and A. Morrison

Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Fairchild


Collingwood—J. E. Fletcher

Foxton—A. Seabury

Hokianga—G. Martin

Kaipara—J. Christy Smith

Manukau—J. Robertson

Nelson—J. P. Low

Okarito—G. Thomson

Waitapu—S. G. Robinson

* The more important harbours are controlled by local Boards, not by the Marine Department. (See “Ports and Harbours.”)


Commissioner of Stamp Duties—Hon. W. P. Reeves

Secretary for Stamps—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Chief Clerk and Accountant—D. O. Williams

Custodian and Issuer of Stamps—W. H. Shore

Record and Receiving Clerk—J. P. Murphy

Clerk—J. Murray

Chief Stamper—C. Howe

Deputy-Commissioners of Stamps.

Auckland—Thomas Hall

Gisborne—W. W. Beswick

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford

Wellington—C. A. St. G. Hickson

Wanganui—J. F. McBeth

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Timaru—R. J. Goodman

Otago—G. G. Bridges

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Registrar-General of Land and Deeds—G. B. Davy

Secretary, Land and Deeds—C. A. St. G. Hickson

District Land Registrars and Registrars of Deeds.

Auckland—T. Kissling

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—G. B. Davy

Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—J. Allen

Canterbury—J. M. Batham and E. Denham

Otago—H. Turton

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Examiners of Titles.

Auckland—Thomas Hall

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Wellington—G. B. Davy

Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford

Nelson—H. W. Robinson

Marlborough—G. B. Davy

Canterbury—J. M. Batham

Otago—G. G. Bridges

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King

Registrar of Joint-stock Companies.

C. A. St. G. Hickson

Assistant Registrars of Joint-stock Companies.

Auckland—Thomas Hall

Taranaki—W. Stuart

Hawke's Bay—E. Bamford

Wellington—H. O. Williams

Nelson—W. W. de Castro

Marlborough—A. V. Sturtevant

Canterbury—E. Denham

Otago—G. G. Bridges

Southland—F. G. Morgan

Westland—A. H. King


Minister of Education (administering also Native schools, industrial schools, and the institution for deaf-mutes)—Hon. W. P. Reeves

Secretary for Education and Inspector-General of Schools—Rev. W. J. Habens, B.A.

Chief Clerk—Sir E. O. Gibbes, Bart.

Clerks—F. K. de Castro, H. B. Kirk, M. A., R. H. Pope, F. L. Severne

Organising Inspector of Native Schools—James H. Pope. Assistant Inspector, H. B. Kirk, M.A.

Education Boards.

Auckland—V. E. Rice, Secretary

Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wanganui—A. A. Browne, Secretary

Wellington—A. Dorset, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—G. T. Fannin, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—S. Ellis, Secretary

Grey—E. T. Robinson, Secretary

Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A., Secretary

Canterbury North—J. V. Colborne-Veel, M.A., Secretary

Canterbury South—J. H. Bamfield, Secretary

Otago—P. G. Pryde, Secretary

Southland—J. Neill, Secretary

School Commissioners

(Administrators of Education Reserves).

Auckland-H. N. Garland, Secretary

Taranaki—E. Veale, Secretary

Wellington—W. H. Warren, Secretary

Hawke's Bay—E. P. A. Platford, Secretary

Marlborough—J. Smith, Secretary

Nelson—A. T. Jones, Secretary

Westland—E. T. Robinson, Secretary

Canterbury—H. H. Pitman, Steward of Reserves

Otago—C. Macandrew, Secretary

Industrial Schools.

Auckland Industrial School—Miss S. E. Jackson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Ponsonby—Rev. G. M. Lenihan, Manager

Thames Orphanage—Thomas Fulljames, Manager

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Wellington—Rev. T. G. Dawson, Manager

St. Mary's Industrial School, Nelson—Rev. W. J. Mahoney, Manager

Burnham Industrial School (Canterbury)—T. Palethorpe, Manager

Caversham Industrial School (Otago)—G. M. Burlinson, Manager

Institution for Deaf-mutes, Sumner.

Director—G. Van Asch

Steward—H. Buttle

Lunatic Asylums.

Inspector—Duncan MacGregor, M.A., M.B., C.M.

Medical Superintendent, Auckland Asylum—Gray Hassell, M.D.

Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Asylum—E. G. Levinge, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Wellington Asylum—E. E. Fooks, M.B.

Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Asylum—F. T. King, M.B.

Superintendent, Hokitika Asylum—H. Gribben

Superintendent, Nelson Asylum—J. Morrison

Ashburn Hall, Waikari (private asylum)—Joint proprietors, Dr. Alexander and J. Hume


Commissioners—Messrs. J. McKerrow (Chief), J. P. Maxwell, M. Inst. C. E., W. M. Hannay

Secretary—E. G. Pilcher

Clerks—T. W. Waite, J. F. Bell, C. Isherwood, J. A. Tripe, B.A., F. S. Pope, J. E. Widdop, W. S. W. McGowan

Audit Inspectors—H. Baxter, C. Wallnutt, D. Munro, C. L. Russell

Railway Accountant—A. C. Fife

Clerks—H. Davidson, G. G. Wilson, M. C. Rowe, J. H. Davies, S. P. Curtis, J. McLean, E. Davy, R. Allen, V. Jänisch, A. Morris, E. P. Brogan, W. F. Ambler, F. Hardwick, E. J. Fleming, R. J. Loe, F. W. Lash, A. H. Hunt, W. Bourke, E. R. Nicholson, J. M. O'Brien

Stores Manager—R. Carrow

Clerks—G. Felton, R. E. Mackay, A. M. Heaton, J. Webster, J. E. Hasloch, L. G. Porter, W. B. Dyer, F. L. Ward

District Managers—Whangarei, H. B. Dobbie; Kawakawa, J. D. Harris; Kaihu, T. H. Barstow; Auckland, C. Hudson; Wanganui (Traffic Agent), H. Buxton; Napier (Traffic Agent), A. Garstin; Wellington (Traffic Agent), B. Dawson; Greymouth, T. Ronayne; Westport, T. A. Peterkin; Nelson, £P. W. Maclean; Picton, H. St. J. Christophers; Christchurch, W. H. Gaw; Dunedin, A. Grant; Invercargill, S. F. Whitcombe

Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. H. Lowe, M. Inst. C. E.

Resident Engineers—Auckland, J. Coom; Wanganui, J. I. Lawson; Wellington—Napier, W. R. Carruthers; Christchurch, James Burnett; Dunedin, T. C. Maltby; Invercargill, C. H. Biss

Locomotive Superintendent—T. F. Rotheram

Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, H. H. Jackson; Wellington and Napier–Taranaki, A. L. Beattie; Hurunui–Bluff, A. V. Macdonald


Chief Office.

Minister of Mines—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Under-Secretary for Mines—H. J. H. Fliott

Inspecting Engineer—H. A. Gordon

Clerks—T. H. Hamer, T. S. M. Cowie, H. E. Radcliffe

Analyst—W. Skey

Assistant Geologist—Alexander McKay, F.G.S.

Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard

Inspectors of Mines.

Thames and Auckland Districts—G. Wilson; Dunedin and Southland Districts—J. Gow; West Coast Districts, N. D. Cochrane

Managers of Water-races.

Waimea-Kumara—A. Aitken

Mount Ida—R. Murray

Schools of Mines.

Lecturers and Instructors: Thames—James Park; Assistant, F. B. Allen. Reefton—R. M. Aitken

Board of Examiners under “The Coal-mines Act, 1891.”

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; W. M. Mowatt, Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington; James Bishop, of Brunnerton; Thomas Brown, of Denniston; and William Shore, of Kaitangata

Board of Examiners under “The Mining Act, 1891.”

Same official members as above Board, with the following private members:—Thomas Dunlop, of Thames; Patrick Quirk Caples, of Reefton; George Casley, of Reefton

The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand is Chairman of both Boards.

Geological Survey, Museum, and Observatories.

Minister in Charge—The Hon. Minister of Mines

Director—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.

Clerk, Curator, and Meteorological Observer for Wellington—H. B. Gore

Astronomical Observer—T. King

Meteorological Observer, Auckland—T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.

Meteorological Observer, Dunedin—H. Skey

New Zealand Institute.

Manager—Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G.

Hon. Treasurer—W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.

Secretary—R. B. Gore


Minister of Defence—Hon. R. J. Seddon

Commandant of the Forces—Colonel F. J. Fox, R.A.

Under - Secretary—Lieut.-Colonel A. Hume (acting)

Clerks—H. S. Royle, T. F. Grey

Harbour Defence.

The Chief Engineer—W. H. Hales

New Zealand Permanent Militia.


Major F. Y. Goring

Major W. B. Messenger

Major Sir A. P. Douglas, Bart.

Captain H. C. Morrison

Captain J. Coleman

Lieutenant J. E. Hume

Inspector of Submarine Mining Establishment.

Captain J. Falconer

Torpedo Corps.

Captain J. Falconer

Captain W. T. Powell

Quartermaster, Permanent Militia.

Captain S. C. Anderson

Honorary Surgeon.

Patrick J. O'Neill O'Carroll

New Zealand Police Force.

Head Office.

Commissioner—Lieutenant-Colonel A. Hume

Clerks—J. M. Goldfinch, John Evans, John Tasker

Police Department.

Inspectors, 1st Class—Thomas Broham, John Bell Thomson, Peter Pender, William Stone Pardy

Inspectors, 2nd Class—John Emerson, James Hickson, Francis McGovern


Minister of Lands and Immigration—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary for Crown Lands and Surveyor-General—S. Percy Smith

Under-Secretary for Crown Lands and Superintending Surveyor—Alexander Barron

Head Office.

Chief Draughtsman—F. W. Flanagan

Draughtsmen—J. M. Kemp, G. P. Wilson, H. McCardell, T. M. Grant, H. A. R. Farquhar, G. N. Sturtevant, A. L. Haylock, D. Watt

Auditor of Land Revenue—C. O'H. Smith

Chief Clerk—W. S. Short

Chief Accountant—H. J. Knowles

Bookkeeper—P. C. Willson

Clerks—F. T. O'Neill, F. Samuel, J. B. Redward, A. A. S. Dauby, H. M. Gore

Cadet—E. F. Hawthorne

Superintendent of Village-settlements—J. E. March

Overseer of Works, Rotorua Sanatorium—C. Malfroy

Caretaker, Hanmer Springs—J. Rogers

Auckland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. Müeller

District Surveyors—L. Cussen, J. Baber, jun., G. A. Martin

Chief Draughtsman—W. C. Kensington

Receiver of Land Revenue—T. M. Taylor

Hawke's Bay District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—T. Humphries

District Surveyors—E. C. Gold-Smith, J. Hay

Chief Draughtsman—F. Simpson

Receiver of Land Revenue—F. Bull

Taranaki District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. Strauchon

District Surveyor—H. M. Skeet

Chief Draughtsman—J. Bird

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. P. Doile

Wellington District.

Assistant Surveyor - General and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. H. Baker

District Surveyors—L. Smith, W. D. B. Murray, J. D. Climie

Chief Draughtsman—J. McKenzie

Receiver of Land Revenue—W. C. Runcie

Marlborough District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—S. Weetman

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—G. Robinson

Nelson District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. S. Browning

District Surveyors—J. A. Montgomerie, F. S. Smith, J. Snodgrass, R. J. Sadd

Chief Draughtsman—H. Trent

Receiver of Land Revenue—J. T. Catley

Westland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—D. Barron

District Surveyor—W. G. Murray

Chief Draughtsman and Receiver of Land Revenue—F. E. Clarke

Canterbury District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. W. A. Marchant

District Surveyor—J. N. Broderick

Chief Draughtsman—C. B. Shanks

Receiver of Land Revenue—J. Williams

Otago District.

Commissioner of Crown Lands—J. P. Maitland

Chief Surveyor—C. W. Adams

District Surveyors—J. Langmuir, E. H. Wilmott

Chief Draughtsman—P. Treseder

Receiver of Land Revenue—G. A. Reade

Southland District.

Chief Surveyor and Commissioner of Crown Lands—G. W. Williams

District Surveyor—John Hay

Chief Draughtsman—J. G. Clare

Receiver of Land Revenue–A. A. MeNab

Land-purchase Branch.

Officer in Charge—P. Sheridan

Land-purchase Officer—G. T. Wilkinson

Members of Waste Lands Boards.

Auckland—G. Müeller, R. Thompson, B. Harris, D. Lundon, L. J. Bagnall

Hawke's Bay—T. Humphries, C. Hall, T. Hyde, R. Harding

Taranaki—J. Strauchon, J. Livingstone, T. Kelly, R. Trimble, C. K. Stock

Wellington—J. H. Baker, W. A. Fitzherbert, A. W. Hogg, T. W. Fisher, F. Pirani

Marlborough—S. Weetman, A. P. Seymour, C. H. Mills, J. Redwood, J. A. Parsons

Nelson—J. S. Browning, J. Kerr, D. Bates, F. Hamilton

Canterbury—J. W. A. Marchant, R. Meredith, D. MeMillan

Otago—J. P. Maitland, A. McKerrow, H. Clark, J. Duncan, W. Dallas

Southland—G. W. Williams, C. Cowan, A. Kinross, J. G. Fraser, J. McIntyre

Westland—D. Barron, J. Bevan, L. Northcroft, A. Matheson


Chief Office.

Minister in Charge—Hon. J. McKenzie

Secretary of Agriculture and Chief Inspector of Stock—John D. Ritchie

Chief Clerk—Richard Evatt

Clerk and Acting Biologist—T. W. Kirk

Veterinary Surgeon—

Dairy Instructor—John Sawers

Fruit Expert—

Inspectors of Stock.

Auckland—E. Clifton (in charge), F. Schaw, Auckland; G. S. Cooke, Whangarei; W. A. P. Sutton, Hamilton

Napier—J. Drummond (in charge), H. Oldham, Napier; C. Thomson, Gisborne; D. Munro, Waimata, Herbertville

Wellington-Wairarapa—J. W. Smith, J. Harvey, jun., Masterton

West Coast—Richard Hull (in charge), Wanganui; A. Monro, Hawera; A. K. Blundell, Palmerston North

Nelson—T. G. Richardson (in charge), H. M. Campbell. Nelson

Marlborough—John Moore, Blenheim

Canterbury-Kaikoura—R. F. Holderness (in charge), J. E. Thomson, Christ-church; C. A. Cunningham, Rangiora; W. A. Scaife, Waiau; W. G. Rees, Ashburton

South Canterbury—H. S. Thomson (in charge), Timaru; E. A. Field, Lake Tekapo; C. C. Empson, Kurow

Otago—E. A. Dowden, Dunedin; B. Fullarton, Mosgiel; W. Miller, Oamaru; A. Ironside, Clyde; J. C. Miller, Naseby; R. H. Hassall, Tapanui; H. G. J. Hull, Balclutha; H. T. Turner, Invercargill; J. W. Raymond, Bluff


Commissioner—J. H. Richardson

Assistant Commissioner—D. M. Luckie, F.S.S.

Actuary—Morris Fox

Secretary—W. B. Hudson

Chief Medical Officer—J. Henry, L.R.C.P., Lond., &c.

Accountant—R. J. S. Todd

Assistant Actuary—G. Leslie

Chief Clerk—G. W. Barltrop

Clerks—R. C. Niven, J. C. Young, G. A. Kennedy, D. J. McG. McKenzie, W. S. Smith, J. W. Kinniburgh, R. V. Blacklock, A. H. Hamerton, G. G. Schwartz, T. L. Barker, C. E. Galwey, R. T. Smith, G. von Schoen, A. R. Kennedy, P. Muter, F. B. Bolt, A. D. Ellis, J. A. Thomson, F. K. Kelling, L. B. Jordan, H. S. Manning, E. J. Gormley, A. de Castro, F. M. Leckie, G. D. Gardner, C. W. Palmer, J. B. Young, W. C. Marchant, R. P. Hood, A. Avery, H. Rose, G. C. Fache, G. A. N. Campbell, S. P. Hawthorne, W. H. Woon

Chief Messenger—W. Archer

Auckland Agency.

District Manager—W. J. Speight

Chief Clerk—J. K. Blenkhorn

Clerk—J. K. Watkis

Napier Agency.

Resident Agent—J. H. Dean

Wanganui Agency.

Resident Agent—J. Fairburn

Wellington Agency.

District Manager—G. Robertson

Clerks—G. Crichton and C. H. Ralph

Nelson Agency.

Resident Agent—J. W. H. Wood

Greymouth Agency.

Resident Agent—Cyrus Webb

Blenheim Agency.

Acting Resident Agent—A. P. Burnes

Christchurch Agency.

District Manager—J. C. Prudhoe

Chief Clerk—H. Todd

Clerk—A. E. Allison

Timaru Agency.

Agency Clerk—S. T. Wicksteed

Dunedin Agency.

District Manager—R. S. McGowan

Clerk—M. J. Heywood

Oamaru Agency.

Resident Agent—O. H. Pinel

Invercargill Agency.

Agency Clerk—J. Findlay


Public Trustee—J. K. Warburton

Solicitor—F. J. Wilson

Chief Clerk—A. A. Duncan

Accountant—E. F. Warren

Examiner—T. S. Ronaldson

Clerks—T. T. Stephens, M. Townsend, H. Beyer, T. D. Kendall, W. A. Fordham, F. Hyde, H. Oswin, E. C. McCarthy, P. Fair, J. C. Matheson

Cadets—G. Smyth, A. Purdie, M. E. Harrap, T. H. Andrew, J. Allen

Messenger—A. J. Cross

District Agent, Christchurch—J. J. M. Hamilton

District Agent, Greymouth—F. H. Morice

West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent—Wilfred Rennell

Clerks—H. A. Eversleigh, Alfred Trimble

Chapter 18. JUDICIAL.

The Minister of Justice is charged with all matters relating to the Supreme, District, Resident Magistrates', and Wardens' Courts, Native Land Court, Crown Law Office, Coroners' inquests, Patents, designs, and trade-marks, bankruptcy, criminal prosecutions in the higher Courts, Justices of the Peace, Licensing Committees, and prisons. Circuit sittings of the Supreme Court are held at fourteen places, and offices of the Court are maintained at eleven places. There are five District Court Judges, who hold Courts at seventeen towns. At nearly every town in which sittings of the Supreme or District Courts are held there is a Crown Prosecutor, paid by fees, and a Sheriff.

There are twenty-nine salaried Resident Magistrates, who hold Courts at about one hundred and fifty-four places. Twelve of these gentlemen are also Wardens, holding Wardens' Courts in the various goldfields. There are fifty civilian Clerks of Courts, and eighty-two who are also police sergeants or constables.

All the Resident Magistrates hold the office of Coroner, and are paid 10s. 6d. for each inquest, in addition to mileage at 1s. per mile, or actual expenses of locomotion. Besides these, there are thirty-six Coroners, who are paid £1 1s. for each inquest, and mileage.

Bankrupt estates are administered by four Official Assignees, stationed at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin; and by twenty Deputy Assignees, resident at as many other towns. The Supreme and District Courts have jurisdiction in bankruptcy proceedings, and the Governor has power to confer similar jurisdiction in small estates on some of the Resident Magistrates' Courts.

The Commission of the Peace contains about seventeen hundred names, and additions are frequently made.

Witnesses in Criminal Courts are paid 6s. per diem, and in addition 4s. for every night they are absent from home. Witnesses in civil cases are paid variously from 6s. to £1 1s. a day, according to their condition in life.

Intestate estates in New Zealand are dealt with by the Public Trust Office, and are referred to in the article on that institution.

The Native Land Court is an institution for the purpose of enabling Maoris to obtain legal titles to their lands. Its constitution and mode of procedure are referred to in the special article on the numbers and present condition of the Maoris. There is one Chief Judge, and eight Judges.


The defence forces consist of the Permanent Militia (Artillery and Torpedo Corps), and the auxiliary forces of Volunteers (Cavalry, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers, and Rifle companies). The whole of these Forces are commanded by an Imperial officer, belonging to the Royal Artillery, who is under the orders of the Defence Minister. There is also an Under-Secretary for Defence, to whom all questions of expenditure are referred; while the Chief Engineer has charge of the defence-works.

Militia and Volunteer Districts.

The two islands (North and Middle) are divided into eleven districts, commanded by a Field Officer of Militia or Volunteers, with a competent staff of drill-sergeants.

Permanent Militia.—Artillery.

This Force is divided into four batteries, which are stationed at Auckland, Wellington (head-quarters), Lyttelton, and Dunedin; their principal duties are to look after and take charge of all guns, stores, ammunition, and munitions of war at these four centres. The Force consists of three majors, two captains, one subaltern, with an establishment of 145 of all ranks.

Permanent Militia.—Torpedo Corps.

This branch, like the Artillery, is divided amongst the four centres, for submarine and torpedo work, and consists of two captains, with a total of 64 of all ranks. They have charge of four torpedo-boats and four steam-launches, and all submarine-mining and torpedo-stores. They are likewise employed in blowing up rocks and wrecks, and generally improving harbours.


There are five troops of Cavalry, three in the North Island and two in the Middle Island. These corps are kept in a state of efficiency by going into camp for six days' training annually. The total strength of the five troops is 310 of all ranks.

Volunteers.—Mounted Rifles.

There are ten corps of Mounted Rifles, seven in the North Island and three in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 529 of all ranks. The efficiency of these corps is, like the Cavalry, maintained by their going into camp for an annual training of six days.

Volunteers.—Naval Artillery.

There are seventeen batteries of this branch of the service, seven in the North Island and ten in the Middle Island, having a total strength of 1,089 of all ranks. These corps are divided into port and starboard watches, and one watch is trained to assist the Permanent Artillery in working the heavy ordnance, while the other watch is trained in submarine and torpedo work, as auxiliaries to the Torpedo Corps. These corps have cutters and other boats provided and kept up for them, and are instructed in rowing, knotting, splicing, signalling, and such-like duties.

Volunteers.—Field Artillery.

There are eleven batteries of Field Artillery, three in the North Island and eight in the Middle Island, with a total of 580 of all ranks. They are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns on field-carriages.


This branch consists of three corps, with a total of 169 of all ranks. There is one corps in the North Island and two corps in the Middle Island. Besides carrying rifles they are provided with entrenching tools and all appliances for blowing up bridges or laying land-mines.

Volunteers.—Rifle Corps.

In this branch of the service there are fifty-seven corps, eighteen being in the North Island, and thirty-nine in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 3,144 of all ranks, which includes garrison bands at places where four or more corps have their head-quarters.

Volunteers.—Cadet Corps.

There is a force of thirty-nine cadet corps—viz., eight in the North Island and thirty-one in the Middle Island, with a total strength of 2,012 of all ranks.

Ordnance, Arms, etc.

The armament at the forts of the four centres consists of 8in. 13-ton breech-loading rifled Elswick Ordnance Company's guns, with 6in. 5-ton of like pattern, and the whole mounted on hydropneumatic disappearing carriages; 7in. 7-ton muzzle-loading rifled guns, on traversing slides; 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading converted 71cwt. guns, on garrison standing carriages and traversing slides; 64-pouuder rifled muzzle-loading 64cwt. guns on traversing slides; 6-pounder quick-firing Nordenfeldts, on garrison pillar mountings, and field-carriages; and Hotchkiss and Maxim quick-firing guns. The Volunteer Field Artillery are armed with 6-, 9-, and 12-pounder Armstrong breech-loading rifled guns, and the whole of the Force have carbines or rifles (short) of Snider pattern.

There is a large stock of Whitehead torpedoes, contact- and ground-mines, in charge of the Torpedo Corps, as well as four Thorneycroft torpedo-boats.

Enrolment, etc.

The Permanent Militia are enrolled for three years' service, and Volunteers for one year. The Permanent Militia is recruited from men who have one year's efficient service in the Volunteers; and after passing the gunnery course in the Permanent Militia men are eligible for transfer to police and prison service.


The Instructors for Permanent Artillery and Torpedo Corps are obtained from the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, and from the Royal Engineers, under a three years' engagement, on completion of which they return to the Royal Artillery or the Royal Engineers.


An annual capitation of £2 is granted to each efficient Volunteer, and a sum not exceeding £20 to each efficient cadet corps. One hundred rounds of Snider ball-cartridge are issued each year free to every efficient Volunteer, and twenty-five rounds to each efficient cadet over thirteen years of age.


The defence forces of New Zealand are administered under “The Defence Act, 1886.”

Expenditure on the Establishment and Maintenance of Defences from 1884–85 to 1892–93.

Year.Military Expenditure.Harbour Defences.Total.


Paid by the Government of New Zealand, as on 31st March, 1893.

[By an Act passed in 1871 the pension system was abolished in New Zealand.]

Name.Date from which Pension commenced.Amount.

*Per diem.

(a) 1s. 6d. from 25th October, 1869; increased to 2s. 2d., 7th December, 1870.

(b) 1s. from 17th December, 1868, to 17th December, 1869; 1s. 6d. from 17th December, 1869, to 17th December, 1870; 8d. from 17th December, 1870, to 30th September, 1874; increased to 1s. 6d., 1st October, 1874.

(c) 2s. from 5th June, 1867, to 5th June, 1868; 2s. from 5th June, 1868, to 5th June, 1869; permanent from 9th November, 1869.

(d) 2s. for two years, from 9th April, 1870; renewed for twelve months; again renewed for twelve months; permanent from 1st May, 1874.

(e) 2s. from 1st January, 1869, for eighteen months; permanent from 18th May, 1872.

(f) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 26th April, 1869; renewed for twelve months, 1870; renewed for twelve months, 1871; permanent from 12th May, 1872.

(g) 2nd October, 1869; ceased on 9th April, 1870; renewed, 22nd April, 1874.

(h) 1s. 6d. from—, 1867; increased to 2s. from 14th February, 1868.

(i) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 15th March, 1869; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1870; 1s. for twelve months, from March, 1871; permanent from 1st April, 1872.

(k) 3s. for twelve months, from 9th April, 1870; 2s. 8d., permanent, from 1st May, 1871.

(l) 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from 18th October, 1869; 1s. 6d. for twelve months, from October, 1870; permanent from 5th November, 1871.

(m) 1s. 6d. for eight months, from 20th September, 1869; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1870; 2s. 2d. for twelve months, from 11th June, 1871; 2s. 2d. from 11th June, 1872; permanent from 12th June, 1873.

(n) 1s. from 10th May, 1865; renewed for twelve months, April, 1866; again renewed for twelve months; 8d. for twelve months, from 1868, to 10th May, 1869; 6d. for twelve months, from May, 1869; permanent from 11th May, 1870.

Under “The Civil Service Act, 1866.”
Allan, A. S.1 Sept., 188819550
Arrow, H.1 Aug., 18812600
Aubrey, H. R.1 Nov., 188022300
Austin, A. D.1 Oct., 1887247100
Baddeley, H. C.12 Jan., 188822500
Bailey, B.16 May, 1887198139
Bailie, F.1 Feb., 18937788
Baker, E.1 Nov., 1880214171
Barnard, W. H.1 June, 1880101181
Barr, A.1 Oct., 1888366134
Batkin, C. T.1 April, 189053360
Bicknell, F.1 Feb., 188296134
Blomfield, J.21 Mar, 1889101150
Buchanan, J.1 July, 1886127136
Brewer, H. N.1 Jan., 187612476
Brown, S. P.28 Mar., 18728000
Brown, W. R. E.1 Aug., 1892265168
Bull, E.1 July, 1887105143
Burn, J. F.1 July, 18875100
Burgess, A.1 June, 1886116134
Campbell, F. E.1 Mar., 1890466130
Carrington, O.1 Feb., 187830000
Chapman, R.1 Jan., 1868255190
Cheeseman, W. F.1 April, 1890154151
Clarke, H. T.1 Jan., 187940000
Clarke, H.1 Oct., 187998130
Corbett, W.2 Jan., 187027340
Cooper, G. S.1 Aug., 189253368
Costall, J.10 July, 1892131310
Creeke, W.1 April, 189152158
Crowe, A.31 Dec., 188568123
Culpan, W.1 Dec., 186862100
Cunningham, J.1 Feb., 188817500
Cunningham, J.1 Mar., 1880651111
Curry, H.1 Jan., 18786500
Daniell, H. C.1 Jan., 1878266134
Dickey, A. J.1 Nov., 187512205
Earle, J.13 Nov. 1888104100
Eliott, G. E.30 Nov., 187240000
Ensor, J.1 Feb., 18935168
Falck, F.1 Mar., 1893125134
Fenton, F. D.3 Nov., 1881630190
Frazer, D.1 Sep., 189010000
Gill, R. J.1 Sep., 1886228115
Gisborne, W.1 Oct., 1876466134
Goring, F.1 April, 189015000
Graham, G. H.8 Sep., 189152100
Gregory, J.16 Feb., 18815368
Greenway, J.H.1 Nov., 1891116160
Halliday, C.31 Aug., 188696134
Hamilton, M.11 July, 188020000
Harsnnt, W.11 June, 1878151134
Hart, J. T.12 Nov., 189019370
Hartwright, H.1 Jan., 188615278
Hill, E.13 Sep., 187110000
Hill, F. J.1 Aug., 18929500
Hill, T.1 May, 189240000
Holden, T.13 Oct., 18783150
Jackman, S. J.1 May, 189214968
Johnston, D.15 Dec., 1880366134
Judd, A.1 April, 188717368
Keetley, E.1 July, 1884181210
Kelly, J. D.1 July, 1891130190
Laing, E. B.1 April, 1887112100
La Nauze, R. J.5 July, 189214687
Lawlor, H. C.1 June, 1868130180
Lincoln, R. S.1 Mar., 188968170
Lockwood, W. H.1 Jan., 188022184
Lodge, W. F.1 Oct., 188118500
Lundon, D.1 May, 189221000
Lusher, R. A.31 Aug., 188076168
Mathews, J.1 July, 186681134
Meech, W.1 Jan., 188264167
Meikle, A. M.1 May, 1887145143
Mills, W.23 Sept., 1875385144
Mitford, G. M.1 Feb., 1869196150
Monson, J. R.1 Oct., 1882271160
Monro, H. A. H.1 Nov., 1880342172
Morrow, H.1 June, 1890120168
McArthur, J.1 Jan., 18766500
McCarthy, S.1 Mar., 187855168
McCulloch, H.1 Aug., 189023300
McDonnell, R. T.23 July, 189015000
McKellar, H. S.1 Aug., 189243368
O'Connor, R.1 Sept., 189214706
Ollivier, J.1 July, 188825000
Parker, T. W.1 June, 188124239
Parris, R.1 Jan., 187731458
Pauling, G. W.1 Feb., 18879115
Pearson, W. H.30 Sept., 188434096
Pickett, R.1 Aug., 1866209106
Pinwell, A.1 July, 1891120170
Pitt, H.1 May, 188110000
Plimpton, E. E. E.4 Dec., 1883110143
Pollen, D.30 Oct., 1876418150
Rich, E. F.1 June, 189221700
Robertson, J.6 Oct., 189215500
Rodgerson, W. J.1 July, 189224868
Rogan, J.1 Jan., 1878466134
Rough, D.1 May, 186827718
Sealy, H. B.1 Nov., 1876285143
Searancke, W. N.1 Feb., 187924000
Sheath, A. B.31 Mar., 188012990
Shrimpton, J.16 July, 1889146140
Sinclair, W.1 June, 187819500
Smith, J. E.1 July, 1877484116
Smith, T. H.1 July, 187637187
Snoswell, T.5 Dec., 189183140
Snow, C. H.1 Dec., 1887157100
Stevens, F.1 Dec., 189218300
Stewart, J. T.1 May, 188930000
Thomas, W. E.1 July, 1887145168
Thomas, G. W.1 Nov., 187538150
Tidmarsh, W.1 Aug., 18676973
Tizard, E. F.1 July, 1888180190
Tucker, W.31 Dec., 1880104134
Veal, J.1 Sept., 188549153
Veale, J. S.1 Sept., 188756210
Warde, C. M.1 July, 1889186130
Wardell, H. S.1 July, 1888366130
Watson, R.1 Oct., 189214500
White, W.1 July, 18813650
White, W. B.1 July, 187337549
Wilkin, J. T. W.1 Feb., 1874127194
Willcocks, E. S.1 Nov., 188025000
Williams, E. M.1 April, 188013500
Wilson, W. W.1 Feb., 1881100143
Woon, J. G.1 July, 1892209106
Wrigg, H. C. W.1 Aug., 1889157210
Young, W.1 Jan., 186635000
Under “The Hamerton Pension Act, 1891.”
Hamerton, R. C.11 Sept., 189125000
Under “The Meredith and Others Pensions Act, 1870.”
Collins, Mary13 Nov., 18696500
Hamlin, Rhoda B.18655000
Under “The Military Pensions Act, 1866.”
Arapera to Reo1 July, 18702000
Brown, M. R...7500
Buck, Cath. M...7000
Hastings, L...5500
Iritona, Hanita8 Nov., 18681200
Marara, Ngakoa3 Dec., 18603600
McDonald, E...3600
Mere Karaka Kopu1 Oct., 18743600
Morrison Ann26 Oct., 18663600
Russell, C...3600
Von Tempsky, A.3 Oct., 186812000
Adamson, T. (a) 022*
Beamish, J. G. (b) 016*
Coffey, M. F...2500
Corbett, George (c) 022*
Crawford, C. F...020*
Crosby, H. (d) 020*
Dore, G. H. (e) 020*
Gibbons, M. C.12 Oct., 1869022*
Hamblyn, J.1 Oct., 1872022*
Hope, E. L. (f) 016*
Kelly, T.9 April, 1870022*
Kershaw, P.9 Aug., 1869016*
Lacey, Garrett..022*
Lake, T...026*
Lloyd, T. (g) 020*
McDonnell, W..15000
McKay, G...010*
McMahon, T. (h) 020*
Monck, J. B.1 April, '72(i)010*
Percy, J. A...15000
Ross, Edward O.17 Nov., 18667500
Shanaghan, J...016*
Shepherd, R.(k)028*
Timms, W.(l)016*
Tuffin, G...022*
Vance, R.8 April, 1870022*
Walsh, W.15 Nov., 1860016*
Wasley, Edw. O.(m)022*
Williamson, F.1 June, 1869020*
Anaru Patapu14 May, 1865009*
Anaru Taruke1 Jan., 1867006*
Apera te Keunga14 May, 1864026*
Honi Parake1 Jan., 1867006*
Karena Ruatani-wha1 July, 1870010*
Matiu Whitiki1 April, 1885006*
Mauparoa1 July, 1867010*
Mehaka Kepa2 Aug., 1865009*
Pera Taitanui12 Oct., 1869010*
Ruihana10 April, 1869006*
Hemi Tonganui9 Nov., 1868010*
Raniera Ngoto1 Oct., 1884006*
Under “The Walsh and Other Pensions Act, 1869.
Hewett, Ellen A.10 Feb., 18655000
Under “The Militia Act Amendment Act, 1862.”
Bending, W...020*
Bilton, F...020*
Callaghan, D...022*
Cody, W...010*
Dunn, A. J. N...020*
Hereford, A...13000
King, E. M...8000
Leaf, R.(n)006*
Oxenham, W...016*
Sarten, Lucy1864020*
Skinner, W. H...026*
Vickery, W...020*
Woolf, T...020*
Under “The Schafer, McGuire, and Others Pensions Act, 1872.”
M'Guire, E.29 Sept., 1871010*
Russell, W.1 July, 1871010*
Schafer, C.1 July, 18713000
Under “The Supreme Court Judges Act, 1874.”
Gresson, H. B.1 April, 187575000


There are (June, 1893) 174 publications on the register of newspapers for New Zealand. Of these 52 are daily papers, 15 triweekly, 26 bi-weekly, 59 weekly, and 22 monthly.

The names of the newspapers, with the postal districts and towns in which they are printed, are given in the following list, the second column showing the day or period of publication. M. signifies morning paper; E., evening paper:—

Wairoa Bell (E.)Friday.
    Auckland Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Auckland Weekly News and Town and Country Journal (M.)Saturday.
    Bible Standard (M.)Monthly.
    Church Gazette (M.)Monthly.
    Helping HandMonthly.
    New Zealand A B C GuideMonthly.
    New Zealand Craftsman (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Farmer, Bee and Poultry Journal (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Graphic, Ladies' Journal, and Youths' CompanionWednesday.
    New Zealand Herald (M.)Daily.
    Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Produce Circular and Monthly Report (M.)Monthly.
    Sharland's Trade JournalMonthly.
    Sporting ReviewSaturday.
    Coromandel News and Peninsula Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Northern Advertiser (E.)Friday.
    Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette (M.)Mon., Wed., Sat.
    Northern Luminary (M)Saturday.
    Manukau Gazette and Onehunga District Weekly Courier (M.)Saturday.
    Hot Lakes Chronicle (E.)Friday.
    Northern Advocate (E.)Friday.
    Korimako HouMonthly.
    Opotiki Herald, Whakatane County and East Coast Gazette (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Hauraki Tribune and Thames Valley Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Ohinemuri Gazette (M.)Saturday.
    Bay of Plenty Times and Thames Valley Warden (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
To Aroha—
    Te Aroha and Ohinemuri News and Upper Thames Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Thames Advertiser and Miners' News (M.)Daily.
    Poverty Bay Herald (E.)Daily.
New Plymouth. 
    Inglewood Record and Waitara News (M.)Wed., Saturday.
New Plymouth—
    Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (M.)Saturday.
    Daily News (M.)Daily.
    Taranaki Herald (E.)Daily.
    Taranaki News (M.)Saturday.
    Egmont Settler (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Bush Advocate (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Daily Telegraph (E.)Daily.
    Evening News and Hawke's Bay Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Hawke's Bay Herald (M.)Daily.
    Hawke's Bay Weekly Courier (M.)Friday.
    New Zealand Fire and Ambulance RecordMonthly.
    Waipawa Mail (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Wairoa Guardian and County Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Egmont Star (M.)Saturday.
    Hawera and Normanby Star, Patea County Chronicle, and Waimate Plains Gazette (E.)Daily.
    Paraekaretu Express, Hunterville, Ohingaiti, Moawhango, and Rata Advertiser (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Waimate Witness (E.)Wed., Saturday.
    Mercury (E.)Daily
    Rangitikei Advocate and Manawatu Argus (E).Daily
    Patea County Press (E.)Mon., Thursday.
    Stage (E.)Wednesday.
    Wanganui Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Wanganui Herald (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Chronicle and Patea-Rangitikei Record (M.)Saturday.
    Yeoman (M.)Friday.
    Wairarapa Observer, Featherston Chronicle, East Coast Advertiser, and South County Gazette (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Feilding Star (E.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Manawatu Herald (E.)Tues., Wed., Sat.
    Wairarapa Standard (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Eketahuna and Pahiatua Mail (M.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Star (E.)Daily.
    Wairarapa Weekly Times (E.)Thursday.
    Weekly Star and Wellington District Advertiser (M.)Thursday.
    West Coast Mail and Horowhenua County Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Pahiatua Star and Eketahuna Advertiser (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
Palmerston North—
    Manawatu Daily Standard, Rangitikei Advertiser, and West Coast Gazette (M.)Daily.
    Manawatu Daily Times (E.)Daily.
    Hutt and Petone Chronicle (M.)Wednesday.
    Catholic Times (M.)Friday.
    Church Chronicle (M.)Weekly.
    Evening Post (E.)Daily.
    Evening Press (E.)Daily.
    New Zealand Central Trade ReportMonthly.
    Now Zealand Mail, Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    New Zealand Times (M.)Daily.
    Register and Property Investors' GuideMonthly.
    Weekly Herald (M.)Weekly.
    Wellington Price Current and New Zealand Trade Review (M.)Monthly.
    Examiner (E.)Mon., Wed., Fri.
    Evening Star (E.)Saturday.
    Marlborough Daily Times and Town and Country Advertiser (M.)Daily.
    Marlborough Express (E.)Daily.
    Marlborough Weekly News (M.)Friday.
    Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Kaikoura Star and North Canterbury and South Marlborough News (E.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Marlborough Press, County of Sounds Gazette (M. Tues., E. Thurs.)Tues., Thursday
    Golden Bay Argus (M.)Friday.
    Colonist (M.)Daily.
    Nelson Evening Mail (E.)Daily.
    Takaka News and Collingwood Advertiser (E.)Thursday.
    Charleston Herald, Brighton Times, and Croninville Reporter (M.)Wed. Saturday.
    Lyell Times and Central Buller Gazette (M.)Saturday.
    Buller Miner (M.)Friday.
    Westport News (M.)Daily.
    Westport Times and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Brunnerton News, Blackball Courier, and Grey Valley Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Evening Star and Brunnerton Advocate (E.)Daily.
    Grey River Argus (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Argus (M.)Weekly.
    Inangahua Herald and New Zealand Miner (M.)Tu., Thur., Sat.
    Inangahua Times (M.)Daily.
    Reefton Guardian (E.)Daily.
    Hokitika Guardian and Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Leader (M.)Thursday.
    West Coast Times (M.)Daily.
    Kumara Times and Dillman's and Goldsborough Advertiser (E.)Daily.
    Ross and Okarito Advocate and Westland Advertiser (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Ashburton Guardian (E.)Daily.
    Ashburton Mail, Rakaia, Mount Somers and Alford Forest Advertiser (M.)Tu., Thur., Sat.
    Canterbury Times (M.)Friday.
    Lyttelton Times (M.)Daily.
    Mercantile and Bankruptcy Gazette of New Zealand (E.)Friday.
    New Zealand BaptistMonthly.
    New Zealand Church News (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand MethodistSaturday.
    New Zealand Railway ReviewMonthly.
    New Zealand Schoolmaster (E.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Volunteer and Civil Service Gazette and Naval and Military Chronicle (M.)Monthly.
    Now Zealand War Cry and Official Gazette of the Salvation Army (M.)Tuesday.
    Press (M.)Daily.
    Star (E.)Daily.
    Telegraph (E.)Daily.
    Truth (E.)Daily.
    Weekly Press (M.)Friday.
    Young SoldierSaturday.
Oxford (East)—
    Oxford and Cust Observer (M.)Saturday.
    Standard and North Canterbury Guardian (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Ellesmere GuardianWed., Saturday.
    Geraldine Guardian (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    Temuka Leader (M.)Tues., Thur., Sat.
    South Canterbury Times (E.)Daily.
    Timaru Herald (M.)Daily.
    Waimate Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    North Otago Times (M.)Daily.
    Oamaru Mail (E.)Daily.
    Clutha Leader (M.)Friday.
    Free Press (M.)Friday.
    Clutha County Gazette and Popotunoa Chronicle and Clinton Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    Dunstan Times, Vincent County Gazette, and General Goldfields Advertiser (M.)Friday.
    Cromwell Argus and Northern Goldfields Gazette (M.)Tuesday.
    Evening Star (E.)Daily.
    Farmers' Circular (M.)Thursday.
    Globe (E.)Daily.
    New Zealand Insurance, Finance and Mining Journal (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Presbyterian (M.)Monthly.
    New Zealand Public Opinion and Saturday Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
    New Zealand Tablet (M.)Friday.
    Otago Daily Times (M.)Daily.
    Otago Witness (M.)Saturday.
    Otago Workman, Dunedin and Suburban Advertiser (M.)Saturday.
    Tuapeka Times (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Bruce Herald (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Taieri Advocate (M.)Wed., Saturday.
    Mount Ida Chronicle (Thurs. E. and Sat. M.)Thur., Saturday.
    Palmerston aud Waikouaiti Times (M.)Friday.
    Monnt Benger Mail (M.)Saturday.
    Tapanui Courier and Central Districts Gazette (M.)Wednesday.
Arrow River—
    Lake County Press (E.)Thursday.
    Mataura Ensign (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Southern Standard (M.)Tuesday, Friday.
    Southern CrossSaturday.
    Southlander (M.)Friday.
    Southland Daily News (E.)Daily.
    Southland Times (M.)Daily.
    Weekly Times (M.)Friday.
    Lake Wakatipu Mail (E.)Friday.
    Western Star and Wallace County Gazette (M.)Wed., Saturday.

The foregoing towns are arranged, for the convenience of the postal authorities, according to the postal district in which they are situated.

Taking the provincial districts, Auckland has 31 publications registered as newspapers, Taranaki 10, Hawke's Bay 9, Wellington 33, Marlborough 7, Nelson 15, Westland 6, Canterbury 28, and Otago 35.


Table of Contents

[The progress of the colony from the beginning is shown in the statistical broadsheets which follow the General Index.]


The estimated population of New Zealand as on the 31st December, 1892, with the increase by excess of births over deaths, and of immigration over emigration, which accrued during the year, was as under:—

Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1891   634,058336,174297,884
Increase during the year 1892—Persons.Males.Females.   
    Excess of births over deaths11,4175,3106,107   
    Excess of arrivals over departures4,9583,6621,296   
Estimated population (exclusive of Maoris) on 31st December, 1892   650,433345,146305,287
Maori population, census 1891   41,99322,86119,132
    Total estimated population of the colony on 31st December, 1892   692,426368,007324,419

The estimated number of Chinese in the colony at the end of the year 1892 was 4,087 persons, of whom 17 were females. These are included in the above table. At the census of April, 1891, the number in the colony was 4,444, so that a reduction has taken place in the space of one year and nine months to the number of 357, or 8 per cent., caused mainly by the balance of departures over arrivals.

The Maori population can be given only for the date of the census, as very few births or deaths of Natives are registered; but the movement of Native population, judged by the results of the enumeration of 1886 (when the number was 41,969) compared with the number in 1891 (41,993) is so small, that to use the same figures for several years in succession does not give rise to any great degree of error. Over 100 Maoris lost their lives at the eruption of Tarawera, which occurred between the census of 1886 and that of 1891.

Included in the population, as stated above, are the half-castes, who numbered 4,865 at the time of the census; 2,681 of these were half-castes living as members of Maori tribes, and 2,184 half-castes living as Europeans. The half-castes living as Europeans have increased since 1886 by 227, or at the rate of 116 per cent. The number of Maori wives of Europeans was 251 in 1891, against 201 in 1886.

The estimated European population of the principal divisions of the colony on 31st December, 1892, was—

North Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)292,894155,573137,321
Middle Island and adjacent islets (exclusive of Maoris)357,042189,296167,746
Stewart Island20511887
Chatham Islands (exclusive of Natives)284154130
Kermadec Islands853
Total for the colony (exclusive of Maoris)650,433345,146305,287

To obtain these estimates of population in the different islands the census figures have been corrected (1) by adding the natural increases, that is, the excess of births over deaths, to the population of each island, and (2) by allocating the excess of immigration over emigration for the whole colony proportionately to the population of each island at census time. By this plan, no doubt, the North Island has suffered somewhat. But the arrivals are all counted at the first and the departures at the last port touched at, so that it becomes necessary to distribute the total gain in the manner indicated above. Moreover, what is more important by far, there are no records of the movements of population from one island to another. In all probability the North Island population is in reality somewhat greater than is here shown, and the Middle Island less.

During the interval between the census of March, 1886, and that of April, 1891, the increase of population in the North Island was far in excess of that in the Middle Island. The figures are: North Island, 1886, 250,482 persons, against 281,455 in 1891, a difference of 30,973, or at the rate of 12,36 per cent.; Middle Island, 1886, 327,592 persons, against 344,711 in 1891, a difference of only 17,119, or 5,22 per cent. The European population of Stewart Island did not increase, but that of the Chatham Islands rose from 199 to 271 persons. The Kermadec Islands appeared for the first time in 1891 as part of New Zealand, with a population of 19 persons.

The Australian Colonies, as a whole, contained on the 31st December, 1892, an estimated population amounting to 4,026,667 persons (exclusive of the aboriginal natives of Queensland and South and Western Australia, but including New Zealand Maoris).

Australasian Colonies.—Estimated Population on 31st December, 1892.


* Including Polynesians.

Including the Northern Territory

New South Wales1,197,050646,378550,672
South Australia336,702176,101160,601
Western Australia58,67436,09522,579
New Zealand692,426368,007324,419
Total Australasian Colonies4,026,6672,154,3501,872,317

Religions and Birthplaces, 1891.

The subjoined table gives a summary of the results of the census of 1891 as to the religions of the people, with the proportion of each denomination to the whole population at that and each of the three previous censuses:—

Denominations.Number of
in 1891.
Proportions per Cent. of Population.
In calculating the proportions for 1891 the “Unspecified” have not been taken into account.
Church of England, and Protestants (undefined)253,33142.5541.5040.1740.51
Wesleyan Methodists53,0617.798.077.818.49
Other Methodists10,3541.351.461.741.65
Congregational Independents6,6851.341.381.351.07
Salvation Army9,383....0.911.50
Society of Friends3150.
Other Protestants11,2951.081.261.551.82
Roman Catholics, and Catholics (undefined)87,27214.2114.0813.9413.96
Greek Church560.
Buddhists, Confucians3,9281.051.010.770.63
Other denominations8490.
No denomination8,2520.530.891.051.32
No religion1,5580.
Object to state15,3422.552.853.442.45

These returns of religions show that 81.03 per cent. of the people belonged to various Protestant denominations; 13.96 were Roman Catholics; and the remainder belonged to other sects, were of no denomination, or objected to state their religious views. The proportion of Roman Catholics is much greater in Australia than in New Zealand.

Methodists increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 14.61 per cent.; Church of England adherents increased 9.02 per cent.; Presbyterians, 8.29 per cent.; Roman Catholics, 8.12 per cent.; while the Salvation Army had the highest rate of increase, 77.84 per cent.

Freethinkers numbered 4,475 persons in 1891 and 3,925 in 1886. They are included above in the numbers for “No denomination.”

The returns of birthplaces gave the following particulars:—

Born inPersons. Census 1891.1886. Per Cent.1891. Per Cent.
New Zealand366,71651.8958.61
Australia and Tasmania15,9432.982.55
Other British possessions3,7030.680.59
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway4,7550.860.77
Other countries and at sea6,5571.501.05

The New-Zealand-born population increased between 1886 and 1891 at the rate of 22.16 per cent., but the population born in the Mother-country, Australian Colonies, other British dominions, and foreign parts diminished more or less in each case during the quinquennium.

Education, 1891.

Of both sexes, 77.25 per cent. of the persons could read and write, 3.98 read only, and 18.77 could not read. Comparing with previous censuses, and for each sex separately, the proportion per cent. able to read and write will be found to rise steadily, while those reading only, or unable to read, diminish in number. The under-mentioned figures illustrate this:—

Census.Proportion per Cent. (Males).Proportion per Cent. (Females).
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.

Conjugal Condition, 1891.

Of persons of both sexes, 67.62 per cent. were found to be unmarried, 29.18 married, and 3.20 widowed. Taking the male sex, and comparing the results of three censuses, the proportions of unmarried and married diminish, but the proportion of widowed increases. On the female side, the proportions of unmarried and widowed increase, while the married diminish. The figures are as under:—

Census.Proportion per Cent. (Males).Proportion per Cent. (Females).

The Chinese are not included in the figures from which these calculations are taken.

The number of bachelors aged 20 and upwards was 70,197, and of spinsters aged 15 and upwards 67,000, being 105 bachelors to every 100 spinsters. In Canterbury and Otago only were the spinsters in excess of the bachelors, but notably so in Canterbury.

The number of husbands was 90,371, and of wives 90,765, giving an excess of 394 of the latter.

Proportions of the Sexes.

Excluding the Maori population, the females in the colony are now in the proportion of 88.45 to every 100 males. The proportion of females to males is greater in New Zealand than in Queensland, New South Wales, and Western Australia, but less than in Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania.

 Females to every 100 Males at Census, 1891.
New South Wales84.12
South Australia92.33
Western Australia66.79
New Zealand88.25

Population of Provincial Districts.

The following table gives the population in each provincial district estimated for the 31st December, 1892. It must, however, be pointed out that at a distance of one year and nine months from the census it is impossible to guarantee the correctness of these figures.

There are no records of interprovincial arrivals and departures, and therefore in times of change the further the date from the last census the greater the liability to error. New Zealand being insular, the excess of arrivals over departures taken for the whole colony can be fairly well arrived at, and the excess of births over deaths, or natural increase, can also be found, giving a close estimate to the population of the colony for any year; but the internal movement of population cannot be determined, and therefore the subjoined figures must be accepted as approximations only. As stated previously, the probability is that the provincial districts of the North Island are underestimated in the allocation of the excess of arrivals over departures that has been made:—

 31st December, 1892.
Hawke's Bay29,81816,40013,418
Chatham Islands 284154130
Kermadec Islands 853

Populations of Counties.

These can be given only as at the date of the last census. The same objections that may be lodged against the endeavour to estimate the populations of the provincial districts at a distance of time from the census would apply with still greater force to any calculation of the numbers at present resident in the several counties and boroughs. The figures are therefore left as they were determined by the census. For statistical, as for administrative purposes, each borough is treated as distinct from the county wherein it lies. In April, 1891, the number of the counties was 78. Of these the North Island had 45, with a county population amounting altogether to 155,057 persons. The Middle Island had 32 counties, the population being 196,838 persons. Stewart Island is a county in itself. The names and populations of the various counties in the colony were as under at the date of the enumeration:—

Bay of Islands2,5621,4371,125
West Taupo1199128
East Taupo15210052
Hawke's Bay6,6283,5712,457
Wairarapa North5,1433,0922,051
Wairarapa South4,9802,8632,117
Stewart Island20211587

The county population amounted to 56.18 per cent. of the total.* The counties include all towns not constituted municipal boroughs, and the population in many of the boroughs partakes of a rural character. The population in boroughs, which is given in detail further on, was 270,343 persons, or 43.14 per cent. of the whole. For every 100 persons resident in counties in 1891 there were 76 dwelling in boroughs. In 1886 the counties had 327,328 persons, and boroughs 245,612; or, for every 100 persons in counties, 75 were residents of the boroughs. Thus it will be seen that the proportion of the town to the county population was slightly greater in 1891 than in 1886.

* For population of ridings, road districts, and localities, see census volume, pp. 11 and 31.

Population of Boroughs.

There were 87 municipal boroughs in existence when the census of 1891 was taken.

Since the time of the census six new boroughs have been constituted, as under:—

Boroughs.Population, Census, April, 1891.
Dannevirke, taken from Waipawa County838
Pahiatua taken from Pahiatua County782
Karori, taken from Hutt County966
Richmond taken from Waimea County452
Linwood taken from Selwyn County4,580
Sumner taken from Selwyn County614

A complete list of the boroughs in the colony as in April, 1891, with populations, is here shown:—

Boroughs.Population, 1891.
New Plymouth3,350
Palmerston North4,303
Lower Hutt1,329
St. Albans5,247
Palmerston South790
Port Chalmers2,028
North-East Valley3,337
Maori Hill1,426
West Harbour1,297
St. Kilda1,153
South Dunedin4,222
Green Island687
Invercargill North717
Invercargill East736
Invercargill South1,559

There is not in New Zealand, as in each of the other Australasian Colonies, one metropolitan centre of population overshadowing, by comparison, the other towns of the colony. The configuration and physical features of the colony made it specially adapted for the establishment of settlements comparatively remote from one another. As a result the colony was formerly divided into nine provinces, each having its capital town. Of these, the principal are the Boroughs of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

Auckland Borough, situate in the northern part of the North Island, had in April, 1891, a population of 28,613. As the population of the suburbs amounted to 22,674, the total number of persons dwelling in and around Auckland was 51,287.

The Borough of Wellington, the seat of Government, is situated on the border of Port Nicholson, at the southern extremity of the North Island. It contained in April, 1891, as many as 31,021 persons. The suburban population is small, amounting only to 3,169 persons. The whole population in and around Wellington thus numbered 34,190.

The Borough of Christchurch is situated in the Canterbury District of the Middle Island. The census returns gave a population of 16,223 in that borough, and of 31,623 in the suburbs—that is, within the boundaries of the Christchurch Health District. The total number in the Borough and suburbs of Christchurch was thus 47,846.

The Borough of Dunedin, the principal town of the former Province of Otago, is the centre of a population amounting to 45,869, of which the Borough itself contained 22,376; and eight surrounding boroughs, which are practically suburbs of Dunedin, 23,493.

Increase of Population.

The increase of population during 1892 was 16,375. As the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 11,417, the difference between that number and 16,675 represents the excess of immigration over emigration, amounting to 4,958.

There is good reason to believe that very few of the births or deaths that occur remain unregistered. Where a limit of time is given within which a birth has to be registered it follows as a matter of course that there will be occasional instances of neglect of the requirements of the law; but it has been made evident that such neglect is very exceptional, and that the number of unregistered events is so small as not appreciably to affect the numbers given.

The following shows the number of births in excess of the number of deaths in each of the past ten years:—


It is a very striking fact that in 1892, when the population was greater than in 1883 by over 20 per cent., or 109,556 persons, the excess of births over deaths should have been less than in 1883 by about 12 per cent.

The excess of births over deaths in 1892 was equivalent to 1.78 per cent. of the mean population for the year, the actual increase to population being at the rate of 2.58 per cent.

A table is given showing the increase of population for ten years, numerical and centesimal. Though the figures throughout are not all that could be desired, there is now every reason to believe that the efflux of population has ended with the year 1891, and that the increase by arrivals for 1893 will exceed that of 1892. And even in regard to the loss that New Zealand suffered prior to 1892, the remarks in the Registrar-General's report for 1890 will bear repetition here:—

At first it may appear that New Zealand has been a great sufferer through this loss of population. If all those who left had been of a class that would settle down to country pursuits and help to develop the resources of the colony that opinion might be well founded; but the large expenditure on public works that has obtained for years has brought to, or developed in, the colony a class of persons living solely by such expenditure, who have realised rates of wages that could not be profitably given by farmers. On the cessation of such expenditure the result might reasonably be expected that numbers, unacquainted with farm-labour and disinclined thereto as being less remunerative than the labour they had been accustomed to, should migrate to places where the prospect of employment by expenditure on public works would be better. If they remained in the colony they would, in all probability, swell the number of those who call for further public expenditure, and, not being producers, it is questionable whether the loss to the colony in instances like these is such as to be deplored.

Year.Estimated Population on the 31st December.Increase during the YearCentesimal Increase on Population of Previous Year.
By Excess of Births over Deaths.By Excess of Immigration over Emigration.*Net Increase.

* Corrected in accordance with census results of 1886 and 1891. The amount of loss by departures, though correct in the aggregate, cannot be allocated with exactness to the respective years.


1883540,87713,141 10,02923,1704.48
1884564,30414,106 9,32123,4274.33
1885575,17213,612 -2,74410,8681.93
1886539,38613,164 -17,19458,88610.24
1892650,43311,417 4,95816,3752.58

It will be observed that in the period 1885 to 1891 the total increase to the population was less than the natural increase by excess of births over deaths, owing to the fact that the outgo of population by departures was greater than the gain by arrivals. But a better state of things prevailed in 1892, when, not only was the natural increase of 11,417 preserved to the colony, but an addition by excess of arrivals over departures amounting to 4,958 persons was also obtained.

Arrivals and Departures.

Every effort is made to obtain correct statements of arrivals and departures at and from the colony, but there is still difficulty in regard to the latter. The arrivals are doubtless correct, but many people leave the colony for Australia without booking their passages, paying their fares on board after the steamer has cleared: in these cases the returns from the Customs authorities are deficient. As has been pointed out before, the difficulty is met to a large extent by arrangements under which the pursers of the intercolonial steamers belonging to the Union Steamship Company, on their return to this colony, post to the Registrar-General a statement of the number of passengers outwards on the previous voyage. But during any period of cheap fares and strong competition between rival companies steamers may carry more passengers than may lawfully be taken, and of the number in excess no return is likely to be made.

The number of persons who arrived in the colony in the year 1892 was 18,122, an increase of 3,691 on the number for the previous year. Of the arrivals in 1892, 16,023 persons were classified as adults, being above the age of twelve years, and 2,099 as children. The total number of males was 12,131, and of females 5,991. The immigrants from the United Kingdom numbered 2,555, those from Victoria 5,390, from New South Wales and Queensland 7,916, from South and Western Australia 10, from Tasmania 1,358. Thus the arrivals from Australia amounted to 14,674 persons. Besides these, 200 persons came from Fiji, and 693 from Hawaii, the South Seas, and other parts, including arrivals by mail-steamers from San Francisco.

The practice of nominating immigrants, to be brought out partly at the Government expense, has been discontinued since the 16th December, 1890, and of free immigration there was none in the year 1892.

Fifty-eight Chinese arrived and 197 left the colony during 1892, the number of departures thus exceeding the arrivals by 139. The arrivals were all adult males from Australia, except one from South Seas. The departures were all for Australia, and consisted of 194 adult males and 3 children.

The following table shows the immigration—distinguishing between the unassisted and the assisted—for the past ten years:—

Year.Unassisted Immigrants.Free and Assisted Immigrants.Total Immigrants.

In 1881 an Act was passed imposing a tax on every Chinese landing in the colony, except in the case of any one of a crew of a vessel who might not remain in the colony. The object of the Act was so to restrict the introduction of Chinese as to prevent an increase of that part of the population. The following figures show that the desired effect has been so far obtained. In 1881 the Chinese population amounted to 5,004, in 1886 the number had fallen to 4,542, and when the recent census was taken there were only 4,444 Chinese in the colony.

The following shows the number of arrivals in and departures from the colony of Chinese in each of the past twelve years:—


Restrictive legislation on the immigration of Chinese has been passed in the Australian Colonies as well as in New Zealand.

In New South Wales, the legislation of 1888 raised the poll-tax passed in 1881 to £100, and vessels were prohibited from carrying to the colony more than one Chinese passenger to every 300 tons. Chinese cannot engage in mining without express authority, and are not allowed naturalisation, The Act, writes Mr. Coghlan, the New South Wales Government Statistician, has operated to the entire cessation of Chinese immigration.

The number of persons who left this colony in 1892 was 13,164, of whom 11,627 wore over and 1,537 were under twelve years of age. The males numbered 8,469, and the females 4,695. The departures. for the United Kingdom amounted to 1,612 persons. 3,515 left for Victoria, 6,415 for New South Wales and Queensland, 28 for South and Western Australia, and 711 for Tasmania—making 10,669 for Australia altogether. 170 persons left for Fiji, and 713 for Hawaii, South Seas, and other ports (including passengers for San Francisco).

The total excess of arrivals over departures—4,958 persons—is made up as follows:—

 Excess of Arrivals.Excess of Departures.
From United Kingdom..943 
From Australia4,005 
From Fiji30 
From Hawaii, South Seas, and other ports 20

The following table shows the recorded movements of population between New Zealand and the United Kingdom in each of the past ten years:—

 United Kingdom.
 Arrivals therefrom.Departures thereto.

These figures, which may be taken as correct, show a gain of 36,633 persons from intercourse with the United Kingdom. But the total gain by excess of arrivals over departures during the ten years, after correcting the populations by means of the census results of 1886 and 1891, was found to be 4,370 persons only; it follows, therefore, that the loss to Australia and other places amounted to 32,263 during the decennial period, of which number at least 90 per cent. must have gone to Australia. But the figures for 1892 show a satisfactory state of things for the last of the ten years, there having been a net gain from intercourse with Australia of 4,005 persons. Of the loss prior to 1892, by far the largest amount in any one year occurred in 1888, when the expenditure of loan money by the General Government was reduced to one-half of what it had been in the previous year, 1887.

The returns made by the Board of Trade do not distinguish between the departures from the United Kingdom for New Zealand and those for Australia. Only the departures for Australasia as a whole are given. In 1892 these amounted to 16,183. The number of persons who arrived in New Zealand direct from the United Kingdom was to 2,555, or equal to nearly 16 per cent. of the entire direct emigration from the United Kingdom to the Australasian Colonies. This proportion is greater than in any year since 1885, but the number does not represent all the persons who come from the United Kingdom to this colony, as many travel viâ the Suez Canal or San Francisco, and thus appear as arrivals either from Australia or foreign ports.

There has been a large annual decrease of late years in the number of persons who leave the United Kingdom for these southern colonies:—

Year.Emigration from United Kingdom to Australasia.Arrivals in Now Zealand from United Kingdom.Arrivals in New Zealand per 100 Departures for Australasia from United Kingdom.

As the population of New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris) comprises 16.32 per cent. of the population of Australasia, not including Fiji, it might be thought from the above figures that this colony offered fewer attractions to emigrants than does Australia; but, as previously stated, the above numbers do not take account of persons who arrive from England viâ Australia and the United States.

The following shows the immigration and emigration for each of the Australasian Colonies during the year 1892. As there is no record of those who travel overland from one Australian colony to another, the numbers given refer only to those who arrive and depart by sea, except that those for Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia include arrivals and departures by train across the border. The figures for departures are for all the colonies admittedly imperfect, on account of the number of persons who leave by sea of whose departure no record is obtained:—

Colony.Arrivals, 1892.Departures, 1892.Excess of Arrivals over Departures, 1892.
* Excess of departures.
New South Wales62,19754,7997,398
South Australia17,43314,4742,959
Western Australia7,4402,9684,472
New Zealand18,12213,1644,958

Vital Statistics.


The number of births registered in 1892 was 17,876, being in the proportion of 27.83 per 1,000 of the population. The number of births was less by 397 than in 1891, and the proportion the lowest on record in the colony. The great decrease in the birth-rate is shown in the following table:—

Year.Number of Births.Births per 1,000 of the Population.

It will be observed that the number of births was less in 1892 than in 1884 by 1,970. A fall in the birth-rate in a young country is to a certain point a natural result of the increase in the proportion of the population under twenty-one years of age, but in New Zealand the proportion under twenty-one at the census of 1891 was found to be only slightly lower than that in 1886; so that a decrease in the actual number of births is quite different from what might reasonably have been looked for. The number of births given in each year is the number that was registered, but there is good reason to believe that very few births remain unregistered, and that the registration may at the present time be deemed as complete as can be expected.

The smaller proportion of wives under forty-five years of age and their higher average age would have an influence in lowering the birth-rate, but it is evident that lessened fertility is only one of the causes of the decrease in question, another being the fall in the marriage-rate: probably the most potent is a disinclination to assume the responsibilities and burdens of a large family.

The birth-rate (27.83) in 1892 is lower than any on record for the whole of England and Wales, where the lowest was that of the year 1890, being 30.2 per 1,000 of population. Nevertheless, in 1891 the rates in eleven counties of England and Wales did not exceed 27.5 per 1,000 persons, and were thus lower than the New Zealand rate for 1892. The rate in this colony was also lower than that (30.3) in Scotland, but considerably higher than that (22.3) in Ireland in 1890.

The rate in New Zealand in 1892 was the lowest in the Australasian colonies. The following shows the birth-rates of those colonies in each of the past eight years:—

Birth-rates per 1,000 of Population.

New South Wales37.6437.0336.4236.1833.7335.3534.5034.41
South Australia37.3035.3234.6333.3432.3732.7533.9232.32
Western Australia35.2239.2137.3435.8837.1432.5534.8533.01
New Zealand34.3533.1532.0931.3230.0729.4429.0127.83

In the year 1880 New Zealand had the highest birth-rate of the above colonies, 40.78; but since 1887 the position has been reversed, and the rate is the lowest of all.

The male births in New Zealand in 1892 numbered 9,101, and the female 8,775: the proportion was thus 103.72 males to 100 females. In 1891 the proportion was 105.41 males to 100 females. There are on an average more male to female births in each of the Australasian Colonies than in England, but the proportion of male births is still greater in many of the European States.

There were 172 cases of twin births (344 children) in 1892; there was also one case of triplet births. The number of children born was 17,876; the number of mothers was 17,702: thus on an average 1 mother in every 102 gave birth to twins. In 1891 the proportion was 1 in 101, in 1890 it was 1 in 95, in 1889 1 in 120, and in 1888 1 in 97.

The births of 593 children were illegitimate: thus 33 in every 1,000 children born were born out of wedlock.

The following table gives the rates of illegitimacy in each of the Australasian Colonies. The rate of illegitimacy in New Zealand is less than in any other of the Australasian Colonies except South Australia:—

Proportion of Illegitimate Births in every 100 Births.

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

The rates in the Colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria are somewhat higher than the rate in England, which was 4.2 in 1891. The rate for New Zealand is less. In Scotland the rate was as high as 8.0 in the year 1889. In Ireland it was only 2.8.

The average number of children to a marriage may be ascertained by comparing the number of legitimate births for a series of years with the number of marriages during a series of years of the same number, but commencing with the year preceding that for which the first number of births is taken; for, although in the earlier years births will be included that are the fruits of marriages solemnised prior to the commencement of the period, yet there will be omitted the number of children born subsequently to the period, of parents married within the given time.

As the records of illegitimate births prior to 1875 cannot be accepted as in any degree trustworthy, that year has been taken as the starting-point for the calculation:—

Year.Marriages.Legitimate Births.Proportion of Births to every Marriage solemnised in the Preceding Year.
            Sums and proportion59,445306,8075.16

The average number of births per marriage was, for the first seven years 5.45, and for the last ten years 4.98, thus showing in the last period a decrease in the number of births to a marriage in the ratio of 9 per cent. In the Australian Colonies a similar decrease is noticeable. The Government Statist of Victoria has remarked that in all the Australian Colonies, except Tasmania, there is a tendency for the average number of children to a marriage to decrease. The average number of children to a marriage is greater in New Zealand than in the other Australasian Colonies. The number given in the Victorian Year-book for each of the colonies named is as follows:—

Children to a Marriage, 1880–90.

Victoria.New South Wales.Queensland.South Australia.Tasmania.
Mean of numbers for eleven years, 1880–904.224.704.604.734.51

The following statement of the average number of children to a marriage in various European countries is taken from the Victorian Year-book:—

 Children to each Marriage.

It will be seen that if we except Ireland the number of children to a marriage is larger in New Zealand than in any other of the countries or colonies mentioned; nor are the figures given for Ireland absolutely free from doubt, for the registration of marriages is not so complete in that country as the registration of births.

The excess per cent. of births over deaths for each of the Australasian Colonies is stated in the Victorian Year-book as under, for a mean of ten years ending with 1891, New Zealand having the largest for such period:—

Excess per Cent. of Births over Deaths.

New Zealand218
South Australia168
New South Wales152
Western Australia118

For the year 1891 New Zealand occupies the second place, the ratio of excess being highest in Queensland.


Aliens residing in the colony may, on taking the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty, obtain letters of naturalisation which entitle them to enjoy all the rights and capacities that a natural born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit within this colony. Sixty-three aliens were naturalised in 1892.

By section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1882,” repealed and re-enacted by section 2 of “The Aliens Act Amendment Act, 1892,” it is provided that when the father, or mother being a widow, has obtained naturalisation in the colony, every child who during infancy has become resident with them in New Zealand, shall be deemed to be naturalised and have the rights and privileges of a natural-born subject.

As the diversity of nationalities is considerable, the following statement is given of the number of each:—

Number of Aliens Naturalised in 1892.

Natives of
Sweden and Norway14

The number of natives of each country naturalised during the last twelve years is shown hereunder:—

Natives of
Sweden and Norway504
United States of America12
Other countries7

Of the number naturalised in the period 1881–92, natives of Germany comprised 34 per cent., Swedes and Norwegians 23 per cent., Danes 17 per cent., and Chinese 8 per cent.


The deaths in 1892 numbered 6,459, being equivalent to a rate of 10.06 in every 1,000 persons living. This is lower than the rate (10.35) in 1891, but higher than the rates for the period 1888–90.

The death-rate in New Zealand contrasts very favourably with those in the other Australasian Colonies and in European countries, and furnishes evidence of the great salubrity of the climate of the colony. The following table gives the death-rates for a series of years in the several countries named:—

*Excluding Northern Territory
New Zealand11.4510.3910.7610.5410.299.439.449.6610.3510.06
New South Wales14.6816.1416.4114.8913.1513.5413.4212.9014.2413.22
South Australia*14.5515.2412.4813.3812.7712.5211.4912.4013.2611.38
Western Australia17.9321.8717.6121.5616.8315.9114.1911.2616.9616.63
Sweden17.317.517.816.616. ..
Hungary32.030.831.631.433.531.729.832.3 ..
German Empire25.926.025.726.224.223.823.824.423.4..

A comparison of the above rates appears to place the Australasian Colonies as a whole in the foremost rank for salubrity of climate and healthiness of people, New Zealand standing well above the rest; but it must be admitted that the ratio of all deaths to the 1,000 of population living in the middle of the year, although a good test of the sanitary condition of the same country from year to year, and also useful for comparing the healthfulness of such countries as contain the same or nearly the same proportionate numbers of persons living at each age-period of life, cannot be regarded as a perfectly fair index of the comparative healthfulness of new and old countries, or even of that of new countries compared one with another, when the proportions living at the several age-periods vary considerably.

The truest rates of mortality are obtained by ascertaining the proportion of deaths at each age-period to the numbers living at those ages.

Deaths and Death-rates of Four Principal Cities.

The deaths in the four principal boroughs in 1892 numbered 1,251, against 1,331 in 1891, although the present Richmond ward is not included as part of Christchurch for the earlier year. The number of deaths for 1892 is thus shown to be 80 less than the number for 1891, but it is greater than the number for 1896 by 51. At Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin the deaths were fewer last year than in 1891; at Christchurch they were slightly more numerous, but, if Richmond were excluded, might be less. The deaths and death-rates per 1,000 of population for the last three years are shown:—

Boroughs.Deaths, 1890.Deaths, 1891.Deaths, 1892.
Number.Per 1,000 of Population.Number.Per 1,000 of Population.Number.Per 1,000 of Population.

From the above it will be seen that the death-rates in Auckland and Wellington for 1892, although lower than the rates shown for the previous year, are higher than in Christchurch and Dunedin. One reason for this is that in the two North Island cities the birth-rates are higher, the mortality among infants being always very great compared with that of persons at the more advanced ages. At Dunedin, where the death-rate was 11.59, the birth-rate was 23.27 per 1,000 persons; and at Christchurch the death-rate was 11.89, and the birth-rate 21.19.

The death-rates of the towns, after eliminating the element of infantile mortality, compare as follows:—

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population (excluding Infants under 1 Year of Age).

Dunedin now stands first, having a higher death-rate than Wellington, which comes next.

The death-rates for the capital cities of Australia are higher than the rates for the principal towns in New Zealand. A comparison is given below, in which the figures for 1891 and 1892 are stated:—

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population.
Principal Cities.1891.1892.

It is interesting to compare the death-rates for nine towns of the United Kingdom with those given above:—

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population.

The death-rate of Brighton is the lowest of those of fifty-nine towns in the United Kingdom for which the rates are stated in the Victorian Year-book of 1892, but is nevertheless considerably higher than the rate in any of the four centres of this colony.

Vital Statistics of Australasian Capitals, 1892.

Capital Cities.*Estimated Mean Population.Births.Deaths.Excess of Births over Deaths.
Total Number.Number per 1,000 of the Population.Total Number.Number per 1,000 of the Population.Numerical.Centesimal.

* With suburbs.

† If the births and deaths occurring in hospitals, asylums, &c., be excluded, the rate per 1,000 of the population of Greater Melbourne of births would be 34.53, and of deaths, 13.13, whilst the excess of births over deaths would be 10,214, or 163 per cent.

‡ The figures in this line have been partly derived from estimates made in the offices of the Government Statist, Melbourne.


The estimated population of Greater Melbourne at the end of 1892 was 474,810, as compared with 491,942 at the same period of the previous year. There was thus an apparent decrease of 17,132, or about 3 1/2 per cent.

Infantile Mortality of Four Principal Cities.

The infantile mortality for the year 1892 was highest at Christchurch. Compared with 1891, the rates for Christchurch and Auckland show an increase, but those for Wellington and Dunedin a diminished rate. The proportion of deaths of children under 1 year of age to every 100 births for each of five years is exhibited by the following statement:—

 1888.1889.1890.1891.1892.Mean of Five Years.

Christchurch is thus shown to have had the highest infantile mortality during 1892, and for four out of five consecutive years. Auckland has the next highest rate, both for 1892 and generally. At Wellington the mean for five years is nearly as high as that of Auckland. At Dunedin the mortality amongst infants is decidedly lower throughout than at the other three towns.

The infantile mortality of Greater Melbourne for 1891 was as high as 15.88 per 100 births, the rate for Sydney being nearly the same as that of Melbourne, and those for Brisbane and Adelaide higher.

Of the persons who died in 1892, 256 males and 209 females were at or over 75 years of age. Of these, 116 males and 90 females were under 80 years of age, 88 males and 65 females were 80 and under 85, 40 males and 37 females were from 85 to under 90, 12 males and 14 females were from 90 to 95, 2 females were between 95 and 100 years, and 1 female reached the age of 100 years.

The combined ages of all the males who died amounted to 124,986 years, and those of the females to 77,241 years, giving an average age at death of 32.97 years for the males and 28.95 years for the females.

The average age at death of persons of each sex, in each of the past five years, was as follows:—

188332.16 years27.85 years.
188932.29 years27.69 years
189033.81 years28.62 years
189133.11 years29.25 years
189232.97 years28.95 years

More males than females are born annually, and more male than female infants die in proportion to the number of each sex born. In 1892 the number of male children born was 9,101, and the number of deaths of male infants under 1 year of age was 910, being at the rate of 100 in every 1,000 born; the number of females born was 8,775, and the number that died under 1 year of age was 684, being in the proportion of 78 in every 1,000 born.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under 1 year during 1892, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Year.Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.
Number of Deaths.
Deaths to the 1,000 Births.

It will be seen from these figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are far stronger in favour of female than of male infants. Thus, during the year 1892 there were—

100 deaths of males to 69.63deaths of females under 1 month of age;
100 deaths of males to 71.20deaths of females from 1 to 3 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 81.91deaths of females from 3 to 6 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 81.13deaths of females from 6 to 12 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 75.16deaths of females under 12 months of age.

The rates of infantile mortality—that is, the proportion the deaths of children under 1 year of age bear to the births—are higher in the Australian Colonies than in New Zealand. The following table gives the rate in the several colonies named for each of the ten years 1881–90:—

Number of Deaths of Children under 1 Year of Age to every 100 Births.

Year.Queens-land.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.

Infantile mortality is as a rule greatest in the large towns, where the population is dense and the sanitary conditions are less favourable than in country districts. The absence in New Zealand of any such large centres of population as are found in some of the Australian Colonies may partially account for the lower rates of infantile mortality in this colony. The following shows the proportion of infantile deaths to births in each of the four principal boroughs in New Zealand during the past seven years:—

Deaths of Infants under 1 Year of Age to every 100 Births.


Causes of Death.

The following statement gives the classification of diseases, with the percentage of deaths therefrom to the total mortality, and the proportion to the 10,000 of population in each class and order, in the years 1890, 1891, and 1892:—

Class and Order.Per 100 Deaths.Per 10,000 of the Population.
Class I. — Specific Febrile or Zymotic Diseases      
    Order 1. Miasmatic diseases7.6210.579.407.3610.949.45
    Order 2. Diarrhœal diseases4.844.895.094.675.065.12
    Order 3. Malarial diseases0.
    Order 4. Zoogenous diseases..0.02....0.02..
    Order 5. Venereal diseases0.300.
    Order 6. Septic diseases0.951.090.850.921.130.86
            Total Class I...13.7316.7915.5713.2617.3815.67
Class II.—Parasitic Diseases 0.330.200.420.320.210.42
Class III.—Dietetic Diseases 0.770.951.300.740.981.31
Class IV.—Constitutional Diseases 17.8016.3217.5117.1916.8917.61
Class V.—Developmental Diseases 7.967.187.797.687.437.83
Class VI.—Local Diseases      
    Order 1. Diseases of nervous system11.1910.2310.7610.8110.5910.82
    Order 2. Diseases of organs of special sense0.
    Order 3. Diseases of circulatory system7.568.107.827.308.387.86
    Order 4. Diseases of respiratory system12.6113.3912.1412.1813.8612.21
    Order 5. Diseases of digestive system9.238.429.408.918.729.45
    Order 6. Diseases of lymphatic system and ductless glands0.
    Order 7. Diseases of urinary system2.673.412.632.583.532.68
    Order 8. Diseases of reproductive system—      
        (a) Of organs of generation0.430.290.360.420.300.36
        (b) Of parturition1.341.040.801.291.080.81
    Order 9. Diseases of organs of locomotion0.230.320.320.220.330.33
    Order 10. Diseases of integumentary system0.350.250.220.340.250.22
            Total Class VI.45.9145.8844.9044.3347.4845.16
Class VII.—Violence      
    Order 1. Accident or negligence7.516.807.
    Order 2. Homicide0.
    Order 3. Suicide1.070.860.911.030.890.92
    Order 4. Execution............
            Total Class VII.8.697.778.198.398.038.24
Class VIII.—Ill-defined and Not-specified Causes 4.814.914.324.645.084.34

The deaths in 1892 from specific, febrile, or zymotic diseases amounted to 1,006, a proportion of 157 in every 100,000 persons living, and a decrease of 88 compared with the deaths in 1891 from the same causes. The mortality from diphtheria was more than double that of 1891, and there was a slight increase in the deaths from diarrhœal diseases, typhoid fever, and puerperal fever; but a greatly diminished mortality from scarlet fever, whooping-cough, and influenza.

The following are the diseases in this class which caused the greatest mortality in the past eight years:—

Scarlet fever and scarlatina12718211931214
Diarrhœal diseases399455475214355290319329
Enteric or typhoid fever118123158130118145119134
Puerperal fever4833243925192729

From smallpox there were no deaths. Growing neglect of vaccination has been commented on before; but the records of the year 1892 show still greater disregard to the requirements of the law. The number of children under 1 year of age successfully vaccinated, and the proportion to the total number of those born are given for four years:—

Year.Children under 1 Year Successfully Vaccinated.Proportion of Successful Vaccinations of Children under 1 Year of Age to Total Births.
18898,92848.37 per cent.
18907,79842.66 per cent.
18917,09138.81 per cent.
18925,79432.41 per cent.

Thus it would appear that only one child in every three born is successfully vaccinated, which is a serious matter enough when the possibility of an epidemic of smallpox is taken into consideration.

The proportions of successful vaccinations of all children under 14 years of age to the total of births for the same four years show a similar decrease, the figures being—for the year 1889, 61.55 per cent.; 1890, 51.19 per cent.; 1891, 50.81 per cent.; and 1892, 45.96 per cent.

The deaths in England from smallpox for the year 1891 were only 49 in number; and the deaths caused by the effects of vaccination were 43.

Although the mortality from scarlet fever was lower in 1892 (the deaths numbering only 4) than in any year since 1885, the deaths from diphtheria show a most formidable increase, from 86 in 1891 to 195 in 1892. This disease prevailed most in the Provincial District of Wellington, where there were 74 deaths in 1892, or 38 per cent, of the total number in the colony. The numbers for the various provincial districts were:—

Deaths from Diphtheria.

Provincial Districts.Total Number.Males.Females.
      Hawke's Bay954
      Westland1 1

Though the deaths from whooping-cough were far fewer in 1892 than in 1891, the number was greater than in 1890, and six times as great as in 1889. The deaths from influenza show the existence of an epidemic, for in 1887, 1888, and 1889 there were only 27 deaths from this cause, 9 in each year, but in 1891 and 1892 the numbers were 210 and 144 respectively. From diarrhœal diseases the mortality in 1892 was slightly greater than in 1890 and 1891, but not so great as in 1889.

The death-rate from these diseases fluctuates considerably from year to year, and, though not invariably, often rises and falls with the varying temperature of seasons and years. The following table, showing the mean maximum temperature in the summer months at the stations specified, exhibits the rise or fall of mortality from diarrhœal diseases with the rise and fall of temperature:—

Mean Maximum Temperature in Shade for the Three Months, January, February, March.

Deaths in year from diarrhœal diseases per 10,000 persons living7.963.535.784.675.065.12

The mortality from typhoid fever was higher in 1892 than in 1891, the numbers of deaths being 134 and 119. The proportion per 10,000 persons living was 2.9 in 1892, against 1.89 in 1891. For the years 1881.90 the average proportions for the various Australian Colonies are given in the Victorian Year-book, from which it appears that New Zealand has by far the lowest:—

Deaths from typhoid Fever, 1881–90.

Queensland9.61 per 10,000 persons living.
Victoria5.69 per 10,000 persons living.
New South Wales4.77 per 10,000 persons living.
Tasmania4.76 per 10,000 persons living.
South Australia4.18 per 10,000 persons living.
New Zealand2.48 per 10,000 persons living.

The rate for England and Wales for the period 1881–90 was even lower than in New Zealand, being only 2.23 per 10,000 living, though not so low as for this colony in 1891 and 1892.

There are more deaths from phthisis than from any other cause. The number of deaths was 495 in 1891 and 524–276 males and 248 females—in 1892. The deaths in 1892 were in the proportion of 8.16 in every 10,000 persons living. The rate among males was lower—8.10 per 10,000 persons living—than among females, who suffered in the proportion of 8.22 per 10,000.

The death-rate from phthisis in New Zealand is the lowest for the Australasian Colonies, as will be seen from the figures quoted below:—

Death-rates from Phthisis per 10,000 Persons Living.

 Rate per 10,000 Persons.
Colonies.Years 1881–90.Year 1890.

* High rate due to deaths of Polynesians.

†10.47 excluding deaths of Polynesians.

New South Wales10.629.34
South Australia10.479.29
New Zealand8.748.38

In all the Australasian Colonies the rate is materially increased by the deaths of persons who have come out either already suffering from phthisis or predisposed thereto. There is no reason for believing that this is any truer of Australia than of New Zealand; so that the lower rate obtaining in this colony may be taken as an indication of the superiority of its climate for withstanding consumptive tendencies. The death-rate from this cause in New Zealand is about half of that for England.

A table is given, as in previous years, to show the ages, with the length of residence in the colony, of persons who died from phthisis in 1892:—

Length of Residence in the Colony.Age at Death.
Under 5 Years.5 to 10.10 to 15.15 to 25.25 to 35.35 to 45.45 to 55.55 to 65.65 to 75.75 and upwards.Total
Under 1 month......131........5
1 to 6 months......24..........6
6 to 12 months......131........5
1 to 2 years......22..........4
2 to 3 years......231........6
3 to 4 years........11........2
4 to 5 years......1..........1 
5 to 10 years......18..411..15
10 to 15 years......16425....18
15 to 20 years......3614641..34
20 to 25 years........45421117
25 years and upwards........2715175..46
Not known......365..651127
Born in colony2234426121......90
1 to 6 months........2..........2
6 to 12 months........1..........1
1 to 2 years........1..........1
2 to 3 years........1..1......2
3 to 4 years......................
4 to 5 years......................
5 to 10 years....13731......15
10 to 15 years......5962......22
15 to 20 years......88962....33
20 to 25 years......4123......10
25 years and upwards........941632135
Not known....11312......8
Born in colony6..771296........119
            Totals of both sexes8212153145826939113524

Cancer was given as the cause of 307 deaths in 1892. In 1891 the number of deaths from this disease was 295; in 1890, 295; in 1889, 260; and in 1888, 263. The increase in the mortality from cancer in New Zealand, as well as in England, is considerable. In reference to this subject, the Registrar-General of England made the following remarks in his fifty-second report:—

To what causes such increase may be due is a question outside a purely statistical report; but it may be pointed out that, if it be true, as appears to be the general though not the universal opinion of medical experts, that the development of new growths is often due to a constitutional and inheritable tendency, and if, as undoubtedly is the case, such development does not, as a rule, manifest itself till after the usual age of marriage and of parturition, it must follow as a necessary arithmetical consequence that the tendency will spread wider and wider among the population. In the case of a disease such as tubercular phthisis, which in a large proportion of cases manifests itself before the age of marriage, there will be—at any rate, to a certain extent—a constant, if an insufficient, weeding-out from the candidates for matrimony of those who are most seriously liable to this disease; but in the case of cancer there will be no such preservative influence, and, so long as persons with this inherited tendency marry, practically without let or hindrance of any kind, there must, as already said, be a constantly-growing proportion of the population that shares in the constitutional defect.

The rapidity of the increase in the death-rate from cancer, both in England and in New Zealand, is shown by the following table:—

Deaths from Cancer in every 10,000 Persons Living.

Year.Now Zealand.England.

The increase, especially in the case of deaths of males, has been deemed to be partially due to improved diagnosis and a more careful definition of the cause of death; but, as medical practitioners conversant with the treatment of this disease are of opinion that it is becoming more common, the increase shown by the death-registers may be considered as to a large extent an actual one, and more especially so in the case of females, as cancerous affections among them are less difficult of recognition than among males.

The following table gives the death-rates from cancer of males find females for the past ten years:—

Deaths from Cancer in every 10,000 Persons of each Sex living in New Zealand.


Violent deaths form a very large proportion of the total mortality. In the year 1892 the proportion per 10,000 of males living was 12.89, and the proportion in the same number of females 2.98. Differently expressed, one out of every 776 males living, and one out of every 3,356 females, met with a violent death.

Of 439 males who died violent deaths, 54, or 12.30 per cent., were suicides. The deaths of females by violence were far fewer, amounting to no more than 90, and out of these only 5 committed suicide, a proportion of 5.55 per cent. The following gives the number of deaths from external or violent causes for the year 1892:—

Accident or negligence—Males.Females.
    Fractures, &c.16010
    Gunshot wounds6..
    Cut, stab61
    Burns and scalds2225
    Otherwise, or unspecified187
    Murder or manslaughter82
    Gunshot wounds8..
    Cut, stab8..

The accidental deaths in 1891 were 362 males and 81 females; and suicides, 48 males and 8 females.

The following figures, taken from the Victorian Year-book of 1892, show the death-rate from violence in the Australasian Colonies and the United Kingdom, from which it would appear that New Zealand has a higher rate than the Home-country, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but one lower than those in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia:—

Colonies or Countries.Proportion per 100,000 living of Deaths by Violence.
Western Australia161.7
New South Wales111.7
New Zealand95.7
United Kingdom77.5
South Australia74.2

Trade and Interchange.


The shipping entered inwards for the year 1892 comprised 686 vessels, of 675,223 tonnage—viz., 385 sailing-vessels, of 216,832 tons, and 301 steamers, of 458,391 tons. Entered outwards were 395 sailing-vessels, of 210,501 tons, and 294 steamers, of 445,596 tons, making a total of 689 vessels and 656,100 tons. Of 686 vessels inwards, 203, with 335,577 tonnage, were British; 411, with 265,769 tonnage, colonial, and 72, with 73,877 tons, were foreign.

Of vessels cleared, 189, with 315,633 tons, were British, 424 having 263,504 tons were colonial, and 76, of 76,963 tons, were foreign.

The following table gives the number and tonnage of vessels inwards and outwards, with the numbers of crews, during the past ten years:—

Year.Vessels Inwards.Vessels Outwards.

The above figures apply to the foreign trade only; but in a new country like New Zealand, as yet deficient in roads, but having an extensive seaboard and a number of good harbours, the coastal trade must be relatively very large, as is evidenced by the figures next given:—

Shipping entered Coastwise, 1892.


Shipping cleared Coastwise, 1892.


Imports and Exports.

The total value of imports for the year 1892 was £6,943,056, or, deducting specie, £6,712,511. The yearly values of imports during the past ten years are subjoined:—

Year.Imports, inclusive of Specie.Imports, exclusive of Specie.

The following is a list of the chief imports during 1892, arranged in groups, with the value set opposite each:—

Apparel and slops357,904
Boots and shoes141,968
Cotton piece-goods409,140
Hats and caps64,958
Linen manufactures53,443
Woollen piece - goods and blankets214,521
Agricultural implements6,184
Hardware and ironmongery193,402
Iron rails and railway-bolts, &c.6,473
Iron, other—pig, wrought, wire, &c.450,880
Railway plant17,537
Steel and steel rails25,225
Tools, artificers'44,494
Printed books107,422
Bags and sacks79,465
Fancy goods78,825
Fruits (including fresh, preserved, bottled, dried)121,308
Other imports (excluding specie)2,117,930
        Total (excluding specie)6,742,544
        Specie imported200,512
        Total imports£6,943,056

The import of any article in a given year is seldom identical with the amount consumed in that time. To ascertain the latter we must look to the quantity actually entered at the Customs for home consumption and subjected to duty within the twelve months. Thus, the quantity of sugar, including glucose, molasses, and treacle, entered for consumption in 1892 was 58,241,856lb., which gave an average of 90.68lb. for every person, exclusive of Maoris; but the persons of this race are estimated to consume, on an average, about one-fourth as much as Europeans. By deducting the quantity estimated to be consumed by Maoris, the average annual consumption of sugar per head of the European population is found to be 89.23lb.

The quantity of tea entered for consumption in 1892 was 4,088,349lb. Supposing Maoris to use, on an average, 1lb. per head per annum, the consumption of tea per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris, would be 6.30lb. in 1892.

The Australasian Colonies seem to be, in proportion to population, the largest tea-consumers in the world. The amount annually used in New South Wales is estimated to be 7.8lb. per head. The consumption of Victoria has been given by the Government Statist of that colony as 10.7lb., and of Tasmania as 5.35lb.; the figures for the United Kingdom being 4.70lb., for Canada 3.69lb., and for the United States 1.40lb. The consumption in New Zealand is thus somewhat less than in Victoria or New South Wales, but greater per head of population than in the other places.

The following table gives the consumption per head of alcoholic liquors by the population, including and excluding Maoris, showing separately the proportion of beer, wine, and spirits for the last ten years. To the amount of beer manufactured in the colony in each year, on which excise duty was paid, has been added the amount brought into consumption from imports:—

Excluding Maories.Including Maoris.Excluding Maories.Including Maoris.Excluding Maories.Including Maoris.

The quantity of tobacco entered for use in 1892 was 1,376,868lb. This gave a consumption per head of population—including Maoris, who are heavy smokers—of 2.011b. For the five years 1888–92 the average per head was 1.94lb.

Subjoined are the values of imports from various countries for 1892, arranged in order of magnitude:—

United Kingdom4,767,369
Australia and Tasmania1,112,099
United States381,627
India and Ceylon171,716
Fiji and Norfolk Island165,315
Hong Kong and China51,866
Pacific Islands45,191
Philippine Islands13,102
Asia Minor1,667
Malta and Gibraltar107
Canary Islands87
Cape Colony25

The values of imports in each provincial district during 1892 were as under:—

Hawke's Bay221,499

The value of imports by parcel-post (£24,861) must be added to the above figures, in order to make up the total of £6,943,056.

The value of all the exports in 1892 was £9,534,851; the value of New Zealand produce exported £9,365,868, being at the rate of £11s. 8d. per head of population. The following table gives the values of the several exports of New Zealand produce in each of the past ten years:—

Exports of New Zealand Produce.

YearWool.Gold.Frozen Meat.Butter and Cheese.Agricultural Produce.ManufacturesOther N.Z. Produce.Total.

The most important items of export under the heading “Other New Zealand Produce” are coal, silver, and minerals, kauri-gum, timber, bacon, salted and preserved meats, tallow, sheep- and rabbit-skins, hides, horses, and sausage-skins. The aggregate value of these in 1892 was £1,288,075. The declared values of the chief articles exported are given in the table immediately below:—

            The Mine.£
Silver and minerals12,757
                The Fisheries. 
                The Forest.£
        Sawn and hown87, 581
            Animals and Produce. 
Bacon and hams16,088
Beef and pork (salted)10,686
    Pigs and other live-stock2,350
Preserved meats69,420
Frozen meats1,033,377
Sheep-skins and pelts156,531
            Agricultural Products. 
Bran and sharps31,712
    Beans and peas17,229
Seeds (grass and clover)59,110
Ale and beer2,123
Phormium (New Zealand hemp)214,542
Woollen manufactures9,940
Other manufactures51,425
Total exports (colonial produce and manufactures)9,365,868
Other exports (British and foreign)125,052
            Total exports£9,534,851

The re-export trade of the colony would seem from the subjoined figures to have been almost stationary for the last ten years.

Exports of British, Foreign, and other Colonial Produce (excluding Specie).


With these sums may be compared the re-export trade of New South Wales—a colony having less than double the population of New Zealand—which, exclusive of specie, amounted in 1892 to £2,017,559.

The quantity of wool exported in 1892–118,180,912lb.—was greater than in any previous year by 11,993,798lb. The value of the wool exported in 1892 was £4,313,307. The annual production and the increase can be best estimated by taking the exports for the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of shearing, and adding thereto the quantity used in the colony for manufacturing purposes.

The following shows the produce on that basis for the last ten years, ending respectively on the 30th September:—

Year ending 30th September.Quantity Exported.Quantity Purchased by Local Mills.Total Annual Produce.

From these figures, it appears that the wool-clip has increased 53 per cent. within the last ten years, and this notwithstanding the large increase in the export of rabbit-skins, from 9,891,805 in number in 1883 to 15,899,787 in 1892, which does not indicate any great relief from the rabbit-pest.

The increase in the wool-production is of course mainly due to the greater number of sheep—namely, 18,570,752 in April, 1892, against 13,384,075 in May, 1883. It will be apparent from the following table that the tendency of increase is in the direction of the multiplication of the smaller flocks, the owners of which would be better able to cope with the rabbit difficulty than the large runholders:—

Number of Flocks, 1883 to 1892.

Size of Flocks.1883.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.1890.1891.1892.
Under 5005,0395,4225,6226,0246,2476,5797,0637,6628,2728,822
      500 and under 1,0009701,0331,1461,1891,1391,1821,3811,5281,6912,033
    1,000 and under 2,0006096727187477237948268549691,193
    2,000 and under 5,000467473505532531524597586666761
    5,000 and under 10,000244256270263289287279283287314
10,000 and under 20,000200211213228221213239236239231
20,000 and upwards149154157166166166152160169176

The amount of gold exported in 1892 was 237,393oz., but the produce (represented by the amount entered for duty) was 238,079oz.

The total quantity of gold entered for duty to the 31st December, 1892, which may be reckoned as approximately the amount obtained in the colony, was 12,308,296oz., of the value of £48,387,861.

Frozen meat now takes second place among the exports of New Zealand produce. An account of the development of this industry is given in a special article further on.

To ascertain the total value of the meat-export in 1892 it is necessary to take into consideration, with the amount of £1,033,377, value of frozen meat before stated, the value of preserved meats, £09,420; of salted beef and pork, £10,686; and of bacon and hams, £16,088.

The value of the grain exported in 1892 was £816,272. The grain exports were made up as under:—

Peas and beans102,10017,229
                    Total value £816,272

The quantity of butter exported amounted to 53,930cwt., the declared value of which was £227,162. Of this quantity, 41,5083/4 cwt., valued at £170,123, was shipped to the United Kingdom; 6,129 1/2 cwt., value £20,993, to Victoria; and 1,888 1/⅓cwt., value £8,810, to New South Wales.

If the export of butter is to assume any large dimensions it must be through the production of an article suitable to the requirements of the English market, on which the colony must for the present rely. It has been satisfactorily proved that butter from New Zealand can be delivered in good condition in England, and that for good samples remunerative prices are obtainable; but it is necessary that the butter sent should be not only good, but also uniform in quality and colour. Such uniformity can be obtained only by the methods in use in butter-factories. Upon the multiplication of these factories the future of the butter-export trade, with all its great possibilities, seems to depend.

The cheese exported was 41,492 3/4cwt., of a declared value of £91,042, of which 29,999 3/4cwt., valued at £64,534, was sent to the United Kingdom; 5,213 1/2cwt., value £11,517, to Queensland; 3,903 3/4cwt., value £9,149, to Victoria; and 850 1/4cwt., value £2,210, to New South Wales.

The following statement shows the total quantity of butter and cheese exported in the past eight years, and the amount of each sent to the United Kingdom:—

Year.Total Export of Butter.Butter exported to the United Kingdom.Total Export of Cheese.Cheese exported to the United Kingdom.
188524,92327315,245272 3/4
188717,0186,93723,9139,900 3/4
188829,99511,46036,68225,436 1/4

These figures abundantly demonstrate not only our power to place satisfactory produce on the English market, but also the importance of that market as an outlet for our surplus production.

The export of phormium for 1892 shows a falling-off. The market price continues low—averaging barely 17 a ton—a condition of things not encouraging to producers. Any considerable increase in the value of the fibre will doubtless result in temporarily increasing the output; but a large permanent development of this industry depends upon the invention of improvements in the machinery used that will result in lessening the cost of production and improving the quality of the fibre.

There were 8,705 tons of kauri-gum, valued at the rate of 59 9s. a ton, exported from the colony in 1892. This gum is obtained only in the extreme northern part of the colony. A special article is devoted to an account of this industry.

The following table gives the values of the exports from each port in New Zealand for 1892, arranged in order of magnitude :—

Invercargill and Bluff693,550
Poverty Bay243,957
Wairau and Picton165,011
New Plymouth and Waitara140,857

The total value of the external trade in 1892 was £16,477,907, equivalent to £25 13s. 2d. per head of the population, excluding Maoris. It will be seen from the figures given further on that the ratio of trade to population has varied but little for several years. The highest record was in 1873, when the total trade per head reached £41 19s. 3d., the imports, in consequence of the large expenditure of borrowed money, having then amounted to £22 9s. 4d. per head, against £10 16s. 3d. in 1892.

It has been the practice not to take the Maori population into consideration in estimating the trade per head, for, although they have a certain influence on the amount of trade, that influence is proportionately so much less than in the case of Europeans that a nearer approximation to correctness in respect of the amount per head of the European portion of the population is obtained by excluding than by including them. The effect of including them would be to reduce the proportion from £25 13s. 2d. to £24 1s. 8d.

The values of imports and exports per head of population, excluding Maoris, were, for each of the past ten years, as follow:—

Year.Imports per Head.Exports per Head.Total.

The trade with the United Kingdom amounted to £12,250,987, comprising 74.3 per cent, of the total trade.

With the Australian Colonies and Tasmania trade was done during 1892 to the value of £2,479,413, of which New South Wales claimed £1,162,491 and Victoria £1,029,778. The exports to New South Wales amounted in value to £699,933, and the exports to Victoria to £520,646.

The value of the trade between New Zealand and New South Wales and Victoria is here shown:—

Exports from New Zealand.

To New South Wales, 1892699,933
To New Victoria, 1892520,646

Exports to New Zealand.

From New South Wales, 1892462,558
From New Victoria, 1892509,132

The last two amounts are the values of the imports into New Zealand from the colonies mentioned, not their export value as given in the New South Wales and Victorian returns.

Included in the value of exports from New South Wales is £115,724, the value of the coal sent. Of the exports from Victoria, £120,000 was the value of gold coin.

The trade with Fiji decreased slightly during the year. In 1888 it was £149,839; in 1889, £170,181; in 1890, £184,684; in 1891, £221,603; and in 1892, £214,183. The trade with the other Pacific Islands and Norfolk Island, which increased from £27,727 in 1889 and £135,592 in 1890 to £173,161 in 1891, fell during 1892 to £137,052.

The following table shows the value of the total trade with the United States in each of the past ten years:—

Trade with the United States.

Year.Imports fromExports toTotal Trade.
Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.Atlantic Ports.Pacific Ports.

Of the exports to the United States in 1892 the values of the principal New Zealand products were—kauri-gum, £345,902; phormium, £111,724; gold, £32,342; sheepskins, £3,864; and sausage-skins, £1,865.

The trade with India (including Burmah and Ceylon) reached a total of £175,987. The imports—tea, rice, castor-oil, woolpacks, &c.—were reckoned at £171,716, leaving a balance of only £4,271 for exports. It would appear that ships arriving with cargoes from Calcutta or Rangoon do not return to those places, but load here with wool or other colonial produce for England.

The following table gives the value of the imports and exports of the Australasian Colonies for the year 1892:

ColonyTotal Value ofExcess of
Imports.Exports.Imports over Exports.Exports over Imports.
* Exclusive of overland trade in live-stock.
New South Wales20,475,84821,920,037..1,444,189
South Australia7,395,1787,819,539..424,361
Western Australia1,391,109882,148508,961..
New Zealand6,943,0569,534,851..2,591,795

The trade per head of the population in each of the colonies was as follows:—

Trade per Head of the Population in 1892.

Colony.Mean Population, 1892.Imports.Exports.Total Trade.
New South Wales1,181,175176818112351710
South Australia331,23422662312245188
Western Australia55,980241701515240122
New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris)642,2451016314161125132

The values of the exports of these colonies—chiefly those of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia—are largely increased by the inclusion of articles the produce or manufacture of other colonies and countries.

The following shows the value of home productions or manufactures exported from each colony in 1891, and the rate per head of the population:—

Colony.Home Produce exported.Per Head of Population.
New South Wales21,103,8161891
South Australia4,685,31314107
Western Australia788,87415711
New Zealand (1892)9,365,86814118

The amount of the trade of each of these colonies with the United Kingdom in 1891 is set fifth below:—

Colony.Imports from the United Kingdom.Exports to the United Kingdom.Total Trade with the United Kingdom.
New South Wales10,580,2308,855,46519,435,695
South Australia2,876,5484,524,3967,400,944
Western Australia568,570427,693996,263
New Zealand (1892)4,767,3697,483,61812,250,987

The following statement shows the relative importance of the Australasian Colonies as markets for the productions of the United Kingdom:—

Exports of Home Production from the United Kingdom, in 1891, to—

British India and Ceylon32,194,541
United States27,544,553

The exports to other countries did not amount to £9,000,000 in any one case.

The Australasian Colonies as a whole, with a population under 4,000,000, thus take the third place in importance as consumers of British produce, the exports thereto being about two-thirds of the value of the similar exports to British India, with its 290,000,000 inhabitants.

The principal productions of these colonies will, for a lengthened period, be those arising from pastoral, agricultural, and mining pursuits. The immense areas of land capable of improvement and more beneficial occupation, and the large mineral resources only partially developed, forbid any expectation for a very considerable time of such an increase in manufacturing industries as would enable colonial to supersede English products to any material extent. The consumption per head of the population may be somewhat less in the future as the proportion of adults decreases owing to lessened immigration and increase by births; but the relatively high rates of wages, and the absence of causes for any widespread pauperism, will make the proportionate consumption of products for a long time high. The rapid growth of the Australasian population may thus be expected largely to increase the demand for British products; indeed, there is every reason to believe that in the near future the Australasian Colonies will become the most important market open to the British manufacturers.

Postal and Electric Telegraph.

There were 1,263 post-offices in New Zealand at the end of 1892.

The correspondence delivered and posted in each of the two past years, and the increase in each case, was:—

Correspondence, &c.1891.1892.Increase in 1892.
* Decrease.
Letters delivered23,867,40225,079,9381,212,536
Letters posted23,745,46225,530,8041,785,342
Post-cards delivered1,097,7881,224,938127,150
Post-cards posted1,181,1411,346,098164,957
Books and packets delivered3,342,7816,508,4633,165,682
Books and packets posted3,827,9806,774,9242,946,944
Newspapers delivered9,768,2269,538,945229,281*
Newspapers posted8,733,6869,018,620284,934

The average number of letters, &c., posted per head of the population in each of the past three years was—

Books and parcels....5.356.0810.55

The facilities afforded for the transmission of parcels through the Post Office to places within and without the colony has proved of much convenience to the public. The regulations admit of parcels up to 11lb. in weight being sent to almost all the important countries of the world.

The following shows the number and weight of parcels posted in the last three years. The word “parcels” in the previous table includes the parcels herein mentioned:—

Parcels posted121,292lb. 336,644162,282lb. 432,635148,049lb. 448,887

Owing to the large reduction in the book-post rates a great number of the lighter packets of the classes formerly sent by parcel-post have been diverted to the packet- and sample-post. This fact accounts for the decrease in the number of parcels, while the weight and declared values have increased.

The following table shows the number of parcels exchanged with the United Kingdom and the Australian Colonies in 1891 and 1892:—

* Service inaugurated in August.
United Kingdom and foreign offices, viâ London17,1153,25313,9882,961
South Australia11310715694
Western Australia14311345

The declared value of the parcels received from places outside the colony was £25,299, on which the Customs duty amounted to £4,929.

During 1892, 199,438 money-orders, for a total amount of £694,847 4s. 5d., were issued by the various post-offices in the colony. The money-orders from places beyond New Zealand which were paid in the colony numbered 19,443, for the amount of £70,414 1s. 1d.

The cost of the various mail-services between England and New Zealand was, in 1892, as follows:—

San Francisco Service.

        Subsidies, &c.23,75659
        Interprovincial and other charges3,414109
        Postages received from England and the Australian Colonies10,15940
        Postages collected in the colony9,525134
            Loss to the colony£7,485194

Peninsula and Oriental and Orient Lines Services.

        To P. and O. and Orient Lines1,5031311
        Transit across Australia461811
        Transit across European Continent2661711
        Intercolonial services1,101170
        Postages collected from England and foreign offices756113
        Postages collected in the colony1,278140
            Loss to the colony£88426

The total amount of postages collected and contributions received for all these services in 1892 was £21,720 2s. 7d.

The average number of days in 1892 within which the mails were delivered between London and each of the under-mentioned ports in New Zealand was as follows:—

 San FranciscoP. and O.Orient
London to—Service.Line.Line.

There were 5,479 miles of telegraph-line open at the end of 1892, requiring 13,459 miles of wire. 1,904,143 telegrams were transmitted during the year; of these, the private and Press messages numbered 1,686,064, which, together with other telegraph receipts, yielded a revenue of £103,813 8s. 6d.

There were fourteen telephone exchanges and eight sub-exchanges on the 31st March, 1893. The number of subscribers increased from 3,083 in March, 1892, to 3,811 in March, 1893. The subscriptions to these exchanges during the year amounted to £19,155 11s. 5d., and the working-expenses, maintenance, interest on capital cost, and allowance for depreciation, to £19,734 1s. 1d.

The capital expended in connection with the several telephone exchanges up to the 31st March, 1893, including spare material on hand, was £107,254 1s. 3d.

Finance, Accumulation, and Production.


The revenue of the General Government is of two kinds—ordinary and territorial. The ordinary revenue for the year ended 31st March, 1893, amounted to £4,029,216, and the territorial to £300,675, giving a total revenue of £4,329,891.

The principal heads of ordinary revenue were: Customs, £1,642,590; Stamps (including Postal and Telegraph receipts), £658,424; land-tax, £297,181; income-tax, £67,367; property-tax, £17,126; beer duty, £59,388; Railways, £1,174,099; registration and other fees, £44,952; Marine, £20,354; and miscellaneous, £47,735.

The territorial revenue included receipts from pastoral runs, rents, and miscellaneous items, £190,320, together with proceeds of land sales, £110,355.

The total revenue (ordinary and territorial), including the proceeds of £280,300, debentures issued under “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884,” for the accretions of Sinking Fund for the year, amounted to £4,610,191.

The Customs duties constitute the largest item of revenue, nearly all classes of imports being subject to taxation.


The ordinary expenditure under permanent and annual appropriations was £4,153,125, the chief items being—Charges of the public debt, £1,821,129; subsidies and other payments to local bodies, £208,065; pensions, compensations, and other expenditure under special Acts of the Legislature, £87,217; Working Railways, £729,277; public instruction, £377,941; Postal and Telegraph, £277,224; Defence and Police, £173,220; and Justice, £116,809.

The expenditure out of the Land Fund was £141,044. Of this sum £114,238 was expended on surveys, and £26,161 was paid to local bodies on account of their endowments. The total ordinary and territorial expenditure was therefore £4,294,169; but, in addition to this, £200,000 was transferred to the Public Works Fund to give effect to the policy of the Government of carrying on public works out of revenue instead of out of borrowed money.

It was previously shown that the total ordinary and territorial revenue, together with the proceeds of debentures issued for the annual accretions of Sinking Fund, amounted to £4,610,191. It will therefore be seen that the revenue for the year exceeded the expenditure by £116,022; and that, by adding the surplus at the beginning of the year (£167,758), there remains a net surplus on 31st March, 1893, of £283,780.

Debentures to the value of £210,720 were redeemed during the year out of Sinking Fund moneys under “The Consolidated Loan Act, 1867,” and “The Consolidated Stock Act, 1884.”

Besides expenditure out of revenue, there was also an expenditure out of the Public Works Fund of £472,952, of which £220,894 was for construction of railways, £105,506 for roads, £57,187 for purchase of Native lands, £31,101 for public buildings, £29,245 for telegraph extension, £11,205 for lighthouses and harbour defences, £7,790 for the Public Works Department, £5,356 to meet charges and expenses of raising loans, £3,811 for waterworks on goldfields, £615 for rates on Native lands, and £242 for immigration.

In addition to the above, the sum of £19,575 was expended during the year in acquiring Native lands under provisions of “The Native Land Purchases Act, 1892;” £7,700 of this amount was paid in debentures, the remainder (£11,875) in cash. The operations were by means of debentures created, amounting for the year to £27,700.

Besides the revenue raised by the General Government, all the County and Borough Councils, Town, Road, River, Harbour, and Drainage Boards have power to levy rates and obtain revenue from other sources.

The colony is divided into 93 boroughs and 78 counties; within the latter there are 254 road districts and 41 town districts, not including the special town district of Rotorua, constituted under “ The Thermal-Springs Districts Act, 1881.”

The following table shows the receipts from rates and other sources, with the expenditure and outstanding loans of the local governing bodies, for five financial years:—

Year.Receipts of Local Bodies.Expenditure.Outstanding Loans.
From Rates.From Government and other Sources, including Loans.
*Not including loans amounting to £468,249, repayable to General Government by annual instalments.

Further particulars relating to local finance will be found under the head “Local Governing Bodies.”


The direct taxation prior to 1892 consisted of a property-tax of 1d. in the pound on all assessed real and personal property (with exemption of £500) and the stamp duties; but in 1891 a Land and Income Assessment Act was passed repealing the property-tax. A full description of the system of the land- and income-tax is given by the Commissioner in a special article in Part II. of this book, and to this attention is particularly directed. The leading features only are shortly stated here.

The Assessment Act of 1891 provides for an ordinary land-tax on the actual value of land, a deduction being allowed to each owner of the present value of improvements up to £3,000; and an owner is also allowed to deduct any amount owing by him secured on a registered mortgage. In addition to the above deductions, there is an exemption of £500 allowed when the balance, after making deductions as stated, does not exceed £1,500; and above that a smaller exemption is allowed, but it ceases when the balance amounts to £2,500. Mortgages are subject to the land-tax. The revenue from the land-tax is, in round numbers, £300,000 per annum. The rate of ordinary land-tax for 1892–93 was 1d. in the pound.

In addition to the ordinary land-tax, there is a graduated land-tax which commences when the unimproved value is £5,000. For the graduated land-tax, the present value of all improvements is deducted; but mortgages are not deducted. The scale is as follows:—

Where the value is £5,000 and is less than £10,000 one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £10,000 and is less than £20,000 two-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £20,000 and is less than £30,000 three-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £30,000 and is less than £40,000 four-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £40,000 and is less than £50,000 five-eighths of penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £50,000 and is less than £70,000 six-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £70,000 and is less than £90,000 seven-eights of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £90,000 and is less than £110,000 one penny and one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £110,000 and is less than £130,000 one penny and one-eighth of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £130,000 and is less than £150,000 one penny and two-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £150,000 and is less than £170,000 one penny and three-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £170,000 and is less than £190,000 one penny and four-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

[To face page 106.]

“The Land and Income Assessment Acts Amendment Act, 1893,” exempts from liability to land-tax the value of all improvements on land, instead of deducting improvements up to the value of three thousand pounds only. The same Act increases the scale of the graduated tax, so that the highest rate is twopence in the pound instead of one penny and six-eighths.

[For full particulars relating to these and other changes see “Addendum”—special article on Land and Income Tax—additional report, p. 422.]

Where the value is £190,000 and is less than £210,000 one penny and five-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

Where the value is £210,000 or exceeds that sum one penny and six-eighths of a penny in the pound sterling.

This graduated tax yields, in round numbers, £70,000 per annum, which is included in the sum of £300,000 given above. Twenty per cent. additional tax is levied in case of persons who have been absent from the colony for three years or more prior to the passing of the yearly taxing Act.

Income-tax is levied on all incomes above £300, and from taxable incomes a deduction of £300 is made. The rate of income-tax for 1892–93 was 6d. in the pound on the first taxable £1,000, and 1s. in the pound on taxable incomes over £1,000.

The indirect taxation is by way of Customs duty and excise duty on beer made in the colony. The following statement shows the amount raised by taxation in each of the past eleven years:—

 Amount of Revenue raised by Taxation.Amount per Head of Population (excluding Maoris).
 ££ s. d.
18821,956,5573  16  10
18831,957,0803  13  11
18841,815,6743  5  9
18852,016,7303  10  10
18861,882,0503  4  8
18871,876,2353  2  11
18882,031,6583  7  1
18892,090,4053  8  4
18902,173,9853  10  0
18912,179,7393  9  2
18922,339,5113  12  10

As the Maoris contribute somewhat to the Customs revenue, an allowance should be made on that account to ascertain more correctly the amount of taxation per head of the rest of the population. By including the Maori population the Customs duties per head of the rest of the population would be reduced by 4s. 5d. for the year 1892. If this amount be deducted from the taxation per head given for that year, the rate would be reduced from £3 12s. 10d. to £3 8s. 5d. This last rate may fairly be used for comparison with the rates in the neighbouring colonies.

The following were the rates of taxation per head in the Australasian Colonies in 1891:—

 £  s.  d.
Queensland3  14  3
New South Wales2  11  0
Victoria2  16  9
South Australia2  12  5
Western Australia5  2  4
Tasmania3  7  5
New Zealand3  6  1

Public Debt.

The gross public debt of the colony on 31st March, 1893, was £39,257,840, as against £38,713,068 on 31st March, 1892, an increase of £544,772. The accretions of Sinking Fund increased by £75,908—from £1,037,862 to £1,113,770. By deducting the accrued Sinking Fund from the gross debt, it will be seen that the net public debt on 31st March, 1893, was £38,144,070, or an increase of £468,864 on the year's transactions. No less than £333,446 of the increase of the gross debt was due to operations relating to the conversion of loans during the year; and although the capital amount has been increased, a very substantial annual saving of interest (some £53,000) results from these conversions.

The following shows the debt of each of the Australasian Colonies on the 31st December, 1891:—

Colony.Amount of Debt.Accrued Sinking FundRate of Net Indebtenss per Head of Population at End of Year.
 £££ s. d.
Queensland29,457,134..71  15  9
New South Wales52,498,533..45  1  0
Victoria43,638,897156,10037  11  2
South Australia21,133,300..65  17  10
Western Australia1,613,59499,32528  8  4
Tasmania7,110,290145,00445 12 9
New Zealand38,844,914972,58459  14  7

The amount of indebtedness per head of population was thus greater in Queensland and South Australia than in New Zealand. The net indebtedness per head in this colony has a tendency to decrease. In March, 1889, it was £60 12s. 2d.; in 1890, £60 5s. 4d.; in 1891, £59 11s. 11d.; in March, 1892, £59 2s. 2d.; and in March, 1893, £58 2s. 7d.; the increase of the population having been proportionally greater than the increase of debt.

Years ended 31st March.Amount of Debentures and Stock in Circulation.Gross Indebtedness per Head of European Population.Amount of Sinking Fund accrued.Net Indebtedness.Net Indebtedness per Head of European Population.Annual Charge (Interest and Sinking Fund).
 ££ s. d.£££ s. d.£
188938,375,05062 17 101,395,38936,979,66160 12 21,866,588
189038,667,95062 10 11,383,43237,284,51860 5 41,851,421
189138,830,35061 19 41,486,42737,343,92359 11 111,864,575
189238,713,06860 14 81,037,86237,675,20659 2 01,842,686
189339,257,84059 16 71,113,77038,144,07058 2 71,837,169

The debt of the colony as stated does not include the unpaid loans raised by the several local bodies, amounting at the end of March, 1892, to £6,081, 934. These will be referred to when the particulars of the finance of local bodies are being touched upon.

Portions of the existing loans were either raised by the several Provincial Governments or consist of loans raised for the purpose of paying off provincial liabilities. It is now almost impossible to ascertain the exact expenditure by these Governments on public works, or the allocation of the proceeds of the loans raised by them.

The burden of a public debt depends greatly on the extent to which it is expended on reproductive works, and the degree of prosperity enjoyed by the people. The generally rugged character of this country, and the natural difficulties appertaining to many of the sites on which the chief towns were built, very early necessitated a large outlay on roads and public works. The necessity was fully recognised, and to some extent met, by most of the Provincial Governments, which have justly received great credit for their far-seeing and liberal exertions in that direction. A great deal of road-making, often of a very costly character, was accomplished, harbour and other improvements begun, and immigration encouraged. Some railways were made in Canterbury, Otago, and Southland. The City of Christchurch and the agricultural plains of Canterbury were connected with the Port of Lyttelton by a railway, which required the construction of a long and very costly tunnel through the hills surrounding Lyttelton. In Otago, the City of Dunedin was connected with Port Chalmers by railway, constructed by private individuals under the guarantee of the Otago Provincial Government; and some miles of railway were made in Southland, extending from the Town of Invercargill into the interior; but no general and comprehensive scheme of public works could be carried out by the separate exertions of the Provincial Governments. The General Government, therefore, in 1870, enunciated its public-works and immigration policy, by which it was proposed to raise a loan of ten millions for the construction of main trunk railways, roads, and other public works of colonial importance, and for the promotion of immigration on a large scale, the expenditure to be extended over a period of ten years. This policy was accepted by the Legislature, and embodied in “The Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870.”

The demands for local railways and other works soon caused the original proposals to be departed from, and entailed an expenditure at a much more rapid rate and to a far greater amount than was originally contemplated. Although many of the works undertaken have been directly unremunerative, yet the effect of the policy, as a whole, has been largely to develop the settlement of the country, and enormously to increase the value of landed property; land, in parts which before the construction of railways was valued at from £1 to £2 per acre, having been subsequently sold at prices varying from £10 to £20 per acre. In addition to the important indirect results of the policy, the railway and telegraph-lines yield a revenue which covers a large proportion of the interest on their cost after paying working-expenses.

The following may be stated as approximately representing the loan expenditure by the General Government on certain public works to the 31st March, 1893:—

Waterworks on goldfields567,169
Roads and bridges3,708,817
Lighthouses, harbours, and defence works900,670
Public buildings, including schools1,846,679
Coal-mines and thermal springs25,435
Railways (by the Provincial and General Governments)15,583,004

The total of these various items of expenditure amounts to £26,736,974. The expenditure by local bodies on harbours, roads, and other public works out of loans raised by them is not included, nor are the amounts expended out of loans by the Provincial Governments before their abolition on immigration and public works, except their outlay on railways, which, including the sum of £82,259 paid for the Dunedin and Port Chalmers line, reached a total of £1,104,281. The expenditure on directly reproductive works—railways, telegraphs, and waterworks—has been £16,813,839. The expenditure on land is also partly reproductive, and that on immigration, roads, bridges, and lighthouses is of an indirectly reproductive character.

Private Wealth.

Statistics purporting to illustrate the importance of, and progress made by, any colony or country are evidently defective if no mention is made of the accumulated wealth of its inhabitants.

As to the subject of private wealth, an effort has been made to ascertain the amount in New Zealand. It seems but right to endeavour to give some idea of its magnitude, though many difficulties present themselves in the course of the work of making a reliable estimate. One method of estimating private wealth is by adding together the values of all estates admitted to probate in any one year, and dividing the sum by the number of deaths occurring in that year. The quotient would then represent the average wealth per head. But any inference drawn from the figures for a single year would be untrustworthy. For in a thinly-peopled country such as New Zealand an epidemic among young children, who have no property to leave, will unduly lower the average; while, on the other hand, the deaths of a few wealthy persons will raise it unwarrantably. By putting the figures for several years together, and taking the average for the term, we may partially, if not entirely, get rid of these disturbing elements, and arrive at fairly correct results, as thus:—

Years, inclusive.Amount sworn to.Total Number of Deaths.Average Amount left by each Person.Average Number of Persons living.Average Total Wealth for each year of the period.
 £ £. s. d. £
1888–927,209,91830,451236 15 5622,179147,314,048

From this it will be seen that the average total private wealth for each of the five years 1888–92 was £147,314,048. It is manifest, however, that this average does not exhibit with sufficient accuracy the actual present amount of wealth. If the average amount per head—£236 15s. 5d.—for the period 1888–92 was the same at the end of the year 1892, then the total wealth possessed by the 650,143 persons in the colony on 31st December of that year would amount to £154,003,700; or if for purposes of this estimate the mean population for the year be taken instead of that as in December, the total estimated private wealth of the colony would be £152,065,087.

These figures do not, however, represent the full amount of private wealth, as the amounts sworn to do not include the values of estates on which no stamp duty is payable—viz., lands and goods passing to the husband or wife of the deceased, and properties under £100. The total of these must be considerable, and they should give a substantial increase to the average amount per head, and therefore to the total wealth.

By the other and direct method of estimating private wealth the Government Statistician of New South Wales arrived at a value for New Zealand for the year 1890 of £150,192,000; and pursuing a similar course, but somewhat differing in detail, a calculation for the year 1892 has been made in the Registrar-General's Office, here, the results of which approximate closely to the sum of £154,003,700 shown by using the probate returns. The figures are admittedly open to many objections, as is always the case in such calculations; but though some items may be deemed to be stated at too high a value, and others somewhat low, the total would seem to be not far from the truth, judging from comparison with the result of the probate method.

  1. Land, Buildings, and Improvements privately owned.—The value of privately-owned land with improvements is estimated to be £96,066,000. In the year 1888 the sum was £84,208,230, and in 1891 it had increased to £92,371,166, or at the rate of about 3 per cent. per annum. By allowing a slightly higher rate of increase for 1892, which is considered justifiable, the above estimate is arrived at.

  2. Live-stock.—For purposes of the calculation, horses have been valued at £9 10s., cattle at £4 10s., sheep at 10s., and pigs at £1 5s. The total value of all kinds of stock is estimated at £15,299,189.

  3. 3. Shipping.—The value of steamers has been taken at £20 per ton, and that of sailing-vessels at £8. The total value of the shipping at these rates is £1,591,672.

  4. Railways (not Government).—The cost of the two private lines in the colony is returned at £1,613,000.

  5. Produce and Merchandise.—The value of the goods and manufactures, with that of the produce on hand, is estimated at £14,408,015.

  6. Furniture and Household Goods.—The furniture has been valued by estimating a certain sum for every house, according to the number of rooms, using the census results for the number of houses. For clothing and other effects an amount of £4 per head has been accepted. The estimated value is £8,937,678.

  7. The Machinery and Plant belonging to the larger industries were valued in the census returns at £3,051,700; adding to this £1,500,000 for machinery in smaller works, and £650,000 for agricultural implements, the total is found to be £5,201,700.

  8. Coin and Bullion.—The coin and bullion in the banks, together with an allowance of £3 10s. per head of population (the latter is the estimate of the coin in circulation) has been taken to represent the amount for the colony. The sum is £4,799,340.

  9. Mines and Sundries.—There is included in the total of £7,000,000 set down under this head what is believed to be the value of the interest of companies and persons in coal- and goldmines on Crown lands (the value of such mines on freehold lands being included in the £96,066,000 in item No. 1), also sundry small sums not accounted for elsewhere. This estimate has not been closely calculated.

The summary of the above gives the total of private property as under:—

            Private Property, 1892.££
1. Land, buildings, and improvements96,066,000
2. Live-stock15,299,000
3. Shipping1,592,000
4. Railways (not Government)1,613,000
5. Produce and merchandise14,408,000
6. Furniture and household goods8,938,000
7. Machinery and plant5,202,000
8. Coin and bullion4,799,000
9. Mines and sundries7,000,000

Working on a similar system, the Government Statistician of New South Wales estimated the private wealth of the seven colonies of Australasia for the year 1890 at £1,169,434,000. The latest figures available, showing the amount per head of population, are given below for each colony. All of these, except those for New Zealand, are quoted from the above authority:—


Colony.Private Wealth. Average Amount per Head of Population
New South Wales, 1891347
Victoria 1890304
Queensland 1890301
South Australia 1890310
Western Australia 1890218
Tasmania 1890236
New Zealand 1892237

It is interesting to compare the wealth per head of population in the Australasian Colonies with similar calculations for other parts of the world. A table giving this information for various countries has accordingly been introduced; but in comparing the wealth of one country with another it must be remembered that the purchasing-power of money in different parts of the world varies considerably, and without any information on this head bare statements of wealth per inhabitant are of very little use, and often misleading. Besides this, the question as to what extent Government undertakes such functions as the control of railways disturbs comparisons of private wealth. The figures are for the most part taken from the authority quoted above:—

Wealth of Principal Countries.

Country.Private Wealth.Average Amount per Head cf Population.
United Kingdom9,400,000,000247
Sweden and Norway880,000,000122
United States12,824,000,000205


The length of Government railways open for traffic on the 31st March, 1893, was 1,886 miles, the total cost thereof having been £14,733,120, and the average cost per mile £7,812. The cash revenue for the year 1892–93 amounted to £1,181,521 13s. 10d., excluding the value of postal services; and the total expenditure to £732,141 11s. 10d. The net cash revenue—£449,380 2s.—was equal to a rate of £3 1s. per cent. on the capital cost; the percentage of expenditure to revenue was 61.97.

The following statement shows the number of miles of Government railways open, the number of train-miles travelled and of passengers carried, and the tonnage of goods traffic for the past five years:—

Year.Length open.Train mileage.Passengers.Season Tickets issued.Goods and Live-stock.*
*The equivalent tonnage for live-stock has been given.

It will be observed that the number of passengers during the year 1892–93 was greater than in any previous year. Considerable increase in receipts from goods traffic is also shown for the year ended 31st March, 1893, the percentage of revenue to capital cost (£3 1s.) being the highest point reached since 1883.

The particulars of the revenue and expenditure for the past five years are herewith given:—

Year.Passenger Fares.Parcels and Luggage.Goods and Live-stock.Rents and Miscellaneous.Total.Expenditure.Net Revenue.Percentages of Expenditure to Revenue.Percentages of Revenue to Capital Cost.
 £££££££ £s.d.

Although not included in the figures for the revenue, the real gain to the colony is greater than the amount of net revenue shown by the value of the postal services performed by the railways (carriage of mails, &c.), amounting to £26,000 per annum.

In addition to the above railways there were 150 miles of private lines open for traffic on the 31st March, 1893—namely, the Wellington–Manawatu Railway, 84 miles; the Kaitangata Railway Company's line, 4 miles; and the Midland Railway, 62 miles.

The cost of the construction of the Wellington–Manawatu Railway was £766,598, being at the rate of £9,099 1s. 8d. per mile. The term “construction” includes equipment, rolling-stock, &c., not merely the construction of the road-line and buildings. The revenue for the twelve months ending the 28th February, 1893, amounted to £84,565, and the working-expenses to £34,580, equivalent to 40.89 per cent. of the revenue.

The revenue from the opened part of the Midland line was for the year ended the 30th June, 1892, £12,948 18s. 1d., and the expenditure £8,659 19s. 6d., equivalent to 66.88 per cent. of the revenue. The total expenditure on this line to the 30th June, 1892, was £1,023,669.

The following statement gives the number of miles of railway open for traffic and in course of construction in the Australian Colonies at the end of 1891 or 1892, where figures have been available:—

Colony.Number of Miles open for Traffic on 31st December.Number of Miles in course of Construction on 31st December.
New South Wales (1892)2,185333
South Australia (1892)1,66457
Western Australia651287
New Zealand (March, 1893)1,886188


The total average liabilities and assets of the banks within the colonies for the last two years were as follows:—


There was thus in the later year an increase of £802,877 6s. 3d. in the liabilities, and of £743,649 6s. 10d. in the assets.

In 1886 the average amount of advances made by the banks was £15,853,420, equal to £27.23 per head of the mean population. The advances gradually declined in amount and proportion to population until 1891, in which year they were in value £11,549,145, or £18.34 per head. During the year 1892, however, there was an increase, the average of the advances having been £12,228,435, equal to an amount of £19.04 per head of population. The amount of discounts, though showing a slight increase on the figures for 1891, was less than in any year since 1873. The largest amount of discounts in any year was £6,061,959 in 1879, at the rate of £13.53 per head of population. In 1889 the amount was £2,850,944, equal to £4.66 per head of population; in 1890, £2,524,573, equal to £4.07 per head; in 1891, £2,315,325, or £3.68 per head; and in 1892, £2,361,813, being again nearly £3.68 per head.

There was an increase of £790,964 in the deposits, which amounted to £13,587,062 in 1892, against £12,796,098 in 1891. Exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits bearing interest increased from £8,673,326 to £9,439,660, or by £766,334; and the deposits not bearing interest from £3,621,117 to £3,742,952, or by £121,835.

Thus, there was an increase of £888,169 in the average amount of private deposits.

The following shows the average amount of notes in circulation, notes and bills discounted, and bullion and specie in the banks in each of the two past years:—

Average Amount of1891.1892.Increase.
Notes in circulation937,309959,94322,634
Notes and bills discounted2,315,3252,361,81346,488
Specie and bullion2,405,0992,450,71245,613

The number of post-offices open for the transaction of moneyorder and savings-bank business at the end of 1892 was 331.

There were 26,232 new accounts opened in the year, and 18,171 accounts were closed. The total number of open accounts at the end of 1892 was 112,528, of which 80,999 were for amounts not exceeding £20.

The deposits received during the year amounted to £1,878,270 6s. 4d., and the withdrawals to £1,821,318 18s. 1d., the excess of deposits over withdrawals having thus been £56,921 8s. 3d. The total amount standing at credit of all accounts on the 31st December, 1892, was £2,863,670 12s. 10d., which gave an average amount at credit of each account of £25 9s.

There are seven savings-banks in the colony which are not connected with the Post Office. The total amount deposited in them in 1892 was £377,826 3s. 4d., of which the deposits by Maoris amounted to £109 1s. 8d. The withdrawals amounted to £402,920 1s., being in excess of the deposits by £25,093 17s. 8d. The total amount to the credit of the depositors at the end of the year was £716,873 12s. 1d., of which the sum of £199 12s. was to the credit of Maoris.

The deposits above stated for the banks of issue represent the average for the four quarters of the year. If the amount of deposits at the end of the year be assumed to be equal to the average amount for the last quarter, then it may be affirmed that, exclusive of Government deposits, the deposits in the several banks of issue and in the two classes of savings-banks amounted at the end of 1892 to £17,036,381. In addition, there was in 1891 an amount of £258,346 deposited with building societies; and it is known that there were also deposits with financial companies, of which no particulars have been supplied to the department. The known deposits amount on an average to £26 11s. 9d. per head of the population, exclusive of Maoris.

There were 43 registered building societies in operation in the colony at the end of 1891. Of these, 3 were terminable societies, the rest were permanent.

The total receipts by these societies during their financial year amounted to £652,384 15s. 7d., of which deposits comprised £250,456 0s. 1d.

The assets at the end of the year amounted to £988,223 15s. 2d., and the liabilities to £988,903 2s. 2d., of which the liabilities to shareholders, reserve fund, £c., amounted to £709,162 10s. 8d., those to depositors to £258,345 19s. 4d., and those to other creditors to £21,394 12s. 2d.

The Registrar of Friendly Societies received returns for the year 1891 from 365 lodges, courts, tents, £c., of various friendly societies throughout the colony, also from 31 central bodies. The number of members at the end of 1891 was 27,400.

The total value of the assets of these societies was £476,133, equivalent to £17 7s. 6d. per member. Of the total assets, the value of the sick and funeral benefit funds amounted to £425,070.

The receipts during the year on account of the sick and funeral funds amounted to £60,903, and the expenditure to £41,645, of which the sick-pay to members amounted to the sum of £26,082. In addition to the sick-pay, the sum of £25,667 was paid out of the medical and management expenses fund for medical attendance on and medicine supplied to the members and their families.

There were existing in the colony at the close of the year 1891 as many as 56,751 life insurance policies, an average of over 89 in every 1,000 persons living. The gross amount represented by these policies was £16,714,740 16s., equal to an amount of £294 10s. 7d. for each policy, and of £26 7s. 3d. for every European inhabitant of the colony at the end of the year. The distribution of these policies among the various life assurance offices is shown in the following table:—

New Zealand Business ofNumber of Years of Business in the Colony.Number of existing Policies at End of Year 1891.Gross Amount insured by Policies at End of Year 1891.
   £  s.  d.
The Australian Mutual Provident Society3016,7615,149,945  0  0
The Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society (Limited)82,928950,358  1  11
The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States7930456,014  0  0
The Mutual Assurance Society of Victoria (Limited)8981231,556  17  11
The Mutual Life Association of Australasia153,135792,809  16  2
The National Mutual Life Association of Australasia (Limited)122,580658,149  0  0
The New York Life Insurance Company521085,105  0  0
The Life Insurance Department of the New Zealand Government2229,2268,390,803  0  0
            Totals..56,75116,714,740 16 0

It will be observed that more than half the policies are held in the Government Life Insurance Department. A special article concerning this institution will be found in the second part of this volume.

Crown Lands.

Before referring to the results of each of the various systems in operation in 1892 for the disposal of Crown lands it is necessary to state that a description of these systems will be found in the digest of the land-laws of New Zealand in Part III. of this work.

There were 33,659 acres of Crown land sold for cash or money scrip during the year, the cash received having amounted to £32,243 11s. 10d., and the scrip representing a value of £1,912 4s. 8d. The lands absolutely disposed of without sale amounted to 243,008 acres and 24 perches, of which the reserves set apart for public purposes amounted to 21,841 acres 1 rood 38 perches; the grants to Europeans or Natives under Native Reserves Acts, £c., or in fulfilment of engagements, to 10 acres 3 roods 9 perches; those to Natives or Europeans under the Native Land Acts, to 150,288 acres and 5 perches; and those in satisfaction of land-scrip or otherwise, to 70,867 acres 3 roods 12 perches.

The total land alienated from the foundation of the colony to the 31st December, 1892, amounted to 20,364,209 acres. This does not include lands sold by Natives to Europeans direct, for which no Crown grants have been issued. The exact quantity so sold cannot be ascertained, but is believed to be very small.

In 1892, 27,785 acres were taken up under the deferred-payment system. The total area of land taken up under this system, from its commencement to the 31st December, 1892, was 1,240,412 acres. Of this quantity, the area forfeited was 246,489 acres, and 522,539 acres had been finally alienated by completion of payments. The area still held under the system at the end of 1892 was, therefore, 471,384 acres. The following statement gives the number of acres taken up under this system in each of the past ten years:—

 Acres. Acres.

The operation of what is called the perpetual-lease system with right of purchase, which became part of the land-law of the colony in 1882, has had the effect of lessening the demand for land on deferred payment, as under the perpetual-lease system the rental is only 5 per cent. on the upset value of the land, and thus, until the purchase be made, if made at all, the settler has all his capital available for beneficial improvements. 1,188,071 acres were in occupation under this system on the 31st December, 1892, in 4,498 holdings. 196,075 acres, in 749 holdings, were taken up during the year, but only 25,753 acres were converted into freehold. Although the right of converting the land from lease to freehold is highly valued, yet the temptation to postpone the use of that right is very great while interest at from 6 1/2 to 7 per cent. can be had on good investments, and only 5 per cent. need be paid in the form of rental to the Government.

Under provisions of “The Land Act, 1892,” up to 31st December last, 13,170 acres were selected for occupation with right of purchase by thirty-eight selectors, and 17,984 acres as leaseholds in perpetuity by thirty-six lessees.

The lands in the village settlements are disposed of partly upon deferred payments and partly for cash. The transactions are included in the sales of land previously stated, but the following details of the number and area of selections to the 31st December, 1892, are given in order to show the extent of these settlements:—

Village sections for cash926616222
Village sections on deferred payments330135030
Small-farm sections for cash6956,132320
Small-farm sections on deferred payments1,16614,784213

The freeholds acquired have been—

Village sections212113034
Small-farm sections6937,871218

The forfeitures were—

Village sections8453338
Small-farm sections1491,788236

During 1892, 102 selectors took up 1,347 acres in village-homestead special settlements on perpetual lease.

The area of lands held from the Government on depasturing leases (exclusive of small grazing-runs) amounted to 12,769,751 acres, in 1,543 runs, yielding an annual rental of £142,211.

The total area of land in occupation as small grazing-runs was, at the end of last year, 749,678 acres, held by 406 persons, and the rent received in 1892 amounted to £19,267 9s.


The results of the last census show that in April, 1891, there were in New Zealand 43,777 occupied holdings of over 1 acre in extent, covering an area of 19,397,529 acres, of which 12,410,242 acres were freehold of the occupier, and 6,987,287 acres were rented from—(1) private individuals, (2) Natives, (3) public bodies, and (4) the Crown (for other than pastoral purposes). The following table shows the number of holdings of various sizes, and number of acres held in freehold and leasehold, excluding the Crown lands rented for pastoral purposes only:—

Sizes of Holdings.Number of Holdings.Acreage.
Freehold.Leasehold, £c.*Total.
*Excluding Crown pastoral leases.    
Acres. Acres.    
1 to 1011,11628,12424,34352,467
10 to 508,899148,965105,751254,716
50 to 1005,613277,135158,128435,263
100 to 2006,851654,729374,0221,028,751
200 to 3203,916609,857403,4621,013,319
320 to 6403,8021,057,676660,0701,717,746
640 to 1,0001,321662,612395,8491,058,461
1,000 to 5,0001,6752,144,6271,280,5583,425,185
5,000 to 10,0002471,208,819559,9801,768,799
10,000 to 20,0001891,911,063788,3412,699,404
20,000 to 50,0001172,507,848833,0833,340,931
50,000 to 100,00024801,647723,0001,524,647
Upwards of 100,000 acres7397,140680,7001,077,840
            Totals, 189143,77712,410,2426,987,28719,397,529
            Totals, 188636,48511,728,2365,348,83817,077,074
            Totals, 188130,83210,309,1704,897,72715,206,897

The extent of land rented from the Crown for pastoral purposes, including the small grazing-runs, amounted, in April, 1891, to 12,469,976 acres.

The number of persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits in 1891, as ascertained from the results of the census taken in April of that year, was 68,607, of whom 65,950 were males and 2,657 females. Of this number 56,671 males and 2,387 females were directly engaged in agricultural, and 9,279 males and 270 females in pastoral occupations.

The agricultural statistics, which are collected annually in February or March, take into account only such occupied holdings as are wholly or partly under cultivation, and moreover do not include those occupied by aboriginal natives. Information concerning the farming carried on by the Maoris is obtained only when a census of the Native race is taken. In 1891 the Maoris had under wheat a total area of 11,203 acres; under maize, 5,599 acres; potatoes, 16,093 acres; other crops, 16,221 acres; and in sown grasses, 26,718 acres.

A summary of the results of the agricultural statistics collected in February, 1893, is exhibited in the two following tables: the first showing the number of holdings, and the acreage under various kinds of crops and in sown grasses; the second, the produce of the principal crops in each provincial district:—

Provincial Districts.Number of Holdings.Number of Acres broken up, but not under Crop.Number of Acres under Crop.Total under all Kinds of Crops (including Sown Grasses), and of Land broken up, but not under Crop.
In Grain and Pulse.In Green and other Crops.In Sown Grasses.
Wheat.Oats.Barley.Other Crops.Total-under Grain-cropsOats sown for Green Food.Potatoes.Other Crops.Total under Green and other Crops.Hay.In Grass including Land in Hay) after having been broken up.Grass-sown Lands (including Lands in Hay) not previously ploughed.
Hawke's Bay2,00213,7168096,2662,2295299,8332,92080126,90030,6217,298301,0271,028,3571,383,554

Produce of Principal Crops.

Provincial Districts.Wheat.Oats.Barley.Hay.Potatoes.
Hawke's Bay20,312177,20666,74112,9645,686

From these tables it will be seen that the final results of the recent collection give the number of cultivated holdings over 1 acre in extent occupied by Europeans as 42,768. It should, however, be observed that it is a common practice in Otago and Canterbury for persons to take unimproved lands from the proprietors in order to raise one, two, or three grain-crops therefrom, the land being after-wards sown down with grass-seed. Lands so occupied are returned as separate holdings. When the low price of grain renders cropping unprofitable, either land is not taken up in this manner, or land so occupied reverts to the owner and is included with the rest of his holding.

In 1876 the number of occupied and cultivated holdings was estimated to be, on an average, 14.88 to every 100 adult males; in 1881, 17.30; in 1886, 20.17; and in 1891, 22.79. Assuming the ratio of adult males to total male population to be still the same as existed at the census of 1891, the number of holdings in 1893 gives an average of 24.39 to every 100 of the adult male population. It is highly satisfactory to observe this progress, indicating as it does that a continually increasing proportion of the grown people are settling upon the land.

The extent of land in cultivation (including sown grasses and land broken up but not under crop) amounted to 9,713,745 acres. Of this area, land under artificial grasses comprised 85.06 per cent.; land under grain-crops, 7.75 per cent.; land under green and other crops, 5.60 per cent.; and land in fallow, 1.59 per cent.

More than half the land under grain-crops was in the Canterbury Provincial District, and more than one-third in Otago; but while the area of land in wheat was greater in Canterbury than in Otago by 189,606 acres, that under oats was less by 61,741 acres.

Of the total extent (24,906 acres) of land in barley, 9,569 acres were in Canterbury, 5,230 in Otago, 4,466 in Nelson, 2,318 in Marlborough, and 2,229 in Hawke's Bay.

The total area under wheat at the beginning of 1893 was 381,245 acres, and the produce was estimated at 8,378,217 bushels, an average yield per acre of 21.98 bushels. In 1892 the gross produce of wheat was returned as 10,257,738 bushels, which gave an average of 25.50 bushels per acre, but it is believed that the estimates in that year were too high. For the current year the estimates given by the farmers have been carefully checked by means of threshing-mill statements received. Deductions have also been made on account of loss by weather and other causes. The apparent decrease in the wheat-crop as shown by comparing one year with the other is therefore not entirely due to the lessened yield, but results partly from the fact that the statistics for this year are more trustworthy than those of 1892.

The area under wheat in New Zealand, the estimated gross produce in bushels, and the average yield per acre for each of the last ten years is here shown:—

Year.Land under Wheat.Estimated Gross Produce.Average Yield per Acre.

The following gives the area in wheat and the estimated produce for the Australian Colonies for the season of 1892:—

Colony.Wheat-crop, 1892.
 Acres.Bushels.Bushels per Acre.
New South Wales356,6663,963,66811.11
South Australia1,552,4236,436,4884.15
Western Australia26,866295,52611.00
New Zealand (1893)381,2458,378,21721.98

The amount of wheat consumed by the population or used up by them in any year is estimated by deducting from the gross yield the amount exported in that year and the quantity of seed required for the next crop. It is impossible, however, by this means to give an exact statement of the quantity required for actual consumption for several reasons: (1.) The crop itself is an estimate, and the actual harvested yield may be either more or less; (2) the amount retained in any one year may be largely in excess of local requirements, and may form part of the following year's exports, thus apparently largely increasing the amount retained one year for consumption, and reducing the apparent amount retained for consumption the following year. It is thus clear that the results for any one year cannot by themselves be taken for the purpose of ascertaining the requirements of the people, and that even the average for a term of years will probably vary somewhat, as any year's results are added to or subtracted from the computation.

The total average consumption of wheat in New Zealand for the period 1877 to 1892, inclusive, estimated according to the foregoing method, was, apparently, 8.45 bushels per head of population, including Maoris. From this has to be deducted the wheat required for seed-purposes, estimated at 2 bushels to the acre. The remainder, being the amount required for food and other items of local consumption, averaged 7.38 bushels per head. The particulars for each year and the results for the whole period are here given:—

Table showing the Amount of Wheat annually retained in the Colony.

Year.Produce (including Estimated Quantity of Maori-grown Wheat and Imports of Wheat and Flour).*Exports of Wheat and Flour.*Retained in the Colony.Used as Seed at 2 Bushels per Acre.Difference for Food-Consumption.Mean Population (including Maoris).Proportion per Head retained.
For Food &c.Total retained
* In equivalent bushels of wheat.
Totals and Averages122,700,61643,346,70579,353,91110,049,92669,303,9859,389,4237.388.45

The difficulty of correctly computing the consumption of bread-stuffs is shown by the great differences in the estimates arrived at.

The average quantity required per head of the population (exclusive of that for seed) is estimated by the Government Statistician of New South Wales at 6.4 bushels for that colony, and by the Statist of Victoria at 4 1/2 to 5 bushels for the last-mentioned colony.

The amount of wheat required annually for use in the United Kingdom averages 5.65 bushels per head of the population.

The consumption of wheaten breadstuffs in New Zealand is thus considerably in excess of that in Victoria, and is also in excess of the amount consumed per head in New South Wales and the other Australian Colonies. The flour used in the colony is produced by local mills, the quantity imported in 1892 having been only 212 centals—about 10 tons; but the quantity exported reached 4,568 tons.

The following is the average annual consumption of wheat per inhabitant for some of the principal countries of the world:—

United Kingdom5.6 bushels.
Canada6.6 bushels.
France8.1 bushels.
Germany3.0 bushels.
Russia2.1 bushels.
Italy5.4 bushels.
United States5.4 bushels.

If, in New Zealand, 7.38 bushels per head be taken as the amount of wheat actually required for home consumption by an estimated mean population in 1893 of 705,000 persons, and allowing seed for 400,000 acres at 2 bushels per acre, there would, on the wheat-crop of 1893, be a surplus available for export of 2,375,317 bushels, equivalent to about 63,624 imperial tons.

The number of acres under oats (for grain) at the commencement of 1893 was 326,531, and the produce was estimated at 9,893,989 bushels, giving an average yield per acre of 30.30 bushels. Of the land in oats in 1893, rather more than 53 per cent., producing over 58 per cent. of the total crop, was in Otago. Canterbury took second place for oat-production, with 34.58 per cent. of the area and 30.01 per cent. of the produce.

The oat-crop in 1892 for the Australian Colonies was as follows:—

 Acres.Bushels.Average per Acre.
New South Wales12,958276,25921.32
South Australia12,63780,8766.16
Western Australia1,30118,21414.00
New Zealand (1893)326,5319,893,98930.30

There were 24,906 acres returned as under barley in 1893, the estimated crop being 654,231 bushels, an average yield per acre of 26.27 bushels. In the previous year the area under barley was 24,268 acres, and the crop 688,683 bushels.

The estimated potato-crop was 104,173 tons from 18,338 acres, or an average yield per acre of 5.68 tons.

Turnips and rape form a most important crop in a sheep-breeding country such as New Zealand, and in 1892 the area of land under this crop amounted to no less than 422,359 acres. The returns of the present year give only 379,447 acres, a decrease of over 10 per cent.

Only 706 acres were under hops in 1893, giving a total produce of 7,059cwt., but even this comparatively small area is more than sufficient to supply local requirements, the imports in 1892 having been slightly over 330cwt., while the exports amounted to 2,124cwt. In 1890 the total quantity used by the breweries in the colony amounted to 3,940cwt. Of the land under hops in 1893, 589 acres were in the Waimea County and 95 in Collingwood, both in the Provincial District of Nelson.

The growing of tobacco does not progress in New Zealand. In 1889, 34 acres were being cultivated; in 1890, 25 acres; in 1891, 16 acres; in 1892, 6 acres; and in 1893, only 4 acres, producing 2,212lb. of dried leaf.

There were 20,085 acres in orchards in 1893, an increase of 458 acres on the area so returned in the previous year. Nevertheless, the fruit-crop of the colony has still to be supplemented by a considerable import from the Australian Colonies and Fiji.

New Zealand is essentially suited for grazing purposes. Wherever there is light and moisture English grasses thrive when the natural bush and fern and other vegetation are cleared off, In fact, the white-clover gradually overcomes the fern; and, from the mildness of the winter season, there are few places where there is not some growth, even in the coldest months of the year. In all parts of the colony stock live, although in varying condition, without other food than such as they can pick up. Sown grass, as might be expected, heads the list of cultivations.

In February, 1893, there were 8,262,045 acres under artificial grasses. Of these, 3,611,393 acres had been previously ploughed, and presumably under grain or other crops, and 4,650,652 acres had not been ploughed. A great part of the latter was bush- or forest-land sown down in grass after the timber had been wholly or partially burnt off.

The following shows the acreage in sown grasses in the Australian Colonies in 1892:—

New South Wales333,238
South Australia17,519
Western Australia (1891)23,344
New Zealand (1893)8,262,045

It will be observed that the acreage of land under sown grasses was over ten times greater in New Zealand than in the whole of Australia and Tasmania. When compared in size with the colonies of Australia, New Zealand is relatively small—about one-thirtieth of their total area—but in respect of grazing-capabilities the relative importance of New Zealand is much greater. Australia is generally unsuitable, owing to conditions of climate, for the growth of English grasses, and the amount of feed produced by the natural grasses throughout the year is very much less per acre than that obtained from the sown-grass lands in New Zealand—so much so that it may be stated that the average productiveness of the grass land in New Zealand is probably about nine times as great as that in Australia; and that the land of this colony covered with artificial grass may be considered equal, for grazing purposes, to an area of Australian territory about nine times as great.

The total quantity of grass-seed produced was, in 1893, returned at 928,731 bushels, of which 362,321 bushels were cocksfoot and 566,410 bushels ryegrass. The value of both kinds together is calculated to be about £160,444.

The total value of all agricultural produce, &c., based on the returns for 1893 is estimated to amount to about £3,937,747, made up as follows:—

Grain and pulse2,027,119
Hops and other crops44,930
Hay and green forage (excluding grass)618,365
Garden-and orchard-produce447,720
            Total value of agricultural produce£3,937,747

Animals and Produce.

Returns of sheep are sent in April of each year to the Agricultural Department, but full returns of other stock are only obtained when a census is taken. The number of each kind of live-stock, according to the returns from the European portion of the population, in the colony in each of the census years 1886 and 1891 is given below:—

Live-stock.Census, 1891.Census, 1886.
Brood-mares (included in foregoing)31,27629,853
Asses and mules348297
Cattle (including calves)788,919853,358
Breeding-cows (included in foregoing)280,711279,136
Milch-cows (also included in breeding-cows)206,906Not specified.
Sheep (including lambs)17,865,42316,564,595
Breeding-ewes (included in foregoing)7,371,4296,457,355

The above statement does not include the live-stock owned by Maoris. A census was taken of the Native population, their stock and cultivations, about the same time the census of the rest of the population was taken, but not of so elaborate a character. The result of the Native census gave the following numbers of stock owned by them: Sheep, 262,763; cattle, 42,912; pigs, 86,259; no statement of the horses, of which they have many, being given. The full number of those kinds of stock for the colony was, therefore,—


The number of sheep in the colony on 30th April, 1892, according to returns made to the Department of Agriculture was 18,570,752, and it is expected that the returns now being compiled will, when complete, show that the number in April of the present year exceeded nineteen millions.

No statement as to the annual consumption of mutton in this colony has hitherto been made, since no returns from slaughterhouses are rendered to the Government, and reliable information as to the number of sheep slaughtered for local use is not otherwise obtainable. Mr. Coghlan, Government Statistician of New South Wales, estimated (in 1888) that two sheep per inhabitant were required for home consumption in Australia. If this average held good for New Zealand, the number of sheep required annually for consumption in this colony would be about 1,385,000. (Maoris, for the purposes of this calculation, have been included in the population.)

The following gives the number of the principal kinds of live-stock in the several Australasian Colonies for the year 1891:—


*Including those owned by Maoris.

† Excluding those owned by Maoris.

New South Wales61,831,4162,046,347459,755
South Australia7,646,239399,077188,587
Western Australia1,962,212133,69040,812
New Zealand*18,128,186*831,831†211,040

New Zealand thus takes third place in order for number of sheep and fourth for the number of her cattle.

The following statement, based on returns published by the Statistician of the Department of Agriculture of the United States, shows the approximate numbers of cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs in the civilised world:—

*Includes only British India and Ceylon; French East Indies; Java, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia in Asia (Caucasia and Trans-Caucasia), and Cyprus.
North America57,887,43817,717,13951,292,79748,059,045
South America57,610,1835,486,03696,242,1372,723,516
Australasia and Fiji11,872,3601,786,644124,645,6061,156,325

The numbers of each kind of animal owned in the United Kingdom, her colonies and possessions, are:—

United Kingdom11,519,4172,067,54933,642,8083,265,898
British India and Ceylon53,766,0501,055,38530,074,606486,700
Australasia and Fiji11,872,3601,786,644124,645,6061,156,325
Cape of Good Hope, Natal, and Basutoland3,226,115587,41817,665,352333,866
Other British Possessions188,332138,703959,69630,285

Butter has always held an important position among the productions of the New Zealand small-farmer. Made by different persons and in different ways, it has not been generally suitable for the requirements of the English market, although considerable quantities have been exported to Australia and also to the United Kingdom; but the success attending the efforts made to produce butter of uniform superior character in dairy factories, and the fairly remunerative prices realised for such butter in England, have caused great attention to be given to the dairy factories for the purpose of supplying produce for the English market.

It is only in census years that any information is obtained of the quantity of butter and cheese annually produced in the colony, and the returns given by farmers must be considered as estimates only, as the majority of them do not keep occupied of their productions.

The following are the results of the returns made in the census years mentioned. The numbers represent the quantities produced in the preceding years:—

Annual Production of

Census year, 18813,178,6948,453,815

The figures for 1891 include 1,969,759lb. of butter and 4,390,400lb. of cheese made in factories.

The importance of the dairy industry to New Zealand caused the Government to appoint a Chief Dairy Instructor, to visit factories and give lectures and addresses on the benefits of co-operative dairying, the manufacture of cheese and butter, and subjects relating thereto. Particulars of this industry will be found in a separate article further on.

The growing importance of our export trade of butter and cheese with the United Kingdom, which must be regarded as the market chiefly to be considered, is shown in the table on page 96.


Important as are the grazing and dairy interests to New Zealand, yet her future is likewise intimately bound up with mining interests. The natural mineral resources are very great, and have exercised in the past a most important influence on the development and progress of the colony. Gold to the value of £48,387,861 was obtained prior to the 31st December, 1892. The gold produce in 1892 was of the value of £954,744. In the earlier years the gold was obtained from alluvial diggings, but at the present time it is mostly taken from gold-bearing quartz, which is distributed widely through several parts of the colony, and thus there is a much better prospect for the permanency of this industry than was afforded by the alluvial diggings. The amount of silver extracted to the end of 1892 amounted to only £144,144 in value, but recent discoveries of ore give promise of large production in the future. Of other minerals, the product to the same date amounts to £10,717,879, of which kauri-gum yielded £6,349,421, and coal, with coke, £4,141,975. The following gives the quantities and values of precious metals and minerals obtained during the year 1892, and the total value of mining produce since 1853:—

 1892.Total Value since 1853.
Copper-ore2 1/214818,014
Chrome-ore  37,367
Hámatite-ore  226
Mixed minerals8463169,672
Coke (exported)4,3065,69123,590

The approximate total output of the coal-mines to the 31st December, 1892, amounted to 7,805,301 tons.

[For full account of mines and minerals see special article, post.]

Statistics of manufactories or works are not taken annually in New Zealand, but every five years, at the time of the census. The figures for 1891 show an increase on the number of industries at the previous census, but not to the extent that was anticipated. They are—2,570 for 1891, against 2,268 in 1886, or at the rate of 13.32 per cent. Between 1881 and 1886 the industries returned increased from 1,643 to 2,268, or the rate of 38 per cent. Gold-quartz-mining and hydraulic mining-works are included in the above, increasing the number of industries by 209; 95 collieries are also included, with 2 antimony mines and 1 manganese, besides 9 building-stone quarries. Important machinery and plant being used in these mining-works, they are included, the Act requiring the returns.

The remarks of the Registrar-General in the report on the census of 1886 as to what are included in the returns are reprinted, as again applicable: “There is difficulty in defining what works should be included and what omitted. For example, some of the furniture factories consist of large workshops in rear of shops, in which several hands are employed in making furniture; but there are numerous cabinetmakers who also employ one or two hands in making furniture, but whose works can hardly be classed as manufactories. There are many industries in a similar condition, so that no hard-and-fast rule can be laid down; otherwise many industries that are in the aggregate of considerable magnitude, and of growing importance, would have to be omitted, or the table filled up with the enumeration of what are in reality retail businesses combined with the doing of a limited amount of work on the premises, either by way of repairs or as new work. Consequently, much discretion has to be exercised in the selection for the returns, possibly causing some little roughness in the result. Much additional work to that given is no doubt being performed by these minor industries. Some small industries have been given on account of their possessing a special character, or of being the germ of what may grow to some importance.”

The hands and horse-power employed were—

 Hands Males.employed. Females.Horse-power employed.
Census, 188116,5991,39913,601
Census, 188623,1612,49419,315
Census, 189126,9112,96933,392

Here the male hands employed are shown to have increased by 10,312 or 62.12 per cent. in ten years, and by 3,750 or 16.19 per cent. in the period 1886–91. The increase in the case of females is much greater for the ten-year period than in case of the males, being 112.22 per cent. for 1881–91, and in the quinquennium 1886–91, 19.05 per cent.

The increase in horse-power is 145.51 per cent. for 1881–91, and 72.88 per cent. for 1886–91.

At the census of 1891 an attempt was made for the first time to obtain information as to the wages paid in those factories or large works supplying wholesale orders, and employing machinery and plant, which are dealt with in the industrial returns. The amount for the year 1890 was £2,106,860 paid to males, and £102,999 to females, of all ages. The total value of materials operated upon was £3,471,767, so far as returned. The deficiency is not considered to be such as very materially to affect the figures given. The annual value of the manufactures and produce was obtained in 1886 as well as in 1891, and a comparison is consequently possible:—

 Annual Value of Manufactures and Produce.
Census, 18919,422,146
Census, 18867,436,649

or 26.70 per cent.

It will be observed that while the industries increased between 1886 and 1891 in number by only 13.32 per cent., as previously stated, the proportionate increase on the actual result of the work, as shown by the value of the manufactures or produce, was at the higher rate of 26.70 per cent. The hands increased at the rate of 26.19 per cent. for males, and 19.05 per cent. for females.

The approximate value of the land, buildings, machinery, and plant used in the manufactories or works can be compared for four census-periods:—

The value of the lands used for mining is not included in the above figures, and the value of Crown lands has been omitted throughout.

The principal industries returned at the census of 1891, and particulars relating thereto, are given in detail in the following table:—

Nature of Industry.Total Number of Industries.Number of Hands employed.Wages paid.Amount of Horse-power employed.Value of all Manufactures or Produce (including Repairs) for the Year 1890.Approximate Value of Land, Buildings, Machinery, and Plant.
Males.Females.Total.To Males.To Females.Total.
     £££ ££
Printing, &c., establishments1422,3731962,569207,0677,118214,185328354,559341,683
Machines, tools, and implements36526252845,2464145,287148144,47273,478
Coach-building and-painting108675367852,5267552,60194139,66096,225
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring1041,19061,19692,16627692,4424741,026,349153,592
Ship-and boat-building37145..14510,831..10,8312835,84710,172
Sail-and oilskin-factories3268561244,9091,4266,335..31,08316,799
Hat-and cap-factories1651611124,1382,1386,276..21,62826,005
Boot-and shoe-factories471,4754681,942107,04017,950124,99046403,73682,137
Rope-and twine-works24222..22213,658..13,65812976,71136,086
Meat-preserving, -freezing, and boiling-down works431,56171,568138,312147138,4595,1121,464,659476,151
Bacon-curing establishments33831846,671256,696783,43514,180
Cheese-and butter-factories742185126913,8001,12814,928387150,957100,453
Fruit-preserving and jam-making works1574431173,7819614,7423327,25510,042
            Carried forward1,29714,6402,61717,2571,066,43293,7401,160,17213,3836,313,0612,743,849
            Brought forward1,29714,6402,61717,2571,066,43293,7401,160,17213,3836,313,0612,743,849
Aërated-water factories112253826116,9823917,02115591,69173,147
Coffee-and-spice works17792816,512506,5629364,02430,850
Soap-and-candle works19201820921,19420021,394259155,71474,443
Chaff-cutting establishments6320322057,260707,33026963,23636,300
Brick-, tile-, and pottery- works1064841049424,93825225,19045956,830119,780
Iron and brass foundries791,78521,787157,24527157,272954403,635268,887
Spouting-and-ridging works12100..1007,981..7,9812533,14029,670
Gold-and quartz-mining works1351,971..1,971183,582..183,5822,656278,893241,715
Hydraulic gold-mining and gold-dredging74495..49532,904..32,9047,72873,713154,270
Other industries2911,5363141,850104,8098,590113,3991,472596,520667,632

The Government Printing Office and the Railway workshops have not been included in making up the preceding table (and indeed the information was not all obtained). This is in accordance with the practice observed at previous censuses in New Zealand, but is open to question, and it has, at least, the disadvantage of disturbing comparisons, as will be found further on, with other colonies where such Government establishments are included.

The order of the provincial districts, arranged according to the number of industries belonging to each, is as under:—

 Number of Industries including Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.Number of Industries excluding Gold-quartz-mining Works Collieries, &c.
Hawke's Bay8585

The values of the manufactures for the provincial districts were respectively as follows:—

 Value of Manufactures including Output of Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.Value of Manufactures excluding Output of Gold-quartz-mining Works, Collieries, &c.
Hawke's Bay525,394525,394

The following shows the most important industries arranged in order of the value of their manufactures or produce, and specifying all amounts over £100,000:—

 Total Value of all Manufactures or Produce, including Repairs.

Unsatisfactory returns.

Meat-freezing, -preserving, and boiling-down works1,464,659
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool-scouring establishments1,026,349
Boot-and-shoe factories403,736
Iron- and brass-foundries, boiler-making, machinists, and millwrights403,635
Printing establishments354,559
Gold-mining, quartz-mining and -crushing works278,893
Soap-and-candle works155,714
Cheese- and butter-factories150,957
Agricultural-implement factories144,472
Coach-building and -painting works139,660
Other industries, in which the value of manufactures was under £100,0001,377,028

The order of the principal industries arranged according to the number of hands employed is:—

 No. of Hands.
Printing establishments2,569
Gold-mining, quartz-mining and -crushing works1,971
Boot-and-shoe factories1,943
Iron- and brass-foundries, boiler-making, machinists, and millwrights1,787
Meat-freezing, -preserving, and boiling-down works1,568
Tanning, fellmongering, and wool - scouring establishments1,196
Other industries8,256

Comparison with Industries in Victoria and New South Wales.

A comparison has been made under four heads between the results of the industrial returns for New Zealand and those for Victoria and New South Wales, taken at the time of the census, excepting in each case those relating to mining works. According to the plan adopted at successive censuses in New Zealand, the Government Printing Office and Government Railway workshops for this colony have not been included in the previous tables. The figures for these are now added, and those for mining works deducted, for the sake of comparison. The figures for the two other colonies have been taken from a table published in December, 1891, by the Government Statist of Victoria.

Colonies.Number of Establishments.Hands employed.Horse-power of Engines.Value of Machinery and Plant.
New Zealand (including Government Railway workshops and Government Printing Office, but deducting mining works)No.Persons.H.P.£
New South Wales2,61946,52524,9094,557,022

The returns for New South Wales show 349 more establishments than those for New Zealand, and those for Victoria show an excess of 1,026 over the New Zealand figures. The average number of hands in New Zealand was also less than in the other two colonies, as shown below:—

 Average Number of Hands per Industrial Establishment.
New Zealand11.7
New South Wales17.8

The value of the machinery and plant in New Zealand is not much more than one-half that given for New South Wales, and little over one-third of that in Victoria. But, while these facts are noted, it must be remembered that the population of each of the other colonies was over a million of persons at the time of the census, while that of New Zealand was only six hundred and twenty-six thousand persons, leaving out the Maoris. Certain details of the comparison are given in the following table. Only those industries having in New Zealand manufactures or produce of a value exceeding £100,000 have been specified:—

Description of Manufactory, Works, &c.New Zealand.Victoria.New South Wales.
Number of Establishments.Hands employed.Horse-power of Engines.Value of Machinery and Plant.Number of Establishments.Hands employed.Horse-power of Engines.Value of Machinery and Plant.Number of Establishments.Hands employed.Horse-power of Engines.Value of Machinery and Plant.

* Including Government Printing Office and railway-carriage works.

Including railway-carriage works.

Mining works are not included in this table, though given for New Zealand in the previous tables.

    £   £   £
Printing establishments, bookbinding, and paper-ruling*1432,746378204,7751755,085871544,3461314,067651422,930
Agricultural-implement factories3652814827,046711,09046174,0801730411016,830
Coach-building, &c., works*1141,37344484,902†2072,79135196,360†1565,6321,399244,936
Tanning, fellmongery, and wool-scouring establishments1041,19647437,9531321,669824153,0551251,7391,084112,352
Furniture-and bedding-factories2561711010,6271051,85454362,855771,04118920,413
Boot-and shoe-factories471,9434618,627923,78712263,201602,80613232,248
Meat-preserving, -freezing, bacon, fishcuring, and boiling-down works1031,7925,119183,8184244924535,7803460343944,845
Cheese- and butter-factories7426938727,4095320027545,5222911,56381652,103
Soap-and -candle works1920925947,5113342738695,7102719425727,380
Iron-and brass-foundries, boiler-making, machinists, and millwrights1102,0121,009153,6502178,3953,916876,8641593,5501,787353,070
Other industries7683,3652,640450,6981,52617,18311,2841,661,95295014,3508,3291,892,267

Law and Crime.

Civil Cases.

Sittings of the Supreme Court are held for trial of civil cases at Auckland, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Wellington, and Wanganui, in the North Island; and at Blenheim, Nelson, Hokitika, Christchurch, Timaru, Oamaru, Dunedin, and Invercargill, in the Middle Island.

The number of writs of summons tested in the Supreme Court in 1891 was 744, against 929 in 1890, and 1,023 in 1889. But the number of civil cases tried increased from 182 in 1890 to 184 in 1891. Of these 23 were tried before a common jury, 51 by special jury, and 110 by Judge without jury. The total of amounts for which judgments were recorded in 1891 was £57,356. 131 writs of execution were issued during the year.

Seventy-two cases were disposed of at fifteen District Courts in 1891. Thirty of these cases were tried before juries, and 23 before the Judge only, making a total of 53 cases tried. Nineteen cases lapsed or were discontinued, and 6 cases remained pending. The total of amounts sued for was £7,599, and judgments were recorded for £1,588. 18,217 cases were tried before the Resident Magistrate's Courts, against 17,790 in 1890; the total of amounts sued for being £253,982, and the total for which judgment was given £131,774.


The petitions in bankruptcy numbered 605 in 1891, of which 573 were made by debtors and 32 by creditors. This number was the lowest for six years.

The following gives the number of petitions, the total amount of the unsecured assets, the amount of debts proved, and the amount paid in dividends and preferential claims for the past six years:—

Year.No. of Petitions in Bankruptcy.Debtors' Statements of Assets, excluding Amounts secured to Creditors.Amounts realised by Official Assignees.;Amount of Debts proved.Amounts paid in Dividends and Preferential Claims.

Not only is there progressive decrease shown as regards the number of petitions, but the money-figures point to a much better state of things than that existing in the first year for which information is given.

Of the bankruptcies in 1891, in 30 cases the liabilities were under £50; in 116 cases, from £50 to £100; in 198 cases, from £100 to £250; in 123 cases, from £250 to £500; in 59 cases, from £500 to £1,000; in 37 cases, from £1,000 to £2,000; in 31 cases, from £2,000 to £5,000; and in 7 cases, £5,000 and upwards.


The petitions in 1891 under “The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act, 1867,” were 36 in number—4 more than in 1890: 31 were for dissolution of marriage, and 5 for judicial separation; 20 decrees for dissolution of marriage were granted. The proceedings under the Act for the past five years were as follows:—

Year.Petitions forDecrees for  
Dissolution of Marriage.Judicial Separation.Dissolution of Marriage.Judicial Separation.

The petitions for dissolution of marriage amounted on the average for the five years to 7.71 in every 1,000 marriages, and the decrees for dissolution to 5.76.

The proportion of petitions and decrees for dissolution of marriage to the number of marriages is higher in New Zealand than in England and Wales, but lower than New South Wales, or Victoria. The proportion in every 1,000 marriages for these countries is as follows:—

Country.Petitions for Dissolution of Marriage.Decrees for Dissolution of Marriage.
New Zealand (1891)8.155.26
England and Wales1.880.95
New South Wales (1891)..5.91
Victoria (1891)17.4211.27

In 1889 a Divorce Act was passed in Victoria to allow of divorces being granted for wilful desertion, habitual drunkenness with cruelty or neglect, imprisonment under certain circumstances of either party, and adultery on the part of the husband. These additional causes for divorce have doubtless largely increased the proportion of decrees in that colony for the year 1891.

By an Act passed in 1891 in New South Wales, the conditions for obtaining divorce have been extended in similar directions to those of the Victorian Act.

Criminal Cases.

In respect of criminal statistics New Zealand compares favourably with the colonies of Australia, as will be seen on reference to the following figures, taken from the Victorian Year-book for 1892:—

1890Proportion per 1,000 of Population ofProportion per 10,000 of Population of
Apprehensions and Summonses.*Summary Convictions.Commitments.Convictions after Commitment.
New South Wales59.9843.6613.408.66
South Australia22.1218.815.342.59
Western Australia97.8166.7613.768.55
New Zealand (exclusive of Maoris)29.3922.377.383.09

Thus the proportion of crime in New Zealand, whether judged by the number of summary convictions or by the convictions in the superior Courts, proved in the year 1890 to be lower than the rate then obtaining in any one of the Australian Colonies, excepting South Australia only. Mr. Hayter connects this fact with the depression at that time prevalent in New Zealand. But in the following year (1891), along with returning prosperity, there was a still further fall in the number of charges and convictions before Magistrates, while the proportion of convictions in the superior Courts showed only a slight increase, as under:—

 Apprehensions. &c.Summary Convictions.Commitments.Convictions after Commitment.

The number of charges brought before the Resident Magistrates' Courts in 1891 was 17,613. These include repeated charges against the same person. In 1890. the number was 18,701; in 1889, 18,815; in 1888, 19,167; and in 1887, 20,336. Of these charges in 1891, 424 were against persons of the aboriginal native race, a decrease of 30 on the corresponding number in 1890.

The summary convictions numbered 13,349, including 298 Maoris. 480 persons were committed for trial by the superior Courts, a decrease of 16 persons on the number committed in 1890.

221 persons were convicted in the superior Courts, including 7 Maoris.

The number of summary convictions in the various Magistrates' Courts for certain of the most numerous offences, in each of the past five years, together with the proportion per 1,000 of the mean population (exclusive of Maoris) is given herewith:—

* Not including civil cases


* Including embezzlement, receiving, and false pretences.

 Per 1,000 of the Population.

The proportion of assaults is thus found to be less for 1891 than for 1890, but greater than in 1888 and 1889. The highest proportion for larceny during the quinquennium occurs in 1889, and the lowest in 1887. For drunkenness the convictions were fewer in 1891 than for any of the four previous years, and the proportion to population smaller. In 1886 the proportion per 1,000 persons convicted of drunkenness was as high as 10.28 (excluding Maoris), against 8.13 in 1891.

Further on will be found the number of distinct prisoners received in the various gaols given for a series of six years, showing a fall from 1,077 in the year 1886 to 694 in 1891.

The order of the colonies as regards prevalence of drunkenness for the year 1890 in proportion to population is given as under:—

Arrests, etc., for Drunkenness in Proportion to Population.
New South Wales16.93 per 1,000New Zealand9.14 per 1,000
Victoria16.54 per 1,000Tasmania8.01 per 1,000
Queensland16.41 per 1,000South Australia7.53 per 1,000

Here the highest proportion stands first, and New Zealand appears as exceeded in sobriety by Tasmania and South Australia only.

While there was during 1891, excluding Maoris, a decrease in the number of charges brought before the various Magistrates' Courts, and a decrease in the actual number of convictions in these Courts, the convictions in the superior Courts increased in the same year both numerically and proportionally:—

Year.Charges before Magistrates.Summary Convictions.Convictions in Superior Courts.
Number.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.Number.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.Number.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.

The convictions for offences against the person and property in the inferior and superior Courts were in each of the past five years in the following proportions per 1,000 of the population:—

Offences against the person1.431.251.221.311.24
Offences against property2.462.352.492.272.31

In 1891 there were 393 Maori males and 31 Maori females charged in the various Magistrates' Courts with the commission of various offences. Of these, 281 males and 17 females were summarily convicted, and 17 males and 1 female were committed for trial by the superior Courts. 7 Maoris, all males, were convicted in the Supreme Court during the year.

Prisoners in Gaol.

The Inspector of Prisons, in his report for the year 1891, writes thus: “The steady decrease in the number of prisoners for the last ten years in the colony may be looked upon as clearly indicating that the ideal object of punishment of criminals has to a certain extent been grasped, and that the sentence is not only the legal payment of a debt which has been incurred, both to the law and to society, but that it is also a deterrent from crime.” It is his opinion that the only efficient system devised for the repression of crime is entire separation and prevention of social intercourse by the cellular system, as the free intercourse of prisoners with one another gives grand opportunities to the whole body for perfecting themselves in the criminal art.

The returns from the various gaols give a total of 3,735 prisoners received during the year 1891, a decrease of 595 on the number in 1890. Of those received in 1891, 137 (including 6 cases of delirium tremens) were confined on account of debt or lunacy, including 5 Maoris, and 100 were Maoris charged with various offences. Exclusive of debtors, lunatics, and Maoris, 3,498 persons were received into the gaols during the year, a decrease of 576 on the number in 1890.

The number received includes persons awaiting trial but not convicted during the year, also the repeated admissions of the same persons, and transfers from gaol to gaol of convicts undergoing sentence.

In addition to the returns from the Prisons Department, a separate card for each admission is furnished for every gaol. These are arranged alphabetically, and, where several cards are found referring to the same person, all are thrown out but one; then the number of cards retained equals the actual number of distinct prisoners received in the various gaols during the year. The number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) received in gaols in 1891, and convicted of offences, was 2,113, a decrease of 284 on the number in 1890. These numbers do not include children committed to the industrial schools but not convicted of any statutory offence.

The following shows the number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) imprisoned in the past six years after conviction, only one cause being given when the person was imprisoned at different times either for the same or for some other offence:—

Felony and larceny594526563527516506
Injury to property546247536551
Assault and resisting the police209178162170206179
Acts of vagrancy205238251351333225
Other offences545477473365368338

The very satisfactory result is arrived at, that in 1885 these convicted prisoners averaged 53.56 in every 10,000 of the population; in 1886 the average was 47.82; in 1887, 44.25; in 1888, 41.81; in 1889, 39.00; in 1890, 38.61; and in 1891, 33.55. There has been since 1886 a decrease at the rate of 23.83 per cent. in the number of distinct convicted prisoners, and a reduction of 20.01 in the proportion to the 10,000 of the population.

It must be understood that the actual number of imprisonments for some of the above offences were much more numerous than the figures given, as a considerable number of persons underwent repeated imprisonments for either the same or some other offence. Thus, many persons returned as imprisoned for larceny underwent other imprisonments for drunkenness, &c. Many imprisoned for drunkenness were several times in gaol during the year for the same or some other offence, such as assault, riotous or indecent conduct, &c. In many cases there were several charges against the same person at the one time, of which the most serious followed by conviction has been selected. These numbers do not include Maori prisoners.

The following table shows the number of distinct persons (exclusive of Maoris) received into gaol after conviction during 1891, classified according to nature of offence, religion, birthplace, and age:—

Distinct convicted Prisoners, 1891.

Note.—In this table a prisoner convicted of more than one offence during the year is reckoned once only under the heading of the principal offence—e.g., a prisoner convicted three times of drunkenness, twice of vagrancy, and once of larceny is counted only once under the heading “Larceny.” Debtors and lunatics received into gaol, and children committed to the industrial schools but not convicted of any statutory offence, have been omitted.

——Felony and Larceny.Misdemeanour.Injury to Property.Assault and resisting Police.Vagrancy.Drunkenness.Other Offences.Totals.
    Church of England2172250...22269371262174913013776115
    Roman Catholic1182130414363115128189558925554147
    England and Wales153144111625535717193381081062385
    New Zealand1037141312521816251439522746
    Australian Colonies33511...4...817225715110316
    Other British Possessions414...2...312...835...285
    Other countries41210...4...14...1315633211707
    Under 10 years1.......................................1...
    10 and under 12 years2.................................1...3...
    12 and under 15 years10.................................3...13...
    15 and under 20 years6435...1...6...523321210510
    20 and under 25 years6227...51302161232851320328
    25 and under 39 years5191511212811311431045620739
    30 and under 40 years125154031324473621161478110500105
    40 and under 50 years771330183275361714633521237684
    50 and under 60 years45416...3...18...3641282832927845
    60 years and over1942...2...11...1514849110610

Of the above prisoners convicted, 19 males and 5 females were released on probation under “The First Offenders' Probation Act, 1886.” The Inspector of Prisons, in his report published in 1891, made the following remarks in reference to the operation of that Act: “It is exceedingly gratifying to be again able to report that this Act continues to work successfully and well, and generally carries out the intentions and purport of its introduction; in fact, the more it is known the better it is liked. It has certainly already rescued many from a career of crime. . . . The great argument in favour of the First Offenders' Probation Act is that it endeavours to work reformation in persons who are only just entering on a dishonest course. . . . If by any means short of increasing crime persons can be saved or reformed when young, or even when come to years of discretion, without being sent to prison, then surely a great and good work is being done. . . . In New Zealand there is every reason to believe and hope that the more the judicious exercise of the First Offenders' Probation Act is extended the greater, in a corresponding degree, will be the decrease of crime.”

During the year 1891, 72 offenders were brought under the provisions of the above-named Act, as against 93 in 1890 and 83 in 1889. Of the 72 offenders, 30 satisfactorily carried out the conditions of their licenses and were discharged, 3 were rearrested and committed to prison, and 1 absconded, leaving 38 still under the supervision of the Probation Officers, to complete their term. Since the Act came into force, in October, 1886, 448 persons have been placed on probation.

The following are the proportions of those belonging to each of the four principal denominations in every 100 distinct convicted prisoners in each of the five past years:—

Religious Denominations of Prisoners.
Denominations of Convicted Prisoners.proportion per 100 of Convicted Prisoners.Proportion of Denomination per 100 of Population at Census of 1891.
Church of England43.5442.9943.3143.1842.1740.51
Roman Catholic32.5131.8832.8532.2933.1813.96

Still excluding Maoris, the following are the proportions of distinct convicted prisoners, classified according to birthplace, for each of the past five years:—

Birthplaces of Prisoners.
Birthplaces.Number of Convicted Prisoners.Proportion of each Nationality to every 100 Prisoners.Proportion of Persons of each Nationality to every 100 of Population, 1891.
England and Wales91284880781170834.5633.5133.6433.8333.5119.06
New Zealand30231929431627311.4412.6012.2513.1812.9258.61
Australian Colonies108102107951194.094.034.463.965.632.55
Other British Possessions56442733332.121.741.131.381.560.59
Other Foreign Countries2061751931901777.816.918.047.938.382.57

A considerable decrease is observable in the number of prisoners born in the United Kingdom. This result, as years progress and the population of the colony consists more and more of those born therein, might naturally be expected. So also, for a similar reason, might an increase be expected in the number of New-Zealand-born prisoners. But in 1887 the number of native-born prisoners was 302, in 1891 273. This is a small proportion considering that the New-Zealand born comprise more than half of the population.

The following were the respective proportions of the convicted prisoners at each age-period of life to every 100 prisoners of either sex for the past two years:—

Ages of distinct Convicted Prisoners.
Age.Male Prisoners.Per 100 Male Prisoners.Female Prisoners.Per 100 Female Prisoners.
Under 20 years1371226.706.8125107.123.12
20 and under 30 years48141023.5122.88776721.9420.87
30 and under 40 years52450025.6127.9010210529.0632.71
40 and under 50 years44137621.5520.98938426.5026.16
50 and under 60 years31127815.2015.51434512.2514.02
60 years and upwards1521067.435.9211103.133.12

The following table relates to the New-Zealand-born prisoners (exclusive of Maoris). These are also so many distinct persons:—

Distinct New-Zealand-born Convicted Prisoners Received during the Year 1891.
Offences.Under 10.10 and under 12.12 and under 15.15 and under 20.20 and under 25.25 and under 30.30 and under 40.40 and upwards.Totals.
Felony and larceny1..2..10..46221281121311037
Injury to property................31............31
Assault and resisting police............2..1415..41....252
Acts of vagrancy............429714133..1816
            Totals, 18911..2..14..6977017269311014322746
            Totals, 18906..5120..63158519411228810325858
            Totals, 18892..4115462145920421237215523658
            Totals, 18885..10..35..6319611140942139226554
            Totals, 18874..4..1717919601139737156324656

There were, for all offences, 273 distinct New-Zealand-born convicted prisoners, against 316 in 1890; of these, in 1891, 93 were under 20 years of age. The decrease in 1891 is found to obtain throughout all classes of offence.


Inquests were held during the year on the bodies of 626 males and 186 females. Of these, 303 males and 52 females were found to have met their deaths through accident of one kind or another. The most fatal form of accident continues to be drowning. The deaths from this cause (121 males and 5 females) were 38.31 per cent. of the sum of accidental deaths.

There were 54 inquests on suicidal deaths, 46 on males and 8 on females. In 1890 the corresponding numbers were—males 52 and females 11.

Fire Inquests.

There were 37 inquests held after fires in 1891, but in only 9 instances was there a verdict of incendiarism given. Five verdicts were to the effect that the cause of fire was accidental. In 23 cases there was no evidence to enable a decision as the cause of fire to be arrived at.


It has been found impossible to collect complete statistics relating to education for the year 1892 in time for this publication, and the following figures for the previous year are accordingly given. An account of the Government schools for 1892 will, however, be found in the special article dealing with the system of education in the colony:—

At the end of 1891 there were 1,646 schools of all classes, at which members of the European and Maori races were being educated. This was an increase of 41 on the number in 1890. The public primary schools numbered 1,255 in 1891, against 1,200 in 1890. The number of aided or endowed colleges, grammar and high schools was 24, an increase of 2 on the number in the previous year. The number of private schools from which returns were received by the Registrar-General was 281 in 1891, a decrease of 17 in the year. There were also 10 industrial schools and orphanages, public and private, and 1 Government school for deafmutes. A school for the blind is included amongst the private schools.

The number of schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 75, an increase of 1 on the number in 1890.

Education at the public schools is free (except when these have been converted into district high schools, at which the pupils The subjects of instruction at the primary schools are required by the Education Act to be the following: Reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar and composition, geography, history, elementary science and drawing, object-lessons, vocal music, and (in the case of girls) sewing and needlework, and the principles of domestic economy. It is also required that provision shall be made for the instruction in military drill of all boys in those schools.

The number of young people of European descent, including half-castes living among Europeans, on the rolls of attendance of the various schools in the last quarter of 1891 was 136,451, an increase on the corresponding number in 1890 of 2,134. Of these, 118,946 attended the public schools, 2,205 attended the colleges, grammar and high schools, 14,142 attended private schools, 705 were inmates of orphanages and industrial schools, 403 attended Native village schools, and 50 were deaf-mutes at the Government institution.

There was an increase (exclusive of Maoris) during the year of 1,538 in the number attending the public schools, and of 516 in the number attending private schools. The attendance at the college, grammar, and high schools increased by 88, and the number of European children at Native village schools decreased by 3.

Exclusive of Maoris, but including 362 male and 411 female half-castes living among the Europeans, there were 61,382 boys and 57,564 girls in attendance at the public primary schools during the last quarter of 1891, an increase on the numbers in 1890 of 838 boys and 700 girls.

There were 1,323 male and 1,742 female teachers (exclusive of 154 sewing-mistresses) at the public schools at the end of 1891. Of the males, 243, and of the females, 744, were pupil-teachers.

Of the secondary or superior schools, 24 in number, 8 were for boys only, 7 for girls only, and 9 for boys and girls. The number of regular instructors in 1891 was 112, and that of visiting instructors 63. The number of pupils on the roll for the last term of 1891 was 2,205; of these, 1,325 were boys and 880 girls. There was an increase of 32 in the number of the boys, and of 56 in the number of girls, on the rolls for the last term of 1891.

The New Zealand University is not a teaching body; the undergraduates for the most part keep their terms at one of the affiliated institutions, which are the following: the Auckland University College, the Canterbury College, and the University of Otago, each having a staff of professors. The number of graduates on the 1st June, 1892, who had obtained direct degrees was 323. The number of undergraduates on the roll of the University at that date was 1,455, but only 608 were keeping terms, of whom 384 were males and 224 females. 33 of the males were medical students at the University of Otago. The number of students attending lectures at the affiliated institutions during the year 1891–92 was as follows: At the Auckland University College, 55 matriculated and 101 non-matriculated; at Canterbury College, 172 matriculated and 177 non-matriculated; at the Otago University, 152 matriculated and 48 non-matriculated.

There were 281 private schools in operation in the colony at the end of 1891, a decrease of 17 in the number in 1890; 39 were for boys, 41 for girls, and 201 for children of both sexes. The number of pupils attending them was 14,142, viz., 6,234 boys and 7,908 girls, not counting Maoris, 2 boys and 32 girls. The number of European pupils at these schools was greater than in 1890 by 451. Of the private schools 110 were Roman Catholic, with an attendance, of 10,144 pupils.

The following gives, for the past six years, the number of private schools and of Europeans attending them, the number of Roman Catholic schools and pupils being also shown separately:—

Year.Number of Private Schools.Pupils.Total Pupils.Included in previous Numbers.
Boys.Girls.Roman Catholic Schools.Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.

The total number of children of European descent (including such half-castes as live among Europeans) known to be receiving education at school at the end of 1891 was 136,451; of these 131,160 were from 5 to 15 years of age.

The number of children 5 to 15 years of age shown by the census of April, 1891, was 167,164, and raising this number by 1 per cent. we get 168,835 as the estimated number at the end of 1891. There would therefore be a proportion of 78.2 per cent. of all children from 5 to 15 years of age in attendance at school. But the census showed 8,178 children being educated by means of home tuition, most of whom would be from 5 to 15 years old. Adding these, the proportion per cent. of European children at this age-period accounted for in respect of education is found to be 83.

The number of Native village schools at the end of 1891 either supported or subsidised by the Government was 67–1 less than in 1890. In addition, there were 4 boarding-schools for Native children, the cost of whose maintenance was paid either by the Government or from endowments, and 4 private Native schools, one a Mormon institution.

The number of Maori children attending schools at the end of 1891 was 2,796—namely, 1,605 males and 1,191 females. These included 60 children of mixed European and Native blood living as members of Native tribes.

The number at the several schools in each of the two past years was as follows:—

Schools.Maori Children attending Schools.
Boys.Girls.Total of both Sexes.
At public European schools307355197222504577
At Native village schools1,0321,0308217981,8531,828
At subsidised or endowed boarding-schools1241195875182194
At private European or Native schools541016696120197

There was thus in 1891 an increase of 88 in the number of Maori boys and 49 in that of Maori girls attending school.

The total income of the various Education Boards for the year 1891 was £446,603 6s. 2d. The grants by the Government amounted to £408,983 0s. 3d., an increase of £52,323 17s. 3d. on the grants in 1890. These grants consist of (1) a statutory allowance of £3 15s. per child in daily average attendance, (2) a further capitation allowance of 1s. 6d. for scholarships, and (3) a varying sum for school-buildings. The income from reserves amounted to £34,741 11s. 1d.

The total expenditure in 1891 amounted to £408,683 4s. 4d., of which the sum of £343,880 3s. 5d. was laid out on the maintenance of the schools, £10,549 19s. 5d. used to meet expenses of the Boards, £11,143 10s. 6d. spent on inspection of schools and examination of pupil-teachers, £42,150 17s. 4d. on school-buildings, and £958 13s. 8d. on miscellaneous services.

The expenditure in 1891 on account of Native village schools was £12,380 19s. 7d., against £14,939 16s. 4d. in 1890. Further sums were expended for the following purposes: Maintenance of Maori children at subsidised boarding-schools, £1,544 14s. 5d. inspection, £654 19s. 9d.; and general charges, £579 6s. 8d.

The following was the cost of the Government industrial schools in 1891:—

School.Cost of School.Cost of boarding out.Recoveries.Net Cost.

Among the children enumerated as attending school are 50 deaf mute pupils at the Government institution for deaf-mutes, at Sumner, near Christchurch. The children are taught to speak with the mouth, and to read articulate speech by observing the movement of the lips. Many of the pupils who have passed through the institution have thus become qualified to take a part in conversation, and to be useful members of society. The number of the deaf-and-dumb returned at last census as under 20 years of age was 98.

During the year 1891, 9 blind pupils were maintained by the Government at a school in Melbourne and 2 at a school in Sydney, but these have since been sent to a new institution at Auckland, which had received 18 pupils altogether in June of 1892. Thirty persons under 20 years of age resident in the colony were returned at last census as blind.

Local Governing Bodies.

For purposes of local government New Zealand had on the 31st March, 1892, 90 boroughs and 78 counties. Contained within the latter there were 255 road districts and 45 town districts. A large portion of the area of the counties is outlying country, not being included within the road districts. There were also 28 River Boards, 21 Harbour Boards, and 1 drainage district.

The amount of direct taxation imposed on the people by these local bodies in the form of rates amounted to a gross sum of £488,824 for the year 1891–92, equivalent to an average of 15s. 6d. per head of the European population.

The total revenues of the various County and Borough Councils and Road, Town, River, Drainage, and Harbour Boards for the financial year 1891–92 amounted to £1,182,120 4s. 5d., of which the receipts from rates were £488,824 4s. 11d., and those from the General Government £109,022 1s. 5s.

The following shows the receipts and expenditure, with the amount of rates collected and the amount of indebtedness on account of loans for each of the past twelve financial years:—

Local Governing Bodies.—Rates, Receipts, Expenditure, Loans, 1881 to 1892.*
Year ended 31st March,Receipts of Local Bodies.Expenditure of Local Bodies.†Outstanding Loans of Local Bodies.
From Rates.From Government and other Sources, including those from Loans.

* The figures for the Drainage and Harbour Boards included are for the calendar years ended three months previous to the financial years.

† Not including balances, deposits returned, amounts paid to sinking funds and for redemption of debentures.

‡ Not including loans to local bodies repayable by instalments under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882.” The outstanding debentures under this Act amounted to £77,439 for 1883–84.; on the 30th June, 1885, to £123,086 5s. 5d.; on the 31st March, 1886, to £134,533 18s. 7d.; and on the 31st March, 1887, to £113,071 12s. 10d.

§ Not including value of outstanding debentures under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882,” viz., £18,635 in March, 1888, £10,495 1s. in March, 1889, £9,676 4s. in March, 1890, £4,316 15s. 6d. in March, 1891, and £4,244 15s. 6d. in March, 1892, nor moneys advanced under “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886” (including debentures issued under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882,” converted in terms of sections 27 to 31), viz., £196,239 3s. 9d. in March, 1888, £280,290 1s. 3d. in March, 1889, £328,980 15s. 6d. in February, 1890, £380,463 16s. 7d. in March, 1891, and £464,004 12s. 9d. in March, 1892.


Of the amount—£6,081,934—of indebtedness of local bodies for the year 1891–92, £1,027,484 was raised within and £5,054,450 outside the colony. The debt of the Harbour Boards was the largest item, £3,276,300; the Borough Councils owed £2,539,445; the Christchurch Drainage Board, £200,000; the River Boards, £46,491; Road Boards, £8,700; the counties, £9,660; and the Town Boards, £1,338. The lowest rate of interest paid was 4 per cent.; the sum of £2,628,879 was raised at 6 per cent., £2,448,250 at 5 per cent., and £401,337 bore interest as high as 7 per cent.

Loans of Local Bodies raised within and without the Colony.
Table showing the Amount of Indebtedness of Counties, Boroughs, Town, Road, and River Boards, as on the 31st March, 1892, and of Harbour and Drainage Boards as on the 31st December, 1891, classified according to the Rates of Interest paid, distinguishing Loans raised in the Colony from those raised elsewhere. (See note.)
Loans raised in the Colony.
Local Bodies.4%4 1/2%5%5 1/2%5 3/4%6%6 1/4%6 1/2%7%8%9%Total.
* Not including loans amounting to £468,249 8s. 3d., repayable by annual instalments under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882,” and “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886,”
Town Boards..........738..500....1001,338
Road Boards..........5,900..1,5001,000300..8,700
River Boards....3,500....12,0463,3203,8252,800....25,491
Harbour Boards....303,70035,000..19,650..10,0009,650....378,000
Loans raised outside the Colony.
River Boards....21,000................21,000
Harbour Boards250,000100,0001,474,000....1,072,600....1,700....2,898,300
Drainage Board..........200,000..........200,000
Total Loans raised.
Town Boards..........738..500....1001,338
Road Boards..........5,900..1,5001,000300..8,700
River Boards....24,500....12,0463,3203,8252,800....46,491
Harbour Boards250,000100,0001,777,70035,000..1,092,250..10,00011,350....3,276,300
Drainage Board..........200,000..........200,000
            Total loans raised250,000250,3002,448,25046,5006,0002,628,8793,32043,798401,3873,4001006,081,934*

The particulars of amounts received representing Government support afforded to the various bodies are stated in the following:—

Local Governing Bodies.—Receipts from Government, 1891–92.
Counties.Boroughs.Town Boards.Road Boards.River Boards (excluding Inch-Clutha, also Road Board).Harbour Boards.Drainage Board.Totals.
Rates on Crown and Native lands1,13393726813548653 ...  ...  ... 1,69347
One-third receipts from land sold on deferred payment and from perpetual lease11,61039 ... 1190111,343101 ...  ...  ... 23,0721311
One-fourth of rents from small grazing-runs2,73263 ...  ... 37253 ...  ...  ... 3,104116
Goldfields revenue and gold duty17,5071381,628994161032140 ...  ...  ... 19,46243
Subsidies under the Local Bodies Finance and Powers Act23,674408,18810362611012,10396 ...  ...  ... 44,59257
Fees and fines under the Financial Arrangements Act, and other receipts4,349772,09419714141,848131100008,69000 ... 17,09717
Total Revenue Account61,0074611,984637653626,47572100008,69000 ... 109,02215
Loans under Government Loans to Local Bodies Act52,132284,7431353000034,656185 ...  ...  ... 91,832146
Grants for special works17,292173366185 ... 1,05000 ...  ...  ... 18,709158
Total loans and grants from Government69,42419115,11011103000035,706185 ...  ...  ... 110,542102
Total receipts from Government.130,4324517,0941811,0653662,18257100008,69000...  219,564117

Summary of Accounts.

A summary of the transactions for the year 1891–92 is given herewith:—

Financial Year ended 31st March, 1892.Financial Year ended 31st December, 1891.Totals—all Local Bodies.
Counties.Boroughs.Town Boards.Road Boards.River Boards (excluding Inch-Clutha, also Road Board).Totals.Harbour Boards.Drainage Board.

* Including £147,805 13s. 11d. interest on loans.

† Not including loans amounting to £468,249 8s. 3d., repayable by instalments under “The Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882,” and “The Government Loans to Local Bodies Act, 1886,”

Note.–The return of receipts and expenditure in this summary represents the net receipts and expenditure of the year, exclusive of credit and debit balances, bank overdrafts, deposits, amounts paid to sinking funds, and for redemption of debentures.

Revenue from–
    Rents, licenses, and other sources40,407167206,3331098,4718713,6551723,397176272,266107305,799154161310578,082199
    Government61,0074611,984637653626,4757210000100,332158,69000 ... 109,02215
    County ...  ... 384475,806139 ... 6,190184 ...  ... 6,190184
            Total revenue234,667159436,5001014,792191132,70815911,2801911829,950116335,38213316,7861981,182,12045
    Receipts not revenue85,36417021,987911,74512438,34155 ... 147,43931065,91550769170214,124510
            Total receipts320,032129458,48710116,538115171,0501211,2801911977,389154401,29718317,5561681,396,244103
    Public works219,85039136,42015010,153180128,8261552,83067498,081189195,4431975,20038698,72620
    Charitable aid and hospitals26,60051121,6871454681296,770510 ... 55,5261811 ...  ... 55,5261811
    Management39,6764842,2881812,7032718,9721051,02868104,66925{... 12,25500}646,21466   
    Other expenditure36,584128242,01657                     
            Total expenditure322,71170442,41313116,97255173,5544109,01088964,661190418,3504917,455381,400,46775
Loans (excluding loans under Roads and Bridges Construction Act and Government Loans to Local Bodies Act)9,660002,539,445001,338008,7000046,491002,605,63400†3,276,30000200,000006,081,93400


The total value of rateable property in counties, but lying outside of any road or town district, was, on the 31st March, 1892, £27,860,130, including the value of the rateable Crown and Native lands. The increase in the total rateable value for the year amounted to £802,068.

The revenue for the financial year 1891–92 of all the counties in which the Counties Act is in full operation was £234,667 15s. 9d. Of this, the sum of £133,252 14s. 8d. was raised by rates.

The expenditure of these counties amounted altogether to £322,711 7s., of which the sum of £219,850 3s. 9d. was spent on public works, £39,676 4s. 8d. on management, and £26,600 5s. 11d. on hospitals and charitable aid.


In the majority of the boroughs the rates are levied on the annual values of the rateable properties, and the returns give only those values; but in sixteen boroughs the capital values only are the bases for rating purposes. The total annual value of properties in seventy-four of the boroughs was, in March, 1892, £2,079,789, an increase of £330 on the total value in 1891. The Act under which the valuation is made provides for a reduction from the renting-value of 20 per cent. on houses and buildings, and 10 per cent. on land. The actual annual value of the properties will therefore be greater than the rating values by 11 to 25 per cent.

The estimated capital value in the remaining sixteen boroughs was £2,934,711.

The total revenues of the boroughs for the past year amounted to £436,500 1s.; of this, the sum of £218,182 4s. was received from rates.

Of a total expenditure by the boroughs amounting to £442,413 13s. 1d., the sum of £136,420 15s. was spent on public works, £21,687 14s. 5d. on hospitals and charitable aid, and £42,288 18s. 1d. on management.

The indebtedness of the boroughs on account of outstanding loans was, at the end of March, 1892, £2,539,445.

Town Districts.

The properties in the various town districts are not rated on a uniform system. In the majority of the districts the rate is levied on the total value of the property; in the others, on the annual value; but in each of the road districts the rate is levied on the total value.

The estimated total value of properties in the first-mentioned town districts in March, 1892, was £1,308,094, and the annual value of the properties in the rest of the districts was £37,603. The total revenue of the Town Boards amounted to £14,792 19s. 1d., of which rates yielded £5,172 2s. 5d.

Road Districts.

The total rateable value of properties in the road districts was £43,817,092. It should be noted that the figures given for the road and town districts include the value of rateable Crown and unoccupied Native lands, on which rates were paid by Government. This amounted in March, 1892, to £2,526,198 of the total value of rateable properties in road districts; also to £25,355 of the total value, and to £894 of the annual value, of property in town districts.

The total revenue of the Road Boards was £132,708 15s. 9d., of which rates yielded £86,770 17s. 8d.

River Boards.

The total revenue of the River Boards, exclusive of Inchclutha' which is also a Road Board, stood at £11,280 19s. 11d., of which the receipts from rates accounted for £7,783 2s. 5d.

Harbour Boards.

Of the total revenue of the Harbour Boards, reaching the sum of £335,382 13s. 3d., rates yielded £20,892 17s. 11d. There is only one Drainage Board—that for the Christchurch district. The revenue for 1891 amounted to £16,786 19s. 8d., chiefly from rates, which yielded £16,770 5s. 10d.