THE NEW ZEALAND OFFICIAL YEAR-BOOK, 1920


Table of Contents

PREFACE.

WITH this the twenty-ninth number of the Year-book it had been hoped to mark a return to the pre-war standard of early publication. That this hope was not realized was attributable firstly to the drastic reduction in size necessitated by the prevailing paper-shortage, and, secondly, to the late availability of much of the material included in the volume, this latter in itself being largely an indirect result of the paper-shortage also.

This number is the smallest ever issued under the title of “New Zealand Official Year-book,” and limitations of space have precluded the introduction of new features to any great extent. It was found a difficult task in the time available to retain with some degree of coherency all features of outstanding interest. In all cases the matter presented is of necessity treated with the utmost brevity, and other portions have had to be entirely omitted.

For more recent statistics than are contained herein the reader is referred to the “Monthly Abstract of Statistics” issued from this Office, while in many instances more detailed particulars can be obtained from the annual volumes of “Statistics of New Zealand.”

    

    MALCOLM FRASER

       Government Statistician.

Census and Statistics Office,   Wellington, N.Z., 25th February, 1921.

Chapter 1. SECTION I. —POPULATION.

POPULATION OF THE DOMINION.

THE estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1919, was 1,164,405 persons. This total does not include Maoris nor residents of the Cook and other Pacific islands annexed in 1901. The Maori population at the census of 1916 was 49,776, that of the annexed islands, 12,797.

Males.Females.Total.

* Excluding Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific Islands.

† Including members of Expeditionary Forces.

Estimated population at end of 1918*542,046566,3271,108,373
Increase during 1919—
   By excess of births over deaths6,3807,29513,675
   By excess of immigration over emigration40,4621,89542,357
Estimated population at end of 1919*588,888575,5171,164,405
Maori population, census 191625,93323,84349,776
Population of Cook and other Pacific islands, census 19166,5526,24512,797
         Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1919621,373605,6051,226,978

The population, exclusive of Maoris and residents of the annexed islands, at each census since 1874 is given in the following statement, together with the numerical and centesimal increase between the successive enumerations:—

Date of Enumeration. Population.Numerical Increase.Centesimal Increase.
March,1874299,514114,89838.36
March,1878414,41275,52118.22
April,1881489,93388,54918.07
March,1886578,48248,1768.33
April,1891626,65876,70212.24
 1896703,36069,3599.86
March,1901772,719115,85914.99
April,1906888,578119,89013.49
April,19111,008,46890,9819.02
October,19161,099,449  

The Cook Islands are not included in any of the statistics of New Zealand quoted throughout this book. Figures re Maoris are included in the general details in a few cases only—i.e., imports and exports, savings-bank deposits, &. Where Maoris are included they swell totals to a much less extent per head than does the European population. The figures given below, therefore, do not include Maoris and residents of Cook Islands.

Year.Estimated Population at End of Year.Increase during Year.Mean Population for Year.
Males.Females.Totals.Numerical.Per Cent.

* Decrease.

† Census population.

1910529,998474,3881,004,38621,4602.18992,802
1911539,729485,6771,025,40621,0202.091,014,896
1912553,212499,4151,052,62727,2212.651,039,016
1913569,109515,5531,084,66232,0353.041,068,644
1914568,161527,8331,095,99411,3321.041,090,328
1915563,963538,8311,102,7946,8000.621,099,394
1916549,895550,6681,100,563-2,231-0.20*1,099,449
1917537,360560,3121,097,672-2,891*-0.26*1,099,117
1918542,046566,3271,108,37310,7010.971,103,022
1919588,888575,5171,164,40556,0325.061,136,389

The departure of the Expeditionary Force and Reinforcements effected a heavy drain upon the small margin of numerical superiority of males. By the end of 1916 there were more females than males in New Zealand, and this position was maintained until July, 1919, when the male preponderance was again established.

At 30th June, 1914, there were 52,175 more males than females; at 30th June, 1920, only 15,404. (Maoris have not been included.)

Should the pre-war trend of events be continued, the male surplus would permanently disappear in a few years’ time.

NATURAL INCREASE.

The average rate of natural increase for the ten years preceding 1919 was 15.88 per 1,000. It may be remarked that the rates for 1918 and 1919 are much the lowest on record. Further discussion of natural increase will be found in the Vital Statistics section of this book.

Year.Excess of Births over Deaths.Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Males.Females.Total.
19107,8388,50716,34516.46
19117,9378,88316,82016.58
19128,6229,67218,29417.61
19138,5669,25017,81616.67
19148,5499,64118,19016.68
19158,6499,23617,88516.27
19168,5239,39017,91316.29
19178,2989,41317,71116.11
19183,3916,1059,4968.61
19196,3807,29513,67512.03

EXTERNAL MIGRATION.

The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under and over twelve years of age, is given in the table following. The figures for the last five years do not include members of Expeditionary Forces.

Arrivals and Departures, 1910–19.
Year.Over 12 Years of Age.Under 12 Years of Age.Total.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
ARRIVALS.
191020,16111,8321,9741,80235,769
191122,88113,9532,4522,10341,389
191224,02615,4422,7492,44344,660
191322,87215,8013,0192,89644,588
191420,36013,0202,1662,10037,646
191512,9939,5891,4941,47525,551
191610,6578,4061,3021,43421,799
19178,3345,58382590715,649
19185,6854,84267170811,906
19199,3418,8221,4311,33720,931
DEPARTURES.
191019,03210,6291,4191,28132,361
191121,73012,1901,8091,46037,189
191220,15112,2781,7631,54135,733
191317,18810,5181,3721,29130,369
191418,46011,2271,5651,25432,506
191512,2288,2511,09090722,476
191610,7178,2731,21595821,163
19176,8965,67270160013,869
19185,4775,02962053411,660
191910,0867,4401,2911,06019,877

The monthly figures for 1919 are as follows:—

Month.Arrivals.Departures.Excess of Arrivals.Excess of Departures.
January1,139706433 
February1,394833561 
March1,5451,761 216
April1,1121,743 631
May1,5142,018 504
June2701,992 1,722
July1,765995 770
August8861,285 399
September2,4441,845599 
October2,6621,943719 
November2,7352,314421 
December3,4652,4421,023 
Totals20,93119,8771,054 

Some two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.

ARRIVALS FROM AND DEPARTURES TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 1910–19.
Year.Arrivals.
FromTotal Arrivals.
United Kingdom.Australian Commonwealth.Fiji.Other British Possessions.Foreign Countries.
19109,36724,50258135196835,769
191111,37926,9096249961,48141,389
191212,91228,5227671,3051,15444,660
191314,70726,7645481,4201,14944,588
19148,57925,9676481,2671,18537,646
19153,53119,4996558621,00425,551
19163,39415,3216976261,76121,799
19172,93110,1466179351,02015,649
19181,1768,2825741,13074411,906
19194,66811,5688822,4121,40120,931
Year.Departures.
ToTotal Departures.
United Kingdom.Australian Commonwealth.Fiji.Other British Possessions.Foreign Countries.
19102,50927,1007026941,35632,361
19112,75530,9186968441,97637,189
19122,60530,1415808461,56135,733
19132,64924,9614791,0171,26330,369
19142,57426,6939398711,42932,506
19152,06317,7936588211,14022,476
19162,60816,3904207121,03321,163
19171,50110,49950358877813,869
19184459,47743461568911,660
19193,55912,7226751 5461,37519,877

PERMITS AND PASSPORTS.

PERMITS TO LEAVE NEW ZEALAND.

The War Regulations of the 15th November, 1915, as amended from time to time, prescribe that no person over the age of fifteen years shall leave New Zealand for any place beyond the seas save in pursuance of a written permit issued to him by the Minister or Under-Secretary of Internal Affairs, or some other authorized person.

The only persons exempted from the necessity for obtaining permits are those who—

  1. Leave New Zealand on the King's Service:

  2. Leave New Zealand as bona fide members of the crew of any ship:

  3. Arrive in and leave New Zealand in the course of the same voyage of any ship other than a ship arriving from a port in the Commonwealth of Australia.

PASSPORTS.

The amendments made in November, 1915, to the Defence of the Realm Regulations of the Imperial Government, providing that no person shall enter or leave the United Kingdom without a passport, have led to a greatly increased number being issued in New Zealand.

A person leaving New Zealand for the United Kingdom or other country (with the exception of British possessions in the Pacific, for which permits suffice) must therefore have in his possession (1) a permit under the War Regulations to enable him to depart from the Dominion, (2) a passport to enable him to land at the end of his journey. If foreign countries are being visited the passport must be viséd by the Consular representative of such country in New Zealand.

Between the 1st November, 1915, and the 31st March, 1918, passports were issued to the number of 3,112, for the year ended 31st March, 1919, 1,346, and for the year ended 31st March, 1920, 4,620.

PERMISSION TO ENTER NEW ZEALAND.

Under the War Regulations of the 21st August, 1916, no person over the age of fifteen years may land in New Zealand unless in possession of a passport or some other document satisfactorily establishing his or her nationality or identity.

In the case of a person coming from a foreign country the passport must have been issued or viséd by the British Ambassador or a British Consul in that country, and in the case of a person coming from any part of the British dominions the issue or visé must have been by some public official duly authorized in that behalf.

Certain exceptions are made with respect to persons coming to New Zealand from Australia, the Cook Islands, and Samoa. In their case the only requirement is the possession of a permit. The regulations further do not apply to a British subject arriving in New Zealand as the master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives.

The Minister of Internal Affairs or any person authorized by him is given power to grant exemptions from the requirements of the regulation.

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION.

Residents in the Dominion may, by application on the proper form, secure a passage at assisted rates for any person residing in the United Kingdom.

The payments required are—second class, £52; third class (two-berth cabin), £30; third class (four-berth cabin), £26. The passage-money, which must be paid in full before passages are booked, can be paid to the Immigration Department in Wellington or to the High Commissioner for New Zealand in London. The Department will cable any nomination, together with a remittance, if so desired, for the extra charge of £1.

Domestic servants and farm labourers granted assisted passages as such are required to follow in New Zealand their respective occupations of domestic and farm work for a period of one year after their arrival in the Dominion. If it is found that some occupation other than domestic or farm work is entered into by any such assisted immigrant before the expiration of one year after arrival in New Zealand, the immigrant will be called upon to pay the Government the difference between the assisted rate and the full fare.

Children between three and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half rates. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.

Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company.

Unhealthy persons should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other like complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.

The foregoing applies to persons of not more than fifty years of age in the case of nominated persons and farmers or farm labourers, and not more than forty years of age in the case of domestic servants.

In the case of immigrants under twenty-one years of age, special arrangements have to be entered into for their protection on the voyage where deemed necessary or advisable.

The High Commissioner is authorized to grant to suitable and healthy farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, who apply to him in London, a passage to New Zealand at the following rates:—

 Farmers.Farm Labourers.Domestic Servants.
 £s.d.£s.d.Free.Grant £2.—
Third class: 6-berth cabin24001000
Third class: 4-berth cabin26001200
Third class: 2-berth cabin30001600

The following table illustrates the progress of the last decade:—

Year ended 31st March.  Immigrants assisted.  Capital possessed by Assisted Immigrants.  Net Government Expenditure on Immigration.
* Not available.
  ££
19112,62437,7359,441
19123,30024,08811,681
19133,92832,00614,694
19145,06439,70133,914
19152,98616,31333,220
19161,1032,56410,010
19176381,4076,533
1918171*3,877
1919906*8,000
19203,811*40,516

RECEPTION OF AND DEALING WITH ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS.

On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by officers of the Immigration Department who accompany the Port Health Officer to the ship. While the ship is in the stream it is the special duty of such officers to afford to the assisted immigrants all necessary information as regards transhipment, &. Arrangements are made for safety and transhipment of luggage.

Each immigrant is seen as he passes towards the doctor for examination, and is handed an official letter containing information as to where his ticket will be arranged for, and the place and time of departure of his connecting train or boat (if any). The immigrant is also requested to see the Immigration Officer on board, or to come to the office, which is near the wharf in Wellington (Union Steamship Company's building), if he requires information or advice beyond what is given in the letter. The addresses of the district agencies of the Labour Department in the larger centres of the Dominion are also supplied to male assisted immigrants. It is the practice of the Department to send out advices, by wire if necessary, to friends and relatives of immigrants about to arrive, and to get back information as to where the newcomers will be met. These messages, often together with private letters, &., are given out on board to those to whom they are addressed. Information of this nature is much appreciated, especially by wives joining their husbands.

Assisted immigrants requiring work are referred to the office of the Immigration Department, and their cases are there dealt with.

As regards the female assisted domestic workers, who are chosen after application at Home to the High Commissioner, and who are sent to New Zealand under the supervision of one or more responsible matrons, the following applies:—

The Government advertises the fact that the books of the Department are open to record the names of those people in the Dominion desirous of securing the services of an assisted girl. Such advertisements bring into the office many applications, especially pending the arrival of the ship.

Each matron in charge on board is instructed to classify the girls under two heads: (a) those with work already arranged or friends to go to; (b) those without either friends or work. On arrival they are met by the Girls’ Superintendent of the Immigration Department. Arrangements are made for sending to their destinations those girls who are going to friends or to definite positions. Those requiring accommodation are directed to homes or hostels approved by the Minister of Immigration for this purpose. The Superintendent then separately considers the case of each girl, and arranges to place her with an applicant for a Government assisted girl. In placing these girls at present, considerable reliance has necessarily to be placed on the statements made by them. The Department is, however, taking steps to get full and independent details of the work that the girl was actually engaged in before she left the Mother-country. After a girl has been placed, the Department endeavours to keep in touch with her by correspondence.

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION.

The legislation respecting the restriction of immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908, and its amendments, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act, 1919.

PROHIBITED IMMIGRANTS.

The following persons or classes of persons are prohibited from landing in New Zealand:—

  1. Persons not of British birth and parentage who are unable to write out and sign in any European language a prescribed form of application;

  2. Idiots or insane persons;

  3. Persons suffering from contagious diseases which are loathsome or dangerous;

  4. Persons arriving in New Zealand within two years after the termination of a period of imprisonment for a serious offence.

    The above provisions do not apply to (a) His Majesty's land and sea forces, (b) the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, (c) persons duly accredited to the Government of New Zealand by the Imperial or any other Government, (d) shipwrecked persons, (e) the officers and crew of any mercantile vessel who leave New Zealand with that vessel, (f) persons exempted by the Governor-General in Council or by the Minister of Internal Affairs.

  5. Chinese (not naturalized in New Zealand), unless they pay a poll-tax of £100 and are able to read a printed passage of not less than 100 words of the English language selected by the Collector of Customs.

    The officers and crews of any ship of war of the Chinese Government, and members of the crew of any mercantile vessel who leave New Zealand by that vessel, are exempted from these provisions. There is power to exempt any other persons or classes of persons under such conditions as the Minister of Customs may prescribe.

  6. Persons who have at any time been subjects of the State of Germany or of Austria-Hungary as those States existed on the 4th August, 1914, except under a license issued by the Attorney-General.

  7. Persons not permanently resident in New Zealand who are disaffected or disloyal and of such a character that their presence in New Zealand would be injurious to the peace, order, and good government of the Dominion, and whom the Attorney-General on that account prohibits from landing.

RESTRICTED IMMIGRANTS.

When persons arrive in New Zealand who are lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, or infirm, and are likely to become a charge upon the public or upon any public or charitable institution, the master, owner, or charterer of the ship by which such persons come to New Zealand must enter into a bond for £100 for each such person, guaranteeing his support and maintenance for five years.

His Majesty's land and sea forces, persons brought to New Zealand either wholly or partly at the expense of the Government, shipwrecked mariners brought to New Zealand by another vessel without charge, and persons domiciled in New Zealand are exempted from these provisions. General power is given to exempt other persons in special cases and under such conditions as the Minister of Customs may prescribe.

GENERAL.

Every person of and over the age of fifteen years who lands in New Zealand must, unless exempted by the Attorney-General, make and deliver to an officer of Customs a declaration giving his or her name, occupation, and residence, and also the following particulars if the immigrant is not a permanent resident in New Zealand returning thereto after not more than twelve months’ absence: Country of birth; age; names and places of birth of his parents; particulars as to his nationality, his intention as to permanent residence in or departure from New Zealand, and his purpose in coming thereto.

RACE ALIENS.

Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion.

Birthplace.Year.
1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
British Possessions
    India80190325133257139292138193
    Pacific islands9245148810284427825
    Other43143478  15
    Total, British possessions13221538021527231120136417223
Foreign Countries
    China209546348325511265327272256418
    Syria129201993121 
    Asia Minor4482  2 2 
    Japan14917131326113010
    Pacific islands7252446653729521157
    Other21147124 8  
    Total, foreign countries235589423374551291893588500485
    Total, “race aliens”3678048035898233221,013724917708

Of the race aliens arriving in New Zealand a large proportion are Chinese, some of whom, however, have been formerly resident in the Dominion. Hindus and other natives of India are also of late years arriving in considerable numbers. A number of soldiers from the French Pacific islands are included in the figures for 1916, 1917, and 1918.

Since July, 1914, records of departures of race aliens have been kept, and these show that a total of 321 race aliens left the Dominion during 1919, including natives of the following countries: China, 237; India, 18; Japan, 4; British Pacific islands, 36; foreign Pacific islands, 22.

The census returns of 1916 showed that there were 3,204 race aliens resident in the Dominion, not including 3,221 Maori half-castes living as Europeans. Of these, 2,857 were described as being of full-blood and 347 as of half-blood.

More than 45 per cent, of the race aliens reside in Auckland Province. Wellington, however, claims the largest share (over one-third) of the Chinese.

THE CHINESE.

At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons. In 1896 an Act was passed raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants from £10 to £100 per head, and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901, the Chinese population was 2,857, in 1906 it was 2,570, in 1911, 2,630, and in 1916 2,147, of whom 135 were half-castes. During recent years departures are about equal to arrivals. For the first nine months of 1920, however, arrivals exceeded departures by the large total of 905.

NATURALIZATION.

When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized he may present to the Governor-General a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—

  • His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation;

  • The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;

A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.

Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.

Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom or any British possession may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor-General, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.

An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father (or the mother, being a widow) has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.

No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who are charged £1.

The issue of letters of naturalization, which was suspended during the war, was resumed during November, 1919, in regard to aliens from countries which, in the recent war, were either neutral or allied with Great Britain.

The Revocation of Naturalization Act of 1917 provided that the Governor-General may, by Order in Council, revoke the naturalization of any person when such revocation is considered desirable on grounds of public policy.

The number of natives of each country naturalized during the twenty years 1895–1914 is shown in the next table.

Natives of—Persons.
    Austria-Hungary1,529
    Germany1,159
    Denmark676
    Sweden671
    Norway455
    Russia346
    Italy231
    Switzerland186
    France159
    Syria147
    China146
    United States of America144
    Netherlands61
    Greece61
    Portugal and possessions60
    Belgium40
    Spain16
    Japan11
    Turkey11
    Other countries52
Total6,161

REGISTRATION OF ALIENS.

The Registration of Aliens Act passed in 1917 provided for the registration of all persons of the age of fifteen or over who are not British subjects either by birth or by naturalization in New Zealand. The Government Statistician is charged with the duty of compiling and keeping the register, but the actual registration is effected by Registration Officers (mostly police officers) throughout the Dominion. Every alien not less than fifteen years of age is required to make application for registration to a Registration Officer, and is required to supply the following particulars concerning himself or herself:—

  1. Name in full:

  2. Nationality (and if nationality is not the nationality of origin, nationality of origin):

  3. Place of birth:

  4. Age, and date of birth:

  5. Whether married, single, widower, widow, or divorced:

  6. If married, the name, age, nationality of origin, and place of abode of wife or husband:

  7. If married, a widower, a widow, or divorced, number, names, and ages of children (if any):

  8. Occupation:

  9. Date of arrival in New Zealand:

  10. Place of abode and postal address:

  11. Whether permanently resident in New Zealand:

  12. If not permanently resident in New Zealand, place of permanent residence, and date of projected departure from New Zealand:

  13. Such other particulars as may from time to time be prescribed by regulations under the Act.

Upon receipt of an application for registration the Registration Officer issues a certificate of registration, and forwards the application in duplicate to the Superintendent of Police for the district, who files one copy and sends the other on to the Commissioner of Police for transmission to the Government Statistician. Registered aliens are required to notify change of address on pain of a penalty not exceeding £20. Failure to register involves a fine on conviction not exceeding £50.

The number of aliens on the Dominion register in April, 1920, was 8,581. The birthplaces of these are as follows:—

Birthplace.Males.Females.Total.
France8946135
Spain17421
Portugal14115
Italy17723200
Switzerland17864242
Belgium481967
Netherlands66268
Germany587167754
Schleswig-Holstein18422
Denmark45292544
Norway35926385
Sweden1658173
Poland11234146
Late Russian Empire22757284
Austria-Hungary72678
Balkan States1,080341,114
Palestine and Syria8539124
China2,349272,376
Japan99 
U.S. America430115545
South Sea islands692897
Other countries47438512
At sea9413
British - born, but aliens by naturalization, marriage, &.50607657
Totals7,1361,4458,581

A table published in Volume iv of “Statistics of New Zealand,” 1919, gives fairly detailed information as to birthplaces in conjunction with ages. A summary giving information as to ages follows:—

Age-group.Males.Females.Total.
15 and under 2015821179
20 and under 25633100733
25 and under 309941741,168
30 and under 359901831,173
35 and under 408671681,035
40 and under 45751173924
45 and under 50615160775
50 and under 55551129680
55 and under 60468118586
60 and over1,1092191,328
Totals7,1361,4458,581

DENSITY OF POPULATION.

The number of persons (excluding Maoris) to a square mile in each provincial district at the last eight censuses is as follows:—

Provincial District.Area in Square Miles.Persons to a Square Mile.
1881.1886.1891.1896.1901.1906.1911.1916.
Auckland25,3643.925.145.256.056.948.3310.4312.17
Taranaki3,7323.984.825.918.3510.1411.6313.8214.99
Hawke's Bay4,2414.105.796.728.038.359.9611.4512.80
Wellington10,8075.687.179.0411.2813.0816.6418.4221.48
Marlborough4,2252.202.633.022.953.153.403.783.93
Nelson10,8752.402.783.203.293.493.914.463.98
Westland4,8813.083.263.252.962.973.013.223.18
Canterbury13,8588.118.779.289.8210.3411.5012.5213.12
Otago—
    Otago portion13,9577.708.158.328.608.989.169.529.42
    Southland portion11,3582.343.123.263.874.214.675.175.25
Totals103,2984.745.606.076.817.488.609.7610.64

POPULATION IN PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS.

NORTH AND SOUTH ISLANDS.

The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain approximately the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.

The population of the two Islands at successive censuses is given in the table following, together with the percentage that each Island bears to the total:—

Population of the North and South Islands, 1858–1916.
Census Year.Population (excluding Maoris).Proportions per Cent.
North Island.South Island.*Total.North Island.South Island.*
* Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.
185834,09425,31959,41857.8842.62
186141,64157,38099,02142.0557.95
186465,263106,895172,15837.9162.09
186779,913138,755218,66836.5563.45
187196,875159,518256,39337.7862.22
1874111,934187,580299,51437.3762.63
1878158,208256,204414,41238.1861.82
1881193,047296,886489,93339.4060.60
1886250,482328,000578,48243.3056.70
1891281,474345,184626,65844.9255.08
1896340,638362,722703,36048.4351.57
1901390,579382,140772,71950.5449.45
1906476,737411,841888,57853.6546.35
1911563,733444,7351,008,46855.9044.10
1916651,072448,3771,099,44959.2240.78

The figures for 1916 are not quite fair to the South Island. All the military and internment camps were in the North Island, and many of the soldiers, &., in these on census night belonged to the South Island. The presence of the camps in the North Island had the further effect of temporarily attracting people from the other Island for business purposes, or to be near soldier friends and relatives. The troops abroad on census night (42,666 in number) may be regarded as having come from the two Islands in proportions approximately relative to population.

PROVINCIAL DISTRICTS.

The populations of the various provincial districts as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, are as follows:—

Provincial District.Totals.
Auckland333,424
Taranaki58,301
Hawke's Bay60,246
Wellington239,962
Marlborough16,970
Nelson49,050
Westland14,801
Canterbury191,282
Otago—
    Otago portion137,995
    Southland portion62,374
            Totals for the Dominion1,164,405

COUNTIES.

The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized and forming part of counties have considerable populations. On the other hand, the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on.

The estimated distribution of population at 31st December, 1919 (exclusive of Maoris), was as follows:—

Counties484,195
Boroughs641,100
Independent town districts35,328
Adjacent islands697
Persons on shipboard3,085
            Total population of Dominion1,164,405

A list is given below showing counties and their population (exclusive of interior boroughs and independent town districts) as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent alterations of boundaries. Maoris are not, unless expressly stated to the contrary, included in any population figures quoted in this section.

Population of Counties.
County.Population.
Akaroa2,062
Akitio1,503
Amuri1,895
Ashburton11,216
Ashley757
Awakino801
Awatere1,578
Bay of Islands3,838
Bruce4,924
Buller5,809
Castlepoint659
Chatham Islands228
Cheviot1,263
Clifton2,150
Clutha7,106
Collingwood1,293
Cook6,060
Coromandel2,362
Dannevirke4,831
East Taupo551
Eden14,196
Egmont3,340
Eketahuna2,454
Ellesmere3,629
Eltham3,711
Eyre1,879
Featherston3,434
Fiord18
Franklin8,795
Geraldine5,403
Great Barrier262
Grey5,684
Halswell1,693
Hauraki Plains2,168
Hawera5,080
Hawke's Bay10,080
Heathcote3,509
Hobson5,055
Hokianga2,915
Horowhenua5,401
Hutt5,405
Inangahua4,263
Inglewood3,234
Kaikoura1,948
Kairanga4,377
Kaitieke2,955
Kawhia1,185
Kiwitea2,744
Kowai1,991
Lake1,784
Levels4,808
Mackenzie3,033
Makara3,156
Malvern2,818
Manawatu4,798
Maniototo2,585
Manukau5,130
Marlborough7,014
Masterton3,976
Matakaoa474
Matamata3,633
Mauriceville818
Mongonui3,998
Mount Herbert421
Murchison1,343
Ohinemuri3,523
Ohura2,605
Opotiki2,011
Oroua3,507
Otamatea3,924
Oxford1,827
Pahiatua3,290
Paparua4,905
Patangata2,192
Patea3,396
Peninsula1,880
Piako4,264
Pohangina1,678
Raglan4,305
Rangiora2,857
Rangitikei9,204
Rodney3,630
Rotorua1,522
Selwyn1,480
Sounds1,227
Southland25,754
Springs1,857
Stewart Island367
Stratford5,562
Taieri5,801
Takaka1,938
Taranaki4,912
Tauranga3,616
Tawera881
Thames1,764
Tuapeka5,301
Uawa876
Vincent3,945
Waiapu1,723
Waihemo1,506
Waikato6,918
Waikohu3,243
Waikouaiti4,272
Waimairi12,394
Waimarino2,783
Waimate7,164
Waimate West2,499
Waimea9,633
Waipa6,452
Waipara2,133
Waipawa3,250
Waipukurau708
Wairarapa South2,912
Wairewa1,078
Wairoa2,469
Waitaki10,077
Waitemata7,943
Waitomo5,539
Waitotara2,636
Wallace8,542
Wanganui2,540
Weber443
Westland4,257
West Taupo2,514
Whakatane2,197
Whangamomona1,519
Whangarei8,808
Whangaroa852
Woodville1,917

The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881:—

Census Year.Counties.Boroughs.Percentage.
Counties.Boroughs.Shipboard, &.
1881291,238194,98159.4439.800.76
1886327,328245,61256.5842.460.96
1891352,097270,34356.1843.140.68
1896391,735307,29455.6943.690.62
1901417,596350,20254.0445.320.64
1906458,797424,61451.6347.790.58
1911496,779505,59849.2650.140.60
1916501,259585,30645.5953.241.17

BOROUGHS.

Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants.

The following table shows the estimated population of boroughs (excluding Maoris) as at 31st December, 1919, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent alteration of boundaries:—

Population of Boroughs.
Borough.Population.
*Town constituted under special Act.
Akaroa562
Alexandra737
Arrowtown322
Ashburton3,334
Auckland (City)73,852
Balclutha1,671
Birkenhead2,262
Blenheim4,005
Bluff1,926
Brunner606
Cambridge1,711
Carterton1,713
Christchurch (City)61,104
Cromwell576
Dannevirke3,515
Dargaville1,899
Devonport8,140
Dunedin (City)57,935
Eastbourne1,310
Eketahuna850
Eltham1,871
Featherston1,230
Feilding4,949
Foxton1,831
Geraldine929
Gisborne11,022
Gore3,735
Green Island1,996
Greymouth4,960
Greytown1,259
Hamilton8,059
Hampden412
Hastings8,543
Hawera3,891
Hokitika2,241
Inglewood1,311
Invercargill14,867
Invercargill South1,766
Kaiapoi1,627
Kaitangata1,762
Kumara553
Lawrence878
Levin1,730
Lower Hutt5,093
Lyttelton3,817
Marton1,801
Masterton6,256
Mataura1,197
Milton1,531
Miramar2,390
Mosgiel1,802
Motueka1,513
Mount Albert10,422
Mount Eden13,023
Napier13,785
Naseby299
Nelson (City)9,107
New Brighton3,003
Newmarket3,061
New Plymouth9,820
Northcote1,765
Oamaru5,389
Ohakune1,455
Onehunga6,422
Opotiki1,167
Otahuhu2,539
Paeroa1,471
Pahiatua1,650
Palmerston788
Palmerston North13,617
Patea1,155
Petone7,652
Picton1,195
Port Chalmers2,742
Pukekohe1,589
Queenstown739
Rangiora2,081
Riccarton3,106
Richmond942
Riverton980
Ross507
Rotorua*3,042
Roxburgh446
Runanga1,406
Shannon1,044
Spreydon4,961
St. Kilda5,788
Stratford3,067
Sumner2,579
Taihape2,045
Takapuna3,895
Tapanui363
Taumarunui1,955
Tauranga2,302
Te Aroha1,877
Te Awamutu1,138

Population of Boroughs—continued.

Borough.Population.
Te Kuiti2,119
Temuka1,724
Thames5,714
Timaru13,230
Waihi4,804
Waikouaiti741
Waimate1,942
Waipawa1,159
Waipukurau1,230
Wairoa1,612
Waitara1,505
Wanganui15,363
Wellington (City)81,301
West Harbour1,711
Westport4,248
Whakatane1,082
Whangarei3,522
Winton576
Woodville1,136
Woolston4,150

METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS.

For various purposes (vital statistics, &.) metropolitan areas have been created at each of the four chief centres, and suburban areas at nine of the more important secondary centres. Each area includes, in addition to the central borough and suburban boroughs, a considerable non-municipalized area adjacent to and contingent on the centre.

The population figures as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, with necessary subsequent internal amendments due to alteration of boundaries, are as follows:—

ESTIMATED POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS AS AT 31ST DECEMBER, 1919.

Metropolitan Areas.
Auckland144,646
Wellington100,898
Christchurch101,747
Dunedin72,048
Suburban Areas.
Gisborne14,366
Napier16,383
New Plymouth11,051
Wanganui21,778
Palmerston North14,866
Nelson10,340
Grey Valley Boroughs8,495
Timaru15,028
Invercargill18,726

TOWN DISTRICTS.

The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000 full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor; and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population as estimated on the 31st December, 1919, including alterations due to subsequent changes in boundaries, are as follows:—

(a.) Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties.
Town District.Population.
Bull's513
Castlecliff1,557
Ellerslie1,457
Gonville2,950
Hampstead1,323
Havelock North917
Helensville895
Hikurangi829
Hunterville639
Huntly1,541
Johnsonville940
Lumsden537
Manaia663
Mangapapa1,169
Mangaweka413
Manunui863
Manurewa440
Martinborough800
Matamata610
Morrinsville999
New Lynn1,613
Ngaruawahia807
Nightcaps641
Otaki855
Otautau712
Papakurạ̣953
Papatoetoe801
Pleasant Point601
Raetihi807
Rangataua435
Taradale1,066
Te Puke664
Tinwald818
Tuakau417
Upper Hutt1,485
Waiuku610
Warkworth667
Waverley661
Wyndham660
(b.) Town Districts forming Parts of Counties.
Town District.Population.
Amberley338
Clinton433
Cobden1,080
Edendale391
Havelock296
Kaikohe381
Kamo428
Kaponga434
Kawakawa  ̣̣  ̣̣ 350
Kawhia206
Kihikihi296
Kohukohu411
Leamington469
Lethbridge270
Mercer352
Normanby402
Norsewood274
Ohaupo277
Ohura224
Onerahi347
Opunake552
Ormondville334
Otane351
Otorohanga392
Outram365
Patutahi272
Raglan282
Rongotea283
Southbridge434
Takaka402
Te Karaka356

No fewer than nine of the “independent” town districts have sufficient population to enable them to be constituted boroughs, while on the other hand four have fallen below the 500 mark.

URBAN DRIFT.

At the present time there is being exhibited in many countries a tendency for an increasing proportion of their inhabitants to accumulate in towns. This gradual desertion of the rural life for that of the city is usually referred to as “urban drift.” That this movement is reflected in New Zealand life is certain, but to provide an exact measure of its growth would be an excessively laborious task. The following method, while imperfect, may be taken as indicating approximately the changing of the population: The total population of towns of over 1,000 inhabitants in 1878 is contrasted with the total population of that day. Similar calculations have been made for 1886, 1896, 1906, and 1916. To make allowance for normal expansion, the minimum size of towns dealt with has been raised from 1,000 in 1878 to 1,500 in 1886, 2,000 in 1896, 2,500 in 1906, and 3,000 in 1916, a rate roughly commensurate with the growth of the country. The result was:—

Year.Urban Population.Total Population.Urban Population expressed as a Percentage of Total Population.
1878130,407414,41231.47
1886213,286578,48236.87
1896250,498703,36035.61
1906344,308888,57838.75
1916464,8351,099,44942.28

According to this calculation, urban residents formed in 1916 over 42 per cent. of the people, whereas in 1878 they were only 31 1/2 per cent.

ADJACENT ISLANDS.

Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the other inhabited islands as at the census of 1916 are shown in the following table:—

Islands.Population.
* Excluding internment camp.
Mokohinau8
Kawau23
Motuketekete2
Moturekareka1
Little Barrier3
Motuhora5
Waiheke193
Pakihi2
Ponui21
Rakino6
Motutapu20
Motuihi*6
Rangitoto6
Brown's5
Rotoroa125
Pakatoa43
Tiritiri13
Slipper2
Cuvier7
Mercury4
Matakana7
Motiti6
Somes *7
Mana1
Kapiti3
The Brothers3
D'Urville87
Stephen11
Quarantine56
Dog12
Centre9
Total697

In 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand were extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is given on the next page.

MAORI AND HALF-CASTE POPULATION.

A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as can be ascertained, of each Maori are entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past six enumerations are as follows:—

Census Year.Males.Females.Total.
189122,86119,13241,993
189621,67318,18139,854
190123,11220,03143,143
190625,53822,19347,731
191126,47523,36949,844
191625,93323,84349,776

The slight decrease in 1916 as compared with 1911 is more than compensated for by the number of Maoris at the front.

The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes is given in the next table for six census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population.

HALF-CASTES.

Census Year.Half-castesTotal.
Living as Members of Maori Tribes.Living as and among Europeans.
18912,6812,1844,865
18963,5032,2595,762
19013,1332,4065,539
19063,9382,5786,516
19114,1812,8797,060
19163,5293,2216,750

POPULATION OF COOK AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDS INCLUDED WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE DOMINION.

During the year 1901 the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the number and birthplaces was taken. The figures for the censuses of 1906, 1911, and 1916 are as follows:—

Census Year.Males.Females.Total.
19066,2246,11612,340
19116,4496,14912,598
19166,5536,24412,797

The islands of Western Samoa are now within the governing authority of the Dominion. An account of the group will be found in the section dealing with Outlying Islands.

Chapter 2. SECTION II.—VITAL STATISTICS.

Table of Contents

SUBSECTION A.—BIRTHS.

NUMBERS AND RATES.

THE number of births registered during 1919 was 24,483 or 21.54 per 1,000 of mean population. This birth-rate of only 21.54 per 1,000, the lowest point ever reached in New Zealand, is somewhat startling. A considerable improvement for 1920 is anticipated if the numbers already recorded in the first part of the year are maintained.

The number of male children born during 1919 was 12,587, and of female children 11,896.

BIRTHS: NUMBERS AND RATES.
Year.Total Number of Births registered.Birth-rate.
Per 1,000 of Population.Compared with Rate in 1882-86, taken as 100.
* Average of five years.
1882-8619,410*35.40100
189018,27829.4483
189518,54626.7876
190019,54625.6072
190523,68227.2277
191025,98426.1774
191527,85025.3372
191628,50925.9473
191728,23925.6973
191825.86023.4466
191924,48321.5461

NATURAL INCREASE.

The decline of the birth-rate in New Zealand has been partially compensated for by a decrease in the death-rate. Nevertheless, the rate of natural increase of population h & s fallen from 31.19 per 1,000 of mean population in 1870 to 12.03 in 1919.

Period.Annual Rates per 1,000 living.
Births.Deaths.Natural Increase.
1871–187539.8812.6727.21
1876–188041.2111.8029.41
1881–188536.3610.9525.41
1886–189031.159.8521.30
1891–189527.6810.1517.53
1896–190025.759.5516.20
1901–190526.609.9116.69
1906–191027.069.7517.31
1911–191525.989.2216.76
191921.549.5112.03

In spite of the fact that the birth-rate in New Zealand is low compared with other countries, yet so low is the Dominion's death-rate that New Zealand has one of the highest rates of natural increase among countries keeping records of births and deaths.

BIRTH-RATES.

The diagram which follows shows the rates of births and deaths and of natural increase per 1,000 of mean population each year from 1855 to 1919. The marriage-rate is also shown.

GRAPHS SHOWING THE RATES OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND NATURAL INCREASE IN NEW ZEALAND, 1855–1919.

The well-known fact that the birth-rate is strongly influenced by economic factors finds illustration in the position revealed by this graph, falls in the curve occurring during periods of economic depression. Recent declines are, of course, largely, if not wholly, due to war influences. At the present time birth-rates show a world-wide tendency to decline.

BIRTH-RATES (LEGITIMATE) PER 1,000 MARRIED WOMEN AT CHILD-BEARING AGES FOR EACH CENSUS YEAR, 1878 TO 1916.

Year (Census).Number of Married Women between 15 and 45 Years of Age.Proportion per Cent. of Married Women in the Female Population aged 15 to 45 Years.Number of Legitimate Births (Confinements).Birth-rate per 1,000 Married Women of from 15 to 45 Years of Age.
187850,99563.5017,196337.2
188157,45859.7618,003313.3
188662,70453.1918,532295.5
189163,16548.1217,455276.3
189669,80744.1217,596252.1
190179,40643.3019,355243.8
190698,21146.1522,352227.6
1911119,35549.5924,972209.2
1916141,32252.9726,786189.5

BIRTHS AND BIRTH-RATES OF METROPOLITAN AREAS.

Taking the whole of the four metropolitan areas into consideration the birth-rate for 1919 was 19.67 per 1,000. Each individual metropolitan area has a lower rate than the Dominion as a whole (21.54 per 1,000), a position which always obtains. Tho rates for five years, 1915 to 1919, are given below:—

 Births per 1,000 of Population.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
* Metropolitan areas in 1917.
Auckland (including suburbs)*23.1323.3522.3321.7719.47
Wellington (including suburbs)24.1924.3025.2523.1521.13
Christchurch (including suburbs)22.1923.5422.9620.2219.79
Dunedin (including suburbs)20.7323.3222.4718.6917.94

The fact is well illustrated above that, of tho four centres, Wellington usually has the highest rate and Dunedin the lowest. Explanation of this lies in the difference in age-constitution between the cities. In any year the ages of tho parents of the great majority of children born in that year range from 25 to 50 years. Considering this group (i.e., married people of ages 25 to 49 inclusive) it is found that it forms to the total population a proportion of 41.48 per cent, in Auckland, in Wellington 46.19 per cent., in Christchurch 40.66 per cent., in Dunedin only 36.58 per cent. These proportions are clearly reflected in the birth-rates.

BIRTH-RATES OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.

Of recent years the Australian birth-rate has been higher than that of New Zealand.

The movement over the last ten years is as follows:—

BIRTH-RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.

State.1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Queensland27.3327.6529.6730.2429.4629.3527.9129.0928.3726.23
New South Wales27.8328.7529.8628.8628.9628.3327.8928.0626.5324.68
Victoria24.5124.8426.3925.8225.4524.5524.3023.5022.2921.56
South Australia26.5026.8928.6529.0829.3326.8127.3726.2125.8024.27
Western Australia27.9928.2128.8329.3628.4527.9727.2125.5422.8421.44
Tasmania29.2528.5730.5330.0330.3329.3228.4727.0325.9125.12
Aust. Commonwealth26.7327.2128.6528.2528.0527.2526.7826.5125.2523.78
New Zealand26.1725.9726.4826.1425.9925.3325.9425.6923.4421.54

The birth-rates for ten years in Great Britain and Ireland and certain countries of tho European Continent are also given. The decline is steady and continuous, except in the cases of Roumania and Hungary, where the rates are very high.

BIRTH-RATES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, 1905 TO 1914.

Number of Births per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Country.1905.1906.1907.1908.1909.1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.
Roumania38.339.941.140.341.139.242.343.442.142.5
Hungary36.336.536.736.937.735.735.036.3  
Spain35.234.033.634.033.533.131.232.630.429.8
Italy32.732.131.733.732.733.331.532.431.731.1
Austria33.935.034.033.733.432.531.431.3  
German Empire32.933.132.332.131.029.828.628.327.5 
Netherlands30.830.430.029.729.128.627.828.128.128.2
Denmark28.428.528.228.528.227.526.726.725.625.6
Scotland28.628.627.728.127.326.225.625.925.526.1
Norway27.426.726.426.326.326.125.925.625.325.2
Switzerland26.926.926.226.425.525.024.224.123.1 
England and Wales27.327.226.526.725.825.124.323.924.123.8
Sweden25.725.725.525.725.624.724.023.823.122.9
Ireland23.423.523.223.323.423.323.223.022.822.6
Belgium26.125.725.324.923.723.722.922.6  
France20.620.619.720.119.519.618.719.019.018.0

SEXES OF CHILDREN BORN.

An examination of the figures shows that, with the exception of one year, there has always been a preponderance of males in the number of children born in New Zealand. The proportions are usually shown by stating the number of births of male children to every 1,000 female births. This number has been as high as 1,113 (in 1859), and as low as 991 (in 1860). Little significance can be attached to any figures prior to 1870, on account of the comparatively small number of births. The period preceding 1870 exhibits violent fluctuations in the proportion of males, which tend to disappear as the total of births grows larger. The extreme range since 1870 has been from 1,016 male to 1,000 female births in 1878, to 1,078 in 1875 and 1,073 in 1915.

Year.Number of Births ofProportion of Births of Males to every 1,000 Females.
Males.Females.
191013,44212,5421,072
191113,53212,8221,055
191213,99613,5121,036
191314,43313,5021,069
191414,53513,8031,053
191514,41513,4351,073
191614,66913,8401,060
191714,32913,9101,030
191813,12412,7361,030
191912,58711,8961,058

PLURAL BIRTHS.

There were 270 eases of twin births (540 children), two cases of triplets and one of quadruplets registered in 1919. The number of children born was 24,483; the number of mothers was 24,206: thus, on an average, one mother in every 89 gave birth to twins or triplets.

The number of cases of plural births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total cases of births during the past five years was,—

Year.Total Births.Total Cases.Cases of Twins.Cases of Triplets.Plural Cases per 1,000 of Total Cases
* Including one case of quadruplets.
191527,85027,546302111.00
191628,50928,184323111.50
191728,23927,927 31211.17
191825,86025,560294311.62
191924,48324,2062703*11.15

The following table shows the sexes in individual cases of twin births for the last eight years:—

Year.Total Cases.Both Males.Both Females.Opposite Sexes.
1912329114106109
191331410886120
1914350105116129
19153029388121
19163239998126
191731290105117
19182948795112
19192708179110

During the eight years 1912–19 there were seventeen cases of triplets. In three cases all the children were males, in four cases all were females, in three cases there were two males and one female, and in each of the remaining seven cases two of the three children were females.

There occurred in 1919 one case of quadruplets, all male children.

An examination of the total still-births recorded during 1915–19 shows that of 3,447 cases 188 (5.45 per cent.) were found in cases of plural births, either one or both of the children being still-born. Since, for living births in the same period, plural cases were only 1.13 per cent. of total cases, it appears that still-births occur proportionately almost five times as often in plural births as in cases of single births.

FIRST ISSUE AND ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS, 1919.

Age of Mother, in Years.Illegitimate Births.Duration of Marriage, in Months.Total Legitimate First Births within One Year after Marriage.
Under 3.3 and under 6.6 and under 7.7 and under 8.8 and under 9.9 and under 10.10 and 11.11 and under 12.
Under 2134882159715535473527511
21 and under 2536299207116981011981691231,111
25 and under 30197488256417014312492656
30 and under 35108122092321554848236
35 and under 4079616558241723104
40 and under 4538441324119 
45 and over          
Totals1,1322514882582222384693973142,637

FIRST BIRTHS.

A compilation of births registered in 1919 gives 5,485 children (23 per cent, of all legitimate births) as first issue of the existing marriage. Of these 2,851 were males and 2,634 females; the sex proportion being thus 1,082 males to 1,000 females—somewhat higher than for all births. Plural cases numbered 46, or 0.85 per cent, of the total, as compared with 1.12 per cent. for all births.

BIRTH-INTERVALS.

The birth statistics for 1918 contained one feature which was by way of a novelty in New Zealand statistics. This consisted of a series of tables showing the period that elapsed between successive births, in conjunction with the total number of children born. One table is repeated in this issue.

Average Interval (In Years) betweenCases in which the Number of Children In the Family was
2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10Over 10.All Families.
First and second child2.962.752.552.352.272.272.242.142.152.012.67
Second and third child 3.332.982.692.482.412.272.242.361.922.94
Third and fourth child  3.332.962.722.632.392.422.252.212.98
Fourth and fifth child   3.302.922.652.612.502.492.272.97
Fifth and sixth child    3.202.802.652.542.432.192.88

ILLEGITIMACY.

The births of 1,138 children (581 males, 557 females) were illegitimate: thus 46 in every 1,000 children registered were born out of wedlock.

ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN, 1919.—AGES OF MOTHERS.

Age.Single Cases.Plural Cases.
Years.  
141 
1510 
1632 
1741 
18751
1979 
20109 
211161
2298 
2387 
2460 
25591
2644 
2733 
2828 
2932 
30331
3117 
32141
3325 
3417 
3520 
3617 
3712 
3816 
39131
4012 
416 
426 
435 
449 
    Total1,1266

The proportion of illegitimate births per 1,000 unmarried women —i.e., spinsters and widows—at the reproductive ages, covering a period of twenty-five years, is shown in the following table.

ILLEGITIMATE BIRTH-RATES.

Year.Unmarried Women aged 15-45 Years.Illegitimate Births.Illegitimate-birth Rate per 1,000 Unmarried Women.
189168,9906389.25
189689,7228349.30
1901105,4209378.89
1906116,5061,1329.72
1911116,7261,0789.24
1916125,4611,1599.24

The rates of illegitimacy in Australasia are quoted. The average rate for New Zealand for the ten years (4.37 per 100 of all births) compares favourably with that of the Commonwealth (5.39 per 100).

PROPORTION OF ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS IN EVERY 100 BIRTHS.

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.Commonwealth.New Zealand.
19097.056.445.944.183.955.456.014.61
19106.396.285.604.324.135.335.754.47
19116.226.145.964.214.475.335.794.09
19126.145.645.724.714.394.785.534.28
19136.225.356.034.184.405.185.484.23
19145.775.295.563.874.225.905.264.59
19155.364.975.744.004.245.325.124.14
19165.114.735.153.803.755.054.774.10
19175.014.745.533.964.155.284.914.56
19185.465.185.854.024.025.285.234.65

THE LEGITIMATION ACT.

The Legitimation Act makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent intermarriage of their parents. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. The following is the number of legitimations in the past ten years, and the total since the Act came into force:—

 Number of Children legitimized.
Year.Previously registered.Not Previously registered.Total.
19107546121
19117646122
19128651137
19138972161
19149966165
191510067167
191619091281
191721396309
191812876420
191910066166
Totals.1,9041,1403,044

STILL-BIRTHS.

The registration of still-births has been made compulsory in New Zealand as from the 1st March, 1913. Still–births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths.

In the 680 still-births registered in 1919 are included eight cases of twins, and thirty-four cases where one child of twins was still-born.

The sexes recorded in cases of still-births during each of the last five years are as follows:—

Year.Male.Female.Not stated.Total.
19153823406728
19163832954682
191737530514694
19183963005701
191937728815680

MAORI BIRTHS.

The number of births of Maoris registered during 1919 under the provisions of section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, was 995. Only 14 Maori births were registered under the main Act.

COOK ISLANDS AND NIUE.

Regulations under the Cook Islands Act, 1915, providing for compulsory registration of births and deaths in the Cook Islands and Niue from the 1st July, 1916, were gazetted on the 29th June, 1916.

Islands.Number of Births.
Rarotonga160
Aitutaki60
Mangaia63
Manihiki 
Rakahanga14
Atiu46
Mauke19
Mitiaro5
Penrhyn4
Niue110
    Total481

NOTE.—In some cases the above figures are for the calendar year 1919, others for year ending March, 1920, others again for different periods.

SUBSECTION B.—MARRIAGES.!
NUMBERS AND RATES.

IN the following table are shown the numbers and rates for a series of years. A column is added showing the index number for the year as compared with the average of the five years 1882-86, taken as 100.

The marriage-rate for the period under review—war years 1915–18 excepted — shows a general upward tendency, having been above 8 per 1,000 in each year since and including 1902. Reference to the diagram on page 22 will show that the marriage-rate was at its lowest in the period 1885 to 1895, and that the rate in the early years of registration was considerably in excess of that in even the best of recent years.

MARRIAGES: NUMBER AND RATE.

YearTotal Number of Marriages registered.Marriage-rate.
Per 1,000 of Population.Compared with Rate in 1882-86, taken as 100.
* Average for five years.
1882-863,663*6.68100
18903,7976.1292
18954,1105.9489
19005,8607.67115
19057,2008.28124
19108,2368.30124
191510,0289.12137
19168,2137.47112
19176,4175.8487
19186,2275.6585
19199,5198.38125

The cessation of hostilities at the end of 1918 and the repatriation during 1919 of the great bulk of the Expeditionary Force has led to a healthy increase in marriages. Though not quite reaching the normal level of pre-war years, the progress made is satisfactory in view of two rate-depressing influences: first, the loss to the Dominion of many thousands of lives; and, secondly, the marriage abroad of no inconsiderable body of soldiers, the majority of whom would otherwise have married in this country.

MARRIAGES IN EACH QUARTER.

Year.March Quarter.June Quarter.September Quarter.December Quarter.
19151,9842,7282,2473,069
19162,2142,3931,7731,833
19171,5111.8051,5051,596
19181,4571,7561,5931,421
19191,6312,4322,4503,006
Quinquennial average1,7592,2231,9142,185

It will be seen that the June quarter is apparently considered the most propitious for the solemnization of marriage. The two years exceptional in this respect are 1915 and 1919. In the first year the December quarter was swelled by the influence of the National Registration Act of October, 1915; and the second may be explained by the celebration of many marriages postponed until the return of soldiers abroad.

An additional investigation of marriages contracted in 1919 reveals the pre-eminence which December has attained as a suitable month for entering the matrimonial state. The marriages contracted in each month were as follows:—

January558
February501
March572
April932
May590
June910
July833
August798
September819
October923
November801
December1,282
Total9,519

Wednesday claims almost half of the total marriages—

Sunday54
Monday1,109
Tuesday1,645
Wednesday4,109
Thursday1,279
Friday476
Saturday847
Total9,519

The days of the year on which an exceptionally large number of marriages were performed were,—

23rd April137
26th November120
25th June117
30th April110
15th October107
31st December106

All these days were, it may be remarked, Wednesdays. Easter Monday, usually considered a most suitable day, ranked only thirteenth in favour.

RATES OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.

A comparison of the marriage-rate of each Australian State with New Zealand for ten years is given. The Commonwealth rate has for some years been higher than that of this country.

MARRIAGES PER 1,000 OF MEAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND.

Year.Queensland.New South Wales.Victoria.South Australia (Proper).Western Australia.Tasmania.Commonwealth.New Zealand.
19108.068.767.989.177.777.828.378.30
19118.419.248.349.818.447.768.798.70
19128.919.608.659.628.377.869.078.81
19138.679.028.139.408.198.278.668.25
19148.739.378.319.118.227.788.808.51
19158.939.689.009.028.018.029.149.12
19167.698.748.058.317.517.238.217.47
19177.167.096.767.525.255.726.875.84
19186.996.906.467.255.185.556.655.65
19197.628.047.988.466.787.167.888.38

The average rate for New Zealand in normal years is higher than the rate for most of the European countries with the exception of the races of the east and south-east of Europe.

CONDITION OF CONTRACTING PARTIES.

The table which follows gives information as to the conjugal condition of persons married in each of the past ten years, divorced men and women being classed as bachelors and spinsters.

Year.Marriages contracted betweenNumber of Divorced Persons married (included previously).Total Marriages registered.
Bachelors and Spinsters.Bachelors and Widows.Widowers and Spinsters.Widowers and Widows.
19107,4403063421481508,236
19118,0362583651661658,825
19128,3502534131332049,149
19138,0342743701352188,813
19148,6722763981342049,280
19159,12433739417322710,028
19167,3233294081532308,213
19175,6132843691512186,417
19185,3702844271462616,227
19198,3374035722073459,519

The figures for 1919 are given herewith in more detail as to conjugal condition of bride and bridegroom immediately prior to the marriage.

Condition of Bridegrooms.Condition of Brides.
Spinsters.Divorced Women.Widows.Total.
Bachelors8,0791543728,605
Divorced men881631135
Widowers53240207779
Total8,6992106109,519

Included amongst widows in 1919 are eighteen married women, and amongst the widowers eleven men, who elected to go through the form of marriage with other persons under the protection of the provisions of section 224, subsection (5), of the Crimes Act, which reads, “No one commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage if he or she has been continually absent from his or her wife or husband for seven years then last past, and is not proved to have known that his wife or her husband was alive at any time during those seven years.”

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED.

Of the persons married in 1919, 344 bridegrooms and 1,272 brides were under twenty-one years of age. Of the bridegrooms, ten were between seventeen and eighteen, while thirty-seven were between eighteen and nineteen. Of the brides, four were between fifteen and sixteen, and twenty-eight between sixteen and seventeen years of age. A table is given showing relative ages of bridegrooms and brides in groups of years.

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED, 1919.

Age of Bridegroom. in Years.Age of Bride, in Years.Total Bridegrooms.
Under 21.21 and under 2525 and under 3030 and under 3535 and under 4040 and under 4545 and over.
Under 21199125173   344
21 and under 255011,0412693941 1,855
25 and under 303871,2631,08320749412,994
30 and under 351145867743929319101,988
35 and under 404821033830216661211,146
40 and under 4520531061291168735546
45 and over3305985112127230646
Total brides1,2723,3082,6461,1575402992979,519

The decrease in the proportion of men at the ages at which marriages are usually solemnized is exemplified in the following statement giving average age of bridegrooms and brides over a series of years:—

MEAN AGE AT MARRIAGE.

Year.Mean Age of Bridegrooms.Mean Age of Brides
190029.9125.29
190329.8925.84
190629.7625.97
190930.1126.40
191229.9526.39
1915300326.56
191831.5727.16
191931.2127.11

In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (average of the five years 1910–14) 29.02 years for men and 26.77 years for women. As in the case of New Zealand, ages of both bridegrooms and brides have risen swiftly during the war years, reaching in 1917, 30.04 years for bridegrooms and 27.27 for brides. Thus the average age at marriage in New Zealand would appear to be higher for men, but slightly lower for women, than in England. The average age of all spinsters married in New Zealand in 1919 was 26.03 years. Australian figures for 1918 give the mean ages of groom and bride as 29.55 and 26.11 respectively.

The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed.

In 1919 ages twenty-six and twenty-seven compete for pride of place for bridegrooms, and twenty-one holds good in the case of brides. If the marriages of spinsters only be considered, age twenty-one is still the most popular.

MARRIAGES OF MINORS.

Of every 1,000 men married in 1919, 36 were under twenty-one years of age, while 134 in every 1,000 brides were under twenty-one. The proportion of bridegrooms under twenty-one is in normal years 2 per cent. of the total number. The proportions for 1917 (3.6 per cent.), 1918 (5.1 per cent.), and 1919 (3.6 per cent.) therefore represent high increases in marriages of male minors. No corresponding rise occurs in the proportion of marriages of female minors.

BRIDEGROOMS AND BRIDES UNDER AND OVER TWENTY-ONE, 1910–19.

Year.Bridegrooms.Brides.Minors, per 100 Marriages.
Adults.Minors.Adults.Minors.Bridegrooms.Brides.
19108,0801566,9751,2611.9515.70
19118,6531727,4991,3261.9515.02
19128,9471727,6881,4611.8815.97
19138,6541597,4191,3941.8015.82
19149,0851957,8421,4382.1015.50
19159,8192098,5161,5122.0815.07
19168,0521616,9431,2701.9615.46
19176,1872305,3431,0743.5816.74
19185,9123155,2669615.0615.43
19199,1753448,2471,2723.6113.36

The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—twelve years for females and fourteen for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of twelve or fourteen, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.

FERTILITY OF MARRIAGES.

In connection with the fertility of marriages the succeeding table is of interest. The number of children born to the marriages in existence at the census in 1916 was over three. It should be kept in mind that this number does not represent the average children of a parent, but only the average children of the existing marriage, which is necessarily somewhat less than in the former case.

AVERAGE ISSUE PER MARRIAGE.
Duration of existing Marriage.Average of Issue born.
New Zealand, Census, 1916.New Zealand, Census, 1911.Australia, Census, 1911.
Under 5 years0.881.210.89
5 to 9 years2.182.512.29
10 to 14 years3.053.543.34
15 to 19 years3.774.394.24
20 to 24 years4.355.235.05
25 to 29 years4.995.925.87
30 to 34 years5.656.786.67
35 to 39 years6.467.387.25
40 to 45 years7.167.817.74
45 and over7.768.348.37
Unspecified3.053.614.53
       All periods3.243.943.78

The heavy decline from 1911 to 1916 may perhaps be discounted to some extent by the fact that in the prior year the proportion of cases where the number of issue was not stated formed nearly 12 per cent. of the total.

These cases were not included in computing the averages, and may have belonged in any proportion to any group. In 1916 the percentage of unstated cases was reduced to less than 1 per cent.

The continuous rise during all periods of duration of marriage is at first glance rather curious, since additions to families after a marriage of thirty years’ standing would be infinitesimal, and would certainly not take place after forty years. It is, however, merely the effect of the steady decline in the once high birth-rate. Taking thirty years of marriage as the point marking the limit of fertility, then the average issue in respect of marriages of longer duration was 7.41 in 1911 and 6.52 in 1916.

MARRIAGES BY MINISTERS OF VARIOUS DENOMINATIONS.

Of the 9,519 marriages registered in 1919, Church of England clergymen officiated at 2,595, Presbyterians at 2,462, Methodists at 1,114, and Roman Catholics at 1,055, while 1,801 marriages were celebrated before Registrars.

Denomination.Percentage of Marriages.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Church of England26.7625.7324.5425.3627.26
Presbyterians25.8425.3622.9224.0925.87
Methodists11.8310.4710.4411.2211.70
Roman Catholics11.1812.0211.9411.1911.08
Other denominations5.835.375.395.065.17
Before Registrars18.5621.0524.7723.0818.92
 100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

NUMBER OF OFFICIATING MINISTERS.

The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is (May, 1920) 1,638, and the denominations to which they belong are shown hereunder:—

Denomination.Number.
Specified in statute—
    Church of England440
    Presbyterian Church of New Zealand366
    Methodist Church of New Zealand234
    Roman Catholic Church269
    Congregational Independents28
    Baptists61
    Lutheran Church7
    Hebrew Congregations5
Not specified in statute—
    Church of Christ34
    Salvation Army116
    Catholic Apostolic Church4
    Old Catholic Church 
    Unitarians3
    Seventh-day Adventists18
    Latter-day Saints9
    Church of the Seven Rules of Jehovah15
    Ringatu Church11
    Others18
Total1,638

The Ringatu Church and the Church of the Seven Rules of Jehovah are Maori denominations.

MARRIAGE REGISTER SIGNED BY MARK.

Of the men married in 1919, eight, and of the women fourteen, signed the register by mark.

Of twenty-two cases in 1919, eight (five males, three females) were those of New-Zealanders by birth, all being under the age of sixty. In three instances where both groom and bride were Chinese, the bride signed by mark. Birthplaces of the remainder were: England, 4; Ireland, 3; Scotland, 1; Denmark, 1; Tasmania, 1; South Africa, 1.

MARRIAGES IN COOK ISLANDS.

According to information received from the Cook Islands Department, the following are the figures of marriages solemnized in the Cook Islands during the year ended 31st March, 1920:—

Island.Number of Marriages.
NOTE.—In some cases the figures quoted are for the calendar year or for other periods.
Rarotonga80
Aitutaki43
Mangaia14
Manihiki (nine months)1
Mitiaro5
Mauke (nine months)8
Rakahanga1
Atiu9
Niue71
Total232

SUBSECTION C.—DEATHS.
NUMBERS AND RATES.

THE deaths registered in 1919 were 10,808, representing a rate of 9.51 per 1,000 of mean population. Although, with the exception of 1918, in which occurred the disastrous influenza epidemic, the number of deaths is a record, the rate is nevertheless quite normal.

The following table shows the number of deaths and the death-rate; also a comparison with the average rate for 1882–86:—

Year.Total Number of Deaths.Death-rate.
Per 1,000 of Population.Compared with Rate in 1882–86, taken as 100.
* Average for five years.
1882—865,944*10.84100
18905,9949.6689
18956,8639.9191
19007,2009.4387
19058,0619.2786
19109,6399.7189
19159,9659.0684
191610,5969.6489
191710,5289.5888
191816,36414.84137
191910,8089.5188

The death-rates of males and females for the last ten years are shown separately in the next table, also the number of male deaths to every 100 female deaths, and the death-rate of males expressed as an index number of the female rate, taking the latter as equal to 100.

Year.Deaths per 1,000 of Population.Male Deaths to every 100 Female Deaths.Male Rate expressed as Index Number of Female Rate (= 100).
Males.Females.Total.
191010.678.639.71139124
191110.468.219.39142127
19129.837.798.87140126
191310.468.389.47138125
191410.537.989.31144132
191510.197.879.06137129
191611.148.139.64138138
191711.098.099.58134137
191818.0311.7714.84147153
191910.987.369.51148149

Prior to the war period, the excess of male over female population had the effect of showing a smaller variation between death-rates for the two sexes than was indicated by a comparison of numbers of deaths.

The withdrawal of a large number of males between the ages of 20 and 45 for military service overseas, however, reduced the male population without proportionately reducing the total of male deaths. Consequently there has been a tendency towards an increase in the crude male death-rate.

For the purpose of considering the mortality in New Zealand more closely than can be done by means of crude death-rates, it is desirable to ascertain the rates at different age-periods of the population.

DEATH-RATES PER 1,000 LIVING AT VARIOUS AGE-PERIODS.

Ages, in Years.Averages, 1910–14.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.Increase, 1910–14 to 1919.
       Per Cent.
Under 516.4614.2715.4914.0214.1211.77- 28.49
5 and under 101.721.862.612.442.301.93+ 12.21
10 and under 151.321.471.591.391.981.49+ 12.88
15 and under 202.101.832.352.055.162.24+ 6.67
20 and under 252.833.193.163.4010.032.74- 3.18
25 and under 353.933.793.914.1915.123.95+ 0.51
35 and under 455.985.816.675.7614.796.01+ 0.50
45 and under 559.799.4010.248.9315.7210.01+ 2.25
55 and under 6519.5420.0819.2219.0723.8919.84ot:+ 1.54
65 7546.3141.8540.2244.7850.4245.56- 1.62
75 and over138.58134.83142.75128.55145.94143.53+ 3.57
All ages9.359.069.649.5814.849.51+ 17.1

Besides advantages of climate, New Zealand possesses a population younger in age constitution than that of most other countries—conditions favourable to a low rate of mortality. Another table is given comparing death-rates at twelve age-periods for 1917 with those of England and Wales. In only one instance is the Dominion rate higher than the corresponding rate in England and Wales. This occurs in the female death-rate for the age-period 25–35 years.

DEATH-RATE PER 1,000 PERSONS LIVING, ACCORDING TO SEX, FOR THE YEAR 1917, COMPARED WITH ENGLAND AND WALES.
Ages, in Years.New Zealand.England and Wales.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 515.3212.6631.726.2
5 and under 102.662.213.23.0
10 and under 151.631.172.12.2
15 and under 202.082.028.53.1
20 and under 254.162.953.3
25 and under 354.533.913.7
35 and under 456.614.936.0
45 and under 559.737.9914.410.6
55 and under 6520.2317.6329.422.2
65 and under 7548.7640.0667.150.2
75 and under 85118.09100.20157.5126.8
85 and over286.23244.88302.1280.6
All ages11.098.1017.812.1

AGES AT DEATH.

The deaths occurring during 1919 are tabulated below in single ages up to five years, and thereafter in groups, showing males and females separately:—

Ages.Males.Females.Total.
    Months.
Under 1417278695
1-38771158
3-65554109
6–127769146
    Years.
1-28782169
2-36754121
3-4514394
4-5453681
5–10130114244
10–158086166
15-2011999218
20-25136111247
25-30165182347
30-35212199411
35-40259229488
40-45275188463
45-50315202517
50-55307243550
55-60322229551
60-65437291728
65-70526324850
70-75531377908
75-806434481,091
80-85523334857
85-90270185455
90-955458112
95–100161329
101112
10311 
        Totals6,2074,60110,808

The average age at death of persons of either sex in each of the ten years 1910–19 was as follows:—

Year.Males.Females.
191044.47 years.42.25 years.
191146.17 years.42.37 years.
191247.19 years.44.91 years.
191346.26 years.43.04 years.
191446.97 years.44.27 years.
191547.24 years.44.71 years.
191646.06 years.44.01 years.
191748.33 years.45.51 years.
191844.56 years.44.29 years.
191950.73 years.48.47 years.

The average age at death, taking both sexes into account, was 49.77 years for 1919.

EXPECTATION OF LIFE.

The 1915 issue of the Year-book contained results of a mortality investigation undertaken from the results of the five censuses 1891 to 1911, inclusive, in conjunction with the records of deaths. Considerations of space allow only the following to be repeated in this issue:—

EXPECTATION OF LIFE OR AVERAGE AFTER-LIFETIME IN NEW ZEALAND AT DECENNIAL AGE-PERIODS.

Age.Males.Females.
Years.Years.Years.
059.16561.764
560.58162.211.
1056.14457.754
2047.20048.770
3038.77540.477
4030.54032.368
5022.67224.295
6015.50816.774
709.38310.311
805.2945.815
902.7652.900
1000.7200.723

DEATH-RATES OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.

A table is given showing the death-rates of the Australian States and Commonwealth, and of New Zealand, in each of the ten years 1910–19.

DEATH-RATES OF AUSTRALASIA PER 1,000 OF MEAN POPULATION, 1910–19.
Country.1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Queensland9.7110.6510.9610.399.9711.0011.099.6410.3912.42
New South Wales9.8910.3710.8610.8910.1110.4810.639.609.8413.40
Victoria11.4911.4512.2311.1111.5911.1011.7010.3610.7013.21
South Australia (proper)10.099.8210.2810.8210.7110.6711.7210.109.9712.01
Western Australia10.1110.1911.069.349.419.289.808.979.1111.10
Tasmania11.1010.1310.7310.879.6710.1110.388.898.8410.37
Commonwealth10.4310.6611.2310.8710.5110.6611.049.8010.0912.82
New Zealand  ̣̣  ̣̣9.719.398.879.479.319.069.649.5814.849.51

New Zealand has ordinarily a lower death-rate than any of the Australian States, which, again, have considerably lower rates than other countries. Abnormalities in 1918 and 1919 are due to the pandemic of influenza.

STANDARDIZATION OF DEATH-RATES.

Perfect accuracy in comparing one country with another can be attained only by the use of what is termed an “index of mortality.” The proportions of the living vary in regard to the different age-groups, and the ordinary death-rate—which is calculated on the population as a whole—does not afford a true means of judging of the relative healthiness of the places compared. But by taking a population like that of Sweden, and applying the percentage at each age-group to the death-rates, a standard of health or index of mortality can be arrived at. This has been done for New Zealand in accordance with a resolution of the Statistical Conference held at Hobart in 1902, and the result is expressed in tabular form.

INDEX OF MORTALITY IN NEW ZEALAND FOR 1919.
Ages, in Years.Estimated Mean Population.Number of Deaths.Death-rate per 1,000.Percentage of Population of Sweden, 1890 (Standard).Index of Mortality in New Zealand per 1,000.
Under 127,3941,10840.452.551.03
1 and under 20441,4281,0932.4839.800.98
20 ” 40371,0061,4934.0226.961.08
40 ” 60211,3802,0819.8419.231.89
60 and upwards85,1815,03359.0911.466.77
Totals1,136,38910,8089.51100.0011.75

The New Zealand rates may be compared with those of the Australian States and of the Commonwealth standardized by the same system.

STANDARDIZED DEATH-RATES, 1910–19.

Country.1910.1911.1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
New Zealand12.0411.8311.2711.9211.8511.3811.8811.6616.8011.75
Queensland12.4413.5713.9113.2512.7014.3014.3712.6413.9415.97
New South Wales12.3613.2313.6313.6112.7213.2413.4812.4512.8616.48
Victoria14.1114.2314.9413.5014.1113.5414.2812.8113.2315.51
South Australia12.3912.1812.7613.2513.0313.0914.4512.6512.5314.59
Western Australia13.3113.4714.5512.5812.5612.7914.1512.9313.6915.50
Tasmania13.5912.9713.6913.5412.1113.0413.4311.7811.7013.29
Commonwealth13.1713.5514.0813.4713.1813.4413.9912.6313.0715.75

Where comparisons are restricted to the figures for different years in a country such as New Zealand, where age and sex constitution are undergoing gradual change, it is preferable to use as a standard the constitution of the population of the same country at some fixed date.

In the following table the rates have been standardized on the population as disclosed at the census of 1911.

DEATH-RATES, CRUDE AND STANDARDIZED.
Year.Crude (Actual) Death-rate.Standardized Rate.
187211.3912.36
187515.9217.30
188510.7612.36
18959.9111.22
19059.279.60
19159.069.09
19169.649.22
19179.589.04
191814.8414.66
19199.519.02

DEATHS AND DEATH-RATES OF METROPOLITAN AREAS.

The death-rates for the cities, including suburbs, for five years are as below:—

 Deaths per 1,000 of Population.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
* Metropolitan areas in 1917.
Auckland (including suburbs)*9.059.5810.4518.0710.68
Wellington years. (including suburbs)9.719.459.3715.7111.14
Christchurch years. (including suburbs)9.0110.8410.0415.4710.77
Dunedin years. (including suburbs)11.0311.7211.5816.2011.32

Wellington has proportionately fewer old people than the other three centres, and this explains largely its lower average death-rate. Dunedin, on the other hand, has a higher proportion of old people in its population than Auckland or Christchurch, and has consequently the highest death-rate of all four centres, notwithstanding its low rate of infantile mortality.

ORPHANHOOD.

The table following shows the number of living issue left by married men whose deaths were registered during the ten years 1910–19, the information being given according to the age of father and of issue. It will be seen that during the period under review 26,967 fathers left issue to the number of 126,901 an average of 4.71. There were also 4,582 married men who died without leaving issue.

NUMBER AND AGES OF ISSUE LEFT BY MARRIED MEN, 1910–19.
Age of Issue, in Years.Number of Issue left by Fathers dying within the Age-groups shown at Head of Column.
20 and under 30.30 and under 40.40 and under 50.50 and under 60.60 and under 65.65 and under 70.70 and under 80.80 and over.Totals.
0157366164611022 762
1188512257761574 1,059
217462434112524146 1,308
3138638406140278631,366
49362842316021171211,355
56960050516627242121,414
64559649823040302271,468
71655953727345472521,504
8941856433363343351,459
9839362732778543741,528
10336361040591595881,597
111267628422105726731,565
12 217621486142976281,633
13. 14460550315610382151,608
14 100576602177138108111,712
15 77515595209133123131,665
10 485366752331801582711,857
17..22448708296207208181,907
18 13437693329226221281,947
19 4355803380280283572,162
20 2317801406286332392,183
21 and over 78538,0569,30313,34338,03822,77992,379
Unspecified1369168232207236493451,463
Totals9146,66710,99116,872112,38415,59740,40123,075120,901
Married men who died—
  (a) Without leaving issue2706386106453474339986414,582
  (b) Leaving issue.5312,5753,0913,7192,4002,8987,3304,42320,967
Totals80113,2133,7014,3642,7473,3318,3285,06431,549

Several tables dealing with orphanhood are given in full in Volume I of “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand,” 1919. One of these, showing the number of issue under 16, left by married men whose deaths were registered during 1919, is summarized and given below:—

Age at Death, in Years.Married Men who died leaving Number of Issue under 16 Years of Age shown at Head of Column.Total Number of Married Men who died leaving Issue under Age 16.
1234567 and over.
20 and under252     2
25 ” 301264 2  24
30 ” 3522279523169
35 ” 4027382913731118
40 ” 45382327221625133
45 ” 50413828131157143
50 ” 554933179763124
55 ” 60412012832187
60 ” 6549173411176
65 ” 701914632  44
70 ” 751772  1 27
75 ” 80211    4
80 and over21     3
Totals32122513877512319854

INFANTILE MORTALITY.

Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1919, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—

Sex.Under 1 Month.1 and under 3 Months.3 and under 6 Months.6 and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.
NUMBER OF DEATHS.
Male417675577636
Female278715469472
Deaths per 1,000 Births.
Male33.136.914.376.1250.53
Female23.375.974.545.8039.68

Fifty-one out of every thousand male children born and forty of every thousand females died before attaining the age of one year. The mortality was thus one in twenty of male children, and one in twenty-five of females.

It will be seen from the figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are greater for female than for male infants. Thus, in proportion to the number of children of each sex born in 1919, there were during the year—

100 deaths of males to 71 deaths of females under 1 month of age;
100 deaths of males to 86 deaths of females from 1 to 3 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 104 deaths of females from 3 to 6 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 95 deaths of females from 6 to 12 months of age;
100 deaths of males to 79 deaths of females under 12 months of age.

Dealing with the results for ten years, the deaths of infants under one year are in the large proportion of 74 per cent. of the total deaths under five.

DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS, AND PROPORTION TO DEATHS AT ALL AGES.

Year.Deaths of Children under 5 Years of Age.Total Deaths at all Ages.Deaths under 5 Years: Per Cent. of Mortality at all Ages.
Under 1 Year.1 Year and under 2 Years.2 Years and under 3 Years.3 Years and under 4 Years.4 Years and under 5 Years.Total under 5 Years.
19101,7602539576542,2389.63923.22
19111,48420612299691,9809,53420.77
19121,4091579345461,7509,21418.99
19131,65822310465542,09910,11920.74
19141,45619911880631,91610,14818.88
19151,39420412565801,8689,96518.75
19161,446261139132842,06210,59619.46
19171,360196132102891,87910,52817.85
19181,2522751551291071,91816,36411.72
19191,10816912194811,57310,80814.55
Average of ten years1,43221412089731,92810,69118.03

DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR, AND PROPORTION TO BIRTHS.

Year.Deaths of Infants under 1 Year of Age.Total Births registered.Proportion of Deaths of Infants under 1 Year to every 1,000 Births.
Under 1 Month1 Month and under 3 Months.3 Months and under 6 Months.6 Months and under 12 Months.Total under 12 Months.
19107862983333431,76025,98467.73
19117512172342821,48426,35456.31
19128271881922021,40927,50851.22
19138302832383021,65327,93559.17
19148182411922051,45628,33851.38
19158151951752091,39427.S5050.05
19167702122282361,44628,50950.70
19177871861712161,36028,23948.16
19186912261192161,25225,86048.41
19196951581091461,10824,48345.26
Average of ten years7772201992361,43227,10652.83

The infantile-mortality rates during the last three years are the most satisfactory ever experienced in New Zealand.

The principal causes of mortality in children under one year of age, together with the numbers of deaths in New Zealand from such causes during the five years 1915–19, are given below.

DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER ONE YEAR.—CAUSES, 1915–19.

CausesNumber of Deaths from each Cause.Percentage of Total.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Whooping-cough5063292053.584.362.131.600.45
Convulsions55745653473.955.124.124.234.24
Bronchitis and pneumonia12712396102949.118.507.068.158.48
Diarrhœa and enteritis11516414650568.2511.3410.743.995.05
Malformations132108120821129.477.478.826.5510.11
Premature birth39738133037331728.4826.3527.9429.7928.62
Congenital debility21121520823919615.1414.8715.2919.0917.69
Other causes30731832533328122.0221.9923.9026.6025.36
Totals1,3941,4461,3601,2521,108100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

CAUSES OF DEATH.

The classification of causes of death was made in 1908 for the first time in New Zealand according to the Bertillon Index of Diseases. This system has been adopted by the Commonwealth of Australia and the principal European and American countries. It is highly desirable for comparative purposes that uniformity of statistical method should obtain when possible.

CAUSES OF DEATH, 1919.

Class.Number of Deaths.Proportion to Total Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 living
M.F.Total.M.F.Total.
    Per Cent.Per Cent.Per Cent 
I. General diseases1,5051,3532,85824.2529.4126.4425.15
II. Diseases of the nervous system and of the organs of special sense6585071,16510.6011.0210.7810.25
III. Diseases of the circulatory system1,0977531,85017.6716.3717.1216.28
IV. Diseases of the respiratory system6124171,0299.869.069.529.05
V. Diseases of the digestive system3083046124.906.615.665.39
VI. Non-venereal diseases of the genito-urinary system and annexa3011614624.853.504.274.07
VII. Puerperal condition 124124 2.691.151.09
VIII. Diseases of the skin and of the cellular tissue2923520.470.500.480.46
IX. Diseases of the bones and of the organs of locomotion206200.320.130.240.23
X. Malformations80521381.391.131.281.21
XI. Early infancy3572596105.755.635.705.42
XII. Old age5934631,0569.5510.069.779.29
XIII. External violence5741467209.253.176.666.34
XIV. Ill-defined causes67331001.080.720.930.88
Totals6,2074,60110,808100.00l00.00100.0095.11

The next table shows the number of deaths from certain principal causes for the five years 1915–1919.

Cause.Number of Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 of Mean Population.
1915.1016.1917.1918.1919.1915.1016.1917.1918.1919.
Typhoid fever52374133340.470.340.370.300.30
Measles6493171530.580.850.150.140.03
Scarlet fever44523030230.400.470.270.270.20
Whooping-cough8098442770.730.890.400.240.06
Diphtheria991632371891490.901.482.161.711.31
Influenza11073385103401.000.660.3550.013.04
Pulmonary tuberculosis5625915976646025.115.3S.5.436.025.30
Other forms of tuberculosis1311411581681601.191.281.141.521.41
Cancer900.9099579361,0318.198.2718.718.499.07
Diabetes1481541441951081.351.4011.311.771.48
Exophthalmic goitre31273742250.280.250.340.380.22
Anaemia. chlorosis699910482750.630.900.950.740.65
Meningitis138169,1861821551.261.541.51.651.36
infantile paralysis3123104 0.031.120.090.04 
Apoplexy, cerebral haemorrhage4034784724705393.684.354.294.264.74
Epilepsy49515661490.450.400.510.550.13
Convulsions of children under 5 years of age771056270610.700.950.560.630.54
Organic heart-disease1,1441,2691,3901.4691,53810.4111.5413.3213.3213.53
Arteriosclerosis79877183 0.720.790.650.75 
Embolism, thrombosis52756253780.470.680.560.480.69
Bronchitis2832402253042902.572.182.052.702.55
Broncho-pneumonia1361271212001401.241.151.101.811.23
Pneumonia3003202624494012.732.912.384.073.53
Gastritis37375138 0.340.340.460.34 
Diarrhoea and enteritis2443023061471322.222.752.781.331.16
Appendicitis and typhlitis949010192880.860.820.920.830.77
Hernia, intestinal obstruction861104696790.731.050.420.870.70
Cirrhosis of liver51533341400.460.480.300.370.35
Simple peritonitis42374645570.380.340.420.410.50
Cause.Number of Deaths.Proportion per 10,000 of Mean Population.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Nephritis, Bright's disease2673042712873092.432.762.462.692.72
Cystitis28514926 0.250.460.450.24 
Diseases and accidents of puerperal condition1311671691341241.191.521.541.211.09
Malformations1531271331121381.391.151.211.021.21
Congenital debility2172222082391961.972.021.892.171.72
Premature birth3973813813733173.6113.473.473.382.79
Senility7938331,0011,2291.C567.218.039.1111.149.29
Violence (1) suicide1131471241131391.031.341.131.021.22
(2) accident &.6235955615485815.675.415.104.975.11
Other causes1,7351.6031,7471,602 15.7614.5915.8914.52 
Totals9,96510,59610,528l6,36410,80890.6496.3795.77148.3695.11

TUBERCULOSIS.

Pulmonary tuberculosis takes fourth place in point of the number of deaths resulting therefrom during 1919, ranking after heart-disease, senility, and cancer in that order. Acute miliary tuberculosis is included with pulmonary. The average for the past ten years was 598, or 5.58 per 10,000.

Year.  Deaths from Pulmonary Tuberculosis.  Rate per 10,000.
19105825.86
19115845.75
19125675.46
19136566.14
19145765.28
19155625.11
19165915.38
19175975.43
19186646.02
19196025.30

The mortality-rate from all forms of tuberculosis has also exhibited a very satisfactory decline for many years. Ten years’ figures are quoted.

DEATHS AND DEATH-RATES FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS, 1910–19.

Year.    Mean Population.    Number of Deaths from Tubercular Diseases.    Rate per 1,000.    Percentage of Total Deaths from all Causes.
1910992,8027317.367.58
19111,014,8967387.277.74
19121,039,0167166.897.77
19131,068,6448127.608.02
19141,090,3287286.677.17
19151,099,3946936.306.95
19161,099,4497426.747.00
19171,099,1177556.877.17
19181,103,0228327.545.08
19191,136,3897626.717.05

Tuberculosis claims its victims at comparatively early age. Of those dying from this cause in 1919, persons under the age of twenty years formed 20 per cent. and those under forty years 69 per cent.

The New Zealand rate of deaths from tubercular diseases, as well as those of the Australian States, compares very favourably with those of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which have, however, also decreased considerably of late years.

DEATH-RATES FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS, 1917.

 Death-rates (per 1,000) from Tuberculosis.    Percentage of Total Deaths.

* Civilians only.

Year 1915.

England and Wales*1.6211.21
Scotland1.639.58
Ireland2.2012.50
Queensland0.505.20
New South Wales0.616.36
Victoria0.797.63
South Australia0.959.37
Western Australia0.778.63
Tasmania0.596.67
Commonwealth0.697.00
New Zealand0.697.17

CANCER.

This disease is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than can be assigned to any cause other than organic disease of the heart.

In 1919 there were 1,031 deaths from cancer in the Dominion, a proportion of 9.07 per 10,000 persons. This number is the highest yet recorded, an unenviable distinction which almost every year in succession attains. Rates for war years are inflated to some extent by the absence of a large number of young men who are comparatively immune from cancer.

The average number of cancer deaths and the average cancer death-rate for the years 1914–18 were 947 and 8.55 respectively. Deaths of males during 1919 numbered 543, and of females 488.

NUMBER OF PERSONS WHO DIED FROM CANCER, THE PROPORTION PER 10,000 PERSONS LIVING, AND THE PERCENTAGE OF ALL DEATHS, 1910–19.
Years.Deaths from Cancer.Total Deaths, all Causes.Deaths from Cancer per 10,000 of Living Persons.Deaths from Cancer per 100 of all Deaths.
19107429,6397.477.70
19118099,5347.978.49
19128129,2147.828.81
191385610,1198.018.46
191490410,1488.298.91
19159009,9658.199.03
191690910,5968.278.50
191795710,5288.719.09
191893616,3648.495.72
19191,03110,8089.079.54

The parts of the body most commonly affected are the stomach and liver. Among females the generative and mammary organs are frequently the seat of the disease. Full details of location are published in Volume I of the “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand,” 1919.

CANCER: SEAT OF DISEASE, 1919.

Seat of Disease.Males.Females.Total.
Buccal cavity431053
Stomach and liver227130357
Peritoneum, intestines, rectum10181182
Female genital organs 8484
Breast 6363
Skin19625
Other organs or organs not specified153114267
Totals5434881,031

Eighty-nine per cent. of the deaths from cancer during 1919 were at the ages 45 years and upwards, and 61 per cent. at the ages 60 years and upwards.

Exhaustive statistical inquiry for the period 1872–1919 has shown that in New Zealand death from cancer is, on the average, now occurring later in life than formerly. It would seem that this is the case even if allowance be made for the fact that the age-constitution of the Dominion is increasing—i.e., that the average citizen of New Zealand is now older than the average citizen of ten, twenty, or fifty years ago.

PUERPERAL ACCIDENTS AND DISEASES.

The deaths certified to these causes in 1919 numbered 124, as against 134 in 1918. Included in the number in 1919 were: Accidents of pregnancy, 9; puerperal hæmorrhage, 10; other accidents of labour, 11; puerperal septicæmia, 52; puerperal albuminuria, 36. The number of deaths to every 1,000 confinements (where children were born alive) for each ten years is shown.

Year.    Deaths of Mothers to every 1,000 Confinements.
19104.55
19114.38
19123.73
19133.62
19144.22
19154.76
19165.93
19176.05
19185.24
19195.12

The higher rate of puerperal accidents and diseases shown since 1915 as compared with preceding years is largely, perhaps wholly, accounted for by the fact that during the past four years in all cases possible where a woman of child-bearing age was shown as having died of septicæmia, peritonitis, convulsions, &., steps were taken to ascertain whether the disease was puerperal.

MAORI DEATHS.

The following table shows the numbers of Maoris registered under section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, since its coming into force. The numbers registered under the main Act are also given.

Year.Under Section 20 of Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912.Under Main Act.
Males.Females.Totals.Totals.

* Not shown separately.

1913**41261
191438234172342
191542436278631
191643232976147
191738234772944
19181,0009371,93799
19196315631,19469

Maoris suffered exceedingly severe losses during the influenza epidemic of 1918. As statistics of causes of deaths are not compiled in their case, the exact totals cannot be ascertained, but it is estimated that at least 1,500 perished. This represents a rate of 30 per 1,000 of the Maori population, or over five times the “European” death-rate in the epidemic.

These deaths are not included in the numbers quoted elsewhere in this subsection.

DEATHS IN COOK ISLANDS.

As explained in the Births subsection of this book, a system of compulsory registration of deaths is now ruling in the Cook Islands.

The following figures of deaths during the year ended 31st March, 1920, are supplied by the Cook Islands Department.

Islands.Number of Deaths.
NOTE.—In some cases the figures quoted above are for the calendar year 1919 or other periods.
Rarotonga89
Aitutaki43
Mangaia40
Manihiki10
Mauke10
Mitiaro2
Rakahanga10
Atiu29
Penrhyn2
Pukapuka (no returns) 
Niue126*
Total361

SUBSECTION D.—MORBIDITY.

IN comparisons of healthiness based on death-rates, the effect of the advance of medical science in recent years is not taken into account. It is common knowledge that many diseases regarded a few decades ago as incurable now give a fair percentage of recoveries. Again, many diseases seldom or never result fatally.

In New Zealand the only records of this nature beyond that of fatality are the returns of infectious diseases notified and discharges from public hospitals.

MONTHLY INCIDENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES ACCORDING TO NOTIFICATIONS RECEIVED UNDER SECTION 25 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH ACT DURING THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1919.

Month.Scarlet Fever.Diphtheria.Enteric Fever.Tuberculosis.Cerebro-spinal Meningitis.Poliomyelitis.Puerperal Septicæmia.Hydatids.Ophthalmia Neonatorum.Septicæmia (unclassified).Erysipelas.Measles.Lethargic Encephalitis.Influenza.Pneumonia.Trachoma.Anthrax.Totals.
Jan.791592074161332 421 366 1 749
Feb.69166268422823 46 76   448
March80249411072 6442816 133   652
April145333477071532355 395   1,021
May172409467113121114286284   1,039
June17238137759356217103913629  912
July152353588310 92238132020080  993
Aug.148330439512 941111187316113  1,105
Sept.13829144719255 2862132561542 1,062
Oct.12630560889 462 2763197118  996
Nov.15326530954 1141161132528199411,417
Dec.872582571811254 6109 813186  1,580
Totals1,5213,49947798496117945241473477903,7008797111,977

Nearly 60 per cent. of the notifications were for diphtheria and influenza. The great majority of influenza cases were of a very mild type. A quinquennial summary of the principal diseases only is as follows:—

PRINCIPAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES NOTIFIED DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS.

Disease.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Scarlet fever2,3124,2782,7551,6541,521
Diphtheria1,4202,3765,4585,5393,499
Enteric fever825806653423477
Tuberculosis1,0199501,5211,072984
Cerebro-spinal meningitis851354215996
Poliomyelitis101,01854611

PUBLIC HOSPITALS: ADMISSIONS AND DISCHARGES.

The total admissions to public hospitals (other than St. Helens’ Maternity Homes) in New Zealand during 1919 numbered 42,917. There were 2,895 patients in hospital at the beginning of the year, the total cases dealt with during the year being thus 45,812, equal to 386 per 10,000 of mean population, including Maoris. The total number of persons treated is somewhat less than the number of cases, each admission being counted a separate case.

Of the 45,812 cases, 26,321 were discharged as recovered, including a number of tuberculosis cases in which the patient was described as able to work or as having had the disease arrested. In 11,385 cases the patient was discharged relieved, and in 1,906 cases as unrelieved. Deaths in hospital numbered 2,864, or 6.25 per cent. of cases dealt with. end of the year. There are 65 public general hospitals, 4 fever or infectious-diseases hospitals, and 6 sanatoria for consumptives.

AGES OF PATIENTS.

The ages of patients discharged from or dying in public hospitals during 1919 and 1918 are as shown in the following summary:—

PUBLIC HOSPITALS.—AGES OF PATIENTS DISCHARGED OR DYING.
Ages of Patients, in Years.1919.1918.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
Under 52,0461,4613,5072,2081,7753,983
5 and under 102,2881,8904,1782,5712,1994,770
10 and under 151,6931,2812,9741,8511,5083,359
15 and under 254,6593,1747,8334,7934,1258,918
25 and under 355,6763,4689,1445,4054,4839,888
35 and under 453,6642,5176,1813,9922,6576,649
45 and under 552,3561,1733,5292,5391,2593,798
55 and under 651,5206712,1911,5136482,161
65 and over2,2626772,9392,1666482,814
Unspecified8175156   
Totals26,16416,31242,47627,11919,37746,496

SUMMARY OF DISEASES, ETC.

The Bertillon system of classification of diseases and causes of death divides such into fourteen well-defined classes, which are further subdivided into 189 orders. The table following shows that Class I, “General diseases,” is first on the list as regards both discharges and deaths. Diseases of the digestive system come next in point of numbers, but the death-rate is low. External causes come third on the list, and here again the death-rate is low, owing to the preponderance of simple fractures, cuts, bruises. &.

PUBLIC HOSPITALS.—CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES, 1919.

Class.Discharges.Deaths.Total Discharges and Deaths.
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Males.Females.Males.Females.
I. General diseases5,8472,2356036003775,6853,977
II. Diseases of the nervous system and of the organs of special sense9231,1533272201141,7001,037
III. Diseases of the circulatory system81978677232901,427577
IV. Diseases of the respiratory system3,7791,20697225863,2952,098
V. Diseases of the digestive system5,2891,3111221541123,9083,020
VI. Diseases of the genitourinary system and annexa2,016834119130451,0452,099
VII. Puerperal condition1,22915132 47 1,459
VIII. Diseases of the skin and of the cellular tissue1,2254734825111,271511
IX. Diseases of the organs of locomotion797612591631,096391
X. Malformations239672710428166
XI. Diseases of early infancy2614122154830
XII. Old age239798922528055
XIII. External causes3,7922,293259153405,758779
XIV. Ill-defined causes31715337511310213
Totals26,32111,3851,9061,88498026,16416,312

More detailed information concerning certain of the principal diseases and groups of diseases is given in the following pages. The “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand” (Volume I) contain detailed information for each hospital.

EPIDEMIC GENERAL DISEASES.

A table of the epidemic general diseases dealt with in public hospitals during 1919 is given. The figures in this and following tables throughout this subsection deal with the discharges and deaths only, and not with patients remaining in hospital at the end of the year, who will be included in the figures for 1920 or such other year of discharge or death.

PRINCIPAL EPIDEMIC GENERAL DISEASES, 1919.

Disease.Discharges.Deaths.Total Discharges and Deaths.
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Typhoid fever1766311712182
Malaria77127 1 2041
Measles701 114231
Scarlet fever7312238710307501
Whooping-cough77   68
Diphtheria2,02876854551,0031,218
Croup10   183
Influenza8889494222680375
Dysentery241311 345
Erysipelas467 152831
Chicken-pox81311 2015
Mumps1151  825
German measles  1  57
Other diseases251  71
Totals4,181366631191012,5472,283

The rate of mortality of this group is normally very low, between 2 and 3 per cent. In 1919 the mortality rate was 4.55 per cent., due principally to the influenza cases, an aftermath of the epidemic.

TUBERCULOSIS.

Tuberculosis occupies eight orders in the classification of diseases, but is usually divided into two groups—viz., pulmonary tuberculosis and other forms of tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis, with which is included tuberculosis (undefined) and acute miliary tuberculosis, comprises 72 per cent. of the total of 1,511 cases of tubercular diseases, and the same percentage of the deaths.

TUBERCULOSIS CASES IN HOSPITALS, 1919.
Form of Tuberculosis.Discharges.Deaths.Total Discharges and Deaths.
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Tuberculosis of lungs12652320514984751336
Acute miliary tuberculosis   4343
Tuberculous meningitis12429123117
Abdominal tuberculosis20319773143
Pott's disease185013556427
White swellings357613448646
Tuberculosis of other organs96131237716599
Disseminated tuberculosis1 14253
Totals2978132682091241,137574

Five sanatoria for the treatment of tuberculosis cases are situated in suitable districts throughout the Dominion.

VENEREAL DISEASES.

In order to obtain some definite information regarding the so-called “social diseases,” a questionnaire was attached in 1919 to the hospital discharge cards used in the preparation of statistical tables, requiring completion in all cases where the disease treated was due to one form or other of venereal disease. Of 42,476 patients discharged from or dying in public hospitals in 1919, some 234 suffered from effects of syphilis and 339 from effects of gonococcal infection. Some of the results obtained are as tabulated below:—

How infection contracted.Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Died.Total.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Origin Syphilitic.
Congenitally33101031422016
Sexual intercourse12444191426 7625
Mouth infection  2     2 
Otherwise 11 1   21
Not known or not stated11844111314 7220
Total26161014031414217262
Origin Gonococcal.
At birth2521  1 56
Sexual intercourse625481181032115576
By contact 1       1
Contact with infected clothes, towels, &. 2 2     4
Otherwise2834    512
Not known or not stated1619201414 13738
Total82891063911732202137
Grand total108105207794211174374199

Another portion of the questionnaire concerned itself with the present communicability of the disease, and the opinions of the medical practitioners in charge of the cases were as follows:—

Was Disease communicable at Date of Discharge?Origin Syphilitic.Origin Gonococcal.
No.Per Cent.No.Per Cent.
Yes4720.0910530.97
Probably41.71164.72
Possibly20.8672.05
Probably not20.8610.30
No8938.0316348.08
Patient dead166.8451.50
Not known or not stated7431.614212.38
 234100.00339100.00

CANCER

The total number of deaths in public hospitals in 1919 where cancer was assigned as the cause was 279 (males 186, females 93). In addition 160 patients treated for cancer were discharged as recovered, 216 as relieved, and 171 as unrelieved. Very few of the recoveries were in cases of internal cancer, and but a small proportion of the deaths in cases of surface cancer. It is noticeable that with but six exceptions cancer of the mouth and its annexa was confined to males. Cancer of the stomach, liver, &., and of the skin are also pre-eminently male diseases.

CANCER CASES.—DISCHARGES FROM AND DEATHS IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS, 1919.

Seat of Disease.Discharges.Deaths
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Males.Females
Males.FemalesMales.FemalesMales.Females
Buccal cavity381202201212
Stomach, liver, &.2224735116922
Intestines, rectum, &. 927111583314
Female genital organs 8 35 19 23
Breast 52 31 11 10
Skin841727291
Other organs (including unspecified)2511202029135421
Totals73871081081066518693

Of the 279 patients who died in hospitals from cancer during 1919, 142, or more than half, had been in hospital less than one month, and of these 53 died within one week of admission.

PUERPERAL CONDITION.

A total of 1,459 cases come under the heading of puerperal. This number includes 393 cases of normal childbirth dealt with at public general hospitals, but does not cover maternity cases in St. Helens Hospitals.

PUERPERAL ACCIDENTS, ETC.
Disease.Discharges.Deaths.Total Discharges and Deaths.
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.
Miscarriage2073712247
Abortion28933  322
Ectopic gestation6681277
Persistent vomiting224  26
Hyperemesis gravidarum1331 17
Other accidents of pregnancy26106 42
Normal labour37797 393
Puerperal hæmorrhage34924545
Ruptured perinæum2721 30
Other accidents of labour36106355
Puerperal septicæmia9913 27139
Puerperal eclampsia172 1130
Other16117236
Totals1,22915132471,459

OTHER DISEASES.

Of remaining diseases dealt with, a number of the more important or more frequently occurring are shown in tabulated form.

Bertillon No.Disease, &c.Discharges.Deaths.Total Discharges and Deaths.
Recovered.Relieved.Unrelieved.Males.Females.
47, 48Rheumatism3072332312363212
50Diabetes215814426768
51Exophthalmic goitre33394111275
54Anæmia, chlorosis27394193752
56Alcoholism1948161226726
61Meningitis541369610762
64Apoplexy, cerebral hæmorrhage1223911811745
 Neurasthenia9016930 167122
75Diseases of eyes266334501404247
76Diseases of ears1178110 12385
79Organic heart-disease9348537257658214
81Diseases of arteries, &.324818449
83Diseases of veins, &.433136172407181
88Diseases of thyroid body1175410229154
89, 90Bronchitis3932011052475181
91Broncho-pneumonia1431414311487
92Pneumonia656724151589294
93Pleurisy362154627401148
96Asthma7510461113165
 Tonsils80114962516442
 Gastritis24816774292134
104, 105Diarrhæa and enteritis354101528313175
108Appendicitis1,95716512631,0571,140
109Hernia, &.7851592443806205
111–115Diseases of liver203931231122217
117Peritonitis52346275267
119, 120Nephritis, Bright's disease7610198217890
124Diseases of bladder1211091224155111
128–130Diseases of uterus9402154614 1,215
131Diseases of ovary981732 120
132Diseases of female genital organs128374  169
 Osteomyelitis798181013741
 Synovitis104425 11734
160-3Violence (1) suicides10712164
164–186Violence (2) accident3,7822,2862581915,742775

Chapter 3. SECTION III.—PUBLIC HEALTH, HOSPITALS, ETC.

SUBSECTION A.—PUBLIC HEALTH.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACT.

LEGISLATION on the subject of public health is contained principally in the Public Health Act, 1908, and its amendments in 1910 and 1918.

The 1918 amendment was passed largely as the result of experience gained during the influenza epidemic which visited New Zealand in the last three months of the year 1918. Its principal object was the provision of necessary powers to enable the Public Health Department to take more vigorous action in combating an epidemic. It also provided for the creation of a Board of Public Health, consisting of ten members, whose duty it is to report to the Minister of Health on matters concerning developments in national health, medical service, instruction in health questions, and desirable legislative reforms. Further power is given to the Minister of Health to create District Advisory Committees in any health district when required. Provision is also made for any local authority to establish lodginghouses within the area of its jurisdiction, or contiguous thereto, the money for the purchase of the necessary land and buildings being obtainable by loan under the Local Bodies’ Loans Act. In regard to buildings in a condition unfit for occupation or dangerous to public health, the local authority may, upon the certificate of the District Health Officer, require the owner to have the premises pulled down, or, as an alternative, the District Health Officer may require structural alterations or additions made to the buildings or improvements to the sanitary conditions. In order to prevent overcrowding in lodginghouses and tenements, no person is allowed to accommodate more than five lodgers at any time, for either temporary or permanent board and residence, unless the premises have been licensed by the local governing authority; nor can the owner let any house or tenement in which more than one family is to reside, or any room for the occupation of more than two persons, without the previous approval of the local authority. To secure adequate medical services in the outlying districts power is given to the Minister, on receiving an application from a local authority, to provide a resident medical practitioner, whose salary and emoluments shall be fixed, and who will not be debarred from holding Government appointments connected with matters of public health in his district.

VACCINATION.

The law in this connection makes vaccination of children compulsory, but provides for exemption if the parent or custodian of a child has conscientious objections. Comparatively few children are now vaccinated.

REGISTRATION OF MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS.

Under the Medical Practitioners Act, 1914, is constituted the Medical Board of New Zealand, consisting of the Inspector-General of Hospitals and six other registered medical practitioners.

It is a serious offence for a person to carry on the practice of medicine unless he is registered under the Act. The register is kept by the Registrar-General. The Medical Board deals with all applications for registration, considering not only professional qualifications, but other attendant circumstances also. To be qualified for registration a person must be a graduate in medicine of the University of New Zealand, or eligible for registration in the United Kingdom, or hold the diploma of an approved foreign institution after a course of not less than five years’ study of medical or surgical subjects.

Applicants who are refused registration have the right of appeal to the Supreme Court. Application for registration should be made in the first place to the Registrar of Births and Deaths at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, or Dunedin. The fee for registration is £3 3s., payable on deposit of evidence of qualification. The number on the register at 31st December, 1919, was 1,015.

REGISTRATION OF DENTISTS.

Application for registration as a dentist should be made to the Registrar-General, Wellington, accompanied by a fee of £1.

Every adult person is entitled to be registered as a dentist in New Zealand who is the holder of a degree in dental surgery of the University of New Zealand, or a certificate of proficiency in dentistry obtained from the Senate of the University, or is registered or entitled to be registered as a dentist in the United Kingdom, or is the holder of such degree in dentistry granted in a British possession or a foreign country as may be recognized by the Senate of the New Zealand University. Evidence of good character is required in every case. The number on the register at 31st December, 1919, was 751.

SALE OF FOOD AND DRUGS.

The Sale of Food and Drugs Act is administered by the officers of the Public Health Department, and provides for the analysis, by public analysts, of any article of food or drink, or of any drug, which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food or drug intended for sale. If any such article be proved to be unfit for human consumption, or likely to cause injury to health if consumed, heavy penalties may be inflicted on the person or persons responsible.

During the year 1919, 144 charges under the Sale of Food and Drugs Act were dealt with in the Magistrates’ Courts, resulting in 108 convictions. Fines were imposed in 102 cases, and in six cases the defendant was convicted and discharged. One hundred of the convictions were in connection with the sale of adulterated milk, twenty-one for selling light-weight bread, and eight for selling light-weight or over-watered butter.

In 1919, 2,489 samples were taken by the Department, 2,135 being milk-samples. Samples of bread to the number of 3,197 were weighed, and 380 of these were found to be short-weighted. Of 1,579 butter-samples weighed, thirty-five were non-complying. The total fines and costs where legal proceedings resulted from sampling or weighing, &., amounted to £1,048 for the year.

REGISTRATION OF PLUMBERS.

The Plumbers Registration Act, passed during the session of 1912, provided for the setting-up of a Board, to be called the Plumbers’ Board of New Zealand. The functions of the Board are to decide what persons may be registered under the Act, in what districts sanitary plumbing shall be performed only by registered plumbers, and what shall be the scope of the examinations to be held in the future as a part of the process of securing registration.

The total number of plumbers entered on the register to date is 1,295.

SUBSECTION B.—HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.
EXPENDITURE ON HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE AID.

The year 1918–19 is the third year for which official statistics of Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards have been prepared on the basis of an income and Expenditure Account and Balance-sheet. The results arrived at are the products of the application of the uniform system of accounts which has been adopted in several countries abroad, and these are thus comparable with those of many other countries.

On account of the fact that the figures furnished in the following tables for this Dominion prior to the year 1916–7 were compiled on a basis of receipts and payments and not of income and expenditure, the amounts in some points are not strictly comparable with those for the last three years.

HOSPITAL AND CHARITABLE-AID INCOME.

The total gross income of Hospital Boards, separate institutions, and Government institutions for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was £1,213,815, and for Hospital Boards alone was £1,161,669.

The main sources of income for the year were as follow:—

 £
* Exclusive of fees paid by Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards or separate institutions.
Contributable by Government302,666
Levies on local authorities264,063
Voluntary contributions17,620
Fees payable by those assisted349,172*
Fees payable on account of patients by Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards, separate institutions, and Government (inter se)3,680
Charitable-aid recoveries 
Rents, interests, and dividends19,255
Miscellaneous income19,295

EXPENDITURE.

The total gross expenditure of Hospital Boards, separate institutions, and Government institutions amounted during the year to £1 213,815, the expenditure of Hospital Boards alone being £1,161,669. The net expenditure— i.e., the gross expenditure less the excess of income over expenditure—was £939,828. The following are the main items of expenditure by all authorities:—

 £
Hospital maintenance547,649
Charitable aid136,177
Public health33,700
Administration14,330
Reductions in patients’ fees and amounts written off151,716

HOSPITAL-MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURE.

The average annual cost of maintenance per occupied bed for the last five years is set out below:—

Year.Provisions.Surgery and Dispensary.Domestic and Establishment.Salaries and Wages.Total Maintenance.
 £££££
1914–1525.010.727.043.5106.2
1915–1627.410.431.142.5111.3
1916–1728.710.327.143.7109.6
1917–1830.711.833.841.8118.1
1918–1935.912.839.048.0135.7

CHARITABLE-AID EXPENDITURE.

The charitable-aid expenditure for the last five years has been as follows:—

Year.Indoor Relief.Outdoor Relief.Total.
 £££
1914–1574,08137,413111,494
1915–1684,26940,349124,618
1916–1772,52441,119113,643
1917–1891,09244,006135,098
1918–1982,71353,464136,177

HOSPITAL AND CHARITABLE-AID EXPENDITURE.

Year ended 31st March.Mean Population.Hospital and Charitable Aid and other Expenditure.Expenditure per Head of Mean Population.
  £s.d.
19151,095,206578,838106 3/4
19161,100,496631,504115 3/4
19171,099,449603,0811011 3/4
19181,114,706716,0591210 1/4
19191,136,390947,171168

The above figures include infectious-diseases hospitals and consumptive sanatoria under Boards’ control, also public-health expenditure and subsidies to medical associations and district nurses. Since 1916–17 the figures are statements of expenditure incurred, not of actual payments made as in previous years. The number of persons availing themselves of treatment in the general hospitals for the last five years has been as follows:—

Year.Total Number of Persons under TreatmentMean Population.Proportion under Treatment per 1,000 of Population.Average Number of Occupied Beds per Diem.Proportion per 1,000 of Population.
1914–1531,3661,095,20628.62,3642.16
1915–1636,4771,100,49633.12,6172.38
1916–1739,0291,099,44935.52,9722.73
1917–1840,2321,114,70636.13,1902.86
1918–1950,1121,136,39044.13,6533.21

The general hospitals, numbering sixty-five in 1918–19, covered by the above table include five hospitals which are also old people's homes, as well as two institutions—the Mercury Bay and Oamaru Hospitals—which are not under the control of Hospital Boards. The figures given do not cover maternity hospitals or special hospitals for infectious diseases or tuberculosis.

PUBLIC HOSPITALS.

Information as to the number of public general hospitals and their staff and accommodation is given for each of the past five years.

Number ofYear ended 31st March.
1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
Institutions6565656465
Medical staff (stipendiary)100115112114123
Nursing staff—
    Trained nurses281260248293292
    Probationers647764833864900
Domestic staff623675600771 
Beds3,5313,8324,0754,1914,616

Further particulars concerning the public general hospitals of the Dominion for the years ended the 31st March, 1918 and 1919, are given in the next table:—

Year ended 31st March.
1918.1919.
Average number of patients per diem3,1903,653
Number of patients under treatment40,23250,112
Deaths2,6074,359
Average annual cost of maintenance per occupied bed apart from administration, &., charged£118.1£135.7
Number of out-patients attended during year28,09127,987

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.

State charitable institutions are administered by combined Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards, who also distribute outdoor relief. In the case of recipients of old-age pensions, the pension is received by the officers of the Board as payment for the maintenance of the pensioner, but a proportion is handed over to the latter to be expended as he or she may choose.

PRIVATE HOSPITALS.

The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1909, provides for the licensing (annually), management, and inspection of private hospitals. At the end of 1919 some 240 licensed private hospitals were in existence.

MATERNITY HOSPITALS.

There are six State maternity hospitals now open for the use of the public.

ST. HELENS HOSPITALS, 1919-20.

Town.Confinements in Institution.Confinements attended outside.
Births.Deaths of Mothers.Deaths of Infants.
    Births.
Auckland317 3217
Gisborne90   
Wellington2782892
Christchurch22026142
Dunedin1231896
Invercargill111  5
Totals1,139525552

ST. HELENS HOSPITALS, 1915–16 TO 1919-20.

Year ended 31st March.Confinements in Institution.Confinements attended outside.
Births.Deaths of Mothers.Deaths of Infants.
    Births.
191679826563
19171,071828523
19181,248727530
19191,1231826521
19201,139525552

There is a maternity hospital attached to the Medical School at Dunedin, which also serves as a training-school for medical students and midwives.

Charitable maternity homes are established at Auckland, Otahuhu, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, and Invercargill for the reception of unmarried girls. The Salvation Army have similar institutions at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

REGISTRATION OF NURSES AND MIDWIVES.

The Nurses Registration Act provides that every person who has attained the age of twenty-three years and is certified as having had three years’ training as a nurse in a recognized general hospital, together with systematic instruction in theoretical and practical nursing from the medical officer and the matron of that hospital, and who passes the prescribed examination, is entitled to registration. There are now 2,728 nurses on the register.

The number of registered midwives on 31st March, 1920, was 2,638. Of these latter, 1,119 were trained and certificated, the remainder having satisfied the Registrar that at the date of the passing of the Act they had been for at least three years in bona fide practice as midwives, and that they bear a good character.

ORPHANAGES AND OTHER CHILDREN'S HOMES.

Exclusive of industrial schools, there are so far as is known some thirty-five institutions that may be described as orphanages or children's homes. The Education Act provides for the inspection of all orphanages and cognate institutions by Inspectors of the Education Department, with a view to securing that as regards education of the children and general management these organizations are acting consistently with the laws governing the education, care, and upbringing of children who are maintained in kindred institutions.

Under the control of the Education Department come also the various institutions for deaf and dumb, blind, or mentally defective children. These are dealt with in the section of this book dealing with Education.

SUBSECTION C.—MENTAL HOSPITALS.

There are seven public mental hospitals in the Dominion, maintained wholly or in part out of the public revenue. There is also one private hospital, licensed by the Governor-General for the reception of the mentally afflicted.

Information concerning the law dealing with the treatment of mental defectives is given in the 1914 issue of this book.

PATIENTS UNDER TREATMENT.

The number of patients at the end of the year 1919 was 4,647, including 60 Maoris.

Mental Hospital.Males.Females.Total.
Auckland596401997
Tokanui15149200
Porirua5914491,040
Nelson99103202
Hokitika19372265
Christchurch356388744
Dunedin (Seacliff and Waitati)6234321,055
Ashburn Hall (private mental hospital)202343
Absent on probation3863101
Totals2,6671,9804,647

The number of patients remaining at the close of each of the past five years, and the proportion per 10,000 of the population (excluding Maoris), are shown in the following table:—

MENTAL PATIENTS (EXCLUDING MAORIS), 1915–19.

Year.Number remaining at Close of Year.Proportion per 10,000 of Population.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
19152,4281,7404,16843.0531.5037.79
19162,5331,8044,33746.0632.7639.41
19172,5771,8844,46147.9633.6240.64
19182,5641,9214,48547.3033.9240.46
19192,6301,9574,58744.6634.0139.39
Means of five years2,5461,8614,40745.7633.3339.54

The total number of patients under oversight, care, or control during 1919 was 5,509 (males 3,178, females 2,331), as against 5,408 in 1918. The average number resident in mental hospitals was 4,501 in 1918 and 4,527 in 1919.

ADMISSIONS.

The total admissions to mental hospitals during the year 1919 were 883 (512 males and 371 females), this number not including 80 transfers from one institution to another. The principal causes of insanity as assigned on admission are given below, distinguishing each hospital:—

CausesAuckland.Christchurch.Dunedin.Hokitika.Nelson.Porirua.Tokanui.Ashburn Hall.Total.
Heredity21724538 270
Congenital4913264828  128
Previous attack1621181423  83
Puberty and adolescence164 18   29
Climacteric1086 12 330
Senility3418182224  98
Prolonged mental stress35916 3231289
Alcohol201964216  67
Syphilis1294 117 447
Epilepsy11931 11  35
Influenza161   5 123
Unknown161124 53  86
Other causes291023  331298
Total2691511502125251214883

FIRST ADMISSIONS.

Of the 883 persons admitted to mental hospitals during 1919, those admitted for the first time to any mental hospital in New Zealand numbered 744 (males 448, females 296), and those readmitted 139 (males 64, females 75).

Excluding the Native race, the number of first admissions and the rate per 10,000 of population for each of the past five years were as follows:—

FIRST ADMISSIONS AND RATE PER 10,000 OF MEAN POPULATION, 1915–19.

Year.Number of First Admissions.Proportion per 10,000 of Population.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
19153762696456.875.106.01
19164362837197.905.176.54
19174062947007.475.296.37
19183673206876.805.686.23
19194442917357.855.106.47
Means of five years4062916977.335.266.30

The figures for 1919 represent one first admission for every 1,546 persons in the Dominion.

VOLUNTARY INMATES.

Persons labouring under mental defect, but capable of understanding the meaning of the procedure, may seek admission to a mental hospital as voluntary boarders. At the beginning of 1919 there were 51 boarders in residence (20 males, 31 females), and during the year 95 (36 males, 59 females) were admitted. If a voluntary boarder should after admission show mental defect sufficiently pronounced and sustained to render it improper to classify him any longer as such, application for a reception order is made to a Magistrate. During the year 1919, 6 (3 males, 3 females) were transferred from the voluntary to the ordinary register, and 5 died, while 66 (24 males, 42 females) were discharged, leaving 69 resident at the end of the year (26 males, 43 females).

AGES OF INMATES.

A summary is attached showing the ages of patients in mental hospitals at the close of 1919:—

Age, in Years.Males.Females.Total.
1 to 5224
5 to 10101222
10 to 15331750
15 to 205549104
90 and over336
20 to 30266173439
30 to 40581393974
40 to 506324811,113
50 to 60470412882
60 to 70355256611
70 to 80168124292
80 to 90482674
Unknown443276
Totals2,6671,9804,647

MAORIS ADMITTED AND REMAINING.

The number of Maoris admitted as patients to the mental hospitals is small. Twelve (6 males, 6 females) were admitted during the year, and 60 (37 males, 23 females) remained at the end of the year.

DISCHARGES AND DEATHS.

Dealing with patients of all races, the next table gives the average number resident, those who were discharged as recovered, and those who died, during the period 1915–19:—

Year.Average Number Resident.Discharged as recovered.Died.
Number.Per Cent. of Average Number Resident.Number.Per Cent. of Average Number Resident.
19154,0943598.772846.94
19164,2513317.792896.80
19174,3683237.393187.28
19184,5012836.294489.95
19194,5273377.443427.55
Means of five years4,3483277.523367.73

DEATHS IN MENTAL HOSPITALS, 1919.

Cause of Death.Auckland.Christchurch.Dunedin.Hokitika.Nelson.Porirua.Tokanui.Ashburn Hall.Totals.
Tuberculosis844 16  23
Cancer2 2  2  6
Other general diseases4 3 2   9
General paralysis of the insane17361114 143
Organic brain-disease2951 1   36
Epilepsy9151 2  18
Other nervous diseases9281 7  27
Diseases of the respiratory system5 6316  21
Diseases of the circulatory system144125 171154
Diseases of the digestive system2 1  11 5
Diseases of the genito-urinary system31   1  5
Old age2117184821 291
External causes1    1  2
Ill-defined causes 1   1  2
Totals124386615147924342

A table is added showing for all admissions since 1876 the percentages of patients discharged (as recovered, relieved, and not improved, separately), dying, and remaining.

Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Discharged—
    Recovered36.7842.7939.22
    Relieved7.259.188.04
    Not improved9.549.279.44
Died32.4122.6128.42
Remaining at end of 191914.0216.1514.88
 100.00100.00100.00

PRIVATE MENTAL HOSPITAL.

There is only one licensed private institution in the Dominion, that at Wakari, near Dunedin, established in 1882. Particulars of admissions, &., for the past five years are as follows:—

PRIVATE MENTAL HOSPITAL (included in previous figures).

Year.Admissions.Discharges.Deaths.Patients remaining at End of Year.
1915812140
1916155446
19172011352
19181111745
19191512444

EXPENDITURE, ETC.

The total expenditure on maintenance of mental hospitals (not including the cost of new buildings and additions), and receipts from patients and for sale of produce, &., during the past five years were as follows:—

Year.Total Expenditure.Receipts from Patients, Sale of Produce, &.,Net Expenditure.
 £££
1915178,37351,786126,587
1916197,66360,745136,918
1917220,77768,446152,331
1918248,60969,195179,414
1919286,84794,130192,717

The total net expenditure out of the Public Works Fund for buildings and equipment from 1st July, 1877, to 31st March, 1920, was £891,540.

Farms are conducted in connection with the various mental hospitals, the inmates themselves doing most of the labour. During 1919, sales of produce brought in £14,285, while the value of produce grown on the farms and consumed in the institutions was estimated at £22,953. Expenses in connection with the farms amounted to £24,171, so that the year's working shows a credit balance of £12,707.

The net cost per patient for the year 1919 was £42 8s. 5d. as against £39 18s. 5 1/2d. for the previous year.

Chapter 4. SECTION IV.—EDUCATION.

CENSUS FIGURES.

As a result of the census taken in October, 1916, it is found that 83.53 per cent. of the persons in New Zealand at that date were able to read and write, 0.68 per cent. could read only, while 15.79 per cent. could neither read nor write. Of the latter, children form a large proportion.

The proportion able to read and write has fallen slightly as compared with figures compiled from the 1911 census returns. This small decrease is probably due to the disturbance of the normal proportions of the population brought about by the absence with the Forces of a number of men between twenty and forty years of age.

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION.

In the following tables an attempt has been made to analyse the public expenditure on the various branches of education.

ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION IN NEW ZEALAND FOR THE YEAR 1919-20.

(Figures given in every case to the nearest £1,000.)
Branch of Education.Amount.Per Head of Population (including Maoris).
Out of Public Funds.*Secondary and University Reserves Revenue.Total from all Public Sources.Out of Public Funds.*Secondary and University Reserves Revenue.Total from all Public Sources.
* Including expenditure out of income from primary-education reserves. Including technical high schools and secondary departments of district high schools.
 £££s.d.s.d.s.d.
Primary.1,939,000 1,939,0003111  3111
Secondary288,00051,000339,000481058
Continuation and technical87,000 87,00015  15
Higher69,00029,00098,000110617
 2,383,00080,0002,463,00039116407
Industrial schools, &.87,000 87,00015  15
Special schools13,000 13,00003  03
Superannuation and miscellaneous61,000 61,00011  11
Totals2,544,00080,0002,624,000411016434

The following table shows the total amount expended on education out of the public funds only, and the amount per head of population:—

Year ended 31st March.Amount expended out of Public Funds.Expenditure per Head of Population out of Public Funds.
* Income from primary-education reserves included.
 £s.d.
1899519,000134
1904679,000156
19141,301,000230
19181,814,000*317*
19191,986,000*344*
19202,554,000*4110*

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

The central Department of Education, with a Cabinet Minister at its head, manages directly the Native schools and special schools, and also administers the Education Act. For the purposes of primary education the Dominion is divided into nine education districts, each of which is presided over by an Education Board, and these in turn are divided into smaller districts, in each of which a School Committee elected by the householders has authority. The School Committees of each education district elect the Education Board, and are subject to its general control. The Board receives from the Department and disburses money voted by the General Assembly for the purposes of instruction, and appoints the teachers, subject to the condition of consultation with the Committee of the school district.

A General Council of Education created by the Act reports to the Minister upon educational methods or developments deemed worthy of introduction into the Dominion and upon such matters as bear upon the provision of further facilities for education, whether local or general.

Education at the public schools is free and purely secular. Attendance at a registered school is obligatory upon all children between the ages of seven and fourteen, except when special exemptions are granted. The Inspectors who visit the schools are officers of the Education Department.

The programme of primary instruction provided by the Act includes English, arithmetic, geography, history and civics, drawing and handwork (including needlework), nature-study and elementary science, physical instruction, moral instruction and health, and singing.

SCHOOL STATISTICS TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1919.

The number of scholars and students as in 1919 is shown in the following summary. Pupils of private schools not inspected by the Education Department are excluded.

Primary education—
    Public schools191,153
    Native village and Native mission schools5,358
    Registered private primary schools20,977
    Lower departments of secondary schools686
 218,174
Secondary education—
    Secondary schools9,068
    Secondary departments of district high schools2,159
    Technical high schools2,926
    Maori secondary schools434
    Registered private secondary schools1,497
 16,084
Technical and continuation (excluding technical high schools)17,950
Higher education—
    University colleges (including training-college students)3,060
    Lincoln Agricultural College52
 3,112
Total under instruction255,320

This is an increase of 5,731 on the number under instruction during the previous year.

The public primary schools numbered 2,400 in 1919, against 2,365 in 1918. The number of registered private primary schools was 212. The number of aided or endowed colleges, grammar and high schools in operation was 34, and the number of technical schools 9. The number of University colleges was 4. The number of private schools from which returns were received in 1918 by the Government Statistician was 320. The number of primary and secondary schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 134.

PUBLIC (STATE) SCHOOLS.

Compared with 1918, there was in 1919 an increase of 1,125 in the number of pupils belonging to the public schools at the end of the year, and the average attendance shows an increase of 5,049 for the whole year.

Year.Number of Schools.Pupils at End of Year.Mean of Average Weekly Roll.Average Attendance, Whole Year.Average Attendance as Percentage of Weekly Roll.
187874865,040 48,773 
18881,158112,685113,63690,10879.3
18981,655131,621133,782111,63683.4
19081,998147,428145,974127,16087.1
19132,255172,168169,530151,24289.2
19152,338183,214181,229163,09290.0
19162,355185,884184,056163,15688.6
19172,368190,354187,954168,71189.8
19182,365194,934191,382169,83688.7
19192,400196,059193,655174,88590.3

AGE AND SEX OF PUPILS.

The following table shows the age and sex of the pupils on the rolls of the public schools of the Dominion at the end of 1919, and the percentage of the roll for each age:—

Age, in Years.1919.Percentages for Five Years.
Boys.Girls.Total.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.
5 and under 67,8637,19415,0577.87.98.07.47.8
6 and under 710,7219,90720,62810.810.610.610.710.6
7 and under 811,66010,68922,34911.711.611.511.411.6
8 and under 911,53310,63522,16811.411.711.711.311.4
9 and under 1011,34210,63421,97611.411.211.611.411.3
10 and under 1111,24110,62821,86911.211.111.111.511.3
11 and under 1211,14310,22021,36310.910.810.910.711.0
12 and under 1310,5269,66020,18610.010.510.410.510.4
13 and under 148,9448,16117,1058.58.58.88.98.8
14 and under 154,5793,9638,5424.54.34.24.74.4
15 and over1,4411,2162,6571.81.81.21.51.4
Totals100,99392,907193,900100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

MEDICAL INSPECTION AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

Physical exercises based on the syllabus of the Board of Education, England, are practised in all public schools under the supervision of a staff of physical instructors. Corrective classes for children with physical deformities are also held with good results.

A staff of ten School Medical Officers and fifteen School Nurses medically examine public-school children, notifying parents when medical or dental treatment is required. The number of public schools visited in 1919 was 704, and the number of children completely examined was approximately 30,000.

CONVEYANCE AND BOARD OF SCHOLARS.

The following shows expenditure for 1919 on the above-named services:—

Railway Fares.Boarding-allowance and Conveyance by Road or Water.Total.
 £££
Primary11,45917,75729,216
Secondary5,6131555,768
Technical3,852 3,852
        Totals20,92417,91238,836

MANUAL INSTRUCTION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS.

Classes for elementary handwork exist in 2,166 primary schools, and in 1,562 schools other branches of manual instruction are taught. The capitation payments made by the Department on account of manual instruction for the year 1919–20 amounted to £57,560. Instruction is given in a wide variety of subjects, ranging from laundry-work to agriculture.

CLASS-BOOKS AND SCHOOL AND CLASS LIBRARIES.

A capitation grant at the rate of 3d. per head on the average attendance is paid to Boards for the purpose of supplying schools with supplementary continuous readers for class-reading or free supply in certain cases.

Provision has been made for the payment of subsidies of £1 for £1 on moneys raised by voluntary contributions for school libraries. In addition, a subsidy is payable by the Education Board not exceeding £5 for any one school.

”SCHOOL JOURNAL.”

An illustrated paper, called the School Journal, is published monthly by the Education Department for free circulation among pupils attending public primary schools and for sale at moderate prices to private schools.

PUBLIC-SCHOOL TEACHERS.

The number of teachers in the public schools, exclusive of those employed in the secondary departments of district high schools, is shown for a number of years. The figures are as in December of the years given.

Year.Adults.Pupil-teachers.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
* Excluding probationers.
18787074541,161181332450
18881,0398871,926219694913
18981,2341,3702,6042298311,060
19081,3312,0213,352161476637
19131,6032,6594,262142*474*616*
19151,5913,0774,668141*485*626*
19161,5013,2094,710137*519*656*
19171,3833,3244,707132*517*649*
19181,3663,4524,818123*523*646*
19191,6063,3945,000123*503*626*

The total number of teachers employed in primary schools, excluding probationers and including pupil-teachers, in 1919 was 5,626 (1,729 males and 3,897 females). The number of probationers was 436 (62 males and 374 females). Taking all schools with two or more teachers, the average number of pupils per teacher was 38, and in schools with six or more teachers the average number was 45.

Omitting schools with less than 21 pupils the ratio of adult men teachers to adult women teachers in 1919 was 100 to 193. The proportion of men to women in charge of schools with 1 to 20 scholars was 100 to 362. If all public schools and all teachers are included, it is found that the ratio of men teachers to women teachers was 100 to 267 in 1918, and 100 to 225 in 1919. The ratio of male pupil-teachers to female pupil-teachers was 100 to 425 in 1918, and 100 to 409 in 1919.

The average salaries paid to teachers in 1919, including house allowance or value of residence were—Male head teachers, £380; female head teachers, £319; male assistants, £301; female assistants, £197; sole male teachers, £221; sole female teachers, £193.

Information as to the Teachers’ Superannuation Fund will be found in the section of this book dealing with Pensions, Superannuation, &.

TRAINING OF TEACHERS.

Training colleges are situated in the four principal centres of the Dominion. The total provision is for 150 students at each centre. Towards this number, out of the total reported, Auckland contributed in the year 1919, 175; Wellington, 152; Christchurch, 129; and Dunedin, 126.

The management of the training colleges is entrusted to the local Education Boards, subject to general regulations.

The amount paid to Education Boards during 1919–20 for the training of teachers was £89,070.

RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS OF EDUCATION BOARDS.

The receipts and payments of the Education Boards (numbering nine altogether) in 1919 are tabulated below, with further particulars:—

Receipts. 
    From Government,—£
    General Fund47,863
    Teachers’ salaries and allowances1,278,842
    School and class libraries3,633
    Conveyance and board of school-children11,972
    Incidental expenses of schools83,301
    Training of teachers79,801
    Manual instruction51,884
    Technical instruction97,427
    Public-school buildings, sites, furniture, &.91,054
    Rebuilding, rent, maintenance of buildings139,105
    Scholarships, subsidies, and miscellaneous17,386
From local sources46,988
Total£1,949,256
Payments.£
Staff salaries, office expenses, &.38,003
Teachers’ salaries and allowances1,281,942
School and class libraries1,494
Conveyance and board of school-children16,715
Incidental expenses of school83,360
Training of teachers79,703
Manual instruction63,095
Technical instruction100,823
Public-school buildings, sites, furniture, &.106,296
Rebuilding, rent, maintenance of buildings124,448
Subsidies, scholarships, workshop expenses, &.33,678
Total£1,929,557

PRIVATE AND DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS.

There were 320 private schools at the end of 1918, 35 were for boys, 59 for girls, and 226 for children of both sexes. The number of pupils attending them was 26,237—namely, 11,083 boys and 15,154 girls, not counting 134 Maoris (62 boys and 72 girls). Of the private schools, 173 were Roman Catholic, with 18,734 pupils.

Year.Number of Private Schools.Pupils.Included in previous Numbers.
Boys.Girls.Totals.Roman Catholic Schools.Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.
19093067,59710,33317,93015012,611
19103188,03610,94518,98115613,161
19113268,31011,55819,86815813,941
19123108,80111,43720,23815614,476
19133049,14611,96921,11515514,837
19143219,64112,43922,08018016,471
19153109,55512,78422,33917215,892
19163059,79113,62123,41217017,266
191732010,74914,74225,49117118,257
191832011,08315,15426,23717318,734

The total number of teachers engaged in instruction in private schools was 1,146 (135 men and 1,011 women). Included in these figures are the teachers of Roman Catholic schools, 69 males and 550 females. A summary of the ages of the pupils in 1918 was,—

 Roman Catholic Schools.All Private Schools. 
Age.Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.Total.
Under 5 years9177490460950
5 years and under 71,6361,7612,1662,4984,664
7 years and under 134,7705,8195,9427,72213,664
13 years and under 151,5771,9221,9062,8174,723
15 years and over3677145791,6572,236
Total8,44110,29311,08315,15426,237

Any private school may apply to be registered under the Education Act, 1914. At the end of the year 1919 the number of registered private primary schools was 212. The total roll number was 20,977, and the average attendance 18,472.

The roll number of the eighteen registered private secondary schools in 1919 was 1,497.

SCHOOLS FOR NATIVES.

The number of Native village schools in operation at the end of 1919 was 119. In addition, there were thirteen private schools at which education for Maori boys and girls is provided. Of these, ten are maintained from the incomes arising out of lands held in trust for educational purposes by various denominational bodies; the others are supported by private resources.

On the rolls of the 119 village schools at the 31st December, 1919, there were 5,198 children (including 648 Europeans). The average attendance for the year was 4,485, the percentage of regularity being 86.4, and the average weekly roll number 5,190. The total number of pupils on the rolls of the Native mission schools was 167, and on those of the secondary schools 434. At the end of the year, therefore, the total roll number of all the Native schools inspected by officers of the Education Department was 5,799, the average weekly roll being 5,803, and the total average attendance 5,036.

Besides the children of the Maori race who are receiving instruction in the Native schools there is a still larger number attending public schools, so that the total number of primary pupils of Maori race (including those in the mission schools) is 9,737, made up as follows:—

Attending Government Native schools4,550
Attending public schools5,020
Attending mission schools167
 9,737

Of the children on the rolls of the Native schools in December, 1919, 84.4 per cent. were Maoris speaking Maori in their homes, 3.1 per cent. were Maoris speaking English, and 12.5 per cent. were Europeans.

The total net expenditure on Native schools during the year ended the 31st March, 1920, was £59,166. Included in this is the sum of £46,032 expended on teachers’ salaries, £2,885 expended on new buildings and additions, £2,975 on maintenance of buildings, repairs, &., and £3,524 on secondary education.

The staffs of the village schools included seventy-three male and forty-four female head or sole teachers, and 122 assistants. The average salary of the head or sole teachers was £253 13s. 3d., of the 115 female assistants £115 15s. 8d., and of the seven male assistants £115.

SECONDARY EDUCATION.

Secondary education is carried on at thirty-four secondary schools, sixty district high schools, nine technical high schools, ten Maori secondary schools, and twenty-one private secondary schools (registered).

The total numbers of pupils attending the thirty-four secondary schools for the last terms of 1918 and 1919 respectively were as follows:—

 19181919
 Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
Roll (exclusive of lower departments)4,6213,7638,3845,0544,0149,068
Number in lower departments397268665392294686
Totals5,0184,0319,0495,4464,3089,754

In the same years these schools were staffed as follows:—

 19181919
 M.F.Total.M.F.Total.
Regular staff175195370186195381
Part-time teachers4243857474

The average number of pupils per teacher (excluding part-time teachers) was thus 22.

The number on the roll of the secondary departments of district high schools at the end of the year 1919 was 2,159.

Besides the head teachers, who generally take some part in the secondary instruction, there were employed in 1919 in the secondary departments of district high schools 105 special assistants—34 men and 71 women. The average number of pupils per teacher was 21.

The total numbers on the roll of technical high schools at any time during the years 1918 and 1919 were as follows:—

 19181919
Boys  1,265  1,438
Girls  1,482  1,488
Totals  2,747  2,926

The number on the roll of secondary schools for Maoris (all of whom were boarders) at the end of 1919 was 434.

The number of children on the rolls of registered private secondary schools at the end of the year was 1,497, being 595 boys and 902 girls.

Summarizing all these figures, and excluding pupils in the lower departments of secondary schools, we obtain the following statement of the numbers receiving some form or other of secondary instruction during the years 1918 and 1919 (as nearly as can be ascertained):—

 1918.1919.
Secondary schools8,3849,068
District high schools2,2832,502
Technical high schools2,7472,926
Maori secondary schools471434
Private secondary schools1,3661,497
Totals15,25116,427

The figure shows an increase of 8 per cent. over the corresponding figure for the previous year, and an increase of nearly 50 per cent. over the figure of five years ago.

FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION.

The following are some of the figures for 1918 and 1919 in regard to free places in secondary schools:—

 1918.1919.
Number of secondary schools giving free tuition3232
Roll number of these schools7,8718,536
Number of free-place holders at end of year6,9667,657
Average number of free-place holders during year7,1778,006
Free-place holders as a percentage of roll number91 per cent.94 per cent.
Total annual payment by Government for free places£85,422£111,062

In order to arrive at the total number of pupils in New Zealand receiving free secondary instruction it will be necessary, however, to include also 104 holders of scholarships or exhibitions carrying free instruction not otherwise enumerated, which are granted by the secondary schools included above or by endowed secondary schools not coming under the conditions for free places, 2,015 free-place holders at district high schools, ninety Maori pupils receiving free education in Maori secondary schools, and 2,754 holders of free places in technical high schools. Consequently, there were approximately 12,620 pupils receiving free secondary education in the Dominion, exclusive of those holders of free places in technical schools (mostly evening students), who, while not taking full-day courses, were nevertheless receiving free education of secondary grade.

The following table gives a summary of the various secondary free places at the end of the year for which payment was made by Government:—

Free Places in December, 1918 and 1919.
 19181919
 Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
(i.) Secondary schools—
    (a.) Junior free pupils  2,503  2,405  4,908  2,793  2,573  5,366
    (b.) Senior free pupils  1,081  977  2,058  1,187  1,104  2,291
Totals  3,584  3,382  6,966  3,980  3,677  7,657
(ii.) District high schools—
    (a.) Junior free pupils  876  977  1,853  849  859  1,708
    (b.) Senior free pupils  103  167  270  116  191  307
Totals  979  1,144  2,123  965  1,050  2,015
(iii.) Maori secondary schools  45  58  103  42  48  90
(iv.) Technical high schools—
    (a.) Junior free pupils  1,053  1,160  2,213   
    (b.) Senior free pupils  109  182  291   
Totals  1,162  1,342  2,504  1,351  1,403  2,754
Grand totals  5,770  5,926  11,696  6,338  6,178  12,516

SCHOLARSHIPS HELD AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DISTRICT HIGH SCHOOLS.

 

National Scholarships.

At the examinations held in 1,919,217 candidates qualified for Junior National Scholarships, of which number 6 were pupils of sole-teacher schools, and 67 were pupils of secondary schools. The number of candidates qualifying for Senior National Scholarships was 122, of which number 6 qualified on the alternative programme provided specially to suit the needs of those taking a rural or domestic course.

The following figures indicate the number and the value of scholarships current in 1918 and 1919, respectively:—

Number of scholarship-holders—1918.1919.
Boys486481
Girls310285
Totals796766
Number receiving boarding-allowance (included in the above total)239221
Number receiving travelling-allowance (similarly included)4742
Number held at secondary schools687661
Number held at district high schools8682
Number held at other registered secondary schools2323
Total annual rate of payment£13,130  £12,913

Private Scholarships.

The number of foundation and private scholarships in the last term of 1919 was 150, of a total annual value of £1,547. Of the holders, fifty-one were also Government free pupils under the regulations. In addition, free tuition was given by the schools to holders of foundation and private scholarships to the value of £470, not including Government free places.

WAR BURSARIES FOR SOLDIERS‘ DEPENDANTS.

Regulations which came into force in January, 1919, provided for the award of bursaries to dependants of killed or disabled members of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. To qualify for a war bursary a child must be eligible for—

  1. Free education at technical classes; or

  2. A free place at a secondary school, district high school, or technical high school; or

  3. A University or educational bursary at a University college.

A bursary entitles the holder to an allowance, in addition to free tuition, of £1 10s. or £3 per annum in the case of those qualified under (a), £5 for those under (b), or £10 for those under (c). Lodging-allowance is also payable to bursars who are obliged to live away from home to attend school, at the rate of £15 per annum under (a) and £30 under (b) and (c); travelling-allowances varying from £5 to £10 per annum are also made when travelling is necessary. During 1919 the number of bursaries held at secondary schools was twenty-seven, the expenditure thereon being £524.

FINANCES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

The following is a summary of the receipts and payments of all secondary schools (excluding Wanganui Collegiate and Christ's College Grammar Schools) for the year 1919:—

Receipts. 
 £
Endowments—
    Sales and mortgage-money repaid7,945
    Lands vested in High School Boards…  …  …  …44,261
    Secondary-education reserved  …7,209
    Interest on moneys invested  …1,043
Government grants—
    Grants for buildings, sites, rent, apparatus, &., and subsidies  …23,347
    Capitation for free places  …114,858
    Capitation for manual instruction  …  …  …  …2,825
School fees  …  …  …11,696
Lower Department Account  …4,608
Boarding-school Account  …43,290
Loans, transfers from Capital Account, interest, &.  ̣̣  …579
Technical Classes Account  …2,842
Voluntary contributions, income from property not reserves, refunds, and sundries  …  …8,755
 £273,258
Payments.£
Endowments (including proportion of office expenses)  …  …11,731
Teachers’ salaries and allowances122,511
Incidental expenses of secondary departments—
    Office expenses and salaries  …3,565
    Printing, stationery, and advertising  …  …  …2,473
    Cleaning, heating, lighting, and care of school-grounds  …9,306
    Material, examinations, prizes, games, and other incidentals  …3,296
Manual instruction (excluding buildings, &.)  …  …  …1,804
Sites, buildings, furniture, apparatus, taxes, &c…  …  …53,990
Lower Department Account  …4,448
Boarding-school Account  …  …41,985
Investments, loans repaid, and interest  …  …  …  …6,917
Technical Classes Account  …2,856
Scholarships, advances to pupils, and miscellaneous  …  …3,696
 £268,578

The total debit balance at the end of 1919 was £58,544, for the most part due to loans required for the erection of necessary buildings. The following is a summary of the monetary assets and liabilities at the end of the year:—

Monetary Assets.£Liabilities.£
Bank balances32,975Overdrafts63,494
Other assets26,947Other liabilities54,972
Total£59,922Total£118,466
  Debit balance£58,544

LOWER DEPARTMENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

There were lower departments in fourteen secondary schools during 1919; the total number of pupils in those departments was 686.

TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

The Education Act provides for public instruction in such subjects of art, science, and technology as are set forth in regulations. Classes recognized under the Act are eligible for grants in aid of necessary buildings, equipment, and material, for capitation, and for subsidies of £1 for £1 on voluntary contributions. Free technical education is also provided for.

TECHNICAL CLASSES OTHER THAN CLASSES AT TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS.

The total number of classes held in 1919 was 2,014, and the total number of students in attendance 17,950. The following figures show the number of classes at which the various subjects indicated were taken:—

Mathematics and science120
Engineering238
Wood and lead working, and other trade subjects201
Agriculture, dairy-work, &.95
Art and art crafts232
Domestic subjects371
Commercial subjects380
Subjects of general education377
Total2,014

Regulations requiring the attendance of young persons between the ages of fourteen and seventeen who are not otherwise receiving a suitable education or who are not specially exempted from attendance were in operation in 1919 in certain school districts in the Auckland, Wanganui, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Canterbury education districts. The classes established under these regulations were attended by 1,372 students.

The number of discharged soldiers who received free education at technical schools in 1919 was 1,021.

The number of pupils receiving free education under the regulations for free places at technical high schools and other technical schools and classes was 4,488–2,326 males and 2,162 females; the number for the previous year was 4,211.

TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS.

These schools (nine in number) are of secondary grade, and provide industrial, domestic, agricultural, commercial, and art courses. The number of pupils in attendance was as follows: Auckland, 587; Wanganui, 300; Wellington, 405; Napier, 275; Westport, 28; Christchurch, 596; Dunedin, 435; and Invercargill, 300. The total roll number was 2,926, an increase of 179 over that of the preceding year. Figures for the newly established school at Hawera are not included. The schools appear to meet the needs of a number of young people who would not otherwise proceed to secondary schools. The courses of instruction taken up by pupils were as follows:—

 Males.Females.Total.
Industrial786 786
Commercial and general4481,1871,635
Domestic 297297
Agricultural203 203
Art145
Totals1,4381,4882,926

Capitation earned on account of technical high schools during 1919 totalled £41,113.

The following table classifies the free pupils at technical high schools in 1918 and 1919:—

 1918.1919.
Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
Junior free pupils1,0531,1602,2131,2321,1722,404
Senior free pupils109182291119231350
Totals1,1621,3422,5041,3511,4032,754

EXPENDITURE ON TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

The following is a summary of the expenditure by the State on technical instruction during the year ended the 31st March, 1920:—

 £
Capitation95,201
Subsidies on voluntary contributions6,934
Scholarships and bursaries2,985
Grants in aid of material for class use5,844
Grants for buildings and equipment13,319
Rents1,293
Conveyance of instructors, students, and free pupils4,467
Examinations (less recoveries)103
Inspectors’ salaries and travelling-expenses1,976
Sundries123
 £132,245

SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND CARE OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN.

CHILD WELFARE.

The functions of the Special Schools Branch of the Education Department include provision (1) For the maintenance, education, and training of destitute, dependent, or homeless children and epidemic orphans who have lost both parents; for the training of uncontrollable and delinquent children and juvenile offenders, and for the supervision of all young persons under the age of sixteen years who are placed on probation by the Courts: (2) for the supervision of all infants and young children under the age of six years maintained apart from their parents for payment either in foster-homes or private institutions, or adopted with premium: and (3) for the education and maintenance of all afflicted children–the deaf, blind, and the feeble-minded.

The number of new cases actually dealt with in 1919 was 864, as compared with 381 for 1918, and 358 for 1917.

This abnormal increase has necessitated the adoption of a system providing for children being dealt with in their own districts.

The juvenile probation system has also been extended to such districts as Whangarei, Hamilton, and Nelson. A boys’ probation home has been established in each of the four centres. The number of cases dealt with by the Probation Officers is as follows: Auckland, 401; Wellington, 127; Christchurch, 196; Dunedin, 94: total, 818.

CHILDREN BOARDED OUT.

The number of children boarded out in foster-homes at the end of the year was 1,696.

On account of the increased cost of living the boarding-out rate has been raised from 15s. to 17s. 6d. per week for infants under twelve months, and from 12s. 6d. to 15s. for children over that age and up to fifteen years, or longer if the child in question is still attending school. In addition, a very complete initial outfit of clothing is supplied with each child, and the Department provides free medical and dental treatment and medicines. School books and stationery are also provided for children attending school.

BOYS‘ SCHOOLS.

The boys’ Training-farm at Weraroa caters for boys of all ages who through the commission of offences against the law are not considered fit to associate with the children attending an ordinary public school, at least not until they have undergone a course of training and discipline at Weraroa. There is a special school for mentally backward boys at Nelson.

CARE OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED

Institutions at Otekaike and Nelson are available for the reception of feeble-minded boys, who, under capable supervision, are employed in farmwork, garden and orchard work, and in the bootmaking, basketmaking, matmaking, and carpentering shops. Girls are provided for at the Special School at Richmond, and employed in housework and laundry-work, in the workroom sewing, knitting, &., and in outside occupations, such as gardening and flower-growing.

INFANT-LIFE PROTECTION.

This work is now carried out under the supervision of trained nurses who are fully qualified in the care and feeding of infants and young children. The majority of infants dealt with under this system are illegitimate, and have been neglected to such an extent prior to placing them in foster-homes that the greatest care is necessary in catering for their welfare.

DEAF CHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH SPEECH DEFECTS

During 1919 special classes have been established in the various centres for the education of the hard-of-hearing children and for the correction of defective speech among children. A school at Sumner exists for the preliminary teaching of stone-deaf children and young children who, in addition to being deaf, have little or no speech, and incidentally for the training of teachers for the deaf.

DISTRICT HIGH SCHOOLS.

Of sixty secondary departments of district high schools, the average attendance in 1919 was in 18 cases, 12 to 20; in 15 cases, 21 to 30; in 22 cases, 31 to 70; in 2 cases, 71 to 105; and in 3 cases over 105.

Education Board.Average Attendance, 1919.Number of Assistant Teachers.Average Number of Pupils per Assistant Teacher.Statutory Annual Rate of Salary as in December, 1919.
M.F.Total.
      £s.d.
Auckland39681119215,74000
Taranaki186156301,59500
Wanganui143448242,30500
Hawke's Bay124336211,75500
Wellington31631215224,45500
Nelson164167231,94000
Canterbury684112031229,13500
Otago26231013214,05500
Totals, 19192,27534711052230,98000

Courses bearing more or less on rural pursuits are taken in many district high schools, 69 per cent. of the boys and 32 per cent. of the girls studying agricultural science, 24 per cent. of the pupils taking dairy-work, 55 per cent. of the boys learning woodwork, and 52 per cent. of the girls cookery or needlework. Latin is taken by only 31 per cent. of the pupils, and French by 51 per cent.

Rural courses were, in 1919, in operation at forty-seven district high schools, and were taken by 1,635 pupils.

HIGHER EDUCATION.

The affairs of the University of New Zealand are controlled by three Courts—the Senate, the Board of Studies, and the General Court of Convocation.

The University of New Zealand has power to confer degrees, but is not itself a teaching body, undergraduates for the most part keeping their terms at one or other of the four affiliated institutions—Otago University, Canterbury College, Auckland University College, and Victoria University College.

The revenue of the University is derived mainly from a statutory Government grant of £4,000 per annum, authorized by the New Zealand University Amendment Act, 1919, from fees, and from interest on investments.

Auckland University College and Victoria University College each receive an annual statutory grant of £11,500, while Canterbury College receives £4,500 and Otago University £10,000. The two latter institutions are endowed with reserves of land. In addition a certain proportion of the income from the National Endowment Fund for the purposes of education is paid directly to the four affiliated institutions. In 1919 the sum paid to each out of the fund amounted to £1,881. There is also now provision for the payment under regulations of a Government subsidy on voluntary contributions to the funds of the institutions affiliated to the University of New Zealand.

The total amount paid by the Education Department on account of the University of New Zealand and the affiliated colleges for the year 1919–20 was £68,975.

There were in 1919 2,961 students actually in attendance at the four University colleges. Of these, 109 were graduates, 1,938 undergraduates, and 914 unmatriculated students. In addition to the students mentioned above, there were 99 students attached to the various University colleges, but exempt from lectures. There were also 52 students taking an agricultural course of University grade at the Lincoln Agricultural College.

FREE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION.

The University Junior Scholarships (fourteen of which were gained in 1919) are of the value of £20 per annum plus tuition fees, and are tenable for three years. In the case of holders living away from home a further sum of £30 per annum is allowed. The University National Scholarships are of equal monetary value, the number gained in 1919 being twenty-three. Taranaki Scholarships are of the annual value of £60, and the Senate may at discretion extend the tenure from three to four years. There are also some thirty or forty local and privately endowed scholarships awarded on the results of the same entrance examination.

Scholarships awarded during the degree course are the Senior University and John Tinline Scholarships. The various colleges have also private scholarships for which their own students may compete.

The chief scholarships awarded at the end of the University course are the Rhodes Scholarship, the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, the Medical Travelling Scholarship, the Post-graduate Travelling Scholarship, the French Travelling Scholarship, and the National Research Scholarships. All excepting the last-named are tenable abroad. The Research Scholarships are each of the value of £100 per annum, with laboratory fees and expenses.

So far nineteen Rhodes Scholarships have been granted, of which five have been gained by students of Auckland University College, four by students of Otago University, six by students of Victoria University College, and three by students of Canterbury College.

Of the eighteen Research Scholarships awarded up to the present one was in active operation in 1919.

University bursaries entitle the holders to the payment of tuition and examination fees (not exceeding £20 per annum) during a three (or possibly four) years’ course at a University college or school of agriculture recognized by the University. The number of University bursaries held in 1919 was 450.

The number of educational bursaries under the Education Act, 1914, held in 1919 was seventy-four, of which number seven completed the three-years tenure of their bursaries

Domestic-science bursaries tenable at the Otago University may be awarded under the regulations for technical instruction.

Bursaries of this kind were awarded to sixteen students in 1919, making forty-three bursars in attendance at classes.

THE WORKERS‘ EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.

In the distribution to University colleges of the moneys received by the University from the National Endowment Fund in 1919, £300 was allocated to three colleges and £350 to the fourth for the establishment and maintenance of the Workers’ Educational Association tutorial or University extension classes. Each college is now to receive an additional grant of £500 for the purpose. Branches of this association have been established in several of the larger towns, and tutorial classes in such subjects as economics, history, industrial law, English, electricity, debating, and chairmanship, conducted in some cases by University-college professors or lecturers, are in operation for the better education of working men and women.

AGRICULTURAL BURSARIES.

Agricultural bursaries may be awarded to qualified candidates in order to enable them to obtain the necessary practical training for positions as teachers or agricultural instructors, or as farmers.

During 1919 nine bursars were in attendance at Lincoln Agricultural College, Canterbury.

ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS.

The number of candidates for the various examinations in 1919–20 who actually presented themselves in the examination-room is given below:—

Junior National and junior free places2,170
Public Service Entrance, Senior National Scholarships, and Intermediate3,063
Teachers'D and C2,234
Public Service Senior50
Kindergarten Certificate Examination9
London University Examinations4
Special Public Service Entrance Examination in June189
Other examinations20
Total7,739

The cost of conducting all examinations was as follows:—

   £
Total expenses, including cost of additional temporary clerical services, but omitting other salaries  7,020
Less recoveries—
  £ 
    Fees paid by candidates for teachers’ certificates and others 2,564 
    Contribution by Public Service Commissioner for expense of conducting Public Service examinations—   
 £  
        Public Service Entrance (two examinations)1,312  
        Public Service Senior and Typists’ Examinations69  
  1,381 
   3,945
            Net expenditure  £3,075

Chapter 5. SECTION V.—DEFENCE.

THE NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE.

THE remodelling of the New Zealand defence system, outlined in the 1915 and preceding issues of the Year-book, placed the Defence Forces of the Dominion in such a position that on the outbreak of war in August, 1914, it was possible to take immediate and decisive steps to assist the other Forces of the Empire.

The total number attested into the New Zealand Expeditionary Force who left for service overseas was 3,085 officers, 550 nurses, and 96,809 other ranks.

A total of 9,924 troops were in training at the date of the Armistice. The complete number of troops and nurses provided for foreign service up to the cessation of hostilities was therefore 110,368—more than 10 per cent. of the Dominion's total mean population in 1914. A further total of 3,370 are known to have left New Zealand to serve in British and Australian Forces.

The great majority of these troops were volunteers. Of 124,211 men provided from the commencement of the war to the 12th November, 1918, 91,941 were volunteers, and 32,270 were conscripted under the Military Service Act, 1916.

“Wastage” whilst undergoing training accounted for a loss to the Force of 11,333.

CASUALTIES.

Casualties in the Expeditionary Force were, unfortunately, very high. The total number of deaths up to 1st June, 1920, was as follows:—

Killed in action10,245
Died of wounds3,958
Died, other causes2,351
Died in New Zealand before discharge227
Total16,781

At 31st May, 1920, some 3,057 “service” patients were still under treatment in New Zealand.

OVERSEAS WAR-SERVICE GRATUITY.

Section 7 of the Expeditionary Forces Amendment Act, 1918, authorized payment of “a free gift by the State in recognition of the honourable service of soldiers of the Expeditionary Forces in the present war.” A scale of 1s. 6d. per diem (for period of active service) with certain limitations was prescribed by Order in Council on 19th September, 1919. Payments in New Zealand to 20th May, 1920, have been made of 88,932 gratuities aggregating £5,225,900. In addition, approximately 2,000 claims have been settled in London.

WAR EXPENDITURE.

The total war expenditure to 31st March, 1920, may be summarized as follows:—

 £
General expenditure (including pay and allowances, £30,476,998)69,800,449
Relief purposes268,439
Repatriation801,725
Charges and expenses of raising loans693,215
Gratuities, New Zealand Expeditionary Force4,872,485
Gratuities, Imperial and naval45,153
Advances outstanding471,610
Total£76,953,076

PEACE ORGANIZATION OF THE NEW ZEALAND MILITARY FORCES.

Under the Defence Act, 1909, and its amendments, all male British subjects in New Zealand on attaining the age of fourteen years must register for military training. In the case of immigrants those who are within the ages of fourteen and twenty-five years must register within six months after their arrival in New Zealand. There are no exemptions from registration, and any person failing to comply with the law in this respect is liable to a fine of £5 and deprivation of civil rights for a period not exceeding ten years.

The posting of Cadets to Senior Cadet companies, and of individuals accepted for service (either direct or on completion of service in the Senior Cadets) to units of the Territorial Force, is carried out in June of each year.

Senior Cadets become liable for training in June of the year in which they attain the age of fourteen years, or any later date on which they cease to attend a primary school.

Persons liable for training are posted to the Territorial Force in June of the year in which they attain the age of eighteen years, or on ceasing to attend a secondary school (whichever is the later).

Members of the Territorial Force are posted to the Reserve in June of the year in which they attain the age of twenty-five years, and training in the Reserve continues until the 1st day of June in the year in which the Reservist attains the age of thirty.

The amount of obligatory training to be carried out annually is as follows:—

Territorial Force—

  1. Thirty drills (including twenty out-of-door parades).

  2. Twelve half-day or six whole-day parades.

  3. Seven days in camp.

  4. Prescribed course of musketry.

Reserve—

Two half-day parades, or their equivalent, with a Territorial unit or company.

Senior Cadets—

  1. Fifty drills of one hour's duration, or thirty-four drills of one and a half hours’ duration.

  2. Six half-day parades.

  3. Prescribed course of musketry.

Absence from compulsory parades constitutes a civil offence, and offenders are liable to a fine not exceeding £5.

The strength of the Territorial Force is limited to 30,000 men, and these are organized into units. The New Zealand Forces generally are now in process of reorganization, consequent upon lessons learnt in the recent war.

TERRITORIAL FORCE AND SENIOR CADETS.
Year.Territorial Force.Senior Cadets.General Training Section.Rifle Clubs.
Note.—The total strength of the Volunteer Forces at the end of the year 1909–10 was 14,249.
1911–1222,614   
1912–1323,91924,7701,3704,003
1913–1425,90225,3323,7292,577
1914–1529,44726,4462,0758,770
1915–1626,83927,0633,4377,928
1916–1722,17429,832 7,975
1917–1822,93330,668 7,252
1918–1925,62631,109 6,354
1919-2030,00031,9293285,523

NEW ZEALAND PERMANENT FORCES.

Sufficient officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers, and men are permanently employed for the staffs of general headquarters and military districts, and to furnish cadres of regular troops as a nucleus of the Territorial personnel and fixed defences and field artillery. These comprise the New Zealand Staff Corps, the Royal New Zealand Artillery, the New Zealand Permanent Staff, the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps, the New Zealand Army Pay Corps, and the New Zealand Army Medical Corps.

Under an arrangement with the Australian Government, New Zealand may send ten cadets every year to the Royal Military College of Australia at Duntroon.

The college has a staff of twenty-two, and contains barracks for 150 cadets. It is equipped with class-rooms, physical and chemical laboratories, library, riding-school, gymnasium, &. The number of New Zealand cadets at the college at present (August, 1920) is twenty-two.

DOMINION RIFLE ASSOCIATION.

The Dominion Rifle Association was formed to encourage the members of the New Zealand Defence Forces to become efficient in the use of the rifle, and to promote rifle shooting generally as a necessary element for the defence of the Empire. It was established in 1879, the annual rifle meetings prior to that date having been conducted and controlled by the military authorities. At Trentham, near Wellington, a range accommodation of seventy-five targets with all necessary equipment and suitable buildings has been made available for the rifle championship meetings.

No meetings were held during the war period, but no time was lost in renewing these valuable competitions after the Armistice was signed.

The first post-war meeting, held in March, 1919, was largely attended and a great success.

The association receives an annual grant from the State.

Railway passes are granted to Territorials and members of rifle clubs up to a distance of 100 miles to attend rifle-shooting competitions.

NAVAL DEFENCE.

By the Australian Defence Act, 1887, provision was made for the payment by New Zealand of a proportional part of the cost of the establishment and maintenance of a British Naval Force to be employed for the protection of trade in Australasian waters. Under this Act a sum of approximately £20,000 per annum was paid by New Zealand to the Imperial Government.

In 1903, consequent on the passing of the Australian and New Zealand Naval Defence Act, the annual contribution payable by New Zealand was raised to “a sum not exceeding £40,000.”

By the Naval Subsidy Act, 1908, the contribution of the Dominion was again increased, this time to a sum of £100,000 payable annually for ten years from the 12th May, 1909.

The year 1909 was an important one in the history of the Dominion. At what was generally regarded as a critical period for the whole Empire New Zealand presented a battle-cruiser to the Home Government. Full information concerning this vessel and her visit to New Zealand in 1913 appears in the 1913 issue of this book (pages 932–941).

The Naval Defence Act, 1913, provides for the establishment of a New Zealand Naval Force, to be raised and maintained by voluntary enlistment only, enlistment being for a prescribed period of not less than two years. In time of war the Naval Force (including vessels acquired for defence purposes) is to be at the disposal of the British Government. The establishment of a New Zealand Royal Naval Reserve is also provided for under the Act. The third-class cruiser “Philomel” was lent by the English Admiralty to the New Zealand Government to serve as a training-ship for the forming of a nucleus of the Naval Force. The light cruiser “Chatham” has recently been presented to New Zealand by the Imperial Government.

A report on the naval defence of the Dominion was presented by Admiral of the Fleet Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., on the occasion of his visit to New Zealand in August, 1919.

TRAINING-SHIP “AMOKURA.”

The “Amokura,” formerly H.M.S. “Sparrow,” is maintained by the New Zealand Marine Department as a training-ship for fitting boys for service in either the Navy or the mercantile marine. Boys who are taken on board must be between the ages of thirteen and a half and fifteen years. The period of training is two years.

The vessel has accommodation for sixty boys, and, since she started as a training-ship in 1907, 412 boys have been trained on her, exclusive of those now on board.

The “Amokura” has proved to be not particularly well adapted for the purposes of a training-ship, and is now laid up in harbour. Negotiations are in progress for the obtaining of a more suitable vessel.

Chapter 6. SECTION VI.—LAW AND CRIME.

CIVIL CASES.

THE ordinary civil jurisdiction of Magistrates’ Courts is limited generally to claims not exceeding £200. Justices of the Peace may hear and decide certain civil cases when the sum in dispute does not exceed £20.

MAGISTRATES‘ COURTS.

Year.Cases entered.Cases tried.
Number.Total Amount claimed.Number.Total Amount sued for.Total Amount for which Judgment entered.
* Information not available.
  £ ££
191055,225562,11529,698*293,326
191153,394557,15834,627*296,629
191257,079592,94336,815420,073331,020
191361,759670,92539,086427,484366,981
191462,471706,95339,233455,197398,760
191560,170695,62537,632446,979383,532
191649,806639,92231,064395,779339,847
191746,004624,69329,412401,568340,958
191839,176563,35825,594378,025308,429
191938,775619,57624,680385,020319,135

The number of actions commenced, cases tried, and judgments entered, together with the total amount for which judgments were recorded, in the Supreme Court of New Zealand during each of the ten years 1910–19 were as follows:—

SUPREME COURT: CIVIL JURISDICTION.
Year.Number of Actions commenced.Cases tried.Judgments recorded.
With Jury.Without Jury.Number.Amount.
     £
19105695221119383,427
19117297617021184,822
191275564233235102,657
19137887524328479,610
19147929525128191,286
19156975025324168,555
19166734819325478,877
191758170172234100,447
191861147188226104,927
19197837222723888,144

COURT OF APPEAL.

Under the provisions of the Judicature Amendment Act, 1913, the Court of Appeal consists of two divisions, each composed of five Judges of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice and the two senior Judges being members of both divisions. The two divisions sit separately, but may sit together to save time to determine any appeal of special difficulty or importance.

The decision of the Court must be in accordance with the opinion of a majority of the Judges present. Certain proceedings may by order of the Supreme Court be removed to the Court of Appeal. The decision of the Court of Appeal is final as regards the tribunals of New Zealand, but the Court may, in civil proceedings, give leave to either party to appeal to the Privy Council. In criminal cases any party may appeal to the Court of Appeal.

Year.Crown Criminal Cases.Civil.
Number.Convictions affirmed.Appeals.Cases removed.
Number.Allowed.Number.Judgments for Plaintiffs.Judgments for Defendants.
19154314714113
191641166633
1917441141284
191853115752
191962139624

BANKRUPTCY.

Under the Bankruptcy Act, 1908—a consolidation of the then existing laws—a person may seek the protection of the Court by filing a petition with a declaration of insolvency, or one or more creditors may petition the Court to have a debtor declared insolvent.

Year.Petitions by Debtors.Adjudications on Petitions by Creditors.Cases in which Composition accepted.Orders of Immediate Discharge granted.Cases in which Order of Discharge were suspended.
191525044 5518
191626737 6321
19172214416010
1918133311539
191910932112813

Private assignments and compositions are not registered, and particulars respecting this class of insolvency are not procurable.

Year.Number of Bankruptcies.Debtors’ Statements of Assets, excluding Amounts secured to Creditors.Amounts realized by Official Assignees.Amount of Debts proved.Amounts paid in Dividends and Preferential Claims.
  ££££
191529492,87663,310153,92642,374
1916304123,44156,416172,77429,223
1917265138,69663,645178,24427,405
191816450,35667,72988,60733,176
191914143,62754,66259,76724,980

Of the 141 bankruptcies in 1919: in 5 cases the liabilities were under £50; in 16, from £50 to £100; in 46, from £100 to £250; in 33, from £250 to £500; in 24, from £500 to £1,000; in 13, from £1,000 to £2,000; and in 4, from £2,000 to £5,000.

As regards occupations, some 34 were described as employers, 51 were working on their own account, and 56 were employees.

DIVORCE.

During the year 1919 an abnormally large number—viz., 675—of petitions for dissolution of marriage were filed, this number including 8 petitions for nullity of marriage. In 395 of these cases a decree nisi was granted, 160 of these being made absolute during the year. In addition, decrees nisi were granted in respect of 84 petitions filed in previous years, 72 of these being made absolute before the end of the year, and 104 decrees nisi of previous years became absolute. The total number of decrees nisi for the year was thus 479, which includes 5 decrees for nullity of marriage.

In addition, 5 petitions for judicial separation were filed, and 1 decree granted, while 2 applications for restitution of conjugal rights were made, both of which are still pending.

The subject of the next table is the duration of the marriage for dissolution of which petitions were filed in the past four years.

Duration of Marriage, in Years.Husbands’ Petitions.Wives’ Petitions.
1919.1918.1917.1916.1919.1918.1917.1916.
Under 13112 212
1 and under 24362133 
2 and under 3207333223
3 and under 4257757343
4 and under 514105720551
5 and under 1096463547106423948
10 and under 1570612527101563634
15 and under 205430282458392934
20 and under 302714111348353022
30 and under 4056243784
40 and over  21 1 3
Not stated8   2   
Totals326185125135349195157154

A table is given showing the chief grounds of petitions, in combination with particulars as to number of living issue. Columns are added showing for the various grounds the sex of the petitioner.

Grounds.Petitioner.Number of Cases in which Number of Living Issue wasTotal Number of cases.
Husband.Wife.0123456 or over.

*“ Nullity ” cases.

† Including one “ nullity ” case.

Adultery2371511309780441999388
Bigamy*235      5
Crueltỵ̣ 72112 1 7
Desertion (alone)78130665147161495208
Desertion and drunkenness 5211   15
Drunkenness (alone)329769531132
Drunkenness and cruelty 912131 19
Other or not stated615671212221
Totals32634921916514072382219675

POLICE.

On the 31st March, 1920, the number of permanent members of the Police Force in New Zealand was 844 of all ranks, being an increase of 53 during the year. The total is made up as follows: 4 superintendents, 11 inspectors, 6 sub-inspectors, 31 senior sergeants, 83 sergeants, 671 constables, 7 senior detectives, 16 detective-sergeants, and 15 detectives. There were also 4 police surgeons, 7 matrons, 7 district constables, and 5 Native constables.

In addition to the above, there were 72 temporary constables appointed under section 2 of the Police Force Amendment Act, 1919, 40 of whom were recruits undergoing a period of probationary service with a view to permanent appointment.

The following table shows the number of stations and of police in each police district:—

Police District.No. of Stations.No. of Police.
Auckland52187
Hamilton3668
Napier2864
Wanganui2855
Palmerston North1740
Wellington35168
Greymouth2239
Christchurch37116
Timaru1334
Dunedin3592
Invercargill2241

There were also 7 attached to headquarters, 1 has been lent to the Cook Islands Administration, 2 lent to Samoan Administration, and two were on leave prior to retirement.

The proportion of police to population is 1 to every 1,325 persons, and the expenditure (exclusive of the cost of buildings) on the whole Police Force for the year ended the 31st March, 1920, was 4s. 11¾d. per head of population.

The following table shows the growth of the Police Force since 1878, prior to which each province had its own Police Force, and reliable data are not available:—

Year ended 31st March.Officers.Non-commissioned Officers.Detectives.Constables.Total.Police to Population (including Maoris).Cost per In. habitant.
       s.d.
18782590143294581 to 944  
18852065173724741 to 1,2933
18901266134034941 to 1,346210¾
1895751134164871 to 1,4952
19001156204995861 to 1,359210¾
19051265255536551 to 1,375210¼
19101686346397751 to 1,3303
191619104367579161 to 1,2584
191720108367348981 to 1,28043
191820111387329011 to 1,2744
191920112417058781 to 1,3195
192021114387439161 to 1,325411¾

The proportion of police to population is much lower in New Zealand than in any of the Australian States, and the cost of police per inhabitant is, as might be expected, also lower in New Zealand than in the Commonwealth. If, however, the proportion of police to population were the same in each of the Australian States as in New Zealand, the cost per inhabitant would be higher in the Dominion than in any of the States.

CRIMINAL CASES BEFORE MAGISTRATES.

CHARGES.

The total number of charges brought before Magistrates in 1919, and number of convictions obtained, are shown in the following table :—

How brought before Magistrate.Arrested or summoned.Convicted.
Total Offences, including Multiple Charges.Distinct Arrests or Summonses, excluding Multiple Charges.Total Summary Convictions, including Multiple Charges.Distinct Summary Convictions, excluding Multiple Charges.
By arrest15,90911,40813,10610,424
By summons25,43821,78319,58617,164
Totals40,44733,19132,69227,588

If the Maoris be excluded the number of charges in 1919 is found to have been 38,221, an increase of 3,539 upon the number for 1918; and the proportion per 1,000 of population 33.63, as against 31.44.

SUMMARY CONVICTIONS.

Summary convictions in 1919 numbered 32,692, including 1,935 recorded against Maoris. In respect of 519 charges (34 of which were against Maoris) the accused were committed for sentence. Commitments for trial at the Supreme Courts numbered 564 (including 41 charges against Maoris).

Dealing with the summary convictions for all offences, the figures for 1910 and onward (excluding the Maoris) are,—

Year.Offences against the Person.Offences against Property.Other Offences.Totals.
Total Number.Per 1,000 Mean Population.Total Number.Per 1,000 Mean Population.Total Number.Per 1,000 Mean Population.Number.Per 1,000 Mean Population.
19106550.662,0802.0929,24529.4731,98032.22
19116540.642,1462.1129,23928.8132,03931.56
19125950.572,4072.3231,98430.7834,98633.67
19136460.602,8522.6735,25032.9938,74836.26
19147260.672,7402.5136,94433.8840,41037.06
19156280.572,5792.3535,01231.8538,21934.76
19166180.562,3602.1531,21828.3934,19631.10
19175880.542,3152.1129,86827.1732,77129.82
19185250.482,3212.1024,98822.6527,83425.23
19196710.592,9782.6227,10823.8530,75727.06

In dealing with the summary convictions in the Magistrates’ Courts, in the above table each offence is reckoned as a distinct person. Of recent years there has been a tendency for the rates to decline, but this has been offset by the increase in prosecutions for offences not strictly criminal in character.

Of the 671 summary convictions for offences against the person in 1919 the greater number were on account of common (616) and aggravated (10) assaults. There were also 42 convictions for attempt to commit suicide.

Of offences against property, theft (not otherwise described) is the most common, showing 2,022 summary convictions during 1919. There were, besides, 125 for fraud and false pretences; 221 for housebreaking; and 550 for wilful damage to property. These are the principal items only.

Under the heading “Other Offences” (those relating to good order included) drunkenness comes first with 7,656 summary convictions, of which 475 were in respect of females. These figures cover, besides drunkenness only, drunkenness with disorderly conduct and habitual drunkenness. Prohibition orders numbered 1,781, including 140 made against women. The subject of drunkenness is specially dealt with under a separate heading.

Further offences against good order include 3,807 summary convictions simply defined as for “breach of by-laws”; 813 for obscene, threatening, or abusive language; 555 for indecent, riotous, or offensive conduct; and 253 for assaulting or resisting the police. Under “Vagrancy” there were 390 summary convictions, including 94 against women. The chief items only are referred to above.

CONVICTIONS OF PERSONS ARRESTED.

Information in connection with charges brought before Magistrates is obtained on cards, and it is possible to give particulars in regard to the ages and birthplaces of persons arrested. Ages and birthplaces in summons cases are not obtainable.

From the following table it will be seen that of the total convictions in 1919 of persons arrested (12,430) the distinct arrests amounted to 9,941, the difference being accounted for by multiple charges against the same person. If distinct persons only are taken this total is further reduced to 7,760, representing 6.82 for every 1,000 of the mean population. Convictions of Maoris are not included.

Convictions on Arrest, 1919.
Offences againstTotal Convictions, including Multiple Charges.Distinct Convictions, excluding Multiple Charges.Distinct Persons convicted, most Serious Offence recorded.Proportion of Distinct Persons convicted per 1,000 of Mean Population.
The person3222842540.22
Property1,9431,1671,0190.90
Good order9,1807,8476,4035.63
Other offences985643840.07
Total12,4309,9417,7606.82

The offences and sentences for convictions in arrest and summons cases (including multiple charges) are shown below. Cases concerning Maoris are not included.

Offences againstConvicted and discharged or ordered to come up for SentenceFined.Imprisoned.Other.Total Convictions.
*Including 265 released under the First Offenders' Probation Act, 318 committed to industrial schools, 30 whipped, 50 bound over, and 3,254 against whom an order was made.
The person1613849729671
Property1,1486994776542,978
Good order3,1099,5671,0641,98815,728
Other offences1,2488,0676961,36911,380
Totals5,66618,7172,3344,040*30,757

JUVENILE OFFENDERS.

Included in the figures of total charges and convictions for the year 1919 are a number dealing with offences committed by juvenile offenders— i.e., persons under or apparently under the age of sixteen.

JUVENILE OFFENDERS, 1919.

Class of Offence.Charges.Dismissed or discharged.Committed for Sentence or Trial.Summary Convictions.
Against the person14914
Against property1,53671919798
Against good order12149 72
Other8836 52
Totals1,75981320926

Of the 926 convictions, in 152 cases the offender was discharged, in 250 ordered to come up for sentence, in 89 released on probation, and i 305 committed to an industrial school.

CRIMINAL CASES IN SUPREME COURTS.

In 1919 the total number of cases coming before the Supreme Court was 1,112, and this included 437 cases sent from Magistrates’ Courts for sentence. Maoris are included in these numbers.

Of 646 indictments and informations (excluding Maoris), 347 resulted in convictions being obtained. For Maoris the total was 29, resulting in 24 convictions.

Dealing now with distinct persons, it is found that the total indicted during the year was 388, including 28 Maoris; of these, 236 were convicted, including 24 Maoris. The distinct persons sent up from Magistrates’ Courts for sentence numbered 225, inclusive of 18 Maoris.

The following summary shows the number of distinct persons (Maoris excluded) convicted in Supreme Courts during the last decade:—

SUPREME COURTS.—PERSONS CONVICTED, ETC., 1910–19.

Year.Offences against the Person.Offences against Property.Forgery and Offences against the Currency.Other Offences.Total Convictions.Number committed for Sentence included in previous Columns.
1910893015434478243
1911882453436403185
19121052254421395185
19131231944421382171
1914902585747452192
1915952335232412212
19161012044721373190
19171161813728362178
1918741754021310183
19191042512935419203

SENTENCES of CRIMINALS in SUPREME COURTS, 1919.

Particulars of sentences (distinct persons) are,—

Sentence.Excluding Maoris.  Including Maoris.
Imprisonment (only) with or without hard labour130139
Imprisonment and declared habitual criminal1718
Imprisonment and reformative detention89
Reformative detention (only)118133
Fined2729
Released on probation6775
Ordered to come up for sentence5056
Held on bail22
Totals419461

DRUNKENNESS.

The number of convictions for breaches of the licensing laws by publicans and for selling liquor without a license, during the past five years, was as shown in the following statement. Offences by Maoris are not included.

 Convictions for
Year.Breaches of LicensingSelling Liquor
 Laws by Publicans.without a License.
1915171142
1916223102
1917452132
191836073
191948638

The number of convictions for drunkenness and drunkenness with disorderly conduct during 1919 (exclusive of convictions against Maoris) totalled 7,181 against males and 475 against females. In addition there were 411 convictions against Maoris—398 against males and 110 against females.

CONVICTIONS for DRUNKENNESS (exclusive of MAORIS), 1910–19.

Year.Convictions recorded against.Per 1,000 of Mean Population.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.
191010,80880511,61320.581.7211.70
191110,55984111,40019.741.7511.23
191210,68884311,53119.561.7111.10
191310,81578311,59819.271.5410.85
191412,1331,01213,14521.341.9412.06
191512,01095212,96221.221.7811.79
19169,93776510,70218.011.409.73
19177,9716068,57714.661.097.83
19186,4675326,99911.980.946.35
19197,1814757,65612.690.836.74

Repeated charges against the same person are included in the totals shown in the previous table. Dealing with arrests only (males, 6,890; females, 462: total 7,352), but excluding Maoris, it is found that the number of distinct persons convicted of this offence was 4,879 (4,656 males and 223 females), or 66.36 per cent. of the total “arrest” convictions (excluding Maoris) for drunkenness.

Offences for which convictions were entered against persons arrested (and convicted) at the same time for drunkenness numbered 1,212. The principal were: Assault, 70; wilful damage, 103; indecent or offensive conduct, 104; obscene or abusive language, 268; assaulting or resisting police, 98.

A calculation of the amount of alcoholic liquor consumed per head of mean population during the past five years is given below:—

CONSUMPTION of BEER, WINE, and SPIRITS per HEAD of MEAN POPULATION.

 Including Maoris.Excluding Maoris.
Beer.Wine.Spirits.Beer.Wine.Spirits.
Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.Gal.
19159.4550.1420.8189.8830.1480.856
19169.9870.1210.67810.4390.1260.709
19179.9370.1240.66110.3870.1300.691
19189.2130.1090.5029.6290.1140.524
1919.11.7040.1470.58112.2160.1530.606

The quantity of each kind of alcoholic liquor used in the Dominion during the same period was as follows:—

 Beer for Consumption.Wine for Consumption.Spirits for Consumption.
Gal.Gal.Gal.
191510,865,764163,244940,611
191611,477,041138,757779,698
191711,416,475142,859759,118
191810,621,229126,122578,177
191913,882,286174,333688,632

CRIME AMONGST MAORIS.

The number of summary convictions of Maoris brought before Magistrates’ Courts for the past five years is shown in the following table:—

Year.Offences.
Against the Person.Against Property.Against Good Order.Other Offences.Total.
Drunkenness.*Other.

*Including drunkenness with disorderly conduct.

1915691874224053731,456
1916441522963933781,263
1917501853203734901,418
1918661902974074581,418
19191502724116204821,935

Distinct Maoris convicted after arrest in 1919 numbered 485. The ages of these are given in the following table in combination with information as to class of offence:—

AGES and OFFENCES of DISTINCT MAORIS convicted (ARRESTS only), 1919.
Offences againstUnder 20.20 and under 25.25 and under 30.30 and under 40.40 and over.Unspecified.Totals.
The person1201253445
Property463413855111
Good order2769575010114318
Other offences12412111
Totals75125866411124485

The number of Maoris convicted in the higher Courts in 1919 was 42, including 18 who had been committed for sentence by the lower Courts.

PRISONS and PRISONERS.

The following table gives for the year 1919 the prison accommodation, the number of prisoners received, the number in prison at end of year, and the daily average number in confinement:—

Name of Prison.Number for whom there is Accommodation.Number received during Year.Number in Confinement at End of Year.Daily Average Number in Confinement.
Auckland311959209222.46
Kaingaroa62363544.94
Waikeria1339286110.30
New Plymouth58655147.95
Roto-aira53594742.62
Napier741711117.43
Wellington2251,058121126.84
Wi Tako27282319.68
Addington35503638.95
Lyttelton105369924.89
Paparua18114998117.02
Invercargill167145165160.79
Minor prisons1918352930.47
Totals1,6224,0169201004.34

The total number of prisoners received in the different gaols during the year 1919 was 4,016 (males 3,731, females 285), as compared with 3,807 (males 3,517, females 290) in 1917, counting each admission as a distinct person.

Omitting those received by transfer from another prison, 809 (males 784, females 25), the debtors and lunatics received, 68 (males 63, females 5), and duplicate receptions of the same prisoner on the same charge, 57 (males 55, females 2), it is found that the total receptions for criminal offences during 1919 were 3,122 (males 2,867, females 255). In this total are included 40 persons (males 38, females 2) on remand or awaiting sentence from the year 1918.

The number of prisoners in gaol (including Maoris) at the end of each of the past five years, and the proportion per 10,000 of population as at the 31st December, is given in the next table:—

PRISONERS in GAOL (31st DECEMBER).
Year.Number of Prisoners.Proportion per 10,000 of Population.
Undergoing Sentence.On Remand and awaiting Trial, &.Total.Undergoing Sentence.Total in Confinement
1915941579988.539.05
1916836548907.608.09
1917954531,0078.328.78
19181,005421,0478.689.04
1919852689207.027.58

The actual number of distinct convicted prisoners received in the various gaols during the year 1919 (excluding Maoris) was 1,725.

These figures do not include children committed to the industrial schools simply on the ground that they are neglected or destitute.

In classifying the offences a prisoner convicted of more than one offence during the year is reckoned once only, under the heading of the principal offence. Debtors and lunatics received into gaol are omitted.

AGES and OFFENCES of DISTINCT CONVICTED PRISONERS (excluding MAORIS) received into PRISON during 1919.
Age, in Years.Offences against the Person.Theft and other Offences against Property.Offences not included previously.Totals.
Sexual Offences.Assaults.Other.Vagrancy.Drunkenness.Other.
Under 2178 918 31145
21 and under 2521017031061157
25 and under 305193684889196
30 and under 354182651921110239
35 and under 409153772346105278
40 and under 45510 44224380204
45 and under 5064134274374189
50 and under 5542 21203740124
55 and under 60421810242675
60 and under 652  58232361
65 and over31 517151455
Not stated   11  2
Totals5189114891622706531,725

Out of these 1,725 prisoners, 723 had not suffered any previous conviction. The remaining 1,002 were apportioned—one previous conviction, 231; two, 130; three, 99; four, 67; five and over, 475.

It must be understood that the actual number of imprisonments was much in excess of the figures given above, as many persons were several times imprisoned either for offences differing in kind or for repetitions of the same offence.

NEW-ZEALAND-born PRISONERS.

New-Zealand-born over fifteen years of age formed at the 1916 census 60 per cent. of the total population above that age; but New-Zealanders constituted only 44.99 per cent. of the total number received in gaols in 1919.

FIRST OFFENDERS‘ PROBATION ACT.

Two hundred and twenty-six persons were placed on probation in the year 1919, as against 192 in 1918 and 127 in 1917.

TREE-planting by PRISON LABOUR.

Afforestation by prison labour is now carried on at one camp only—viz., at Kaingaroa, which is situated about 33 miles from Rotorua, on the Kaingaroa Plains. During the past year the camp has been largely used as a place of detention for military court-martialled prisoners, the greater part of the tree-planting work for the year having been carried out by them.

The number of trees planted in the neighbourhood of Kaingaroa for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was 1,418,975, while the total number of trees planted throughout the Dominion by prison labour since the inception of the afforestation scheme in 1901 is 39,797,475.

The total labour value of the prisoners’ work during the period since 1901 to March, 1919, as estimated by the Forestry Department, is £63,753.

PRISONS BOARD.

For the purposes of the Crimes Amendment Act of 1910 there is constituted a Prisons Board, at present consisting of the Chief Justice as President, and six other members.

In the ten years that the Board has been in existence no fewer than 1,288 persons have been sentenced to reformative detention. Seventy-one per cent. of these were released on the Board's recommendation, while of those released some 83 per cent. are not known to have again offended.

Much less favourable are the statistics of habitual criminals, of whom there were 261 declared in the period dealt with. Eighty-four per cent. were released, but more than half (56 per cent.) of these relapsed into criminal ways.

INQUESTS.

The number of bodies on which inquests were held in 1919 was 1,456. The verdicts given at the inquests may be classified as under:—

Nature of Verdict.Inquests on Persons.
Males.Females.Totals.
Disease and natural causes528260788
Accident43091521
Homicide415
Suicide11230142
 1,0743821,456

Of the accidental deaths drowning is one of the most common forms. The verdicts show that 130 deaths were due to this cause, giving a percentage of 24.95 of the accidental deaths from all causes.

The inquests on suicidal deaths in 1919 show an increase on the number for the previous year. The figures for each of the past ten years were,—

Year.Inquests on Suicides.Year.Inquests on Suicides.
Males.Females.Totals.Males.Females.Totals.
19109016106191511212124
191110925134191612228150
191211115126191710430134
19131183315119189922121
191411627143191911230142

FIRE INQUESTS.

In case of fire causing the destruction of any building, ship, or merchandise, or any stack of grain, pulse, or hay, or any growing crop, a Coroner may hold an inquiry into the cause of such fire, the procedure being similar to that of inquests into cause of death.

The inquests on fires held during 1919 numbered nine. In one case the verdict was arson, in a second accident, and in the remaining seven cases no evidence was forthcoming.

GAMING and LOTTERIES.

The number of charges laid in the Magistrates’ Courts for breaches of the gaming laws, and the manner in which such charges were disposed of, are shown for five years in the table following. Maoris are not included.

Year.Number of Charges.Discharged or dismissed.Convictions recorded.
191521754163
191628660226
1917336117219
191827873205
1919313101212

Chapter 7. SECTION VII.—REPRESENTATION AND ELECTORAL.

LEGISLATIVE authority in New Zealand is centred in a Parliament of two Houses, the House of Representatives and the Legislative Council. The latter body has at present some thirty-seven members, who are appointed, with the exception of one life member, for a period of seven years. Provision is made by the Legislative Council Act, 1914, for the ultimate creation of an elective Upper Chamber, but the date on which the Act is to commence has yet to be fixed.

The House of Representatives is composed of seventy-six members for “European” electorates and four for Maori constituencies. With certain minor exceptions, any registered elector, male or female, is eligible for election. The franchise is a broad one, covering all male or female adults of British nationality by birth or by naturalization in New Zealand who have resided in the Dominion for a minimum of twelve months.

THE GENERAL ELECTION of 1919.

The normal life of Parliament is three years, but owing to extraordinary circumstances the duration of the last Parliament was extended to five. A general election was held in December, 1919: for Maori representatives on the 16th, for European representatives on the 17th. Dealing with the latter election only, it is found that out of a total roll number of 683,420 some 550,327 (80.53 per cent.) persons exercised their vote. A summary for the last five general elections is as follows:—

Year of General Election.Estimated Total Adult Persons.Number on Rolls.Proportion per Cent. of Adult Persons registered as Electors.Number of Persons who voted.Proportion per Cent. of Persons on Rolls who voted.

*This excess of roll number over total population may be explained thus: The population quoted is the de facto population actually in the country; the roll number includes many soldiers still abroad. Further, many thousands of deceased soldiers and others had not been removed from the rolls owing to lack of proof of death.

1905500,108476,47395.28396,65783.25
1908538,950537,00399.64428,64879.82
1911594,532590,04299.24486,10083.67
1914641,768616,04395.99521,52584.66
1919675,415683,420**550,32780.53

The relative interest in the poll evinced by males and females may be measured by the percentage of votes recorded to the number on the roll—viz., males 81.45 per cent., females 79.52 per cent.

Informal votes cast numbered 7,587, or 1.38 per cent. of all votes recorded.

Valid votes for successful candidates totalled 279,373 (51.47 per cent.); for defeated candidates. 263,367, or 48.53 per cent. A statement of the voting in individual electorates follows.

RESULT of GENERAL ELECTION, 1919.

Electoral Districts and Names of Candidates.Number of Votes recordedNumber of Electors on Roll.Population at Census, 1916.
Bay of Islands
    Reed, V. H.3,066  
    Jounneaux, St. C.1,871  
    Informal56  
    ..4,9936,34413,455
Marsden
    Mander, F.2,307  
    Murdoch, A. J.2,118  
    McLean, D. A.850  
    Curtis, A. H.604  
    Informal108  
 5,9877,60614,229
Kaipara
    Coates, J. G.4,214  
    Gregory, A.923  
    Informal198  
 5,3356,87113,624
Waitemata
    Harris, A.4,911  
    Greenslade, A. E.3,492  
    Informaḷ̣ 119   
 8,52210,21117,002
Eden
    Parr, C.J.3,431  
    McBrine, O.1,577  
    Hornblow, R. E.1,500  
    Informal93  
 6,6017,88814,637
Auckland East
    Myers, A. M.3,718  
    McKenzie, C. N…3,560  
    Way, R. F.1,756  
    Informal146  
 9,18010,95917,013
Auckland Central
    Parry, W. E.4,007  
    Glover, A. E.3,221  
    Thomas, J. J.1,023  
    Informal106  
 8,3579,77716,888
Auckland West
    Savage, M. J.4,008  
    Bennett, F.3,475  
    Entrican, A. J.1,493  
    Informal83  
 9,05910,59917,366
Grey Lynn
    Bartram, F. N.3,141  
    Melville, Miss E…2,660  
    Fowlds, G.2,405  
    Garmston, L. J. F.214  
    Richardson, P.180  
    Informal118  
 8,71810,13017,203
Roskill
    Potter, V. H.4,200  
    Gunson, J. H.2,346  
    Davis, G.1,998  
    Peddle, F. W728  
    Informal95  
 9,36710,99617,217
Parnell
    Dickson. J. S.5,706  
    Bloodworth, T.2,287  
    Baume, Mrs. R. L.1,026  
    Informal110  
 9,12911,98516,911
Manukau
    Lang, F. W.4,182  
    Mason, H. G. R…2,304  
    Major. E. E.1,173  
    Informal87  
 7,7469,42215,751
Franklin
    Massey, W. F.4,195  
    Rea, J.1,165  
    Piggott, E.637  
    Informal134  
 6,1317,81513,419
Raglan
    Bollard, R. F.2,888  
    Jordan, W. J.1,900  
    Johnstone, C.756  
    Informal64  
 5,6087,21412,998
Thames
    Rhodes, T. W.3,078  
    McCormick, W. J.1,488  
    Purtell, J.965  
    Cooke, Mrs. A. A. M.72  
    Long, T.56  
    Informal75  
 5,7346,80713,779
Ohinemuri
    Poland, H.3,173  
    Clark, J.2,618  
    Informal52  
 5,8437,43114,134
Tauranga
    Herries, W. H.3,946  
    Bobbins, B. C.2,086  
    Informal118  
 6,1509,01912,988
Waikato
    Young, J. A4,869  
    Watts, P. H.1,976  
    Lafferty, C.766  
    Informal121  
 7,73210,01914,912
Rotorua
    Hockly, F. F.3,258  
    Carney, M.1,525  
    Jones, G. T.854  
    Hewitt, W. C.497  
    Keegan, P.324  
    Informal86  
 6,5448,00713,115
Bay of Plenty
    MacDonald, W.D.S.3,546  
    Williams, K. S.2,312  
    Informal66  
 5,9248,43613,281
Waitomo
    Jennings, W. T.2,906  
    Wilson, K. C.2,529  
    Elliott, G.332  
    Informal159  
 5,9267,54613,407
Gisborne
    Lysnar, W. D.3,041  
    Carroll, J.2,668  
    Brindle, T.2,312  
    Informal114  
 8,13511,67815,881
Hawke's Bay
    Campbell, H. M…3,234  
    McKay, G.2,292  
    Chapman, C. H…2,176  
    Informal86  
 7,78810,67515,480
Napier
    Brown, J. V.2,763  
    Evans, F. C.2,709  
    Hill, H.2,562  
    Informal161  
 8,19510,08416,623
Waipawa
    Hunter, G.3,458  
    Jull, A. E.3,184  
    Informal72  
 6,7147,88413,721
Pahiatua
    McNicol, A.2,775  
    Ross, R. B.2,603  
    Rice, R. S. L.1,142  
    Informal51  
 6,5717,90014,325
Masterton
    Sykes, G. R.2,444  
    Holms, A. C.2,106  
    McLeod, A.1,730  
    Matheson, W. B.791  
    Informal43  
 7,1088,23814,653
Wairarapa
    McLeod, A. D.3,266  
    Hornsby, J. T. M.2,726  
    Danahey, C. J.199  
    Informal102  
 6,2937,63412,957
Stratford
    Masters, R.3,118  
    Hine, J. B.3,057  
    Informal50  
 6,2257,30213,663
Taranaki
    Smith, S. G.4,287  
    Buckeridge, G. H.3,264  
    Informal79  
 7,6308,65114,959
Egmont
    Hawken, O. J.3,123  
    Astbury, D. L. A.2,932  
    Informal49  
 6,1047,47813,043
Patea
    Powdrell, W.D.3,276  
    Morrison, W.3,021  
    Fitzherbert, P. B.458  
    Pearce, G. V.144  
    Informal154  
 7,0538,89213,738
Wanganui
    Veitch, W. A.4,340  
    Cuttle, W. J.2,637  
    McIlvride, L.1,266  
    Informal77  
 8,32010,50315,712
Waimarino
    Smith, R. W.3,116  
    Langstone, F.2,473  
    Informal79  
 5,6687,50613,014
Oroua
    Guthrie, D. H.3,891  
    Tunnicliffe, E. J.2,048  
    Informal191  
 6,1307,84113,843
Manawatu
    Newman, E.3,025  
    Hillier, A. C.2,159  
    Informal68  
 5,526,62212,973
Rangitikei
    Glenn, W. S.2,903  
    Brady, F. P.2,268  
    Meldrum, W.1,655  
    Informal75  
 6,9019,05414,393
Palmerston
    Nash, J. A.4,617  
    Ayrton, M.3,613  
    Informal173  
 8,40310,53616,078
Otaki
    Field, W. H.2,820  
    McKenzie, J.1,588  
    MacDonald, E.407  
    Isherwood, A. J. R.198  
    Informal146  
 5,1596,57813,373
Hutt
    Wilford, T. M.3,422  
    Pritchard, D. K.2,417  
    Rishworth, E. P.2,319  
    Informal68  
 8,2269,98316,247
Wellington North
    Luke, J. P.3,999  
    Browne, H. O.2,934  
    Read, J.2,345  
    Informal86  
 9,36411,95417,159
Wellington Central
    Fraser, P.4,486  
    Pirani, F.3,430  
    Informal146  
 8,06210,55117,255
Wellington East
    Newman, A. K.4,375  
    Monteith. A. L.3,317  
    McKenzie, L. S. W.2,441  
    Informal94  
 10,22712,70517,113
Wellington South
    Mitchell, G.4,801  
    Semple, R.3,375  
    Informal103  
 8,2710,12217,330
Wellington Suburbs
    Wright, R. A.4,091  
    Croskery, A. W.2,964  
    Sloane, A. D.2,073  
    Informal105  
 9,23311,59517,239
Nelson
    Atmore, H.3,412  
    Field, T. A. H.2,902  
    Price, J. G.1,079  
    Informal83  
 7,4768,70115,759
Motueka
    Hudson, R. P.2,456  
    Power, W. P.1,795  
    Lomax, P. B.1,255  
    Informal46  
 5,5527,35013.630
Buller
    Holland, H. E.3,545  
    O'Brien, D. Q.2,542  
    Informal56  
 6,1437,29814,528
Westland
    Seddon, T. E. Y4,201  
    O'Brien, J.2,704  
    Informal85  
 6,9908,31115,321
Wairau
    McCallum, R.2,152  
    Cooke, B. J.1,656  
    Corry, J. J.1,430  
    Penny, E. H.1,348  
    Informal35  
 6,9217,91914,352
Hurunui
    Forbes, G. W. J3,008  
    Armstrong, J. G.2,341  
    Gardner, G. G.373  
    Informal50  
 5,7727,14713,173
Kaiapoi
    Jones, D.2,580  
    Buddo, D.2,530  
    Williams, C. M.1,521  
    Informal71  
 6,7027,99814,038
Christchurch North
    Isitt, L. M.6,033  
    Armstrong, H. T.3,600  
    Informal313  
 9,94612,10417,132
Christchurch East
    Thacker, H. T. J.5,572  
    Hunter, H.3,632  
    Informal216  
 9,42011,66617,122
Christchurch South
    Howard, E. J.5,088  
    Holland, H.3,413  
    Informal213  
 8,71411,59517,114
Riccarton
    Witty, G.2,948  
    Devereaux, W. R.2,322  
    Robertson, J.1,966  
    Informal89  
 7,3258,62115,771
Avon
    Sullivan, D. G.5,168  
    Russell, G. W.3,520  
    Carl, J. L.218  
    Informal205  
 9,11111,13717,176
Lyttelton
    McCombs, J.2,999  
    MacCartney, R.2,422  
    Lester, W. T.1,277  
    Ell, H. G.585  
    Informal147  
 7,4308,90815,957
Ellesmere
    Rhodes, R. H.3,582  
    Barclay, G.2,833  
    Informal74  
 6,4898,57713,913
Ashburton
    Nosworthy, W.4,056  
    Dickie, W. J.2,563  
    Jones, H. M.290  
    Informal42  
 6,9518,11914,282
Timaru
    Craigie, J.4,717  
    Vinnell, P. C.3,198  
    Informal163  
 8,07810,24316,258
Temuka
    Burnett, T. G.3,294  
    Talbot, C. J.3,263  
    Informal53  
 6,6108,14213,638
    Waitaki
    Pitchener, J.2,550  
    Anstey, J.2,078  
    Paul, W. G.1,665  
    Informal55  
 6,3487,59513,770
Oamaru
    Lee, E. P.3,819  
    MacPherson, J. A.3,543  
    Informal53  
 7,4158,55314,967
Dunedin North
    Kellett, E.4,784  
    Walker, A.3,978  
    Informal119  
 8,88111,19917,252
Dunedin West
    Stewart, W. D.5,712  
    Brown, J. A.3,291  
    Informal122  
 9,12512,23317,035
Dunedin Central
    Statham, C. E.4,769  
    Munro, J. W.4,272  
    Informal90  
 9,13111,73617,136
Dunedin South—
    Sidey, T. K.4,395  
    Paul, T.4,311  
    Informal123  
 8,82910,33316,944
Chalmers
    Dickson, J. Mc.2,693  
    Gilchrist, J.1,810  
    Colquhoun, D.1,382  
    Informal70  
 5,9557,24814,400
Bruce
    Allen, J.2,993  
    Edit. J.2,867  
    Informal71  
 5,9317,39513,224
Clutha
    Malcolm, A. S.2,257  
    Rodger, R. A.2,123  
    Maslin, W. S.1,190  
    Christie, J.143  
    Informal49  
 5,7626,86912,949
Wakatipu
    Horn, J.3,062  
    Scott, R.2,261  
    Ashworth, A.879  
    Informal47  
 6,2498,01013,563
Mataura
    Anderson, G. J.3,042  
    McDougall, D.1,706  
    McLachlan, A.848  
    McIntyre, N.181  
    Informal50  
 5,8877,12313,766
Wallace
    Hamilton, A.2,843  
    Thomson, J. C.2,800  
    Informal58  
 5,7016,89113,535
Invercargill
    Hanan, J. A.4,758  
    Archer, J. K.3,355  
    Informal93  
 8,20610,41416,995
Awarua
    Hamilton. J. R.3,164  
    Ward, J. G.2,407  
    Informal80  
 5,6516,93713,280

MAORI REPRESENTATIVES.

The Maori population at the census of October, 1916, amounted to 49,776 persons. With four representatives in Parliament, their ratio of representation is one to every 12,444 persons, compared with one to every 14,466 persons for European electorates at the same date, excluding absent soldiers, &. Polling in each district was as under:—

Electoral Districts and Names of Candidates.Number of Votes recorded.
*Elected unopposed.
Northern Maori
Tau Henarẹ̣̣̣2,665
Nau Paraone Kawitị̣1,036
Anaru Ngawakạ̣135
Aperahana Reupene Tuoro71
Wiri Henarẹ̣̣̣32
Informaḷ̣̣̣44
          Totaḷ̣̣̣3,983
Southern Maori
John Hopere Wharewiti376
Uru 
Riki te Mairaki Taiaroa16
Teone Matapura Erihana97
Hoani Matiụ̣̣̣46
Informaḷ̣ ̣̣  ̣̣Informaḷ̣ ̣̣
      Total688
Eastern Maori
Apirana Turupu Ngata*
Western Maori
Maui Pomarẹ̣̣2,669
Ngarangi Katitiạ̣1,245
Tanea Kaawe Shorṭ̣567
Tuwhakaririka Patena.536
Henare Kaihaụ̣215
Taiwiwi Tukimana te212
Taniwha 
Tema Pouwharetapu45
Keawene44
Keritoke te Ahụ̣35
Otene Paorạ̣̣̣24
Eruera Pohipi Chasẹ̣12
Kipi te Whatanui ̣̣72
      Total5,675

BY-elections.

Since the general election, by-elections have been held in three electorates —viz., Bruce (14th April, 1920), Stratford (6th May, 1920), and Bay of Plenty (30th September, 1920). The first was necessitated by the resignation of Sir James Allen, K.C.B., the second by the invalidation of the previous election owing to irregularities, and the third by the death of the Hon. W. D. S. Macdonald. The results were—

BruceStratfordBay of Plenty
  Edie, J.2,421  Masters, R.3,394  Williams, K. S.2,341
  Begg, J. C.2,297  Hine, J. B.3,246  Lysnar, F.1,735
    Informal16    Informal24    Informal5
     Total4,734     Total6,664     Total4,081
(Number on roll, 7,406.)(Number on roll, 7,640.)(Number on roll, 5,765.)

Chapter 8. SECTION VIII.—LICENSES, LOCAL OPTION, ETC.

LICENSES and LICENSED HOUSES.

DURING the year ended the 31st March, 1919, 1,667 licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquors were granted. Of these, 1,156 were publicans’ and accommodation licenses, 42 New Zealand wine, 52 packet, 136 wholesale, and 281 conditional licenses. The fees paid amounted to £39,817, and formed part of the revenue of the local governing bodies of the districts in which the licenses were issued. Particulars are given in the following table:—

NUMBER of LICENSES granted during the YEAR 1918–19, and the AMOUNT of FEES paid to LOCAL BODIES therefor.
Licenses.In Counties.In Boroughs.In Town Districts.Total.
Publicans’ licenses33359441968
Accommodation licenses174122188
Total licensed houses507606431,156
New Zealand wine licenses3012 42
Packet licenses1141 52
Wholesale licenses31312136
Conditional licenses1581221281
Total licenses granted709912461,667
Amount of license fees paid to local bodies£10,665£27,452£1,700£39,817

The number of publicans’ and accommodation licenses granted in counties, boroughs, and independent town districts during each of the past ten years is here given, together with the total amount of fees paid for all licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquor:—

Year ended 31st March.Counties.Boroughs.Town Districts.Total.Total Fees, All Licenses.
     £
1910643580341,25744,900
1911630582361,24843,843
1912617590281,23542,572
1913594592321,21842,456
1914578598421,21842,283
1915564596471,20741,769
1916557598441,19942,978
1917536598491,18346,164
1918540598461,18441,208
1919507606431,15639,817

The average number of persons to each licensed house in counties, boroughs, and independent town districts respectively for 1918–19 is next shown:—

         Number of Licensed Houses.*        Mean Population, 1918–19, excluding Maoris.        Number of Persons to each Licensed House.

*I.e., houses holding publicans’ or accommodation licenses.

Counties507494,304975
Boroughs606591,478976
Town districts4328,924673
Totals1,1561,114,706964

That the proportion of licensed houses to population has declined steadily in the last decade is evidenced by the following figures:—

Year ended 31st March.        Average Persons to a Licensed House.
1910732
1911803
1912824
1913852
1914895
1915911
1916920
1917918
1918946
1919964

The annual fees payable for licenses are,—

  1. For a publican's license—             £

    1. Within the limits of a borough or town district         40

    2. Outside the aforesaid limits                         25

  2. For a New Zealand wine license                                 1

  3. For an accommodation license, a sum to be determined by the Licensing Committee, not exceeding                 20

  4. For a packet license—

    1. For a vessel exceeding 50 tons register                 10

    2. For a vessel not exceeding 50 tons register                 5

  5. For a wholesale license                                         20

  6. For a conditional license, according to duration of license, a sum not exceeding                                         30

The approximate capital value of the licensed houses in the counties for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was stated at £690,491, in certain of the boroughs at £1,687,443, and in the town districts at £127,721. There was, besides, an annual value of £122,210 for other licensed houses in the boroughs, which, capitalized at 6 per cent., would represent £2,036,833. The capital value of all licensed houses may therefore be put down at approximately £4,542,488. Caution should be exercised in this connection, as some of the valuation on which the above total is based are by no means recent, revaluations having been delayed by the war. It is probable that the capital value was at the 31st March, 1919, somewhat above the figure quoted.

SPECIAL LICENSING POLL, 1919.

The results of the special licensing poll of the 10th April, 1919, held under the authority of the Licensing Amendment Act, 1918, were as follows:—

 Votes.
For national continuance264,189
For national prohibition with compensation253,827

LICENSING POLL, 1919.

Under the provisions of the Licensing Amendment Act, 1918, three issues were submitted on the 17th December, 1919. The final figures are—

 Votes.
For national continuance241,251
For State purchase and control32,261
For national prohibition270,250

None of the three issues secured the minimum of more than half of the total valid votes east. Voting in each licensing district was as under:—

District.For National Continuance.For State Purchase and Control.For National Prohibition.
Bay of Islandṣ̣2,2053002,631
Marsdeṇ̣̣̣2,1303163,476
Kaiparạ̣̣̣2,2623322,708
Waitematạ̣3,2244264,720
Edeṇ̣̣̣2,4653063,720
Aucklanḍ̣13,4101,16111,629
Grey Lynṇ̣3,3503254,835
Roskilḷ̣̣̣2,6333796,214
Parnelḷ̣̣̣3,3244585,221
Manukaụ̣̣3,0463394,198
Frankliṇ̣̣̣2,2963263,395
Raglaṇ̣̣̣2,3314872,719
Thameṣ̣̣̣2,3563362,971
Ohinemurị̣2,2637572,651
Taurangạ̣2,6194833,120
Waikatọ̣̣̣2,8863624,375
Rotoruạ̣̣̣2,9455413,081
Bay of Plentỵ̣2,9144852,489
Waitomọ̣2,9334912,372
Gisbornẹ̣3,4597243,840
Hawke's Baỵ̣3,5815423,532
Napieṛ̣̣̣3,6456443,733
Waipawạ̣̣3,0254713,099
Pahiatuạ̣2,9842883,223
Mastertoṇ̣3,0974713,375
Wairarapạ̣3,0353412,842
Stratforḍ̣2,3482073,574
Taranakị̣2,7803204,407
Egmonṭ̣̣̣2,6382143,133
Pateạ̣̣̣2,9672343,776
Wanganuị̣3,7393254,167
Waimarinọ̣3,3394791,771
Orouạ̣̣̣2,5772483,229
Rangitikeị̣3,1093853,345
Manawatụ̣2,3642662,539
Palmerstoṇ̣3,5843524,376
Otakị̣̣̣2,3604182,300
Hutṭ̣̣̣3,8425743,717
Wellingtoṇ̣13,7022,24011,295
Wellington Soutḥ̣3,6335833,851
Wellington Suburbs3,6518774,555
Nelsoṇ̣̣̣3,1996943,480
Motuekạ̣̣̣2,7714992,210
Bulleṛ̣̣̣2,8153932,812
Westlanḍ̣3,9014902,468
Wairaụ̣̣̣3,4512883,110
Hurunuị̣̣̣2,9613212,439
Kaiapoị̣̣̣3,0602693,275
Christchurcḥ̣12,1521,74713,752
Riccartoṇ̣3,1214113,704
Avoṇ̣̣̣3,6765554,790
Lytteltoṇ̣3,0784863,770
Ellesmerẹ̣3,2583022,818
Ashburtoṇ̣3,3963723,023
Timarụ̣̣̣3,3433554,241
Temukạ̣̣̣3,0904033,032
Waitakị̣̣̣2,8812503,123
Oamarụ̣̣̣3,0363543,806
Dunediṇ̣̣̣11,37791614,430
Dunedin Soutḥ̣3,6462934,759
Chalmerṣ̣2,3991463,294
Brucẹ̣̣̣2,6192912,894
Cluthạ̣̣̣2,3672223,073
Wakatipụ̣3,2853042,577
Mataurạ̣̣̣2,893313,097
Wallacẹ̣̣̣2,7402482,596
Invercargilḷ̣2,9866744,319
Awaruạ̣̣̣2,4162552,876
          Totalṣ̣240,36431,682269.972
Number of Valid Votes recorded by Members of Expeditionary Force.
Englanḍ̣̣̣14823035
Samoa341816
On board troopships705331227
      Totals887579278
     Grand totalṣ̣241,25132,261270,250
      Grand totalṣ̣241,25132,261270,250

LOCAL OPTION.

In the thirteen no-license districts an additional issue was submitted—viz., local restoration. Local prohibition was maintained in all districts.

NO-LICENSE DISTRICTS.
District.Number of Electors on Effective Roll.License to be restored.License be not restored.Number of Valid Votes recorded.Result.
Eden7,8882,4403,8646,304Restoration not carried.
Grey Lynn10,1303,2445,0678,311Restoration not carried.
Roskill10,9962,5256,3308,855Restoration not carried.
Ohinemuri7,4313,0582,5595,617Restoration not carried.
Masterton8,2383,2613,6106,871Restoration not carried.
Wellington South10,1223,8124,1007,912Restoration not carried.
Wellington Suburbs11,5953,7475,0628,809Restoration not carried.
Ashburton8,1193,6463,1576,803Restoration not carried.
Oamaru8,5533,1813,9897,170Restoration not carried.
Bruce7,3952,5763,1705,746Restoration not carried.
Clutha6,8692,3873,1915,578Restoration not carried.
Mataura7,1232,4563,1495,605Restoration not carried.
Invercargill10,4143,5654,4097,974Restoration not carried.
Totals114,87339,89851,65791,555 

Chapter 9. SECTION IX.—LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.

ON the 31st March, 1919, the boroughs numbered 118 and the counties 126. There were, moreover, 94 road districts (including two without Boards) in existence at the close of March, 1919, and 36 independent and 31 non-independent town districts. Besides the above there were 42 river-protective districts, 3 city and suburban drainage districts (Christchurch, Dunedin, and Auckland), 7 water-supply districts, 55 land-drainage districts under the Land Drainage Act, 2 tramway districts, and 1 local railway district. The Harbour Boards numbered 36, excluding 10 cases where some other local authority acts as Harbour Board.

RECEIPTS.

Local governing bodies levied rates in the financial year 1918–19 to the amount of £2,939,606, of which £2,028,151 consisted of general rates and £911,455 special and separate rates. The sum of £87,125 was raised by licenses, and £112,241 by other taxes, making £3,138,972 altogether, which sum is equivalent to £2 16s. 11d. per head of the mean European population. In the year 1917–18 the local taxation was £2 12s. per head, or 4s, 11d. less than in 1918–19.

The receipts of local governing bodies, divided into the various groups shown above, are given for each of the past ten years.

Financial Year.Revenue fromReceipts not Revenue.Total Receipts.
Rates.Licenses, Fees, Rents, and other Sources.Government.Total Revenue.
 ££££££
1914–152,140,0862,622,221239,0765,001,3832,595,7067,597,089
1915–162,355,1552,705,562262,0835,322,8002,469,2757,792,075
1916–172,534,5393,001,324242,6185,778,4811,411,4227,189,903
1917–182,674,5413,034,894248,8555,958,2901,250,0477,208,337
1918–192,939,6063,184,741267,3306,391,677942,7807,334,457

The figures given in this and following tables are for the year ended 31st March, except in the case of certain Harbour Boards whose own financial year is taken in each case. A summary of receipts for the year 1918–19 is given below.

The total revenue of the local bodies for the financial year was £6,391,677, and they further received a sum of £942,780 which could not properly be termed “revenue,” making altogether a grand total of receipts amounting to £7,334,457. The rates formed 45.99 per cent. of the revenue proper; licenses, rents, and other sources yielded 49.83 per cent.; and 4.18 per cent. was granted by the General Government.

LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.—RECEIPTS, 1918–19.
Local Districts.Revenue fromReceipts not Revenue.Total Receipts
Rates.Licenses, Rents, &.Government.County.
 ££££££
Counties1,175,752121,836192,735 344,2411,834,564
Boroughs1,346,6341,979,88044,529 401,1783,772,221
Town districts55,05632,7804,07517817,195109,284
Road districts94,95612,45814,2051,64224,427147,688
River districts17,17412,94113 4,07334,201
Land-drainage districts28,2721,800  28,75858,830
Water-supply districts …7262,6551 2883,670
Tramway districts3,023173,210   176,233
City and suburban drainage districts100,1813,243825 16,606120,855
Railway district 8,732  2288,960
Harbour districts117,832833,38610,947 105,7861,067,951
Totals2,939,6063,182,921267,3301,820942,7807,334,457

RATES.

As stated above, rates contributed in 1918–19 the sum of £2,939,606 to the revenue of local governing bodies. General rates levied brought in £2,028,151, and special and separate rates £911,455. Of the latter, £709,166 was received by boroughs, and £150,655 by counties. The whole of the rates in harbour districts were general rates, while all those collected by Tramway Boards came under the heading of “special and separate.”

RATES levied by LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.
Financial Year.General.Special and Separate.Total.
 £££
1914–151,484,591655,4952,140,086
1915–161,607,764747,3912,355,155
1916–171,695,572838,9672,534,539
1917–181,791,028883,5132,674,541
1918–192,028,151911,4552,939,606

Separate rates are of two classes—“general” and “particular.” General separate rates are levied for the construction, maintenance, &., of any public work, for the acquisition of land or buildings, or for engaging in any undertaking for the benefit of whole or part of a local district. Particular separate rates are levied in respect of water-supply, lighting, sanitation, and of libraries. Special rates are those levied as security for the repayment of loans.

At the 31st March, 1919, the system of rating on the unimproved value was in force in 36 counties, 61 boroughs, 26 town districts, 14 road districts, 14 river-protective districts, 15 land-drainage districts, and 1 tramway district.

RECEIPTS from GENERAL GOVERNMENT.

The following list shows the various items of revenue received from the Government together with the amount for the financial year 1918–19 in each case: Rates on Crown and Native lands, £1,914; timber and flax, royalties £5,100; goldfields revenue and gold duty, £25,822; subsidy on rates, £168,835; one-third of receipts from lands sold on deferred payment and from perpetual leases, £35,094; one-fourth of rents from small grazing-runs, £7,722; fees and fines, £4,564; other receipts (including amounts paid to Harbour Boards by the Admiralty), £18,279. In addition there are special grants from the General Government for various local works of a public or semi-public character, £156,354. These are not considered revenue, and are included with “Receipts not revenue.” A further class of receipts from the Government is provided by loans, £208,158.

PAYMENTS.

Payments of local governing bodies for ten years are as follows:—

Financial Year.Payments.  Financial Year.Payments.
 £ £
1909–104,898,482  1914–156,806,567
1910–115,360,261  1915–166,920,736
1911–126,074,372  1916–176,758,593
1912–136,537,769  1917–187,103,073
1913–146,796,314  1918–197,320,277

Payments during 1918–19 are shown below in more detail:—

LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.—PAYMENTS, 1918–19.
Public Works.Hospitals and Charitable Aid.Administration.Interest on Loans and Overdraft.Other.Total Payments.

* Including expenses of management

Included in public works.

 ££££££
Counties1,217,405178,583158,135140,53868,0741,762,735
Boroughs2,648,344117,871175,095697,484176,0413,814,835
Town districts70,8943,48413,51519,5234,410111,826
Road districts98,9818,48415,02312,1399,435144,062
River districts13,986 6,0745,6085,99531,663
Land-drainage districts42,680 4,7469,9283,41960,773
Water-supply districts2,732 75392153,709
Tramway districts142,315* 28,944420171,679
City and suburban drainage districts28,295 7,79965,9396,031108,064
Railway district13,283  1,2261,00015,509
Harbour districts578,393 125,977323,92167,1311,095,422
Totals4,857,308308,422507,1171,305,259342,1717,320,277

It is seen that during the year the total payments were £7,320,277, of which £4,857,308 was expended on public works and £1,305,259 on debt charges. The item “administration expenses” does not rank very high in the aggregate, though the table following shows that in some classes of local bodies the expenses of administration account for a fair percentage of the revenue:—

Local Districts.Administration Expenses as Percentage of
Revenue.Total Receipts.Payments.
 £££
Counties10.618.628.97
Boroughs5.194.644.59
Town districts14.6812.7312.09
Road districts12.1910.1710.43
River districts20.1617.7619.18
Land-drainage districts15.788.077.81
Water-supply districts22.2720.5220.30
City and suburban drainage districts7.486.457.22
Harbour districts13.0911.8011.50
All districts8.177.097.11

The table following gives, in respect of boroughs only, the payments out of loan-money during the past five years, classified under various heads:—

EXPENDITURE out of LOANS.—BOROUGHS ONLY.
Year ended 31st March.Streets, Foot-ways, and Bridges.Drainage and Sanitation.Waterworks.Tramways.Abattoirs, Slaughterhouses and Pounds.Lighting and Power Services.Other Public Works.Management, Interest, and Sundries.Total.
 £££££££££
1915153,20968,06170,30628,8895,463201,65158,98225,098611,659
1916175,24898,36686,86445,3903,860235,07178,39817,818741,015
191798,59592,67784,01221,49714,970130,48960,90216,794519,936
191872,29086,34645,9176,880 104,35957,08612,571385,449
191992,92362,71040,593 67168,27634,0145,163304,350

ASSETS and LIABILITIES.

The assets and liabilities of local governing bodies at the end of the financial year 1918–19 are as shown in the table following. The figures shown in the column “other assets” are taken from the respective balance-sheets, but are far from complete. In quite a number of cases no assets whatever are shown, while in the majority of the others nothing is included for the reserves held. These totals can be taken only as a very approximate indication of the property held in addition to the actual cash assets.

Assets.Liabilities.
Cash Assets.Other Assets (as estimated in Published Balance-sheets).Net Indebtedness on Loans (excluding Government Loans and those from the State Advances Office).Net Indebtedness on Loans from State Advances Office. (Net indebtedness on 31st March, 1919.)Inscribed Debt, i.e., Loans from Treasury under Loans to Local Bodies Acts). Estimated Present Indebtedness.Liabilities other than the Loans included in preceding Columns (Bank Overdrafts, Outstanding Accounts, &.).
 ££££££
Counties607,596620,217498,1451,116,204822,974507,029
Boroughs1,090,48714,709,97110,961,9571,313,700563,442945,540
Town districts32,768228,130251,59983,40710,11850,035
Road districts54,95695,84373,14088,12953,89724,491
River districts12,93890,27334,2733,21340,18515,440
Land-drainage districts26,81321,23125,457125,66561,1706,835
City and suburban drainage districts52,282585,8861,223,325174 491,493
Tramway districts25,624708,306565,557  1,383
Water-supply districts1,3271,89620,796 637234
Railway districts34129,278   29,619
Harbour districts858,6908,751,4546,246,616116,345 240,141
Totals2,763,82225,842,48519,900,8652,846,8371,552,4232,472,240

LOANS of LOCAL BODIES.

The net indebtedness of local governing bodies on account of outstanding loans increased in the twenty years 1899–1900 to 1918–19 from £6,356,630 to £19,922,153, exclusive of moneys borrowed from the Government, which represented a further indebtedness of £4,399,260 at the end of March, 1919, made up as follows: Inscribed debt, i.e., debentures under the Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882, converted, and amounts borrowed from the Treasury under the Local Bodies’ Loans Acts, £1,552,423; loans from the New Zealand State Advances Office, £2,846,837.

The gross indebtedness of local bodies at 31st March, 1919, amounted to £28,323,853, made up as follows: Debentures and stock, &., £22,673,712; inscribed debt, £2,554,401; loans for State Advances Office, £3,095,740.

A table is given showing the gross amount of the debt raised in New Zealand and elsewhere, other than loans from the General Government. Columns are added showing the interest payable and the average rate of interest per cent. During the war period there have been decreases in the amounts raised abroad and increases in the amounts raised in New Zealand, making a difference between the two amounts of nearly £7,000,000 at the 31st March, 1919.

INDEBTEDNESS and INTEREST CHARGES.

Financial Year.Raised in New Zealand.Raised Abroad.Total Indebtedness.Interest.Average Rate per Cent.
 £££££
1914–1510,998,7758,455,70019,454,475870,9924.48
1915–1612,793,5437,960,62520,754,168948,5114.57
1916–1713,218,6178,214,15021,432,767983,4084.59
1917–1814,096,1878,164,35022,260,5371,034,2724.64
1918–1914,749,7637,923,94922,673,7121,048,9994.63

The average rate of interest had shown a continuous fall for many years prior to the war. Since 1914–15, however, a tendency to an increasing rate of interest has developed. Of a gross indebtedness of £22,673,712, £5,445,923 was held at 4 per cent.; £2,015,913 at 4¼ per cent.; £6,310,500 at 4¼ per cent.; £5,377,150 at 5 per cent.; £1,359,278 at 5¼ per cent., and £1,082,190 at 6 per cent. Against this were sinking funds amounting to £2,751,559, leaving the net indebtedness, other than to the State, £19,922,153. The annual charge for interest was £1,048,999, and for sinking fund £182,465. The net indebtedness to the State Advances Office was £2,846,837, representing loans originally amounting to £3,095,740. The instalments of principal and interest on this amounted to an annual charge of £161,401. The estimated net indebtedness on account of Inscribed Debt was £1,552,423 at the 1st February, 1919. This debt is decreasing yearly, and will be extinguished in course of time. The amount outstanding is repayable by annual instalments of £97,025.

Detailed tables showing the statistics of individual local bodies will be found in Volume iv of “Statistics of New Zealand,” also as regards boroughs, town districts, and Harbour Boards in the “Municipal Handbook,” published biennially.

Chapter 10. SECTION X.—VALUATION OF LAND.

GENERAL valuations of land for the whole of New Zealand were made periodically up to the year 1897–98. Since that year no general valuations for the whole Dominion have been made, but portions have been revalued from time to time.

No statement absolutely accurate at the present day can be given, as the totals for 1919 and preceding years are not ascertained by general revaluations in each year. Revaluations are made, district by district, as circumstances permit. The total capital value, £445,533,445 at 31st March, 1919, represents a figure treble that of twenty years previous.

A quinquennial summary of valuation in the North and South Islands follows:—

CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUES in the NORTH and SOUTH ISLANDS and for the WHOLE DOMINION.

Year.North Island.South Island.*New Zealand.
Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).

*Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.

COUNTIES.
 ££££££
1915137,669,16891,079,54394,296,27569,841,015231,965,443160,920,558
1916146,242,11897,379,01596,811,08471,199,250243,053,202168,578,265
1917154,477,641102,981,689100,636,68874,108,106255,114,329177,089,795
1918164,928,221109,611,569103,714,87976,670,835268,643,100186,282,404
1919182,705,967120,687,776108,086,61580,086,519290,792,582200,774,295
BOROUGHS.
191587,671,60948,150,30946,638,66319,396,948134,310,27267,547,257
191692,902,16050,443,30948,313,99920,050,324141,216,15970,493,733
191796,207,34551,510,81948,770,85220,018,500144,978,19771,529,319
191897,648,13951,772,26949,660,41920,358,456147,308,55872,130,725
191998,520,64451,910,88650,615,52620,737,636149,136,17072,64,522
TOWN DISTRICTS.
19153,916,1011,854,576884,867382,7564,800,9682,237,332
19164,273,9751,989,761621,393260,4964,895,3682,250,257
19174,732,9482,207,633640,597260,9615,373,5452,468,594
19184,820,0832,255,646611,632253,0375,431,7152,508,683
19194,941,5192,301,302663,174264,2905,604,6932,565,592
GRAND TOTALS.
1915229,256,878141,084,428141,819,80589,620,719371,076,683230,705,147
1916243,418,253149,812,085145,746,47691,510,170389,164,729241,322,255
1917255,417,934156,700,141150,048,13794,387,567405,466,071251,087,708
1918267,396,443163,639,484153,986,93097,282,328421,383,373260,921,812
1919286,168,130174,899,964159,365,315101,088,445445,533,445275,988,409

The total valuations are also given for individual counties, boroughs, and independent town districts. In making comparisons it should be borne in mind, as previously remarked, that the valuations are not all for the same year.

COUNTIES.

TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of each COUNTY in NEW ZEALAND.

County.Gross Values.
Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).
 ££
Mongonui931,868551,484
Whangaroa294,696188,519
Bay of Islands1,601,1301,020,544
Hokianga1,269,515772,222
Whangarei2,500,8831,413,326
Hobson2,111,9001,258,372
Otamatea1,713,799952,032
Rodney1,024,641615,121
Waitemata2,641,3881,819,282
Eden4,245,9282,640,715
Manukau3,079,6522,101,565
Franklin3,891,0842,561,224
Great Barrier133,758108,440
Islands—
      Little Barrier, Waiheke, &c.327,038212,080
Waikato4,664,7363,323,252
Raglan3,275,7132,118,572
Waipa4,982,7423,441,515
Kawhia575,503369,734
Awakino954,555553,533
Waitomo4,071,0342,615,184
Ohura1,029,903657,823
Coromandel432,953281,627
Thames1,806,2961,287,286
Ohinemuri1,868,0271,363,882
Tauranga1,764,5841,046,348
Piako3,316,4332,256,843
Matamata3,095,2051,946,197
Rotorua618,760482,173
Whakatane2,188,6281,505,362
Opotiki1,330,598857,802
East Taupo544,775347,029
West Taupo1,976,9911,433,929
Islands—
Mayor and Motiti19,41512,141
Waiapu4,766,0532,622,928
Uawa1,549,4641,042,086
Waikohu5,077,0353,096,254
Cook6,522,8244,419,190
Wairoa3,836,1902,457,547
Hawke's Bay10,947,6298,234,152
Waipukurau908,285678,599
Dannevirke3,315,9362,179,650
Woodville1,381,106962,641
Patangata4,600,9823,581,022
Weber719,621475,510
Clifton998,933565,261
Taranaki2,263,3101,266,804
Egmont1,933,9251,038,292
Stratford2,083,3361,218,425
Whangamomona564,030325,790
Waimate West1,413,0411,117,710
Hawera4,293,1513,116,491
Eltham1,998,7411,356,856
Patea3,612,3072,394,618
Waitotara2,677,6261,824996
Waimarino1,404,310971,926
Wanganui2,209,7541,372,692
Rangitikei7,122,8564,677,926
Kiwitea3,415,4332,232,152
Pohangina1,793,2991,154,131
Kaitieke1,478,081969,492
Manawatu3,644,2822,598,633
Oroua2,941,8552,101,250
Kairanga2,986,6312,189,130
Horowhenua3,484,0902,512,475
Islands—£    £    
Kapiti, Mana, and17,98413,378
Somes  
Chatham Islands286,373195,957
Pahiatua1,737,7101,042,597
Akitio1,187,656608,945
Castlepoint831,608536,660
Eketahuna1,854,2201,011,040
Mauriceville541,815303,988
Masterton2,854,8831,876,765
Wairarapa South2,280,4461,358,000
Featherston4,674,2602,987,593
Hutt2,208,4491,286,806
Makara1,047,166499,590
Collingwood474,153310,603
Takaka697,979391,875
Waimea3,186,0141,784,761
Sounds793,741478,729
Marlborough3,160,8532,391,442
Awatere2,241,6121,760,017
Kaikoura1,228,734903,231
Buller1,413,917731,070
Murchison780,201473,313
Inangahua589,482296,775
Grey1,003,363656,554
Westland1,052,424762,567
Cheviot1,792,1451,469,113
Amuri2,611,8912,125,925
Waipara3,166,6492,701,129
Ashley850,497700,790
Kowai1,189,261937,277
Oxford1,149,665952,064
Rangiora1,383,1541,065,278
Eyre1,203,409961,226
Waimairi3,722,3352,279,417
Paparua2,114,8271,567,503
Malvern1,953,0551,539,577
Tawera580,009483,579
Heathcote959,585551,690
Halswell855,994684,184
Selwyn1,727,4621,396,862
Springs1,264,6001,039,935
Ellesmere2,230,8841,818,306
Mount Herbert572,004470,054
Akaroa2,286,3661,916,312
Ashburton9,857,9398,181,911
Geraldine3,524,3002,871,199
Levels3,061,7922,435,063
Mackenzie2,136,2381,675,281
Waimate5,398,8864,396,194
Waitaki5,362,7904,116,986
Maniototo927,718640,772
Waihemo799,805598,881
Waikouaiti894,506511,166
Peninsula521,579291,500
Taieri2,200,7291,588,629
Tuapeka2,439,8161,661,127
Bruce1,763,7701,171,332
Clutha2,765,4461,745,430
Islands—
    Quarantine and Goat3,454900
Vincent977,040645,674
Lake551,693405,151
Fiord144,293137,513
Wallace3,703,5172,559,351
Southland11,352,3567,649,179
Stewart Island166,870129,164
Islands—
    Antipodes, &c.13,88013,880

BOROUGHS.

TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of each BOROUGH in NEW ZEALAND.
Borough.Gross Values.
Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column). Borough.
 ££
Whangarei659,444348,226
Dargaville426,065231,435
Birkenhead615,185322,750
Devonport1,562,147656,205
AUCKLAND CITY
    City Portion18,088,55111,205,565
    Parnell,1,266,308616,925
    Grey Lynn,1,321,521516,066
    Arch Hill,223,425104,880
    Eden Terrace,326,934140,324
    Epsom,1,210,069591,985
    Remuera,2,464,1391,187,414
     Total of City24,900,94714,363,159
Newmarket688,789367,504
Onehunga1,073,480510,875
Takapuna1,178,121768,099
Northcote339,078185,208
Mount Albert1,686,788807,170
Mount Eden2,477,4501,021,085
Otahuhu506,525272,540
Pukekohe393,236218,996
Hamilton2,279,2711,369,360
Cambridge449,440258,761
Te Awamutu303,560174,281
Thames443,630183,510
Tauranga300,405143,516
Paeroa193,27684,843
Waihi419,582147,407
Te Aroha348,585160,230
Rotorua (Town)787,555468,762
Whakatane246,915135,172
Opotiki273,382153,086
Taumarunui386,500196,977
Te Kuiti560,357332,180
Gisborne2,978,7451,490,480
Wairoa431,393238,803
Napier3,462,8601,671,501
Hastings2,666,0451,521,015
Dannevirke839,595381,470
Woodville165,82760,852
Waipawa261,662141,425
Waipukurau247,133133,198
New Plymouth2,255,3801,333,084
Hawera880,682421,003
Patea149,19757,406
Waitara235,63284,546
Inglewood200,76487,392
Stratford578,268241,718
Eltham416,993193,542
Wanganui3,185,1071,920,790
Marton349,552139,557
Ohakune134,11347,992
Taihape349,943173,742
Feilding884,534431,756
Palmerston North3,216,9381,661,856
Foxton273,670115,902
Karori533,042310,031
 ££
WELLINGTON CITY
    Onslow Portion959,654473,242
    Karori Portion532,561214,909
    City Portion18,121,6549,714,359
    Kilbirnie Portion3,803,0841,497,906
Island Bay Portion
Ohiro Portion
          Total of City23,416,95311,900,416
Shannon124,66054,085
Levin309,968148,014
Pahiatua242,242101,454
Masterton1,386,887574,465
Carterton298,251118,650
Greytown205,10285,957
Lower Hutt1,458,818830,393
Petone1,473,418673,282
Eketahuna154,61166,624
Featherston137,20332,525
Eastbourne237,087102,282
Miramar878,656482,341
Richmond221,538117,475
Nelson City1,827,171850,023
Picton295,873154,235
Blenheim991,215477,183
Motueka202,03589,676
Westport743,911373,562
Greymouth845,301269,286
Brunner71,33012,249
Kumara33,8756,135
Hokitika262,14977,178
Ross24,7307,102
Runanga58,48318,859
Rangiora330,387130,327
Kaiapoi190,74358,753
CHRISTCHURCH CITY
    St. Albans Portion2,665,325925,855
    Richmond Portion214,20072,025
    North-east Portion662,635253,216
    North-west Portion1,843,996869,861
    South-east Portion1,562,636727,337
    South-west Portion3,657,9872,113,981
    Sydenham Portion2,079,366746,938
    Opawa Portion152,23067,430
    St. Martin's,70,33536,760
    Linwood Portion1,072,196368,379
    Avonside Portion121,37552,355
          Total of City14,102,2816,234,137
Woolston522,416172,346
New Brighton426,982170,682
Sumner598,902272,465
Lyttelton988,107272,707
Akaroa115,75644,349
Riccarton576,644197,035
Spreydon627,990235,360
Ashburton546,036213,569
Timaru3,255,2251,562,170
Geraldine136,86343,660
Temuka251,92367,621
Waimate394,075129,510
Oamaru880,933290,416
Hampden30,0019,647
Naseby20,8632,583
Palmerston91,51924,376
Waikouaiti77,45728,112
Port Chalmers369,746120,952
West Harbour214,00273,812
DUNEDIN CITY
    Valley Portion649,416210,537
    Maori Hill Portion457,712186,770
    Roslyn Portion1,050,062346,496
    Mornington Portion554,061191,056
    Leith Portion1,609,480671,655
    Bell Portion1,818,035801,415
    High Portion3,026,0711,308,060
    South Portion1,088,105458,135
    Caversham Portion960,187287,350
    South Dunedin Portion662,437167,203
    Anderson's Bay Portion398,831161,858
          Total of City12,274,3974,790,535
 £    £    
WELLINGTON CITY
St. Kilda958,755313,415
Green Island285,25665,775
Mosgiel267,03095,660
Roxburgh .37,6805,969
Lawrence111,48429,949
Tapanui33,2259,075
Milton185,75355,946
Balclutha224,71882,803
Kaitangata110,80131,538
Cromwell46,48710,060
Alexandra57,45411,763
Arrowtown21,5193,375
Queenstown65,59514,564
Gore705,694275,654
Mataura206,70274,828
Winton114,53738,765
Invercargill3,861,2031,738,124
Invercargill South278,408136,301
Riverton139,19744,885
Bluff303,169101,100

TOWN DISTRICTS.

TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of LAND in each TOWN DISTRICT (outside the JURISDICTION of any COUNTY) in NEW ZEALAND.

Town District, independent of County (outside County Jurisdiction).Gross Values.
Capital Value (Land and Improvements).Unimpr'v'd Value of Land (included in previous Column).
 ££
Hikurangị̣66,18030,415
Warkwortḥ̣82,26226,695
Helensvillẹ̣111,74036,430
New Lynṇ̣199,340105,085
Ellersliẹ̣̣̣285,410135,910
Waiukụ̣̣̣138,78367,415
Papakurạ̣̣220,945134,120
Tuakaụ̣̣̣194,42259,107
Huntlỵ̣̣̣151,50071,820
Ngaruawahiạ̣135,18864,238
Te Pukẹ̣̣̣104,26945,650
Morrinsvillẹ̣239,390125,835
Matamatạ̣133,68566,635
Mangapapạ̣274,987122,846
Taradalẹ̣̣̣226,974134,901
Havelock Nortḥ̣266,707136,903
Manaiạ̣̣̣117,42651,258
Waverleỵ̣̣100,71742,341
Gonvillẹ̣̣̣581,092222,427
Castlecliff̣̣̣186,38665,532
Raetihị̣̣̣95,37342,027
Rangatauạ̣34,84010,696
Mangawekạ̣57,25222,055
Huntervillẹ̣96,14437,325
Bull'ṣ̣̣̣57,79623,798
Manunuị̣̣̣72,14925,894
Otakị̣̣̣200,370111,034
Martinborougḥ̣161,15553,549
Johnsonvillẹ̣191,373100,461
Upper Hutṭ̣247,664128,900
Hampsteaḍ̣145,17658,165
Tinwalḍ̣̣̣89,31645,405
Pleasant Poinṭ̣80,47736,582
Nightcapṣ̣46,51811,546
Otautaụ̣̣̣128,60849,969
Lumsdeṇ̣̣̣49,71512,043
Wyndhaṃ̣123,36450,580

Chapter 11. SECTION XI.—COMMERCE.

SUBSECTION A.—TOTAL TRADE.

THE GROWTH of TRADE, PERIOD 1853–1919.

THE following table shows the increase in the total trade since the year 1853:—

TOTAL TRADE, IMPORTS, and EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND, 1853–1919.
Year.Total Value.Value per Head (excluding Maoris).
Total Trade.Imports.Exports.Total Trade.Imports.Exports.
 ££££s.d.£s.d.£s.d.
1853901,110597,828303,2823009191871022
186310,510,0797,024,6743,485,4057210548952410
187312,075,0586,464,6875,610,37141193229419911
188315,070,0377,974,0387,095,999289515131382
189315,896,8796,911,5158,985,3642409109013119
190327,799,05312,788,67515,010,3783317101511101860
191039,231,79217,051,58322,180,20939104173622610
191138,574,36919,545,87919,028,4903802195218150
191242,747,15520,976,57421,770,58141210203920191
191345,275,02422,288,30222,986,72242732017121102
191448,117,54321,856,09626,261,4474428200112419
191553,477,74621,728,83431,748,9124812101915228178
191659,626,22026,339,28333,286,9375448231923056
191752,516,81220,919,26531,587,547471551907281410
191852,750,19524,234,00728,516,188471662119525171
191984,641,77330,671,69853,970,075749826191047910

A low and fluctuating level of trade was turned in 1860–63 into a rapidly increasing volume by the effect of the gold-discoveries which occurred in the early “sixties.” Both imports and exports were stimulated, the former to feed and clothe an ever-increasing population, the latter by the export of gold.

After the gold rushes had subsided trade remained stationary till the expenditure of borrowed money brought the land-boom of the early “seventies.” A great temporary increase of trade was succeeded by violent fluctuations and but slowly increasing trade, as the effects of the bubble were slowly worked off. It is significant that from 1873 till 1895 the world level of prices was falling continuously, and this factor contributed not a little to the depression of New Zealand. Little headway could be made against a falling price of wool and a decreasing production of gold, which were the main features of those twenty years.

But in 1895 world prices began to rise, and the effect is seen immediately in the upward rush of the external trade. On only three occasions has this upward tendency been checked—in 1908, when the commercial crisis which was felt in the Old World a year previously affected New Zealand; in 1913, on the occasion of another depression of trade; and again since 1916, as a result of shortage of shipping.

For a long period the external trade, while increasing absolutely, was declining relatively to population. Since 1895, however, trade has increased much faster than has population—doubtless largely due to increasing prices. To some extent this is probably a result of greater productivity and consequent increased purchasing-power.

The trade per head was fairly great in the early years, after 1853; but the amount was swelled by the relatively large imports which were necessary for the development of the young colony. The gold-discoveries raised the level both of imports and exports, and after 1870 the borrowing policy which was inaugurated greatly inflated trade, and especially imports. The highest level, apart from the abnormal years of the early “sixties,” was reached in 1874, and the consequent reaction saw an almost continuous decrease in the per capita trade both in imports and exports till 1895.

It is significant that the turning-point should have come in 1895, the year in which prices turned to rise all over the world. From 1895 there has been an almost constant increase. Since the outbreak of war the total trade has increased enormously. This, of course, was largely if not entirely due to increased market values of both imports and exports.

BALANCE of TRADE.

The relation between imports and exports is of the greatest importance to a young country like New Zealand. In the very earliest years of occupation by Europeans the exports of phormium, timber, and skins were greatly in excess of the few imports, mainly muskets and gunpowder, a fact which is explained partly by the temporary residence of the traders and more by the weaker bargaining-power of the Maori. With the settlement of the regular colony in 1840 there was evident an inflation of imports occasioned by the amount of capital the new colonists brought in for the development of the country. From 1853 to 1870 there was an excess of imports, which, however, was tending to decrease.

A temporary excess of exports was changed in the early “seventies” by another great increase of imports, due to the borrowing policy inaugurated in that period. Except for a big decrease in 1880, imports continued to be greater than exports until 1886.

From that year onward there was a continued excess of exports, except for two bad years, 1908 and 1913. In the period from 1886 to 1895 it is most marked. Fluctuations in exports have usually preceded by a year similar fluctuations in imports.

The balance of trade is intimately bound up, in later years especially, with the large imports of capital which have been brought in to assist in the development of the country. This has already been made evident in discussing the balance of trade in early years. The excess of imports from 1853 to 1870, and again from 1872 to 1886, can definitely be traced to the importation of capital in those periods.

The excess of exports in later years consists mainly of profits, interest, and other charges on the debt of New Zealand, public, local, and private. Other items, such as remittances abroad and subsidies, also swell the balance of exports. The amount necessary in each year to pay the interest on the debt of New Zealand cannot be definitely stated, owing to the lack of data concerning the private investments in the Dominion.

The amount of interest payable on the debt of the General Government at the 31st March, 1919, was £7,299,006, but of this amount roughly forty-four per cent. must be deducted for stock held in the Dominion (see section on “Public Finance”). Added to this there is the interest on local bodies’ debts of approximately twenty-six millions (of which, however, only eight millions were raised abroad), and on the private debts of the Dominion, for which no statistics are available. It is evident that some five millions are needed each year to defray the charges on the various public debts owing abroad.

Against this outgoing must be set the amount of new importations of capital in the shape of loans. While the expenditure on interest is fairly constant from year to year, the amount raised by new loans varies, and these variations are a big factor in the fluctuations of the balance of trade.

MOVEMENT of SPECIE and BULLION.

There is no Mint in New Zealand, while there is a fairly considerable production of gold bullion. Gold, therefore, ranks as an ordinary export of the Dominion, along with wool, frozen meat, and dairy-produce. In earlier days this export of gold was much more important than now, amounting in 1863 to 70 per cent. of the total exports, from which figure it shrank steadily to 6 per cent. in 1913.

As all coin necessary for the commerce of the Dominion must be imported from abroad, the movement of specie has in normal times afforded a ready index of the state of trade. A bad year has been reflected in an export of specie, while prosperous years have shown a steady inflow. During the war the disappearance of gold currency from circulation has, of course, somewhat modified circumstances in this respect. It is, however, still of interest to append a table showing imports and exports of specie during the ten years 1910–19.

VALUE of SPECIE imported and exported, 1910–19.

Year.Total Specie.Balance.
Imported.Exported.In.Out.
 £££ 
1910303,36027,736275,624 
1911763,27148,305714,966 
1912399,995258,955141,040 
1913634,670176,359458,311 
1914711,8697,522704,347 
19151,070,114318,090752,024 
19161,293,8805,8801,288,000 
1917177,13570,475106,660 
1918102,21535,61066,605 
1919362,53162,150300,381 

The amount of gold bullion exported is shown in the following table:—

EXPORTS of GOLD from NEW ZEALAND, 1910–19.
Year.Exports.Percentage of Total Exports.
To United Kingdom.To Australia.To other Countries.Total.
 ££££ 
1910996,081900,237 1,896,3188.55
1911379,5961,435,655 1,815,2519.54
1912394,425950,706 1,345,1316.18
1913353,7631,105,720161,459,4996.35
1914159,499735,81157895,3673.41
19155,060507,6591,181,8341,694,5535.34
1916134,827510,499553,8861,199,2126.01
1917690,025213,863 903,8882.86
191827542,116 42,3910.15
1919339,533558,656436,2161,334,4052.47

COMPARISON with other COUNTRIES.

It is customary to classify the trade of a country as “special” and “entrepôt,” according as it represents exchange of domestic productions for imports for home consumption, or a mere transit trade. In many countries, such as Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom, the transit trade attains considerable importance, but New Zealand, owing to its geographical position, is precluded from developing in that direction. Her imports, except for a small forwarding trade to the Pacific islands, are for her own consumption, and the great bulk of her exports are commodities of domestic production.

The following table gives the proportion of special trade for the last ten years:—

“SPECIAL” and “ENTREPôT” TRADE of NEW ZEALAND.

Year.Trade (excluding Specie).Re-exports (included in two preceding columns).Percentage Re-exports.
Imports.Exports.Total.To ImportsTo Exports
 ££££  
191016,748,22322,152,47338,900,696208,3101.240.94
191118,782,60818,980,18537,762,793198,2871.061.04
191220,576,57921,511,62642,088,205239,2211.161.11
191321,653,63222,810,36344,463,995232,4731.071.02
191421,144,22726,253,92547,398,152269,2081.271.03
191520,658,72031,430,82252,089,542392,6901.901.25
191625,045,40333,281,05758,326,460311,0301.240.93
191720,742,13031,517,07252,259,202499,5902.411.59
191824,131,79228,480,57852,612,370579,1782.402.04
191930,309,16753,907,92584,217,092665,6912.201.23

Before comparisons may properly be made with the trade of other countries care must be taken to ensure that the statistics are comparable in their methods of compilation and definition.

The value of imports into New Zealand has, since 1916, been reckoned at the fair market value in the country of export at the time of exportation, plus 10 per cent. (see subsection C of this section); exports are valued f.o.b. In the United States and Canada, however, the value of imports also are calculated f.o.b., and the difference representing freight insurance, and charges amounts to about 10 per cent. of the total value. Again, in the United Kingdom the values both of imports and exports are obtained by assessment at current market prices in the United Kingdom.

A comparison of the “special” trade of various countries in the Australian Commonwealth Official Year-book, 1916, covering in most cases the latest available year before the outbreak of the war, necessarily ignores many of the elements considered above, but gives a sufficiently accurate idea of the relative trade of the various countries.

In this comparison New Zealand heads the list as regards exports of domestic produce, Belgium taking second place. For imports of articles entered for consumption in the country itself, which in the case of such countries as the United Kingdom, Belgium, &., includes raw material imported for manufacturing purposes, New Zealand yields place only to Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

By themselves statistics of foreign trade are not a sure test of a country's prosperity, and they must always be interpreted with a knowledge of local conditions. An increase of imports may not be the result of increased purchasing-power, but may merely represent loans from another country, or even a failure of the home supply of certain commodities. Similarly, increased exports may mean greater productivity and increased purchasing-power, but they may also denote the payments on greatly increased liabilities.

In all countries the home trade is greatly in excess of the external trade, and in larger countries which are more self-contained a decrease in foreign trade may be due to development within the country itself. But New Zealand is far from self-contained, and from her position must attach a great importance to external trade. Under present conditions, only by export can a sufficient market be obtained for her rich resources, and only from abroad can be obtained the manufactures which are needed for common use. The development of the external trade since 1895 has been accompanied by increasing prosperity, and every advance in exports, followed in the next year by larger imports, represents an increase in the wealth of the Dominion.

SUBSECTION B.—EXPORTS.

METHOD of recording EXPORTS.

IN New Zealand the Department of H.M. Customs requires for every package exported a declared statement of the contents, value, and destination. In all cases exports are valued “free on board at the port of shipment.” In many cases, however, the goods are not sold till arrival at their destination, and therefore values must be assessed in New Zealand with reference to current prices. It is possible, therefore, that an interim change in the markets overseas may to some extent falsify the values given to exports.

No account is taken in the export values of “ships’ stores” except where they are shipped “ex warehouse”—that is, from a bonded store under Customs control. The exports of New Zealand produce are separated from re-exports of foreign goods.

The ultimate destination of the goods is distinguished as far as is practicable, but it is impossible to discover what proportion of the exports is intended for home consumption in the country of destination. Goods for transhipment on a through bill of lading are, however, credited to the ultimate destination shown.

DEVELOPMENT of the EXPORT TRADE.

The following table gives a summary of the main exports from New Zealand during the last ten years.

The main feature of the table is the prominence given to the primary products of the soil. The extractive industries of New Zealand have always supplied the overwhelming bulk of the exports, and, though the proportion of the different classes has varied from time to time, there has never been any considerable or even noticeable export of manufactured goods.

It will be observed that the value of exports during 1919 constituted a record.

EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.—PASTORAL PRODUCE.
Year.Wool.Frozen Meat.Butter.Cheese.Tallow.Skins, Hides, and Pelts.Other Pastoral Produce.*

*The main items in this heading are bacon and hams, beef and pork (salted), live-stock, preserved meats, sausage-skins, and preserved milk.

 £££££££
19108,308,4103,850,7771,811,9751,195,373756,8411,129,041468,298
19116,491,7073,503,4061,576,9171,192,057607,257911,519467,695
19127,105,4833,909,5692,088,8091,680,393684,7391,091,871370,616
19138,057,6204,449,9332,061,6511,770,297663,0881,199,375317,181
19149,318,1145,863,0622,338,5762,564,125694,3481,317,593433,331
191510,387,8757,794,3952,700,6252,730,211780,8281,450,276690,398
191612,386,0747,271,3182,632,2933,514,310785,3391,667,679637,409
191712,175,3665,982,4042,031,5513,949,251553,0161,861,817776,194
19187,527,2664,957,5763,402,2234,087,278847,6182,645,8641,170,011
191919,559,5379,628,2923,080,1287,790,9902,680,0063,439,4682,432,819
EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.—MINING and AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE.
Year.Wheat.Oats.Other Agricultural Produce.*Gold.Coal.Kauri gum.Phormium Fibre and Tow.Timber.

*The main items in this heading are bran and sharps, chaff, flour, barley, beans and peas, maize, malt, hops, oatmeal, potatoes, and seeds.

 ££££££££
1910216,65744,299220,5661,896,318259,562465,044480,519407,658
1911219,1969,211184,4081,815,251204,379395,707325,130439,353
191295,702483,756481,1471,345,131216,170401,305407,903490,508
191311,81629,252238,9081,459,499205,010549,106797,062319,055
19143,580165,930278,894895,367282,163497,444492,230422,864
1915128132,827541,3181,694,553329,731279,133610,059383,883
191617,83530,200135,6801,199,212326,553339,8821,078,632381,488
19175091,306178,087903,888236,063291,9171,232,608408,121
1918460872194,42242,391227,228157,3131,408,147556,309
191967933,671753,8371,334,405201,383255,812907,584439,935

In recent years the proportions of the principal exports have changed a good deal. Wool, which reached its maximum percentage (47.9) in 1897, showed a tendency to decline till 1902, since when the tendency has been to regain its former pre-eminence. Frozen meat has throughout shown a steady tendency to increase.

The main feature of the period has been the great advance, relatively and absolutely, of dairy-produce, especially cheese. This advance has been shared by all classes of pastoral produce and, except for a set-back in 1919, by phormium. Agricultural produce shows a fluctuating export, reaching its highest percentage in 1899–1901, the period of the South African War.

In the following table the exports are classified under the main industries, according to a broad division, to illustrate the relative importance of the pastoral, agricultural, mining, forest, and other industries as far as the export trade is concerned. It must be remembered that in a particular industry the home trade may be relatively more important than the external trade.

The table indicates a tendency for the Dominion to rely more and more upon the pastoral industry for her main exports. The four main products of that industry—wool, frozen meat, butter, and cheese—provide an ever-increasing proportion of the total quantity of goods shipped overseas. On the other hand, the proportion of minerals has tended to fall, through decreasing exports of gold, and agricultural exports fluctuate with a downward tendency. It would seem that New Zealand is restricting her agriculture to a level barely sufficient to provide for her own needs in the matter of foodstuffs, and only in exceptionally good years is there a surplus available for export.

TABLE showing PROPORTIONS of EXPORTS supplied by the MAIN INDUSTRIES, 1910–1919.