REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF A CENSUS OF THE POPULATION OF THE DOMINION OF NEW ZEALAND TAKEN FOR THE NIGHT OF THE 15th OCTOBER, 1916.


Table of Contents

Preface.

THIS volume gives in condensed form, with comments, the principal results of the New Zealand population census of 1916. Detailed results have already been published in twelve parts and five appendices, as under:—

  • Population May, 1918.

  • Ages July, 1918.

  • Birthplaces and Length of Residence in New Zealand Sept., 1918.

  • Religions Aug., 1918.

  • Education Nov., 1918.

  • Infirmity Nov., 1918.

  • Conjugal Condition Nov., 1918.

  • Fertility Sept. 1919.

  • Occupations May, 1919.

  • Aliens Feb., 1919.

  • Dwellings June, 1919.

  • Households: June, 1920.

  • Appendices: (a.) Maori Census May, 1918. May, 1918.

  • (b.) Census of Cook and other Pacific Islands May, 1918.

  • (c.) Libraries and Religious Denominations May, 1918.

  • (d.) Industrial Manufacture May, 1918.

  • (e.) Poultry and Bees Oct., 1918.

The form in which the matter was presented in prior reports has been almost entirely recast, and the present volume will be found to contain an immense amount of new matter, of which some of the most interesting features are the historical sketch of New Zealand census-takings, given in Chapter I, the investigations into conjugal condition and fecundity, in Chapters IX and X, and the examination of the results of inquiries into dwellings and households, in Chapters XIII and XIV.

The Report has been considerably delayed by the very great pressure of work in this Office arising out of the administration of the Military Service Act, and by congestion of work in the Government Printing Office when it was ready for printing.

MALCOLM FRASER,

Government Statistician.

Census and Statistics Office,

Wellington, 7th October, 1920.

SECTION I.—INTRODUCTORY.

Chapter 1.

THE history of the census in New Zealand dates back to the days prior to the establishment of responsible government—indeed, some crude form of census-taking appears to have been brought into operation in the early “forties,” shortly after the proclamation of British sovereignty over the Islands of New Zealand.

The volumes of statistics of New Zealand covering each year from 1841 to 1852, prepared (in triplicate) in manuscript on forms with printed headings, contain for each year from 1842 onwards statements of population (male and female separately) for each of the settlements of New Zealand. These appear to have been compiled in each settlement by the local Resident Magistrate, and it would appear that it was the custom to take a complete count of the population in the settlements themselves, which in those days were few in number and circumscribed in area. The population is seldom given in round numbers, and, where it is, an explanation is added—as in the case of Nelson in 1842, where an estimate of 2,500 is given, with a footnote to the effect that actual figures were unobtainable on account of the Resident Magistrate having been killed by Maoris. There seems to be little doubt that these early annual enumerations are entitled to rank as censuses, but most of them are palpably incomplete in that they cover only the definite settlements and apparently do not include settlers, whalers, . &c, at remote places.

What is usually regarded as the first general census of New Zealand took place in December, 1851, under the provisions of the Census Ordinance, 1851 (No. VIII of Session XI). This census, besides being the first taken by law, was more comprehensive than earlier enumerations in that information was collected not only as to sexes of the population, but also as to age and degree of education of each person. Information was also obtained concerning numbers of scholars at day and Sabbath schools, as well as regarding live-stock and crops.

Censuses should have been taken in 1854 and 1857, but for some unexplained reason the requirements of the Ordinance do not appear to have been complied with in all the provinces into which New Zealand had then been divided. A question asked on the point during the first session of Parliament (in 1854) elicited the information that censuses had been taken in Wellington, Canterbury, and Nelson in 1854, but had been accidentally overlooked in Auckland, while the Government appeared to be in doubt as to the position elsewhere. Auckland, New Plymouth (now Taranaki), Wellington, and Canterbury Provinces all took censuses for March, 1857, and Otago either took a census or was otherwise able to supply complete figures as to numbers and sexes for December, 1857. Wellington took another census for March, 1858.

Judging from remarks made in the House and in official documents, the position was not regarded as at all satisfactory, and steps were taken in 1858 to place the census-taking on a proper footing by the passing of the Census Act of that year, which will be referred to later on. A census of the whole country was taken in 1858, the forerunner of a long series of censuses which have followed at intervals of three, four, or five years. The list of dates of all general censuses from 1851 onwards is as follows:—

  • — December, 1851.

  • — December, 1858.

  • 16 December, 1861.

  • 1 December, 1864.

  • 19 December, 1867.

  • 27 February, 1871.

  • 1 March, 1874.

  • 3 March, 1878.

  • 3 April, 1881.

  • 28 March, 1886.

  • 5 April, 1891.

  • 12 April, 1896.

  • 31 March, 1901.

  • 29 April, 1906.

  • 2 April, 1911.

  • 15 October, 1916

Early Provincial Censuses.

Before proceeding to a discussion of the various general censuses taken in New Zealand it may be well to refer briefly to such censuses as were confined to the area of particular provinces.

Provincial Responsible Governments date from 1853. The Provincial Governments of Auckland, Taranaki (or New Plymouth), Wellington, Nelson, and Canterbury each passed Census Ordinances in 1854 or 1855 providing for the taking of provincial censuses at varying dates and in varying manners. Otago apparently passed no individual Census Act, but authorized its Superintendent to act under the New Zealand Act of 1851. Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Westland, and Southland had no existence then. Southland, although established only about 1860, passed a Census Act, and took at least two or three censuses under it.

Most of the provinces ceased taking separate censuses after the second New Zealand general census of 1858. Otago and Southland continued for a short time taking independent censuses in addition to the New Zealand one.

In at least some of the provinces census-taking was well established before the passing of the provincial Ordinances—for example, Nelson, Taranaki, and Canterbury—but as no official gazettes or journals seem to have existed then details cannot be traced.

The actual term “census” does not seem to have been always in general use. For example, in Otago for several years the word “statistics” was employed to refer to a census fairly detailed and complete.

There are also very many returns which from their nature suggest that they must have been the result of a census. These are chiefly by Resident Magistrates and officers in charge of armed police. In answer to a question put to him in the House as to why a census had not been taken in all the provinces in 1854, we have the Hon. Mr. Bartley claiming that the blue-books, prepared annually, contain almost “as much information as a census affords” and an examination of these early records reveals that the collection and preparation of some of the figures for these must have partaken very much of the nature of a census.

There does not seem to have been any uniformity in system or in dates. Even each province (with the praiseworthy exception of Otago) did not take its own censuses in successive years at anything like corresponding dates. So much was this the case that an attempt was made in 1856 to reconcile these various methods.

Resident Magistrates, as a rule, were the Enumerators, or, as known generally till about 1858, “Collectors.”

In one case, that of Nelson in 1856, tenders were called for the depositing and collection of schedules. It is of interest to quote this document:—

Chapter 2. Census.

Tenders will be received at this office till Saturday next, the 13th instant, from persons willing to undertake the duty of leaving the census schedules with the several householders in the undermentioned districts, and calling for the same when filled up in accordance with the provisions of the Census Ordinance, Session II, No. 1.

For further particulars apply at this office.

John Poynter,

Resident Magistrate.

General Census Legislation.

Up to the census of 1891, enactments of the General Government dealing with the census were almost as frequent as the censuses themselves. The gap of seven years between the passing of the Census Ordinance, 1851, and the Census Act, 1858, was punctuated by various provincial Census Ordinances somewhat on the lines of the general Ordinance of 1851. The Act of 1858 was amended in 1860, 1867, 1870, 1873, and 1876, and with its amendments was repealed in 1877 by the Census Act of that year, which consolidated and extended the law relating to census-taking.

The Act of 1877 was amended in 1880 and again in 1890, after which the law remained unaltered until 1908, in which year it was consolidated in the Statistics Act, 1908, as part of the general consolidation of statutes. The Statistics Act, 1908, was replaced two years later by the Census and Statistics Act, 1910, which was amended slightly in 1915 by the Census and Statistics Amendment Act of that year.

The Census Ordinance, 1851.

The Census Ordinance, 1851, is of peculiar interest as being the first enactment on the subject in New Zealand, and as being the foundation on which all subsequent census legislation has been based. It is here reproduced in full.

Session XI, No. VIII.

AN ORDINANCE for taking a Census of the Colony of New Zealand. (15th July, 1851.)

WHEREAS it is expedient that authentic statistical information of the Colony of New Zealand be periodically obtained:

Be it therefore enacted by His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief of New Zealand, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:—

1. That a census of the number and condition of the population of the Islands of New Zealand shall be taken in the first, fourth, and seventh years of every decade of years, on the days and in the manner hereinafter declared.

2. That the first decade shall be deemed to commence with the year of the passing there of.

3. That the Governor-in-Chief shall appoint persons to collect the information required by this Ordinance, and may cause an allowance to be made to any such person at a rate not exceeding ten shillings per day,

4. That in each of the years hereinbefore particularized the senior Resident Magistrate in every settlement in the said Islands, or, where there is no Resident Magistrate, some fit person to be appointed by His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief, shall, on or before the first day of March, cause notices to be affixed on the several churches, chapels, Courthouses, and police-stations, and in such other conspicuous places as he shall deem proper within such district as shall be to him assigned for that purpose by His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief, requiring every householder to be prepared on the 31st day of March, or as soon thereafter as he may be called upon so to do by a Collector appointed as aforesaid, to give all such information as is required by the Schedule hereunto annexed.

5. That the said Collectors shall, on or before the twenty-fifth day of March in each of the years hereinbefore particularized, leave at every house within the districts assigned to them respectively a schedule, being a blank copy of the Schedule to this Ordinance annexed; and every householder able to write shall, on the thirty-first day of March, furnish in writing the information required by the said schedule, by filling up the same and subscribing his name at the foot thereof, and shall deliver the same when called for to one of the said Collectors.

6. That each Collector shall, as soon after the thirty-first day of March as practicable, call at every house in his district to collect the schedules, and is hereby authorized to put such questions as may be indispensable to the complete filling up thereof to any householder who, from inability to write, shall not have duly filled up the same, and the Collector shall thereupon fill it up himself with the information so supplied.

7. That every householder who shall wilfully refuse or without lawful excuse neglect to fill up the said schedule to the best of his knowledge or belief, or to sign and deliver the same, or shall make, sign, or deliver, or cause to be made, signed, or delivered, any false return of any of the matters specified in the said schedule) or who shall refuse to answer or wilfully give a false answer to such questions as aforesaid, shall for every such refusal or wilfully false answer forfeit a sum not exceeding five pounds nor less than twenty shillings.

8. Provided always that with respect to the present year the census shall be taken on the first day of November, the notices given on or before the first day of October, the schedules left on or before the twenty-fifth day of October, and filled up by the householder on the first day of November, and called for and filled up, when requisite, by the Collector as soon after that day as practicable, all in manner aforesaid.

9. The Ordinance shall come into operation on the first day of August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.

Census Act, 1858, and Amending Enactments,

The neglect of certain provincial authorities to take the censuses of 1854 and 1857, combined with the departure from the set date in other cases and the consequent inability to arrive at a definite population total for the whole country for any specific date, led to the passing of the Census Act, 1858, which repealed and largely re-enacted the Ordinance of 1851. The Act provided for Enumerators and Sub-Enumerators instead of the former Resident Magistrates and Collectors, and imposed on the Colonial Secretary the duty of compiling and publishing statistical tables embodying the information collected. Maoris were specifically excluded from the operation of the Act, except in so far as the Governor might direct. The census month was altered from March to December, and it was definitely contemplated that the census should be a triennial institution. Penalties were provided for default, alteration, or omission on the part of Enumerators and Sub-Enumerators, and for the neglect or refusal of a householder to supply information, giving false answers, or offering obstruction to any one engaged in carrying out the provisions of the Act.

The Act of 1858 made masters of gaols and asylums Sub-Enumerators, but by the amendment of 1860 such persons were now deemed to be occupiers of premises, and, as such, responsible for furnishing returns for their respective establishments. This amendment also empowered the Governor in Council to depart from the month of December laid down in the Act.

The amendment of 1867 added agricultural and pastoral statistics and statistics of various industries to the particulars to be ascertained at each census, and provided also for the annual collection of agricultural and pastoral statistics.

It also provided for the taking at the next census of an account of the gross value of the property of inhabitants of the colony (excluding Natives and half-castes), although the exact manner of taking the return was not prescribed. It is of interest to mention that such information has not been collected by means of a census to this day.

The amending Acts of 1870 and 1873 merely gave authority for the taking of a census in the early months of the year following that in which it would normally have been taken according to the triennial plan, and the amending Act of 1876 provided that the census which in the normal sequence should have been taken in 1876 need not be taken until 1881. The amending Act of 1870 also asked for certain additional particulars not previously collected, and permitted any person to refuse to supply information as to his religious faith.

Census Act of 1877 and Amending Enactments.

Meanwhile, however, the Act of 1877 was passed repealing all previous enactments dealing with the census. This Act provided for the taking of a census in 1878, in 1881, and every fifth year thereafter. Penalties were provided for refusal or neglect to fill up forms by individuals, or for failure, neglect of duty, false declaration, or divulging of information by Enumerators or Sub-Enumerators. Like the 1870 amending Act, it was mainly a consolidation of previous enactments. However, it permitted the omission, from conscientious scruples, by any person of a statement as to the religious denomination to which he belonged. The proof of such conscientious scruple was to be the filling-up of the column set apart for that purpose with the word “Object.”

The system of compilation in the Registrar-General's Office in Wellington instead of by the Enumerators in each province—a system which had actually been adopted in connection with the census of 1874—was also legalized and made mandatory by the 1877 Act.

Minor amendments were passed in 1880 and in 1890 dealing -with the date on which the census was to be taken during particular years, mainly with a view to synchronizing the New Zealand census with that of the United Kingdom. The 1890 Act also effected slight alterations in the census schedule, referred to in detail below.

Census and Statistics Act, 1910, and Amending Enactment.

The Act of 1908 was, as already mentioned, merely a consolidation. This was, however, destined, to be shortly repealed by the Census and Statistics Act, 1910, which was slightly amended in 1915, the most important innovation in the amending Act being the separation of the offices of Registrar-General and Government Statistician, involving the creation of a separate Census and Statistics Office. It is under the Act of 1910 that the 1911 and 1916 censuses were taken. The portion of this Act and schedules thereto relating to the population census is here quoted in full as amended by the Act of 1915.

1910, No. 64.

AN ACT relating to the Census and Statistics of New Zealand. (3rd December, 1910.)

BE IT ENACTED by the General Assembly of New Zealand in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

1. This Act may be cited as the Census and Statistics Act, 1910.

2. In this Act, if not inconsistent with the context,—

“Dwelling” means a building, erection, or tenement, whether permanent or temporary, which, is wholly or partly used for the purpose of human habitation, and includes every ship or vessel in any port or harbour of New Zealand:

“Factory” means a factory within the meaning of the Factories Act, 1908:

“Native” means a person belonging to the aboriginal rate of New Zealand, and includes a half-caste and a person intermediate in blood between half-caste and persons of pure descent from that race: “Minister” means the Minister of Internal Affairs:

“Occupier or person in charge” includes every master, keeper, chief officer, or other person in actual charge of any gaol, prison, hospital, mental hospital, or other public or charitable institution:

“Prescribed” means prescribed by this Act or by regulations made under this Act.

Office.

3. For the purpose of this Act the Governor may appoint an officer to be called the Government Statistician (hereinafter referred to as the Statistician).

General Census.

4. A census shall be taken in the year nineteen hundred and eleven, and in every fifth year thereafter, of the number and condition of persons, and of the live-stock, and of the land in cultivation within New Zealand, and of other particulars relating thereto. The census shall be taken on the day appointed for that purpose by Proclamation.

5. It shall be the duty of the Statistician, subject to the directions of the Minister, to prepare and issue forms and instructions, and to take all necessary steps for the taking of the census.

6. For the purpose of taking the census a form to be called the “Householder’s Schedule” shall be prepared, on which shall be entered particulars) as to the matters referred to in the First Schedule to this Act.

7. For the taking of such census the Governor may from time to time appoint and remove Enumerators, and define the districts for which they shall respectively act. and determine the number of Sub-Enumerators to be appointed by such Enumerators respectively.

8. Subject in each case to the approval of the Governor, every Enumerator shall appoint and may remove Sub-Enumerators for his district, and assign subdistricts to such Sub-Enumerators.

9. Every Sub-Enumerator shall, within fourteen days immediately preceding that fixed for taking the census, leave at every dwelling within his subdistrict one of the forms prepared as aforesaid, or, where such dwelling is let in different stories or apartments and occupied distinctly by different persons or families, a separate form for the occupier or person in charge of each such story or apartment.

10. Every occupier or person in charge of such dwelling, story, or apartment shall fill up and supply in the said form, to the best of his knowledge and belief, the matters and particulars required by the said form and any instructions accompanying the same, and shall sign the said form with his name, and deliver or cause to be delivered the said form so filled up and signed to the Sub-Enumerator authorized to receive the same.

11. Every Sub-Enumerator shall, on the day next following that fixed for taking the census as aforesaid, or as soon thereafter as practicable, demand and receive the said form at every dwelling, story, or apartment as aforesaid within his subdistrict, and shall satisfy himself, by inquiries from the occupier or person in charge of the same, or from persons in or near the same, that such form is fully, truly, and correctly filled up; or, if not so, either in the whole or any particular, shall himself, according to the best information which he is able to obtain, fill up the said form or make the same complete and correct, and in such case shall then and there sign the said form with his own name.

12. (1.) Every Sub-Enumerator shall, within seven days after all the forms within his subdistrict have been completed and received by him, deliver or transmit them, and all other forms required to be filled in by him according to instructions issued by the Statistician, to the Enumerator of his district, together with a declaration in the form numbered (1) in the Second Schedule hereto or to the effect thereof, made and subscribed by himself either before the Enumerator or before some Justice, and the said Enumerator or Justice is hereby respectively authorized to take such declaration accordingly.

(2.) If the declaration is made before a Justice, such Justice is hereby required to ascertain that the forms referred to in the declaration are securely made up in a packet for transmission to the Enumerator, and he shall seal the same and notify thereon that it is the packet referred to in the declaration made before him, and such declaration and packet shall thereupon be transmitted to the Enumerator.

(3.) The Enumerator shall, in the case of any defect or deficiency in any form so delivered, require the Sub-Enumerator delivering the same to make further inquiries, and to correct such defect or supply such deficiency at his own cost.

13. Every Enumerator shall, within twenty-one days after receipt from the Sub-Enumerators of all such forms, make out therefrom returns containing such particulars as are required of him by the Statistician, and shall sign and transmit the same to the Statistician, together with all the. forms and deck rations aforesaid as received from the several Sub-Enumerators, and together also with a declaration in the form numbered (2) in the Second Schedule hereto or to the effect thereof, made and subscribed by himself before some Justice, who is hereby authorized and required to take the same.

14. On receipt from the Enumerators of all returns and of all forms required to be filled up as before provided, the Statistician shall examine the same and cause any defect or inaccuracy therein to be supplied or corrected as far as possible, and shall, with all convenient speed, prepare abstracts therefrom, and such abstracts shall be printed and laid before Parliament.

15. If any occupier or person in charge of any dwelling, story, or apartment as aforesaid refuses or wilfully neglects to fill up, to the best of his knowledge or belief, the form or forms so left at his dwelling, story, or apartment, or to sign and deliver the same, or refuses or wilfully neglects to answer or answers untruly any inquiry made by a Sub-Enumerator, or wilfully makes, signs, or delivers, or causes to be made, signed, or delivered, any false return or statement of any particular in such form or forms, or obstructs any person in the performance of any duty under this Act, the person so offending shall be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds:

Provided that such fine shall not be enforced against any person who from conscientious scruples omits to state the religious denomination or sect to which he belongs; and the proof of such conscientious scruple shall be the. filling-up of the column set apart for that purpose with the word “Object.”

16. If any Sub-Enumerator fails to return to the Enumerator of his district any of the forms received by him, or wilfully signs or delivers any untrue form, or alters any form except as provided by this Act, or otherwise wilfully violates any provision of this Act, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds.

17. If any Enumerator or Sub-Enumerator makes and subscribes a false declaration under this Act before any Enumerator or Justice he shall be deemed guilty of perjury.

18. If any person accepts the office of Enumerator or Sub-Enumerator under this Act and afterwards, without lawful excuse from sickness or unavoidable accident, neglects or refuses to perform any duty required by this Act to be done or performed by him he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds.

19. If any Enumerator, Sub-Enumerator, or clerk divulges or makes use of any information required by this Act to be given, or the contents of any form required by this Act to be filled up, except for the purposes required by this Act, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds.

Chapter 3. Schedules.

First Schedule.

Statistics as to the Domestic and Social Condition of Population.

THE number and description of houses or buildings.

The names and surnames of the people.

Their relation to heads of households—as wife, son, daughter, or other relative, visitor, lodger, or servant.

Their condition—as married or single, widower or widow, or divorced.

Date of marriage and number of children born to the existing marriage.

Their sex and age.

Their present rank, profession, or usual occupation.

Whether employer of labour; in business on his own account but not employing paid labour; relative assisting in business but not receiving salary or wages; earning salary or wages; or unemployed.

Their extraction and place of birth.

Length of residence in New Zealand, if not born therein.

Their religious denomination.

Whether British subjects or aliens.

Whether suffering from sickness, accident, or infirmity.

And other prescribed matters.

Education.

The number of persons able or not to read or write.

The number at school (distinguishing between college, grammar or high school, State school, private school, denominational school, or receiving instruction at home; and between day and Sunday schools).

Chapter 4. Second Schedule.

(1.) Declaration of Sub-Enumerator.

I, a Sub-Enumerator appointed under the Census and Statistics Act, 1910, do solemnly declare that the forms numbered from to inclusive, contained in the packet to which this declaration is attached, are all the forms under the said Act which have been completed and received by me within the subdistrict to which I was appointed, and that the whole contents of all the said forms are true to the best of my knowledge, information, and belief. And I further declare that I have distributed all necessary forms at every dwelling, story, and apartment as required by section nine of the said Act, and that I have collected, within the time specified in the said Act, all the forms so distributed.

[Signature of Sub-Enumerator.]

Made and subscribed before me at, this day of, 19.

, Enumerator [or Justice of the Peace].

(2.)Declaration of Enumerator.

I, an Enumerator appointed for the district of, under the Census and Statistics Act, 1910, do solemnly declare that the packet addressed to the Government Statistician, to which this declaration is attached, contains all the forms and declarations transmitted to me by the [State here the number of Sub-Enumerators for his district] Sub-Enumerators appointed by me, and also one collective return made out by me from the said forms; and that such collective return is correctly and truly made to the best of my knowledge, information, and belief.

[Signature of Enumerator.]

Made and subscribed before me at, this day of, 19.

, Justice of the Peace.

Chapter 5. Scope Of Census.

The history of the census in New Zealand reveals a steady widening in the ambit of the inquiries involved in so far as they relate to population characteristics. The gradual tendency in this direction is indicated by the progressive changes revealed by the successive census enactments already referred to.

Copies of the schedules used in connection with the census prior to 1858 cannot be traced, but the early census-takings appear to have been very little more than mere enumerations of population. The census of 1851 obtained details of sex, age, and degree of education, live-stock and crops being also enumerated. It was not, however, until the passing of the Census Act, 1858, that anything like a comprehensive inquiry into the domestic and social condition of the people was instituted.

The remarks of Mr. Stafford (who seems to have been in advance of most of his contemporaries in appreciating the desirability of the existence of accurate statistical information) in moving leave to introduce the Census Bill of 1858 are worth quoting:—

“It is highly desirable that a perfect picture of the moral, social, and commercial position of the colony should be obtained. The importance of this matter is now beginning to be recognized by every civilized State, so that an eminent historian has truly said, that government is now a government of statistics; while in bygone ages Governments were content to legislate on mere hypothetical knowledge in this direction, a course which has led to many serious errors.”

The chief innovations as regards the scope of the census introduced by the Act of 1858 were in respect of enumeration of live-stock and land in cultivation, including the number of acres under various crops and the total area fenced. The Act was not to apply to Natives except in so far as the Governor in Council should direct to the contrary.

The population portion of the census was to embrace the domestic and social condition of the people, including the number and description of the houses, relationship of occupants to heads of households, conjugal condition, age, sex, occupation, extraction and place of birth, religion, date of entering colony, whether British subject or alien, ability to read and write, and schooling (distinguishing Government, public, and private schools, and day and Sunday schools). Details were also collected in connection with places of worship, hospitals, dispensaries, and other charitable institutions, savings-banks, friendly and building societies, literary and scientific societies, and manufactories and works.

To these the collection of agricultural and pastoral statistics was added by the amending Act of 1867, stocks of grain on hand at the date of census being added in 1870, and stocks of flour in 1877.

The Act of 1877 made little alteration in the scope of the census except that it required details to be furnished as to persons suffering from sickness, accident, or infirmity.

By 1890 the modern distinction between census proper and statistics had emerged, and by the amending Act of that year the question as to the amount of land fenced was omitted from the census, as were the details in respect of stocks of grain and flour on hand as at the date of the census. These statistics were from that date collected not through the medium of the census, but through the instrumentality of the Agriculture Department.

The chief innovations in connection with the census introduced by the 1910 Act were in respect of the inclusion of details as to duration and issue of marriage and grade of occupation, and' authority was granted for the inclusion of other details to be prescribed from time to time.

It has already been mentioned that there has been a gradual movement in the direction of limiting the scope of the census to a population inquiry entirely, and to treat the collection of statistical information other than concerning the population as quite apart from the census. In this connection it may be pointed out that until recently along with the population census were taken censuses of industrial manufacture and agricultural and pastoral production. These inquiries are now conducted annually as part of the general routine work of the Census and Statistics Office, so that at present the only extraneous matter taken in conjunction with the population census is an inquiry as to churches, chapels, and other places of worship, and libraries; in addition the census schedule is still regarded as the best medium for obtaining information as to poultry and bees. On the other hand, while formerly the population census dealt entirely with individuals, recently its scope has been extended to cover the family or household, its composition and its home.

A copy of the schedule used in connection with the 1916 census is reproduced.

Collection of the Census.

It has always been the practice in New Zealand to enumerate the de facto and not the de jure population—that is, to enumerate with each locality the persons actually residing there at the date of the census, not those habitually residing there.

In the early censuses, before the abolition of the provinces, appointments of Enumerators for the several provinces appear to have been made by the Governor, on the recommendation of the respective Superintendents, who were requested to nominate the persons most competent in their judgment to discharge the duties satisfactorily. Sub-Enumerators were selected by the Enumerators, so that the machinery for the collection of the census in each province was virtually organized by its own Provincial Government.

In connection with the census of 1878 the size of the Enumerators' districts was reduced. For the provinces were substituted for this purpose twenty-five Enumerators' districts. It was claimed at the time that “while the total remuneration for Enumerators was somewhat larger, there was a saving in the cost of clerical labour by Enumerators, and the local cost of collecting by Sub-Enumerators could be more closely watched and kept within reasonable bounds.” As a result of this innovation the expense of the census per head of population was reduced from 7d. in 1874 to 5¾d. in 1878.

The census of 1916 witnessed an important innovation in respect of the mode of distribution and collection of the census schedules, resulting in a considerable saving of expense. This was the substitution of the machinery of the Post Office for the old system of special Enumerators.

Postmasters acted as Enumerators, while specially selected letter-carriers performed the functions of Sub-Enumerators. In the few cases where no letter-carriers were available the Enumerator made arrangements with some outside person for the collection.

Not only was the work performed more economically (the cost of collection was approximately £20,600 in 1911 and £17,500 in 1916), but the schedules were in much better condition than at any previous census, the proportion of incomplete entries being infinitesimal, and the necessity for queries being reduced to practically nil.

A point in connection with the 1916 census was the increase in the number of Enumerators’ districts—ninety-five, as compared with fifty-nine in 1911—and it is probable that the consequential reduction in the average size of the districts made for increased efficiency.

Briefly, the system of census-collection, which has not altered except in only minor details during the past forty years, is as follows:—

Each Enumerator is supplied with two maps of his district, and instructed to mark on them his proposed subdistricts (for each of which a Sub-Enumerator is appointed), and to send one of them to the Government Statistician for approval, keeping the other by him for his own use.

The maps returned by the Enumerators are forwarded, on the divisions being found satisfactory, to the Lands Department, where smaller maps are prepared from them, one for each Sub-Enumerator.

On the maps are coloured lines defining the boundaries of all local-governing districts, such as counties, ridings, road districts, boroughs, and town districts. Boundaries of provincial districts, electoral districts, and goldfields are also indicated.

The Sub-Enumerator’s principal duty is to deliver a household schedule at every dwelling in his subdistrict before census night, and to collect it as soon as possible thereafter. He is required to keep in a book provided for the purpose a note of all schedules delivered and collected, with particulars of the number of persons, distinguishing the two sexes, returned on each schedule.

On the Sub-Enumerators’ maps the whole territory is cut into very small blocks by means of dotted red lines. On the map, which is fixed inside his collecting-book, the Sub-Enumerator enters the number of people residing in each block, this being done primarily for the information of the Representation Commissioners, who are charged with the preparation of new electoral districts based on the population disclosed by each census enumeration.

The Enumerator’s duties consist in making all general arrangements for his district, and in keeping a close supervision over his Sub-Enumerators during the course of the distribution and collection of the schedules. To enable the Enumerator to keep himself better informed of the progress of the work, a Sub-Enumerator’s daily report form, showing clearly the actual stage reached at the end of each day, was introduced in connection with the 1916 census. As the collected schedules come to hand, after check by the Sub-Enumerator, they are again closely scrutinized by the Enumerator, and, if necessary, returned for collection or completion before despatch to Wellington, where the work of compilation is carried out.

Compilation Of Census.

Beyond the statutory provisions already referred to, little information is available as to the method of compilation employed in connection with the earlier census-takings. It is interesting, however, to note in the Registrar-General’s report on the census of 1858 “that in several instances the numbers given by the Enumerators, while generally correct in the totals-—and, indeed, in all that could be regarded as practically important—were found on more minute analysis to contain minor discrepancies in figures which in perfectly accurate compilations must have exactly agreed. These were probably to be attributed partly to different modes of compilation, partly to the unavoidable employment in some cases of persons previously unpractised in the work, and (perhaps chiefly) to the defective and irregular manner in which the columns in the original census form were filled in by many of the householders.” He proceeds to point out that “if paper ruled in faint lines as well as otherwise suitable for the census forms could have been obtained in the colony at the time in sufficient quantity, it would have prevented much of the perplexity experienced in the attempt to follow out through the various columns the particulars properly relating to each individual.” The discrepancies were as far as possible corrected, and the Registrar-General claimed that the returns “as a whole and for all practical purposes could be fully relied on, especially as the 1858 census was the first taken through the colony simultaneously and on a uniform plan, instead of, as heretofore, enumerations being made in the several provinces at different times, and not always embracing the same branches of information.”

The census of 1851 applied to the “settlements” of New Zealand, while in subsequent enumerations the division into provinces was adopted. Although the geographical boundaries of the latter extended beyond the less-defined limits of the former, yet the Registrar-General claimed in his report on the 1861 census that the difference, in so far as the European population was concerned, was not so great as materially to affect the validity of comparisons.

The 1858 census showed details for no geographical divisions smaller than provinces, but in connection with the 1861 and subsequent census-takings arrangements were made to obtain the required information for each electoral district as well.

Little innovation in the machinery of the census compilation appears to have been made between 1861 and 1874, in which latter year we find that alterations were made in the body of the household schedule that enabled the information given to be compiled in such a form that the results were more comparable with those of other countries. At the same time, instead of returns being made out for each province by the local Enumerator—a practice which precluded the compilation from being done so extensively or uniformly as was possible under one system of management—the whole of the results were compiled in the Registrar-General’s Office at Wellington. As a result of this change of system the cost of the census was reduced from 9d. to 7d. per head of population as compared with the preceding census, and was actually £1,260 less than the amount (£10,000) voted for the purpose, despite the fact that the population had increased roughly one-sixth and “the price of labour” had risen in the interim.

It is interesting to notice that the practice of central compilation was not legalized till the Act of 1877.

Up to and including the census of 1886 the tabulation of the results was done direct from the schedules without any intervening card system. The system appears to have been perfectly satisfactory for the compilation of simple tables, but with the increase in population and the growing need for tables showing two or more factors in conjunction—e.g., birthplace and age—it became necessary to transcribe the details concerning each individual on to a separate card for convenience in sorting. This innovation was effected in connection with the census of 1891, and has since then been the practice.

A feature of the compilation of the “Results of the 1916 Census “was the employment of female clerks for the bulk of the work, a departure which was necessitated by war conditions, and which was found to work well enough in practice.

The clerical staff was taken on by degrees, and as the household schedules arrived at the Census and Statistics Office the work of compilation was proceeded with.

All persons employed on census are required to make formal declaration not to divulge any information coining under their notice during the course of their duties.

The results of the census of 1916 have been published in twelve parts and five appendices, as follows:—

  • Part I—Population.

  • Part II—Ages.

  • Part III—Birthplace and Length of Residence.

  • Part IV—Religions.

  • Part V—Education.

  • Part VI—Infirmity.

  • Part VII—Conjugal Condition.

  • Part VIII—Fertility.

  • Part IX—Occupations and Unemployment.

  • Part X—Race Aliens.

  • Part XI—Dwellings.

  • Part XII—Households.

Appendices.

  • Appendix A—Maori Census.

  • Appendix B—Census of Cook and other Annexed Pacific Islands.

  • Appendix C—Libraries and Religious Denominations.

  • Appendix D—Census of Industrial Manufacture.

  • Appendix E—Poultry and Bees.

The tables, as compared with those of previous censuses, have been revised and considerably enlarged.

Maori Enumerations.

The earlier Acts expressly excluded Maoris from the ambit of the census except in so far as the Governor should direct to the contrary.

Various local enumerations of Maoris appear, however, to have taken place, tables occurring in several of the provincial records, notably Otago and Wellington, and there is in the “Results of the Census of 1858” a table showing the Native population of New Zealand as ascertained from a census taken between September, 1851, and September, 1858. No subsequent enumeration appears to have been made for a number of years, though the results of the census-takings of 1867 and 1871 contain estimates of the aboriginal population supplied by the Native Department.

The “Report on the 1874 Census” states: “Although a census of the Maori population was not taken at the same time and in the same manner as the census for the rest of the population, yet perhaps the most accurate enumeration of the Maori population ever yet obtained was made immediately after the taking of the census by the various officers in charge of the Native districts throughout the colony.” Similar information, showing simply the numbers in each hapu, and distinguishing sexes and whether over or under fifteen years of age, was taken out in connection with the 1878 census.

In 1881 a more ambitious attempt at a Native census was made, but difficulties were many, and the results could not be considered too satisfactory. In some parts no access was permitted to those desiring information, and there was evidence of a growing suspicion on the part of the Natives towards the enumeration. Difficulty was also experienced on account of the nomadic habits of portion of the tribes, some officers enumerating the de facto population and some the de jure.

In connection with the 1886 and subsequent census-takings books were supplied to the officers of the Native Department in each district, providing for collection of details as to numbers, sexes, ages, principal tribes, and county of residence. Particulars as to land under cultivation, live-stock, &c, were later included. In no case was it found possible to effect an enumeration of the Natives on one particular night. The enumeration was, however, carried out as quickly and thoroughly as possible.

In 1916 a new departure was made in connection with the enumeration of Maoris. Of the Maori population of 49,776, fewer than 1,900 reside in the South Island, and the cost of a separate enumeration had been found to be out of all proportion to the numbers dealt with. The few distinctly Maori settlements in the South Island are all in close proximity to European settlements, and very few of the South Island Maoris are incapable of speaking and reading English. It was decided, therefore, to enumerate the Maoris in that Island in connection with the enumeration of the European population, the same schedules being used and the work done by the same Enumerators and Sub-Enumerators as for the European population. The result was entirely satisfactory. The North Island Maori census, however, was taken on the same lines as in previous years.

SECTION II.—POPULATION AND ITS DISTRIBUTION.

Chapter 6.

For general statistical purposes it is usual to exclude from the population of New Zealand the Maoris and the residents (European and Native) of the Cook and other Pacific islands annexed in 1901, and in this report it will be understood that unless the contrary is stated all figures given are exclusive of these divisions of the population, which are dealt with in special sections at the end of the report.

At the census taken for the night of the 15th October, 1916, the population, excluding Maoris, of the Dominion proper was 1,099,449. The census of the Maori population taken at the same time showed the number of the Native race to be 49,776, including 3,529 half-castes living as Maoris, as well as 5 persons returned as belonging to the now practically extinct Moriori race. The population of the Cook and other annexed islands at the same date was 12,797. A summary of the total population is as follows:—

 Males.Females.Total.

* Includes 3,529 half-castes living as Maoris.

† Includes 112 soldiers in camp in New Zealand.

Population of the Dominion (excluding Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific islands)551,775547,6741,099,449
Maori population*25,93123,84049,771
Morioris at Chatham Islands235
Population of Cook and other annexed Pacific islands6,5536,24412,797
                            Totals584,261577,7611,162,022

The census of 1916 was abnormal in that there were at that time some 43,000 soldiers absent from the Dominion on service abroad with the Expeditionary Force. The effect of the absence of so decided a proportion of the younger adult males will be noticed in the statistical comparisons made with former censuses throughout this report.

Between the dates of the last two censuses, that of 1911 and that of 1916, roughly five years and a half elapsed. Most countries take censuses at intervals of ten years. In Denmark, France, Germany, and New Zealand it has, however, been the practice to use the shorter interval of five years, and an agitation has for some time been afoot in the United Kingdom and elsewhere for the shorter interval to be adopted. The chief argument in favour of the quinquennial period is probably the increased accuracy with which intercensal estimates of population can be made. Such estimates are used as a basis for calculating birth and death rates, and the various per capita rates used to show alterations in the volume of trade, amount of indebtedness, taxation, &c. In all such computations, in the interval between two successive censuses it is clearly essential to interpolate values for intermediate periods, and, although the error in such interpolation may be small as regards the whole of a country, the value of such an estimate as a basis of local population, and therefore for electoral and allied purposes, must always remain somewhat problematical. This is especially the case in rapidly developing countries such as New Zealand, where changes in industrial conditions produce rapid alterations of the centre of gravity of population. The sole reason why other countries have refrained from more frequent census enumerations appears to be on the score of expense.

During the whole of an intercensal period therefore it is desirable to estimate the total population, and there are various methods which have been adopted to this end, such as calculations on the basis of an arithmetic (or, better, a geometric) progression. In New Zealand, however, the more accurate method of making quarterly intercensal estimates from the records of births, deaths, and migration has been adopted, with admirable results, as will be seen from the following table showing the estimated population as at 30th September, 1916, and at 31st March in each of the preceding seven census years, compared with the population as ascertained by the census in the same years. The comparatively large difference in 1916 is due in part to the difficulty experienced in keeping a reliable record of arrivals and departures since the outbreak of the war.

Year.Estimated Population, 31st March.Census Population.Difference.
* 30th September.
1881488,649489,9331,284
1886585,844578,4827,362
1891631,898626,6585,240
1896701,383703,3601,977
1901775,123772,7192,404
1906889,971888,5781,393
19111,006,7611,008,4681,707
19161,092,502*1,099,4496,947

The migration returns are compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion are checked by special returns furnished by the pursers of passenger-steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted the necessary additions can be made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes happened prior to the introduction of this check.

The system of registration of births in force in New Zealand is one of the best in the world, and, apart from the compulsory provisions of the law, the people appear to appreciate the advantages of having their children's births duly registered. A few births are overlooked either from inadvertent omission or, in certain obvious cases, from a desire to avoid publicity. This is evidenced from the fact that every year a few of the births registered under the provisions of the Legitimation Act are found not to have been previously registered as illegitimate. Another proof that all births are not registered at the proper time is afforded by the registrations effected under the various Extension Acts passed from time to time to provide for the registration of births after the lapse of the statutory limit of two years. But most of these births date back many years, and the advantage taken of the provisions of the Extension Acts is in the main merely proof of the public's appreciation of the desirability of registration being effected. Probably unregistered births do not exceed 100 annually.

Notwithstanding the “suspicions of defective counting” suggested in his “Principles” by the eminent American economist, Professor Taussig, in lightly passing over New Zealand's remarkably low death-rate, the system of registration of deaths in the Dominion makes it almost impossible for any death (other than odd cases of drowning, &c, where the death is not witnessed and the body not found) remaining unregistered. The duty of registration is imposed on the undertaker, and in the remote event of that individual overlooking the requirements there is a formidable array of checks in the form of notifications by police and certificates from medical men, Coroners, and clergymen, not to mention inquiries for proof of death which sooner or later arise from insurance companies, lawyers, &c.

The “missed” deaths are therefore practically nil, and even allowing the limit of 100 unregistered births per annum it is evident that only a small portion of the slight discrepancy between census and estimated population is thus accounted for.

Nevertheless it is probable that it is in the registration of births and deaths that one of the causes of the discrepancy lies, and this owing to the simple fact that the births and deaths taken for a quarter are of necessity those registered, and not those occurring, during the quarter. It is probable that on the average three or four weeks elapse between birth and registration, and several days between death and registration. Each quarter's registrations thus include a proportion of births and deaths which occurred in the preceding quarter, and in the census enumeration are included children whose births are not registered, while deceased persons not yet registered as such are excluded. The registrations for the next quarter, of course, include these, and though by next census they will be offset by the corresponding non-registrations at that time, which by the law of averages will not in the ordinary course of events differ materially, it is quite possible for exceptional circumstances to exert a disturbing influence. Moreover, in an interval of five years the number of births or deaths in a quarter, and consequently the number unregistered at the end of the quarter, may alter considerably.

Other sources tending to discrepancies between the census and estimated populations are, of course, the enumeration itself (which can never be perfect), and inaccuracies in the recording of arrivals and departures, while the taking of the census on any night except that between the end of one quarter and the beginning of the next is a factor in a country of increasing population. Then, the following points should not be overlooked: Officers and crews of vessels in port on census night are included in the population of New Zealand, and no record of arrivals and departures is furnished by pursers and others for such people in the same way as for ordinary passengers. This means that if at the date of the census there were many vessels in New Zealand waters the actual population at a subsequent date might, from this cause alone, differ in a comparatively material degree from that estimated. That the difference between one census and another in regard to this item is not a negligible one will be seen from the fact that while on census night, 1911, 4,865 persons were returned as being on shipboard, the 1916 figures were only 3,085. This difference is in part explainable on grounds which will appear later.

As regards accuracy, however, the New Zealand figures compare more than favourably with those of Australia and other countries. In the last Australian census (1911) a discrepancy of 70,000 between the actual census return and the estimate based on registrations and migrations emerged, while the corresponding error in New Zealand was only 1,707.

Towards the latter end of 1914 there was instituted a system whereby inter-Island migration was kept tally of by means of returns furnished monthly through the agency of Collectors of Customs. To what extent an accurate estimate of the population of each Island during intercensal periods can be made will not be apparent until the next census, but it can scarcely be anticipated that the result will be quite as gratifying as in the case of the estimate of the total population of the Dominion. Larger numbers, involving increased risks of error, are being dealt with than in the case of oversea returns, and there is more chance of inaccuracy arising from the non-recording of passengers travelling by private yachts and launches -from Island to Island, and from the overlooking of passengers when at most twelve or thirteen hours (and usually by night) are spent on shipboard.

Chapter 7. INCREASE OF POPULATION

The increase of population at successive census periods has been—

Date of Enumeration.Population.Numerical Increase.Percentage Increase.
December, 185859,413  
December, 186199,02139,60866.67
December, 1864172,15873,13773.86
December, 1867218,66846,51027.01
February, 1871256,39337,72517.25
March, 1874299,51443,12116.82
March, 1878414,412114,89838.36
April, 1881489,93375,52118.07
March, 1886578,48288,54918.07
April, 1891626,65848,1768.33
April, 1896703,36076,70212.24
March, 1901772,71969,3599.86
April, 1906888,578115,85914.99
April, 19111,008,468119,89013.49
October, 19161,099,44990,9819.02

The population of New Zealand has shown a continuous though not a regular increase in each year since 1855, the first year in which accurate records of births and deaths were obtained and used in conjunction With the returns of immigration and emigration. The greatest increase in any year was in 1874, when 32,118 assisted immigrants were brought into the country in accordance with the immigration and public-works policy of the Government. The next greatest increase of population was in 1863, following the discovery of gold in Otago. The accompanying logarithmic diagram gives a good indication of the progress of population in the Dominion, and is further interesting as showing the gradual tendency towards an equalization of the sexes. The loss of men in the years 1914–16 due to the departure of troops has actually brought the estimated female population at 31st December, 1916, slightly ahead of the male.

The smallness of the increase in 1914 and 1915, and the actual decrease in 1916, are due in great part to the war, immigration being considerably restricted, while the emigration figures were swelled by the departure of troops for the front.

Chapter 8. DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY ISLANDS.

The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.

In 1858 the North Island had a larger population than the South, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901, in which year the North Island was found to have slightly the larger total, a position which it has since considerably improved upon. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while a large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and are quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free from Maori troubles, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and on the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.

In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly 90,000 Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.

The population of the two Islands at successive censuses is given in the table following, together with the percentage that each Island bears to the total:—

Population of the North and South Islands, 1858–1916.

Census Year.Population (excluding Maoris).Proportions per Cent.
 North Island.South Island.*Total.North Island.South Island.*
* Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.
185834,09425,31959,41357.3842.62
186141,64l57,38099,02142.0557.95
186465,263106,895172,15837.916209
186779,913138,755218,66836.5563.45
187196,875159,518256,39337.7862.22
1874111,934187,580299,51437.3762.63
1878158,208256,204414,41238.1861.82
1881193,047296,886489,93339.4060.60
1886250,482328,000578,482 .43.3056.70
1891281,474345,184626,65844.9255.08
1896340,638362,722703,36048.4351.57
1901390,579382,140772,71950.5449.45
1906476,737411,841888,57853.6546.35
1911563,733444,7351,008,46855.9044.10
1916651,072448,3771,099,44959.2240.78

The figures for 1916 are not quite fair to the South Island. All the military and internment camps were in the North Island, and many of the soldiers, &c, in these on census night belonged to the South Island. The presence of the camps in the North Island had the further effect of temporarily attracting people from the other Island for business purposes, or to be near soldier friends and relatives. The troops abroad on census night (42,666 in number) may be regarded as having come from the two Islands in proportions approximately relative to population.

Chapter 9. DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY PROVINCIAL DISTRICT.

The populations of the various provincial of the 15th October, 1916, are as follows:—

Provincial Districts.Males.Females.Totals.
Auckland155,298153,468308,766
Taranaki28,77527,15055,925
Hawke's Bay27,19427,07354,267
Wellington119,572112,542232,114
Marlborough8,5068,10216,608
Nelson22,41520,83643,251
Westland8,0887,41415,502
Canterbury88,08593,784181,869
Otago—   
    Otago Portion63,54667,972131,518
    Southland Portion30,29629,33359,629
                  Totals for the Dominion551,775547,6741,099,449

The following table shows for successive census-takings since 1880 the percentage the population of each province has borne to the total population of New Zealand:—

Year.Auckland.Taranaki.Hawke's BayWellington.MarlboroughNelson.Westland.Canterbury.OtagoSouthland.Total.
188120.293.033.5412.541.895.333.0622.9521.945.43100.00
188622.543.114.2513.401.925.222.7521.0219.666.13100.00
189121.253.524.5515.592.015.552.5420.5318.525.9l100.00
189621.814.434.8417.321.775.082.0619.3517.066.25100.00
190122.774.904.5818.291.724.911.8818.5416.226.19100.00
190623.774.884.7520.241.624.791.6517.9314.395.98100.00
191126.235.114.8119.741.594.811.5617.2013.135.82100.00
191628.295.114.9820.521.494.401.2916.3912.085.45100.00

With the solitary exception of Southland, it will be seen that each southern province has suffered during the period in respect of the proportion that its population has borne to the total, while without exception the northern provinces have gained.

Chapter 10. URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION.

The following table shows the distribution of the population at each quinquennial census since 1881 in (1) counties and (2) boroughs (which term, unless this presumption is negatived by the context, is hereinafter used as being inclusive of cities):—

Census Year.Counties.Boroughs.Percentage.
Counties.Boroughs.Shipboard, &c
1881291,238327,32859.4439.800.76
1886352,097270,34356.5842.460.96
1891352,097307,29456.1843.140.68
1896391,735307,29455.6943.690.62
1901417,596350,20254.0145.320.64
1906458,797424,61451.6347.790.58
1911496,779505,59819.2650.140.60
1916501,259585,30645.5953.241.17

The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized and forming parts of counties have considerable populations. On the other hand, the population of a few of the smaller boroughs should strictly be classed as rural.

A progressive increase will be noted in the proportions of the population living in the boroughs, an increase which many would be inclined to view with alarm when it is considered that New Zealand is, after all, a primary producing and not a manufacturing country. As compared with Australia, however, the rural exodus is not marked, as is shown by the fact that as at 31st December, 1915, 48.24 per cent, of the population of Victoria, 40.83 per cent, of New South Wales, 46.63 per cent, of South Australia, and 38.36 per cent, of Western Australia were to be found in the capitals alone, while 40.06 per cent, of the population of the Commonwealth resided in the six capital cities. The 1916 census figures for the New Zealand metropolitan areas are—

 Population.Proportion to Whole.
Auckland133,71212.17
Wellington.95,2358.66
Christchurch92,7338.43
Dunedin68,7166.16
                    Total390,39635.42

Chapter 11. COUNTIES.

A list of counties and their population (exclusive of interior boroughs) as at the census of 1916 is given:—

Population of Counties on 15th October, 1916.

County.Population.
Akaroa1,982
Akitio1,416
Amuri1,836
Ashburton13,136
Ashley728
Awakino702
Awatere1,542
Bay of Islands3,600
Bruce4,763
Buller5,773
Castlepoint621
Chatham Islands219
Cheviot1,224
Clifton2,156
Clutha6,901
Collingwood1,253
Cook8,145
Coromandel2,256
Dannevirke4,538
East Taupo515
Eden18,204
Egmont3,264
Eketahuna2,312
Ellesmere3,441
Eltham3,393
Eyre1,806
Featherston5,119
Fiord17
Franklin9,397
Geraldine5,194
Great Barrier245
Grey5,510
Halswell1,628
Hawera4,599
Hawke's Bay11,467
Heathcote4,212
Hobson4,217
Hokianga3,596
Horowhenua6,926
Hutt6,397
Inangahua4,130
Kaikoura1,906
Kairanga4,124
Kaitieke3,597
Kawhia991
Kiwitea2,585
Kowai1,914
Lake1,749
Levels5,100
Mackenzie2,868
Makara3,862
Malvern2,757
Manawatu4,521
Maniototo2,527
Manukau6,799
Marlborough6,915
Masterton3,746
Matamata3,903
Mauriceville771
Mongonui3,562
Mount Herbert405
Murchison1,251
Ohinemuri4,661
Ohura2,382
Opotiki1,881
Oroua3,304
Otamatea3,647
Oxford1,756
Pahiatua3,110
Paparua4,716
Patangata2,080
Patea3,759
Peninsula1,793
Piako5,013
Pohangina1,581
Raglan4,027
Rangiora2,747
Rangitikei8,953
Rodney4,043
Rotorua1,400
Selwyn1,423
Sounds1,201
Southland25,661
Springs1,785
Stewart Island349
Stratford5,152
Taieri5,662
Takaka1,858
Taranaki7,100
Tauranga3,947
Tawera847
Thames4,690
Tuapeka5,123
Vincent3,930
Waiapu2,075
Waihemo1,446
Waikato8,099
Waikohu3,013
Waikouaiti4,094
Waimairi11,914
Waimarino3,502
Waimate6,984
Waimate West2,635
Waimea9,334
Waipa6,864
Waipara2,058
Waipawa3,084
Waipukurau667
Wairarapa South2,744
Wairewa1,036
Wairoa2,332
Waitaki9,694
Waitemata9,354
Waitomo5,181
Waitotara5,842
Wallace9,432
Wanganui3,397
Weber420
Westland4,087
West Taupo2,351
Whakatane2,954
Whangamomona1,387
Whangarei8,870
Whangaroa776
Woodville1,819

Chapter 12. BOROUGHS.

Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants.

The name of each borough, with the number of inhabitants as at the census of 1916, is given in the next table:—

Population of Boroughs on 15th October, 1916.

Borough.Population.
* Town constituted under special Act.
Akaroa540
Alexandra679
Arrowtown307
Ashburton2,808
Auckland (City)64,951
Balclutha1,409
Birkenhead2,116
Blenheim3,822
Brunner598
Cambridge1,507
Campbelltown1,823
Carterton1,614
Christchurch (City)54,925
Cromwell549
Dannevirke3,336
Dargaville1,776
Devonport7,613
Dunedin (City)55,256
Eastbourne952
Eketahuna754
Eltham1,711
Feilding3,438
Foxton1,772
Frankton1,861
Geraldine869
Gisborne9,174
Gore3,551
Green Island1,841
Greymouth4,863
Greytown1,186
Hamilton5,677
Hampden364
Hastings7,918
Hawera3,375
Hokitika2,091
Inglewood1,199
Invercargill14,154
Invercargill South1,712
Kaiapoi1,560
Kaitangata1,681
Karori1,647
Kumara623
Lawrence837
Levin1,630
Lower Hutt4,893
Lyttelton3,766
Marton1,650
Masterton5,894
Mataura1,129
Milton1,317
Miramar2,158
Mosgiel1,719
Motueka1,475
Mount Albert9,654
Mount Eden12,555
Napier12,704
Naseby276
Nelson (City)8,774
New Brighton2,310
Newmarket2,863
New Plymouth8,704
North cote1,651
Oamaru5,140
Ohakune1,371
Onehunga5,913
Onslow2,191
Opotiki1,073
Otahuhu2,328
Paeroa1,376
Pahiatua1,300
Palmerston752
Palmerston North12,829
Patea1,010
Petone7,115
Picton1,121
Port Chalmers2,615
Pukekohe1,533
Queenstown657
Rangiora1,808
Riccarton2,890
Richmond872
Riverton837
Ross491
Rotorua*2,845
Roxburgh449
Runanga1,411
Spreydon4,289
St. Kilda5,520
Stratford2,713
Sumner2,287
Taihape1,927
Takapuna2,756
Tapanui322
Taumarunui1,875
Tauranga1,685
Te Aroha1,452
Te Awamutu1,064
Te Kuiti1,982
Temuka1,633
Thames3,273
Timaru12,238
Waihi4,774
Waikouaiti611
Waimate1,867
Waipawa1,100
Waipukurau1,167
Wairoa1,530
Waitara1,422
Wanganui14,380
Wellington (City)73,305
West Harbour1,631
Westport4,067
Whangarei3,294
Winton586
Woodville1,078
Woolston3,990

Chapter 13. METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS.

For various purposes (vital statistics. &c.) metropolitan areas have been created at each of the four chief centres, and suburban areas at nine of the more important secondary centres. Each area includes, in addition to the central borough and suburban boroughs, a considerable non-municipalized area adjacent to and contingent on the centre.

An objection to the old system of publishing statistics for the municipal areas only was that these were constantly being extended or otherwise altered, and no proper comparison could be made between one period and. another, and no satisfactory record kept of the social condition and progress of the community. The creation of fairly extensive areas fixed for a long period will remove these disabilities.

Population figures as at the census of 1916 are as follows:—

Population of Metropolitan and Suburban Areas, Census, 1916.

METROPOLITAN AREAS.

 Population.
Auckland
Auckland City64,951
    Birkenhead Borough2,116
    Northcote Borough1,651
    Takapuna Borough2,756
    Devonport Borough7,613
    Newmarket Borough2,863
    Mount Eden Borough12,555
    Mount Albert Borough9,654
    Onehunga Borough5,913
    Otahuhu Borough2,328
    New Lynn Town District1,041
    Ellerslie Town District1,363
    Remainder of metropolitan area18,908
                Total133,712
Wellington.
Wellington City73,305
    Miramar Borough2,158
    Karori Borough1,647
    Onslow Borough2,191
    Petone Borough7,115
    Lower Hutt Borough4,893
    Eastbourne Borough952
    Johnsonville Town District886
    Remainder of metropolitan area2,088
                Total95,235
Christchurch.
Christchurch City54,925
    Riccarton Borough2,890
    Spreydon Borough4,289
    Woolston Borough3,990
    New Brighton Borough2,310
    Sumner Borough2,287
    Lyttelton Borough3,766
    Remainder of metropolitan area18,276
                Total92,733
Dunedin.
Dunedin City55,256
    St. Kilda Borough5,520
    Green Island Borough1,841
    West Harbour Borough1,631
    Port Chalmers Borough2,615
    Remainder of metropolitan area1,853
                Total68,716

SUBURBAN AREAS.

 Population
Gisborne.
Gisborne Borough9,174
    Mangapapa Town District1,140
    Remainder of suburban area2,346
                Total12,660
Napier.
Napier Borough12,704
    Taradale Town District1,012
    Remainder of suburban area1,415
                Total15,131
New Plymouth.
New Plymouth Borough8,704
    Remainder of suburban area1,091
                Total9,795
Wanganui.
Wanganui Borough14,380
    Gonville Town District2,693
    Castlecliff Town District734
    Remainder of suburban area1,710
                Total19,517
Palmerston North.
Palmerston North Borough12,829
    Remainder of suburban area1,177
                Total14,006
Nelson.
Nelson City8,774
    Remainder of suburban area1,188
                Total9,962
Grey Valley Boroughs.
Greymouth Borough4,863
    Runanga Borough1,411
    Brunner Borough598
    Remainder of suburban area1,501
                Total8,373
Timaru.
Timaru Borough12,238
    Remainder of suburban area1,478
                Total13,716
Invercargill.
Invercargill Borough14,154
    South Invercargill Borough1,712
    Remainder of suburban area1,996
                Total17,862

Chapter 14. POPULATION OF TOWN DISTRICTS.

The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000 full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of à Council presided over by a Mayor; and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 2O.000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population at the census of 1916 are as follows:—

(a.)Population of Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties, Census, 1916.

Town District.Population.
Bull's483
Castlecliff.734
Ellerslie1,363
Featherston1,159
Gonville2,693
Hampstead1,579
Havelock North870
Helensville775
Hunterville555
Huntly1,535
Johnsonville886
Lumsden530
Manaia606
Mangapapa1,140
Mangaweka390
Manunui813
Martin borough725
Morrinsville934
New Lynn1,041
Ngaruawahia755
Otaki806
Otautau696
Papakura641
Pleasant Point482
Raetihi508
Rangataua410
Taradale1,012
Te Puke565
Tinwald1,075
Upper Hutt1,399
Waiuku641
Warkworth624
Waverley623
Whakatane900
Wyndham647

(b.)Population of Town Districts forming Parts of Counties, Census, 1916.

Town District.Population.
Amberley325
Clinton413
Edendale363
Halcombe282
Havelock290
Kamo363
Kaponga397
Kawakawa327
Kihikihi277
Kohukohu403
Leamington438
Lethbridge234
Manurewa430
Mercer329
Normanby368
Norsewood213
Ohaupo259
Onerahi325
Opunake459
Ormondville317
Otane333
Otorohanga367
Outram348
Raglan217
Rongotea267
Southbridge369
Takaka370
Tuakau390

No fewer than ten of the “independent” town districts have sufficient population to enable them to be constituted boroughs, while on the other hand the census has disclosed four as having fallen below the 500 mark. None of the town districts still under county jurisdiction had at the date of the census a population of over. 500.

Chapter 15. POPULATION OF SMALL CENTRES.

In a country such as New Zealand, which is still largely in the development stage, villages and townships occupy a comparatively much more important position than is the case in older countries. Steps are taken at each census to compile accurate statements of population for such centres, and, though difficulty is experienced in many cases on account of the scattered nature of settlements, the following figures of population of small centres are sufficiently reliable to give a fair idea of the relative importance of the various places from a population point of view. Only townships with 100 or more inhabitants have been included.

List of Small Centres with their Populations as at the Census of October, 1916.

Centre.County in which situated.Population
* Including Mental Hospital
AbbotsfordTaieri145
AdamsvilleMasterton195
AddingtonWaimairi284
Addison'sBuller104
AhauraGrey167
AkaakaFranklin202
AkatarawaHutt136
AkitioAkitio133
AlbanyWaitemata240
AlburyMackenzie282
Alford ForestAshburton262
AlfredtonEketahuna240
AlfristonManukau192
AllandaleMackenzie103
AllantonTaieri216
AllentonAshburton1,113
AlmaWaitaki180
AltonPatea331
AnamaAshburton121
AnnanAmuri141
AnnatMalvern178
AokautereKairanga200
AongateteTauranga104
AorangiOroua122
AoroaHobson282
AparimaWallace231
ApitiPohangina449
ApplebyWaimea275
ArahuraWestland119
AramohoWaitotara146
ArangaHokianga136
ArapohueHobson182
ArarataHawera155
ArarimuFranklin120
AratapuHobson384
AratoroWaitomo109
ArdgowanWaitaki367
ArdmoreManukau199
ArgyllWaipawa228
AriaWaitomo225
Arthur's PassTawera222
ArundelGeraldine103
AshhurstOroua498
AshleyAshley304
Ashley- ClintonWaipawa135
AtawhaiWaimea123
AtholSouthland182
Auckland HospitalEdon594
AuroaWaimate West371
AvondaleEdon*2,670
AvonsideHeathcote585
AwahuriManawatu401
AwakeriWhakatane105
AwamanguBruce117
AwamoaWaitaki176
AwamokoWaitaki176
AwanuiMongonui187
AwatotoHawke's Bay261
AwatunaEgmont228
AwhituFranklin153
AylesburyMalvern106
BainhamCollingwood165
BalcairnKowai202
Balclutha NorthBruce208
BalfourSouthland449
BallancePahiatua211
BannookburnVincent146
Barry's BayAkaroa105
BayswaterWallace102
BeaconsfieldKiwitea253
BeaumontTuapeka245
BelfastWaimairi1,057
BelfieldGeraldine100
BelgroveWaimea184
Bell BlockTaranaki263
BelmontHutt201
BelvedereWairarapa South235
BenharBruce172
Bennett'sOxford197
BerwickTaieri192
BexleyHeathcote415
BidefordMasterton140
BirchfieldBuller132
BirchwoodWallace217
BlackballGrey863
Black's PointInangahua239
BlackwaterInangahua108
Blue CliffsWaimate132
Blue SpurTuapeka100
BombayFranklin394
Bonny GlenRangitikei149
BraighWhangarei105
BrightonTaieri245
BrightwaterWaimea499
BroadwoodHokianga164
BromleyHeathcote823
BrooksideEllesmere220
Brown'sSouthland264
BrunswickWaitotara198
BruntwoodWaikato155
BrydoneSouthland203
BucklandFranklin444
BunnythorpeKairanga614
Burke's PassMackenzie109
Burnett'8 FaceBuller526
BurnhamPaparua331
BurwoodWaimairi665
Cabbage BayCoromandel160
Calico LinoRangitikei176
CambrianManiototo110
Cameron'sGrey120
CanningtonWaimate125
CanvastownMarlborough262
Cape FoulwindBuller187
Cape RunawayWaiapu101
CaplestonInangahua121
CardiffStratford316
CardronaLake111
CarewAshburton154
CarringtonWairarapa South130
CashmereHeathcote970
CaveLevels187
ChamberlainMackenzie132
CharltonSouthland317
ChattonSouthland116
CheltenhamOroua119
ChertseyAshburton365
CheviotCheviot192
ChiselhurstEltham100
Christchurch HospitalWaimairi354
ChurchillRaglan102
ClandeboyeGeraldine304
ClarendonBruce122
ClarevilleWairarapa South339
Clarks villeBruce130
ClarkvilleEyre204
ClaudelandsWaikato277
ClevedonManukau539
ClifdenWallace163
CliftonTakaka105
CliveHawke's Bay572
ClydeVincent370
ClydevaleClutha238
Coal CreekTuapeka179
CoalgateMalvern197
CobdenGrey1,016
Colac BayWallace178
CollingwoodCollingwood213
CollingwoodSouthland296
ColytonPohangina109
Conical HillClutha105
CoromandelCoromandel677
CroftonRangitikei156
CronadunInangahua154
CrookstonTuapeka202
Cross CreekFeatherston110
Croydon BushSouthland186
CrushingtonInangahua122
CulverdenAmuri246
CustRangiora387
Dairy FlatWaitemata106
DalefieldWairarapa South225
DallingtonWaimairi270
DarfieldMalvern316
Day's BayHutt308
Deep CreekMarlborough397
DennistonGrey702
DillmanstownWestland143
DiptonSouthland486
DomettCheviot166
DorieAshburton134
DouglasStratford181
DouglasWaimate119
DovedaleWaimea115
DoylestonEllesmere403
Driving CreekCoromandel169
DrummondWallace443
DruryFranklin391
DunbackWaihemo345
DunsandelEllesmere443
DuntroonWaitaki353
Durham RoadTaranaki244
Duvauchelle's BayAkaroa183
DyervilleFeatherston148
EalingAshburton129
EarnscleughVincent306
East TamakiManukau340
Egmont VillageTaranaki211
EiffeltonAshburton186
ElginAshburton118
EllesmereSprings179
ElsthorpePatangata157
ElstonOhinemuri105
EnfieldWaitaki289
EpsomEden3,168
Epuni HamletHutt227
EskdaleHawke's Bay132
Esk ValleyWaimate105
EttrickTuapeka153
EurekaWaikato248
Evans BayTuapeka158
EvelineWaitaki295
EyretonEyre140
FairfaxWallace154
FairfieldHorowhenua162
FairfieldAshburton210
FairfieldTaieri261
Fairhall ValleyMarlborough112
FairlieMackenzie640
Fair viewLevels151
FarndonHawke's Bay136
FarnhamMarlborough145
FavonaManukau143
FencourtWaikato303
FendaltonWaimairi1,796
FernsideRangiora315
Five RiversSouthland125
Flat CreekMarlborough143
FordellWanganui315
FortificationSouthland132
FortroseSouthland190
FoxhillWaimea164
FranktonWaipa172
FrasertownWairoa318
Gabriel's GullyTuapeka104
GallowayVincent121
GapSouthland101
Gapes ValleyGeraldine144
GarstonLake133
Gate PaTauranga111
Gebbie's ValleyWairewa122
GeorgetownWaitaki193
GimmerburnManiototo134
GladstoneWairarapa South194
GlenavyWaimate206
GlenbrookFranklin131
GlenfieldWaitemata501
GlenhamSouthland238
GlenitiLevels361
GlenkenichClutha216
Glen MasseyRaglan346
Glen MurrayRaglan117
GlenomaruClutha149
GlenorchyLake150
Glen OrouaManawatu200
GlenroySelwyn170
GlentuiOxford113
GlentunnelMalvern261
Globe HillInangahua197
GoodwoodWaihemo260
GordonPiako108
GordontonWaikato321
Gorge RoadSouthland206
GranityBuller667
GrassmereAwatere118
GrassmereSouthland161
GreatfordRangitikei191
Green BayEden110
GreendaleMalvern267
GreenhillsSouthland165
Green LaneEden648
GreenmeadowsHawke's Bay646
GreenparkSprings308
GreenstreetAshburton141
Green valeSouthland211
Greenwood's CornerEden151
GreertonTauranga102
Grove BushSouthland146
GrovetownMarlborough376
Gummie's BushWallace159
HairiniWaipa141
HakatarameaWaimate203
Hakataramea ValleyWaimate123
Half-moon BayStewart Island209
HalkettMalvern146
HalswellHalswell1,096
HamuaEketahuna192
HangatikiWaitomo161
HanmerAmuri167
HapukaKaikoura103
HarewoodWaimairi402
HarihariWestland103
HarrisvilleFranklin174
HastwellMauriceville119
HatumaWaipukurau336
HaumoanaHawke's Bay208
HautapuWaikato145
HautereHorowhenua152
HawardenWaipara259
Hawea FlatVincent216
HawtreyMakara100
Heathcote ValleyHeathcote618
HectorBuller190
Heddon BushWallace239
HedgehopeSouthland227
HekeiaWallace111
HelensbrookBruce146
HendersonWaitemata874
HenleyTaieri110
HerbertWaitaki461
HerbertvillePatangata105
HerekinoHokianga283
HeropuruWhakatane103
HeriotTuapeka331
HerriesvillePiako239
HextonCook115
HighbankAshburton313
HighcliffPeninsula178
HihitahiWanganui279
HikimutuKaitieke100
HikuaiThames107
HikutaiaOhinemuri374
HilderthorpeWaitaki105
HillendBruce151
HillmortonWaimairi358
HillsboroughEden264
HillsboroughTaranaki144
HillsboroughHeathcote265
HillsideWaikato149
HiltonGeraldine186
HimatangiManawatu122
HinakuraFeatherston117
HindsAshburton379
HinueraMatamata206
HoangaHobson153
HobsonvilleWaitemata207
HokonuiSouthland175
HonikiwiWaitomo104
HookWaimate342
HopeWaimea387
HorehoreHobson105
HornbyPaparua568
Horokiwi ValleyHutt112
HoropitoWaimarino380
HororataSelwyn432
HorotiuWaipa313
HorrelvilleEyre120
Horsham DownsWaikato143
HoteoRodney136
HouipapaClutha159
HowickManukau483
HuatokiTaranaki178
HuingaStratford124
HuirangiTaranaki222
HuiroaStratford203
HukanuiEketahuna261
HukarereInangahua115
HukatereOtamatea120
HukerenuiWhangarei309
Humphrey's GullyWestland105
HunterWaimate255
HunuaFranklin206
HurimoanaWhangamomona113
HurleyvillePatea192
HydeManiototo156
Ida ValleyManiototo131
IhaiaEgmont111
IhakaraHorowhenua138
IhumataManukau105
IhurauaMauriceville134
IkamatuaInangahua109
InahaHawera293
Inangahua JunctionInangahua120
IncholmeWaitaki103
IrwellEllesmere259
Isla BushWallace139
IslingtonPaparua266
JanefieldTaieri112
JudgefordHutt101
KaeoWhangaroa180
KahuikaClutha102
KahukuraWaiapu139
KaihuHobson238
Kai IwiWaitotara258
KaikoheBay of Islands356
KaikouraKaikoura410
KaimataTaranaki360
KainuiAwatere103
KaipakiWaipa177
Kaipara FlatsRodney123
KairangaKairanga406
KaitaiaMongonui519
KaitawaPahiatua161
KaitiCook723
KaitunaMarlborough103
Kaituna ValleyWairewa140
KaiwakaOtamatea148
KakahiKaitieke510
KakahuGeraldine156
KakanuiWaitaki233
KakarameaPatea262
KanieriWestland219
KapukaSouthland134
KapuniWaimate West460
KarakaFranklin253
KarameaBuller240
KaramuRaglan173
KarangahakeOhinemuri790
KariotahiFranklin108
KaropiroMatamata132
KateaClutha101
KatikatiTauranga261
Kauaeranga ValleyThames137
KaukapakapaWaitemata399
KaupokonuiWaimate West461
KaurihohoreWhangarei120
Kauroo HillWaitaki129
KauwhataKairanga148
KawhatauKiwitea137
KelsoTuapeka165
KenningtonSouthland378
KerikeriBay of Islands102
KerrytownLevels118
Kia OraWaitaki128
KillinchyEllesmere220
KimbellMackenzie128
KimberleyMalvern143
KimihiaWaikato375
KingsdownLevels189
KiokioWaitomo199
KirikopuniHobson107
KiripakaWhangarei207
KiritakiWoodville188
KirweeMalvern289
KiwitahiPiako139
KnapdaleSouthland157
KohekoheFranklin113
KohiPatea137
KohimaramaEden225
KohinuiPahiatua179
KohuratahiWhangamomona255
KoiterangiWestland175
KokatahiWestland184
KomakorauWaikato135
KomataOhinemuri158
KoniniPahiatua261
KopuThames125
KopuarangaMasterton121
KoputaroaHorowhenua199
KorakonuiWest Taupo106
KorereWaimea132
KoritoTaranaki157
KoromatuaWaipa149
KotukuGrey101
KoutuHokianga100
KuaotunuCoromandel122
KumeroaWoodville125
KumeuWaitemata128
KurowWaitaki340
KururauOhura111
KyeburnManiototo151
Ladbrook'sPaparua253
LakesideEllesmere271
LansdowneMasterton734
LauderVincent176
LauristonAshburton162
LeestonEllesmere762
LeighRodney119
LeithfieldKowai170
LeppertonTaranaki291
LevelsLevels252
LimehillsSouthland382
Limestone IslandWhangarei138
LincolnSprings520
LindsayWaipawa229
LintonKairanga460
LismoreAshburton145
Little AkaloaAkaroa140
Little RiverWairewa161
LivingstoneWaitaki186
LoburnAshley185
LochielSouthland326
LongbeachAshburton113
LongburnKairanga602
LongbushSouthland251
LongridgeSouthland205
LomeSouthland175
Lovell's FlatBruce227
Lowburn FerryVincent236
LowcliffeAshburton158
LowgarthStratford216
LyndhurstAshburton178
LyndonAmuri173
Mabel BushSouthland203
Macandrew BayPeninsula103
MackaytownOhinemuri209
MackenzieCheviot175
McNabSouthland112
Macrae'sWaihemo125
MaerewhenuaWaitaki106
MahakipawaMarlborough119
MahenoWaitaki424
MahoeStratford198
MahoenuiAwakino112
MahurangiRodney108
MaitlandSouthland145
MakaraMakara170
MakarakaCook280
MakaretuWaipawa268
MakarewaSouthland591
MakauriCook184
MakikihiWaimate346
MakinoOroua163
MakirikiriWanganui294
MangamairePahiatua138
MakotukuDannevirke230
MakuriPahiatua187
MamakuRotorua486
ManakauHorowhenua455
ManawapouHawera222
ManawaruPiako363
MandevilleSouthland164
MangaitiOhinemuri159
MangamahuWanganui164
MangamairePahiatua154
MangamutuPahiatua116
MangaonohoRangitikei153
MangapaiWhangarei248
MangapehiWaitomo277
MangapikoWaipa141
MangaramaramaPahiatua137
MangarawaWoodville108
MangatainokaPahiatua454
MangateretereHawke's Bay207
MangateteMongonui113
MangatokiEltham408
MangatoroDannevirke123
MangawaiOtamatea109
MangawhataManawatu113
Mangawhero Valley'Matamata101
Manger©Manukau673
Mangere BridgeManukau285
MangonuiMongonui230
MangoreiTaranaki263
ManuherikiaVincent147
ManutahiPatea262
Manutuke'Cook316
MapiuWaitomo171
MaraekakahoHawke's Bay236
MaraetotaraHawke's Bay116
Marakopa'Awakino105
MareretuOtamatea123
MarotiriManawatu101
MarshlandWaimairi669
MarshlandsMarlborough112
Marton JunctionRangitikei544
MaruaWhangarei170
MataEltham124
MatahiwiMasterton106
MatahuruWaikato164
MatakanaRodney352
ManuherikiaVincent159
MatakitakiMurchison152
MatakoheOtamatea197
MatamataMatamata958
MatamauDannevirke283
MatangiWaikato199
MatapuEltham375
MatarawaWairarapa South160
MataroaRangitikei385
MatataWhakatane183
MatatokiThames127
Mataura IslandSouthland304
MatawaiWaikohu498
MatawheroCook253
MatiereOhura271
MatukuWallace113
MaukuFranklin283
MaungakarameaWhangarei280
MaungakawaPiako110
MaungatapereWhangarei215
MaungatautariMatamata101
MaungatawhiriFranklin150
MaungatuaTaieri210
MaungaturotoOtamatea194
MaunuWhangarei392
MauricevilleMauriceville343
Ma-waroMackenzie128
MaxwelltownWaitotara234
MayfieldAshburton297
MeadowbankWaitaki110
MedburyWaipara105
MeeaneeHawke's Bay152
Menzies FerrySouthland232
MeremereHawera330
MertonWaikouaiti152
MethvenAshburton760
MiddlemarchTaieri338
MidhirstStratford711
MilburnBruce216
Miller's FlatTuapeka365
MillertonBuller843
MiroTaranaki185
MitchamAshburton169
Moa CreekVincent189
Moa FlatTuapeka160
MoawhangoRangitikei120
MoerakiWaitaki133
MohakaWairoa133
MokaiEast Taupo199
MokauAwakino171
MokauitiWaitomo217
MokoiaHawera111
MokoretaSouthland131
MokotuaSouthland148
MomonaTaieri216
MonavaleWaipa172
MoneymoreBruce150
MorleyWallace168
Morrison's BushFeatherston162
Morton MainsSouthland290
MorvenWaimate546
Mosgiel JunctionTaieri225
MossburnTaieri123
MossburnWallace180
MosstownWaitotara229
MotuWaikohu184
MotuhoraOpotiki106
MotukarakaHokianga119
MotukararaSprings125
MotumaohoPiako215
MotunauWaipara105
MotunuiClifton107
MotupipiTakaka210
Mount AlbertEden226
Mount RoskillEden136
Mount St. JohnEden1,107
Mount SmartEden156
Mount SomersAshburton277
Mount WellingtonEdon212
MoutereWaimea325
MoutoaManawatu216
MurchisonMurchison318
MuriwaiCook157
Myross BushSouthland189
NainaiHutt.319
NaumaiOtamatea232
Nelson CreekGrey163
NethertonOhinemuri360
NeudorfWaimea178
NevisVincent132
NewboroughWaitaki187
NewburyKairanga261
NewlandsMakara135
NewmanEketahuna193
NewsteadWaikato152
NgaawapuruaWoodville122
NgaereStratford348
NgahaurangaMakara219
NgahereGrey233
NgakawauBuller157
NgamateaWanganui123
NgamokoDannivirke110
NgaparaWaitaki285
NgaruaPiako186
NgatakiMongonui140
NgatapaCook322
NgateaThames159
NgatimotiWaimea152
NgongotahaRotorua305
NgutuweraPatea111
NightcapsWallace439
NihotapuWaitemata101
NireahaEkotahuna323
NokomaiSouthland114
NolantownHawera364
NormandaleHutt111
North LoburnAshley145
Norton RoadWaipa110
Norton's ReserveWaimate114
No. 2 LineWanganui113
NuhakaWairoa150
Nydia BaySounds110
OakuraTaranaki206
OaonuiEgmont377
OeoEgmont204
OhaeawaiBay of Islands133
OhakeaManawatu103
OhangaiHawera121
OhapeGeraldine154
OhariuMakara227
OhauHorowhenua251
OhinewaiWaikato293
OhingaitiRangitikei309
OhokaEyre263
OhuraOhura205
OioKaitieke102
OkahuHobson108
OkahukuraOhura281
OkaiawaHawera301
OkaihauBay of Islands131
Okain's BayAkaroa281
OkateTaranaki456
OkauClifton110
OkauiaMatamata121
OkoiaWanganui273
OkoroireMatamata265
OkuramioMarlborough167
OmakaMarlborough126
OmakauVincent179
OmanawaTauranga123
OmataTaranaki235
OmihiWaipara202
OneteaHobson109
One Tree HillEden924
OnewheroRaglan285
OngaongaWaipawa330
OngarueOhura141
OpakiMasterton'148
OparauKawhia110
OparureWaitomo187
OphirVincent110
OpouriaoWhakatane250
Opouri ValleyMarlborough121
OpuaBay of Islands103
OpuatiaRaglan110
OrakipaoaGeraldine116
OrariGeraldine256
OratiaWaitemata193
OrawiaWallace255
OrepukiWallace746
OretiSouthland174
OriniWaikato198
OrmondCook523
OrongoThames108
OropiTauranga172
Oroua DownsManawatu136
OtaikaWhangarei316
OtaioWaimate222
OtakehoWaimate West324
OtamaSouthland123
OtapiriSouthland138
OtaraOpotiki214
OtaraSouthland286
OtataraSouthland191
OtauaFranklin346
OtauwhaoWaipawa213
OtekaikeWaitaki308
OtewaWaitomo1ll
OtiakeWaitaki130
OtipuaLevels164
OtiraWestland462
OtokiaTaieri301
OtokoWaikohu172
OtumoetaiTauranga128
OturehuaManiototo167
OturoaRotorua136
OuruhiaWaimairi190
OverdaleAshburton124
OwakaClutha576
OwhangoKaitieke667
OxfordOxford989
PaekakarikiHutt382
PaemakoWaitomo110
PaengaroaTauranga238
PaerataFranklin146
PahiaWallace212
PakihikuraKiwitea104
PakipakiHawke's Bay200
PakowhaiHawke's Bay236
PakurangaManukau249
PangatotaraWaimea162
PanmureEden400
PapakaioWaitaki232
PapamoaTauranga210
PapanuiWaimairi2,844
PaparangiMakara123
PaparataFranklin158
PaparoaOtamatea331
PapatawaWoodville147
PapatoitoiManukau1,062
PapatotaraWallace145
ParakaiWaimarino195
ParaparaWaimarino146
ParaparaumuHutt356
ParawaiThames604
ParemataHutt115
PareoraLevels330
ParkvaleWairarapa South276
ParnassusCheviot108
ParoaGrey116
Parua BayWhangarei127
PatearoaManiototo228
PaterangiWaipa221
PatetereMatamata111
PatokaHawke's Bay133
PatumahoeFranklin328
PatutahiCook649
Pelorus ValleyMarlborough66
PembertonKiwitea64
PembrokeLake113
Pembroke RoadStratford106
PeninsulaKaikoura134
PenroseEden307
PeriaMongonui133
PetaneHawke's Bay271
PihaWaitemata137
PihamaEgmont328
Pine BushSouthland141
PiopioWaitomo311
PipirikiWaimarino334
PipiroaThames121
PiriakaKaitieke270
PirinoaFeatherston225
PiripiriDannevirke201
PirongiaWaipa182
Pirongia WestKawhia122
Pleasant ValleyGeraldine209
PlimmertonHutt247
PohanginaPohangina249
Pohangina ValleyOroua233
PohokuraWhangamomona145
Point ChevalierEden556
PokenoFranklin362
PongakawaTauranga150
PongaraAkitio487
PoolburnVincent103
PorangahauPatangata405
PorewaRangitikei140
PoriruaMakara*1,399
Port AlbertRodney266
PortlandWhangarei204
PortobelloPeninsula188
PoukawaHawke's Bay195
PourakinoWallace103
PrebbletonPaparua484
PuahaWairewa176
PueruaClutha110
PuhaWaikohu205
PuhoiRodney274
PukahuHawke's Bay169
PukehinauAkitio111
PukehouWaipawa100
PukehuiaHobson161
Pukekohe EastFranklin229
Pukekohe HillFranklin121
PukekoheWaipa173
PukemiroRaglan223
PukengahuStratford127
PukenuiMongonui123
PukerauSouthland313
PukerimuWaipa161
PukeroroWaikato102
PuketapuHawke's Bay173
PuketitiriHawke's Bay143
PuketuruaMatamata104
PukeuriWaitaki227
PungapungaWest Taupo216
PungarehuEgmont210
PuniFranklin293
PuuihoTaranaki147
PupongaCollingwood157
PurakanuiWaikouaiti134
PurekirekiClutha104
PuririThames278
PutaruruMatamata308
PutikiWanganui203
RahotuEgmont318
RakaiaAshburton536
Rakaia GorgeAshburton104
RakaunuiAkitio121
RakauroaWaikohu145
RamaramaFranklin252
RanfurlyManiototo346
RangiahuaHokianga119
RangiotuManawatu313
RangiririWaikato113
RangitataGeraldine139
Rangitata IslandGeraldine100
Rangitikei LineKairanga132
Rangitikei River BankManawatu107
RangitumauMasterton134
RangiwahiaKiwitea216
RapauraMarlborough168
RataRangitikei100
RatanuiClutha167
RatapikoTaranaki133
RaumaiPohangina315
RaumatiDannevirke124
RaupoOtamatea138
RaurimuKaitieke631
RaweneHokianga327
RawhitiroaEltham181
RedcliffeWaimato200
RedhillHobson151
RedwoodtownMarlborough282
ReeftonInangahua1,623
ReidstonWaitaki117
ReikorangiHutt114
RenwicktownMarlborough350
RewanuiGrey152
RichmondWaitaki111
Richmond GroveSouthland207
RimuWestland288
RimuSouthland115
RissingtonHawke's Bay136
RiverheadWaitemata336
RiverleaEltham109
RiversdaleSouthland320
RiversideTaieri106
RiwakaWaimea716
RockvilleCollingwood175
RollestonPaparua206
RomahapaClutha208
RongokokakoEketahuna145
RongomaiEketahuna152
RosebankEden435
RosebankClutha219
RotherhamAmuri248
Roto-o-rangiWest Taupo128
RotorangiWaipa146
RototunaWaikato193
Round HillWallace155
RuakakaWhangarei207
RuakakaOhinemuri118
RuakapukaGeraldine179
RuakituriWairoa128
RuakoaDannevirke169
RuakuraWaikato152
RuapunaAshburton136
RuatangataWhangarei170
RuatapuWestland206
RuawaiOtamatea306
RuawhataPahiatua120
RukuhiaWaipa258
RuncimanFranklin101
RuruGrey125
RussellBay of Islands220
Russell's FlatTawera108
Ryal BushSouthland289
Saddle HillTaieri108
St. Andrew'sWaimate541
St. Bathan'sManiototo161
St. HeliersEden507
St. Martin'sHeathcote360
Sandon BlockKiwitea109
SandymountPeninsula101
SansonManawatu391
Sawyer's BayWaikouaiti536
ScarboroughPahiatua158
ScargillWaipara163
Scott's FerryRangitikei165
Scott's GapWallace127
SeacliffWaikouaiti*1,253
SeadownLevels334
SeatounPeninsula159
Seaward DownsSouthland274
SeddonAwatere208
SeddonvilleBuller187
SeftonKowai253
SelwynEllesmere105
Sentry HillTaranaki114
Shag PointWaihemo111
ShannonHorowhenua560
SheffieldMalvern201
Sherwood DownsMackenzie163
ShirleyWaimairi338
ShortlandThames899
SilverdaleWaitemata252
SilverstreamHutt110
SockburnPaparua512
SolwayMasterton180
South BeachGrey158
SouthbrookRangiora346
SouthburnWaimate130
South HillendWallace111
South RakaiaAshburton162
Spar BushSouthland149
SpotswoodTaranaki173
SpotswoodCheviot150
SpreadeagleAshburton109
SpringbankRangiora120
SpringburnAshburton101
Spring GreekMarlborough191
SpringfieldAshburton189
SpringfieldTawera308
Spring GroveWaimea254
SpringlandsMarlborough699
SpringstonSprings259
Springston SouthSprings393
SpringvaleWaitotara158
StaffordWestland104
Stanley BrookWaimea129
StanwayOroua175
StarboroughAwatere187
StaveleyAshburton158
StirlingBruce564
StocktonBuller101
StokeWaimea727
StrathmoreWhangamomona113
StreamlandsRodney108
Studholme JunctionWaimate285
StyxWaimairi328
SunnysideWaimairi*765
Sutherland'sLevels254
SuttonTaieri114
SwannanoaEyre146
SwansonWaitemata263
TadmorWaimea206
TahaiaWaitomo102
TahakopaClutha186
TahatikaClutha132
TahoraWhangamomona182
TahoraiteDannevirke157
TahunaOhinemuri205
TahunanuiWaimea298
TahoraCook123
Taieri EastTaieri261
Taieri NorthTaieri269
TaikoreaManawatu207
TairuaThames112
TaitaHutt355
Tai TapuHalswell466
TakahuMongonui126
TakaiwhataWaikato129
Takaka EastTakaka130
TakamatuaAkaroa119
TakapauWaipawa442
TamahereWaikato222
Tamaki WestEden132
TamumuPatangata136
TaneatuaWhakatane388
TangihuaWhangarei112
TangiteroriaHobson107
TangowahineHobson148
TaonuiOroua265
TaoroaRangitikei114
TarangaturiSouthland105
TarataClifton190
TaratahiWairarapa South290
TarikiTaranaki505
TaringamotuWest Taupo167
TarrasVincent127
TaruheruCook218
TarurutangiTaranaki198
TasmanWaimea184
TataraimakaTaranaki193
TatararikiHobson235
TataunuiPiako166
TaueruMasterton142
TauheiPiako243
TauherenikauFeatherston178
TauhoaRodney148
TaupiriWaikato358
TaupoEast Taupo103
TautariWest Taupo182
TauwhareWaikato257
Tawa FlatMakara191
TawaiWaimate129
TawakaFeatherston272
TawanuiClutha105
TawhitiHawera109
TayforthWaitotara212
Te AraroaWaiapu280
Te AtatuWaitemata179
To HanaRodney107
Te HirauRaglan137
To HoroHorowhenua256
Te HoukaClutha124
Te KapoMackenzie119
Te KarakaWaikohu467
Te KawaWest Taupo135
Te KingaGrey142
Te KiriEgmont292
Te KopuruHobson637
To KowhaiWaipa289
To MaparaWaitomo201
Te MataRaglan235
Te MataHawke's Bay334
Te MawhaiWest Taupo120
TempletonPaparua658
TengawaiMackenzie157
Te OreoreMasterton175
Te PapakuhuDannevirke189
Te PoliueHawke's Bay206
Te PoiMatamata152
TerakoheTakaka127
Te RapaWaipa255
Te RehungaDannevirke406
Te RoreWaipa128
Te RotiEltham273
Te TuaWallace199
Te WaewaeWallace106
The MountTauranga142
The PeaksWaipara117
ThornburyWallace304
Three KingsEden258
TihakaWallace109
TikokinoWaipawa289
TikorangiClifton288
TimatangaMarlborough115
TinirotoCook171
TinuiCastlepoint191
TirauMatamata235
TiriraukawaRangitikei126
TisburySouthland155
TitirangiWaitemata203
TitokiWhangarei110
Ti-tree PointWeber103
TokanuiWest Taupo*259
TokanuiSouthland177
TokaoraHawera110
TokarahiWaitaki247
TokatokaOtamatea106
TokoStratford525
TokoitiBruce217
TokomaruHorowhenua599
Tokomaru BayWaiapu806
Tolaga BayCook381
TongaporutuClifton146
TotaraWhangaroa133
TotaraWaitaki268
Totara FlatGrey115
Totara ValleyLevels176
TowaiBay of Islands132
TrenthamHutt592
TuamarinaMarlborough296
TuapakiWaitemata203
Tuapeka FlatTuapeka114
Tuapeka MountTuapeka121
Tuapeka WestTuapeka150
TuatapereWallace401
TuparoaWaiapu130
TurakinaRangitikei100
Turakina ValleyRangitikei257
TurangarereWanganui168
TuruaThames187
Tussock CreekSouthland139
TutaenuiRangitikei161
Tutaenui, UpperRangitikei214
TuturauSouthland349
TwyfordHawke's Bay162
TychoLevels110
UmukuriWaimea289
UmutaoroaDannevirke201
UmutoiPohangina114
Upper PlainMasterton327
Upper Spring CreekMarlborough107
UrenuiClifton364
UrutiClifton246
UtikuRangitikei586
UtuwaiPohangina.112
Victoria ValleyMongonui172
View HillOxford141
WaddingtonMalvern251
WaerengaWaikato179
WaerengaahikaCook263
WaharoaMatamata258
WaianakaruaWaitaki103
WaianiwaSouthland304
WaiarekaWaitaki136
WaiauFranklin180
WaiauAmuri244
WaihakekeWairarapa South148
WaihaorungaWaimato157
WaihararaMongonui107
Waihi PlainsOhinemuri169
WaihoangaHorowhenua120
WaiholaBruce222
WaihopoMongonui270
WaihouPiako598
Wai-itiWaimea144
WaikaiaSouthland301
WaikakaSouthland235
Waikaka ValleySouthland309
WaikanaeHorowhenua274
WaikariWaipara438
WaikawaSouthland154
WaikeriaWest Taupo106
WaikiekieWhangarei190
WaikinoOhinemuri779
WaikiwiSouthland583
WaikohuWaikohu155
WaikoikoiClutha220
WaikukuRangiora205
WaikumeteWaitemata441
WaimahakaSouthland159
WaimamakuHokianga174
WaimanaWhakatane225
WaimangaroaBuller287
WaimataCook222
WaimataitaiLevels253
Waimate NorthBay of Islands127
WaimatuaSouthland103
WaimatukuWallace235
WaimaukuWaitemata217
WaimumuSouthland228
WaingakeCook133
WaingaroRaglan138
WainuiAkaroa133
WainuiomataHutt169
WaioekaOpotiki221
WaiongonaTaranaki213
WaiorongomaiPiako224
WaiotahiOpotiki139
WaipahiClutha186
WaipaoaWaikohu235
WaiparaWaipara176
WaipiataManiototo156
WaipipiFranklin257
Waipiro BayWaiapu197
WaipuWhangarei328
WaipukuStratford154
WairauMarlborough112
Wairau ValleyMarlborough182
WairereOtamatea190
WairioWallace279
WairunaClutha193
WairunaTuapeka378
Waitahuna WestBruce151
WaitakereiWaitemata182
Waitaki SouthWaitaki108
WaitapuKiwitea194
WaitapuTakaka128
WaitatiWaikouaiti550
WaitekauriWaitomo105
WaiterimuWaikato105
WaitoaPiako454
WaitohiGeraldine236
WaitihuHorowhenua104
WaitotaraPa tea281
WaituhiWest Taupo169
WaitunaWaimate177
WaitunaSouthland118
WaiutaInangahua511
WaiweraWaitemata213
Waiwera SouthClutha304
WakanuiAshburton179
WakapuakaWaimea150
WakararaWaipawa124
WakariTaieri126
WakefieldWaimea776
WallacetownSouthland270
WallingfordPatangata137
WaltonPiako320
WangaehuRangitikei222
WangaehuMasterton100
WansteadPatangata175
WardAwatere277
WareaEgmont292
WarepaClutha221
WarringtonWaikouaiti203
WashdykeLevels417
WataroaWestland124
Watershed RoadOroua111
WatertonAshburton124
WatlingtonLevels199
WeberWeber207
WedderburnManiototo119
Weedon'sPanama176
WellsfordRodney153
WendonSouthland445
WendonsideSouthland246
WeraroaHorowhenua640
WesterfieldAshburton236
Western SpringsEden152
WestmereWaitotara317
West MeltonPaparua186
WestonWaitaki252
West PlainsSouthland309
WestshoreHawke's Bay490
WhakamaraHawera130
WhakaparaWhangarei153
WhakapirauOtamatea143
WhakarongaKairanga273
WhakatuHawke's Bay111
WhangamomonaWhangamomona284
WhangarataFranklin169
WhangaripoRodney148
WhangaroaWhangaroa103
WharehuiaStratford316
WharekopaeWaikohu108
WharepohaThames241
WhatatutuWaikohu222
WhataupokoCook832
WhatawhataWaipa278
WhenuakuraPatea430
WhetukuraDannevirke167
WhitecliffsMalvern183
Whiteman's ValleyHutt127
WhitfordManukau265
WhitiangaCoromandel446
Wild BushWallace150
WillowbridgeWaimate276
WillowbyAshburton200
WimbledonWeber114
WinchesterGeraldine342
WinchmoreAshburton231
WindsorWaitaki267
WingatuiTaieri184
WiriManukau155
WoodburyGeraldine356
WoodendRangiora429
WoodendSouthland198
WoodgroveWaipara222
WoodhillWaitemata103
WoodlandsSouthland432
WoodsideTaieri175
WoodstockWestland154
Wrey's BushWallace193
Wright's BushSouthland127
Wyfie's CrossingTaieri129
YaldhurstPaparua278

Chapter 16. POPULATION ON SHIPBOARD AND EXPRESS TRAINS.

The fact that on Sunday night travelling is at a minimum has been one of the factors in determining that night as the occasion most suitable for the taking of a census. The number of persons on shipboard within territorial waters on census night was 3,085—viz., 2,923 males and 162 females. This shows a decrease of 1,780 on the 1911 figures, partly due, no doubt, to the fact that the 1911 figures included passengers and crews on the weekly intercolonial service (since discontinued) leaving Dunedin for Bluff on Sunday evenings. The 1916 figures include 378 passengers travelling by night on the North Island Main Trunk Railway, the only railway route on which passenger-trains were running at midnight between census Sunday and Monday.

Chapter 17. POPULATION OF ADJACENT ISLANDS.

Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the inhabited islands as at the census of 1916 are shown in the following table —

Island.Population.
* Excluding internment camp.
Mokohinau8
Kawau23
Motuketekete2
Moturekareka1
Little Barrier3
Motuhora5
Waiheke to Pakihi2
Ponui21
Rakino6
Motutapu20
Motuihi*6
Rangitoto6
Brown's5
Rotoroa125
Pakatoa43
Tiritiri13
Slipper2
Cuvier7
Mercury4
Matakana7
Motiti6
Somes*7
Mana1
Kapiti3
The Brothers3
D'Urville87
Stephen11
Quarantine56
Dog12
Centre9
Total697

Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which, as before stated, is dealt with separately at the end of this report.

Chapter 18. Density Of Population.

The densities of population per Islands and per provincial districts at successive census-takings are appended.

Census Year.Number of Persons to a Square Mile.*
North Island.South Island.Both Islands.
* Excluding Maoris.
18610.940.970.96
18712.202.702.39
18814.375.024.74
18916.385.846.07
19018.856.467.48
190610.806.968.60
191112.777.529.76
191614.757.5810.64
Provincial District.Area in SquarePersons to a Square Mile (excluding Maoris).
1881.1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
Auckland25,3643.925.145.256.056.948.3310.4312.17
Taranaki3,7323.984.825.918.3510.1411.6313.8214.99
Hawke's Bay4,2414.105.796.728.038.359.9611.4512.80
Wellington10,8075.687.179.0411.2813.0816.6418.4221.48
Marlborough4,2252.202.633.022.953.153.403.783.93
Nelson10,8752.402.783.203.293.493.914.463.98
Westland4,8813.083.263.252.962.973.013.223.18
Canterbury13,8588.118.779.289.8210.3411.5012.5213.12
Otago—         
    Otago portion13,9577.708.158.328.608.989.169.529.42
    Southland portion11,3582.343.123.263.874.214.675.175.25
Totals103,2984.745.606.076.817.488.609.7610.64

NOTE.—Certain uninhabited outlaying islands (area, 283 square miles) are not included for the purpose of this table.

The Number of persons per square mile in each country at the census of October, 1916, was as follows —

County.Parsons per Square Mile.
Mongonui4.07
Whangaroa3.88
Hokianga3.85
Bay of Islands4.25
Whangarei13.61
Hobson9.57
Otamatea8.23
Rodney8.20
Waitemata37.29
Eden3,804.67
Great Barrier2.27
Manukau46.33
Franklin17.63
Raglan4.71
Waikato24.93
Waipa34.47
Kawhia2.82
Awakino1.69
Waitomo6.42
Ohura4.52
West Taupo2.94
Matamata4.14
Piako16.00
Ohinemuri21.75
Thames15.99
Coromandel5.13
Tauranga8.65
Rotorua4.27
East Taupo0.21
Whakatane1.91
Opotiki1.96
Waiapu1.88
Waikohu3.36
Cook16.01
Wairoa2.90
Hawke's Bay16.17
Waipawa9.51
Waipukurau21.58
Patangata2.90
Dannevirke19.02
Woodville18.81
Weber3.89
Clifton3.51
Taranaki47.73
Egmont16.57
Stratford20.12
Whangamomona3.67
Eltham25.39
Waimate West35.13
Hawera40.89
Patea7.62
Waitotara45.24
Kaitieke6.10
Waimarino5.24
Wanganui5.42
Rangitikei10.95
Kiwitea7.69
Pohangina5.36
Oroua31.65
Manawatu23.57
Horowhenua17.15
Kairanga89.23
Pahiatua14.65
Akitio4.34
Eketahuna9.46
Mauriceville5.67
Masterton16.45
Castlepoint2.60
Wairarapa South9.64
Featherston6.56
Hutt41.99
Makara823.40
Sounds2.54
Marlborough6.14
Awatere1.22
Kaikoura2.71
Waimea12.31
Takaka4.09
Collingwood1.74
Buller5.41
Murchison0.76
Inangahua5.57
Grey8.53
Westland1.65
Amuri0.78
Cheviot3.80
Waipara2.28
Kowai11.96
Ashley2.34
Rangiora47.95
Eyre19.23
Oxford5.42
Tawera0.91
Malvern11.12
Paparua34.68
Waimairi200.05
Heathcote3,404.29
Halswell140.88
Mount Herbert6.86
Akaroa15.47
Chatham Islands0.58
Wairewa16.28
Springs20.06
Ellesmere18.80
Selwyn1.46
Ashburton6.27
Geraldine8.11
Levels63.51
Mackenzie1.13
Waimate6.59
Waitaki6.51
Waihemo6.54
Waikouaiti28.15
Peninsula48.46
Taieri75.27
Bruce15.43
Clutha8.78
Tuapeka4.93
Maniototo2.26
Vincent1.92
Lake0.73
Southland12.95
Wallace2.78
Fiord0.01
Stewart Island0.52

The following map illustrates the number of people per square mile in each county at the date of the census. The population figures used in the compilation are inclusive of interior boroughs, but exclusive of persons on shipboard.

SECTION III—PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES.

Chapter 19. GENERAL SURVEY AND EARLY CONTRIBUTING FACTORS.

In respect of the relative proportions of the sexes in the population, New Zealand has since the first settlement of the Islands differed materially from the older countries of the world. Although in the latter the composition of the populations has been no doubt to some extent affected by emigration, yet, in general, natural increase would appear to be the main determining factor, the numbers of males and females being in most of these countries approximately equal, with a more or less marked tendency, however, for the females slightly to exceed the males. The excess of females in such older countries arises from a variety of causes, amongst which the most potent are probably (a) higher rate of mortality amongst males, (b) the fact that males tend to emigrate to a greater extent than females.

Very different is the case with newer countries such as New Zealand, where the rule is (in the early years of colonization especially) for the male population to outnumber the female.

The following table is interesting as showing the early excess of males and the gradual equalization of the sexes in New Zealand, the number of females to 1,000 males having risen from 622 in 1861 to 903 in 1901. The proportion was slightly lower in 1906 and 1911, but rose to 993 in 1916, mainly on account of the absence of so many men at the war.

Census Year.Males.Females.Females to 1,000 Males
186161,06237,959622
1871150,356106,037705
1881269,605220,328817
1891332,877293,781883
1901405,992366,727903
1906471,008417,570887
1911531,910476,558896
1916551,775547,674993

The preponderance of males in the early years of New Zealand was doubtless due to the fact that the difficulties of pioneering and the remoteness of the country from Europe were such as to deter female immigration to a greater extent than male. This was accentuated by the character of the early industries. Gold-mining and coal-mining would attract large numbers of men but few women. The low female figures for the mining province of Westland as shown by a succeeding table are a striking proof of this. The effect of this early preponderance of males no doubt still exists, but in an ever-diminishing degree, its gradual elimination being effected by the dying-off of the earlier settlers.

Of the two sources from which the Dominion's population has been recruited— viz., migration and natural increase— the effect of the former has hitherto been to give in the aggregate a considerable preponderance of males, and of the latter to give a regular preponderance of females. Between 1860 and 1916 the gain of males by migration totalled 92,000 more than that of females. This excess was only partly offset numerically by a female surplus of 33,000 in the figures of natural increase, but the net excess of some 80,000 males is not nearly sufficient to maintain the former high ratio of males to females in the population.

Chapter 20. NATURAL INCREASE.

The following figures of births, deaths, and natural increase in each year since compulsory registration was instituted show, with one exception, a very steady excess of males over females in the birth-registrations. The male excess in the deaths is, however, considerably greater, so that, with the exception of 1856, each year shows a larger gain of females than of males by natural increase.

Effects of Natural Increase on the Proportions of the Sexes, 1855–1916.

Year.Births.Deaths.Natural Increase.
Males.Females.Male Excess.Males.Females.Male Excess.Males.Females.Excess of Females over Males.
18557666947230416613846252866
18569048188623617066668648−20
18571,005961442661689873979354
18581,1851,087983422401028438474
18591,3941,25314143327116296198221
18601,5661,580−146304621689361,118182
18611,7521,689636324771551,1201,21292
18622,0901,9741167734583151,3171,516199
18632,6412,4741671,2187654531,4231,709286
18643,3343,1671671,7581,1635955,5762,004428
18653,8473,6432041,6581,0995592,1892,544355
18664,2844,1821021,5679735942,7173,209492
18674,5954,3232721,6211,0815402,9743,242268
18684,7664,6251411,6311,0316003,1353,594459
18694,8754,843321,6831,0386453,1923,805613
18705,2405,0372031,5951,1084873,6453,929284
18715,4105,1822281,6351,0076283,7754,175400
18725,5105,2852251,8971,2956023,6133,990377
18735,7075,5151922,0681,5784903,6393,937298
18746,6346,2104242,3661,7955714,2684,415147
18757,4906,9485423,3762,3361,0404,1144,612498
18768,3207,8484722,8812,0238585,4395,825386
18778,6178,2393782,8021,8839195,8156,356541
18788,9548,8161382,7191,9267936,2356,890655
18799,2948,7765183,3622,2211,1415,9326,555623
18809,8939,4484453,1712,2669056,7227,182460
18819,5909,1424483,2472,2441,0036,3436,898555
18829,7129,2974153,3552,3461,0096,3576,951594
18839,8439,3594843,4692,5928776,3746,767393
188410,1319,7154163,3012,4398626,8307,276446
188510,0209,6733473,5622,5191,0436,4587,154696
18869,8729,4274453,5162,6198976,3566,808452
18879,7259,4103153,6032,5341,0696,1226,876754
18889,6419,2613803,3152,3939226,3266,868542
18899,5148,9435713,3562,4169406,1586,527369
18909,2938,9853083,4742,5209545,8196,465646
18919,3778,8964813,7872,7311,0565,5906,165575
18929,1018,7753263,7912,6681,1235,3106,107797
18939,3108,8774333,9432,8241,1195,3676,053686
18949,4729,0564164,0112,9071,1045,4616,149688
18959,4939,0534403,9662,8971,0695,5276,156629
18969,5119,1014103,7762,6561,1205,7356,445710
18979,6009,1374633,7872,8089795,8136,329516
18989,6159,3402754,2802,9641,3165,3356,3761,041
18999,7249,1116134,4643,2161,2485,2605,895635
190010,1079,4396684,1533,0471,1065,9546,392438
190110,47110,0204514,4183,2161,2026,0536,804751
190210,65310,0026514,8903,4851,4055,7636,517754
190311,21710,6126054,9473,5811,3666,2707,031761
190411,76211,0047584,7533,3341,4197,0097,670661
190512,10911,5735364,6893,3721,3177,4208,201781
190612,39711,8555424,9353,4041,5317,4628,451989
190712,83512,2595765,7554,3111,4447,0807,948868
190813,36912,5717985,3243,7191,6058,0458,852807
190913,50213,0224805,2463,7131,5338,2569,3091,053
191013,44212,5429005,6044,0351,5697,8388,507669
191113,53212,8227105,5953,9391,6567,9378,883946
191213,99613,5124845,3743,8401,5348,6229,6721,050
191314,43313,5029315,8674,2521,6158,5669,250684
191414,53513,8037325,9864,1621,8248,5499,6411,092
191514,41513,4359805,7664,1991,5678,6499,236587
191614,66913,8408296,1464,4501,6968,5239,390867

Chapter 21. MIGRATION.

The figures of immigration and emigration naturally do not move so smoothly and regularly as those of natural increase either as a whole or as between the two sexes. Some of the earlier years show a huge excess of males in the migration gain, but as early as 1864 a female excess was recorded, due probably to the departure from the country of many men who had been attracted to the gold-fields. The figures have fluctuated considerably since, but the general effect has been to give an excess of males. A statement is appended showing the movement since 1859:—

Effects of Migration on the Proportions of the Sexes, 1859–1916.

Year.Arrivals.Departures.Excess of Arrivals over Departures.Excess of Males over Females in Net Migration Gain.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
185915,2445,9448,7772,1736,4673,7712,696
18605,4603,4752,1497223,3112,753558
186119,8962,4435,68743014,2092,01312,196
186227,0057,28512,69560414,3106,6817,629
186334,51611,2149,65495624,86210,25814,604
186412,8828,04910,8791,5252,0036,524−4,521
186513,2275,6895,3261,2817,9014,4083,493
186610,9793,9145,9921,3024,9872,6122,375
18677,5813,5455,0751,1922,5062,353153
18686,0452,6786,6471,216−6021,462−2,064
18696,3022,6014,0011,2612,3011,340961
18706,1782,9464,2031,3441,9751,602373
18717,5262,5574,0411,2563,4851,3012,184
18726,7753,9504,4171,3352,3582,615−257
18737,8715,7013,5071,2544,3644,44783
187425,83018,1354,3671,49221,46316,6434,820
187519,55812,1794,7271,74014,83110,4394,392
187611,5246,8904,6771,7826,8475,1081,739
18778,1044,8834,6961,9153,4082,968440
187810,6715,5924,1381,6236,5333,9692,564
187915,1868,7713,8521,38211,3347,3893,945
18809,5645,5905,8162,1073,7483,483265
18816,6433,0455,7052,367938678260
18827,0423,9035,0822,3741,9601,529431
188311,2187,9976,2302,9564,9885,041−53
188412,4757,5467,3033,3975,1724,1491,023
188510,7665,4337,8663,8292,9001,6041,296
188611,0685,03310,4424,595626438188
18879,2244,4658,4344,278790187603
18889,1124,49415,0487,733−5,936−3,239−2,697
188910,1585,2349,4935,685665−4511,116
18909,7535,27510,8096,001−1,056−726−330
18919,4275,00411,3966,233−1,969−1,229−740
189212,1315,9918,4694,6953,6521,2962,366
189317,3858,75010,2635,4607,1223,2903,832
189416,3758,86215,7087,2766671,586−919
189514,1817,68113,7467,221435460−25
189611,1456,09110,0325,7321,113359754
189712,1536,43910,2505,5901,9038491,054
189812,5246,33110,4385,7212,0866101,476
189911,8626,64410,5676,0521,295592703
190011,9666,10811,0435,20092390815
190116,9688,11812,4266,1384,5421,9802,562
190221,5228,77115,6006,7015,9222,0703,852
190320,47910,40412,9836,6257,4963,7793,717
190421,98010,65214,6717,6067,3093,0464,263
190521,34411,34115,3907,9935,9543,3482,606
190625,60713,62617,2119,1748,3964,4523,944
190723,22812,88019,31011,0683,9181,8122,106
190829,34215,62819,70711,0029,6354,6265,009
190924,06514,58522,24411,6871,8212,898−1,077
191022,13513,63420,45111,9101,6841,724−40
191125,33316,05623,53913,6501,7942,406−612
191226,77517,88521,91413,8194,8614,066795
191325,89118,69718,56011,8097,3316,888443
191422,52615,12020,02512,4812,5012,639−138
191514,48711,06413,3189,1581,1691,906−737
191611,9599,84011,9329,23127609−582

The net migration gain has contained an excess of females only in exceptional years— viz.,1864, 1868, 1872, 1883, 1888, the early “nineties,” 1909–11, and since 1914. It is to be noted that the excess of females for the last three years covered by the table is in no way accountable for by departures of troops, these being expressly disregarded in making up the migration figures, but is due partly to the restrictions imposed on males in the United Kingdom and other British possessions in regard to departure overseas, and partly also to the fact that a considerable number of men, other than members of the Expeditionary Force, travelled to the United Kingdom for service (military, naval, or other) in connection with the war.

Taking the figures by decennial periods it will be noted that males have exceeded females in migration gain as follows:—

1859–187038,453
1871–188020,175
1881–18901,837
1891–19008,516
1901–191026,942
1911–1916−831

The depression of trade during the late “eighties” and early “nineties” is reflected in the figures for the corresponding decades.

Chapter 22. SEX COMPOSITION, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Details as to the sex composition of the community by Islands and provinces as revealed by the 1916 census are given in the following tables. Another table shows the sex composition of the population of the various metropolitan and suburban areas, &c.

Number of Females to 100 Males, by Islands, at Successive Censuses.

Year.North Island.South Island.Total.
* Excludes military and internment camps. If these be included the figure will be 99.26.
188183.7880.4181.72
188684.5985.3185.28
189187.9288.5288.26
189688.1090.5889.31
190189.0491.6690.33
190686.9190.7188.66
191187.7l91.5189.59
191699.40102.94100.84*

The break shown for both Islands in 1901 in the continuity of the changes in the sex composition of the community is probably to be accounted for by the absence on service in South Africa of a percentage of the male population. The effect of the absence of a much greater percentage in 1916 is clearly shown in the tremendous alterations in that year as compared with 1911.

Number of Females to 100 Males, by Provincial Districts, at Successive Censuses.

Provincial District.Census Year.
1881.1880.1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.*
*Excludes military and internment camps. If these be included the females to 100 males in the Dominion will be 99.26.
Auckland83.7984.7290.5289.1089.2988.0386.6898.69
Taranaki74.4587.9687.6884.4784.0486.8085.6094.61
Hawke's Bay79.0476.8781.0685.0287.8384.9188.3999.56
Wellington87.5886.1686.5988.6790.4286.1189.71101.20
Marlborough77.1878.5780.6186.2086.3681.0782.7995.18
Nelson76.1878.9478.7882.6183.9981.8279.6991.18
Westland65.4069.6971.6678.5078.9478.9180.2392.11
Canterbury85.1592.4194.2294.9096.2993.7395.93107.23
Otago—        
    Otago portion81.5986.2490.7093.1694.1695.8497.63106.88
    Southland portion71.6179.1983.2183.2983.5783.8385.0696.95
          Whole Dominion81.7285.2888.2689.3190.3388.6689.59100.84*

It will be noted that in 1916 for the first time there have been mere females than males in any province, and this state of affairs existed in Canterbury, Otago, and Wellington. In 1916, as in 1911, the proportion of females to total population was lowest in Nelson and Westland, the old mining conditions still leaving their mark on the sex composition of these provincial districts.

The following figures are also of interest:—

Number of Females to 100 Males, Metropolitan and Suburban Areas, and Borough and County Population, Census, 1916.

Metropolitan areas—Females to 100 Males.
        Auckland115.28
        Wellington112.08
        Christchurch117.98
        Dunedin120.44
Total metropolitan areas115.95
Suburban areas— 
        Gisborne107.50
        Napier111.91
        New Plymouth110.19
        Wanganui111.36
        Palmerston North112.56
        Nelson118.60
        Grey Valley boroughs101.90
        Timaru120.09
        Invercargill114.35
Total suburban areas112.34
Total metropolitan and suburban areas115.08
Total boroughs114.45
Total outside boroughs84.39
Total New Zealand99.26

It will be at once apparent that the tendency is for females to congregate in the towns and cities, while males are in excess in the country. The highest proportion of females is to be found in Dunedin among the metropolitan, and in Nelson and Timaru among the suburban areas; and the lowest among metropolitan areas is Wellington, and among suburban areas Grey Valley boroughs. The metropolitan areas have in general a somewhat higher proportion of females than the suburban areas. In none of the thirteen areas of close settlement do the males exceed the females. Except in Westland (where the conditions under which the province was settled were rather different), the proportionate excess of females is uniformly greater in the South Island.

The accompanying map indicates the proportion of females to 100 males in each county (with interior boroughs), excluding persons on shipboard.

It will again be at once noted that the proportion of females is highest in the neighbourhood of cities, and in general is lowest in the more remote and inaccessible counties. Thus the highest proportion is to be found in Halswell County, including as it does part of Christchurch metropolitan area, and the next highest in Taieri County, which includes practically the whole of Dunedin City and suburbs, while Heathcote, including Christchurch and most of its suburban boroughs, is a very close third. The lowest proportions are to be found in Awakino, Fiord, Waiapu, and Chatham Islands, in that order, all of them remote and scantily populated regions. Indeed, it is a remarkable fact that in the five counties which have the lowest densities of population-Stewart Island, Fiord, East Taupo, Chatham Islands, and Lake-the proportions of females to 100 males is nowhere higher than 84, and in only two cases (Stewart Island and Lake) exceeds 60. It is noteworthy, moreover, that the comparatively high proportion in these two counties can be accounted for on the ground that each contains a town that is a holiday resort and is more or less easy of access from Invercargill. In the four counties, on the other hand, in which the density of population is greatest (Eden*, Heathcote, Makara, and Waimairi§) the proportion of females to 100 males nowhere falls below 109.

* Including Auckland City and certain suburbs.

† Including Christchurch City and certain suburbs.

‡ Including Wellington City and certain suburbs.

§ Including certain suburbs of Christchurch.

SECTION IV.— AGES.

Chapter 23. AGE-DISTRIBUTION.—GENERAL.

The causes which in early years operated to effect an excess of males in the population of New Zealand were at the same time equally effective in rendering the age-distribution different in a marked degree from that of older countries. The majority of the immigrants were in the prime of life, and as the New Zealand birthrate was formerly a fairly high one, the natural result was a population in which young and middle-aged persons predominated. In process of time, however, the age-distribution of New Zealand has fallen more and more into accord with that prevailing in older countries, and now, except in showing a lower proportion at old ages and a slightly higher one at young ages, fails to differ essentially there from.

The following table, compiled from the census household schedules, affords an indication of the manner in which age-distribution has varied during the last fifty years. The percentages have been calculated on the totals of specified ages.

Age-groups.—Percentages at Successive Censuses, by Sexes.

Census.Proportions per Cent, in each Age-group.
Under 5 Years.5 and under 10.10 and under 15.15 and under 21.21 and under 4040 and under 55.55 and under 65.65 and over.Total.
December, 1867—         
    Males14.489.546.776.6948.4910.952.220.86100.00
    Females21.2614.069.5010.0433.778.362.140.85100.00
    Both sexes17.1811.347.868.0242.649.922.180.86100.00
February, 1871.         
    Males15.5610.947.596.7543.0212.492.541.11100.00
    Females21.9015.3110.129.4831.268.582.311.04100.00
    Both sexes18.1912.758.647.8838.1510.872.441.08100.00
March, 1874.         
    Males.15.3112.788.587.8336.2915.112.831.27100.00
    Females20.0716.7511.0710.0729.019.462.421.15100.00
    Both sexes17.3614.499.658.7933.1612.682.651.22100.00
March, 1878.         
    Males15.4112.9910.058.7432.9915.512.961.35100.00
    Females18.7716.2612.3411.0428.079.952.351.22100.00
    Both sexes16.9014.4411.079.7630.8113.042.691.29100.00
April, 1881.         
    Males15.5012.7810.749.3930.6516.243.221.48100.00
    Females18.4915.2813.0611.7027.0110.632.501.33100.00
    Both sexes16.8413.9011.7910.4329.0213.712.901.41100.00
March, 1886.         
    Males14.1213.7010.9711.0527.7116.374.15,1.93100.00
    Females16.1815.7312.5413.2726.1411.622.851.87100.00
    Both sexes15.0714.6311.6912.0826.9914.183.551.81100.00
April, 1891.         
    Males12.7213.0912.2711.6126.675.525.612.51100.00
    Females13.9514.5113.7413.3726.7811.993.622.04100.00
    Both sexes13.3013.7612.9612.4426.7213.864.672.29100.00
April, 1896.         
    Males11.4511.7511.6112.9127.9414.306.673.37100.00
    Females12.4212.8012.7914.3828.8411.794.492.49100.00
    Both sexes11.9112.2512.1713.6128.3613.115.642.95100.00
March, 1901.         
    Males10.9310.6810.6212.5930.0613.846.544.74100.00
    Females11.5911.5711.4913.9031.4111.824.913.31100.00
    Both sexes11.2411.1011.0413.2130.7012.885.774.06100.00
April 1906.         
    Males11.169.749.3111.3433.9413.655.625.24100.00
    Females12.0410.6510.2812.3633.5712.344.893.87100.00
    Both sexes11.5710.179.7711.8233.7613.035.284.60100.00
April, 1911.         
    Males11.3010.148.7410.1034.7214.255.565.19100.00
    Females12.1610.969.4511.0133.8313.564.804.23100.00
    Both sexes11.7010.539.0810.5334.3013.925.204.74100.00
October, 1916.         
    Males12.2211.3110.089.3728.3317.026.325.35100.00
    Females11.8311.059.8110.1932.4815.125.164.36100.00
    Both sexes12.0211.189.959.7830.4016.075.744.86100.00

The declining proportions at the earlier ages may be ascribed to a falling birthrate, while the increase at the higher ages is due to the now advanced age of the then young adult immigrants introduced during the early stages of settlement. These form the greater portion of the groups 60 years and over, which numbered 82,087 persons in 1916, of whom only 7,583 were New-Zealand-born. The latter element in the population is assuming larger proportions each year, while the influence exerted on the age-constitution by the numbers recruited from abroad is gradually waning.

Chapter 24. DISTRIBUTION BY SEXES.

The proportion of the population represented by the two sexes is indicated by the table above, and may be supplemented by the following one:—

Age.groups.—Numbers at Successive Censuses, by Sexes.

Age-groups.Number.
Census, 1886.Census, 1396.Census, 1906.Census, 1916.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 5 years43,82043,00842,44841,21152,49950,24667,32064,735
5 years and under 10 years42,52441,79143,56142,46445,82644,46262,34060,478
10 years and under 15 years34,06533,32043,04442,42343,83442,92455,53253,693
15 years and under 20 years29,07029,81940,36440,37044,24242,87545,01246,392
20 years and under 25 years24,65024,51434,26434,45249,37045,23830,41946,759
25 years and under 30 years24,45219,95630,60528,99049,30843,14040,01848,557
30 years and under 35 years22,59116,12823,74721,46637,79832,62146,16647,415
35 years and under 40 years19,57414,31922,50618,08132,32927,79446,13844,311
40 years and under 45 years19,28713,15419,99914,85524,45120,93036,75833,866
45 years and under 50 years18,00410,32316,83012,72521,42417,00332,99327,745
50 years and under 55 years13,5397,41416,20311,52318,33613,56324,02721,083
55 years and under 60 years7,8784,40614,2528,59713,98410,95818,70715,632
60 years and under 65 years4,9793,17310,5046,27812,4529,44216,11512,576
65 years and under 70 years3,0502,1276,4593,78111,5247,59911,2049,592
70 years and under 75 years1,5741,2383,2192,2057,5674,6168,3196,855
75 years and under 80 years8546751,8431,3883,6982,3736,0374,510
80 and over5253909828791,8651,5463,9792,900
Unspecified minors5476261835285460
Unspecified adults1,731430559239466212637515

A calculation of the proportion per cent, at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birth-rate on the ages under 15, the proportion of males at these ages being 30.19 per cent, in 1911 against 34.81 per cent, in 1896, and of females 32.58 per cent, against 38.02 per cent, respectively.

When the proportions for 1916 are considered, however, it will be seen that the figures in all age-groups for the male portion of the population have been materially affected by the withdrawal of men between the ages of 20 and 45 for service overseas. The percentages for males in 1916 can therefore be compared with figures in previous census years only after allowance has been made for the abnormal age-distribution resulting from the departure of troops. Thus, scrutiny shows that the proportion of males under 15 to the total male population in 1916 was 33.61, an increase of 3.42 over the 1911 figures. The similar figures for females for 1916 were 32.70 per cent., an increase of only 0.12 over the percentage in 1911. Likewise of the males, those 15.24 years formed 20.13 per cent, of the total in 1896, and only 13.69 per cent, in 1916. At the ages 15.64 the proportions were 61.82 per cent, and 61.03 per cent, in 1896 and 1916 respectively. From 65 years upwards the proportions increased from 3.37 per cent, to 5.36 per cent, during the period under review.

Chapter 25. DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO NATURAL AGE-GROUPS.

An interesting view of the distribution of the Dominion's population, and of the alterations in the proportions at different stages, is afforded by a classification according to the following usually accepted natural age-groups:—

Infancy—Ages 0 and 1.

Childhood—Ages 2–13

Adolescence—Ages 14–20

Early adult life—Ages 21–44(inclusive).

Maturity—Ages 45–64

Advanced age —Ages 65 and over.

Distribution of Population at Successive Censuses, by Sexes, according to Natural Age-groups. *

Age last Birthday.Period of Life.Census, 1881.Census, 1886.Census, 1891.Census, 1896.Census, 1901.Census, 1906.Census, 1911.Census, 1916.
Number.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.PercentageNumber.Percentage
* Exclusive of persons with ages unspecified,
Males.
0–1Infancy16,6936.2117,0635.5015,9224.7916,4284.4317,7614.3821,7284.6224,2074.5626,4844.81
2–13Childhood82,69830.7996,80031.18102,70130.92104,21128.10104,22825.70111,56923.71126,90823.90148,44326.93
14–20Adolescence30,65011.4140,85513.1646,46213.9956,28715.1859,76414.7362,22213.2262,77811.8261,88511.23
21.44Early adult life102,44838.14105,31533.93106,33232.01123,61233.33143,52835.39184,13839.14215,59740.60192,89135.00
45–64Maturity32,13911.9844,40014.3052,42815.7857,78915.5961,06115.0666,19614.0774,00613.9391,84216.67
65 and overAdvanced age3,9571.476,0031.938,3362.5112,5033.3719,2184.7424,6545.2427,5735.1929,5395.36
    Totals..268,635100.00310,436100.00332,181100.00370,830100.00405,560100.00470,507100.00531,0691100.00551,084100.00
Females,
0–1Infancy16,1497.3416,9056.3615,3525.2315,8344.7716,6024.5320,5394.9222,9334.8225,1284.59
2–13Childhood76,20434.6494,87335.70100,72834.32101,99030.75102,06927.85108,43725.98123,24725.89143,91426.30
14–20Adolescence36,38016.5441,61315.6647,01116.0255,98516.8859,29916.1860,24114.4461,30212.8865,61011.99
21–44Early adult life70,42132.0182,61831.0992,04031.36110,50333.32132,44636.13161,01338.58188,32139.56211,55438.67
45–64Maturity17,8748.1325,3169.5332,37211.0239,12311.7943,96812.1050,96612.2160,10312.6277,03614.08
65 and overAdvanced age2,9381.344,4301.666,0062.058,2532.4912,1353.3116,1343.8720,1274.2323,8573.87
    Totals..219,966100.00265,755100.00293,509100.00331,688100.00366,519100.00417,330100.00476,033100.00547,099100.00
Total Population,
0–1Infancy32,8426.7233,9685.9031,2745.0032,2624.5934,3634.4542,2674.7647,1404.6851,6124.70
2–13Childhood164,25033.62191,67333.27203,42932.51206,20129.35206,29726.73220,00624.78250,15524.84292,35726.62
14–20Adolescence61,68212.6282,46814.3193,47314.94112,27215.99119,06315.42122,46313.79124,08012.31127,49511.61
21–44Early adult life172,86935.38187,93332.61198,37231.70234,11533.33275,97435.74345,15138.88403,91840.10404,44536.82
45–64Maturity50,063]0.2569,71612.1084,80013.5696,91213.78105,02913.60117,16213.20134,10913.32168,87815.38
65 and overAdvanced age6,8951.4110,4331.8114,3422.2920,7562.9631,3534.0640,7884.5947,7004.7553,3964.86
    Totals..488,601100.00576,191100.00625,690100.00702,518100.00772,079100.00887,837100.001,007,102100.001,098,183100.00

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION AT SUCCESSIVE CENSUSES, BY SEXES, ACCORDING TO NATURAL AGE.GROUPS,

An examination of the foregoing tables reveals several very interesting features, It wall be noted that at all census-takings the proportion of population in the advanced-age group to the whole population is considerably higher in the case of males than that of females, As, however, practically the whole of the population 65 and over has been born abroad, this fact is easily accounted for when one remembers that emigration to a new country is a considerably more attractive proposition to a man than it is to a woman,

The diminished birth-rate is reflected by the gradual decline in the proportion of child and infant population to the total,

The 1916 census is the first to reveal a larger proportion of infants and children in the case of the male population than in that of the female, Uniformly in all other census-takings have males younger than the period of early adult life formed a smaller proportion of the total male population than the corresponding proportion in the case of female population, The variation in 1916 is accounted for by the large proportion of the male population in late adolescence and early adult life absent abroad on war service, leaving a relatively high proportion of males at all ages other than that from 21–44, and to a less extent 14–20,

Chapter 26. DISTRIBUTION OF MALE POPULATION ACCORDING TO MILITARY AGE,

The above consideration is even more fully brought out by the appended classification on the basis of liability for service under the Military Service Act,

The following classification might be adopted:—

Under age—Age 0–18 (inclusive),

Eligible to volunteer but not liable to compulsory service—

Age 19, Liable to compulsory service—Age 20–45 (inclusive),

Over age—Age 46 and over,

Distribution of Male Population at Successive Censuses according to present Military Basis (excluding those with Ages unspecified),

Age last Birthday.Census, 1896.Census, 1901.Census, 1906.Census, 1911.Census, 1916.
Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.
0–18161,61543.55164,75240.62177,00737.62195,84136.88222,65440.40
197,9022.138,4422.089,3942.009,1971.737,5501.37
20–45135,57236.56156,79538.66198,51142.19230,52543.41206,40137.45
46 and over65,84117.7675,57118.6485,59218.1995,50617.98114,47920.78
    Totals370,330100.00405,560100.00470,507100.00531,069100.00551,084100.00

The effects of the war are very marked, At the 1911 census 1.73 per cent, of the total male population was at age 19, and 43.41 per cent, at ages 20–45, The war drained the young manhood of the country so as to reduce the corresponding figures for 1916 to 1.37 per cent, and 37.45 per cent, respectively, The reduced proportions at these ages in 1916 are reflected by increased proportions at non-military ages, under 19 and 46 and over, It will be noted that the effect of the comparatively high birth-rate ruling in New Zealand in its earlier years and its recent falling-off is reflected in the increase of the male proportion of the population at military age in successive census-takings up to 1911, and the corresponding fall in those under age, The high percentage reached in 1911 for males at military age (43.41 per cent, of the whole population) will probably never be realized again unless there is a substantial increase in the birth-rate or an influx of early adult male immigrants, It is thus noteworthy that the Great European War made its appeal to the New Zealand manhood at the very period when the proportion of males at military age to the total male population was at a maximum,

The Defence Act, 1909, with its amendments, suggests a different arrangement of the male population, Under this Act males are classified as under, although there is a certain amount of fluidity as to the ages of passing in and out of the different training groups, due to the special circumstances allowed for in the Act, The age-groups for military training are as under:—

Under age—Under 14,

Liable to serve in the Senior Cadets—14 and under 18,

Liable to serve in the Territorials—18 and under 25,

Liable to serve in the Reserve—25 and under 30,

Over age—30 and over,

A classification on this basis is appended,

Distribution of Male Population at Successive Censuses according to present Defence Act Basis (excluding those with Ages unspecified),

Age-group.Age last Birthday,Census, 1891.Census, 1890.Census, 1901.
Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.
Under age0–13118,62335.71120,63932.53121,98930.08
Senior Cadets14–1728,1168.4732,8288.8534,2278.44
Territorials18–2440,68512.2550,21413.5458,17414.34
Reserve25–2923,7047.1330,6058.2535,3078.71
Over age30 and over121,05336.44136,54436.83155,86338.43
            Totals..332,181100.00370,830100.00405,560100.00
Age-group.A last Birthday.Census, 1906.Census, 1911.Census, 1910.
Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.Number.Percentage of Total Male Population.
Under age0–13133,29728.33151,11528.46174,92731.74
Senior Cadets14–1734,5617.3535,6986.7239,0297.08
Territorials18–2467,91314.4367,91712.7946,6678.47.
Reserve25–2949,30810.4854,69410.3040,0187.26
Over age30 and over185,42839.41221,64541.73250,44345.45
            Totals..470,507100.00531,069100.00551,084100.00

The main feature of interest in this table is again the marked evidence of response to the Empire's call, as manifested by the falling-off shown by the 1916 census in the proportions of population liable to service other than in the Senior Cadets,

Chapter 27. DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE POPULATION ACCORDING TO CHILD-BEARING AGE,

Just as national prosperity is largely dependent on the effective male population, so in the case of female population it is necessary to examine the data available as to the possibilities of recruiting the national strength, A convenient division of the female population is therefore according to age into the following groups:—

Ante-reproductive—Ages 0–14 (inclusive),

Reproductive—Ages 15–44 (inclusive),

Post-reproductive—Ages 45 and upwards,

It is true that the limits of these groups are not so sharply defined in reality as the above age-classification would suggest, cases of reproduction being not infrequent beyond 44, and being not even Unknown beyond 50; so also cases have been known of girls becoming mothers before the age of 15, The numbers of these exceptional cases are, however, negligible in proportion to the total births,

The effect of the declining birth-rate is here abundantly manifest, the proportion of reproductive females rising to a maximum in 1906, and thereafter falling, the 1906 maximum being still reflected by a continual increase of the proportion of post-reproductives, which has doubled itself since 1881, In the course of some ten or twenty years this group may, in the absence of any pronounced future alteration in the birth-rate or any marked migration of early adult females, be expected to reach its maximum in turn, It is a significant fact that, while the proportions of marriageable males have been notably reduced by unnatural war conditions, more or less natural features have operated at the same time to reduce the proportion of marriageable females, and there is no prospect of their ranks being adequately recruited from a younger immature generation, the proportion of which is itself declining, having been 46.83 per cent, of the total female population in 1881, and only 32.70 per cent, in 1916,

Distribution of Female Population at Successive Censuses according to Reproductivity (excluding those with Ages unspecified),

Age-group.A last Birthday.Census, 1881.Census, 1886.Census, 1891.Census, 1896.
Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.
Ante-reproductive0–14103,01046.83118,11944.45123,86042.20126,09838.02
Reproductive15–4496,14443.71117,89044.36131,27144.72158,21447.70
Post-reproductive45 and upwards20,8129.4629,746114938,37813.0847,37614.28
             Totals..219,966100.00265,755100.00293,509100.00331,688100.00
Age-group.A last Birthday.Census, 1901.Census, 1906.Census, 1911.Census, 1916.
Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.Number.Percentage of Total Female Population.
Ante-reproductive0–13127,02934.66137,63232.98155,08932.58178,90632.70
Reproductive15–44183,38750.03212,59850.94240,71450.56267,30048.86
Post-reproductive45 and upwards56,10315.3167,10016.0880,23016.86100,89318.44
            Totals..366,519100.00417,330100.00476,033100.00547,099100.00

Chapter 28. MEAN AGE OF POPULATION,

Further light is thrown on the ever-increasing older age-constitution of the population by an investigation into the mean age of persons whose ages were specified at different census-takings, In this connection it is worth noting that, as the census figures merely give ages last birthday, it is not possible to calculate with absolute accuracy the mean age of the population at the date of census, results being liable to error beyond the first place of decimals, on account of the fact that the formula employed in the calculation is derived on the assumption that the total population is at census-day on the average exactly half-way between two birthdays, This assumption is no doubt a close approximation to fact, but figures are available which go to show that births are not constant in number throughout the year, but vary somewhat from season to season, A word of warning is appropriate to the effect that the figures thus given are very different from what actuaries designate “the expectation of life at age 0,” except for a hypothetical community where the rate of mortality over each age-group is constant for a long period, a state of affairs from which observed facts normally diverge considerably,

The mean age of the population has been at successive census-takings:—

Census,For Males,For Females,For Both Sexes,
189626.2723.83;25.12
190127.2525.0626.21
190627.7225.9126.87
191128.0426.5727.35
191628.50 .27.3127.84

It will be noted that the average male is older than the average female, probably because of the influence of immigration being stronger in the case of males than in that of females, Persons arriving in the country are for the most part adults, or at least adolescents, with a corresponding ultimate effect of raising the mean age of the population,

The increase in the mean age of the community during even the short period under review is probably due to the diminished birth-rate that has prevailed of late years; so that, while members of the large families of the early settlers (now fully grown up) are ever tending to shift upwards the position of the mean, the proportions of the community at the early age-groups are diminishing, thus accentuating the movement of the mean,

Chapter 29. AGE-DISTRIBUTION, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS,

For the sake of convenience, age-groups are adopted in this section on a slightly different model from, but roughly approximating to, the natural age-groups previously referred to,

The first table shows the percentage age-distribution of the population by provinces and Islands at the 1916 census:—

Provincial District.Ages 0–19.Ages 20–44.Ages 45–64.Ages 65 and over.Total.
Auckland41.8838.0915.554.48100.00
Taranaki46.1936.5913.423.80100.00
Hawke's Bay42.2138.2315.144.42100.00
Wellington40.7140.1315.213.95100.00
                Totals, North Island41.8738.6915.214.23100.00
Marlborough43.9235.7515.514.82100.00
Nelson43.2936.4415.135.14100.00
Westland41.7936.0814068.07100.00
Canterbury40.7637.5515.915.78100.00
otago40.2736.3616.746.63100.00
Southland45.3435.2214.674.77100.00
                Totals, South Island41.6436.6615.845.86100.00
Military and internment camps3.9891.784.180.06100.00
                Grand totals41.4838.2815.384.86100.00

The more recent development of the North Island is reflected by the fact that the age-constitution of the South Island as a whole is older than that of the North, Wellington in particular would appear to have recently exerted an attraction for persons in early adult life, while the proportion of people of advanced age is highest in Westland, Otago, and Canterbury in that order, all of which three provincial districts (and especially Westland, in which the proportion is highest of all) were early settled, and have of late years attracted but few new settlers as compared with the northern districts, Persons who have not yet reached maturity are in highest proportion in Taranaki and Southland, suggesting a higher birth-rate in these districts,

For many purposes it is useful and interesting to estimate the proportions of people at different ages resident in the towns and in the country, For this purpose two methods suggest themselves, one being to compare straight out the borough age-constitution with the age-constitution outside such areas, Another method would be to take the metropolitan and suburban areas created for statistical purposes at each of the four main centres and at nine of the more important secondary centres, each of which areas includes considerable non-municipalized areas adjacent or contingent to such centres; the age-constitution of these areas would then be ascertained and compared with that outside them,

Table showing the Relative Proportions of Urban and Non-urban Population at Different Age-groups, Census, 1916,

Age-group,Borough and City Population,Population outside Boroughs and Cities,Total,
0–1951.4048.60100.00
20–4454.6145.39100.00
54–6455.1944.81100.00
65 and over57.4942.81100.00
                        Totals53.5146.49100.00

Table showing the Relative Proportions of Population at Different Age-groups living within and without the Metropolitan and Suburban Areas, Census, 1916,

Age-group,Percentage of Population at each Age-group living in Metropolitan and Suburban Areas,Percentage of, Population resident elsewhere,Total,
0–442.7457.26100.00
5–943.4256.58100.00
10–1445.2054.80100.00
15–1946.9453.06100.00
20–2447.4552.55100.00
25–2947.9252.08100.00
30–3448.2451.76100.00
35–3947.7352.27100.00
40–4448.2251.78100.00
45–49484451.86100.00
50–5449.1950.81100.00
55–5949.9150.09100.00
60–6450.4549.55100.00
65–6950.3549.65100.00
70–7450.0050.00100.00
75–7950.3249.68100.00
80–8951.13¿3.87100.00
90–9954.4445.56100.00
100 and over50.0050.00100.00
                        Totals46.5253.48100.00

From a consideration of the last table above it will be abundantly clear that the proportion of people resident outside the metropolitan and suburban areas to the total population is highest for children under 5, and shows an irregular but gradual fall, definitely dropping below the 50-per-cent, mark at ages 60 to 64, until we note that of the 360 nonagenarians in the Dominion only 164 were resident outside the areas of closer settlement, In the case of the twelve centenarians the odds were, however, even, It would appear from this that the country population is more prolific than that of the towns; also (in the absence of definite evidence of a higher death-rate in the country than in the town) that there is a tendency for persons of advancing years to congregate in the larger centres,

SECTION V.—BIRTHPLACES AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE.

Chapter 30. NEW- ZEALAND-BORN POPULATION.

Of the total population (1,099,449 persons) in 1916 only 1,608 did not have their birthplaces returned on the census schedules. Of the remaining 1,097,841 the number of New-Zealand-born was 794,139, comprising 72.34 per cent, of the whole. As might be expected in a young country peopled originally from overseas, the proportion of New-Zealand-born to the whole population has shown a steady increase. The percentages of New-Zealand-born to the total population have been for successive census-takings—

Year.Percentage.
188651.89
189158.61
189662.85
190166.83
190668.26
191169.74
191672.34

Chapter 31. BRITISH- AND FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION.

In view of the fact that the 1916 census was taken during the war period this aspect of the census was of special importance. The figures show that of the total population of specified birthplace (1,097,841), 1,077,808, or 98.17 per cent., were born on British soil, 1.70 per cent, on foreign soil, and 0.13 per cent, at sea.

The table following shows the birthplaces of the population, exclusive of Maoris, for 1916 and four preceding census years. The total number of British-born has increased during the period by 58 per cent., while the number of foreign-born has slightly decreased. Persons born in New Zealand have increased by 80 per cent. The Commonwealth of Australia is represented by 45,585 persons, a large increase since 1896. Against this there were 31,868 persons, natives of New Zealand, residing in the Commonwealth in 1911, as compared with 25,788 in 1901. Persons born in the United Kingdom numbered 218,834 in 1891 and 232,525 in 1916.

Birthplace.—Numbers at Successive Censuses.

Birthplace.Number as at Census of —
1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
 Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.Persons.
New Zealand441,661516,106606,247702,779794,139
Commonwealth of Australia21,63126,99147,25650,02945,585
England116,541111,964116,560133,811140,997
Wales2,1481,7652,1442,2062,197
Scotland50,43547,85847,76751,70951,951
Ireland46,03743,52442,46040,95837,380
Other British possessions3,9014,2734,5605,2345,559
Total British682,354752,481866,994986,7261,077,808
Austria-Hungary8811,8742,2122,1312,365
German Empire4,5954,2174,1744,0152,999
Denmark2,1252,1202,2772,2622,244
Chinese Empire3,7192,9022,6022,6112,041
Other foreign countries7,7607,4808,6028,5529,007
Total foreign19,08018,59319,86719,57118,656
At sea1,3221,2031,2451,3921,377
Not stated6044424727791,608
Totals703,360772,719888,5781,008,4681,099,449

The next table shows the proportionate strength of the different birthplaces represented in the Dominion:—

Birthplace.—Proportions at Successive Censuses.

Birthplace.Number as at Census of —
1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
New Zealand62.8566.8368.2669.7472.34
Commonwealth of Australia3.083.495.324.974.15
England16.5814.5013.3013.2812.84
Wales0.310.220.240.220.20
Scotland7.186.205.385.134.73
Ireland6.555.644.784.063.40
Other British possessions0.550.550.510.520.51
Total British97.1097.4397.6297.9298.17
Austria-Hungary0.130.240.250.210.22
German Empire0.650.550.470.400.27
Denmark0.300.270.260.220.20
Chinese Empire0.530.380.290.260.19
Other foreign countries1.100.970.970.850.82
Total foreign2.712.412.241.941.70
At sea0.190.160.140.140.13
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

The notable feature of the tables is the decline in the numbers of persons set down as being of German birth, showing a fall from 4,015 in 1911 to 2,999 in 1916. Chinese also fell from 2,611 to 2,041. The fall in Germans is so great as to suggest deliberate misrepresentation in the census schedules consequent on the waning prestige of that nation in the Dominion.

While British-born females slightly exceeded British-born males, it is worth noting that there were roughly three times as many foreign-born males as females, a phenomenon which is no doubt accountable for by the fact that the inducement to settle in foreign parts is such as to operate very much more strongly in the case of males than in that of females. So, while 4^644 females were born in foreign countries, the corresponding figure for males was as high as 14,012. The discrepancy between the sexes was particularly marked in the case of Chinese, the figures being—females 78, males 1,963.

Chapter 32. ALLEGIANCE.

Birthplace and allegiance do not necessarily correspond. Accordingly, a table has been drawn up showing the numbers and relative proportions of British and foreign subjects at the 1916 census. It will be noted that whereas 1.70 per cent, of the population were born in foreign parts, almost exactly half of these considered themselves British subjects by parentage, by naturalization, or by birth. The highest percentage of persons owning allegiance to the British flag was to be found in Southland, the lowest in Westland.

Allegiance.—Summary by Provincial Districts, Census, 1916.

Provincial District.Total of all Nationalities.Total British-born Subjects.*Total Naturalized British Subjects.Total British Subjects.Total Foreign Subjects.In every 100 Persons: Proportion of
British Subjects.Foreign Subjects.
* Includes all persons born in British possessions, British subjects born abroad, and persons with British names who wore born at sea or whose birthplaces were not specified.
Auckland308,524302,2662,696304,9623,56298.851.15
Taranaki55,78054,63362755,26052099.070.93
Hawke's Bay54,26753,11869853,81645199.170.83
Wellington223,777219,2822,099221,3812,39698.931.07
Marlborough16,29016,1345516,18910199.380.62
Nelson48,04047,45823147,68935199.270.73
Westland14,09113,63617913,81527698.041.96
Canterbury178,809177,425626178,05175899.580.42
Otago131,800130,621506131,12767399.490.51
Southland59,34758,90722359,13021799.630.37
Military and internment camps8,7248,349408,38933596.163.84
    Total population of Dominion1,099,4491,081,8297,9801,089,8099,64099.120.88

Chapter 33. Birthplaces, By Ages.

From the table given below it will be noted that the number of persons born locally falls rapidly as the more advanced ages are reached. At ages from 55 upwards it is found that the number of persons born in New Zealand falls short in an increasing degree of that, of persons born in the United Kingdom. This is to be expected when we consider the circumstances under which the country was colonized. Moreover, families comprising young children are not likely to migrate to the same extent as adult men and women without ties. The result is that the number of children born abroad is an exceedingly small proportion of the total, representing only 1.67 per cent, of those under 5, a percentage which increases gradually with age, until at ages 95 and over the 100-per-cent. mark is reached.

Birthplace, by Ages, Census, 1916.

Birthplace.Under 55 and under 1010 and under 1515 and under 2020 and Under 2525 and under 3030 and under 3535 and under 4040 and under 4545 and under 5050 and under 5555 and under 60
BRITISH COUNTRIES.            
New Zealand129,850115,83499,14681,20164,31067,42467,33861,28141,80331,74718,0348,015
Australia8151,2502,2022,8473,9045,4875,5825,5744,1003,7753,4783,325
England6513,3964,9134,4744,6238,77512,24114,00114,54214,66412,38611,234
Wales1458740763152210245233219184181
Scotland2071,2201,6331,5221,6662,9213,9354,5794,4754,3654,3664,667
Ireland412383313969281,6961,9412,4342,8303,5994,2844,896
India1739424682133121120108122117121
Ceylon..223238715121211
British South Africa44143275100596311875413712266
Canada49843832605470748785127178
British West Indies......1916171417262215
Fiji2635716556373933271454
Other British Pacific islands184966755968582925171410
Other British possessions72112101411243227332322
            Total British131,739122,369108,80590,84575,83586,84091,70288,49868,33058,71543,17432,745
FOREIUN COUNTRIES.            
Europe —            
    Austria-Hungary46914547945134426317812810659
    Belgium122..9823241916127
    Denmark316222375130143171209289249194
    France12341422294347584959
    Germany58181981127179227336348318262
    Greece......5231823237487
    Italy2811154862645464543031
    Netherlands..1....3169161311117
    Norway114125170869098145152122
    Portugal........2..13151511
    Russia2611287013212013414914112281
    Spain111456174653
    Sweden..3163274113127119142142162
    Switzerland2981051931227375454534
    Others....31017171715171195
Asia—            
    China67131640120219161222214214216
    Japan..24216121410523..
    Java......1..............1
    Syria2714122658416449362925
    Others1..3144143245
Africa—            
    Egypt1......1323251..
    Others.1..154243424128
America—            
    Argentina156135316211
    Brazil..1111..32512..
    Chile152351122142
    Mexico..........12........1
    Peru..1........2........1
    United States38725965150155133176226172113117
    Uruguay1........1..11..  
    Others..348583141163 
Polynesia—            
    French possessions27365752497..
    German possessions....1l1....11..1 
    United States possessions1..1..1..1..1..1..
    Others..2..1..2.......... 
                Total foreign761752194091,2201,6071,7071,7151,8761,8621,6711,424
    At sea161487142771163339113216139
    Unspecified2242601931431091011017379484931
                Totals132,055122,818109,22591,40477,17888,57593,58190,44970,62460,73845,11034,339

Birthplace, by Ages, Census, 1916. continued.

Birthplace.60 and Under 6565 and under 7070 and under 7575 and Under 80.80 and under 8585 and under 9090 and under 9595 and under 100100 and overUnspecified.Totals
AdultsMinor
      BRITISH COUNTRIES.            
New Zealand4,0512,1381,11821043212....48291794,139
Australia1,699721462208421781182545,585
England11,2779,2556,5004,7222,1687441542332438140,997
Wales17810590674210......5..2,197
Scotland4,8943,8913,2192,5811,2174118310485..51,951
Ireland4,6013,0972,6531,9989842874313387..37,380
India92905331156......4..1,359
Ceylon753111..........95
British South Africa3317123112........1,218
Canada1441299967402111..3..1,443
British West Indies171816634......2..203
Fiji3..2............1..418
Other British Pacific islands6108211..........516
Other British possessions3291510112....1..307
              Total British27,03419,48514,2509,9064,5581,52529548119951041,077,808
      FOREIGN COUNTRIES.            
Europe—            
    Austria-Hungary63462728115..1..12..2,365
    Belgium7125321......1..154
    Denmark2501821351003581....3..2,244
    France544652221672....2..532
    Germany256284219177923031..9..2,999
    Greece10911312......2..156
    Italy38322418124..........571
    Netherlands10149752..........134
    Norway128957655311112..2..1,233
    Portugal11159741..........35
    Russia776853221652....3..1,242
    Spain65223........1..63
    Sweden15912986512610..2..7..1,391
    Switzerland331618181011........670
    Others573141..........142
Asia—            
    China2491768738146..1..2112,041
    Japan1....................71
    Java12..................5
    Syria7105231......1..392
    Others542..11..........45
Africa—            
    Egypt....1............1..20
    Others13111............65
America—            
    Argentina......................35
    Brazil..22................21
    Chile1231..............36
    Mexico1211..............9
    Peru......................4
    United States122583938166......6..1,761
    Uruguay......................4
    Others6....................82
Polynesia—            
    French possessions241..1............65
    German possessions......................6
    United States possessions......................6
    Others2....................7
                Total foreign1,5111,223871595304102107..71118,656
At sea11261382972....1....1,377
Unspecified342715179........8691,608
                Totals28,69120,79615,17410,5474,8731,62930555121,1521141,099,449

It is interesting to note that the number of persons born in England was at a maximum at the 45–49 age-group. For persons of Scottish and Irish birth the maxima were considerably higher—viz., 60.64 and 55.59 respectively. The explanation of these phenomena is to be found in the fact that various parts of New Zealand were colonized at different times from different parts of the Mother-country, and may also partly lie in a difference of age-constitution between immigrants from the several parts of the Old Land. For persons of Australian birth the maximum was at the 30–34 age-group.

Chapter 34. BIRTHPLACES.— SUMMARY BY PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS, ETC.

The distribution of the British- and foreign-born population over the various provincial districts is next shown.

Birthplace, by Provincial Districts, Census, 1916.

Birthplace.Auckland.Taranaki.Hawke's Bay.Wellington.Marlborough.Nelson.Westland.Canterbury.Otago.Southland.Milltary and Internment Camps.Totals
BRITISH COUNTRIES.            
New Zealand214,88242,35238,675157,93113,06235,84410,386131,12397,65046,2336,001794,139
Australia14,4511,9241,83710,7574682,3527665,5254,8842,11450745,585
England46,6656,7407,86532,5351,6025,2691,10424,6069,8853,5911,135140,995
Wales74813158530241282933313857212,197
Scotland11,2131,4752,2548,9984062,2274527,30812,7174,51538651,951
Ireland10,1541,5501,9890,6334771,2967907,5114,5732,19221537,380
India56969562821858514811818181,359
Ceylon40..417..4..2071295
British South Africa508569029410439115662161,218
Canada75364642481443141138532131,443
British West Indies7891257451171721203
Fiji32613541..2..117112418
Other British Pacific islands42531237171121125516
Other British possessions124111482625332262307
        Total British countries300,93654,39752,935218,44216,09247,28013,562176,875130,18058,7858,3241,077,808
        FOREIGN COUNTRIES.            
Europe—            
    Austria-Hungary2,00863169732224591820352,365
    Belgium825322281171112154
    Denmark506153300850284929173945062,244
    France1901726120621107847134532
    Germany65122811278333115993522001372892,999
    Greece47..127831213......156
    Italy144162421465021493764571
    Netherlands57523215..2012....134
    Norway344562243508401388703041,233
    Portugal536..7121571285
    Russia4281066633553924110912991,242
    Spain124516..411461..63
    Sweden3985513644413804199912771,391
    Switzerland170326158611616171652670
    Others76552543210624142
Asia—            
    China44148135690157812411631876..2,041
    Japan11..26..4..444....71
    Java1....2........2....5
    Syria11120171079158306681392
    Others16..218..1..25..145
Africa—            
    Egypt5..26......23..220
    Others33139..131041..65
America—            
    Argentina103..92....325135
    Brazil61..1......101..121
    Chile1011811..355136
    Mexico5..2........11....9
    Peru1....1......2......4
    United States72680893751656102251235471,761
    Uruguay1....2......1......4
    Others42421412..1061..82
Polynesia—            
    French possessions422111..1..142165
    German possessions3..2..........1....6
    United States possessions5..............1....6
    Others3..12............17
        Total foreign countries6,6381,2051,2114,7201586144291,525:1,29747538418,656
    At sea41682522652442182251747451,377
    Total for specified birthplaces307,99055,68454,198223,42716,27447,93614,009178,625.131,65159,3348,7131,097,841
    Unspecified5349669350161048218414913111,608
        Total population308,52455,78054,267223,77716,29048,04014,091178,80931,80059,3478,7241,099,449

It will be apparent from the table that persons of foreign birth were considerably more numerous in the northern provinces than in the southern. This is probably an outcome of the fact that in the majority of cases North Island ports are the first reached by vessels from overseas. Thus, while there were 5,319 males and 1,319 females born in foreign countries returned in Auckland Province, and 3,382 males and 1,338 females in Wellington, making totals of 6,638 Auckland and 4,720 Wellington, there were but 6,914 persons born on foreign soil in all the remaining provincial districts. Besides these there were 383 males and 1 female of foreign birth in military and internment camps.

A closer analysis shows that of the 6,638 persons of foreign birth in Auckland 2,008 were of Austrian birth (mostly Dalmatian gum-diggers), while there were only 358 other persons of Austrian birth in the Dominion outside this province. Of 1,761 persons born in the United States of America, moreover, 726 were in the Auckland District. In the case of Wellington Province the only outstanding feature is the relatively high number of Chinese, 690 being found here out of a Dominion total of 2,041.

The percentage of persons of foreign birth to the total population in the different provincial districts is shown in the appended table:—

Proportion of Persons of Foreign Birth to Total Population specified as to Birthplace, Census, 1916.

Provincial District.Foreign Element in Male Population.Foreign Element in Female Population.Foreign Element in Population of both Sexes.
 Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
Auckland3.650.862.16
Taranaki2.791.502.16
Hawke's Bay2.911492.23
Wellington3.051.192.11
Marlborough1.330.590.97
Nelson2.000.491.28
Westland4.861.093.06
Canterbury1.160.570.85
Otago1.570.440.99
Southland1.170.420.80
Military and internment camps4.415.004.41
                    Total2.540.851.70

It will be noted throughout that the foreign element in the population was smaller among females than among males, for reasons mentioned above. Taking the total population, it is noted that the foreign element was highest in Westland (3.06 per cent.) and lowest in Southland and Canterbury (0.80 per cent, and 0.80 per cent, respectively). The foreign element in the male population was again highest in Westland (4.86 per cent.) and lowest in Canterbury and Southland (1.16 per cent, and 1.17 per cent, respectively). With females, however, it was otherwise. The highest percentage was in Taranaki (1.50 per cent.) and in Hawke's Bay (1.49 per cent.), the lowest in Southland (0.42 per cent.) and Otago (0.44 per cent.).

Persons of Scottish birth were in excess of those of English only in Otago and Southland, which regions were, of course, originally settled from the “land of heather.” Persons of Irish birth were in excess of Scottish in Taranaki, Marlborough, Westland, and Canterbury. The numbers of persons of Scottish, Australian, and Irish birth may be described as roughly equal, being in each case approximately one-third of the number of persons of English birth and one-sixteenth of the number of New-Zealand-born.

The accompanying table is of interest as showing the birthplaces of the rural and town populations. It will be noted that persons of British (other than New Zealand) birth tend to congregate in the towns, while the New-Zealand- and foreign-born seem to be attracted to the country. In particular, New-Zealanders by birth seem to be found in the rural districts; and this fact, though by no means conclusive, is possibly additional confirmation of the indications already referred to that the country population is more prolific than the town.

Numbers - and Percentages of Persons of Specified Birthplace classified as to Birthplace and as to Town or Country Habitation, Census, 1916.

Foreign-born.New-Zealand-born.Other British-born.Born at Sea.Total specified.
Number.
Boroughs8,931411,749166,213747587,640
Counties9,725382,390117,456630510,201
                Totals18,656794,139283,6691,3771,097,841
Percentages.
Boroughs1.5270.0728.280.13100.00
Counties1.9174.9523.020.12100.00
                Totals1.7072.3425.840.12100.00

Chapter 35. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE.

Probably the chief reason for attaching importance to an investigation into the length of residence of persons born out of New Zealand is to be found in the Pensions Act, 1913, section 8, which provides that persons otherwise entitled are not in general eligible to receive old-age pensions unless they have resided continuously in New Zealand for at least twenty-five years preceding the date on which they establish their claim to a pension.

The following table is instructive, but the manner in which frequencies cluster about multiples of five shows that in many cases persons who have been resident in the country many years are apt to state, not the exact number of years of residence, but merely an approximation thereto. For purposes of exact comparison, then, it is of little value, but it may be taken as being approximately correct. This contention is borne out by the large numbers shown in 1911 as having been between 35 and 37, and in 1916 between 40 and 42 years, in the country, showing a year of arrival about 1874 to 1876, synchronous with the immigration boom of that period.

Number of Persons born outside New Zealand, according to Sex and Length of Residence, as revealed by 1911 and 1916 Census-takings.

Length of Residence, in Years.1911 Census1916 Census
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total
Under 538,93624,23263,16823,76222,80446,566
56,4603,55110,0116,0215,00911,030
65,3452,9928,2675,0174,1439,160
74,8982,6407,5384,8744,2109,084
84,7202,4307,1506,1974,50710,704
93,4231,5835,0064,7383,3478,085
104,0651,8015,8666,5123,96110,473
111,9739882,9613,5132,3985,911
122,1271,0193,1464,3952,7247,119
131,5469572,5033,0271,9184,945
141,7311,0462,7773,6901,9775,667
151,7081,0972,8053,0291,6244,653
161,7331,1592,8922,4821,2863,768
171,9231,3943,3171,3297872,116
182,0311,3523,3831,4349302,364
191,2188382,0561,0867661,852
202,5271,5484,0752,6361,7384,374
211,1407351,8751,0748241,898
221,1948122,0061,5631,1922,755
231,3561,1482,5041,5271,2462,733
241,7251,3803,1051,2199212,140
252,8442,0784,9221,7901,1712,961
262,3622,0834,4451,2308402,070
273,0132,8915,9049727571,729
282,9472,3354,8321,1309732,103
291,6551,3713,0261,1699432,112
305,0244,1529,1763,8403,1326,972
313,5452,7646,3091,4941,2802,774
323,8082,8936,7012,4742,6364,837
332,8602,4215,2812,3582,2194,577
343,0712,6925,7631,8741,5903,464
355,1224,3359,4572,6462,2644,910
366,4915,62412,1153,3012,7736,074
375,0784,3479,4253,1282,5155,643
382,6762,3645,0402,6402,2604,900
391,5121,2582,7701,9881,8013,789
403,2932,6115,9046,1825,40411,586
419816961,6773,7323,1766,908
421,2159462,1615,7184,87510,593
431,1989882,1862,6792,3585,037
441,2401,1752,4151,8081,5203,328
452,5081,9704,4781,7251,4803,205
46 and over20,40815,22035,62820,86217,55838,420
Unspecified5,5444,1199,6635,5014,3809,881
                Total179,724125,965305,689169,366135,944305,310

The figures, while showing a fairly constant total, yet disclose a falling-of in the total number of males of other than New Zealand birth and an increase in the corresponding number of females. The first phenomenon is doubtless due to the fact that the early settlers were mostly men, and by 1916 many of them had reached advanced years. Thus the males born abroad, being in the aggregate of an older age-constitution than females born abroad, were subject to a higher death-rate, and the falling-off during the second decade of the century in the net arrivals already referred to in this report is reflected by the marked fall in the number of persons who have resided in the country six years and under.

Of considerably more interest from the pension point of view is the next table.

Numbers of People, from Age 55 and upwards, who have resided, in New Zealand for Sixteen Years and over, as shown by the 1911 Census.

Ages.Totals at each Age.Length of Residence, in Years.
1617.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25 Years and over.
55Males3,3602127192449202517293,129
Females2,472121520141951614272,330
56Males3,2231523252237171417453,008
Females2,411101710716121616192,288
57Males2,90811222092291115192,770
Females2,0941518167941018191,978
58Males2,891141034824102113212,736
Females2,29131215102181514212,172
59Males2,51514172018231968122,378
Females1,971715158177211131,876
60Males3,0831317161045141416142,924
Females2,541914147158916162,433
61Males2,026871481711914171,921
Females1,48835441181010131,420
62Males2,30112131071171014162,201
Females1,81558688651771,745
63Males2,1575783910710132,085
Females1,745667512561171,680
64Males2,131766310358212,062
Females1,693832634610241,627
65 and upward.Males25,027434665381034748629424,481
Females18,03543523941854646769817,509
 Males51,622103195337-15035016717019430149,695
Females38,55612116514811721611314121326437,058
 Totals90,17828436038526756628031140756586,753

Numbers of People, from Age 55 and upwards, who have resided in New Zealand for Sixteen Years and over, as shown by the 1916 Census.

Ages.Totals at each Age.Length of Residence, in Years.
16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25 Years and over.
55Males2,4253020201743213726202,191
Females2,020169131324201724211,863
56Males2,8123917291945224634282,533
Females2,285121214917102622172,140
57Males2,3362118131747202825172,130
Females1,88412913618151118171,765
58Males2,6612810191743152221162,470
Females2,032121415519101721151,904
59Males2,4261113191739141921232,250
Females1,924981362310172081,810
60Males3,187261620845202231212,978
Females2,5271310111122111819152,397
61Males2,26416118142511162472,132
Females1,5767753149101471,500
62Males2,608121015828122022142,467
Females1,83395651259991,764
63Males2,44495752410151782,344
Females1,83956110881010111,770
64Males2,298117672351215142,198
Females1,801768499111481,725
65 and upwardsMales26,6627145453412855781016226,043
Females20,94051374937994874985920,388
 Males.52,12327417220116349020531533723049,736
Females40,66115312314810926516122026918739,026
 Totals92,78442729534927275536653560641788,762

The figures show an increase in the numbers of persons born abroad who are actually prima facie eligible for old-age pensions, but suggest that a falling-of in such numbers is imminent. While this is true of persons born abroad, it is by no means true of New-Zealand-born, and for the purpose of computing the total population actually prima facie eligible for pensions the figures given above should be combined with those of the New-Zealand-born at similar ages, the whole giving a fairly accurate conspectus of the position, it being remembered that the age-requirements are, in the absence of special circumstances, 60 for females and 65 for males. The combined figures show an increase since last census in the total population prima facie eligible, with no prospect of any early diminution, but (if anything) the reverse.

Total Population, 55 Years of Age and upwards, Census, 1911, and Census, 1916.

Ages.1911.1910.
Born outside New Zealand but with 25 Years' Residence (or over).New-Zealand-born.Total.Born outside New Zealand but with 25 Years' Residence (or over).New-Zealand-born.Total.
55Males3,1295443,6732,1911,0613,252
Females2,3305012,8311,8639972,860
56Males3,0084823,4902,5339863,519
Females2,2883962,6842,1401,0123,152
57Males2,7703953,1652,1307362,866
Females1,9783682,3461,7656962,461
58Males2,7363783,1142,4707063,176
Females2,1723802,5521,9046792,583
59Males2,3782872,6652,2505892,839
Females1,8762772,1531,8105532,363
60Males2,9243133,2372,9786093,587
Females2,4333522,7852,3975872,984
61Males1,9211962,1172,1323732,505
Females1,4201801,6001,5003541,854
62Males2,2012502,4512,4674162,883
Females1,7452221,9671,7643352,099
63Males2,0852042,2892,3443522,696
Females1,6801951,8751,7703732,143
64Males2,0621852,2472,1983272,525
Females1,6271881,8151,7253252,050
65 and upwardMales24,48178525,26626,0431,76627,809
Females17,50979218,30120,3881,76622,154
 Males49,6954,01953,71449,7367,92157,657
Females37,0583,85140,90939,0267,67746,703
 Totals86,7537,87094,62388,76215,598104,360

SECTION VI.—RELIGIONS.

Chapter 36. DIFFICULTIES OF CLASSIFICATION.

On a perusal of the portion of the census results relating to religion the remarkable variety of sects that appears to exist cannot fail to strike one. A close examination reveals that although the majority of persons were returned as belonging to one of the more or less generally recognized sects, there was a notable minority who from either conviction, ignorance, or motives of ill-judged humour expressed themselves as belonging to various obscure cults. The word “religion” is, of course, a difficult one to state the connotation of, and in several cases persons have returned themselves as attending a particular place of worship instead of mentioning the name of the religious body controlling such place (e.g., “Gospel Hall,” “City Mission “). Others (no doubt mostly adherents of no definite religious body) adopted the line of least resistance by describing their views. Fifty-two persons were returned as of religion unknown, seven uncertain, and two undecided. Others again filled in this portion of the census paper by endeavouring to designate the ethical or philosophic system with which they sympathized (e.g., “Universal Hedonist,” “Monist,” “Transcendentalist,” “Positivist,” “Determinist,” and a host of others). Six proclaimed themselves as heathens, and four as infidels. Others again expressed themselves so vaguely as to baffle classification (e.g., “Pilgrim,” “Seeker after Truth,” “Believer in God,” “Christian Doctrine”)

With this variety it will be evident that the task of classifying the people according to religious belief was among the outstanding difficulties arising out of the census, and in many cases the classification cannot claim to absolute accuracy in regard to whether Christian or non-Christian, &c. This difficulty is further increased by the fact that this portion of the census schedule is the only one where a person has the legal right to refuse to answer the questions asked, this being expressly provided for in section 15 of the Census and Statistics Act, 1910. The number of persons availing themselves of this privilege shows a remarkable decline, having been 35,905 in 1911 and only 25,577 in 1916. Further details are supplied in the ensuing table.

As, however, the proportion of cases where there was difficulty in classification was really only a small one as compared with the total, the figures published may be taken as being for all intents and purposes a substantially accurate statement of the religions of the people. The broad heads usually accepted as a basis of classification are as follows:—

I.Christian
IV.No religion
II.Non-Christian
V.Object to state
III.Indefinite.
VI.Unclassified

The first four of these are subdivided into the different denominations and sects comprised under the respective heads.

Chapter 37. General Results.

There is no State Church in New Zealand, nor is financial assistance given by the State to any religious denomination. Among the first colonists settlements were formed composed entirely of the adherents of certain religious bodies, but, as facilities for communication increased, this exclusiveness rapidly gave place to a spirit of tolerance, and no serious attempt was made to preserve the distinctive religious character of these communities. In Otago, where the Free Church of Scotland founded a settlement, adherents to the Presbyterian Church, mostly descendants of the original stock, form 47 per cent. of the population of that portion of the Dominion; while in Canterbury, which was originally settled by the United Church of England and Ireland, adherents to the Church of England constituted 46 per cent. of the population of the provincial district at the census of 1916.

The Church of England had the largest number of adherents, and, according to returns collected in 1916, had 645 churches, besides using 497 other buildings for Divine worship. The Presbyterian Church, the next in strength, had 519 churches, with the use of 551 buildings as temporary places of worship. Roman Catholics occupied third place in point of numbers, and possessed 336 churches, while using 106 other buildings. Methodists had 416 churches, and used 274 other buildings wherein to hold service.

The total number of churches and chapels belonging to all denominations and sects was 2,091, besides which 870 schoolhouses and 886 dwellings or public buildings were made use of as places of worship or for meetings. These churches and buildings were sufficient for the accommodation of 493,260 persons, or 45 per cent. of the total number of adherents and members.

The number belonging to each of the principal denominations is shown, for five census periods, in the next table.

Religions.Numbers and Proportions at Successive Censuses.

Denomination.April, 1896.March, 1901.April, 1900.April, 1911.October, 1916.
NumberProportion per Cent.NumberProportion per Cent.NumberProportion per Cent.NumberProportion per Cent,NumberProportion per Cent.
*Including those shown as belonging to “no denomination.”
Church of England281,16640.97314,02441.97366,82842.54411,67142.43459,02142.90
Presbyterians159,95223.31176,5032342203,59723.61234,66224.19260,65924.36
Methodists73,36710.6983,80211.1289,03810.3294,8279.77106,0249.91
Baptists16,0372.3416,0352.1317,7472.0620,0422.0720,8721.95
Congregationalists6,7770.996,6990.897,3600.858,7560.908,2210.77
Lutherans5,5380.814,8330.644,8560.564,4770.463,5300.33
Salvation Army10,5321.537,9991.068,3890.979,7071.0010,0040.94
Brethren5,0350.737,4840.997,9010.927,8650.819,7580.91
Church of Christ5,8590.856,1050.817,0610.829,1870.959,2490.86
Unitarians3750.054680.067890091,3160.141,4020.13
Society of Friends3210.053130.043340.044120.044310.04
Roman; Catholics and Catholics undefined98,80414.40109,82214.58126,99514.73140,52314.49151,60514.17
Other Christians6,5950.965,3140.715,6980.666,5090.677,7030.72
Hebrews1,5490.231,6110.211,8670.222,1280.222,3410.22
Other specified religions*12,4891.8211,4211.5212,2001.4112,5361.2914,8171.39
No religion1,8750.271,1090.151,7090.205,5290.574,3110.40
    Totals, specified religions*686,271100.00753,542100.00862,369100.00970,147100.001,069,948100.00
Object to state15,967..18,295..24,325..35,905..25,577..
Unspecified1,122..o882..1,884..2,416..3,924..
    Grand totals703,360..772,719..888,578..1,008,468..1,099,449..

Members of Christian denominations formed 95.71 per cent. of those who made answer to the inquiry at the last census; non-Christian sects were 0.44 per cent.; and those who described themselves as of no religion 0.39 per cent.; whilst “indefinite” religions constituted 1.12 per cent.

It will be noted that the religious composition of the community, in so far as the larger denominations are concerned, has remained remarkably uniform over successive census periods. The only marked differences emerge in the cases of the smaller bodies, where fairly notable declines have occurred in the proportions of Congregationalists and Lutherans to the total population. Brethren and Unitarians show fairly large proportionate increases over the period under review.

Chapter 38. RELIGIONS ACCORDING TO SEX.

The following table is instructive:—

Religions.—Numbers and Percentages, by Sexes, Census, 1916.

Religious Denominations.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.Proportion of the Sexes in every 100 Persons.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.
Christians—
    Church of England229,399229,622459,02142.9742.8442.9049.9850.02
    Presbyterian130,387130,272260,65924.4224.3024.3650.0249.98
    Methodist50,60155,423106,0249.4810.349.9147.7352.27
    Baptist9,58811,28420,8721.802.111.9545.9454.06
    Congregational3,7504,4718,2210.700.830.7745.6154.39
    Lutheran2,3101,2203,5300.430.230.3365.4434.56
    Church of Christ4,2544,9959,2490.800.930.8645.9954.01
    Salvation Army4,6225,38210,0040.871.000.9446.2053.80
    Seventh-day Adventist6019331,5340110.170.1439.1860.82
    Unitarian7456571,4020.140.120.1353.1446.86
    Protestant (undefined)1,3488902,2380.250.170.2160.2339.77
    Roman Catholic74,08675,120149,20613.8814.0113.9549.6550.35
    Greek Catholic182652470.030.010.0273.6826.32
    Catholic (undefined)1,3101,0892,3990.240.200.2254.6145.39
    Other Christians6,4337,44013,8731.201.391.3046.3753.63
Non-Christians—        
    Hebrew1,1961,1452,3410.220.210.2251.0948.91
    Mohammedan416470.010.000.0087.2312.77
    Buddhist, Confucian1,433381,4710.270.010.1497.422.58
    Other4944609540.090.090.0951.7848.22
Indefinite—        
    Agnostic5151376520.100.030.0678.9921.01
    Freethinker3,3941,0524,4460.640.200.4276.3423.66
    Rationalist3822376190.070.050.0661.7138.29
    Spiritualist5927031,2950.110.130.1245.7154.29
    No denomination2,9912,0325,0230.560.380.4759.5540.45
    Other1961143100.040.020.0363.2336.77
No Religion—        
    No religion2,9621,2224,1840.550.230.3970.7929.21
    Atheist95201150.02..0.0182.6117.39
    Other9312......75.0025.00
        Totals for specified religions533,916536,0321,069,948100.00100.00100.0049.9050.10
Object to state15,6069,97125,577......61.0238.98
Unspecified2,2531,6713,924......57.4242.58
        Grand totals551,775547,6741,099,449......50.1949.81

It will be noted that males exceeded females in the following of the religious bodies mentioned, the excess being that percentage of the total numbers belonging to each body which is shown after each:—

Greek Catholic(47.36).
Lutheran(30.88).
Unitarian(6.28).
Presbyterian(0.04).

The very causes that have operated to bring about the preponderance of males in the foreign element of the population have operated in the first two cases above; the same remark also applies to the figures shown above for Confucians and Mohammedans.

Females, on the other hand, exceeded males in the following cases:—

Seventh-day Adventist(21.64).
Congregational(8.78).
Baptist(8.12).
Church of Christ(8.02).
Salvation Army(7.60).
Methodist(4.54).
Roman Catholic(0.70).
Church of England(0.04).

In the cases of Spiritualists, also, females were in a slight majority; but males were in a large majority amongst persons of no religion, atheists, those who objected to state, and other residue generally.

It is worth noting that in the two most numerous religious bodies (Church of England and Presbyterian) the proportion of males to females belonging to the same religion is most nearly equal. The percentage of males in the total population has already been shown to be 49.12; the respective percentages for the Church of England and the Presbyterian Church are 49.98 and 50.02.

Chapter 39. RELIGIONS ACCORDING TO AGES.

The following table shows at different age-groups the proportions of each denomination to the total population specified as to religion. It will be noted that in general, especially for the forms of religion most represented, the religious constitution of the community by age-groups is fairly constant. The ranks of those belonging to non-Christian religions are mainly recruited by overseas immigration; hence the low percentage at early age-groups. Indefiniteness in religious profession is, moreover, a phenomenon appearing usually in adult life, children being rarely so classified; so also with atheism, &c., all of which religions are at a maximum between 30 and 60. All these factors have tended to effect a gradual diminution as one goes from younger to older age-groups in the proportion of the population asserted to be Christians. Of the Christian religions constituting 1 per cent of the population or over the only ones showing in any degree worth mentioning a preponderance of children are the Church of England and Roman Catholic, and even here the difference is by no means marked. Baptists, on the other hand, show a slightly lower proportion at the earliest age-groups than is usual.

Percentage of Persons of each Age-group belonging to various Religious Denominations, Census, 1916.

Religion.Under 5.5 and under 10.10 and under 15.15 and under 20.20 and under 25.25 and under 30.30 and under 35.35 and under 40.40 and under 45.45 and under 50.50 and under 55.55 and under 60.60 and over.Total.
Christian—              
    Church of England43.7343.1742.9042.4542.5443.0843.9643.7143.0042.7442.4942.0840.2342.90
    Presbyterian24.3724.1824.0924.6123.8323.5223.8224.5224.9925.4625.1223.5725.1724.36
    Methodist10.0210. 5011.0010.689.679.279.289.529.529.279.329.589.889.91
    Baptist1.681.912.102.031.791.721.841.862.142.002.202.032.381.95
    Congregational0.580.660.650.680.700.750.780.760.860.911.011.141.070.77
    Lutheran0.170.190.230.230.310.300.340.300.360.340.450.580.890.33
    Church of Christ0.880.900.980.940.870.860.790.780.740.710.870.810.960.86
    Salvation Army0.971.111.231.000.830.700.690.800.940.910.910.880.980.94
    Seventh-day Adventist0.130.150.160.130.130.130.130.130.130.160.150.180.160.14
    Unitarian0.090.100.080.090.110.110.130.160.130.200.210.200.230.13
    Protestant (undefined)0.150.150.160.180.240.240.250.230.210.270.210.310.240.21
    Roman Catholic14.6714.3713.7014.0415.6715.5013.8613.1512.6712.6112.4413.6313.0113.95
    Greek Catholic0.010.010.010.020.030.040.040.030.020.020.010.020.020.02
    Catholic (undefined)0.110.190.170.230.280.310.270.210.210.220.230.220.220.22
    Other1.161.271.331.281.221.111.111.211.341.311.551.661.771.30
                Total Christians98.8298.9098.8798.6998.2297.6497.2997.4097.2697.1497.0596.8997.2197.99
Non-Christian—              
    Hebrew0.190.170.200.210.230.240.230.230.280.240.300.310.200.22
    Confucian0.010.010.000.010.040.080.150.120.200.230.330.510.510.13
    Mohammedan0.000.000.000.000.010.010.010.010.010.000.010.000.000.00
    Buddhist0.000.000.00O.000.020.010.010.000.000.010.000.000.020.01
    Other0.050.070.050.050.080.120.110.120.110.130.150.12O.100.09
                Total non -Christians0.250.250.250.270.380.460.510.480.600.620.790.930.830.45
Indefinite—              
    Agnostic0.020.020.020.020.040.070.090.090.100.120.120.120.110.06
    Freethinker0.180.140.130.190.460.700.750.630.600.520.480.530.560.42
    Rationalist0.040.050.050.030.040.040.060.070.080.080.080.080.080.06
    Spiritualist0.070.070.080.120.110.080.090.130.150.190.220.260.220.12
    No denomination0.330.310.370.410.430.450.570.580.640.670.640.620.490.47
    Other0.020.020.020.020.010.040.030.030.030.050.050.040.040.03
                Total indefinite0.670.620.670.791.091.381.591.541.601.631.611.651.501.16
No religion0.250.230.200.240.300.490.600.560.530.600.520.520.450.39
    Atheist0.010.000.000.010.010.020.010.020.010.010.010.010.010.01
    Other0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.020.000.000.00
                Total no religion0.260.230.210.250.310.520.610.580.540.610.550.530.460.40
                Grand total100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Chapter 40. RELIGIONS ACCORDING TO PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

Table of Contents

The following tables show in an interesting manner the distribution of religions by provincial districts. This table has been compiled from the borough and county returns, and as in a few cases boroughs and counties are not exactly conterminous with provincial districts the figures are not absolutely accurate, although the error thus creeping in is to all intents and purposes so small as to be- quite negligible.

Distribution of Persons belonging to different Denominations among the various Provincial Districts, Census, 1916.

Religion.Auckland.Hawke's Bay.Taranaki.Wellington.Marlborough.Nelson.West-land.Canterbury.Otago.Southland.Total.
Christians—           
    Church of England31.245.555.5122.301.864.161.6617.966.882.88100.00
    Presbyterian21.454.843.5115.741.012.541.3414.6523.7711.13100.00
    Methodist28.234.017.4320.571.554.021.2419.958.664.33100.00
    Baptist31.713.902.5017.440.344.160.2517.0120.082.60100.00
    Congregational36.295.181.1519.230.333.320.2414.4817.512.20100.00
    Lutheran14.2516.423.8047.000.909.401.873.771.750.84100.00
    Church of Christ36.981.371.2317.170.399.820.567.7518.306.43100.00
    Salvation Army23.355.226.1724.821.393.370.8918.2411.664.89100.00
    Seventh-day Adventist38.518.625.2222.850.522.870.3916.971.832.22100.00
    Unitarian42.863.092.6628.710.221.94..16.223.730.57100.00
    Protestant (undefined)24.651.501.0022.922.1410.966.8718.378.003.59100.00
    Roman Catholic29.054.905.2420.681.923.893.7814.5110.355.68100.00
    Greek Catholic38.843.720.8321.490.832.073.304.1324.380.41100.00
    Catholic (undefined)30.622.140.9216.503.535.0414.6615.926.763.91100.00
    Other28.495.884.5423.970.615.320.8314.0010.635.72100.00
      Total Christians28.135.105.0020.221.543.781.8016.6012.285.55100.00
Non-Christians—           
    Hebrew37.392.631.5537.69..1.040.437.8611.140.26100.00
    Confucian22.063.201.6441.780.433.138.683.062.173.84100.00
    Mohammedan34.7815.222.1728.26......15.224.35..100.00
    Buddhist6.253.13..4.69..1.56....84.37..100.00
    Other.52.3210.213.6817.890.321.160.426.846.420.74100.00
        Total non-christians35.414.431.9934.430.191.672.856.2111.421.40100.00
Indefinite—           
    Agnostic34.373.134.5329.220.943.754.6911.416.871.09100.00
    Freethinker40.404.574.0123.490.825.032.1810.996.102.41100.00
    Rationalist28.712.611.4714.031.472.284.5736.873.424.57100.00
    Spiritualist32.927.592.7925.251.242.170.2317.908.051.86100.00
    No denomination42.844.003.2817.820.564.140.8811.1911.633.86100.00
    Other39.611.622.6017.530.655.840.0019.169.423.57100.00
        Total indefinite39.694.413.4421.040.714.171.6513.328.563.01100.00
No religion33.494.714.8524.011.103.913.7214.866.193.15100.00
    Atheist26.5512.397.0822.120.8811.503.5414.160.880.88100.00
    Other33.338.33..16.67........41.67..100.00
        Total no religion35.104.644.8121.851.076.212.0312.877.763.66100.00
        Total28.294.985.1120.521.494.401.2916.3912.085.45100.00

Some of the features of the table are referred to below. In each case the percentage which the number of people in the province belonging to the religion in question bears to the total Dominion population belonging to that religion is set opposite the name of each religion as it is mentioned.

Of the Christian religions that have the largest proportion of their total adherents in the Auckland Provincial District, the following are the outstanding examples:—

Unitarian45.97 per cent.
Greek Catholic40.00 per cent.
Seventh-day Adventist38.37 per cent.

Those will the smallest proportion in this province are the—

Lutheran14.25 per cent.
Presbyterian21.45 per cent.
Salvation Army23.35 per cent.

The outstanding feature of the Hawke's Bay figures are the relatively large proportions of Lutherans (16.42 per cent.) and the Seventh-day Adventists (8.62 per cent.).

In Taranaki, Methodists (7.43 per cent.) and the Salvation Army (6.17 per cent.) make the best relative showing.

In Wellington Province are to be found 47.00 of all the Lutherans in New Zealand, persons of this faith being very strong relatively in the lower Manawatu district.

In Marlborough, Roman Catholics (together with Catholics, undefined) would appear to be relatively strong.

The outstanding religions in Nelson are—

Protestant (undefined)10.96 per cent.
Church of Christ9.82 per cent.
Lutheran9.40 per cent.

In Westland the outstanding feature is the number of Catholics (undefined)— viz., 14.66 per cent.—the only other head possessing over 4 per cent. in this province being Protestants (undefined), with 6.87 per cent. These two indefinite descriptions are denounced in instructions printed on the census household schedules. Such terms when used are, of course, so vague and shadowy as to baffle detailed classification, though there exists a reasonable presumption that persons returning themselves as Catholics are for the most part Roman Catholics.

In Canterbury the following are outstandingly high:—

Methodist19.95 per cent.
Protestant (undefined)18.37 per cent.

The following are outstandingly low:—

Lutheran3.77 per cent.
Greek Catholic4.13 per cent.

Although in 1916 the number of members of the Church of England was but 17.96 per cent. of the total members of this communion in the Dominion, 46 per cent. of the province was returned as belonging to this body. In Otago the following are outstandingly high:—

Greek Catholic24.38 per cent.
Presbyterian23.77 per cent.
Baptist20.08 per cent.

Although the above percentage of the total Presbyterians in the Dominion was in 1916 in Otago, it is worth noting that 47 per cent. of the total population of this province belonged to that Church. The following are outstandingly low:—

Lutheran1.75 per cent.
Seventh-day Adventist1.83 per cent.
Unitarian3.73 per cent.

In Southland Presbyterianism stands out conspicuously:—

Presbyterian11.13 per cent.
Church of Christ6.43 per cent.

The lowest here is Greek Catholic (0.41 per cent.), with Unitarian (0.57 per cent.) a close second.

Of non-Christians, Confucians were strong in -Wellington, 41.78 per cent. of the Dominion total residing here. 37.69 per cent. of the Hebrews were also to be found in this provincial district. Moreover, 8.68 per cent. of the Dominion's Confucians were in Westland, a high figure for a province with so small a population. It is notable that 84.37 per cent. of the Dominion's Buddhists were returned in Otago. An examination of the detailed returns, however, reveals the fact that this was almost entirely due to the presence in Otago Harbour on census night of an overseas vessel largely manned by race aliens; and it is not impossible that shipping considerations have also affected conditions in other centres, though not to the same noticeable extent. It should be mentioned that as a whole non-Christians were very largely confined to the North Island, roughly three-quarters of them being returned there.

Of indefinite religions Canterbury would appear to be a stronghold of rationalism, 36.87 per cent., of the Rationalists in the Dominion living here. Rationalism is the only indefinite religion that is outstanding in any way in any province.

Chapter 41. OFFICIATING MINISTERS.

The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act was in June, 1916, 1,567, and the denominations to which they belonged are shown hereunder:—

Denomination.No.
Specified in statute— 
Church of England455
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand359
Methodist Church of New Zealand266
Roman Catholic Church251
Congregational Independents35
Baptists51
Lutheran Church7
Hebrew Congregations5
Not specified in statute— 
Church of Christ29
Salvation Army62
Not specified in statue— 
Catholic Apostolic Church4
Unitarians2
Brethren2
Seventh-day Adventists5
Free Methodist Church of New Zealand1
Latter-day Saints3
Church of the Seven Rules of Jehovah10
Ringatu Church10
Others10
            Total1,567

It is of interest to work out the numbers of adherents per minister for each of the chief denominations. The following are the results for the last four census-takings:—

Denomination.1901.1906.1911.1916.
Church of England9931,0751,0061,009
Presbyterian856775747726
Methodist441511451398
Roman Catholic717647644604
Congregational372364285234
Baptist667507477409
Lutheran537485447504
Hebrew268311354468
Church of Christ436441328318
Salvation Army799441359161
Unitarian468789438701

It will be noted that the tendency has for the most part been towards a reduction in the number of adherents per minister, the exceptions being the Church of England, Hebrew, and Unitarian faiths.

Chapter 42. PLACES OF WORSHIP, BY DENOMINATIONS.

The statistics relating to places of worship were compiled from returns supplied by responsible officers of congregations throughout the Dominion. It is by no means improbable that the figures relating to attendance at service and the like may have been made up in different ways by different denominations, but the general view of the position gives useful and probably accurate enough information.

The following table furnishes an interesting comparison of the total number of buildings used as places of worship as returned in the last two census-takings:—

Denomination.1911.1916.
Church of England7961,142
Presbyterian7091,070
Roman Catholic358442
Catholic Apostolic56
Greek Orthodox11
Methodists583690
Baptists5566
Congregational3231
Brethren68125
Church of Christ4453
Lutheran1114
Society of Friends12
Christadelphians37
Seventh-day Adventists814
Unitarian33
Salvation Army79107
Hebrew54
Church of God11
Spiritualist27
Mormons37
Theosophists15
Undenominational9150
                    Totals2,8593,847

It will be noted that there has been a general all-round increase in places of worship, an increase least marked in the cases of churches and chapels themselves, the total figures being—

Class of Building.1911.1916.
Churches and chapels1,9762,091
Schoolhouses491870
Dwellinghouses and public buildings392886
                    Totals2,8593,847

Fuller details for 1916 are appended:—

Religious Denomination.Class of Building.Materials of which Outer Walls are built.Total Places of Worship.
Churches and Chapels.Public Schools.Halls and Theatres.Private Dwelling-houses.Wood.Stone.Brick.Iron.Other.
Church of England645273169551,031303325231,142
Presbyterian5193701414096038501571,070
Roman Catholic336374425377243317442
Catholic Apostolic321..6........6
Greek Orthodox1......1........1
Methodist4161568731635113635690
Baptist514745618..166
Congregational2722..2514..131
Brethren..6113610911122125
Church of Christ41..1114616....53
Lutheran122....14........14
Society of Friends2..........2....2
Christadelphians....611..4..27
Seventh-day Adventist1021111..1..214
Unitarian2..1..1..2....3
Salvation Army51186589215....107
Hebrew4......111..14
Church of God1......1........1
Spiritualist2..5..4..3....7
Mormon6....15..2....7
Theosophist....23....32..5
Undenominational8529838..111..50
          Totals2,0918707051813,41111022550613,847

In respect of accommodation for worshippers and the numbers of persons attending service, figures for 1911 and 1916 are appended. It will be noted that while for the whole Dominion in 1916 accommodation existed for 45 per cent. of the adherents, this proportion was spread over the different denominations in a far from uniform manner.

Religious Denomination.Number of People for whom Accommodation.Average Seating-capacity of Places of Worship.Percentage of Accommodation to Number of Adherents.
1911.1916.1911.1916.1911.1916.
Church of England99,944125,33012611024.2827.30
Presbyterian98,779125,37513911742.1048.10
Roman Catholic67,87371,84719016348.7748.11
Catholic Apostolic1,115760223127331.85222.87
Greek Orthodox8560856032.0824.29
Methodist86,32887,29514812691.0482.34
Baptist11,67513,19021220058.2563.19
Congregational8,3607,80026125295.4894.88
Brethren10,41516,110153129132.42165.10
Church of Christ8,7328,73419916595.0594.43
Lutheran1,3601,39512410030.3839.52
Society of Friends602006010014.5646.40
Christadelphian2849259513227.6380.43
Seventh-day Adventist1,3051,648163118117.25107.43
Unitarian65080021726749.3957.06
Salvation Army20,39221,328258199210.08213.19
Hebrew9861,34019733546.3357.24
Church of God7080708042.4255.17
Spiritualist5001,69025024141.77130.50
Mormon35095011713695.89301.59
Theosophist70431708614.0351.93
Undenominational9,7265,972107119105.98108.89
          Totals429,059493,26015012844.2346.10

It is noted that the percentage of accommodation to the adherents was in 1916 highest for Mormons (301.59 per cent.), Catholic Apostolic (222.87 per cent.), Salvation Army (213.19 per cent.), and Brethren (165.10 per cent.). In these cases alone and in those of Spiritualists, Undenominationalists, and Seventh-day Adventists did the accommodation exceed the number of adherents. The percentage was lowest for Greek Orthodox (24.29 per cent.) and Church of England (27.30 per cent.). Except in the cases of some of the smaller denominations there is no marked difference between the 1911 and 1916 figures.

Religious Denomination.Number of Persons attending Service.Percentage of Persons attending Service to Accommodation.
1911.1916.1911.1916.
Church of England53,25854,96453.3043.06
Presbyterian55,25660,78155.9448.48
Roman Catholic48,14653,90770.9475.03
Catholic Apostolic56619550.7625.66
Greek Orthodox454052.94G6.67
Methodist46,09341,96853.4048.08
Baptist6,0326,03451.6745.75
Congregational4,2353,25750.6641.76
Brethren3,5636,11934.2137.98
Church of Christ3,7453,13142.9035.85
Lutheran72856453.5340.43
Society of Friends204433.3322.00
Christadelphian4716316.5517.62
Seventh-day Adventist24061318.3937.20
Unitarian47015072.3118.75
Salvation Army8,1436,99139.9332.78
Hebrew36039036.5129.10
Church of God508071.43100.00
Spiritualist32552565.0031.07
Mormon15035542.8637.37
Theosophist5022671.4352.42
Undenominational3,4722,52735.7042.31
          Totals234,994243,02454.7649.26

It is worth nothing with regard to the latter table that in 1916 the number of persons usually present at the largest-attended service of the day was supplied; in 1911 in many cases there is reason to believe the figures was supplied for the total number of persons attending service at any time during the day. A conclusion, therefore from the foregoing figures that church attendance has fallen off would be invalid except possibly in such an obvious case as that of Westland, as shown in a subsequent table.

The following table, showing the service at which the larger number usually attends (also the Sunday-school roll), is of interest:—

Religions Denomination.Service at which Largest Number usually attends.Sunday School
Teachers.Scholars.
Morning.Afternoon.Evening.Not stated.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Church of England248355484557552,83018,81922,406
Presbyterian298427317281,2012,63717,13820,003
Roman Catholic412..7231464665,4926,742
Catholic Apostolic312..........
Greek Orthodox1..............
Methodist14823829591,1311,73312,23514,684
Baptist19938..2844232,4183,010
Congregational10318..1142171,1701,446
Brethren5766022021881,6831,830
Church of Christ5325..1421981,4011,616
Lutheran931..11793100
Society of Friends2..............
Christadelphian3..4..1113629
Seventh-day Adventist1121..2840155315
Unitarian....3..6107070
Salvation Army61190..1383812,2832,503
Hebrew3..1..9..7972
Church of God....1..221210
Spiritualist1..6..504453
Mormon..52..2038232218
Theosophist..14..474245
Undenominational9122725168463643
          Totals1,2651,0761,3861204,2609,23263,86575,795

Chapter 43. PLACES OF WORSHIP, BY PROVINCES.

The following table purports to show by provincial district the total number of buildings used as places of worship as returned in the last two censuses:—

Provincial District.1911.1916.
Auckland7391,067
Taranaki130218
Hawke's Bay150196
Wellington513624
Marlborough44102
Nelson171212
Westland5990
Canterbury446592
Otago—  
    Otago portion437501
    Southland portion170245
                    Totals2,8593,847

In respect of accommodation for worshippers and the numbers of persons attending service the following figures by provincial districts for 1911 and 1916 axe appended:—

Provincial District.Number of Persons for whom Accommodation.Average Seating-capacity of Places of Worship.
1911.1910.1911.1916.
Auckland103,422131,395139123
Taranaki17,42225,453134117
Hawke's Bay20,27624,274135124
Wellington77,55483,245151133
Marlborough6,4318,66214686
Nelson20,89522,409122106
Westland7,25511,982123133
Canterbury72,42784,638163143
Otago—    
    Otago portion79,57572,348182144
    Southland portion23,80228,854140118
                    Totals429,059493,260150128

In number of places of worship all provinces show an increase, the percentage of increase being highest in Marlborough, where places of worship returned at the census have more than doubled; and lowest in Otago, where the increase was less than 15 per cent. Evidently, however, the increase represents for the most part buildings of small seating-capacity, as in Westland Province alone has the average seating-capacity of places of worship increased, and even here only by a very small fraction.

Provincial District.Number of Persons usually Present at Largest-attended Service of Day.Percentages of Persons attending Service to Accommodation.
1911.*1916.1911.1916.
*See “Placed of Worship, by Denomination”
Auckland55,88360,47454.0346.02
Hawke's Bay11,66612,55358.6051.71
Taranaki10,20811,60658.6045.60
Wellington42,70638,95355.0646.80
Marlborough3,6974,75957.4854.94
Nelson10,67310,80251.0728.20
Westland5,0574,46069.7037.22
Canterbury40,46046,90855.8655.42
Otago40,74037,35851.2051.64
Southland13,90415,15158.4152.51
                    Totals234,994243,02454.7749.27

The following figures, showing by provincial districts (1) the services at which the largest number usually attends, (2) the Sunday-school membership, are also of interest:—

Provincial District.Service at which Largest Number usually attends.Sunday School.
Teachers.Scholars.
Morning.Afternoon.Evening.Not stated.Males.Females.Males.Female
Auckland402286364151,1032,24315,94719,407
Hawke's Bay58696361673842,9633,752
Taranaki63727491524032,7283,411
Wellington198161233328351,67512,29514,544
Marlborough373232143135979985
Nelson72419362054573,2433,674
Westland3314403431199291,152
Canterbury192174202247671,81211,73813,736
Otago139142210107181,5099,53110,805
Southland718575142274953,8124,329
          Totals1,2651,0761,3861204,2609,23263,86575,795

Chapter 44. SECTION VII.—EDUCATION.

Of the 1,099,449 persons returned on the 1916 census schedules only 1,213 cases occurred of failure to state the degree of education attained. Of those whose degree of education was stated it was found that 83.53 per cent. were able to read and write, 0.68 per cent. could read only, while 15.79 per cent. could neither read nor write.

The proportion able to read and write has fallen slightly as compared with figures compiled from the 1911 census returns. This small decrease is probably due to the disturbance of the normal proportions of the population brought about by the absence with the Forces of a number of men between twenty and forty-five years of age.

Over a longer period, however, there has been a considerable increase in the proportion of the population able both to read and write. This improvement, however, is not entirely due to improved educational facilities, but has to some extent been caused by the decreased birth-rate and the consequent decreased proportion of children under five years of age. The figures for successive census years are as follows:—

Education.—Proportions per Cent. at Successive Censuses.—Total Population.

Census.Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
 Per Cent.Per Cent,Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
December, 185866.869.5923.5559.1313.5327.3463.5111.3025.19
December, 186173.457.1219.4361.3611.8926.7568.679.0122.32
December, 186477.275.6417.0965.279.6525.0872.077.1720.13
December, 186775.625.9518.4364.869.2425.9071.357.2521.40
February, 187173.106.3620.5463.759.1027.1569.207.5023.30
March, 187471.406.9621.6463.949.5626.5068.158.0923.76
March, 187872.115.9121.9866.337.8025.8769.526.7623.72
April, 188173.315.0121.6868.946.3924.6771.325.6323.05
March, 188675.404.3620.2472.415.3122.2874.014.8021.19
April, 189177.973.7418.2976.484.2419.2877.273.9718.76
April, 189681.062.7116.2380.093.0816.8380.602.8916.51
March, 190183.081.8115.1182.442.1015.4682.781.9515.27
April, 190684.031.4814.4982.9117315.3683.501.6014.90
April, 191184.300.7814.9283.200.9515.8583.780.8615.36
October, 191683.060.7016.2484.000.6715.3383.530.6815.79
NOTE.—Chinese are excluded prior to 1916.

Education.—Proportions per Cent. at Successive Censuses.—Population over Five Years of Age.

Census.Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
 Per Cent.Per Cent,Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.
March, 187484.847.847.3280.1211.378.5182.859.337.82
March, 187885.586.747.6881.739.259.0283.897.848.27
April, 188187.085.717.2184.617.487.9185.986.507.52
March, 188688.054.957.0086.436.177.4087.305.517.19
April, 189189.564.186.2688.924.796.2989.264.476.27
April, 189691.693.005.3191.493.425.0991.593.205.21
March, 190193.421.994.5993.322.324.3693.372.154.48
April, 190694.671.633.7094.281.913.8194.481.763.76
April, 191193.890.885.2394.500.784.7294.200.834.97
October, 191694.730.794.4895.380.763.8695.060.774.17
NOTE.—Chinese are excluded prior to 1916.

The following table shows for various age-groups in 1916 the percentages under the three headings:—

Age-group (in Years).Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
Under 5....100.00
5 and under 1071.322.6226.06
10 and under 1599.570.090.34
15 and under 2099.630.070.30
20 and under 2599.470.160.37
25 and under 3099.420.180.40
30 and under 3599.380.180.44
35 and under 4099.160.200.64
40 and under 4598.990.280.73
45 and under 5098.660.331.01
50 and under 5597.910.641.45
55 and under 6096.531.132.34
60 and under 6594.991.833.18
65 and under 7093.112.704.19
70 and under 7591.383.545.08
75 and under 80.90.454.225.33
80 and upwards86.266.007.74

Even after allowance is made for the infirmities of old people, it will be seen from the above figures that the persons of the younger generation are much less illiterate than persons of advanced ages.

The following table will also be found instructive:—

Education, by Age-groups, Census, 1916.

Age last Birthday.English Language.Foreign Language.Cannot Read.Not stated.Total.
Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.
Under 5    132,055..132,055
5–986,1873,1622..31,4911,976122,818
10–14108,093944..374660109,225
15–1990,538381062127742491,404
20–2475,862534386228647777,178
25–2986,973914836035461488,575
30–3491,8361064506140372593,581
35–3988,5301323154857385190,449
40–4468,8691463095151173870,624
45–4958,8871622613760377860,738
50–5448,4372372265064551545,110
55–5932,4353372154479251634,339
60–6426,5844582305889946228,691
65–6918,7955112014185539320,796
70–7413,4614901323774730715,174
75–799,295405833355517610,547
80–844,12224538213471054,878
85–891,344971212128361,629
90–942431921364305
95–993781..9..55
100 and over91....1112
Unspecified Adults9781025..48911,152
Unspecified Minors60......486114
      Totals906,5856,8023,533637172,0379,8551,099,449

Of the population between the ages of 5 and 10 there were 31,491, or 25.64 per cent., unable to read, the percentage falling to 0.34 at the 10–15 age-group, and to 0.30 at the 15–20 age-group. Above 20 the percentage was 1.20.

The birthplaces of those able to read (or read and write) a foreign language only are of interest. The 4,170 persons concerned, representing roughly 0.4 per cent. of the total population, comprised 1,041 persons born in Austria-Hungary, 341 in Germany, 1,382 in China, and 1,406 born in other countries, or 24.96. 8.18, 33.14, and 33.72 per cent. respectively of the total persons in the Dominion born in those countries.

Of these, easily the highest percentage among metropolitan and suburban areas was in Palmerston North, where 2.57 per cent, of the male population 15 years of age and over were unable to read English, but able to read a foreign language. Apparently the element of foreign descent following the Lutheran form of worship mainly accounts for this. Amongst metropolitan areas Wellington stood highest (1.41 per cent.). The generally high percentage in the larger centres was no doubt in many cases due to the presence in port of oversea vessels.

The county containing the largest number and percentage of persons able to read (or read and write) a foreign language only was Hobson, where, of a total population of 3,622 aged 5 years and over, 253, or 7 per cent., were in this position. Other North Auckland counties also show a higher percentage than the average, due to this district being the New Zealand habitat of Dalmatian gum-diggers.

EDUCATION, BY PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

The following table is of interest:—

Education, by Provincial Districts.—Proportions per Cent. at Successive Censuses.

Census.Provincial Districts.Totals.
AucklandTaranakiHawke's BayWellingtonMarlboroughNelsonWestlandCanterburyOtagoSouthland
* Based on figures for specified ages only.
 Per Cent.Per Cent,Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent. 
March, 1878—           
    Read and write69.5967.1968.7769.1967.0771.4870.7169.3469.63Included in Otago.69.52
    Read only7.596.466.705.586.786.916.796.127.076.76
    Cannot read22.8226.3524.5324.9526.1521.6122.5024.5423.3023.72
April, 1881—          
    Read and write72.4870.2769.6270.0367.8572.9274.2970.4471.7571.32
    Read only5.705.045.185.135.536.125.325.615.925.63
    Cannot read21.8224.6925.2024.8426.6220.9620.3923.9522.3323.05
March, 1886—          
    Read and write74.8869.5473.0772.6771.9875.3977.4373.5074.5974.01
    Read only4.834.943.784.464.085.054.304.765.214.80
    Cannot read20.2925.5223.1522.8723.9419.5618.2721.7420.2021.19
April, 1891*          
    Read and write76.9573.6874.9876.6973.5878.1879.7977.7278.2977.25
    Read only4.193.613.223.523.743.783.943.884.413.98
    Cannot read18.8622.7121.8019.7922.6818.0416.2718.4017.3018.77
April, 1896*          
    Read and write79.8377.9179.2679.9477.8180.9783.7181.7181.5080.59
    Read only3.08;2.372.572.522.672.772.982.763.302.89
    Cannot read17.0919.7218.1717.5419.5216.2613.3115.5315.2016.52
March, 1901*          
    Read and write82.0280.5581.2582.1880.0883.2984.0483.8783.9082.77
    Read only2.121.701.761.672.101.982.001.882.101.94
    Cannot read15.8617.7516.9916.1517.8214.7313.9614.2514.0015.29
April, 1906*          
    Read and write82.9081.0582.7483.4082.7183.4079.7884.2884.3383.50
    Read only1.951.511.181.441.581.602.431.441.531.60
    Cannot read15.1517.4416.0815.1615.7115.0017.7914.2814.1414.90
April, 1911*           
    Read and write*83.8181.8183.2583.3882.1583.7284.3384.5085.0782.4083.77
    Read only0.840.730.740.780.781.011.110.811.030.980.86
    Cannot read15.3517.4616.0115.8417.0715.2714.5614.6913.9016.6215.37
October, 1916—           
    Read and write82.8880.9083.0383.4181.6983.2783.0584.1885.4682.4083.40
    Read only0.700.600.580.620.590.711.310.740.700.730.69
    Cannot read16.4218.5016.3915.9717.7216.0215.6115.0813.8416.8715.91

It will be noticed that Otago had the most satisfactory percentage, with Canterbury a close second. The least satisfactory was Taranaki. The differences between provinces have, however, never been marked, but it is still true to state that all have not shared to the same extent in the increase of the proportion of the population able to read and write, the South Island generally showing better results than the North, but this is merely a reflex of the older age-constitution there, as will be seen from the following table, which shows the information for persons aged 15 and over only, and really gives a better comparison:—

Education, by Provincial Districts.—Proportions per Cent. among Population 15 Years and over, Census, 1916.

Provincial District.Males.Females.
English Language.Foreign Language only.Cannot ReadEnglish Language.Foreign Language only.Cannot Read
Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.
Auckland96.870.431.320.171.2198.530.480.140.020.83
Taranaki97.100.450.890.111.4598.140.440.450.090.88
Hawke's Bay97.660.330.720.121.1798.530.440.180.050.80
Wellington97.270.400.860.251.2298.500.430.210.070.79
Marlborough97.720.580.220.061.4298.150.560.070.051.17
Nelson97.320.460.570.091.5698.320.560.090.021.01
Westland94.320.952.140.292.3097.370.920.210.121.38
Canterbury97.580.500.200.051.6798.190.700.060.021.03
Otago97.700.460.620.091.1398.440.600.050.020.89
Southland97.430.450.380.061.6898.290.530.08..1.10
Military and internment camps98.200.101.490.040.1795.005.00......
          Totals97.270.440.830.141.3298.400.530.140.040.89

Education, By Town And Rural Population.

A similar table to the above is next given for metropolitan and suburban areas, and for the rest of the Dominion:—

Education, by Metropolitan and Suburban Areas.— Proportions Per Cent. among Population 15 Years and over, Census, 1916.

Metropolitan or Suburban AreaMales.Females.
English Language.Foreign Language only.Cannot ReadEnglish Language.Foreign Language only.Cannot Read
Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.Read and Write.Read only.
Metropolitan Areas.          
Auckland97.790.390.800.060.9698.610.510.120.010.75
Wellington97.450.330.960.450.8198.680.400.120.040.76
Christchurch97.820.460.260.051.4198.220.720.060.020.98
Dunedin97.670.540.750.100.9498.490.580.070.020.84
Suburban Areas.          
Gisborne98.270.290.390.051.0098.870.400.07..0.66
Napier97.590.201.270.070.8798.800.370.160.040.63
New Plymouth97.640.430.560.071.3098.200.420.270.061.05
Wanganui97.050.390.630.051.8898.800.410.150.030.61
Palmerston North96.010.332.400.171.0997.850.520.520.180.93
Nelson97.070.310.720.041.8698.370.470.100.090.97
Grey Valley Boroughs96.400.850.970.301.4897.900.900.120.071.01
Timaru98.140.300.33..1.2398.520.55....0.93
Invercargill97.950.350.300.051.3598.290.580.01..1.12
          Totals97.620.400.740.151.0998.500.530.110.030.83
Remainder of Dominion97.000.460.910.141.4998.290.530.160.050.97
Grand total for Dominion97.270.440.830.141.3298.400.530.140.040.89

This table reveals several interesting features. It will be observed that the proportion of those unable to read to the total population was higher for males than for females in all areas. The proportion of those unable to read was higher in the districts outside the thirteen centres of population than in the average of those centres, due no doubt to the better facilities existing for education in the towns.

SCHOOLING.

In the table on the opposite page will be found a classification of persons shown on the 1916 census schedule as receiving education.

Schooling, by Ages, Census, 1916.

Nature of Schooling.Age last Birthday.Total.
Under 556789101112131415 and under 21.Unspecified Minors.21 and over.
Receiving education at—Males
    University College......................490..406896
    Secondary school—Public2481141451742002432964909791,7763,2933277,790
    Secondary school— Private1610153015273967129205751..371,332
    Technical school—Public..1..4441212431354112,24912603,136
    Technical school— Private................34978..55149
    Primary school—Public3746,2419,81910,69910,79510,43410,2819,9599,7508,0934,4411,661143192,592
    Primary school— Private1525707988637997457247356685503592332107,208
    Home2063293262021311076263536553210..1091,916
    “Scholar,” but class of school not stated78301385382346343344355342310250144243,586
                Totals8137,49611,45212,31012,27911,84811,69311,45911,41610,2657,5049,10922939118,605
Receiving education at—Males 
    University College......................3861242629
    Secondary school—Public..43861441241652243064268811,5503,222177,179
    Secondary school—Private..82520214239581101992661,180..131,981
    Technical school—Public....131225391113272,141..1992,831
    Technical school— Private..............161023224..34298
    Primary school—Public3345,5738,95310,33210,1799,7169 7759,2339,0947,4973,9861,530121886,232
    Primary school— Private1295248361,0761,0661,016998973857826572725279,657
    Home256388107291194155123117959399175..92,402
    “Scholar,” but class of school not stated90280396383384352345330321313302209113,707
                Totals8096,81610,75413,24911,96911,44811,50611,02310,9489,9307,1259,79217530114,916
Receiving education at—Both Sexes. 
    University College....................l87616481,525
    Secondary school—Public2912002892983654676029161,8603,3266,51543414,969
    Secondary school— Private1143535515766971773284711,931..503,313
    Technical school—Public..117561417822467384,39014595,967
    Technical school— Private..............191432302..89447
    Primary school—Public70811,81418,77221,03120,97420,15020,05619,19218,84415,5908,4273,1912649178,824
    Primary school— Private2811,0941,6841,9391,8651,7611,7221,7081,5251,37693195841716,865
    Home462717733493325262185180148158152385..1184,318
    “Scholar,” but class of school not stated168581781765730695689685663623552353357,293
                Totals1,62214,31222,20624,55924,24823,29623,19922,48222,36420,19514,62918,901391,469233,521

An historical survey of results by provincial districts is also given.

Schooling, by Provincial Districts, at Successive Censuses.

Provincial District.At State Primary Schools.At Secondary or Private Schools.*Being taught at Home.
Males.FemalesTotal.Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.

* Including universities and secondary schools in 1911 and 1916.

† Including Southland in 1896, 1901, and 1906.

Auckland—         
    April, 189614,33913,78928,1281,7052,1693,8747989711,769
    Mar., 190115,52314,55730,0802,0022,5124,5146357691,404
    April, 190617,02815,68332,7112,4772,9615,4385837211,304
    April, 191121,24619,95041,1964,2064,0438,2496537961,449
    Oct., 191626,21724,73950,9566,5326,90313,4356557851,440
Taranaki—         
    April, 18963,1502,8465,996161291452149172321
    Mar., 19013,5713,2856,856201355556118144262
    April, 19063,7873,4357,2224996091,108111150261
    April, 19114,4904,0948,5847228051,527148190338
    Oct., 19165,1774,7589,9351,1501,2262,376134158292
Hawke's Bay—         
    April, 18963,1522,8926,044461522983173213386
    Mar., 19013,2533,0236,2765466251,171125180305
    April, 19063,4553,2086,6635917021,293121182303
    April, 19113,7513,5357,2868119371,748118174292
    Oct., 19164,4774,2338,7101,2211,4042,625132144276
Wellington—         
    April, 189611,14310,59221,7351,5061,8363,3425367431,279
    Mar., 190112,04011,49723,5371,7242,0593,7834666361,102
    April, 190613,50312,47325,9762,5302,9885,518444522966
    April, 191115,28613,11528,4013,8424,5748,4164306111,041
    Oct., 191617,77916,18033,9595,3465,93811,284396505901
Marlborough—         
    April, 18961,2761,1822,45811415426891100191
    Mar., 19011,2341,1512,3851722073796563128
    April, 19061,1561,0812,2371802244044380123
    April, 19111,2121,1242,3362282554835978137
    Oct., 19161,3931,2032,5963163596755168119
Nelson—         
    April, 18963,5213,3266,8475424991,041144173317
    Mar., 19013,5073,3146,8215225751,097106119225
    April, 19063,4903,2156,7056096291,238117147264
    April, 19114,0513,4857,5365887831,371102160262
    Oct., 19164,2973,8788,1751,1251,2042,329120150270
Westland—         
    April, 18961,3161,2972,613233257490243458
    Mar., 19011,0321,0732,105281349630161228
    April, 19068779041,781296362658182038
    April, 19111,0711,0092,080309352661242145
    Oct., 19161,0841,0832,167466531997171835
Canterbury—         
    April, 189613,99713,01127,0081,8832,0533,936392530922
    Mar., 190112,87312,00424,8771,8862,0533,939339473812
    April, 190612,37511,64224,0172,1902,4194,609285405690
    April, 191113,69512,71126,4062,7792,9985,777265457722
    Oct., 191614,98114,05529,0364,0784,5088,586165311476
Otago          
    April, 189616,81215,72332,5351,5411,6733,2144496601,109
    Mar., 190115,32714,64729,9741,6602,1083,768345444789
    April, 1,90614,66113,96128,6222,0762,3444,420309333642
    April, 191110,5709,94220,5122,1192,0164,135147178325
    Oct., 191611,41010,64922,0592,9013,0375,938174182356
Southland—         
    April, 19115,1744,6419,8155015971,098106123229
    Oct., 19165,7775,45411,2319621,1722,1347281153
Totals.         
    April, 189668,70664,658133,3648,1469,45417,6002,7563,5966,352
    Mar., 190168,30664,551132,9118,99410,84319,8372,2152,8405,055
    April, 190670,33265,602135,93411,44813,23824,6862,0312,5604,591
    April, 191180,54673,606154,15216,10517,36033,4652,0572,7914,848
    Oct., 191692,59280,232178,82424,09726,28250,3791,9162,4024,318

An examination of the two foregoing tables reveals some striking features, of which perhaps the most interesting is the evidence that sending children to private schools or keeping them for instruction at home are practices which operate to a greater extent in the case of girls than of boys. This is clear from the fact that in nearly all cases males receiving instruction at State schools exceeded females, whereas in all other cases females exceeded males. That this is the case is further borne out by the statistics collected directly in connection with educational establishments and quoted in the table below.

This table gives, for the twenty years ended with 1916, the number of private schools and of European scholars attending them, the number of Roman Catholic schools and pupils being also shown separately, these figures being compiled from annual returns supplied by the schools themselves:—

YearNumber of Private Schools.PupilsIncluded in Previous Numbers.
Boys.Girls.TotalRoman Catholic Schools.Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.
18972785,9748,4731,14,447120642
18982946,0438,73914,78212410,175
18993076,2199,07615,29513310,526
19003046,1529,40315,55513210,687
19013096,2449,10015,34412910,448
19022976,4519,17315,62413910,802
19032886,4059,20415,60913910,812
19042956,7859,59316,37814911,373
19052916,8379,80216,63914611,738
19063087,02610,10517,13115411,948
19073027,51010,57818,08815212,650
19083077,65310,71418,36714912,538
19093067,59710,33317,93015012,611
19103188,03610,94518,98115613,161
19113268,31011,55819,86815813,941
19123108,80111,43720,23815614,476
19133049,14611,96921,11515514°837
19143219,64112,43922,08018016,471
19153109,55512,78422,33917215,892
19163059,79113,62123,41217017,266

It will be noted from the above two tables that the tendency to educate children at home is a decreasing one, due no doubt to improved educational facilities in the country. There is, however, an increasing tendency to have children educated in private and denominational schools.

Of those children who were receiving education at the date of the Census, the maximum percentage of any age attending State primary schools was 86.49 at age 8, while the maximum for private primary schools was 17.33 at ages under 5, The maximum percentage receiving education at home was (as might be expected) also at this age.

Figures relating to metropolitan and suburban areas for the census of 1916 are appended. The highest percentage attending university colleges was to be found in Dunedin, due possibly to the more varied and comprehensive nature of the curricula at that centre. The number of males taking university courses was, in all cases but Christchurch, considerably in excess of the number of females. The number of males attending private secondary schools was low in Wellington, and exceptionally so in Dunedin. In Christchurch the number of males receiving education at home was exceptionally low. In most other respects the figures were largely uniform.

Schooling, by Metropolitan and Suburban Areas, Census, 1916.

Metropolitan or Suburban Area.University College.Secondary School (Public).Secondary School (Private).Technical School (Public).Technical School (Private).
Males.Females.TotalMales.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.TotalMales.Females.Total.
Metropolitan areas—               
    Auckland2101313411,2659722,2373694027715993859843986125
    Wellington1451322776507501,400161247408431278709384280
    Christchurch1361462817036811,384229256485362249611266288
    Dunedin2911754665724411,0136520126631422453883543
Suburban areas—               
    Gisborne1121109920991322222547 44
    Napier28 28165149314113445104103207112
    New Plymouth112173105278338415981140134
    Wanganui213165266431204572611501212712..2
    Palmerston North......1279021714405463961594..8
    Nelson22416815131911415455499213
    Grey Valley1..15073123273562121527......
    Timaru..111501012517859247459211415
    Invercargill3251832324151027377198169213
 8195921,4114,4814,1108,5911,1101,4491 2,5592,2791,7744,053124253377
    Remainder of Dominion77371143,3093,0696,3782225327548571,0571,914254570
        Totals for Dominion8966291,5257,7907,17914,9691,3321,9813,3133,1362,8315,967149298447
Metropolitan or Suburban Area.Primary School (Public).Primary School (Private).Home.“Scholar,” but Class of School not stated.
Males.Females.TotalMales.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total
Metropolitan areas—            
    Auckland10,3919,88020,2711,1011,5732,604156178334288353641
    Wellington6,4945,91012,4048531,1842,037142156298398394792
    Christchurch7,2346,88814,1228051,0531,85837104141401428829
    Dunedin5,7205,28411,0044577731,2308352135180178358
Suburban areas—            
    Gisborne1,0559231,978811642451926454774121
    Napier1,1641,0382,202155251406192443343367
    New Plymouth8417301,57150103153211233211435
    Wanganui1,6261,4653,091273308581192847282957
    Palmerston North1,1611,1332,29414617331961117212445
    Nelson8617281,58910115325482533231841
    Grey Valley6176251,24221624145778156250112
    Timaru1,1871,1202,307159166325122032152035
    Invercargill1,6491,4553,104112160272612185261113
 40,00037,17977,1794,5096,30210,8115356561,1911,5701,6763,246
    Remainder of Dominion52,59249,053101,6452,6993,3556,0541,3811,7463,1272,0162,0314,047
        Totals for Dominion92,59286,232178,8247,2089,65716,8651,9162,4024,3183,5863,7077,293

SECTION VIII.—INFIRMITY.

Chapter 45.

At census-takings prior to 1911 information was required as to “sickness” and “accident” as well as infirmity. In 1911 and 1916, however, details were collected of the following types of infirmity alone:—

  1. Deaf-mutism—i.e., existence of deafness and dumbness in conjunction.

  2. Blindness.

  3. Feeble-mindedness.

In addition the returns supplied by mental-hospital authorities gave particulars of lunacy.

Of the total population, 6,359 persons, or 5.78 per 1,000, were suffering from one or other of the above infirmities, of whom 206 were deaf-mutes, 566 blind, 4,275 lunatics, and 1,312 feeble-minded. In 1911 there were 5,301 persons returned as infirm, being 5.26 per 1,000. The figures for the respective classes of infirmity were in that year 301, 482, 3,741, and 777. It will be apparent that deaf-mutes alone show a decrease, the direct and indirect effects of the war being doubtless at the bottom of the general increase during the quinquennium. A point that should be borne in mind in connection with the statistics of infirmity is that there was no definite question to be answered in this respect, the instruction merely being that if a person were a deaf-mute, blind, or feeble-minded, this fact should be entered in a column provided. It is possible that in a number of cases the information might have been omitted, inadvertently or otherwise, on this account.

INFIRMITY, BY AGE AND SEX.

The following table shows the proportion of infirm per 10,000 of population by age-groups and sexes:—

Age, in Years.Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Deaf and Dumb.Blind.LunaticFeeble-Minded.Deaf and Dumb.Blind.LunaticFeeble-Minded.Deaf and Dumb.Blind.LunaticFeeble-Minded.
Under 50.150.59..2.230.93..0.311.850.530.300.152.05
5 and under 101.121.120.649.791.161.320.837.441.141.220.738.63
10 and under 151.621.082.3415.670.562.232.2311.181.091.652.2913.46
15 and under 201.782.666.0026.441.511.725.6015.961.642.195.8021.11
20 and under 253.943.6225.6427.932.141.5015.1811.552.852.3319.3118.01
25 and under 304.504.0036.4819.742.471.2321.8310.303.392.4828.4614.56
30 and under 352.823.4653.5012.781.691.2728.899.282.242.3541.0411.01
35 and under 403.033.9065.6810.841.802.2644.019.702.433.1055.0610.28
40 and under 452.182.7281.6111.970.892.0756.108.271.562.4169.1310.19
45 and under 502.423.9488.819.092.162.5276.776.492.303.2983.327.90
50 and under 552.915.0093.649.572.852.3796.769.962.883.7795.119.75
55 and under 602.1414.43124.027.483.2010.23115.797.042.6212.52120.277.28
60 and under 651.8611.17125.3511.171.5913.52114.5012.721.7412.20120.6011.85
65 and under 700.8911.60141.0216.962.0920.85103.2112.511.4415.87123.5814.91
70 and under 751.2043.27126.2216.835.8429.1896.2830.633.3036.90112.6923.07
75 and under 80..56.32152.4021.532.2288.69128.6137.690.9570.16142.2228.44
80 and under 856.92134.90117.6155.34..125.82135.8860.394.10131.20125.0557.40
85 and under 90..218.57142.08120.22..294.111400698.04..251.69141.19110.50
90 and over..578.03115.6257.80..301.51......430.1153.7626.88
    Totals, 19162.105.8745.5113.811.644.4232.2110.041.875.1538.8911.93
    Totals, 19112.905.2541.267.953.084.2632.447.432.984.7837.107.70

One of the most marked features of the table is the general increase of infirmity with age, a result which naturally would be expected. The very low percentages at the earliest quinquennial groups may be accounted for partly by a natural tendency on the. part of parents to hope for eventual recovery where evidence of infirmity has actually emerged, and also partly by the fact that the existence of infirmity is not always apparent in the earliest years of infancy. In all cases except deaf-mutism the increase in infirmity with age is marked. The comparatively even frequency distribution over age-groups of this particular form of infirmity suggests that it is for the most part at least congenital, whilst the other forms are, on the other hand, with the possible exception of feeble-mindedness, for the most part acquired.

Infirmity is considerably higher amongst males than amongst females, especially as age advances. This is doubtless due to the fact that the more strenuous occupations of males are normally such as to render them much more liable to acquired as opposed to congenital infirmity. That this is the explanation is borne out by the very low percentage of infirm males at the earliest age-group, being somewhat smaller, in fact, than that for females at the same group. What is more remarkable, however, is that the excess of males is more or less evenly distributed over the different classified heads of infirmity.

DEAF-MUTISM.

The following table shows the progressive changes in the proportion per 10,000 of population suffering from this infirmity:—

Census.Males.Females.
18742.051.71
18782.252.18
18812.232.45
18862.372.22
18912.802.49
18962.992.71
19013.282.51
19063.292.73
19112.893.08
19162.101.64

This form of infirmity would appear to have reached a maximum in the first decennium of the present century, and to be now on the decrease. Of 206 persons suffering from this infirmity 160, or 78 percent-, were born in New Zealand.

There appears to be no definite age-group at which this infirmity is at a maximum. The total number of cases is fortunately so small that few inferences of any validity may be drawn. Provided, however, that the proportion of children born deaf is fairly constant, that the death-rate is not appreciably higher for them than for the rest of the community, and that migration is for them at a minimum, the above general results are ones that might be expected from a class of infirmity whose origin is congenital.

The following table shows the occupations (past or present) of all deaf-mutes whose occupations were specified in the 1916 census returns:—

Occupations.Males.Females.
Hospital assistant..1
Draughtsman2..
Boardinghouse assistant..2
Domestic servant..3
Groom1..
Gardener3..
Caretaker in Education Department1..
Hairdresser1..
Laundryman1..
Labourer in coal-yard1..
General storekeeper1..
Printer's machinist1..
Picture-framer1..
Coachbuilder1..
Saddler2..
Cabinetmaker1..
Sawmill worker3..
Tailor5..
Tailoress..1
Dressmaker..2
Bootmaker2..
Assistant in biscuit-factory1..
Confectionery-maker1..
Tanner1..
Fencer2..
Ironworker1..
Carpenter4..
Builder's labourer2..
General labourer4..
Farmer2..
Farm labourer9..
Assistant fruitgrower1..
Gardener2..
Sheep-farmer2..
Cook on sheep-station1..
Assistant on sheep-farm3..
Dairy-farmer7..
Assistant on dairy farm5..
Wool-classer1..
Quarryman1..
Pensioner..1
Independent means11
Domestic duties249
Scholar..1
Child unable to read or write1515
Dependent88
Hospital patient2..
In receipt of charitable aid13
Inmate of special school1..
Inmate of reformatory..2
Occupation not stated101
                Totals11690

BLINDNESS.

The following table shows the progressive changes in the proportion per 10,000 of population afflicted with this infirmity:—

Census.Males.Females.Total.
18742.452.182.34
18782.422.732.56
18812.932.682.82
18863.652.703.22
18914.913.744.37
18965.694.014.90
19017.324.265.87
19066.113.985.11
19115.254.264.78
19165.874.425.15

From the foregoing it will be seen that this infirmity reached a maximum in 1901, and that since 1911 the proportion has again risen. The fact that this rise is much more marked in the case of males than in that of females suggests that the asperities of war have had some effect on the figures. This is partly borne out by the following table showing the figures for age-groups corresponding roughly to military age:—

Age last Birthday.Number of the blind
census, 1911.census, 1916.
 Males.Females.Males.Females.
20.2496117
25.29145166
30.34910166
35.39881810
40.44127107

Direct effects of war cannot, however, be the sole cause, for there has been a marked increase at ages 80 and over, as follows:—

CensusMalesFemales
19113030
19167153

Of 566 persons suffering from this infirmity only 194, or 35 percent., were born in New Zealand. Most persons shown as blind who were born abroad have no doubt acquired their infirmity after settling in New Zealand. Deaf-mutism is apparently, however, usually congential, being rarely acquired, and is moreover an infirmity which proves a formidable obstacle to travel. Hence the difference in the proportions of New-Zealand-born in the two cases.

The following figures are appended as showing the occupations (past or present) of all persons afflicted with blindness for whom an occupation was specified:—

Occupations.MalesFemales
Member of Legislative Council1..
Masseur12
Teacher in Institute for Blind13
Sculptor1..
Organist1..
Street musician10..
Boardinghouse-keeper2..
Capitalist42
Insurance agent1..
House-proprietor3..
Dairyman1..
Grocer1..
Tea-merchant1..
Tobacconist1..
Horsebreaker1..
Storekeeper1..
Hawker1..
Master mariner2..
Piano-tuner14..
Basketmaker11..
Boxmaker1..
Knitting machinist11
Bootmaker2..
Matmaker4..
Baker1..
Brickmaker1..
Engineer in foundry1..
Ironmoulder2..
Electric linesman1..
Carpenter2..
Painter1..
Public Works labourer1..
General labourer3..
Agricultural farmer8..
Market-gardener1..
Fruitgrower1..
Sheep-farmer7..
Shepherd1..
Poultry-farmer1..
Dairy-farmer142
Alluvial-gold miner1..
Pensioner185
Annuitant35
Of independent means296
Domestic duties..86
Scholar1618
University student1..
Child unable to read or write77
Dependent3033
Invalid1..
Hospital patient103
In receipt of charitable aid3018
Inmate of Institute for Blind2612
Prisoner1..
Inmate of reformatory..1
Occupation not stated3838
                Totals324242

LUNACY.

As regards this form of infirmity it was assumed that all cases of lunacy were confined in mental hospitals. Accordingly no direct question was asked in the census schedule as to lunacy, but particulars were specially obtained at the date of census from mental hospitals. In this way errors arising from reluctance to record, or from misplaced humour, were largely if not wholly eliminated.

The following table is of interest as manifesting the remarkable increase in this form of infirmity:—

CensusPer 10,000 of Population
Males.Females.Total.
187423.2815.4819.93
187825.0715.5420.85
188127.3017.4322.86
188631.0321.1826.50
189131.2823.9227.82
189635.7026.0231.13
190139.2329.1934.47
190639.6430.6335.40
191141.2732.4437.10
191645.5132.2138.89

Between 1911 and 1916 there was a slight fall in the proportion of female lunacy, but it was far otherwise with males. Here again war anxieties, &c. possibly operated as a contributing factor, but the following table seems to suggest that the direct effects of the war have not been marked:—

Numbers of the Insane.

Age-groups.Census, 1911.Census, 1916
Males.Females.Males.Females.
20.2477737871
25.29149106146106
30.34217142247137
35.39226156303195
40.44259166300190

Of 4,275 persons thus afflicted, 1,912, or 45 percent., were New-Zealand-born, which proportion is just below that borne by the New-Zealand-born population to the total population.

FEEBLE-MINDEDNESS.

Where feeble-mindedness begins and full possession of one's faculties ends is difficult to define, and for this reason figures as to this form of infirmity are of value only as an index, and it has not been considered worth while carrying an investigation into these results very far.

It is worth noting, however, that of 1,312 persons so set down, 1,003, or 77 percent., were born in New Zealand. The high percentage as compared with lunacy is probably accounted for by the fact that feeble-mindedness (as suggested by the first table in this section of the Report) is probably more often congenital than lunacy. Few persons with a tendency to feeble-mindedness will migrate; whereas many persons set down in the census as being lunatics had migrated to New Zealand before the affection developed.

Both the 1911 and 1916 census-takings point to two maxima for this class of infirmity, one about age 15 and one at advanced age. Feeble-mindedness is no doubt a phenomenon which, even though congenital, does not always manifest itself at the earliest ages; moreover, with advancing years in many cases the mental faculties decay. In these two facts the explanation of the two maxima probably lies.

SECTION IX CONJUGAL CONDITION

Chapter 46. NUPTIAL RATIO OF THE POPULATION.

In Section IV of this report an investigation was instituted into the numbers of women of reproductive age, and some index was thereby secured to the potentialities of the community from the reproductive^ point of view. It must be remembered, however, that these potentialities do not depend solely on this factor already investigated, but are probably even more profoundly a function of a factor which is itself largely a function of social and economic conditions, sometimes termed the “nuptial ratio,” or the ratio of the married to the unmarried in the population. There is, moreover, still another factor on which light must be shed in investigating this problem—viz., fecundity, or the measure of probability that a female will reproduce within a certain time. This latter factor, which depends on what are in part social, in part physiological, and in part economic considerations, will form the subject of a subsequent section of the report. With the nuptial ratio and with allied considerations mainly of a sociological bearing we are principally concerned in this section.

A strictly dichotomous division of the population into married and unmarried is unfortunately not possible, for there is always a small but far from negligible residuum in the shape of the widowed and divorced. As, however, the conception of the nuptial ratio owes its importance primarily to its bearing on the reproductive problem, it is usual to include for practical purposes this residuum under the “unmarried “head, its potentialities from the reproductive point of view being in effect equal to those of the never married.

In the census statistics relating to conjugal condition the terms “married,” “widowed,” “divorced,” &c, refer to the marital status of the persons enumerated as at the date of the census. Accordingly, a person who had been widowed or divorced but had before the date of the census remarried would be returned as “married."

Of 551,775 males at the census of 1916, 332,359 were returned as never married, 201,967 as husbands, 15,454 as widowers, and 760 as divorced, while 1,235 were unspecified as to conjugal condition. These figures show 60.37 per cent, of males never to have been married, while 36.69 per cent, were returned as husbands, 2.81 per cent, as widowers, and 0.13 per cent, as divorced; or, eliminating all males under 21 years, 30.52 per cent, never married, 64.31 per cent, husbands, 4.93 per cent, widowers, and 0.24 per cent, divorced.

Of 547.647 females, 310,079 were returned as never married, 205,896 as wives, 30,423 as widows, 613 as divorced, while 663 were unspecified as to conjugal condition. These figures show 56.69 per cent, of females never to have been married, while 37.64 per cent, were returned as wives, 5.56 per cent, as widowed, and 0.11 per cent, as divorced; or, eliminating all females under 21 years, 24.91 per cent, never married, 65.16 per cent, wives, 9.74 per cent, widows, and 0.19 per cent, divorced.

The following table shows the nuptial ratios (i.e., ratio of married to not married) calculated for the last ten census-takings, the divorced and widowed being treated as single:—

Census.Total Population.Population, Twenty-one Years of Age and over.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
March, 18740.3620.5320.4300.9183.90714.63
March, 18780.3800.5220.4391.0713.8061.661
April, 18810.3740.4930.4251.1113.3331.650
March, 18860.3740.4650.4141.1812.7041.635
April, 18910.3760.4480.4081.1802.1571.522
April, 18960.3830.4510.4141.1241.8001.382
March, 19010.4140.4740.4411.1271.6061.323
April, 19060.4410.5200.4771.0991.6151.305
April, 19110.4830.5620.5181.1891.7031.398
October, 19160.5790.5860.5821.8021.8701.836

For its practical bearing on the reproductive problem the second half of the table is clearly the more valuable.

In 1874 we find that of the females 21 and over the married were nearly four times as numerous as the single, a ratio which showed a rapid decline till 1896 and which has remained approximately stationary ever since, but with a slight tendency to rise since 1906. The explanation is simple: The majority of females in New Zealand in 1874 were women who had come to the country with or in order to join their husbands. Few unmarried women would, on the other hand, migrate except for the purpose of marrying men who had preceded them to prepare a home for them. The immigrants being persons in the prime of life, there would also be few widows. For males, on the other hand, the position was very different. Difficulties of colonization in distant lands were such as to deter married men rather than single. Thus the majority of men coming into the country would be single.

During the subsequent forty years conditions changed. Children were born to the early settlers and grew up to manhood and womanhood; the country entered upon years of prosperity and became a more attractive place for women to enter. The settlers who had entered the country in the prime of life reached old age, with the result that widowhood increased. Conditions no longer operated to make the number of unmarried women in the country small. With males, on the other hand, it was otherwise. The country had been opened up and had become a more suitable place than before for married men to make their homes in; moreover, the children of the early settlers had grown up and married amongst themselves. Under such circumstances the proportion of married men would increase.

So, while in 1874 there was a marked disproportion in the nuptial ratios for the sexes, by 1911 the disproportion had been largely eliminated, so that, with the withdrawal of a fair proportion of the unmarried and but a small proportion of the married men for war purposes in 1916, the nuptial ratios for the two sexes attained approximate equality, rising suddenly from 1.189 for males in 1911 to 1.802 in 1916. On this rise, and on the corresponding rise in females from 1.703 in 1911 to 1.870 in 1916, further interesting light is thrown by the following table:—

Year.Total Number of Marriages registered.Marriage-rate.
Per 1000 of Population.Compared with Rate in 1882–80 taken as 100.
19118,8258.70130
19129,1498.81132
19138,8138.25124
19149,2808.51127
191510,0289.12137
19168,2137.47112

The large number of marriages in 1915 included many that in the ordinary course of events would have been celebrated in 1916, but were hastened by the operation of the National Registration Act, and the desire of many men to be shown in the register as married men and to obtain certain anticipated advantages or escape certain obligations. The year 1916 was robbed of these “hastened” marriages, and the rate for 1916 was still further adversely affected by the introduction of a system of compulsory military service, which took into account only marriages solemnized before May, 1915. Again, the constantly lessening proportion of men of marriageable age in the country has had a further effect on the marriage-rate for 1916.

Clearly the varying age-constitution of the community has had a marked effect on the figure which represents the nuptial ratio at different periods. Some of the implications of this proposition have already been referred to—viz., the increase of widowhood as the early settlers grew old. Thus it is a remarkable fact that while for the total female population the nuptial ratio shows a net increase from 1874 to 1916, for the female population above 20 it has shown a marked net fall. This phenomenon is largely if not wholly due to the varying proportion of the total female population from time to time at ages 0.20. While the birth-rate was highest, and in ever-lessening degree for twenty-one years thereafter, we should expect to find a particularly large proportion of the population under 21, and there fore a low nuptial ratio for the whole population, provided no serious fluctuation in immigration occurred. The nuptial ratio was actually at a minimum in 1891, and in this connection the following table is of interest, showing as it does the birthrate for successive quinquennia since 1871;—

Period.Births per 1,000.
1871–187539.88
1876–188041.21
1881–188536.36
1886–189031.15
1891–180527.68
1896–190025.75
1901–190526.60
1906–191027.06
1911–191525.98

Chapter 47. WIDOWHOOD.

The following tables are of interest:—

Conjugal Condition at Successive Censuses.—Numbers.

Census.Males.Females.
Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Not stated.Totals.Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Not stated.Totals.
* At these censuses divorced persons were included among “never married.”
WHOLE POPULATION.
March, 1874121,87045,3623,272*477170,98179,88844,0203,990;*29128,533
March, 1878162,74063,4954,177*580230,998114,74062,9145,672!*88183,414
April, 1881190,86473,3314,965*445269,005140,19072,8077,290;*35220,328
March, 1880219,83884,6566,253*1,474312,221171,86684,4099,704!*162226,261
April, 1891233,78790,5507,790*750332,877190,00990,87712,0981*137293,781
April, 1896258,071102,8249,36287471371,415213,548103,20415,0485095331,945
March, 1901275,009118,53610,666255920405,992230,375117,83917,902149462300,727
April, 1906313,164143,98312,035351875471,008252,428142,89121,050256345417,570
April, 1911343,438172,22814,2095751,400531,910278,405171,28325,797411662476,558
October, 1916332,359201,90715,4547601,235551,775310,079205,89030,423613663547,074
Adult Population,
March, 187446,05245,3003,271*47395,0967,06543,0293,983*2954,106
March, 187854,48703,3954,172*586122,64010,24860,5405,658*8876,534
April, 188160,93373,2344,902*435139,56413,85070,4327,278*3491,595
March, 188665,29884,5216,250*1,434157,50320,68352,2889,748*146112,865
April, 189168,82890,4437,788*733167,79229,20789,21112,089*123130,690
April, 189681,896102,6869,36087460194,48941,349101,60415,0415092158,136
March, 190194,047118,39410,005255878224,23954,210116,09917,896149403188,757
April, 1906117,854143,79312,033351858275,48965,281140,85421,643255320228,353
April, 1911129,792172,07014,2085751,312318,01773,108169,20425,789411504269,070
October, 191095,754201,77815,4527601,219314,96377,817203,55530,412610628313,022

Conjugal Condition at Successive Censuses,—Percentages,

Census.Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.
* At these censuses divorced persons were included among “never married.”
WHOLE POPULATION.
March, 187471.4826.001.92*62.1734.733.10*67.4830.092.43..
March, 187870.6327.561.81*62.5934.323.09*67.0730.552.38..
April, 188170.9227.241.84*63.6433.053.31*67.6429.852.51..
March, 188670.7527.242.01*64.5931.743.67*67.9029322.78..
April, 189170.3927.262.35*64.9330.954.12*67.8328.993.18..
April, 189669.7427.722.520.0264.3531.104.530.0267.1929.323.470.02
March, 19016329.262.630.0662.9032.174.890.0465.6030.653.700.05
April, 19066630.632.690.0760.5034.255.190.0663.7432.333.860.07
April, 191164.7432.462.690.1158.5035.99 15.420.0961.7934.133.980.10
October, 191660.3736.692.810.1356.6937.64 15.560.1158.5437.164.180.12
Adult Population.
March, 187448.6747.873.46*13.0679.577.37*35.7259.404.88..
March, 187844.6451.943.42*13.4179.197.40*32.6181.44.4.95..
April, 188143.7952.643.57*15.1376.927.95*32.4362.275.30..
March, 188641.8454.164.00*18.3573.008.65*31.9962.065.95..
April, 189141.2054.144.66*22.4268.329.26*32.9660.366.68..
April, 189642.2152.924.830.0426.1664.299.520.0335.0058.036.930.04
March, 190142.1153.004.780.1128.7861.649.500.0836.0156.956.940.10
April, 190642.9152.364.600.1328.6361.779.490.1130.4356.636.820.12
April, 191140.9954.334.500.1827.2363.029.600.1534.6758.326.840.17
October, 191630.5264.314.930.2424.9165.169.740.1927.7264.747.320.22

It will be noted that there has been a general increase in the proportion of the population married, widowed, and divorced, and a corresponding decrease in the proportion never married, The proportion of married females 21 years of age and over to the total female population of those ages, however, decreased to 1901, after which it has again risen, The reason has already been casually referred to, but may conveniently be here stated more fully, In the early days of the colony few women migrated to New Zealand except those who came out with their husbands, The New-Zealand-born females bad not as yet, save in exceptional cases, reached adult age, Moreover, the marriage age for females was in those days considerably lower than it has been in recent years,

In course of time these early settlers grew old and gradually died one by one, the natural outcome being an increase in widowhood, In 1916, as will be seen from the next table following, from ages 85 onwards in the case of males, and 70 onwards in that of females, widowers and widows respectively exceeded the married,

While in 1874 widows but slightly exceeded widowers in number, by 1916 the number of widows had become double that of widowers, Evidently remarriage is commoner among widowers than amongst widows, This is probably, however, not the whole explanation of the present excess of widows, The male death-rate is higher than that for females, Moreover, men usually marry later in life than women, Accordingly the marriage relation is more often broken by the death of the husband than by that of the wife, There is thus seen to be a close correlation between an excess of single men over single women and an excess of widows over widowers,

Conjugal Condition, by Quinquennial Age-groups, Census, 1916,

Age-groups.Males.Female.
Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Not stated.Totals.Never Married.Married.Widowed.Divorced.Not stated.Totals.
Under 15 years185,192........185,192178,906........178,906
15 and under 2044,95260......45,01245,3271,06041..46,392
20 and under 210,4611292..106,6088,0291,28172359,354
21 and under 2519,8503,78116110323,81124,64912,4901051115037,405
25 and under 3020,58819,0391742019140,01818,26329,7233775513948,557
30 and under 3514,73030,7424547110946,16610,85935,6487281008047,415
35 and under 4010,86234,3147529111946,1388,26634,5871,2701236544,311
40 and under 457,41828,20790611711036,7585,51926,5331,6551114833,806
45 and under 506,54325,0061,2031439832,9934,07621,2302,330743527,745
50 and under 554,44118,1721,259905924,0272,54515,4443,000712321,083
55 and under 603,15713,9371,470836018,7071,43910,6703,470341315,632
60 and under 652,85511,3571,804524718,1158667,5024,114191512,576
65 and under 701,8777,4481,802374011,2045534,7984,2216149,592
70 and under 751,4354,8451,98719338,3193052,0843,857276,855
75 and under 801,0023,1461,85413226,0371891,3592,951294,510
80 and under 854791,2111,1797152,891914011,488161,987
85 and under 90168298441179153495583..2714
90 and under 95104086..3145820131..1160
95 and under 1005511..1221329....33
100 and over3..3....6..15....6
Adults (unspecified)273230513806379829998119515
Minors (unspecified)52......254562....260
                Totals332,359201,96715,4547601,235551,775310,079205,89630,423613663547,674

Chapter 48. BACHELORHOOD AND SPINSTERHOOD,

Bachelors in 1916 predominated in all age-groups under 25, In the 25–29 age-groups bachelors exceeded married males, but by a very slight margin indeed, At ages 21–24 spinsters exceeded married females, being in the proportion of nearly two to one, In the age-group 25–29 the proportions were nearly reversed Of 332,034 never-married males of specified ages, 101,890 were 20 years of age and over, while of 309,925 never-married females of specified ages 85,692 were 20 years of age and over, It will be seen, then, that never-married males are considerably in excess of never-married females at what might be considered the marriageable ages, Registrations, however, show that many women, but few men, are married at ages 15–19, Accordingly the following table has been drawn up, showing the number of bachelors aged 20 years and upwards to every 100 of spinsters aged 15 and upwards:—

Census YearNumber,
* Including divorced, who in census-takings prior to 1890 were returned as “single,”
1874238*
1878191*
1881162*
1886123*
1891105*
189698
190196
1906108
1911110
191677

The high figures for early years are the natural corollary of the conditions under which early colonization proceeded, while the sudden drop for 1916 is, of course, a direct outcome of war conditions,

Further details as to the geographical distribution of bachelors and spinsters in 1916 will be found on pages 85 to 88 of the report,

Chapter 49. THE MARRIED,

The number of husbands in 1916 was 201,967, and of wives 205,896, giving an excess of waves over husbands of 3,929, This is unusual, and is doubtless the outcome of war conditions, In former census-takings the result has usually been the other way, owing to the arrival from abroad of married men who do not send for their wives until they have become settled in this country, The following figures show the differences at the last ten census-takings:—

CensusExcess of Husbands over Wives,
1874736
1878581
1881524
1886187
1891—327
1896—380
1901697
19061,092
1911945
1916—3,929

The anomalous position of 1891 and 1896 is doubtless due to the general depression prevailing at that time, resulting in the application to New Zealand in her turn of the rule that married men leaving for another, country depart before their wives in order to make a home for them,

The following table is of interest as reflecting the gradual rise in the marriage age for females:—

Percentage at Successive Censuses of Married Women at Different Age-groups to Total Married Women aged 15 and under 45,

Ages,1878,1881,1886,1891,1896,1901,1906,1911,1916,
Under 20 years2.452.161.811.191.120.980.940.810.75
20 and under 35 years61.9060.5360.0360.1259.5759.9460.2959.9856.00
35 and under 45 years35.6537.3138.1638.8939.3139.0838.7739.2143.25
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

Figures compiled from actual marriage records show that the average age at marriage is steadily rising,

Further details as to the geographical distribution of married women in 1916 will be found on pages 86 to 88 of the report,

Chapter 50. THE DIVORCED,

Figures relating to divorce are of value on account of the light they throw on the operation of conditions inimical to social stability, For their understanding a brief résumé of the history of divorce law in New Zealand is essential,

So far back as 1807 a Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act was passed in New Zealand, Under this Act a husband might obtain a divorce on the grounds of adultery, but adultery alone was insufficient grounds for a wife to obtain a divorce from her husband, The actual grounds for divorce in cases where the husband was respondent must be—Incestuous adultery, or bigamy with adultery, or rape, &c, or adultery coupled with such cruelty as would otherwise have entitled the wife to a decree for a divorce mensa et thoro under English law, or adultery coupled with desertion without reasonable excuse for two years or upwards, A decree for judicial separation might be obtained by either husband or wife on the grounds of adultery, or of cruelty, or of desertion without cause for a period of two years, The law as to judicial separation still holds,

The divorce law was revised in 1898, An Act passed in that year placed persons of either sex practically on an equality as regards petitions for dissolution of marriage; the same grounds, in substance, for a decree of divorce applying to man or woman, The grounds for divorce were altered as under: Adultery, on either side; wilful desertion continuously during five years or more; habitual drunkenness during four years and upwards on the part of husband, along with failing to support wife, or habitual cruelty; or habitual drunkenness for a like period and neglect, with unfitness to discharge her household duties, on the part of the wife; conviction, with sentence of imprisonment or penal servitude for seven years or upwards, for attempting to take life of petitioner, or of any child of the petitioner or respondent,

By section 17 of the 1898 Act it was in addition provided that non-compliance with a decree for restitution of conjugal rights should give an immediate right to a decree for dissolution,

The Acts of 1867 and 1898 were consolidated in 1904, An amendment was passed by the Legislature in 1907, and after having been reserved for the Royal assent became law on the 9th May, 1908, By this Act failure to comply with a decree for restitution of conjugal rights ceased (save for one technical exception which is no longer of practical importance) to be a ground for divorce proceedings, On the other hand, the following grounds were added, viz,—That the respondent has been convicted of the murder of a child of the petitioner or respondent; that the respondent is a lunatic or person of unsound mind, and has been confined as such in any asylum or other institution or house in accordance with the provisions of the Lunatics Act for a period or periods not less in the aggregate than ten years within twelve years immediately preceding the filing of the petition, and that the respondent is unlikely to recover from such lunacy or unsoundness of mind,

All enactments of the General Assembly of New Zealand relating to divorce, judicial separation, restitution of conjugal rights, and summary separation, prior to 1908, were consolidated in that year, and re-enacted under the title of the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act, 1908,

The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Amendment Act, 1912, amended the main Act in various respects, In particular, section 2 reduced the period of detention in a mental hospital necessary to constitute a ground of divorce to seven years within the ten immediately preceding the filing of the petition, Section 3 laid down that divorced persons may remarry at any time after the making of a decree absolute for the dissolution of a prior marriage, and section 4 declared that no appeal shall lie from such a decree absolute, Section 5 made valid any marriage already celebrated after the making of a decree absolute but before the expiration of the time limited for an appeal therefrom.

By an amendment to the Act passed in 1913 the respondent is empowered to apply for the order making the decree absolute, Section 6 of this Amendment Act provides that a husband who, while separated from his wife by mutual consent or judicial decree, habitually and without cause leaves her without reasonable maintenance, shall for the purposes of the main Act (relating to grounds of divorce) be deemed to have deserted her wilfully and without just cause or reasonable excuse, and to have left her so deserted,

The Act of 1898 operated in the direction of increasing the number of cases in which the machinery of the Supreme Court in its divorce jurisdiction was resorted to, and after this date disobedience of an order for restitution of conjugal rights came to be relied upon more and more as a ground for divorce, until this ground of obtaining a dissolution of marriage ceased to be available on the passing of the Act of 1907, It is obvious that with the various changes the divorce law has undergone comparisons over back years would form no basis for valid conclusions as to variations in the ethical standards of the community from time to time, They are of very considerable interest, however, as showing the effects of changes in the law,

In selecting a basis of comparison between the numbers of divorced at different times or in different geographical areas, certain difficulties emerge as to what denominator will best serve our purpose, Clearly it is only the population which has at some time or other entered the married state (i.e., the sum total of those returned in the census as married, divorced, and widowed) which forms a true basis of comparison, inasmuch as the proportion in the total population that has been married (and as a simple corollary the proportion in the total population to which the divorce process is or has been open) varies from place to place and time to time, For convenience, however, both this denominator and also that represented by the total population (irrespective of whether every married or not) have been taken in estimating the proportions of divorced,

The earliest figures available relating to the number of divorces are for the 1896 census, The marked difference between the numbers as shown in this census and those revealed by thejl901 census is no doubt almost wholly attributable to the changes effected during 1898 in the law,

The resulting figures are here quoted:—

Numbers and Proportions of Divorced Persons at Successive Censuses,

Census,Males.Females.Total.
Number,Proportion to Total Population,Proportion to Total Population, married, divorced, and widowed,Number,Proportion to Total Population,Proportion to Total Population married, divorced, and widowed,Number,Proportion to Total Population,Proportion to Total Population, married, divorced, and widowed,
WHOLE POPULATION.
18968700230.077500.0150.0421370.0190.059
19012550.0620.1961490.0400.1094040.0520.152
19063510.0740.2232560.0610.1556070.0680.188
19115750.1080.3074110.0860.2089860.0980.256
19167600.1380.3486130.1120.2581,3730.1250.301
ADULT POPULATION.
1896870.0440.077500.0310.0421370.0380.059
19012550.1140.1971490.0790.1114040.0980.153
19063510.1280.2232550.1110.1566060.1190.189
19115750.1810.3074110.1530.2109860.1670.257
19167600.2420.3486100.1950.2601,3700.2190.302

It will be noted that the proportion of divorced in the adult community has doubled itself since 1901, while it has quintupled itself since 1896,

An analysis of the 1916 census figures reveals that for the married the maxima were at an age representing mature life, after which death tends to increase the widowed class at the expense of the married, The number of divorced is, however, unaffected by the death, of the former husband or wife, but is affected by remarriage (the prospect of which is also, no doubt, in some cases responsible in the first place for the divorce), Contrary, then, to what is the case with the married, we find that divorced persons were at a maximum at a comparatively advanced age— viz 70–74 for males and 65–69 for females,

The following figures are of interest on account of the light they shed on the geographical distribution of the divorced element in the community:—

Where resident.Percentage of Divorced.
To Total Population.To Total Population, married, divorced, and widowed.
Provincial Districts.
Auckland0.1440.344
Taranaki0.0950.238
Hawke's Bay0.1210.281
Wellington0.1800.423
Marlborough0.1220.305
Nelson0.1020.249
Westland0.1270.334
Canterbury0.0880.209
Otago0.0810.199
Southland0.0530.139
Whole Dominion0.1250.301
Metropolitan Areas,
Auckland0.1680.384
Wellington0.2250.508
Christchurch0.1280.292
Dunedin0.0980.232

The figures are rather striking, Otago and Southland have a particularly low percentage of divorced, and Canterbury is not far behind, Wellington is easily first, the proportion here being more than three times that in Southland, Auckland has the second-highest proportion, with Westland a close third, Among metropolitan areas Wellington stands abnormally high, the proportion here being well, in excess of twice that in Dunedin, Auckland stands second, and Christchurch third,

The following table shows the number of divorced by town and country population:—

Whore resident.Males.Females.Total.
Counties343154497
Boroughs417459876
                        Totals7606131,373

Although the proportion of the total population in the boroughs to the total population, borough and county, was 50 per, cent, and 57 per cent, for males and females respectively, the corresponding figures for the divorced population were 55 per cent, and 75 per cent, respectively, We*see at once that the divorced tend to congregate in the boroughs, a tendency especially marked in the case of females,

Chapter 51. CONJUGAL CONDITION ACCORDING TO METROPOLITAN AREAS.

The following figures show for each metropolitan area the number of males 20 and upwards who might be considered marriageable (i.e., those widowed, divorced, and never married), and also the number of females 15 and upwards who might be considered marriageable (i.e., those widowed, divorced, and never married):—

Metropolitan Area.Males.Females.Males to 100 Females.
Auckland12,09023,99750
Wellington9,57216,62557
Christchurch7,44017,23843
Dunedin5,93314,18642
              Total for metropolitan areas35,03572,04640

The ratio of marriageable males to marriageable females furnishes a fairly reliable direct index to the marriage prospects of the women, and an inverse index to the prospects of the men, in the community, and is therefore of considerable social importance, It will be noted that the ratio of marriageable males to females was highest in Wellington, this probably being due to the fact that that city offers more powerful attractions for men on account of its geographical position and its status as the seat of Government, The additional prospects offered in the North Island to young men probably also account for the fact that Auckland stands somewhat higher than the average for the four metropolitan areas,

Of considerable interest, and of more immediate bearing on the reproductive potentialities of the community, is the following table, which shows the percentage of married women to the total for whom the conjugal condition and age were stated at ages 15–44 on the last birthday preceding the census, This ratio is for practical purposes sometimes more useful than the nuptial ratio already discussed. It is worth remembering that the nuptial ratio can be easily calculated from it on the basis of the mathematical property whereby its reciprocal is equal to the reciprocal of the nuptial ratio increased by unity, This table reveals the fact that the proportion of such married women to the total was highest outside the metropolitan areas, The cities offer greater opportunities for, employment of single women: hence, no doubt, this result, Of the metropolitan areas themselves it is worth mentioning that the proportion of married women to the total was lowest in the South Island, especially Dunedin, and highest in Wellington, The migration of young men from the South to the North has doubtless militated against rosy marriage prospects for southern girls, and, in addition to t” is circumstance, at the date of the 1916 census the presence of the camps in the vicinity of Wellington was doubtless not without its effect in attracting to the capital city the wives of men about to proceed on active service,

Proportion of Wives amongst Females 15–44, Census, 1916,

Metropolitan Area.Number Married.Total specified.Percentage of Married to Total.
Auckland18,13336,03250.32
Wellington14,02427,11551.72
Christchurch12,16025,02248.59
Dunedin8,20218,68743.89
          Total, metropolitan areas52,519106,85649.14
              Rest of Dominion88,803159,92755.52
              Total, Dominion141,322266,78352.97

Chapter 52. CONJUGAL CONDITION ACCORDING TO PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

The following figures show the number of marriageable males and females as above defined returned in each provincial district at the 1916 census, together with the number of marriageable males per 100 marriageable females:—

Provincial District,Males,Females,Males to 100 Females,
Auckland32,05743,40473
Taranaki5,2766,73677
Hawke's Bay5,4697,58472
Wellington22,68332,74469
Marlborough1,7292,15080
Nelson5,4585,92992
Westland2,0842,023103
Canterbury16,61229,50156
Otago13,86723,61658
Southland6,2058,25275
              Totals111,440161,93969

It should be mentioned that although Westland shows the highest proportion of marriageable males to females, the phenomenon is in part illusory, forasmuch as there is a large proportion in this district of males who are of advanced years and hence unlikely actually to marry, The low rates in Canterbury and Otago are due to a cause already referred to—namely, the greater mobility of males combined with the marked northward migratory tendency,

Chapter 53. CONJUGAL CONDITION OF TOWN AND COUNTRY POPULATION.

An earlier portion of this section of the report revealed the interesting fact that the proportion of married women to the total population at ages 15 and over was highest outside the metropolitan areas, It has been computed that the number of marriageable males as above defined per 100 marriageable females is 103 for the counties and 49 for the boroughs, An investigation on page 35 of this report has revealed that women tend to congregate in the towns, while the country districts are, remarkable for the paucity of single women they reveal, Comparatively speaking, on the other hand, males tend to congregate in the country, there being more than twice as many marriageable males per 100 marriageable females in the counties proper as there were within the precincts of the cities and boroughs,

The numbers and proportions of married women to the total female population of ages 15–44 for whom conjugal condition was specified is shown in the following table, borough and county population being treated separately,:—

Where Resident,Number of Wives,Total specified,Percentage of Wives to Total specified,
* Excluding population of adjacent islands, express trains, and military and internment camps,
Boroughs79,301157,50650
Counties61,895109,06657
              Totals141,196*266,572*53

It will be noted that the percentage of women married is highest in the country, and that the average for the boroughs is very approximately equal to that for the metropolitan areas, although it is considerably higher than the percentage for Dunedin and for Christchurch,

Chapter 54. CONJUGAL CONDITION, BY COUNTIES (WITH INTERIOR BOROUGHS).

Figures have been worked out showing the number of marriageable males per 100 females for each county (inclusive of interior boroughs), As might have been expected, the greatest marriage prospects for females (and, of course, the smallest for males) prevail in certain of what might be styled essentially country districts, The following are outstandingly high:—

Awakino*426
Oliura*345
Waiapu*335
Murchison*318
Castlepoint*316
Easttaupo*264
Whangamomona264
Kaitieke248

The lowest ratios are to be found in counties containing cities or larger boroughs, especially such as are suburban to cities:—

Halswell (including Spreydon Borough, suburban to Christchurch)†37
Heathcote (including Christchurch city and four suburban boroughs)†42
Levels (including Timaru Borough)†43
Taieri (including Dunedin City and three suburban boroughs)†43
Waimairi (including Riccarton Borough, suburban to Christchurch)49
Waimea (including Nelson City and Richmond and Motueka Boroughs)50
Akaroa (including Akaroa Borough)50
Eden (including Auckland City and four suburban boroughs)†51
Waitotara (including Wanganui Borough)51

It is noteworthy that, especially as regards the counties, including city areas, the marriage possibilities depend very largely on the sex-distribution, Thus, in the first list above, those counties marked with an asterisk are amongst the ten counties in which there are fewer than 70 females to every 100 males,

On the other hand, in the second list those counties marked with a dagger are amongst the six counties where there are 110 or more females to every 100 males, The correspondence, it will be seen, is fairly close but by no means absolute, the nuptial ratio varying fairly extensively from county to county,

The accompanying map illustrates the position fully, different shadings being provided according to the number of marriageable males per 100 marriageable females in each county inclusive of interior boroughs,

The proportion of wives amongst the female population aged 15–44 has been worked out for each county, inclusive of interior boroughs, Viewing the matter broadly, it will again be apparent that the proportion of women married is highest in the country districts, and lowest in those counties which include cities and larger boroughs,

The highest percentages are as follows:—

Ohura*78.00
Kaitieke*77.48
Stewart Island74.57
Waimarino73.73
Whangamomona*73.62
Murchison*71.17
Awakino*71.07

Of these, those marked with an asterisk are also amongst the eight counties which stood highest as regards the number of marriageable males per 100 marriageable females, The resemblance is again a somewhat striking one,

The lowest percentages, on the other hand, neglecting the case of Fiord, which contained only five females on census night, are:—

Taieri (including Dunedin City and three suburban boroughs)*43.59
Mount Herbert45.71
Waimairi (including Riccarton Borough, suburban to Christchurch)*46.77
Waikouaiti (including Waikouaiti Borough and two other boroughs suburban to Dunedin)46.87
Waitaki (including Oamaru and Hampden Boroughs)47.15
Levels (including Timaru Borough)*47.18
Heathcote (including Christchurch City and four suburban boroughs)*48.60
Eden (including Auckland City and four suburban boroughs)*49.49
Halswell (including Spreydon Borough: suburban to Christchurch)*49.62

Again, asterisks appear against the names of such counties as were included in the list of those nine which possess the lowest ratio of marriageable males to 100 marriageable females, It will be observed that in each of these lists are included the greater part of three of the four metropolitan areas, Wellington being in each case conspicuous by its complete absence, The circumstances which have operated to effect Wellington's exclusion have already been adverted to.

A second map is given opposite, showing for each county (with interior boroughs) the proportion of wives in the total female population returned in the 1916 census as being of ages 15.44,

SECTION X.—FAMILIES.

Chapter 55. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FERTILITY AND FECUNDITY.

Section IX of this report should have shed some light on the reproductive potentialities of the community in so far as they are dependent on the number of adults, their age, and their conjugal condition. The present section carries the matter further, dealing as it does with the actual fertility and fecundity of the population. The distinction between the usage of these two terms is a somewhat fluid one, but sometimes the former is confined to a connotation antonymous to “sterility”— one, that is, pointing to the difference between producing and non-producing— while to the latter term is ascribed a quantitative rather than a qualitative significance, pointing to the actual numbers of offspring.

It is clear that no data are or can at present be made available such that they will indicate physiological fecundity, defining that term provisionally as the actual maximum possibilities of reproduction were that process to be conditioned by physiological conditions alone. The word “provisionally” is introduced advisedly, for in every case the age and physiological characteristics of the associated male are not without influence on this function. Ideally, physiological fecundity, could figures for it be obtained, would be of considerable value not only from the light it would shed on the objective factor of reproductive potentialities, but also subjectively as a measure of the urgency of the reproductive impulse. Physiological fecundity is, however, under our modern civilization probably rarely, if ever, in accord with actual fecundity; there are always in operation powerful checks on the realization of physiological fecundity—economic, ethical, or psychological in their operation—which, as Malthus long since pointed out, may take the alternative forms of “moral restraint” and “vice.”

Physiological fecundity is therefore, under modern conditions, somewhat of an abstraction, though its theoretic importance is undoubted. Actual fecundity it is alone possible to measure, and the data are fairly accurate and complete.

As an index to the reproductive efficiency of a population, however, the use of the conception of actual fecundity is attended by certain practical difficulties, some of which have been already referred to. Some are involved in the very definition of “reproductive efficiency.” Should one take account merely of the numbers of children born, or should some account also be taken of their health and strength? Clearly an accurate investigation should not neglect the latter, for such factors as the number of previous confinements, age, &c, of the mothers are not without their influence on the quality of the offspring. Unfortunately, statistics are not well adapted for dealing with qualitative matters, their realm being the quantitative, and no data are available for infantile mortality in conjunction with the age of the mother and other factors. The only data available relate to the numbers born and surviving as at the date of the census.

Probably the most satisfactory all-round index of reproductive efficiency in its quantitative aspect is the average frequency of maternity for married women in each age-group. If this is suitably weighted and combined with a similar frequency deduced for the unmarried a still more suitable measure of reproductive efficiency may be arrived at.

Chapter 56. THE FECUNDITY INDEX.

It is here, that the importance in this connection of the investigation carried out in the preceding section into the conjugal condition of the community becomes evident. That investigation has revealed the numbers of married and unmarried at various age-groups. The actual figures of birth-registrations (distinguishing legitimate and illegitimate) classified on the basis of mothers' age-groups and taken in conjunction with the numbers of married women and unmarried women respectively belonging to the same age-groups yield the legitimate maternity rates per 100 married women and the illegitimate maternity rates per 100 unmarried women for each group. It is true that illegitimate children are not always the offspring of single, widowed, or divorced women, but the approximation to fact is fairly close. It is also of interest to compute for each age-group the birth-rate per 100 women irrespective of conjugal condition. Data for preceding years are not available, but it is hoped that the present investigation will form a basis for future tracings of changes in reproductive efficiency. Moreover, for more accurate theoretical investigations on a comparative basis, forasmuch as the legitimate and illegitimate birth-rates are normally widely disparate, and as, further, the conjugal constitution of the female population in each age-group must necessarily vary from census to census, it will be desirable to standardize future populations on the basis of the age and marital constitution of the 1916 female population. This done, a measure of reproductive efficiency strictly adapted for comparative purposes will be at hand, for it is when, and only when, the fecundity of an existing population is attributed to a “standard” population of constant age and conjugal constitution that we are in a position to arrive at a definite comparative measure of the average fecundity of the average woman in each age-group and in each conjugal condition over different periods of time. Each such measure of reproductive efficiency might be termed a “fecundity index.” The fecundity index, it should be noted, is purely a quantitative conception and (unlike reproductive efficiency) has no qualitative implication.

In actual practice in computing the fecundity index it is desirable to select not one year but to average a series of years. In this way any chance anomalies occurring during any one year in the births are practically eliminated, and, except for the age-groups, &c, least represented, the results will not be appreciably vitiated by paucity of instances. It is for this latter reason, too, that quinquennial age-groups and not single years require to be selected. Accordingly, in computing the fecundity index for 1916, the 1916 births alone have not been taken, but an average has been struck for this year in conjunction with the year immediately preceding and the year immediately following it. A still wider choice of years would have been desirable, but the data are not available.

The following table is the result:—

Fecundity Index for (a) Legitimate Births, (b) Illegitimate Births, (c) all Birth, by Quinquennial Age-groups of Women. (Average for Years 1915–17.)

Age-group.Number of Married Women in Age-group.Number of Children born alive per Year to Married Women in Age-group (Average of 1915–17).Number of Unmarried Women in Age-group (Widowed, Divorced, and Never Married).Number of Illegitimate Children born alive per Year to Women in Age-group (Average of 1915–17).Percentage of Number of Legitimate Children born alive per Year to Women in Age-group, to Total Number of Married Women in same Age-group.Percentage of Number of Illegitimate Children born alive per Year to Women in Age- group, to Total Number of Unmarried (i.e., Widowed, Divorced, and Never Married) Women in same Age-group.Percentage of Number of Children born alive per Year to Women in Age-group, to Total Number of Women in same Age-group.
Under 15....178,9063......
15–191,06055245,33228452.070.621.80
20–2413,7715,08332,80343436.911.3211.84
25–2929,7238,19618,69521627.571.1617.37
30–3435,6487,03111,68711019.720.9415.08
35–3934,5874,5669,6597313.200.7510.48
40–4426,5331,4717,285255.540.344.42
45–4921,2301466,48010.680.010.53
50 and over43,043130,015........
    Total specified205,59527,046340,8621,14613.150.335.15

It will be noted that for married women the maximum fecundity is at ages 15–19, for single women at ages 20–24, and for the total population at ages 25–29. For each of the three groups of women the maximum fecundity is reached by a rather sudden leap, and fecundity falls more gradually with advancing age. The early maxima may or may not be due in part to physiological causes, but are no doubt largely due to the fact the birth figures reveal that first births in a large majority of cases occur within the first eighteen months of marriage, and it is in these earlier age-groups that the popular marriage age for females lies. A subsequent investigation throws some light on this matter. It will be noted that the fecundity index for illegitimate births falls with advancing years and increased discretion.

It is not impossible that while the actual “powerful checks” mentioned by Malthus are operating in a uniform manner over a given period of time to effect a difference between the physiological and actual fecundity, even where due allowance has been made for the varying age and the conjugal constitution of the female population, differences may creep in (quite apart from any change in absolute physiological fecundity itself) from one or more of the following modifying circumstances: (1) The ages and physiological characteristics of the associated males; (2) the number of previous pregnancies of the women. It is not seriously advanced that this list is exhaustive, but it is claimed that it includes the most powerful modifying influences. For example, the age at which child-bearing initiated is probably not without its influence.

The remaining portion of this section of the report will be largely devoted towards an investigation of the effects of these disturbing factors.

Chapter 57. RELATIVE AGES OF SPOUSES.

The following table furnishes a summary of particulars in regard to the relative ages of husbands and wives for the more important quinquennial age-groups:—

Relative Ages of Husbands and Wives, Census, 1916.

Ages of Husbands last Birthday.Ages of Wives last Birthday.
Under 20.20–21.25–29.30–34.35–30.40–44.45–49.50–54.55–59.60–64.65 and over.UnspecifiedTotals.
Under 2016173..................36
20–243232,10770210118l81......13,262
25–292925,3418,2302,1013304095......1616,364
30–34702,6709,81211,3642,64540267244....1327,071
35–39217524,46910,71211,6442,19934962113..2130,243
40–4461811,2344,3449,0388,1301,58525844671524,848
45–494664271,5144,4467,3786,5501,06816535131021,676
50–54..15744551,2953,1605,4154,25367112024915,491
55–59..7261394381,0652,5803,8212,911521102711,617
60–641315461874199802,2042,8652,23147839,432
65 and over.....331792375261,1242,1533,2146,406813,841
Unspecified.3272,6124,7284,8414,4673,5023,1612,6241,8521,4322,27119832,015
            Totals1,06013,77129,72335,64834,58726,53321,23015,44410,6767,5629,301301205,896
Ages of Husbands last Birthday.Ages of Wives last Birthday.
Under 20.20–21.25–29.30–34.35–30.40–44.45–49.50–54.55–59.60–64.65 and over.UnspecifiedTotals.
Under 2016173..................36
20–243232,10770210118l81......13,262
25–292925,3418,2302,1013304095......1616,364
30–34702,6709,81211,3642,64540267244....1327,071
35–39217524,46910,71211,6442,19934962113..2130,243
40–4461811,2344,3449,0388,1301,58525844671524,848
45–494664271,5144,4467,3786,5501,06816535131021,676
50–54..15744551,2953,1605,4154,25367112024915,491
55–59..7261394381,0652,5803,8212,911521102711,617
60–641315461874199802,2042,8652,23147839,432
65 and over.....331792375261,1242,1533,2146,406813,841
Unspecified.3272,6124,7284,8414,4673,5023,1612,6241,8521,4322,27119832,015
            Totals1,06013,77129,72335,64834,58726,53321,23015,44410,6767,5629,301301205,896
Ages of Husbands last Birthday.Ages of Wives last Birthday.
Under 20.20–21.25–29.30–34.35–30.40–44.45–49.50–54.55–59.60–64.65 and over.UnspecifiedTotals.
Under 2016173..................36
20–243232,10770210118l81......13,262
25–292925,3418,2302,1013304095......1616,364
30–34702,6709,81211,3642,64540267244....1327,071
35–39217524,46910,71211,6442,19934962113..2130,243
40–4461811,2344,3449,0388,1301,58525844671524,848
45–494664271,5144,4467,3786,5501,06816535131021,676
50–54..15744551,2953,1605,4154,25367112024915,491
55–59..7261394381,0652,5803,8212,911521102711,617
60–641315461874199802,2042,8652,23147839,432
65 and over.....331792375261,1242,1533,2146,406813,841
Unspecified.3272,6124,7284,8414,4673,5023,1612,6241,8521,4322,27119832,015
            Totals1,06013,77129,72335,64834,58726,53321,23015,44410,6767,5629,301301205,896
Ages of Husbands last Birthday.Ages of Wives last Birthday.
Under 20.20–21.25–29.30–34.35–30.40–44.45–49.50–54.55–59.60–64.65 and over.UnspecifiedTotals.
Under 2016173..................36
20–243232,10770210118l81......13,262
25–292925,3418,2302,1013304095......1616,364
30–34702,6709,81211,3642,64540267244....1327,071
35–39217524,46910,71211,6442,19934962113..2130,243
40–4461811,2344,3449,0388,1301,58525844671524,848
45–494664271,5144,4467,3786,5501,06816535131021,676
50–54..15744551,2953,1605,4154,25367112024915,491
55–59..7261394381,0652,5803,8212,911521102711,617
60–641<