Table of Contents
WITH this the twenty-ninth number of the Year-book it had been hoped to mark a return to the pre-war standard of early publication. That this hope was not realized was attributable firstly to the drastic reduction in size necessitated by the prevailing paper-shortage, and, secondly, to the late availability of much of the material included in the volume, this latter in itself being largely an indirect result of the paper-shortage also.
This number is the smallest ever issued under the title of “New Zealand Official Year-book,” and limitations of space have precluded the introduction of new features to any great extent. It was found a difficult task in the time available to retain with some degree of coherency all features of outstanding interest. In all cases the matter presented is of necessity treated with the utmost brevity, and other portions have had to be entirely omitted.
For more recent statistics than are contained herein the reader is referred to the “Monthly Abstract of Statistics” issued from this Office, while in many instances more detailed particulars can be obtained from the annual volumes of “Statistics of New Zealand.”
Census and Statistics Office, Wellington, N.Z., 25th February, 1921.
Table of Contents
THE estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1919, was 1,164,405 persons. This total does not include Maoris nor residents of the Cook and other Pacific islands annexed in 1901. The Maori population at the census of 1916 was 49,776, that of the annexed islands, 12,797.
* Excluding Maoris and residents of Cook and other Pacific Islands.
† Including members of Expeditionary Forces.
|Estimated population at end of 1918*||542,046||566,327||1,108,373|
|Increase during 1919—|
|By excess of births over deaths||6,380||7,295||13,675|
|By excess of immigration over emigration†||40,462||1,895||42,357|
|Estimated population at end of 1919*||588,888||575,517||1,164,405|
|Maori population, census 1916||25,933||23,843||49,776|
|Population of Cook and other Pacific islands, census 1916||6,552||6,245||12,797|
|Total estimated population of the Dominion on 31st December, 1919||621,373||605,605||1,226,978|
The population, exclusive of Maoris and residents of the annexed islands, at each census since 1874 is given in the following statement, together with the numerical and centesimal increase between the successive enumerations:—
|Date of Enumeration.||Population.||Numerical Increase.||Centesimal Increase.|
The Cook Islands are not included in any of the statistics of New Zealand quoted throughout this book. Figures re Maoris are included in the general details in a few cases only—i.e., imports and exports, savings-bank deposits, &. Where Maoris are included they swell totals to a much less extent per head than does the European population. The figures given below, therefore, do not include Maoris and residents of Cook Islands.
|Year.||Estimated Population at End of Year.||Increase during Year.||Mean Population for Year.|
† Census population.
The departure of the Expeditionary Force and Reinforcements effected a heavy drain upon the small margin of numerical superiority of males. By the end of 1916 there were more females than males in New Zealand, and this position was maintained until July, 1919, when the male preponderance was again established.
At 30th June, 1914, there were 52,175 more males than females; at 30th June, 1920, only 15,404. (Maoris have not been included.)
Should the pre-war trend of events be continued, the male surplus would permanently disappear in a few years’ time.
The average rate of natural increase for the ten years preceding 1919 was 15.88 per 1,000. It may be remarked that the rates for 1918 and 1919 are much the lowest on record. Further discussion of natural increase will be found in the Vital Statistics section of this book.
|Year.||Excess of Births over Deaths.||Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under and over twelve years of age, is given in the table following. The figures for the last five years do not include members of Expeditionary Forces.
|Arrivals and Departures, 1910–19.|
|Year.||Over 12 Years of Age.||Under 12 Years of Age.||Total.|
The monthly figures for 1919 are as follows:—
|Month.||Arrivals.||Departures.||Excess of Arrivals.||Excess of Departures.|
Some two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.
|ARRIVALS FROM AND DEPARTURES TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 1910–19.|
|United Kingdom.||Australian Commonwealth.||Fiji.||Other British Possessions.||Foreign Countries.|
|United Kingdom.||Australian Commonwealth.||Fiji.||Other British Possessions.||Foreign Countries.|
The War Regulations of the 15th November, 1915, as amended from time to time, prescribe that no person over the age of fifteen years shall leave New Zealand for any place beyond the seas save in pursuance of a written permit issued to him by the Minister or Under-Secretary of Internal Affairs, or some other authorized person.
The only persons exempted from the necessity for obtaining permits are those who—
Leave New Zealand on the King's Service:
Leave New Zealand as bona fide members of the crew of any ship:
Arrive in and leave New Zealand in the course of the same voyage of any ship other than a ship arriving from a port in the Commonwealth of Australia.
The amendments made in November, 1915, to the Defence of the Realm Regulations of the Imperial Government, providing that no person shall enter or leave the United Kingdom without a passport, have led to a greatly increased number being issued in New Zealand.
A person leaving New Zealand for the United Kingdom or other country (with the exception of British possessions in the Pacific, for which permits suffice) must therefore have in his possession (1) a permit under the War Regulations to enable him to depart from the Dominion, (2) a passport to enable him to land at the end of his journey. If foreign countries are being visited the passport must be viséd by the Consular representative of such country in New Zealand.
Between the 1st November, 1915, and the 31st March, 1918, passports were issued to the number of 3,112, for the year ended 31st March, 1919, 1,346, and for the year ended 31st March, 1920, 4,620.
Under the War Regulations of the 21st August, 1916, no person over the age of fifteen years may land in New Zealand unless in possession of a passport or some other document satisfactorily establishing his or her nationality or identity.
In the case of a person coming from a foreign country the passport must have been issued or viséd by the British Ambassador or a British Consul in that country, and in the case of a person coming from any part of the British dominions the issue or visé must have been by some public official duly authorized in that behalf.
Certain exceptions are made with respect to persons coming to New Zealand from Australia, the Cook Islands, and Samoa. In their case the only requirement is the possession of a permit. The regulations further do not apply to a British subject arriving in New Zealand as the master or a member of the crew of the vessel in which he arrives.
The Minister of Internal Affairs or any person authorized by him is given power to grant exemptions from the requirements of the regulation.
Residents in the Dominion may, by application on the proper form, secure a passage at assisted rates for any person residing in the United Kingdom.
The payments required are—second class, £52; third class (two-berth cabin), £30; third class (four-berth cabin), £26. The passage-money, which must be paid in full before passages are booked, can be paid to the Immigration Department in Wellington or to the High Commissioner for New Zealand in London. The Department will cable any nomination, together with a remittance, if so desired, for the extra charge of £1.
Domestic servants and farm labourers granted assisted passages as such are required to follow in New Zealand their respective occupations of domestic and farm work for a period of one year after their arrival in the Dominion. If it is found that some occupation other than domestic or farm work is entered into by any such assisted immigrant before the expiration of one year after arrival in New Zealand, the immigrant will be called upon to pay the Government the difference between the assisted rate and the full fare.
Children between three and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half rates. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.
Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company.
Unhealthy persons should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other like complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.
The foregoing applies to persons of not more than fifty years of age in the case of nominated persons and farmers or farm labourers, and not more than forty years of age in the case of domestic servants.
In the case of immigrants under twenty-one years of age, special arrangements have to be entered into for their protection on the voyage where deemed necessary or advisable.
The High Commissioner is authorized to grant to suitable and healthy farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, who apply to him in London, a passage to New Zealand at the following rates:—
|Farmers.||Farm Labourers.||Domestic Servants.|
|Third class: 6-berth cabin||24||0||0||10||0||0|
|Third class: 4-berth cabin||26||0||0||12||0||0|
|Third class: 2-berth cabin||30||0||0||16||0||0|
The following table illustrates the progress of the last decade:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Immigrants assisted.||Capital possessed by Assisted Immigrants.||Net Government Expenditure on Immigration.|
|* Not available.|
On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by officers of the Immigration Department who accompany the Port Health Officer to the ship. While the ship is in the stream it is the special duty of such officers to afford to the assisted immigrants all necessary information as regards transhipment, &. Arrangements are made for safety and transhipment of luggage.
Each immigrant is seen as he passes towards the doctor for examination, and is handed an official letter containing information as to where his ticket will be arranged for, and the place and time of departure of his connecting train or boat (if any). The immigrant is also requested to see the Immigration Officer on board, or to come to the office, which is near the wharf in Wellington (Union Steamship Company's building), if he requires information or advice beyond what is given in the letter. The addresses of the district agencies of the Labour Department in the larger centres of the Dominion are also supplied to male assisted immigrants. It is the practice of the Department to send out advices, by wire if necessary, to friends and relatives of immigrants about to arrive, and to get back information as to where the newcomers will be met. These messages, often together with private letters, &., are given out on board to those to whom they are addressed. Information of this nature is much appreciated, especially by wives joining their husbands.
Assisted immigrants requiring work are referred to the office of the Immigration Department, and their cases are there dealt with.
As regards the female assisted domestic workers, who are chosen after application at Home to the High Commissioner, and who are sent to New Zealand under the supervision of one or more responsible matrons, the following applies:—
The Government advertises the fact that the books of the Department are open to record the names of those people in the Dominion desirous of securing the services of an assisted girl. Such advertisements bring into the office many applications, especially pending the arrival of the ship.
Each matron in charge on board is instructed to classify the girls under two heads: (a) those with work already arranged or friends to go to; (b) those without either friends or work. On arrival they are met by the Girls’ Superintendent of the Immigration Department. Arrangements are made for sending to their destinations those girls who are going to friends or to definite positions. Those requiring accommodation are directed to homes or hostels approved by the Minister of Immigration for this purpose. The Superintendent then separately considers the case of each girl, and arranges to place her with an applicant for a Government assisted girl. In placing these girls at present, considerable reliance has necessarily to be placed on the statements made by them. The Department is, however, taking steps to get full and independent details of the work that the girl was actually engaged in before she left the Mother-country. After a girl has been placed, the Department endeavours to keep in touch with her by correspondence.
The legislation respecting the restriction of immigration into New Zealand is contained in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908, and its amendments, and the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act, 1919.
The following persons or classes of persons are prohibited from landing in New Zealand:—
Persons not of British birth and parentage who are unable to write out and sign in any European language a prescribed form of application;
Idiots or insane persons;
Persons suffering from contagious diseases which are loathsome or dangerous;
Persons arriving in New Zealand within two years after the termination of a period of imprisonment for a serious offence.
The above provisions do not apply to (a) His Majesty's land and sea forces, (b) the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, (c) persons duly accredited to the Government of New Zealand by the Imperial or any other Government, (d) shipwrecked persons, (e) the officers and crew of any mercantile vessel who leave New Zealand with that vessel, (f) persons exempted by the Governor-General in Council or by the Minister of Internal Affairs.
Chinese (not naturalized in New Zealand), unless they pay a poll-tax of £100 and are able to read a printed passage of not less than 100 words of the English language selected by the Collector of Customs.
The officers and crews of any ship of war of the Chinese Government, and members of the crew of any mercantile vessel who leave New Zealand by that vessel, are exempted from these provisions. There is power to exempt any other persons or classes of persons under such conditions as the Minister of Customs may prescribe.
Persons who have at any time been subjects of the State of Germany or of Austria-Hungary as those States existed on the 4th August, 1914, except under a license issued by the Attorney-General.
Persons not permanently resident in New Zealand who are disaffected or disloyal and of such a character that their presence in New Zealand would be injurious to the peace, order, and good government of the Dominion, and whom the Attorney-General on that account prohibits from landing.
When persons arrive in New Zealand who are lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, or infirm, and are likely to become a charge upon the public or upon any public or charitable institution, the master, owner, or charterer of the ship by which such persons come to New Zealand must enter into a bond for £100 for each such person, guaranteeing his support and maintenance for five years.
His Majesty's land and sea forces, persons brought to New Zealand either wholly or partly at the expense of the Government, shipwrecked mariners brought to New Zealand by another vessel without charge, and persons domiciled in New Zealand are exempted from these provisions. General power is given to exempt other persons in special cases and under such conditions as the Minister of Customs may prescribe.
Every person of and over the age of fifteen years who lands in New Zealand must, unless exempted by the Attorney-General, make and deliver to an officer of Customs a declaration giving his or her name, occupation, and residence, and also the following particulars if the immigrant is not a permanent resident in New Zealand returning thereto after not more than twelve months’ absence: Country of birth; age; names and places of birth of his parents; particulars as to his nationality, his intention as to permanent residence in or departure from New Zealand, and his purpose in coming thereto.
Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion.
|Total, British possessions||132||215||380||215||272||31||120||136||417||223|
|Total, foreign countries||235||589||423||374||551||291||893||588||500||485|
|Total, “race aliens”||367||804||803||589||823||322||1,013||724||917||708|
Of the race aliens arriving in New Zealand a large proportion are Chinese, some of whom, however, have been formerly resident in the Dominion. Hindus and other natives of India are also of late years arriving in considerable numbers. A number of soldiers from the French Pacific islands are included in the figures for 1916, 1917, and 1918.
Since July, 1914, records of departures of race aliens have been kept, and these show that a total of 321 race aliens left the Dominion during 1919, including natives of the following countries: China, 237; India, 18; Japan, 4; British Pacific islands, 36; foreign Pacific islands, 22.
The census returns of 1916 showed that there were 3,204 race aliens resident in the Dominion, not including 3,221 Maori half-castes living as Europeans. Of these, 2,857 were described as being of full-blood and 347 as of half-blood.
More than 45 per cent, of the race aliens reside in Auckland Province. Wellington, however, claims the largest share (over one-third) of the Chinese.
At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons. In 1896 an Act was passed raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants from £10 to £100 per head, and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901, the Chinese population was 2,857, in 1906 it was 2,570, in 1911, 2,630, and in 1916 2,147, of whom 135 were half-castes. During recent years departures are about equal to arrivals. For the first nine months of 1920, however, arrivals exceeded departures by the large total of 905.
When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized he may present to the Governor-General a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—
His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation;
The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;
A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.
Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.
Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom or any British possession may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor-General, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.
An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father (or the mother, being a widow) has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.
No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who are charged £1.
The issue of letters of naturalization, which was suspended during the war, was resumed during November, 1919, in regard to aliens from countries which, in the recent war, were either neutral or allied with Great Britain.
The Revocation of Naturalization Act of 1917 provided that the Governor-General may, by Order in Council, revoke the naturalization of any person when such revocation is considered desirable on grounds of public policy.
The number of natives of each country naturalized during the twenty years 1895–1914 is shown in the next table.
|United States of America||144|
|Portugal and possessions||60|
The Registration of Aliens Act passed in 1917 provided for the registration of all persons of the age of fifteen or over who are not British subjects either by birth or by naturalization in New Zealand. The Government Statistician is charged with the duty of compiling and keeping the register, but the actual registration is effected by Registration Officers (mostly police officers) throughout the Dominion. Every alien not less than fifteen years of age is required to make application for registration to a Registration Officer, and is required to supply the following particulars concerning himself or herself:—
Name in full:
Nationality (and if nationality is not the nationality of origin, nationality of origin):
Place of birth:
Age, and date of birth:
Whether married, single, widower, widow, or divorced:
If married, the name, age, nationality of origin, and place of abode of wife or husband:
If married, a widower, a widow, or divorced, number, names, and ages of children (if any):
Date of arrival in New Zealand:
Place of abode and postal address:
Whether permanently resident in New Zealand:
If not permanently resident in New Zealand, place of permanent residence, and date of projected departure from New Zealand:
Such other particulars as may from time to time be prescribed by regulations under the Act.
Upon receipt of an application for registration the Registration Officer issues a certificate of registration, and forwards the application in duplicate to the Superintendent of Police for the district, who files one copy and sends the other on to the Commissioner of Police for transmission to the Government Statistician. Registered aliens are required to notify change of address on pain of a penalty not exceeding £20. Failure to register involves a fine on conviction not exceeding £50.
The number of aliens on the Dominion register in April, 1920, was 8,581. The birthplaces of these are as follows:—
|Late Russian Empire||227||57||284|
|Palestine and Syria||85||39||124|
|South Sea islands||69||28||97|
|British - born, but aliens by naturalization, marriage, &.||50||607||657|
A table published in Volume iv of “Statistics of New Zealand,” 1919, gives fairly detailed information as to birthplaces in conjunction with ages. A summary giving information as to ages follows:—
|15 and under 20||158||21||179|
|20 and under 25||633||100||733|
|25 and under 30||994||174||1,168|
|30 and under 35||990||183||1,173|
|35 and under 40||867||168||1,035|
|40 and under 45||751||173||924|
|45 and under 50||615||160||775|
|50 and under 55||551||129||680|
|55 and under 60||468||118||586|
|60 and over||1,109||219||1,328|
The number of persons (excluding Maoris) to a square mile in each provincial district at the last eight censuses is as follows:—
|Provincial District.||Area in Square Miles.||Persons to a Square Mile.|
The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain approximately the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.
The population of the two Islands at successive censuses is given in the table following, together with the percentage that each Island bears to the total:—
|Population of the North and South Islands, 1858–1916.|
|Census Year.||Population (excluding Maoris).||Proportions per Cent.|
|North Island.||South Island.*||Total.||North Island.||South Island.*|
|* Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.|
The figures for 1916 are not quite fair to the South Island. All the military and internment camps were in the North Island, and many of the soldiers, &., in these on census night belonged to the South Island. The presence of the camps in the North Island had the further effect of temporarily attracting people from the other Island for business purposes, or to be near soldier friends and relatives. The troops abroad on census night (42,666 in number) may be regarded as having come from the two Islands in proportions approximately relative to population.
The populations of the various provincial districts as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, are as follows:—
|Totals for the Dominion||1,164,405|
The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized and forming part of counties have considerable populations. On the other hand, the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on.
The estimated distribution of population at 31st December, 1919 (exclusive of Maoris), was as follows:—
|Independent town districts||35,328|
|Persons on shipboard||3,085|
|Total population of Dominion||1,164,405|
A list is given below showing counties and their population (exclusive of interior boroughs and independent town districts) as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent alterations of boundaries. Maoris are not, unless expressly stated to the contrary, included in any population figures quoted in this section.
|Population of Counties.|
|Bay of Islands||3,838|
The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881:—
Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants.
The following table shows the estimated population of boroughs (excluding Maoris) as at 31st December, 1919, with amendments where necessary on account of subsequent alteration of boundaries:—
|Population of Boroughs.|
|*Town constituted under special Act.|
Population of Boroughs—continued.
For various purposes (vital statistics, &.) metropolitan areas have been created at each of the four chief centres, and suburban areas at nine of the more important secondary centres. Each area includes, in addition to the central borough and suburban boroughs, a considerable non-municipalized area adjacent to and contingent on the centre.
The population figures as estimated at the 31st December, 1919, with necessary subsequent internal amendments due to alteration of boundaries, are as follows:—
|Grey Valley Boroughs||8,495|
The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000 full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor; and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population as estimated on the 31st December, 1919, including alterations due to subsequent changes in boundaries, are as follows:—
|(a.) Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties.|
|(b.) Town Districts forming Parts of Counties.|
|Kawakawa ̣̣ ̣̣||350|
No fewer than nine of the “independent” town districts have sufficient population to enable them to be constituted boroughs, while on the other hand four have fallen below the 500 mark.
At the present time there is being exhibited in many countries a tendency for an increasing proportion of their inhabitants to accumulate in towns. This gradual desertion of the rural life for that of the city is usually referred to as “urban drift.” That this movement is reflected in New Zealand life is certain, but to provide an exact measure of its growth would be an excessively laborious task. The following method, while imperfect, may be taken as indicating approximately the changing of the population: The total population of towns of over 1,000 inhabitants in 1878 is contrasted with the total population of that day. Similar calculations have been made for 1886, 1896, 1906, and 1916. To make allowance for normal expansion, the minimum size of towns dealt with has been raised from 1,000 in 1878 to 1,500 in 1886, 2,000 in 1896, 2,500 in 1906, and 3,000 in 1916, a rate roughly commensurate with the growth of the country. The result was:—
|Year.||Urban Population.||Total Population.||Urban Population expressed as a Percentage of Total Population.|
According to this calculation, urban residents formed in 1916 over 42 per cent. of the people, whereas in 1878 they were only 31 1/2 per cent.
Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation; others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the other inhabited islands as at the census of 1916 are shown in the following table:—
|* Excluding internment camp.|
In 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand were extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is given on the next page.
A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as can be ascertained, of each Maori are entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past six enumerations are as follows:—
The slight decrease in 1916 as compared with 1911 is more than compensated for by the number of Maoris at the front.
The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes is given in the next table for six census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population.
During the year 1901 the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the number and birthplaces was taken. The figures for the censuses of 1906, 1911, and 1916 are as follows:—
The islands of Western Samoa are now within the governing authority of the Dominion. An account of the group will be found in the section dealing with Outlying Islands.
Table of Contents
THE number of births registered during 1919 was 24,483 or 21.54 per 1,000 of mean population. This birth-rate of only 21.54 per 1,000, the lowest point ever reached in New Zealand, is somewhat startling. A considerable improvement for 1920 is anticipated if the numbers already recorded in the first part of the year are maintained.
The number of male children born during 1919 was 12,587, and of female children 11,896.
|BIRTHS: NUMBERS AND RATES.|
|Year.||Total Number of Births registered.||Birth-rate.|
|Per 1,000 of Population.||Compared with Rate in 1882-86, taken as 100.|
|* Average of five years.|
The decline of the birth-rate in New Zealand has been partially compensated for by a decrease in the death-rate. Nevertheless, the rate of natural increase of population h & s fallen from 31.19 per 1,000 of mean population in 1870 to 12.03 in 1919.
|Period.||Annual Rates per 1,000 living.|
In spite of the fact that the birth-rate in New Zealand is low compared with other countries, yet so low is the Dominion's death-rate that New Zealand has one of the highest rates of natural increase among countries keeping records of births and deaths.
The diagram which follows shows the rates of births and deaths and of natural increase per 1,000 of mean population each year from 1855 to 1919. The marriage-rate is also shown.
GRAPHS SHOWING THE RATES OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND NATURAL INCREASE IN NEW ZEALAND, 1855–1919.
The well-known fact that the birth-rate is strongly influenced by economic factors finds illustration in the position revealed by this graph, falls in the curve occurring during periods of economic depression. Recent declines are, of course, largely, if not wholly, due to war influences. At the present time birth-rates show a world-wide tendency to decline.
BIRTH-RATES (LEGITIMATE) PER 1,000 MARRIED WOMEN AT CHILD-BEARING AGES FOR EACH CENSUS YEAR, 1878 TO 1916.
|Year (Census).||Number of Married Women between 15 and 45 Years of Age.||Proportion per Cent. of Married Women in the Female Population aged 15 to 45 Years.||Number of Legitimate Births (Confinements).||Birth-rate per 1,000 Married Women of from 15 to 45 Years of Age.|
Taking the whole of the four metropolitan areas into consideration the birth-rate for 1919 was 19.67 per 1,000. Each individual metropolitan area has a lower rate than the Dominion as a whole (21.54 per 1,000), a position which always obtains. Tho rates for five years, 1915 to 1919, are given below:—
|Births per 1,000 of Population.|
|* Metropolitan areas in 1917.|
|Auckland (including suburbs)*||23.13||23.35||22.33||21.77||19.47|
|Wellington (including suburbs)||24.19||24.30||25.25||23.15||21.13|
|Christchurch (including suburbs)||22.19||23.54||22.96||20.22||19.79|
|Dunedin (including suburbs)||20.73||23.32||22.47||18.69||17.94|
The fact is well illustrated above that, of tho four centres, Wellington usually has the highest rate and Dunedin the lowest. Explanation of this lies in the difference in age-constitution between the cities. In any year the ages of tho parents of the great majority of children born in that year range from 25 to 50 years. Considering this group (i.e., married people of ages 25 to 49 inclusive) it is found that it forms to the total population a proportion of 41.48 per cent, in Auckland, in Wellington 46.19 per cent., in Christchurch 40.66 per cent., in Dunedin only 36.58 per cent. These proportions are clearly reflected in the birth-rates.
Of recent years the Australian birth-rate has been higher than that of New Zealand.
The movement over the last ten years is as follows:—
BIRTH-RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.
|New South Wales||27.83||28.75||29.86||28.86||28.96||28.33||27.89||28.06||26.53||24.68|
The birth-rates for ten years in Great Britain and Ireland and certain countries of tho European Continent are also given. The decline is steady and continuous, except in the cases of Roumania and Hungary, where the rates are very high.
|Number of Births per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
|England and Wales||27.3||27.2||26.5||26.7||25.8||25.1||24.3||23.9||24.1||23.8|
An examination of the figures shows that, with the exception of one year, there has always been a preponderance of males in the number of children born in New Zealand. The proportions are usually shown by stating the number of births of male children to every 1,000 female births. This number has been as high as 1,113 (in 1859), and as low as 991 (in 1860). Little significance can be attached to any figures prior to 1870, on account of the comparatively small number of births. The period preceding 1870 exhibits violent fluctuations in the proportion of males, which tend to disappear as the total of births grows larger. The extreme range since 1870 has been from 1,016 male to 1,000 female births in 1878, to 1,078 in 1875 and 1,073 in 1915.
|Year.||Number of Births of||Proportion of Births of Males to every 1,000 Females.|
There were 270 eases of twin births (540 children), two cases of triplets and one of quadruplets registered in 1919. The number of children born was 24,483; the number of mothers was 24,206: thus, on an average, one mother in every 89 gave birth to twins or triplets.
The number of cases of plural births and the proportion per 1,000 of the total cases of births during the past five years was,—
|Year.||Total Births.||Total Cases.||Cases of Twins.||Cases of Triplets.||Plural Cases per 1,000 of Total Cases|
|* Including one case of quadruplets.|
The following table shows the sexes in individual cases of twin births for the last eight years:—
|Year.||Total Cases.||Both Males.||Both Females.||Opposite Sexes.|
During the eight years 1912–19 there were seventeen cases of triplets. In three cases all the children were males, in four cases all were females, in three cases there were two males and one female, and in each of the remaining seven cases two of the three children were females.
There occurred in 1919 one case of quadruplets, all male children.
An examination of the total still-births recorded during 1915–19 shows that of 3,447 cases 188 (5.45 per cent.) were found in cases of plural births, either one or both of the children being still-born. Since, for living births in the same period, plural cases were only 1.13 per cent. of total cases, it appears that still-births occur proportionately almost five times as often in plural births as in cases of single births.
|Age of Mother, in Years.||Illegitimate Births.||Duration of Marriage, in Months.||Total Legitimate First Births within One Year after Marriage.|
|Under 3.||3 and under 6.||6 and under 7.||7 and under 8.||8 and under 9.||9 and under 10.||10 and 11.||11 and under 12.|
|21 and under 25||362||99||207||116||98||101||198||169||123||1,111|
|25 and under 30||197||48||82||56||41||70||143||124||92||656|
|30 and under 35||108||12||20||9||23||21||55||48||48||236|
|35 and under 40||79||6||16||5||5||8||24||17||23||104|
|40 and under 45||38||4||4||1||3||2||4||1||19|
|45 and over|
A compilation of births registered in 1919 gives 5,485 children (23 per cent, of all legitimate births) as first issue of the existing marriage. Of these 2,851 were males and 2,634 females; the sex proportion being thus 1,082 males to 1,000 females—somewhat higher than for all births. Plural cases numbered 46, or 0.85 per cent, of the total, as compared with 1.12 per cent. for all births.
The birth statistics for 1918 contained one feature which was by way of a novelty in New Zealand statistics. This consisted of a series of tables showing the period that elapsed between successive births, in conjunction with the total number of children born. One table is repeated in this issue.
|Average Interval (In Years) between||Cases in which the Number of Children In the Family was|
|2.||3.||4.||5.||6.||7.||8.||9.||10||Over 10.||All Families.|
|First and second child||2.96||2.75||2.55||2.35||2.27||2.27||2.24||2.14||2.15||2.01||2.67|
|Second and third child||3.33||2.98||2.69||2.48||2.41||2.27||2.24||2.36||1.92||2.94|
|Third and fourth child||3.33||2.96||2.72||2.63||2.39||2.42||2.25||2.21||2.98|
|Fourth and fifth child||3.30||2.92||2.65||2.61||2.50||2.49||2.27||2.97|
|Fifth and sixth child||3.20||2.80||2.65||2.54||2.43||2.19||2.88|
The births of 1,138 children (581 males, 557 females) were illegitimate: thus 46 in every 1,000 children registered were born out of wedlock.
|Age.||Single Cases.||Plural Cases.|
The proportion of illegitimate births per 1,000 unmarried women —i.e., spinsters and widows—at the reproductive ages, covering a period of twenty-five years, is shown in the following table.
|Year.||Unmarried Women aged 15-45 Years.||Illegitimate Births.||Illegitimate-birth Rate per 1,000 Unmarried Women.|
The rates of illegitimacy in Australasia are quoted. The average rate for New Zealand for the ten years (4.37 per 100 of all births) compares favourably with that of the Commonwealth (5.39 per 100).
|Year.||Queensland.||New South Wales.||Victoria.||South Australia.||Western Australia.||Tasmania.||Commonwealth.||New Zealand.|
The Legitimation Act makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent intermarriage of their parents. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. The following is the number of legitimations in the past ten years, and the total since the Act came into force:—
|Number of Children legitimized.|
|Year.||Previously registered.||Not Previously registered.||Total.|
The registration of still-births has been made compulsory in New Zealand as from the 1st March, 1913. Still–births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and in that relating to deaths.
In the 680 still-births registered in 1919 are included eight cases of twins, and thirty-four cases where one child of twins was still-born.
The sexes recorded in cases of still-births during each of the last five years are as follows:—
The number of births of Maoris registered during 1919 under the provisions of section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, was 995. Only 14 Maori births were registered under the main Act.
Regulations under the Cook Islands Act, 1915, providing for compulsory registration of births and deaths in the Cook Islands and Niue from the 1st July, 1916, were gazetted on the 29th June, 1916.
|Islands.||Number of Births.|
NOTE.—In some cases the above figures are for the calendar year 1919, others for year ending March, 1920, others again for different periods.
IN the following table are shown the numbers and rates for a series of years. A column is added showing the index number for the year as compared with the average of the five years 1882-86, taken as 100.
The marriage-rate for the period under review—war years 1915–18 excepted — shows a general upward tendency, having been above 8 per 1,000 in each year since and including 1902. Reference to the diagram on page 22 will show that the marriage-rate was at its lowest in the period 1885 to 1895, and that the rate in the early years of registration was considerably in excess of that in even the best of recent years.
|Year||Total Number of Marriages registered.||Marriage-rate.|
|Per 1,000 of Population.||Compared with Rate in 1882-86, taken as 100.|
|* Average for five years.|
The cessation of hostilities at the end of 1918 and the repatriation during 1919 of the great bulk of the Expeditionary Force has led to a healthy increase in marriages. Though not quite reaching the normal level of pre-war years, the progress made is satisfactory in view of two rate-depressing influences: first, the loss to the Dominion of many thousands of lives; and, secondly, the marriage abroad of no inconsiderable body of soldiers, the majority of whom would otherwise have married in this country.
|Year.||March Quarter.||June Quarter.||September Quarter.||December Quarter.|
It will be seen that the June quarter is apparently considered the most propitious for the solemnization of marriage. The two years exceptional in this respect are 1915 and 1919. In the first year the December quarter was swelled by the influence of the National Registration Act of October, 1915; and the second may be explained by the celebration of many marriages postponed until the return of soldiers abroad.
An additional investigation of marriages contracted in 1919 reveals the pre-eminence which December has attained as a suitable month for entering the matrimonial state. The marriages contracted in each month were as follows:—
Wednesday claims almost half of the total marriages—
The days of the year on which an exceptionally large number of marriages were performed were,—
All these days were, it may be remarked, Wednesdays. Easter Monday, usually considered a most suitable day, ranked only thirteenth in favour.
A comparison of the marriage-rate of each Australian State with New Zealand for ten years is given. The Commonwealth rate has for some years been higher than that of this country.
|Year.||Queensland.||New South Wales.||Victoria.||South Australia (Proper).||Western Australia.||Tasmania.||Commonwealth.||New Zealand.|
The average rate for New Zealand in normal years is higher than the rate for most of the European countries with the exception of the races of the east and south-east of Europe.
The table which follows gives information as to the conjugal condition of persons married in each of the past ten years, divorced men and women being classed as bachelors and spinsters.
|Year.||Marriages contracted between||Number of Divorced Persons married (included previously).||Total Marriages registered.|
|Bachelors and Spinsters.||Bachelors and Widows.||Widowers and Spinsters.||Widowers and Widows.|
The figures for 1919 are given herewith in more detail as to conjugal condition of bride and bridegroom immediately prior to the marriage.
|Condition of Bridegrooms.||Condition of Brides.|
Included amongst widows in 1919 are eighteen married women, and amongst the widowers eleven men, who elected to go through the form of marriage with other persons under the protection of the provisions of section 224, subsection (5), of the Crimes Act, which reads, “No one commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage if he or she has been continually absent from his or her wife or husband for seven years then last past, and is not proved to have known that his wife or her husband was alive at any time during those seven years.”
Of the persons married in 1919, 344 bridegrooms and 1,272 brides were under twenty-one years of age. Of the bridegrooms, ten were between seventeen and eighteen, while thirty-seven were between eighteen and nineteen. Of the brides, four were between fifteen and sixteen, and twenty-eight between sixteen and seventeen years of age. A table is given showing relative ages of bridegrooms and brides in groups of years.
|Age of Bridegroom. in Years.||Age of Bride, in Years.||Total Bridegrooms.|
|Under 21.||21 and under 25||25 and under 30||30 and under 35||35 and under 40||40 and under 45||45 and over.|
|21 and under 25||501||1,041||269||39||4||1||1,855|
|25 and under 30||387||1,263||1,083||207||49||4||1||2,994|
|30 and under 35||114||586||774||392||93||19||10||1,988|
|35 and under 40||48||210||338||302||166||61||21||1,146|
|40 and under 45||20||53||106||129||116||87||35||546|
|45 and over||3||30||59||85||112||127||230||646|
The decrease in the proportion of men at the ages at which marriages are usually solemnized is exemplified in the following statement giving average age of bridegrooms and brides over a series of years:—
|Year.||Mean Age of Bridegrooms.||Mean Age of Brides|
In England the mean age of those whose ages were stated was (average of the five years 1910–14) 29.02 years for men and 26.77 years for women. As in the case of New Zealand, ages of both bridegrooms and brides have risen swiftly during the war years, reaching in 1917, 30.04 years for bridegrooms and 27.27 for brides. Thus the average age at marriage in New Zealand would appear to be higher for men, but slightly lower for women, than in England. The average age of all spinsters married in New Zealand in 1919 was 26.03 years. Australian figures for 1918 give the mean ages of groom and bride as 29.55 and 26.11 respectively.
The foregoing figures give the average age at marriage, but these do not correspond with the popular age, if the age at which the most marriages are celebrated may be so termed.
In 1919 ages twenty-six and twenty-seven compete for pride of place for bridegrooms, and twenty-one holds good in the case of brides. If the marriages of spinsters only be considered, age twenty-one is still the most popular.
Of every 1,000 men married in 1919, 36 were under twenty-one years of age, while 134 in every 1,000 brides were under twenty-one. The proportion of bridegrooms under twenty-one is in normal years 2 per cent. of the total number. The proportions for 1917 (3.6 per cent.), 1918 (5.1 per cent.), and 1919 (3.6 per cent.) therefore represent high increases in marriages of male minors. No corresponding rise occurs in the proportion of marriages of female minors.
|Year.||Bridegrooms.||Brides.||Minors, per 100 Marriages.|
The ages at which persons may contract binding marriages are the same as in England—twelve years for females and fourteen for males. Marriage may be contracted at earlier ages than those stated, but would be voidable at the discretion of either of the parties upon reaching the age of twelve or fourteen, as the case may be, and without the necessity of proceedings in Court.
In connection with the fertility of marriages the succeeding table is of interest. The number of children born to the marriages in existence at the census in 1916 was over three. It should be kept in mind that this number does not represent the average children of a parent, but only the average children of the existing marriage, which is necessarily somewhat less than in the former case.
|AVERAGE ISSUE PER MARRIAGE.|
|Duration of existing Marriage.||Average of Issue born.|
|New Zealand, Census, 1916.||New Zealand, Census, 1911.||Australia, Census, 1911.|
|Under 5 years||0.88||1.21||0.89|
|5 to 9 years||2.18||2.51||2.29|
|10 to 14 years||3.05||3.54||3.34|
|15 to 19 years||3.77||4.39||4.24|
|20 to 24 years||4.35||5.23||5.05|
|25 to 29 years||4.99||5.92||5.87|
|30 to 34 years||5.65||6.78||6.67|
|35 to 39 years||6.46||7.38||7.25|
|40 to 45 years||7.16||7.81||7.74|
|45 and over||7.76||8.34||8.37|
The heavy decline from 1911 to 1916 may perhaps be discounted to some extent by the fact that in the prior year the proportion of cases where the number of issue was not stated formed nearly 12 per cent. of the total.
These cases were not included in computing the averages, and may have belonged in any proportion to any group. In 1916 the percentage of unstated cases was reduced to less than 1 per cent.
The continuous rise during all periods of duration of marriage is at first glance rather curious, since additions to families after a marriage of thirty years’ standing would be infinitesimal, and would certainly not take place after forty years. It is, however, merely the effect of the steady decline in the once high birth-rate. Taking thirty years of marriage as the point marking the limit of fertility, then the average issue in respect of marriages of longer duration was 7.41 in 1911 and 6.52 in 1916.
Of the 9,519 marriages registered in 1919, Church of England clergymen officiated at 2,595, Presbyterians at 2,462, Methodists at 1,114, and Roman Catholics at 1,055, while 1,801 marriages were celebrated before Registrars.
|Denomination.||Percentage of Marriages.|
|Church of England||26.76||25.73||24.54||25.36||27.26|
The number of names on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act is (May, 1920) 1,638, and the denominations to which they belong are shown hereunder:—
|Specified in statute—|
|Church of England||440|
|Presbyterian Church of New Zealand||366|
|Methodist Church of New Zealand||234|
|Roman Catholic Church||269|
|Not specified in statute—|
|Church of Christ||34|
|Catholic Apostolic Church||4|
|Old Catholic Church|
|Church of the Seven Rules of Jehovah||15|
The Ringatu Church and the Church of the Seven Rules of Jehovah are Maori denominations.
Of the men married in 1919, eight, and of the women fourteen, signed the register by mark.
Of twenty-two cases in 1919, eight (five males, three females) were those of New-Zealanders by birth, all being under the age of sixty. In three instances where both groom and bride were Chinese, the bride signed by mark. Birthplaces of the remainder were: England, 4; Ireland, 3; Scotland, 1; Denmark, 1; Tasmania, 1; South Africa, 1.
According to information received from the Cook Islands Department, the following are the figures of marriages solemnized in the Cook Islands during the year ended 31st March, 1920:—
|Island.||Number of Marriages.|
|NOTE.—In some cases the figures quoted are for the calendar year or for other periods.|
|Manihiki (nine months)||1|
|Mauke (nine months)||8|
THE deaths registered in 1919 were 10,808, representing a rate of 9.51 per 1,000 of mean population. Although, with the exception of 1918, in which occurred the disastrous influenza epidemic, the number of deaths is a record, the rate is nevertheless quite normal.
The following table shows the number of deaths and the death-rate; also a comparison with the average rate for 1882–86:—
|Year.||Total Number of Deaths.||Death-rate.|
|Per 1,000 of Population.||Compared with Rate in 1882–86, taken as 100.|
|* Average for five years.|
The death-rates of males and females for the last ten years are shown separately in the next table, also the number of male deaths to every 100 female deaths, and the death-rate of males expressed as an index number of the female rate, taking the latter as equal to 100.
|Year.||Deaths per 1,000 of Population.||Male Deaths to every 100 Female Deaths.||Male Rate expressed as Index Number of Female Rate (= 100).|
Prior to the war period, the excess of male over female population had the effect of showing a smaller variation between death-rates for the two sexes than was indicated by a comparison of numbers of deaths.
The withdrawal of a large number of males between the ages of 20 and 45 for military service overseas, however, reduced the male population without proportionately reducing the total of male deaths. Consequently there has been a tendency towards an increase in the crude male death-rate.
For the purpose of considering the mortality in New Zealand more closely than can be done by means of crude death-rates, it is desirable to ascertain the rates at different age-periods of the population.
DEATH-RATES PER 1,000 LIVING AT VARIOUS AGE-PERIODS.
|Ages, in Years.||Averages, 1910–14.||1915.||1916.||1917.||1918.||1919.||Increase, 1910–14 to 1919.|
|Under 5||16.46||14.27||15.49||14.02||14.12||11.77||- 28.49|
|5 and under 10||1.72||1.86||2.61||2.44||2.30||1.93||+ 12.21|
|10 and under 15||1.32||1.47||1.59||1.39||1.98||1.49||+ 12.88|
|15 and under 20||2.10||1.83||2.35||2.05||5.16||2.24||+ 6.67|
|20 and under 25||2.83||3.19||3.16||3.40||10.03||2.74||- 3.18|
|25 and under 35||3.93||3.79||3.91||4.19||15.12||3.95||+ 0.51|
|35 and under 45||5.98||5.81||6.67||5.76||14.79||6.01||+ 0.50|
|45 and under 55||9.79||9.40||10.24||8.93||15.72||10.01||+ 2.25|
|55 and under 65||19.54||20.08||19.22||19.07||23.89||19.84ot:||+ 1.54|
|65 75||46.31||41.85||40.22||44.78||50.42||45.56||- 1.62|
|75 and over||138.58||134.83||142.75||128.55||145.94||143.53||+ 3.57|
|All ages||9.35||9.06||9.64||9.58||14.84||9.51||+ 17.1|
Besides advantages of climate, New Zealand possesses a population younger in age constitution than that of most other countries—conditions favourable to a low rate of mortality. Another table is given comparing death-rates at twelve age-periods for 1917 with those of England and Wales. In only one instance is the Dominion rate higher than the corresponding rate in England and Wales. This occurs in the female death-rate for the age-period 25–35 years.
|DEATH-RATE PER 1,000 PERSONS LIVING, ACCORDING TO SEX, FOR THE YEAR 1917, COMPARED WITH ENGLAND AND WALES.|
|Ages, in Years.||New Zealand.||England and Wales.|
|5 and under 10||2.66||2.21||3.2||3.0|
|10 and under 15||1.63||1.17||2.1||2.2|
|15 and under 20||2.08||2.02||8.5||3.1|
|20 and under 25||4.16||2.95||3.3|
|25 and under 35||4.53||3.91||3.7|
|35 and under 45||6.61||4.93||6.0|
|45 and under 55||9.73||7.99||14.4||10.6|
|55 and under 65||20.23||17.63||29.4||22.2|
|65 and under 75||48.76||40.06||67.1||50.2|
|75 and under 85||118.09||100.20||157.5||126.8|
|85 and over||286.23||244.88||302.1||280.6|
The deaths occurring during 1919 are tabulated below in single ages up to five years, and thereafter in groups, showing males and females separately:—
The average age at death of persons of either sex in each of the ten years 1910–19 was as follows:—
|1910||44.47 years.||42.25 years.|
|1911||46.17 years.||42.37 years.|
|1912||47.19 years.||44.91 years.|
|1913||46.26 years.||43.04 years.|
|1914||46.97 years.||44.27 years.|
|1915||47.24 years.||44.71 years.|
|1916||46.06 years.||44.01 years.|
|1917||48.33 years.||45.51 years.|
|1918||44.56 years.||44.29 years.|
|1919||50.73 years.||48.47 years.|
The average age at death, taking both sexes into account, was 49.77 years for 1919.
EXPECTATION OF LIFE.
The 1915 issue of the Year-book contained results of a mortality investigation undertaken from the results of the five censuses 1891 to 1911, inclusive, in conjunction with the records of deaths. Considerations of space allow only the following to be repeated in this issue:—
A table is given showing the death-rates of the Australian States and Commonwealth, and of New Zealand, in each of the ten years 1910–19.
|DEATH-RATES OF AUSTRALASIA PER 1,000 OF MEAN POPULATION, 1910–19.|
|New South Wales||9.89||10.37||10.86||10.89||10.11||10.48||10.63||9.60||9.84||13.40|
|South Australia (proper)||10.09||9.82||10.28||10.82||10.71||10.67||11.72||10.10||9.97||12.01|
|New Zealand ̣̣ ̣̣||9.71||9.39||8.87||9.47||9.31||9.06||9.64||9.58||14.84||9.51|
New Zealand has ordinarily a lower death-rate than any of the Australian States, which, again, have considerably lower rates than other countries. Abnormalities in 1918 and 1919 are due to the pandemic of influenza.
Perfect accuracy in comparing one country with another can be attained only by the use of what is termed an “index of mortality.” The proportions of the living vary in regard to the different age-groups, and the ordinary death-rate—which is calculated on the population as a whole—does not afford a true means of judging of the relative healthiness of the places compared. But by taking a population like that of Sweden, and applying the percentage at each age-group to the death-rates, a standard of health or index of mortality can be arrived at. This has been done for New Zealand in accordance with a resolution of the Statistical Conference held at Hobart in 1902, and the result is expressed in tabular form.
|INDEX OF MORTALITY IN NEW ZEALAND FOR 1919.|
|Ages, in Years.||Estimated Mean Population.||Number of Deaths.||Death-rate per 1,000.||Percentage of Population of Sweden, 1890 (Standard).||Index of Mortality in New Zealand per 1,000.|
|1 and under 20||441,428||1,093||2.48||39.80||0.98|
|20 ” 40||371,006||1,493||4.02||26.96||1.08|
|40 ” 60||211,380||2,081||9.84||19.23||1.89|
|60 and upwards||85,181||5,033||59.09||11.46||6.77|
The New Zealand rates may be compared with those of the Australian States and of the Commonwealth standardized by the same system.
STANDARDIZED DEATH-RATES, 1910–19.
|New South Wales||12.36||13.23||13.63||13.61||12.72||13.24||13.48||12.45||12.86||16.48|
Where comparisons are restricted to the figures for different years in a country such as New Zealand, where age and sex constitution are undergoing gradual change, it is preferable to use as a standard the constitution of the population of the same country at some fixed date.
In the following table the rates have been standardized on the population as disclosed at the census of 1911.
|DEATH-RATES, CRUDE AND STANDARDIZED.|
|Year.||Crude (Actual) Death-rate.||Standardized Rate.|
The death-rates for the cities, including suburbs, for five years are as below:—
|Deaths per 1,000 of Population.|
|* Metropolitan areas in 1917.|
|Auckland (including suburbs)*||9.05||9.58||10.45||18.07||10.68|
|Wellington years. (including suburbs)||9.71||9.45||9.37||15.71||11.14|
|Christchurch years. (including suburbs)||9.01||10.84||10.04||15.47||10.77|
|Dunedin years. (including suburbs)||11.03||11.72||11.58||16.20||11.32|
Wellington has proportionately fewer old people than the other three centres, and this explains largely its lower average death-rate. Dunedin, on the other hand, has a higher proportion of old people in its population than Auckland or Christchurch, and has consequently the highest death-rate of all four centres, notwithstanding its low rate of infantile mortality.
The table following shows the number of living issue left by married men whose deaths were registered during the ten years 1910–19, the information being given according to the age of father and of issue. It will be seen that during the period under review 26,967 fathers left issue to the number of 126,901 an average of 4.71. There were also 4,582 married men who died without leaving issue.
|NUMBER AND AGES OF ISSUE LEFT BY MARRIED MEN, 1910–19.|
|Age of Issue, in Years.||Number of Issue left by Fathers dying within the Age-groups shown at Head of Column.|
|20 and under 30.||30 and under 40.||40 and under 50.||50 and under 60.||60 and under 65.||65 and under 70.||70 and under 80.||80 and over.||Totals.|
|21 and over||7||853||8,056||9,303||13,343||38,038||22,779||92,379|
|Married men who died—|
|(a) Without leaving issue||270||638||610||645||347||433||998||641||4,582|
|(b) Leaving issue.||531||2,575||3,091||3,719||2,400||2,898||7,330||4,423||20,967|
Several tables dealing with orphanhood are given in full in Volume I of “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand,” 1919. One of these, showing the number of issue under 16, left by married men whose deaths were registered during 1919, is summarized and given below:—
|Age at Death, in Years.||Married Men who died leaving Number of Issue under 16 Years of Age shown at Head of Column.||Total Number of Married Men who died leaving Issue under Age 16.|
|1||2||3||4||5||6||7 and over.|
|20 and under||25||2||2|
|25 ” 30||12||6||4||2||24|
|30 ” 35||22||27||9||5||2||3||1||69|
|35 ” 40||27||38||29||13||7||3||1||118|
|40 ” 45||38||23||27||22||16||2||5||133|
|45 ” 50||41||38||28||13||11||5||7||143|
|50 ” 55||49||33||17||9||7||6||3||124|
|55 ” 60||41||20||12||8||3||2||1||87|
|60 ” 65||49||17||3||4||1||1||1||76|
|65 ” 70||19||14||6||3||2||44|
|70 ” 75||17||7||2||1||27|
|75 ” 80||2||1||1||4|
|80 and over||2||1||3|
Subjoined is a classified statement of the deaths of infants under one year during 1919, with the ratio of the deaths in each class to the 1,000 births during the year:—
|Sex.||Under 1 Month.||1 and under 3 Months.||3 and under 6 Months.||6 and under 12 Months.||Total under 12 Months.|
|NUMBER OF DEATHS.|
|Deaths per 1,000 Births.|
Fifty-one out of every thousand male children born and forty of every thousand females died before attaining the age of one year. The mortality was thus one in twenty of male children, and one in twenty-five of females.
It will be seen from the figures that the chances of living during the first year of age are greater for female than for male infants. Thus, in proportion to the number of children of each sex born in 1919, there were during the year—
|100 deaths of males to 71 deaths of females under 1 month of age;|
|100 deaths of males to 86 deaths of females from 1 to 3 months of age;|
|100 deaths of males to 104 deaths of females from 3 to 6 months of age;|
|100 deaths of males to 95 deaths of females from 6 to 12 months of age;|
|100 deaths of males to 79 deaths of females under 12 months of age.|
Dealing with the results for ten years, the deaths of infants under one year are in the large proportion of 74 per cent. of the total deaths under five.
|Year.||Deaths of Children under 5 Years of Age.||Total Deaths at all Ages.||Deaths under 5 Years: Per Cent. of Mortality at all Ages.|
|Under 1 Year.||1 Year and under 2 Years.||2 Years and under 3 Years.||3 Years and under 4 Years.||4 Years and under 5 Years.||Total under 5 Years.|
|Average of ten years||1,432||214||120||89||73||1,928||10,691||18.03|
DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR, AND PROPORTION TO BIRTHS.
|Year.||Deaths of Infants under 1 Year of Age.||Total Births registered.||Proportion of Deaths of Infants under 1 Year to every 1,000 Births.|
|Under 1 Month||1 Month and under 3 Months.||3 Months and under 6 Months.||6 Months and under 12 Months.||Total under 12 Months.|
|Average of ten years||777||220||199||236||1,432||27,106||52.83|
The infantile-mortality rates during the last three years are the most satisfactory ever experienced in New Zealand.
The principal causes of mortality in children under one year of age, together with the numbers of deaths in New Zealand from such causes during the five years 1915–19, are given below.
|Causes||Number of Deaths from each Cause.||Percentage of Total.|
|Bronchitis and pneumonia||127||123||96||102||94||9.11||8.50||7.06||8.15||8.48|
|Diarrhœa and enteritis||115||164||146||50||56||8.25||11.34||10.74||3.99||5.05|
The classification of causes of death was made in 1908 for the first time in New Zealand according to the Bertillon Index of Diseases. This system has been adopted by the Commonwealth of Australia and the principal European and American countries. It is highly desirable for comparative purposes that uniformity of statistical method should obtain when possible.
|Class.||Number of Deaths.||Proportion to Total Deaths.||Proportion per 10,000 living|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent|
|I. General diseases||1,505||1,353||2,858||24.25||29.41||26.44||25.15|
|II. Diseases of the nervous system and of the organs of special sense||658||507||1,165||10.60||11.02||10.78||10.25|
|III. Diseases of the circulatory system||1,097||753||1,850||17.67||16.37||17.12||16.28|
|IV. Diseases of the respiratory system||612||417||1,029||9.86||9.06||9.52||9.05|
|V. Diseases of the digestive system||308||304||612||4.90||6.61||5.66||5.39|
|VI. Non-venereal diseases of the genito-urinary system and annexa||301||161||462||4.85||3.50||4.27||4.07|
|VII. Puerperal condition||124||124||2.69||1.15||1.09|
|VIII. Diseases of the skin and of the cellular tissue||29||23||52||0.47||0.50||0.48||0.46|
|IX. Diseases of the bones and of the organs of locomotion||20||6||20||0.32||0.13||0.24||0.23|
|XI. Early infancy||357||259||610||5.75||5.63||5.70||5.42|
|XII. Old age||593||463||1,056||9.55||10.06||9.77||9.29|
|XIII. External violence||574||146||720||9.25||3.17||6.66||6.34|
|XIV. Ill-defined causes||67||33||100||1.08||0.72||0.93||0.88|
The next table shows the number of deaths from certain principal causes for the five years 1915–1919.
|Cause.||Number of Deaths.||Proportion per 10,000 of Mean Population.|
|Other forms of tuberculosis||131||141||158||168||160||1.19||1.28||1.14||1.52||1.41|
|Apoplexy, cerebral haemorrhage||403||478||472||470||539||3.68||4.35||4.29||4.26||4.74|
|Convulsions of children under 5 years of age||77||105||62||70||61||0.70||0.95||0.56||0.63||0.54|
|Diarrhoea and enteritis||244||302||306||147||132||2.22||2.75||2.78||1.33||1.16|
|Appendicitis and typhlitis||94||90||101||92||88||0.86||0.82||0.92||0.83||0.77|
|Hernia, intestinal obstruction||86||110||46||96||79||0.73||1.05||0.42||0.87||0.70|
|Cirrhosis of liver||51||53||33||41||40||0.46||0.48||0.30||0.37||0.35|
|Cause.||Number of Deaths.||Proportion per 10,000 of Mean Population.|
|Nephritis, Bright's disease||267||304||271||287||309||2.43||2.76||2.46||2.69||2.72|
|Diseases and accidents of puerperal condition||131||167||169||134||124||1.19||1.52||1.54||1.21||1.09|
|Violence (1) suicide||113||147||124||113||139||1.03||1.34||1.13||1.02||1.22|
|(2) accident &.||623||595||561||548||581||5.67||5.41||5.10||4.97||5.11|
Pulmonary tuberculosis takes fourth place in point of the number of deaths resulting therefrom during 1919, ranking after heart-disease, senility, and cancer in that order. Acute miliary tuberculosis is included with pulmonary. The average for the past ten years was 598, or 5.58 per 10,000.
|Year.||Deaths from Pulmonary Tuberculosis.||Rate per 10,000.|
The mortality-rate from all forms of tuberculosis has also exhibited a very satisfactory decline for many years. Ten years’ figures are quoted.
DEATHS AND DEATH-RATES FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS, 1910–19.
|Year.||Mean Population.||Number of Deaths from Tubercular Diseases.||Rate per 1,000.||Percentage of Total Deaths from all Causes.|
Tuberculosis claims its victims at comparatively early age. Of those dying from this cause in 1919, persons under the age of twenty years formed 20 per cent. and those under forty years 69 per cent.
The New Zealand rate of deaths from tubercular diseases, as well as those of the Australian States, compares very favourably with those of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which have, however, also decreased considerably of late years.
|Death-rates (per 1,000) from Tuberculosis.||Percentage of Total Deaths.|
* Civilians only.
† Year 1915.
|England and Wales*||1.62||11.21|
|New South Wales||0.61||6.36|
This disease is annually responsible for more deaths in New Zealand than can be assigned to any cause other than organic disease of the heart.
In 1919 there were 1,031 deaths from cancer in the Dominion, a proportion of 9.07 per 10,000 persons. This number is the highest yet recorded, an unenviable distinction which almost every year in succession attains. Rates for war years are inflated to some extent by the absence of a large number of young men who are comparatively immune from cancer.
The average number of cancer deaths and the average cancer death-rate for the years 1914–18 were 947 and 8.55 respectively. Deaths of males during 1919 numbered 543, and of females 488.
|NUMBER OF PERSONS WHO DIED FROM CANCER, THE PROPORTION PER 10,000 PERSONS LIVING, AND THE PERCENTAGE OF ALL DEATHS, 1910–19.|
|Years.||Deaths from Cancer.||Total Deaths, all Causes.||Deaths from Cancer per 10,000 of Living Persons.||Deaths from Cancer per 100 of all Deaths.|
The parts of the body most commonly affected are the stomach and liver. Among females the generative and mammary organs are frequently the seat of the disease. Full details of location are published in Volume I of the “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand,” 1919.
CANCER: SEAT OF DISEASE, 1919.
|Seat of Disease.||Males.||Females.||Total.|
|Stomach and liver||227||130||357|
|Peritoneum, intestines, rectum||101||81||182|
|Female genital organs||84||84|
|Other organs or organs not specified||153||114||267|
Eighty-nine per cent. of the deaths from cancer during 1919 were at the ages 45 years and upwards, and 61 per cent. at the ages 60 years and upwards.
Exhaustive statistical inquiry for the period 1872–1919 has shown that in New Zealand death from cancer is, on the average, now occurring later in life than formerly. It would seem that this is the case even if allowance be made for the fact that the age-constitution of the Dominion is increasing—i.e., that the average citizen of New Zealand is now older than the average citizen of ten, twenty, or fifty years ago.
The deaths certified to these causes in 1919 numbered 124, as against 134 in 1918. Included in the number in 1919 were: Accidents of pregnancy, 9; puerperal hæmorrhage, 10; other accidents of labour, 11; puerperal septicæmia, 52; puerperal albuminuria, 36. The number of deaths to every 1,000 confinements (where children were born alive) for each ten years is shown.
|Year.||Deaths of Mothers to every 1,000 Confinements.|
The higher rate of puerperal accidents and diseases shown since 1915 as compared with preceding years is largely, perhaps wholly, accounted for by the fact that during the past four years in all cases possible where a woman of child-bearing age was shown as having died of septicæmia, peritonitis, convulsions, &., steps were taken to ascertain whether the disease was puerperal.
The following table shows the numbers of Maoris registered under section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, since its coming into force. The numbers registered under the main Act are also given.
|Year.||Under Section 20 of Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912.||Under Main Act.|
* Not shown separately.
Maoris suffered exceedingly severe losses during the influenza epidemic of 1918. As statistics of causes of deaths are not compiled in their case, the exact totals cannot be ascertained, but it is estimated that at least 1,500 perished. This represents a rate of 30 per 1,000 of the Maori population, or over five times the “European” death-rate in the epidemic.
These deaths are not included in the numbers quoted elsewhere in this subsection.
As explained in the Births subsection of this book, a system of compulsory registration of deaths is now ruling in the Cook Islands.
The following figures of deaths during the year ended 31st March, 1920, are supplied by the Cook Islands Department.
|Islands.||Number of Deaths.|
|NOTE.—In some cases the figures quoted above are for the calendar year 1919 or other periods.|
|Pukapuka (no returns)|
IN comparisons of healthiness based on death-rates, the effect of the advance of medical science in recent years is not taken into account. It is common knowledge that many diseases regarded a few decades ago as incurable now give a fair percentage of recoveries. Again, many diseases seldom or never result fatally.
In New Zealand the only records of this nature beyond that of fatality are the returns of infectious diseases notified and discharges from public hospitals.
|Month.||Scarlet Fever.||Diphtheria.||Enteric Fever.||Tuberculosis.||Cerebro-spinal Meningitis.||Poliomyelitis.||Puerperal Septicæmia.||Hydatids.||Ophthalmia Neonatorum.||Septicæmia (unclassified).||Erysipelas.||Measles.||Lethargic Encephalitis.||Influenza.||Pneumonia.||Trachoma.||Anthrax.||Totals.|
Nearly 60 per cent. of the notifications were for diphtheria and influenza. The great majority of influenza cases were of a very mild type. A quinquennial summary of the principal diseases only is as follows:—
PRINCIPAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES NOTIFIED DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS.
The total admissions to public hospitals (other than St. Helens’ Maternity Homes) in New Zealand during 1919 numbered 42,917. There were 2,895 patients in hospital at the beginning of the year, the total cases dealt with during the year being thus 45,812, equal to 386 per 10,000 of mean population, including Maoris. The total number of persons treated is somewhat less than the number of cases, each admission being counted a separate case.
Of the 45,812 cases, 26,321 were discharged as recovered, including a number of tuberculosis cases in which the patient was described as able to work or as having had the disease arrested. In 11,385 cases the patient was discharged relieved, and in 1,906 cases as unrelieved. Deaths in hospital numbered 2,864, or 6.25 per cent. of cases dealt with. end of the year. There are 65 public general hospitals, 4 fever or infectious-diseases hospitals, and 6 sanatoria for consumptives.
The ages of patients discharged from or dying in public hospitals during 1919 and 1918 are as shown in the following summary:—
|PUBLIC HOSPITALS.—AGES OF PATIENTS DISCHARGED OR DYING.|
|Ages of Patients, in Years.||1919.||1918.|
|5 and under 10||2,288||1,890||4,178||2,571||2,199||4,770|
|10 and under 15||1,693||1,281||2,974||1,851||1,508||3,359|
|15 and under 25||4,659||3,174||7,833||4,793||4,125||8,918|
|25 and under 35||5,676||3,468||9,144||5,405||4,483||9,888|
|35 and under 45||3,664||2,517||6,181||3,992||2,657||6,649|
|45 and under 55||2,356||1,173||3,529||2,539||1,259||3,798|
|55 and under 65||1,520||671||2,191||1,513||648||2,161|
|65 and over||2,262||677||2,939||2,166||648||2,814|
The Bertillon system of classification of diseases and causes of death divides such into fourteen well-defined classes, which are further subdivided into 189 orders. The table following shows that Class I, “General diseases,” is first on the list as regards both discharges and deaths. Diseases of the digestive system come next in point of numbers, but the death-rate is low. External causes come third on the list, and here again the death-rate is low, owing to the preponderance of simple fractures, cuts, bruises. &.
|Class.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Total Discharges and Deaths.|
|I. General diseases||5,847||2,235||603||600||377||5,685||3,977|
|II. Diseases of the nervous system and of the organs of special sense||923||1,153||327||220||114||1,700||1,037|
|III. Diseases of the circulatory system||819||786||77||232||90||1,427||577|
|IV. Diseases of the respiratory system||3,779||1,206||97||225||86||3,295||2,098|
|V. Diseases of the digestive system||5,289||1,311||122||154||112||3,908||3,020|
|VI. Diseases of the genitourinary system and annexa||2,016||834||119||130||45||1,045||2,099|
|VII. Puerperal condition||1,229||151||32||47||1,459|
|VIII. Diseases of the skin and of the cellular tissue||1,225||473||48||25||11||1,271||511|
|IX. Diseases of the organs of locomotion||797||612||59||16||3||1,096||391|
|XI. Diseases of early infancy||26||14||1||22||15||48||30|
|XII. Old age||23||97||98||92||25||280||55|
|XIII. External causes||3,792||2,293||259||153||40||5,758||779|
|XIV. Ill-defined causes||317||153||37||5||11||310||213|
More detailed information concerning certain of the principal diseases and groups of diseases is given in the following pages. The “Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand” (Volume I) contain detailed information for each hospital.
A table of the epidemic general diseases dealt with in public hospitals during 1919 is given. The figures in this and following tables throughout this subsection deal with the discharges and deaths only, and not with patients remaining in hospital at the end of the year, who will be included in the figures for 1920 or such other year of discharge or death.
PRINCIPAL EPIDEMIC GENERAL DISEASES, 1919.
|Disease.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Total Discharges and Deaths.|
The rate of mortality of this group is normally very low, between 2 and 3 per cent. In 1919 the mortality rate was 4.55 per cent., due principally to the influenza cases, an aftermath of the epidemic.
Tuberculosis occupies eight orders in the classification of diseases, but is usually divided into two groups—viz., pulmonary tuberculosis and other forms of tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis, with which is included tuberculosis (undefined) and acute miliary tuberculosis, comprises 72 per cent. of the total of 1,511 cases of tubercular diseases, and the same percentage of the deaths.
|TUBERCULOSIS CASES IN HOSPITALS, 1919.|
|Form of Tuberculosis.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Total Discharges and Deaths.|
|Tuberculosis of lungs||126||523||205||149||84||751||336|
|Acute miliary tuberculosis||4||3||4||3|
|Tuberculosis of other organs||96||131||23||7||7||165||99|
Five sanatoria for the treatment of tuberculosis cases are situated in suitable districts throughout the Dominion.
In order to obtain some definite information regarding the so-called “social diseases,” a questionnaire was attached in 1919 to the hospital discharge cards used in the preparation of statistical tables, requiring completion in all cases where the disease treated was due to one form or other of venereal disease. Of 42,476 patients discharged from or dying in public hospitals in 1919, some 234 suffered from effects of syphilis and 339 from effects of gonococcal infection. Some of the results obtained are as tabulated below:—
|How infection contracted.||Recovered.||Relieved.||Unrelieved.||Died.||Total.|
|Not known or not stated||11||8||44||11||13||1||4||72||20|
|Contact with infected clothes, towels, &.||2||2||4|
|Not known or not stated||16||19||20||14||1||4||1||37||38|
Another portion of the questionnaire concerned itself with the present communicability of the disease, and the opinions of the medical practitioners in charge of the cases were as follows:—
|Was Disease communicable at Date of Discharge?||Origin Syphilitic.||Origin Gonococcal.|
|No.||Per Cent.||No.||Per Cent.|
|Not known or not stated||74||31.61||42||12.38|
The total number of deaths in public hospitals in 1919 where cancer was assigned as the cause was 279 (males 186, females 93). In addition 160 patients treated for cancer were discharged as recovered, 216 as relieved, and 171 as unrelieved. Very few of the recoveries were in cases of internal cancer, and but a small proportion of the deaths in cases of surface cancer. It is noticeable that with but six exceptions cancer of the mouth and its annexa was confined to males. Cancer of the stomach, liver, &., and of the skin are also pre-eminently male diseases.
|Seat of Disease.||Discharges.||Deaths|
|Stomach, liver, &.||2||2||24||7||35||11||69||22|
|Intestines, rectum, &.||9||27||11||15||8||33||14|
|Female genital organs||8||35||19||23|
|Other organs (including unspecified)||25||11||20||20||29||13||54||21|
Of the 279 patients who died in hospitals from cancer during 1919, 142, or more than half, had been in hospital less than one month, and of these 53 died within one week of admission.
A total of 1,459 cases come under the heading of puerperal. This number includes 393 cases of normal childbirth dealt with at public general hospitals, but does not cover maternity cases in St. Helens Hospitals.
|PUERPERAL ACCIDENTS, ETC.|
|Disease.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Total Discharges and Deaths.|
|Other accidents of pregnancy||26||10||6||42|
|Other accidents of labour||36||10||6||3||55|
Of remaining diseases dealt with, a number of the more important or more frequently occurring are shown in tabulated form.
|Bertillon No.||Disease, &c.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Total Discharges and Deaths.|
|64||Apoplexy, cerebral hæmorrhage||12||23||9||118||117||45|
|75||Diseases of eyes||266||334||50||1||404||247|
|76||Diseases of ears||117||81||10||123||85|
|81||Diseases of arteries, &.||3||24||8||18||44||9|
|83||Diseases of veins, &.||433||136||17||2||407||181|
|88||Diseases of thyroid body||117||54||10||2||29||154|
|104, 105||Diarrhæa and enteritis||354||101||5||28||313||175|
|111–115||Diseases of liver||203||93||12||31||122||217|
|119, 120||Nephritis, Bright's disease||76||101||9||82||178||90|
|124||Diseases of bladder||121||109||12||24||155||111|
|128–130||Diseases of uterus||940||215||46||14||1,215|
|131||Diseases of ovary||98||17||3||2||120|
|132||Diseases of female genital organs||128||37||4||169|
|160-3||Violence (1) suicides||10||7||1||2||16||4|
|164–186||Violence (2) accident||3,782||2,286||258||191||5,742||775|
Table of Contents
LEGISLATION on the subject of public health is contained principally in the Public Health Act, 1908, and its amendments in 1910 and 1918.
The 1918 amendment was passed largely as the result of experience gained during the influenza epidemic which visited New Zealand in the last three months of the year 1918. Its principal object was the provision of necessary powers to enable the Public Health Department to take more vigorous action in combating an epidemic. It also provided for the creation of a Board of Public Health, consisting of ten members, whose duty it is to report to the Minister of Health on matters concerning developments in national health, medical service, instruction in health questions, and desirable legislative reforms. Further power is given to the Minister of Health to create District Advisory Committees in any health district when required. Provision is also made for any local authority to establish lodginghouses within the area of its jurisdiction, or contiguous thereto, the money for the purchase of the necessary land and buildings being obtainable by loan under the Local Bodies’ Loans Act. In regard to buildings in a condition unfit for occupation or dangerous to public health, the local authority may, upon the certificate of the District Health Officer, require the owner to have the premises pulled down, or, as an alternative, the District Health Officer may require structural alterations or additions made to the buildings or improvements to the sanitary conditions. In order to prevent overcrowding in lodginghouses and tenements, no person is allowed to accommodate more than five lodgers at any time, for either temporary or permanent board and residence, unless the premises have been licensed by the local governing authority; nor can the owner let any house or tenement in which more than one family is to reside, or any room for the occupation of more than two persons, without the previous approval of the local authority. To secure adequate medical services in the outlying districts power is given to the Minister, on receiving an application from a local authority, to provide a resident medical practitioner, whose salary and emoluments shall be fixed, and who will not be debarred from holding Government appointments connected with matters of public health in his district.
The law in this connection makes vaccination of children compulsory, but provides for exemption if the parent or custodian of a child has conscientious objections. Comparatively few children are now vaccinated.
Under the Medical Practitioners Act, 1914, is constituted the Medical Board of New Zealand, consisting of the Inspector-General of Hospitals and six other registered medical practitioners.
It is a serious offence for a person to carry on the practice of medicine unless he is registered under the Act. The register is kept by the Registrar-General. The Medical Board deals with all applications for registration, considering not only professional qualifications, but other attendant circumstances also. To be qualified for registration a person must be a graduate in medicine of the University of New Zealand, or eligible for registration in the United Kingdom, or hold the diploma of an approved foreign institution after a course of not less than five years’ study of medical or surgical subjects.
Applicants who are refused registration have the right of appeal to the Supreme Court. Application for registration should be made in the first place to the Registrar of Births and Deaths at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, or Dunedin. The fee for registration is £3 3s., payable on deposit of evidence of qualification. The number on the register at 31st December, 1919, was 1,015.
Application for registration as a dentist should be made to the Registrar-General, Wellington, accompanied by a fee of £1.
Every adult person is entitled to be registered as a dentist in New Zealand who is the holder of a degree in dental surgery of the University of New Zealand, or a certificate of proficiency in dentistry obtained from the Senate of the University, or is registered or entitled to be registered as a dentist in the United Kingdom, or is the holder of such degree in dentistry granted in a British possession or a foreign country as may be recognized by the Senate of the New Zealand University. Evidence of good character is required in every case. The number on the register at 31st December, 1919, was 751.
The Sale of Food and Drugs Act is administered by the officers of the Public Health Department, and provides for the analysis, by public analysts, of any article of food or drink, or of any drug, which may be sold, offered for sale, or exposed for sale, and for the inspection of any place where there is any food or drug intended for sale. If any such article be proved to be unfit for human consumption, or likely to cause injury to health if consumed, heavy penalties may be inflicted on the person or persons responsible.
During the year 1919, 144 charges under the Sale of Food and Drugs Act were dealt with in the Magistrates’ Courts, resulting in 108 convictions. Fines were imposed in 102 cases, and in six cases the defendant was convicted and discharged. One hundred of the convictions were in connection with the sale of adulterated milk, twenty-one for selling light-weight bread, and eight for selling light-weight or over-watered butter.
In 1919, 2,489 samples were taken by the Department, 2,135 being milk-samples. Samples of bread to the number of 3,197 were weighed, and 380 of these were found to be short-weighted. Of 1,579 butter-samples weighed, thirty-five were non-complying. The total fines and costs where legal proceedings resulted from sampling or weighing, &., amounted to £1,048 for the year.
The Plumbers Registration Act, passed during the session of 1912, provided for the setting-up of a Board, to be called the Plumbers’ Board of New Zealand. The functions of the Board are to decide what persons may be registered under the Act, in what districts sanitary plumbing shall be performed only by registered plumbers, and what shall be the scope of the examinations to be held in the future as a part of the process of securing registration.
The total number of plumbers entered on the register to date is 1,295.
The year 1918–19 is the third year for which official statistics of Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards have been prepared on the basis of an income and Expenditure Account and Balance-sheet. The results arrived at are the products of the application of the uniform system of accounts which has been adopted in several countries abroad, and these are thus comparable with those of many other countries.
On account of the fact that the figures furnished in the following tables for this Dominion prior to the year 1916–7 were compiled on a basis of receipts and payments and not of income and expenditure, the amounts in some points are not strictly comparable with those for the last three years.
The total gross income of Hospital Boards, separate institutions, and Government institutions for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was £1,213,815, and for Hospital Boards alone was £1,161,669.
The main sources of income for the year were as follow:—
|* Exclusive of fees paid by Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards or separate institutions.|
|Contributable by Government||302,666|
|Levies on local authorities||264,063|
|Fees payable by those assisted||349,172*|
|Fees payable on account of patients by Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards, separate institutions, and Government (inter se)||3,680|
|Rents, interests, and dividends||19,255|
The total gross expenditure of Hospital Boards, separate institutions, and Government institutions amounted during the year to £1 213,815, the expenditure of Hospital Boards alone being £1,161,669. The net expenditure— i.e., the gross expenditure less the excess of income over expenditure—was £939,828. The following are the main items of expenditure by all authorities:—
|Reductions in patients’ fees and amounts written off||151,716|
The average annual cost of maintenance per occupied bed for the last five years is set out below:—
|Year.||Provisions.||Surgery and Dispensary.||Domestic and Establishment.||Salaries and Wages.||Total Maintenance.|
The charitable-aid expenditure for the last five years has been as follows:—
|Year.||Indoor Relief.||Outdoor Relief.||Total.|
|Year ended 31st March.||Mean Population.||Hospital and Charitable Aid and other Expenditure.||Expenditure per Head of Mean Population.|
The above figures include infectious-diseases hospitals and consumptive sanatoria under Boards’ control, also public-health expenditure and subsidies to medical associations and district nurses. Since 1916–17 the figures are statements of expenditure incurred, not of actual payments made as in previous years. The number of persons availing themselves of treatment in the general hospitals for the last five years has been as follows:—
|Year.||Total Number of Persons under Treatment||Mean Population.||Proportion under Treatment per 1,000 of Population.||Average Number of Occupied Beds per Diem.||Proportion per 1,000 of Population.|
The general hospitals, numbering sixty-five in 1918–19, covered by the above table include five hospitals which are also old people's homes, as well as two institutions—the Mercury Bay and Oamaru Hospitals—which are not under the control of Hospital Boards. The figures given do not cover maternity hospitals or special hospitals for infectious diseases or tuberculosis.
Information as to the number of public general hospitals and their staff and accommodation is given for each of the past five years.
|Number of||Year ended 31st March.|
|Medical staff (stipendiary)||100||115||112||114||123|
Further particulars concerning the public general hospitals of the Dominion for the years ended the 31st March, 1918 and 1919, are given in the next table:—
|—||Year ended 31st March.|
|Average number of patients per diem||3,190||3,653|
|Number of patients under treatment||40,232||50,112|
|Average annual cost of maintenance per occupied bed apart from administration, &., charged||£118.1||£135.7|
|Number of out-patients attended during year||28,091||27,987|
State charitable institutions are administered by combined Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards, who also distribute outdoor relief. In the case of recipients of old-age pensions, the pension is received by the officers of the Board as payment for the maintenance of the pensioner, but a proportion is handed over to the latter to be expended as he or she may choose.
The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act, 1909, provides for the licensing (annually), management, and inspection of private hospitals. At the end of 1919 some 240 licensed private hospitals were in existence.
|Town.||Confinements in Institution.||Confinements attended outside.|
|Births.||Deaths of Mothers.||Deaths of Infants.|
|Year ended 31st March.||Confinements in Institution.||Confinements attended outside.|
|Births.||Deaths of Mothers.||Deaths of Infants.|
There is a maternity hospital attached to the Medical School at Dunedin, which also serves as a training-school for medical students and midwives.
Charitable maternity homes are established at Auckland, Otahuhu, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, and Invercargill for the reception of unmarried girls. The Salvation Army have similar institutions at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin.
The Nurses Registration Act provides that every person who has attained the age of twenty-three years and is certified as having had three years’ training as a nurse in a recognized general hospital, together with systematic instruction in theoretical and practical nursing from the medical officer and the matron of that hospital, and who passes the prescribed examination, is entitled to registration. There are now 2,728 nurses on the register.
The number of registered midwives on 31st March, 1920, was 2,638. Of these latter, 1,119 were trained and certificated, the remainder having satisfied the Registrar that at the date of the passing of the Act they had been for at least three years in bona fide practice as midwives, and that they bear a good character.
Exclusive of industrial schools, there are so far as is known some thirty-five institutions that may be described as orphanages or children's homes. The Education Act provides for the inspection of all orphanages and cognate institutions by Inspectors of the Education Department, with a view to securing that as regards education of the children and general management these organizations are acting consistently with the laws governing the education, care, and upbringing of children who are maintained in kindred institutions.
Under the control of the Education Department come also the various institutions for deaf and dumb, blind, or mentally defective children. These are dealt with in the section of this book dealing with Education.
There are seven public mental hospitals in the Dominion, maintained wholly or in part out of the public revenue. There is also one private hospital, licensed by the Governor-General for the reception of the mentally afflicted.
Information concerning the law dealing with the treatment of mental defectives is given in the 1914 issue of this book.
The number of patients at the end of the year 1919 was 4,647, including 60 Maoris.
|Dunedin (Seacliff and Waitati)||623||432||1,055|
|Ashburn Hall (private mental hospital)||20||23||43|
|Absent on probation||38||63||101|
The number of patients remaining at the close of each of the past five years, and the proportion per 10,000 of the population (excluding Maoris), are shown in the following table:—
|Year.||Number remaining at Close of Year.||Proportion per 10,000 of Population.|
|Means of five years||2,546||1,861||4,407||45.76||33.33||39.54|
The total number of patients under oversight, care, or control during 1919 was 5,509 (males 3,178, females 2,331), as against 5,408 in 1918. The average number resident in mental hospitals was 4,501 in 1918 and 4,527 in 1919.
The total admissions to mental hospitals during the year 1919 were 883 (512 males and 371 females), this number not including 80 transfers from one institution to another. The principal causes of insanity as assigned on admission are given below, distinguishing each hospital:—
|Puberty and adolescence||16||4||1||8||29|
|Prolonged mental stress||35||9||16||3||23||1||2||89|
Of the 883 persons admitted to mental hospitals during 1919, those admitted for the first time to any mental hospital in New Zealand numbered 744 (males 448, females 296), and those readmitted 139 (males 64, females 75).
Excluding the Native race, the number of first admissions and the rate per 10,000 of population for each of the past five years were as follows:—
|Year.||Number of First Admissions.||Proportion per 10,000 of Population.|
|Means of five years||406||291||697||7.33||5.26||6.30|
The figures for 1919 represent one first admission for every 1,546 persons in the Dominion.
Persons labouring under mental defect, but capable of understanding the meaning of the procedure, may seek admission to a mental hospital as voluntary boarders. At the beginning of 1919 there were 51 boarders in residence (20 males, 31 females), and during the year 95 (36 males, 59 females) were admitted. If a voluntary boarder should after admission show mental defect sufficiently pronounced and sustained to render it improper to classify him any longer as such, application for a reception order is made to a Magistrate. During the year 1919, 6 (3 males, 3 females) were transferred from the voluntary to the ordinary register, and 5 died, while 66 (24 males, 42 females) were discharged, leaving 69 resident at the end of the year (26 males, 43 females).
A summary is attached showing the ages of patients in mental hospitals at the close of 1919:—
|Age, in Years.||Males.||Females.||Total.|
|1 to 5||2||2||4|
|5 to 10||10||12||22|
|10 to 15||33||17||50|
|15 to 20||55||49||104|
|90 and over||3||3||6|
|20 to 30||266||173||439|
|30 to 40||581||393||974|
|40 to 50||632||481||1,113|
|50 to 60||470||412||882|
|60 to 70||355||256||611|
|70 to 80||168||124||292|
|80 to 90||48||26||74|
The number of Maoris admitted as patients to the mental hospitals is small. Twelve (6 males, 6 females) were admitted during the year, and 60 (37 males, 23 females) remained at the end of the year.
Dealing with patients of all races, the next table gives the average number resident, those who were discharged as recovered, and those who died, during the period 1915–19:—
|Year.||Average Number Resident.||Discharged as recovered.||Died.|
|Number.||Per Cent. of Average Number Resident.||Number.||Per Cent. of Average Number Resident.|
|Means of five years||4,348||327||7.52||336||7.73|
|Cause of Death.||Auckland.||Christchurch.||Dunedin.||Hokitika.||Nelson.||Porirua.||Tokanui.||Ashburn Hall.||Totals.|
|Other general diseases||4||3||2||9|
|General paralysis of the insane||17||3||6||1||1||14||1||43|
|Other nervous diseases||9||2||8||1||7||27|
|Diseases of the respiratory system||5||6||3||1||6||21|
|Diseases of the circulatory system||14||4||12||5||17||1||1||54|
|Diseases of the digestive system||2||1||1||1||5|
|Diseases of the genito-urinary system||3||1||1||5|
A table is added showing for all admissions since 1876 the percentages of patients discharged (as recovered, relieved, and not improved, separately), dying, and remaining.
|Remaining at end of 1919||14.02||16.15||14.88|
There is only one licensed private institution in the Dominion, that at Wakari, near Dunedin, established in 1882. Particulars of admissions, &., for the past five years are as follows:—
|Year.||Admissions.||Discharges.||Deaths.||Patients remaining at End of Year.|
The total expenditure on maintenance of mental hospitals (not including the cost of new buildings and additions), and receipts from patients and for sale of produce, &., during the past five years were as follows:—
|Year.||Total Expenditure.||Receipts from Patients, Sale of Produce, &.,||Net Expenditure.|
The total net expenditure out of the Public Works Fund for buildings and equipment from 1st July, 1877, to 31st March, 1920, was £891,540.
Farms are conducted in connection with the various mental hospitals, the inmates themselves doing most of the labour. During 1919, sales of produce brought in £14,285, while the value of produce grown on the farms and consumed in the institutions was estimated at £22,953. Expenses in connection with the farms amounted to £24,171, so that the year's working shows a credit balance of £12,707.
The net cost per patient for the year 1919 was £42 8s. 5d. as against £39 18s. 5 1/2d. for the previous year.
Table of Contents
As a result of the census taken in October, 1916, it is found that 83.53 per cent. of the persons in New Zealand at that date were able to read and write, 0.68 per cent. could read only, while 15.79 per cent. could neither read nor write. Of the latter, children form a large proportion.
The proportion able to read and write has fallen slightly as compared with figures compiled from the 1911 census returns. This small decrease is probably due to the disturbance of the normal proportions of the population brought about by the absence with the Forces of a number of men between twenty and forty years of age.
In the following tables an attempt has been made to analyse the public expenditure on the various branches of education.
|(Figures given in every case to the nearest £1,000.)|
|Branch of Education.||Amount.||Per Head of Population (including Maoris).|
|Out of Public Funds.*||Secondary and University Reserves Revenue.||Total from all Public Sources.||Out of Public Funds.*||Secondary and University Reserves Revenue.||Total from all Public Sources.|
|* Including expenditure out of income from primary-education reserves. † Including technical high schools and secondary departments of district high schools.|
|Continuation and technical||87,000||87,000||1||5||1||5|
|Industrial schools, &.||87,000||87,000||1||5||1||5|
|Superannuation and miscellaneous||61,000||61,000||1||1||1||1|
The following table shows the total amount expended on education out of the public funds only, and the amount per head of population:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Amount expended out of Public Funds.||Expenditure per Head of Population out of Public Funds.|
|* Income from primary-education reserves included.|
The central Department of Education, with a Cabinet Minister at its head, manages directly the Native schools and special schools, and also administers the Education Act. For the purposes of primary education the Dominion is divided into nine education districts, each of which is presided over by an Education Board, and these in turn are divided into smaller districts, in each of which a School Committee elected by the householders has authority. The School Committees of each education district elect the Education Board, and are subject to its general control. The Board receives from the Department and disburses money voted by the General Assembly for the purposes of instruction, and appoints the teachers, subject to the condition of consultation with the Committee of the school district.
A General Council of Education created by the Act reports to the Minister upon educational methods or developments deemed worthy of introduction into the Dominion and upon such matters as bear upon the provision of further facilities for education, whether local or general.
Education at the public schools is free and purely secular. Attendance at a registered school is obligatory upon all children between the ages of seven and fourteen, except when special exemptions are granted. The Inspectors who visit the schools are officers of the Education Department.
The programme of primary instruction provided by the Act includes English, arithmetic, geography, history and civics, drawing and handwork (including needlework), nature-study and elementary science, physical instruction, moral instruction and health, and singing.
The number of scholars and students as in 1919 is shown in the following summary. Pupils of private schools not inspected by the Education Department are excluded.
|Native village and Native mission schools||5,358|
|Registered private primary schools||20,977|
|Lower departments of secondary schools||686|
|Secondary departments of district high schools||2,159|
|Technical high schools||2,926|
|Maori secondary schools||434|
|Registered private secondary schools||1,497|
|Technical and continuation (excluding technical high schools)||17,950|
|University colleges (including training-college students)||3,060|
|Lincoln Agricultural College||52|
|Total under instruction||255,320|
This is an increase of 5,731 on the number under instruction during the previous year.
The public primary schools numbered 2,400 in 1919, against 2,365 in 1918. The number of registered private primary schools was 212. The number of aided or endowed colleges, grammar and high schools in operation was 34, and the number of technical schools 9. The number of University colleges was 4. The number of private schools from which returns were received in 1918 by the Government Statistician was 320. The number of primary and secondary schools established for the education of the Native or Maori race was 134.
Compared with 1918, there was in 1919 an increase of 1,125 in the number of pupils belonging to the public schools at the end of the year, and the average attendance shows an increase of 5,049 for the whole year.
|Year.||Number of Schools.||Pupils at End of Year.||Mean of Average Weekly Roll.||Average Attendance, Whole Year.||Average Attendance as Percentage of Weekly Roll.|
The following table shows the age and sex of the pupils on the rolls of the public schools of the Dominion at the end of 1919, and the percentage of the roll for each age:—
|Age, in Years.||1919.||Percentages for Five Years.|
|5 and under 6||7,863||7,194||15,057||7.8||7.9||8.0||7.4||7.8|
|6 and under 7||10,721||9,907||20,628||10.8||10.6||10.6||10.7||10.6|
|7 and under 8||11,660||10,689||22,349||11.7||11.6||11.5||11.4||11.6|
|8 and under 9||11,533||10,635||22,168||11.4||11.7||11.7||11.3||11.4|
|9 and under 10||11,342||10,634||21,976||11.4||11.2||11.6||11.4||11.3|
|10 and under 11||11,241||10,628||21,869||11.2||11.1||11.1||11.5||11.3|
|11 and under 12||11,143||10,220||21,363||10.9||10.8||10.9||10.7||11.0|
|12 and under 13||10,526||9,660||20,186||10.0||10.5||10.4||10.5||10.4|
|13 and under 14||8,944||8,161||17,105||8.5||8.5||8.8||8.9||8.8|
|14 and under 15||4,579||3,963||8,542||4.5||4.3||4.2||4.7||4.4|
|15 and over||1,441||1,216||2,657||1.8||1.8||1.2||1.5||1.4|
Physical exercises based on the syllabus of the Board of Education, England, are practised in all public schools under the supervision of a staff of physical instructors. Corrective classes for children with physical deformities are also held with good results.
A staff of ten School Medical Officers and fifteen School Nurses medically examine public-school children, notifying parents when medical or dental treatment is required. The number of public schools visited in 1919 was 704, and the number of children completely examined was approximately 30,000.
The following shows expenditure for 1919 on the above-named services:—
|—||Railway Fares.||Boarding-allowance and Conveyance by Road or Water.||Total.|
Classes for elementary handwork exist in 2,166 primary schools, and in 1,562 schools other branches of manual instruction are taught. The capitation payments made by the Department on account of manual instruction for the year 1919–20 amounted to £57,560. Instruction is given in a wide variety of subjects, ranging from laundry-work to agriculture.
A capitation grant at the rate of 3d. per head on the average attendance is paid to Boards for the purpose of supplying schools with supplementary continuous readers for class-reading or free supply in certain cases.
Provision has been made for the payment of subsidies of £1 for £1 on moneys raised by voluntary contributions for school libraries. In addition, a subsidy is payable by the Education Board not exceeding £5 for any one school.
An illustrated paper, called the School Journal, is published monthly by the Education Department for free circulation among pupils attending public primary schools and for sale at moderate prices to private schools.
The number of teachers in the public schools, exclusive of those employed in the secondary departments of district high schools, is shown for a number of years. The figures are as in December of the years given.
|* Excluding probationers.|
The total number of teachers employed in primary schools, excluding probationers and including pupil-teachers, in 1919 was 5,626 (1,729 males and 3,897 females). The number of probationers was 436 (62 males and 374 females). Taking all schools with two or more teachers, the average number of pupils per teacher was 38, and in schools with six or more teachers the average number was 45.
Omitting schools with less than 21 pupils the ratio of adult men teachers to adult women teachers in 1919 was 100 to 193. The proportion of men to women in charge of schools with 1 to 20 scholars was 100 to 362. If all public schools and all teachers are included, it is found that the ratio of men teachers to women teachers was 100 to 267 in 1918, and 100 to 225 in 1919. The ratio of male pupil-teachers to female pupil-teachers was 100 to 425 in 1918, and 100 to 409 in 1919.
The average salaries paid to teachers in 1919, including house allowance or value of residence were—Male head teachers, £380; female head teachers, £319; male assistants, £301; female assistants, £197; sole male teachers, £221; sole female teachers, £193.
Information as to the Teachers’ Superannuation Fund will be found in the section of this book dealing with Pensions, Superannuation, &.
Training colleges are situated in the four principal centres of the Dominion. The total provision is for 150 students at each centre. Towards this number, out of the total reported, Auckland contributed in the year 1919, 175; Wellington, 152; Christchurch, 129; and Dunedin, 126.
The management of the training colleges is entrusted to the local Education Boards, subject to general regulations.
The amount paid to Education Boards during 1919–20 for the training of teachers was £89,070.
The receipts and payments of the Education Boards (numbering nine altogether) in 1919 are tabulated below, with further particulars:—
|Teachers’ salaries and allowances||1,278,842|
|School and class libraries||3,633|
|Conveyance and board of school-children||11,972|
|Incidental expenses of schools||83,301|
|Training of teachers||79,801|
|Public-school buildings, sites, furniture, &.||91,054|
|Rebuilding, rent, maintenance of buildings||139,105|
|Scholarships, subsidies, and miscellaneous||17,386|
|From local sources||46,988|
|Staff salaries, office expenses, &.||38,003|
|Teachers’ salaries and allowances||1,281,942|
|School and class libraries||1,494|
|Conveyance and board of school-children||16,715|
|Incidental expenses of school||83,360|
|Training of teachers||79,703|
|Public-school buildings, sites, furniture, &.||106,296|
|Rebuilding, rent, maintenance of buildings||124,448|
|Subsidies, scholarships, workshop expenses, &.||33,678|
There were 320 private schools at the end of 1918, 35 were for boys, 59 for girls, and 226 for children of both sexes. The number of pupils attending them was 26,237—namely, 11,083 boys and 15,154 girls, not counting 134 Maoris (62 boys and 72 girls). Of the private schools, 173 were Roman Catholic, with 18,734 pupils.
|Year.||Number of Private Schools.||Pupils.||Included in previous Numbers.|
|Boys.||Girls.||Totals.||Roman Catholic Schools.||Pupils at Roman Catholic Schools.|
The total number of teachers engaged in instruction in private schools was 1,146 (135 men and 1,011 women). Included in these figures are the teachers of Roman Catholic schools, 69 males and 550 females. A summary of the ages of the pupils in 1918 was,—
|Roman Catholic Schools.||All Private Schools.|
|Under 5 years||91||77||490||460||950|
|5 years and under 7||1,636||1,761||2,166||2,498||4,664|
|7 years and under 13||4,770||5,819||5,942||7,722||13,664|
|13 years and under 15||1,577||1,922||1,906||2,817||4,723|
|15 years and over||367||714||579||1,657||2,236|
Any private school may apply to be registered under the Education Act, 1914. At the end of the year 1919 the number of registered private primary schools was 212. The total roll number was 20,977, and the average attendance 18,472.
The roll number of the eighteen registered private secondary schools in 1919 was 1,497.
The number of Native village schools in operation at the end of 1919 was 119. In addition, there were thirteen private schools at which education for Maori boys and girls is provided. Of these, ten are maintained from the incomes arising out of lands held in trust for educational purposes by various denominational bodies; the others are supported by private resources.
On the rolls of the 119 village schools at the 31st December, 1919, there were 5,198 children (including 648 Europeans). The average attendance for the year was 4,485, the percentage of regularity being 86.4, and the average weekly roll number 5,190. The total number of pupils on the rolls of the Native mission schools was 167, and on those of the secondary schools 434. At the end of the year, therefore, the total roll number of all the Native schools inspected by officers of the Education Department was 5,799, the average weekly roll being 5,803, and the total average attendance 5,036.
Besides the children of the Maori race who are receiving instruction in the Native schools there is a still larger number attending public schools, so that the total number of primary pupils of Maori race (including those in the mission schools) is 9,737, made up as follows:—
|Attending Government Native schools||4,550|
|Attending public schools||5,020|
|Attending mission schools||167|
Of the children on the rolls of the Native schools in December, 1919, 84.4 per cent. were Maoris speaking Maori in their homes, 3.1 per cent. were Maoris speaking English, and 12.5 per cent. were Europeans.
The total net expenditure on Native schools during the year ended the 31st March, 1920, was £59,166. Included in this is the sum of £46,032 expended on teachers’ salaries, £2,885 expended on new buildings and additions, £2,975 on maintenance of buildings, repairs, &., and £3,524 on secondary education.
The staffs of the village schools included seventy-three male and forty-four female head or sole teachers, and 122 assistants. The average salary of the head or sole teachers was £253 13s. 3d., of the 115 female assistants £115 15s. 8d., and of the seven male assistants £115.
Secondary education is carried on at thirty-four secondary schools, sixty district high schools, nine technical high schools, ten Maori secondary schools, and twenty-one private secondary schools (registered).
The total numbers of pupils attending the thirty-four secondary schools for the last terms of 1918 and 1919 respectively were as follows:—
|Roll (exclusive of lower departments)||4,621||3,763||8,384||5,054||4,014||9,068|
|Number in lower departments||397||268||665||392||294||686|
In the same years these schools were staffed as follows:—
The average number of pupils per teacher (excluding part-time teachers) was thus 22.
The number on the roll of the secondary departments of district high schools at the end of the year 1919 was 2,159.
Besides the head teachers, who generally take some part in the secondary instruction, there were employed in 1919 in the secondary departments of district high schools 105 special assistants—34 men and 71 women. The average number of pupils per teacher was 21.
The total numbers on the roll of technical high schools at any time during the years 1918 and 1919 were as follows:—
The number on the roll of secondary schools for Maoris (all of whom were boarders) at the end of 1919 was 434.
The number of children on the rolls of registered private secondary schools at the end of the year was 1,497, being 595 boys and 902 girls.
Summarizing all these figures, and excluding pupils in the lower departments of secondary schools, we obtain the following statement of the numbers receiving some form or other of secondary instruction during the years 1918 and 1919 (as nearly as can be ascertained):—
|District high schools||2,283||2,502|
|Technical high schools||2,747||2,926|
|Maori secondary schools||471||434|
|Private secondary schools||1,366||1,497|
The figure shows an increase of 8 per cent. over the corresponding figure for the previous year, and an increase of nearly 50 per cent. over the figure of five years ago.
The following are some of the figures for 1918 and 1919 in regard to free places in secondary schools:—
|Number of secondary schools giving free tuition||32||32|
|Roll number of these schools||7,871||8,536|
|Number of free-place holders at end of year||6,966||7,657|
|Average number of free-place holders during year||7,177||8,006|
|Free-place holders as a percentage of roll number||91 per cent.||94 per cent.|
|Total annual payment by Government for free places||£85,422||£111,062|
In order to arrive at the total number of pupils in New Zealand receiving free secondary instruction it will be necessary, however, to include also 104 holders of scholarships or exhibitions carrying free instruction not otherwise enumerated, which are granted by the secondary schools included above or by endowed secondary schools not coming under the conditions for free places, 2,015 free-place holders at district high schools, ninety Maori pupils receiving free education in Maori secondary schools, and 2,754 holders of free places in technical high schools. Consequently, there were approximately 12,620 pupils receiving free secondary education in the Dominion, exclusive of those holders of free places in technical schools (mostly evening students), who, while not taking full-day courses, were nevertheless receiving free education of secondary grade.
The following table gives a summary of the various secondary free places at the end of the year for which payment was made by Government:—
|Free Places in December, 1918 and 1919.|
|(i.) Secondary schools—|
|(a.) Junior free pupils||2,503||2,405||4,908||2,793||2,573||5,366|
|(b.) Senior free pupils||1,081||977||2,058||1,187||1,104||2,291|
|(ii.) District high schools—|
|(a.) Junior free pupils||876||977||1,853||849||859||1,708|
|(b.) Senior free pupils||103||167||270||116||191||307|
|(iii.) Maori secondary schools||45||58||103||42||48||90|
|(iv.) Technical high schools—|
|(a.) Junior free pupils||1,053||1,160||2,213|
|(b.) Senior free pupils||109||182||291|
At the examinations held in 1,919,217 candidates qualified for Junior National Scholarships, of which number 6 were pupils of sole-teacher schools, and 67 were pupils of secondary schools. The number of candidates qualifying for Senior National Scholarships was 122, of which number 6 qualified on the alternative programme provided specially to suit the needs of those taking a rural or domestic course.
The following figures indicate the number and the value of scholarships current in 1918 and 1919, respectively:—
|Number of scholarship-holders—||1918.||1919.|
|Number receiving boarding-allowance (included in the above total)||239||221|
|Number receiving travelling-allowance (similarly included)||47||42|
|Number held at secondary schools||687||661|
|Number held at district high schools||86||82|
|Number held at other registered secondary schools||23||23|
|Total annual rate of payment||£13,130||£12,913|
The number of foundation and private scholarships in the last term of 1919 was 150, of a total annual value of £1,547. Of the holders, fifty-one were also Government free pupils under the regulations. In addition, free tuition was given by the schools to holders of foundation and private scholarships to the value of £470, not including Government free places.
Regulations which came into force in January, 1919, provided for the award of bursaries to dependants of killed or disabled members of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. To qualify for a war bursary a child must be eligible for—
Free education at technical classes; or
A free place at a secondary school, district high school, or technical high school; or
A University or educational bursary at a University college.
A bursary entitles the holder to an allowance, in addition to free tuition, of £1 10s. or £3 per annum in the case of those qualified under (a), £5 for those under (b), or £10 for those under (c). Lodging-allowance is also payable to bursars who are obliged to live away from home to attend school, at the rate of £15 per annum under (a) and £30 under (b) and (c); travelling-allowances varying from £5 to £10 per annum are also made when travelling is necessary. During 1919 the number of bursaries held at secondary schools was twenty-seven, the expenditure thereon being £524.
The following is a summary of the receipts and payments of all secondary schools (excluding Wanganui Collegiate and Christ's College Grammar Schools) for the year 1919:—
|Sales and mortgage-money repaid||7,945|
|Lands vested in High School Boards… … … …||44,261|
|Secondary-education reserved …||7,209|
|Interest on moneys invested …||1,043|
|Grants for buildings, sites, rent, apparatus, &., and subsidies …||23,347|
|Capitation for free places …||114,858|
|Capitation for manual instruction … … … …||2,825|
|School fees … … …||11,696|
|Lower Department Account …||4,608|
|Boarding-school Account …||43,290|
|Loans, transfers from Capital Account, interest, &. ̣̣ …||579|
|Technical Classes Account …||2,842|
|Voluntary contributions, income from property not reserves, refunds, and sundries … …||8,755|
|Endowments (including proportion of office expenses) … …||11,731|
|Teachers’ salaries and allowances||122,511|
|Incidental expenses of secondary departments—|
|Office expenses and salaries …||3,565|
|Printing, stationery, and advertising … … …||2,473|
|Cleaning, heating, lighting, and care of school-grounds …||9,306|
|Material, examinations, prizes, games, and other incidentals …||3,296|
|Manual instruction (excluding buildings, &.) … … …||1,804|
|Sites, buildings, furniture, apparatus, taxes, &c… … …||53,990|
|Lower Department Account …||4,448|
|Boarding-school Account … …||41,985|
|Investments, loans repaid, and interest … … … …||6,917|
|Technical Classes Account …||2,856|
|Scholarships, advances to pupils, and miscellaneous … …||3,696|
The total debit balance at the end of 1919 was £58,544, for the most part due to loans required for the erection of necessary buildings. The following is a summary of the monetary assets and liabilities at the end of the year:—
|Other assets||26,947||Other liabilities||54,972|
The Education Act provides for public instruction in such subjects of art, science, and technology as are set forth in regulations. Classes recognized under the Act are eligible for grants in aid of necessary buildings, equipment, and material, for capitation, and for subsidies of £1 for £1 on voluntary contributions. Free technical education is also provided for.
The total number of classes held in 1919 was 2,014, and the total number of students in attendance 17,950. The following figures show the number of classes at which the various subjects indicated were taken:—
|Mathematics and science||120|
|Wood and lead working, and other trade subjects||201|
|Agriculture, dairy-work, &.||95|
|Art and art crafts||232|
|Subjects of general education||377|
Regulations requiring the attendance of young persons between the ages of fourteen and seventeen who are not otherwise receiving a suitable education or who are not specially exempted from attendance were in operation in 1919 in certain school districts in the Auckland, Wanganui, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Canterbury education districts. The classes established under these regulations were attended by 1,372 students.
The number of discharged soldiers who received free education at technical schools in 1919 was 1,021.
The number of pupils receiving free education under the regulations for free places at technical high schools and other technical schools and classes was 4,488–2,326 males and 2,162 females; the number for the previous year was 4,211.
These schools (nine in number) are of secondary grade, and provide industrial, domestic, agricultural, commercial, and art courses. The number of pupils in attendance was as follows: Auckland, 587; Wanganui, 300; Wellington, 405; Napier, 275; Westport, 28; Christchurch, 596; Dunedin, 435; and Invercargill, 300. The total roll number was 2,926, an increase of 179 over that of the preceding year. Figures for the newly established school at Hawera are not included. The schools appear to meet the needs of a number of young people who would not otherwise proceed to secondary schools. The courses of instruction taken up by pupils were as follows:—
|Commercial and general||448||1,187||1,635|
Capitation earned on account of technical high schools during 1919 totalled £41,113.
The following table classifies the free pupils at technical high schools in 1918 and 1919:—
|Junior free pupils||1,053||1,160||2,213||1,232||1,172||2,404|
|Senior free pupils||109||182||291||119||231||350|
The following is a summary of the expenditure by the State on technical instruction during the year ended the 31st March, 1920:—
|Subsidies on voluntary contributions||6,934|
|Scholarships and bursaries||2,985|
|Grants in aid of material for class use||5,844|
|Grants for buildings and equipment||13,319|
|Conveyance of instructors, students, and free pupils||4,467|
|Examinations (less recoveries)||103|
|Inspectors’ salaries and travelling-expenses||1,976|
The functions of the Special Schools Branch of the Education Department include provision (1) For the maintenance, education, and training of destitute, dependent, or homeless children and epidemic orphans who have lost both parents; for the training of uncontrollable and delinquent children and juvenile offenders, and for the supervision of all young persons under the age of sixteen years who are placed on probation by the Courts: (2) for the supervision of all infants and young children under the age of six years maintained apart from their parents for payment either in foster-homes or private institutions, or adopted with premium: and (3) for the education and maintenance of all afflicted children–the deaf, blind, and the feeble-minded.
The number of new cases actually dealt with in 1919 was 864, as compared with 381 for 1918, and 358 for 1917.
This abnormal increase has necessitated the adoption of a system providing for children being dealt with in their own districts.
The juvenile probation system has also been extended to such districts as Whangarei, Hamilton, and Nelson. A boys’ probation home has been established in each of the four centres. The number of cases dealt with by the Probation Officers is as follows: Auckland, 401; Wellington, 127; Christchurch, 196; Dunedin, 94: total, 818.
The number of children boarded out in foster-homes at the end of the year was 1,696.
On account of the increased cost of living the boarding-out rate has been raised from 15s. to 17s. 6d. per week for infants under twelve months, and from 12s. 6d. to 15s. for children over that age and up to fifteen years, or longer if the child in question is still attending school. In addition, a very complete initial outfit of clothing is supplied with each child, and the Department provides free medical and dental treatment and medicines. School books and stationery are also provided for children attending school.
The boys’ Training-farm at Weraroa caters for boys of all ages who through the commission of offences against the law are not considered fit to associate with the children attending an ordinary public school, at least not until they have undergone a course of training and discipline at Weraroa. There is a special school for mentally backward boys at Nelson.
Institutions at Otekaike and Nelson are available for the reception of feeble-minded boys, who, under capable supervision, are employed in farmwork, garden and orchard work, and in the bootmaking, basketmaking, matmaking, and carpentering shops. Girls are provided for at the Special School at Richmond, and employed in housework and laundry-work, in the workroom sewing, knitting, &., and in outside occupations, such as gardening and flower-growing.
This work is now carried out under the supervision of trained nurses who are fully qualified in the care and feeding of infants and young children. The majority of infants dealt with under this system are illegitimate, and have been neglected to such an extent prior to placing them in foster-homes that the greatest care is necessary in catering for their welfare.
During 1919 special classes have been established in the various centres for the education of the hard-of-hearing children and for the correction of defective speech among children. A school at Sumner exists for the preliminary teaching of stone-deaf children and young children who, in addition to being deaf, have little or no speech, and incidentally for the training of teachers for the deaf.
Of sixty secondary departments of district high schools, the average attendance in 1919 was in 18 cases, 12 to 20; in 15 cases, 21 to 30; in 22 cases, 31 to 70; in 2 cases, 71 to 105; and in 3 cases over 105.
|Education Board.||Average Attendance, 1919.||Number of Assistant Teachers.||Average Number of Pupils per Assistant Teacher.||Statutory Annual Rate of Salary as in December, 1919.|
Courses bearing more or less on rural pursuits are taken in many district high schools, 69 per cent. of the boys and 32 per cent. of the girls studying agricultural science, 24 per cent. of the pupils taking dairy-work, 55 per cent. of the boys learning woodwork, and 52 per cent. of the girls cookery or needlework. Latin is taken by only 31 per cent. of the pupils, and French by 51 per cent.
Rural courses were, in 1919, in operation at forty-seven district high schools, and were taken by 1,635 pupils.
The affairs of the University of New Zealand are controlled by three Courts—the Senate, the Board of Studies, and the General Court of Convocation.
The University of New Zealand has power to confer degrees, but is not itself a teaching body, undergraduates for the most part keeping their terms at one or other of the four affiliated institutions—Otago University, Canterbury College, Auckland University College, and Victoria University College.
The revenue of the University is derived mainly from a statutory Government grant of £4,000 per annum, authorized by the New Zealand University Amendment Act, 1919, from fees, and from interest on investments.
Auckland University College and Victoria University College each receive an annual statutory grant of £11,500, while Canterbury College receives £4,500 and Otago University £10,000. The two latter institutions are endowed with reserves of land. In addition a certain proportion of the income from the National Endowment Fund for the purposes of education is paid directly to the four affiliated institutions. In 1919 the sum paid to each out of the fund amounted to £1,881. There is also now provision for the payment under regulations of a Government subsidy on voluntary contributions to the funds of the institutions affiliated to the University of New Zealand.
The total amount paid by the Education Department on account of the University of New Zealand and the affiliated colleges for the year 1919–20 was £68,975.
There were in 1919 2,961 students actually in attendance at the four University colleges. Of these, 109 were graduates, 1,938 undergraduates, and 914 unmatriculated students. In addition to the students mentioned above, there were 99 students attached to the various University colleges, but exempt from lectures. There were also 52 students taking an agricultural course of University grade at the Lincoln Agricultural College.
The University Junior Scholarships (fourteen of which were gained in 1919) are of the value of £20 per annum plus tuition fees, and are tenable for three years. In the case of holders living away from home a further sum of £30 per annum is allowed. The University National Scholarships are of equal monetary value, the number gained in 1919 being twenty-three. Taranaki Scholarships are of the annual value of £60, and the Senate may at discretion extend the tenure from three to four years. There are also some thirty or forty local and privately endowed scholarships awarded on the results of the same entrance examination.
Scholarships awarded during the degree course are the Senior University and John Tinline Scholarships. The various colleges have also private scholarships for which their own students may compete.
The chief scholarships awarded at the end of the University course are the Rhodes Scholarship, the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, the Medical Travelling Scholarship, the Post-graduate Travelling Scholarship, the French Travelling Scholarship, and the National Research Scholarships. All excepting the last-named are tenable abroad. The Research Scholarships are each of the value of £100 per annum, with laboratory fees and expenses.
So far nineteen Rhodes Scholarships have been granted, of which five have been gained by students of Auckland University College, four by students of Otago University, six by students of Victoria University College, and three by students of Canterbury College.
Of the eighteen Research Scholarships awarded up to the present one was in active operation in 1919.
University bursaries entitle the holders to the payment of tuition and examination fees (not exceeding £20 per annum) during a three (or possibly four) years’ course at a University college or school of agriculture recognized by the University. The number of University bursaries held in 1919 was 450.
The number of educational bursaries under the Education Act, 1914, held in 1919 was seventy-four, of which number seven completed the three-years tenure of their bursaries
Domestic-science bursaries tenable at the Otago University may be awarded under the regulations for technical instruction.
Bursaries of this kind were awarded to sixteen students in 1919, making forty-three bursars in attendance at classes.
In the distribution to University colleges of the moneys received by the University from the National Endowment Fund in 1919, £300 was allocated to three colleges and £350 to the fourth for the establishment and maintenance of the Workers’ Educational Association tutorial or University extension classes. Each college is now to receive an additional grant of £500 for the purpose. Branches of this association have been established in several of the larger towns, and tutorial classes in such subjects as economics, history, industrial law, English, electricity, debating, and chairmanship, conducted in some cases by University-college professors or lecturers, are in operation for the better education of working men and women.
Agricultural bursaries may be awarded to qualified candidates in order to enable them to obtain the necessary practical training for positions as teachers or agricultural instructors, or as farmers.
During 1919 nine bursars were in attendance at Lincoln Agricultural College, Canterbury.
The number of candidates for the various examinations in 1919–20 who actually presented themselves in the examination-room is given below:—
|Junior National and junior free places||2,170|
|Public Service Entrance, Senior National Scholarships, and Intermediate||3,063|
|Teachers'D and C||2,234|
|Public Service Senior||50|
|Kindergarten Certificate Examination||9|
|London University Examinations||4|
|Special Public Service Entrance Examination in June||189|
The cost of conducting all examinations was as follows:—
|Total expenses, including cost of additional temporary clerical services, but omitting other salaries||7,020|
|Fees paid by candidates for teachers’ certificates and others||2,564|
|Contribution by Public Service Commissioner for expense of conducting Public Service examinations—|
|Public Service Entrance (two examinations)||1,312|
|Public Service Senior and Typists’ Examinations||69|
Table of Contents
THE remodelling of the New Zealand defence system, outlined in the 1915 and preceding issues of the Year-book, placed the Defence Forces of the Dominion in such a position that on the outbreak of war in August, 1914, it was possible to take immediate and decisive steps to assist the other Forces of the Empire.
The total number attested into the New Zealand Expeditionary Force who left for service overseas was 3,085 officers, 550 nurses, and 96,809 other ranks.
A total of 9,924 troops were in training at the date of the Armistice. The complete number of troops and nurses provided for foreign service up to the cessation of hostilities was therefore 110,368—more than 10 per cent. of the Dominion's total mean population in 1914. A further total of 3,370 are known to have left New Zealand to serve in British and Australian Forces.
The great majority of these troops were volunteers. Of 124,211 men provided from the commencement of the war to the 12th November, 1918, 91,941 were volunteers, and 32,270 were conscripted under the Military Service Act, 1916.
“Wastage” whilst undergoing training accounted for a loss to the Force of 11,333.
Casualties in the Expeditionary Force were, unfortunately, very high. The total number of deaths up to 1st June, 1920, was as follows:—
|Killed in action||10,245|
|Died of wounds||3,958|
|Died, other causes||2,351|
|Died in New Zealand before discharge||227|
At 31st May, 1920, some 3,057 “service” patients were still under treatment in New Zealand.
Section 7 of the Expeditionary Forces Amendment Act, 1918, authorized payment of “a free gift by the State in recognition of the honourable service of soldiers of the Expeditionary Forces in the present war.” A scale of 1s. 6d. per diem (for period of active service) with certain limitations was prescribed by Order in Council on 19th September, 1919. Payments in New Zealand to 20th May, 1920, have been made of 88,932 gratuities aggregating £5,225,900. In addition, approximately 2,000 claims have been settled in London.
The total war expenditure to 31st March, 1920, may be summarized as follows:—
|General expenditure (including pay and allowances, £30,476,998)||69,800,449|
|Charges and expenses of raising loans||693,215|
|Gratuities, New Zealand Expeditionary Force||4,872,485|
|Gratuities, Imperial and naval||45,153|
Under the Defence Act, 1909, and its amendments, all male British subjects in New Zealand on attaining the age of fourteen years must register for military training. In the case of immigrants those who are within the ages of fourteen and twenty-five years must register within six months after their arrival in New Zealand. There are no exemptions from registration, and any person failing to comply with the law in this respect is liable to a fine of £5 and deprivation of civil rights for a period not exceeding ten years.
The posting of Cadets to Senior Cadet companies, and of individuals accepted for service (either direct or on completion of service in the Senior Cadets) to units of the Territorial Force, is carried out in June of each year.
Senior Cadets become liable for training in June of the year in which they attain the age of fourteen years, or any later date on which they cease to attend a primary school.
Persons liable for training are posted to the Territorial Force in June of the year in which they attain the age of eighteen years, or on ceasing to attend a secondary school (whichever is the later).
Members of the Territorial Force are posted to the Reserve in June of the year in which they attain the age of twenty-five years, and training in the Reserve continues until the 1st day of June in the year in which the Reservist attains the age of thirty.
The amount of obligatory training to be carried out annually is as follows:—
Thirty drills (including twenty out-of-door parades).
Twelve half-day or six whole-day parades.
Seven days in camp.
Prescribed course of musketry.
Two half-day parades, or their equivalent, with a Territorial unit or company.
Fifty drills of one hour's duration, or thirty-four drills of one and a half hours’ duration.
Six half-day parades.
Prescribed course of musketry.
Absence from compulsory parades constitutes a civil offence, and offenders are liable to a fine not exceeding £5.
The strength of the Territorial Force is limited to 30,000 men, and these are organized into units. The New Zealand Forces generally are now in process of reorganization, consequent upon lessons learnt in the recent war.
|TERRITORIAL FORCE AND SENIOR CADETS.|
|Year.||Territorial Force.||Senior Cadets.||General Training Section.||Rifle Clubs.|
|Note.—The total strength of the Volunteer Forces at the end of the year 1909–10 was 14,249.|
Sufficient officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers, and men are permanently employed for the staffs of general headquarters and military districts, and to furnish cadres of regular troops as a nucleus of the Territorial personnel and fixed defences and field artillery. These comprise the New Zealand Staff Corps, the Royal New Zealand Artillery, the New Zealand Permanent Staff, the New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps, the New Zealand Army Pay Corps, and the New Zealand Army Medical Corps.
Under an arrangement with the Australian Government, New Zealand may send ten cadets every year to the Royal Military College of Australia at Duntroon.
The college has a staff of twenty-two, and contains barracks for 150 cadets. It is equipped with class-rooms, physical and chemical laboratories, library, riding-school, gymnasium, &. The number of New Zealand cadets at the college at present (August, 1920) is twenty-two.
The Dominion Rifle Association was formed to encourage the members of the New Zealand Defence Forces to become efficient in the use of the rifle, and to promote rifle shooting generally as a necessary element for the defence of the Empire. It was established in 1879, the annual rifle meetings prior to that date having been conducted and controlled by the military authorities. At Trentham, near Wellington, a range accommodation of seventy-five targets with all necessary equipment and suitable buildings has been made available for the rifle championship meetings.
No meetings were held during the war period, but no time was lost in renewing these valuable competitions after the Armistice was signed.
The first post-war meeting, held in March, 1919, was largely attended and a great success.
The association receives an annual grant from the State.
Railway passes are granted to Territorials and members of rifle clubs up to a distance of 100 miles to attend rifle-shooting competitions.
By the Australian Defence Act, 1887, provision was made for the payment by New Zealand of a proportional part of the cost of the establishment and maintenance of a British Naval Force to be employed for the protection of trade in Australasian waters. Under this Act a sum of approximately £20,000 per annum was paid by New Zealand to the Imperial Government.
In 1903, consequent on the passing of the Australian and New Zealand Naval Defence Act, the annual contribution payable by New Zealand was raised to “a sum not exceeding £40,000.”
By the Naval Subsidy Act, 1908, the contribution of the Dominion was again increased, this time to a sum of £100,000 payable annually for ten years from the 12th May, 1909.
The year 1909 was an important one in the history of the Dominion. At what was generally regarded as a critical period for the whole Empire New Zealand presented a battle-cruiser to the Home Government. Full information concerning this vessel and her visit to New Zealand in 1913 appears in the 1913 issue of this book (pages 932–941).
The Naval Defence Act, 1913, provides for the establishment of a New Zealand Naval Force, to be raised and maintained by voluntary enlistment only, enlistment being for a prescribed period of not less than two years. In time of war the Naval Force (including vessels acquired for defence purposes) is to be at the disposal of the British Government. The establishment of a New Zealand Royal Naval Reserve is also provided for under the Act. The third-class cruiser “Philomel” was lent by the English Admiralty to the New Zealand Government to serve as a training-ship for the forming of a nucleus of the Naval Force. The light cruiser “Chatham” has recently been presented to New Zealand by the Imperial Government.
A report on the naval defence of the Dominion was presented by Admiral of the Fleet Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., on the occasion of his visit to New Zealand in August, 1919.
The “Amokura,” formerly H.M.S. “Sparrow,” is maintained by the New Zealand Marine Department as a training-ship for fitting boys for service in either the Navy or the mercantile marine. Boys who are taken on board must be between the ages of thirteen and a half and fifteen years. The period of training is two years.
The vessel has accommodation for sixty boys, and, since she started as a training-ship in 1907, 412 boys have been trained on her, exclusive of those now on board.
The “Amokura” has proved to be not particularly well adapted for the purposes of a training-ship, and is now laid up in harbour. Negotiations are in progress for the obtaining of a more suitable vessel.
Table of Contents
THE ordinary civil jurisdiction of Magistrates’ Courts is limited generally to claims not exceeding £200. Justices of the Peace may hear and decide certain civil cases when the sum in dispute does not exceed £20.
|Year.||Cases entered.||Cases tried.|
|Number.||Total Amount claimed.||Number.||Total Amount sued for.||Total Amount for which Judgment entered.|
|* Information not available.|
The number of actions commenced, cases tried, and judgments entered, together with the total amount for which judgments were recorded, in the Supreme Court of New Zealand during each of the ten years 1910–19 were as follows:—
|SUPREME COURT: CIVIL JURISDICTION.|
|Year.||Number of Actions commenced.||Cases tried.||Judgments recorded.|
|With Jury.||Without Jury.||Number.||Amount.|
Under the provisions of the Judicature Amendment Act, 1913, the Court of Appeal consists of two divisions, each composed of five Judges of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice and the two senior Judges being members of both divisions. The two divisions sit separately, but may sit together to save time to determine any appeal of special difficulty or importance.
The decision of the Court must be in accordance with the opinion of a majority of the Judges present. Certain proceedings may by order of the Supreme Court be removed to the Court of Appeal. The decision of the Court of Appeal is final as regards the tribunals of New Zealand, but the Court may, in civil proceedings, give leave to either party to appeal to the Privy Council. In criminal cases any party may appeal to the Court of Appeal.
|Year.||Crown Criminal Cases.||Civil.|
|Number.||Convictions affirmed.||Appeals.||Cases removed.|
|Number.||Allowed.||Number.||Judgments for Plaintiffs.||Judgments for Defendants.|
Under the Bankruptcy Act, 1908—a consolidation of the then existing laws—a person may seek the protection of the Court by filing a petition with a declaration of insolvency, or one or more creditors may petition the Court to have a debtor declared insolvent.
|Year.||Petitions by Debtors.||Adjudications on Petitions by Creditors.||Cases in which Composition accepted.||Orders of Immediate Discharge granted.||Cases in which Order of Discharge were suspended.|
Private assignments and compositions are not registered, and particulars respecting this class of insolvency are not procurable.
|Year.||Number of Bankruptcies.||Debtors’ Statements of Assets, excluding Amounts secured to Creditors.||Amounts realized by Official Assignees.||Amount of Debts proved.||Amounts paid in Dividends and Preferential Claims.|
Of the 141 bankruptcies in 1919: in 5 cases the liabilities were under £50; in 16, from £50 to £100; in 46, from £100 to £250; in 33, from £250 to £500; in 24, from £500 to £1,000; in 13, from £1,000 to £2,000; and in 4, from £2,000 to £5,000.
As regards occupations, some 34 were described as employers, 51 were working on their own account, and 56 were employees.
During the year 1919 an abnormally large number—viz., 675—of petitions for dissolution of marriage were filed, this number including 8 petitions for nullity of marriage. In 395 of these cases a decree nisi was granted, 160 of these being made absolute during the year. In addition, decrees nisi were granted in respect of 84 petitions filed in previous years, 72 of these being made absolute before the end of the year, and 104 decrees nisi of previous years became absolute. The total number of decrees nisi for the year was thus 479, which includes 5 decrees for nullity of marriage.
In addition, 5 petitions for judicial separation were filed, and 1 decree granted, while 2 applications for restitution of conjugal rights were made, both of which are still pending.
The subject of the next table is the duration of the marriage for dissolution of which petitions were filed in the past four years.
|Duration of Marriage, in Years.||Husbands’ Petitions.||Wives’ Petitions.|
|1 and under 2||4||3||6||2||1||3||3|
|2 and under 3||20||7||3||3||3||2||2||3|
|3 and under 4||25||7||7||5||7||3||4||3|
|4 and under 5||14||10||5||7||20||5||5||1|
|5 and under 10||96||46||35||47||106||42||39||48|
|10 and under 15||70||61||25||27||101||56||36||34|
|15 and under 20||54||30||28||24||58||39||29||34|
|20 and under 30||27||14||11||13||48||35||30||22|
|30 and under 40||5||6||2||4||3||7||8||4|
|40 and over||2||1||1||3|
A table is given showing the chief grounds of petitions, in combination with particulars as to number of living issue. Columns are added showing for the various grounds the sex of the petitioner.
|Grounds.||Petitioner.||Number of Cases in which Number of Living Issue was||Total Number of cases.|
|Husband.||Wife.||0||1||2||3||4||5||6 or over.|
*“ Nullity ” cases.
† Including one “ nullity ” case.
|Desertion and drunkenness||5||2||1||1||1||5|
|Drunkenness and cruelty||9||1||2||1||3||1||1||9|
|Other or not stated†||6||15||6||7||1||2||1||2||2||21|
On the 31st March, 1920, the number of permanent members of the Police Force in New Zealand was 844 of all ranks, being an increase of 53 during the year. The total is made up as follows: 4 superintendents, 11 inspectors, 6 sub-inspectors, 31 senior sergeants, 83 sergeants, 671 constables, 7 senior detectives, 16 detective-sergeants, and 15 detectives. There were also 4 police surgeons, 7 matrons, 7 district constables, and 5 Native constables.
In addition to the above, there were 72 temporary constables appointed under section 2 of the Police Force Amendment Act, 1919, 40 of whom were recruits undergoing a period of probationary service with a view to permanent appointment.
The following table shows the number of stations and of police in each police district:—
|Police District.||No. of Stations.||No. of Police.|
There were also 7 attached to headquarters, 1 has been lent to the Cook Islands Administration, 2 lent to Samoan Administration, and two were on leave prior to retirement.
The proportion of police to population is 1 to every 1,325 persons, and the expenditure (exclusive of the cost of buildings) on the whole Police Force for the year ended the 31st March, 1920, was 4s. 11¾d. per head of population.
The following table shows the growth of the Police Force since 1878, prior to which each province had its own Police Force, and reliable data are not available:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Officers.||Non-commissioned Officers.||Detectives.||Constables.||Total.||Police to Population (including Maoris).||Cost per In. habitant.|
|1878||25||90||14||329||458||1 to 944|
|1885||20||65||17||372||474||1 to 1,293||3||0¾|
|1890||12||66||13||403||494||1 to 1,346||2||10¾|
|1895||7||51||13||416||487||1 to 1,495||2||6¾|
|1900||11||56||20||499||586||1 to 1,359||2||10¾|
|1905||12||65||25||553||655||1 to 1,375||2||10¼|
|1910||16||86||34||639||775||1 to 1,330||3||3½|
|1916||19||104||36||757||916||1 to 1,258||4||2¾|
|1917||20||108||36||734||898||1 to 1,280||4||3|
|1918||20||111||38||732||901||1 to 1,274||4||6½|
|1919||20||112||41||705||878||1 to 1,319||5||2½|
|1920||21||114||38||743||916||1 to 1,325||4||11¾|
The proportion of police to population is much lower in New Zealand than in any of the Australian States, and the cost of police per inhabitant is, as might be expected, also lower in New Zealand than in the Commonwealth. If, however, the proportion of police to population were the same in each of the Australian States as in New Zealand, the cost per inhabitant would be higher in the Dominion than in any of the States.
The total number of charges brought before Magistrates in 1919, and number of convictions obtained, are shown in the following table :—
|How brought before Magistrate.||Arrested or summoned.||Convicted.|
|Total Offences, including Multiple Charges.||Distinct Arrests or Summonses, excluding Multiple Charges.||Total Summary Convictions, including Multiple Charges.||Distinct Summary Convictions, excluding Multiple Charges.|
If the Maoris be excluded the number of charges in 1919 is found to have been 38,221, an increase of 3,539 upon the number for 1918; and the proportion per 1,000 of population 33.63, as against 31.44.
Summary convictions in 1919 numbered 32,692, including 1,935 recorded against Maoris. In respect of 519 charges (34 of which were against Maoris) the accused were committed for sentence. Commitments for trial at the Supreme Courts numbered 564 (including 41 charges against Maoris).
Dealing with the summary convictions for all offences, the figures for 1910 and onward (excluding the Maoris) are,—
|Year.||Offences against the Person.||Offences against Property.||Other Offences.||Totals.|
|Total Number.||Per 1,000 Mean Population.||Total Number.||Per 1,000 Mean Population.||Total Number.||Per 1,000 Mean Population.||Number.||Per 1,000 Mean Population.|
In dealing with the summary convictions in the Magistrates’ Courts, in the above table each offence is reckoned as a distinct person. Of recent years there has been a tendency for the rates to decline, but this has been offset by the increase in prosecutions for offences not strictly criminal in character.
Of the 671 summary convictions for offences against the person in 1919 the greater number were on account of common (616) and aggravated (10) assaults. There were also 42 convictions for attempt to commit suicide.
Of offences against property, theft (not otherwise described) is the most common, showing 2,022 summary convictions during 1919. There were, besides, 125 for fraud and false pretences; 221 for housebreaking; and 550 for wilful damage to property. These are the principal items only.
Under the heading “Other Offences” (those relating to good order included) drunkenness comes first with 7,656 summary convictions, of which 475 were in respect of females. These figures cover, besides drunkenness only, drunkenness with disorderly conduct and habitual drunkenness. Prohibition orders numbered 1,781, including 140 made against women. The subject of drunkenness is specially dealt with under a separate heading.
Further offences against good order include 3,807 summary convictions simply defined as for “breach of by-laws”; 813 for obscene, threatening, or abusive language; 555 for indecent, riotous, or offensive conduct; and 253 for assaulting or resisting the police. Under “Vagrancy” there were 390 summary convictions, including 94 against women. The chief items only are referred to above.
Information in connection with charges brought before Magistrates is obtained on cards, and it is possible to give particulars in regard to the ages and birthplaces of persons arrested. Ages and birthplaces in summons cases are not obtainable.
From the following table it will be seen that of the total convictions in 1919 of persons arrested (12,430) the distinct arrests amounted to 9,941, the difference being accounted for by multiple charges against the same person. If distinct persons only are taken this total is further reduced to 7,760, representing 6.82 for every 1,000 of the mean population. Convictions of Maoris are not included.
|Convictions on Arrest, 1919.|
|Offences against||Total Convictions, including Multiple Charges.||Distinct Convictions, excluding Multiple Charges.||Distinct Persons convicted, most Serious Offence recorded.||Proportion of Distinct Persons convicted per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
The offences and sentences for convictions in arrest and summons cases (including multiple charges) are shown below. Cases concerning Maoris are not included.
|Offences against||Convicted and discharged or ordered to come up for Sentence||Fined.||Imprisoned.||Other.||Total Convictions.|
|*Including 265 released under the First Offenders' Probation Act, 318 committed to industrial schools, 30 whipped, 50 bound over, and 3,254 against whom an order was made.|
Included in the figures of total charges and convictions for the year 1919 are a number dealing with offences committed by juvenile offenders— i.e., persons under or apparently under the age of sixteen.
|Class of Offence.||Charges.||Dismissed or discharged.||Committed for Sentence or Trial.||Summary Convictions.|
|Against the person||14||9||1||4|
|Against good order||121||49||72|
Of the 926 convictions, in 152 cases the offender was discharged, in 250 ordered to come up for sentence, in 89 released on probation, and i 305 committed to an industrial school.
In 1919 the total number of cases coming before the Supreme Court was 1,112, and this included 437 cases sent from Magistrates’ Courts for sentence. Maoris are included in these numbers.
Of 646 indictments and informations (excluding Maoris), 347 resulted in convictions being obtained. For Maoris the total was 29, resulting in 24 convictions.
Dealing now with distinct persons, it is found that the total indicted during the year was 388, including 28 Maoris; of these, 236 were convicted, including 24 Maoris. The distinct persons sent up from Magistrates’ Courts for sentence numbered 225, inclusive of 18 Maoris.
The following summary shows the number of distinct persons (Maoris excluded) convicted in Supreme Courts during the last decade:—
SUPREME COURTS.—PERSONS CONVICTED, ETC., 1910–19.
|Year.||Offences against the Person.||Offences against Property.||Forgery and Offences against the Currency.||Other Offences.||Total Convictions.||Number committed for Sentence included in previous Columns.|
Particulars of sentences (distinct persons) are,—
|Sentence.||Excluding Maoris.||Including Maoris.|
|Imprisonment (only) with or without hard labour||130||139|
|Imprisonment and declared habitual criminal||17||18|
|Imprisonment and reformative detention||8||9|
|Reformative detention (only)||118||133|
|Released on probation||67||75|
|Ordered to come up for sentence||50||56|
|Held on bail||2||2|
The number of convictions for breaches of the licensing laws by publicans and for selling liquor without a license, during the past five years, was as shown in the following statement. Offences by Maoris are not included.
|Year.||Breaches of Licensing||Selling Liquor|
|Laws by Publicans.||without a License.|
The number of convictions for drunkenness and drunkenness with disorderly conduct during 1919 (exclusive of convictions against Maoris) totalled 7,181 against males and 475 against females. In addition there were 411 convictions against Maoris—398 against males and 110 against females.
CONVICTIONS for DRUNKENNESS (exclusive of MAORIS), 1910–19.
|Year.||Convictions recorded against.||Per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
Repeated charges against the same person are included in the totals shown in the previous table. Dealing with arrests only (males, 6,890; females, 462: total 7,352), but excluding Maoris, it is found that the number of distinct persons convicted of this offence was 4,879 (4,656 males and 223 females), or 66.36 per cent. of the total “arrest” convictions (excluding Maoris) for drunkenness.
Offences for which convictions were entered against persons arrested (and convicted) at the same time for drunkenness numbered 1,212. The principal were: Assault, 70; wilful damage, 103; indecent or offensive conduct, 104; obscene or abusive language, 268; assaulting or resisting police, 98.
A calculation of the amount of alcoholic liquor consumed per head of mean population during the past five years is given below:—
CONSUMPTION of BEER, WINE, and SPIRITS per HEAD of MEAN POPULATION.
|Including Maoris.||Excluding Maoris.|
The quantity of each kind of alcoholic liquor used in the Dominion during the same period was as follows:—
|Beer for Consumption.||Wine for Consumption.||Spirits for Consumption.|
The number of summary convictions of Maoris brought before Magistrates’ Courts for the past five years is shown in the following table:—
|Against the Person.||Against Property.||Against Good Order.||Other Offences.||Total.|
*Including drunkenness with disorderly conduct.
Distinct Maoris convicted after arrest in 1919 numbered 485. The ages of these are given in the following table in combination with information as to class of offence:—
|AGES and OFFENCES of DISTINCT MAORIS convicted (ARRESTS only), 1919.|
|Offences against||Under 20.||20 and under 25.||25 and under 30.||30 and under 40.||40 and over.||Unspecified.||Totals.|
The number of Maoris convicted in the higher Courts in 1919 was 42, including 18 who had been committed for sentence by the lower Courts.
The following table gives for the year 1919 the prison accommodation, the number of prisoners received, the number in prison at end of year, and the daily average number in confinement:—
|Name of Prison.||Number for whom there is Accommodation.||Number received during Year.||Number in Confinement at End of Year.||Daily Average Number in Confinement.|
The total number of prisoners received in the different gaols during the year 1919 was 4,016 (males 3,731, females 285), as compared with 3,807 (males 3,517, females 290) in 1917, counting each admission as a distinct person.
Omitting those received by transfer from another prison, 809 (males 784, females 25), the debtors and lunatics received, 68 (males 63, females 5), and duplicate receptions of the same prisoner on the same charge, 57 (males 55, females 2), it is found that the total receptions for criminal offences during 1919 were 3,122 (males 2,867, females 255). In this total are included 40 persons (males 38, females 2) on remand or awaiting sentence from the year 1918.
The number of prisoners in gaol (including Maoris) at the end of each of the past five years, and the proportion per 10,000 of population as at the 31st December, is given in the next table:—
|PRISONERS in GAOL (31st DECEMBER).|
|Year.||Number of Prisoners.||Proportion per 10,000 of Population.|
|Undergoing Sentence.||On Remand and awaiting Trial, &.||Total.||Undergoing Sentence.||Total in Confinement|
The actual number of distinct convicted prisoners received in the various gaols during the year 1919 (excluding Maoris) was 1,725.
These figures do not include children committed to the industrial schools simply on the ground that they are neglected or destitute.
In classifying the offences a prisoner convicted of more than one offence during the year is reckoned once only, under the heading of the principal offence. Debtors and lunatics received into gaol are omitted.
|AGES and OFFENCES of DISTINCT CONVICTED PRISONERS (excluding MAORIS) received into PRISON during 1919.|
|Age, in Years.||Offences against the Person.||Theft and other Offences against Property.||Offences not included previously.||Totals.|
|21 and under 25||2||10||1||70||3||10||61||157|
|25 and under 30||5||19||3||68||4||8||89||196|
|30 and under 35||4||18||2||65||19||21||110||239|
|35 and under 40||9||15||3||77||23||46||105||278|
|40 and under 45||5||10||44||22||43||80||204|
|45 and under 50||6||4||1||34||27||43||74||189|
|50 and under 55||4||2||21||20||37||40||124|
|55 and under 60||4||2||1||8||10||24||26||75|
|60 and under 65||2||5||8||23||23||61|
|65 and over||3||1||5||17||15||14||55|
Out of these 1,725 prisoners, 723 had not suffered any previous conviction. The remaining 1,002 were apportioned—one previous conviction, 231; two, 130; three, 99; four, 67; five and over, 475.
It must be understood that the actual number of imprisonments was much in excess of the figures given above, as many persons were several times imprisoned either for offences differing in kind or for repetitions of the same offence.
Two hundred and twenty-six persons were placed on probation in the year 1919, as against 192 in 1918 and 127 in 1917.
Afforestation by prison labour is now carried on at one camp only—viz., at Kaingaroa, which is situated about 33 miles from Rotorua, on the Kaingaroa Plains. During the past year the camp has been largely used as a place of detention for military court-martialled prisoners, the greater part of the tree-planting work for the year having been carried out by them.
The number of trees planted in the neighbourhood of Kaingaroa for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was 1,418,975, while the total number of trees planted throughout the Dominion by prison labour since the inception of the afforestation scheme in 1901 is 39,797,475.
The total labour value of the prisoners’ work during the period since 1901 to March, 1919, as estimated by the Forestry Department, is £63,753.
For the purposes of the Crimes Amendment Act of 1910 there is constituted a Prisons Board, at present consisting of the Chief Justice as President, and six other members.
In the ten years that the Board has been in existence no fewer than 1,288 persons have been sentenced to reformative detention. Seventy-one per cent. of these were released on the Board's recommendation, while of those released some 83 per cent. are not known to have again offended.
Much less favourable are the statistics of habitual criminals, of whom there were 261 declared in the period dealt with. Eighty-four per cent. were released, but more than half (56 per cent.) of these relapsed into criminal ways.
The number of bodies on which inquests were held in 1919 was 1,456. The verdicts given at the inquests may be classified as under:—
|Nature of Verdict.||Inquests on Persons.|
|Disease and natural causes||528||260||788|
Of the accidental deaths drowning is one of the most common forms. The verdicts show that 130 deaths were due to this cause, giving a percentage of 24.95 of the accidental deaths from all causes.
The inquests on suicidal deaths in 1919 show an increase on the number for the previous year. The figures for each of the past ten years were,—
|Year.||Inquests on Suicides.||Year.||Inquests on Suicides.|
In case of fire causing the destruction of any building, ship, or merchandise, or any stack of grain, pulse, or hay, or any growing crop, a Coroner may hold an inquiry into the cause of such fire, the procedure being similar to that of inquests into cause of death.
The inquests on fires held during 1919 numbered nine. In one case the verdict was arson, in a second accident, and in the remaining seven cases no evidence was forthcoming.
The number of charges laid in the Magistrates’ Courts for breaches of the gaming laws, and the manner in which such charges were disposed of, are shown for five years in the table following. Maoris are not included.
|Year.||Number of Charges.||Discharged or dismissed.||Convictions recorded.|
LEGISLATIVE authority in New Zealand is centred in a Parliament of two Houses, the House of Representatives and the Legislative Council. The latter body has at present some thirty-seven members, who are appointed, with the exception of one life member, for a period of seven years. Provision is made by the Legislative Council Act, 1914, for the ultimate creation of an elective Upper Chamber, but the date on which the Act is to commence has yet to be fixed.
The House of Representatives is composed of seventy-six members for “European” electorates and four for Maori constituencies. With certain minor exceptions, any registered elector, male or female, is eligible for election. The franchise is a broad one, covering all male or female adults of British nationality by birth or by naturalization in New Zealand who have resided in the Dominion for a minimum of twelve months.
The normal life of Parliament is three years, but owing to extraordinary circumstances the duration of the last Parliament was extended to five. A general election was held in December, 1919: for Maori representatives on the 16th, for European representatives on the 17th. Dealing with the latter election only, it is found that out of a total roll number of 683,420 some 550,327 (80.53 per cent.) persons exercised their vote. A summary for the last five general elections is as follows:—
|Year of General Election.||Estimated Total Adult Persons.||Number on Rolls.||Proportion per Cent. of Adult Persons registered as Electors.||Number of Persons who voted.||Proportion per Cent. of Persons on Rolls who voted.|
*This excess of roll number over total population may be explained thus: The population quoted is the de facto population actually in the country; the roll number includes many soldiers still abroad. Further, many thousands of deceased soldiers and others had not been removed from the rolls owing to lack of proof of death.
The relative interest in the poll evinced by males and females may be measured by the percentage of votes recorded to the number on the roll—viz., males 81.45 per cent., females 79.52 per cent.
Informal votes cast numbered 7,587, or 1.38 per cent. of all votes recorded.
Valid votes for successful candidates totalled 279,373 (51.47 per cent.); for defeated candidates. 263,367, or 48.53 per cent. A statement of the voting in individual electorates follows.
RESULT of GENERAL ELECTION, 1919.
|Electoral Districts and Names of Candidates.||Number of Votes recorded||Number of Electors on Roll.||Population at Census, 1916.|
|Bay of Islands—|
|Reed, V. H.||3,066|
|Jounneaux, St. C.||1,871|
|Murdoch, A. J.||2,118|
|McLean, D. A.||850|
|Curtis, A. H.||604|
|Coates, J. G.||4,214|
|Greenslade, A. E.||3,492|
|Hornblow, R. E.||1,500|
|Myers, A. M.||3,718|
|McKenzie, C. N…||3,560|
|Way, R. F.||1,756|
|Parry, W. E.||4,007|
|Glover, A. E.||3,221|
|Thomas, J. J.||1,023|
|Savage, M. J.||4,008|
|Entrican, A. J.||1,493|
|Bartram, F. N.||3,141|
|Melville, Miss E…||2,660|
|Garmston, L. J. F.||214|
|Potter, V. H.||4,200|
|Gunson, J. H.||2,346|
|Peddle, F. W||728|
|Dickson. J. S.||5,706|
|Baume, Mrs. R. L.||1,026|
|Lang, F. W.||4,182|
|Mason, H. G. R…||2,304|
|Major. E. E.||1,173|
|Massey, W. F.||4,195|
|Bollard, R. F.||2,888|
|Jordan, W. J.||1,900|
|Rhodes, T. W.||3,078|
|McCormick, W. J.||1,488|
|Cooke, Mrs. A. A. M.||72|
|Herries, W. H.||3,946|
|Bobbins, B. C.||2,086|
|Young, J. A||4,869|
|Watts, P. H.||1,976|
|Hockly, F. F.||3,258|
|Jones, G. T.||854|
|Hewitt, W. C.||497|
|Bay of Plenty—|
|Williams, K. S.||2,312|
|Jennings, W. T.||2,906|
|Wilson, K. C.||2,529|
|Lysnar, W. D.||3,041|
|Campbell, H. M…||3,234|
|Chapman, C. H…||2,176|
|Brown, J. V.||2,763|
|Evans, F. C.||2,709|
|Jull, A. E.||3,184|
|Ross, R. B.||2,603|
|Rice, R. S. L.||1,142|
|Sykes, G. R.||2,444|
|Holms, A. C.||2,106|
|Matheson, W. B.||791|
|McLeod, A. D.||3,266|
|Hornsby, J. T. M.||2,726|
|Danahey, C. J.||199|
|Hine, J. B.||3,057|
|Smith, S. G.||4,287|
|Buckeridge, G. H.||3,264|
|Hawken, O. J.||3,123|
|Astbury, D. L. A.||2,932|
|Fitzherbert, P. B.||458|
|Pearce, G. V.||144|
|Veitch, W. A.||4,340|
|Cuttle, W. J.||2,637|
|Smith, R. W.||3,116|
|Guthrie, D. H.||3,891|
|Tunnicliffe, E. J.||2,048|
|Hillier, A. C.||2,159|
|Glenn, W. S.||2,903|
|Brady, F. P.||2,268|
|Nash, J. A.||4,617|
|Field, W. H.||2,820|
|Isherwood, A. J. R.||198|
|Wilford, T. M.||3,422|
|Pritchard, D. K.||2,417|
|Rishworth, E. P.||2,319|
|Luke, J. P.||3,999|
|Browne, H. O.||2,934|
|Newman, A. K.||4,375|
|Monteith. A. L.||3,317|
|McKenzie, L. S. W.||2,441|
|Wright, R. A.||4,091|
|Croskery, A. W.||2,964|
|Sloane, A. D.||2,073|
|Field, T. A. H.||2,902|
|Price, J. G.||1,079|
|Hudson, R. P.||2,456|
|Power, W. P.||1,795|
|Lomax, P. B.||1,255|
|Holland, H. E.||3,545|
|O'Brien, D. Q.||2,542|
|Seddon, T. E. Y||4,201|
|Cooke, B. J.||1,656|
|Corry, J. J.||1,430|
|Penny, E. H.||1,348|
|Forbes, G. W. J||3,008|
|Armstrong, J. G.||2,341|
|Gardner, G. G.||373|
|Williams, C. M.||1,521|
|Isitt, L. M.||6,033|
|Armstrong, H. T.||3,600|
|Thacker, H. T. J.||5,572|
|Howard, E. J.||5,088|
|Devereaux, W. R.||2,322|
|Sullivan, D. G.||5,168|
|Russell, G. W.||3,520|
|Carl, J. L.||218|
|Lester, W. T.||1,277|
|Ell, H. G.||585|
|Rhodes, R. H.||3,582|
|Dickie, W. J.||2,563|
|Jones, H. M.||290|
|Vinnell, P. C.||3,198|
|Burnett, T. G.||3,294|
|Talbot, C. J.||3,263|
|Paul, W. G.||1,665|
|Lee, E. P.||3,819|
|MacPherson, J. A.||3,543|
|Stewart, W. D.||5,712|
|Brown, J. A.||3,291|
|Statham, C. E.||4,769|
|Munro, J. W.||4,272|
|Sidey, T. K.||4,395|
|Dickson, J. Mc.||2,693|
|Malcolm, A. S.||2,257|
|Rodger, R. A.||2,123|
|Maslin, W. S.||1,190|
|Anderson, G. J.||3,042|
|Thomson, J. C.||2,800|
|Hanan, J. A.||4,758|
|Archer, J. K.||3,355|
|Hamilton. J. R.||3,164|
|Ward, J. G.||2,407|
The Maori population at the census of October, 1916, amounted to 49,776 persons. With four representatives in Parliament, their ratio of representation is one to every 12,444 persons, compared with one to every 14,466 persons for European electorates at the same date, excluding absent soldiers, &. Polling in each district was as under:—
|Electoral Districts and Names of Candidates.||Number of Votes recorded.|
|Nau Paraone Kawitị̣||1,036|
|Aperahana Reupene Tuoro||71|
|John Hopere Wharewiti||376|
|Riki te Mairaki Taiaroa||16|
|Teone Matapura Erihana||97|
|Informaḷ̣ ̣̣ ̣̣||Informaḷ̣ ̣̣|
|Apirana Turupu Ngata||*|
|Tanea Kaawe Shorṭ̣||567|
|Taiwiwi Tukimana te||212|
|Keritoke te Ahụ̣||35|
|Eruera Pohipi Chasẹ̣||12|
|Kipi te Whatanui ̣̣||72|
Since the general election, by-elections have been held in three electorates —viz., Bruce (14th April, 1920), Stratford (6th May, 1920), and Bay of Plenty (30th September, 1920). The first was necessitated by the resignation of Sir James Allen, K.C.B., the second by the invalidation of the previous election owing to irregularities, and the third by the death of the Hon. W. D. S. Macdonald. The results were—
|Bruce—||Stratford—||Bay of Plenty—|
|Edie, J.||2,421||Masters, R.||3,394||Williams, K. S.||2,341|
|Begg, J. C.||2,297||Hine, J. B.||3,246||Lysnar, F.||1,735|
|(Number on roll, 7,406.)||(Number on roll, 7,640.)||(Number on roll, 5,765.)|
Table of Contents
DURING the year ended the 31st March, 1919, 1,667 licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquors were granted. Of these, 1,156 were publicans’ and accommodation licenses, 42 New Zealand wine, 52 packet, 136 wholesale, and 281 conditional licenses. The fees paid amounted to £39,817, and formed part of the revenue of the local governing bodies of the districts in which the licenses were issued. Particulars are given in the following table:—
|NUMBER of LICENSES granted during the YEAR 1918–19, and the AMOUNT of FEES paid to LOCAL BODIES therefor.|
|Licenses.||In Counties.||In Boroughs.||In Town Districts.||Total.|
|Total licensed houses||507||606||43||1,156|
|New Zealand wine licenses||30||12||42|
|Total licenses granted||709||912||46||1,667|
|Amount of license fees paid to local bodies||£10,665||£27,452||£1,700||£39,817|
The number of publicans’ and accommodation licenses granted in counties, boroughs, and independent town districts during each of the past ten years is here given, together with the total amount of fees paid for all licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquor:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Counties.||Boroughs.||Town Districts.||Total.||Total Fees, All Licenses.|
The average number of persons to each licensed house in counties, boroughs, and independent town districts respectively for 1918–19 is next shown:—
|Number of Licensed Houses.*||Mean Population, 1918–19, excluding Maoris.||Number of Persons to each Licensed House.|
*I.e., houses holding publicans’ or accommodation licenses.
That the proportion of licensed houses to population has declined steadily in the last decade is evidenced by the following figures:—
|Year ended 31st March.||Average Persons to a Licensed House.|
The annual fees payable for licenses are,—
For a publican's license— £
Within the limits of a borough or town district 40
Outside the aforesaid limits 25
For a New Zealand wine license 1
For an accommodation license, a sum to be determined by the Licensing Committee, not exceeding 20
For a packet license—
For a vessel exceeding 50 tons register 10
For a vessel not exceeding 50 tons register 5
For a wholesale license 20
For a conditional license, according to duration of license, a sum not exceeding 30
The approximate capital value of the licensed houses in the counties for the year ended 31st March, 1919, was stated at £690,491, in certain of the boroughs at £1,687,443, and in the town districts at £127,721. There was, besides, an annual value of £122,210 for other licensed houses in the boroughs, which, capitalized at 6 per cent., would represent £2,036,833. The capital value of all licensed houses may therefore be put down at approximately £4,542,488. Caution should be exercised in this connection, as some of the valuation on which the above total is based are by no means recent, revaluations having been delayed by the war. It is probable that the capital value was at the 31st March, 1919, somewhat above the figure quoted.
The results of the special licensing poll of the 10th April, 1919, held under the authority of the Licensing Amendment Act, 1918, were as follows:—
|For national continuance||264,189|
|For national prohibition with compensation||253,827|
Under the provisions of the Licensing Amendment Act, 1918, three issues were submitted on the 17th December, 1919. The final figures are—
|For national continuance||241,251|
|For State purchase and control||32,261|
|For national prohibition||270,250|
None of the three issues secured the minimum of more than half of the total valid votes east. Voting in each licensing district was as under:—
|District.||For National Continuance.||For State Purchase and Control.||For National Prohibition.|
|Bay of Islandṣ̣||2,205||300||2,631|
|Bay of Plentỵ̣||2,914||485||2,489|
|Number of Valid Votes recorded by Members of Expeditionary Force.|
|On board troopships||705||331||227|
In the thirteen no-license districts an additional issue was submitted—viz., local restoration. Local prohibition was maintained in all districts.
|District.||Number of Electors on Effective Roll.||License to be restored.||License be not restored.||Number of Valid Votes recorded.||Result.|
|Eden||7,888||2,440||3,864||6,304||Restoration not carried.|
|Grey Lynn||10,130||3,244||5,067||8,311||Restoration not carried.|
|Roskill||10,996||2,525||6,330||8,855||Restoration not carried.|
|Ohinemuri||7,431||3,058||2,559||5,617||Restoration not carried.|
|Masterton||8,238||3,261||3,610||6,871||Restoration not carried.|
|Wellington South||10,122||3,812||4,100||7,912||Restoration not carried.|
|Wellington Suburbs||11,595||3,747||5,062||8,809||Restoration not carried.|
|Ashburton||8,119||3,646||3,157||6,803||Restoration not carried.|
|Oamaru||8,553||3,181||3,989||7,170||Restoration not carried.|
|Bruce||7,395||2,576||3,170||5,746||Restoration not carried.|
|Clutha||6,869||2,387||3,191||5,578||Restoration not carried.|
|Mataura||7,123||2,456||3,149||5,605||Restoration not carried.|
|Invercargill||10,414||3,565||4,409||7,974||Restoration not carried.|
Table of Contents
ON the 31st March, 1919, the boroughs numbered 118 and the counties 126. There were, moreover, 94 road districts (including two without Boards) in existence at the close of March, 1919, and 36 independent and 31 non-independent town districts. Besides the above there were 42 river-protective districts, 3 city and suburban drainage districts (Christchurch, Dunedin, and Auckland), 7 water-supply districts, 55 land-drainage districts under the Land Drainage Act, 2 tramway districts, and 1 local railway district. The Harbour Boards numbered 36, excluding 10 cases where some other local authority acts as Harbour Board.
Local governing bodies levied rates in the financial year 1918–19 to the amount of £2,939,606, of which £2,028,151 consisted of general rates and £911,455 special and separate rates. The sum of £87,125 was raised by licenses, and £112,241 by other taxes, making £3,138,972 altogether, which sum is equivalent to £2 16s. 11d. per head of the mean European population. In the year 1917–18 the local taxation was £2 12s. per head, or 4s, 11d. less than in 1918–19.
The receipts of local governing bodies, divided into the various groups shown above, are given for each of the past ten years.
|Financial Year.||Revenue from||Receipts not Revenue.||Total Receipts.|
|Rates.||Licenses, Fees, Rents, and other Sources.||Government.||Total Revenue.|
The figures given in this and following tables are for the year ended 31st March, except in the case of certain Harbour Boards whose own financial year is taken in each case. A summary of receipts for the year 1918–19 is given below.
The total revenue of the local bodies for the financial year was £6,391,677, and they further received a sum of £942,780 which could not properly be termed “revenue,” making altogether a grand total of receipts amounting to £7,334,457. The rates formed 45.99 per cent. of the revenue proper; licenses, rents, and other sources yielded 49.83 per cent.; and 4.18 per cent. was granted by the General Government.
|LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.—RECEIPTS, 1918–19.|
|Local Districts.||Revenue from||Receipts not Revenue.||Total Receipts|
|Rates.||Licenses, Rents, &.||Government.||County.|
|Water-supply districts …||726||2,655||1||288||3,670|
|City and suburban drainage districts||100,181||3,243||825||16,606||120,855|
As stated above, rates contributed in 1918–19 the sum of £2,939,606 to the revenue of local governing bodies. General rates levied brought in £2,028,151, and special and separate rates £911,455. Of the latter, £709,166 was received by boroughs, and £150,655 by counties. The whole of the rates in harbour districts were general rates, while all those collected by Tramway Boards came under the heading of “special and separate.”
|RATES levied by LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.|
|Financial Year.||General.||Special and Separate.||Total.|
Separate rates are of two classes—“general” and “particular.” General separate rates are levied for the construction, maintenance, &., of any public work, for the acquisition of land or buildings, or for engaging in any undertaking for the benefit of whole or part of a local district. Particular separate rates are levied in respect of water-supply, lighting, sanitation, and of libraries. Special rates are those levied as security for the repayment of loans.
At the 31st March, 1919, the system of rating on the unimproved value was in force in 36 counties, 61 boroughs, 26 town districts, 14 road districts, 14 river-protective districts, 15 land-drainage districts, and 1 tramway district.
The following list shows the various items of revenue received from the Government together with the amount for the financial year 1918–19 in each case: Rates on Crown and Native lands, £1,914; timber and flax, royalties £5,100; goldfields revenue and gold duty, £25,822; subsidy on rates, £168,835; one-third of receipts from lands sold on deferred payment and from perpetual leases, £35,094; one-fourth of rents from small grazing-runs, £7,722; fees and fines, £4,564; other receipts (including amounts paid to Harbour Boards by the Admiralty), £18,279. In addition there are special grants from the General Government for various local works of a public or semi-public character, £156,354. These are not considered revenue, and are included with “Receipts not revenue.” A further class of receipts from the Government is provided by loans, £208,158.
Payments of local governing bodies for ten years are as follows:—
|Financial Year.||Payments.||Financial Year.||Payments.|
Payments during 1918–19 are shown below in more detail:—
|LOCAL GOVERNING BODIES.—PAYMENTS, 1918–19.|
|—||Public Works.||Hospitals and Charitable Aid.||Administration.||Interest on Loans and Overdraft.||Other.||Total Payments.|
* Including expenses of management
†Included in public works.
|City and suburban drainage districts||28,295||7,799||65,939||6,031||108,064|
It is seen that during the year the total payments were £7,320,277, of which £4,857,308 was expended on public works and £1,305,259 on debt charges. The item “administration expenses” does not rank very high in the aggregate, though the table following shows that in some classes of local bodies the expenses of administration account for a fair percentage of the revenue:—
|Local Districts.||Administration Expenses as Percentage of|
|City and suburban drainage districts||7.48||6.45||7.22|
The table following gives, in respect of boroughs only, the payments out of loan-money during the past five years, classified under various heads:—
|EXPENDITURE out of LOANS.—BOROUGHS ONLY.|
|Year ended 31st March.||Streets, Foot-ways, and Bridges.||Drainage and Sanitation.||Waterworks.||Tramways.||Abattoirs, Slaughterhouses and Pounds.||Lighting and Power Services.||Other Public Works.||Management, Interest, and Sundries.||Total.|
The assets and liabilities of local governing bodies at the end of the financial year 1918–19 are as shown in the table following. The figures shown in the column “other assets” are taken from the respective balance-sheets, but are far from complete. In quite a number of cases no assets whatever are shown, while in the majority of the others nothing is included for the reserves held. These totals can be taken only as a very approximate indication of the property held in addition to the actual cash assets.
|Cash Assets.||Other Assets (as estimated in Published Balance-sheets).||Net Indebtedness on Loans (excluding Government Loans and those from the State Advances Office).||Net Indebtedness on Loans from State Advances Office. (Net indebtedness on 31st March, 1919.)||Inscribed Debt, i.e., Loans from Treasury under Loans to Local Bodies Acts). Estimated Present Indebtedness.||Liabilities other than the Loans included in preceding Columns (Bank Overdrafts, Outstanding Accounts, &.).|
|City and suburban drainage districts||52,282||585,886||1,223,325||174||491,493|
The net indebtedness of local governing bodies on account of outstanding loans increased in the twenty years 1899–1900 to 1918–19 from £6,356,630 to £19,922,153, exclusive of moneys borrowed from the Government, which represented a further indebtedness of £4,399,260 at the end of March, 1919, made up as follows: Inscribed debt, i.e., debentures under the Roads and Bridges Construction Act, 1882, converted, and amounts borrowed from the Treasury under the Local Bodies’ Loans Acts, £1,552,423; loans from the New Zealand State Advances Office, £2,846,837.
The gross indebtedness of local bodies at 31st March, 1919, amounted to £28,323,853, made up as follows: Debentures and stock, &., £22,673,712; inscribed debt, £2,554,401; loans for State Advances Office, £3,095,740.
A table is given showing the gross amount of the debt raised in New Zealand and elsewhere, other than loans from the General Government. Columns are added showing the interest payable and the average rate of interest per cent. During the war period there have been decreases in the amounts raised abroad and increases in the amounts raised in New Zealand, making a difference between the two amounts of nearly £7,000,000 at the 31st March, 1919.
INDEBTEDNESS and INTEREST CHARGES.
|Financial Year.||Raised in New Zealand.||Raised Abroad.||Total Indebtedness.||Interest.||Average Rate per Cent.|
The average rate of interest had shown a continuous fall for many years prior to the war. Since 1914–15, however, a tendency to an increasing rate of interest has developed. Of a gross indebtedness of £22,673,712, £5,445,923 was held at 4 per cent.; £2,015,913 at 4¼ per cent.; £6,310,500 at 4¼ per cent.; £5,377,150 at 5 per cent.; £1,359,278 at 5¼ per cent., and £1,082,190 at 6 per cent. Against this were sinking funds amounting to £2,751,559, leaving the net indebtedness, other than to the State, £19,922,153. The annual charge for interest was £1,048,999, and for sinking fund £182,465. The net indebtedness to the State Advances Office was £2,846,837, representing loans originally amounting to £3,095,740. The instalments of principal and interest on this amounted to an annual charge of £161,401. The estimated net indebtedness on account of Inscribed Debt was £1,552,423 at the 1st February, 1919. This debt is decreasing yearly, and will be extinguished in course of time. The amount outstanding is repayable by annual instalments of £97,025.
Detailed tables showing the statistics of individual local bodies will be found in Volume iv of “Statistics of New Zealand,” also as regards boroughs, town districts, and Harbour Boards in the “Municipal Handbook,” published biennially.
Table of Contents
GENERAL valuations of land for the whole of New Zealand were made periodically up to the year 1897–98. Since that year no general valuations for the whole Dominion have been made, but portions have been revalued from time to time.
No statement absolutely accurate at the present day can be given, as the totals for 1919 and preceding years are not ascertained by general revaluations in each year. Revaluations are made, district by district, as circumstances permit. The total capital value, £445,533,445 at 31st March, 1919, represents a figure treble that of twenty years previous.
A quinquennial summary of valuation in the North and South Islands follows:—
|Year.||North Island.||South Island.*||New Zealand.|
|Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).||Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).||Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).|
*Including Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.
The total valuations are also given for individual counties, boroughs, and independent town districts. In making comparisons it should be borne in mind, as previously remarked, that the valuations are not all for the same year.
TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of each COUNTY in NEW ZEALAND.
|Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column).|
|Bay of Islands||1,601,130||1,020,544|
|Little Barrier, Waiheke, &c.||327,038||212,080|
|Mayor and Motiti||19,415||12,141|
|Kapiti, Mana, and||17,984||13,378|
|Quarantine and Goat||3,454||900|
|TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of each BOROUGH in NEW ZEALAND.|
|Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimproved Value of Land (included in previous Column). Borough.|
|Total of City||24,900,947||14,363,159|
|Island Bay Portion|
|Total of City||23,416,953||11,900,416|
|St. Albans Portion||2,665,325||925,855|
|Total of City||14,102,281||6,234,137|
|Maori Hill Portion||457,712||186,770|
|South Dunedin Portion||662,437||167,203|
|Anderson's Bay Portion||398,831||161,858|
|Total of City||12,274,397||4,790,535|
TABLE showing CAPITAL and UNIMPROVED VALUE of LAND in each TOWN DISTRICT (outside the JURISDICTION of any COUNTY) in NEW ZEALAND.
|Town District, independent of County (outside County Jurisdiction).||Gross Values.|
|Capital Value (Land and Improvements).||Unimpr'v'd Value of Land (included in previous Column).|
Table of Contents
THE following table shows the increase in the total trade since the year 1853:—
|TOTAL TRADE, IMPORTS, and EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND, 1853–1919.|
|Year.||Total Value.||Value per Head (excluding Maoris).|
|Total Trade.||Imports.||Exports.||Total Trade.||Imports.||Exports.|
A low and fluctuating level of trade was turned in 1860–63 into a rapidly increasing volume by the effect of the gold-discoveries which occurred in the early “sixties.” Both imports and exports were stimulated, the former to feed and clothe an ever-increasing population, the latter by the export of gold.
After the gold rushes had subsided trade remained stationary till the expenditure of borrowed money brought the land-boom of the early “seventies.” A great temporary increase of trade was succeeded by violent fluctuations and but slowly increasing trade, as the effects of the bubble were slowly worked off. It is significant that from 1873 till 1895 the world level of prices was falling continuously, and this factor contributed not a little to the depression of New Zealand. Little headway could be made against a falling price of wool and a decreasing production of gold, which were the main features of those twenty years.
But in 1895 world prices began to rise, and the effect is seen immediately in the upward rush of the external trade. On only three occasions has this upward tendency been checked—in 1908, when the commercial crisis which was felt in the Old World a year previously affected New Zealand; in 1913, on the occasion of another depression of trade; and again since 1916, as a result of shortage of shipping.
For a long period the external trade, while increasing absolutely, was declining relatively to population. Since 1895, however, trade has increased much faster than has population—doubtless largely due to increasing prices. To some extent this is probably a result of greater productivity and consequent increased purchasing-power.
The trade per head was fairly great in the early years, after 1853; but the amount was swelled by the relatively large imports which were necessary for the development of the young colony. The gold-discoveries raised the level both of imports and exports, and after 1870 the borrowing policy which was inaugurated greatly inflated trade, and especially imports. The highest level, apart from the abnormal years of the early “sixties,” was reached in 1874, and the consequent reaction saw an almost continuous decrease in the per capita trade both in imports and exports till 1895.
It is significant that the turning-point should have come in 1895, the year in which prices turned to rise all over the world. From 1895 there has been an almost constant increase. Since the outbreak of war the total trade has increased enormously. This, of course, was largely if not entirely due to increased market values of both imports and exports.
The relation between imports and exports is of the greatest importance to a young country like New Zealand. In the very earliest years of occupation by Europeans the exports of phormium, timber, and skins were greatly in excess of the few imports, mainly muskets and gunpowder, a fact which is explained partly by the temporary residence of the traders and more by the weaker bargaining-power of the Maori. With the settlement of the regular colony in 1840 there was evident an inflation of imports occasioned by the amount of capital the new colonists brought in for the development of the country. From 1853 to 1870 there was an excess of imports, which, however, was tending to decrease.
A temporary excess of exports was changed in the early “seventies” by another great increase of imports, due to the borrowing policy inaugurated in that period. Except for a big decrease in 1880, imports continued to be greater than exports until 1886.
From that year onward there was a continued excess of exports, except for two bad years, 1908 and 1913. In the period from 1886 to 1895 it is most marked. Fluctuations in exports have usually preceded by a year similar fluctuations in imports.
The balance of trade is intimately bound up, in later years especially, with the large imports of capital which have been brought in to assist in the development of the country. This has already been made evident in discussing the balance of trade in early years. The excess of imports from 1853 to 1870, and again from 1872 to 1886, can definitely be traced to the importation of capital in those periods.
The excess of exports in later years consists mainly of profits, interest, and other charges on the debt of New Zealand, public, local, and private. Other items, such as remittances abroad and subsidies, also swell the balance of exports. The amount necessary in each year to pay the interest on the debt of New Zealand cannot be definitely stated, owing to the lack of data concerning the private investments in the Dominion.
The amount of interest payable on the debt of the General Government at the 31st March, 1919, was £7,299,006, but of this amount roughly forty-four per cent. must be deducted for stock held in the Dominion (see section on “Public Finance”). Added to this there is the interest on local bodies’ debts of approximately twenty-six millions (of which, however, only eight millions were raised abroad), and on the private debts of the Dominion, for which no statistics are available. It is evident that some five millions are needed each year to defray the charges on the various public debts owing abroad.
Against this outgoing must be set the amount of new importations of capital in the shape of loans. While the expenditure on interest is fairly constant from year to year, the amount raised by new loans varies, and these variations are a big factor in the fluctuations of the balance of trade.
There is no Mint in New Zealand, while there is a fairly considerable production of gold bullion. Gold, therefore, ranks as an ordinary export of the Dominion, along with wool, frozen meat, and dairy-produce. In earlier days this export of gold was much more important than now, amounting in 1863 to 70 per cent. of the total exports, from which figure it shrank steadily to 6 per cent. in 1913.
As all coin necessary for the commerce of the Dominion must be imported from abroad, the movement of specie has in normal times afforded a ready index of the state of trade. A bad year has been reflected in an export of specie, while prosperous years have shown a steady inflow. During the war the disappearance of gold currency from circulation has, of course, somewhat modified circumstances in this respect. It is, however, still of interest to append a table showing imports and exports of specie during the ten years 1910–19.
VALUE of SPECIE imported and exported, 1910–19.
The amount of gold bullion exported is shown in the following table:—
|EXPORTS of GOLD from NEW ZEALAND, 1910–19.|
|Year.||Exports.||Percentage of Total Exports.|
|To United Kingdom.||To Australia.||To other Countries.||Total.|
It is customary to classify the trade of a country as “special” and “entrepôt,” according as it represents exchange of domestic productions for imports for home consumption, or a mere transit trade. In many countries, such as Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom, the transit trade attains considerable importance, but New Zealand, owing to its geographical position, is precluded from developing in that direction. Her imports, except for a small forwarding trade to the Pacific islands, are for her own consumption, and the great bulk of her exports are commodities of domestic production.
The following table gives the proportion of special trade for the last ten years:—
“SPECIAL” and “ENTREPôT” TRADE of NEW ZEALAND.
|Year.||Trade (excluding Specie).||Re-exports (included in two preceding columns).||Percentage Re-exports.|
|Imports.||Exports.||Total.||To Imports||To Exports|
Before comparisons may properly be made with the trade of other countries care must be taken to ensure that the statistics are comparable in their methods of compilation and definition.
The value of imports into New Zealand has, since 1916, been reckoned at the fair market value in the country of export at the time of exportation, plus 10 per cent. (see subsection C of this section); exports are valued f.o.b. In the United States and Canada, however, the value of imports also are calculated f.o.b., and the difference representing freight insurance, and charges amounts to about 10 per cent. of the total value. Again, in the United Kingdom the values both of imports and exports are obtained by assessment at current market prices in the United Kingdom.
A comparison of the “special” trade of various countries in the Australian Commonwealth Official Year-book, 1916, covering in most cases the latest available year before the outbreak of the war, necessarily ignores many of the elements considered above, but gives a sufficiently accurate idea of the relative trade of the various countries.
In this comparison New Zealand heads the list as regards exports of domestic produce, Belgium taking second place. For imports of articles entered for consumption in the country itself, which in the case of such countries as the United Kingdom, Belgium, &., includes raw material imported for manufacturing purposes, New Zealand yields place only to Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
By themselves statistics of foreign trade are not a sure test of a country's prosperity, and they must always be interpreted with a knowledge of local conditions. An increase of imports may not be the result of increased purchasing-power, but may merely represent loans from another country, or even a failure of the home supply of certain commodities. Similarly, increased exports may mean greater productivity and increased purchasing-power, but they may also denote the payments on greatly increased liabilities.
In all countries the home trade is greatly in excess of the external trade, and in larger countries which are more self-contained a decrease in foreign trade may be due to development within the country itself. But New Zealand is far from self-contained, and from her position must attach a great importance to external trade. Under present conditions, only by export can a sufficient market be obtained for her rich resources, and only from abroad can be obtained the manufactures which are needed for common use. The development of the external trade since 1895 has been accompanied by increasing prosperity, and every advance in exports, followed in the next year by larger imports, represents an increase in the wealth of the Dominion.
IN New Zealand the Department of H.M. Customs requires for every package exported a declared statement of the contents, value, and destination. In all cases exports are valued “free on board at the port of shipment.” In many cases, however, the goods are not sold till arrival at their destination, and therefore values must be assessed in New Zealand with reference to current prices. It is possible, therefore, that an interim change in the markets overseas may to some extent falsify the values given to exports.
No account is taken in the export values of “ships’ stores” except where they are shipped “ex warehouse”—that is, from a bonded store under Customs control. The exports of New Zealand produce are separated from re-exports of foreign goods.
The ultimate destination of the goods is distinguished as far as is practicable, but it is impossible to discover what proportion of the exports is intended for home consumption in the country of destination. Goods for transhipment on a through bill of lading are, however, credited to the ultimate destination shown.
The following table gives a summary of the main exports from New Zealand during the last ten years.
The main feature of the table is the prominence given to the primary products of the soil. The extractive industries of New Zealand have always supplied the overwhelming bulk of the exports, and, though the proportion of the different classes has varied from time to time, there has never been any considerable or even noticeable export of manufactured goods.
It will be observed that the value of exports during 1919 constituted a record.
|EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.—PASTORAL PRODUCE.|
|Year.||Wool.||Frozen Meat.||Butter.||Cheese.||Tallow.||Skins, Hides, and Pelts.||Other Pastoral Produce.*|
*The main items in this heading are bacon and hams, beef and pork (salted), live-stock, preserved meats, sausage-skins, and preserved milk.
|EXPORTS of NEW ZEALAND PRODUCE.—MINING and AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE.|
|Year.||Wheat.||Oats.||Other Agricultural Produce.*||Gold.||Coal.||Kauri gum.||Phormium Fibre and Tow.||Timber.|
*The main items in this heading are bran and sharps, chaff, flour, barley, beans and peas, maize, malt, hops, oatmeal, potatoes, and seeds.
In recent years the proportions of the principal exports have changed a good deal. Wool, which reached its maximum percentage (47.9) in 1897, showed a tendency to decline till 1902, since when the tendency has been to regain its former pre-eminence. Frozen meat has throughout shown a steady tendency to increase.
The main feature of the period has been the great advance, relatively and absolutely, of dairy-produce, especially cheese. This advance has been shared by all classes of pastoral produce and, except for a set-back in 1919, by phormium. Agricultural produce shows a fluctuating export, reaching its highest percentage in 1899–1901, the period of the South African War.
In the following table the exports are classified under the main industries, according to a broad division, to illustrate the relative importance of the pastoral, agricultural, mining, forest, and other industries as far as the export trade is concerned. It must be remembered that in a particular industry the home trade may be relatively more important than the external trade.
The table indicates a tendency for the Dominion to rely more and more upon the pastoral industry for her main exports. The four main products of that industry—wool, frozen meat, butter, and cheese—provide an ever-increasing proportion of the total quantity of goods shipped overseas. On the other hand, the proportion of minerals has tended to fall, through decreasing exports of gold, and agricultural exports fluctuate with a downward tendency. It would seem that New Zealand is restricting her agriculture to a level barely sufficient to provide for her own needs in the matter of foodstuffs, and only in exceptionally good years is there a surplus available for export.
TABLE showing PROPORTIONS of EXPORTS supplied by the MAIN INDUSTRIES, 1910–1919.