Table of Contents
THE “New Zealand Official Year-book,” now in its twenty-fourth year of publication, presents, in summary form, the latest information concerning the Dominion and its resources. Statistics are given of the various aspects of New Zealand life, and these figures are supported and illustrated by letterpress and by a considerable number of diagrams, so that, it is hoped, the information given is rendered more attractive and accessible. In the present issue, the statistics given are for the calendar year 1914, or the financial year 1914-15, with the exception of a few tables dealing with local governing bodies, valuation of land, life insurance, and those matters for which statistics cannot be obtained annually.
In the main this volume follows the same lines as in previous years; but the whole book has been revised, and in some places rearranged. A considerable quantity of new matter has been added, including a section on prices and a subsection on morbidity. The sections dealing with commerce and shipping have been entirely rewritten, and the results of the recent mortality investigation are shown in a subsection of the vital statistics.
The principal item in the supplementary portion of the book is a special article “The External Trade of New Zealand,” by Mr. J. B. Condliffe, M.A., F.R.E.S., Compiler for trade statistics in this office. The series of special articles on geographical features of the Dominion is continued by a discussion of “The Lakes of New Zealand” by Mr. R. Speight, M.Sc., F.G.S.
My thanks are due to those responsible Government officers who have supplied information, and also to the staff of the Statistical Office for their valuable and willing assistance.
Every care has been taken to provide for the accuracy of the statistics given; but where the mass of figures used is so great it would be idle to hope that all errors have been eliminated. I should be grateful if readers would supply information concerning any errors which they may detect.
This issue of the Year-book has been unavoidably delayed mainly by the abnormal demands made upon the Statistical Office by the circumstances arising out of the war. The reorganization of the trade statistics has also contributed to the delay.
Principally with the view of expediting the binding processes, the cover of the Year-book has been altered, and it has been decided that for the future all copies of the Year-book will be issued for sale at a uniform price of 2s. 6d.
In addition to the Year-book, there is published from this office a “Monthly Abstract of Statistics” giving the latest available information in connection with the more important aspects of New Zealand's activities. Full and complete details are published annually in the “Statistics of New Zealand” (four volumes). During 1915 also a “Report on the Cost of Living” was published, covering the period 1891-1914, and containing a special chapter dealing with the “War Increases.”
Census and Statistics Office,
Wellington, 13th January, 1916.
Table of Contents
THE Dominion of New Zealand consists of three main islands, with several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The main islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands, have a coast-line 4,330 miles in length: North Island, 2,200 miles; South Island, 2,000 miles; and Stewart Island, 130 miles. Other islands included within the Dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, Campbell, Snares, Antipodes, Bounty, and Kermadec Islands. The Cook Group of islands and certain neighbouring islands were included in the Dominion by proclamation of the 10th June, 1901.
The total area of the Dominion proper (i.e., excluding the islands annexed in 1901) is 66,292,232 acres or 103,581 square miles. The land area of the Cook Group is about 150 square miles, and of the other islands annexed in 1901 about 130 square miles. Full information as to boundaries and area, together with descriptive matter relating to the physical features of the various portions of the Dominion, will be found in the 1913 issue of this book.
The geologic structure of New Zealand, so far as it has yet been determined is, owing to its complexity, difficult to summarize. For a fuller account than can be given here the reader is referred to the article in the 1914 Year-book, pages 943–47, and to the various works on geology mentioned therein.
The oldest fossiliferous rocks are the Ordovician argillites (“slates”) of North-west Nelson and Preservation Inlet. At Baton River Silurian fossils, at Reefton Devonian fossils, and in the limestone near Nelson Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous fossils, show that these systems are all represented in the Palæozoic sequence. Included in it are marble, sandstone, shale, greywacke, quartzite, schist, and gneiss. The auriferous lodes of the South Island are almost always found cutting through rocks of Palæozoic age.
Rocks belonging to the Mesozoic periods occur over a large area in both Islands. The Trias-Jura system of greywacke and argillite forms the main mountain-ranges, but contains few workable mineral deposits. It is fossiliferous in only a few localities, and cannot be easily subdivided.
While all these foregoing rocks were being deposited the New Zealand area was probably the foreshore of a great continent, but after the Trias-Jura sediments were deposited far-reaching changes, involving the breaking-up and disappearance of the continental land, took place. The New Zealand area was necessarily involved in these earth-movements, and as the result the existing strata were folded, broken, and raised above sea-level. After extensive denudation of its surface had taken place New Zealand was again, probably several times, depressed and elevated either in whole or in part. During the periods of subsidence Cretaceous and Tertiary strata were laid down. These contain all the workable coal-seams of the Dominion.
Pleistocene and Recent deposits are well represented by fluviatile, glacial, marine, and wind-blown material.
Plutonic rocks of various types, but mainly granitic, occupy a large area in the western parts of the South Island and occur also in North Auckland. Volcanic rocks, chiefly of Tertiary age, are found in scattered areas throughout the eastern part of the South Island and occur extensively in the North Island, where volcanic activity still continues on a small scale.
The maps illustrating the article on the geology of New Zealand in the 1914 Year-book are reproduced in this volume, and will serve as a supplement to these brief notes.
The rivers of New Zealand were fully discussed in the 1914 issue of this book in an article (pages 948–56), supplied by R. Speight, Esq., M.Sc., F.G.S., Curator of the Canterbury Museum. Considerations of space in the present book prevent more than a list of the more important rivers being given. These are as follows, the lengths shown being in most cases only approximate. Very few of these rivers are navigable by vessels of any size.
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Waihou or Thames||90|
|Flowing into Cook Strait—|
|Manawatu (tributaries: Pohangina and Tiraumea)||100|
|Wanganui (tributaries: Ohura, Tangarakau, and Maunganui-te-ao)||140|
|Flowing into Tasman Sea—|
|Waitara (tributary: Maunganui)||65|
|Waikato (tributary: Waipa)||220|
|Flowing into Cook Strait—|
|Wairau (tributary: (Waihopai)||105|
|Flowing into the Pacific Ocean—|
|Clarence (tributary: Acheron)||125|
|Waiau (tributary: Hope)||110|
|Waimakariri (tributaries: Bealey, Poulter, Esk, and Broken River)||93|
|Rakaia (tributaries: Mathias, Wilberforce, Acheron, and Cameron)||95|
|Waitaki (tributaries: Tasman, Tekapo, Ohau, Ahuriri, and Hakataramea||135|
|Clutha (tributaries: Kawarau, Makarora, Hunter, Manuherikia, and Pomahaka)||210|
|Flowing South into Foveaux Strait—|
|Waiau (tributaries: Mararoa, Clinton, and Monowai)||115|
|Flowing into the Tasman Sea—|
|Cleddau and Arthur||20|
|Haast (tributary: Landsborough)||60|
|Hokitika (tributary: Kokatabi)||40|
|Teramakau (tributaries: Otira and Taipo)||45|
|Grey (tributaries: Ahaura, Arnold, and Mawhera-iti)||75|
|Buller (tributaries: Matakitaki, Maruia, and Inangahua)||105|
In the 1913 issue of the Year-book (pages 32 to 34) appears a short account of the Flora of New Zealand, supplied by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S. The article covers briefly the various points of interest in connection with the flora of the main Islands, and deals also with that of the outlying islands.
For information re the fauna of New Zealand the reader is referred to the article by James Drummond, Esq., F.L.S., F.Z.S., appearing on pages 957 to 961 of the Year-book for 1914. The article, though brief, contains a fairly comprehensive account of the Dominion's fauna.
The first authentic account of the discovery of New Zealand is that given by Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator. He left Batavia on the 14th August, 1642, in the yacht “Heemskercq,” accompanied by the “Zeehaen” (or “Sea-hen”) fly-boat. After having visited Mauritius, and discovered Tasmania, named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in honour of Anthony van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, he steered eastward, and on the 13th December of the same year sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, described by him as “a high mountainous country.”
Tasman, under the belief that the land he saw belonged to a great polar continent, and was part of the country discovered some years before by Schouten and Le Maire, to which the name of Staten Land had been given, gave the same name of Staten Land to New Zealand; but within about three months afterwards Schouten's “Staten Land” was found to be merely an inconsiderable island. Upon this discovery being announced, the country that Tasman had called Staten Land received the name of “New Zealand,” by which it has ever since been known. Tasman sailed along the coast to a bay, where he anchored. To this he gave the name of Murderers (since termed Massacre or Golden) Bay, on account of an unprovoked attack on a boat's crew by the Natives, and the massacre of four white men. Thence he steered along the west coast of the North Island, and gave the name of Cape Maria van Diemen to the north-western extremity thereof. After sighting the islands of the Three Kings he finally departed, not having set foot in the country.
There is no record of any visit to New Zealand after Tasman's departure until the time of Captain Cook, who, after leaving the Society Islands, sailed in search of a southern continent then believed to exist. He sighted land on the 6th October, 1769, at Young Nick's Head, and on the 8th of that month cast anchor in Poverty Bay. After having coasted round the North Island and the South and Stewart Islands—which last he mistook for part of the South Island—he took his departure from Cape Farewell on the 31st March, 1770, for Australia. He visited New Zealand again in 1773, in 1774, and in 1777.
M. de Surville, a French officer in command of the vessel “Saint Jean Baptiste,” while on a voyage of discovery, sighted the north-east coast of New Zealand on the 12th December, 1769, and remained for a short time. A visit was soon after paid by another French officer, M. Marion du Fresne, who arrived on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand on the 24th March, 1772, but was, on the 12th June following, murdered at the Bay of Islands by the Natives.
Captain George Vancouver in the “Discovery,” accompanied by Captain Broughton in the “Chatham,” anchored in Dusky Bay, on the west coast of the South Island, on the 2nd November, 1791, and remained there until the 21st. After leaving Dusky Bay the two vessels parted company during a gale, not meeting again until their arrival at Otaheite. During the passage of the “Chatham” to this place, Captain Broughton discovered and named the Chatham Islands (on the 29th November, 1791).
On the 5th November, 1792, the “Britannia” (Captain Raven) anchored in Facile Harbour, on the west coast of the South Island. She had come from Sydney for the purpose of procuring seal-skins. A party of men was landed and accommodation for them built, and, on the 1st December the “Britannia” sailed for the Cape of Good Hope. On her return on the 27th December, 1793, the men were found to be in good health. So far as is known, this was the first instance of Europeans being left in New Zealand to their own resources.
The Spanish expedition in the vessels “Descubrierta” and “Atrevida,” the former commanded by Alejandro Malaspina and the latter by José de Bustamente y Guerra, sighted the west coast of the South Island on the 25th February, 1793. A boat's crew went into Doubtful Bay, whilst the vessels remained off the entrance. Next morning they unsuccessfully attempted to enter Dusky Bay, but the weather becoming stormy they left for Sydney, after giving Spanish names to several places in and around Dusky and Doubtful Bays.
In 1793 also the “Dædalus,” under the command of Lieutenant Hanson, was sent by the Government of New South Wales to New Zealand, and two chiefs were taken thence to Norfolk Island. There was after this an occasional intercourse between the islands of New Zealand and the English settlements in New South Wales.
On the 23rd May, 1820, Thaddeus Bellingshausen, in command of the two Russian ships “Wostok” and “Mirny,” sailed into Cook Strait, in the course of his voyage round the world. The vessels anchored in Queen Charlotte Sound on the 28th May, and remained there till the 3rd June.
In 1814 the first missionaries arrived in New Zealand—Messrs. Hall and Kendall—who had been sent as forerunners by Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the New South Wales Government. After a short stay they returned to New South Wales, and on the 19th November of that year again embarked in company with Mr. Marsden, who preached his first sermon in New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. He returned to Sydney on the 23rd March, 1815, leaving Messrs. Hall, Kendall, and King, who formed the first mission station at Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Six years later, in 1821, the work of evangelization was put on a more durable basis; but the first station of the Wesleyan mission, established by Mr. Leigh and his wife, at the valley of the Kaeo, Whangaroa, was not taken possession of until the 10th June, 1823.
Almost immediately after Cook returned to England on the completion of his first voyage round the world there was published in London, on the 29th August, 1771, a pamphlet by Alexander Dalrymple, entitled “Scheme of a Voyage to convey the Conveniences of Life, Domestic Animals, Corn, Iron, &c., to New Zealand [sic], with Dr. Benjamin Franklin's Sentiments upon the Subject.” The idea Dalrymple had in mind was to civilize the Maoris by furnishing them with useful commodities, taking in exchange whatever goods the Natives could supply by way of trade. Dalrymple being unsuccessful in raising money to carry out his plan the matter dropped, but he was the first to suggest the idea of opening up commerce with New Zealand, thus paving the way for its colonization.
The first attempt at colonization was made in 1825 by a company formed in London, and called the New Zealand Company. An expedition was sent out under the command of Captain Herd, who acquired tracts of land at Hokianga, at Manakau, and on the borders of the Thames. The company was prevented by adverse circumstances from forming a settlement. In the same year two other persons—namely, Baron Charles de Thierry and Mr. William Stewart—were trying to form colonization companies in London. The former chose for his sphere the North Island and the latter Stewart Island, but neither scheme was successful.
In consequence of frequent visits of whaling-vessels to the Bay of Islands, a settlement grew up at Kororareka—now called Russell—and in 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident there. A number of Europeans gradually settled in different parts of the country, and married Native women.
In 1837 the New Zealand Association was formed, to apply to New Zealand the Wakefield system of colonization. A Royal Charter was applied for, but the terms offered by the British Government not being acceptable, the association dissolved. Some of the members of this association formed a plan for the prosecution of its leading objects by means of a joint-stock company. On the 29th August, 1838, a private copartnership was established under the name of “The New Zealand Colonization Company.” By the spring of 1839 it had raised sufficient funds to purchase an extensive territory (principally surrounding Hokianga and Kaipara Harbours), and to fit out a preliminary expedition for surveying the coasts, making further purchases, and preparing for the early arrival of settlers. On the 2nd May, 1839, the New Zealand Colonization Company ceased to exist, and the New Zealand Company (the second of that name) was formed with a capital of £100,000 in 4,000 shares of £25 each, to establish settlement in New Zealand on systematic principles.
On the 22nd January, 1840, the first body of immigrants arrived in Port Nicholson, and founded the town of Wellington. About the same time—namely, on the 29th January, 1840—Captain Hobson, R.N., arrived at the Bay of Islands, empowered, with the consent of the Natives, to proclaim the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand, and to assume the government thereof. A compact called the Treaty of Waitangi, to which in less than six months five hundred and twelve names were affixed, was entered into, whereby all rights and powers of sovereignty were ceded to the Queen, all territorial rights being secured to the chiefs and their tribes. The seat of Government was established at Waitemata (Auckland), and a settlement formed there.
The New Zealand Company having decided to form another settlement, to which the name of “Nelson” was to be given, despatched a preliminary expedition from England in April, 1841, for the purpose of selecting a site. The spot chosen was the head of Blind Bay, where a settlement was established. About the same time a number of pioneers arrived in Taranaki despatched thither by the New Plymouth Company, a colonizing society which had been formed in England, and had bought 50,000 acres of land from the New Zealand Company.
The next important event in the progress of colonization was the arrival at Port Chalmers, on the 23rd March, 1848, of the first of two emigrant ships sent out by the Otago Association for the foundation of a settlement by persons belonging to or in sympathy with the Free Church of Scotland.
In 1849 the “Canterbury Association for founding a Settlement in New Zealand” was incorporated. On the 16th December, 1850, the first emigrant ship despatched by the association arrived at Port Cooper, and the work of opening up the adjoining country was set about in a systematic fashion, the intention of the promoters being to establish a settlement complete in itself, and composed entirely of members of the then United Church of England and Ireland.
The rich tussock plains of Canterbury yielded at once to the efforts of the settlers, and the province soon became the great pastoral and agricultural centre of the colony. Grain and wool were exported, and the volume of trade increased rapidly. The district grew prosperous, and many of the settlers became wealthy men. The foresight of the founders of the settlement provided for endowments for schools and churches, and for the construction of roads and bridges, and when the provinces were abolished in 1875 Canterbury handed over not only a well-equipped district but a large credit balance at its bankers.
Up to the early sixties Otago had made a slow but steady advance, much of the province being adapted to agriculture, to which the energies of the majority of the early settlers were devoted. In 1861, however, gold was discovered in the Lindis Valley, and this, together with further rich finds in Gabriel's Gully and various other parts of Otago, attracted people from all parts of Australasia. The province rapidly increased in wealth and prosperity, and Dunedin soon became a thriving and populous commercial centre.
Southland advanced steadily, mainly on account of its rich agricultural and pastoral lands; and in the northern and western parts of the South Island good progress was also made. Marlborough and the eastern portion of Nelson, with their good soil and attractive climate, became the homes of farming communities, while West-land and the west coast of Nelson owed their progress to rich finds of gold and coal.
For many years the North Island lagged behind the South Island. Its progress was retarded by troubles with the Maoris, and in the early days many settlers, terrified by the warlike attitude of the aboriginals, abandoned their farms and left New Zealand. The unrest caused by the wars put a stop to settlement, and for years left the interior of the Island a terra incognita. After the initial conflicts with the Natives when the British flag was hoisted at the Bay of Islands, colonization proceeded quietly at Auckland, New Plymouth, Wanganui, Wellington, and Hawke's Bay.
In 1861, however, a serious misunderstanding arose at Waitara over the question of land, and almost without warning active hostilities were commenced by the Natives. The Taranaki settlers were driven from their homes, and the labour of years was destroyed in a few weeks. Blood was shed, and many men were killed on both sides. Soon the whole country from Auckland to Wellington was in arms. The settlers around Wanganui, Napier, and Wellington were forced to leave their farms and take refuge in the towns, and for a time all progress was stayed. Over ten thousand troops were brought from England to quell the disturbance, and after several years of fighting the Maoris at last sued for peace. The Waikato Natives lost their land, which was confiscated and handed over to military settlers, who soon converted the district into a thriving farming centre. Slowly the settlers restored their homes and farms, and gradually the North Island became settled by an ever-growing industrious community.
The discovery of rich gold at the Thames in 1367 attracted a large number of people from Australia and from other parts of New Zealand, and since the termination of the Maori wars the North Island has made immense progress, overtaking and, in later years, rapidly outstripping the South Island.
The record of formal Government of New Zealand under the British Crown begins with the following Proclamation issued by Captain William Hobson, R.N., on the 21st May. 1840:—
In the name of Her Majesty VICTORIA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. By WILLIAM HOBSON, Esquire, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand.
WHEREAS by a treaty bearing date the sixth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty, made and executed by me, William Hobson, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor in New Zealand, vested for this purpose with full powers by Her Britannic Majesty of the one part, and the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and independent Chiefs of New Zealand not members of the Confederation, of the other, and further ratified and confirmed by the adherence of the principal Chiefs of this Island of New Zealand (commonly called the “Northern Island”), all rights and powers of sovereignty over the said Northern Island Were ceded to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland absolutely and without reservation:
Now, therefore, I, William Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, in the name and on behalf of Her Majesty do hereby proclaim and declare to all men that from and after the date of the above-mentioned treaty the full sovereignty of the Northern Island of New Zealand vests in Her Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs and successors for ever.
Given under my hand, at Government House, Russell, Bay of Islands, this twenty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty.
By his Excellency's command.
WILLOUGHBY SHORTLAND, Colonial Secretary.
From the date of the Proclamation until the 3rd May, 1841, New Zealand remained a dependency of New South Wales, and on the latter date it was created a separate colony by Royal Charter, dated the 16th November, 1840.
The Government of the colony was first vested in a Governor, who was responsible only to the Crown; there was an Executive Council and a Legislative Council with advisory powers only. On the 23rd December, 1847, a Charter was signed dividing the colony into two provinces—New Ulster and New Minister—and this was proclaimed in New Zealand on the 10th March, 1848. The Province of New Ulster consisted of the whole of the North Island with the exception of that portion adjacent to Cook Strait and lying to the south of a line commencing at the centre of the mouth of the Patea River and running thence due east until it reaches the sea on the east coast. The Province of New Munster consisted of the portion of the North Island excluded from New Ulster and the whole of the South and Stewart Islands. Each province had a Lieutenant-Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council, while the Governor-in-Chief for the whole colony was also Governor of each province. Provision had also been made for a House of Representatives in each province, but this portion of the Charter was suspended for five years, and before it came into operation a new Constitution was obtained.
On the 30th June, 1852, the Act granting representative institutions was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and published in New Zealand by Proclamation on the 17th January, 1853. Under it the constitution of a General Assembly for the whole colony was provided for, to consist of a Legislative Council and a House of Representatives.
By the same Act the Provinces of New Ulster and New Munster were abolished and the colony was divided into six new provinces—Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago. Each province was to be presided over by an elective Superintendent, and to have an elective Provincial Council empowered to legislate, except on certain specified subjects. The franchise amounted practically to household suffrage. In each case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh election both of the Council and of the Superintendent. The Superintendent was chosen by the whole body of the electors of the province, and each member of the Provincial Council by the electors of a district. The boundaries of the new provinces were gazetted on the 2nd April, 1853, and the boundaries of the electoral districts on the 14th May following, the first general elections for the House of Representatives and the Provincial Councils being held during 1853 and the beginning of 1854. The Provincial Governments, afterwards increased to ten, but subsequently reduced to nine, remained as integral parts of the Constitution of the colony until the 1st November, 1876, when they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly, that body having been vested with the power of altering the Constitution Act. On the same day an Act of the General Assembly subdivided the colony (exclusive of the areas included within municipalities) into counties and established a system of local government.
The first Executive for the colony included the Governor and three gentlemen holding office as Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Colonial Treasurer—namely, Messrs. Willoughby Shortland, Francis Fisher, and George Cooper—all appointed on the 3rd May, 1841. The successors of those gentlemen (Andrew Sinclair, appointed 6th January, 1844; William Swainson, appointed 10th August, 1841; and Alexander Shepherd, appointed 9th May, 1842) continued in office until the establishment of Responsible Government on the 7th May, 1856. Only one of them, the Hon. Mr. Swainson, without ceasing to be Attorney-General, sat as a member of the first General Assembly, being Speaker of the Legislative Council. The first session of the General Assembly was opened on the 27th May, 1854, but the members of the Executive were not responsible to Parliament. During the session of that year there were associated with the permanent members of the Executive Council certain members of the House of Representatives. These latter held no portfolios. The first Ministers under a system of responsible government were appointed in the year 1856.
On addresses from both Houses of the General Assembly. His Majesty the King, by Order in Council dated 9th September, 1907, and by Proclamation issued 10th September, 1907, was graciously pleased to change the style and designation of the Colony of New Zealand to “The Dominion of New Zealand”; the change taking effect from Thursday, the 26th September, 1907.
Until the year 1865 the seat of Government of New Zealand was at Auckland, which was proclaimed the capital of the colony in 1842, but for at least two years during that time (1851 and 1852) the General Legislative Council for New Zealand sat in Wellington with the Legislative Council of New Munster. Several attempts were made by members of Parliament, by motions in the Legislative Council and House of Representatives, to have the seat of Government removed to some more central place; but it was not until November, 1863, that Mr. Domett (an ex-Premier) was successful in carrying resolutions in the House of Representatives that steps should be taken for appointing some place in Cook Strait as the permanent seat of Government. The resolutions adopted were: “(1.) That it has become necessary that the seat of Government in the colony should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait. (2.) That, in order to promote the accomplishment of this object, it is desirable that the selection of the particular site in Cook Strait should be left to the arbitrament of an impartial tribunal. (3.) That, with this view, a Bill should be introduced to give effect to the above resolutions.” On the 25th November an address was presented to the Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., by the Commons of New Zealand, requesting that the Governors of the Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania might each be asked to appoint one Commissioner for the purpose of determining the best site in Cook Strait. Accordingly, the Hon. Joseph Docker, M.L.C., New South Wales: the Hon. Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Council, Victoria; and R. C. Gunn, Esq., Tasmania, were appointed Commissioners.
These gentlemen having made a personal inspection, of all suitable places, arrived at the unanimous decision “that Wellington, in Port Nicholson, was the site upon the shores of Cook Strait which presented the greatest advantages for the administration of the government of the colony.”
The seat of Government was, therefore, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, removed to Wellington in February, 1865.
Prior to the granting of Representative Institutions in 1853 there was no Parliament Building used exclusively for the meetings of the early Legislative Councils. In Auckland the later meetings of the Legislative Councils of New Zealand and New Ulster were held in the Courthouse, Official Bay, while in Wellington the Legislative Council of New Munster and also of New Zealand in 1851 and 1852, met in Barrett's Hotel (which then stood on a site in Lambton Quay, opposite the present Government Printing Office) in a room formerly used as a ball-room.
The first Parliament Building was erected in Auckland and completed in time for the meeting of the first General Assembly in May, 1854. On the transfer of the seat of Government to Wellington, the General Government purchased from the Wellington Provincial Council in January, 1865, the Provincial Council Buildings in Molesworth Street. This building was erected for the Provincial Council some six or seven years previously on a more comprehensive plan than the actual requirements of the province demanded, with a view to affording the requisite accommodation for the General Assembly on the anticipated transfer of the seat of Government to Wellington. The price paid for the building was £8,200, being one-third less than the original cost. These buildings, to which considerable additions and alterations were made later, were used for meetings of the General Assembly until the 11th December, 1907, on which date they were, with the exception of the library wing, destroyed by fire. Since then old Government House, occupying an adjoining site, has been utilized as temporary quarters for Parliament, a new residence for the Governor being erected at the southern end of the city.
The foundation-stone of new Parliament Buildings to replace those destroyed by fire was laid on the 23rd March, 1912. The foundations were prepared by the Public Works Department, and the contractors are now proceeding with the construction of the first portion of the buildings. A sketch of these, as they will appear when completed, was published as a frontispiece to the 1913 issue of this book, a description of the buildings being also given.
The following are the names of successive Governors of New Zealand, with dates on which they assumed and retired from office:—
Captain William Hobson, R.N. (January, 1840, to 10th September, 1842) Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, from January, 1840, to 3rd May, 1841, and Governor of New Zealand from 3rd May, 1841, until date of death, 10th September, 1842.
Lieutenant Willoughby Shortland, Administrator from 10th September, 1842, to 26th December, 1843.
Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., Governor from 26th December, 1843, to 17th November, 1845.
Captain George Grey who became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848 (18th November, 1845, to 31st December, 1853), Governor from 18th November, 1845, to 1st January, 1848; Governor-in-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of the Province of New Monster, from 1st January, 1848, to 7th March, 1853; Governor of New Zealand from 7th March, 1853, to 31st December, 1853.
Edward John Eyre, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of New Minister, appointed August, 1847, and sworn in on 28th January, 1848, until duties of Lieutenant-Governor ceased on 7th March, 1853.
Major-General George Dean Pitt, Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster, appointed 3rd January, 1848, sworn in on 14th February, 1848, died 8th January, 1851.
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Lieutenant-Governor of New Ulster, appointed 14th April. 1851, sworn in 26th April, 1851, until duties of Lieutenant-Governor ceased on 7th March, 1853.
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B., Administrator from 3rd January, 1854, to 6th September, 1855.
Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., from 6th September, 1855, to 2nd October, 1861.
Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Administrator from 3rd October, 1861; Governor from 4th December, 1861, to 5th February. 1868.
Sir George Ferguson Bowen, G.C.M.G., from 5th February, 1868, to 19th March, 1873.
Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice, Administrator from 21st March to 14th June, 1873.
Sir James Fergusson, Baronet. P.C., from 14th June, 1873, to 3rd December, 1874.
The Marquis of Normanby, P.C., G.C.M.G., Administrator from 3rd December, 1874; Governor from 9th January, 1875, to 21st February, 1870.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice. Administrator from 21st February to 27th March, 1870.
Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., Administrator from 27th March, 1879; Governor from 17th April, 1870, to 8th September, 1880.
James Prendergast, Esquire, Chief Justice, Administrator from 9th September to 20th November, 1880.
The Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., from 29th November, 1880, to 23rd June, 1882.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 24th June, 1882, to 20th January, 1883.
Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., from 20th January, 1883, to 22nd March, 1880.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 23rd March to 2nd May, 1889.
The Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., from 2nd May, 1889, to 24th February, 1892.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 25th February to 6th June, 1892.
The Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., from 7th June. 1892, to 6th February, 1897.
Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator from 8th February to 9th August, 1897.
The Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., from 10th August, 1897, to 19th June, 1904.
The Right Honourable William Lee, Baron Plunket, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., from 20th June, 1904, to 8th June, 1910.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator from 8th June to 22nd June, 1910.
The Right Honourable John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, K.C.M.G., Baron Islington, D.S.O., from 22nd June, 1910, to 2nd December, 1912.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Administrator from 3rd December, to 19th December, 1912.
The Earl of Liverpool, G.C.M.G., M.V.O., from 19th December, 1912.
Prior to the establishment of responsible Government there was an Executive Council for New Zealand consisting, in addition to the Governor, of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, and the Colonial Treasurer, or the persons acting in that capacity, seniority being in the order named. The Governor, or in his absence the senior member present, was to preside, and two members exclusive of the Governor or member presiding were to form a quorum. The Governor was commanded to in all things consult and advise with the Executive Council, and not to exercise the powers and authorities vested in him except by and with the concurrence and advice of the Executive Council, except in cases of an urgent and pressing nature which would not admit of the delay incident to the deliberation of the Council. In such cases he was, with all convenient speed, to bring the measures so adopted by him before the Executive Council for their revision and sanction. Nothing in these instructions, however, was to prevent the Governor exercising any or all of the powers and authorities vested in him, without the advice and concurrence of the Executive Council in cases not considered of sufficient importance to require their assistance or advice, or in cases which were of such a nature that in his judgment material prejudice might be sustained by consulting the Executive Council thereupon. No questions were to be brought before the Council except those proposed by the Governor, who in any case in which he saw sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of the major part or the whole of the Council was further empowered to exercise the powers vested in him in opposition to such opinion.
During the year 1854 there were associated with the permanent official members of the Executive Council above referred to certain members of the House of Representatives, but without portfolios. The following are the names of the various gentlemen who were members of the Executive Council of New Zealand prior to the establishment of responsible government on the 7th May, 1856:—
Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, from 3rd May, 1841, to 31st December, 1843; succeeded by Mr. Sinclair.
Francis Fisher, Attorney-General, from 3rd May to 10th August, 1814; succeeded by Mr. Swainson.
George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer, from 3rd May, 1841, to 9th May, 1842; succeeded by Mr. Shepherd.
William Swainson, Attorney-General, from 10th August, 1841, to 7th May, 1856.
Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, from 9th May, 1842, to 7th May, 1856.
Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, from 6th January, 1844, to 7th May, 1856.
James Edward FitzGerald, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14th June to 2nd August, 1854.
Henry Sewell, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14th June to 2nd August, 1854.
Frederick Aloysius Weld, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 14th June to 2nd August, 1854.
Francis Dillon Bell, M.L.C., Without portfolio, from 30th June to 11th July, 1854.
Thomas Houghton Bartley, M.L.C., without portfolio, from 14th July to 2nd August, 1854.
Thomas Spencer Forsaith, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31st August to 2nd September, 1854.
Edward Jerningham Wakefield, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31st August to 2nd September, 1854.
William Thomas Locke Travers, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31st August to 2nd September, 1854.
James Macandrew, M.H.R., without portfolio, from 31st August to 2nd September, 1854.
An Executive Council was established in each of the provinces of New Ulster and New Munster, for aiding with their advice the Officer Administering the Government thereof. The Executive Council consisted in each province of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer, and the principal officer in command of the military forces within the province, being a field officer, and of such other persons not holding any public office therein as the Governor-in-Chief might see fit to summon, the number of such unofficial members, however, not to exceed the number of official members. In the execution of the powers vested in the Governors or Lieutenant-Governors of the respective provinces it was not obligatory on them to consult with or to adopt the advice of the Executive Council in any case in which they should deem it inexpedient so to do. The names of those gentlemen who were members of the Executive Councils of New Ulster and New Munster are given below:—
Major-General George Dean Pitt, All appointed 1st January, 1848.
Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, All appointed 1st January, 1848.
William Swainson, Attorney-General, All appointed 1st January, 1848.
Alexander Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, All appointed 1st January, 1848.
Lieutenant-Colonel R. D. Bolton, appointed 21st June, 1851.
Alfred Domett, Colonial Secretary, appointed 2nd February, 1848.
Daniel Wakefield, Attorney-General, appointed 21st December, 1848.
Henry William Petre, Colonial Treasurer, appointed 28th January, 1848.
Lieutenant-Colonel William Anson McCleverty, appointed 28th January, 1848.
Prior to the establishment of responsible government the Legislative Council of New Zealand consisted of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer, and the three senior Justices of the Peace. The Governor was to preside at all meetings of the Council, and, in his absence, the senior member present; four members in addition to the Governor or the member presiding to form a quorum. No law or ordinance was to be enacted by the Legislative Council which was not first proposed by the Governor, and no question was to be debated unless submitted by him for that purpose. The laws and Ordinances of the Council were to be designated “Ordinances enacted by the Governor of New Zealand with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof.” No laws whatsoever were to be made to continue for less than two years except only in cases of unforeseen emergency requiring provision for temporary service, and the Governor was specially enjoined not to propose or assent to Ordinances or laws dealing with certain matters, some of which were:—
Restricting public worship, although not conducted according to the Church of England.
Reducing revenue or infringing prerogative or affecting the salaries or allowances of public officers without special leave.
Issuing bills of credit, or other negotiable securities in lieu of money on the credit of the colony, or paper currency, or any coin save the legal coin of the realm.
By which persons not of European birth or descent might be subjected or liable to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent would not also be subjected.
Raising money for public or private lotteries.
Naturalizing aliens without leave.
Divorcing persons joined together in holy matrimony.
Granting money, land, or other donation or gratuity to the Governor.
The following is a list of gentlemen who were members of the Legislative Council, with dates of their appointment and the office (if any) held. The dates on which they ceased to be members are known only in the cases shown—the others probably continued until the introduction of the new Constitution:—
|Name.||Office held.||Date of Appointment.||Date when ceased to be a Member.|
|Captain William Hobson, R.N.||Governor||3 May, 1841||10 Sept., 1842.|
|Lieutenant Willoughby Shortland||Colonial Secretary and Administrator from 10 Sep., 1842, to 26 Dec., 1843||3 May, 1841||8 Jan., 1844.|
|Francis Fisher||Attorney-General||3 May, 1841||28 Sept., 1841.|
|George Cooper||Colonial Treasurer||3 May, 1841||9 May, 1842.|
|William Wakefield||..||3 May, 1841||Sept., 1841.|
|William Cornwallis Symonds||..||3 May, 1841||Oct., 1841.|
|James Reddie Clendon||..||3 May, 1841||6 June, 1844.|
|George Butler Earp||..||9 Sept., 1841||6 June, 1844.|
|William Swainson||Attorney-General||28 Sept., 1841||..|
|William Field Porter||..||27 Oct., 1841||6 June, 1844.|
|Alexander Shepherd||Colonial Treasurer||9 May, 1842||..|
|Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N.||Governor||26 Dec., 1843||17 Nov., 1845.|
|Andrew Sinclair, M.D., R.N.||Colonial Secretary||8 Jan., 1844||..|
|Charles Clifford||..||6 June, 1844||3 Mar., 1845.|
|William Brown||..||6 June, 1844||3 Mar., 1845.|
|″||..||16 July, 1847||16 Nov., 1848.|
|Samuel M. D. Martin, M.D.||..||6 June, 1844||3 Mar., 1845.|
|Frederick Whitaker||..||3 Mar., 1845||1 Feb., 1846.|
|William Donnelly||..||3 Mar., 1845||1 Feb., 1846.|
|″||..||30 Sept., 1846||9 Aug., 1847.|
|Theophilus Heale||..||3 Mar., 1845||1 Feb., 1846.|
|Sir George Grey, K.C.B.||Govern or, Governor-in-Chief, Governor of New Ulster and Governor of New Munster||18 Nov., 1845||31 Dec., 1853.|
|Alfred Domett||Colonial Secretary of New Munster||30 Sept., 1846||..|
|Alexander Kennedy||..||30 Sept., 1846||16 July, 1847.|
|Alexander Kennedy||..||16 Nov., 1848||..|
|Frederick Ward Merriman||..||9 Aug., 1847||..|
|Edward John Eyre||Lieut.-Governor of New Munster||28 Jan., 1848||7 Mar., 1853.|
|Lieut. - Colonel William Anson McCleverty||Commander of the Forces||28 Jan., 1848||..|
|Hon. Henry William Petre||Colonial Treasurer of New Munster||28 Jan., 1848||..|
|Charles Waybrow Ligar||Surveyor - General||16 Nov., 1848||..|
|Robert Clapham Barstow||..||16 Nov., 1848||..|
|Hon. Francis Dillon Bell||..||20 Dec., 1848||..|
|Hon. William Hickson||..||20 Dec., 1848||..|
|Hon. Daniel Wakefield||Attorney - General of New Munster||21 Dec., 1848||..|
|Lieut. - Colonel William Hulme||..||24 July, 1849||..|
|Major Henry Matson||..||24 July, 1849||..|
|Sampson Kempthorne||..||24 July, 1849||..|
|Major - General George Dean Pitt||Lieut.-Governor of New Ulster||1 Aug., 1849||8 Jan., 1851.|
|Hon. Stephen Carkeek||Collector of Customs||19 May, 1851||..|
|Hon. William Mein Smith||..||19 May, 1851||..|
|Hon. Constantine Augustus Dillon||..||3 June, 1851||..|
|Hon. William Oldfield Cautley||..||3 June, 1851||..|
|Hon. George Cutfield||..||3 June, 1851||..|
Under the Charter constituting the Provinces of New Ulster and New Munster, a Legislative Council was also established in each province, consisting of such persons as were for that purpose appointed. The following are the names, offices held, and dates of appointment of the members of the Provincial Legislative Councils:—
|Name.||Office held.||Date of Appointment.|
|(a.) NEW ULSTER.|
|Sir George Grey, K.C.B.||Governor||1 Jan., 1848.|
|Andrew Sinclair||Colonial Secretary||1 Jan., 1848.|
|William Swainson||Attorney-General||1 Jan., 1848.|
|Alexander Shepherd||Colonial Treasurer||1 Jan., 1848.|
|Major-General George Dean Pitt||Lieutenant-Governor||3 Jan., 1848.|
|Charles Waybrow Ligar||Surveyor-General||16 Nov., 1848.|
|Alexander Kennedy||..||16 Nov., 1848.|
|Frederick Ward Merriman||..||16 Nov., 1848.|
|Robert Clapham Barstow||..||16 Nov., 1848.|
|Lieut.-Colonel William Hulme||..||24 July, 1849.|
|Major Henry Matson||..||24 July, 1849.|
|Sampson Kempthorne||..||24 July, 1849.|
|(b.) NEW MUNSTER|
|Sir George Grey, K.C.B.||Governor||1 Jan., 1848.|
|Edward John Eyre||Lieutenant-Governor||28 Jan., 1848.|
|Henry William Petre||Colonial Treasurer||28 Jan., 1848.|
|Lieut.-Colonel William Anson McCleverty||Commander of the Forces||28 Jan., 1848.|
|Alfred Domett||Colonial Secretary||2 Feb., 1848.|
|William McLeod Bannatyne||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|Francis Dillon Bell||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|William Hickson||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|George Hunter||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|Alfred Ludlam||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|George Moore||..||20 Dec., 1848.|
|Daniel Wakefield||Attorney-General||21 Dec., 1848.|
|David Monro||..||18 Jan., 1849.|
|John Damforth Greenwood||..||18 Jan., 1849.|
|Henry Seymour||..||18 Jan., 1849.|
|William Oldfield Cautley||..||5 May, 1849.|
In 1852 Proclamations were made altering the constitution of the Legislative Councils so as to include a certain number of elected members. New Ulster was to have eighteen members, of whom six were to be appointed and twelve elected, while New Munster was to have thirty-three members, of whom eleven were to be appointed and twenty-two elected. The elections for the Province of New Ulster were actually held, and the members, whose names are given below, were declared elected. The preliminary Proclamations were made for New Munster, but before the elections were held tidings of a new constitution were received, and the proceedings stayed.
|William Brown||21 September, 1852||City of Auckland.|
|John Salmon||21 September, 1852||″|
|Frederick Whitaker||21 September, 1852||″|
|John Logan Campbell||21 September, 1852||Suburbs of Auckland.|
|Patrick Dignan||21 September, 1852||Pensioner Settlements.|
|Thomas Spencer Forsaith||21 September, 1852||Northern Division.|
|Allan O'Neill||21 September, 1852||″|
|James Macky||21 September, 1852||Southern Division.|
|William Field Porter||21 September, 1852||″|
|George Clarke||21 September, 1852||Bay of Islands.|
|Charles Brown||2 October, 1852||New Plymouth.|
|John Tylson Wicksteed||2 October, 1852||Taranaki.|
SUCCESSIVE PARLIAMENTS SINCETHE PASSING OFTHE CONSTITUTION ACT CONFERRING REPRESENTATIVE INSTITUTIONS UPON NEW ZEALAND, WITH THE DATES OF OPENING AND CLOSING OF SESSIONS AND DATES OF DISSOLUTION.
|Parliament.||Dates of Opening of Sessions.||Dates of Prorogation.|
|First (dissolved 15th September, 1855)||27 May, 1854||9 August, 1854.|
|31 August, 1854||16 September, 1854.|
|8 August, 1855||15 September, 1855.|
|Second (dissolved 5th November, 1860)||15 April, 1856||16 August, 1856.|
|(No session in 1857)|
|10 April, 1858||21 August, 1858.|
|(No session in 1859)|
|30 July, 1860||5 November, 1860.|
|Third (dissolved 27th January, 1866)||3 June, 1861||7 September, 1861.|
|7 July, 1862||15 September, 1862.|
|19 October, 1863||14 December, 1863.|
|24 November, 1864||13 December, 1864.|
|26 July, 1865||30 October, 1865.|
|Fourth (dissolved 30th December, 1870)||30 June, 1866||8 October, 1866.|
|9 July, 1867||10 October, 1867.|
|9 July, 1868||20 October, 1868.|
|1 June, 1869||3 September, 1869.|
|14 June, 1870||13 September, 1870.|
|Fifth (dissolved 6th December, 1875)||14 August, 1871||16 November, 1871.|
|16 July, 1872||25 October, 1872.|
|15 July, 1873||3 October, 1873.|
|3 July, 1874||31 August, 1874.|
|20 July, 1875||21 October, 1875.|
|Sixth (dissolved 15th August, 1879)||15 June, 1876||31 October, 1876.|
|19 July, 1877||10 December, 1877.|
|26 July, 1878||2 November, 1878|
|11 July, 1879||11 August, 1879.|
|Seventh (dissolved 8th November, 1881)||24 September, 1879||19 December, 1879.|
|28 May, 1880||1 September, 1880.|
|9 June, 1881||24 September, 1881.|
|Eighth (dissolved 27th June, 1884)||18 May, 1882||15 September, 1882.|
|14 June, 1883||8 September, 1883.|
|5 June, 1884||24 June, 1884.|
|Ninth (dissolved 15th July, 1887)||7 August, 1884||10 November, 1884.|
|11 June, 1885||22 September, 1885.|
|13 May, 1886||18 August, 1886.|
|526 April, 1887||10 July, 1887.|
|Tenth (dissolved 3rd October, 1890)||6 October, 1887||23 December, 1887.|
|10 May, 1888||31 August, 1888.|
|20 June, 1889||19 September, 1889.|
|19 June, 1890||18 September, 1890.|
|Eleventh (dissolved 8th November, 1893)||23 January, 1891||31 January, 1891.|
|11 June, 1891||25 September, 1891.|
|23 June, 1892||12 October, 1892.|
|22 June, 1893||7 October, 1893.|
|Twelfth (dissolved 14th November, 1896)||21 June, 1894||24 October, 1894.|
|20 June, 1895||2 November, 1895.|
|11 June, 1896||19 October. 1896.|
|Thirteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1899)||7 April, 1897||12 April, 1897.|
|23 September, 1897||22 December, 1897.|
|24 June, 1898||5 November, 1898.|
|23 June, 1899||24 October, 1899.|
|Fourteenth (dissolved 5th November, 1902)||22 June, 1900||22 October, 1900.|
|1 July, 1901||8 November, 1901.|
|1 July, 1902||4 October, 1902.|
|Fifteenth (dissolved 15th November, 1905)||29 June, 1903||25 November, 1903.|
|28 June, 1904||8 November, 1904.|
|27 June, 1905||31 October, 1905.|
|Sixteenth (dissolved 29th October, 1908)||27 June, 1906||3 July, 1906.|
|21 August, 1906||29 October, 1906.|
|27 June, 1907||25 November, 1907.|
|29 June, 1908||12 October, 1908.|
|Seventeenth (dissolved 20th November, 1911)||10 June, 1909||17 June, 1909.|
|7 October, 1909||29 December, 1909.|
|28 June, 1910||5 December, 1910.|
|27 July, 1911||30 October, 1911.|
|Eighteenth (dissolved 20th November, 1914)||15 February, 1912||1 March, 1912.|
|27 June, 1912||8 November, 1912.|
|26 June, 1913||15 December, 1913.|
|25 June, 1914||6 November, 1914.|
|Nineteenth||24 June, 1915.||..|
|SUCCESSIVE MINISTRIES SINCETHE ESTABLISHMENT OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT IN NEW ZEALAND IN 1856.|
* Owing to the death of the Premier, the Hon. J. Ballance, on 27th April, 1893.
† Owing to the death of the Premier, Bight Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C., on 10th June, 1906.
|Name of Ministry.||Assumed Office.||Retired.|
|1. Bell-Sewell||7 May, 1856||20 May, 1856.|
|2. Fox||20 May, 1856||2 June, 1856.|
|3. Stafford||2 June, 1856||12 July, 1861.|
|4. Fox||12 July, 1861||6 August, 1862.|
|5. Domett||6 August, 1862||30 October, 1863.|
|6. Whitaker-Fox||30 October, 1863||24 November, 1864.|
|7. Weld||24 November, 1864||16 October, 1865.|
|8. Stafford||16 October, 1865||28 June, 1869.|
|9. Fox||28 June, 1869||10 September, 1872.|
|10. Stafford||10 September, 1872||11 October, 1872.|
|11. Waterhouse||11 October, 1872||3 March, 1873.|
|12. Fox||3 March, 1873||8 April, 1873.|
|13. Vogel||8 April, 1873||6 July, 1875.|
|14. Pollen||6 July, 1875||15 February, 1876.|
|15. Vogel||15 February, 1876||1 September, 1876.|
|16. Atkinson||1 September, 1876||13 September, 1876.|
|17. Atkinson (reconstituted)||13 September, 1876||13 October, 1877.|
|18. Grey||15 October, 1877||8 October, 1879.|
|19. Hall||8 October, 1879||21 April, 1882.|
|20. Whitaker||21 April, 1882||25 September, 1883.|
|21. Atkinson||25 September, 1883||16 August, 1884.|
|22. Stout-Vogel||16 August, 1884||28 August, 1884.|
|23. Atkinson||28 August, 1884||3 September, 1884.|
|24. Stout-Vogel||3 September, 1884||8 October, 1887.|
|25. Atkinson||8 October, 1887||24 January, 1891.|
|26. Ballance||24 January, 1891||1 May, 1893.*|
|27. Seddon||1 May, 1893||21 June, 1906.†|
|28. Hall-Jones||21 June, 1906||6 August, 1906.|
|29. Ward||6 August, 1906||28 March, 1912.|
|30. Mackenzie||28 March, 1912||10 July, 1912.|
|31. Massey||10 July, 1912||12 August, 1915.|
|32. National||12 August, 1915|
|PREMIERS OF SUCCESSIVE MINISTRIES.|
|Name of Premier.||Sir George Grey, K.C.B.|
|Henry Sewell.||Hon. John Hall.|
|William Fox.||Frederick Whitaker, M.L.C.|
|Edward William Stafford.||Harry Albert Atkinson.|
|William Fox.||Robert Stout.|
|Alfred Domett.||Harry Albert Atkinson.|
|Frederick Whitaker.||Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G.|
|Frederick Aloysius Weld.||Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G|
|Edward William Stafford.||John Ballance.|
|William Fox.||Rt. Hon. Richard John Seddon, P.C.|
|Hon. Edward William Stafford.||William Hall-Jones.|
|George Marsden Waterhouse.||Right Hon. Sir Joseph George Ward, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.|
|Hon. William Fox.||Thomas Mackenzie.|
|Hon. Julius Vogel, C.M.G.||Right Hon. William Ferguson Massey, P.C.|
|Hon. Daniel Pollen, M.L.C.||Right Hon. William Ferguson Massey, P.C. (National Ministry).|
|Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson.|
|Harry Albert Atkinson (Ministry reconstituted).|
|SPEAKERS OFTHE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, WITH DATES OF APPOINTMENT AND DATES OF RETIREMENT OR DEATH.|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Appointment.||Date of Retirement or Death.|
|Hon. William Swainson||16 May, 1854||8 August, 1855.|
|Hon. Frederick Whitaker||8 August, 1855||12 May, 1856.|
|Hon. Thomas Houghton Bartley||12 May, 1856||1 July, 1868.|
|Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson, Kt.||1 July, 1868||14 June, 1879.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||14 June, 1879||22 April, 1887.|
|Hon. George Marsden Waterhouse||22 April, 1887||21 September, 1887.|
|Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||21 September, 1887||23 January, 1891.|
|Hon. Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, K.C.M.G.||23 January, 1891||28 June, 1892.|
|Hon. Sir Henry John Miller||8 July, 1892||9 July, 1903.|
|Hon. W. C. Walker, C.M.G.||9 July, 1903||5 January, 1904.|
|Hon. John Rigg (Acting)||5 January, 1904||7 July, 1904.|
|Hon. Sir A. J. Cadman, K.C.M.G.||7 July, 1904||23 March, 1905|
|Hon. R. H. J. Reeves (Acting)||23 March, 1905||4 July, 1905.|
|Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, K.C.M.G.||4 July, 1905||7 July, 1915.|
|Hon. C. J. Johnston||7 July 1915|
|SPEAKERS OFTHE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, WITH DATES OF ELECTION AND DATES OF RETIREMENT OR DEATH.|
|Name of Speaker.||Date of Election.||Date of Retirement or Death.|
|Sir Charles Clifford, Bart.||26 May, 1854||..|
|15 April, 1856||3 June, 1861.||..|
|Sir David Monro, Kt. Bach.||3 June, 1861||..|
|30 June, 1866||13 Sept., 1870.||..|
|Sir Francis Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B.||14 August, 1871||21 October, 1875.|
|Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G.||15 June, 1876||13 June, 1879.|
|Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||11 July, 1879||..|
|24 September, 1879||..|
|18 May, 1882||..|
|7 August, 1884||..|
|6 October, 1887||3 October, 1890.|
|Hon. Major Sir William Jukes Steward, Kt. Bach.||23 January, 1891||8 November, 1893.|
|Hon. Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, Kt. Bach.||21 June, 1894||..|
|6 April, 1897||..|
|22 June, 1900||5 November, 1902.|
|Hon. Sir Arthur Robert Guinness, Kt. Bach.||29 June, 1903||..|
|27 June, 1906||..|
|10 June, 1909||..|
|15 February, 1912||10 June, 1913.|
|Hon Frederic William Lang||26 June, 1913||..|
|24 June, 1915||..||..|
Sir W. Martin, appointed Chief Justice, 10th January, 1842. Resigned, 12th June, 1857.
H. S. Chapman, appointed, 26th December, 1843. Held office until March, 1852. Reappointed, 23rd March, 1864, Resigned, 31st March, 1875.
S. Stephen, appointed, 30th July, 1850. Appointed Acting Chief Justice, 20th October, 1855. Died, 13th January, 1858.
Daniel Wakefield, appointed, October, 1855. Died, October, 1857.
Hon. H. B. Gresson, appointed temporarily, 8th December, 1857. Permanently, 1st July, 1862. Resigned, 31st March, 1875.
Sir George A. Arney, appointed Chief Justice, 1st March, 1858. Resigned, 31st March, 1875.
A. J. Johnston, appointed, 2nd November, 1858. Died. 1st June, 1888.
C. W. Richmond, appointed, 20th October, 1862. Died, 3rd August, 1895.
J. S. Moore, appointed temporarily, 15th May, 1866. Relieved, 30th June, 1868.
C. D. R. Ward, appointed temporarily, 1st October. 1868. Relieved, May, 1870. Appointed temporarily, 21st September, 1880. Relieved, 12th February, 1889.
Hon. Sir James Prendergast, appointed Chief Justice, 1st April, 1875. Resigned, 25th May, 1899.
T. B. Gillies, appointed, 3rd March, 1875. Died, 26th July, 1889.
Hon. Sir Joshua S. Williams, P.C., Kt., appointed, 3rd March, 1875. Resigned, 31st January, 1914, on being called to the Privy Council.
Hon. J. E. Denniston, appointed, 11th February, 1889.
E. T. Conolly, appointed, 19th August, 1889. Resigned, 9th September, 1903.
Hon. Sir Patrick A. Buckley, K.C.M.G., appointed, 20th December, 1895. Died, 18th May, 1896.
Hon. W. B. Edwards, appointed, 11th July, 1896.
F. W. Pennefather, appointed temporarily. 25th April, 1898. Resigned, 24th April, 1899.
Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K.C.M.G., appointed Chief Justice, 22nd June, 1899.
J. C. Martin, Acting Judge, appointed, 12th April, 1900. Resigned, 4th December, 1900.
Hon. Theophilus Cooper, appointed, 21st February, 1901.
Hon. F. R. Chapman, appointed, 11th September, 1903.
C. E. Button, appointed temporarily, 12th March, 1907. Resigned, 29th February, 1908.
Hon. William Alexander Sim, appointed, 16th January, 1911.
Hon. John Henry Hosking, K.C., appointed, 11th February, 1914.
Hon. Thomas Walter Stringer, K.C., appointed, 19th February, 1914.
LIVERPOOL, His Excellency the Right Honourable Arthur William de Brito Savile, Fifth Earl of Liverpool. Born 27th May, 1870, succeeded 1907. Educated at Eton and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Formerly Major in the Rifle Brigade (the Prince Consort's Own) and subsequently Major of its 6th Battalion. Sometime an A.D.C. to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (Earl Cadogan, K.G.), and Staff Captain, Dublin District. Is a J.P. for Kesteven and Lindsey Divisions of Lincolnshire, and Lieut.-Colonel 8th Battalion London Regiment (the Post Office Rifles). Served in South Africa 1901–2 (Queen's Medal with three clasps). Was State Steward and Chamberlain to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (the Earl of
Aberdeen, K.T., G.C.M.G.), 1906–8. Comptroller of His Majesty's Household, 1909–12. Appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of New Zealand, 1912. M.V.O., 4th Class, 1900; K.C.M.G., 1912; G.C.M.G., 1914.
Seat: Hartsholme Hall, Lincoln.
London residence: 44 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.
Residences: Government House. Wellington; Government House, Auckland.
Private Secretary: Gavin M. Hamilton, Esq.
Assistant Private Secretary: A. Cecil Day, Esq.
Acting Aides-de-Camp: Honorary Lieutenant H. G. Helmore; Honorary
Lieutenant G. J. H. Reid.
Extra Aide-de-Camp: Lieut.-Colonel J. H. Boscawen.
Honorary Aides-de-Camp: Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O., V.D.; Colonel A. H. Russell; Lieut.-Colonel R. Logan; Lieut.-Colonel V. S. Smyth; Colonel J. C. Nichols, V.D.; Colonel G. P. C. Campbell, V.D.
The Executive Council now consists of:—
Right Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C., Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Labour, Minister of industries and Commerce, Commissioner of State Forests, and Minister in Charge of Lands for Settlements, Valuation, and Scenery Preservation Departments.
Right Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G., Minister of Finance, Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Minister in Charge of Land and Income Tax, State Advances, Public Trust, and Government Life Insurance Departments.
Hon. J. Allen, Minister of Defence.
Hon. W. H. Herries, Minister of Railways and Native Minister.
Hon. A. L. Herdman, Attorney-General, Minister in Charge of Police and Crown Law Departments, and the new Department to be created dealing with the welfare of returned soldiers.
Hon. Dr. R. McNab, Minister of Justice, Minister of Marine, Minister of Stamps, and Minister in Charge of Tourist and Health Resorts Departments.
Hon. W. Fraser, Minister of Public Works and Minister in Charge of Roads Department.
Hon. G. W. Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of Printing and Stationery, High Commissioner's, Audit, Museum, Registrar-General's, and Laboratory Departments.
Hon. Sir F. H. D. Bell, K.C.M.G., K.C., Minister of Immigration and Leader of the Legislative Council.
Hon. A. M. Myers, Minister of Customs, Minister in Charge of Munitions and Supplies, Pensions, Advertising, and National Provident Fund Departments.
Hon. W. D. S. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Mines, Minister in Charge of Legislative, Public Buildings, Inspection of Machinery, State Fire and Accident Insurance Departments.
Hon. J. A. Hanan, Minister of Education and Minister in Charge of Friendly Societies.
Hon. Dr. M. Pomare, Member of the Executive Council representing the Native Race, and in Charge of Maori Councils, Cook and other Islands Administration.
Clerk of the Executive Council—James Frank Andrews, I.S.O.
The Legislative Council assembled for its first session at Auckland on the 24th May, 1854, and comprised fourteen members.
The Councillors had been designated a year earlier by the Governor, and their names submitted to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for the Royal approval; and they were gazetted in New Zealand in December, 1853. Until 1868 the rule was that the appointment of members should be made by an instrument under the Royal sign manual, but the rule was not strictly observed after 1861. An Act of the Imperial Parliament in 1868 validated any appointments of Councillors that might have been made irregularly in the past, and provided that future appointments should be made by the Governor (not by the Sovereign).
Until 1891 members were appointed for life, and the Speaker was appointed by the Governor; but since that year appointments have been for seven years only, members, however, being eligible for reappointment. The Council elects its own Speaker, who holds office for five years. A Chairman of Committees is elected every session, and holds office till the election of his successor. Speaker and Chairman are both eligible for re-election. The Imperial Act under which the earliest appointments were made did not fix a minimum number of members, though it provided that the first batch to be appointed should be not less than ten in number. The number actually summoned was sixteen, of whom only fourteen attended and were enrolled. The number increased irregularly for thirty years. In 1885 and 1886 it stood at fifty-three, but has not since reached that limit. The number on the roll at present (12th August, 1915) is thirty-seven.
An Act passed in the session of 1914 provides for an elective Legislative Council. For the purposes of the election of Legislative Councillors the Dominion is divided into four electoral divisions, two in each of the main Islands. At the first election, to be held simultaneously with the first general election after the end of the year 1915, twenty-four members are to be returned, seven in each of the North Island divisions and five in each South Island division. At subsequent elections forty members are to be elected, divided between the two Islands on a population basis. The term of office of Legislative Councillors under the new system will be from the date of election until the dissolution or expiry of Parliament next after the expiration of five years, except that in case of a dissolution of both Houses of Parliament (provided for under certain circumstances) a new election becomes necessary.
Life members and other appointed members of the Legislative Council who held their seats at the 5th November, 1914, will continue to do so until the end of the term of their appointment. Members appointed after the 5th November, 1914, and before the 1st January, 1916 (after which date no European members are to be appointed), will hold their seats only until the 1st July, 1921. The new Act empowers the Governor to appoint not more than three Maori members to the Council, the maximum strength of which will eventually be forty-three.
A Councillor must be a male person, of the full age of twenty-one years, and a British subject, either natural-born or naturalized; and he must not be in the receipt of pay out of the public purse, whether as a public servant or under a Government contract.* The seat of a member is voided if he enters the service or places himself under the protection of any foreign Power; or if he becomes bankrupt or compounds with his creditors; or if he is a public defaulter; or if he is convicted of any crime punishable by death or by imprisonment with hard labour for three years or more; or if he resigns his seat; or if he absents himself without the leave of the Governor for more than one whole session.
Before the year 1892 the honorarium of Councillors was understood to be for the session, not for the year, and formed the subject of a special vote every session, the amount varying in different sessions. By the Payment of Members Act, 1892, the honorarium was made annual, not sessional, and was fixed at £150 a year. The amount was raised in 1904 to £200 a year. Besides the honorarium, members are allowed travelling-expenses actually incurred in going to and from Parliament.
Subject to certain exemptions, members not attending the Council are liable to be fined.
* The Suspension of Disqualifications during War Act, 1915, however, permits of members of either branch of the Legislature drawing pay as members of His Majesty's Military or Naval Forces raised for service beyond New Zealand.
|ROLL OF MEMBERS OFTHE HONOURABLE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF NEW ZEALAND (12TH AUGUST, 1915).|
|Speaker—Hon. C. J. Johnston.|
† Life members.
* Life members.
|Chairman of Committees—Hon. W. C. F. CARNCROSS.|
|Name.||Provincial District.||Date of Appointment.|
|Aitken, Hon. John Guthrie Wood||Wellington||14 July, 1914.|
|Baillie, Hon. William Douglas Hall||Marlborough||8 March, 1861.†|
|Baldey, Hon. Alfred||Otago||18 March, 1910.|
|Barr, Hon. John||Canterbury||22 January, 1914.|
|Beehan, Hon. William||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Henry Dillon, K.C.M.G.||Wellington||10 July, 1912.|
|Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, K.C.M.G.||Canterbury||20 January, 1891.†|
|Buchanan, Hon. Sir Walter, Kt. Bach.||Wellington||23 June, 1915.|
|Carncross, Hon. Walter Charles Frederick||Taranaki||18 March. 1910.|
|Carson, Hon. Gilbert||Wellington||14 July, 1914.|
|Collins, Hon. William Edward||Wellington||14 July, 1914.|
|Duthie, Hon. John||Wellington||26 June, 1913.|
|Earnshaw, Hon. William||Wellington||26 June, 1913.|
|Fisher, Hon. John||Auckland||14 July, 1914.|
|George, Hon. Seymour Thorne||Auckland||22 June, 1910.|
|Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, K.C.M.G.||Wellington||7 October, 1913.|
|Hardy, Hon. Charles Albert Creery||Canterbury||20 June, 1913.|
|Harris, Hon. Benjamin||Auckland||3 February, 1911.|
|Johnston, Hon. diaries John||Wellington||23 January, 1891.*|
|Jones, Hon. George||Otago||13 December, 1909.|
|MacGibbon, Hon. Thomas||Otago||14 July, 1914.|
|MacGregor, Hon. John||Otago||14 July, 1914.|
|McLean, Hon. Sir George, Kt. Bach.||Otago||19 December, 1881.*|
|Maginnity, Hon. Andrew Thomas||Nelson||14 July, 1914.|
|Millar, Hon. John Andrew||Auckland||23 June, 1915.|
|Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, Kt. Bach.||Otago||8 July, 1865.*|
|Mills, Hon. Charles Houghton||Wellington||2 March, 1909.|
|Moore, Hon. Richard||Canterbury||14 July, 1914.|
|Morgan, Hon. William||Hawke's Bay||14 July, 1914.|
|Ormond, Hon. John Davies||Hawke's Bay||20 January, 1891.*|
|O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, Kt. Bach.||Auckland||25 June, 1911.|
|Parata, Hon. Thomas||Otago||13 June, 1912.|
|Paul, Hon. John Thomas||Otago||22 January, 1914.|
|Samuel, Hon. Oliver||Taranaki||14 July, 1914.|
|Simpson, Hon. Robert Kirkpatrick||Wellington||14 July, 1914.|
|Thompson, Hon. Thomas||Auckland||18 March; 1910.|
|Wigram, Hon. Henry Francis||Canterbury||22 June, 1910.|
The number of members constituting the House of Representatives is eighty—seventy-six Europeans and four Maoris. They are now designated Members of Parliament. The number was originally fixed by the Constitution Act as not more than forty-two and not less than twenty-four, and the first Parliament called together in 1854 consisted of forty members. Legislation passed in 1858 fixed the number of European members at forty-one; in 1860, at fifty-three; in 1862, at fifty-seven; in 1865, at seventy; in 1867, at seventy-two; in 1870, at seventy-four; in 1875, at eighty-four; in 1881, at ninety-one; in 1887, at seventy; and in 1900, at seventy-six. By the Maori Representation Act, 1867, which is still in force, as embodied in the Legislature Act, 1908, four Maori members were added, three for the North Island and one for the South.
The North Island at present returns forty-two European members, and the South Island thirty-four. The elections are triennial, except in the case of a dissolution by the Governor. Quinquennial Parliaments, instituted under the Constitution Act, were abolished by the Triennial Parliaments Act, 1879.
Every registered elector, being of the male sex and free from any of the disqualifications mentioned in the Legislature Act, 1908, is eligible for membership. All contractors to the public service of New Zealand to whom any public money above the sum of £50 is payable, directly or indirectly, in any one financial year, as well as the public servants of the Dominion, are incapable of being elected as, or of sitting or voting as, members. An exception is made by the Suspension of Disqualifications during War Act, 1915, whereby it is laid down that the receipt of pay as a member of any of His Majesty's military or naval forces raised for service beyond New Zealand shall not cause a member of either branch of the Legislature to be deemed a Civil servant or contractor for purposes of the Legislature Act.
The payment made to members of the House of Representatives is £25 per month, amounting to £300 per annum, subject to certain deductions for absence during session not due to sickness or other unavoidable cause. Travelling-expenses to and from Wellington are also allowed. This scale of payment came into force on the 7th November, 1901, under the provisions of an Act passed in that year.
The election of a Speaker is the first business of a new House after the members have been sworn. A Chairman of Committees is elected as soon after as is convenient. Both Speaker and Chairman of Committees hold office until a dissolution, but receive payment until the first meeting of a new Parliament.
Twenty members, inclusive of the Speaker, constitute a quorum.
ROLL OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT (12TH AUGUST, 1915) IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
|Speaker—Hon. FREDERIC WILLIAM LANG.||Chairman of Committees—ALEXANDER SCOTT MALCOLM.|
|Name.||Electoral District.||Date of Election.|
|For European Electorates.|
|Allen, Hon. James||Bruce||10 December, 1914.|
|Anderson, George James||Mataura||″|
|Bollard, Richard Francis||Raglan||″|
|Brown, John Vigor||Napier||″|
|Buddo, Hon. David||Kaiapoi||″|
|Carroll, Hon. Sir James, K.C.M.G.||Gisborne||″|
|Coates, Joseph Gordon||Kaipara||″|
|Dickie, William James||Selwyn||″|
|Dickson, James McColl||Chalmers||″|
|Dickson, James Samuel||Parnell||″|
|Ell, Henry George||Christchurch South||″|
|Escott, James Henry||Pahiatua||″|
|Field, Thomas Andrew Hemming||Nelson||″|
|Field, William Hughes||Otaki||″|
|Fletcher, Robert||Wellington Central||″|
|Forbes, George William||Hurunui||″|
|Fraser, Hon. William||Wakatipu||″|
|Glover, Albert Edward||Auckland Central||″|
|Guthrie, David Henry||Oroua||″|
|Hanan, Hon. Josiah Alfred||Invercargill||10 December, 1914.|
|Human, Hon. Alexander Lawrence||Wellington North||″|
|Harries, Hon. William Herbert||Tauranga||″|
|Hindmarsh, Alfred Humphrey||Wellington South||″|
|Hine, John Bird||Stratford||″|
|Hornsby, John Thomas Marryat||Wairarapa||″|
|Hudson, Richard Phineas||Motueka||″|
|Isitt, Leonard Monk||Christchurch North||″|
|Jennings, William Thomas||Taumarunui||15 June, 1915.|
|Lang, Hon. Frederic William||Manukau||10 December, 1914.|
|Lee, Ernest Page||Oamaru||″|
|MacDonald, Hon. William Donald Stuart||Bay of Plenty||″|
|McNab, Hon. Robert||Hawke's Bay||″|
|Malcolm, Alexander Scott||Clutha||″|
|Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, P.O.||Franklin||″|
|Myers, Hon. Arthur Mielziner||Auckland East||″|
|Newman, Alfred Kingcome||Wellington East||″|
|Okey, Henry James Hobbs||Taranaki||″|
|Parr, Christopher James, C.M.G.||Eden||″|
|Payne, John||Grey Lynn||″|
|Pearce, George Vater||Patea||″|
|Poole, Charles Henry||Auckland West||″|
|Rhodes, Hon. Robert Heaton||Ellesmere||″|
|Rhodes, Thomas William||Thames||″|
|Russell, Hon. George Warren||Avon||″|
|Scott, Robert||Otago Central||″|
|Seddon, Thomas Edward Youd||Westland||″|
|Sidey, Thomas Kay||Dunedin South||″|
|Smith, Robert William||Waimarino||″|
|Statham, Charles Ernest||Dunedin Central||3 February, 1915.|
|Stewart, William||Bay of Islands||8 June, 1915.|
|Stewart, William Downie||Dunedin West||10 December, 1914.|
|Sykea, George Robert||Masterton||″|
|Talbot, Charles John||Temuka||″|
|Thacker, Henry Thomas Joynt||Christchurch East||″|
|Thomson, John Charles||Wallace||″|
|Veitch, William Andrew||Wanganui||″|
|Walker, Andrew||Dunedin North||″|
|Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, Bart., P.C., K.C.M.G.||Awarua||″|
|Webb, Patrick Charles||Grey||″|
|Wilford, Thomas Mason||Hutt||″|
|Wilkinson, Charles Anderson||Egmont||″|
|Wright, Robert Alexander||Wellington Suburbs and Country Districts||10 December, 1914.|
|Young, James Alexander||Waikato||″|
|For Maori Electorates.|
|Tau Henare||Northern Maori||11 December, 1914.|
|Ngata, Hon. Apirana Turupa||Eastern Maori||″|
|Pomare, Hon. Maui||Western Maori||″|
|Parata, Taare||Southern Maori||″|
Isaac Earl Featherston, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 5th April, 1871. Appointment to date from 25th March, 1871. (Gazette, 1871, page 155.)
(Note.—Sir W. Tyrone Power was appointed on 20th June, 1870, by the Crown Agents as temporary Agent-General on the death of Dr. Featherston.)
Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, by Warrant dated 19th September, 1876. Appointment to date from 9th September, 1876, vice I. E. Featherston, deceased. (Gazette 1876, page 721.)
Sir Francis Dillon Bell, appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1878, by Warrant dated 7th December, 1880, vice Sir Julius Vogel, resigned. (Gazette, 1881, page 311.)
Westby Brook Perceval, Esq., appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 25th September, 1891, vice Sir F. D. Bell. (Gazette, 1891, page 1071.)
The Hon. William Pember Reeves, appointed Agent-General under the Public Revenues Act, 1891, by Warrant dated 23rd December, 1895, vice Sir W. B. Perceval. (Gazette, 1896, page 50.) Appointed High Commissioner under the High Commissioner Act, 1904, by Warrant dated 14th June, 1905. (Gazette, 1905, page 1509.) Reappointed High Commissioner as from 14th June, 1908. (Gazette, 1908, page 1921.)
The Hon. Sir William Hall-Jones, K.C.M.G., appointed High Commissioner from 1st December, 1908, vice Hon. W. P. Reeves. Assumed office 18th January, 1909. (Gazette, 1909, page 27.) Appointment extended to 31st December, 1911. (Gazette, 1911, page 2720.) Appointment further extended to 31st March, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 45.) Appointment further extended to 31st May, 1912. (Gazette, 1912, page 1227.)
Charles Frederick Wray Palliser, appointed High Commissioner from 1st June, 1912, for one month. Reappointed from 1st July, 1912, and again reappointed from 1st August, 1912.
The Hon. Thomas Mackenzie, appointed High Commissioner from 23rd August, 1912, for a term of three years. (Gazette, 1912, page 2612.) Assumed office 9th October, 1912. Reappointed from 22nd August, 1915. (Gazette, 1915, page 2283.)
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies—Right Hon. A. Bonar Law, P.C., M.P.
Parliamentary Under-Secretary—Right Hon. Lord Emmott, P.C., G.C.M.G.
Permanent Under-Secretary—Sir John Anderson, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.
Assistant Under-Secretaries—Sir H. W. Just, K.C.M.G., C.B.; and Sir G. V. Fiddes, K.C.M.G., C.B.
(City Office, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.; Stock Transfer Office, 1 Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C.; Shipping Office, 13 Great St. Helens, E.C.; Packing Store, Cole Abbey Chambers, Lambeth Hill, E.C.)
Crown Agents—Sir Reginald L. Antrobus, K.C.M.G., C.B.; Major Sir Maurice Alexander Cameron, K.C.M.G., late R.E.; and William Hepworth Mercer, C.M.G.
New Zealand—W. G. Wickham, 11 Grey Street, Wellington. Australia—G. T. Milne, Equitable Buildings, Melbourne. (Telegraphic Address: “Combrit.”) Canada—C. Hamilton Wickes, 3 Beaver Hall Square, Montreal. (Telegraphic address: “Britcom.”) South Africa—Sir R. Sothern Holland, Cape Town. (Telegraphic address: “Austere.”)
Argentine Republic.—Vice-Consul: Henry Hampton Rayward, Wellington.
Belgium.—Consul-General for Australasia and Fiji: F. Huylebroeck, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand): M. Matteeuw, Sydney. Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Provincial Districts of Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consul: G. F. Johnston, Wellington. Consul (with jurisdiction over the Districts of Canterbury, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland): Joseph James Kinsey, Christchurch. Consuls: Alexander Manual Ferguson, Auckland; George Lyon Denniston, Dunedin.
Brazil.—Vice-Consul: A. H. Miles, Wellington.
Chile.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand: William Brown, Sydney. Consuls: Joseph James Craig, Auckland; J. Montgomery, Christchurch. Honorary Consuls: Albert Martin, M.D., Wellington; J. A. Roberts, Dunedin.
China.—Consul: Kwei Chih, Wellington.
Denmark.—Consul (for North island): Hon. Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, K.C.M.G., Wellington (Principal Consulate). Consul (for South Island): Henry Bylove Sorensen, Christchurch. Vice-Consuls: Paul Maximilian Hansen, Auckland: William Edward Perry, Hokitika; Odin Henry Möller, Dunedin; Michael Myers, Wellington.
France.—Consul (for New Zealand): J. Rigoreau, Auckland. Vice-Consul: Percival Clay Neill, Dunedin. Consular Agents: George Humphreys, Christchurch; James Macintosh, Wellington.
Greece.—Vice-Consul (for New Zealand); Joseph Frank Dyer, Wellington.
Honduras.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand; Frederic Walsh, Sydney.
Italy.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: Cavaliere Emilio Eles, Melbourne. Vice-Consul: Cavaliere G. Ferrando, Melbourne. Consular Agents: Thomas Wallace, Christchurch; Leonard Owen Howard Tripp, Wellington; John Roberts, C.M.G., Dunedin; Geraldo Perotti, Greymouth; Charles Rhodes, Auckland.
Japan.—Consul-General: S. Shimizu, Sydney. Consul: Thomas Young, Wellington.
Liberia.—Consul: Charles Louisson, Christchurch. Acting-Consul: Trevor Noel Holmden, Wellington.
Mexico.—Consul: John William Hall, Auckland.
Netherlands.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji: W. L. Bosschart, Melbourne. Vice-Consul de Carriere, attached to Consulate-General, P. E. Teppema, Melbourne. Consul (with jurisdiction over New Zealand and the Islands belonging thereto): Hon. Charles John Johnston, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: George Ritchie, Dunedin; Ambrose Millar, Auckland; Walter Goring Johnston, Wellington; G. Van der Velden, Christchurch.
Norway.—Consul-General for Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the adjacent islands: O. Römcke, Melbourne. Consul: Alex. W. Newton, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sigurd Bentzon, Melbourne; Leslie Robert Wilson, Dunedin; Robert Millar, Auckland; Albert Peter Gundersen, Christchurch; Mathias Ericksen Wiig, Invercargill; John Hayes Enright, Westport.
Paraguay.—Consul: A. E. Kernot, Wellington.
Peru.—Consul-General (with jurisdiction over the Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand): J. Maitland Paxton, Sydney. Consul: Ambrose Millar, Auckland.
Portugal.—Consul: John Duncan, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: David L. Nathan, Auckland; Arthur Donald Stuart Duncan, Wellington; Charles William Rattray, Dunedin.
Russia.—Consul-General for the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Dominion of New Zealand: A. N. d'Abaza, Melbourne. Vice-Consuls: Ultan Francis McCabe, Wellington; James Paterson, Auckland.
Spain.—Consul-in-Chief (with jurisdiction over Australia and New Zealand): Senor Don Mario Pinies y Bayona, Melbourne. Vice-Consul (with jurisdiction throughout New Zealand): William Henry Dillon Bell, Wellington.
Sweden.—Consul: Arthur Edward Pearce, Wellington. Vice-Consuls: Sidney Jacob Nathan, Auckland; Albert Kaye, Christchurch.
Switzerland.—Consul: Georges A. Strieff, Auckland.
United. States of America.—Consul-General (for New Zealand and its dependencies): Alfred A. Winslow, Auckland. Vice-Consul-General: Leonard A. Bachelder, Auckland. Consular Agents: Frank Graham, Christchurch; Arthur Edward Whyte, Wellington; Frederick Orlando Bridgeman, Dunedin.
Uruguay.—Consul: Don Cesar Montero Bustamente, Wellington. Vice-Consul: William John Prouse, Wellington.
There is no State Church in the Dominion, nor is State aid given to any form of religion. Government in the early days set aside certain lands as endowments for various religious bodies, but nothing of the kind has been done for many years past.
The principal churches, with the names, &c., of the present heads or officers, and the places and times of holding the annual or periodical assemblies or meetings, are as follows:—
For church purposes, the Dominion is divided into six dioceses—viz., Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. The General Synod meets every third year in each diocese in rotation. Representatives attend from each diocese, and also from the diocese of Melanesia. President, the Primate (Bishop of Dunedin). The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, under the presidency of the Bishop of the diocese.
The names, &c., of the Bishops of the Church of England are as follows:—
The Most Rev. Samuel Tarratt Nevill, D.D., Dunedin; consecrated 1871 (Primate).
The Right Rev. Alfred Walter Averill, D.D., Auckland; consecrated 1910; translated 1914.
The Right Rev. William Walmsley Sedgwick, B.A., Waiapu; consecrated 1914.
The Right Rev. Thomas Henry Sprott, D.D., Wellington; consecrated 1911.
The Right Rev. William Charles Sadlier, B.D., Nelson; consecrated 1912.
The Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Christchurch; consecrated 1890.
The Right Rev. Cecil John Wood, D.D., Melanesia; consecrated 1912.
The General Assembly will meet on the third Tuesday of November' 1915, in St Andrew's Church, Auckland. Moderator, the Rev. A. Grant' Dannevirke. Moderator-elect, Rev. William Scorgie, Mornington, Dunedin; Clerk, Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, Nelson; Treasurer, Rev. W. J. Comrie, Presbyterian Church Offices, Wellington; Theological Professors, Rev. Michael Watt, M.A., D.D., Dunedin, Rev. W. Hewitson, B.A., Dunedin, and Rev. John Dickie, M.A., Dunedin; Secretary for Foreign Missions, Rev. A. Don, Dunedin.
The Diocese of Wellington, established in 1848, was in 1887 created an archdiocese and the metropolitan see. There are three suffragan dioceses—Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin. A retreat is held annually in each of the four dioceses, at the end of which a synod is held, presided over by the bishop or archbishop, and at which all his clergy attend.
In January, 1899, the first Provincial Council of New Zealand was held in Wellington, under the presidency of the metropolitan, and attended by all the suffragan bishops, and a number of priests elected specially in each diocese as representatives of the whole Catholic clergy in the Dominion. The decrees of this Council were approved by Rome in April, 1900, were published on 1st January, 1901, and are now binding in every diocese in the Dominion.
The Most Rev. Francis Redwood, S.M., D.D., consecrated in 1874, is Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in New Zealand, and the most Rev. Thomas O'Shea has been appointed Coadjutor Archbishop. The following are the bishops:—
Auckland: The Right Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D.; consecrated 1910.
Christchurch: Vacant. (The Right Rev. John Joseph Grimes died on the 15th March, 1915.)
Dunedin: The Right Rev. Michael Verdon, D.D.; consecrated 1896.
The New Zealand branches of the Methodist Church of Australasia and the Primitive Methodist Connexion are now united under the designation of the Methodist Church of New Zealand.
The Officers of the Church for 1915 are as follows: President of the Conference, Rev. J. Dawson, Wellington; Vice-President, Mr. H. Holland, Christchurch; Secretary, Rev. W. A. Sinclair, Christchurch; Connexional Secretary, Rev. Samuel Lawry, Christchurch; Secretary for Foreign Missions, Rev. W. Slade, Wellington; Secretary for Home Missions, Rev. T. G. Brooke, Mount Eden.
The affairs of the Church are administered by ten District Synods, which meet annually. The Chairmen are appointed by the Conference.
The next Conference will be held in Auckland, opening during the last week in February, 1916.
President, Rev. E. A. Kirwood, Grange Road, Mount Eden; Vice-President, Mr. C. Cathie, Wellington; Secretary, Rev. R. S. Gray, Dunedin; Treasurer, Mr. W. Lambourne, Ponsonby; Missionary Secretary, Rev. J. K. Archer, Invercargill; Missionary Treasurer, Mr. A. Hoby, Wellington. The Union comprises fifty-three churches, forty-six preaching-stations, 5,763 members, and a constituency of 25,000. The denominational organ is the New Zealand Baptist; Editor, Mr. H. H. Driver, Dunedin. The Foreign Missionary Society, with an income last year of £2,800, has a thoroughly equipped hospital and dispensaries, employs a doctor, two missionaries, five zenana ladies, and forty-six Native helpers. The sphere of operations is in North Tipperah, East Bengal, with a population of 1,200,000.
The annual meetings are held during the month of March, at such place as may be decided on by vote of the Council. Chairman for the current year, Rev. William Saunders, Dunedin; Secretary, Rev. E. A. Bridger, Green Lane; Treasurer, Mr. T. W. White, Auckland; Registrar, Mr. C. B. Gregory, Marton; Head Office, Auckland. In 1916 the meeting of the Council will be held at Dunedin. The Committee of the Union meets in Auckland on the second Tuesday of each month.
Ministers: Rev. S. A. Goldstein and Rev. S. Katz, Auckland; Rev. H. van Staveren and Rev. C. Pitkowski, Wellington; Rev. A. Diamond, Dunedin. Annual meetings of the general congregations are usually held at these places during the month of Elul (about the end of August).
The next Triennial Session of the Associated Churches of Christ will be held at Dunedin at New Year, 1915. President, Mr. C. Fleming McDonald, Dunedin; Vice-president, Mr. Ralfe Gebbie, Christchurch; Secretary, Mr. J. L. Stewart Wright, Dunedin. District conferences are held annually in each of the three districts—Auckland, Middle, and Southern.
The Annual Congress of the Salvation Army is held in the month of April each year.
The principal officers of the Salvation Army in New Zealand are: Territorial Commander, Commissioner H. C. Hodder; Chief Secretary, Lieut.-Col. A. E. Powley,; Secretary for Field Affairs, Major H. B. Colledge; Property Secretary, Brigadier J. H. Bray; National Young People's Secretary, Brigadier W. J. Hoare; Divisional Commanders, Brigadier A. B. Carmichael, Auckland, Major J. Toomer, Wellington, Major E. Newby, Christchurch, Major A. E. Colvin, Dunedin; Principal of Training College, Wellington, Brigadier W. Gist. Among the social institutions maintained by the Salvation Army are: Rescue Homes at St. Albans, Caver sham, Parnell, and South Wellington; Maternity Homes at each of the four chief centres, Samaritan Homes at Gisborne and Napier, Boys' Homes at Island Bay and Eltham; Girls' Homes at Middlemarch and South Wellington; Prison Gate Brigade Homes at Epsom and Addington; and Inebriates' Homes at Pakatoa and Rotoroa.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1911.
Privy Councillors (P.C.).
Massey, Right Hon. William Ferguson, 1913.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1907.
Williams, Right Hon. Sir Joshua Strange, 1913.
Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Henry Dillon, 1915.
Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1913.
Carroll, Hon. Sir James, 1911.
Findlay, Hon. Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., 1911.
Hall-Jones, Hon. Sir William, 1910.
Mills, Sir James, 1909.
Perceval, Sir West by Brook, 1894.
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, 1886.
Ward, Right Hon. Sir Joseph George, 1901.
Bowen, Hon. Sir Charles Christopher, 1910.
Buchanan, Hon. Sir Walter, 1912.
Kennaway, Sir Walter, 1909.
Miller, Hon. Sir Henry John, 1901
McLean, Hon. Sir George. 1909.
O'Rorke, Hon. Sir George Maurice, 1880.
Prendergast, Hon. Sir James, 1881.
Williams, Right Hon. Sir Joshua Strange, 1911.
Wilson, Sir James G., 1915.
Chaytor, Colonel E. W. C., 1915.
Cradock, Major Montagu, 1900.
Davies, Major-General R. H., 1900.
Newall, Colonel Stuart, 1900.
Porter, Colonel T. W., 1902.
Robin, Brigadier-General Alfred William, 1900.
Collins, Colonel Robert Joseph, V.D., I.S.O., 1911.
Fitchett, Frederick, M.A., LL.D., 1911.
Gudgeon, Lieut.-Colonel Walter Edward, 1890.
Hogben, George, M.A., F.G.S., 1915
Jowsey, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas, 1900.
Otterson, Henry, 1913.
Parr, C. J., 1914.
Roberts, John, 1891.
Robin, Brigadier-General Alfred William, 1912.
Stowe, Leonard, 1912.
Andrews, James Frank, 1913.
Blow, Horatio John Hooper, 1911.
Collins, Colonel R. J., V.D., 1909.
Heywood, James B., 1905.
Kensington, W. C., 1909.
Mackenzie, James, 1915.
Robertson, Donald, 1912.
Ronayne, Thomas, 1914.
Strauchon, John, 1912.
Tregear, Edward, 1911.
Biddle, Benjamin, 1869.
Hill, George, 1869.
Lingard, William, 1869.
Mace, Francis Joseph, 1869.
Mair, Gilbert, 1870.
Maling, Christopher, 1869.
Northcroft, Henry William, 1910.*
Preece, George Augustus, 1869.
Roberts, John Mackintosh, 1869.
Wrigg, Harry Charles William, 1898.†
Bartlett, Major E., 1902
Critchley-Salmonson, Captain A. C. B., 1915.
Hart, Major H. E., 1915.
Hickey, Major D. A., 1902.
Hughes, Lieut.-Colonel J. G., 1900.
Major, Colonel C. T., 1900.
O'Neill, Major E., 1915.
Poison, Major D., 1900.
Stevenson, Captain R., 1902.
Todd, Captain T. J. M., 1900.
Waite, Major F., 1915.
Walker, Captain G. H., 1901.
* For service rendered in 1866.
† For service rendered in 1867.
Members of New Zealand Contingents in South Africa, 1899–1902.
Baigent, Private Ivanhoe.
Black, Sergeant-major G. C.
Burr, Sergeant-major W. T.
Cassidy, Sergeant W.
Fletcher, Sergeant-major W. H.
Free, Private A.
Kent, Sergeant W.
Langham, Sergeant-major J.
Lockett, Sergeant-major E. B.
Pickett, Sergeant-major M.
Rouse, Farrier-Sergeant G.
Wade, Private H. B.
White, Sergeant-major H.
Members of New Zealand Expeditionary Force in Dardanelles Operations, 1915.
Abbey, Sergeant A. W.
Barlow, Private H.
Bennett, Corporal P. H. G.
Comrie, Private James.
Crawford-Watson, Private L.
Fear, Lance-Corpl. F. J. H.
Findlay, Private A. J.
Henry, Private W. J.
Hodges, Sapper E. A.
McLeod, Private R. C.
O'Connor, Private F.
Reid, Corporal W. J.
Rodger, Sergeant W. J.
Salmon, Corporal C. W.
Saunders, Corporal C. W.
Scrimshaw, Sapper E. G.
Steedman, Lance-Corpl. A. B.
Stockdill, Private T.
Swan, Private J. W.
Tempany, Private G. A.
Tilsley, Sergeant R.
Wilson, Private C. M.
Wimos, Corporal J.
(One of four knitted by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria for presentation to selected members of Colonial Contingents in South Africa.)
Coutts, Captain Henry Donald, 1900.
By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 30th October, 1856, the Governor was apprised that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on members of the Legislative Council and on the Speaker of the House of Representatives of New Zealand.
By despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 15th June, 1893, it was announced that the title of “Honourable,” appertaining to Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in colonies possessing Responsible Government, whether confined to duration of office or continued for life, was approved by Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, for use and recognition throughout her dominions, either during office or for life, as the case might be.
By further despatch of 10th March, 1894, the Secretary of State announced that he was prepared in future to submit for the approval of the Sovereign the recommendation of the Governor of any colony having Responsible Government that the President of the Legislative Council or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly may, on quitting office after three years' service in their respective offices, be permitted to retain the title of “Honourable.” This title is now held by Sir G. M. O'Rorke.
Besides the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the following ex-Ministers are allowed, as such, to retain the title of “Honourable” Buddo, David. 1912; Carroll, Sir James, K.C.M.G., 1912; Findlay, Sir John George, K.C., LL.D., K.C.M.G., 1911; Fowlds, G., 1911; Hall-Jones, Sir William, K.C.M.G., 1908; Hislop, Thomas W., 1891; McKenzie, Roderick, 1912; Mackenzie, Thomas, 1912; Millar, John Andrew, 1912; Mills, Charles H., 1900; Mitchelsen, Edwin, 1891; Ngata, Apirana Turupa, 1912; Oliver, Richard, 1884; Reeves, William P., 1890; Stout, Hon. Sir Robert, K.C.M.G., 1887; Thompson, Thomas, 1900; Tole, Joseph A., 1888.
By another despatch of 14th November, 1896, the Secretary of State requested to be informed if the Government of New Zealand desired that members of the Legislative Council in this Dominion should on retirement or resignation, after a continuous service in such Council of not less than ten years, be eligible for recommendation by the Governor for Royal permission to retain the title of “Honourable.”
By despatch of 29th August, 1877, it was announced that retired Judges of the Supreme Court may be allowed the privilege of bearing the title of “Honourable” for life, within the Dominion. This title is now held by Sir James Prendergast.
By despatch of 22nd December, 1911, it was announced that the title of “Honourable” was conferred on Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand.
By an Act passed during the year 1912 and intituled the Public Service Act, 1912, the Public Service of New Zealand was placed under the direct and sole control of a Commissioner and two Assistant Commissioners, who were appointed in the first place for a term of seven years, are responsible only to Parliament, and can be dismissed from office only for misbehaviour or incompetence.
The Act became operative on the 1st April, 1913, and applies to all members of the Public Service with the exception of the Controller and Auditor-General, officers of the Railway Department, members of the Police and Defence Forces, Judges and Magistrates, officers of the House, certain officers of the Legislative Departments, and persons paid only by fees or commission, as well as any officer to whom the Governor in Council declares the Act shall not apply.
The powers vested in the Commissioner are very wide. They include the inspection of offices, the appointment, promotion, transfer, and dismissal of officers, and the framing of regulations.
An entrance examination is provided for youths desirous of entering the service, and efficiency and educational tests for promotion have been established.
In accordance with the provisions of the Education Act, 1914, Inspectors appointed by Education Boards, and in office on the 1st January, 1915, are deemed to be Inspectors of the Education Department as if they had been appointed under the Public Service Act, and will in future come under the jurisdiction of the Commissioner. Under the same Act the Commissioner is empowered to appoint to the Clerical Division of the Public Service any person who on the 1st January. 1915, was permanently employed by any Education Board for more than twenty hours a week in clerical work.
In accordance with the provisions of Section 17 of the Act, a classification of all officers to whom the Act applied was immediately proceeded with by the Commissioner on his assuming control. The provisional list for Departments other than the Post and Telegraph Department was gazetted on the 20th August, 1913.
The Post and Telegraph Department had been working under a classification system for some years, and the list for this Department for 1913–14 was published separately on the 14th October, 1913.
The classified staff on the following dates was,—
|Departments other than Post and Telegraph.|
|As at 1st April,||Number.||Salaries.|
The large increase as at 1st April, 1915, is accounted for by the fact that 253 temporary employees were made permanent, and 40 Inspectors brought under the operation of the Public Service Act.
|Post and Telegraph Department.|
|As at 1st April,||Number.||Salaries.|
An officer dissatisfied with any decision of the Commissioner with regard to (1) grade, (2) classification of the work performed by or assigned to him, or (3) salary or promotion, has the right of appeal, notice of which must be lodged with the Commissioner within thirty days. All appeals are dealt with by a Board consisting of three members, two of these appointed by the Governor, and the third elected by the officers of that branch of the service to which the appellant belongs. The decision of the Appeal Board on all matters brought before it is final.
Public Service Commissioner—D. Robertson, I.S.O.
Assistant Commissioners — R. Triggs, A. D. Thomson.
Speaker —Hon. Sir C. C. Bowen, K.C.M.G.
Chairman of Committees — Hon. W. C. F. Carncross.
Clerk of Parliaments, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and examiner of Standing Orders upon Private Bills—L. Stowe, C.M.G.
Clerk-Assistant and Acting Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod—A. T. Bothamley.
Second Clerk - Assistant — B. E. S. Stocker, M.A.
Interpreter—F. H. Phillips.
Speaker—Hon. F. W. Lang, M.P.
Chairman of Committees—A. S. Malcolm, M.P.
Clerk of the House—(Vacant).
Clerk-Assistant—A. F. Lowe.
Second Clerk-Assistant—E. W. Kane.
Sergeant-at-Arms—Major T. V. Shepherd.
Reader and Clerk of Bills and Papers—W. E. Dasent.
Record Clerk—W. Collings.
Chief Hansard Reporter—S. Spragg.
Hansard Supervisor—M. F. Marks.
Clerk of Writs—J. Hislop.
Deputy Clerk of Writs—G. P. Newton.
Interpreter—D. F. G. Barclay.
Prime Minister —Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.
Secretary to Cabinet and Clerk of the Executive Council—J. F. Andrews, I.S.O.
Private Secretary — F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Assistant Private Secretary — F. W. Furby.
Minister of Finance—Hon. J. Allen.
Private Secretary—F. G. Matthews.
Secretary, Receiver - General, Paymaster-General, and Registrar New Zealand Consols—G. F. C. Campbell.
Accountant, and Deputy Registrar New Zealand Consols—A. O. Gibbes.
Assistant Accountant and Inspector of Departmental Accounts — J. J. Esson.
Cashier—C. E. Chittey.
Head Ledger-keeper—A. J. Morgan.
Clerk in Charge Pay and Revenue Branches—H. J. Hawthorn.
Sectional Clerk—W. Wilson.
Correspondence and Record Clerk—M. S. Seddon.
Sectional Clerk—G. C. Rodda.
Assistant Inspector Departmental Accounts—T. H. Jones.
Registrar—R. E. Hayes.
Revising Barrister—E. Y. Redward.
Actuary and Deputy Registrar—A. T. Traversi.
Members—Hon. the Minister of Finance (Chairman, ex officio), Dr. Hay, Messrs. W. R. Morris, G. F. C. Campbell, and R. E. Hayes.
Superintendent of Fund—R. E. Hayes.
Secretary to Board—A. T. Traversi.
Board meets third Thursday in February, May, August, and November, or as business requires.
Minister—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.
Private Secretary — F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Minister of Stamp Duties—Hon. A. L. Herdman.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Auckland—W. G. Fletcher.*
Gisborne—R. S. Florance.*
Taranaki—A. V. Sturtevant.*
Hawke's Bay—F. Aspinall.*
Westland—W. P. Morgan.*
Canterbury—P. G. Withers.*
Southland—W. W. de Castro.*
Postmaster - General and Minister of Telegraphs—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Secretary—W. R. Morris.
Assistant Secretaries — F. V. Waters and G. B. Dall.
Chief Clerk—J. C. Williamson.
Chief Telegraph Engineer—J. Orchiston, M.I.E.E.
Chief Electrician—T. Buckley.
Chief Inspector—R. B. Morris.
Controller of Money-orders and Savings-banks—J. L. H. Ledger.
Chief Accountant—H. A. R. Huggins.
Inspector of Telegraph Offices—H. W. Harrington.
Controller of Stores—C. B. Mann.
Inspector of Savings-banks—W. Gee.
Auckland—F. D. Holdsworth.†
Thames—P. P. White.†
Gisborne—J. J. Pickett.†
New Plymouth—C. H. Burton.†
Wanganui—G. W. Sampson†
Wellington—A. P. Dryden.
Nelson—W. T. Ward.†
* Also Registrars of Building Societies, Industrial and Provident Societies, and Assistant Registrars of Companies.
† Combined post and telegraph offices.
Westport—A. W. Mann.*
Greymouth—D. St. George.*
Hokitika—G. A. Empson.*
Invercargill—T. T. King.*
Auckland—R. M. Baird.
Wellington—E. A. Shrimpton, M.I.E.E.
Nelson—G. T. Kemp.
Christchurch and Dunedin—W. E. Chisholm.
P. Curtis (Northern District), A. T. Cavell (Central District), S. Inder (Wellington District), C. M. Price (West Coast District), G. F. Furby (Midland) District), S. F. Haszard (Southern District).
Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Minister of Railways—Hon. W. H. Herries.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
Chief Traffic Manager—H. Buxton.
Traffic Superintendents—North Island—C. A. Piper; South Island—S. F. Whitcombe.
District Managers — Whangarei, W. Sword: Auckland. A. Duncan; Ohakune, G. Brownlee; Wanganui, J. E. Armstrong; Wellington, J. Bevin; Westport, P. L. Payne; Westland, A. H. Mellor; Christchurch, W. J. Stringleman: Dunedin, W. Bowles; Invercargill, T. W. Brebner.
Stationmasters in Charge — Kaihu, R. H. Nicolson; Gisborne, J. R. Boswell; Nelson, J. Young; Picton, A. M. Arthur.
Chief Engineer for Working Railways—J. Burnett, M.Inst.C.E.
Inspecting Engineer—F. W. MacLean.
Signal Engineer—H. J. Wynne, A.M.Inst.C.E.
Office Engineer—G. A. Troup.
Railway Land Officer—J. Young.
District Engineers—Auckland, D. T. McIntosh; Ohakune, C. T. Jeffreys; Wanganui, A. C. Koch; Wellington, F. C. Widdop; Westport and Westland, J. K. Lowe; Christchurch, A. J. McCredie; Dunedin, H. Macandrew; Invercargill, C. M. Benzoni.
Chief Mechanical Engineer—H. H. Jackson.
Locomotive Engineers—Auckland, F. T. Murison; Wellington – Napier–New Plymouth, G. E. Richardson; Hurunui – Bluff, G. A. Pearson; Westport and Westland, E. L. W. Haskins; Relieving, S. P. Evans and E. E. Gillon.
* Combined post and telegraph offices.
Members—Chairman, W. R. Haselden, S.M., appointed by the Governor: A. W. Hutchings, Assistant Stationmaster, Wellington, elected; D. Dwyer, Guard, Wanganui, elected; J. L. Churchouse, Ganger, Cross Creek, elected; D. McKenzie, Machinist, Petone, elected; A. Whisker, Engine-driver, Taumarunui, elected.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members—Chairman, W. R. Haselden, S.M., appointed by the Governor; J. P. Matheson, Goods Agent, Christchurch, elected; P. Gaines, Guard, Christchurch, elected; G. P. Martin, Engine-driver, Invercargill, elected; J. H. Jones, Turner, Addington, elected; E. J. Dash, Ganger, Waikari, elected.
Meets irregularly when required and where most convenient.
Members—Chairman, Hon. the Minister of Railways; J. L. Salmond, LL.B., Solicitor-General; F. Fitchett, M.A., LL.D., Public Trustee; E. H. Hiley, General Manager, Railways; elected—E. P. Moir, M. Lee, W. T. Wilson, and P. Gaines.
Board meets quarterly at Wellington.
Chief Judge—Jackson Palmer.
Judges—R. N. Jones, W. E. Rawson, C. E. MacCormick, M. Gilfedder, T. W. Fisher. J. W. Browne, A. G. Holland, T. H. Wilson, J. B. Jack.
Commissioners—H. W. Bishop, W. H. Bowler, H. Carr, C. T. H. Brown.
For places and dates of meetings of Boards see New Zealand Gazette of 30th April, 1914.
Minister of Justice and Attorney-General—Hon. A. L. Herdman.
Private Secretary—E. N. G. Poulton.
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Gisborne—W. A. Barton.
New Plymouth—A. Crooke.
Napier—S. E. McCarthy.
Palmerston North—J. W. Poynton.
Masterton—L. G. Reid.
Wellington—W. A. Hawkins.
Nelson—J. S. Evans.
Blenheim—F. O'B. Loughnan.
Greymouth and Hokitika—J. G. L. Hewitt.
Christchurch—A. H. Holmes.
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.
Auckland—R. E. G. Thomas.
Poverty Bay—W. A. Barton.
Hawke's Bay—S. E. McCarthy.
Wanganui and Rangitikei—F. W. Hart.
Manawatu—C. J. Hewlett.
Wellington—W. A. Hawkins.
Marlborough—A. F. Bent.
Westland—J. G. L. Hewitt.
Westland North—J. McIndoe.
Westland Central—G. N. Morris.
Canterbury—A. H. Holmes.
Timaru—V. G. Day.
Southland—J. R. Colyer.
Auckland—Hon. J. A. Tole.
Hamilton—H. T. Gillies.
Gisborne—F. W. Nolan.
Napier—H. A. Cornford.
New Plymouth—H. R. Billing.
Palmerston North—C. A. Loughnan.
Masterton—A. R. Bunny.
Wellington—H. H. Ostler.
Blenheim—C. H. Mills.
Nelson—C. Y. Fell.
Westport—A. A. Wilson.
Christchurch—S. G. Raymond.
Timaru—J. W. White.
Oamaru—A. G. Creagh.
Dunedin—W. C. MacGregor.
Auckland—C. C. Kettle, E. C. Cutten, and F. V. Fraser.
Whangarei, &c.—E. Page.*
Hamilton. &c.—E. Rawson.
Russell, &c.—E. W. Burton.
Rotorua, &c.—R. W. Dyer.
Thames, &c.—F. J. Burgess.*
Gisborne, &c.—W. A. Barton and R. S. Florance.
New Plymouth, &c.—A. Crooke.
Hawera, &c.—W. G. K. Kenrick.
Napier, &c.—S. E. McCarthy.
Wanganui, &c.—W. Kerr.
Palmerston North, &c.—J. W. Poynton.
Wairarapa, &c.—L. G. Reid.
Wellington, &c.—W. G. Riddell and D. G. A. Cooper.
Blenheim, etc.—F. O'B. Loughnan.
Nelson. &c.—J. S. Evans.
Westport, &c.—W. Wilson.*
Greymouth and Hokitika, &c.—J. G. L. Hewitt.*
Christchurch, &c.—H. W. Bishop.
Kaiapoi, &c.—T. A. B. Bailey.
Timaru, &c.—V. G. Day.
Oamaru, &c.—J. B. Bartholomew.*
Dunedin, &c.—H. Y. Widdowson
Gore, &c.—H. A. Young.*
Naseby, &c.—R. J. Acheson.
Invercargill, &c.—G. Cruickshank (T. Hutchison, relieving).
Chatham Islands—Dr. G. H. Gibson.
* Also are Wardens of Goldfields.
Auckland—W. S. Fisher.
Christchurch—T. D. Kendall.
Auckland—C. A. Barton.
Hamilton—H. J. Dixon.
Te Kuiti—F. W. Schramm.
Rotorua—C. V. Roberts.
Taumarunui—A. H. Cutler.
Gisborne—G. J. A. Johnstone.
Wairoa—J. L. Crowther.
Hastings—T. M. Lawlor.
Waipukurau, &c.—W. Baker.
New Plymouth—J. Terry.
Hawera—D. W. Mason.
Stratford—W. J. Reeve.
Wanganui—F. W. Hart.
Marton, &c.—H. Morgan.
Feilding—C. E. Taylor.
Palmerston North—C. J. Hewlett.
Wellington—R. P. Ward.
Christchurch—W. A. D. Banks.
Lyttelton—A. E. Reynolds.
Kaiapoi and Rangiora—A. G. Ashby.
Timaru—T. W. Tayler.
Temuka—W. S. Jones.
Waimate—W. Y. Purchase.
Oamaru—A. A. Mair.
Port Chalmers—S. R. McDonald.
Invercargill—J. R. Colyer.
Whangarei—F. Bird, jun.
Thames—J. C. Malfroy.
Coromandel—G. H. Sherwood.
Paeroa and Te Aroha—H. R. Bush.
Waihi—D. P. Phillips.
Tauranga—T. R. W. Philpotts.
Blenheim—A. F. Bent.
Reefton—G. N. Morris.
Greymouth—E. W. Cave.
Kumara—G. H. Harris.
Hokitika—J. N. Nalder.
Ashburton—G. G. Chisholm.
Naseby, &c.—J. A. Norrie.
Cromwell, &c.—J. Reid.
Queenstown and Arrowtown — A. J. Thompson.
Lawrence—J. M. Adam.
Gore—G. H. Lang.
Riverton and Orepuki—A. E. Dobbie.
Arrowtown, H. Graham; Carterton, (vacant); Dannevirke, J. Drummond; Dunedin, C. C. Graham; Feilding, J. J. Bagnall, E. Goodbehere; Foxton, A. Fraser; Kawhia, T. D. Hamilton, Kinohaku, W. J. Shaw; Levin, W. C. Nation; Marton, J. J. McDonald; New Plymouth, J. Mackay; Ohakune, E. G. Allsworth; Onehunga, D. A. Sutherland; Opotiki, P. A. Crawford; Otahuhu, A. R. Harris; Paeroa, J. Nathan; Pahi, J. B. Ariell; Port Albert, L. P. Becroft; Queenstown, L. Hotop; Raglan, W. H. Wallis; Taihape, J. P. Aldridge; Takaka, A. Sinclair; Tapanui, W. Quin; Taumarunui, A. S. Laird; Te Awamutu, J. B. Teasdale; Te Kopuru, T. Webb; Te Kuiti, J. Boddie; Te Puke, C. Lally; Thames, W. H. Lucas; Waihi, W. M. Wallnutt; Waipawa, J. C. Taylor; Waiuku, W. J. King; Westport, G. B. Sinclair: Whangarei, J M. Killen; Woodville, E. J. Gothard. All Stipendiary Magistrates are ex officio Coroners.
Solicitor - General — J. W. Salmond, K.C., LL.B.
Assistant Law Officers—H. H. Ostler, LL.B., E. Y. Redward, P. S. K. Macassey.
Law Draftsman—W. Jolliffe.
Assistant Law Draftsman—J. Christie, LL.M.
Inspector—C. E. Matthews.
Gaolers—Auckland, A. W. Ironside; Invercargill, (vacant); Lyttelton, J. C. Scanlon; Napier, A. Gideon; New Plymouth, H. McMurray; Wellington, M. Hawkins; Kairtgaroa; W. Ayling; Waipa Valley, G. Anderson; Waikeria (vacant).
Members—Hon. Sir R. Stout, K.C.M.G., Dr. Hay, F. Waldegrave, G. Fenwick, W. Recce, and G. C. B. Jordan.
Board meets once a quarter at different gaols.
Commissioner of Police—J. Cullen.
Superintendents—J. W. Ellison, Wellington; N. Kiely, Auckland; J. Dwyer, Christchurch; J. O'Donovan, Dunedin.
Inspectors—E. Wilson, Wanganui; A. H. Wright, Hamilton; S. P. Norwood, Invercargill; W. J. Phair, Greymouth; J. A. McGrath, Napier; C. W. Hendry, Wellington; A. Cruickshank, Auckland.
Sub-Inspectors—B. Sheehan, Timaru; R. Marsack, Palmerston North; W. Fouhy, New Plymouth; J. Johnston, Gisborne; W. H. Mackinnon, Wellington; W. B. McIlveney, Auckland; C. R. Broberg, Dunedin; G. Hastie, Christchurch.
Clerk in Charge—F. G. Twiss.
Resident Commissioner, Rarotonga—H. W. Northcroft, N.Z.C.
Resident Commissioner, Niue—H. G. Cornwall.
Resident Agents—Mangaia, J. C. Cameron; Aitutaki, T. Duncan; Atiu, D. B. Russell; Mauke, H. J. B. Morris; Penrhyn, W. Wilson; Manihiki and Rakahanga, H. Williams; Pukapuka, Johnstone Dyer.
Chief Medical and Health Officer—Dr. G. P. Baldwin.
Medical Officer, Niue—Dr. J. Pirie Cameron.
Registrar of Courts—H. H. G. Ralfe.
Collector of Customs—W. J. Stevenson.
Engineer—H. M. Connal.
Clerk to Federal Council and Government Printer—S. Savage.
Fruit Inspector—E. A. Reid.
European Police Officer—J. Nash.
Inspecting Engineer and Inspector of Mines—F. Reed, M.I.M.E.
District Inspectors: — Thames and Auckland Districts—B. Bonnie and M. Paul: Canterbury, Otago, and Southland Districts—E. R. Green and A. Whitley: West Coast Districts—J. Newton (Westport), T. O. Bishop (Reefton).
Lecturers and Instructors:—Thames—W. H. Baker, B.Sc.: Coromandel—W. B. Inglis: Waihi—A. H. V. Morgan, M.A.: Karangahake—R. B. MacDuff: Reefton—J. McPadden: Wcstport—H. Lovell.
Members — The Director, Geological Survey; the Surveyor-General; the Inspecting Engineer of Mines; the Chief Inspector of Machinery; J. Bishop; J. C. Brown; and H. A. Gordon, F.G.S.
Same official members as preceding Board, excepting the Chief Inspector
of Machinery, with the following private members: H. A. Gordon, F.G.S., Auckland; T. Gilmour, Waihi; H. S. Molineaux, Barewood; and H. P. Hornibrooke, Coromandel.
The Director of Geological Survey is Chairman of both Boards, and H. E. Radcliffe is the Secretary.
Board meets once a year in Wellington.
Wellington—F. J. Gunn.
Christchurch—J. O. Butler.
Wanganui—F. A. Nalder.
Minister of Internal Affairs — Hon. Sir F. H. D. Bell, K.C.
Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Chief Electoral Officer—J. Hislop.
Clerk in Charge and Deputy Electoral Officer—G. G. Hodgkins.
Members—The Minister of Internal Affairs (Chairman), the Director of the Dominion Museum, the President of the New Zealand Institute, Professor A. P. W. Thomas, and Messrs. H. F. Von Haast, G. M. Thomson, C. A. Even, and P. G. Morgan.
President—D. Petrie, M.A., Ph.D.
Hon. Treasurer—C. A. Ewen.
Secretary—B. C. Aston, F.I.C.
Dominion Analyst and Chief Inspector of Explosives—J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc., F.C.S.
Mining Chemist—W. Donovan, M.Sc.
Explosives Chemist and Inspector of Explosives—R. Girling-Butcher.
High Commissioner — Hon. T. Mackenzie.
Secretary—C. F. W. Palliser.
Trade and Immigration Representative—T. E. Donne.
Accountant—G. F. Copus.
Produce Commissioner—H. C. Cameron.
Veterinarian—A. Crabb, M.R.C.V.S.
Chief Clerk—A. S. Row.
Nominated by the Government—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O., G. F. C. Campbell, F. W. Flanagan, J. H. Richardson.
Elected by Contributors in the Post and Telegraph Department—H. E. Combs, H. A. R. Huggins.
Elected by contributors in the Police Department—Superintendent J. W. Ellison.
Elected by Contributors in other Departments—G. Allport, H. W. Bishop, J. W. Macdonald.
The Board holds its meetings in the Public Trust Building, Wellington, on the second Thursday in February, May, August, and November.
Controller and Auditor - General — Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
Deputy Controller and Auditor and Chief Clerk—P. Purvis Webb.
Audit Officer, London—T. H. Hamer.
Auckland—B. A. Meek, H. Wylie, C. G. Collins.
Napier—O. R. Younghusband.
New Plymouth—J. H. Fowler.
Wanganui—J. P. Rutherford.
Wellington—H. A. Lamb, J. Ward.
Nelson—J. C. A. Dudley.
Christchurch—A. W. Eames, A. L. B. Jordan.
Dunedin—C. P. Johnson, C. A. Ralston.
Invercargill—H. T. Thompson.
(Under New Zealand Loans Act, 1908.)
Minister of Finance—Hon. J. Allen.
Controller and Auditor - General —Colonel R. J. Collins, C.M.G., I.S.O.
Public Trustee—Dr. Fitchett, LL.D., C.M.G.
Speaker, House of Representatives—Hon. F. W. Lang.
Secretary to Commissioners—P. Purvis Webb.
Registrar-General—F. W. Mansfield.
Government Statistician—M. Fraser.
Deputy Registrar-General and Chief Clerk—W. W. Cook.
Chief Compiler, Statistical Branch—F. H. Machattie.
Year-book Clerk—J. W. Butcher.
Registrars of Birth, Deaths, and Marriages—Auckland, T. Culpan; Wellington, W. W. Cook; Christchurch, F. Evans; Dunedin, H. Maxwell.
Government Printer, Stationery Office Manager, and Controller of Stamp Printing—J. Mackay.
Chief Clerk and Accountant—B. B. Allen.
Superintendent—W. A. G. Skinner.
Inspector-General—F. Hay, M.B., C.M.
Deputy Inspector-General—St. L. H. Gribben, M.D.
Assistant Inspector—Miss H. Maclean.
Chief Clerk—D. Souter.
Medical Superintendent, Auckland Mental Hospital—R. M. Beattie, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Christchurch Mental Hospital—W. B. Gow, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Porirua Mental Hospital—G. Hassell, M.D.
Medical Superintendent, Seacliff Mental Hospital—F. T. King, M.B.
Medical Superintendent, Tokanui Mental Hospital, Kihikihi—A. Crosby, M.R.C.S.
Medical Superintendent. Nelson Mental Hospital—H. E. Jeffreys, M.R.C.S.
Superintendent, Hokitika Mental Hospital—J. Downey; Medical Officer H. Macandrew, M.B.
Minister—Hon. R. H. Rhodes.
Private Secretary—W. Crow.
Inspector-General of Hospitals, Chief Health Officer, and Registrar of Nurses and Midwives — T. H. A. Valintine, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H.
Deputy Chief Health Officer—J. P. Frengley, M.D., F.R.C.S., D.P.H.
Assistant Inspector of Hospitals and Deputy Registrar of Nurses and Midwives—Miss H. Maclean.
Chief Clerk—E. A. S. Killick.
District Health Officers—Auckland. Dr. R. H. Makgill; Napier, Dr. F. I. De Lisle; Wellington, Dr. H. E. Finch; Christchurch. Dr. H. Chesson; Dunedin, Dr. S. Smith.
Chairman—Dr. J. P. Frengley.
Members—G. Hogben, C.M.G., M.A.; W. H. Morton, M.Inst.C.E., M.R.San. Inst.; A. Burt, jun.; and J. Clark.
Board meets at irregular intervals, usually at Wellington.
Government Pathologist—R. H. Makgill, M.D., Edin., D.P.H., Camb.
Bacteriologist—J. A. Hurley.
Commandant N.Z. Defence Forces—Colonel A. W. Robin, C.B., C.M.G., T.D., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Military Secretary—Captain F. Hudson, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Chief Clerk—W. E. Butler.
Inspector of Rifle Clubs, Rifle Ranges, and Drill Halls—Colonel G. C. B. Wolfe, Reserve of Officers.
Judge Advocate-General—Colonel J. R. Reed, K.C., Reserve of Officers.
Chief of General Staff—Lieut.-Colonel C. M. Gibbon, Imperial General Staff.
Attached to General Staff—Captain W. B. D. Thring, R.N.Z.A.; Lieut, E. Purdon, N.Z. Staff Corps; Honorary Captain J. F. Rockstrow, temporarily attached to N.Z. Staff Corps.
Adjutant-General — Lieut.-Colonel H. E. Pilkington, R.N.Z.A.
Assistant Adjutant-General — Captain P. W. Skelley, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Quartermaster-General—Colonel A. W. Robin, C.B., C.M.G., T.D., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Quartermaster - General — (Q.M.G. (1)), H. M. Griffen.
Assistant Quartermaster - General — (Q.M.G. (2)), Major W. L. Robinson, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Quartermaster - General — (Q.M.G. (3)), Honorary Major J. O'Sullivan.
Assistant Quartermaster - General — (Q.M.G. (4)), G. Rodda.
Artillery Store Accountant—Honorary Lieut. R. G. V. Parker, R.N.Z.A.
Engineer Store Accountant—Honorary Lieut. R. G. V. Parker, R.N.Z.A.
Inspector Army Service Corps—Captain H. H. Wright, A.S.C.
Director of Veterinary Services and Remounts—Colonel C. J. Reakes, N.Z. Veterinary Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel R. W. Tate.
Attached to General Staff—Major W. C Morrison, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Major J. T. Bosworth, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel R. A. Chaffey, V.D., attached to N.Z. Staff Corps.
Attached to General Staff — Major W. C. Finnis, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Major W. H. Meddings, N.Z. Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding District—Colonel J. C. Nicols, V.D., A.D.C.
General Staff Officer—Major D. A. Hickey, D.S.O., N.Z. Staff Corps.
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General—Captain C. L. Hawkins, N.Z: Staff Corps.
Officer Commanding—Lieut.-Colonel J. E. Hume, R.N.Z.A.
Commanding Detachment R.N.Z.A.—Auckland (vacant).
Commanding Detachment R.N.Z.A.—Wellington, Captain W. B. P. Thring, R.N.Z.A.
Commanding Detachment R.N.Z.A.—Lyttelton, Captain D. MacDonald, R.N.Z.A.
Commanding Detachment R.N.Z.A.—Dunedin, Captain S. G. Sandle, R.N.Z.A.
NOTE.—For full particulars of rank and names of Officers of Permanent Staff and Territorial Force vide Army List of the New Zealand Forces, published quarterly.
Positions held by Officers of the New Zealand Staff Corps and Royal N.Z. Artillery at Headquarters and at District Headquarters shown opposite their names are in almost every case held temporarily during the absence on service with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force of the Officers permanently appointed to such positions.
Mangonui — Officer in Charge, J. T. Williams.
Russell—Coastwaiter, H. Stephenson.
Whangaroa—Coastwaiter, A. G. Ratcliffe.
Whangarei—Coastwaiter, J. Munro.
Hokianga—Coastwaiter, F. A. Hardy.
Kaipara—Collector, D. Savident.
Auckland—Collector, J. P. Ridings; Sub-Collector. A. V. Penn; First Clerk, B. Anderson.
Thames—Coastwaiter, T. C. Bayldon.
Tauranga—Collector, F. J. Robertshaw.
Poverty Bay—Collector, J. Howie.
New Plymouth—Collector, R. B. D. Eyre.
Waitara—Coastwaiter, L. H. Sampson.
Patea—Collector, H. W. Williams.
Napier—Collector, W. F. Dickey.
Wanganui—Collector, F. J. Walker.
Wellington—Collector, E. R. Brabazon; Sub-Collector, E. T. W. Maclaurin; First Clerk, H. A. Jackman.
Wairau—Collector, C. O. Trownson.
Picton—Officer in Charge, J. W. Burgess.
Nelson—Collector, W. Devenish.
Westport—Collector, T. C. Rowe.
Greymouth—Collector, F. Davies.
Hokitika—Collector, G. A. Empson.
Christchurch and Lyttelton—Collector, W. J. Wratt; Sub-Collector, W. Howarth; First Clerk, S. E. Haop.
Timaru—Collector, W. Rose.
Oamaru—Collector, C. Hill.
Dunedin and Port Chalmers—Collector, T. M. Cullen; Sub-Collector, P. Doull; First Clerk, H. W. S. Ruffell.
Invercargill and Bluff—Collector, W. J. Hawley.
Chatham Islands—Officer in Charge, G. H. Fry.
Minister of Marine — Hon. W. H. Herries.
Private Secretary—L. E. Johnson.
Chief Clerk—A. R. Stone.
Marine Engineer for the Dominion—R. W. Holmes.
Nautical Adviser and Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates—H. S. Blackburne.
Director, Meteorological Branch—D. C. Bates.
Chief Inspector of Sea Fisheries—L. F. Ayson.
Superintendents of Mercantile Marine and Examiners of Masters and Mates—
Auckland—C. E. W. Fleming.
Wellington—G. G. Smith.
Lyttelton—J. A. H. Marciel.
Master of s.s. “Hinemoa”—J. Bollons.
Commander Training-ship “Amokura”—G. S. Hooper (R.N.R.).
Chief Inspector of Machinery, Chief Surveyor of Ships, and Chief Examiner of Marine Engineers and Stationery-engine Drivers—R. Duncan.
Inspectors of Machinery, Surveyors of Ships, and Examiners of Marine and Land Engineers and Stationary-engine Drivers,—
Auckland—S. Dalrymple, W. G. Bell, H. G. L. Noy, A. C. Reid, W. J. White.
Napier—W. R. Douglas. D. Rankin.
Wanganui—C. W. R. Suisted, S. N. Johnston.
Palmerston North—W. Cullen.
Wellington—A. Calvert. A. E. Macindoe, J. W. Townsend, P. J. Healy.
Nelson—N. D. Hood.
Christchurch —A. W. Bethne, J. H. Knowles.
Dunedin—J. Williamson, W. J. Crawford, T. A. Cooper.
Members — R. Duncan, Chief Inspector of Machinery, M. Inst., Nav. A., Chairman; F. Reed, M.I.M.E., Inspecting Engineer of Mines; R. W. Holmes, M.Inst.C.E., Engineer-in-Chief, P.W.D.; E. Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., Electrical Engineer, P.W.D.; J. G. Macpherson, Secretary.
Board meets once a quarter, or when required, at Wellington.
Minister of Labour—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.
Private Secretary—F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Secretary for Labour, Registrar of Industrial Unions, Chief Inspector of Factories, and Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings—F. W. Rowley.
Chief Clerk, and Deputy Registrar of Industrial Unions—J. W. Collins.
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories and Deputy Superintendent of Workers' Dwellings—W. H. Hagger.
Auckland—W. Newton (in charge). J. Hollows, T. G. Fielder.
Wellington—H. E. Moston, W. Slaughter, and W. Rapley.
Christchurch—H. B. Bower (in charge), R. T. Bailey. W. Wakelin.
Dunedin—L. D. Browett (in charge), J. Georgeson, A. Burgess.
Whangarei—P. J. Norwood.
Rotorua—S. H. Sargeant.
Waihi—T. H. Erwin.
Gisborne—W. H. Westbrooke.
Dannevirke—F. R. Pearson.
New Plymouth—J. F. Arnold.
Hawera—F. W. Pettett.
Wanganui—E. W. F. Göhns.
Palmerston North—W. J. Culver.
Masterton—J. C. Yorke.
Blenheim—J. H. Morrison.
Greymouth—H. J. Torbit.
Oamaru—A. E. Waite.
Invercargill—G. H. Light foot.
And 151 Inspectors and Agents (police officers) in small towns.
Hawke's Bay—A. Donald.
Wellington—R. A. Bolland.
Nelson and Marlborough—S. Tyson.
Westland—H. J. Torbit.
North Canterbury—E. J. G. Stringer.
South Canterbury—J. Jackson.
Auckland—Miss H. R. Morrison.
Wellington—Miss E. R. Bremner.
Christchurch—Mrs. A. Way.
Dunedin—Miss M. S. Hale.
Judge — His Honour Mr. Justice Stringer.
Employers' Member—E. F. Duthie.
Workers' Member—J. A. McCullough.
Auckland and Taranaki Industrial Districts—T. H. Giles (Auckland).
Wellington, Marlborough, Nelson, and Westland Industrial Districts — P. Hally (Wellington).
Canterbury and Otago and Southland Industrial Districts — J. R. Triggs (Christchurch).
Members—F. W. Rowley (Chairman), J. W. Collins, and W. H. Hagger. There are also District Boards for the Auckland, Gisborne, Napier, New Plymouth, Wanganui, Palmerston North, Masterton, Wellington, Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, Timaru, Oamaru, Dunedin, and Invercargill Districts.
Meetings irregular; sits when business is required to be transacted.
Minister of Lands—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.
Private Secretary — F. D. Thomson, B.A.
Under-Secretary for Crown Lands—J. Mackenzie.
Assistant Under - Secretary — F. T. O'Neill.
Surveyor-General—E. H. Wilmot.
Inspectors of Surveys—J. Langmuir, J. D. Climie.
Chief Drainage; Engineer — J. B. Thompson.
Chief Clerk—W. R. Jourdain.
Chief Accountant—J. H. O'Donnell.
Inspector of Offices—A. C. Turnbull.
Chief Draughtsman—M. C. Smith.
Director of Magnetic Observatory (Christchurch)—H. F. Skey, B.Sc.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. M. Skeet.
Inspecting Surveyor—W. J. Wheeler.
Kauri-gum Superintendent and Inspector of Surveys—R. P. Greville, F.R.G.S.
Chief Draughtsman—H. D. McKellar.
Chief Clerk—J. G. Bendely.
Receiver of Land Revenue—F. A. Cullen.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—W. H. Skinner.
Inspecting Surveyor and Local Land Officer, Gisborne—T. Brook.
Chief Draughtsman—H. Mackay.
Chief Clerk—J. Thomson.
Receivers of Land Revenue—Napier, H. R. Robinson; Gisborne, F. T. Venning.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. Bullard.
Chief Draughtsman—H. J. Lowe.
Chief Clerk—W. J. Munro.
Receiver of Land Revenue—A. J. Rossiter.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—T. N. Brodrick.
Chief Draughtsman—W. F. Marsh.
Chief Clerk—H. M. Bannister.
Receiver of Land Revenue—T. G. Waitt.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. G. Price.
Chief Draughtsman—J. D. Thomson.
Receiver of Land Revenue—H. L. Welch.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—F. A. Thompson.
Chief Draughtsman—A. D. Burns.
Chief Clerk and Receiver of Land Revenue—A. D. A. Macfarlane.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—H. D. M. Haszard, F.R.G.S.
Chief Draughtsman—A. N. Harrop.
Chief Clerk and Receiver of Land Revenue—F. T. Sandford.
Commissioner of Crown Lands—C. R. Pollen.
Chief Draughtsman—F. E. Greenfield.
Chief Clerk—R. Leckie.
Receiver of Land Revenue—G. W. Palmer.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—R. T. Sadd.
Chief Draughtsman—D. M. Calder.
Chief Clerk and Receiver of Land Revenue—C. E. Archibald.
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Chief Surveyor—G. H. M. McClure.
Chief Draughtsman—R. S. Galbraith.
Chief Clerk and Receiver of Land Revenue—A. D. McGavock.
The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and—
Auckland—A. R. Harris, W. Johns, J. Trounson, J. G. Rutherford.
Hawke's Bay — R. B. Ross, A. J. Cameron, L. McKay.
Taranaki—A. Coxhead, W. W. Jones, C. J. Ryan.
Wellington—J. Dawson, H. T. Ellingham, J. Georgetti, Charles McIntyre.
Marlborough—J. S. Storey, A. Mackay, E. A. Weld, J. Fulton.
Nelson—James Bell, G. Walker, W. C. Baigent, R. Patterson.
Westland—R. Houliston, A. Cumming, B. Ward, G. Mallinson.
Canterbury—J. Sealy, J. Stevenson, R. Macaulay, T. G. Gee.
Otago—G. Livingstone, James Smith, P. Kinney, T. A. Munro.
Southland—C. Robertson, H. J. Middleton, J. Fleming, J. King.
Members — The Surveyor - General (Chairman), the General Manager of Tourist and Health Resorts, the Under-Secretary Native Department, the Commissioner of Crown Lands for each Land District in which are lands dealt with under the Act.
Secretary—W. R. Jourdain.
Meets when directed by Minister, at Wellington or elsewhere.
Superintending Nurseryman, North Island (Rotorua)—H. A. Goudie.
Superintending Nurseryman, South Island (Tapanui)—R. G. Robinson.
Member.—E. H. Wilmot. Surveyor-General, Chairman; T. N. Brodrick, Chief Surveyor at Wellington; Thomas Humphries, Wellington; H. Sladden, Hutt; and H. M. Wilson, Auckland.
Secretary—M. C. Smith.
Board meets March and September for examinations, and at other times as business requires, at Wellington.
J. D. Ritchie, Chairman and Land Purchase Inspector.
J. Mackenzie, Under - Secretary for Lands.
E. H. Wilmot, Surveyor-General.
Chief Clerk—O. Mewhinney.
The respective Commissioners of Crown Lands and one other member.
Auckland—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—T. Hall.
Assistant Land Registrars—R. H. Bourke and A. H. Fletcher.
Deputy Registrar of Deeds—C. R. Keeble.
Draughtsman—T. K. Thompson.
Poverty Bay—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—R. S. Florance.
Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. A. Eraser.
Hawke's Bay—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—F. Aspinall.
Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—W. Hislop.
Draughtsman—E. H. Cane.
Taranaki—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—A. V. Sturtevant.
Draughtsman—J. R. Vaile.
Wellington—District Land Registrar and Registrar of Deeds—G. G. Bridges.
Examiner of Titles and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. J. L. Burke.
Assistant Land Registrars—J. J. L. Burke and A. P. Gorman.
Marlborough—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—F. W. Broughton.
Nelson—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. Johnston.
Draughtsman—J. R. Strachan.
Westland—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. P. Morgan.
Canterbury—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. Wyinks.
Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—J. A. Ambrose.
Draughtsman—W. C. Leversedge.
Otago—District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—C. E. Nalder.
Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—P. Dalrymple.
Draughtsman—W. T. Morpeth.
Southland — District Land Registrar, Examiner of Titles, and Registrar of Deeds—W. W. de Castro.
Assistant Land Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Deeds—R. Sinclair.
Draughtsman—O. G. Goldsmith.
Minister in Charge—Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.
Private Secretaries—F. D. Thomson, B.A., F. W. Furby.
Auckland—J. E. D. Spicer.
Napier—H. G. Absolum (Acting).
Wanganui—A. C. Philpott.
Wellington—W. T. Wynyard.
Dunedin—A. E. Rowden.
Invercargill—W. McN. Miller.
Director—C. J. Reakes, D.V. Sc., M.R.C.V.S.
Assistant Director—J. L. Bruce.
Senior Veterinarian—J. G. Clayton, M.R.C.V.S.
Veterinary Officer in Charge of Laboratory, Wallaceville—H. A. Reid, F.R.C.V.S., D.V.S., F.R.S.E.
President—Sir J. G. Wilson, Kt. Bach.
Vice-President—J. C. N. Grigg.
Members—A. P. Allport, E. Averill, W. F. M. Buckley, R. Dingle, E. Hall. W. D. Hunt, A. S. Orbell, W. Perry, and R. Reynolds.
General Manager—B. M. Wilson.
Chief Clerk—W. H. Frethey.
Accountant—J. H. Barr.
Tourist Agents—Auckland, C. Wallnutt; Te Aroha, G. F. McGirr; Rotorua, Wm. Hill; Wellington, J. W. Hill; Christchurch, G. W. C. Moon: Dunedin, S. J. Collett; Invercargill, T. F. McLaughlin.
New Zealand Trade Commissioner for Australia, and New Zealand Government Agent, Melbourne—H. J. Manson.
New Zealand Government Agent, Sydney, N.S.W.—W. R. Blow.
Rotorua Sanatorium and Bath—Balneologist, A. S. Wohlmann, M.D., M.R.C.S.,: House Surgeon. W. F. Findlay, M.B., Ch.B.
Hanmer Springs—Resident Medical Officer, J. D. C. Duncan. M.B., Ch.B.
Inspector—W. W. Bird, M.A.
Assistant Inspector—J. Porteous, M.A.
Clerk in Charge—F. L. Severne.
Inspectors — Elizabeth Gunn, M.B., Ch.B., L.M.; Ada G. Paterson, M.B., Ch.B.: Elizabeth S. Baker, M.B., Ch.B.; Elizabeth H. B. Macdonald, M.D.
Inspectors and Instructors — F. R. Just, S. Moore, W. A. Johnson, A. P. Roydhouse, H. E. Longworth, and Misses D. K. Heritage, K. I. Larsen, E. M. Blackburne, B. Greenwood, E. Threadgill.
Taranaki—P. S. Whitcombe.
Wanganui—W. H. Swanger.
Wellington—G. L. Stewart.
Hawke's Bay—G. Crawshaw.
Marlborough—E. S. Hylton.
Nelson—N. R. Williams.
Grey—P. F. Daniels.
Westland—C. R. Kirk.
Canterbury North—H. C. Lane.
Canterbury South—J. McP Miller.
Otago—S. M. Park.
Southland—F. G. Stevenson.
Auckland—E. K. Mulgan, M.A.; C. W. Garrard, B.A.; W. A. Burnside, M.A.; J. T. G. Cox; G. H. Plummer, LL.B.; M. Priestley; N. T. Lambourne, MA.; J. W. McIlraith, M.A., LL.B., Litt. D.; Norman R. McKenzie.
Taranaki—W. A. Ballantyne, B.A.; R. G. Whetter, MA.
Wanganui—J. Milne, M.A.; T. B. Strong, M.A., B.Sc.; D. Stewart.
Wellington — T. R. Fleming, M.A., LL.B.; F. H. Bakewell, M.A.; F. G. A. Stuckey, M.A.; A. B. Charters, M.A.
Hawke's Bay — A. Strachan, M.A.; H. T. Hill, B.A.
Marlborough—D. A. Sturrock.
Nelson—G. A. Harkness, M.A.; A. Crawford, B.A.
Grey—W. S. Austin.
Westland—A. J. Morton, B.A.
North Canterbury—W. Brock. M.A.; C. D. Hardie, B.A.; S. C. Owen, M.A.; J. B. Mayne, B.A.
South Canterbury—J. G. Gow, M.A., J. A. Valentine, B.A.
Otago—C. R. D. Richardson, B.A.; C. R. Bossence; J. R. Don. M.A., D.Sc.; J. Robertson, B.A., B.Sc.
Southland—A. L. Wyllie, M.A.; A. Ingles, M.A.
Auckland—E. F. Warren.
Napier—E. B. Burdekin.
Hawera—E. Barns. (Also West Coast Settlement Reserves Agent.)
Wanganui—T. R. Saywell.
Masterton—T. R. Allen.
Wellington—K. N. H. Browne.
Nelson—J. E. Allen.
Greymouth—C. W. Cooke.
Christchurch—T. D. Kendall.
Invercargill—S. W. Smith.
Members — The Minister of Finance, the Public Trustee, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Valuer-General, the Superintendent of the State Advances Office, W. G. Foster, Esq., J. Macintosh, Esq.
Meets every Thursday at Wellington.
Members—The members of the Board constituted under the Public Trust Office Act, together with Mr. Hoani Tainui and Mr. Teo Tipene.
Meets irregularly at the Public Trust Office, Wellington.
Minister—Hon. Sir F. H. D. Bell, K.C. Private Secretary—J. W. Black.
Wellington—G. E. Robertson.
Christchurch—J. C. Prudhoe.
Dunedin—F. B. Bolt.
Invercargill—H. S. Manning.
Napier—G. A. Noble-Campbell.
Wanganui—A. E. Allison.
Nelson—G. J. Robertson.
Greymouth—R. S. Latta.
Timaru—T. P. Laurenson.
Members—The Minister of Finance, the Solicitor-General, the Surveyor-General, the Public Trustee, the New Zealand State Advances Office Superintendent, and the Government Insurance Commissioner.
Meets weekly on Wednesdays, at the Government Insurance Buildings, Wellington.
Auckland—F. H. Pope.
New Plymouth—K. B. Bain.
Palmerston North—R. H. Pavitt.
Christchurch—H. C. Rogers.
Dunedin—L. H. Osborn.
Members — The Minister in Charge, the General Manager, the Government Insurance Commissioner, and Messrs. J. W. A. Marchant, and G. R. N. Wright.
Meets on third Monday of each month, at the State Fire Office, Wellington.
Superintendent—G. F. C. Campbell.
Solicitor—J. B. Christie.
Accountant—W. N. Hinchliffe.
Inspecting Valuer—A. C. Mason.
Members — The Superintendent, the Under-Secretary of Crown Lands, the Government Insurance Commissioner, the Valuer-General, and the Public Trustee.
Board meets at the State Advances Office, Government Buildings, each Monday.
Under-Secretary—H. J. H. Blow, I.S.O.
Assistant Under - Secretary — W. S. Short (solicitor).
Engineer - in - Chief — R. W. Holmes, M.I.C.E.
Chief Electrical Engineer—E. Parry, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E.
Inspecting Engineers — F. W. Furkert, A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.M.E. (South Island). W. H. Gavin (North Island).
Staff Engineer — H. Vickerman, A.M.I.C.E., M.Sc., Auth. Sur.
Architect—J. Campbell, F.R.I.B.A.
Resident Engineer—C. J. McKenzie.
Designing Engineer—J. E. L. Cull.
Chief Clerk—G. C. Schmidt.
Accountant—C. E. Bennett.
Land-purchase Officers—E. Bold and A. H. Kimbell.
Inspecting Officer—P. S. Waldie.
Stores Manager—R. E. Herron.
Inspector of Stores—J. C. Fulton.
Fire Inspector—W. H. Hennah.
District Engineers—Auckland, F. Bigg-Wither; Gisborne, C. E. Armstrong; Wellington, J. D. Louch, A.M.I.C.E.; Dunedin, J. E. W. McEnnis.
Electrical Engineer—Christchurch, L. Birks, B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., M.I.M.E.
Resident Engineers — Whangarei, J. Wood, A.M.I.C.E.; Tauranga, J. Hannah; Napier, L. B. Campbell; Taumarunui, A. J. Baker; Stratford, G. T. Murray; Wanganui, R. H. Reaney; Nelson, W. Widdowson; Blenheim, A. B. Wright; Greymouth H. H. Sharp, A.M.I.C.E.; Otira, A. Dinnie; Christchurch, H. Dickson; Invercargill, J. H. Treseder; Winton, J. H. Lewis.
Resident Road Engineer — T. Burd, Tauranga.
Section 2 empowers the Governor, subject to certain conditions therein expressed, by Proclamation to declare “that the notes payable on demand by any bank therein named, and then issued or thereafter to be issued or reissued within New Zealand under any lawful authority in that behalf, shall during the period limited by the Proclamation be everywhere within New Zealand a good and legal tender of money to the amount therein expressed to be payable.”
Section 4 provides a State guarantee of such notes for a period of six months after the expiration of the period fixed by the Proclamation (or successive Proclamations, if more than one).
Section 6 prohibits the export of gold from New Zealand, during the period limited by any Proclamation as aforesaid, except with the consent of the Minister of Finance.
This Act applies the provisions of the Customs Act (relating to the forfeiture of goods to the Crown) to gold exported or attempted to be exported in breach of the provisions of the Banking Amendment Act (No. 1).
The purpose of this Act is “to make provision for the regulation of trade and commerce in time of war.”*
Sections 2 to 23 enable the Governor, by Order in Council, to fix and determine the maximum price in New Zealand of any class of goods, and from time to time in like manner to revoke any Order in Council or vary any maximum, price so fixed and determined. In exercise of this power the Governor may determine different maximum prices for the same classes of goods in respect of different forms, modes, conditions, or localities of trade, commerce, sale, or supply. The maximum price may be fixed either (a) as a specified sum, or (b) by reference to the “standard” price—that is to say, the current price at which goods of the same nature and quality were saleable in the same locality on the 1st August, 1914, if sold in the same quantity and on the same terms as to payment, delivery, and otherwise. Every person commits an offence under the Act, and is liable to a fine of £500, who sells, or agrees or offers to sell, any goods for a price in excess of the maximum price determined as aforesaid, except in the case of goods intended for export and not for consumption within New Zealand.
In addition to the pecuniary penalty above referred to, section 21 renders wholly void as against the buyer every contract 'of sale made by a seller or his agent in wilful breach of the foregoing provisions, while, on the other hand, the property in the goods is declared to pass to the buyer at the same time and in the same manner as if the contract had been of full force and effect.
* For other special legislation occasioned by the war see Acts, 1914, Nos. 7, 12, 13, 17, 20, 35, 38, 40, 47, 48, 60, 71.
Section 24 empowers the Governor in Council to prohibit the exportation during the war of any goods if such prohibition is deemed necessary in the public interest.
Section 25 provides for the suspension or modification during the war of any of the provisions of the labour laws (e.g., Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, Factories Act, and Shops and Offices Act).
Sections 26 to 33 enable the Governor, on payment of adequate compensation, to take possession of any goods required for the use of His Majesty during the war.
Section 34 authorizes the setting-up of a Commission to advise the Government as to the exercise of the foregoing powers.
Section 35 (giving effect in New Zealand to an Imperial Order in Council relating to trading with the enemy) has been repealed by the Trading with the Enemy Act, 1914 (No. 40).
This Act is intended for the relief of mortgagors during the present war, and declares it unlawful for a mortgagee, except with the leave of the Supreme Court, to do any of the following thin viz.,—
To call up the principal or any part thereof;
To exercise any power of sale or of entry into possession;
To commence an action for the breach of any covenant or condition expressed or implied in a mortgage (other than an action for breach of the provisions as to payment of interest); or
To commence an action for the recovery of a penal rate of interest.
Where leave of the Court is sought on the ground of the failure of the mortgagor to repay the principal or any part thereof, such leave shall not be granted so long as interest, at the ordinary rate fixed by the mortgage, is paid in accordance with the direction of the Court. Where such leave is sought on any other ground than the above or the non-payment of interest, the Court cannot give leave unless in its opinion the failure of the mortgagor to comply with the covenants and conditions of the mortgage is of such a nature as to seriously endanger the security.*
The Act relates to mortgages both of real and of personal estate, and is extended to apply, with the necessary modifications, to agreements for the sale and purchase of land and to leases containing purchasing clauses.
The Act was found to operate in a somewhat unexpected manner, the tendency being for investors not to lend money on mortgage at all. An amending Act (1914, No. 17) was accordingly passed enabling the parties
* The amending Bill now before the House (August, 1915) very considerably modifies these provisions. In particular, it proposes to repeal certain provisions that now restrict the exercise of the discretion of the Court. to a mortgage to contract themselves out of the provisions of the original Act. By a further amendment (No. 60) the Governor is empowered by Order in Council to suspend the principal Act or to modify any of its provisions in such manner as he thinks fit.
This Act amends the Fruit-preserving Industry Act, 1913. By that Act the Minister of Agriculture was empowered to arrange for advances not exceeding £3,000 in any one case, to be made by the State for the purpose of assisting in the establishment of fruit-preserving works. The present amendment increases the amount that may be advanced to any one person from £3,000 to £9,000.
This Act makes several technical amendments of the Public Revenues Act, 1910. In addition, section 8 empowers the Minister of Finance to raise, by way of Treasury bills, a loan of £2,000,000 towards the expenses incurred in New Zealand for the purposes of the present war.
This Act repeals certain provisions of the Civil Service Act, 1908, that required officers of the Public Service to make good, by way of proportionate contributions from their salaries, the amount of any misappropriation of public moneys by fellow-servants.
This Act authorizes local authorities and other bodies or persons having restricted powers to contribute out of their funds or in kind towards the expenses of the present war.
1914, No. 71, supplements the provisions of the earlier Act (No. 12), and validates contributions made,—
For the relief of distress occasioned by the war either within the British Empire or within the territory of any of the allied nations; or
For any patriotic purpose approved by His Excellency the Governor.
The later Act also enables local authorities to contribute towards the maintenance of the dependants of former employees who join any Expeditionary Force for military service beyond New Zealand, or who are called out for active service in New Zealand.
This Act is of temporary duration (expiring on the 31st December, 1915),* and empowers trustees, during the continuance of the war, to deposit trust-moneys at interest with approved savings-banks, building societies, investment companies, public companies, or municipal corporations.
* By the Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1915 (No. 14) the duration of this Act is extended to the 31st August, 1916.
This Act allows Borough Councils to adopt the system of election by proportional representation at general elections of Councillors. The system adopted is that in force in Tasmania.
This Act empowers the Government to grant cover, at rates to be approved by the Governor in Council, against war risk on policies of marine insurance of gold bullion exported from New Zealand to Australia, not exceeding £10,000 in any one vessel. Authority is also given for the Government to insure cargo exported from New Zealand in cases where the value of cargo exported by any one person is so small that the employment of London agents to effect insurance would, in the opinion of the Minister of Internal Affairs, constitute an excessive addition to the cost of insurance. The amount so covered for all insurers in any one vessel is not to exceed £10,000.
Section 2 of this Act empowers a Fire Board and a local authority whose district is outside the boundaries of the fire district to enter into an agreement for the protection from fire of property within the district of the local authority. In such a case, the Superintendent and other officers and members of the fire brigade have, within the district of the local authority, the same rights, powers, privileges, and immunities that they have within the fire district.
Section 3 exempts a Fire Board and the officers and members of a fire brigade from liability for damage done to property in the exercise of their duty. All such damage is declared to be damage by fire within the meaning of any policy of fire insurance covering the damaged property.
Section 6 imposes on the owner of premises where a fire occurs and on the owner of any personal property in such premises an obligation, on request by any officer or member of the Fire Board, to supply particulars as to all policies of insurance (if any) over such premises or property.
The remaining sections of the Act (sections 7 to 11) relate to the constitution of united fire districts, by agreement between the local authorities of two or more contiguous districts. Under the principal Act every fire district is required to be coterminous with the district of some Borough Council, County Council, Road Board, or Town Board. The amendment permits of any continuous area being constituted a fire district notwithstanding the fact that such district is not coterminous with the district of any one local authority.
Section 2 is designed to prevent, as far as practicable, the inclusion by the Representation Commissioners (when determining the boundaries of the several electoral districts) of any licensed premises in a no-license district.
Section 6 prohibits the sale of intoxicating liquor to any person under the age of twenty-one years, except to a person resident on the premises where the liquor is sold, or to a bona fide guest or lodger on such premises.
Section 7 provides an altered form of ballot-paper for the national prohibition poll. Under the old form a voter was required to vote either (1) against national prohibition, or (2) for national prohibition. Under the amended form votes are recorded either (1) for national continuance, or (2) for national prohibition.
Section 10 prohibits (after the 1st April, 1915) the employment in any bar of a person under twenty-one years of age.
Section 11 provides for the issue of licenses for the manufacture of wine in New Zealand, and regulates the sale of such wine. A licensee under this section is prohibited from selling wine in quantities less than 2 gallons, and also from permitting the consumption of wine on his premises. For the purposes of these provisions “wine” includes any liquor being the produce of fruit grown in New Zealand and of a strength not exceeding 40 per cent. of proof spirit.
This Act is intended to encourage the breeding of horses suitable for military purposes by giving to the owners of selected stallions a subsidy not exceeding £150 in any one case.
The purpose of this Act is to permit of the construction of railways by Local Railway Boards in districts where the Government is not prepared to undertake the work.
Section 3 provides for the constitution of railway districts by the Governor, on the petition of not less than one-fourth of the ratepayers therein. For each district there is to be a Railway Board of not less than five nor more than nine members to be elected by the ratepayers.
For the purpose of providing funds the Board of a district is empowered to raise moneys under the Local Bodies' Loans Act, and is also empowered to levy rates for the purpose of providing for the excess of the estimated expenditure over the estimated revenue in any year.
Every railway to be constructed under the Act has to be specially authorized by the Governor, by Order in Council; and, on the issue of an Order, the Board may enter into the necessary contracts for the construction of the works. The necessary powers for the efficient conduct of the business of the railway, when completed, are conferred upon the Board.
Sections 78 to 86 enable the Governor, on giving twelve months' notice in writing of his intention, to purchase any railway undertaking constructed pursuant to the Act, the price to be determined by arbitration.
The provisions of Part VIII of the Public Works Act (relating to the regulation and inspection of railways) are applied to railways constructed under this Act, and certain rights of the Crown — e.g., free carriage of mails, use of railway and rolling-stock in time of war or civil commotion—are protected.
In addition to various technical amendments of minor importance, this Act provides for the following matters:—
Section 2 reduces from three months to one month the necessary period of residence in an electoral district before a person who is otherwise qualified becomes entitled to enrolment as an elector for that district.
Section 4 provides for the enrolment as electors of commercial travellers and members of the theatrical profession who have resided in New Zealand for not less than one year but may not have resided for one month in any electoral district.
Important amendments are made with respect to the right to vote of seamen who have not a settled residence (as defined) in any electoral district. Seamen who have such a residence vote as electors of the district in which their home is situated, but other seamen vote as follows:—
If they are engaged under articles, for the district comprising the port where they signed those articles.
If they are not engaged at the time of the election, then for the district comprising the port of discharge.
In certain cases, where any port referred to above is comprised in more electoral districts than one, the seaman may choose to vote for any one of those districts.
Section 18 allows a person whose name has been struck off the electoral roll in error to vote on making the prescribed declaration before the Deputy Returning Officer.
Section 25 applies the provisions relating to the enrolment of European electors to the enrolment of Maoris under Part IV of the principal Act.
The main object of this Act is to provide a workable scheme for the superannuation of the employees of local authorities, as an alternative to the scheme provided under the Local Authorities Superannuation Act, 1908. It empowers a local authority to become a contributor to the National Provident Fund on behalf of any or all of its employees, and either with or without their consent. In any such case the National Provident Fund Board may waive certain conditions and restrictions applicable in the case of ordinary contributors—for example, provisions as to ages of contributors, rates of contributions, maximum rate of allowances payable, &c. In fact, the Board is authorized to consider on its merits any scheme submitted by an applicant local authority, and to make such terms as it thinks fit as to rates of contribution and as to allowances and other benefits. It is bound, however, so far as practicable, to preserve the same proportion between rates of contribution and value of benefits as exists between the several rates of contribution and the benefits receivable under the principal Act. The Board is obliged before committing itself to any proposed scheme to obtain and have regard to actuarial computations as to the sufficiency of the proposed contributions (in conjunction with the State subsidy) to provide the benefits proposed to be conferred.
As between the local authority and its employees the position is briefly as follows:—
The local authority may agree with the Board to contribute to the fund, either with or without the consent of its employees.
Having become a contributor, it may deduct from the wages or salary of even employee for whom it contributes a proportion of the contribution due to the fund on behalf of that employee. This proportion may vary in different cases, but must not exceed two-thirds of the total contribution.
The balance of the contribution is payable out of the fluids of the local authority.
If the employee retires from the service of the local authority before becoming entitled to a retiring-allowance—(i) he may withdraw from the fund his proportion of contributions, less benefits actually received by him; or (ii) he may elect to continue as a personal contributor to the fund. If he withdraws his contribution from the fund, the local authority may also withdraw its share of contribution; if not, the local authority must leave its contribution with the fund for at least eighteen months. If within that time the employee has not entered the service of the same or another contributing local authority, the moneys may be withdrawn, but if he has entered such service the moneys remain in the fund. In lieu of exercising its right to withdraw moneys from the fund, the local authority may elect to have them applied on behalf of any other employee or employees.
Corresponding provisions are made enabling private employers, friendly societies, and others to contribute in respect of their employees or members, and enabling industrial unions and trade-unions to require their members to become contributors.
This Act makes special provisions with respect to those contributors to the National Provident Fund who are members of the military Expeditionary Forces from New Zealand during the present war. It provides—
That absence from New Zealand shall not disqualify such a member from receiving benefits from the fund:
That during absence as a member of an Expeditionary Force the rate of contributions payable by him shall be reduced by one-half.
The Act also authorizes the reduction of contributions by contributors who are engaged during the continuance of the war on military duty in New Zealand.
The Workers' Dwellings Act of 1910 made provision for the erection by the State of dwellings to be sold or rented to persons whose annual income was not in excess of £175. The present Act makes certain amendments of the original scheme, the most important of which are the following:—
Under the principal Act the maximum area of the allotment attached to a workers' dwelling was fixed at half an acre in the case of an urban allotment, an acre in the case of a suburban allotment, and five acres in the case of a rural allotment. Under the amending Act the maximum area in all cases is determined by reference to the unimproved value, which is not to exceed £250.
The possible capital value of a worker's dwelling is increased from £600 to £750.
In the case of concrete and brick buildings, the period that may be allowed for the payment of purchase-money is increased from 25½ years to 36½ years.
Section 14 permits of an arrangement being entered into between the Workers' Dwellings Board, the State Advances Office, and a worker for the purpose of enabling the worker to build a house on a section provided by the Workers' Dwellings Board, part of the cost of the building being provided by the State Advances Office.
This Act authorizes the raising of a loan of £3,200,000 for railway-improvement purposes, to be raised by instalments not exceeding £750,000 a year.
The object of this Act is to better secure the public safety, the defence of New Zealand, and the effective conduct of military or naval operations during the continuance of the present war. For these purposes the Governor in Council is empowered to make regulations prohibiting acts deemed to be dangerous. A penalty of twelve months' imprisonment (in the case of an alien), three months' imprisonment in any other case, and a fine not exceeding £100, may be imposed for the breach of any such regulation. Prosecutions under the Act are to be by way of summary proceedings and not on indictment.
Trading with the enemy during the continuance of the present war is declared by this Act to be an indictable offence, punishable by—
Imprisonment with or without hard labour for a term not exceeding five years; or
The payment of a fine not exceeding £1,000; or
Both such imprisonment and payment of fine.
In the case of a corporation the maximum fine is fixed at £5,000.
Authority is given to a Magistrate, on information laid on behalf of the Attorney-General, to issue a warrant authorizing the entry into and search of premises, the inspection and seizure of books and documents, and the production of information as to business, in any case where any person is suspected of carrying on business contrary to the provisions of the Act.
The expression “trading with the enemy” is declared to mean any act for the time being prohibited by or in pursuance of a certain Proclamation issued by His Majesty on the 9th September, 1914, and called the Trading with the Enemy Proclamation (No. 2) (as the same is or may hereafter be amended or extended by any subsequent Proclamation).
The main purpose of this Act is to enable the Minister of Lands to act as agent for the disposal of kauri-gum on behalf of the gum-diggers during the crisis occasioned by the present war. The Act also provides for the Crown undertaking gum-digging operations in a systematic manner, with a view to the thorough working of the land, and the making of it suitable (after the extraction of the gum) for agricultural and other industries.
In providing for the purchase of gum by the Crown the Minister is authorized to advance up to one-half of the estimated value, and for that purpose to take as the basis of computation the values current before the commencement of the war.
This Act authorizes the raising of a loan of £3,000,000 for the following purposes:—
Construction of railways, £600,000:
Additional rolling-stock, £500,000:
For land-settlement and goldfields-development (the construction of roads and bridges), £1,500,000:
Other public works, £400,000.
Section 3 authorizes the sale of upwards of five acres of any education reserve for certain educational, religious, charitable, or public purposes; and, further, authorizes the sale of any part of an education endowment (without any restriction as to area) if the Land Board and the Minister are both of opinion that the sale is in the best interests of the endowment. The proceeds of every such sale are to be expended in the purchase of other land to be held for the same educational purpose as the land sold.
Under the Education Reserves Amendment Act, 1913, the Governor was empowered to determine certain education leases in the event of the land being required for the purposes of closer settlement. Section 4 of the present amendment confers on the lessee whose lease is so determined the right without competition to acquire one of the subdivisions when the land is being again disposed of.
This Act enables friendly societies to make certain concessions (as to payment of dues, &c.) to members of societies joining any Expeditionary Force, and to other members deprived of employment by reason of the war.
This Act corresponds with a recent enactment of the Imperial Parliament, and authorizes the Governor, by regulations, to avoid or suspend patents or licenses where the persons entitled to the benefits therefrom are subjects of a State at war with His Majesty.
The Governor is also authorized to grant to persons other than enemy subjects the right to make, use, exercise, and sell any patented invention or design liable to avoidance or suspension as aforesaid.
This Act amends in various particulars the provisions of the law relating to the disposition and tenure of Crown Lands in New Zealand. Its most important provisions are the following:—
Section 5 relates to the classification of lands for the purposes of the various existing provisions relating to the limitation of area. It relates only to lands that have not been classified by the Land Board under the Land Act, 1908—that is to say, it relates principally to settlement land, Native land, and private European land. Where any such land is required to be classified as first, second, or third class (for example, for the purpose of determining the area that may be acquired in freehold under the provisions of earlier Acts relating to the purchase by tenants of the fee-simple), such land is to be classified as follows:—
First class, of an unimproved value of £8 per acre or upwards (in lieu of £4 and upwards):
Second class, of an unimproved value of between £4 and £8 (in lieu of between £2 and £4):
Third class, of an unimproved value of less than £4 (in lieu of £2).
The effect of the alteration will be to reduce land valued at between £4 and £8 an acre from first class to second class, and to reduce land valued at from £2 to £4 from second class to third class. The reduction in classification will result in an increase in the area that may be held.
Sections 17 and 18 relate to the right to acquire the fee-simple conferred by earlier legislation on lessees in perpetuity of ordinary Crown land and of settlement land. The usual provisions as to the restriction of the area that could be acquired in fee-simple are not appropriately applied in these cases, and lead only to needless complexity of the law. Sections 17 and 18 give to such lessees the right to acquire the “whole area comprised in their leases notwithstanding that such area may exceed the usual limit.
Section 22 authorizes the Land Board on the expiry of any lease of a small grazing-run of settlement land, and notwithstanding any provisions as to renewal, to subdivide the land and dispose of it in allotments, the outgoing lessee to have the right to one allotment, and preference in the disposal of the other allotments to be given to his sons over twenty-one years of age who have resided on the run for seven out of the ten years preceding the expiry of the original lease. Similar provisions with reference to the subdivision of small grazing-runs of ordinary Crown land were made in 1913.
Section 36 enables the Land Board to dispose of sand-dunes and other comparatively worthless Crown lands to the occupiers of other lands in the vicinity. The purchaser is required to effect certain improvements before the issue of a title, including the planting of grass, lupin, or trees.
Section 37 authorizes the exchange of any areas of an education reserve for areas of equal value of ordinary Crown land or national endowment land.
Sections 42, 43, and 44 make temporary provisions (during the continuance of the war) for—
Waiving restrictions as to cropping:
Postponement of payment of rent on pastoral runs, and on certain small grazing-runs.
This amendment is designed to relieve contractors from the onerous conditions to which they have for some time been subject by reason of judicial interpretations of the principal Act (1908, No. 204). Under section 59 of that Act an employer or contractor is obliged to retain in his hands one-fourth part of the money payable under the contract to the contractor or subcontractor, until the expiration of thirty-one days after the completion of the work. It has been held that the work was not completed until the expiration of the period of maintenance, usually a period of three months after the completion of the main work. The amendment provides that the retention of the one-fourth as before mentioned shall be for thirty-one days after the completion of the work in the ordinary sense.
This Act recasts the whole of the law relating to public schools, secondary schools, technical schools, and special schools. The principal changes introduced are as follows:—
Reorganization, of the Department of Education.—The Inspector-General of Schools becomes Director of Education, and the Assistant Inspector-General of Schools becomes Assistant Director. The position of Secretary for Education is abolished. Inspectors of Schools who have hitherto been officers of the several Education Boards become officers of the central department.
Education Districts.—Provision is made for the constitution of not fewer than seven and not more than nine education districts, to be determined on the report of a special Commission to be set up for the purpose. At present there are thirteen education districts, each under the jurisdiction of an Education Board. Every education district is divided into urban areas and a rural area. An urban area consists of a borough or a group of boroughs having more than 8,000 inhabitants. Where a majority of the School Committees in an urban area make application to the Education Board of the district to be constituted an urban school district, the members of the Board for that urban area are to be elected on the municipal franchise on the same day as the election of Borough Councillors—that is, the last Wednesday in April in every second year. The rural area of an education district is divided into three wards. The members for each ward of the rural area and for all urban areas other than urban-school districts are, as now, to be elected by the members of the several School Committees. The number of members of an Education Board for the rural area is six—two for each ward. The number of members for each urban area is two for each 60,000, or part of 60,000, inhabitants.
Council of Education.—A Council of Education is established whose duty it is to report to the Minister,—
Upon educational methods or developments in national education which in its opinion it is desirable to introduce into New Zealand.
Upon any matters concerning the provision of facilities for education in the Dominion or in any district thereof, and upon the co-ordination of the work carried on by the various bodies controlling education:
Upon any other matters in connection with education referred to it by the Minister.
To obviate the necessity for frequent meetings of the Council the Minister is given power to constitute from time to time District Advisory Committees to afford assistance and advice with regard to matters concerning one district only.
Election of School Committees.—Members of School Committees formerly held office for one year, and were elected at meetings of householders held in April. Under the Act the members of the Committee for each urban school district are to be elected on the municipal franchise and are to hold office for two years. In all other cases School Committees continue to be elected by the householders, and are to hold office for one year.
Staffs and Salaries in Public Schools.—The Act provides for a liberal increase of salaries, and also for the increase of the teaching staff.
Scholarships.—There are two systems of school scholarships now in existence—namely, the Junior National Scholarships and the Education Board Scholarships. The Junior National Scholarships are tenable for three years and may be extended to a fourth year, and are fixed in value. The Education Board Scholarships are divided into Junior and Senior, each series being generally for two years; they vary considerably in value in the different education districts. The Act provides for one system of scholarships, to be called Junior and Senior National Scholarships, each tenable for not more than three years, but where the holder of a Junior Scholarship afterwards becomes a Senior Scholarship holder the joint term cannot exceed five years. The scholarship entitles the holder to free tuition at a secondary school and also to a monetary payment sufficient to cover ordinary living-expenses.
This Act authorizes the payment out of the Consolidated Fund of bounties in respect of the manufacture in New Zealand during the next ten years of iron and steel from iron-ore or ironsand produced in New Zealand. The rate of bounty is fixed at 12s. a ton in respect of pig iron, puddled bar iron, and steel produced from puddled bar iron; and £1 4s. a ton in respect of steel produced from molten metal direct from the furnace. The total amount authorized to be paid is £150,000.
This Act provides for an elective instead of an appointed Legislative Council. For the purposes of the Act New Zealand is divided into four electoral divisions—two in the North and two in the South Island. At the first election (to be held simultaneously with the first general election of members of the House of Representatives held after the 1st January, 1916), seven members of the Council are to be elected for each of the North Island electoral divisions and five for each of the South Island divisions. At subsequent elections forty members in all are to be elected, and (unless the alterations in boundaries made by the Representation Commissioners necessitate an alteration) twenty-two members are to be elected for the North Island and eighteen for the South Island.
Members of the Legislative Council now in office remain in office until the expiry of the term for which they were appointed. In the future only Maori members may be appointed. Councillors elected under this Act will continue to hold office until the dissolution of Parliament which takes place after the expiration of five years from the date of their election.
Elections are to be conducted on the proportional representation system. The system adopted is that which has been in force for some time in Tasmania.
Sections 5 to 9 define the powers of the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives respectively with respect to the initiation of legislation and other matters.
This Act makes important amendments for the purpose of ensuring the safety and well-being of miners. In particular provision is made with respect to—
Official inquiries in case of accident.
Ventilation in mines.
Prohibiting use of electricity in certain cases.
Withdrawal of men from dangerous localities.
Prescribing the use of safety-lamps where deemed necessary.
Examinations of mines by persons appointed for the purpose by the workmen.
Provision for bathhouses, with hot- and cold-water supply, for use of workmen.
Constitution of committees (known as Additional Rules Committees) consisting of a Warden or Magistrate, with representatives of the mine-manager and men respectively, to frame additional rules for the regulation of particular mines.
Power to Inspector of Mines to order cessation of work where, in his opinion, there is any immediate danger to life.
This Act makes various rules for the better and safer working of goldmines.
Section 14 empowers the workmen in any mine to appoint two persons with authority to make an inspection of every part of the mine and of its machinery and working once in every month, and with further authority to make such an inspection at any reasonable time on receipt of a notice in the prescribed form that, in the opinion of two or more of the workmen, the mine is dangerous to life.
Section 15 enables an Inspector of Mines summarily to stop the work in any mine in case of danger to life.
Section 17 makes provision for the holding of official inquiries as to accidents before a Warden and two assessors to be appointed by him; one assessor is to be the holder of a first-class mine-manager's certificate and the other is to be a workman selected by a society of the workers employed in the mining industry.
This Act provides for the disqualification of members of either House of Parliament who are proved to the satisfaction of a parliamentary Committee to have acted as agents for commission or other reward on the sale to or acquisition by the Crown of any private land.
The principal amendment of the law effected by this Act is the constitution, in connection with the New Zealand University, of a Board of Studies, with power (1) to make recommendations to the Senate as to the appointment of examiners, and as to degrees, diplomas, scholarships, prizes, courses of study, and examinations, and (2) to receive recommendations as to any of those matters from the Professorial Boards of the several University colleges. The Senate is also empowered to delegate to the Board of Studies certain of its powers as to drawing up courses of study, conducting examinations, appointing examiners, &c.
Provision is also made for the establishment of University National Scholarships, University bursaries, National Research Scholarships, and other scholarships.
Section 31 provides for annual grants to the several University colleges as follows:—
Auckland University College, £9,000.
Victoria University College, £9,000.
Canterbury University College, £2,000.
Dunedin University College, £5,000.
This Act enables the Governor by regulation to provide for the cooling or other treatment of fruit prior to export, and also for the inspection, grading, packing, and stamping of fruit intended for export.
This Act provides much more effective machinery than has formerly been available with respect to the registration and control of medical practitioners. It provides for the setting-up of a Board of seven members, one of whom is the Inspector-General of Hospitals for the time being, and the others medical practitioners, appointed by the Governor. The Board considers all applications for enrolment, and has power to direct the removal from the register of the names of practitioners who have left the country without any intention of returning and the names of persons who cannot be found on due inquiry being made. It may also take proceedings for the removal by order of the Supreme. Court of the names of practitioners who are guilty of gross misconduct in their professional capacity.
Table of Contents
D. C. B ates
The climate of New Zealand is to be considered in relation to four main features—(1) Its position, stretching for nearly a thousand miles southward of latitude 34° S.; (2) its insular condition, situated as it is in the widest ocean of the world, from which no part of the country is distant more than seventy-five miles; (3) its physical features, mountain-chains running mostly north and south and affording different aspects: and (4) the weather-changes to which these parts of the earth are subject.
The latitudes in which the chief cities of New Zealand lie in the Southern Hemisphere correspond with the cities in the North from which the possible amount of sunshine may be gauged. Auckland's latitude corresponds to that of Cape Passaro in the south of Sicily; Wellington to Naples; and Dunedin to Venice. The following table gives the period during which the sun is above the true horizon on the days of midsummer and midwinter:—
|Possible Sunshine on the||At Auckland. Hr. min.||At Wellington. Hr. min.||At Dunedin. Hr. min.|
The actual hours of bright sunshine recorded in Wellington average nearly six hours per day throughout the year, and few indeed are the days when a brilliant sun does not at some time or other score a definite trace upon the recording-chart. Other districts much more protected from cloud-formation, as Nelson, in Tasman Bay; Napier on the east coast of the North Island; and Lincoln, near Christchurch, on the east coast of the South Island, have higher records. Some of the west coast districts, on the other hand, record less bright sunshine; but Wellington, the capital city, is in the middle position, and affords a good mean for both the sunshine and the rainfall of the whole Dominion. Wellington is also in a critical position with regard to atmospheric disturbances, Cook Strait being usually the dividing-line between the cyclonic storms and westerly lows, generally partaking of the changes due to both. The actual results are as follows:—
|Hours of Sunshine.|
* Incomplete, 13 days no record kept.
† Incomplete, 15 days no record kept.
‡ For five years.
§ For eight years.
|| For seven years.
¶ For six years.
These results bear comparison with some of the most favoured regions of the world, where, in order to produce the best results, sunshine and shower hold sway in turn. For instance, over the northern parts of the British Isles the annual average of bright sunshine is 1,200 hours, or 27 per cent. of the possible; and in the south it is 1,600 hours, or 36 per cent.; while Italy has averages from 2,000 to 2,400 hours, or from 45 to 54 per cent. of the possible.
Latitude, insolation, proximity of the ocean, and the height of a locality are the determining factors with regard to temperature. The oceanic influences are recognized as the dominant feature with regard to both summer heat and winter cold, upon both of which they exercise a moderating effect. The west coast of the South Island especially is open to the prevailing westerly winds, and is more humid and equable than the eastern coastal districts, which at times present an almost continental type with considerable range of temperature. In the cities of Auckland and Wellington frosts on the grass are of rare occurrence, though further south and inland they are often experienced. As showing the influence of the ocean in moderating temperature, we may contrast the records of a continental city with the capital city of Wellington.
|Temperatures (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
|Mean.||Wellington. Lat. 41° 16′ S.|
|Mean annual range||27.3|
|Mean annual range||81.0|
The meteorological seasons are regarded as later than the solar or astronomical seasons. Thus, in the Southern Hemisphere July is usually the coldest and wettest month of the year, while January is the driest and warmest. The seasons are thus roughly divided:—
Winter—June, July, August.
Spring—September, October, November.
Summer—December, January, February.
Autumn—March, April, May.
The following table gives seasonal and annual means computed from several stations in the various provinces into which the Dominion was once politically as well as naturally divided:—
|Nelson and Marlborough—|
Mean temperatures of definite places are usually employed in climatic comparisons, and the following annual means, as well as the means of the extreme months of the summer and winter, afford the reader useful data. The Australian temperatures are from the Official Year-book of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the others are chiefly from Dr. J. von Hann's great work upon the climatology of the world.
|Mean Temperatures in Shade (Degrees Fahrenheit).|
|New York City.||Washington, D.C.||St. Louis.||Los Angelos|
|Santiago.||Buenos Ayres.||Monte Video.|
The rainfall map of New Zealand presents striking conformation to its physical configuration, and records gathered throughout the country during a period of more than sixty years present a certain regularity which brings out the dominating influence of the mountain ranges over the rainfall. The lofty Southern Alps, rising to heights of from ten to twelve thousand feet on the western side of the South Island, lie broadside to the prevailing westerly winds, and on their windward slopes are condensed the vapours which have been swept by the breezes over vast stretches of ocean-wave. On the plains at the margin near the foot of the ranges and on their rugged and precipitous slopes the rainfall averages from one to two hundred inches per annum, while on the lee side of this formidable chain the climate is comparatively very dry, and in parts the rainfall is only about one-tenth of what is recorded on the other side. The manner in which the sea-breezes are robbed of their moisture is occasionally manifested when a strong and steady westerly wind blows along parallel with the southern latitudes. Heavy and continuous then is the rain on the west coast, and the clouds and mist may rise to the summit, but no further. There the winds are forced onwards and rush downwards to the greatest plains in New Zealand which have been built up of the detritus of the mountains. Here, however, the characteristics of this westerly wind have been entirely changed, for it is now hot by compression, and dry because it gave off its moisture when it rose above sea-level away back among the hills. Instead of parting with superfluous humidity, it is now capable of sustaining the vapour of water, and nature seeks to restore the balance of its relative humidity by evaporating what moisture it can from stream and lake, vegetation or animal life in its path. These hot and dry “nor'-westers” of the Canterbury Plains are similar in character to the well-known Foehn winds such as are experienced in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, but they illustrate and account for much of the comparative shortage of rainfall on the eastern side of the South Island which is manifest from a glance at the map.
While the South Island isohyets or rain-bands of equal rainfall stretch north and south, the North Island tracings are more irregular in form, but show that the rainfall itself is more regular over the country and less extreme in comparison between different districts. Here, again, however, the control of the mountains and plains over precipitation is apparent. The contours of the rainfall areas are found to coincide more or less with the configuration of the country—dark-tinted spots showing heavier rainfalls are found in proximity to Mount Egmont, the Tongariro, Tararua, Raukumara, and other ranges.
The mean annual rainfall of New Zealand, derived from means of representative stations in various parts of the whole country, is about 50 in., but the seasonal falls are different in various districts. The season of greatest fall in the North Island, which is mostly under the influence of subtropical conditions, is winter, and the month of July shows not only the lowest mean temperature but the mean maximum rainfall, and is regarded as the midwinter month in the Southern Hemisphere. In the
South Island late autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently dry, while the summer sometimes suffers from too frequent showers. This is the case on the east coast and southernmost portions of the South Island, but at this time the west coast occasionally is even in want of rain; in fact, the west and east coasts of the South Island are so different that if the east coast has more than the average rainfall the west coast has less, and vice versa. The average monthly rainfall of the year is remarkably even in the South Island, but the midwinter month's mean in the North Island is nearly double the mean of the midsummer month.
The averages from the climatological tables are—
|Rainfall (in Inches).|
|Rainy Days (0.005 in. or more).|
|Annual Rainfall (in Inches).|
|Auckland (60 Years).||New Plymouth (36 Years).||Wellington (55 Years).||Gisborne (35 Years).|
|Christchurch (36 Years).||Hokitika (34 Years).||Dunedin (54 Years).||Invercargill (18 Years).|
|Mean Number of Days with Rain (0.01 in. or more).|
|Annual mean totals.—Auckland, 180.4; New Plymouth, 1897; Gisborne, 153.8; Wellington, 167.7; Christchurch, 119.4; Hokitika, 1792; Dunedin, 163.3; Invercargill, 180.|
The seasons usually differ considerably in several characteristics from year to year, and the annual rainfalls are found to range considerably above and below the means in all parts of the Dominion. From month to month also, and by comparing the records of months of the same name in different years are seen surprising contrasts and periodic changes which evade general laws, and the approximately true mean rainfalls are only ascertained through averages derived from returns extending over many years
The abundance and frequency of the rainfall are, however, the leading features in the climate of New Zealand as a whole. The positions of the Islands, with vast oceans on every side, and the proximity of every part of the country to the sea, combined with frequent atmospheric changes usually cause all parts of the Dominion to be favoured with beneficent rains, and very rarely indeed does the rainfall report from any station in the Dominion make the return of “nil.” Nine out of ten of the stations throughout the country have never recorded months of such absolute drought, and on the other hand very few are the records showing rainfall every day during any month of their registrations. Sunshine and rain alternate fairly well throughout the year, with much greater predominance of the former. The rainfall is usually more intense and frequent at night than in the hours when the sun exercises its influence over air and earth and sea, for then “Maui is drawing water.”
Averages derived from the Monthly Climatological Tables from August, 1904, to December, 1914 (inclusive). Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall in points: 100 = 1 in.
|Days with rain||9.6||8.4||11.5||13.4||14.6||15.4||16.9||14.1||15.2||14.8||13.7||11.8|
|Days with rain||12.6||8.2||12.2||12.5||12.0||14.0||13.6||12.9||14.8||14.6||14.2||13.8|
Annual averages.—North Island—Mean temp., 56.0° F.; rainfall, 48.03 in.; days with rain, 159. South Island—Mean temp., 52.0° F.; rainfall, 44.35 in.; days with rain, 155.
Snow falls in the winter-time on the higher levels in the South Island and occasionally on the central plateau of the North Island, but, except on the mountain-tops, usually does not lie for long. Snow is seldom seen on the lowlands even in the southernmost districts of the South Island, and in many parts of New Zealand snow has never been known to fall; but, on the other hand, cyclonic areas in summer will bring some snow on the higher levels of the South Island.
Thunderstorms are also comparatively rare in the coastal districts, but are more frequent and prolonged in the mountainous parts. In summer the thunderstorms usually occur in the afternoon, and in the winter, with low pressure systems, at night.
Hail occasionally accompanies coastal thunderstorms, but rarely causes much damage to property, fruit, or crops in New Zealand, and is more frequently experienced in winter.
The winds of the temperate zone are usually fairly constant and fresh, and the Dominion of New Zealand—set as it is in the widest ocean in the world—is open to all its influence. The sea-breezes sweep uninterruptedly over thousands of miles of ocean-wave, not only bringing freshness, ozone, and moisture, but at times, it must be confessed, causing annoyance on account of their force and persistency. This may be regarded as a defect of their qualities, for in those parts of the earth that experience little wind the people usually lack energy, and the same regions are mostly subject to occasional storms that are terribly destructive to life and property. No country in the world, however, presents greater diversity in respect to wind than New Zealand, chiefly on account of its length and mountain-chains. The uneven surface of the land, the proximity of the straits, &c., are seen to exercise the most marked influence not only upon the force, but also upon the direction of the winds—reducing or increasing their velocity, diverting, and even entirely changing their course. For example, westerly winds blowing across the ocean towards the west coast are partially inverted—while the upper part will cross the mountains to become occasionally a hot, dry westerly wind on the Canterbury Plains, the lower part curls round and is actually experienced as an easterly wind in the towns on the coast at the foot of the mountains.
The average velocity as given herewith is from records of the Robinson anemometer, in miles per day:—
|—||Auckland (11 Years).||Wellington (16 Years).||Hokitika (16 Years).||Lincoln) (13 Years).|
|Average per day||180||282||135||164|
|Max. velocity in one day||974||1,200||693||967|
The velocity of the winds, it may be noted, is higher on the average in summer than in winter, and the winds are usually also stronger by day than by night.
The following “wind-roses” show the percentage of wind-directions from annual means for forty-eight years' unbroken records for each place.
The prevailing winds are thus seen to be planetary anti-trade winds—westerlies which go round the world and are used by mariners to take them eastward towards England as far as Cape Horn, and on their return they pick them up again off the Cape of Good Hope. In summer, however, to the North of Auckland the easterly trade winds often blow with much regularity for weeks together.
The weather is full of vagaries in the temperate zones of both hemispheres, and New Zealand is not the only country which occasionally experiences a touch of winter in summer, but there is also very much summer-like weather in the winter-time. Occasionally winter storms account for temporary high winds and heavy rainfalls, but the monthly averages show that less wind is experienced in the season of winter, particularly in the south.
The chief atmospheric changes are associated with barometric pressures, above the normal being known as “high” pressure, and below it as “low.” For weather charts and forecast purposes the isobar, or line of equal pressure of 30 in., is regarded as normal in New Zealand, though the true normal lies between 29.90 in. and 30.00 in. The winds flow nearly parallel to the isobars in both high and low pressure systems, and all atmospheric systems in New Zealand move from west to east.
High-pressure systems or anti-cyclones are usually associated with fair weather by day and cold nights, when the earth radiates the heat of its surface into space. The central isobar will occasionally enclose an area in which all the barometers reduced to sea-level and to 32° Fahr. will read as high as 30.60. Around this centre the winds revolve or back contrary to the direction of the hands of a watch in the Southern Hemisphere; thus, if the barometer is 30.40 in. at Wellington, and the readings are 30.00 in. or thereabouts at both Russell and the Bluff, the winds will be easterly over the North Island and westerly over the South, southerly off the east coast and northerly off the west coast. The winds thus form vast circles hundreds of miles in diameter. These anticyclones often last for eight or nine days.
Low-pressure systems are mostly of two kinds, and around their centres of lowest pressure the winds are seen to revolve clockwise on the weather-chart; thus, if the centre of a cyclone should be in Cook Strait the winds will be westerly at Auckland, easterly at Christchurch, northerly off the east coast, and southerly off the west coast. If the lowest pressure on the chart were in Foveaux Strait the prevailing winds northward would be generally westerly, at least as far north as New Plymouth and Napier, and sometimes extend even to the North Cape, changing from north by the west to south-west.
Cyclones are circular or oval-shaped disturbances with closed isobars; they come from the tropics, and chiefly affect the North Island, bringing first warmth and humidity, then high winds and heavy rain. They usually last from two to five days, and are more frequent in winter than in summer, though they are often intense at the latter period.
The term “cyclone” does not always mean a storm of great intensity such as is experienced in tropical regions, for when the disturbance leaves the tropics it usually expands and covers a wider area, over which its forces are distributed. The frequency of cyclones during the past nine years shows the following average: Spring, 2; summer, 1.8; autumn, 3.3; winter, 5.3. These figures will be surprising to some who believe that ex-tropical cyclones are found only in spring or early in summer, while others assert that they come only in midwinter.
Westerly or antarctic lows of λ-shaped isobars, with lowest pressure southward of New Zealand, chiefly affect the South Island, but, like the cyclones, frequently extend their influences over the whole Dominion. These lows usually move along the parallels of latitude known to sailors as the “roaring forties.” Their duration is from twelve hours to as many days, and in some seasons they are much more frequent and persistent than in others. They come at all times of the year, but with greater frequency in spring-time: Spring, 6.3; summer, 4.3; autumn, 5.2; winter, 4.7.
The development of the Maori race is a striking testimony to the suitability of the climate to humanity, and European families under New Zealand skies have generally developed in physique. Imported stock has in most cases thriven marvellously in the fields, where throughout summer and winter they usually find all the nourishment needed, and hardly ever require more than natural protection.
The fertility of the soil gives remarkable testimony to the genial climate of New Zealand, for, though labour is not nearly plentiful enough to obtain the best results from agriculture, yet, as shown in the returns published annually, the actual average yields in bushels per acre for the Dominion compare more than favourably with the yields for other countries.
Lastly, the vital statistics show that for a long period New Zealand has had the lowest death-rate in the world, and this is undoubtedly owing very much to the salubrity of its climate. The vital statistics show to advantage not only in the earlier years of life, but it is after the age of thirty-two that the extraordinary longevity of New Zealand is apparent. The judgment of travellers and those best qualified to give an opinion is that the country is one of the healthiest in the world. The abundant vitality of the people is apparent not only in the homes and throughfares throughout the Dominion, but is manifested in thriving industries and the high place attained by New-Zealanders in the world of sport. New Zealand, in a word, is a country where from youth to old age man can keep in vigorous health and enjoy life to its fullest extent.
With the exception of the southernmost portion of the South Island, the total rainfall for 1914 was everywhere considerably below the average of previous years, many parts experiencing one of the driest years since observations have been taken. Following is a short summary for each month of the weather and the chief atmospheric systems which were in evidence:—
January.—Anticyclonic pressure was continuous in the northern districts from the beginning until the 27th of the month, although during this period several depressions of but slight intensity passed in the South—viz., on the 3rd, 9th, 11th, 13th, 16th, and 22nd. On the latter date some heavy downpours occurred, especially in the western districts. From the 27th to the close of the month an intense and extensive depression of a cyclonic type enveloped the Dominion, and general rains were experienced, which were extremely beneficial to portions of the North Island, where dry conditions had ruled for some time. As a whole the month was one of fine and warm weather. Nearly the whole of the North Island and the northeastern districts of the South recorded considerably less than the normal rainfall, but the remaining portion of the South Island had an excess.
February.—Between the 1st and 5th of the month a westerly low-pressure area, of a cyclonic type, in its passage over the Dominion caused very unsettled conditions. Heavy rain fell at this time in many parts, particularly in South Canterbury and North Otago. On this account these two districts had an aggregate rainfall much above the average. Several depressions, but of minor intensity, had a disturbing influence on weather-conditions about the 11th, 24th, and 26th, but on the whole the month was one of fine and warm weather. With the exception of the two above-named districts, precipitation was everywhere below normal.
March.—Westerly areas of low pressure passed in the south in the opening and closing days of the month, and subtropical “lows” in the north in the middle of the month, and from the 24th to the 27th, but barometric pressure was usually above the average. The weather was generally mild and seasonable. Rainfall was below the normal, especially on the west coast, but some useful rains fell on the east coast of both islands.
April.—Disturbances prevailing during April were more remarkable for their frequency than for their intensity. On the 8th a cyclone passed in the south, and from then until the 16th a low barometer ruled in the southern districts, culminating in boisterous weather on the 16th and 17th. On the 21st, and again between the 27th and 29th, a depression passed in the northern districts, causing dull and wet conditions, especially along the eastern coast. Heavy rain fell at isolated places in conjunction with electrical disturbances between the 24th and 27th, and also in the mountainous country between Canterbury and Westland during the first half of the month. Usually, however, frequent showers formed the striking feature of the month, but fair and mild weather was also prevalent. With the exception of the extreme north and south of the North Island, nearly the whole of New Zealand had more than the mean rainfall.
May.—Anticyclones were in existence over the Dominion between the 4th and 7th, and the 23rd and 28th, and during these two periods fair weather was experienced in most parts of the country, with clear frosty nights in the South and in inland districts of the North Island. The weather for the rest of the month was unsettled, owing to various disturbances which passed over or in close proximity to the Dominion. On the 1st a rapidly moving depression passed in the south, and the wind changed to southerly, increasing to gale force at widely separated places. Ngaruawahia, in the Waikato, reported an exceptionally severe south-west gale, which caused considerable damage to property. On the 8th the centre of a small disturbance passed in the vicinity of Cook Strait, and this was followed by a depression which prevailed in the North Island between the
8th and 13th. This latter disturbance, and also an extensive cyclone which was centred off East Cape between the 16th and 22nd, accounted for heavy rains in the east coast districts of the North Island, and cold south-easterly weather generally. On the 17th, 18th, and 19th, owing to continuous heavy rains, floods occurred in many of the rivers in the Gisborne and Hawke's Bay districts. At Patunamu, Wairoa, the extraordinary fall of 13.05 in. fell on the 17th, and for the four days, 16th to the 19th, 29.63 in. were measured, while the total for the month was 38.31 in. Although this disturbance had not decreased in intensity on the 20th, the presence of another low-pressure area to the southward of New Zealand had a neutralizing effect, and a brief improvement in conditions was experienced, but this was followed by boisterous unsettled weather again on the night of the 20th. From the 29th to the close of the month squally weather ruled, with the development of an extensive westerly low-pressure area. About this date some heavy rains occurred in the northern districts. On the 29th Kaitaia reported 5.30 in., Wekaweka 4.88 in., and at Ruatoki 2 in. fell in one hour on the 30th. The aggregate total rainfall for the month was below the average on the west coast and in the extreme south of the South Island, and also in the central portion of the North Island; but elsewhere was in excess of the average.
June.—Although showery conditions were frequent, on the whole, the weather was propitious for the season of the year. In both the east coast districts especially, with the exception of a few short unsettled and squally periods, fair weather was the predominating feature. In consequence, in those parts vegetation was plentiful and everything was favourable to agricultural and pastoral pursuits. No severe storms were experienced, but numerous depressions of varying intensity passed over or in the neighbourhood of the Dominion. These were mostly of the westerly low-pressure type, bringing westerly winds with their approach, and southerlies with the passing of the trough to the eastward. A lagging of the barometric minimum about East Cape after the passage of these depressions was also a factor in causing a prevalence of strong and cold southerly winds during the month. The total rainfall was below normal in nearly all parts of the Dominion; in the North Island this deficiency averaged about 40 per cent., and in the South Island 26 per cent.
July.—In the northernmost districts and on the western coast of both Islands dull and showery conditions prevailed, but as a whole the weather was extremely mild for July, and the total rainfall was everywhere below the average, the deficiency being most remarkable in the east coast districts. Two persistent westerly low-pressure systems were in evidence during the month, but no storms of a severe character were experienced.
August.—The east coast provinces experienced almost continuous fair and dry weather, and some places reported the driest August for many years. Three westerly disturbances of moderate intensity passed in the south on the 7th, 12th, and 30th respectively; but the month was entirely free from severe storms. Between the 18th and 28th an anticyclone accounted for fair weather, and some sharp frosts occurred at inland stations. In the western districts and also in the southernmost portion of the South Island the weather was changeable and showery during the first half of the month, but improved thereafter. All parts of the country recorded a total rainfall below the average, the deficiency being strikingly low over the North Island and in the east coast and northern districts of the South Island.
September.—With the exception of the southernmost districts of the South Island, where the aggregate rainfall was above normal, warm and dry conditions were generally experienced, and a considerable deficiency resulted. At many stations in the east coast districts the total fall was less than 10 per cent. of the average. Between the 5th and 22nd an extensive anticyclone held sway, and fair weather was the predominating feature, with frosts often occurring at inland stations. On the 18th the barometer was as high as 30.65 in. at Wellington, but after this date high pressure gradually gave way, and was succeeded by an intense westerly area of low-pressure which brought unsettled and, in parts, stormy weather between the 23rd and 27th. At 7 p.m. on the 25th the barometer fell to 28.65 in. at the Bluff. It afterwards rose rapidly, and on the two closing days of the month fair weather again prevailed.
October.—During the month disturbances passed frequently in the south, but the centres on most occasions were located too far south of the Dominion, and except in Otago they were not responsible for much rainfall. Consequently the latter district was the only one having a total fall above the average. Over the remainder of the South Island the mean deficiency in rainfall averaged about 42 per cent., while in the North Island it was 67 per cent. below, ranging from 15 to as much as 91 per cent. In the southern districts of the South Island strong westerly winds and showery conditions prevailed, but elsewhere, except for a few brief periods, the weather was generally fair, although often cloudy. The stormiest days were the 10th, 18th, and 28th. On the 10th a heavy westerly gale was experienced, especially in and southward of Cook Strait. In Canterbury this was preceded by some hot weather, the high temperature of 90° F. being reported at Waimate, 87.8° at Christchurch, 87.2° at Lincoln, and 87° at Hanmer. On the 28th a cold southerly prevailed, accompanied by snow on the higher levels, and hail and sleet in many parts. A frosty night followed, and a general improvement took place on the 29th.
November.—Atmospheric depressions in southern latitudes were persistent during the month, and accounted for a prevalence of strong westerly winds, particularly in and southward of Cook Strait. The weather was very changeable generally. In the west coast and southern districts of the South Island the total rainfall was above the average; but elsewhere most parts reported a deficiency, although cloudiness was much in evidence.
December.—From the beginning until about the 25th strong northwesterly to south-westerly winds prevailed, and the weather was very changeable. During this period the winds occasionally attained gale-force, particularly between the 7th and 21st, when westerly low-pressure areas passed frequently in the south. From the 26th until the close of the month anticyclonic conditions, with fair and warm weather, were experienced. With the exception of the Taranaki District, and also the west coast and southernmost portions of the South Island, the rainfall was again generally much below normal.
The following table shows the difference, above or below the mean, for each month in the year:—
North Island Rainfall, 1914.
|Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Nine Previous Years.|
|Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Nine Years.|
|+ Above the average.|
|– Below the average.|
South Island Rainfall, 1914.
|Monthly Means compared with the Averages for Nine Previous Years.|
|Mean Number of Days with Rain, compared with the Averages for Nine Years.|
|+ Above the average.|
|– Below the average.|
Temperature, Rainfall, Atmospheric Pressure, and Wind throughout New Zealand, as observed at Ten Stations, for the Year 1914.
The Observations were taken at 9 a.m.
Temperature, Rainfall, Atmospheric Pressure, and Wind throughout New Zealand, as observed at Ten Stations, for the Year 1914.
The Observations were taken at 9.am.
|Stations.||Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Winds.|
|Months.||Highest.||Lowest.||Mean Max. Temp.||Mean Min. Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.|
|Auckland (lat. 36° 50′ S.; long. 174° 50′ 04′ E.; alt. 125 ft.)—||January||79.5||52.0||74.8||59.6||67.2||6||1.32||..||SW.|
|Rotorua (lat. 38° 9′ S.; long. 176° 15′ E.; alt. 932 ft.)—||January||83.0||43.0||76.4||54.0||65.2||5||0.92||..||SW, NE.|
|Gisborne (lat. 38° 30′ S.; long. 178° 03′ E.; alt. 20 ft.)—||January||91.0||46.0||82.5||56.8||69.6||3||0.59||30.003||W.|
|Greenmeadows (Napier), (lat. 39° 32′ S.; long. 176° 53′ E.; alt. 70 ft.)—||January||92.5||48.0||82.5||58.4||70.4||3||0.25||29.991||W, S.|
|Wellington (lat. 41° 16′ S.; long. 174° 46′ E.; alt. 8 ft.)—||January||79.6||48.6||71.2||59.0||65.1||11||2.60||29.977||N.|
|Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.|
|Stations||Months.||Highest.||Lowest.||Mean Max. Temp.||Mean Min. Temp.||Mean Temp. for Month.||Wet Days.||Fall.||Mean Height of Barometer.||Prevailing Winds.|
|Nelson (lat. 41° 16′ 17′ S.; long. 173° 18′ 46′ E.; alt. 34 ft.)—||January||85.0||48.0||77.4||56.1||66.8||7||1.03||..||N.|
|Hokitika (lat. 42° 41′ 30′ S. long. 170° 49′ E.; alt. 12 ft.)—||January||72.0||44.0||65.3||53.2||59.2||23||13.74||29.998||NW, SW.|
|Christchurch (lat. 43° 31′ 50′ S.; long. 172° 30′ 09′ E.; alt. 25 ft.)—||January||88.8||44.8||75.6||54.4||65.0||10||1.36||29.858||NE.|
|Lincoln (lat. 43° 32′ 16′ S.; long. 172° 38′ 39′ E.; alt. 42 ft.)—||January||91.6||43.4||77.6||54.3||65.9||8||2.06||29.844||NE.|
|Dunedin (lat. 43° 52′ S.; long. 170° 31′ E.; alt 300 ft.)—||January||80.0||41.0||69.4||52.3||60.9||16||3.68||29.812||SW, NE.|
|Comparative Table: Year 1914.|
|Temperature in Shade.||Rainfall.|
|Stations.||Highest, and Date.||Lowest, and Date.||Mean Max. Temp. for Year.||Mean Min Temp. for Year.||Mean Temp. for Year.||Days on which Rain fell.||Total Fall.||Mean Height of Barometer||Prevailing Winds.|
|Auckland||79.5 Jan. 15||36.5 July 18||63.9||51.6||57.7||177||28.42||..||SW, W.|
|Rotorua||83.0 Jan. 19||24.0 July 18||63.4||43.8||53.6||105||29.70||..||SW, W.|
|Gisborne||91.0 Jan. 13||25.0 July 6||67.5||46.6||57.0||123||38.71||29.992||W, S.|
|Greenmeadows (Napier)||92.5 Jan. 13||30.0 July 6, 18||67.0||48.2||57.6||63||22.13||29.992||W, SW.|
|Wellington||79.6 Jan. 30||31.2 July 5||61.1||49.5||55.3||156||31.90||29.992||N, S.|
|Nelson||85.0 Jan. 19||29.0 July 18, 26||65.0||45.9||55.4||101||26.01||..||S, SW.|
|Hokitika||76.0 March 29||29.0 June 21||58.3||44.2||51.2||214||112.32||29.994||E, SW.|
|Christchurch||88.8 Jan. 2||25.3 July 18||61.9||42.5||52.2||124||19.90||29.921||NE, SW.|
|Lincoln||91.6 Jan. 13||27.7 May 11||63.5||43.7||53.6||120||20.95||29.929||NE, SW.|
|Dunedin||81.0 Feb. 23||29.0 Aug. 13||58.8||43.6||51.2||155||31.31||29.872||SW, NE.|
Table of Contents
THE estimated population of the Dominion on the 31st December, 1914, was 1,095,994 persons, an increase of 11,332 during the year. The total shown does not include Maoris or residents of the Cook and other Pacific islands annexed in 1901. The Maori population at the census of 1911 was found to be 49,844, while the annexed islands had at the same date a population of 12,598, of which number only 232 were classified as Europeans or as half-castes living as Europeans.
The details of the population as estimated at the 31st December, 1914, are as follows:—
|Population, excluding Maoris and residents of islands annexed in 1901||568,161||527,833||1,095,994|
|Maori population (census 1911)||26,475||23,369||49,844|
|Population of annexed islands (census, 1911)||6,449||6,149||12,598|
It has hitherto been impossible to prepare intercensal estimates in regard to the Maori population or of the population of the Cook and other Pacific islands, on account of the fact that registration of births and deaths of Maoris has only recently come into operation, and so far there is no provision for the registration of births and deaths in the annexed islands.
The Cook Islands are not included in any of the statistics of New Zealand quoted throughout this book. Figures re Maoris are included in the general details in a few cases—i.e., imports and exports, savings-bank deposits, &c.—but in other cases are either not taken into account or are shown separately. In cases where Maoris are included they swell totals to a much less extent per head than the European population. The figures given below therefore do not include Maoris and residents of Cook Islands, information concerning whom is given at the end of this section.
The estimated population, excluding Maoris, &c., at the end of each of the past ten years, and the numerical and centesimal increase during each year, are given in the following table. The mean population for each of the ten years is also shown.
|Estimated Population at End of Year.||Increase during Year.|
|Year.||Males.||Females.||Totals.||Numerical.||Per Cent.||Mean Population for Year.|
The smallness of the increase in 1914 is due in great part to the war. There was little immigration during the latter part of the year, while the emigration figures were swelled by the departure of troops for the front. Figures of emigration quoted later on in this section do not include members of Expeditionary Forces.
The increase of population at successive census periods has been,—
|Date of Enumeration.||Population.||Numerical Increase.||Centesimal Increase.|
Intercensal estimates of population are made from the records of births and deaths and the returns of migration. These estimates, especially of late years, are found to be remarkably near the truth, as will be seen from the following table, showing the estimated population as at 31st March in each of the last seven census years compared with the population as ascertained by the census in the same years:—
|Year.||Estimated Population, 31st March.||Census Population.||Difference.|
The population of New Zealand has shown a continuous though not a regular increase in each year since 1855, the first year in which accurate records of births and deaths were obtained, and used in conjunction with the returns of immigration and emigration. The greatest increase in any year was in 1874, when 32,118 assisted immigrants were brought into the country in accordance with the immigration and public-works policy of the Government. The next greatest increase of population was in 1863, following the discovery of gold in Otago. The accompanying diagram shows the fluctuations in the yearly increase of population (male, female, and total). The diagram represents numerical increase, and not the percentage of the increase on the population at the end of the preceding year.
It will be noticed that there is a much greater fluctuation in the male increases than in the female. In the earlier years of the period the increase of population was much greater among males than among females. In 1863 especially is this noticeable. For later years, however, the curves for the two sexes run largely very close together, with the male and female elements preponderating in alternate series of years. The increase of female population has been greater than that of males in each year since and including 1909. The year 1914, referred to above, is the first occasion on which there has been an actual decrease of male population, though in 1864 and again in 1888 the increase of males was less than 1,000, due in each case to an excess of emigration over immigration. The annual increase of female population has never fallen below 3,000 in any year since 1860.
An examination of the increase for each quarter of the past ten years discloses a considerable amount of irregularity, due to fluctuations in migration.
|Increase of Population during each Quarter, 1905–14.|
|Year.||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Total Increase.|
The natural increase of population is shown in the following table:—
|Natural Increase of Population, 1905–14.|
|Excess of Births over Deaths.|
|Year||Males.||Females.||Persons.||Natural Increase per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
The average rate of natural increase for the above period was 17.20 per 1,000.
Fuller discussion of natural increase, with an illustrative diagram, will be found in the Vital Statistics Section of this hook.
The number of persons arriving in and departing from New Zealand is compiled from the records of the Customs Department, and the departures from the Dominion are checked by special returns furnished by the pursers of passenger-steamers, so that where persons who did not book their passages have been omitted, the necessary additions can be made. The pursers' returns also serve to prevent the occasional omission of the full number of persons leaving by any one vessel, which sometimes happened prior to the introduction of this check. Unless more passengers are at any time of great pressure taken away from New Zealand than can lawfully be carried, the returns of outgo of population should prove nearly correct.
The total number of arrivals and departures during the past ten years, distinguishing the sexes and the number of those under or over twelve years of age, is given in the table following. Departures in 1914, as stated above, do not include members of Expeditionary Forces.
|Arrivals and Departures, 1905–14.|
|Over 12 Years of Age.||Under 12 Years of Age.|
In the next table are shown the quarterly increases or decreases of population by migration during the last ten years. The second quarter of each of the ten years shows an excess of departures over arrivals, due to the fact that visitors to New Zealand usually take their departure just before the winter season. Autumn is, moreover, the favourite season for residents of the Dominion to commence a journey abroad for pleasure, the return being usually made in spring or summer.
|Year.||First Quarter.||Second Quarter.||Third Quarter.||Fourth Quarter.||Net Increase|
*Expeditionary Forces taken into account.
The minus sign (–) denotes decrease.
|1909||3,435||– 3,517||– 167||4,968||4,719|
|1911||– 157||– 3,174||850||6,681||4,200|
|1914||501||– 3,108||298*||– 4,549*||– 6,858*|
Nearly two-thirds of the oversea arrivals come from Australia, while five-sixths of the departures are booked for the Commonwealth. The numbers of departures for Australian ports are, however, inflated by the inclusion of many persons who sail from New Zealand for Australia to make that country a starting-point for further travel, and who may or may not return by the same route. The real destination and original place of departure when returning are not ascertained in these cases.
|Quarterly Increase of Population by Migration, 1905–14.|
|Commonwealth of Australia||24,502||26,909||28,522||26,764||25,967|
|Other British possessions||932||1,620||2,072||1,968||1,915|
|Commonwealth of Australia||27,100||30,918||30,141||24,961||26,693|
|Other British possessions||1,396||1,540||1,426||1,496||1,810|
Residents in the Dominion may, by application on the proper form, secure a passage at assisted rates for any person residing in the United Kingdom who is a near relative by blood or marriage to the person making such application.
Applications for assisted passages are also received from residents of the Dominion nominating domestic servants, farmers, or farm labourers, irrespective of the relationship existing between the domestic or agriculturist and the person making such application.
The payments required are—second class, £27; third class (two-berth cabin), £12; third class (four-berth cabin), £10. The passage-money, which must be paid in full before passages are booked, can be paid to the Immigration Department in Wellington or to the High Commissioner for New Zealand in London. The Department will cable any nomination, together with a remittance, if so desired, for the extra charge of £1.
Domestic servants and farm labourers granted assisted passages as such are required to follow in New Zealand their respective occupations of domestic and farm work for a period of one year after their arrival in the Dominion. If it is found that some occupation other than domestic or farm work is entered into by any such assisted immigrant before the expiration of one year after arrival in New Zealand, the nominator will be called upon to pay the Government the difference between the assisted rate and the full fare.
Children between three and twelve years of age travelling with their parents are charged half-rates. One child under three years of age in each family is taken free. A quarter-fare is charged for each additional child under three years of age.
Passages are granted on vessels belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, the New Zealand Shipping Company, and the Federal Steam Navigation Company.
Unhealthy persons should not be nominated, as passages at reduced rates will not be granted to them. When cases of lung, chest, or other like complaints are discovered in any member of a family by the Medical Officer at London or Liverpool, the whole family will be prevented from sailing.
Questions as to the suitability of any person nominated for a reduced passage are decided by the High Commissioner.
The foregoing applies to persons of not more than fifty years of age in the case of nominated persons and farmers or farm labourers, and not more than thirty-five years of age in the case of domestic servants.
In the case of immigrants under twenty-one years of age, special arrangements have to be entered into for their protection on the voyage where deemed necessary or advisable.
The High Commissioner is authorized to grant to suitable and healthy farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, who apply to him in London, a passage to New Zealand at the following rates:—
|Farmers and Farm Labourers.||Domestic Servants.|
|Third class: 6-berth cabin||8||0||0||2||16||0|
|” 4-berth cabin||10||0||0||4||16||0|
|” 2-berth cabin||12||0||0||6||16||0|
These sums, together with landing-money, to be fixed at what the High Commissioner considers requisite, can be paid in part or in full before embarkation, or they can be, where the High Commissioner so decides, wholly advanced by him in London, provided the immigrant undertakes to repay cut of future earnings the sum so advanced.
The same authority extends for sanction being given to parties of boy immigrants to come to New Zealand, under the conditions that an officer of the Immigration Department be appointed guardian of each boy until his majority, and that each boy undertake to engage in farm work for a fixed number of years. During this time he must be kept by the farmer employing him in proper clothes, food, nourishment, and lodgings, and, in addition, be paid a weekly wage of not less than 7s. 6d., increasing each year, part of such wage to be given him for his pocket-money and part banked to repay the cost of his passage. When the amount of his passage-money has been repaid, then the whole of his wages are paid to him.
The total number of persons embarking from England for New Zealand at assisted rates during each of the last ten years, the total capital possessed by these, and the net expenditure by the Government on immigration, are shown below.
|Year ended 31st March.||Immigrants Assisted.||Capital possessed by Assisted Immigrants. £||Net Government Expenditure on Immigration. £|
Under the immigration policy of years prior to the above the following persons were assisted:—
Free passages were granted in the majority of these cases up to 1884. The system of nomination of friends for reduced passages was in vogue up to 1890, but was discontinued on the 16th December of that year, forty-four persons previously nominated arriving, however, in 1891.
During the years 1892 to 1903, inclusive, no assisted passages to immigrants were granted.
On arrival in New Zealand the immigrants are met on board by officers of the Immigration Department, who accompany the Port Health Officer to the ship. Whilst the ship is in the stream it is the special duty of such officers to afford to the assisted immigrants all necessary information as regards transhipment, &c. Arrangements are made for safety and transhipment of luggage.
Each immigrant is seen as he passes towards the doctor for examination, and is handed an official letter containing information as to where his ticket will be arranged for, and the place and time of departure of his connecting train or boat (if any). The immigrant is also requested to see the Immigration Officer on board, or to come to the office, which is near the wharf in Wellington (Union Steamship Company's building), if he requires information or advice beyond what is given in the letter. The addresses of the district agencies of the Labour Department in the large centres of the Dominion are also supplied to male assisted immigrants. It is the practice of the Department to send out advices, by wire if necessary, to friends and relatives of immigrants about to arrive, and to get back information as to where the new-comers will be met. These messages, often together with private letters, &c., are given out on board to those to whom they are addressed. Information of this nature is much appreciated, especially by wives joining their husbands.
Assisted immigrants requiring work are referred to the office of the Immigration Department, and their cases are there dealt with.
As regards the female assisted domestic workers, who are chosen after application at Home to the High Commissioner, and who are sent to New Zealand under the supervision of one or more responsible matrons, the following applies:—
The Government advertises the fact that the books of the Department are open to record the names of those people in the Dominion desirous of securing the services of an assisted girl. Such advertisements bring into the office many applications, especially pending the arrival of a ship.
Each matron in charge on board is instructed by communications awaiting her at Hobart to classify the girls under two heads: (a) those with work already arranged or friends to go to; (b) those without either friends or work. On arrival they are met by the Girls' Superintendent of the Immigration Department. Arrangements are made for sending to their destinations those girls who are going to friends or to definite positions. Those requiring accommodation are directed to homes or hostels approved by the Minister of Immigration for this purpose. The Superintendent then separately considers the case of each girl, and arranges to place her with an applicant for a Government assisted girl. In placing these girls at present, considerable reliance has necessarily to be placed on the statements made by them. The Department is, however, taking steps to get full and independent details of the work that the girl was actually engaged in before she left the Mother-country. After a girl has been placed, the Department endeavours to keep in touch with her by correspondence.
The Immigration Restriction Act prohibits the landing of lunatics or idiots, persons suffering from a dangerous or loathsome contagious disease, certain convicted criminals, and any person other than of British birth who fails to write out and sign, in any European language, a prescribed form of application. Shipwrecked persons are excepted. The Act does not apply to officers and crews of any mercantile vessels, provided they are not discharged in New Zealand, and are on board the vessel when she clears outward. There are other exemptions under the Act, including His Majesty's land and sea forces, and the officers and crew of any ship of war of any Government, and certain persons may be specially exempted by the Minister of Internal Affairs. Heavy penalties may be incurred for breaches of this law. Regulations under the Act were published in the New Zealand Gazette of the 26th November, 1908.
The law of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a view to the restriction of Asiatic immigration, prohibits the landing of any person who, when asked to do so by a public officer, fails to write out from dictation and sign a passage of fifty words in any prescribed language. An Act, having a similar purpose, was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1907, requiring that any Chinese proposing to land in the Dominion shall be able to read a printed passage of not less than one hundred words of the English language. This measure became law on the 23rd October, 1908, and is now incorporated in the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908.
Persons of other than European descent are classified in the immigration returns as “race aliens.” Immigrants of this class have since 1908 been required to pass an education test before admission to the Dominion. In spite of this fact, there appears to be an increase in alien immigration, as the table following will show.
|Total, British Possessions||65||125||21||66||209||132||215||380||215||272|
|Total, foreign countries||276||329||293||589||233||235||589||423||374||551|
|Total, “Race Aliens”||341||454||314||655||442||367||804||803||589||823|
Of the race aliens arriving in New Zealand, a large proportion are Chinese, most of whom, however, have been formerly resident in the Dominion. Hindus and other natives of India are also of late years arriving in considerable numbers, the total of these for the past five years being 985 as against 280 during the preceding quinquennium.
Since July, 1914, records of departures of race aliens have been kept, and these show that a total of 156 race aliens left the Dominion during the latter half of the year, comprising 79 Chinese, 74 Natives of India, 2 Japanese, and 1 South American. These figures would seem to indicate that a large proportion of the Hindus arriving in the Dominion are coolies in transit to the Pacific islands. The total Chinese departures for the year were 537.
At the census of 1881, the year in which taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in New Zealand, the Chinese population numbered 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1884, and further to 3,711 in 1896. During the period 1881–96 the poll-tax was £10 per head, and this seemed sufficient for the purpose of preventing a large influx of the Chinese. During the years 1894 and 1895, however, the arrivals shown by the Customs returns were found to be somewhat greater than the departures, and in 1896 an Act was passed, raising the poll-tax on Chinese immigrants to £100 per head and limiting the number of Chinese passengers that may be carried by vessels to New Zealand to one for every 200 tons burthen. According to the census of 1901 the Chinese population was 2,857, and in 1906 it was 2,570, while at the census of 1911 the total was 2,630, of whom 88 were females. The decrease still continues, deaths exceeding births and the departures being more than the arrivals. Since the census of 1911, excess of deaths over births has reduced the Chinese by 72, while excess of departures over arrivals has caused a further reduction of 92. The estimated Chinese population of the Dominion on the 31st December, 1914, was 2,466, of whom, however, 117 were females, an increase of 29 of that sex since the census.
When any alien residing in New Zealand desires to be naturalized, he may present to the Governor a memorial signed and verified by a statutory declaration setting forth—
His name, age, birthplace, residence, and occupation:
The length of his residence in New Zealand, and his desire to settle therein;
A request that letters of naturalization may be granted to him.
Every memorial must have written upon it or attached to it a certificate signed by some Magistrate or Justice to the effect that the applicant is known to the person certifying and is of good repute. On taking the oath of allegiance he shall enjoy within New Zealand all the rights and capacities that a natural-born subject of the United Kingdom can enjoy or transmit, excepting such rights (if any) as are specially excepted in the letters of naturalization granted to him.
Any person who has been previously naturalized in the United Kingdom, or any British possession, may obtain letters of naturalization in New Zealand upon presentation of his certificate or letters to the Governor, with satisfactory evidence of his bona fides.
An alien woman married to a natural-born or naturalized British subject shall be deemed to be herself naturalized. Where the father, or the mother, being a widow, has become naturalized in New Zealand, every child of such father or mother who during minority resides with such parent shall also be deemed to be naturalized.
Every alien resident in New Zealand may inherit or otherwise acquire, hold, and dispose of every description of property in the same manner as if he were a natural-born British subject, but may not become the owner of any ship, or of a share in any ship, registered in New Zealand. Any person born in foreign territory whose mother is a natural-born British subject shall be capable of acquiring property in New Zealand by purchase, or under a will or intestacy.
No fee is payable for naturalization except in the case of Chinese, who are charged £1.
During 1914 letters of naturalization were granted to 162 males and 3 females belonging to the nationalities shown below. No naturalizations were effected during the latter half of the year.
|United States of America||1||..|
|*Not including four English women and one Australian woman married to foreigners.|
The number of natives of each country naturalized during the last twenty years is next shown.
|United States of America||144|
|Portugal and Possessions||60|
The table following shows the birthplaces of the population, exclusive of Maoris, for five census years. The total number of British-born has increased during the period by 63 per cent., while the number of foreign-born has remained stationary. Persons born in New Zealand have increased 92 per cent. The Commonwealth of Australia is represented by 50,029 persons, a large increase since 1891. Against this there were 31,868 persons, natives of New Zealand, residing in the Commonwealth in 1911 as compared with 25,788 in 1901. Persons born in the United Kingdom numbered 218,834 in 1891 and 228,684 in 1911.
|Number in each Census Year.|
|Commonwealth of Australia||15,943||21,631||26,991||47,256||50,029|
|Other British possessions||3,703||3,901||4,273||4,560||5,234|
|Other foreign countries||7,400||7,760||7,480||8,602||8,552|
The population of foreign origin shows a small increase since 1891, while the native-born portion becomes rapidly greater. The table next shows the proportionate strength of the different nationalities represented in the Dominion.
|Proportion of each Nationality in—|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
|Commonwealth of Australia||2.55||3.08||3.49||5.32||4.97|
|Other British possessions||0.59||0.55||0.55||0.51||0.52|
|Other foreign countries||1.19||1.10||0.97||0.97||0.85|
The number of persons at each year of age is ascertained from the census household schedules. In the following tables these numbers have been condensed in customary groups, and the information disclosed at the census of 1911 is compared with that for two previous censuses. Chinese are included, but not Maoris.
|Under 5 years||42,259||40,945||44,324||42,482||59,975||57,934|
|5 years and under 10 years||43,494||42,586||43,314||42,422||53,844||52,163|
|10 “ 15 “||40,755||40,329||43,100||42,125||46,421||44,992|
|15 “ 20 “||32,579||32,658||42,456||42,358||44,798||43,660|
|20 “ 25 “||28,337||29,805||41,196||41,960||49,692||46,124|
|25 “ 30 “||23,704||22,376||35,307||33,233||54,694||47,520|
|30 “ 35 “||22,021||17,890||29,694||27,272||49,410||42,714|
|35 “ 40 “||20,513||15,106||24,301||21,217||39,458||33,437|
|40 “ 45 “||17,755||13,436||21,589||17,347||31,198||27,259|
|45 “ 50 “||17,028||11,832||19,134||13,997||24,214||20,696|
|50 “ 55 “||16,770||9,922||15,413||11,991||20,290||16,573|
|55 “ 60 “||10,945||6,150||13,711||9,963||16,686||12,609|
|60 “ 65 “||7,685||4,468||12,803||8,017||12,816||10,225|
|65 “ 70 “||3,923||2,564||10,160||6,028||10,935||8,707|
|70 “ 75 “||2,504||1,877||5,348||3,236||8,691||6,030|
|75 “ 80 “||1,191||936||2,285||1,679||5,212||3,260|
|80 and over||718||629||1,425||1,192||2,735||2,130|
A calculation of the proportion per cent. at each age-group to the total of males and females shows the effect of a declining birth-rate on the ages tinder 15, the proportion of males at these ages being 30.19 per cent. in 1911 against 38.08 per cent. in 1891, and of females 32.58 per cent. against 42.20 per cent. respectively.
Of the males, those 15.24 years formed 18.35 per cent. of the total in 1891, and 17.79 per cent. in the later year. At the ages 15.64 the proportions were 59.42 per cent. and 64.62 per cent. in 1891 and 1911 respectively. From 65 years upwards the proportions increased from 2.50 per cent. to 5.19 per cent. during the period under review.
Females at ages 15.44 increased in proportion to the total from 44.73 per cent. in 1891 to 50.56 per cent. in 1911. At 45 years and over there was 13.07 per cent. in 1891 and 16.86 per cent. in 1911 of the number of this sex.
|Proportion per Cent. of Males.||Proportion per Cent. of Females.|
|Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.||Per Cent.|
|Under 5 years||12.72||10.93||11.29||13.95||11.59||12.16|
|5 years and under 10 years||13.09||10.68||10.15||14.51||11.57||10.96|
|10 “ 15 “||12.27||10.62||8.75||13.74||11.49||9.46|
|15 “ 20 “||9.82||10.47||8.43||11.12||11.56||9.18|
|20 “ 25 “||8.53||10.16||9.36||10.16||11.45||9.68|
|25 “ 30 “||7.14||8.71||10.30||7.62||9.07||9.98|
|30 “ 35 “||6.63||7.32||9.30||6.10||7.44||8.97|
|35 “ 40 “||6.18||5.99||7.43||5.15||5.79||7.02|
|40 “ 45 “||5.34||5.32||5.87||4.58||4.73||5.73|
|45 “ 50 “||5.13||4.72||4.56||4.03||3.82||4.35|
|50 “ 55 “||5.05||3.80||3.82||3.38||3.27||3.48|
|55 “ 60 “||3.29||3.38||3.14||2.10||2.72||2.65|
|60 “ 65 “||2.31||3.16||2.41||1.52||2.19||2.15|
|65 “ 70 “||1.18||2.51||2.06||0.87||1.65||1.83|
|70 “ 75 “||0.75||1.32||1.64||0.64||0.88||1.27|
|75 “ 80 “||0.36||0.56||0.98||0.32||0.46||0.69|
|80 and over||0.21||0.35||0.51||0.21||0.32||0.44|
The declining proportions at the earlier ages 0–19 years may be ascribed to a falling birth-rate, while the increase at the higher ages is due to the advanced age of the then mostly adult immigrants introduced during the early stages of settlement. These form the greater portion of the groups 60 years and over, numbering 70,741 persons in 1911, only 3,862 of these being New-Zealand-born. The latter element in the population is assuming larger proportions each year, while the influence of the numbers recruited from abroad on the age-constitution is gradually waning.
The distribution of population (exclusive of Maoris) between the North and South Islands is shown according to age-groups in the following table:—
|Island.||Under 5||5 and under 20||20 and under 35||35 and under 50||50 and under 65||65 and over.||Unspecified.||Totals.|
The following table is interesting as showing the gradual equalization of the sexes, the number of females to 100 males having risen from 62.16 in 1861 to 90.33 in 1901. The proportion was slightly lower in 1906 and 1911, but has risen to 92.90 in 1914.
|Census Year.||Males.||Females.||Females to 100 Males.|
In the 1913 and 1914 issues of this book are given tables and short articles dealing with various characteristics of the population as ascertained at the census of 1911 and former censuses—viz., conjugal condition, religion, infirmity, and occupation. Lack of space prevents their being repeated in this issue.
The increase in the density of population and dwellings at successive censuses is illustrated in the table following. The average number of persons to an inhabited dwelling is also shown.
|Census Year||Number of Persons to a Square Mile.*||Number of Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.||Number of Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.|
|* Excluding Maoris.|
The density of population in various countries is shown in the next table. The figures relate in nearly every case to the year 1911, in which year a census was taken throughout the British Empire, and in several other countries. The Statesman's Year-book for 1913 has been referred to in all cases, but wherever possible the information extracted therefrom has been verified by reference to official publications of the countries concerned. In several cases the figures are only rough estimates, and in some instances various estimates are in existence in respect of the same country. For example, the population of the Chinese Empire ranges in various publications from 250 to 450 millions. In the table now given the usually accepted total, 400 millions, is shown. The figures for the Balkan States relate to the various States as they now stand—i.e., after the recent alterations of boundaries.
|Density of Population in Various Countries.|
|Total.||Per Square Mile.|
* Inclusive of Maoris, also Cook Islands and their inhabitants.
† Including aboriginals, estimated at 100,000.
|Hong Kong and Territory||463,715||1,144.98|
|Java and Madura||30,098,008||595.36|
|Aden and Perim||46,165||577.06|
|Guadeloupe and Dependencies||212,430||308.76|
|Isle of Man||52,034||229.22|
|Danish West Indies||27,086||196.28|
|Trinidad and Tobago||330,074||176.70|
|Turkey in Europe||1,891,000||173.77|
|Sierra Leone Colony||75,572||146.74|
|Bali and Lombok||523,535||128.79|
|Principé & St. Thomas Islands||42,103||116.70|
|Indian Feudatory States||70,864,995||102.52|
|Spain, including Ceuta||18,843,176||99.15|
|Cape Verde Islands||142,552||96.32|
|Bosnia & Herzegovina||1,898,044||96.02|
|Caroline & Pelew Is'lds||52,674||94.06|
|Russia in Europe||138,274,500||69.23|
|Sierra Leone Protectorate||1,327,560||54.41|
|Turkey in Asia||21,000,000||48.92|
|Protected Malay States||720,000||46.15|
|Federated Malay States||1,036,999||37.70|
|French Somali Coast||208,000||35.92|
|Turks & Caicos Islands||5,615||33.93|
|Fernando Po, &c.||23,844||29.29|
|German East Africa||10,000,000||26.04|
|British East Africa Protectorate||4,038,000||16.15|
|French Equatorial Africa||10,000,000||14.95|
|German Marianne Isld's||2,646||10.58|
|Orange Free State||528,174||10.48|
|Isle of Pines||600||10.34|
|British Solomon Islands||150,000||10.14|
|Cape of Good Hope||2,564,965||9.26|
|Kaiser Wilhelm's Land||531,723||7.60|
|French West Africa||11,100,000||7.35|
|Riau Lingga Archipel'o||112,216||6.88|
|British North Borneo||208,183||6.69|
|Russia in Asia||25,664,500||4.08|
|Dutch New Guinea||200,000||1.32|
|Tripoli and Cyrenaica||530,000||1.30|
|German South - west Africa||99,744||0.31|
|Rio de Oro and Adrar||12,000||0.16|
The principal natural divisions in New Zealand are the North, South, and Stewart Islands. These contain nearly the whole population of European descent, the Cook and other annexed islands being inhabited almost solely by coloured Natives.
The population of the two main Islands, with that of Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands, the former being included in the South and the latter in the North Island, at each census period, is given in the next table, together with the proportion per cent. that the population of each division bears to the total population of the Dominion.
|Population of the North and South Islands, 1858–1911.|
|Census Year.||Population (excluding Maoris).||Proportions per Cent.|
|North Island and Chatham Islands.||South and Stewart Islands.||Total.||North Island and Chatham Islands.||South and Stewart Islands.|
It will be seen that in 1858 the North Island had the larger population, this position being reversed at the succeeding enumerations until 1901, in which year the North Island was found to have a slightly larger population than the South, a position which it has since considerably improved upon. The Maori war which broke out in 1860 retarded settlement in the North, while a large area of land reserved for the Maoris was until quite recently a serious hindrance to the development of this portion of the Dominion. The construction of railways, roads, and bridges is now giving access to larger areas of new lands, which are being offered for selection in blocks intended for close settlement, and are quickly occupied. The South Island was practically free from Maori troubles, and settlement was more rapid, though much of the land was disposed of in large areas. The discovery of gold in Otago in 1861 and in the West Coast in 1864 attracted to these localities considerable numbers of miners.
In 1870 a policy of vigorous construction of railways and other developmental public works and of assistance to immigrants was inaugurated, resulting in a large increase to the population, including nearly ninety thousand Government immigrants introduced between 1873 and 1879.
Intercensal estimates of population of the various provincial districts have been made for many years past, but have not been very reliable, on account of the lack of any record of internal migration. Since March, 1913, however, returns of inter-island migration have been obtained, and the population can now be allocated with a high degree of accuracy as between the two main islands. In addition a close watch is kept on the relative progress of the various divisions of the Dominion, thus enabling a more reliable estimate to be made as regards the populations of provincial districts. Estimates as at the 31st December, 1914, are given in the following table:—
|Estimated Population 31st December, 1914.|
|Totals for the Dominion||568,161||527,833||1,095,994|
The counties contain what is understood to be the rural population, but this is not strictly correct, as some of the towns not municipalized, and forming part of counties, have considerable populations. On the other hand the population of a few of the smaller boroughs might be classed as rural, as will be noticed further on. A list of counties and their populations (exclusive of interior boroughs and town districts not forming parts of counties) is given. The populations shown are as estimated to 1st April, 1915.
|Bay of Islands||3,230|
The next table shows the distribution of the population in counties and boroughs at each quinquennial census since 1881.
|Census Year.||Counties.||Boroughs.||Counties.||Boroughs.||Shipboard and Islands.|
Prior to the year 1900 there was no statutory limitation to the number of inhabitants necessary to constitute a borough, and consequently many small centres, the residents being mainly engaged in rural occupations, became municipalities. The Municipal Corporations Act now imposes a limit as to area, and provides that no new borough may be constituted unless the proposed area contains at least 1,000 inhabitants.
Boroughs which in 1911 had a population of 1,000 or over contained an aggregate of 491,836 persons in that year, as against an aggregate of 252,722 persons for boroughs of 1,000 and over in 1891, an increase of 239,114 persons, or 94.62 per cent. The name of each borough, with the number of inhabitants estimated as at 1st April, 1915, is given in the next table.
|Estimated Population of Boroughs on the 1st April, 1915.|
With the boroughs is also now included for some purposes the town of Rotorua, constituted under the Rotorua Town Act, 1907. The estimated population of Rotorua on 1st April, 1915, was 2,763.
The principal cities of New Zealand are Auckland and Wellington in the North Island, Christchurch and Dunedin in the South Island. The population of each of these cities and their suburbs, as estimated at 1st April, 1915, is given below:—
|Auckland and Suburbs.|
|Total, Greater Auckland||117,793|
|Wellington and Suburbs.|
|Total, Greater Wellington||74,811|
|Total, Greater Christchurch||87,756|
|Dunedin and Suburbs.|
|Total, Greater Dunedin||69,158|
The only other city in New Zealand is Nelson. There are, however, six towns possessing, with suburbs, larger populations than Nelson, and information concerning these is shown below. The populations given are as estimated to the 1st April, 1915.
|Mangapapa Town District||1,103|
|Kaiti, Te Hapara, Tamarau, and Whataupoko||840|
|Total, Gisborne and Suburbs||11,802|
|Napier South Town District||765|
|Total, Napier and Suburbs||12,701|
|Gonville Town District||1,801|
|Total, Wanganui and Suburbs||16,235|
|Total, Nelson and Suburbs||8,748|
|Invercargill South Borough||1,727|
|Grassmere, Waikiwi, and Prestonville||933|
|Lindisfarne, Richmond Grove, Inglewood, Adamsons, and Hawthorne||555|
|Total, Invercargill and Suburbs||18,067|
The several stages in the growth of a New Zealand town may be marked thus: The village, taxed by the parent county, and dependent upon the latter for all public works; then the legally constituted town district, still subordinate to the county in some matters, its affairs administered by a Board presided over by a Chairman. When its population exceeds 500 the town district may become independent of the county, and control the whole of its revenues. When the population reaches 1,000, full municipal powers may be obtained, with the dignity of a Council presided over by a Mayor, and finally, if the number of inhabitants should reach 20,000 or over, the title of “city” may be assumed, although the constitution remains unaltered. The name of each town district and its population are as follows:—
|(a.) Town Districts not forming Parts of Counties.|
|Town District.||Estimated Population.|
|(b.) Town Districts forming Parts of Counties.|
|Town District.||Estimated Population.|
Populations of small centres as at 2nd April, 1911, were extracted from the census results, and published in the Government Statistician's Report on the census. The list is too long to insert here.
Adjacent to the main Islands are many smaller islands, some of which are of considerable area, and are under cultivation: others are but islets used as sites for lighthouses, while others again are barren and unfitted for human habitation. The Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island have been constituted counties, and their populations are shown in the list of counties already given. The name and population of each of the inhabited islands as at the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—
|Bean Rock Lighthouse||1|
|Somes and Lighthouse||8|
|The Brothers Lighthouse||3|
|Dog Island Lighthouse||12|
|Centre Island Lighthouse||9|
Since 1901 the boundaries of New Zealand have been extended to include the Cook and certain other Pacific islands, the population of which is shown elsewhere in this section.
Prior to the colonization of New Zealand by Europeans, the earliest navigators and explorers found a race of people already inhabiting both Islands. Papers written in 1874 by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox and Sir Donald McLean (then Native Minister) state that at what time the discovery of these Islands was made by the Maoris, or from what place they came, are matters of tradition only, and that much has been lost in the obscurity enveloping the history of a people without letters. Nor is there anything on record respecting the origin of the Maori people themselves, beyond the general tradition of the Polynesian race, which seems to show a series of successive migrations from west to east, probably by way of Malaysia to the Pacific. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions than that they were immigrants and that they probably found inhabitants on the east coast of the North Island belonging to the same race as themselves—the descendants of a prior migration, whose history is lost. The tradition runs that, generations ago, the Maoris dwelt in a country named Hawaiki, and that one of their chiefs, after a long voyage, reached the northern island of New Zealand. Returning to his home with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it is said, persuaded a number of his kinsfolk and friends, who were much harassed by war, to set out with a fleet of double canoes for the new land. The names of most of the canoes are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of the people of the principal canoes after their arrival in New Zealand; and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has been traced. The position of the legendary Hawaiki is unknown, but many places in the South Seas have been thus named in memory of the motherland. The Maoris speak a very pure dialect of the Polynesian language, the common tongue, with more or less variation, in all the eastern Pacific islands. When Captain Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of the services of a Native from Tahiti, whose speech was easily understood by the Maoris. In this way much information respecting the early history of the country and its inhabitants was obtained which could not have otherwise been had.
A census of the Maori population is taken every five years, the information being obtained by the collectors either directly or through the chief or head of the tribe or hapu. The name, sex, and age, so far as it can be ascertained, of each Maori is entered; but, owing to the nomadic habits of the race and lack of definite knowledge in some particulars, it has been a difficult task in the past. The results of the past five enumerations are as follows:—
The number of half-castes living as members of Maori tribes, and the number living as and among Europeans, is given in the next table for five census periods. Those under the first heading are already included among Maoris in the preceding table, the others being classed among the European population. It is a matter of some difficulty to ascertain the number of half-castes living as Maoris. There has been no definite rule to guide collectors in deciding when a half-caste should be classified as living as a Maori—indeed, it might be said that all the half-castes and a large proportion of the Maoris in the South Island live in European fashion. They mostly have separate holdings of land and separate homes, and have adopted the habits of the Europeans.
|Census Year.||Living as Members of Maori Tribes.||Living as and among Europeans.||Total.|
The number of Maoris (including half-castes living as Maoris) in each county and on adjacent islands, as ascertained at the census of 1911, was as follows:—
|NUMBER OF MAORIS INEACH COUNTY, CENSUS 1911.|
|Bay of Islands||2,623|
|Great Barrier Island||72|
|Eden (including Waiheke and Chamberlin Islands)||426|
|Hutt and Makara||311|
|Oroua, Pohangina, Kiwitea||221|
During the year 1901, the boundaries of the Dominion were extended to include the Cook Group and certain other of the South Pacific islands. No record of the population of these islands was then obtainable, but at each subsequent census an account of the number and birthplaces of the inhabitants was taken. The results for the census of 1911 are shown in the following table:—
|Whites and Half-castes living as Whites.||Natives and Half-castes living as Natives.||Total.|
* Not including 513 absentees.
† Labourers temporarily employed on these islands.
(a) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 52; New Zealand, 30; Australia, 4; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 22; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Aitutaki, 1; France, 6; Germany, 3; Sweden, 1; United States of America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Island, 2; Tahiti, 2; not stated, 2.
(b) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 3; New Zealand, 1; Australia, 1.
(c) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 5; New Zealand, 1; Rarotonga, 1; Aitutaki, 4; France, 2; Germany, 1; Norway, 2.
(d) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; Society Islands, 1.
(e) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; Mauke, 6; Germany, 2.
(f) Birth places.—Denmark, 1.
(g) Birthplaces not stated.
(h) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 2; New Zealand, 1.
(i) Birthplaces.—United Kingdom, 1; New Zealand, 1; France, 2.
SUMMARY OF BIRTHPLACES.—United Kingdom, 66; New Zealand, 34; Australia, 5; Tasmania, 1; Rarotonga, 23; Mangaia, 2; Atiu, 1; Mauke, 6; Aitutaki, 5; France, 10; Germany, 6; Sweden, 1; United States of America, 9; Holland, 1; Pitcairn Island, 2; Norway, 2; Tahiti, 2; Society Islands, 1; Denmark, 1; not stated, 54 (52 of these on Niue Island).
|Total Cook Group||173||6,762||6,935|
|Niue (or Savage Island)||52(g)||3,891||3,943*|
|Danger (or Pukapuka)||..||490||490|
|Total other islands||59||5,604||5,663|
|Total population of Pacific islands||232||12,366||12,598|
Table of Contents
REGISTRATION of births in New Zealand dates as far back as 1847, in which year was passed a Registration Ordinance which made provision for a record of births and deaths being kept by the State. Under this ordinance many registrations were effected, some of births as far back as 1840. Compulsory registration did not, however, come into force until 1855.
The earlier Registration Acts and their amendments provided for very little information being given in the case of births, the register containing merely date and place of birth, name and sex of child, names of father and mother, and occupation of father. In 1875, however, a new Registration Act was passed, under which information was recorded as to ages and birthplaces of parents. A recent amendment to the Act provides for sexes and ages of previous issue of the marriage being given.
The law as to registration of births is now embodied in the Births and Deaths Registration Act, 1908, and the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912. The provisions generally as to registration are that a birth may be registered within sixty-two days without fee. After sixty-two days and within six months a birth is registrable only after solemn declaration made before the Registrar by the parent or some person present at birth, and on payment of a late fee of 5s., which may, however, be remitted at the discretion of the Registrar-General. When six months have elapsed a birth cannot be registered except within a month after conviction of one of the responsible parties for neglect. But an information for such neglect must be laid within two years of date of birth. Registration of still-births was not compulsory until the 1st March, 1913, on which date the Amendment Act referred to above came into force.
The Infant Life Protection Act of 1907 provided for notification of births, in addition to registration, the time allowed for notification being seventy-two hours (since reduced to forty-eight hours) if in a city or borough, and twenty-one days in every other case. Further information concerning infant-life protection is given in the subsection dealing with deaths.
In the successive Registration Acts special provision was made for exemption from the necessity of registration in the case of births and deaths of Maoris, though registration could be effected if desired. Section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, however, empowered the Governor in Council to make regulations providing for the registration of births and deaths of Maoris either throughout the whole Dominion or in such districts as might be determined. Regulations were made accordingly, and were published in the New Zealand Gazette of the 27th March, 1913, page 946. Registrars of Maori births and deaths have been appointed in 175 districts, 163 of these being in the North Island, where the great majority of the Maori population is located. Every Native settlement of any size is within easy reach of one of these Registrars. Maori registrations are entered in a separate register, and the numbers of births given below do not include those of Maoris, which are dealt with towards the end of this subsection.
The number of births registered during 1914 was 28,338, or 25.99 in every 1,000 persons living. The number is 403 above that for the year 1913, an increase of 1.44 per cent., but the rate is lower by 0.15 per thousand. The births registered in a year numbered 19,846 in 1884, and, after falling to 17,876 in 1892, have risen to the number first stated above.
The number of male children born during 1914 was 14,535, and of female children 13,803.
The following table shows the number of births registered, the birth-rate calculated on the total population, and comparison with the average rate for 1882–86 taken as 100. There was a steady decrease from 1886 until 1899, in which year the lowest rate was recorded. From 1899 there was a fairly regular increase until 1908, when the rate stood at 27.45 per 1,000. Each of the next three years showed a fall in the rate, which in 1911 was only 25.97 per 1,000, rising, however, in the following year to 26.48, but falling to 26.14 in 1913 and 25.99 in 1914.
|BIRTHS, NUMBERS AND RATES.|
|Year.||Total Number of Births registered.||Per 1,000 of Population.||Compared with Rate in 1882–86, taken as 100.|
* Average of 5 years.
A declining birth-rate is noticeable in many civilized countries, and attention has been drawn by statisticians and political economists to the serious consequences that may result.
The decline of the birth-rate in New Zealand has been partially compensated for by a decrease in the death-rate. Nevertheless, the rate of natural increase of population has fallen from 31.19 per 1,000 of mean population in 1870 to 16.68 per 1,000 in 1914. The following table will no doubt be of interest as showing the fall in all three rates:—
|Annual Rates per 1,000 living.|
In spite of the fact that the birth-rate in New Zealand is low compared with other countries, yet so low is the Dominion's death-rate that New Zealand has, so far as is known, the third highest rate of natural increase among countries keeping records of birth and deaths. The rates of natural increase in various countries are as follows:—
|RATES OF NATURAL INCREASE OF POPULATION.|
|Country.||Quinquennium.||Rate per 1,000.|
|England and Wales||1909–13||10.7|
The diagram which follows shows the rates of births and deaths and of natural increase per 1,000 of mean population each year from 1855 to 1914. The marriage-rate is also shown.
That fertility among women in New Zealand has decreased, from whatever causes, further facts will tend to show. Taking the number of married women in New Zealand at what may be considered the child-bearing ages (i.e., from 15 to 45 years, inclusive) as shown by each census since 1878, and for the same years the number of legitimate births (excluding plural) registered, the birth-rate per 1,000 married women of the above-stated ages is easily found, and is shown to be steadily declining. In 1878 the rate was 337 per 1,000, in 1896 it had fallen to 252, in 1901 to 244, in 1906 to 228, and in 1911 to 209; or, in other words, in 1878 one in every three of the married women between the ages specified gave birth to a child, while in 1911 the rate was only one in nearly five. The figures for each census year are given below.
|BIRTH-RATES (LEGITIMATE) PER 1,000 MARRIED WOMEN AT CHILD-BEARING AGES FOREACH CENSUS YEAR, 1878 TO 1911.|
|Year (Census).||Number of Married Women between 15 and 45 Years of Age.||Proportion per Cent. of Married Women in the Female Population aged 15 to 45 Years.||Number of Legitimate Births (Confinements).||Birth-rate per 1,000 Married Women of from 15 to 45 Years of Age.|
Another table is given, showing for a period of thirty years the numbers of married women at quinquennial groups of age belonging to the full term 15 to 45 years, with the proportions that those numbers bear to every 100 married women living at 15–45. These proportions are found to have diminished appreciably at the earlier ages, 15–20 and 20–25; but the effect of this lesser number of wives at the earlier ages in reducing the birth-rate would not be serious. It is, however, undoubtedly a fact that to have a growing proportion of wives at the earlier productive ages is the best position, but it is not the one which obtains at present in New Zealand.
|MARRIED WOMEN UNDER 45 YEARS OF AGE.—NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS PER CENT., IN AGE-GROUPS.|
|Age-groups.||Married Women under 45, excluding Chinese|
|Numbers||Proportions per Cent.|
In April, 1906, New Zealand had 102,745 children living under the age of five years, an increase of 15,939, or 18.36 per cent., on the figures for 1901; and in April, 1911, the number was 117,909, an increase of 15,164, or 14.76 per cent., on 1906; although the population at all ages increased in the quinquennium by only 13.49 per cent. Between 1891 and 1896 the increase was only 455, or 0.55 per cent., while between 1886 and 1891 the children living under five years actually decreased in number by 3,624, the increase of population of all ages (8.33 per cent.) being less than between 1891 and 1896 (12.24 per cent.), 1896 and 1901 (9.86 per cent.), or 1901 and 1906 (14.99 per cent.). The number of children under one year to the total population at all ages, and the proportion per 1,000, according to the results of six censuses, were,—
|Total Population (all Ages).||Children under One Year.||Children under One Year per 1,000 of Population.|
Thus, in 1886, with a population of 578,482 persons, there were 18,355 children under one year, against 24,340 children of that age in 1911, with a population of 1,008,468 persons.
The births registered in 1885 were 19,693, against 25,984 in 1910. The birth-rate fell from 34.35 per 1,000 of the population in 1885 to 26.17 in 1910.
Deducting 1,760, the number of deaths of children under one year registered in 1910, from 25,984, the number of births for that year, leaves 24,224, or within 116 of the living children under one year at the time of the last census.
A little explanation is necessary in regard to the birth-rates of the four chief centres for 1913 and 1914 as compared with previous years.
As explained in last year's issue of this book, all births occurring in the four centres up to and including 1912 were treated as belonging to the centres. Owing chiefly to the fact that many women living in country districts go to the cities to enter public or private maternity homes, it was found that the birth-rates for the centres were usually well above the rate for the whole Dominion. For 1913 and 1914 information as to domicile of parents was obtained, and the births allocated accordingly, the result being that many births which in former years would have been included in the municipalized area were excluded, the rates being reduced accordingly. No proper comparison is therefore possible as between 1913 and previous years, the apparent decrease in 1913, as compared with 1912, being due not to any actual falling-off in numbers, but to the alteration in system explained above.
The total number of births registered as belonging to the four chief cities and their suburban boroughs in 1914 was 7,311, as against a total of 7,341 occurring in the municipalized areas for the previous year. The birth-rates last year were,—
|Birth-rates per 1,000 of Mean Population.|
|” and seven suburban boroughs||24.78|
|” and four suburban boroughs||25.38|
|” and five suburban boroughs||22.22|
|” and five suburban boroughs||21.70|
By the inclusion of the suburbs the rate is lowered in the case of all four centres. Excluding the suburbs, it will be observed that Wellington has the highest rate, Auckland next highest, Dunedin and Christchurch following. The birth-rate for the Dominion last year was 25.99 per thousand, so that each of the four centres is below the average.
The rates for five years, 1910 to 1914, are given below. As stated above, however, the years 1913 and 1914 cannot properly be compared with previous years.
|Births per 1,000 of Population.|
|Auckland (including suburbs)||26.01||27.25||29.66||25.93||24.78|
The birth-rate of New Zealand in 1909 was higher than that of the Australian Commonwealth, 26.69 per 1,000 of population; but in 1913 while the Commonwealth rate increased to 28.05 per 1,000 of population, the rate in New Zealand decreased to 25.99.
The movement over ten years is calculated as follows:—
|BIRTH-RATES PER 1,000 OF POPULATION.|
|New South Wales||26.85||27.21||27.34||26.99||27.40||27.83||28.75||29.86||28.86||28.96|
The information contained in the following table is extracted from the Seventy-third Annual Report of the Registrar-General for England.
|Proportion of Legitimate Births per 1,000 Wives aged 15–45 Years.|
|Country||1880–2.||1890–2.||1900–2.||Increase (+) or Decrease (–) per Cent. in Fertility during 20 Years.|
|New South Wales||337.8||298.5||234.3||-30.6|
|England and Wales||286.0||263.8||235.5||-17.7|
|The Netherlands||347.5||338.8||314.6||- 9.5|
|German Empire||310.2||300.9||284.2||- 8.4|
A further table shows the declining birth-rate and the marriage-rate in the United Kingdom.
|BIRTH AND MARRIAGE RATES INTHE UNITED KINGDOM, 1886, 1891, 1896, 1901, 1906, AND 1911.|
|Number.||Rate per 1,000 of Population.||Number.||Rate per 1,000 of Population.|
The birth-rates for ten years in Great Britain and Ireland, and certain countries of the European Continent, are also given. The decline is steady and continuous, except in the case of Roumania, where the rate is very high, and Ireland, where the rate is low.
|BIRTH-RATES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, 1904 TO 1913.|
|Number of Births per 1,000 of Mean Population|
|England and Wales||28.0||27.3||27.2||26.5||26.7||25.8||25.1||24.4||23.8||23.9|
The figures show that during each year there has been a preponderance of births of male children. It would appear, however, that this excess of male births is not sufficient to compensate for the heavier mortality which occurs amongst that sex. Of the total population of New Zealand in 1871 there were 70.52 females to every 100 males, but at the census of 1911 the proportion of females to 100 males had risen to 89.59.
|Number of Births of|
|Year.||Males.||Females.||Proportion of Births of Males to every 100 Females.|
There were 350 cases of twin births (700 children) and 6 cases of triplets registered in 1914. The number of children born was 28,338; the number of mothers was 27,976: thus, on an average, one mother in every 79 gave birth to twins, against 87 in 1913, 82 in 1912, 86 in 1911, and 89 in 1910.
The number of plural births and the proportion per 1,000 of all births during the past five years was,—
|Year.||All Births.||Cases of Twins.||Cases of Triplets.||Plural Births per 1,000 of all Births.|
Of the twin births registered in 1914, it is found that in 105 cases both children were males, and in 116 cases both females, while in the remaining 130 cases the children were of opposite sex. In one of the cases of triplets all three children were females, in one case two were males and the other a female, and in each of the other four cases two children were females and one a male.
Information as to the relative ages of parents of legitimate children whose births were registered in 1914 is shown in the following table:—
|RELATIVE AGES OF PARENTS.|
|Age of Fathers, in Years.|
|Age of Mother, in Years.||Under 21.||21 and under 25.||25 and under 30.||30 and under 35.||35 and under 40.||40 and under 45.||45 and under 50.||50 and under 55.||55 and under 65.||65 and over.||Not stated.||Totals.|
|(a.) Single Births.|
* Includes twenty-six cases where plural births would have been registered had not one child been still-born.
* Includes six cases of triplets.
|15 and under 16||..||..||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1|
|16 “ 17||..||7||5||..||..||..||..||1||..||..||..||13|
|17 “ 18||4||18||22||4||1||1||..||..||..||1||..||51|
|18 “ 19||10||92||59||15||5||1||..||..||..||..||..||182|
|19 “ 20||24||148||133||54||10||1||4||..||..||..||..||374|
|20 “ 21||13||189||245||79||24||5||..||1||..||..||..||556|
|21 “ 25||21||861||2,144||1,051||313||74||17||5||2||..||..||4,488|
|25 “ 30||6||302||3,023||3,167||1,303||335||104||23||9||..||..||8,272|
|30 “ 35||1||31||640||2,789||2,175||834||243||67||29||5||..||6,814|
|35 “ 40||..||1||83||499||1,656||1,134||557||145||65||10||..||4,150|
|40 “ 45||..||2||4||38||164||502||352||164||65||6||..||1,297|
|45 “ 46||..||..||..||1||1||14||41||12||8||..||..||77|
|46 “ 47||..||..||1||..||1||1||18||12||6||..||..||39|
|47 “ 48||..||..||..||..||..||2||3||7||..||..||..||12|
|48 “ 49||..||..||..||..||1||..||2||4||1||..||..||8|
|49 “ 50||..||..||..||..||..||1||2||1||..||..||..||4|
|50 “ 51||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1||1||..||..||2|
|(b.) Plural Births.|
|16 and under 17||..||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1|
|18 “ 19||1||2||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||3|
|19 “ 20||..||..||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1|
|20 “ 21||..||4||4||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||8|
|21 “ 25||..||5||18||5||3||1||..||..||..||..||..||32|
|25 “ 30||..||6||28||46||17||3||..||..||..||1||..||101|
|30 “ 35||1||2||18||37||28||13||7||1||1||..||..||108|
|35 “ 40||..||..||..||10||34||19||8||1||..||..||..||72|
|40 “ 45||..||..||..||1||2||11||4||1||..||..||..||19|
Information as to the previous issue of the parents is now required in connection with the registration of births. Tables are given showing information as to number of previous issue in conjunction with (1) age of mother, and (2) duration of marriage.
|LEGITIMATE BIRTHS REGISTERED, 1914.|
|(a) Age of Mother and Number of Previous Issue.|
|Age of Mother.||Number of Previous Issue.||Totals.|
|Not Stated.||0||1||2||3||4||5||6 and under 10||10 and under 15||15 and over.|
* This number represents 26,341 single cases and 345 plural cases.
|15 and under 16||..||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1|
|16 “ 17||..||14||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||14|
|17 “ 18||..||46||4||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||51|
|18 “ 19||1||165||18||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||185|
|19 “ 20||1||288||74||12||..||..||..||..||..||..||375|
|20 “ 21||3||376||156||26||2||1||..||..||..||..||564|
|21 “ 25||44||2,365||1,356||536||172||34||9||4||..||..||4,520|
|25 “ 30||91||2,674||2,280||1,585||943||488||190||122||..||..||8,373|
|30 “ 35||83||1,192||1,395||1,355||1,096||766||458||563||14||..||6,922|
|35 “ 40||27||422||529||600||644||561||462||872||102||3||4,222|
|40 “ 45||9||89||115||113||144||136||133||439||131||7||1,316|
|45 “ 46||1||2||7||3||4||2||7||39||11||1||77|
|46 “ 47||..||2||1||4||..||2||3||14||10||3||39|
|47 “ 48||..||2||..||2||..||1||..||4||2||1||12|
|48 “ 49||..||..||1||..||..||1||..||2||4||..||8|
|49 “ 50||..||..||1||1||..||..||1||..||1||..||4|
|50 “ 51||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1||1||..||2|
|(b) Duration of Marriage and Number of Previous Issue.|
|Duration of Marriage, in Years.||Number of Previous Issue.||Totals|
|Not Stated||0||1||2||3||4||5||6 and under 10||10 and under 15||15 and over.|
|* This number represents 26,341 single cases and 345 plural cases.|
|1 and under 2||12||2,186||851||18||..||..||..||..||..||..||3,067|
|2 “ 3||88||689||1,914||164||2||..||..||..||..||..||2,857|
|3 “ 4||37||262||1,164||683||57||3||1||..||..||..||2,207|
|4 “ 5||27||144||665||867||222||20||2||..||..||..||1,947|
|5 “ 6||21||90||445||679||441||69||8||3||..||..||1,756|
|6 “ 7||8||59||313||531||524||183||36||3||..||..||1,657|
|7 “ 8||5||41||183||377||428||268||67||19||..||..||1,388|
|8 “ 9||4||37||115||259||365||281||115||39||..||..||1,215|
|9 “ 10||6||22||79||199||234||253||142||76||..||..||1,011|
|10 “ 15||32||52||153||405||614||750||659||965||25||..||3,655|
|15 “ 20||7||10||30||52||105||153||201||708||103||..||1,369|
|20 “ 25||4||2||5||5||13||11||29||229||122||11||431|
|25 and over||..||..||..||..||..||1||3||18||26||4||52|
In these two tables plural births are included, twins counting as only one birth. Another table is appended, giving in more detail the duration of the marriage in cases where less than one year had elapsed before the birth of the first child. Illegitimate births are also shown.
|FIRST ISSUE AND ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS, 1914.|
|Age of Mother, in Years.||Illegitimate Births.||Duration of Marriage, in Months.||Total Legitimate First Births within One Year after Marriage.|
|Under 3.||3 and under 6.||6 and under 7.||7 and under 8.||8 and under 9.||9 and under 10.||10 and under 11.||11 and under 12.|
|21 and under 25||247||125||301||159||111||139||277||226||171||1,509|
|25 “ 30||235||72||185||94||77||108||270||238||203||1,247|
|30 “ 35||122||23||48||28||26||31||90||103||61||410|
|35 “ 40||81||9||14||9||15||13||28||20||20||128|
|40 “ 45||25||4||2||3||1||2||1||4||2||19|
|45 and over||4||..||1||..||..||..||1||1||..||3|
A table is added showing occupations of fathers in cases of legitimate births registered during 1914. In conjunction with the information as to occupations, numbers of previous issue have been extracted, and are shown in certain groups of numbers. A table giving full details is published in the Statistics of the Dominion of New Zealand.
|BIRTHS, 1914.—OCCUPATIONS OF FATHERS, WITH NUMBER OF PREVIOUS ISSUE.|
|Occupations of Fathers.||Not stated||0||1 and under 5.||5 and under 10.||10 and under 15.||15 and under 20.||Totals.|
|Law and order||7||79||161||15||4||..||266|
|Civil, mechanical engineering, architecture, and surveying||1||46||63||7||1||..||118|
|Hotelkeepers and assistants||..||44||99||13||..||..||156|
|Others engaged in providing board and lodging||..||14||36||3||1||..||54|
|Coachmen and grooms||1||8||14||3||..||..||26|
|Hairdressers and barbers||..||34||72||7||..||..||113|
|Others engaged in domestic service||..||12||21||11||..||..||44|
|Banking and finance||1||35||64||3||..||..||103|
|Insurance and valuation||1||33||55||10||3||..||102|
|Land and household property||..||19||45||8||1||..||73|
|Books, stationery, advertisements, &c.||1||24||28||7||..||..||60|
|Prints, pictures, and art materials||..||..||2||..||..||..||2|
|Ornaments, minor art products||..||2||1||1||..||..||4|
|Watches, clocks, jewellery, &c.||..||..||2||..||..||..||2|
|Machinery, tools, and implements||..||2||5||..||..||..||7|
|Carriages and vehicles||1||11||28||1||..||..||41|
|Ships, boats, and marine stores||..||..||3||1||..||..||4|
|Building materials and house-fittings||..||..||2||..||..||..||2|
|Groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants||2||92||143||19||..||..||256|
|Leather, raw materials, &c.||..||..||2||..||..||..||2|
|Wool, and other animal matter||..||6||11||..||..||..||17|
|Seeds, plants, flowers, &c.||..||11||11||1||..||..||23|
|Wood, coal, &c.||..||7||22||6||1||..||36|
|Stone, clay, earthenware, &c.||..||2||..||..||..||..||2|
|Metals, other than gold or silver||2||23||39||2||2||..||68|
|Merchants, shopkeepers, &c.||3||80||201||36||2||..||322|
|Agents, brokers, &c.||..||24||48||11||..||..||83|
|Officers of public companies||2||14||25||2||..||..||43|
|Accountants, clerks, &c.||6||274||396||35||1||..||712|
|Commercial travellers, salesmen||4||153||201||21||3||..||382|
|Storemen (so described), and others engaged in storage||2||90||168||23||2||..||285|
|Other mercantile persons||..||8||2||1||..||..||11|
|Class IV.—Transport and Communication.|
|Sea and river traffic||4||132||268||52||2||..||458|
|Telegraph and telephone service||1||71||93||7||..||..||172|
|Delivery of parcels, &c., by hand||..||9||1||2||..||..||12|
|Total, Transport and Communication||25||912||1,668||325||24||1||2,955|
|Books and publications||4||67||113||17||..||..||201|
|Prints, pictures, and art materials||..||8||11||1||..||..||20|
|Ornaments and minor art products||1||11||8||2||..||..||22|
|Equipment for sports and games||..||1||1||..||..||..||2|
|Designs, medals, type, and dies||..||11||5||..||..||..||16|
|Watches, clocks, and scientific instruments||..||9||19||2||..||..||30|
|Arms, ammunition, and explosives||..||2||3||1||..||..||6|
|Engines, machines, tools, &c.||2||63||105||19||1||..||190|
|Carriages and vehicles||1||66||96||14||3||..||180|
|Harness, saddlery, leatherware||3||25||64||7||1||..||100|
|Ships, boats, and equipments||..||10||25||6||1||..||42|
|Chemicals and by-products||..||..||5||..||..||..||5|
|Groceries, drinks, narcotics, and stimulants||..||24||50||4||..||..||78|
|Soap and candles, currier, &c.||1||11||27||6||1||..||46|
|Working in wood, n.o.e.||..||1||6||1||..||..||8|
|Marble, clay, cement, glass, &c.||1||12||43||9||..||..||65|
|Metals, other than gold or silver||12||168||338||64||7||1||590|
|Fuel, light, &c.||2||59||72||9||..||..||142|
|Building and construction—|
|Builders and contractors||6||90||180||27||1||..||304|
|Painters and glaziers||2||117||204||32||2||..||357|
|Plumbers and gasfitters||1||82||129||23||1||..||236|
|Roads, railways, and earthworks||3||20||87||21||2||..||133|
|Disposal of dead||..||2||4||2||..||..||8|
|Disposal of refuse||..||..||3||..||..||..||3|
|Other industrial workers—|
|Factory-worker manager, &c.||3||49||73||6||1||..||132|
|Contractors, managers, &c.||2||74||155||58||5||..||294|
|Class VI.—Agriculture, Pastoral, and Mining Pursuits, &c.|
|Bees and wild animals||..||5||15||2||..||..||22|
|Conservation of water||..||4||5||2||..||..||11|
|Other agricultural pursuits||..||9||13||4||1||..||27|
|Other pastoral pursuits||..||14||40||8||1||..||63|
|Mining and quarrying, other, or undefined||1||26||66||20||2||..||115|
|Total, Agricultural, &c.||68||1,924||4,438||1,255||115||3||7,803|
|Total, all classes||261||7,638||15,172||3,323||276||15||26,685|
The births of 1,302 children were illegitimate: thus 46 in every 1,000 children registered were born out of wedlock, against 42 in 1913, 43 in 1912, and 41 in 1911.
The ages of the mothers of the illegitimate children registered during the year are as shown below. It will be seen that of the 1,291 mothers, 477 or 36.95 per cent. were under 21 years of age.
|ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN, 1914.—AGES OF MOTHERS.|
|Age.||Single Cases.||Plural Cases.|
The proportion of illegitimate births per 1,000 unmarried women—i.e., spinsters and widows—at the reproductive ages, covering a period of twenty years, is shown.
|Year.||Unmarried Women aged 15–45 Years.||Illegitimate Births.||Illegitimate-birth Rate per 1,000 Unmarried Women.|
The rates of illegitimacy in Australasia are quoted. For 1911 and 1912 the rate was lower in New Zealand than in any of the Australian States, but in 1913 the New Zealand rate was slightly higher than that of South Australia.
|PROPORTION OF ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS INEVERY 100 BIRTHS.|
|Year.||Queensland.||New South Wales.||Victoria.||South Australia.||Western Australia.||Tasmania.||New Zealand.|
These figures show the proportion of illegitimate births to every 100 births for New Zealand to be fairly steady during the period, the rate for 1911, 1912, and 1913, however, being somewhat below the average.
An important Act was passed in 1894 and re-enacted in 1908, intituled the Legitimation Act, which makes provision for the legitimation of children born before marriage on the subsequent intermarriage of their parents. Under this Act any child born out of wedlock, whose parents afterwards intermarry, is deemed to be legitimized by such marriage on the birth being registered in the manner prescribed by the Act. For legitimation purposes Registrars must register a birth when called upon to do so by any person claiming to be the father of an illegitimate child; but such person is required to make a solemn declaration that he is the father, and that at the time of the birth there existed no legal impediment to his marriage with the mother of the child. He has also to produce the evidence of his marriage. It will thus be seen that registration becomes the test of legitimacy. The following is the number of legitimations in each year, and the total to 1914, since the Act came into force:—
|Number Of Children Legitimized.|
|Year.||Previously Registered||Not Previously Registered.||Total.|
The Act came into operation only during the latter end of 1894, which fact accounts for the small number of legitimations shown for that year.
The registration of still births has been made compulsory in New Zealand as from the 1st March, 1913. During the ten months ended the 31st December, 1913, 467 still-births were registered and a further 679 during 1914. Still births are not included either as births or as deaths in the various numbers and rates shown in this subsection and that relating to deaths.
In the 679 still-births registered in 1914, are included 12 cases of twins, and in addition there were 26 cases where one child of twins was still-born and the other born alive.
|STILL-BIRTHS, 1914.—AGES OF PARENTS.|
|Age of Father, in Years.|
|Age of Mother, in Years.||Under 21.||21 and under 25.||25 and under 30.||30 and under 35.||35 and under 40.||40 and under 45.||45 and under 50.||50 and under 65.||65 and over.||Not Stated.||Illegitimate Cases.||Totals.|
* This number represents 655 single cases and 12 plural cases.
|16 and under 17||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||2||2|
|17 “ 18||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||3||3|
|18 “ 19||..||3||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||5||9|
|19 “ 20||..||1||2||1||..||..||..||..||..||..||4||8|
|20 “ 21||..||1||..||2||1||..||..||..||..||..||3||7|
|21 “ 25||1||20||40||13||3||1||..||..||..||..||9||87|
|25 “ 30||..||11||80||58||22||6||5||..||..||..||7||189|
|30 “ 35||..||1||21||68||48||21||6||4||..||..||2||171|
|35 “ 40||..||..||3||18||48||39||21||5||..||..||2||136|
|40 “ 45||..||..||..||..||8||25||9||5||..||..||..||47|
|45 “ 46||..||..||..||..||..||1||..||3||..||..||..||4|
|46 “ 47||..||..||..||..||..||..||1||..||..||..||..||1|
|50 “ 51||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||..||1||..||..||1|
The number of births of Maoris registered during 1914, under the provisions of section 20 of the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act, 1912, was 857 (457 males, 400 females). The number registered between March and December, 1913, was 586. Only 4 Maori births were registered under the main Act in 1914, as against 17 in 1913.
The procedure under the law as to vaccination is as follows: The Registrar issues a notice when a birth is registered, with forms for certificate as to the result of vaccination attached. Vaccination is compulsory, if exemption is not secured in four months from date of birth. But everything is subject to the provisions of the “exemption clause,” which is the main feature, and governs the rest. Any parent or custodian who has conscientious objections—believing that vaccination would be injurious to the child's health—can apply for a certificate of exemption to a Magistrate or to a Registrar of Births; and when the child's parent or guardian is resident outside of a borough, the application may be made to and certificate granted by a Justice of the Peace.
When no exemption certificate is obtained, the law allows the parent twelve months from date of birth in which to vaccinate, and a similar period from date of taking charge of child in case of a custodian. There are penalties for not vaccinating, but one conviction for neglecting to vaccinate a child removes liability until the child is four years of age.
In 1899 the proportion of successful vaccinations of children under one year of age to the total births was 17.94 per cent. In 1901 the proportion fell to 9.68 per cent., but rose in 1903 to 25.50 on account of a slight outbreak of smallpox. The rate per 100 births then fell year by year until in 1912 it reached only 1.26, the vaccinations of children under one year of age numbering 347, and the total vaccinations for the year being 545, exclusive of Maoris.
An outbreak of smallpox occurred in the latter half of 1913, principally among the Maoris of the Auckland District, this resulting in an unprecedented number of vaccinations. The total successful vaccinations for the year were approximately 139,250, of which 132,800 were in the North Island. These figures include adults and children, Europeans and Maoris, it being impossible to obtain complete figures as to race and age of those vaccinated.
Forty-six thousand five hundred and nineteen exemption certificates were issued from the 13th October, 1900, to the end of the year 1913. Of these only 3,502 belong to the year 1913, as against 7,270 in the preceding year.
No information is available as to vaccinations and exemptions during 1914.
MARRIAGE may be solemnized in New Zealand only on the authority of a Registrar's certificate, either by a person whose name is on the list of officiating ministers under the Marriage Act, or before a Registrar or Deputy Registrar of Marriages duly appointed. No marriage can be legally solemnized before 8 o'clock in the forenoon or after 4 o'clock in the afternoon.
Notice of intended marriage must be given to the Registrar of the district within which the marriage is to be solemnized, and the party giving notice must have resided for three full days in the district. If the parties dwell in different districts, notice must be given to and a certificate obtained from the Registrar of each district.* In the case of a person under twenty-one not being a widow or widower, the consent of parent or guardian is necessary before the Registrar's certificate can be issued.
The system of notice and certificate has obtained in New Zealand since 1855. By this system it is ensured not only that marriages are in order, but that no legally solemnized marriage escapes registration. Officiating ministers and Registrars are required to send to the Registrar-General returns of all marriages solemnized; and as the returns come in they are checked off with the entries in the Registrars' lists of notices received and certificates issued. In case of the non-arrival of a marriage return corresponding to any entry in the list of notices, inquiries are made as to whether solemnization has been effected. Inquiries are made similarly in respect of any marriage for which return is received, but for which there is no corresponding return of notice and certificate.
The marriage of a man with his deceased wife's sister was legalized in New Zealand in the year 1881, and the marriage of a woman with her deceased's husband's brother in 1901. Both Acts are retrospective, including in their provisions marriages solemnized before as well as those contracted after the statutes were passed, and declaring all such marriages to be valid, and the issue born thereof to be deemed born in lawful wedlock.
The marriages for 1914 show an increase of 467 on the figures for the previous year, the number solemnized in 1914 being 9,280, as against 8,813 in 1913. The rate per 1,000 of the mean population was 8.25 in 1913 and 8.51 in 1914. The number solemnized in 1914 is the highest yet recorded in any year, and the rate for the year has been exceeded only four times since 1868—namely, in 1907, 1908, 1911, and 1912.
In the following table are shown the numbers and rates in each year since 1887. A column is added showing the index number for each year as compared with the average of the five years 1882–86, taken as 100.
*An amendment to the Marriage Act passed in 1915 dispenses with the necessity of a second certificate where the bridegroom is a member of an Expeditionary Force under the Expeditionary Forces Act, 1908.
|Marriages, Number and Rate.|
|Year.||Total Number of Marriages registered.||Per 1,000 of Population.||Compared with Rate in 1882–86, taken as 100.|
*Average for five years.
The marriage-rate for the period under review shows a general upward tendency, having been above 8 per 1,000 in each year since and including 1902. Reference to the diagram on page 127 will show that the marriage-rate was at its lowest in the period 1885 to 1895, and that the rate in the early years of registration was considerably in excess of that in even the best of recent years.
The decrease in number and rate in 1913 as compared with 1912 was partly attributable to the industrial disturbances during the latter part of the year. Industrial disturbances have the effect of postponing marriage in a proportion of cases, and if spread over any length of time seriously affect the marriage-rate. As pointed out in last year's issue of this book, however, the first nine months of 1913 (prior to the strike period) showed a decrease as compared with the corresponding nine months of 1913. Whatever the cause or combination of causes, the fact remains that marriages felt from 9,149 in 1912 to 8,813 in 1913, and rose to 9,280 in 1914.
There is little data available as to the effect of the war on the marriage-rate. The number of marriages solemnized in 1914 is only 131 in excess of the number in 1912, while the rate is lower. Most of the marriages assumed to be postponed from 1913 on account of the strike would probably be solemnized in 1914, and in the ordinary course of events the total solemnized during 1914 could have been expected to be somewhat more than 9,280. The war has had the effect of hastening some marriages, and of delaying others, and the facts seem to point to those delayed being somewhat in excess of those hastened. The marriages in each quarter of 1914 were: March, 2,219; June (including Easter), 2,625; September, 2,181; December, 2,255.
The marriage-rate, measured by the total population, does not show the true position when, as in the case of New Zealand, the age constitution of the people fluctuates considerably. A more satisfactory standard is found in the number of persons of marriageable age, defined as meaning the unmarried and widowed of males aged twenty years and upwards and of females aged fifteen years and upwards. The rates are given for six census years:—
|Proportion of Unmarried per 1,000 of Total||Proportion of Marriages per 1,000 of the|
|Year of Census.||Males.||Females.||Marriageable Men.||Marriageable Women.||Marriageable Persons.||Total Population.|
A comparison of the marriage-rate for each State of the Australian Commonwealth with New Zealand for the last ten years is given. For the Commonwealth the rate in 1914 was 8.80 per 1,000, as against 8.67 in 1913 of mean population.
|Marriages per 1,000 of Mean Population in Australia and New Zealand.|
|Year.||Queensland.||New South Wales.||Victoria.||South Australia (Proper).||Western Australia.||Tasmania.||New Zealand.|